WorldWideScience

Sample records for mehr als halbiert

  1. Energy consumption cut by more than half; Energieverbrauch mehr als halbiert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracht, Helmut [Atlas Copco Kompressoren und Drucklufttechnik GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Those who consider all components of compressed-air supply and coordinate them well will be able to generate compressed air in a very energy-efficient way even with strongly varying requirements. Walhalla-Kalk has set up a new central station, which requires less than half the energy previously required for the same amount of compressed air and, consequently, which will pay off quickly. This is due to the modern compressor technology including speed control and superimposed control as well as to the change between refrigeration drying and adsorption drying depending on the season (orig.)

  2. More than just a converter; Mehr als nur ein Umwandler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilming, Wilhelm

    2013-08-06

    Inverter can convert more than alternating current. With the presented new products at the INTERSOLAR in Munich the manufacturers are responding to the increased demands. [German] Wechselrichter koennen mehr als nur Wechselstrom umwandeln. Mit den auf der INTERSOLAR in Muenchen vorgestellten Produktneuheiten reagieren die Hersteller auf die gestiegenen Anforderungen.

  3. Mehr Last als Lust – Ein weiterer Sammelband zu „(Frauen-Körper“

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula-Irene Villa

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dieser Band vereint acht heterogene Aufsätze zu „Lust und Last am eigenen Körper“ von Frauen. Alle Beiträge gehören zum Spektrum psychologischer Reflexion; die Themen reichen dabei von Sport über Kochen und Essen bis Schönheit, die Zugänge von Psychoanalyse über experimentelle Psychologie bis hin zu freier Assoziation auf der Grundlage klinisch-praktischer Arbeit. Ein roter Faden durch die Beiträge ist nicht erkennbar und so wirkt die Vielfalt beliebig. So unterschiedlich die Beiträge sind, so unterschiedlich ist auch ihre Qualität. Leider kommen einige Artikel über die unkritische Zusammenstellung anderer Arbeiten nicht hinaus, die meisten nehmen kaum Bezug auf das inzwischen breite und institutionalisierte Feld der (sozial- und kulturwissenschaftlichen Körperforschung. Doch haben manche Aufsätze interessante empirische Einblicke zu bieten, die zur weiteren Reflexion anregen, und einige wenige Beiträge sind so differenziert, dass sich mit ihnen weiterdenken und -forschen lässt. Insgesamt bereitet die Lektüre des Buches weder ‚Einsteiger/-innen‘ noch ‚Fortgeschrittenen‘ der wissenschaftlichen Beschäftigung mit (Frauen-Körpern Lust, sondern erweist sich – bis auf Ausnahmen, die allerdings auch in ausführlicherer Form anderenorts publiziert wurden – eher als Last. Ärgerlich und alles andere als argumentativ überzeugend ist darüber hinaus das in manchen Texten enthaltene, mehr oder minder explizit artikulierte, ‚Feminismus- bzw. Frauenforschungs-Bashing‘.

  4. Verlauf des lokoregionären Prostatakarzinoms unter Diätveränderung und Nahrungsmittelergänzung: Longitudinale Beobachtung über mehr als 3 Jahre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlarp OM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Einleitung: Auftreten und Verlauf des lokal begrenzten Prostatakarzinoms wird durch Diätveränderungen beeinflußt. Wir haben untersucht, ob durch Veränderung der Diätgewohnheiten und Substitution von Nahrungsergänzungsmittel (Active Surveillance der klinische Verlauf des Karzinoms beeinflußt oder eine radikale Behandlung aufgeschoben oder gar vermieden werden kann. Material und Methode: Wir verfolgten den klinischen Verlauf und die PSA-Werte von 13 Patienten mit einem stanzbioptisch verifizierten organbegrenzten Prostatakarzinom. Allen Patienten mit einem T-Stadium 3 mit einem PSA 10 ng/ml und einem Gleasonscore 7 wurde eine Active Surveillance-Strategie mit zusätzlichen Diätempfehlungen und Nahrungsergänzungsmitteln anstelle einer radikalen Prostatektomie offeriert. Alle Patienten erhielten hierfür täglich als Nahrungsmittelergänzung eine Mischung an Radikalfängern (Karotinoide, Selen, Flavonoide, Vit. A, E und Phytoöstrogene. Alle Patienten wurden routinemäßig einmal pro Jahr mindestens 8-fach biopsiert. PSA-Werte und eine rektale Untersuchung wurde alle drei Monate durchgeführt. Eine radikale Prostatektomie wurde im Falle eines zweimaligen konsekutiven PSA-Anstieges und/oder eines suspekten Tastbefundes und/oder einer Ausdehnung der Anzahl positiver Stanzen bei wiederholten Biopsien durchgeführt. Resultate: Wir überschauen nun median 21 Monate (5?90 einer Active Surveillance-Strategie bei 13 Männern (medianes Alter: 65. Bei 3 Männern führte ein konsekutiver PSA-Anstieg zur Planung einer radikalen Prostatektomie (1 Patient verstarb vor der Operation an einer intrazerebralen Blutung, einer verweigerte den Eingriff. Beim verbliebenen Patienten führten wir 14 Monaten nach Diagnosestellung eine Schnittrand-negative Prostatektomie eines pT2c-Gleason-6-Tumors durch (PSA 0 ng/ml frei nach 11 Monaten Follow-up. Von allen Patienten, die initial maximal bis zu 2 positive Gewebsproben hatten, konnte bei 38 % in den Kontrollbiopsien kein Tumor mehr nachgewiesen werden, bei 46 % blieb die Anzahl der positiven Biopsien gleich. Keiner der Patienten ist bis jetzt klinisch apparent geworden. Konklusion: Eine diätetische Unterstützung (Active Surveillance kann den klinischen Verlauf des organbegrenzten Karzinoms günstig beeinflussen. Diese Therapieoption kann Patienten in Hinblick auf eine Lebensqualitätsorientierte Lebenserwartung auch von mehr als 10 Jahren angeboten werden. Voraussetzung ist ein strenger Follow-up und eine entsprechende Compliance.

  5. Mehr Last als Lust – Ein weiterer Sammelband zu „(Frauen-Körper“ More Encumbrance than Enjoyment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula-Irene Villa

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dieser Band vereint acht heterogene Aufsätze zu „Lust und Last am eigenen Körper“ von Frauen. Alle Beiträge gehören zum Spektrum psychologischer Reflexion; die Themen reichen dabei von Sport über Kochen und Essen bis Schönheit, die Zugänge von Psychoanalyse über experimentelle Psychologie bis hin zu freier Assoziation auf der Grundlage klinisch-praktischer Arbeit. Ein roter Faden durch die Beiträge ist nicht erkennbar und so wirkt die Vielfalt beliebig. So unterschiedlich die Beiträge sind, so unterschiedlich ist auch ihre Qualität. Leider kommen einige Artikel über die unkritische Zusammenstellung anderer Arbeiten nicht hinaus, die meisten nehmen kaum Bezug auf das inzwischen breite und institutionalisierte Feld der (sozial- und kulturwissenschaftlichen Körperforschung. Doch haben manche Aufsätze interessante empirische Einblicke zu bieten, die zur weiteren Reflexion anregen, und einige wenige Beiträge sind so differenziert, dass sich mit ihnen weiterdenken und -forschen lässt. Insgesamt bereitet die Lektüre des Buches weder ‚Einsteiger/-innen‘ noch ‚Fortgeschrittenen‘ der wissenschaftlichen Beschäftigung mit (Frauen-Körpern Lust, sondern erweist sich – bis auf Ausnahmen, die allerdings auch in ausführlicherer Form anderenorts publiziert wurden – eher als Last. Ärgerlich und alles andere als argumentativ überzeugend ist darüber hinaus das in manchen Texten enthaltene, mehr oder minder explizit artikulierte, ‚Feminismus- bzw. Frauenforschungs-Bashing‘.This volume joins together eight heterogeneous essays by women under the theme “enjoyment and encumbrance of the body.” All of the contributions belong within the spectrum of psychological reflection; the themes range from sports, cooking and eating, and beauty, to the process of psychoanalysis, experimental psychology, and free-association based on clinical practice. The thread throughout the contributions remains indiscernible and thus the multiplicity seems arbitrary. And while the contributions vary, so too their quality. Unfortunately, some of the articles do not go beyond the uncritical compilation of other works and the majority of the essays barely make reference to the broad and long institutionalized field of research on the body in both social and cultural studies. However, some of the essays do offer interesting empirical insights that inspire the reader to reflect further and a select few are so wide-ranging that the reader can utilize the material for continued contemplation and research. Overall, academic scholars of (female bodies, be they “beginners” or more “advanced,” will not enjoy reading the essays in this book, but rather—with few exceptions, which, it fairs mentioning, have already been published elsewhere—find reading an encumbrance. What makes the book even more infuriating and everything but argumentatively convincing is that some of the texts engage in more or less explicitly articulated bashing of feminism and women’s studies.

  6. Mehr als ein Rechtshandbuch. Hinweise zur Arbeit von Frauen- und Gleichstellungsbeauftragten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Duncker

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Das vorliegende Handbuch für Frauen- und Gleichstellungsbeauftragte ist auch ein Rechtshandbuch, aber es geht in seinen Inhalten darüber hinaus. Etwa ein Drittel des Werkes behandelt außerrechtliche Fragen. Insgesamt ist das Werk als Leitfaden für die Praxis konzipiert und soll fortlaufend durch Nachlieferungen ergänzt werden; einige Rechtsmaterien, z. B. das Gleichstellungsrecht der meisten Bundesländer, sind gegenwärtig noch nicht enthalten. Während mit dem Arbeitsrecht ein zentraler Bereich der Gleichstellungspraxis recht umfassend und überwiegend gut behandelt wird und an verschiedenen weiteren Punkten teils hervorragende Teilbearbeitungen vorliegen, weist die Darstellung eines anderen zentralen Rechtsgebiets, des Familienrechts, gravierende Mängel auf. Insgesamt kann das Werk in seiner derzeitigen Form noch nicht vorbehaltlos empfohlen werden.

  7. Modern facade techniques. The casing - more than a designed surface?; Moderne Fassadentechniken. Die Huelle - Mehr als gestaltete Oberflaeche?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petzinka, K.H. [Petzinka Pink und Partner, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Concepts as the presented projects are only developed with increasing knowledge. During each planning phase the results must be compared with the aesthetic, functional and technical targets in order to control, to develop and if necessary correct the current design and thinking process. This way of planning corresponds to the planning of an industrial top product. In these days the requirements of complex thinking in case of the application examples can only be met by the combination of research, information, application, experience and exact aesthetic target during the planning process that finally leads to complex solutions. They do not need to be corrected any more and the use of media and materials has got an undeniable reason. (orig.) [German] Konzepte wie die vorgestellten Projekte entwickeln sich in ihrer Art erst mit dem Anwachsen der Erkenntnisse. Auf jeder Planungsstufe muessen Resultate mit aesthetischer und funktionaltechnischer Zielvorstellung verglichen werden, um den laufenden Entwurf und Denkprozess zu steuern, zu entwickeln und, im Zweifel, korrigieren zu koennen. Eine solche Art zu planen, entspricht dann der eines industriellen Spitzenproduktes. Erst durch die Verbindung durch Forschung, Information, Anwendung, Erfahrung und konkreter aesthetischer Zielvorstellung beim Planungsprozess, wird dem komplexen Denken unserer Zeit bei solchen Anwendungsbeispielen entsprochen und fuehrt dann tatsaechlich zur komplexen Loesung, die keiner Korrektur mehr bedarf und bei der jeder Einsatz von Mitteln und Materialien einen unverzichtbaren Grund hat. (orig.)

  8. More than just a bale of hay - energy from cereal straw; Mehr als nur ein Strohfeuer - Energiegewinnung aus Getreidestroh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cost, K.

    1992-12-31

    Chemically bound energy which is contained in straw is transformed into other, more readily usable types of energy by means of controlled thermochemical processes. The core of the plant consists of three reactors. The straw is fed into the reactor first. Under airtight conditions the straw is heated up to 500 C. Volatiles are released, the low-temperature carbonisation gas is fed into a gas processor. All that remains of the straw is coke which is brought from the first to the second reactor. Heat and a certain amount of a gasifying agent are added (air, oxygen or steam). The gasification produces a combustible gas which is fed into a gas processing plant. A small amount of non-gasified code will remain and burnt in the third reactor to which air is supplied. This provides enough energy to run the first two reactors. Combustion waste gas from the reactor are fed to a waste gas purification plant. The remaining ashes from the last reactor are used as natural fertiliser thereby completing the cyclical process. (orig./EF) [Deutsch] Die im Brennstoff Stroh enthaltene chemisch gebundene Energie wird durch kontrollierte thermochemische Verfahren in andere, leichter anwendbare Energieformen ueberfuehrt. Kernstueck der Anlage sind drei Reaktoren. Das Stroh tritt zunaechst in den Reaktor Verschweler ein. Hier wird es unter Luftabschluss mittels Waermezufuhr auf 500 C erhitzt. Die Fluechtigen Bestandteile treten aus und werden als Schwelgase abgefuehrt und einer Gasaufbereitungsanlage zugefuehrt. Vom Stroh verbleibt der verschwelte Rueckstand (= Koks), er tritt aus dem Reaktor aus und tritt in den naechsten Reaktor ein. Hier werden Waermeenergie und ein Vergasungsmittel in festglegter Menge zugefuehrt. Letzteres ist beispielsweise Luft oder Sauerstoff oder Wasserdampf. Es kommt zur Vergasungsreaktion und ein brennbares Gas tritt aus. Dies gelangt dann in eine Gasaufbereitungsanlage. Vom Koks verbleibt eine kleine Restmenge an unvergastem Koks. Dieser Restkoks tritt in den Verbrenner ein. Er wird dort unter Luftzufuhr verbrannt. Es wird Waermeenergie freigesetzt. Diese kann den Energiebedarf der ersten beiden Reaktoren abdecken. Die Abgase der Verbrennung treten aus dem Rekator aus und werden einer Abgasreinigungsanlage zugefuehrt. Es verbleibt die Brennstoffasche, diese verlaesst den letzten Reaktor und wird in einem grossen Kreislauf als natuerliches Duengemittel wieder auf das Feld zurueckgefuehrt. (orig./EF)

  9. Lebensmittelskandale - mehr Fama als Faktum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiefer I

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lebensmittel sind heute so sicher wie noch nie, trotzdem vergeht kaum ein Jahr ohne ?Lebensmittelskandal?. Dabei deckt sich die Wahrnehmung und Einschätzung von Risiken durch die Öffentlichkeit häufig nicht mit der tatsächlichen Gefährdung. Aufgabe der Kommunikation von Risiken und Gefahren muss es künftig sein, die Risikowahrnehmung in der Bevölkerung verstärkt zu berücksichtigen, um einerseits Bewusstsein für wirkliche Risiken zu schaffen und andererseits Ängste vor vermeintlichen Gefährdungen abzubauen

  10. Interdisciplinarity, more than just a word? Findings of a case study on urban water management; Ist die Interdisziplinaritaet mehr als ein Schlagwort? Erkenntnisse aus einer siedlungswasserwirtschaftlichen Fallstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krejci, V. [Eidgenoessische Anstalt fuer Wasserversorgung, Abwasserreinigung und Gewaesserschutz, Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2000-07-01

    This is the first interdisciplinary approach to urban water and waste water managment. The author presents the knowledge acquired during the project. [German] Die ganzheitliche Betrachtung der Wasserwirtschaft in urbanen Gebieten ist sowohl in der Forschung als auch in der Praxis neu. Zwischen der Bearbeitung eines Forschungsprojektes und eines Ingenieurprojektes gibt es grundsaetzliche Differenzen, trotzdem sind wir der Meinung, dass es bezueglich der interdisziplinaeren Aspekte und der ganzheitlichen Betrachtung der Wasserwirtschaft sowohl in der Forschung als auch in der Praxis aehnliche Probleme gibt. Aus diesem Grunde wird in dieser Arbeit versucht ueber einige Erfahrungen aus dem interdisziplinaeren und ganzheitlichen Forschungsprojekt zu berichten. (orig.)

  11. Learnability of menu systems in vehicles - beyond a learning curve; Erlernbarkeit von Menuesystemen im Fahrzeug - mehr als 'nur' eine Lernkurve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Totzke, I.; Meilinger, T.; Krueger, H.P. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). IZVW

    2003-07-01

    This article contributes to the understanding of how menu-driven information systems in vehicles are learned and which system-immanent and user-immanent attributes influence the learning process. Presentation mode and ambiguity of lexical structures e.g. turned out to be relevant system attributes, concerning user attributes previous knowledge, attitude towards and interest in techniques as well as cognitive speed in information processing played an important role. Empirical studies show that users do not only acquire lexical knowledge about a menu system but also construe some kind of a ''spatial imagery'' of the system. In addition, the design of the operating device affects the learnability of the system. Thus, lexical, spatial and motor representations of the menu system influence the learning process significantly. At the same time the importance of user attributes has to be considered. Therefore, observing the learnability of information systems in vehicles goes beyond the mere consideration of a learning curve. In fact, learning a menu system is a multi-coded process in which lexical, spatial and motor representations of users have to be considered as important factors relevant to learning. (orig.) [German] Dieser Beitrag legt dar, in welcher Weise menuegesteuerte Informationssysteme im Fahrzeug erlernt werden und welche system- und nutzerimmanente Merkmale den Lernprozess beeinflussen. Auf Systemseite sind z.B. Darbietungsmodus und Eindeutigkeit von begrifflichen Hierarchien zu nennen, auf Nutzerseite Vorwissen, Einstellung gegenueber und Interesse an Technik sowie kognitive Verarbeitungsgeschwindigkeit. Eigene Studien legen nahe, dass Nutzer im Umgang mit Menuesystemen nicht nur begriffliche Hierarchien erwerben, sondern zugleich eine Art ''raeumliches Bild'' des Systems konstruieren. Ferner ist die Ausgestaltung des Bedienelements bedeutsam fuer den Lernprozess. Begriffliche, raeumliche und motorische Repraesentationen, die der Nutzer durch den Umgang mit dem System erwirbt, scheinen somit den Kompetenzerwerb in Menuesystemen entscheidend zu beeinflussen. Zugleich ist der Einfluss von Nutzermerkmalen zu beachten. Die Erlernbarkeit von Informationssystemen im Fahrzeug ist folglich nicht ''nur'' als Lernkurve zu betrachten, sondern als multikodierter Prozess, in dem begriffliche, raeumliche und motorische Repraesentationen der Nutzer als lernrelevante Faktoren zu beruecksichtigen sind. (orig.)

  12. Mehr als ein Rechtshandbuch. Hinweise zur Arbeit von Frauen- und Gleichstellungsbeauftragten More Than a Legal Handbook. Details on the Work of Women’s and Equal Opportunity Commissioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Duncker

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Das vorliegende Handbuch für Frauen- und Gleichstellungsbeauftragte ist auch ein Rechtshandbuch, aber es geht in seinen Inhalten darüber hinaus. Etwa ein Drittel des Werkes behandelt außerrechtliche Fragen. Insgesamt ist das Werk als Leitfaden für die Praxis konzipiert und soll fortlaufend durch Nachlieferungen ergänzt werden; einige Rechtsmaterien, z. B. das Gleichstellungsrecht der meisten Bundesländer, sind gegenwärtig noch nicht enthalten. Während mit dem Arbeitsrecht ein zentraler Bereich der Gleichstellungspraxis recht umfassend und überwiegend gut behandelt wird und an verschiedenen weiteren Punkten teils hervorragende Teilbearbeitungen vorliegen, weist die Darstellung eines anderen zentralen Rechtsgebiets, des Familienrechts, gravierende Mängel auf. Insgesamt kann das Werk in seiner derzeitigen Form noch nicht vorbehaltlos empfohlen werden.The handbook for Women’s and Equal Opportunity Commissioners is also a legal handbook, but it goes beyond this in its contents. About a third of the work deals with extra-legal questions. In general, the work is conceived as a guideline for practice and the intention is that continual additions will supplement the work; some legal materials, for example the equality laws of most federal states, are currently not included. While a central area of equality praxis is extensively and for the most part appropriately handled through employment law and there are some excellent studies of other points, the handbook points to grave deficits in another area of law, and that is family law. Overall, the work cannot be recommended in its current form without reservations.

  13. Hashimoto-Thyreoiditis: Mehr als nur Schilddrüsenhormonmangel?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Führer D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Eine Autoimmunthyreoiditis wird häufig mit einer Vielzahl von Beschwerden in Verbindung gebracht. Die Gründe hierfür sind vielgestaltig. Neue Erkenntnisse zum Wirkmechanismus von Schilddrüsenhormonen im zentralen Nervensystem stellen erstmals eine mögliche molekulare Erklärung für individuell unterschiedliche neurokognitive Manifestationen von Schilddrüsenfunktionsstörungen dar und könnten deshalb auch ein unterschiedliches Ansprechen auf eine Schilddrüsenhormonsubstitutionstherapie "trotz Euthyreose" bei Patienten mit Hashimoto- Thyreoiditis und anderen Ursachen einer Hypothyreose erklären.

  14. "Ich wollte keine Heldentaten mehr vollbringen" : Wehrmachtsdeserteure im II. Weltkrieg: Motive und Folgen untersucht anhand von Selbstzeugnissen

    OpenAIRE

    Schnackenberg, Martin

    1999-01-01

    Im Zweiten Weltkrieg desertierten mehr als 30000 Soldaten aus der deutschen Wehrmacht. Die zuständigen Militärrichter sprachen gegen Deserteure über 20000 Todesurteile aus, von denen mindestens 15000 vollstreckt wurden. Aus welchen Gründen flohen derart viele Soldaten aus der Wehrmacht, mit welchen Folgen hatten sie zu rechnen, wenn ihre Flucht mißlang? Wie ging schließlich die deutsche Gesellschaft nach 1945 mit den überlebenden Deserteuren um? Die vorliegende Studie sucht Antworten auf dies...

  15. Headaches. More than just sinusitis; Kopfschmerzen. Mehr als nur Sinusitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knauth, Michael [Universitaetsklinikum Goettingen (Germany). Abt. Neuroradiologie

    2011-09-15

    Headaches are among the commonest somatic complaints seen in clinical practice. The International Headache Society differentiates about 190 types of headaches. This article focuses on the variety of secondary headaches with a radiologically identifiable cause. (orig.)

  16. Zitieren – ein Thema für Bibliotheken! Zitierleitfaden, Zitierkurs und mehr an der Universitätsbibliothek der TU München

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Leiß

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Die Universitätsbibliothek der Technischen Universität München (TUM bietet mit jährlich mehr als 400 Veranstaltungen für rund 8.000 Teilnehmende ein umfangreiches Programm im Bereich Informationskompetenz an. Im Wintersemester 2014/15 wurde das Angebot im Bereich Zitieren und Plagiat-Vermeidung grundlegend erweitert. Die Universitätsbibliothek hat einen Zitierleitfaden erstellt und bietet einen Kurs zum Zitieren sowie eine Sprechstunde für Fragen zur Literaturverwaltung und zum Zitieren an. Der Beitrag schildert Konzeption, Einführung und erste Erfahrungen der Universitätsbibliothek mit ihren neuen Dienstleistungsangeboten. The University Library of the Technical University of Munich (TUM offers a comprehensive training programme for information literacy including more than 400 training events for approximately 8.000 participants per year. In the winter semester of 2014/2015, the library expanded its services in the field of citation and plagiarism. A citation guide was prepared, and the library now offers a special training course and drop-in advisory sessions for reference management and citation assistance. The paper discusses the design, the implementation and the first experiences with these new support services at the University Library.

  17. Linnamaastike kaitse on osa arengust / Jukka Jokilehto, Mehr Azar Soheil ; intervjueerinud Liisa Pakosta

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jokilehto, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    Vestlus soome arhitekti, Nova Gorica ülikooli professori, UNESCO ja ICOMOSi konsultandi Jukka Jokilehto ja tema abikaasa, pärslannast arhitekti Mehr Azar Soheiliga. Ka Tallinna vanalinnast maailmapärandi komitees valmivate linnamaastike kaitseks mõeldud soovituste valguses, linna arengust sadama suunas. Eestikeelsena ilmus J. Jokilehto raamat "Arhitektuuri konserveerimise ajalugu" (Tallinn : Eesti Kunstiakadeemia, 2010)

  18. Use of fuel cells in multi-MW-thermal power plants; Brennstoffzelleneinsatz im Mehr-MW-Heizkraftwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lezuo, A. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Knappstein, H. [Thyssengas GmbH, Duisburg (Germany); Langnickel, U. [Gas-, Elektrizitaets- und Wasserwerke Koeln AG (GEW) (Germany); Nymoen, H. [Ruhrgas AG, Essen (Germany)

    1995-09-01

    Natural gas fuel cells with phosphoric acid electrolyte today are already used in small series of compact units ranging up to 500 kW electric capacity. They thus represent a successful contribution to decentralised power production through cogeneration. Their use in multi-MW thermal power stations is technically possible and, in view of their low emissions and great efficiency, a very attractive alternative. This technology merits intensive development work in order to acquire through practical experience the know-how for bringing costs down to an acceptable level. Manufacturers and operators will need to prepare themselves for modifications regarding the operation and maintenance of these larger plants. The results of a feasibility study for a 1.5 MW thermal power plant presented in this article could come in useful here. (orig.) [Deutsch] Erdgasbetriebene Brennstoffzellen mit Phosphorsaeure-Elektrolyt werden heute bereits in Kleinserien als kompakte Einheiten mit einer elektrischen Leistung von bis zu 500 kW gebaut und mit Erfolg in der dezentralen Energieerzeugung auf Basis der Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung betrieben. Der Einsatz in Mehr-MW-Heizkraftwerken ist ebenfalls moeglich und sollte unter dem Aspekt einer schadstoffarmen und effizienten Energieerzeugung intensiv weiter verfolgt werden, um ueber die gewonnenen Erfahrungen die angestrebten Kostenziele zu erreichen. Technologiebedingt muessen sich Hersteller und Betreiber auf die veraenderten Anforderungen bezueglich Betrieb und Wartung rechtzeitig einstellen. Die nachfolgend vorgestellten Ergebnisse einer Machbarkeitsstudie fuer ein 1,5-MW-Heizkraftwerk koennen dabei hilfreich sein. (orig.)

  19. "Mehr als, bloss Bucher" Die Bibliothek Gellerup. Vom "Buchcontainer" zum Community Centre: Ein Beispiel aus Danemark.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, John; Frandsen, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Kapitlet handler om bibliotekets mulige rolle som facilitator af empowermentprocesser og social inklusion i marginaliserede byområder med Community Center Gellerup som eksempel. Bidraget indgår i en antologi baseret på et forskningsseminar på Humboldt-Universitat, Berlin om bibliotekers rolle for interkulturel dialog m.v.

  20. Utilization level utilizes more than the effectiveness; Nutzungsgrad nutzt mehr als Wirkungsgrad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Martin [Hochschule Ulm (Germany); Treiber, Gerd [TWA Wasserkraft-Anlagenbau GmbH, Ilmtal (Germany); Linz, Hans-Dieter [Thueringer Fernwasserversorgung (TFW), Erfurt (Germany)

    2013-02-01

    By virtue of a damage at the turbine gear of the hydroelectric power plant Luisenthal of the Thuringian distant water supply, a new turbine runner had to be provided in order to achieve a better adjustment of the turbine to the new operating details. The maximum efficiency was nearly constant in the redesign of the runner of the Francis turbine. The progress of the efficiency with the hydraulic performance shows a flat optimum resulting in a utilisation level of nearly 14% being relevant for the operator.

  1. Mehr als eine politische Lehrstunde : V. Baltische Studenten-Seminar in Darmstadt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    16.-21. novembrini 2010 toimunud viienda balti üliõpilasseminari keskpunktis oli teemadekompleks demokraatiast Baltimaades. Arutleti ka demokraatiakogemuse üle kahel viimasel sajandil Saksamaal. Jugendherberges alanud seminar jätkus Darmstadtis ja lõppes Saksa-Balti Seltsi 60nda juubeli tähistamisega. Viie päeva temaatika haaras Baltimaade ja Euroopa kultuuri, poliitikat ja ajalugu

  2. More than 85 per cent. A practice report; Mehr als 85 Prozent. Ein Praxisreport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakobi, Manuela [Centrosolar AG, Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    The Electric House Brenner in Herrenberg achieved with a lithium battery storage facility on sunny days 100 % self-sufficiency. [German] Das Elektrohaus Brenner in Herrenberg erreicht mit einer Lithiumbatterie-Speicheranlage an sonnigen Tagen 100 % Autarkie.

  3. Mehr Leben als Tod in Rom. Josef Winklers römische Novelle «Natura morta»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Haas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The essay’s introduction examines the importance of Italy for Josef Winkler and puts the novella «Natura morta» in context with his oeuvre. The  subsequent analysis of the text highlights the technique used by the author, which shows similarities with the process of film shooting. The narrator’s eye follows the main character like a movie camera and is focused on numerous details as if it were zooming on them. In this process, while advancing the novella’s plot, the author paints a colorful portrait of Rome, bringing the city tolife like a baroque still life.

  4. A review on weaknesses and strengths of delivering Mehr housing project in terms of achieving economical goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Karshenasan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Housing is one of the most important sections of development in a country and its economic importance has put it in the center of attention. It can cause rise and depression of habitation by its extended economic aspects. Mehr Housing plan is a state run housing project in most cities started 2007 in Iran to protect and provide cheap housing for poor people and young couples. Mehr housing project by its large scale and wide dimensions can affect the society’s economy. Therefore, to investigate weaknesses and strengths of this project in terms of economic and applying necessary reformation can increase the success probability of this project. For this purpose, this study assess the weaknesses and strengths of Mehr housing of province of Khorram Abad in Iran for achieving economic goals and also presents solutions to better access to these goals. Time scope of the present study is 6 months of 2011 and the second 3 months of 2012. The methodology is applicable in terms of goal and is descriptive survey in terms of nature. In this study, a combined method of interviewing to experts and distributing a questionnaire among the applicants of Mehr housing has been used for data collecting. Among strengths of Khorram Abad in economic section, employment and urban landfill pattern reformation can be implied. In addition, among weaknesses of this project are lack of proper first design and technical justification of the project and use of only 2 shabby fabrics.

  5. Soil Surface Attributes Prediction Using Digital Topographic Model in Mehr Catchment, Sabzevar, Khorasan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Ayobi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Conventional soil survey methods for soils within the watersheds in Iran require a significant budget with many soil surveyors and much time. Additionally, no accurate and reliable information exists on the spatial variability of superface soil parameters in order to predict the soil loss by different models (RUSLE, PISAC, EUPOSEM, MORGAN. Also information on planning and management activities is lacking. These limitations call for methods of estimating soil properties using minimum sampling derived from important terrain parameters. This study was performed to develop soil-landscape models in three geological units (E2Sc, Ku, Plc, in a part of Mehr- watershed, Sabzevar. Six soil variables selected for this study were topsoil clay, gravel, sand, organic matter content, field capacity and bulk density measured at 316 sites on a regular 100m grid. Topographic attributes were calculated by a digital elevation model with 100m spacing. Finally, multiple linear regression analyses relating soil to topographic attributes were performed and then models were validated by additional sample points (78 of 316. The developed regression models showed significant relationships between surface soil properties and topographic attributes such as elevation, slope, aspect, wetness index, stream power index and sediment transport index. The mean errors and root mean square errors in the validation of the models were low and acceptable. The regression equations could explain only 26 to 72 % of the variability measured in the soil attributes in the watershed scale with 100m spacing.

  6. Adipositastherapie: Nahrung als Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallner SJ

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Die Behandlung der Adipositas bedarf einer umfassenden Therapie, wobei die Nahrung als Intervention nicht mehr ausschließlich auf Kalorienreduktion bezogen werden darf. Die ursprüngliche Bedeutung des Begriffes "Diät" im Sinne einer grundlegend vernünftigen Lebensführung muß neu bewertet und in eine lebendige Form der Gesundheitsvorsorge eingebunden werden. Mit einer differenzierten Diagnose der Adipositas kann mit verschiedenen ernährungstherapeutischen Ansätzen individuell geholfen werden. Die Sinnhaftigkeit von Formuladiäten, Diät- und Lightprodukten bedarf dringend einer fachspezifischen Information. Neben den entsprechenden Nährstoffempfehlungen hat ein Ernährungsprogramm aber auch der Durchführbarkeit und der Compliance der Patienten zu genügen. Damit soll dem "Risikofaktor Diät" entgegengesteuert und dem Hilfeschrei unserer Patienten Folge geleistet werden.

  7. Participation rate of housing cooperation members (Mehr and Explication effective factors on it in 1388 at Mashhad city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadt Mazlome Khorasani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is finding some answers to description of participation rate of housing cooperation members (Mehr in 1388 at Mashhad city and Explication effective factors on it. Theoretical discussions have been illustrated based on four paradigms socialistic: social facts, social definition, social behavior, and complex paradigm. The research method of this investigation based on a survey with sample volume about 380 persons with the help of Cocran formula from statistical society about 36330 members of housing cooperation (Mehr in Mashhad city. The method of sampling was based on random stratified method. The way of data Collection is information on questionnaires. The analysis of data have been implemented with SPSS application software in the frame of average descriptive statistics, Medium, Standard divergence, Kurosis and Skewness coefficients, hypothesis test with the help of appropriate tests to aim and variable assessment levels and using of regression analysis, finally path analysis. Then we assessed these categories and their independent variables such as: Economical disability and incapability to resources, assessment of financial and political supports of the government, lack of enough time for members, confidence to the managers, assuring to the resultant of the project, traditionalism, thankfulness, respect to the media advertisements, education level, mental preparation, responsibility, acknowledgement, satisfaction toward managers, social base, making in real housing, using mass media, alienation on the rate of cooperation members. In conclusion, member’s acknowledgement, using mass media and respecting to media advertisements and confidence to managers had the major and highest Impact on members cooperation.

  8. Model Kassel - more than waste disposal. Kassel days of raw materials; Kasseler Modell - mehr als Abfallentsorgung. Kasseler Wertstofftage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, Arnd I.; Halm, Gerhard (eds.)

    2009-07-01

    Within the meeting at 13th and 14th May, 2009 in Moevenpick Hotel Kassel (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Future waste management between hygienic of housing projects and production of secondary raw materials (Henning Friege); (2) Waste management in Hessen (Edgar Freund); (3) Legal evaluation of model experiments - Regulation of packaging and agreement of coordination (Hartmut Gassner); (4) Model experiments according to alternative recording systems - an actual review (Gabriele Becker); (5) Experiences with the system Yellow Tun Plus in Leipzig and Berlin (Ruediger Oetjen-Dehne); (6) Green Tin Plus - An alternative recording system for recyclable materials (Alfred Ehrhard); (7) ''Sack in a container'' - the trend-setting system of disposal (Michael Wieczorek); (8) Municipal motives and targets (Thomas-Erik Junge); (9) Project ''Wet and dry tun'' Kassel (Gerhard Halm); (10) Process engineering investigation and economic-ecological evaluation of the Kassel model (Arnd I. Urban, Ramona Schroeer); (11) Implementation and experiences in te area of collection with the system ''Wet and dry tun'' (Stefan Stremme, Katja Weiss); (12) First experiences with the utilization of wet and dry material flows from the test area Kassel (Ramona Schroeer, Niklas Schiel); (13) Possibilities and boundary conditions of a recycling of raw materials from waste blends (Joachim Christiani); (14) Possibilities of a waste incinerator as a central component in the waste management of the center of disposal Pohlsche Heide at Minden Luebbecke (Thomas Kropp); (15) The other tuns (Helmut Rechberger).

  9. EU ecodesign regulation. More as only a light bulb ban; EU-Oekodesign-Richtlinie. Mehr als ein Gluehbirnenverbot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Corinna [Oeko-Institut e.V., Freiburg (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Within a broader public, the EU Ecodesign Directive (Directive 2009/125/EC) was known and notoriously as a 'light bulb ban'. This resulted in strong emotions. But it has shown an impact in many other areas - usually unnoticed and often for the financial and practical benefits of the consumers. Now, the EU Commission wants to go one step further.

  10. CCSVI - Ein Erfahrungsbericht: Mehr Fragen als Antworten - mit einem Kommentar aus neurologischer Sicht von W. Lang, Wien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peloschek P

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obwohl schon seit über 100 Jahren bekannt ist, dass durch nahezu jeden demyelinisierten Herd (Plaque bei Multipler Sklerose (MS ein Blutgefäß läuft, konnte bisher kein kausaler Zusammenhang zwischen einer Erkrankung der zerebralen Venen und MS dargestellt werden. Nach der Beschreibung des Syndroms der chronischen zerebrospinalen venösen Insuffizienz (CCSVI im Jahr 2008 entwickelte sich ein, durch neuen Medien (Google, Facebook, Blogs etc. potenzierter, außergewöhnlich hoher Druck vonseiten zahlreicher Patientengruppen auf Ärzteschaft und Industrie, der hoffnungsgebenden Hypothese einer durch CCSVI bedingten ?venösen MS? nachzugehen. Dieser Bericht soll einen nüchternen Überblick über die fraglich ursächliche Beteiligung der Venen geben, um dem Leser die Möglichkeit zu geben, sich ein eigenes Bild zu machen.

  11. Analysis the opportunities and threats of Mehr Housing in Mashhad Metropolis (A case of Golbahar New Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Ivani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the construction industry has been thriving due to an increase in national and international investment to the extent that it is now the largest in the Middle East region. In order to, the aim of current research is analysis the opportunities and threats of Mehr Housing in Mashhad Metropolis with point on Golbahar New Town housing project. Applied methodology is based on libraries, documents and field study. In the case of library, data were collected by studying books, articles and internet. In continuous it was used of interview and questionnaire for complete the data’s. Results show that 70 percent of the Iranians own homes, with huge amounts of idle money entering the housing market and the annual turnover in the construction industry amounts to 38.4 billion US$

  12. Guido Westerwelle: „Die Lösung für unsere gegenwärtigen Probleme ist nicht weniger, sondern mehr Europa“

    OpenAIRE

    Westerwelle, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Wenn in diesen Tagen über Europa diskutiert wird, ist die zentrale Frage: Werden wir die Schuldenkrise erfolgreich meistern? Dennoch, denke ich, ist es Zeit über ein Europa jenseits der Krise nachzudenken. Wir müssen anfangen darüber nachdenken, wie wir Europa als politisches Projekt voranbringen können.

  13. Barbara Paul, Johanna Schaffer: Mehr(wert queer – Queer Added (Value. Visuelle Kultur, Kunst und Gender-Politiken – Visual Culture, Art, and Gender Politics. Bielefeld: transcript Verlag 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Jäckel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available ‚Mehr Queer‘ lautet die Programmatik der Autor/-innen des Sammelbandes, die sich in ihren Beiträgen mit ästhetischen und politischen Praxen auseinandersetzen, welche die Ordnungsparameter der Binarität und Heterosexualität verunsichern. Der Titel Mehr(wert queer schließt dabei an ökonomische Semantiken an, um die Verwobenheit von symbolischer Kunst und ökonomischen Realitäten in den Blick zu bekommen, aber auch um aktiv an Umdeutungen mitzuwirken. Im Mittelpunkt stehen visuelle Kunst- und Bilderpolitiken, die Normalitätsdiskurse um Sexualität, Geschlecht und Begehren hinterfragen. Die Autor/-innen kommen aus den Kunst- und Kulturwissenschaften, den Medienwissenschaften, der Philosophie, aber auch aus der künstlerischen sowie der kunst- und kulturpolitischen Praxis.“More queer”: this is the program of the authors of this collected volume, who in their essays confront this program with aesthetic and political practice that disrupts the organizational frameworks provided by binary thinking and heterosexuality. The title Mehr(wert queer [Added (value queer] thus picks up on economic semantics in order to bring into focus the entanglement of symbolic art with economic realities, but also to contribute actively to reinterpretation. Central to the study is visual art and image politics, which question normative discourse surrounding sexuality, gender, and desire. The authors come from Art History and Cultural Studies, Media Studies, and Philosophy, but also artistic as well as art and culture political practice.

  14. "Immer mehr Studierende und Schüler": Konzepte zur Vermittlung von Informationskompetenz in Bibliotheken für große Gruppen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Luca

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Die Vermittlung von Informationskompetenz ist in vielen Bibliotheken bereits eine etablierte Kernaufgabe. Entsprechende Veranstaltungen nehmen als Zielgruppen vor allem Studierende und Schüler der Sekundarstufe II in den Blick. Dabei ergeben sich aktuell neue Herausforderungen daraus, dass einerseits beide Gruppen in den letzten Jahren immer größer werden, und andererseits das Thema Informationskompetenz aufgrund bildungspolitischer Entwicklungen wie der Bologna-Reform immer größere Bedeutung erlangt. Als Konsequenz steigt die Zahl der potenziellen und tatsächlichen Teilnehmer an bibliothekarischen Veranstaltungen zur Vermittlung von Informationskompetenz, sodass es auch Bibliotheken heute mit großen Gruppen zu tun haben. Im vorliegenden Artikel werden daher die Fragen behandelt, welche Probleme sich im Einzelnen bei die Vermittlung von Informationskompetenz im Hinblick auf Großgruppen stellen, und welche Konzepte dazu geeignet sind, diese Herausforderungen anzugehen und eine zielgruppenorientierte Vermittlung von Informationskompetenz mit geeigneten Mitteln für große Gruppen anzubieten. Verschiedene Ansätze, die sich bereits an Universitätsbibliotheken in Anwendung befinden, werden dazu hinsichtlich ihrer Eignung für Großgruppen bewertet. Die Autorin hofft damit betroffenen Bibliotheken und Bibliothekaren einige Informationen und Anregungen für die praktische Arbeit geben zu können.

  15. Computed tomography guidance. Fluoroscopy and more; CT-Steuerung. Fluoroskopie und mehr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paprottka, P.M.; Reiser, M.F.; Trumm, C.G. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Campus Grosshadern, Angiographie und Interventionelle Radiologie, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany); Helmberger, T. [Staedt. Klinikum Muenchen, Klinikum Bogenhausen, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Neuroradiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    Although ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging are competitive imaging modalities for the guidance of needle-based interventions, computed tomography (CT) is the only modality suitable for image-guided interventions in all regions of the body, including the lungs and bone. The ongoing technical development of CT involves accelerated image acquisition, significantly improved spatial resolution, CT scanners with an extended gantry diameter, acceleration of the procedure through joystick control of relevant functions of interventional CT by the interventional radiologist and tube current modulation to protect the hands of the examiner and radiosensitive organs of the patient. CT fluoroscopy can be used as a real-time method (the intervention is monitored under continuous CT fluoroscopy) or as a quick check method (repeated acquisitions of individual CT fluoroscopic images after each change of needle or table position). For the two approaches, multislice CT fluoroscopy (MSCTF) technique with wide detectors is particularly useful because even in the case of needle deviation from the center slice the needle tip is simultaneously visualised in the neighboring slices. With the aid of this technique a precise placement of interventional devices is possible even in angled access routes and in the presence of pronounced respiratory organ movements. As the reduction of CT fluoroscopy time significantly reduces radiation exposure for the patient and staff, the combination of a quick check technique and a low milliampere technique with multislice CT fluoroscopy devices is advantageous. (orig.) [German] Obwohl sonographisch und magnetresonanztomographisch gesteuerte Interventionen ernstzunehmende Konkurrenzverfahren sind, kann die Computertomographie als einzige bildgebende Modalitaet zur Steuerung von Interventionen in allen Koerperregionen (einschliesslich Lunge und Knochen) eingesetzt werden. Die technischen Weiterentwicklungen der Computertomographie beinhalten eine beschleunigte Bildakquisition, eine deutlich verbesserte raeumliche Aufloesung, CT-Scanner mit erweiterter Gantryoeffnung, eine Beschleunigung des Eingriffs durch eine intrainterventionelle Steuerung wesentlicher Funktionen des Interventions-CT ueber eine spezielle Bedieneinheit durch den interventionellen Radiologen selbst sowie die Angular Beam Modulation zur Schonung der Hand des Untersuchers und strahlensensibler Organe des Patienten. Die CT-Fluoroskopie (CTF) kann als Echtzeitverfahren (die Intervention wird unter kontinuierlicher CT-Durchleuchtung ueberwacht) oder als Quick-check-Verfahren (wiederholte Aufnahmen einzelner CT-Durchleuchtungsbilder nach jeder Aenderung der Nadel- oder Tischposition) verwendet werden. Fuer die beiden Vorgehensweisen ist insbesondere die Mehrschicht-CT-Fluoroskopie(MSCTF)-Technik mit breiten Detektoren hilfreich, da auch bei Abweichungen aus der Schicht die Nadelspitze in den gleichzeitig akquirierten Nachbarschichten mit abgebildet wird. Mit dieser Technik ist eine millimetergenaue Nadelplatzierung auch bei angulierten Zugangswegen und ausgepraegten atemabhaengigen Bewegungen der Patientenanatomie moeglich. Da eine Verringerung der CT-Durchleuchtungszeit zu einer deutlich reduzierten Strahlenbelastung fuer den Patient und das Personal fuehrt, ist die Kombination der Quick-check-Technik mit einer Low-Milliampere-Technik an MSCTF-faehigen Geraeten zu empfehlen. (orig.)

  16. MRI of esophagus. N staging and more...; MRT des Oesophagus. N-Staging und mehr...

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupski-Berdien, G. [Krankenhaus Reinbek St.-Adolf- Stift, Abteilung fuer diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie, Reinbek (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    Esophageal disease is common. Fluoroscopy with or without fast cine-sequences is able to depict swallowing dynamics precisely and therefore is used in cases with swallowing disturbance, achalasia or diverticula etc. It is performed in addition to primary endoscopy. There is no evidence based indication for MRI in these settings as it is not to rule out postsurgical fistula and incompetence. Endoscopy and endosonography are gold standard for the depiction as well as staging of esophageal tumors hence differentiation of the esophageal wall layers and detection of suspicious lymph nodes is possible. And from both, biopsies may be taken. New techniques as OCT (optical coherence tomography) can demonstrate in situ carcinoma and therefore helps to decide for limited treatments as mucosectomy. For today multimodular treatment strategies in esophageal carcinoma the T-stage will lead to the treatment decision whereas the nodal-stage will give information about the prognosis. As a matter of fact endoscopy is unable to pass a stenosis esophageal tumor in up to 50% of the cases and will therefore not be able to give precise information on both T- and N-stage resulting in a good indication for MRI. Fetal MRI of the chest is a new topic in which MRI seems to be superior to ultrasonography. (orig.) [German] Erkrankungen des Oesophagus sind haeufig. Die Durchleuchtungsuntersuchung, ggf. mit schnellen Cinesequenzen, vermag exakt die Dynamik des Schluckakts darzustellen und wird regelhaft bei Fragestellungen wie ''Verschlucken'' und ''Globusgefuehl'', Verdacht auf Achalsie etc. sowie bei der Suche nach Divertikeln eingesetzt und ergaenzt die primaere Endoskopie. Die MRT besitzt hier derzeit keinen gesicherten Stellenwert - ebenso wie bei der haeufigsten Indikation zur Oesophagus-Breischluck-Untersuchung in der Klinik, der Frage nach Paravasation und Fistelung nach oesophagogastralen Eingriffen. Die exakten Lokalisation eines Oesophagustumors erfolgt durch die Endoskopie als unangefochtenem Goldstandard, die heute unter Verwendung der Endosonographie nicht nur in der Lage ist, die Wandschichten des Oesophagus darzustellen, sondern auch lokoregionaere Lymphknoten zu detektieren vermag und von beidem, wenn suspekt, auch bioptisches Material gewinnen laesst. Neuere Verfahren wie die OCT (optical coherence tomography) versetzen den Endoskopiker zusaetzlich in die Lage, auch Carcinomata in situ zu erkennen und limitierte Behandlungen wie die Mukosektomie einzusetzen. Bei der heute ueblichen multimodalen Therapie des Oesophaguskarzinoms entscheiden die Lage und das T-Stadium ueber die therapeutische Strategie, das N-Stadium ueber die Prognose. Doch ist der Oesophagus bei der Diagnose ''Oesophaguskarzinom'' in 30-50% der Faelle insbesondere mit dem Endosonographieschallkopf nicht passierbar, sodass hier eine klare Indikation zur MRT besteht. Ein neues Feld stellt die intrauterine Diagnostik des fetalen Thorax und der Oesophagusatresie dar. Hier zeichnet sich eine deutlicher diagnostischer Vorteil gegenueber der Sonographie ab. (orig.)

  17. Patrick Ehnis: Väter in Erziehungszeiten. Politische, kulturelle und subjektive Bedingungen für mehr Engagement in der Familie. Sulzbach im Taunus: Ulrike Helmer Verlag 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Zerle

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Patrick Ehnis analysiert die Voraussetzungen für eine stärkere Beteiligung von Vätern an der Kindererziehung. In seiner Beschäftigung mit zwei Best-practice-Beispielen rekonstruiert er die subjektiven Orientierungen der Väter, normative Erwartungen in den Betrieben, individuelle und strukturelle Barrieren sowie konkrete Erfahrungen von und mit Vätern in Elternzeit. Dabei behält er bei der Deutung ein Ziel stets vor Augen: mehr Geschlechtergerechtigkeit. Für die politische und gesellschaftliche Diskussion um die ‚neuen Väter‘ sowie für nachfolgende Forschungen, welche die neuesten familienpolitischen Entwicklungen einbeziehen, bilden die Ergebnisse des Bandes eine höchst fruchtbare Grundlage.

  18. More safety; Mehr Sicherheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Jens-Peter

    2013-06-06

    Which building authority requirements must be fulfilled for solar systems was not clearly defined for a long time. It is certain now that the solar standards are not enough. Mounting systems are already in a special building authority approval process. [German] Welche bauaufsichtlichen Anforderungen Solaranlagen erfuellen muessen, war lange Zeit nicht klar definiert. Sicher ist nun, dass die Solarnormen nicht ausreichen. Montagesysteme befinden sich schon in einem speziellen bauaufsichtlichen Zulassungsprozess.

  19. Lebensgeschichten aus der Fremde. Autobiografien deutschsprachiger emigrierter SchriftstellerInnen als Beispiele literarischer Akkulturation nach 1933

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Krause

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mit der Massenauswanderung aus Deutschland und Europa zwischen 1933 und 1941 nahmen Flucht- und Lebenswege ihren Ausgang, die in zahlreichen Fällen nie mehr zurück in die verlassene Heimat, sondern vielmehr zu einer neuen persönlichen, gesellschaftlichen und kulturellen Existenz führten. Etliche solcher Lebensgeschichten aus der Fremde werden durch autobiografische Texte bezeugt und tragen als Erinnerungen bis heute zum kulturellen Gedächtnis und zur kollektiven Identität der Nachkriegsgesell...

  20. Instandhaltungsmanagement als Gestaltungsfeld Ganzheitlicher Produktionssysteme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Uwe; Schulze, Sven; Otano, Isabel Crespo

    Sich kontinuierlich verändernde Rahmenbedingungen, wie beispielsweise eine steigende Variantenvielfalt, verkürzte Produktlebenszyklen sowie Kundenforderungen nach höherer Qualität, kürzeren Lieferzeiten und geringeren Kosten, fordern von produzierenden Unternehmen eine stetige Anpassung der Prozesse, der Organisation und der Strukturen. Seit den 90er Jahren versuchen immer mehr deutsche Unternehmen diesen veränderten Anforderungen mit der Einführung eines Ganzheitlichen Produktionssystems (GPS) zu begegnen. Ganzheitliche Produktionssysteme sind dabei in ihren Grundlagen an das Toyota Produktionssystem angelehnt, vereinigen aber auch weitere Methoden zu einem unternehmensspezifischen Regelwerk. Im Rahmen des langfristigen Trends zu unternehmensindividuellen Produktionssystemen wird sowohl in der Industrie als auch in der Forschung intensiv über das Toyota Produktionssystem, Lean Production, Lean Management und Ganzheitliche Produktionssysteme diskutiert, werden Konzepte zu Implementierung und Betrieb erstellt und die Wirtschaftlichkeit untersucht.

  1. We experience more than we comprehend. Quantum physics and quaesions of life; Wir erleben mehr als wir begreifen. Quantenphysik und Lebensfragen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerr, H.P.; Oesterreicher, M.

    2007-07-01

    The quantum physics has been arrived by thinking and experimenting to revolutioning knowledges, which determine our world, also if only few have understood these theories in their real sense. The present book follows the question, whether and how far a consciousness trained by quantum physics can reach more directly to the understanding of questions of life and religious questions than a thinking, which is obliged to classical physics. It deals especially with fundamental existential questions: The theme of personal responsibility, the value of the indivdual existence, the evaluation of the personal I-you relation. Hans Peter Duerr, a personality with guiding qualities, as they are necessary in the new milennium, is the ideal speech partner for the deimension of this theme. The connections of natural sciences and religion, ecology, and sociological change have always driven the Heisenberg successo. How can we speech about that, which science cannot comprehend?. What means self, identity, responsibilit for the quantum physicist? An exciting meeting.

  2. „Vertrauen ist besser, weil Kontrolle nutzt nix!“ – Safer Internet Aktionsmonat 2011 Mehr als 200 Schulen machen mit: Projekte und Ideen aus österreichischen Schulen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Buchegger

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Am 8. Februar 2011 fand bereits zum achten Mal der Europäische Safer Internet Day statt. In diesem Jahr waren die österreichischen Aktivitäten rund um den Safer Internet Day erstmals nicht nur auf einen einzelnen Tag konzentriert, sondern verteilt auf einen ganzen Monat. Unter dem EU-weiten Motto „It's more than a game, it's your life!“ hatten Saferinternet.at und das Bundesministerium für Unterricht, Kunst und Kultur eingeladen, eigene Projekte zu starten und vorzustellen.

  3. Mehr als 1500 Jahre homoerotische Literatur auf der Iberischen Halbinsel A Survey of over 1500 Years of Gay and Lesbian Literature in Spain and Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Müller

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Mit diesem Buch wird ein kaum bekanntes Kapitel der spanischen und portugiesischen Literaturgeschichte aufgeschlagen. Es macht die sozialen und kulturellen Veränderungen des Lebens von schwulen und lesbischen Menschen auf der iberischen Halbinsel im Spiegel der Literatur und durch lebendige Autor/-innenportraits deutlich. Dabei werden nicht nur die deutlichen positiven Veränderungen der letzten 30 Jahre thematisiert, sondern eine fesselnde historische Perspektive zahlreicher Facetten homoerotischer Literatur bis zurück in die andalusische Literatur des Mittelalters aufgezeigt.This book tackles a rarely known chapter in Spanish and Portuguese history of literature. The articles in the anthology document the social and cultural changes in gay and lesbian life on the Iberian peninsula as portrayed in literature. The articles do not only talk about the positive changes brought about by the queer liberation movement during the last thirty years, but offer a fascinating historical perspective on queer writing and queer life ranging from medieval Andalusian literature to present day fiction.

  4. Patrick Ehnis: Väter in Erziehungszeiten. Politische, kulturelle und subjektive Bedingungen für mehr Engagement in der Familie. Sulzbach im Taunus: Ulrike Helmer Verlag 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Zerle

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Patrick Ehnis analysiert die Voraussetzungen für eine stärkere Beteiligung von Vätern an der Kindererziehung. In seiner Beschäftigung mit zwei Best-practice-Beispielen rekonstruiert er die subjektiven Orientierungen der Väter, normative Erwartungen in den Betrieben, individuelle und strukturelle Barrieren sowie konkrete Erfahrungen von und mit Vätern in Elternzeit. Dabei behält er bei der Deutung ein Ziel stets vor Augen: mehr Geschlechtergerechtigkeit. Für die politische und gesellschaftliche Diskussion um die ‚neuen Väter‘ sowie für nachfolgende Forschungen, welche die neuesten familienpolitischen Entwicklungen einbeziehen, bilden die Ergebnisse des Bandes eine höchst fruchtbare Grundlage.Patrick Ehnis analyses the necessary conditions to elicit better participation of fathers in child rearing. On the basis of two best-practice examples, he reconstructs the subjective positions of fathers, the normative expectations of businesses or companies, individual and structural barriers, and concrete experiences of and with fathers during parental leave. Throughout the interpretation he keeps one goal in mind: more gender equality. The conclusions of the volume offer a very fruitful basis for political and social discussions about the “new father” as well as for subsequent studies that take the newest family-political developments into account.

  5. Wie kommt mehr "Familie" in die "Work-Life-Balance"? – Familienorientierung in der medizinischen Aus-, Weiterbildung und Berufstätigkeit [How to add more "Family" to the Work-Life-Balance? – Family Friendliness in Medical Under- and Postgraduate Studies and the Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Ridder, Daniela

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available [english] Today universities have to compete for the best brains more than ever before. The issues of reconciliation of work/study and family and the work-life balance have become increasingly important recently in higher education policy development as higher education institutions in the competition for the best minds are already forced to tackle these issues, some of which are still novel to them, as they are faced with demographic change. High dropout rates among students with children, increasing shortages of physicians and high sector emigration and high levels of childlessness among graduates serve as indicators for urgent action towards more family-oriented university and faculty strategies.But how can medical schools, hospitals and (teaching hospitals achieve a family-oriented profile? Which key players, which areas of higher education management are relevant to management and decision-making structures? What exemplary measures for designing family-friendly medical studies and work places offer success?The underrepresentation of women in the next generation of scientists also poses an additional challenge to the development of an innovative higher education policy if it is to be sustainable. Thus strategies promoting the next generation and family orientation are key factors for a future-oriented higher education policy. These factors should therefore be seen as leadership strategies which will introduce measures that will make (redesign the university’s profile. To this end, a holistic approach which will lead to fundamental reforms of higher education structures which are outlined below and illustrated with examples are a prerequisite for successful implementation.[german] Hochschulen stehen mehr denn je im Wettbewerb um kluge Köpfe. Die Themen „Vereinbarkeit von Beruf/Studium und Familie“ und „Work-Life-Balance“ haben daher in der jüngsten hochschulpolitischen Entwicklung an Dynamik und Triebkraft gewonnen: Hochschulen im Wettbewerb um exzellente Köpfe müssen sich schon vor dem Hintergrund des demographischen Wandels diesen für sie zum Teil noch neuen Herausforderungen stellen. Hohe Studienabbruchquoten unter Studierenden mit Kindern, steigender Mediziner(innenmangel und deutliche Abwanderungsraten, hohe Kinderlosigkeit unter Akademiker(innen erscheinen dabei als Indikatoren für einen dringenden Handlungsbedarf hin zu einer familienorientierten Hochschul- und Fakultätsstrategie.Wie aber können medizinische Fakultäten, Kliniken und (Lehr-Krankenhäuser ein familienorientiertes Profil gewinnen? Welche Akteurinnen und Akteure, welche Handlungsfelder des Hochschulmanagements sind für die Leitungs- und Entscheidungsstrukturen relevant? Welche exemplarischen Maßnahmen für eine familiengerechtere Gestaltung des Studien- und Arbeitsortes „Medizin“ könnten Erfolg versprechend sein? Die Unterrepräsentanz von Frauen beim wissenschaftlichen Nachwuchs stellt darüber hinaus eine zusätzliche Herausforderung dar, für die eine innovative Hochschulpolitik weitere Maßnahmen entwickeln sollte, um zukunftsfähig zu sein. Nachwuchsförderungsstrategien und Familienorientierung sind demnach entscheidende Faktoren für eine zukunftsorientierte Hochschulpolitik. Diese Faktoren sollten deshalb als Führungsstrategien begriffen werden, um Maßnahmen einzuleiten, die das Profil der Hochschule dahingehend (umgestalten. Voraussetzung für eine erfolgreiche Implementierung ist dabei ein holistisches Konzept, das zu grundlegenden Reformen der Hochschulstrukturen führt, die im Folgenden skizziert und anhand von Beispielen illustriert werden sollen.

  6. Topiramat als Phasenprophylaktikum - ein Fallbericht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letmaier M

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Topiramat ist ein neues Antiepileptikum mit einem breiten Wirkspektrum. Aktuelle klinische Studien geben Hinweise darauf, daß Topiramat stimmungsstabilisierende Eigenschaften besitzt und somit effizient in der Behandlung der bipolaren affektiven Störung sein könnte. Vor dem Hintergrund dieser Studienberichte, behandelten wir eine 41jährige, erstmals vor 10 Jahren erkrankte Patientin mit der Diagnose einer therapierefraktären, bipolaren affektiven Störung (Rapid-Cycling mit Topiramat. Im Rahmen ihrer Erkrankung wurde die Patientin insgesamt 12mal stationär aufgenommen und meist aufgrund von akuten manischen Episoden behandelt. Dabei kamen seit 1991 folgende Phasenprophylaktika zur Anwendung: Carbamazepin, Valproat und Lamotrigin ? zuletzt nur mit mäßigem Erfolg. Daraufhin wurde zu Beginn einer neuerlichen manischen Episode ambulant eine Therapie mit Topiramat begonnen. Acht Wochen nach Therapiestart kam die Patientin in stationäre Behandlung. Der Aufenthalt dauerte weniger als drei Wochen; Topiramat wurde von der Patientin gut vertragen. Infolge eines belastenden Lebensereignisses kam es unter kontinuierlicher Therapie mit Topiramat zu einer Destabilisierung des psychischen Zustandsbildes (manische Symptome. Durch eine ambulante Erhöhung der Topiramatdosis bei gleichzeitiger Gabe von Risperidon und Clonazepam konnte jedoch eine neuerliche manische Episode erstmals ambulant behandelt werden. Die Patientin erhält derzeit 200 mg Topiramat pro Tag und ist seit mehr als 20 Monaten nahezu beschwerdefrei.

  7. Hirnleistungsstörungen/Demenzen als Ursache der Inkontinenz - neurologische Aspekte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dal-Bianco P

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Inkontinenz ist ein häufiges Problem älterer dementer Patienten und gilt als einer der Hauptgründe für die Pflegeheimeinweisung. Mehr als die Hälfte der Pflegepatienten leidet an kognitiven Störungen, dessen Schweregrad direkt proportional mit dem Ausmaß der Inkontinenz korreliert [1]. Die Koinzidenz von Demenz und Inkontinenz soll nicht dazu verleiten, sofort auf einen neuropathologischen Zusammenhang zu schließen. Deshalb ist es ratsam, inkontinente Demenzpatienten zum Ausschluß neurologischer, urologischer und interner Ursachen begutachten zu lassen. Inkontinenz ist nicht nur eine Bürde für Betroffene und Betreuer, sondern auch mit erhöhter Mortalitätsrate bei älteren Menschen assoziiert [2]. Patienten mit Hirnleistungsstörungen können durch Toilettentraining profitieren, während Biofeedbackmethoden Erfolge bei Patienten mit geringeren kognitiven Einbußen zeigen. Evaluationsstudien könnten Patientengruppen definieren, die von speziellen "maßgeschneiderten" Inkontinenzmanagements optimal profitieren, um die jeweils kosteneffektivste Vorgangsweise für den klinischen Alltag auswählen zu können.

  8. Samen-TUNEL-Untersuchung: Ein wichtiger Test für ein IVF-Institut?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leberl F

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Einleitung: Aufgrund männlicher Infertilität werden schon 71 % (IVF-Register 2006 der österreichischen IVF-Versuche als ICSI (Intrazytoplasmatische Spermieninjektion durchgeführt. Das Spermiogramm hat nur eine geringe Vorhersagekraft für den Erfolg dieser Behandlung. Hingegen wird die DNA-Fragmentierung von Spermatozoen als prognostischer Faktor diskutiert. TUNEL ("TdT mediated dUTP nick end labeling" ist, im Zusammenhang mit apoptotischen Vorgängen in Samenzellen, eine übliche Methode zur Feststellung solcher DNA-Strangbrüche. Ziel dieser Arbeit war, den tatsächlichen Einfluss einer erhöhten Rate TUNEL-positiver Spermatozoen auf die Befruchtungsrate, Entwicklung zu Achtzellern (Tag 3 und Blastozysten (Tag 5 sowie auf die Schwangerschaftsrate zu untersuchen. Patienten und Methoden: Samen von Paaren, welche sich einer künstlichen Befruchtung durch ICSI unterzogen, wurden durch Dichtegradient und darauf folgendes Swim-up aufbereitet, auf Objektträger ausgestrichen und dann mit dem FITC-In Situ Cell Death Detection Kit (Roche gefärbt. Die Konzentration TUNEL-positiver Spermatozoen wurde am Fluoreszenzmikroskop ausgezählt und in Beziehung zum Schwangerschafts-Outcome gebracht. Resultate: Es wurden Samen von 56 Paaren untersucht. Ein Cut-off von 20 % TUNEL-positiver Spermatozoen wurde festgelegt. In die Gruppe mit hoher DNA-Fragmentierung fielen 12 Paare (21 %. Diese Gruppe zeigte eine deutlich niedrigere Schwangerschaftsrate (25 % als die Gruppe mit niederer DNAFragmentierung (57 %. Diskussion: Durch eine erhöhte DNA-Fragmentierung von Spermatozoen wird die Schwangerschaftsrate bei etwa jedem fünften Paar mehr als halbiert. Ähnliche Zusammenhänge wurden auch in anderen Untersuchungen gezeigt. Als weiterführende Studie wäre es interessant zu untersuchen, inwieweit es bei einer Anwendung des Tests schon vor der ICSI und darauf folgender Behandlung des Mannes mit Antioxidantien oder Selektion der Samenzellen durch eine IMSI (Intrazytoplasmatische, morphologisch selektierte Spermieninjektion zu einer Verbesserung der Schwangerschaftsrate kommen könnte.

  9. Das Handy als "persönliches Medium" - Zur Aneignung des Short Message Service (SMS durch Jugendliche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim R. Höflich

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Das Handy als "persönliches Medium" - Zur Aneignung des Short Message Service (SMS durch Jugendliche Mit dem Eindringen des mobilen Telefons in den Alltag hat sich, gegen alle Erwartungen, auch eine Form der Nutzung etabliert, die sich nicht mehr allein als Telefonieren ausweisen lässt, selbst wenn sie an telefonischen Nutzungsmodi anknüpft: Das Versenden von kurzen Textbotschaften via Handy über den sogenannten Short Message Service (SMS. Vor diesem Hintergrund wird das Handy als ein ‚persönliches Medium’ ausgemacht und insbesondere das Versenden von SMS-Botschaften als eine Form der ‚brieflichen Kommunikation’ verortet. Allerdings zeigt sich in dem zwischen Brief und Telefonat, zwischen Schriftlichkeit und Mündlichkeit angesiedelten Charakter solcher Botschaften auch die Differenz zum ‚klassischen’ Brief. Einblicke in erste Ergebnisse einer Reihe von Gruppendiskussionen machen dies schon deutlich. Dabei wird schlussendlich angeregt, die Nutzung von Medien der interpersonalen Kommunikation (wie im übrigen von Medien überhaupt im Gesamtzusammenhang der kommunikativen Alltagsaktivitäten und insbesondere einer umfassenden ‚Mediatisierung’ des Alltags zu untersuchen.

  10. More planned economy than market economy in the energy policy strategy for 2020 of the European Commission; Mehr Plan- als Marktwirtschaft in der energiepolitischen Strategie 2020 der Europaeischen Kommission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haucap, Justus; Coenen, Michael

    2011-04-15

    The Europeanization of energy policies is desirable because the three main objectives of energy policy (climate protection, security of supply and competitiveness) have cross-border impacts. Hence, it is good that the European Union has been granted a competence for energy policy in the article 194 of the Lisbon treaty. In addition, it is good that the European Commission has published its long-term strategy to stabilize expectations which is important for infrastructure investment. It is regrettable though that price signals, competition and market principles only play a minor role for the Commission while rather doubtful objectives such as fostering energy efficiency and promoting renewable dominate the agenda. The Commission's strategy is mainly characterized by bureaucratic dirigisme, intense regulation, state planning and public subsidies. The road to a centrally planned energy industry is being walked down fast.

  11. What do we know more than 2012 on the accident progression in Fukushima? What is the actual state of the plant?; Was wissen wir heute mehr als 2012 ueber den Unfallablauf in Fukushima? Wie ist der heutige Zustand der Anlage?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maqua, Michael [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Koeln (Germany)

    2015-06-01

    The contribution includes the official statistics on the accident following the earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011 on the Japanese island Honshu and the nuclear power plant Fukushima Daiichi. The plant was automatically shutdown as consequence of the earthquake. New calculations allow the reconstruction of the accident progress and the meltdown. Estimations of the released radioactivity, esp. the radionuclides I-131 and Cs-137 into the atmosphere and the ocean are summarized. The construction of water cleaning facilities for the contaminated waste water in the leaking tanks, water-tight barriers and the planning for the enclosure for the destroyed reactor buildings are described.

  12. Culture and Healthcare in Medical Education: Migrants' Health and Beyond [Medizin und ethnisch-kulturelle Vielfalt in der medizinischen Ausbildung: "Migrantenmedizin" und mehr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soydan, Nedim

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available [english] One of the main challenges for teaching programs on immigration, ethnic diversity and health is to transform the commonplace notion of “culture” into a helpful tool for medical training and practice. This paper presents the teaching approach of an interdisciplinary course on “migrants’ health” established at the University of Giessen since 2004, which has recently been complemented by a thematically related collaboration with two universities in Latin America (Ecuador, Peru. The overall goal is to translate the abstract philosophy of into medical practice, and to provide students with the insights, attitudes and skills needed for a fruitful use of concepts like “culture”, “ethnicity” and “migration background”. A key feature of the course is the strong commitment to ethnography as an important means for looking under the surface of superficial attributions to culture, and for grasping the interplay of medicine and health with cultural, social, religious, economic and legal aspects in its particular local and/or individual shape. Three elements of the course are presented to illustrate this approach: First, a unit on Islam and Medicine, as important parts of the local immigrant community are Muslims. The second one deals with psychosomatic aspects, because in case of immigrants, complex symptoms and disease representations like somatisation are easily misinterpreted as “cultural”. The third element consists of a unit with specialized social workers form outside the university, who provide direct insights into the living conditions and health problems of local immigrant communities. [german] Eine der zentralen Herausforderungen für Lehrprojekte zum Thema Medizin und ethnisch-kulturelle Vielfalt besteht in der Vermittlung eines angemessenen Konzepts von „Kultur“. Vor allem gilt es, den exklusiven Fokus auf als „fremd“ wahrgenommene Bevölkerungsgruppen und die Gefahr oberflächlicher kulturelle Zuschreibungen zu überwinden. Der vorliegende Beitrag stellt den Ansatz eines interdisziplinären Kurses zur „Migrantenmedizin“ an der Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen vor, der jüngst durch ein Kooperationsprojekt zur Stärkung interkultureller Aspekte in der medizinischen Ausbildung mit zwei lateinamerikanischen Universitäten ergänzt wurde (in Ecuador und Peru. Durch den internationalen Vergleich soll das abstrakte Prinzip „think global and teach local“ für den medizinischen Bereich nutzbar gemacht werden. Gleichzeitig wird die Bedeutung der Ethnographie für eine sinnvolle Verwendung von Begriffen wie „Kultur“, „Ethnizität“ oder „Migrationshintergrund“ auch in der Medizin betont. Als wichtigste Forschungsmethode der Kultur- und Sozialanthropologie vermittelt die Ethnographie differenzierte Einblicke in die jeweils konkrete Ausprägung der komplexen Zusammenhänge zwischen Krankheit, Medizin und „Kultur“ – jenseits von Stereotypien und unter explizitem Einschluss der im Einzelfall relevanten sozialen, religiösen, ökonomischen und rechtlichen, aber auch medizinischen Aspekte. Der Artikel verdeutlicht die Umsetzung dieser Perspektive in der medizinischen Ausbildung exemplarisch anhand von drei Lehreinheiten des Kurses an der JLU Gießen: Ein Modul zum Thema „Islam und Medizin“, eines zu psychosomatischen Aspekten und eine dritte Einheit, in der Sozialarbeiterinnen eines lokalen Migrationsdienstes unmittelbare Einblicke in die reale Lebenswirklichkeit von Migrant/innen vermitteln.

  13. ALS - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - ALS ... The following organizations are good resources for information on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : Muscular Dystrophy Association - http://mda.org/disease/amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis National Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) ...

  14. Reizdarmsyndrom: Mehr Augenmerk auf die Psyche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moser G

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Die Prävalenz des Reizdarmsyndroms hat sich in den vergangenen Jahren kaum verändert, obwohl es wesentlich stärker in den Fokus ärztlicher Bemühungen gerückt ist. Zu einem wesentlichen Anteil liegt dies an der Komplexität der Erkrankung und ihrem Ursprung an der Schnittstelle zwischen physischem und psychischem Geschehen. Neue Ergebnisse unterstreichen die Bedeutung psychotherapeutischer Ansätze und dabei insbesondere diejenige der bauchzentrierten Hypnose im Gesamtkonzept der stufenweisen Behandlung der Patienten mit Reizdarmsyndrom.

  15. AL Amyloidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Desport Estelle; Bridoux Frank; Sirac Christophe; Delbes Sébastien; Bender Sébastien; Fernandez Béatrice; Quellard Nathalie; Lacombe Corinne; Goujon Jean-Michel; Lavergne David; Abraham Julie; Touchard Guy; Fermand Jean-Paul; Jaccard Arnaud

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Definition of the disease AL amyloidosis results from extra-cellular deposition of fibril-forming monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig) light chains (LC) (most commonly of lambda isotype) usually secreted by a small plasma cell clone. Most patients have evidence of isolated monoclonal gammopathy or smoldering myeloma, and the occurrence of AL amyloidosis in patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma or other B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders is unusual. The key event in the development o...

  16. Wortbildungsangaben als Hilfe für den Zugriff auf andere Datentypen und als Hilfe bei kommunikativen und kognitiven Informationsbedürfnissen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning

    2013-01-01

    "Grundsätzlich können unendlich umfangreiche Mengen" von Daten eingespeist werden, schreiben Ulrike Haß und Ulrich Schmitz in der Einleitung zum Themaheft "Lexikographie im Internet" (Lexicographica 26, 2010). Das ist zwar nicht korrekt, da man zwar enorm große Mengen in einer lexikographischen Datenbank erfassen kann, aber sicher nicht unendlich viele. Schwerwiegender ist jedoch der Denkfehler, der daher rührt, dass die beiden Herausgeber den Unterschied zwischen einer Datenbank und einem Wörterbuch nicht beachten: "Je mehr Informationen angeboten werden, desto schwerer wird es dem Nutzer, genau die zu finden, die er braucht." (Haß/Schmitz 2010, 4). Dies gilt nur dann, wenn auch Internetwörterbücher notwendigerweise polyfunktionale Wörterbücher sein sollen, die alle Daten von der lexikographischen Datenbank zeigen, wie es die meisten Papirwörterbücher tun. Entsprechend gilt, dass Bonusangaben eher unnütz sind ("Sind Wörterbücher ausschließlich dazu da, Fragen zu beantworten? Nein, sie sollten auch zu Fragen anregen, solange sie doch auch in irgendeinem Zusammenhang mit Bildung stehen." (Haß/Schmitz 2010, 10)). Man sollte grundsätzlich trennen zwischen der Datenbank und den daraus erstellten Wörterbüchern. Wenn man monofunktionale Wörterbücher konzipiert, verschwindet das Problem vom Informationstress nicht, kann aber größtenteils vermieden werden. Dieses Problem stellt sich in besonderem Masse zu Wortbildungsangaben, die für einige Informationsbedürfnisse wichtig, für andere irrelevant sind, d.h. in einigen Wörterbüchern nützlich sind, in anderen nicht. Prinzipiell gilt, dass Wortbildungsangaben nicht mitgenommen werden sollen für Rezeptionswörterbücher. Auch für Produktionswörterbücher gilt, dass Angaben von allen möglichen Wortbildungen zum Informationsstress führen, dass man stattdessen eine geringe Anzahl der prototypischen Wortbildungen anführen soll (hierzu mehr im Vortrag). Schließlich können sehr reichhaltige Wortbildungsangaben und auch Wortbildungsregeln in vielen Fällen in einem kognitiven Wörterbuchnützlich sein, d.h. in einem Informationswerkzeug, das möglichst viel Wissen bieten will. Wortbildungsdaten in der Datenbank können auch eine andere Funktion erfüllen, und zwar als Zugriffshilfe auf Daten in anderen Wörterbuchartikeln, wenn eine bestimmte Wortbildung nicht lemmatisiert ist. Die morphologischen theoretischen Überlegungen, die metalexikographischen zu monofunktionalen Informationswerkzeugen, sowie Prinzipien des Zugriffs auf Daten mithilfe von Wortbildungsdaten einer Datenbank werden anhand einer Datenbank vorgestellt, aus der insgesamt sechs Wörterbücher herausgezogen werden.

  17. Kinematografische Propaganda und Zensur in Österreich-Ungarn von 1914–1918 als gescheitertes kybernetisches Modell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Winkler

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available (Medien-Pädagogik, verstanden als Medienverbund zur programmierten "Unterrichtung" einer breiten Masse wurde bereits vor 1914 erfahren. Zweifelsohne kam es jedoch während dem Ersten Weltkrieg zu einer intensiven Orchestrierung der zur Verfügung stehenden Medien. Die angestrebte Volkserziehung kann dabei als kybernetisches Regelkreismodell betrachtet werden. Als ganz spezielles systemimmanentes Instrument, stellte sich dabei das Kino heraus. Anfangs etwas zögerlich, verstand man es mit Verlauf des Krieges auch in der Donaumonarchie, die Möglichkeiten der bewegten Bilder immer umfassender auszunützen. Das Kino sollte als Regler, dem Publikum Führungsgrößen vor Augen führen und das einzelne Individuum gleichzeitig zu einer Art Selbstregulation auffordern. Vorstellungs- und Wertewelten der Menschen sollten homogenisiert werden und das System in dieser Weise stabilisieren. Offenes Feedback war unerwünscht; Grundstimmungen und Diskurse innerhalb der Bevölkerung blieben jedoch nicht unbemerkt und wurden auf der Leinwand bearbeitet, wobei begründete Befürchtungen, Zweifel und Ängste, zu entkräften versucht wurden. Mit fortschreitender Kriegsdauer taten sich Zensur und Propaganda immer schwerer, ein geschöntes Bild der Situation glaubhaft darzustellen. Schließlich vermochte das Flimmern der Leinwände, die Botschaften des Systems nicht mehr zu vermitteln. Das kybernetische Modell der Volkserziehung über Kamera und Leinwand, welches die Gesellschaft militärisch überprägte, Überlegenheit predigte, Gewalt normalisierte und das kriegsbedingte Sterben humanisierte, musste letztlich scheitern. Der vorliegende Artikel soll einen kurzen Einblick in den Aufbau dieses – letztlich gescheiterten – regulativen Werkes der kinematografischen Propaganda und Zensur in Österreich-Ungarn geben, wobei der Fokus auf der dokumentarischen Berichterstattung vom Krieg liegt, die eine vermeintliche Realität repräsentieren sollte.

  18. ALS Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Give We are proud to work with our corporate partners in the fight against Lou Gehrig’s Disease sponsor ... NW - Suite 250 - Washington, DC 20005 All content and works posted on this website are owned and copyrighted by The ALS Association . © ...

  19. Al Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandanayaka, Tharaka; Azarmi, Fardad

    2014-05-01

    In the present study, cold spraying technique was used to fabricate a metal matrix composite (MMC) that consists of Ni matrix and 20 vol.% Ni3Al particles at two different particle sizes as reinforcement. This study intends to investigate the effect of reinforcement particle size on microstructural and mechanical properties of cold sprayed MMCs. Two different Ni3Al powders with nominal particle size of -45 to +5 and +45 to 100 ?m were used as reinforcement in this study. Cold sprayed Ni-Ni3Al samples were subjected to the microstructural observation and characterization prior to any mechanical testing. Then, samples were tested using nano-indentation, Knoop hardness, Vickers hardness, and Resonance frequency to evaluate their mechanical properties. No significant changes were observed in microstructural characteristics due to different particle sizes. The results obtained from a variety of mechanical testings indicated that the increasing reinforcement particle size resulted in the slight reduction of mechanical properties such as elastic modulus and hardness in cold sprayed MMCs. The mechanical interlock between deposited particles defines the bonding strength in cold sprayed samples. Small size particles have a higher velocity and impact resulting in stronger interlock between deformed particles.

  20. AL Amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desport Estelle

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Definition of the disease AL amyloidosis results from extra-cellular deposition of fibril-forming monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig light chains (LC (most commonly of lambda isotype usually secreted by a small plasma cell clone. Most patients have evidence of isolated monoclonal gammopathy or smoldering myeloma, and the occurrence of AL amyloidosis in patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma or other B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders is unusual. The key event in the development of AL amyloidosis is the change in the secondary or tertiary structure of an abnormal monoclonal LC, which results in instable conformation. This conformational change is responsible for abnormal folding of the LC, rich in ? leaves, which assemble into monomers that stack together to form amyloid fibrils. Epidemiology AL amyloidosis is the most common type of systemic amyloidois in developed countries with an estimated incidence of 9 cases/million inhabitant/year. The average age of diagnosed patients is 65 years and less than 10% of patients are under 50. Clinical description The clinical presentation is protean, because of the wide number of tissues or organs that may be affected. The most common presenting symptoms are asthenia and dyspnoea, which are poorly specific and may account for delayed diagnosis. Renal manifestations are the most frequent, affecting two thirds of patients at presentation. They are characterized by heavy proteinuria, with nephrotic syndrome and impaired renal function in half of the patients. Heart involvement, which is present at diagnosis in more than 50% of patients, leading to restrictive cardiopathy, is the most serious complication and engages prognosis. Diagnostic methods The diagnosis relies on pathological examination of an involved site showing Congo red-positive amyloid deposits, with typical apple-green birefringence under polarized light, that stain positive with an anti-LC antibody by immunohistochemistry and/or immunofluorescence. Due to the systemic nature of the disease, non-invasive biopsies such as abdominal fat aspiration should be considered before taking biopsies from involved organs, in order to reduce the risk of bleeding complications. Differential diagnosis Systemic AL amyloidosis should be distinguished from other diseases related to deposition of monoclonal LC, and from other forms of systemic amyloidosis. When pathological studies have failed to identify the nature of amyloid deposits, genetic studies should be performed to diagnose hereditary amyloidosis. Management Treatment of AL amyloidosis is based on chemotherapy, aimed at controlling the underlying plasma clone that produces amyloidogenic LC. The hematological response should be carefully checked by serial measurements of serum free LC. The association of an alkylating agent with high-dose dexamethasone has proven to be effective in two thirds of patients and is considered as the current reference treatment. New agents used in the treatment of multiple myeloma are under investigation and appear to increase hematological response rates. Symptomatic measures and supportive care is necessary in patients with organ failure. Noticeably, usual treatments for cardiac failure (i.e. calcium inhibitors, ?-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors are inefficient or even dangerous in patients with amyloid heart disease, that should be managed using diuretics. Amiodarone and pace maker implantation should be considered in patients with rhythm or conduction abnormalities. In selected cases, heart and kidney transplantation may be associated with prolonged patient and graft survival. Prognosis Survival in AL amyloidosis depends on the spectrum of organ involvement (amyloid heart disease being the main prognosis factor, the severity of individual organs involved and haematological response to treatment.

  1. High-performance vacuum tubes for more energy efficiency. Building-integrated CPC vacuum tube collectors unite several functions.; Hochleistungs-Vakuumroehren fuer mehr Energieeffizienz. Gebaeudeintegrierte CPC-Vakuumroehren-Kollektoren vereinen mehrere Funktionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theiss, Eric

    2013-10-15

    The performance of solar collectors primarily contributes to increased efficiency and reduced operating costs of solar thermal systems. With the use of building-integrated CPC vacuum tube collectors an extremely high energy yield is achieved on a smaller collector gross area. As a building-integrated system solution the CPC facade provide panels in addition to its use as spandrel panels within the glazed buildings not only an architectural design element, but unite as a multifunctional component for several functions. [German] Die Leistungsfaehigkeit der Solarkollektoren traegt primaer zur Effizienzsteigerung und Reduzierung der Betriebskosten einer Solarthermieanlagen bei. Mit dem Einsatz gebaeudeintegrierter CPC-Vakuumroehrenkollektoren wird auf einer kleineren Kollektorbruttoflaeche ein extrem hoher Energieertrag erreicht. Als gebaeudeintegrierte Systemloesung bieten die CPC-Fassadenkollektoren neben dem Einsatz als Bruestungselemente auch innerhalb der verglasten Gebaeuden nicht nur ein architektonisches Gestaltungselement, sondern vereinen als multifunktionaler Bestandteil noch mehrere Funktionen.

  2. Exhaust systems for condensing boilers connected in cascades. Excess pressure operation without exhaust recirculation protection in plastic pipes; Abgasabfuehrung von Brennwertgeraeten in Kaskadenschaltung. Ueberdruckbetrieb ohne Abgasrueckstromsicherung - Kunststoff als Rohrwerkstoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, U. [Vaillant GmbH (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Condensing boiler cascades are gaining ground as they are easier to transport and instal than big boilers. Exhaust systems may be problematic as the existing systems may not be technically appropriate. [German] Brennwertfeuerstaetten in Kaskadenschaltung erfreuen sich aus unterschiedlichsten Gruenden einer zunehmenden Beliebtheit. Ein schwerer Altkessel kann so durch mehrere, ohne grossen Aufwand in den Keller transportierbare Brennwertfeuerstaetten ersetzt werden. Die Planung und Ausfuehrung der Abgasabfuehrung wirft dabei allerdings viele Fragen auf, da die bestehende Abgasabfuehrung fuer Brennwerttechnik haeufig nicht mehr geeignet ist und entsprechend angepasst werden muss. Als Problem kommt hinzu, dass fuer mehrere Brennwertfeuerstaetten in den meisten Faellen nur noch ein Schacht zur Verfuegung steht, um das Abgas ueber Dach zu foerdern. (orig.)

  3. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Information Page Clinical Trials Natural History ... Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)? Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), sometimes called ...

  4. All About ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe All About ALS Understanding a Devastating Disorder In the summer of ... of research dollars—for a fatal disease called ALS. ALS stands for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. It’s also ...

  5. Spondyloarthritis oder Morbus Bechterew: Neue Klassifikation der axialen Spondyloarthritis mit Morbus Bechterew als Endstadium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schirmer M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mit einer Prävalenz von 0,6?1,9 % ist die axiale Spondyloarthritis (SpA der Sammelbegriff für eine Gruppe von entzündlichen rheumatischen Krankheiten, die vor allem das axiale Skelett und die Insertionsstellen der Sehnen am Knochen (Enthesen betreffen. Je nach Subtyp der SpA besteht eine unterschiedlich starke Assoziation mit dem MHC-I-Antigen HLA-B27. Entsprechend der ?Assessment of Spondyloarthritis International Society? (ASAS wird die SpA anhand der prädominant betroffenen Region in die periphere und die axiale Form unterteilt. Die aktuelle Klassifikation der axialen SpA erfolgt mittels der 2009 veröffentlichten ASAS-Kriterien. Bei Sakroiliitis in der Bildgebung müssen ? 1 SpAParameter, bei positivem HLA-B27-Befund ? 2 andere SpA-Parameter für die Klassifikation als SpA vorhanden sein. SpA-Parameter sind entzündlicher Rückenschmerz, Arthritis, Familienanamnese, Uveitis anterior, entzündliche Darmerkrankung, Psoriasis, Daktylitis, Enthesitis, gutes Ansprechen auf NSAR und HLA-B27-Positivität. Die Sensitivität dieser Kriterien liegt bei 82,9 %, die Spezifität bei 84,4 %. Für die axiale Beteiligung der Psoriasis arthropathica werden auch die ähnlichen CASPAR-Kriterien verwendet. Für die Klassifikation des Morbus Bechterew werden die 1984 modifizierten New York-Kriterien verwendet, bei denen neben spezifischen klinischen Kriterien radiologisch eine Sacroiliitis Grad 2 oder mehr bilateral oder Grad 3?4 unilateral vorhanden sein muss. Bei schwerem Verlauf kann prinzipiell jede Form der SpA mit einer axialen Beteiligung in einen Morbus Bechterew übergehen. Somit ist der Morbus Bechterew sowohl ein Subtyp der SpA, als auch eine mögliche Spätform anderer Subtypen. Zur Verlaufs- bzw. Therapiekontrolle werden sowohl bei axialer SpA als auch bei Morbus Bechterew spezifische Scores verwendet, um Krankheitsaktivität und Funktionsveränderungen zu dokumentieren (BASFI, BASDAI, ASDAS.

  6. Intentionalität als Kippfigur

    OpenAIRE

    Grüttemeier, Ralf

    1999-01-01

    Doppeldeutige Bilder, die - je nach Einstellung ihres Betrachters - den Schattenriß am Fenster als Einbruch oder Flucht interpretieren lassen oder - wie im von Grüttemeyer gewählten Beispiel - die Wittgensteinsche Zeichnung als Ente oder Hase, sind uns als Kippfiguren bekannt. Die Intentionalität - in literarischen Texten ganz anders als in wissenschaftlichen - kann sich in vielfacher Weise auch als Kippfigur literarischer Interpretation darstellen, wenn das, was uns der Dichter sagen will, s...

  7. Mitochondrial pathobiology in ALS

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Lee J.

    2011-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the third most common human adult-onset neurodegenerative disease. Some forms of ALS are inherited, and disease-causing genes have been identified. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of neurodegeneration in ALS are unresolved. Genetic, biochemical, and morphological analyses of human ALS as well as cell and animal models of ALS reveal that mitochondria could have roles in this neurodegeneration. The varied functions and properties of mitochondria might render ...

  8. ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Fact Sheet Clinical Trials Natural History ... can I get more information? What is amyotrophic lateral sclerosis? Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), sometimes called Lou ...

  9. Initial Symptoms of ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapters Certified Centers and Clinics Support Groups About ALS About Us Our Research In Your Community Advocate ... Diagnosis En español Symptoms The initial symptoms of ALS can be quite varied in different people. One ...

  10. Pornographie als Metapher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Schubarth

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In diesem Artikel werden unterschiedliche metaphorische Verwendungen des Pornografiebegriffs und deren Implikationen untersucht. Während die Existenz von Pornografie der feministischen Anti-Porno-Bewegung als Erklärung für die anhaltende Diskriminierung von Frauen in westlichen Gesellschaften dient, nutzen rechtskonservative Kräfte den Pornografievorwurf als Rechtfertigung für die Zensur von als deviant empfundenen Identitäten und sexuellen Praktiken.

  11. Underground- and surface technologies for joint flooding of gas caves; Unter- und Uebertagetechnik als Einheit zur Flutung von Gaskavernen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raudonus, K.; Miersch, D. [UGS GmbH, Mittenwalde (Germany); Haensler, G. [Verbundnetz Gas AG, Leipzig (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    After 20 years of operation the oldes caves in the Bernburg storage VNG AG had to repair the facilities. This required flooding of the caves from the start. At the same time geomechanical reserves which were reevaluated on the basis of redimensioning could be used by deepening. Flooding and relocation of the displaced gas should not disturb gas storage and brine extraction. As one of the caves was filled with gas for the first time it was possible to use the brine. Flooding and gas filling were coupled. [Deutsch] Nach mehr als 20jaehriger Betriebszeit der aeltesten Kavernen auf dem Speicher Bernburg stand fuer die VNG AG die Aufgabe der Reparatur. Der Umfang der Arbeiten machte von Anfang an das vollstaendige Fluten der Kavernen erforderlich. Gleicheitig ergab sich dabei die Moeglichkeit, seinerzeit verbliebene geomechanische Reserven, die auf Basis einer auf aktuelle Erkenntnisse beruhenden Neudimensionierung bewertet wurden, durch Nachsolung auszuschoepfen. Die Heranfuehrung des Flutmediums und die Umlagerung des verdraengten Gases sollten ohne nachteilige Rueckwirkung auf den Gasspeicher- und Solegewinnungsbetrieb erfolgen. Da zu diesem Zeitpunkt eine Kaverne in der Phase der Gaserstbefuellung stand, konnte die ausgetragene Sole genutzt werden. Flutprozess und Gaserstbefuellung wurden somit im direkt gekoppelten Betrieb durchgefuehrt. (orig./MSK)

  12. Price drop and increasing competition; Sinkende Preise und mehr Wettbewerb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berner, Joachim

    2012-01-06

    Competition in the German PV sector is getting harder. German wholesale providers are dropping their prices, strengthening their marketing activities and expanding their range of services. This is the result of an enquiry made by SONNE WIND and WAeRME in November 2011.

  13. Der Licht-Turbo - mehr Tempo für Datennetze

    OpenAIRE

    Thévenaz, Luc; Schneider, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Licht breitet sich mit rund 300 000 Kilometer pro Sekunde aus – aber nur im Vakuum. Forscher können dieses Tempo mittlerweile fast beliebig reduzieren und in speziellen Materalien sogar Lichtpulse speichern. Doch ihre Fantasie reicht noch weiter: Neue optische Technologien könnten den weltweiten Datenverkehr deutlich beschleunigen.

  14. Four-dimensional data assimilation as a method for coupling two meteorological model systems of different scales; Vierdimensionale Datenassimilation als Methode zur Kopplung zweier verschiedenskaliger meteorologischer Modellsysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilms-Grabe, W.

    2001-10-01

    A method of coupling two meteorological models of different scales must meet certain requirements: First, even a big difference in resolution between the two models must not produce disturbances in the smaller-scale model. This means that most nesting approaches are unfit for the purpose. The method presented here is not limited to meteorological models. It can be enhanced without much difficulty to dispersion models taking account of chemical atmospheric reactions, as e.g. in the CTM of the EURAD model or in DRAIS as an enhancement of the KAMM version. [German] Das Ziel dieser Arbeit bestand in der Entwicklung eines geeigneten Kopplungsverfahrens zweier verschiedenskaliger meteorologischer Modelle, das in einem Ein-Weg-Nesting dem kleinerskaligen Modell ermoeglicht, sowohl instationaere superskalige Verhaeltnisse als auch modellinterne kleinraeumige Prozesse miteinander zu verbinden. Im Rahmen des Projektes TFS mussten hierbei entscheidende Bedingungen an das Kopplungsverfahren gestellt werden. Allen voran darf vor allem ein auch grosser Unterschied in der Aufloesung der beiden verschiedenskaligen Modelle keine kuenstlichen Stoerungen im kleinerskaligen Modell produzieren. Somit scheiden die sonst ueblichen Nestingansaetze fuer diesen Fall aus. Das Verfahren ist derart konzipiert, dass es sich nicht auf rein meteorologische Modelle beschraenkt. Eine Ausweitung auf Ausbreitungsmodelle unter Beruecksichtigung chemischer Reaktionen in der Atmosphaere, wie sie etwa im CTM des EURAD-Modells oder im DRAIS als Erweiterung der KAMM-Version zur Verfuegung stehen, stellt keinen allzu grossen Schritt mehr dar. (orig.)

  15. Nucleosynthesis of Al-26

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casse, Michel

    Possible sources of the 1.8-MeV gamma line accompanying the decay of Al-26 are discussed. Observations of the line are reviewed, and scenarios in which supernovae, novae, and massive stars produce and eject Al-26 are examined. The possibility that a supermassive metal-rich star resides at the center of the Galaxy is briefly considered.

  16. Del latín al rumano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montes Giraldo José Joaquín

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Marius Sala, Del latín al rumano. Versión española de Valeria Neagu, París, Unión Latina - Bucarest, Univers enciclopedic, 2002. El texto se dirige al lector corriente, no especialista, y por eso el aparato técnico-bibliográfico no se presenta en el curso de la exposición.

  17. [Environmental factors in ALS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntas-Morales, Raul; Pageot, Nicolas; Corcia, Philippe; Camu, William

    2014-05-01

    ALS is likely to be a disorder of multifactorial origin. Among all the factors that may increase the risk of ALS, environmental ones are being studied for many years, but in the recent years, several advances have pointed to a new interest in their potential involvement in the disease process, especially for the cyanotoxin BMAA. Food containing BMAA has been found on Guam, a well-known focus of ALS/parkinsonism/dementia and high levels of BMAA have been identified into the brain of these patients. The BMAA cyanotoxin is potentially ubiquitous and have also been found into the food of patients who died from ALS both in Europe and USA. BMAA can be wrongly integrated into the protein structure during mRNA traduction, competing with serine. This may induce abnormal protein folding and a subsequent cell death. Heavy metals, such as lead or mercury may be directly toxic for neuronal cells. Several works have suggested an increased risk of ALS in individuals chronically exposed to these metals. Exposure to pesticides has been suggested to be linked to an increased risk of developing ALS. The mechanism of their toxicity is likely to be mediated by paraoxonases. These proteins are in charge of detoxifying the organism from toxins, and particularly organophosphates. To date, there are insufficient scientific data to suggest that exposure to electromagnetic fields may increase the risk of having ALS. We are particularly missing longitudinal cohorts to demonstrate that risk. PMID:24703731

  18. ALS2 mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Susanne A.; Carr, Lucinda; Deuschl, Guenther; Hopfner, Franziska; Stamelou, Maria; Wood, Nicholas W.; Bhatia, Kailash P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the genetic etiology in 2 consanguineous families who presented a novel phenotype of autosomal recessive juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis associated with generalized dystonia. Methods: A combination of homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing in the first family and Sanger sequencing of candidate genes in the second family were used. Results: Both families were found to have homozygous loss-of-function mutations in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 2 (juvenile) (ALS2) gene. Conclusions: We report generalized dystonia and cerebellar signs in association with ALS2-related disease. We suggest that the ALS2 gene should be screened for mutations in patients who present with a similar phenotype. PMID:24562058

  19. Kii ALS dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yase, Y; Yoshida, S; Kihira, T; Wakayama, I; Komoto, J

    2001-06-01

    Epidemiological surveys in the foci of ALS of the Kii Peninsula of Japan started in the early 1960s. Continuous surveys conducted for decades revealed that there have been two foci in the Kii Peninsula: one in Kozagawa in the southern part, and the other in Hobara in the south-east. Clinically, ALS patients of the Kii foci occasionally showed parkinsonian features or dementia that have not been reported in the sporadic form of ALS. Neuropathologically, numerous NFT that are identical to those of Alzheimer's disease were observed in the cerebral cortex and in the brainstem nuclei. To elucidate the etiopathogenesis of this unique form of ALS, an analysis was conducted of the environment in the focus areas and of the specimens from the patients with ALS. It was hypothesized that the long exposure of these environments to low calcium and magnesium, and an excess of aluminum and manganese in the drinking water and the soil, might lead to the deposition of some trace elements in the CNS, eventually causing neuronal degeneration and death. PMID:11396674

  20. Fortschritt als Fortschrittsdiskurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Schmid-Zartner

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Zur Erzielung gesellschaftlichen Fortschritts in demokratisch verfassten Gesellschaften soll die Mo?glichkeit am Fortschrittsdiskurs teilnehmen zu ko?nnen fu?r alle Mitglieder der Gesellschaft als selbstversta?ndliche Pra?misse gelten. Fortschritt wird also als Bewusstseinsbildung dem Fortschritt selbst gegenu?ber und als Entscheidungs- und Handlungsfa?higkeit auf individueller und gesellschaftlicher Ebene definiert. Dies setzt entsprechende Maßnahmen zur Befa?higung dazu voraus, die alle Mitglieder der Gesellschaft erfassen. Dabei ist der Bildungsbereich angesprochen, insbesondere der Schulunterricht. Neben dem in der aktuellen blidungspolitischen Debatte forcierten Fokus auf den Aspekt der Kompetenzorientierung, der hier nicht infrage gestellt wird, ist als notwendige Erga?nzung ein reflexionsorientierter Schulunterricht in allen Bildungsfa?chern einzufordern und umzusetzen. Im Weiteren beschreibt der Text den Weg von der Brauchbarkeit zur Bedeutsamkeit von schulischem Wissen durch Relevanzreflexionsprovokationen im Schulunterricht, um Sinn und Bedeutung der vermittelten Bildungsinhalte zu verhandeln. Am Beispiel von Mathematik als Bildungsfach wird der Inhalt von reflexionsorientertem Unterricht verdeutlicht. Daru?ber hinaus beschreibt der Text eine Reihe von konkreten Fallbeispielen aus der aktuell versuchsweise durchgefu?hrten Unterrichtspraxis in Mathematik.

  1. ALS superbend magnet performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been engaged in the design, construction and testing of four superconducting dipoles (Superbends) that are installed in three arcs of the Advanced Light Source (ALS), with the fourth magnet as a spare. This represents a major upgrade to the ALS providing an enhanced flux and brightness at photon energies above 10 keV. In preparation for installation, an extensive set of tests and measurements have been conducted to characterize the magnetic and cryogenic performance of the Superbends and to fiducialize them for accurate placement in the ALS storage ring. The magnets are currently installed, and the storage ring is undergoing final commissioning. This paper will present the results of magnetic and cryogenic testing

  2. Pornographie als Metapher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Schubarth

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In diesem Artikel werden unterschiedliche metaphorische Verwendungen des Pornografiebegriffs und deren Implikationen untersucht. Während die Existenz von Pornografie der feministischen Anti-Porno-Bewegung als Erklärung für die anhaltende Diskriminierung von Frauen in westlichen Gesellschaften dient, nutzen rechtskonservative Kräfte den Pornografievorwurf als Rechtfertigung für die Zensur von als deviant empfundenen Identitäten und sexuellen Praktiken.This article examines different metaphorical uses of the term pornography and the resulting implications. While the existence of pornography for the feminist anti-porno movement serves as factor in the continuing discrimination of women in western societies, conservative powers on the right use the allegation of pornography as a justification for censorship of those identities and sexual practices deemed deviant.

  3. Essstörungen als Bewältigungsversuch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bärbel Wardetzki

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Stefanie Richter untersucht die Lebensgeschichten von Frauen mit verschiedenen Essstörungen wie Magersucht, Ess-Brech-Sucht, Esssucht und deren Mischformen. Sie rückt damit die Perspektive der Betroffenen ins Zentrum ihrer Analyse. Anhand von vier ausgewählten „Eckfällen“ arbeitet sie die Vorgeschichte, den Störungsverlauf und die Bewältigungsversuche als Prozessstrukturen heraus. Ihr Resümee: Essstörungen erscheinen als ungeeignete Bewältigungsversuche individueller Problemlagen. Statt Probleme zu lösen, werden diese, bedingt durch ein problematisches Verhältnis zum eigenen Körper, über ein gestörtes Essverhalten ausgetragen. Wenn es den Betroffenen gelingt, ihre vorhandenen Ressourcen zu aktivieren und die Aufmerksamkeit vom problematischen Essverhalten abzuziehen, haben sie eine realistische Chance, die Essstörung zu überwinden.

  4. Abraham Kuyper als theoloog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Velema

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Men zou in Nederland de herdenking van Kuypers honderdvijftigste geboortedag hebben kunnen aangrijpen als een gelegenheid om diens theologie en diens levenswerk in kerk en samenleving te evalueren. Niemand kan ontkennen dat er in genoemde publicaties iets van een evaluatie is te vinden.

  5. Lou Gehrig's Disease (ALS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... provided when it becomes necessary. For instance, a power wheelchair can enable a paralyzed person with ALS to get around. A machine called a ventilator (say: VEN-ti-lay-ter) can help a someone breathe. In addition, a nurse or other health assistant ...

  6. Ausbildung als zentrale Aufgabe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Walter; Schmerbach, Sibylle

    Anders als Lesen und Schreiben zählen Grundkenntnisse in Statistik heute noch nicht zu den Voraussetzungen einer sinnvollen Teilhabe am Sozialgeschehen. Und auch in der akademischen Statistik-Ausbildung gibt es noch einiges zu tun. Das vorliegende Kapitel zeichnet die Geschichte dieser akademischen Ausbildung an deutschen Universitäten nach dem zweiten Weltkrieg nach, stellt aktuelle Defizite vor und weist auf mögliche Verbesserungen hin.

  7. MDA ALS Caregiver's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ll read many comments from people about the happiness and satisfaction they’ve found while living with ALS. Resourceful caregivers have come up with ingenious solutions to their challenges. Not every suggestion works for every caregiver; sometimes you’ll find a ...

  8. Electroforming of continuous Al-AlN granular films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuous Al-AlN granular films (Al granules embedded in the AlN matrix) were proposed to serve as surface conduction-electron emission emitters. The electroforming process and the electron emission characteristics of the continuous Al-AlN granular films were investigated. The electroforming mechanism of the Al-AlN granular film emitter could be attributed to the fact that the Al granules were evaporated from the Al-AlN granular films. The voltage control negative resistance (VCNR) properties of the Al-AlN granular films could be repeated with periodic changes of the device voltage during electroforming. After electroforming, the nano-fissures with a width of 60-250 nm on the surface of Al-AlN granular films were obtained. A stable electron emission current of 2.79 ?A for a line array with 18 electron emitters could be reproducibly observed at a device voltage of 13 V and anode voltage of 2.5 kV.

  9. Electroforming of continuous Al-AlN granular films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, H.F. [Key Laboratory of Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Key Laboratory of Optical Measurement and Thin Film of Shanxi Province, Xi' an Technological University, Xi' an 710032 (China)], E-mail: hfliang2004@yahoo.com.cn; Meng, L.G.; Liu, C.L. [Key Laboratory of Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2008-12-30

    Continuous Al-AlN granular films (Al granules embedded in the AlN matrix) were proposed to serve as surface conduction-electron emission emitters. The electroforming process and the electron emission characteristics of the continuous Al-AlN granular films were investigated. The electroforming mechanism of the Al-AlN granular film emitter could be attributed to the fact that the Al granules were evaporated from the Al-AlN granular films. The voltage control negative resistance (VCNR) properties of the Al-AlN granular films could be repeated with periodic changes of the device voltage during electroforming. After electroforming, the nano-fissures with a width of 60-250 nm on the surface of Al-AlN granular films were obtained. A stable electron emission current of 2.79 {mu}A for a line array with 18 electron emitters could be reproducibly observed at a device voltage of 13 V and anode voltage of 2.5 kV.

  10. Electroforming of continuous Al-AlN granular films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, H. F.; Meng, L. G.; Liu, C. L.

    2008-12-01

    Continuous Al-AlN granular films (Al granules embedded in the AlN matrix) were proposed to serve as surface conduction-electron emission emitters. The electroforming process and the electron emission characteristics of the continuous Al-AlN granular films were investigated. The electroforming mechanism of the Al-AlN granular film emitter could be attributed to the fact that the Al granules were evaporated from the Al-AlN granular films. The voltage control negative resistance (VCNR) properties of the Al-AlN granular films could be repeated with periodic changes of the device voltage during electroforming. After electroforming, the nano-fissures with a width of 60-250 nm on the surface of Al-AlN granular films were obtained. A stable electron emission current of 2.79 ?A for a line array with 18 electron emitters could be reproducibly observed at a device voltage of 13 V and anode voltage of 2.5 kV.

  11. Industrial residues as an external carbon source in denitrification; Industrielle Reststoffe als externe Kohlenstoffquelle fuer die Denitrifikation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schories, G. [TECON GmbH, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Geissen, S.U.; Vogelpohl, A. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Verfahrenstechnik

    1999-07-01

    Biological waste water treatment requires biologically readily degradable carbon in order to permit elimination of as much nitrogen as possible. Often now this type of carbon is no longer present in waste water in an appropriate quantity, so that external carbon must be added. Apart from industrially fabricated substrates, the use of industrial residues and waste products as well as of partial waste water streams with a high organic pollutant load is lately being considered for cost reasons. But this is not altogether harmless. Those partial streams may contain substances that inhibit denitrification, impose an additional burden on subsequent cleaning stages or may even pass them unmodified, so that they are emitted into the environment and pose an ecological hazard potential. Hence, industrial residual products need to be specifically selected for use as an external carbon source in denitrification. A suitable strategy is described and demonstrated by means of different examples. (orig.) [German] In der biologischen Abwasserbehandlung ist fuer eine weitestgehende Stickstoffelimination oftmals biologisch gut abbaubarer Kohlenstoff im Abwasser nicht (mehr) in ausreichendem Masse vorhanden. Dann ist die Zugabe einer sog. externen Kohlenstoffquelle erforderlich. Neben industriell hergestellten Substraten wird in letzter Zeit aus Kostengruenden vielfach der Einsatz industrieller Rest- und Abfallstoffe sowie organisch hochbelasteter Abwasserteilstroeme erwogen. Dies ist jedoch nicht unproblematisch, da in diesen Stoffstroemen auch Substanzen enthalten sein koennen, die die Denitrifikation hemmen, nachfolgende Reinigungsstufen zusaetzlich belasten oder diese sogar unveraendert passsieren, dadurch in die Umwelt emittiert werden und damit moeglicherweise aus oekologischer Sicht ein Gefahrenpotential darstellen koennen. Es muss also eine besondere Auswahl der Pruefung industrieller Reststoffe im Hinblick auf den Einsatz als externe Kohlenstoffquelle in der Denitrifikation erfolgen. Hierzu wird eine geeignete Strategie vorgestellt und anhand verschiedener Beispiele erlaeutert. (orig.)

  12. Factores asociados al bajo peso al nacer

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Georgina J, Peraza Roque; Silvia de la C, Pérez Delgado; Zoe de los A, Figueroa Barreto.

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available El bajo peso al nacer (BPN) ha constituido un enigma en la ciencia a través de los tiempos. Múltiples son las investigaciones realizadas acerca de las causas que lo producen y las consecuencias que provoca. Su importancia no solo radica en lo que significa en la morbilidad y la mortalidad infantil, [...] sino que estos niños tienen habitualmente múltiples problemas posteriores. El Programa para la Reducción del BPN señala que los niños nacidos con un peso inferior a los 2 500 g presentan riesgo de mortalidad 14 veces mayor durante el primer año de vida, en comparación con los niños que nacen con un peso normal a término. Dentro de los factores de riesgo del BPN se han encontrado con mayor frecuencia en estudios realizados por diferentes autores, los siguientes: el embarazo en la adolescencia, la desnutrición en la madre, el hábito de fumar, la hipertensión arterial durante el embarazo, la sepsis cervicovaginal, la anemia y los embarazos gemelares, entre otros. Es innegable la influencia que el BPN tiene sobre las futuras generaciones, por lo que debe constituir la diana de los esfuerzos que el médico y la enfermera deben desarrollar en su prevención, sobre todo en la comunidad Abstract in english Low birth weight has been an enigma for Science through times. A lot of research works have been carried out about its causes and consequences. The importance of LBW not only lies in its meaning for infant mortality and morbidity but also in the many problems that low birth weight children regularly [...] face in the future. The program for the reduction of LBW points out that newborns weighing under 2500g have during his/her first year of life a mortality risk 14 times higher than newborns with a normal weight at term. Among the low birth weight risk factors, a number of studies by various authors have frequently found the following; pregnancy at adolescence; undernourishment in mothers, smoking, blood hypertension during pregnancy, cervix-vaginal sepsis; anemia, twin pregnancies and others. The influence of LBW on the future generations can not be denied, therefore, LBW should be a target for the efforts of physicians and nurses to prevent it within the community

  13. Factores asociados al bajo peso al nacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina J Peraza Roque

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available El bajo peso al nacer (BPN ha constituido un enigma en la ciencia a través de los tiempos. Múltiples son las investigaciones realizadas acerca de las causas que lo producen y las consecuencias que provoca. Su importancia no solo radica en lo que significa en la morbilidad y la mortalidad infantil, sino que estos niños tienen habitualmente múltiples problemas posteriores. El Programa para la Reducción del BPN señala que los niños nacidos con un peso inferior a los 2 500 g presentan riesgo de mortalidad 14 veces mayor durante el primer año de vida, en comparación con los niños que nacen con un peso normal a término. Dentro de los factores de riesgo del BPN se han encontrado con mayor frecuencia en estudios realizados por diferentes autores, los siguientes: el embarazo en la adolescencia, la desnutrición en la madre, el hábito de fumar, la hipertensión arterial durante el embarazo, la sepsis cervicovaginal, la anemia y los embarazos gemelares, entre otros. Es innegable la influencia que el BPN tiene sobre las futuras generaciones, por lo que debe constituir la diana de los esfuerzos que el médico y la enfermera deben desarrollar en su prevención, sobre todo en la comunidadLow birth weight has been an enigma for Science through times. A lot of research works have been carried out about its causes and consequences. The importance of LBW not only lies in its meaning for infant mortality and morbidity but also in the many problems that low birth weight children regularly face in the future. The program for the reduction of LBW points out that newborns weighing under 2500g have during his/her first year of life a mortality risk 14 times higher than newborns with a normal weight at term. Among the low birth weight risk factors, a number of studies by various authors have frequently found the following; pregnancy at adolescence; undernourishment in mothers, smoking, blood hypertension during pregnancy, cervix-vaginal sepsis; anemia, twin pregnancies and others. The influence of LBW on the future generations can not be denied, therefore, LBW should be a target for the efforts of physicians and nurses to prevent it within the community

  14. ALS insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), the first US third generation synchrotron radiation source, is currently under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The low-emittance, 1.5 GeV electron storage ring and the insertion devices are specifically designed to produce high brightness beams in the UV to soft X-Ray range. The planned initial complement of insertion devices includes four 4.6 m long undulators, with period lengths of 3.9 cm, 5.0 cm (2) and 8.0 cm, and a 2.9 m long wiggler of 16 cm period length. Undulator design is well advanced and fabrication has begun on the 5.0 cm and 8.0 cm period length undulators. This paper discusses ALS insertion device requirements; general design philosophy; and design of the magnetic structure, support structure/drive systems, control system and vacuum system. 18 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs

  15. ALS Project Management Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupnick, Jim; Harkins, Joe

    2000-05-01

    This manual has been prepared to help establish a consistent baseline of management practices across all ALS projects. It describes the initial process of planning a project, with a specific focus on the production of a formal project plan. We feel that the primary weakness in ALS project management efforts to date stems from a failure to appreciate the importance of ''up-front'' project planning. In this document, we present a guide (with examples) to preparing the documents necessary to properly plan, monitor, and control a project's activities. While following the manual will certainly not guarantee good project management, failure to address the issues we raise will dramatically reduce the chance of success. Here we define success as meeting the technical goals on schedule and within the prescribed budget.

  16. Introducción al comportamiento estructural

    OpenAIRE

    Cervera Bravo, Jaime; Jaenicke Cendoya, Ignacio; Ruiz Palomeque, Luis Gerardo; Sanchez Quiroga, Luis; Asenjo, José

    1982-01-01

    Texto de introducción al panorama teórico (y de aplicación) necesario para abordar el análisis y el proyecto de las estructuras de edificación: Se detallan los problemas abordados así como el lenguaje y los conceptos básicos de la teoría y sus relaciones con la realidad física y constructiva, de la que se presenta una tipología básica. Se presentan las relaciones fundamentales entre conceptos (y sus expresiones matemáticas).

  17. Mercaptursäure und Nukleosidaddukt im Harn als Biomarker in 1-Hydroxymethylpyren-exponierten Ratten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lan

    2002-01-01

    1-Methylpyren (MP) ist hepatokanzerogen in neugeborenen männlichen Mäusen. Durch Hydroxylierung an der benzylischen Stelle und anschließende Sulfonierung wird MP zu DNA-reaktivem 1-Sulfooxymethylpyren (SMP) aktiviert. In der Ratte führt die Exposition des benzylischen Alkohols, 1-Hydroxymethylpyren (HMP), zur DNA-Adduktbildung in verschiedenen Geweben. Eventuelle Konsequenz der Toxifizierung ist die Ausscheidung entsprechender Mercaptursäure und Nukleosidaddukt im Harn, welche aufgrund ihrer Herkunft als Biomarker eignen könnten. In dieser Arbeit wird die Ausscheidung der Mercaptursäure und des N2-Desoxyguanosinadduktes in HMP-exponierten Ratten untersucht. Nach der Applikation von HMP bzw. MP wurden weniger als 1 % der Dosis als MPMA über Urin und Faeces ausgeschieden (0 - 48 h). Die Ausscheidung erfolgt hauptsächlich in den ersten 24 h nach der Applikation. MPdG konnte weder in Urin noch in Faeces der HMP-behandelten Tieren identifiziert werden. Nach direkter SMP-Applikation wurde MPdG nur in sehr geringe Menge (weniger als 0,9 ppm in 12 h) im Urin gefunden. Aufgrund der geringen Menge eignet sich MPdG nicht als Biomarker. MPMA dagegen, lässt sich analytisch gut erfassen. Es sollte daher untersucht werden, ob MPMA die Toxifizierung des HMP wiederspiegelt. Die Voraussetzung dafür ist die Kenntnisse über das Metabolismusmuster von HMP. Es wurde daher umfassende Untersuchungen zum Metabolismus des HMP durchgeführt. Die Ergebnisse zeigten, dass mehr als 80 % der Metaboiten in ihrer oxidierten Form (PCS, deren Glucuronsäure-Konjugate sowie phenolische Sulfatester der PCS) ausgeschieden wurden. Demnach spielt die Oxidation des HMP zu PCS eine sehr wichtige Rolle bei der Detoxifizierung und Ausscheidung von HMP. Ferne konnte nachgewiesen werden, dass die Enzyme Alkohol- und Aldehyd-Dehydrogenase an der Oxidation von HMP beteiligt waren. Die Inhibitoren Disulfiram und Ethanol der o. g. Enzyme wurde daher zur Modulation der Detoxifizierung in vivo eingesetzt. Die Veränderungen in der Toxifizierung von HMP zu SMP wurden durch die SMP-Konzentration im Plasma, die DNA-Addukthäufigkeit und die MPMA-Ausscheidung erfasst. Die Vorbehandlung von Disulfiram und Ethanol führte zu tendentielle Erhöhung der SMP-Konzentration im Plasma, DNA-Addukthäufigkeit in der Leber und die MPMA-Ausscheidung. Bemerkenswert ist jedoch, dass bereits eine Dosis von 0,2 g Ethanol/kg Körpermasse bereits zu statistisch signifikanten Erhöhungen der MPMA-Ausscheidung bei weiblichen Ratten. 1-Methylpyrene is hepatocarcinogenic in rodents. It is metabolized primarily to 1-hydroxymethylpyrene (HMP) by various cDNA-expressed rat and human cytochromes P450. HMP is activated to a highly reactive sulfuric acid ester, 1-sulfooxymethylpyrene (SMP), by sulphotransferases. In the rat, this activation pathway leads to the formation of DNA adducts in various tissues. Possible consequences of the toxification could be the excretion of the corresponding mercapturic acid and nucleosidadduct in urine and feces. Because of their origin, these substances should reflex the toxification process may be used as biomarkers. We investigate the excretion of 1-methylpyrenyl-mercapturic acid (MPMA) and the excretion of N2-(1-methylpyrenyl)-desoxyguanosin (MPdG) in urine and feces of HMP-treated rats. These studies showed that only a minor portion ( 30 %). Minor metabolites were phenolic sulpho conjugates of HMP (< 5 %). The glucuronic acid conjugate of HMP was found in very s

  18. AL-USRCRN Station Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Documentation of United States Alabama Regional Climate Reference Network (AL-USRCRN) installations in 2006. Installations documented are for AL-USRCRN pilot...

  19. Huerta al alba

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlomagno, Sol Tlachi.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Efraín Huerta nació en Silao, Guanajuato, en 1914, y murió en el D. F. en 1982. En este año 2014, se cumplen setenta años de la aparición de Los hombres del alba. Si la generación Contemporáneos marca el antes y el después de la poesía mexicana actual, Huerta, con la edición de su libro en 1944, es [...] un referente obligado si se pretende llegar al lugar de donde es oriunda la poesía moderna y contemporánea mexicana. A partir del contexto ideológico que le toca vivir al poeta guanajuatense en la capital, que dejó huella profunda en sus primeros libros, se pone en relieve el giro de 180 grados que, después de aquella primera etapa, dieron los poemas que constituyen Los hombres del alba a la poesía mexicana. Abstract in english Efraín Huerta was born in Silao, Guanajuato, México, in 1914. He died in Mexico City in 1982. This year (2014) is the 70th anniversary of the apparition of Los hombres del alba. If the Contemporáneos generation marks a before and after of the current Mexican poetry, then Huerta, with the publication [...] of his book in 1944, is a obligatory point of reference in order to arrive to where modern and contemporary Mexican poetry hails. The ideological context, in which this poet lived in the capital city, marked his first books. Moreover, it is emphasized the 180 degrees turn that, after this first stage, the poems that constitute Los hombres del alba gave to Mexican poetry.

  20. al trasplante de órganos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar\\u00EDa \\u00C1ngeles P\\u00E9rez San Gregorio

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El trasplante de órganos es una alternativa terapéutica para aquellos pacientes que tienen problemas graves en el funcionamiento de un órgano vital: corazón, hígado, pulmón, etc. Dada la relevancia de este tema, en el presente estudio teórico analizamos los principales problemas psicológicos asociados al trasplante de órganos. Concretamente, hemos tenido en cuenta los siguientes apartados: 1 Repercusiones psicológicas del trasplante de órganos en los pacientes: delirium, trastornos sexuales, trastornos del estado de ánimo, trastornos de ansiedad, fantasías sobre el donante, insatisfacción con la imagen corporal y otros trastornos; 2 variables psicosociales que influyen en las repercusiones psicológicas asociadas al trasplante de órganos: apoyo familiar, trastornos psicológicos en los familiares, hospitalización, expectativas pre y post-trasplante, estrategias de afrontamiento, duración de la enfermedad, etiología del trasplante, procedencia del órgano implantado y otras variables; 3 fases psicológicas en los trasplantados renales, hepáticos y cardíacos en función de diferentes periodos temporales de comparación; 4 calidad de vida en los trasplantados y variables que la predicen: adherencia terapéutica, hospitalización, apoyo familiar, expectativas hacia el trasplante y etiología del trasplante; y 5 repercusiones psicológicas del trasplante de órganos en los familiares, teniendo en cuenta la influencia que ejerce el apoyo social sobre la salud mental de estos familiares.

  1. COMENTARIO AL CASO PINOCHET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Contreras Clunes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El fallo en el caso Pinochet tiene distintas formas de ser analizado. De partida, desde un punto de vista político, también constitucional, del derecho penal. Sin embargo, nos abocaremos al estudio desde el punto de vista procesal, en especial a lo referido al Debido Proceso. Para ello se analizará los presupuestos, la solución dada por la Excma. Corte Suprema y las consecuencias del mismo. Además, se criticará la solución dada, desde la óptica de las garantías procesales del imputado, contenidas en el nuevo proceso penal y lo dispuesto en la Constitución y la Convención Americana de Derechos Humanos. Finalmente, se argumentará en favor de una interpretación finalista y armónica de la Constitución y los tratados internacionales de derechos humanos.The verdict of the Pinochet Case has different ways of being analyzed: from the political, the constitutional, and the penal law points of view. However, we will approach this study from the legal point of view, especially to that referred to as the Proper Process. To do this, the budgets, the solution given by the Most Excellent Supreme Court, and its consequences will be analyzed. Furthermore, the given solution will be criticized from the point of view of the legal guarantees of the accused contained in the new penal process and what is contained in the Constitution and in the American Convention of Human Rights. In conclusion, we will argue in favor of a final and harmonious interpretation of the Constitution and the international agreement of human rights.

  2. Alkoholische Kardiomyopathie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silberbauer K

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkoholische Kardiomyopathie (AKM ist eine spezifische Herzmuskelerkrankung, die in 2 Stadien verläuft: einem asymptomatischen und einem symptomatischen Stadium. Patienten, die mehr als 90 g Alkohol pro Tag über mehr als 5 Jahre trinken, setzen sich dem Risiko einer AKM aus. In den Frühstadien besteht eine diastolische Dysfunktion des linken Ventrikels, später entwickelt sich eine systolische Dysfunktion mit den Symptomen der Herzinsuffizienz.

  3. Relevance of 2,4 dienoyl-CoA-reductase of Leishmania mexicana and L. major for virulence

    OpenAIRE

    Paape, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Bestandteil dieser Arbeit waren zwei Proteomanalysen des Parasiten Leishmania mexicana. In der ersten wurde das Proteom von aus ihrem intrazellulären Habitat aufgereinigten Amastigoten, mit dem Proteom von Promastigoten, der extrazellulären Lebensform, verglichen. Der Fokus der zweiten Proteomanalyse war die Identifizierung von bei Amatigoten sezernierten Proteinen. Insgesamt wurden mehr als 1800 Proteine identifiziert, von denen mehr als 740 zuvor noch nicht detektiert worden waren. Diese...

  4. Editorial: Cartas al Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Llanos

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En todas las revistas biomédicas del mundo existe una sección habitual denominada como el título de este editorial y que en Colombia Médica la llamamos correspondencia. Este espacio tiene como objetivo fundamental que los lectores escriban a los autores (investigadores comentando los artículos que se han publicado en números anteriores de la revista. Las cartas son, entonces, breves comentarios de desacuerdo o acuerdo (conceptual, metodológico, interpretativo sobre falencias ubicadas por un lector alerta al tema debatido en cualquiera de las secciones como en los artículos originales, editoriales, revisiones, presentación de casos, etc. publicados previamente en la revista. Las cartas deben permitir el intercambio de opiniones y formas de pensar y analizar los problemas planteados entre los autores y los lectores. En ocasiones una serie de cartas motivadas por un artículo original puede ser tan o más interesante como el artículo que generó la correspondencia. Las cartas son también un formato adecuado para comunicar un hecho novedoso de una observación clínica juiciosa no descrita antes. Un ejemplo de ello es la carta de un gineco-obstetra australiano cuando informó a Lancet los primeros efectos adversos informados de la talidomida. Colombia Médica, a pesar de mantener vigente esta sección, no ha sido muy afortunada en establecer una buena cultura del envío de cartas al editor. Pero últimamente han llegado juiciosas observaciones a las cuales se les ha dado prioridad en su publicación. Toda carta que comenta los hallazgos de un artículo es enviada a los autores para su respuesta, porque ello genera el debate académico buscado, y luego se publican, tanto la carta como su respuesta. El Estilo Vancouver recomienda que la carta y su respuesta deban ser breve, no pasar de dos o tres párrafos y contener sólo cuatro o cinco referencias. En lo posible (a menos que sea indispensable no presentar ni cuadros ni gráficos. El título de la carta debe ser informativo, innovativo y obviamente relacionado con el tema a presentar. La carta debe referirse en forma clara y explícita al hecho que la motiva y a partir de ahí seguir un esquema expositivo progresivo. Los párrafos siguientes deben ser la argumentación a favor o en contra, o los comentarios adicionales que se quieren hacer. Luego debe seguir una pequeña discusión de estos aportes y se debe finalizar con una conclusión. Las cartas son finalmente una indicador bibliométrico de la lectura juiciosa de quienes leen la revista. Por ello los editores buscamos y facilitamos el envío de ellas. En Colombia Médica queremos estimular que nos escriban y ojalá nuestros lectores se vuelvan socios muy activos en el proceso de comunicación científica y para ello utilicen nuestra sección de correspondencia.

  5. Kirchengeschichte als Ketzergeschichte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Lanwerd

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Die katholische Theologin Daniela Müller spricht am Ende ihres Buches von der „Notwendigkeit der Ketzerei“ und begründet diesen Gedanken wie folgt: „‚Ketzer‘ und ‚Ketzerinnen‘ sind die dunklen Geschwister, ohne die man nicht so wäre wie man ist, die man deshalb so bekämpft, weil sie solch starke Gefühle mit uns teilen, weil sie die gleichen Eltern, den gleichen Ursprung haben wie wir und das gleiche Ziel: zur Familie Gottes zu gehören"; die Kirche als „Hüterin der Glaubenswahrheit“ solle daher die „Ketzergeschichte […] in den immerwährenden Prozess der Wahrheitsfindung“ einbeziehen (S. 233 f.. In diesen Prozess will auch die Autorin mit ihrer Studie eingreifen, und zwar am Beispiel der Katharerinnen, deren Geschichte sie für den Zeitraum von 1143 bis 1275 rekonstruiert; sie verfolgt das fragwürdige Ziel, die Geschichte der Katharerinnen im Modus einer emotionalen und identifikatorischen „Aneignung“ dem „eigenen Leben, der eigenen Sinngebung, der eigenen Verarbeitung“ integrieren zu wollen (S. 15.

  6. Entscheidung als Häresie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaanus Sooväli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Man könnte sagen, dass Aristoteles so etwas wie eine traditionelle und dominierende Auffassung der Entscheidung in der westlichen Philosophie gründet. Das Ziel dieses Aufsatzes ist es, diese Auffassung von Aristoteles zu entwerfen, einige ihrer wichtigsten Probleme anzusprechen, und sie damit zu kontrastieren, was ich Jacques Derridas häretische „Konzeptualisierung“ der Entscheidung nennen würde. Es wird gezeigt, dass diese häretische Thematisierung von Derrida nicht nur und einfach mit dem traditionellen aristotelischen Begriff bricht, sondern vielmehr auch zu Recht einige seiner wichtigsten Züge auf solcher Weise schärft, dass von diesem radikalisierten Standpunkt die Behandlung von Aristoteles als die Annullierung der Entscheidung zum Vorschein kommt. Es wird zudem impliziert, wie Derridas häretische Auffassung die Erneuerung der Ethik und Politik mit sich bringt.

  7. Religionspädagogik als Fachdidaktik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lehner-Hartmann

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISH: One chapter of the Austrian National Education Report 2012 explicitly discusses the role of special subject didactics in educational contexts. The considerations of the present paper are due to the fact, that the report is not concerned with religious didactics. Within the academic dialogue between theological disciplines, religious education (as an academic discipline is often connoted with the narrow understanding as “the theory of religious education in schools”. From the perspectives of other specific subject didactics and educational policy it does not seem to be evident, that religious education as an academic discipline also performs tasks of religious didactics. The present paper discusses examples of divergent views on this topic and identifies challenges for subject didactics in general. Finally, it formulates desiderata for the further development of religious didactics based on the analysis of its status quo. DEUTSCH: Im nationalen Bildungsbericht des österreichischen BIFIE des Jahres 2012 gibt es ein eigenes Kapitel über die Rolle der Fachdidaktiken. In diesem Text kommt die Fachdidaktik Religion nicht vor. Diese Wahrnehmung ist der Ausgangspunkt für die Überlegungen dieses Beitrages: Religionspädagogik wird im Gespräch zwischen den theologischen Fächern oft – verkürzt – als Theorie des Religionsunterrichtes, und damit als Fachdidaktik des Unterrichtsfaches Religion wahrgenommen. Anders verhält es sich offenbar aus einer Außenperspektive: Von Seiten anderer Fachdidaktiken oder auch von Seiten der Bildungspolitik ist es nicht von vorneherein evident, dass Religionspädagogik auch die Aufgabe einer Fachdidaktik Religion wahrnimmt. Dieser Beitrag nennt Beispiele für diese divergierenden Sichtweisen, geht Herausforderungen an Fachdidaktik insgesamt nach und formuliert auf der Grundlage einer Analyse des IST-Standes der Fachdidaktik Religion Desiderate für deren Weiterentwicklung.

  8. Cd-Sb-Al system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methods of differential-thermal, microstructural analyses and measuring microhardness are used to investigate the phase diagrams of polythermal sections CdSb-AlSb, CdSb-Al, Cd-AlSb, Cdsub(0.5)Alsub(0.5)-Sb, CdSb-Alsub(0.2)Cdsub(0.8) of the ternary system Cd-Sb-Al. The liquidus projection of the Cd-Sb-Al system is plotted; it has been found that the surface of aluminium antimonide formation occupies a large part of the phase diagram in the field of which the lamination region is located

  9. Corrosion behaviour of Al/SiC and Al/Al2O3 nanocomposites

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tamer Samir, Mahmoud; El-Sayed Yousef, El-Kady; Ayed Saad Merzen, Al-Shihiri.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, the static immersion corrosion behavior of Al/Al2O3 and Al/SiC nanocomposites in 1 M HCl acidic solution was evaluated. The nanocomposites were fabricated using conventional powder metallurgy (P/M) route. The effect of nanoparticulates size and volume fraction on the co [...] rrosion behavior of nanocomposites was studied. The durations of the corrosion tests ranged from 24 to 120 hours and the temperatures of the solution ranged from ambient to 75 ºC. The corrosion rates of the nanocomposites were calculated using the weight loss method. The results showed that both Al/SiC and Al/Al2O3 MMNCs have lower corrosion rates than the pure Al matrix. Such behavior was noticed at both ambient and higher temperatures. Generally, the Al/Al2O3 nanocomposites exhibited lower corrosion rates than the Al/SiC nanocomposites. The Al/Al2O3 (60 nm) nanocomposites exhibited the highest corrosion resistance among all the investigated nanocomposites. The corrosion rate was found to be reduced by increasing of the exposure time and the volume fraction of the nanoparticulates, while it was found to be increased by increasing of the nanoparticulates size and the solution temperature.

  10. Epitaxial growth of Al/Al2O3 multilayer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to obtain Al-Al2O3 quantum effect devices, it is necessary to deposit epitaxially Al on Al2O3 and Al2O3 on Al. We have already obtained an epitaxial Al/Al2O3/Al structures on Si(111). In this paper, we have deposit Al/Al2O3/Al structures on Si(111), and investigated the crystallinity by using RBS. (author)

  11. PENSAR AL SUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Obarrio

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Este articulo explora la cuestion de la definicion y territorialidad del Sur Global, evocando categorias que en el pasado han definido el espacio del "tercer mundo" o "mundo en desarrollo", y como estas han dado paso a una nueva conceptualizacion a partir de los debates sobre globalizacion. Se postula al Sur como una forma de vida, y como un espacio de historias paralelas de poder, capital y subjetivacion.A partir de esta discusion, se plantea de que manera en el presente el Sur Global es un espacio de produccion innovador de teorizacion sobre lo social, que genera sus propias disciplinas y marcos epistemologicos.Palabras Claves: Sur Global , globalizacion, epistemologia Abstract:This article explored the definition and territorial scope of teh Global South, evoking past categories that have defined the space of the "Third world" or teh "developing world", and how they have paved the way to new conceptualiziations, since the beginning of the debate on globalization. The essays posits the South as a form of life and as a space of parallel histories of power, capital and subjectivation.Departing from this discussion, the essay poses the question about the way in which currently the Global Southconstitutes an innovative space of theorization of the social,qhich generates its own disciplines and epistemological frameworks. Keywords: Global South, globalization, epistemology

  12. Schizophrenia as a disconnection syndrome. Studies with functional magnetic resonance imaging and structural equation modeling; Schizophrenie als Diskonnektionssyndrom. Studien mit funktioneller Magnetresonanztomographie und Strukturgleichungsmodellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schloesser, R. [Universitaet Jena, Psychiatrische Klinik (Germany); Universitaet Jena, Psychiatrische Klinik, Jena (Germany); Wagner, G.; Koehler, S.; Sauer, H. [Universitaet Jena, Psychiatrische Klinik (Germany)

    2005-02-01

    Aside from characteristic psychopathological symptoms, cognitive deficits are a core feature of schizophrenia. These deficits can only be addressed within the context of widespread functional interactions among different brain areas. To examine these interactions, structural equation modeling (SEM) was used for the analysis of fMRI datasets. In a series of studies, both in antipsychotic-treated and drug-free schizophrenic patients, a pattern of enhanced thalamocortical functional connectivity could be observed as an indicator for possible disruptions of frontostriatal thalamocortical circuitry. Moreover, drug-free patients and those receiving typical antipsychotic drugs were characterized by reduced interhemispheric corticocortical connectivity. This difference relative to normal controls was less in patients under atypical antipsychotic drugs. The results could be interpreted as a beneficial effect of atypical antipsychotic drugs on information processing in schizophrenic patients. The present findings are consistent with the model of schizophrenia as a disconnection syndrome and earlier concepts of ''cognitive dysmetria'' in schizophrenia. (orig.) [German] Neben der charakteristischen psychopathologischen Symptomatik stellen kognitive Defizite ein zentrales Merkmal der Schizophrenie dar. Diese Defizite koennen nur im Kontext miteinander interagierender Hirnareale verstanden werden. Zur Untersuchung dieser funktionellen Wechselbeziehungen wurden Strukturgleichungsmodelle (''structural equation modeling'', SEM) zur Auswertung von fMRT-Datensaetzen verwendet. In einer Untersuchungsreihe bei schizophrenen Patienten ergab sich sowohl bei antipsychotisch behandelten als auch bei unbehandelten Patienten ein Muster gesteigerter thalamokortikaler funktioneller Konnektivitaet als Hinweis auf eine moegliche Stoerung fronto-striato-thalamo-kortikaler Regelkreise. Unbehandelte Patienten und Patienten unter typischen Antipsychotika zeichneten sich zudem durch eine reduzierte interhemisphaerische kortikokortikale Konnektivitaet aus. Dieser Unterschied zu den Gesunden war bei den Patienten unter atypischen Antipsychotika nicht mehr in dieser Auspraegung zu beobachten, was als Ausdruck einer moeglichen positiven Beeinflussung der Informationsverarbeitung bei Patienten unter Atypika interpretiert werden koennte. Die erhaltenen Ergebnisse sind konsistent mit dem Modell der Schizophrenie als einem Diskonnektionssyndrom und frueheren Konzeptionen einer ''kognitiven Dysmetrie'' als Grundlage kognitiver Defizite bei dieser Erkrankung. (orig.)

  13. "Mediman" – Smartphone als Plattform zum Lernen? ["Mediman" – The smartphone as a learning platform?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boeder, Niklas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available [english] Mobile devices with a connection to the internet – smartphones – are seen all over the place since the popular introduction of the Apple iPhone. Similar products existed but no company managed to combine simplicity and functionality so seamlesly. Their market share increases constantly and web sites get optimised for the small display sizes (often referred to as „responsive webdesign“ otherwise the usability lacks. Students seem to like smartphones aswell and a good question is if and to what extend those devices can play a role in e-learning.„Mediman“, an adaptation of the common game Hangman has been developed for smartphones. Test users asked to complete an online questionnaire. So far, only few e-learning applications for smartphones seem to exist. This is reflected in the low usage frequency. Especially the fact that most of the test users wear a smartphone with them all the time makes it an ideal learning plattform. Short learning sessions were rated more important than continuous text. The majority of the 11 test users rated Mediman as well developed. The foremost question whether a smartphone e-learning application is feasible must be answered positive – acceptance in the test user group was shown. E-learning applications on smartphones will be an important topic in the future as market shares increase constantly. Further studies are required due to the small number of partitipants in our survey. [german] Mobile Endgeräte mit Internetzugang (Smartphones sind seit Apples revolutionärer iPhone-Markteinführung nicht mehr aus dem Alltag wegzudenken und erfreuen sich ausgesprochener Beliebtheit. Ihr Marktanteil wächst stetig und Webseitenbetreiber kommen nicht umher, ihre Webseiten an die neuen kleinen Displaygrößen und Bedienungstechniken anzupassen – häufig als „Responsive Webdesign“ beschrieben. Anwendungen, die nicht für die Anzeige auf kleinen Bildschirmen optimiert sind, schränken den Bedienkomfort ein. Auch bei Studierenden sind Smartphones sehr verbreitet und so stellt sich die Frage, ob sie nicht auch als Plattform für Lernanwendungen dienen können.„Mediman“, eine Portierung des klassischen Spielprinzips von Galgenmännchen, wurde für Smartphones entwickelt. Testbenutzer wurden dann gebeten, einen Onlinefragebogen auszufüllen. Zur Zeit scheinen nur wenige Lernanwendungen für Smartphones zu existieren, was sich in der eingeschränkten Benutzungshäufigkeit widerspiegelt. Vor allem die Tatsache, dass Smartphone-Besitzer ihre Geräte meist bei sich tragen, wird als ideale Voraussetzung gesehen, die Geräte für Lernanwendungen einzusetzen. Hier scheint vor allem das Lernen in kurzen Sitzungen von Interesse. Mediman wurde von der Mehrzahl der 11 Testbenutzer als gut umgesetzte Beispielanwendung bewertet. Die zentrale Frage der Umsetzbarkeit einer Smartphone-Lernanwendung wurde damit erreicht – die notwendige Akzeptanz scheint vorhanden.Für die Zukunft ist mit einer zunehmenden Verbreitung von Smartphones zu rechnen, sodass Lernanwendungen und –szenarien für Endgeräte mit kleinen Bildschirmen optimiert werden sollten. Aufgrund der geringen Fallzahl in der Onlineumfrage sollten weitere Untersuchungen angeschlossen werden.

  14. „Vertrieben 1938“ – Sonder-Blogserie im Van Swieten Blog der Medizinischen Universität Wien: Work in Progress über die mehr als 143 an der Medizinischen Fakultät der Universität Wien entlassenen Professoren und Dozenten / "Displaced 1938" – a special run in the Van Swieten Blog at the Medical University Vienna: Work in progress about 143+ professors and university teachers displaced from the Medical Faculty at the University Vienna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer, Bruno

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 11th March 2008 the university library at the Medical University Vienna runs the special blog series "Displaced 1938" as part of its regular Van Swieten Blog (http://ub.meduniwien.ac.at/blog/. Each day one out of 143 displaced professors and university teachers is introduced in a seperate weblog posting. Biographies from a dissertation in the library's repositoy were scanned for this particular purpose. Moreover the corresponding publications from and about the displaced persons in stock of the branch library of the history of medicine were electronically catalogued in the library's OPAC. The postings also refer to pictures and documents in the picture archives and manuscript collection at the Medical University Vienna. Links to appropriate free internet web sites are offered in the postings to further inform on the displaced professors and university teachers.

  15. Is there a paraneoplastic ALS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcia, Philippe; Gordon, Paul H; Camdessanche, Jean-Philippe

    2015-06-01

    Our objective was to examine the strength of evidence in support of the paraneoplastic syndrome (PNS) as one cause of ALS and, if the association appears more likely than chance, determine which features of ALS imply concurrent malignancy. We reviewed the literature on concurrent ALS and neoplasia assessing the strength of evidence for the association. Most accounts of ALS and neoplasm are case reports or small uncontrolled series. In order of strength of evidence, three clinical situations that support a paraneoplastic aetiology for ALS are: 1) laboratory evidence of well-characterized onconeuronal antibodies, most often anti-Hu, anti-Yo or anti-Ri; 2) co-occurrence of ALS and a neoplasm known to cause PNS, usually lymphoma or cancer of the breast; and 3) combined ALS and a neoplasm not classically associated with PNS, without detectable onconeuronal antibodies. Clinical features that warrant evaluation of neoplasm include upper motor neuron disease in elderly females, rapid progression, non-motor signs, and young onset. In conclusion, most examples of ALS and neoplasm do not constitute a classically established PNS. Rare instances of elevated onconeuronal antibody titres or typical neoplasm, implies that, albeit rare, the PNS is one of a multitude of causes of ALS. PMID:25285651

  16. Undulators at the ALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's (LBL) Advanced Light Source (ALS), three 4.6 m long undulators have been completed, tested and installed. A fourth is under construction. The completed undulators include two 5.0 cm period length, 89 period devices (U5.0s) which achieve a 0.85 T effective field at a 14 mm minimum gap and a 8.0 cm period length, 55 period device (U8.0) that reaches a 1.2 T effective field at a 14 mm minimum gap. The undulator under construction is a 10.0 cm period length, 43 period device (U10.0) that is designed to achieve 0.98 T at a 23 mm gap. Undulator magnetic gap variation (rms) is within 25 microns over the periodic structure length. Reproducibility of the adjustable magnetic gap has been measured to be within +/- 5 microns. Gap adjusting range is from 14 mm to 210 mm, which can be scanned in one minute. The 5.1 m long vacuum chambers are flat in the vertical direction to within 0.74 mm and straight in the horizontal direction to within 0.08 mm over the 4.6 m magnetic structure sections. Vacuum chamber base pressures after UHV beam conditioning are. in the mid 10-11 Torr range and storage ring operating pressures with full current are in the low 10-10 Torr range. Measurements show that the uncorrelated magnetic field errors are 0.23%, and 0.20% for the two U5.Os and the U8.0 respectively and that the field integrals are small over the 1 cm by 6 cm beam aperture. Device description, fabrication, and measurements are presented

  17. Glassy behavior of interface states in Al-AlOx-Al tunnel junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Nesbitt, Jeremy R.; Hebard, Arthur F.

    2005-01-01

    We present results of a study of tunnel junction aging in which the early time dynamics are captured by in situ monitoring of electrical properties of Al-AlOx-Al planar tunnel junctions beginning when the deposition of the counterelectrode is complete. The observed stretched exponential dependences of the conductance and the capacitance manifest hierarchically constrained dynamics imposed by correlated relaxations of interface traps. Bias voltage is used as a control paramet...

  18. El miedo al rey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François FORONDA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La peur du roi. Sources et premières réflexions à propos d’une émotion aristocratique dans la Castille du XIVe siècleFace à un roi qui à présent pousse les effets de son ire jusqu’au meurtre pour faire le vide autour de lui et imposer sa différence souveraine, ses parents et les riches hommes, soit les principaux visés par cette politique de l’arbitraire qui enfreint les règles du jeu autant qu’elle contribue à les redéfinir, disent la peur (metus qu’ils ressentent, qu’ils utilisent aussi afin de donner à leur stratégie de pouvoir un fondement légitime. Et l’expression de cette émotion politique, qui tend à se muer en un stéréotype d’un discours aristocratique d’opposition, surtout présente dans les chroniques, mises ici en relation ici avec d’autres sources, notamment des correspondances, marque profondément l’histoire des relations souvent conflictuelles au sein de cette compagnie en définitive très étroite pendant un siècle, de la fin du XIIIe siècle à la fin du XIVe siècle. Cet article se propose d’ébaucher une première réflexion sur le sujet et d’en présenter les principales sources.El miedo al rey. Fuentes y primeras reflexiones acerca de una emoción aristocrática en la Castilla del siglo XIVFrente a un rey que ahora lleva hasta la muerte los efectos de su ira para hacer el vacío entorno a su persona e imponer su soberana, sus parientes y ricos hombres, o sea los principales afectados por esta política de la arbitrariedad que rompe las reglas del juego a la vez que contribuye a redefinirlas, dicen el miedo (metus que sienten, que utilizan también para darle a su estrategia de poder un fundamento legítimo. Y la expresión de esta emoción política, que tiende a convertirse en un estereotipo de un discurso aristocrático de oposición, sobre todo presente en la crónicas, aquí puestas en relación con otras fuentes, en particular cartas, marca profundamente la historia de las relaciones a menudo conflictivas dentro de esta compañia finalemente muy estrecha durante un siglo, de finales del XIII a finales del XIV. En este artículo, me propongo esbozar una primera reflexión sobre el tema y presentar sus principales fuentes.

  19. estigma tolerable al estigma intolerable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Arteaga Botello

    2006-01-01

    cristalización pasa por dos referentes de interacción y relación social al interior del espacio escolar. El primero está constituido por parámetros de normalidad y anormalidad a partir de la localización de estigmas. El segundo se encuentra, a contrapelo de la tendencia anterior, tratando de diluir los efectos de los estigmas al señalarlos como una práctica de tipificación social intolerable o inaceptable.

  20. Analysis of Venkaiah et al.'s AES Design

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Nakahara

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes impossible differential (ID) attacks on an AES variant designed by Venkaiah et al.. They claim that their cipher has improved resistance to ID attacks due to a new MixColumns matrix with a branch number 4, which is smaller than that of the original AES. We argue against this statement. The contributions of this paper include ID distinguishers for Venkaiah et al.'s cipher, and a discussion of the susceptibility of such variants to impossible differential and other modern c...

  1. Characteristics of CeCoIn5/Al/AlOx/Nb and CeCoIn5/Al/AlOx/Al tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report characteristics of CeCoIn5/Al/AlOx/Nb and CeCoIn5/Al/AlOx/Al tunnel junctions fabricated on the (0 0 1) surface of CeCoIn5 crystal platelets. The main result of this work is the observation of a low Josephson current (as compared with that expected from the Ambegaokar-Baratoff formula), which is consistent with idea that the order parameter in the heavy-fermion superconductor CeCoIn5 has unconventional pairing symmetry.

  2. Medical application of 26Al

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhausen, C.; Gerisch, P.; Heisinger, B.; Hohl, Ch.; Kislinger, G.; Korschinek, G.; Niedermayer, M.; Nolte, E.; Dumitru, M.; Alvarez-Brückmann, M.; Schneider, M.; Ittel, T. H.

    1996-06-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements with 26Al as tracer were performed in order to study the aluminium metabolism and anomalies in the human body and in rats. In particular, the differences between healthy volunteers and patients with renal failure were investigated. The obtained data points of 26Al in blood and urine were described by an open compartment model with three peripheral compartments. It was found that the minimum of peripheral compartments needed to describe 26Al concentrations in blood and urine over a time period of three years is at least three.

  3. Medical application of 26Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements with 26Al as tracer were performed in order to study the aluminium metabolism and anomalies in the human body and in rats. In particular, the differences between healthy volunteers and patients with renal failure were investigated. The obtained data points of 26Al in blood and urine were described by an open compartment model with three peripheral compartments. It was found that the minimum of peripheral compartments needed to describe 26Al concentrations in blood and urine over a time period of three years is at least three. (orig.)

  4. Coaching als Grundform pädagogischer Beratung

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann, Melanie

    2004-01-01

    Basierend auf der Weiterführung einer Synthese ausgewählter theoretischer Ansätze erfolgt in der vorliegenden Arbeit die Darlegung einer formalen Verortung und theoretischen Grundlegung eines Verständnisses von Coaching als Grundform professioneller pädagogischer Beratung im Sinne eines genuin pädagogischen Bildungsgeschehens.

  5. Alergia al látex: Una revisión

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Oscar, Porras Madrigal.

    Full Text Available La alergia al látex de hule natural, se ha convertido en un problema importante de salud en los trabajadores de la salud y en pacientes con espina bífida e intervenciones quirúrgicas múltiples. El tratamiento curativo con inmunoterapia no produce una solución al problema.Las medidas preventivas perm [...] iten reducir la incidencia de la alergia al látex y son una mejor estrategia para intervenir en este problema de salud pública. Con el objetivo de aumentar el conocimiento sobre el problema de alergia al látex, discutimos los aspectos relacionados con historia, epidemiología, diagnóstico, prevención y tratamiento. Se definen los términos sensibilización y alergia y se describen los aspectos químicos del látex de hule natural y de sus proteínas. La definición de grupos de riesgo permite desarrollar una estrategia en las intituciones de salud que disminuye la exposición y como consecuencia las manifestaciones clínicas de los individuos sensibilizados

  6. Corrosion behaviour of Al/SiC and Al/Al2O3 nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Tamer Samir Mahmoud; El-Sayed Yousef El-Kady; Ayed Saad Merzen Al-Shihiri

    2012-01-01

    In the present investigation, the static immersion corrosion behavior of Al/Al2O3 and Al/SiC nanocomposites in 1 M HCl acidic solution was evaluated. The nanocomposites were fabricated using conventional powder metallurgy (P/M) route. The effect of nanoparticulates size and volume fraction on the corrosion behavior of nanocomposites was studied. The durations of the corrosion tests ranged from 24 to 120 hours and the temperatures of the solution ranged from ambient to 75 ºC. The corrosion rat...

  7. Hong et al reply to Canul-Chay et al

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, D C; Luding, S; Hong, Daniel C.; Quinn, Paul V.; Luding, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    Canul-Chay et al. [1] have conducted the segregation experiment of binary granular mixtures in a bed and subjected the bed to vibration. They report that the reverse Brazil-Nut phenomenon (RBNP) was never observed in their experiments and thus conclude that such does not exist. However, we have clearly demonstrated in [2] by Molecular Dynamics simulations that the reverse Brazil-Nut problem not only exists, but can be determined from the solid-liquid phase boundary by a scaling theory for the crossover from RBNP. Hence, instead of disputing Canul-Chay et al.'s sound experimental results [1], in this reply we want to draw the reader's attention to the experimental set up and the interpretation of the experimental results.

  8. Experimental and simulation investigations of tensile response of (Al2O3f/Al)w/2024Al composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tensile response of a 2024Al alloy reinforced with Al2O3f/Al composite wires [(Al2O3f/Al)w/2024Al composite] has been investigated by both performing tensile tests and using the finite element method (FEM). Microstructure and tensile fracture surfaces of (Al2O3f/Al)w/2024Al composites were examined using optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. It is found that the longitudinal tensile response of (Al2O3f/Al)w/2024Al composite is nearly elastic up to failure. The longitudinal tensile strength of (Al2O3f/Al)w/2024Al composite reaches its fiber bundle strength and the longitudinal elastic modulus is consistent with that predicted using the rule of mixture. The contribution of matrix is negligible to the longitudinal tensile strength but not to the modulus of elasticity. Coating composite wires (CWs) with Ni can improve the interfacial bonding between the CWs and 2024Al alloy. Diffusion annealing can further improve the interfacial bonding. The transverse tensile strength is dependent strongly on the interfacial bonding between the CWs and 2024Al alloy. The stronger the interfacial bonding, the higher the transverse tensile strength. Following the diffusion annealing, ageing treatment can improve the transverse tensile strength of (Al2O3f/Al)w/2024Al composite to a higher level due to the increased strength of matrix 2024Al alloy. To reveal the fracture mode of (Al2O3f/Al)w/2024Al composite under transverse loading, the transverse tensile response of a model material, (Al2O3f/matrix1)w/matrix2 composite, whose microstructure is similar to that of the (Al2O3f/Al)w/2024Al composite, was analyzed using FEM. FEM results indicate that, under transverse loading, the stress distribution in the (Al2O3f/matrix1)w/matrix2 composite depends on the strength of matrix2. When matrix1 and matrix2 are both pure Al, failure initiates in matrix1. When matrix1 is pure Al and matrix2 is aged 2024Al alloy, however, failure initiates in matrix2 (2024Al). Therefore, for (Al2O3f/Al)w/2024Al composites with weak interfacial bonding between CWs and 2024Al matrix, cracks initiate at interfaces between the CWs and 2024Al matrix and propagate along the interfaces and then through 2024Al matrix, resulting in the global fracture. For (Al2O3f/Al)w/2024Al composite with strong interfacial bonding between CWs and 2024Al matrix, cracks initiate in either pure Al or 2024Al alloy and then propagate in both Al and 2024Al, resulting in the global fracture

  9. Everyday Life with ALS: A Practical Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in this one. Back to top Resources MDA ALS Division The Muscular Dystrophy Association, one of the ... 572-1717. Back to top General Resources About ALS In addition, consult the MDA ALS Caregiver’s Guide, ...

  10. Das Altern als gesamtgesellschaftliche Herausforderung -Konsequenzen des Wandels von Altersideen und Lebensläufen für betriebliche Arbeitsgestaltung und die Sozialpolitik

    OpenAIRE

    Franiek, Corinna

    2008-01-01

    Die Relevanz der Themen Alter, Altern, sowie demographischer Wandel wurde gerade in jüngster Zeit deutlich. Die ARD widmete sich ab dem 21. April 2008 für eine Woche verstärkt dem Thema „Mehr Zeit zu Leben“ und zeigte Chancen einer alternden Gesellschaft auf. Am 14. Juli 2008 wurde in Halle feierlich die Leopoldina zur „Nationalen Akademie der Wissenschaften“ ernannt, welche sich auch dem Thema demographischer Wandel widmen will und zusammen mit „acatech“ einen Bericht über „Chancen und Probl...

  11. Vormundschaftsrecht als Grundlage politischer Herrschaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Duncker

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In ihrer beachtlichen und sehr gewissenhaft dokumentierten Arbeit über vormundschaftliche Regentschaften im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert beschreibt Pauline Puppel unter ausführlichem Bezug auf zeitgenössische Literatur und Archivalien sowohl die allgemeine Rechtslage im damaligen Reich als auch die Anwendungsfälle in Hessen, wo zwischen 1500 und 1700 insgesamt viermal eine Landgräfin als Vormünderin des Fürsten zur Regentin ihres Landes wurde. Dies steht exemplarisch für eine bereits in der Frühen Neuzeit mögliche und nicht einmal ganz seltene Form politischer Frauenherrschaft, die bisher oft nicht hinreichend gewürdigt wurde. Puppels Untersuchung ist in zwei Hauptteile gegliedert. Der erste Teil (Das juristische Regelwerk“, S. 34-143 behandelt die zeitgenössischen Rahmenbedingungen der durch Frauen ausgeübten Vormundschaft und Regentschaft. Der zweite Abschnitt („Die Landgräfinnen von Hessen als Regentinnen“, S. 144-307 befasst sich mit der Ausfüllung dieser Regeln durch konkrete Fallbeispiele in Gestalt von Leben und Regentschaft der regierenden Landgräfinnen von Hessen.

  12. ALS - A unique design approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Roger A.

    1990-09-01

    An advanced launch system (ALS), which is intended to be flexible and to deliver a wide range of payloads at a reduced cost, is discussed. The ALS concept also features total quality management, modular subsystems, standardized interfaces, standardized missions, and off-line payload encapsulation. The technological improvements include manufacturing of dry structures, use of composite materials, adaptive guidance and control systems, and laser-initiated radar systems. The operational improvements range from paperless management, to rocket engine leak detection devices and automated ground operations.

  13. Corrosion mechanism of Al, Al–Zn and Al–Zn–Sn alloys in 3 wt.% NaCl solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We elaborate Al–5Zn–xSn sacrificial anodes (x = 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.4%). • Increasing Sn amount does activate Al alloys. • The anode dissolution in NaCl initiates at precipitations where Sn is enriched. • Sn enhances uniform attack on the surface of the Al alloy. • Al–Zn–Sn anodes perform better than the Al–Zn anode. - Abstract: The effect of zinc and tin addition to pure aluminum was investigated in 3 wt.% NaCl solution. The corrosion behavior of the elaborated samples (Al, Al–Zn and Al–Zn–Sn) was studied by open circuit potential, Tafel plot and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. For the microstructure characterization, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy were used. The aluminum activation increases in the following order: Al < Al–5Zn < Al–5Zn–0.1Sn < Al–5Zn–0.2Sn < Al–5Zn–0.4Sn. The impedance measurements and the microscopic observations confirmed the great activity of Al–Zn and Al–Zn–Sn compared to pure Al. The segregation at the grain boundaries leads to intergranular corrosion

  14. VENEZUELA: OTRA ALTERNATIVA AL NEOLIBERALISMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huber Fernández González

    2008-01-01

    con las fuerzas que se oponen al cambio y que aún no han sido derrotadas totalmente. Estas fuerzas, aunque están desprestigiadas política y socialmente, cuentan con poder económico, financiero, militar, con los medios de comunicación a su favor y con el apoyo incondicional de los Estados Unidos.

  15. Eine wasserdurchlässige Dampfbremse als Hygrodiode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sagelsdorff, Ralph; Rode, Carsten

    1997-01-01

    Hohe Feuchtigkeit unde freies Wasser in Baukonstruktionen könne zu Bauphysikalischen Problemen und Schäden führen. Vor allem während der Bauphase eingebrachchtes oder durch Risse eindringendes Wasser, das bei ungünstigen Konstruktionen nur schlecht austrocknet, wird in der Winterperiode durch Diffusionsprozesse noch erhöht. Eine wasserdurchlässige Dampfbremse als Hygrodiode erlaubt die sichere kapillare Rückführung des Wassers zur Raumseite, wo es verdunsten kann.

  16. Identification of Candida albicans ALS2 and ALS4 and Localization of Als Proteins to the Fungal Cell Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyer, L L; Payne, T. L.; Hecht, J E

    1998-01-01

    Additional genes in the growing ALS family of Candida albicans were isolated by PCR screening of a genomic fosmid library with primers designed from the consensus tandem-repeat sequence of ALS1. This procedure yielded fosmids encoding ALS2 and ALS4. ALS2 and ALS4 conformed to the three-domain structure of ALS genes, which consists of a central domain of tandemly repeated copies of a 108-bp motif, an upstream domain of highly conserved sequences, and a domain of divergent sequences 3? of the t...

  17. The temperature dependence of elasticity modulus for TiAl and Ni3Al – basic alloy components for turbine rotor blade. ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ??????????????? TiAl ? Ni3Al – ???????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??????.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?. ?. ????????

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Possibility of theoretical determination of elastic characteristics for intermetallides on the example of TiAl and Ni3Al on the base of electrostatic nature of elasticity is demonstrated. Elaborated method is able for using for computing modeling of mono- and polycrystal materials under conditions of experimental data absence. ????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ???? ?? ?????? ?????????????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????????? ?? ??????? TiAl ? Ni3Al. ????????????? ????? ????? ???????????? ??? ????????????? ????????????? ????- ? ??????????????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ????????????????? ??????.

  18. Diffusion AlSi-MeCrAlY coatings obtained on intermetallic ?-TiAl phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Góral

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The development of new protective coatings for TiAl intermetallics was conducted. The MeCrAlYAlSi slurry was used with different amount of aluminium-silicon powder in the binder.Design/methodology/approach: The slurry consisting of aluminium and silicon powder with the addition of MeCrAlY powder were used during the procedure. The inorganic solution made from chromic and phosphoric acid was applied as a binder. The preliminary research of microstructure of obtained coatings was conducted.Findings: The obtained coating consisting of 3 or 4 zones (depending on chemical composition of the slurry was obtained during the annealing process (950°C/4h.Research limitations/implications: The research results revealed the possibility of obtaining coatings with complex phase and chemical composition.Practical implications: Many problems connected with sedimentation of heavier MeCrAlY powder were observed.Originality/value: The copletele new technologies was described in article

  19. Entwicklung von kristallisierenden Glasloten für planare Hochtemperatur-Brennstoffzellen

    OpenAIRE

    Geasee, Pisit

    2003-01-01

    Glas- und Glaskeramiklote wurden für planare Hochtemperatur-Brennstoffzellen enwickelt. Die Anforderung an das Glaslot war: hoher thermischer Ausdehnungskoeffizient (11.0-12.0×10-6 K-1), hoher elektrischer Widerstand (mehr als 2 kW/cm2), gute thermochemische Kompatibilität mit den übrige Werkstoffen der Brennstoffzelle und Langzeitstabilität in H2- und H2O- Atmosphäre bei 800 oC für mehr als 40,000 Stunden. Als Ergebnisse werden der kristalline Phasenbestand, der Benetzungswinkel, die Fügeeig...

  20. Al-Anon and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermak, T L

    1989-01-01

    The history of Al-Anon and its current demographics are reviewed. In order to understand 12-step recovery and psychotherapy for family members of alcoholics, the concept of codependence is defined with a set of diagnostic criteria consistent with the DSM-III-R definition of personality traits and disorders. At the core of codependence are denial and an unrealistic relationship to willpower. The therapeutic implications of considering codependence as a personality disorder are explored, as are the characteristics that make codependence unique among personality disorders: the central role of denial and the existence of a self-help organization to facilitate recovery. The dynamics of working the 12 steps on codependent characteristics are outlined. A synergistic relationship between psychotherapy and the 12 steps is described. Special attention is given the emergence of Al-Anon adult children of alcoholic meetings, and the future of codependence is discussed. PMID:2648500

  1. Al Zubarah - eine vergessene Legende

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinzel, Moritz

    2014-01-01

    Die im 18. Jahnhundert an der Nordwestküste Katars entstandene Handelsstadt Al Zubarah bildet den Forschungsschwerpunkt des Qatar Islamic Archaeology and Heritage Projects (QIAH), das die Universität Kopenhagen in Zusammenarbeit mit der Katarischen Museumsbehörde (QMA) seit 2009 durchführt. Neben der archäologischen Erforschung der Stadtanlage und ihrer Elemente, stehen die Erhaltung und Präsentation des Fundortes und seiner Bauten von Anfang an ebenfalls im Fokus der Arbeiten. Auf Grundlage der...

  2. Blut ist dicker als Wasser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Benöhr-Laqueur

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Der Band basiert auf Beiträgen des an der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin angesiedelten Forschungsprojektes „Verwandtschaft als Repräsentation sozialer Ordnung und sozialer Praxis: Kulturen der Zusammengehörigkeit im Kontext sozialer und reproduktionsmedizinischer Transformationsprozesse”. In dreizehn Artikeln wird anhand der Länder Deutschland, Türkei und Großbritannien der Frage nachgegangen: „Wie macht man Verwandtschaft?“ Angesichts des unaufhaltsamen Voranschreitens der Reproduktionsmedizin ist die Lektüre dieses Bandes vorbehaltlos zu empfehlen.

  3. Laser-driven performance of the Al/Al2O3/Al multi-layer flyer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaojie; Wu, Lizhi; Shen, Ruiqi; Ye, Yinghua; Hua, Tianli

    2013-12-01

    To assess the effect of the Al2O3 layer on the performance of a laser-driven flyer, the photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV) and the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric film were used. The experiment results show that because of the addition of Al2O3 insulation layer the velocity of the Al/Al2O3/Al multi-layer flyer decreased 4.8% in comparison with the Al single-layer flyer, but the impact stress increased 61.4%, up to 870 MPa at 248 mJ laser energy. Moreover, the planarity and the integrity of the flyer plate were improved.

  4. Wilayat al-Faqih Baina al-Fiqhiyyah wa al-Kalamiyyah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khalid Muslih

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The early fourteenth century of Hijra is a new transitional phase for the historical development of Syiah Imamiyah. This can be traced by their success in establishing an Islamic state using 12 Imam Ideology which is based on “Welayat al-Faqih” system. This system is the antithesis of the theory of al-ghaibah al- kubra, which until now has been running more than 1000 years and has forbidden Shiite followers to perform various social, political and religious activities until reappearance of Imam Mahdi. As a result, many teachings of the religion cannot be applied. If this condition  continues, the Islamic teachings will be destructed in the future, so that the bearer of this idea see the necessity for the fuqaha ‘(scholars’ of Shiite who have reached the degree of “Mujtahid” to take over the role of Imam Mahdi in establishing and leading the Islamic State, thus, a guardian Jurist in a country which is built up under the system of welayat faqih, holds a supreme power, who covers the whole territory granted to the Prophet and the Imams. In spite of  saying that welayat fakih included in the category of Islamic jurisprudence, the Shiite Jurists argue that it has a dimensions of kalam, as it also discusses the problem of  “af ’âlullâh”. Eventually, the form of  the State born cannot be avoided from the format of  “Theocracy”. historical development of Syiah Imamiyah. This can be traced by their success  in establishing an Islamic state using 12 Imam Ideology which is based on  "Welayat al-Faqih" system. This system is the antithesis of the theory of  al- ghaibah al-kubra, which until now has been running more than 1000 years and  has forbidden Shiite followers to perform various social, political and religious  activities until reappearance of Imam Mahdi. As a result, many teachings of  the religion  cannot be applied. If this condition  continues, the Islamic teachings will be destructed in the future, so that the bearer of this idea see the necessity for the fuqaha '(scholars' of Shiite who have reached the degree of "Mujtahid" to take over the role of Imam Mahdi in establishing and leading the Islamic State, thus, a guardian Jurist in a country which is built up under the system of  welayat faqih, holds a supreme power, who covers the whole territory granted to the Prophet and the Imams. In spite of saying that welayat fakih included in the category of Islamic jurisprudence, the Shiite Jurists argue that it has a dimensions of kalam, as it also discusses the problem of "af'âlullâh". Eventually, the form of the State born cannot be avoided from the format of "Theocracy".  

  5. Casting fabrication of in situ Al3Ti-Al composites and their wear behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Tijun; Li Jian; Hao Yuan

    2009-01-01

    The Al3Ti intermetallic reinforced pure Al, Al-13Si and Al-17Cu matrix composites were prepared by casting method. Their microstructures and dry sliding wear behaviors at room temperature and 100? were particularly investigated. The results indicated that the Al3Ti phases in these composites were all in fl aky form. But the aspect ratio of the Al3Ti platelets decreased with the increase of Ti content in the pure Al, Al-Cu and Al-Si matrix composites, in order of effectiveness. The effect of S...

  6. The Structure and Main Issues of “al-Tasdid” of Husam al-Din al-Syghnaqi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniyar B. Shalkarov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of the theological maturidia in the Central Asia was developed by the majority of outstanding scientists in the Turkic area and was known from generation to generation with manuscripts. One of these famous scientists was Abu al-Mu‘in al-Nasafi. In Central Asia, in the branch of the Islamic kalam theology there were the works “Tabsira al-Adilla”, “Bahr al-Kalam”, “al-Tamheed li qawa‘id al-Tawheed”, which considered the issues of maturidia theological study. In the XIV century the great scientist from Syghanaq Husam al-din al-Syghnaqi made a detailed research of the work “al-Tamheed li qawa‘id al-Tawheed” of Abu al-Mu‘in al-Nasafi and wrote the work “al-Tasdeed fi sharh al-Tamheed” by giving a full explanation of all questions relating to the issue. This article considers the content and the kept versions in the World libraries and the importance of this work for today. There is a different information about the original version of the manuscript. The first, the manuscript is by Amca Zade Huseyn 309 number, written by Husam al-din al-Syghnaqi personally and kept in the turkic library. This information is written in the work “Syghanaq Sanlagi/ The star of the Syghanaq” of Shamshaddin Kerim, the second manuscript is kept in the Egypt Arabic Republic, in the library “Dar al-Kutub Misrya”. It is written in this manuscript, that the manuscript was published in 1125 according hizhra calendar. Therefore the article gives an explanation of the main maturidia kalam principles, which cover five chapters of the work. 

  7. From Kit?b al-?ad?’iq to Kit?b al-daw?’ir: Reconsidering Ibn al-S?d al-Batalyaws?’s Philosophical Treatise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliyahu, Ayala

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The philosophical treatise known as Kit?b al-?ad?’iq is generally ascribed to the 12th century Andalusian author Ibn al-S?d al-Batalyaws?, although this attribution is sometimes contested. This paper offers a new interpretation of the title, textual history, authorship, sources, and literary genre of this treatise, on the basis of new textual evidence, a reexamination of known evidence, and a comparison between the treatise and Batalyaws?’s works. The conclusions of this study are first, that Kit?b al-?ad?’iq was not the treatise’s original title, and therefore it should be renamed Kit?b al-daw?’ir; second, that Kit?b al-daw?’ir was originally part of (one of the versions of Batalyaws?’s Kit?b al-mas?’il; and third, that the textual and stylistic similarities between this treatise and Batalyaws?’s other works prove the authenticity of the treatise’s attribution to Batalyaws?. In addition, new findings regarding Batalyaws?’s use of formulas from the Ras?’il Ikhw?n al-Saf?, in Kit?b al-daw?’ir and Kit?b al-mas?’il provide further evidence for the deep impact of the Ikhw?n on Batalyaws?’s thought, as well as for the close connection between Kit?b al-daw?’ir and Kit?b al-mas?’il. This connection is further highlighted according to the attribution of both treatises to the genre of questions and answers in Arabic literature. The evidence gathered in this paper supports the claim that Batalyaws?’s Kit?b al-daw?’ir should be seen as an integral part of his literary oeuvre, as well as of Andalusian philosophical literature in general.Generalmente el tratado filosófico conocido como Kit?b al-?ad?’iq se asocia al autor andalusí del siglo XII Ibn al-Sid al-Batalyaws?, aunque esta atribución ha sido discutida en ocasiones. Este artículo ofrece una nueva interpretación del título, la historia del texto, la autoría, las fuentes e incluso del género literario al que se adscribe este tratado, teniendo en cuenta su texto, una revisión de los datos ya conocidos y la comparación entre este tratado y el resto de la producción de al-Batalyaws?. Como conclusión se propone, en primer lugar, que el Kit?b al-?ad?’iq no es el título original del tratado, sino que debe ser Kit?b al-daw?’ir. Por otro lado, este Kit?b al-daw?’ir era originalmente parte (una de las versiones del Kit?b al-mas?’il de al-Batalyaws?. En tercer lugar, las similitudes textuales y estilísticas entre este tratado con otras obras de al-Batalyaws? prueban su autoría. Además, el uso que al-Batalyaws? hace de fórmulas que ya encontramos en las Ras?’il Ikhw?n al-Saf?, y que aparecen en sus Kit?b al-?ad?’iq y Kit?b al-mas?’il, profundizan en la hipótesis del impacto que las Ras?’il causaron en el pensamiento del autor, así como en la estrecha conexión que existe entre el Kit?b al-?ad?’iq y el Kit?b al-mas?’il. De hecho, esta conexión resulta más clara cuando se atribuyen ambos tratados al género de «preguntas y respuestas» en la literatura árabe. Este artículo demuestra, por tanto, que el Kit?b al-daw?’ir de al-Batalyaws? debe entenderse como parte de su obra literaria y, así, como parte de la producción filosófica andalusí.

  8. Jongerenwerk als werkplaats voor professionalisering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Metz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Partnership approach as alternate professionalization strategy for youth work In the Netherlands, there is a growing debate on the need for the professionalization of youth work practice. There is a consensus on the necessity and relevance of professionalization. Opinions differ however on the appropriate pathways towards professionalization. Classic professionalization strategies, with a focus on the gathering of scientific experimental evidence, often do not match with the complex and flexible nature of youth work practice. To gain insight in alternative strategies, providers of youth work and study programs in Amsterdam joined forces and set up Youth Spot, a research and practice centre for youth work. This article describes how the centre, youth work organizations, education and researchers cooperate in the professionalization of youth work. On the one hand this article provides insight in youth work’s own professionalism and, on the other hand, it offers experiences with an alternate professionalization strategy. Jongerenwerk als werkplaats voor professionalisering Dit artikel beschrijft hoe opleidingen, welzijnsorganisaties en onderzoekers samenwerken in de professionalisering van het jongerenwerk tegen de achtergrond van het debat over professionalisering van de sociaal agogische beroepen. Het probleem met klassieke professionaliseringstrategieën, met wetenschappelijke experimentele kennis als norm, is dat zij niet altijd goed aansluiten bij de complexiteit en flexibiliteit van de uitvoeringspraktijk. Vraag is: wat dan wel? In Amsterdam richten opleidingen en werkveld in 2008 Youth Spot op, het onderzoek- en praktijkcentrum voor jongerenwerk, met als doel om gezamenlijk te werken aan de profilering, professionalisering en praktijkontwikkeling van het jongerenwerk. Dit artikel belicht de aanleiding voor het ontstaan van Youth Spot, de structuur van de samenwerking, de ervaringen met de wijze van samen werken en de meerwaarde voor de professionalisering van het grootstedelijk jongerenwerk. Daarmee biedt dit artikel enerzijds een kijkje in de keuken van het (grootstedelijke jongerenwerk en anderzijds biedt zij inzicht in ervaringen met alternatieve professionalisering strategieën.

  9. Alergia al semen / Semen allergy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Laura, Franco Cuadros; Jenniffer, Puerta Suárez; Ángela, Cadavid Jaramillo; Walter, Cardona Maya.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La alergia al semen comprende una variedad de síntomas tanto locales como sistémicos causados por reacciones de hipersensibilidad inmediata y caracterizados por títulos elevados de IgE. El objetivo de este estudio es describir el caso de una paciente con alergia al semen: mujer de 21 años de edad qu [...] e presenta ardor y sensación de quemazón en el área genital luego de tener contacto con el semen de su pareja. El análisis seminal del compañero sexual no presenta ningún tipo de alteración. Los síntomas desaparecen con el uso de condón o con la práctica del coito interrumpido. La alergia al semen es una alteración, que si bien es poco frecuente, puede afectar los deseos de concepción de las mujeres que la presentan, es un fenómeno poco estudiado por lo que se requieren más reportes para su caracterización. Abstract in english Semen allergy includes several local and systemic symptoms caused by immediate hypersensitivity reactions and it is characterized by high levels of IgE. The objective of this study was to describe the case of a patient with semen allergy. A 21 year-old woman experienced itching and burning sensation [...] in the genital area after contact with the semen of her sexual partner. Semen analysis was normal. Symptoms disappear with the use of condom or the practice of coitus interruptus. Semen allergy is a condition, although rare, can affect the desire of conceiving in women who suffers it. It is a briefly studied phenomenon which requires more reports for proper characterization.

  10. Bioética frente al paciente moribundo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Laides, Luna Vázquez; Mariela, Valiente Duany; José Miguel, Goderich Lalán.

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo y transversal en el Servicio de Cuidados Intermedios del Hospital Clinicoquirúrgico "Dr. Ambrosio Grillo Portuondo" de Santiago de Cuba, con el objetivo de analizar la aplicación de la bioética frente al paciente moribundo. El universo estuvo constitu [...] ido por 42 fallecidos en el segundo semestre de 1996. Las principales causas de muerte fueron las neumopatías inflamatorias y los accidentes vasculares encefálicos, con predominio de los varones mayores de 60 años; la mayoría de los enfermos al fallecer tenía pérdida de la conciencia, no siempre afectada por enfermedad; en uno de ellos por indicación facultativa al estar acoplado a ventiladores artificiales. La participación de la enfermera y la relación activopasiva, que es la fundamental en relación con el cumplimiento de los principios bioéticos, resultó positiva en todos los casos. Se actuó con beneficencia y justicia al respetar la autonomía del moribundo, donde el consentimiento informado desempeñó un papel importante, sin llegar a la práctica de la eutanasia en ninguna de sus variantes, ya que este proceder en nuestra sociedad implicaría un delito de homicidio. Abstract in english A descriptive, retrospective and cross-sectional study was conducted at the Service of Intermediate Care of the "Dr. Ambrosio Grillo Portuondo" Clinical and Surgical Hospital, in Santiago de Cuba, aimed at analyzing the application of bioethics in the dying patient. The universe was composed of 42 p [...] ersons that died in the second semester of l996. The main causes of death were the inflammatory lung diseases and the cerebrovascular accidents, with predominance of males over 60. On dying, most of the patients had lost conciousness, which was not always affected by the disease. One of them was coupled to artifical ventilators by facultative indication. The participation of the nurse and the active-passive relation , that is the fundamental in connection with the fulfillment of the bioethical principles, was positive in all cases. The moribund?s autonomy was respected and the reported consent played an important role. Euthanasia was not applied in any of its variants, since this procedure in our society will be considered as a homicide.

  11. Aproximación al derecho concursal colombiano.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jose Rodriguez Espitia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Con ocasión de la reciente modificación a que se vió sometido el régimen concursal colombiano, el presente artículo pretende aprovechar esa oportunidad con el propósito de abordar algunos temas relacionados con la insolvencia empresarial, y que no obstante ser añejos, a raíz de la mentada reforma, readquieren vigencia académica. El autor pretende mediante una aproximación histórica completada de referencias prácticas, poner de presente al lector temas y puntos álgidos que dentro de la evolución del derecho concursal se encuentran aún en punto de discusión.

  12. Bioética frente al paciente moribundo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laides Luna Vázquez

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo y transversal en el Servicio de Cuidados Intermedios del Hospital Clinicoquirúrgico "Dr. Ambrosio Grillo Portuondo" de Santiago de Cuba, con el objetivo de analizar la aplicación de la bioética frente al paciente moribundo. El universo estuvo constituido por 42 fallecidos en el segundo semestre de 1996. Las principales causas de muerte fueron las neumopatías inflamatorias y los accidentes vasculares encefálicos, con predominio de los varones mayores de 60 años; la mayoría de los enfermos al fallecer tenía pérdida de la conciencia, no siempre afectada por enfermedad; en uno de ellos por indicación facultativa al estar acoplado a ventiladores artificiales. La participación de la enfermera y la relación activopasiva, que es la fundamental en relación con el cumplimiento de los principios bioéticos, resultó positiva en todos los casos. Se actuó con beneficencia y justicia al respetar la autonomía del moribundo, donde el consentimiento informado desempeñó un papel importante, sin llegar a la práctica de la eutanasia en ninguna de sus variantes, ya que este proceder en nuestra sociedad implicaría un delito de homicidio.A descriptive, retrospective and cross-sectional study was conducted at the Service of Intermediate Care of the "Dr. Ambrosio Grillo Portuondo" Clinical and Surgical Hospital, in Santiago de Cuba, aimed at analyzing the application of bioethics in the dying patient. The universe was composed of 42 persons that died in the second semester of l996. The main causes of death were the inflammatory lung diseases and the cerebrovascular accidents, with predominance of males over 60. On dying, most of the patients had lost conciousness, which was not always affected by the disease. One of them was coupled to artifical ventilators by facultative indication. The participation of the nurse and the active-passive relation , that is the fundamental in connection with the fulfillment of the bioethical principles, was positive in all cases. The moribund?s autonomy was respected and the reported consent played an important role. Euthanasia was not applied in any of its variants, since this procedure in our society will be considered as a homicide.

  13. 77 FR 73732 - In the Matter of Amendment of the Designation of al-Qa'ida in Iraq, aka Jam'at al Tawhid wa'al...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ...Nusrah, Jabhet al-Nusra, The Victory Front, Al Nusrah Front for...Jabhet al-Nusra, aka The Victory Front, aka Al Nusrah Front...following new alias and other possible transliterations thereof...al-Nusrah, Jabhet al-Nusra, The Victory Front, Al Nusrah Front...

  14. Betaalde arbeid als verdringer van vrijwilligerswerk? Overbelasting als mogelijke verklaring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Kok-Van Meer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Do paid work activities displace volunteering? A potential explanation from role overload theoryRecent changes in Dutch society might lead to a shortage of volunteers. On the one hand, the demand for volunteers is increasing: in the social welfare domain because of governmental austerity policies and in other domains such as sports because of the higher supervision intensity of activities. On the other hand, the supply of volunteers is likely to decrease as more and more women and older workers are active in the labor market, which reduces the time that is available for volunteering. Role overload theory would suggest that the increasing labor participation rate of certain categories of workers goes along with a decline of participation in voluntary work. The secondary data analysis shows that various role loads (work, care for children living at home are associated with differences in participation in voluntary work. However, while a higher number of contractual work hours and hours spent on work-related training are negatively associated with volunteer work, care for children living at home is positively associated with volunteering. These results provide only limited support for role overload theory.Betaalde arbeid als verdringer van vrijwilligerswerk? Overbelasting als mogelijke verklaringDe afgelopen jaren hebben zich enkele maatschappelijke veranderingen voorgedaan, die wellicht tot schaarste op de Nederlandse vrijwilligersmarkt zouden kunnen leiden. Enerzijds neemt de vraag naar vrijwilligers toe doordat subsidieregelingen versoberen (bijvoorbeeld in zorg en welzijn en de begeleidingsintensiteit in bepaalde organisaties stijgt (bijvoorbeeld in sport. Anderzijds neemt het aanbod van vrijwilligers af doordat vrouwen en ouderen meer en langer op de arbeidsmarkt actief zijn, waardoor minder tijd beschikbaar is voor vrijwilligerswerk. In dit artikel wordt aan de hand van de role overload theorie nagegaan of het al dan niet deelnemen aan vrijwilligerswerk van diverse categorieën werknemers samenhangt met de belasting door betaalde arbeid. Uit de secundaire data-analyse blijkt dat verschillen in belasting samenhangen met verschillen in deelname aan vrijwilligerswerk. Terwijl hogere arbeidsbelasting negatief samenhangt met het verrichten van vrijwilligerswerk, hangt zorg voor kinderen thuis positief samen met vrijwilligerswerk. Hierdoor is de steun voor de role overload theorie beperkt.

  15. Resistance switching of thin AlOx and Cu-doped-AlOx films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin copper-doped aluminum oxide (Cu-doped-AlOx) and AlOx films of about 5 nm thick were generated by oxidizing the surfaces of Al and Al-5 wt.% Cu (Al-Cu) films in an oxygen plasma. According to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses, these two oxide films were found to be deficient in oxygen and had gradient concentrations of Al and O. The oxide films were employed as resistor layers sandwiched between an Al top electrode and an Al or Al-Cu bottom electrode to form resistive memory devices. The devices demonstrated unipolar resistance switching between high resistance state and low resistance state (LRS), and their resistance ratios measured at + 0.2 V were around 105. Furthermore, their current–voltage characteristics showed ohmic conduction with the resistance increasing with temperature, in LRS. Conductive filaments were thought to form inside the AlOx film and the Cu-doped AlOx film, causing resistive switching. The resistive memory device using the AlOx film had unstable switching behaviors during cyclic testing, whereas the device using the Cu-doped AlOx film demonstrated stable resistance switching during 100 cycles of testing. The presence of the Cu ingredient in the AlOx film is likely to facilitate the formation and rupture of conductive filaments and induced stable resistance switching. - Highlights: • AlOx layers are formed by plasma oxidation for resistance memory device (RRAM). • Al/AlOx/Al and Al/AlOx-CuOx/Al-Cu exhibit unipolar resistance switching. • Cu doping assists formation of the filaments of mixed Al and Cu in AlOx. • Cu doping improves endurance and retention of the AlOx-based RRAM

  16. 77 FR 73732 - In the Matter of Amendment of the Designation of al-Qa'ida in Iraq, aka Jam'at al Tawhid wa'al...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... Matter of Amendment of the Designation of al-Qa'ida in Iraq, aka Jam'at al Tawhid wa'al-Jihad, aka The... al-Rafidayn, aka The Organization of al-Jihad's Base of Operations in Iraq, aka al-Qaida of Jihad in Iraq, aka al-Qaida in Iraq, aka al-Qaida in Mesopotamia, aka al-Qaida in the Land of the Two...

  17. "PULS." – ein Blog als Online-Magazin für Medizinstudierendeder Goethe-Universität Frankfurt ["PULS." – a Blog-based Online-Magazine for Students of Medicine of the Goethe University Frankfurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nürnberger, Frank

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available [english] In the context of nationwide protests 2009 also students of the faculty of medicine/dentistry at Goethe-University in Frankfurt demanded more transparency and communication. To satisfy these demands, a web 2.0-tool offered an innovative solution: A blog-based online-magazine for students and other faculty-members.The online-magazine „PULS.“ is realized with the share-ware blog-software (wordpress version 3.1.3 and is conceived and written by an online-journalist. „PULS.“ is available from .The articles are generated from own investigations and from ideas of different groups of the faculty– deanship, students and lecturers. A user-analysis is conducted with the open-source software Piwik and considers the data security. Additionally, every year an anonymous online-user-survey (Survey Monkey is conducted.“PULS.” is continuously online since 14.02.2010 and has published 806 articles (state: 27.11.2012 and has about 2400 readers monthly. The content focuses on the needs of Frankfurt medical students. The close cooperation with different groups of the faculty - deanship, students and lecturers - furthermore guarantees themes relevant to the academic faculty. “PULS.” flanks complex projects and decisions with background-information and communicates them understandable.The user-evaluation shows a growing number of readers and a high acceptance for the online-magazine, its themes and its style. The web 2.0-tool “Blog” and the web-specific language comply with media habits of the main target group, the students of the faculty medicine/dentistry.Thus, “PULS.” has proven as a suitable and strategic instrument. It pushes towards a higher transparency, more communication and a stronger identification of the students with their faculty.[german] Im Herbst 2009 forderten Studierende im Rahmen landesweiter Proteste auch am Fachbereich Medizin/Zahnmedizin der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt mehr Transparenz und Kommunikation zu Angelegenheiten ihres Studiums. Einen innovativen Lösungsansatz, um diesen Forderungen nachzukommen, bietet eines der Web 2.0 Werkzeuge: ein auf einer Blog-Software basierendes Online-Magazin für Studierende und andere Mitglieder des Fachbereichs.Das öffentlich zugängliche Online-Magazin „PULS.“ ( wird mit einer freien Blog-Software (wordpress Version 3.1.3. realisiert und von einer Online-Redakteurin konzipiert und geschrieben. Die Beiträge entstehen nach eigenen Recherchen sowie aus Anregungen und Gesprächen mit verschiedenen Personengruppen des Fachbereichs. Die datenschutzkonforme Auswertung der Zugriffe erfolgt über eine open-source Webanalyse-Software (Piwik. Zusätzlich werden jährlich mit dem Online-Umfrage-Tool Survey Monkey die Nutzer anonym befragt.„PULS.“ ist seit dem 14.02.2010 ununterbrochen online und hat seitdem 806 Beiträge (Stand: 27.11.2012 publiziert und wird von ca. 2400 Besuchern monatlich gelesen. Das Themenspektrum ist zentriert auf die Anliegen der Frankfurter Medizin- und Zahnmedizinstudierenden. Die enge Zusammenarbeit mit verschiedenen Gruppierungen des Fachbereichs – Dekanat, Studierende und Lehrende – garantiert darüber hinaus ein fachbereichs-relevantes Themenspektrum. Das Online-Magazin begleitet komplexe Projekte und Entscheidungen mit Hintergrundinformationen und kommuniziert sie verständlich. Eine jährliche Nutzer-Evaluierung zeigt eine wachsende Leserzahl und eine sehr hohe Zustimmung für das Online-Magazin, seine Inhalte und seinen Stil. Das Web 2.0-Medium „Blog“ und seine web-typische Sprache entsprechen dem Medienverhalten der Zielgruppe, d.h. den Studierenden des Fachbereichs Medizin. „PULS.“ hat sich als ein geeignetes und strategisches Instrument erwiesen, um größere Transparenz, mehr Kommunikation und letztendlich eine stärkere Identifikation der Studierenden mit ihrem Fachbereich voranzutreiben.

  18. The Cd-Sb-Al system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belotskii, D.P.; Kotsyumakha, M.P.; Lesina, L.V.; Lundich, N.S.; Makhova, M.K.; Noval' kovskii, N.F.

    1985-12-01

    This study of the Cd-Sb-Al ternary system if of interest because of the cadmium and aluminum antimonides which have semiconductor properties and have found practical applications. The authors study the physicochemical interaction in the Cd-Sb-Al system along the following cuts: CdSb-Al-Sb, CdSb-Al, Cd-A-Sb, Cd /SUB 0.5/ -Sb-Al /SUB 0.2/ Cd /SUB 0.8/ , Cd/sub 3/Al-Sb, and CdAl/sub 3/-Sb. The projection to the liquidus of the Cd-Sb-Al system has been constructed. It was determined that the separation surface of aluminum antimonide occupies a large part of the diagram, in the field of which the stratification region is located.

  19. Benefits for Military Veterans with ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapters Certified Centers and Clinics Support Groups About ALS About Us Our Research In Your Community Advocate ... Veterans Resources for Military Veterans, Families & Survivors The ALS Association is working everyday to support people with ...

  20. Vom Gewohnheitstier zur reflektierten Nutzung – Ein Diskussionsanstoß über Betriebssysteme und Programmnutzung nachzudenken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Berger

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Das Nutzungsverhalten bei digitalen Medien entspringt mehr der Gewohnheit als dem vorhandenen Angebot. Ein kleiner Einblick in die Philosophie und Möglichkeiten der Nutzung von Freier Software.

  1. Produktion von Screencasts mit Screencast-O-Matic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Studencki

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wenn Bilder manchmal mehr als 1000 Worte sagen, wie schaut es dann mit Videos aus? Eine Beschreibung der praktischen Nutzung eines Online Tools für Screenrecording (Bildschirmaufnahme und Webpublikation (Youtube zur einfachen Erstellung audiovisueller Unterrichtsmaterialien.

  2. Rethinking ALS: the FUS about TDP-43

    OpenAIRE

    Lagier-Tourenne, Clotilde; Cleveland, Don W.

    2009-01-01

    Mutation in TDP-43, a DNA/RNA binding protein, causes an inherited form of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Combination of its mislocalization in most incidences of sporadic ALS (as well as other neurodegenerative disorders) with discovery of ALS-causing mutations in FUS/TLS, another DNA/RNA binding protein, has initiated a paradigm shift in understanding ALS pathogenesis. TDP-43 and FUS/TLS have striking structural and functional similarities, implicating alterations in RNA processing as...

  3. Premelting of Al nonperfect (111) surface

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, F. L.; Cheng, X G; Lu, W. J.; Yu, W. Y.

    2009-01-01

    Melting behaviors of aluminum (111) perfect/nonperfect surfaces, characterized by structure ordering parameter, have been investigated by classical molecular dynamics simulation with embedded atom method potential. Al (111) perfect surface has a superheating temperature above bulk Al melting point Tm, in this work, by about 80 K. Al nonperfect (111) surface has somewhat different local lattice structure from that on (111) perfect surface. Al nonperfect (111) surfaces tempt t...

  4. Aluminium distribution in ZSM-5 revisited: The role of Al-Al interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Salvador, A. Rabdel, E-mail: rabdel@imre.oc.uh.cu [Group of Materials Developed by Design, Division of Chemistry and Technology of Materials, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering (IMRE), University of Havana, Havana 10400 (Cuba); Grau-Crespo, Ricardo; Gray, Aileen E.; Lewis, Dewi W. [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London, WC1H OAJ (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-15

    We present a theoretical study of the distribution of Al atoms in zeolite ZSM-5 with Si/Al=47, where we focus on the role of Al-Al interactions rather than on the energetics of Al/Si substitutions at individual sites. Using interatomic potential methods, we evaluate the energies of the full set of symmetrically independent configurations of Al siting in a Si{sub 94}Al{sub 2}O{sub 192} cell. The equilibrium Al distribution is determined by the interplay of two factors: the energetics of the Al/Si substitution at an individual site, which tends to populate particular T sites (e.g., the T14 site), and the Al-Al interaction, which at this Si/Al maximises Al-Al distances in general agreement with Dempsey's rule. However, it is found that the interaction energy changes approximately as the inverse of the square of the distance between the two Al atoms, rather than the inverse of the distance expected if this were merely charge repulsion. Moreover, we find that the anisotropic nature of the framework density plays an important role in determining the magnitude of the interactions, which are not simply dependent on Al-Al distances. - Graphical abstract: Role of Al-Al interactions in high silica ZSM-5 is shown to be anisotropic in nature and not dependent solely on Coulombic interactions. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Si-Al distribution in ZSM-5 is revisited, stressing the role of the Al-Al interaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coulomb interactions are not the key factors controlling the Al siting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anisotropy of the framework is identified as a source of departure from Dempsey's rule.

  5. Bipolar characteristics of AlGaN/AlN/GaN/AlGaN double heterojunction structure with AlGaN as buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •2DEG and 2DHG coexist in the AlGaN/AlN/GaN/AlGaN DH-structure. •The sheet densities of 2DEG and 2DHG vary with buffer Al content and GaN thickness. •The conditions for the disappearance of 2DHG are discussed. •Increasing buffer Al content provides better electron confinement. •Dislocation scattering is reduced in the DH-structure. -- Abstract: This is a theoretical study of AlGaN/AlN/GaN/AlGaN double heterojunction (DH) structure with AlGaN as buffer layer. Our calculation shows that as the buffer Al content increases, though two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) sheet density decreases, the channel back-barrier caused by polarization-induced electric field in GaN provides better electron confinement. And under certain conditions the DH-structure shows bipolar characteristics, with an additional two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) formed at GaN/AlGaN interface. The influence of the buffer Al content and GaN channel thickness on the 2DEG and 2DHG sheet densities are investigated, and the conditions for the disappearance of 2DHG are discussed. Also, the mobility inhibited by dislocation scattering is enhanced in DH-structure due to the enhancement of screening effect of the 2DEG

  6. Auf dem Weg zu mehr Gleichheit? Sozialpolitik in Brasilien und Chile nach dem „Linksruck“

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Fischer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In dem Beitrag werden die sozialpolitischen Initiativen in der Regierungsperiode von Michelle Bachelet (2006–2011 in Chile und von Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (2003–2011 in Brasilien dargestellt. Beide sozialdemokratischen Regierungen markieren im jeweiligen nationalen Kontext einen Linksruck. Die Untersuchung geht der Frage nach, ob die Reformen eine gleichheitsfördernde Wirkung entfaltet haben und einen Bruch mit neoliberalen Paradigmen in der Sozialpolitik bedeuten. Um die aktuellen Veränderungen einschätzen zu können, werden diese in einen größeren historischen und politökonomischen Kontext eingebettet. Die Analyse der Wohlfahrtsregime der beiden Länder stützt sich auf den institutionalistischen Zugang von Esping-Andersen. Mit Bezug auf Kategorien wie Universalisierung, De-Kommodifizierung/Anti-Wert, De-Familialisierung und Informalität wagen die AutorInnen am Ende eine Einschätzung, inwiefern unter Lula und Bachelet sozialdemokratische Politik betrieben wurde.

  7. More effectivity in the gas supply through network codes; Mehr Effektivitaet bei der Gasversorgung durch Netzkodizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremer, Andreas [EVB Energy Solutions GmbH, Velbert (Germany). EVB Akademie

    2013-02-15

    Already in the year 2003, the European Commission has regulated the complete opening of the market by means of the regulation 2003/55/EG in order to develop the European Single Market positively. Practically, in Germany industrial customers can freely choose their gas suppliers since 1st July, 2004, while private customers can choose their gas suppliers since 1st July, 2007. The regulation 2003/55/EG is valid for the gas market inclusive natural gas, liquefied natural gas (LNG), biogas, gas from biomass and any other types of gas which can be transported through the natural gas distribution system.

  8. Das Informatik-Forum Stuttgart - mehr Dialog zwischen Theorie und Anwendung notwendig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieber, Ludwig

    Mit der Gründung des Informatik- Forum Stuttgart wird seit 1996 eine Plattform angeboten, die den Dialog zwischen der universitären Forschung, der Informatikausbildung und der IT-Wirtschaft in der Region Stuttgart intensivieren soll. In der Informatik hat sich eine Lücke zwischen Theorie und Anwendung entwickelt. Es ist nicht erkennbar, dass diese Lücke kleiner wird, eher das Gegenteil zeichnet sich ab. Verglichen mit anderen Branchen besteht die Gefahr, dass Anwender wesentlich später von Erkenntnissen aus der Forschung profitieren. Der entstandene Interaktionsstau zwischen Theorie und Anwendung der Informatik sollte abgebaut werden. An einigen Beispielen wird aufgezeigt, wo das besonders wichtig erscheint.

  9. Das Human Factors Projekt im Wilhelminenspital - mehr Sicherheit in der Medizin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lass H

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available "Aus Fehlern lernt man" ? jedoch nur dann, wenn dieses Thema auch offen angesprochen wird. Um die Patientensicherheit an der Gynäkologisch- Geburtshilflichen Abteilung des Wilhelminenspitals zu optimieren, kommen seit nunmehr zwei Jahren Methoden der Human-Factors-Forschung zur Anwendung. Diese Sicherheitsinstrumente werden in der Luftfahrt bereits seit Jahrzehnten erfolgreich angewandt und sind zum Teil sogar gesetzlich vorgeschrieben. Zentrales Anliegen ist hierbei die genaue Analyse der sicherheitsrelevanten Abläufe und somit ein kritisches Hinterfragen der täglichen Routine. Denn bevor ein Mensch einen Fehler begehen kann, muß er zuerst die passenden Voraussetzungen dafür vorfinden: im System. Der Einsatz von Analysegruppen und Checklisten bietet in diesem Zusammenhang die Möglichkeit, zum einen die Genese von Fehlern exakt zu überprüfen und zum anderen mit Hilfe eines klaren Leitfadens Unsicherheiten bereits im Vorfeld zu reduzieren. Höchstleistungen in der Medizin sind nur dann möglich, wenn hochqualifizierte Menschen unter ebenso qualitativ hochwertigen Bedingungen zusammenarbeiten können. Effiziente und wertschätzende Kommunikation im Team bildet die Grundlage für eine solche Zusammenarbeit. Und genau hier setzt der Human-Factors-Gedanke an: In einer Arbeitsumwelt, die von enormer Verantwortung, Stress und Leistungsdruck geprägt ist, muß der wichtigste Sicherheitsfaktor gestärkt und gesichert werden: der Mensch.

  10. Risked a lot and won a lot more; Viel gewagt, mehr gewonnen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Torsten

    2013-07-05

    What do 7,300 inhabitants with a 90 hectare great ammunition depot of the Bundeswehr? They build a bioenergy park. This courageous decision not only attracts hordes of visitors to Saerbeck, it also provides for regular incomes. [German] Was fangen 7.300 Einwohner mit einem 90 ha grossen Munitionsdepot der Bundeswehr an? Sie bauen einen Bioenergiepark. Die mutige Entscheidung lockt nicht nur Heerscharen von Besuchern nach Saerbeck, sie sorgt auch fuer regelmaessige Einnahmen.

  11. Biogas - more courage to compete in the market; Biogas. Mehr Mut zum Markt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasch, Karl-Heinz [EnD-I AG, Halle (Saale) (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    Biogas has excellent prospects for becoming the fastest growing renewable energy resource in Germany over the coming decades. Its great versatility in application (electricity, heat, drive energy), and its good storability open up a wide array of opportunities. However, the biogas industry will harm itself if it continues to insist on the enactment of a renewable gas feed law with statutory remuneration rates. This would not only curb the profit opportunities that result from the great versatility of biologically produced gas but would even create economic risks. What the market really needs on the other hand is nondiscriminatory access for biomethane suppliers to the German natural gas grid and their participation in the market as equal partners.

  12. Fire-detection systems: Microprocessors for increased safety. Brandmeldesysteme: Mehr Sicherheit durch Mikroprozessoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderhub, W. (Zettler AG, Naefels (Switzerland))

    1990-06-01

    With the help of microprocessor engineering a fire detection system has been developed which does not have the disadvantage of false alarm occurring with conventional fire detectors. A microcomputer placed in the central office controls four transmission lines with up to 32 sensors. These do not give an alarm signal any more but a signal which is analogous to the fire parameter, the measured value. The measured value depends on the environmental conditions such as atmospheric humidity, temperature, atmospheric pressure, and aerosole content of the air at the location of the sensor. Thus also fire fighting systems can be centrally controlled (shutting of fire doors, opening of smoke vents, automatic control of extinguishing systems, disconnection of the machines in the area at risk). (BWI).

  13. More PV systems in noise protection walls; Mehr Gehoer fuer PV im Laermschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2009-07-01

    Photovoltaic systems are rarely installed on noise protection walls although according to the EEG they would receive the same reimbursement as roof-mounted systems. Politicians and officials tend to neglect the issue, but some interested companies and administrative staff members are making attempts to promote the combination of photovoltaic systems and noise protection walls along roadways and railways. (orig.)

  14. The effects of boron in TiAl/Ti3Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors discuss the TiAl/Ti3Al interfacial misfit dislocations structures investigated by TEM in Ti-45Al alloy and Ti-45Al/TiB2 composite. For TiAl with c/a = 1.02, only a single set of misfit dislocation arrays are crystallographically possible; these were observed in Ti-45Al alloy. However, the observation of three sets of misfit dislocation arrays in the Ti-45Al/TiB2 composite suggests that the occupation of octahedral sites in the TiAl structure by excess boron was responsible for a decrease in the c/a ratio leading to an increased fcc character of the TiAl at the TiAl/Ti3Al interface

  15. Systems Engineering Techniques for ALS Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, Luis F.; Drysdale, Alan E.; Jones, Harry; Levri, Julie A.

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Life Support (ALS) Metric is the predominant tool for predicting the cost of ALS systems. Metric goals for the ALS Program are daunting, requiring a threefold increase in the ALS Metric by 2010. Confounding the problem, the rate new ALS technologies reach the maturity required for consideration in the ALS Metric and the rate at which new configurations are developed is slow, limiting the search space and potentially giving the perspective of a ALS technology, the ALS Metric may remain elusive. This paper is a sequel to a paper published in the proceedings of the 2003 ICES conference entitled, "Managing to the metric: an approach to optimizing life support costs." The conclusions of that paper state that the largest contributors to the ALS Metric should be targeted by ALS researchers and management for maximum metric reductions. Certainly, these areas potentially offer large potential benefits to future ALS missions; however, the ALS Metric is not the only decision-making tool available to the community. To facilitate decision-making within the ALS community a combination of metrics should be utilized, such as the Equivalent System Mass (ESM)-based ALS metric, but also those available through techniques such as life cycle costing and faithful consideration of the sensitivity of the assumed models and data. Often a lack of data is cited as the reason why these techniques are not considered for utilization. An existing database development effort within the ALS community, known as OPIS, may provide the opportunity to collect the necessary information to enable the proposed systems analyses. A review of these additional analysis techniques is provided, focusing on the data necessary to enable these. The discussion is concluded by proposing how the data may be utilized by analysts in the future.

  16. DE LA BIOPOLÍTICA AL CAMPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Benente

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se realiza una breve aproximación a los conceptos de biopolítica y tanatopolítica. Para ello se trabajará, principalmente, con las obras de Michel Foucault, Roberto Esposito y Giorgio Agamben, intentando relevar tanto coincidencias como disidencias en la reflexión que los autores hacen sobre la temática. Luego de realizar una aproximación conceptual a la biopolítica, se mostrará que mientras para Foucault y para Espósito el surgimiento del fenómeno se da con la modernidad, para Agamben su origen es correlativo al origen mismo de la soberanía. Finalmente, y tras mostrar la coincidencia de la biopolítica con la tanatopolítica ¿para lo cual se profundizará en algunas reflexiones aportadas por Roberto Esposito- se abordará la problemática de los campos tal como lo hace Giorgio Agamben.

  17. DOLOR LUMBAR RELACIONADO AL EMBARAZO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Munjin L

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El dolor lumbar ha sido considerado la complicación más frecuente del embarazo, a pesar de ello, su etiopatogenia aún es controvertida. La prevalencia en nuestro medio es desconocida, y el tratamiento se basa para muchos médicos solo en el reposo, medida que no tiene sustento en la literatura. En esta revisión, nos centramos en la historia clínica, terminología, mecanismos fisiológicos teóricamente implicados, factores de riesgo, prevalencia y proponemos un enfoque de tratamiento del dolor lumbar asociado al embarazoThe low back pain has been considered the most frequent complication of pregnancy, despite this fact, etiology and pathophysiology is unclear at present time. The prevalence in our country is unknown, and the treatment is based on in rest-periods for the most physicians, instead literature rationality. In our research, based in the literature, we focus in the history, terminology, theoretical physiological mechanism, risk factors, prevalence and we propose pathways for treatment of pregnancy-related low back pain

  18. y los obstáculos al cambio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Cadena Inostroza

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo analiza la administración pública a la luz de los cambios políticos. Parte del marco del institucionalismo histórico presentando a las instituciones como conjuntos de pautas de actuación que condicionan a los actores incluso más allá de su voluntad. Las transformaciones políticas en México no se han traducido en acciones que ofrezcan un trato igualitario a los ciudadanos frente al poder público con una más eficiente administración. Ésta se conformó históricamente como mecanismo clientelar que si bien permitió el funcionamiento del poder, limitó la eficiencia. Los cambios estructurales en el país son condición necesaria pero no suficiente para la transformación política democrática, en consecuencia ha de tomarse en cuenta la reforma de la administración pública.

  19. Biodigestor: una aproximación al diseño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Mario Rodríguez Devis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available EI estudio y evaluación de los Sistemas de Biogas forma parte de la Electiva Técnica "Sistemas Alternativos de Energía", ofrecida por la Facultad de Ingeniería. EI presente artículo es un producto de dicho curso e intenta ser informativo, estando centra do en el proceso del diseño preliminar. Las ecuaciones han sido extraídas de diversas fuentes y se pretende dar las pautas de evaluación técnica de cualquier Biodigestor, sin tocar los problemas prácticos y de experiencia que de ello se deriva. Agradezco la colaboración prestada por los estudiantes Guillermo Garcés y Pedro A. Cuervo y en especial al Ingeniero Arturo Martínez R. por su participación en la parte correspondiente a Biogas en el curso mencionado.

  20. Aspectos Introductorios al Crédito Documentario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Rodríguez Fernández

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available En el comercio internacional uno de los temas de mayor importancia para los agentes del mercado es la incorporación de mecanismos contractuales que les blinden de seguridad y garantía suficientes de que su contraparte cumplirá lo prometido. Las cartas de crédito contribuyen a ese propósito. Al crearse como mecanismos que confieren a ambas partes un alto grado de seguridad de que las condiciones pactadas en el contrato internacional, especialmente el de compraventa, serán cumplidas por cada una de las partes, todo, gracias a la participación o intermediación de una institución financiera, se constituyen en instrumentos necesarios para el normal desarrollo del comercio internacional. El presente texto estudia, a manera de introducción, el crédito documentario valiéndose de la abundante doctrina y jurisprudencia que en la materia se ha generado en el ámbito local e internacional alrededor de la figura.

  1. Authors, subjects and fame in the Kit?b al-Fihrist by Ibn al-Nad?m : the case of al-?abar? and al-??l?

    OpenAIRE

    OSTI, LETIZIA

    1999-01-01

    This paper suggests an approach to the study of the Kitab al-fihrist by Ibn al-Nadim (d. 386/995), which takes into account his criteria of priority and order within the book’s structure, when analysing the information the author provides about a scholar or group of scholars. The case studies for the present paper are Ab? Bakr al-Suli (d. 335-947) and Muhammad b. Jarir al-Tabari (d. 310-923), two prominent scholars who lived one generation before Ibn al-Nadim, and whose biographical informati...

  2. The muonic hydrogen lamb shift experiment: lifetime and population of the ?p(2S) state

    OpenAIRE

    Ludhova, Livia; Schaller, Lukas; Kottmann, Franz; Mulhauser, Françoise

    2006-01-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit befasst sich mit dem Lambshift-Experiment an myonischem Wasserstoff (?p), welches am Paul Scherrer Institut in Villigen durchgeführt wird. Es hat zum Ziel, die 2S — 2P Energiedifferenz in ?p-Atomen zu messen und daraus den mittleren quadratischen Ladungs-Radius des Protons (rms-Radius rp) mit einer Genauigkeit von 1 Promille zu bestimmen, d.h. um eine Grössenordnung besser als bisher. Dieser Radius wird mehr und mehr als eine der grundlegenden Eigenschaften des einfachs...

  3. Measurements of tunneling barrier thicknesses for Nb/Al–AlOx/Nb tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We estimate the average barrier height (?) of Nb/Al–AlOx/Nb tunnel junctions. • Dependence of the AlOx thickness (dAlOx) on O2 exposure was described. • The thicknesses of AlOx barriers were measured using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). • X-ray Reflection (XRR) measurements and simulations were used to verify the AlOx thickness. - Abstract: The tunnel barrier thicknesses of Nb/Al–AlOx/Nb tunnel junctions were measured using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray Reflection (XRR). By investigating the barrier thickness dependence of current density Jc, the barrier height for Nb/Al–AlOx/Nb junctions was calculated. Nb/Al–AlOx/Nb junctions with different Jc were fabricated by controlling the O2 exposure in Al oxidation. The junctions show good tunneling properties with subgap leakage factor Vm larger than 30 mV in the range of Jc from tens of A/cm2 to several kA/cm2. TEM images showed clear interface and indicated the AlOx thicknesses ranging from 0.8 nm to 1.9 nm, and the average barrier height was estimated to be 0.17 eV for Nb/Al–AlOx/Nb tunnel junctions

  4. Joining of Al-Al micro foils by ultrasonic friction welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultrasonic friction welding (UFW) method was employed to realize the joining of 20-25 ?m thick Al-Al foils without the introduction of difference to parents materials, since the conventional UFW puts more focus on large scale of bulk metal materials. The monomer and post-joining Al foils were analyzed and compared including surface roughness, thickness uniformity, and interface characteristics by using white light interfere profiler (WLI), optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The experimental results indicate that the high quality Al-Al foils components and one kind of Al-Al device are well prepared by our improved UFW. (authors)

  5. Atom probe analysis of AlN interlayers in AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atom probe tomography was used to characterize AlN interlayers in AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructures grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE), NH3-based molecular beam epitaxy (NH3-MBE), and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The PAMBE-grown AlN interlayer had the highest purity, with nearly 100% of group-III sites occupied by Al. The group-III site concentrations of Al for interlayers grown by NH3-MBE and MOCVD were ?85% and ?47%, respectively. Hall measurements were performed to determine the two-dimensional electron gas mobility and sheet concentration. Sheet concentrations were ?25%–45% higher with molecular beam epitaxy than with MOCVD, and these results matched well with atom probe data.

  6. Insostenibilidad: aproximación al conflicto socioecológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Lobera

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La preocupación por el impacto humano sobre el entorno está documentada desde la Antigüedad. Situaciones de insostenibilidad han conducido en varios momentos de la historia a retrocesos en las condiciones de vida de la población. Si bien el impacto ambiental de las culturas preindustriales se encontraba restringido fundamentalmente al ámbito local, con la revolución industrial las consecuencias de la presión sobre el medio ambiente crecieron exponencialmente, sobrepasando la localidad para alcanzar dimensiones globales. La búsqueda de un estadio o un desarrollo que sea sostenible implica la necesidad de comprender el conflicto socio-ecológico en su perspectiva histórica. Observamos que sus dimensiones básicas están presentes desde la etapa eotécnica hasta nuestros días. En el centro del debate se encuentra la necesidad de comprender la génesis de la ideología del progreso y del dominio de la naturaleza. La sostenibilidad es, en definitiva, una búsqueda compleja que implica una corrección de las causas de la insostenibilidad. La sensibilidad al riesgo y a la crisis de insostenibilidad se ha incrementado de forma considerable, en un momento en que se observa una cierta pérdida de legitimidad de la política representativa. La participación es, hoy más que nunca, uno de los imperativos de la búsqueda de la sostenibilidad.The concern about the human impact on the environment is documented since ancient times. Situations of unsustainability led at various times in history to setbacks in the living conditions of the population. While the environmental impact of preindustrial cultures was limited primarily to local level, with the industrial revolution the consequences of the pressure on the environment grew exponentially, surpassing the locality to achieve global dimensions. The search for a sustainable stadium or development leads to the need to understand the socio-ecological conflict in its historical perspective. We note that their basic dimensions are present from the eotechnic phase until today. At the center of the debate is the need to understand the genesis of the ideology of progress and the domain of nature. Environmental conflicts in preindustrial cultures are often linked to agricultural production, waste from the activities of some guilds, sanitation problems in cities and energy demand. Sustainability is a complex search that involves a correction of the causes of unsustainability. Sensitivity to risk and to the unsustainability crisis has increased considerably, and a loss of legitimacy of representative politics is perceived. Participation is, more than ever, one of the imperatives of the search for sustainability.

  7. Insostenibilidad: aproximación al conflicto socioecológico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Josep, Lobera.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La preocupación por el impacto humano sobre el entorno está documentada desde la Antigüedad. Situaciones de insostenibilidad han conducido en varios momentos de la historia a retrocesos en las condiciones de vida de la población. Si bien el impacto ambiental de las culturas preindustriales se encont [...] raba restringido fundamentalmente al ámbito local, con la revolución industrial las consecuencias de la presión sobre el medio ambiente crecieron exponencialmente, sobrepasando la localidad para alcanzar dimensiones globales. La búsqueda de un estadio o un desarrollo que sea sostenible implica la necesidad de comprender el conflicto socio-ecológico en su perspectiva histórica. Observamos que sus dimensiones básicas están presentes desde la etapa eotécnica hasta nuestros días. En el centro del debate se encuentra la necesidad de comprender la génesis de la ideología del progreso y del dominio de la naturaleza. La sostenibilidad es, en definitiva, una búsqueda compleja que implica una corrección de las causas de la insostenibilidad. La sensibilidad al riesgo y a la crisis de insostenibilidad se ha incrementado de forma considerable, en un momento en que se observa una cierta pérdida de legitimidad de la política representativa. La participación es, hoy más que nunca, uno de los imperativos de la búsqueda de la sostenibilidad. Abstract in english The concern about the human impact on the environment is documented since ancient times. Situations of unsustainability led at various times in history to setbacks in the living conditions of the population. While the environmental impact of preindustrial cultures was limited primarily to local leve [...] l, with the industrial revolution the consequences of the pressure on the environment grew exponentially, surpassing the locality to achieve global dimensions. The search for a sustainable stadium or development leads to the need to understand the socio-ecological conflict in its historical perspective. We note that their basic dimensions are present from the eotechnic phase until today. At the center of the debate is the need to understand the genesis of the ideology of progress and the domain of nature. Environmental conflicts in preindustrial cultures are often linked to agricultural production, waste from the activities of some guilds, sanitation problems in cities and energy demand. Sustainability is a complex search that involves a correction of the causes of unsustainability. Sensitivity to risk and to the unsustainability crisis has increased considerably, and a loss of legitimacy of representative politics is perceived. Participation is, more than ever, one of the imperatives of the search for sustainability.

  8. Novel TARDBP mutations in Nordic ALS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiang, Huei-Hsin; Andersen, Peter M

    2012-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative syndrome primarily affecting the upper and lower motor neurons. A characteristic neuropathological finding in ALS patients is neuronal inclusions positive for TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43). Subsequently, mutations in the gene encoding TDP-43, TARDBP, proved to be involved in the development of ALS. We thus sequenced TARDBP in 177 Nordic ALS patients and found two previously reported (p.A90V and p.S379P) and two novel (p.G357R and p.R361T) missense variations in three familial ALS patients. The p.A90V and p.G357R variations were detected in the same patient and p.R361T was present in a family with both ALS and frontotemporal dementia-ALS. None of the missense variations were present in 200 neurologically healthy controls. However, p.A90V has also been reported in healthy individuals by others. Thus, the data suggest that these variations are rare and p.G357R, p.R361T and p.S379P are likely pathogenic but further functional characterization is needed to prove their pathogenicity. The mutation frequency in TARDBP in Nordic ALS patients was 1.7%. The ALS cohort was highly selected for a positive family history suggesting that mutations in TARDBP generally are a rare cause of ALS in Nordic countries.

  9. Casting fabrication of in situ Al3Ti-Al composites and their wear behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Tijun

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The Al3Ti intermetallic reinforced pure Al, Al-13Si and Al-17Cu matrix composites were prepared by casting method. Their microstructures and dry sliding wear behaviors at room temperature and 100? were particularly investigated. The results indicated that the Al3Ti phases in these composites were all in fl aky form. But the aspect ratio of the Al3Ti platelets decreased with the increase of Ti content in the pure Al, Al-Cu and Al-Si matrix composites, in order of effectiveness. The effect of Si on the Al3Ti morphology seemed to be greater than that of Cu. The distributions of the Al3Ti platelets were different in the different matrix composites, leading to different grain refi ning effects. Except for the sub-wear regime of adhesive wear, the plastic deformation induced wear was a dominant wear mechanism for all of the composites at room temperature and 100?. Increasing the testing temperature, decreasing the Al3Ti content or the hardness of materials could enhance these two wear mechanisms, and thus increase the wear rate. The Al-Cu matrix composite had the best wear resistance, while the pure Al matrix composite showed the worst for the same Ti content. These differences or changes were attributed to the differences in materials’ hardness or the strengthening effects of the Al3Ti platelets.

  10. Al-Si/Al2O3 in situ composite prepared by displacement reaction of CuO/Al system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jing

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Al2O3 particle-reinforced ZL109 composite was prepared by in situ reaction between CuO and Al. The microstructure was observed by means of OM, SEM and TEM. The Al2O3 particles in sub-micron sizes distribute uniformly in the matrix, and the Cu displaced from the in situ reaction forms net-like alloy phases with other alloy elements. The hardness and the tensile strength of the composites at room temperature have a slight increase as compared to that of the matrix. However, the tensile strength at 350 ? has reached 90.23 MPa, or 16.92 MPa higher than that of the matrix. The mechanism of the reaction in the CuO/Al system was studied by using of differential scanning calorimetry(DSC and thermodynamic calculation. The reaction between CuO and Al involves two steps. First, CuO reacts with Al to form Cu2O and Al2O3 at the melting temperature of the matrix alloy, and second, Cu2O reacts with Al to form Cu and Al2O3 at a higher temperature. At ZL109 casting temperature of 750–780 ?, the second step can also take place because of the effect of exothermic reaction of the first step.

  11. Adrenoleucodistrofia ligada al cromosoma X

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elsa, Tangari; Juan Carlos, Rampa; Aida, Lemes; Magdalena, Piñeyrúa; Leopoldo, Peluffo; Ariadna, Mauri.

    Full Text Available Resumen La adrenoleucodistrofia es un trastorno genéticamente determinado, ligado al cromosoma X, que involucra principalmente la sustancia blanca cerebral y la corteza adrenal. Se asocia con una acumulación anormal de ácidos grasos saturados de cadena muy larga en tejidos y fluidos corporales, cuya [...] demostración en plasma es el "test" diagnóstico. Se presenta un caso clínico en el que un inicio brusco hizo pensar inicialmente en infección del sistema nervioso central, instalándose posteriormente síntomas característicos. Se destaca la importancia de una evaluación genealógica, clínica y paraclínica de los individuos en situación de riesgo, para clasificarlos y brindar en cada situación particular asesoramiento genético adecuado. Abstract in english Summary Adrenoleukodystrophy is an X-linked genetically determined disorder that involves mainly the nervous system, white matter and adrenal cortex. It is associated with the abnormal accumulation of saturated very long chain fatty acids in tissues and body fluid. The demonstration of these fatty a [...] cids excess in plasma is the most frequently used diagnostic test. We present a clinic case that from its sudden beginning made initially think of central nervous system infection, installing later characteristics symptoms. We remark the importance of a genealogical, clinical and paraclinical evaluation of the individual in situation of risk to classify and give in each particular situation tha suitable professional advice.

  12. DOLOR LUMBAR RELACIONADO AL EMBARAZO

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Milan, Munjin L; Francisco, llabaca G; Juan, Rojas B.

    Full Text Available El dolor lumbar ha sido considerado la complicación más frecuente del embarazo, a pesar de ello, su etiopatogenia aún es controvertida. La prevalencia en nuestro medio es desconocida, y el tratamiento se basa para muchos médicos solo en el reposo, medida que no tiene sustento en la literatura. En es [...] ta revisión, nos centramos en la historia clínica, terminología, mecanismos fisiológicos teóricamente implicados, factores de riesgo, prevalencia y proponemos un enfoque de tratamiento del dolor lumbar asociado al embarazo Abstract in english The low back pain has been considered the most frequent complication of pregnancy, despite this fact, etiology and pathophysiology is unclear at present time. The prevalence in our country is unknown, and the treatment is based on in rest-periods for the most physicians, instead literature rationali [...] ty. In our research, based in the literature, we focus in the history, terminology, theoretical physiological mechanism, risk factors, prevalence and we propose pathways for treatment of pregnancy-related low back pain

  13. The wobbler mouse, an ALS animal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moser, Jakob Maximilian; Bigini, Paolo; Schmitt-John, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This review article is focused on the research progress made utilizing the wobbler mouse as animal model for human motor neuron diseases, especially the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The wobbler mouse develops progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons and shows striking similarities to ALS. The cellular effects of the wobbler mutation, cellular transport defects, neurofilament aggregation, neuronal hyperexcitability and neuroinflammation closely resemble human ALS. Now, 57...

  14. CALCULUL CINETOSTATIC AL MECANISMELOR PLANETARE CILINDRICE

    OpenAIRE

    P?un ANTONESCU; Ovidiu ANTONESCU

    2012-01-01

    În lucrare se prezint? o metod? analitic? pentru calculul cinetostatic al mecanismului planetarmonomobil cu dou? ro?i din?ate centrale. Se consider? mai întâi cazul general al schemelor cinematice cu dou?ro?i din?ate solidare tip satelit, în dou? variante practice (multiplicator ?i reductor de tura?ie). Este men?ionatcazul particular al mecanismelor planetare cu o singur? roat? satelit cu angrenare dubl? (exterioar? ?iinterioar?). Pe baza modelului de analiz? cinetostatic? a mecanismului plan...

  15. Juan Goytisolo en al aule de ELE

    OpenAIRE

    Zubia Fernandez, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Al integrar en el aula de ELE artículos periodísticos sobre un determinado escritor como una práctica de expresión oral y escrita, se aproxima al alumno principiante de ELE al universo literario del autor escogido con el propósito de entrelazar la enseñanza de la lengua y la de la(s) literatura(s) en lengua española. Con este enfoque se estimula la capacidad lectora del alumno en la lengua meta ya que los textos periodísticos constituyen modelos ejemplares para este propósito d...

  16. The wobbler mouse, an ALS animal model

    OpenAIRE

    Moser, Jakob Maximilian; Bigini, Paolo; Schmitt-John, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This review article is focused on the research progress made utilizing the wobbler mouse as animal model for human motor neuron diseases, especially the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The wobbler mouse develops progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons and shows striking similarities to ALS. The cellular effects of the wobbler mutation, cellular transport defects, neurofilament aggregation, neuronal hyperexcitability and neuroinflammation closely resemble human ALS. Now,...

  17. Investigation on liquidus of Al-rich corner of Al-Mg-La system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, C.; Xing, Y.; Qian, J.; Ye, Y.

    1983-12-18

    The liquidus of the Al-rich corner in the phase diagram of the Al-Mg-La system has been investigated by means of thermal, metallographic and X-ray diffraction techniques. The composition of all samples was determined accurately by chemical analysis. It was found that the pseudo-ternary system Al-Mg5Al8-LaAl4 is of the ternary eutectic type. There are three surfaces corresponding to the primary crystallization of alpha-Al, Mg5Al8 and LaAl4, respectively, and three univariant lines related to the secondary crystallization. The temperature of the ternary eutectic, composed of 11.3 wt-pct La, 62.9 wt-pct Al and 25.8 wt-pct Mg, was determined to be 445 C.

  18. Chemical mixing at "Al on Fe" and "Fe on Al" interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süle, P.; Kaptás, D.; Bujdosó, L.; Horváth, Z. E.; Nakanishi, A.; Balogh, J.

    2015-10-01

    The chemical mixing at the "Al on Fe" and "Fe on Al" interfaces was studied by molecular dynamics simulations of the layer growth and by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The concentration distribution along the layer growth direction was calculated for different crystallographic orientations, and atomically sharp "Al on Fe" interfaces were found when Al grows over (001) and (110) oriented Fe layers. The Al/Fe(111) interface is also narrow as compared to the intermixing found at the "Fe on Al" interfaces for any orientation. Conversion electron Mössbauer measurements of trilayers—Al/57Fe/Al and Al/57Fe/Ag grown simultaneously over Si(111) substrate by vacuum evaporation—support the results of the molecular dynamics calculations.

  19. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti2AlC-reinforced TiAl composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ti2AlC/TiAl composites were successfully in-situ synthesized by reaction hot pressing using Ti, Al, TiC and CNTs as starting materials. The results indicate that the as-sintered composites mainly consist of Ti2AlC and TiAl phases. The mechanical properties of the 23 wt.% Ti2AlC/TiAl composite exhibit the highest values, with a flexural strength and fracture toughness of 652.5 ± 76.8 MPa and 6.6 ± 0.5 MPa m1/2, respectively. The complex structure coupled with dispersed Ti2AlC micro-particulates is responsible for the enhancement in the strength. Toughening of the composite is mainly attributed to crack deflection, crack bridging, crack branching and pull-out of the Ti2AlC particles, as well as transgranular cracking.

  20. Effects of Al Contents on Carburization Behavior and Corrosion Resistance of TiAl Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Cui Jiao; He, Yue Hui; Ming, Xing Zu

    2015-09-01

    TiAl alloys with Al contents of 30.7, 37, 46.5, and 54.2 at.% were carburized. Corrosion resistance of the untreated and the carburized TiAl alloys was comparatively analyzed. The phase and microstructure of the carburized TiAl alloys were studied by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Electrochemical corrosion behavior of the untreated and the carburized TiAl alloys was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Experimental results indicate that different Al contents bring about distinct microstructure of the carburized layers. The lower Al content leads to the formation of the thicker binary carbides and the thinner Ti2AlC phase. Additionally, the lower Al content leads to higher corrosion resistance in the untreated and the carburized states.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of TiAl/?-Al2O3 nanocomposite by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TiAl/?-Al2O3 nanocomposite was synthesized by mechanical alloying of the Al and TiO2 powder mixture. The powder particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that the mechanochemical reaction between Al and TiO2 gradually took place through intermediate stages during milling, resulted in the formation of disordered fcc-TiAl and Al2O3 phases. The in situ processing involved two steps in which diffusion of Ti into Al is prominent. Annealing of milled product led to transition of metastable fcc-TiAl into equilibrium ?-TiAl. The crystallite size of phases in produced nanocomposite powder estimated to be about 50 nm.

  2. The impact of ?ad?th perception on disputes between ahl al-Sunnah and al-Sh?‘ah al-Im?miyyah al-Ithn? ‘Ashariyyah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Demirel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the main reasons for the controversies among legal schools in Islam revolves around the methodology of distinguishing authentic a??d?th from those of rejected ones and applying the acceptable a??d?th to different cases. This article studies ?ad?th perception in the light of this methodology to reveal the nature of disputes between ahl al-Sunnah and al-Sh?'ah al-Im?miyyah al-Ithn? 'Ashariyyah which is the biggest madhhab (school among other madh?hib apart from the ahl al-Sunnah. The disagreements among the madhhab of the ahl al-Sunnah are confined to al-fur?' (applications related to secondary issues, whereas the disputes between the Sunni and the Sh?'ah schools are based on both al-u??l (principles and al-fur?'. The main ground for this difference is their perception of ?ad?th. If this fact is overlooked, the differences between the two schools cannot be grasped appropriately.

  3. Calcium platinum aluminium, CaPtAl

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Fon Abi; Daniel Fotio; Siméon Ponou; Patrice Kenfack Tsobnang

    2011-01-01

    A preliminary X-ray study of CaPtAl has been reported previously by Hulliger [J. Alloys Compd (1993), 196, 225–228] based on X-ray powder diffraction data without structure refinement. With the present single-crystal X-ray study, we confirm the assignment of the TiNiSi type for CaPtAl, in a fully ordered inverse structure. All three atoms of the asymmetric unit have .m. site symmetry. The structure features a ?3[AlPt] open framework with a fourfold coordination of Pt by Al...

  4. DECOMPOSITION IN BINARY Al-Li ALLOYS

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Kassab, T.; MENAND, A; Auger, P.; Haasen, P.

    1989-01-01

    We have investigated the influence of aging on the morphology and phase composition of annealed Al-Li binary alloys by means of an atom probe with a multi-detection system. The influence of artifacts such as the preferential evaporation of the Li-atoms and the pile-up effects for the Al-atoms were analysed as well. Specimens of Al- 2.0 wt%Li and Al -2.9 wt%Li were solution treated and aged at 190°C and 150°C for several times. ?'-precipitates were observed by FIM and their composition as well...

  5. Cryptanalysis of Kim et al’s Two Password Authentication Schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Jiping Li; Zenggang Xiong; Yaoming Ding; Shouyin Liu

    2013-01-01

    Password authentication has been adopted as one of the most commonly used solutions in network environment to protect resources from unauthorized access. Due to its significance in building a secure communication channel, a number of password authentication protocols have been suggested over the past years. Among these schemes, Kim et al.’s schemes are very novel. In the current work, we are concerned with the security of Kim et al.’s schemes. We show that Kim et al.’s schemes are vulnerable ...

  6. n-type conductivity control of AlGaN with high Al mole fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsuno, Takuya; Liu, Yuhuai; Miyake, Hideto; Hiramatsu, Kazumasa [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mie University, 1577 Kurima machiya, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan); Li, Dabing [Satellite Venture Business Laboratory, Mie University, 1577 Kurima machiya, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan); Shibata, Tomohiko; Tanaka, Mitsuhiro [NGK Insulators, Ltd., 2-56 Suda-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, 467-8530 (Japan)

    2006-06-15

    Silicon doped Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N with high Al mole fraction was grown using epitaxial AlN as a underlying layer by low-pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. n-type conductivity control of high quality Si-doped Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N was achieved successfully. Structural, electrical and optical properties were investigated for various Al mole fractions, flow rates of silicon, and Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N thickness, respectively. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Comparison of Al samples from electrolysis production and elemental Al from colloids

    OpenAIRE

    Libuše ?ur?ová

    2005-01-01

    Sediments of specific composition and content of precipitates were found as a consequence of increased concentration of sulphate at the Quaternary groundwater. Precipitates with elemental Al0 and fibres of alloy of Si0, Fe0 and Al0 (max size of Al0 spots cca 300x100 microns) from colloids of Al2O3.nH2O from borewells at Podluží were identified by RTG analyses and SEM in more then 20 analyses. Structure of colloids of Al2O3.nH2O was verified by 27Al MAS NMR from several VIS borewells:A compari...

  8. Translate als kognitive Entitäten oder die Natürlichkeitstheorie im Kontext der sprachlichen und psychosozialen Paradigmata der mehrsprachlichen Kommunikation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Teržan Kopecky

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Jahrtausende alt ist das Gefiihl bzw. - gepaart mit Überlegungen und Reflexionen die spatere Überzeugung von Philosophen, Literaten und Denkern, dass der ins Wort gefasste Gedanke den Gedanken selbst beeinflusst, värandert, ihm zu einer neuen, wenn auch vergleichbaren Existenz verhilft, aber dennoch den intendierten Sinn in entsprechender Kombination mit alien möglichen - auch nichtsprachlichen - Faktoren zu vermitteln und an Menschen zu transportieren vermag, die uns schon dadurch mehr oder weniger nahe stehen, dass sie die natürliche, soziale und kulturelle Umwelt mit uns teilen, aber unter gewissen Voraussetzungen auch an jene, die anderen Kulturkreisen, Religionen, ja Welten (und sei es nur im Sinne von Generationen angehören.

  9. Ternary invariant point at 374°C in the three phase region AlSb-Al-Zn inside the Al-Sb-Zn ternary system

    OpenAIRE

    Klan?nik G.; Medved J.

    2011-01-01

    Al-Sb-Zn ternary system was investigated in the three phase region Al-AlSb-Zn, using differential thermal analysis (DTA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS). The position and temperature of the invariant eutectic L ? AlSb + ?-Al + ? - Zn point inside Al-AlSb-Zn region was experimentally determined. To confirm the obtained results X-ray powder diffraction analysis or XRD was also done. All result...

  10. Preparation and Thermoelectric Properties of YbAl3 Thermoelectric Materials with Excessive Al

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dan-qi; Zhao, Wen-Yu; Mu, Xin; Zhou, Hong-yu; Zhang, Qing-jie

    2015-06-01

    A method to prepare YbAl3 sample with an accurate stoichiometric ratio has been developed by a melting, quenching, annealing and spark plasma sintering (SPS) method. A series of YbAl3 thermoelectric materials with nominal compositions YbAl3+ x ( x = 0-0.3, ? x = 0.1) have been prepared using the method. We have explored the effects of the excessive Al on phase compositions, microstructure and transport properties. The quenched samples are composed of YbAl3, YbAl2, Yb, and Al. All the annealed samples are composed of main phase YbAl3 and a trace of Al; some annealed samples with x = 0 and x = 0.1 still contain a trace of YbAl2. The SPSed samples with x ? 0.1 are composed of single-phase YbAl3, though a trace of YbAl2 still occured in the SPSed sample with x = 0. The electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, power factor, thermal conductivity and ZT values are first increased with increasing x in the range of 0-0.2 and then decreased when x > 0.2. These thermoelectric properties evolutions originate from the change of densities and chemical composition induced by the excessive Al. The highest ZT value reaches 0.28 at 300 K for the SPSed sample with x = 0.2.

  11. Composition and precipitation inhomogeneities in melt-spun Al-Cu and Al-Zn ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-uniform distributions of solute content in the supersaturated ? Al matrix and inhomogeneous precipitation of metastable/stable phases have been studied in rapidly solidified Al-Cu and Al-Zn ribbons. Double peaked X-ray diffraction lines from the ? Al matrix were observed in three as-quenched Al-Cu alloys and one annealed Al-Zn alloy. For as-quenched Al-Cu ribbons, variations in composition, microstructure and precipitate density across the ribbons results from local differences in coolingrates. These differences originate from recalescence during the solidification. The double peaked diffraction lines for these alloys corresponds to two compositions of the ? Al phase with less copper solute in the topside than in the wheelside of the ribbons. Subsequently, annealing of the samples leads to inhomogeneous precipitation of the metastable ?' phase across the whole thickness of the ribbons. Such inhomogeneities do not appear in as-quenched Al-Zn alloys which are quenched into a single ? Al phase. Splitting of the diffraction lines in the annealed ribbons arises from differences in the composition of two different ? Al matrix phases. The ? Al phase between the R phase lamellae has low zinc content, while the ? Al phase where high densities of G.P. zones are retained has higher zinc concentration. (orig.)

  12. Grain refining mechanism in the Al/Al–Ti–B system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al–Ti–B is the most widely used grain refiner for many Al alloys. However, the precise mechanism of grain refinement is still not clear after 60 years of intensive research. This work aims to further our understanding on the grain refining mechanism involving Al–Ti–B-based grain refiners. Extensive high-resolution electron microscopy investigation has confirmed the existence of a Ti-rich monolayer on the (0 0 0 1) TiB2 surface, which is most likely to be a (1 1 2) Al3Ti two-dimensional compound (2DC). Further experimental investigation was carried out to understand the potency of TiB2 particles and the stability of the Al3Ti 2DC. Our results showed that the potency of TiB2 particles is significantly increased by the formation of a monolayer of Al3Ti 2DC on their surface. The Al3Ti 2DC forms at the liquid–Al/TiB2 interface in concentrated Al–Ti solutions, but dissolves in dilute Al–Ti solutions, although the kinetics of both the formation and dissolution of Al3Ti 2DC are relatively sluggish. Effective grain refinement by the Al–5Ti–1B grain refiner is directly attributed to the enhanced potency of TiB2 particles with the Al3Ti 2DC and sufficient free Ti solute in the melt after grain refiner addition to achieve the columnar-to-equiaxed transition

  13. De las fuentes al público

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lisbeth, Fog.

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available A responsabilidade social do jornalista científico se inicia com a abordagem de suas fontes, passa pela redação de seu texto e termina com o impacto que este gera em sua audiência. Suas fontes são a matéria prima. Fazer as perguntas adequadas às fontes adequadas, para conseguir a informação que mais [...] se aproxime à realidade, é o desafio do jornalista que divulga a ciência. O texto discute os conceitos de verdade científica e verdade jornalística, e fala sobre as diferenças e as semelhanças entre científicos e jornalistas, para concluir fazendo uma reflexão ao exercício da reportagem em ciência, onde tanto as fontes como a necessidade de conhecer o perfil do público que tem acesso a nossa informação são elementos chave. Abstract in spanish La responsabilidad social del periodista científico se inicia con el abordaje de sus fuentes, pasa por la redacción de su texto y termina con el impacto que éste genera en su audiencia. Sus fuentes son la materia prima. Hacer las preguntas adecuadas a las fuentes adecuadas, para conseguir la informa [...] ción que más se acerque a la realidad, es el desafío del reportero que divulga la ciencia. El texto discute los conceptos de verdad científica y verdad periodística, y habla sobre las diferencias y las semejanzas entre científicos y periodistas, para concluir haciendo una reflexión al ejercicio de la reportería en ciencia, donde tanto las fuentes como la necesidad de conocer el perfil del público que tiene acceso a nuestra información son elementos clave. Abstract in english The social responsibility of the science journalist starts with the approach to the sources, runs through the writing of the text and ends with the impact that the latter generates in his audience. His sources are the raw material. The challenge of the reporter diffusing science is to make the adequ [...] ate questions to the adequate sources, in order to obtain the information that comes the closest to reality. The text discusses concepts of scientific truth and of journalistic truth, and deals with the similarities and differences between scientists and journalists, to conclude with a reflexion on the practice of reporting in science, where the sources as well as the need to know the profile of the public with access to our information, are key elements.

  14. Der Körper als KulturproduzentIn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Kuni

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available „The Body is the Message": Gabriele Kleins Untersuchung Electronic Vibration fokussiert den tanzenden Körper als Medium einer ästhetisch formulierten, sozialen Mimesis. Im Techno, so die These der Autorin, funktioniert Tanz als Aneignung, in deren Vollzug Musikkonsum in (popkulturelle Praxis umschlägt. Der Körper ist damit nicht nur Zeichenträger, sondern wird selbst zum Ort und Agens von Kulturproduktion.

  15. Diana Al-Hadid: Identity and Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungerberg, Tom; Smith, Anna; Borsh, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    Diana Al-Hadid's sculptures reflect the many locations, cultures, histories, and mythologies that have shaped her as an artist. In large-scale works which have the appearance of architectural ruins, Al-Hadid employs imagery drawn from many diverse interests including science and technology, history, and literature. She also incorporates images and…

  16. Ceramic foams for Al-recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luyten, J.; Vandermeulen, W.; Schutter, F. de [VITO, Materials Technology, Mol (Belgium); Simensen, C. [Sintef, Materials Technology, Blindern, Oslo (Norway); Ryckeboer, M. [Remi Claeys Aluminium, Lichtervelde (Belgium)

    2006-08-15

    The recycling of Al scrap requires an efficient purification step. In this investigation a filter technique is used to remove intermetallic compounds containing Fe, Mn and Si out of the molten Al. The paper describes the synthesis of the filters, the construction of the filter installation, and the results of the different filter tests. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. Durability Assessment of TiAl Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Susan L.; Lerch, Bradley A.

    2008-01-01

    The durability of TiAl is a prime concern for the implementation of TiAl into aerospace engines. Two durability issues, the effect of high temperature exposure on mechanical properties and impact resistance, have been investigated and the results are summarized in this paper. Exposure to elevated temperatures has been shown to be detrimental to the room temperature ductility of gamma alloys with the most likely mechanisms being the ingress of interstitials from the surface. Fluorine ion implantation has been shown to improve the oxidation resistance of gamma alloys, and ideally it could also improve the environmental embrittlement of high Nb content TiAl alloys. The effect of F ion implantation on the surface oxidation and embrittlement of a third generation, high Nb content TiAl alloy (Ti-45Al-5Nb-B-C) were investigated. Additionally, the ballistic impact resistance of a variety of gamma alloys, including Ti-48Al-2Cr- 2Nb, Ti-47Al-2Cr-2Nb, ABB-2, ABB-23, NCG359E, 95A and Ti-45Al-5Nb-B-C was accessed. Differences in the ballistic impact properties of the various alloys will be discussed, particularly with respect to their manufacturing process, microstructure, and tensile properties.

  18. Proton threshold states in 26Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy levels of 26Al between Esub(x) = 6.3 and 6.5 MeV, corresponding to proton threshold energies in the 25Mg + p reaction from Esub(p) = 0 to 200 keV, have been investigated using the reactions 27Al(3He,?)26Al and 24Mg(3He,p)26Al. Despite early work reporting a doublet at Esub(x) = 6346 keV and Esub(x) = 6362 keV, most subsequent work reported a single state with conflicting spin and parity assignments. Our work clearly establishes the presence of the doublet and resolves the conflicts. We find that there are six states in this excitation energy region, including a new state at Esub(x) = 6410 +- 5 keV. The l-values leading to possible spin and parity assignments for all these states have been made using DWBA. We conclude however that only three of these six states may contribute to the production of 26Al by the 25Mg(p,?) reaction in the MgAl cycle and the new structure of 26Al reported here can substantially increase the production rate of 26Al in stellar reactions. (orig.)

  19. Investigation of Al–O–Al sites in an Na-aluminosilicate glass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Erdem Yildirim; Ray Dupree

    2004-06-01

    This paper reports the presence of Al–O–Al linkages in an aluminosilicate glass where Si/Al = 1 by using 2D 17O triple quantum MAS NMR technique (3Q MASNMR). The experiments were performed at external magnetic fields of 8.4 and 14.4T. Despite 17OMAS NMR spectra of the sample in both fields do not give much information about the different kinds of linkages in the sample, 3Q MAS NMR spectrum shows clear evidence that there are some amounts of Al–O–Al linkages in the sample giving two completely resolved peaks. These two peaks were attributed to the Si–O–Al and Al–O–Al linkages on the basis of their chemical shifts and, quadrupolar coupling constants which are quite sensitive to the local structure.

  20. Studies on SiC(p) reinforced Al-Al sub 3 Ni eutectic matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation on processing of Al-5.69wt% Ni eutectic with SiC particulate composites is reported. The intermetallic composites are prepared by elemental powder metallurgy route and sintered at two different temperatures, i.e., 600 degree C and 620 degree C. Results show that the metal matrix was Al-Al sub 3 Ni eutectic. The phase analysis by XRD identified the presence of Al sub 3 Ni and Al as dominant phases together with silicon and Al sub 4 C sub 3 phase as minor phases. The Al sub 4 C sub 3 and Si phases are formed during sintering due to SiC-Al interface reaction. SEM micrographs also reveal the formation of microvoid surrounding the SiC particle

  1. Liquidus and intermetallic compound in Al-rich region of Al-Mg-Ce system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, C.; Wu, Y.; Qian, J.; Ye, Y.

    1986-04-01

    The liquidus of the Al-rich corner in Al-Mg-Ce phase diagram and the intermetallic compound, if any, formed in this region have been studied by thermal analysis, EMPA, chemical analysis, metallography, and X-ray examination. An intermetallic compound in the solid phase was observed to form solid solution with rather extensive range. The pseudoternary system Al-Mg5Al8-CeAl4 is of the ternary eutectic type. Three surfaces corresponding to primary crystallization of alpha-Al, Mg5Al8, and CeAl4, respectively, three univariant curves associated with secondary crystallization, and a ternary eutectic with composition about 12.6 wt-percent Ce and 26.0 wt-percent Mg at 446 C were detected.

  2. Preparation of Al2O3 sample and measurement of 26Al by AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical procedure for preparing Al2O3 sample used in AMS was reported. The fact that different ions are precipitated at different pH values was used to purify Al which was covered to Al2O3 at high temperature. A set of Al2O3 samples including standard and blank have been prepared. For the blank the ratio 26Al/27Al was measured to be 1.1 x 10-13. The result showed that the interference of 26Mg in sample was negligible and the chemical procedure of preparing Al2O3 samples were successful. The measurement procedure of 26Al by AMS was also reported

  3. The wobbler mouse, an ALS animal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moser, Jakob Maximilian; Bigini, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    This review article is focused on the research progress made utilizing the wobbler mouse as animal model for human motor neuron diseases, especially the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The wobbler mouse develops progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons and shows striking similarities to ALS. The cellular effects of the wobbler mutation, cellular transport defects, neurofilament aggregation, neuronal hyperexcitability and neuroinflammation closely resemble human ALS. Now, 57 years after the first report on the wobbler mouse we summarize the progress made in understanding the disease mechanism and testing various therapeutic approaches and discuss the relevance of these advances for human ALS. The identification of the causative mutation linking the wobbler mutation to a vesicle transport factor and the research focussed on the cellular basis and the therapeutic treatment of the wobbler motor neuron degeneration has shed new light on the molecular pathology of the disease and might contribute to the understanding the complexity of ALS

  4. AlAs-like TO-phonon dephasing time in high Al content AlGaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zibik, E.A.; Green, R.P.; Wilson, L.R.; Wells, J.P.R.; Cockburn, J.W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, S3 7RH, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Phillips, P.J.; Carder, D.A. [FOM Institute Rijnhuizen, PO Box 1207, NL-3430BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Steer, M.J.; Hopkinson, M. [EPSRC National Centre for III-V Technologies, S1 3JD, Mappin St, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2004-11-01

    The AlAs-like TO-phonon decay in Al{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}As has been investigated using an infrared four wave mixing technique with picosecond resolution. The low temperature TO-phonon lifetime is found to be {proportional_to}5 ps and is significantly shorter than {proportional_to}40 ps recently predicted for the TO-phonon in AlAs [A. Debernardi, Phys. Rev. B 57, 12847 (1998)]. In alloy materials Al and Ga atoms are randomly distributed on the Group III sublattice of the zincblende structure. This disorder considerably reduces the lifetime of AlAs phonon mode due to scattering of the TO phonon with Ga atoms which results in an additional decay channel: AlAs-TO {yields} GaAs-L(T)O + LA in AlGaAs alloy materials. The new decay channel also leads to stronger temperature dependence of the TO-phonon lifetime. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Staggered Pairing Phenomenology for UPd_2Al_3 and UNi_2Al_3

    OpenAIRE

    Martisovits, V.; Cox, D. L.

    1997-01-01

    We apply the staggered-pairing Ginzburg-Landau phenomenology to describe superconductivity in UPd_2Al_3 and UNi_2Al_3. The phenomenology was applied successfully to UPt_3 so it explains why these materials have qualitatively different superconducting phase diagrams although they have the same point-group symmetry. UPd_2Al_3 and UNi_2Al_3 have a two-component superconducting order parameter transforming as an H-point irreducible representation of the space group. Staggered su...

  6. Micromechanisms of fracture and fatigue in Ti3Al based and TiAl based intermetallics

    OpenAIRE

    James, A; Chave, R.; Hippsley, C.; Bowen, P.

    1993-01-01

    Micromechanisms of fracture and fatigue crack growth resistance in specific Ti3Al based and TiAl based intermetallics are reviewed. Effects of test temprature, environment and microstructure on crack growth resistance are considered in detail for several Ti3Al and TiAl based intermetallic systems under development. The implications of these studies for the structural reliability of these materials is also addressed briefly.

  7. High temperature creep behaviour of Al-rich Ti-Al alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturm, D; Heilmaier, M; Saage, H [Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Institute for Materials and Joining Technology, PO Box 4120, D-39016 Magdeburg (Germany); Aguilar, J; Schmitz, G J; Drevermann, A [ACCESS e.V., Intzestrasse 5, D-52072 Aachen (Germany); Palm, M; Stein, F; Engberding, N [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-40237 Duesseldorf (Germany); Kelm, K; Irsen, S, E-mail: daniel.sturm@ovgu.d [Stiftung caesar, Electron Microscopy, Ludwig-Erhard-Allee 2, D-53175 Bonn (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Compared to Ti-rich {gamma}-TiAl-based alloys Al-rich Ti-Al alloys offer an additional reduction of in density and a better oxidation resistance which are both due to the increased Al content. Polycrystalline material was manufactured by centrifugal casting. Microstructural characterization was carried out employing light-optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and XRD analyses. The high temperature creep of two binary alloys, namely Al{sub 60}Ti{sub 40} and Al{sub 62}Ti{sub 38} was comparatively assessed with compression tests at constant true stress in a temperature range between 1173 and 1323 K in air. The alloys were tested in the cast condition (containing various amounts of the metastable phases Al{sub 5}Ti{sub 3} and h-Al{sub 2}Ti) and after annealing at 1223 K for 200 h which produced (thermodynamically stable) lamellar {gamma}-TiAl + r-Al{sub 2}Ti microstructures. In general, already the as-cast alloys exhibit a reasonable creep resistance at 1173 K. Compared with Al{sub 60}Ti{sub 40}, both, the as-cast and the annealed Al{sub 62}Ti{sub 38} alloy exhibit better creep resistance up to 1323 K which can be rationalized by the reduced lamella spacing. The assessment of creep tests conducted at identical stress levels and varying temperatures yielded apparent activation energies for creep of Q = 430 kJ/mol for the annealed Al{sub 60}Ti{sub 40} alloy and of Q = 383 kJ/mol for the annealed Al{sub 62}Ti{sub 38} material. The latter coincides well with that of Al diffusion in {gamma}-TiAl, whereas the former can be rationalized by the instability of the microstructure containing metastable phases.

  8. Spray forming of Al-Fe-Cr-Ti and Al-Si-Li alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Banjongprasert, C; Hogg, SC; Palmer, IG; Grennan-Heaven, N; Stone, IC; Grant, PS

    2007-01-01

    This work presents an investigation of the spray forming and downstream processing of Al alloys that are difficult to produce in bulk by conventional solidification processing: Al-Fe-Cr-Ti alloys for intermediate temperature applications and Al-Si-Li alloys for high stiffness, low density applications in fast moving machinery. For the Al-Fe-Cr-Ti alloys, spray forming is being investigated to allow the scale-up of alloy compositions previously explored only as ribbons or powders in traditiona...

  9. Comparison of Al samples from electrolysis production and elemental Al from colloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libuše ?ur?ová

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Sediments of specific composition and content of precipitates were found as a consequence of increased concentration of sulphate at the Quaternary groundwater. Precipitates with elemental Al0 and fibres of alloy of Si0, Fe0 and Al0 (max size of Al0 spots cca 300x100 microns from colloids of Al2O3.nH2O from borewells at Podluží were identified by RTG analyses and SEM in more then 20 analyses. Structure of colloids of Al2O3.nH2O was verified by 27Al MAS NMR from several VIS borewells:A comparison of chemical composition of Al samples produced by electrolysis at Slovalco Ltd. Co. and of elemental Al0 revealed some parallel in composition and their appearance. Samples ŽIAR1 and ŽIAR3 have similar chemical composition of Al with Al from VIS 15 but they differ in appearance. The rest of group (samples ŽIAR 2, ŽIAR 4, ŽIAR 5 differs from VIS 15 in composition and appearance of basic Al matter and specific alloys of Al, Si, and Fe.

  10. Uslûb al-Hiwâr al-Qur’âni bayna al-Muslimîn wa al-Nasâra ‘inda Badî’uzzamân Sa’îd al-Nursi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujiat Zubaidi Saleh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve some issues, the scholars’ dialogue often generates new ideas as it works to clarify the values of al-Qur’an and to enrich their understanding about it. Therefore, Nursi pointed to unite at present not only with the Muslim community and even with Christians, aside from the differences and disputes over union issues. It is possible to do so when the Muslims and the Christians refrain from their controversies among them. Nursi’s idea does not mean that he does not recognize any differences between them. There are some significant differences between the Christian and the Muslim faith, but those differences should not prevent them from the most important goal to provide new humanitarian look for human life, where God is the axis and the divine will for the moral values of this point. Nursi believes that the current religious relationship marred by erroneous thought as the result of post-modernism worldview. In fact, al-Qur’an recommended a mutual awareness of the communities that shapes them to gain a common goal in God witnesses as the divine values of this modern civilization in opposition to “clash of civilizations”, but this task needs some efforts to discuss on Quranic Dialogue. This dialogue could be undertaken well, as long as it sets out with full love and affection rather than with the fierce conflict and distress. Thus, Nursi introduced new ideas into interfaith dialogue between Muslims and Christians, to build a true civilization based on mutual relations of love.

  11. Thermodynamic calculations in alloys Ti-Al, Ti-Fe, Al-Fe and Ti-Al-Fe

    OpenAIRE

    Kostov Ana; Friedrich B; Živkovi? D.

    2008-01-01

    Thermodynamic calculations of three binary Ti-based alloys: Ti-Al, Ti-Fe, and Al-Fe, as well as ternary alloy Ti-Al-Fe, is shown in this paper. Thermodynamic calculations involved thermodynamic determination of activities, coefficient of activities, partial and integral values for enthalpies and Gibbs energies of mixing and excess energies at different temperatures: 1873K, 2000K and 2073K, as well as calculated phase diagrams for the investigated binary and ternary systems. The FactSage is us...

  12. Thermodynamic calculations in alloys Ti-Al, Ti-Fe, Al-Fe and Ti-Al-Fe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostov Ana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic calculations of three binary Ti-based alloys: Ti-Al, Ti-Fe, and Al-Fe, as well as ternary alloy Ti-Al-Fe, is shown in this paper. Thermodynamic calculations involved thermodynamic determination of activities, coefficient of activities, partial and integral values for enthalpies and Gibbs energies of mixing and excess energies at different temperatures: 1873K, 2000K and 2073K, as well as calculated phase diagrams for the investigated binary and ternary systems. The FactSage is used for all thermodynamic calculations.

  13. Phase periodic conductance oscillations at subgap Andreev resonances in Nb-Al-AlOx-Al-Nb tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senapati, Kartik; Blamire, Mark G.; Barber, Zoe H.

    2010-10-01

    We show evidence of a magnetic field dependent oscillation of subgap dynamic conductivity in a series of Nb-Al-AlOx-Al-Nb Josephson tunnel junctions in the voltage biased state. Our measurements show that the amplitude of conductance oscillations was maximum close to the subharmonic conductance peaks of the junctions, which are collective resonances of multiple Andreev reflected quasiparticles via pinholes in the tunnel barrier. The period of oscillations was commensurate with the macroscopic phase evolution of the junction. This observation suggests that under certain conditions practical Josephson tunnel junctions are analogous to Andreev interferometers, where the junction itself acts as the flux quantizer.

  14. Agricultural power generation; Die Landwirtschaft als Energieerzeuger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Within the KTBL meeting between 4th and 5th May, 2009, in Osnabrueck (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Evaluation of renewable energy sources (Sebastian Wulf et al.); (2) The future of bio fuels (Norbert Schmitz); (3) Supply of biomass for BtL fuels (Ludwig Leible et al.); (4) Combined heat and power generation with biomass (Juergen Karl); (5) Site-specific sustainable production of energy plants (Armin Vetter et al.); (6) Biomass logistics (Juergen Hahn et al.); (7) Process and costs of the production of wood fuel at agricultural areas (Volkard Scholz et al.); (8) Miscanthus: Cultivation, economic efficiency and properties as a fuel (Klaus Mastel); (9) Costs of supplying energy plants (Henning Eckel et al.); (10) Residuals as a substrate for bio gas plants (Susanne Klages et al.); (11) Innovations at the development of energy plants - view of a breeding company (Andreas von Felde et al.); (12) Processing of solid biomass - ravelling, drying and pelletizing (Stephan Sternowsky et al.); (13) Technology, operational experiences and yields of photovoltaic plants in southern Germany (Gottfried Gronbach); (14) Solar thermal plants in the agriculture - Technology and economic efficiency (Albert Esper); (15) Quality is worth-wile - Design and realization of biomass power plants (Gilbert Krapf); (16) When repays a near-by district heating grids in municipalities itself? (Helmut Doehler); (17) Agriculture in municipal power management and material stream management (Frank Wagener et al.); (18) Energetic utilization of stalk materials (Thomas Hering); (19) Modern wood firing - State of the art and tendencies of development (Peter Turowski et al.); (20) Gasification of biomass in combined heat and power cogeneration plants - state of the knowledge, efforts for the practice (Andrej Stanev); (21) Production of rapeseed oil fuel in decentral oil mills (Edgar Remmele); (22) Plant oil as a fuel in agricultural machines (Hardwin Traulsen); (23) Experiences in the utilization of rapeseed oil in the Austrian 35-tractors-program (Josef Breinesberger); (24) The remuneration regulation of EEG2009 for biogas plants (Helmut Loibl); (25) Technical further developments in the construction of biogas plants (Waldemar Gruber); (26) Economical efficiency of biogas plants in the natural gas grid (Christian Boese); (27) Concepts for heat utilization for biogas plants (Anke Nierbaum et al.); (28) Biomethane as a fuel for vehicles - practical experiences from Europe (Michael Beil et al.).

  15. Compact Storage for Efficient Management of XML Documents

    OpenAIRE

    Alkhatib, Ramez

    2010-01-01

    XML wird mehr und mehr für Datenaustausch und -manipulation genutzt. Viele Ansätze verarbeiten XML-Daten im Hauptspeicher. Weil XML zunehmend häufig verwendet wird und die XML-Syntax zusätzlichen Speicher benötigt, können grössere XML-Dateien nicht im Hauptspeicher verarbeitet werden. Infolgedessen leiden diese Dateien unter den Begrenzungen aktueller Arbeitsspeicher.Hingegen werden objektrelationale Datenbanktechnologien wegen ihrer Ausgereiftheit und weiten Verbreitung als Alternativen zum ...

  16. Determinants of Music Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Schäfer, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Musik begleitet uns seit vielen Jahrtausenden und ist ein Teil der menschlichen Entwicklungsgeschichte. Mehr über den Ursprung und die Bedeutung von Musik zu wissen bedeutet mehr über uns selbst zu wissen. Die meisten Menschen mögen Musik und für viele ist es eine der wichtigsten Freizeitbeschäftigungen in ihrem Leben. Doch unterschiedliche Menschen mögen unterschiedliche Musik, und die Bindung an Musik kann stark oder schwach sein. Dieses als Musikpräferenz bezeichnete Phänome...

  17. Invisible technology. Microsystem technology in motor cars; Unsichtbare Geister. Mikrosystemtechnik im Automobil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, S. [VDI/VDE Technologiezentrum Informationstechnik GmbH (Germany)

    2001-03-20

    Sensors and actors are used in motor vehicles, e.g. in safety systems (passenger seating detection, out-of-position detection) or as fuel consumption or pollutant emission meters. [German] Sensoren und Aktoren finden als Mikrosysteme im Kraftfahrzeug mehr und mehr Anwendung. Anzutreffen sind sie unter anderem in den Bereichen Sicherheit (z.B. Sitzbelegungserkennung, Out-of-Position-Detektion) und Kraftstoffverbrauch sowie Schadstoffausstoss. (orig.)

  18. Risk management products for the German gas market; Risikomanagement-Produkte fuer den deutschen Gasmarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlueter, N. [D-Gas b.v., London (United Kingdom)

    2003-09-01

    Also in Germany risk management products are establishing more and more as regular elements in decision making during supply and demand. A strong reason to offer an appropriate transaction platform for German speaking suppliers. (GL) [German] Auch in Deutschland etablieren sich Risikomanagement-Produkte mehr und mehr als regulaerer Bestandteil in den Entscheidungsprozessen bei der Beschaffungs- bzw. Absatzoptimierung. Grund genug, eine entsprechende Informations- und Transaktionsplattform fuer den deutschsprachigen Raum anzubieten. (orig.)

  19. A Field Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Beresford, Alastair R.; Kübler, Dorothea; Preibusch, Sören

    2011-01-01

    "Wir messen die Zahlungsbereitschaft für Datenschutz in einem Feldexperiment. Die Teilnehmer konnten maximal eine DVD bei einem von zwei Online-Shops kaufen. Einer der beiden Läden verlangte immer mehr sensitive Daten als der andere, aber abgesehen davon waren die Läden gleich. Im ersten Treatment waren alle DVDs genau einen Euro günstiger bei dem Laden, der mehr sensitive Daten abfragte, und fast alle Käufer wählten diesen günstigeren Laden. In einem zweiten Treatment mit identischen Preisen...

  20. [Ldr brachytherapy, a minimally invasive alternative in the treatment of organ-confined prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegsmund, M; Musial, A; Weiss, J; Alken, P

    2001-09-01

    LDR Brachytherapy, a Minimally Invasive Alternative in the Treatment of Organ-Confined Prostate Cancer In den letzten Jahren erlebte die Brachytherapie mit permanenten Implantaten beim organbegrenzten Prostatakarzinom besonders in den USA, wo im Jahre 1999 mehr als 40 000 Implantationen durchgeführt wurden, eine Renaissance. Mit einer gewissen Verzögerung nimmt die Popularität dieser Methode auch in Europa immer mehr zu. Dies, obwohl die Brachytherapie keine absolut neue Methode in der Behandlung des Prostatakarzinoms ist, sie hat im Gegenteil eine lange Tradition. PMID:11600812

  1. Thermodynamics And Concentration Fluctuations Of Liquid Al-Cu And Al-Zn Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trybu?a M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic properties of liquid Al-Cu and Al-Zn alloys are investigated using the free volume model. We also analyse local atomic arrangements and concentration fluctuations in both liquid binary alloys from the determination of the Warren-Cowley short-range order. For liquid Al-Cu alloys, our findings indicate a strong preference for heteroatomic nearest-neighbors bonds on the Cu-rich side and weaker ones in the Al-rich part while for the liquid Al-Zn alloy, a tendency to the phase separation is observed. Basing on Darken’s thermodynamic relationship, diffusivity has been examined for both liquid alloys.

  2. Effects of hydrogen absorption in TbNiAl and UNiAl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although hydrides of intermetallic compounds are used extensively as hydrogen-storage media, little is known about the exact nature of metal-hydrogen interactions. However, this knowledge is of essential importance for the understanding of thermodynamics and other properties. Hydrides (deuterides) of TbNiAl and UNiAl have been widely studied because of drastic increase of magnetic ordering temperature under hydrogenation. Here the authors report neutron-diffraction results of the three deuterides, TbNiAlD1.28, TbNiAlD0.8a nd UNiAlD2.23

  3. The influence of Al content on the Zener relaxation of Fe-Al alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of Al content on the Zener relaxation peak of annealed Fe-Al alloys has been investigated using a computer-controlled automatic inverted torsion pendulum through the method of free decay and forced vibration. It has been shown that alloys with medium Al contents show strong relaxation while lower or higher Al contents lead to relatively weak Zener relaxation peaks. The Zener relaxation in Fe-Al alloys originates from the next-nearest-neighbour atom pairs and their interaction rather than the nearest-neighbour atom pairs. The latter may not produce Zener relaxation because of the ordered structure, which suppresses Zener relaxation

  4. Strength of Al and Al-Mg/alumina bonds prepared using ultrahigh vacuum diffusion bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have measured the cross-breaking strength of Al and Al-Mg alloys bonded with alumina. Diffusion bonding of Al and Al-Mg alloys requires significantly more bonding time than previously thought to obtain complete bonding. In contrast to previous diffusion bonding studies, fracture morphologies are similar to those obtained in bonds formed by liquid phase reaction; i.e., bonds are as strong or stronger than the ceramic; and fracture tends to propagate in the metal for pure Al and near the interface in the ceramic for the alloys. There are indications that the fracture morphology depends on Mg content and therefore on plasticity in the metal

  5. Reaction of Ti and Ti-Al alloys with alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay K.

    1991-01-01

    The reaction of single-crystal Al2O3 with pure Ti and Ti-Al alloys with different Al concentrations was examined in the temperature range of 1173 to 1573 K. Significant reaction occurred between Al2O3 and the Ti-Al alloys with Al concentrations lower than that corresponding to the gamma-TiAl phase. The reaction mechanism was determined to be simultaneous diffusion of Al and atomic oxygen from Al2O3 into Ti and the Ti-Al alloys.

  6. Mission impossible. Robots, an answer to new challenges; Mission impossible. Fahrroboter als Antwort auf neue Herausforderungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, H.; Hachmeister, J. [Caesar Datensysteme GmbH, Oberhaching (Germany)

    2004-08-01

    New safety specifications issued by NHTSA, ISO, EU and others, as well as extremely shortened model cycles and high quality requirements require a much larger number of measurements in a much shorter period of time. Robots may be a solution here, especially as human drivers are no longer able to produce the required test profiles in terms of precision and reproducibility. (orig.) [German] Verschaerfte Regelwerke zur Fahrsicherheit - initiiert von NHTSA, ISO, EU und anderen - konfrontieren Fahrzeughersteller, deren Zulieferer und Dienstleister mit erheblich gestiegenen Anforderungen. Erschwerend kommt hinzu, dass heute - bei extrem verkuerzten Modellzyklen und hoechstem Qualitaetsniveau - in immer kuerzeren Zeitspannen ein Vielfaches der frueher notwendigen Messergebnisse geliefert werden muss. Eine moegliche Antwort ist der Einsatz von Fahrrobotern, zumal die geforderten Testprofile ohnehin vom 'menschlichen' Fahrer in der geforderten Praezision und Reproduzierbarkeit oft nicht mehr zu erfuellen sind. (orig.)

  7. Ni{sub 3}Al aluminide alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.T.

    1993-10-01

    This paper provides a brief review of the recent progress in research and development of Ni{sub 3}Al and its alloys. Emphasis has been placed on understanding low ductility and brittle fracture of Ni{sub 3}Al alloys at ambient and elevated temperatures. Recent studies have resulted in identifying both intrinsic and extrinsic factors governing the fracture behavior of Ni{sub 3}Al alloys. Parallel efforts on alloy design using physical metallurgy principles have led to properties for structural use. Industrial interest in these alloys is high, and examples of industrial involvement in processing and utilization of these alloys are briefly mentioned.

  8. MICROSTRUCTURE OF CVD - Al2O3

    OpenAIRE

    Chatfield, C.; J. Lindström; Sjöstrand, M.

    1989-01-01

    The reaction mechanisms of CVD-Al2O3 are briefly reviewed. Two independent reaction paths exist, one of which is rate limited by a volume reaction and the second one by a surface reaction. Al2O3 crystallizes in several different phases. The ?-structure is the stable phase at normal deposition temperature (950-1050°C). The metastable ?-phase is the second most commonly occurring phase. It is shown that ? - and ? - Al2O3 nucleate on pure TiC (111) facets with well defined lattice orientation-re...

  9. Reactivity of aluminum cluster anions with ammonia: Selective etching of Al11- and Al12-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubisic, Andrej; Li, Xiang; Gantefoer, Gerd; Bowen, Kit H.; Schnöckel, Hansgeorg; Tenorio, Francisco J.; Martinez, Ana

    2009-11-01

    Reactivity of aluminum cluster anions toward ammonia was studied via mass spectrometry. Highly selective etching of Al11- and Al12- was observed at low concentrations of ammonia. However, at sufficiently high concentrations of ammonia, all other sizes of aluminum cluster anions, except for Al13-, were also observed to deplete. The disappearance of Al11- and Al12- was accompanied by concurrent production of Al11NH3- and Al12NH3- species, respectively. Theoretical simulations of the photoelectron spectrum of Al11NH3- showed conclusively that its ammonia moiety is chemisorbed without dissociation, although in the case of Al12NH3-, dissociation of the ammonia moiety could not be excluded. Moreover, since differences in calculated Aln-+NH3 (n=9-12) reaction energies were not able to explain the observed selective etching of Al11- and Al12-, we concluded that thermodynamics plays only a minor role in determining the observed reactivity pattern, and that kinetics is the more influential factor. In particular, the conversion from the physisorbed Aln-(NH3) to chemisorbed AlnNH3- species is proposed as the likely rate-limiting step.

  10. Some aspects of anelastic and microplastic creep of pure Al and two Al-alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sgobba, S. (Lab. de Metallurgie Mecanique, Dept. des Materiaux, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland)); Kuenzi, H.U. (Lab. de Metallurgie Mecanique, Dept. des Materiaux, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland)); Ilschner, B. (Lab. de Metallurgie Mecanique, Dept. des Materiaux, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland))

    1993-11-01

    Anelastic creep of pure Al, commercial Al-Cu and a binary Al-Cu alloy has been measured at room temperature by means of a high resolution laser interferometer. The irreversible component of the deformation was also quantified from measurements of the anelastic creep recovery. The dependence of the deformation-time curves on thermal treatment and cold work is analyzed. The mechanisms responsible for the room temperature anelastic creep are discussed. Materials loaded below their elastic limit can present either a pure anelastic behavior (commercial Al-Cu) or additional viscoelastic creep (pure Al, high purity Al-Cu). For commercial Al-Cu, the presence of an irreversible deformation appears to be mainly related to the state of the surface. A viscoelastic after effect has been measured for this alloy after a Cu-electroplating treatment. As a typical result for room temperature creep, the irreversible deformation depends logarithmically on load time. (orig.).

  11. Some aspects of anelastic and microplastic creep of pure Al and two Al-alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anelastic creep of pure Al, commercial Al-Cu and a binary Al-Cu alloy has been measured at room temperature by means of a high resolution laser interferometer. The irreversible component of the deformation was also quantified from measurements of the anelastic creep recovery. The dependence of the deformation-time curves on thermal treatment and cold work is analyzed. The mechanisms responsible for the room temperature anelastic creep are discussed. Materials loaded below their elastic limit can present either a pure anelastic behavior (commercial Al-Cu) or additional viscoelastic creep (pure Al, high purity Al-Cu). For commercial Al-Cu, the presence of an irreversible deformation appears to be mainly related to the state of the surface. A viscoelastic after effect has been measured for this alloy after a Cu-electroplating treatment. As a typical result for room temperature creep, the irreversible deformation depends logarithmically on load time. (orig.)

  12. Interdiffusion in Diffusion Couples: U-Mo v. Al and Al-Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. D. Keiser, Jr.; E. Perez; B. Yao; Y. H. Sohn

    2009-11-01

    Interdiffusion and microstructural development in the U-Mo-Al system was examined using solid-tosolid diffusion couples consisting of U-7wt.%Mo, U-10wt.%Mo and U-12wt.%Mo vs. pure Al, annealed at 600°C for 24 hours. The influence of Si alloying addition (up to 5 wt.%) in Al on the interdiffusion microstructural development was also examined using solid-to-solid diffusion couples consisting of U-7wt.%Mo, U-10wt.%Mo and U-12wt.%Mo vs. pure Al, Al-2wt.%Si, and Al-5wt.%Si annealed at 550°C up to 20 hours. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) were employed to examine the development of a very fine multiphase intermetallic layer. In ternary U-Mo-Al diffusion couples annealed at 600°C for 24 hours, interdiffusion microstructure varied of finely dispersed UAl3, UAl4, U6Mo4Al43, and UMo2Al20 phases while the average composition throughout the interdiffusion zone remained constant at approximately 80 at.% Al. Interdiffusion microstructure observed by SEM/TEM analyses and diffusion paths drawn from concentration profiles determined by EPMA appear to deviate from the assumption of “local thermodynamic equilibrium,” and suggest that interdiffusion occurs via supersaturated UAl4 followed by equilibrium transformation into UAl3, U6Mo4Al43, UAl4 and UMo2Al20 phases. Similar observation was made for U-Mo vs. Al diffusion couples annealed at 550°C. The addition of Si (up to 5 wt.%) in Al significantly reduced the thickness of the intermetallic layer by changing the constituent phases of the interdiffusion zone developed in U-Mo vs. Al-Si diffusion couples. Specifically, the formation of (U,Mo)(Al,Si)3 with relatively large solubility for Mo and Si, along with UMo2Al20 phases was observed along with disappearance of U6Mo4Al43 and UAl4 phases. Simplified understanding based on U-Al, U-Si, and Mo-Si binary phase diagrams is discussed in the light of the beneficial effect of Si alloying addition.

  13. Electroforming and Ohmic contacts in Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickmott, T. W.

    2012-03-01

    Electroforming of metal-insulator-metal (MIM) diodes is a non-destructive dielectric breakdown process that changes the diode from its initial high resistance state (HRS) to a low resistance state (LRS). After electroforming, resistance switching memories (RSMs) use voltages to switch from HRS to LRS and back. Many MIM combinations are proposed for use in RSMs. In many cases conduction in the LRS is nearly temperature independent at low temperatures; an Ohmic contact with a barrier to electron injection of ˜0 eV results from electroforming. Electroforming of Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes with amorphous anodic Al2O3 thicknesses between 12 and 41 nm has been studied. Two anodizing electrolytes have been used; 0.1 M ammonium pentaborate (bor-H2O) and a solution of 0.1 M of ammonium pentaborate per liter of ethylene glycol (bor-gly). Polarization of Al2O3 and negative charge in Al2O3 are much larger when Al2O3 is formed in bor-H2O solution than when Al is anodized in bor-gly solution. Electroforming of Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes results in an Ohmic contact at the Al-Al2O3 interface, voltage-controlled negative resistance (VCNR) in the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics, electroluminescence (EL), and electron emission into vacuum (EM) from filamentary conducting channels. Two distinct modes of electroforming occur for Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes. ?-forming occurs for 2.5 V ? VS ? 5 V, where VS is the applied voltage. It is characterized by an abrupt current jump with the simultaneous appearance of EL and EM. ?-forming occurs for VS ? 7 V. I-V curves, EL, and EM develop gradually and are smaller than for ?-forming. Electroforming occurs more readily for diodes with Al2O3 formed in bor-H2O that have greater defect densities. Fully developed I-V curves have similar VCNR, EL, and EM after ?-forming or ?-forming. A model is proposed in which excited states of F-centers, oxygen vacancies in amorphous anodic Al2O3, form defect conduction bands. Electroforming that results in an Ohmic contact requires injection of positive charge at the Al-Al2O3 interface. ?-forming is the result of ionization of F-center recombination centers with energies that are close to the Al Fermi level. Hole injection by high-field ionization of valence band states of Al2O3 causes ?-forming.

  14. In situ (Al3Zr + Al2O3np)/2024Al metal matrix composite with novel reinforcement distributions fabricated by reaction hot pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •(Al3Zr + Al2O3np)/2024Al MMC with a novel network distribution was tailored. •Al3Zr and Al2O3np were in situ synthesized at 740 °C using the 2024Al–ZrO2 system. •The effect of sintering parameters on Al3Zr morphology was investigated. •Influence of Al3Zr morphology on tensile properties of the composite was studied. -- Abstract: In situ hybrid (Al3Zr + Al2O3np)/2024Al metal matrix composites with unique controlled reinforcement distributions were fabricated using low energy ball milling and reactive hot pressing. The reaction system between 2024Al and ZrO2 was studied using differential thermal analysis (DTA). In situ formed aluminium oxide (Al2O3) and zirconium tri-aluminide (Al3Zr) with varying morphology and sizes were produced under different fabricating conditions. Al3Zr with varying morphologies such as particle, plate and flakes were observed. With a total 10 vol.% of reinforcements, the composite containing a three-dimensional network of closely spaced in situ synthesized Al3Zr and Al2O3 particles had a YS of 175 MPa and a UTS of 261 MPa, effectively strengthening the 2024Al matrix. The effect of different sintering conditions on the microstructure and tensile properties of the composite was systematically investigated

  15. Calcium platinum aluminium, CaPtAl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenfack Tsobnang, Patrice; Fotio, Daniel; Ponou, Siméon; Fon Abi, Charles

    2011-01-01

    A preliminary X-ray study of CaPtAl has been reported previously by Hulliger [J. Alloys Compd (1993), 196, 225–228] based on X-ray powder diffraction data without structure refinement. With the present single-crystal X-ray study, we confirm the assignment of the TiNiSi type for CaPtAl, in a fully ordered inverse structure. All three atoms of the asymmetric unit have .m. site symmetry. The structure features a ? 3[AlPt] open framework with a fourfold coordination of Pt by Al atoms and vice versa. The Ca atoms are located in the large channels of the structure. PMID:22064850

  16. CALCULUL CINETOSTATIC AL MECANISMELOR PLANETARE CILINDRICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P?un ANTONESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available În lucrare se prezint? o metod? analitic? pentru calculul cinetostatic al mecanismului planetarmonomobil cu dou? ro?i din?ate centrale. Se consider? mai întâi cazul general al schemelor cinematice cu dou?ro?i din?ate solidare tip satelit, în dou? variante practice (multiplicator ?i reductor de tura?ie. Este men?ionatcazul particular al mecanismelor planetare cu o singur? roat? satelit cu angrenare dubl? (exterioar? ?iinterioar?. Pe baza modelului de analiz? cinetostatic? a mecanismului planetar monomobil cu dou? ro?i din?atecentrale, în finalul lucr?rii se abordeaz? o problem? practic? de calcul cinetostatic al unui mecanism planetarcilindric simplu folosit la capul de frezat pentru prelucrarea ro?ilor din?ate cilindrice cu din?i curbi înhipocicloid?.

  17. [Nordosteuropa als Geschichtsregion] / Hans-Jürgen Bömelburg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bömelburg, Hans-Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Nordosteuropa als Geschichtsregion. Beiträge des III. Internationalen Symposiums zur deutschen Kultur und Geschichte im europäischen Nordosten vom 20.-22. September 2001 in Tallinn. Lübeck : Verlag Schmidt-Römhild 2006. (Veröffentlihungen der Aue-Stiftung. 17)

  18. Highly precise comparison of Nb/Al/AlO{sub x}/Al/AlO{sub x}/Al/Nb Josephson junction arrays using a SQUID as a null detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasnopolin, I.Y.; Behr, R.; Niemeyer, J. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    A direct comparison of two voltages at 0.6 V reproduced by programmable arrays with Nb/Al/AlO{sub x}/Al/AlO{sub x}/Al/Nb Josephson junctions was carried out using a SQUID as a null detector. The voltage difference was measured and found to be smaller than 1.2x10{sup -17} V. Jumps of the current in the flux transformer loop can be attributed to phase-slipping events when the phase lock in the arrays is broken. (author)

  19. Hydrogenation properties of Mg-Al alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the properties of Mg-Al alloys in relation to hydrogen storage are reviewed. The main topics of this paper are materials preparation, hydrogen capacity, thermodynamics of hydride formation, and the kinetics of hydride formation and decomposition. Hydrogenation of Mg-Al leads to disproportionation with the formation of magnesium hydride and metallic aluminum as the final product. Experimental evidence renders this process reversible. It is observed that the enthalpy of hydride forma...

  20. Fabrication studies of Nb3Al superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worzala, F. J.; Yang, W. J.; Boom, R. W.; Strauss, B. P.; Laurence, J.

    1972-01-01

    Study aimed at developing fabrication techniques for the production of stabilized conductors containing both binary and ternary intermetallics of the Nb-Al system. Processes are described that offer a foundation for practical fabricating techniques suitable for the production of long lengths of stabilized Nb3Al superconductor. Once the parameters are optimized, it is conceivable that multistrand twisted composites of both binary and ternary intermetallics should become feasible.

  1. Communication Support for People with ALS

    OpenAIRE

    David Beukelman; Susan Fager; Amy Nordness

    2011-01-01

    Almost all people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) experience a motor speech disorder, such as dysarthria, as the disease progresses. At some point, 80 to 95% of people with ALS are unable to meet their daily communication needs using natural speech. Unfortunately, once intelligibility begins to decrease, speech performance often deteriorates so rapidly that there is little time to implement an appropriate augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) intervention; therefore, appro...

  2. Periodistas: el acceso al mercado laboral

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Javier Caro Gonz\\u00E1lez; Gloria Jim\\u00E9nez Marin

    2006-01-01

    El presente estudio analiza la situación profesional de los Licenciados en Periodismo en España. Para ello esta investigación sigue la lógica del proceso de acceso al mercado laboral, es decir, se estudia, en primer lugar, la oferta de egresados y las demandas del sector; a continuación, se analiza la forma en la que un titulado en la Licenciatura de Periodismo accede al mercado laboral y el tiempo que tarda en hacerlo; y por último, se examinan los medios de comunicación en lo...

  3. High Temperature Intermetallic Compounds Ni3Al

    OpenAIRE

    Kursa, M.; Hypeská, L.; Drápala, J.; Kárník, T.; Losertová, M.

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes the preparation of Ni3Al intermetallic compounds, and investigations of their structures in the as-cast, remelted, and annealed states. The materials were produced by three techniques : in a high frequency vacuum furnace, by zonal remelting in an electron beam furnace, and by remelting with unidirectional solidification. Those melted in an h. f. vacuum furnace and poured into graphite moulds had well developed dendritic structures, a Ni3Al (?) phase, with interdendritic sp...

  4. Veränderte Genexpression als Grundlage für vaskuläres Remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang I

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Gefäßwandumbau oder "vascular remodeling" ist definiert als Änderung im Gefäßkaliber, oft ohne Veränderung der Gesamtgewebsmasse. Die Verfügbarkeit des intravaskulären Ultraschalls hat dazu geführt, Gefäßremodeling als dynamischen Prozeß zu beobachten. Zelltod, Zellwachstum, Zellmigration und Produktion oder Abbau extrazellulärer Matrix sind durch die Expression von Genen in der Gefäßwand gesteuert. Anhand von Analysen solcher Genexpressionsmuster in verschiedenen Gefäßgebieten wird die Signifikanz des Forschungskonzepts "Genexpression in der Gefäßwand" an Beispielen illustriert.

  5. Der Wortschatz als "Wahrheitsvermittler" im außenpolitischen Pressekommentar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Jesenšek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Bekannterweise weist die ausgewählte journalistische Textsorte eine spezifische textuelle Struktur auf; ihre inhaltliche (evaluative und intentionale Komponente sind zunächst in Kürze zu erläutern. Es zeigt sich, daß die Bewertung als obligatorisches Element eines Kommentartextes textstrukturell und stilistisch-pragmatisch bedingt ist und daß sie im Prinzip mittels Lexik realisiert wird. Das Funktionieren der Lexik als Bewertungsträger wird anschließend aufgrund einer exemplarischen Fallanalyse dargestellt, wobei hauptsächlich Zusammenhänge zwischen textstrukturellen Besonderheiten der Kommentartexte und stilistisch-pragmatischen Eigenschaften der Lexik interessieren.

  6. Continuous germanene layer on Al(111).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derivaz, Mickael; Dentel, Didier; Stephan, Régis; Hanf, Marie-Christine; Mehdaoui, Ahmed; Sonnet, Philippe; Pirri, Carmelo

    2015-04-01

    Germanene, a 2D honeycomb structure similar to silicene, has been fabricated on Al(111). The 2D germanene layer covers uniformly the substrate with a large coherence over the Al(111) surface atomic plane. It is characterized by a (3 × 3) superstructure with respect to the substrate lattice, shown by low energy electron diffraction and scanning tunnelling microscopy. First-principles calculations indicate that the Ge atoms accommodate in a very regular atomic configuration with a buckled conformation. PMID:25802988

  7. In Situ Fabrication of AlN Coating by Reactive Plasma Spraying of Al/AlN Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Shahien

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Reactive plasma spraying is a promising technology for the in situ formation of aluminum nitride (AlN coatings. Recently, it became possible to fabricate cubic-AlN-(c-AlN based coatings through reactive plasma spraying of Al powder in an ambient atmosphere. However, it was difficult to fabricate a coating with high AlN content and suitable thickness due to the coalescence of the Al particles. In this study, the influence of using AlN additive (h-AlN to increase the AlN content of the coating and improve the reaction process was investigated. The simple mixing of Al and AlN powders was not suitable for fabricating AlN coatings through reactive plasma spraying. However, it was possible to prepare a homogenously mixed, agglomerated and dispersed Al/AlN mixture (which enabled in-flight interaction between the powder and the surrounding plasma by wet-mixing in a planetary mill. Increasing the AlN content in the mixture prevented coalescence and increased the nitride content gradually. Using 30 to 40 wt% AlN was sufficient to fabricate a thick (more than 200 µm AlN coating with high hardness (approximately 1000 Hv. The AlN additive prevented the coalescence of Al metal and enhanced post-deposition nitriding through N2 plasma irradiation by allowing the nitriding species in the plasma to impinge on a larger Al surface area. Using AlN as a feedstock additive was found to be a suitable method for fabricating AlN coatings by reactive plasma spraying. Moreover, the fabricated coatings consist of hexagonal (h-AlN, c-AlN (rock-salt and zinc-blend phases and certain oxides: aluminum oxynitride (Al5O6N, cubic sphalerite Al23O27N5 (ALON and Al2O3. The zinc-blend c-AlN and ALON phases were attributed to the transformation of the h-AlN feedstock during the reactive plasma spraying. Thus, the zinc-blend c-AlN and ALON phases were not included in the feedstock and were not formed through nitriding of the Al.

  8. Thermoluminescence properties of AlN ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinkler, L.; Christensen, P.

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes thermoluminescence (TL) properties of AlN:Y2O3 ceramics irradiated with ionising radiation. A high TL sensitivity of AlN:Y2O3 ceramics to radiation encouraged a study of the AlN ceramics for application as a dosimetric material. The paper presents experimental data on: glow curve, emission spectrum, dose response, energy dependence, influence of heating rate and fading rate. The measured TL characteristics were compared with those of well-known, widely used TLDs, i.e. LiF:Mg,Ti, LiF:Mg,Cu,P and Al2O3:C. It is concluded that AlN:Y2O3 ceramics showing a radiation sensitivity which is approximately 50 times greater than that of LiF:Mg,Ti is an interesting dosimetry material; however due to a high fading rate of the TL of AlN:Y2O3 on storage at room temperature, a further development of the material for improving the fading characteristics is needed for its application for dosimetry purposes. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparisons of interface microstructure and mechanical behavior between Ti/Al and Ti-6Al-4V/Al bimetallic composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-yu Nie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure, interface thickness, element distribution and interfacial mechanical behavior of Ti-6Al-4V/Al couples prepared by an insert moulding method were investigated in depth in this paper. Moreover, Ti/Al bonding was also given as a comparison for understanding the interface bonding mechanism. It is shown that there is much thinner compact sub-layer for the interface of the Ti-6Al-4V/Al joint, whose morphology is obviously different from that of the Ti/Al joint. The Ti-6Al-4V/Al interface has been proven to contain a slight content of vanadium. Moreover, both the shear strength and the interface reaction rate of Ti-6Al-4V/Al compound materials are lower than those of the Ti/Al ones.

  10. Corrosion behavior of solid solution (Ti,Al)N as a function of Al concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larijani, M.M.; Seyedi, H. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, P. O. Box 31485-498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Manouchehrian, M. [Department of Physics, Science Faculty, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yari, M. [Engineering Department Materials, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    In this work, a series of (Ti, Al) N coatings with different Al contents were deposited on 304 stainless steel substrates by Hollow Cathode Discharge (HCD) method. The coatings were grown on 304 stainless steel substrates at 400 C. The coatings were characterized using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and microhardness test. The XRD confirmed the transition from TiN phase to (Ti, Al) N phase and then to AlN phase with increasing Al concentration in the solid solution. It was found that with increasing Al concentration the hardness of the coatings initially increased up to a maximum value of about 30 GPa at around 32 at.% of Al and then the coating hardness decreased rapidly with further increase of Al content (Al > 32 at.%). The potentiodynamic polarization analysis was carried out in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solutions to study the corrosion resistance of the coatings. From the corrosion test it can be inferred that the amount of Al atoms in the coatings plays an important role for reducing the corrosion. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Predicting glass-forming compositions in the Al-La and Al-La-Ni systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: ? The glass-forming ability of the Al-La and Al-La-Ni systems was studied using the ?* and the ?.?e criteria. ? Both criteria predicted with just 1% at. of error the best glass-former verified so far in the Al-La system. ? Four new glass-former compositions could be predicted in the Al-La-Ni system using the ?.?e criterion. ? The best glass-former reported so far in the Al-La-Ni system was found. - Abstract: In this work, a criterion considering the topological instability (?) and the differences in the electronegativity of the constituent elements (?e) was applied to the Al-La and Al-Ni-La systems in order to predict the best glass-forming compositions. The results were compared with literature data and with our own experimental data for the Al-La-Ni system. The alloy described in the literature as the best glass former in the Al-La system is located near the point with local maximum for the ?.?e criterion. A good agreement was found between the predictions of the ?.?e criterion and literature data in the Al-La-Ni system, with the region of the best glass-forming ability (GFA) and largest supercooled liquid region (?Tx) coinciding with the best compositional region for amorphization indicated by the ?.?e criterion. Four new glassy compositions were found in the Al-La-Ni system, with the best predicted composition presenting the best glass-forming ability observed so far for this system. Although the ?.?e criterion needs further refinements for completely describe the glass-forming ability in the Al-La and Al-La-Ni systems, the results demonstrated that this criterion is a good tool to predict new glass-forming compositions.

  12. Improving arc joining of Al to steel and Al to stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Honggang, E-mail: donghg@dlut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116085 (China); Yang Liqun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116085 (China); Dong Chuang [Key Lab of Materials Modification, Dalian University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Dalian 116085 (China); Kou Sindo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Wisconsin, 1509 University Ave, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al alloy was joined to galvanized steel with assistance of ultrasonic vibration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ultrasonic vibration during GTAW increased the joint strength by 27%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al alloy was joined to stainless steel with Zn-15Al flux-cored filler wire. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Postweld heat treatment doubled or even tripled the joint strength. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Weld solidification microstructure was explained based on ternary phase diagrams. - Abstract: Gas-tungsten arc welding (GTAW) with controlled heat input could avoid the formation of massive brittle Al-Fe intermetallics during solidification in dissimilar-metal joining of aluminum to steel. In the first part of the present study an Al-Mg alloy was joined to galvanized steel by GTAW with an Al-Si filler metal. The weld solidification microstructure was explained based on the Al-Mg-Si phase diagram. Ultrasonic vibration during GTAW increased the joint strength by 27%. Grain refinement, decreased Fe-Al intermetallics, and increased microhardness in both the heat-affected zone and the weld were observed, thus explaining the improved joint strength. In the second part, an Al-Mg alloy was joined to 304 stainless steel using a Zn-15Al filler metal with a noncorrosive flux core. The weld solidification microstructure was explained based on the Al-Zn-Mg phase diagram. Postweld heat treatment (PWHT) at 280 Degree-Sign C for 30 min doubled or even tripled the joint strength depending on the Al-sheet thickness. Dissolution of coarse Zn-rich particles at the weld/steel interface was observed after PWHT, thus eliminating these weak particles from the interface. The formation of Zn-rich particles near the interface and their dissolution by PWHT were explained based on the Al-Fe-Zn phase diagram.

  13. Degradasi Lapisan Aluminida pada Paduan Intermetalik ?2-Ti3Al / ?-TiAl Akibat Oksidasi Siklik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toto Saputra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-phase inter-metallic alloy ?2-Ti3Al/?-TiAl is developed to operated at high temperature in oxidative environment. However its oxidation rate can not be tolerated due to formation of TiO2 which is not protective. If the alloy is used in gas turbine that often have thermal cycle, it will cause cracking and flaking oxide crust. Coating is correct solution to improve properties of this alloy so that it can be used at high temperature. By enriching the material surface with significant amount of Al element there will be a formation of Al2O3 protective oxide. The method applied to get formation of Al2O3 is the pack cementation. This study discusses of characteristic coating and oxide crust formation at two-phase inter-metallic alloy of ?2-Ti3Al/?-TiAl from pack aluminizing process Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia; Paduan intermetalik dua fasa ?2-Ti3Al/?-TiAl dikembangkan untuk operasi temperature tinggi dalam lingkungan oksidatif. Namun laju oksidasinya tidak dapat ditolelir karena akan teroksidasi membentuk kerak oksida TiO2 yang tidak protektif. Pada Mesin turbin gas yang seringkali mengalami siklus thermal, dapat mengakibatkan peretakan (cracking dan pengelupasan (spalling kerak oksida. Coating merupakan solusi yang tepat agar paduan ini dapat digunakan pada temperature tinggi. Dengan memperkaya permukaan benda kerja dengan unsur Al sehingga material mampu membentuk kerak oksida protektif Al2O3 saat teroksidasi. Metoda pelapisan temperature tinggi yang sering diterapkan untuk keperluan ini adalah pack cementation. Studi ini membahas sebagian dari hasil pengujian oksidasi siklik. Khususnya pembahasan karakteristik coating dan kerak oksida yang terbentuk pada paduan intermetalik dua fasa ?2-Ti3Al/?-TiAl hasil pack aluminizing. Kata kunci: Coating, cyclic oxidation, pack aluminizing.

  14. 27Al NMR studies of NpPd5Al2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present 27Al NMR studies for a single crystal of the Np-based superconductor NpPd5Al2(Tc=4.9K). We have observed a five-line 27Al NMR spectrum with a center line and four satellite lines separated by first-order nuclear quadrupole splittings. The Knight shift clearly drops below Tc. The temperature dependence of the 27Al nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate shows no coherence peak below Tc, indicating that NpPd5Al2 is an unconventional superconductor with an anisotropic gap. The analysis of the present NMR data provides evidence for strong-coupling d-wave superconductivity in NpPd5Al2.

  15. Effect of AL on Electric Conductivity and Superconductivity of NB-Si-AL-O Ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koba, S.; Higo, S.; Hakuraku, Y.; Kawano, I.; Ogushi, T.; Nakao, A.

    Metal-insulator transition and superconductivity with changing Al composition were observed in the Nb-Si-Al-O system. Semiconductor-like characteristic and normal conductive characteristic were observed for Al50% respectively. Super-conductive compositions are distributed around the boundary between those two types of conductivity, such as NbxSiAl(?-x)Oz((?, x)=(1.5, 0.7), (2.0,0.8), (3.0, 0.7~1.4)). The superconductivity was confirmed by resistive transitions and diamagnetic transitions. The superconductors in this study have Tc=10.0~11.5 K with resistive transitions, and the amplitudes of the diamagnetism reach 30~58% of that of pure Nb powder. X-ray diffraction patterns of any other superconducting Nb-systems such as Nb, Nb3Al, Nb3Si, NbN, and NbC, have not been observed in Nb-Si-Al-O.

  16. Effects of Al(III and Nano-Al13 Species on Malate Dehydrogenase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Fu Chen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different aluminum species on malate dehydrogenase (MDH activity were investigated by monitoring amperometric i-t curves for the oxidation of NADH at low overpotential using a functionalized multi-wall nanotube (MWNT modified glass carbon electrode (GCE. The results showed that Al(III and Al13 can activate the enzymatic activity of MDH, and the activation reaches maximum levels as the Al(III and Al13 concentration increase. Our study also found that the effects of Al(III and Al13 on the activity of MDH depended on the pH value and aluminum speciation. Electrochemical and circular dichroism spectra methods were applied to study the effects of nano-sized aluminum compounds on biomolecules.

  17. Process Capability Analysis of Vacuum Moulding for Development of Al-Al2O3 MMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate process capability of vacuum moulding (VM) for development of Al-Al2O3 metal matrix composite (MMC). Starting from the identification of component, prototypes were prepared (with three different input parameters namely: vacuum pressure; component volume and sand grit size to give output in form of dimensional accuracy). Measurements on the coordinate measuring machine helped in calculating the dimensional tolerances of the Al-Al2O3 MMC prepared. Some important mechanical properties were also compared to verify the suitability of the components. Final components produced are acceptable as per ISO standard UNI EN 20286-I (1995). The results of study suggest that VM process lies in ±4.5 sigma (?) limit as regard to dimensional accuracy of Al-Al2O3 MMC is concerned. This process ensures rapid production of pre-series technological prototypes and proof of concept at less production cost and time.

  18. Microscopic Properties of Long-Period Ordering in Al-Rich TiAl Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, S.; Nakano, T.; Kuwano, N.; Itakura, M.; Matsumura, S.; Umakoshi, Y.

    2008-07-01

    The ordering mechanism of long-period superstructures (LPSs) in Al-rich TiAl alloys has been investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The LPSs are classified in terms of arrangements of base clusters with different shapes and compositions formed in Ti-rich (002) layers of L10-TiAl matrix: square Ti4Al, fat rhombus Ti3Al, and lean rhombus Ti2Al type clusters. The HRTEM observations revealed that antiphase boundaries of long-range-ordered LPS domains and short-range-ordered microdomains are constructed by various space-filling arrangements of the base clusters. Such a microscopic property characterized by the base clusters and their arrangements is markedly analogous to that of the {left< {{text{1,1/2,0}}} rightrangle } * special-point ordering alloys such as Ni-Mo.

  19. Analog resistive switching behavior of Al/Nb2O5/Al device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resistive switching effects in metal–insulator–metal (MIM) structures are strongly influenced by the electrode materials. In this work a platinum-free symmetric Al/Nb2O5/Al device is compared to a device with platinum bottom electrode. For the device with the platinum bottom electrode, filamentary based resistive switching with good data retention was observed up to 125 °C. For the Al/Nb2O5/Al device, an area dependent pure electronic based resistive switching was observed. Electron trapping at the bottom electrode interface is responsible for the observed analog switching behavior which makes an Al/Nb2O5/Al device suitable for neuromorphic applications. (paper)

  20. Fabrication, phase transformation studies, and characterization of SiC-AlN-Al2OC ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Principal focus was on phase transformation, microstructure development, and elevated temperature creep, with some effort on room- temperature mechanical properties of selected materials. Fabrication was largely hot pressing, although many of the compositions can be densified by pressureless sintering; hot pressing was to ensure full attainment of density with fine microstructure. Most of the work was on SiC-AlN and AlN-Al2OC pseudobinaries

  1. Another Security Improvement over the Lin et al.'s E-voting Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaar, Maryam Rajabzadeh; Mohajeri, Javad; Salmasizadeh, Mahmoud

    In 2003, Lin et al. have proposed an electronic voting scheme which can be utilized in large-scale elections, and claimed it detects double voting. But in this paper, by presenting an attack, we show that voters can successfully vote more than once without being detected. Hence, we propose a new modified scheme based on the Lin et al.'s scheme with the same efficiency to solve this weakness and analyze its security.

  2. Some aspects of anelastic and microplastic creep of pure Al and two Al-alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Sgobba, S.; KÜnzi, H.-U.; Ilschner, B.

    1993-01-01

    Anelastic creep of pure Al, commercial Al-Cu and a binary Al-Cu alloy has been measured at room temperature by means of a high resolution laser interferometer. The irreversible component of the deformation was also quantified from measurements of the anelastic creep recovery. The dependence of the deformation-time curves on thermal treatment and cold work is analyzed. The mechanisms responsible for the room temperature anelastic creep are discussed. Materials loaded below their elastic limit ...

  3. Two-Phase (TiAl+TiCrAl) Coating Alloys for Titanium Aluminides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Michael P. (Inventor); Smialek, James L. (Inventor); Brindley, William J. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A coating for protecting titanium aluminide alloys, including the TiAl gamma + Ti3Al (alpha(sub 2)) class, from oxidative attack and interstitial embrittlement at temperatures up to at least 1000 C. is disclosed. This protective coating consists essentially of titanium, aluminum. and chromium in the following approximate atomic ratio: Ti(41.5-34.5)Al(49-53)Cr(9.5-12.5)

  4. Comment on Wu et al.'s Server-aided Verification Signature Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Wang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In ProvSec 2008, Wu et al. constructed two server-aided verification signature (SAV-Sigma schemes based on BLS signature. In this paper, we provide a new definition of the security of SAV-Sigma against collusion and adaptive chosen message attacks. We founded that Wu et al.'s first scheme is secure, while their second scheme is insecure based on our definition.

  5. A note on Wang et al's attack on Zhang et al's multiparty quantum secret sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, Wang et al (2008 Phys. Lett. A 373 65) proposed an attack on Zhang et al's (2007 Opt. Commun. 269 418) multiparty quantum secret sharing scheme, in which the first and the last agent are reported to be able to cooperatively eavesdrop on all the secret messages without being detected. In this paper, we show that in Wang et al's attack, on average no more than half the secret messages can be eavesdropped. (paper)

  6. From Ti–Al- to Ti–Al–N-sputtered 2D materials

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Maria; Ramos, Ana; Castanho, José; Oliveira, João; Cavaleiro, Albano

    2007-01-01

    Abstract This paper reviews thin films constituted by elements based on the Ti–Al–N system, bearing in mind the role of the condensed phases in the development of structural components and functional devices. In recent decades, the Ti–Al, Ti–N and Al–N nanocrystalline binary systems have rapidly attracted research and industry interest. These systems have revealed a great performance via atomic-level structural control, making it possible to tailor new atomic structures and morphologies suit...

  7. Effect of the interface in laminated composites of Al-1100 and Al-2024

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laminated composites consisting of alternating layers of Al-1100 and Al-2024 were produced by hot rolling, with 45% Al-2024 volume fraction. These composites were subjected to cyclic thermal treatment (various numbers of cycles) and to isothermal treatment (various numbers of cycles) and to isothermal treatment (at peak temperature and for times equivalent to those of the thermal cycles. Microhardness, tensile and fatigue crack arrester modes) were studied in the initial state and after treatments. (E.G.)

  8. Some reactive processing aspects of high-temperature aluminides Nb3Al and RuAl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, K. E.; Stover, D.; Buchkremer, H. P.

    1997-12-01

    In the present investigation elemental powder mixtures with nominal composition of Nb-25at. % Al and Ru-50at.% Al corresponding to Nb3Al and RuAl intermetallic phases were prepared. Green compacts from these mixtures were reactive sintered in vacuum or hot isostatically pressed after being encapsulated and reacted in quartz capsules. In the absence of pressure, reactive sintering at temperatures up to 1800 °C did not lead to densification, and swelling effects were observed. Reactions of formation of Nb3Al and RuAl were found to take place at different temperature regions characteristic for each aluminide system, with clear dependence of the reaction temperature on the heating rate of the powder mixtures. Dilatometry studies showed that swelling occurred instantaneously at temperatures corresponding to the reaction temperature and led to a volume increase of about 25% and 42% for Nb3Al and RuAl, respectively. The activation energy for the reactions was estimated from the differential thermal analysis. Similar data for the NiAl intermetallic phase were also obtained for comparison. The densification behavior and the phase composition of the reaction products were investigated and correlated with the heating rate, the mutual solubility of the reactants, and the amount of liquid phase available during the reaction.

  9. I have never touched her: the body in Al-Ghazal Al-‘Udhri

    OpenAIRE

    Alharthi, Jokha Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Al-ghazal al-‘udhri emerged as a remarkable literary genre in Arabic literature during the Umayyad period (7th-8th centuries CE). The leaders of this genre are famous poet-lovers who were known for their dramatic love stories and unique poetry, such as Majnun Layla, Qays Lubna and Jamil Buthaynah. There is a common presumption of the absence of the concept of the body in al-ghazal al-‘udhri; most scholars to date have only reproduced commonly- held ideas about the purity of ‘ud...

  10. Study on Mg/Al Weld Seam Based on Zn–Mg–Al Ternary Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Liu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the idea of alloying welding seams, a series of Zn–xAl filler metals was calculated and designed for joining Mg/Al dissimilar metals by gas tungsten arc (GTA welding. An infrared thermography system was used to measure the temperature of the welding pool during the welding process to investigate the solidification process. It was found that the mechanical properties of the welded joints were improved with the increasing of the Al content in the Zn–xAl filler metals, and when Zn–30Al was used as the filler metal, the ultimate tensile strength could reach a maximum of 120 MPa. The reason for the average tensile strength of the joint increasing was that the weak zone of the joint using Zn–30Al filler metal was generated primarily by ?-Al instead of MgZn2. When Zn–40Al was used as the filler metal, a new transition zone, about 20 ?m-wide, appeared in the edge of the fusion zone near the Mg base metal. Due to the transition zones consisting of MgZn2- and Al-based solid solution, the mechanical property of the joints was deteriorated.

  11. CASTABILITY OF Al-Li-Mg AND Al-Li-Cu-Mg ALLOYS

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, C; Yao, L.; Nieh, C.; Chang, C.; Hsu, S.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to study the casting characteristics of various Al-Li alloys, which include fluidity and strengths of the alloys and their interaction with cast molds. Materials investigated are Al-Li-Mg and Al-Li-Cu-Mg alloys with Li content of 2.5 wt%. The results show that sand molds with resin binders are good for Al-Li casting. Ceramic coatings can further reduce the metal-mold interactions. However, the permeability is also reduced by coating. The fluidity of Li-bea...

  12. UNDERSTANDING THE MULTIDIMENSIONAL ISLAMIC FAITH THROUGH ‘ABD AL-GHANI AL-NABULUSI’S MYSTICAL PHILOSOPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Yamamoto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to present a new perspective on Islamic faith and Muslim identity to Muslim minorities who are challenged in practicing or following Islamic law in non-Islamic countries or non-Muslims in the contemporary world. It will uncover the multidimensional perspective of the concept of faith based on sin (dhanb and repentance (tawbah through the mystical philosophy of a Syrian scholar, Abd al-Ghani al-Nabulusi (d. 1143/1741 of the 18th century Ottoman Damascus who contributed to the field of Sufism particularly based on Ibn ‘Arabi’s thought of wahdat al-wujud (oneness of being and insan kamil (the perfect man. Nabulusi believes that anyone who lived during the inexistence of prophet’s revelation, inhabited an isolated place cut off from information about Islam, or lived in dar al-harb and did not make a hijra to dar al-islam could not be regarded as sinful in their deeds. However, faith in Allah is essential and infidelity is not forgiven regardless whether or not they live in dar al-islam or dar al-harb. Further, Nabulusi insists that true faith can be achieved by understanding the sin of existence; the ignorance of the difference of existence between Allah and men.  [Artikel ini menjelaskan identitas keberagamaan umat Islam minoritas yang dituntut untuk menerapkan syariat, namun harus hidup di negara non-muslim, dengan mendiskusikan perspektif multidimensional terhadap konsep dosa dan tobat seperti dikembangkan oleh Abd al-Ghan? al-Nabulus? (1143/1741, seorang sufi pemikir Syria, khususnya  wahdat al-wuj?d dan insan kamil, yang hidup di masa kesultanan Usmani di Damaskus. Nabulus? berkeyakinan bahwa siapa saja yang hidup sebelum turunnya wahyu di masa Nabi, hidup di daerah terpencil yang tidak mengenal Islam, atau hidup di dar al-harb dan tidak hijrah ke dar al-islam, tidaklah dibebani dosa atas perbuatannya. Namun demikian, iman kepada Allah amatlah penting dan kekufuran tidaklah dimaafkan, baik seseorang tersebut hidup di dar al-islam ataupun dar al-harb. Nabulus? beranggapan bahwa iman yang hakiki bisa dicapai dengan memahami dosa eksistensial, yaitu kegagalan dalam memahami perbedaan antara Allah dan manusia.] Keywords: Ibn ‘Arab?, wahdat al-wuj?d, dar al-harb

  13. Effect of Crystalline State of Anodized Porous Al2O3/Al as Supports by Hydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Qi, JIANG Zhong-Rui, SUN Dong-Mei, HAN Da-Ying, ZHU Zi-Bin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The porous alumina as a plate catalytic support was prepared by anodization. Effects of hydration condition on the property of alumina supports were studied. The samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, BET and etc. to illustrate the Al2O3/Al forming mechanism. The results show that the best hydration temperature is 80¡?at which the amorphous alumina can be transformed into AlOOH, and become ?-Al2O3 after 500¡?alcination. Meanwhile, the monoliths catalytic carriers have a superior stability for crystalline structures in the steam atmosphere at high temperature.

  14. Growth of CdTe: Al films; Crecimiento de peliculas de CdTe: Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez A, M.; Zapata T, M. [CICATA-IPN, 89600 Altamira, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Melendez L, M. [CINVESTAV-IPN, A.P. 14-740, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Pena, J.L. [CINVESTAV-IPN, A.P. 73 Cordemex, 97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    CdTe: AI films were grown by the close space vapor transport technique combined with free evaporation (CSVT-FE). The Aluminum (Al) evaporation was made by two kinds of sources: one made of graphite and the other of tantalum. The films were deposited on glass substrates. The Al source temperature was varied maintaining the CdTe source temperature fixed as well as the substrate temperature. The films were characterized by x-ray energy dispersive analysis (EDAX), x-ray diffraction and optical transmission. The results showed for the films grown with the graphite source for Al evaporation, the Al did not incorporate in the CdTe matrix, at least to the level of EDAX sensitivity; they maintained the same crystal structure and band gap. For the samples grown with the tantalum source, we were able to incorporate the Al. The x-ray diffraction patterns show that the films have a crystal structure that depends on Al concentration. They were cubic up to 2.16 at. % Al concentration; for 19.65 at. % we found a mixed phase; for Al concentration higher than 21 at. % the films were amorphous. For samples with cubic structure it was found that the lattice parameter decreases and the band gap increases with Al concentration. (Author)

  15. Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of NiAl-(Cr) and TiAl-(Cr) Intermetallic Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Frommeyer, G.; Derder, C.

    1997-01-01

    The oxidation resistant light weight aluminides: NiAl and TiAl with ordered B2 and L10 super lattices show promising mechanical properties for high temperature applications. The ductility and strength properties at room and higher temperatures are strongly dependent upon the degree of ordering of the intermetallic compounds and of the microstructural parameters of the multiphase alloys, such as NiAl-(Cr) and TiAl-(Cr,Si). The presented paper describes and discusses the influence of second pha...

  16. HYDROGEN ADSORPTION ON ?-TiAl (001) AND Ni/TiAl (001) SURFACES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, A. A. Karim; Alelaimi, Mahmoud

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we present first principles calculations of the energetic, electronic and magnetic properties of the variant termination of TiAl (001) and Ni/TiAl (001) surfaces with and without hydrogen atoms. The calculations have been performed within the density functional theory using full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method. The generalized gradient approximation (GGA) is utilized as the exchange-correlation energy. The octahedral site is the stable absorption site of H atom in the ?-TiAl system. This absorption reduces the cohesive energy of ?-TiAl system due to increase in the lattice constant. The surface energy for both TiAl (001) terminations is calculated. The stable adsorption site of H atoms on the variant termination of TiAl (001) surface is performed. The adsorption energy of hydrogen on Ti is more energetic than that on Al. The adsorption of H atom on both terminations of H/Ni/TiAl (001) is more preferable at the bridge site. The adsorption energies are enhanced on Ni atom due to the contraction between d-Ni bands and TiAl substrate band.

  17. Ternary invariant point at 374°C in the three phase region AlSb-Al-Zn inside the Al-Sb-Zn ternary system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klan?nik G.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Al-Sb-Zn ternary system was investigated in the three phase region Al-AlSb-Zn, using differential thermal analysis (DTA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS. The position and temperature of the invariant eutectic L ? AlSb + ?-Al + ? - Zn point inside Al-AlSb-Zn region was experimentally determined. To confirm the obtained results X-ray powder diffraction analysis or XRD was also done. All results were compared to the calculated isopleth phase diagrams using Thermo-Calc software (TCW 5. All calculations were done using the SSOL4 data base.

  18. Oxidability of certain cast and sintered alloys on the base of TiAl, NiAl and Ni3Al intermetallides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TiAl, NiAl, Ni3Al produced by the methods of power metallurgy and casting are studied for heat-resistance and strength. It is stated that the heat-resistance and strength of TiAl produced by the powder metallurgy method is lower than those of the cast one. The heat-resistance of the powdered Ni3Al is similar to the heat-resistance of the cast one at 1000 deg C, but its strength is higher. Yttrium microalloying of TiAl as well as molybdenum alloying of Ni3Al appreciably decreases the oxidation rate of intermetallides mentioned above

  19. Guinier-Preston zones in Al-rich Al-Cu and Al-Ag single crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schönfeld, B.; Malik, A.

    1997-01-01

    Guinier-Preston zones in -Ag and -Cu were investigated by diffuse X-ray and neutron scattering. In Al-3 at% Ag no differences are found between zones formed above and below 500 K (epsilon- and eta-zones, respectively). Their average Ag concentration is (80 +/- 10) at%, and the Ag concentration decreases by 10-15% from shell to core of the zones. In Al-1.75 at% Cu, Guinier-Preston I zones are dominantly monolayers with a Cu fraction of (84 +/- 2) at%.

  20. First-principle study of adhesion, wetting and bonding on Al/Al3V(001) interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Qi, Yuning; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Yong; Li, Xiao

    2014-06-01

    The adhesion, wetting, and bonding on fcc-Al(001)/D022-Al3V(001) interface were investigated using density functional calculations. Considering different terminations of Al3V(001) (Al- and Al + V-terminated) and stacking sites (center-, hollow- and top-sites), six Al/Al3V(001) models were calculated. For the models with same stacking site, Al + V-terminated model has larger work of adhesion (Wad) than the Al-terminated one. For the models with same termination, the work of adhesion decreases, and the interface energy (?int) increases as the order of top-, bridge- and center-sites. Al-terminated-center-sited and Al + V-terminated-center-sited models are more stable among six models. After complete structure relaxation, both models have the same epitaxial stacking style. Therefore, the both models can be regarded as of the same and most stable one (noted as CSI model), but separating along Al-Al and Al-Al+V inter-planes. Based on the perfect wetting and strong adhesion in CSI model, the heterogeneous nucleation of ?-Al on Al3V(001) was interpreted in terms of crystallography and thermodynamics. The interfacial bonding was discussed with analysis of valence electron density distribution and partial density of states (PDOS). The bonding is mainly contributed from AlV covalent bonds and AlAl metallic interactions.

  1. Medien als Lernform und die Trimediale Redaktion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Hilzensauer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Der vorliegende Artikel beschreibt ein Konzept für eine handlungsorientierte Medienpädagogik im Bildungsbereich. Im Mittelpunkt steht dabei die SO!-Campusredaktion, die als Methode für expansives Lernen die Möglichkeit bietet, unabhängig von Thema oder Medium die Verantwortung für den Lernprozess in die Hände der Lernenden zu legen. Der Dokumentation von Reflexion über den Lernprozess wird dabei eine besondere Bedeutung zugesprochen. Gleichzeitig werden unterschiedliche mediale Gestaltungsmöglichkeiten (Audio/Radio, Video/Fernsehen und Zeitung – sowohl als Print- als auch als Onlinemedium vorgestellt, die durch das Konzept BYOD – bring your own device – auch einfach und niederschwellig im Bildungskontext umsetzbar sind. Dadurch ergeben sich innovative Möglichkeiten, einen Lernprozess sichtbar zu machen und gleichzeitig eine Grundlage für eine alternative Leistungsbeurteilung anzubieten. Die SO!-Campusredaktion wird derzeit an der Pädagogischen Hochschule Salzburg in Kooperation mit dem Communitysender FS1 und der Radiofabrik entwickelt und erprobt. Community Medien nehmen als MedienpartnerInnen eine bedeutende Stellung ein: Durch ihren offenen Zugang zu Know How und Equipment sowie durch die Möglichkeit, Medienproduktionen über die verfügbaren Distibutionskanäle (Radiofrequenz oder Sendeplatz einer breiten Bevölkerung zugänglich zu machen, gewinnt die Medienpädagogik einen wichtigen Mehrwert in ihrer schulischen und außerschulischen Arbeit. (Dieser Artikel knüpft an den Artikel "BYOD, Smartphonefilme und webbasierte Videoschnittprogramme" der Medienimpulse, Ausgabe 2/2014, an.

  2. Bush lubas al-Zarqawi järglase kinni püüda / Aadu Hiietamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiietamm, Aadu, 1954-

    2006-01-01

    USA president George W. Bush teatas, et tapetud terrorivõrgustiku al Qaeda Iraagi haru liidri Abu Musab al-Zarqawi järglaseks nimetatud Abu Hamsa al-Muhajir on kuulutatud enim tagaotsitavaks terroristiks

  3. Deletion of ALS5, ALS6 or ALS7 increases adhesion of Candida albicans to human vascular endothelial and buccal epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xiaomin; Oh, Soon-Hwan; Hoyer, Lois L

    2007-01-01

    C. albicans yeast forms deleted for ALS5, ALS6 or ALS7 are more adherent than a relevant control strain to human vascular endothelial cell monolayers and buccal epithelial cells. In the buccal and vaginal reconstituted human epithelium (RHE) disease models, however, mutant and control strains caused a similar degree of tissue destruction. Deletion of ALS5 or ALS6 significantly slowed growth of the mutant strain; this phenotype was not affected by addition of excess uridine to the culture medi...

  4. MOSQUE ARCHITECTURE AS A SUSTAINABLE BUILDING IN URBAN (Case Study: Al Markas Al Islamic Mosque Makassar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imriyanti Imriyanti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mosque Architecture is a part of Islamic architecture. Mosque should be fused with elements of nature because its function as a place to pray to God who created the universe. Al Markas Al Islamic Makassar mosque is used as a center of Islamic aspirations of the people and the government to accommodate all the activities of moslems in Makassar. Through this function, the provision of Al Markas Al Islamic mosque began from the desire of Islamic societies in Makassar, which wants the Islamic center to be equipped with facilities and infrastructure as well as architectural, monumental buildings and structures that can be last for hundreds of years (continuous, blend with the environment, and also can be used by the public. Having regard to the function of a mosque especially at the Al Markas Al Islamic Makassar mosque, then the problem that arise is how the Al Markas Al Islamic mosque can be survived/sustainable  in order  to function  as a place  of worship  and  as a center  of Islam.  This research  is a descriptive qualitative research that is trying to generate data in the form of systematic and accurate picture of the object of study. The sustaiprophetlity  of Al Markas AL Islamic mosque can be known through the concept of Islam  in accordance with the view of Islam as well as the sustaiprophetlity of the buildings that seen in the spatial pattern of the mosque, appearance, natural lighting, natural ventilation, and user behavior of the mosque. Keywords: mosque architecture, sustaiprophetlity, view of Islam     Abstrak Arsitektur masjid merupakan bagian dari arsitektur Islam. Bangunan masjid sebaiknya dapat menyatu dengan unsur alam karena masjid difungsikan sebagai wadah dalam bersujud/sembahyang  kepada Allah SWT yang menciptakan alam semesta ini. Masjid Al Markas Al Islamic Makassar merupakan kompleks kegiatan Islam yang digunakan sebagai pusat aspirasi masyarakat  dan pemerintahan  yang dapat menampung  seluruh kegiatan  umat Islam di Makassar. Melalui fungsi inilah maka  pengadaan masjid Al Markas Al-Islamic bermula dari keinginan masyarakat Islam di kota Makassar, yang mana menginginkan pusat kegiatan Islam yang dilengkapi dengan sarana dan prasarana juga bangunannya monumental yang secara arsitektur dan struktur bisa bertahan sampai ratusan tahun (berkelanjutan, dan menyatu dengan lingkungannya  serta dapat digunakan  oleh masyarakat  luas. Dengan memperhatikan  fungsi masjid terutama pada masjid Al Markas Al Islamic Makassar maka permasalahan yang muncul adalah bagaimanakah arsitektur  masjid  Al  Markas  Al  Islamic  dapat  bertahan/berkelanjutan   agar  dapat  difungsikan  sebagai  tempat beribadah dan sebagai pusat kegiatan Islam. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif yang bersifar kualitatif yaitu penelitian yang berusaha menghasilkan data berupa gambaran yang sistematis dan akurat dari objek kajian. Keberlanjutan  masjid Al Markas Al Islamic dapat diketahui melalui penyatuan konsep masjid Al Markas Al Islamic sesuai  dengan  pandangan  Islam  serta  keberlanjutan  dilihat  pada  bangunan  yakni  pola  tata  ruang  masjid, penampilan, pencahayaan dan penghawaan alami serta perilaku pemakai masjid. Kata Kunci : Arsitektur masjid, keberlanjutan, pandangan Islam

  5. Total energy, equation of state and bulk modulus of AlP, AlAs and AlSb semiconductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A R Jivani; H J Trivedi; P J Gajjar; A R Jani

    2005-01-01

    Recently proposed model potential which combines both linear and quadratic types of interactions is employed for the investigation of some properties like the total energy, equation of state and bulk modulus of AlP, AlAs and AlSb semiconductor compounds using higher-order perturbation theory. The model potential parameter is determined using zero pressure condition. The ratio of the covalent bonding term E cov to the second-order term $E_{2}$ is $6.77$% to $11.85$% which shows that contribution from higher order terms are important for zinc-blende-type crystals. The calculated numerical results of the total energy, energy band gap at Jones-zone face and bulk modulus of these compounds are in good agreement with the experimental data and found much better than other such theoretical findings. We have also studied pressure–volume relations of these compounds. The present study is carried out using six different screening functions along with latest screening function proposed by Sarkar et al. It is found from the present study that effect of exchange and correlation is clearly distinguishable.

  6. Comic als künstlerische Ausdrucksform, als Zeitvertreib oder als Bildungsanlass? - Das erste Comics-Festival im Institut français d'Autriche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Horvatic

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Das erste Comics-Festival im Institut français d'Autriche.Eva Horvatic berichtet eingehend über das erste Comic Festival des Insitut français de Vienne und zeigt auf, dass Comics in Frankreich als ernst zu nehmende Medien behandelt werden, die auch die französische Kultur in sich aufnehmen und vermitteln. Darüber hinaus zeigt sie die bildungstheoretische Relevanz von Comics.

  7. Nb3Al Development for HEP Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumption, M. D.; Wu, X.; Buta, F.; Tomsic, M.; Phillips, J.; McFadden, K.; Collings, E. W.

    2004-06-01

    Recent developments in Nb3Al strand for HEP applications are presented and discussed. The present state of available precursor is detailed. Two routes have been shown to lead to successful construction of MF NbAl composite wires. An extrusion method has so far produced the highest filament counts and smallest filament diameters, but requires more processing steps. A direct restack and draw approach has also been demonstrated which minimizes the number of processing steps while still leading to a high performance conductor. This latter route also allows for a lower cost per billet, potentially allowing the exploration of more process parameters.

  8. Niedermolekulare Verbindungen aus Spinnen als chemische Sensoren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Christian Adam; Kristensen, Anders S.

    2011-01-01

    Spinnen sind für viele Ökosysteme wichtig, und als Hauptfeinde von Insekten verfügen sie über eine Fülle von niedermolekularen Naturstoffen mit faszinierenden biologischen Wirkungen. Die Isolierung und die biologische Charakterisierung dieser Verbindungen sind wohlbekannt, aber erst kürzlich wurden sie als Leitstrukturen für die Entwicklung, Synthese und biologische Untersuchung synthetischer Analoga verwendet. Weit weniger erforscht sind hingegen Verbindungen, die der Kommunikation von Spinnen dienen. Vor kurzem wurden jedoch auf dem Gebiet der Pheromone und Allomone aus Spinnen neue Erkenntnisse erhalten, die wir hier zusammenfassen und mit früheren Ergebnissen in Zusammenhang bringen. Abschließend geben wir einen Ausblick auf künftige Untersuchungen an dieser Art von Verbindungen.

  9. Nb3Al Development for HEP Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent developments in Nb3Al strand for HEP applications are presented and discussed. The present state of available precursor is detailed. Two routes have been shown to lead to successful construction of MF NbAl composite wires. An extrusion method has so far produced the highest filament counts and smallest filament diameters, but requires more processing steps. A direct restack and draw approach has also been demonstrated which minimizes the number of processing steps while still leading to a high performance conductor. This latter route also allows for a lower cost per billet, potentially allowing the exploration of more process parameters

  10. MgAl2O4–-Al2O3 solid solution interaction: mathematical framework and phase separation of -Al2O3 at high temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soumen Pal; A K Bandyopadhyay; S Mukherjee; B N Samaddar; P G Pal

    2011-07-01

    Although existence of MgAl2O4–-Al2O3 solid solution has been reported in the past, the detailed interactions have not been explored completely. For the first time, we report here a mathematical framework for the detailed solid solution interactions of -Al2O3 in MgAl2O4 (spinel). To investigate the solid solubility of -Al2O3 in MgAl2O4, Mg–Al spinel (MgO–Al2O3; = 1, 1.5, 3, 4.5 and an arbitrary high value 30) precursors have been heat treated at 1000°C. Presence of only non-stoichiometric MgAl2O4 phase up to = 4.5 at 1000°C indicates that alumina (as -Al2O3) present beyond stoichiometry gets completely accommodated in MgAl2O4 in the form of solid solution. ? alumina phase transformation and its subsequent separation from MgAl2O4 has been observed in the Mg–Al spinel powders ( > 1) when the 1000°C heat treated materials are calcined at 1200°C. In the mathematical framework, unit cell of MgAl2O4 (Mg8Al16O32) has been considered for the solid solution interactions (substitution of Mg2+ ions by Al3+ ions) with -Al2O3. It is suggested that combination of unit cells of MgAl2O4 takes part in the interactions when > 5 (MgO–Al2O3).

  11. Plotting of Sr-Al-Si and Ba-Al-Si phase diagrams using simplex planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are given of construction of the liquidus surface for ternary systems Sr-Al-Si, Ba-Al-Si using ''Promin-2'' and ''M-220M'' computers. Compositions of quasi-ternary systems, selected by the simplex method, have been studied by microstructural, X-ray diffraction and differential thermal methods of analysis in combination with measurements of microhardness of structural components

  12. Melting, Processing, and Properties of Disordered Fe-Al and Fe-Al-C Based Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satya Prasad, V. V.; Khaple, Shivkumar; Baligidad, R. G.

    2014-09-01

    This article presents a part of the research work conducted in our laboratory to develop lightweight steels based on Fe-Al alloys containing 7 wt.% and 9 wt.% aluminum for construction of advanced lightweight ground transportation systems, such as automotive vehicles and heavy-haul truck, and for civil engineering construction, such as bridges, tunnels, and buildings. The melting and casting of sound, porosity-free ingots of Fe-Al-based alloys was accomplished by a newly developed cost-effective technique. The technique consists of using a special flux cover and proprietary charging schedule during air induction melting. These alloys were also produced using a vacuum induction melting (VIM) process for comparison purposes. The effect of aluminum (7 wt.% and 9 wt.%) on melting, processing, and properties of disordered solid solution Fe-Al alloys has been studied in detail. Fe-7 wt.% Al alloy could be produced using air induction melting with a flux cover with the properties comparable to the alloy produced through the VIM route. This material could be further processed through hot and cold working to produce sheets and thin foils. The cold-rolled and annealed sheet exhibited excellent room-temperature ductility. The role of carbon in Fe-7 wt.% Al alloys has also been examined. The results indicate that Fe-Al and Fe-Al-C alloys containing about 7 wt.% Al are potential lightweight steels.

  13. Diffusion bonding of gamma-TiAl using modified Ti/Al nanolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, L.I., E-mail: liliana.duarte@empa.ch [EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Joining and Interface Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Viana, F. [CEMUC, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Porto, R. Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Ramos, A.S.; Vieira, M.T. [CEMUC, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Coimbra, R. Luis Reis Santos, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal); Leinenbach, C. [EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Joining and Interface Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Klotz, U.E. [FEM, Research Institute Precious Metals and Metals Chemistry, D-73525 Schwaebisch Gmuend (Germany); Vieira, M.F. [CEMUC, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Porto, R. Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)

    2012-09-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ti/Al multilayers are promising interlayers for getting joins between titanium aluminides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer When Ti/Al multilayers are doped with Ag or Cu it is observed a higher reactivity of the multilayers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A doped Ti/Al multilayer decreases the temperature of the process and the quality of the bonding increases. - Abstract: Solid state diffusion bonding has been successfully employed to join {gamma}-TiAl alloys. Processed in vacuum, at high temperature and pressure, the thin interfaces and the lack of structural discontinuity across the interface are the main advantage of this joining technique. An interlayer made of alternated Ti and Al nanometric layers that increases the diffusivity at the joint interface, was used in order to assist the bonding process of {gamma}-TiAl alloys. The use of Ti/Al interlayer has efficiently reduced the joining temperature. Sound joints have been achieved at a temperature of 900 Degree-Sign C under a pressure of 50 MPa in vacuum. In the present work Cu was added as third element to the Ti/Al multilayers and its effect improved the bonding quality. The interface microstructure was studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy.

  14. Infarto agudo al miocardio asociado al uso de cocaína: ¿una entidad diferente?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alberto, Fuenzaiida; Martín, Valdebenito; Alejandro, Fajuri.

    Full Text Available El interesante trabajo presentado por Veas et al¹ en este número de la revista genera ciertas interrogantes sobre la fisiopatología y manejo de aquellos pacientes que están cursando un infarto agudo al miocardio con supradesnivel del ST y que refieren consumo reciente de cocaína. [...

  15. Electronic states and spin-forbidden cooling transitions of AlH and AlF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Nathan; Lane, Ian C

    2011-11-14

    The feasibility of laser cooling AlH and AlF is investigated using ab initio quantum chemistry. All the electronic states corresponding to the ground and lowest two excited states of the Al atom are calculated using multi-reference configuration interaction (MRCI) and the large AV6Z basis set for AlH. The smaller AVQZ basis set is used to calculate the valence electronic states of AlF. Theoretical Franck-Condon factors are determined for the A(1)?? X(1)?(+) transitions in both radicals and found to agree with the highly diagonal factors found experimentally, suggesting computational chemistry is an effective method for screening suitable laser cooling candidates. AlH does not appear to have a transition quite as diagonal as that in SrF (which has been laser cooled) but the A(1)?? X(1)?(+) transition transition of AlF is a strong candidate for cooling with just a single laser, though the cooling frequency is deep in the UV. Furthermore, the a(3)?? X(1)?(+) transitions are also strongly diagonal and in AlF is a practical method for obtaining very low final temperatures around 3 ?K. PMID:21842049

  16. High quality Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb Josephson junctions. Technological development and macroscopic quantum experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes the development of a technology for producing high-quality submicron Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb Josephson junctions. The resulting components in different experiments have not previously observed macroscopic quantum effects have been demonstrated. Furthermore, Nb-based phase qubits have been designed, fabricated and measured, the longer coherence times than the related components from the literature.

  17. Diffusion bonding of gamma-TiAl using modified Ti/Al nanolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Ti/Al multilayers are promising interlayers for getting joins between titanium aluminides. ? When Ti/Al multilayers are doped with Ag or Cu it is observed a higher reactivity of the multilayers. ? A doped Ti/Al multilayer decreases the temperature of the process and the quality of the bonding increases. - Abstract: Solid state diffusion bonding has been successfully employed to join ?-TiAl alloys. Processed in vacuum, at high temperature and pressure, the thin interfaces and the lack of structural discontinuity across the interface are the main advantage of this joining technique. An interlayer made of alternated Ti and Al nanometric layers that increases the diffusivity at the joint interface, was used in order to assist the bonding process of ?-TiAl alloys. The use of Ti/Al interlayer has efficiently reduced the joining temperature. Sound joints have been achieved at a temperature of 900 °C under a pressure of 50 MPa in vacuum. In the present work Cu was added as third element to the Ti/Al multilayers and its effect improved the bonding quality. The interface microstructure was studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy.

  18. Fluctuations of charge variance and interaction time for dissipative processes in 27 Al + 27 Al collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The systematic studies of dissipative processes in light systems were completed with experiments dedicated to the measurement of the excitation functions in 19 F + 27 Al and 27 Al + 27 Al systems in order to obtain deeper insight on DNS configuration and its time evolution. The excitation function for 19 F + 27 Al system evidenced fluctuations larger than the statistical errors. Large Z and angular cross correlation coefficients supported their non-statistical nature. The energy dependence of second order observables, namely the second moment of the charge distribution and the product ?·? (? - the angular velocity of the DNS and ? its mean lifetime) extracted from the angular distributions were studied for 19 F + 27 Al case. In this contribution we are reporting the preliminary results of similar studies performed for 27 Al + 27 Al case. The variance of the charge distribution were obtained fitting the experimental charge distribution with a Gaussian centered on Z = 13 and the product ?·? was extracted from the angular distributions. The results for 19 F + 27 Al case are confirmed by a preliminary analysis of the data for 27 Al + 27 Al system. The charge variance and ?·? excitation functions for Z = 11 fragment are represented together with the excitation function of the cross section. One has to mention that the data for 27 Al + 27 Al system were not corrected for particle evaporation processes. The effect of the evaporation corrections on the excitation function was studied using a Monte Carlo simulation. The ? particle evaporation was also included and the evaluation of the particle separation energies was made using experimental masses of the fragments. The excitation functions for 27 Al + 27 Al system for primary and secondary fragments were simulated. No structure due to particle evaporation was observed. The correlated fluctuations in ?Z and ?·? excitation functions support a stochastic exchange of nucleons as the main mechanism for interpreting dissipative processes in light systems. The same conclusion is sustained by the fact that the dependence of ln(?Z2) as a function of TKEL/lgr for light systems has the same slope as the one for medium and heavy systems. (authors)

  19. An impedance study of complex Al/Cu-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisova, J; Katkevics, J; Viksna, A [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Latvia, Kr. Valdemara Str. 48, Riga, LV-1013 (Latvia); Erts, D, E-mail: arturs.viksna@lu.lv [Institute of Chemical Physics, University of Latvia, Kronvalda blvd. 4, Riga, LV-1586 (Latvia)

    2011-06-23

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to investigate different Cu deposition regimes on Al surface obtained by internal electrolysis and to characterize properties of fabricated electrodes. EIS experimental data confirmed that Cu deposition by internal electrolysis is realized and the complex electrode system is obtained. The main difficulty in preparation of Al/Cu electrodes is to prevent aluminium oxidation before and during electrochemical deposition of Cu particles. In this work NaCl, CH{sub 3}COONa, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, mono- and diammonium citrate electrolytes were examined to determine their suitability for impedance measurements. Al/Cu-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} electrode composition was approved by equivalent circuit analysis, optical and scanning electron microscope methods. The most optimal Cu deposition mode using internal electrolysis was determined. The obtained results are promising for future electrochemical fabrication of nanostructures directly on Al surfaces by internal electrolysis.

  20. Superconducting properties of nanocrystalline Nb3Al in Nb-Al matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Puspen; Manekar, Meghmalhar; Kumar, Ravi; Ganguli, Tapas; Roy, S. B.

    2008-02-01

    We present the results of x-ray diffraction and magnetization measurements on the nanocrystalline as-cast compound Nb3Al. X-ray diffraction shows the presence of the A15 Nb3Al phase embedded in a matrix of a bcc Nb-Al solid solution. The average grain size of Nb3Al estimated from the line broadening is about 35nm. Magnetization measurements give a lower limit of the superconducting transition temperature to be about 16.8K, which is amongst the highest known TC for the as-cast sample of Nb3Al. In the superconducting state, the sample shows anomalous thermomagnetic history effects in the temperature and field variation of magnetization.

  1. Al2O3 adherence on CoCrAl alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adherence of protective oxides on NiCrAl and CoCrAl superalloys has been promoted by a dispersion of a highly oxygen reactive element or its oxide being produced within the protection system. Two aspects of this subject are investigated here: the use of Al2O3 as both the dispersion and protective oxide; and the production of an HfO2 dispersion while simultaneously aluminizing the alloy. It was found that an Al2O3 dispersion will act to promote the adherence of an external scale of Al2O3 to a degree comparable to previously tested dispersions and an HfO2 dispersion comparable to that produced by a Rhines pack treatment is produced during aluminization

  2. Properties and structure of oxidized coatings deposited onto Al-Cu and Al-Mg alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrebnyak, A. D.; Kylyshkanov, M. K.; Tyurin, Yu. N.; Kaverina, A. Sh.; Yakushchenko, I. V.; Borisenko, A. A.; Postol'ny, B. A.; Kulik, I. A.

    2012-06-01

    The results of new studies of creating protective oxide coatings based on Al2O3 (Si, Mn) and deposited onto aluminum alloys using electrolyte-plasma oxidation are presented. An analysis is performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering of 4He+ and protons, nanoindentation, scratching, friction coefficient measurements, and acoustic emission measurements. The results demonstrate that the deposited coatings have a high quality, hardness, and wear resistance and a low thermal diffusivity. Apart from Al2O3, the coatings are found to have Si, Mn, C, and Ca. The stoichiometry of the coatings is determined. The density and hardness of the coatings are close to those of ?-Al2O3 in the coating on an Al-Cu (D-16) substrate, and these values of the coating on an Al-Mg (S006) are lower by a factor of 1.5.

  3. Tensile deformation behavior of a sub-micrometer Al2O3/6061Al composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 0.3 ?m Al2O3/6061Al composite with 33% volume fraction of Al2O3 was fabricated by the patented squeeze-casting technology. The tensile properties were studied, and the dynamic tensile deformation behavior was investigated by an in situ TEM tensile technique. The as-cast composite exhibits excellent tensile properties with a fracture strength of 504 MPa, and the strength increases to 579 MPa after a T6 treatment. The high strength is mainly attributed to the dispersion strengthening effect of the finer sub-micrometer Al2O3 particles. Dynamic transmission electron microscopy indicates that micro-cracks initiate and propagate mainly in the matrix. The Al2O3 particles can hinder the growth and deflect the cracks, but the resistance of the particles to crack propagation is small. The propagation stage is accordingly short, leading to the fracture of the composite

  4. The Influence of al-Makk? on al-Ghaz?l?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Mohd Azam

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the influence that Ab? T?lib al-Makk? had on the thoughts of al Ghaz?l?, and particularly on his writings on mysticism. This is explained in terms of the traditions of Muslim scholars who have usually unhesitatingly drawn upon the ideas of other Muslim scholars, as well as from sources outside Islam to expound and explain the teachings of Islam. Al-Ghaz?l? who has written extensively on Islamic law, philosophy, logic, kal?m, ethics and mysticism, has delved deeply into the thoughts of al-Makk? and has elaborated and built upon his ideas, to the extent that at places he seems to have reproduced al-Makk? in verbatim.

  5. Alloy inhomogeneity and carrier localization in AlGaN sections and AlGaN/AlN nanodisks in nanowires with 240–350?nm emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himwas, C.; Hertog, M. den; Dang, Le Si; Songmuang, R. [Université Grenoble Alpes, 38000 Grenoble (France); Institut Néel-CNRS, 25 rue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Monroy, E. [Université Grenoble Alpes, 38000 Grenoble (France); CEA-Grenoble, INAC/SP2M/NPSC, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2014-12-15

    We present structural and optical studies of AlGaN sections and AlGaN/AlN nanodisks (NDs) in nanowires grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The Al-Ga intermixing at Al(Ga)N/GaN interfaces and the chemical inhomogeneity in AlGaN NDs evidenced by scanning transmission electron microscopy are attributed to the strain relaxation process. This interpretation is supported by the three-dimensional strain distribution calculated by minimizing the elastic energy in the structure. The alloy inhomogeneity increases with the Al content, leading to enhanced carrier localization signatures in the luminescence characteristics, i.e., red shift of the emission, s-shaped temperature dependence, and linewidth broadening. Despite these effects, the emission energy of AlGaN/AlN NDs can be tuned in the 240–350?nm range with internal quantum efficiencies around 30%.

  6. Retention of chromium by modified Al-Bentonite Retenção de cromo por Al-bentonita modificada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Volzone

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Retention of chromium (III from a tanning wastewater by modified Al-bentonites was studied. One bentonite from San Juan province, Argentina, was used. Al-bentonite was prepared by contact of bentonite with hydrolyzed OH-Al solutions (0.10 M in Al for 24 hours. The modified Al-bentonites were obtained by: a treatment with 0.5 M sodium chloride; b with 0.5 M sodium chloride adjusted at pH 8; and c treatment with an hexametaphosphate solution after sodium addition. Then, the samples were dried at 100 °C and heated at 500 °C. The chromium (III retention by samples was carried out in batch system putting in contact the material with a 2000 ppm Cr tannery waste at different times. The retained chromium was characterized by analyzing the supernatant using UV-visible spectroscopy. The different chromium retention was correlated with structural characteristics of the solids.Foi estudada a retenção de cromo (III de águas residuais por meio de Al-bentonitas modificadas. Foi usada uma bentonita da província de San Juan, Argentina. As bentonitas-Al forma preparadas colocando-as em contato com soluções (0,10 M Al hydrolizadas de OH-Al durante 24 horas. As bentonitas-Al modidicadas foram obtidas por meio de: a tratamento com cloreto de sódio 0,5 M; b com cloreto de sódio 0,5 M sodium com pH ajustado para 8; e c tratamento com uma solução de hexametafosfato após a adição de sódio. As amostras foram então secas a 100 °C e aquecidas a 500 °C. A retenção do cromo (III pelas amostras foi feita em lotes colocando o material em contato em diferentes tempos com um resíduo contendo 2000 ppm de cromo. O cromo retido foi caracterizado por meio de análise do sobrenadante usando espectroscopia UV-visível. As diferentes retenções de cromo foram correlacionadas com características estruturais dos sólidos.

  7. Retention of chromium by modified Al-Bentonite / Retenção de cromo por Al-bentonita modificada

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C., Volzone; L. B., Garrido.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a retenção de cromo (III) de águas residuais por meio de Al-bentonitas modificadas. Foi usada uma bentonita da província de San Juan, Argentina. As bentonitas-Al forma preparadas colocando-as em contato com soluções (0,10 M Al) hydrolizadas de OH-Al durante 24 horas. As bentonitas-Al mo [...] didicadas foram obtidas por meio de: a) tratamento com cloreto de sódio 0,5 M; b) com cloreto de sódio 0,5 M sodium com pH ajustado para 8; e c) tratamento com uma solução de hexametafosfato após a adição de sódio. As amostras foram então secas a 100 °C e aquecidas a 500 °C. A retenção do cromo (III) pelas amostras foi feita em lotes colocando o material em contato em diferentes tempos com um resíduo contendo 2000 ppm de cromo. O cromo retido foi caracterizado por meio de análise do sobrenadante usando espectroscopia UV-visível. As diferentes retenções de cromo foram correlacionadas com características estruturais dos sólidos. Abstract in english Retention of chromium (III) from a tanning wastewater by modified Al-bentonites was studied. One bentonite from San Juan province, Argentina, was used. Al-bentonite was prepared by contact of bentonite with hydrolyzed OH-Al solutions (0.10 M in Al) for 24 hours. The modified Al-bentonites were obtai [...] ned by: a) treatment with 0.5 M sodium chloride; b) with 0.5 M sodium chloride adjusted at pH 8; and c) treatment with an hexametaphosphate solution after sodium addition. Then, the samples were dried at 100 °C and heated at 500 °C. The chromium (III) retention by samples was carried out in batch system putting in contact the material with a 2000 ppm Cr tannery waste at different times. The retained chromium was characterized by analyzing the supernatant using UV-visible spectroscopy. The different chromium retention was correlated with structural characteristics of the solids.

  8. Microstructural defects modeling in the Al-Mo system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we have utilized computer simulation techniques to study microstructural defects, such as point defects and interfaces, in the Al-Mo alloy. Such alloy is taken as a model to study the Al(fcc)/U-Mo(bcc) interface. The EAM interatomic potential used has been fitted to the formation energy and lattice constant of the AlMo3 intermetallic. Formation of vacancies for both components Al and Mo and anti-sites, AlMo and MoAl, as well as vacancy migration was studied in this structure. We found that the lowest energy defect complex that preserves stoichiometry is the antisite pair AlMo+MoAl, in correspondence with other intermetallics of the same structure. Our results also suggest that the structure of the Al(fcc)/Mo(bcc) interface is unstable, while that of the Al(fcc)/Al5Mo interface is stable, as observed experimentally. (author)

  9. Plastic deformation behaviour and deformation substructure in Al-rich TiAl single crystals deformed at high temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    K Hayashi, T Nakano and Y Umakoshi

    2001-01-01

    Plastic deformation behaviour in Ti–54.7 at.%Al and Ti–58.0 at.%Al single crystals was examined around and above the anomalous strengthening peak temperature (Tp) focusing on the effect of Al5Ti3 superstructure. The Al5Ti3 superstructure developed in the L10 matrix of Ti–58.0 at.%Al, and the size of the Al5Ti3 phase once increased during annealing at 800°C and then decreased with increasing temperature, while no significant evidence of the Al5Ti3 particles was obtained in Ti–54.7 at.%Al from ...

  10. Management of respiratory symptoms in ALS.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hardiman, Orla

    2012-02-01

    Respiratory insufficiency is a frequent feature of ALS and is present in almost all cases at some stage of the illness. It is the commonest cause of death in ALS. FVC is used as important endpoint in many clinical trials, and in decision-making events for patients with ALS, although there are limitations to its predictive utility. There are multiple causes of respiratory muscle failure, all of which act to produce a progressive decline in pulmonary function. Diaphragmatic fatigue and weakness, coupled with respiratory muscle weakness, lead to reduced lung compliance and atelectasis. Increased secretions increase the risk of aspiration pneumonia, which further compromises respiratory function. Bulbar dysfunction can lead to nutritional deficiency, which in turn increases the fatigue of respiratory muscles. Early recognition of respiratory decline and symptomatic intervention, including non-invasive ventilation can significantly enhance both quality of life and life expectancy in ALS. Patients with respiratory failure should be advised to consider an advance directive to avoid emergency mechanical ventilation.

  11. Management of respiratory symptoms in ALS.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hardiman, Orla

    2011-03-01

    Respiratory insufficiency is a frequent feature of ALS and is present in almost all cases at some stage of the illness. It is the commonest cause of death in ALS. FVC is used as important endpoint in many clinical trials, and in decision-making events for patients with ALS, although there are limitations to its predictive utility. There are multiple causes of respiratory muscle failure, all of which act to produce a progressive decline in pulmonary function. Diaphragmatic fatigue and weakness, coupled with respiratory muscle weakness, lead to reduced lung compliance and atelectasis. Increased secretions increase the risk of aspiration pneumonia, which further compromises respiratory function. Bulbar dysfunction can lead to nutritional deficiency, which in turn increases the fatigue of respiratory muscles. Early recognition of respiratory decline and symptomatic intervention, including non-invasive ventilation can significantly enhance both quality of life and life expectancy in ALS. Patients with respiratory failure should be advised to consider an advance directive to avoid emergency mechanical ventilation.

  12. Lebensführung als Grundlage der ‚Gläsernen Decke‘

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Wolffram

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In der Studie wird aufgezeigt, wie die an gesellschaftlichen Vorgaben ausgerichtete Lebensführung von Frauen als strukturelle Barriere deren Karrierechancen beeinflusst. Im Gegensatz dazu befördert eine männliche Lebensführung, die tradierte Vorstellungen einer geschlechtertypischen Arbeitsteilung erfüllt, immer noch eine männliche Karriere. Mit dem Konzept der bürgerlichen Lebensführung entlarvt Bärbel Könekamp somit einen bedeutsamen Mechanismus für die Reproduktion vertikaler Arbeitsmarktsegregation.

  13. Joint SSRTNet/ALS-MES Workshop report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This joint workshop brought together experimentalists and theorists interested in synchrotron radiation and highlighted subjects relevant to molecular environmental science (MES). The strong mutual interest between the participants resulted in joint sessions on the first day, followed by more specialized parallel sessions on the second day. Held in conjunction with the Advanced Light Source (ALS) Users' Association Annual Meeting at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab), the Synchrotron Radiation Research Theory Network (SRRTNet) workshop was co-organized by Michel Van Hove (Berkeley Lab and University of California, Davis) and Andrew Canning (Berkeley Lab), while David Shuh (Berkeley Lab) organized the ALS-MES workshop. SRRTNet is a global network that promotes the interaction of theory and experiment (http://www.cse.clrc.ac.uk/Activity/SRRTnet). The ALS-MES project is constructing Beamline 11.0.2.1-2, a new soft x-ray beamline for MES investigations at photon energies from 75 eV to 2 keV, to provide photons for wet spectroscopy end stations and an upgraded scanning transmission x-ray microscope (STXM). The ALS-MES beamline and end stations will be available for users in the late fall of 2002

  14. La visita médica al hogar Home visit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Díaz Novás

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Se hace un breve resumen de la historia de la visita médica al hogar en Cuba, y se señala su evolución en las diferentes formas organizativas de la atención primaria en la etapa revolucionaria. Se enumeran las ventajas de las visitas médicas al hogar, su necesidad como componente fundamental e insustituible de la atención a los pacientes, y como complemento necesario del trabajo en el consultorio. Se exponen los motivos de la visita al hogar: enfermedades agudas, procesos crónicos, discapacidades, evaluar el entorno familiar e higiénico-epidemiológico del paciente, los ingresos domiciliarios, las altas hospitalarias precoces, y los pacientes con enfermedades terminales o con afecciones dispensarizadas, entre otros Se presenta un grupo de orientaciones para el desarrollo exitoso de la visita médica al hogarA summary of the history of home visit in Cuba is made, stressing its evolution in the different organizative ways of primary care in the revolutionary stage. The advantages of home visits, their need as a fundamental and irreplaceable component of the patients' care and a necessary complement of the work in the office are given. The reasons of the visits are explained: acute diseases, chronic processes, disabilities, evaluation of the family and hygienic-epidemiological setting of the patient, home admissions, early hospital discharges, and patients with end-stage diseases, or with categorized diseases, among others. Some instructions for the success of home visit are exposed.

  15. EMBRIOPATÍAS ASOCIADAS AL USO DE MISOPROSTOL

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andrea, Osorío O; Juan Guillermo, Rodríguez A; Osear, Plzarro R; Axel, Paredes V; Susana, Aguilera P.

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso clínico de síndrome de Moebius y artrogriposis asociado al uso de misoprostol durante el primer trimestre de gestación [...] Abstract in english We present a case of Moebius syndrome and arthrogriposis associated to the use of misoprostol during the first trimester of gestation. [...

  16. EMBRIOPATÍAS ASOCIADAS AL USO DE MISOPROSTOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Osorío O

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso clínico de síndrome de Moebius y artrogriposis asociado al uso de misoprostol durante el primer trimestre de gestaciónWe present a case of Moebius syndrome and arthrogriposis associated to the use of misoprostol during the first trimester of gestation.

  17. Al-Ghazali on Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Hamid Reza

    2007-01-01

    Al-Ghazali (1058-1111 CE) is probably the most influential scholar, philosopher, theologian, legal expert, religious reformer and mystic in the history of Islam. Although he wrote extensively about education, and particularly about moral education, this writing is scattered through a number of different works and has received less scholarly…

  18. Synthesis of Ti-Al porous perform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Naplocha

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Article describes production method of intermetallic porous perform for reinforcing of composite materials. Usefulness of the high temperature self-propagating synthesis (SHS, with appropriate modification, to produce perform for production of composite was evaluated.Design/methodology/approach: Mixture of aluminum and titanium powder was cold isostatically pressed (CIPed and produced cylindrical pill was ignited in microwave field. Obtained structure usually have open porosity what enables for pressure infiltration with molten metal. The investigations of the structure of preforms on the scanning electron microscope (SEM were made.Findings: The produced performs in most cases reveal open porosity, uniform morphology and are suitable for infiltration process. After reaction Al-Ti compounds form partly globular structure with microhardness much higher than substratesResearch limitations/implications: In the actual stages of this work proposed method can be used for manufacturing of porous performs, which mainly contain Al3Ti. During reaction, mixture compacts with the molar ratio of Al/Ti=1 were transformed into inhomogeneous structure.Practical implications: Obtained perform can be widely used as the reinforcement to produce hybrid composite materials by the infiltration method. Aluminum casting alloys can be locally reinforced to improve hardness and resistance to oxidization at high temperature.Originality/value: Article is valuable for persons engaged in production of casting composite materials reinforced with porous perform. Proposed method allows to incorporate hard structures from Al-Ti compounds into aluminum casting.

  19. Phase transitions and compression properties of Ti2AlC/TiAl composites fabricated by combustion synthesis reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Phase transitions in the Ti–Al–C system during combustion synthesis were studied. ? The Ti2AlC/TiAl composites were successfully fabricated in the Ti–Al–C system. ? The addition of the C improves the compression properties of the TiAl alloy. ? The work-hardening behavior of the Ti2AlC/TiAl composites was discussed in detail. - Abstract: The phase transitions in the Ti–Al and the Ti–Al–C systems are investigated by the differential thermal analysis (DTA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results reveal that the addition of C not only leads to the formation of the Ti2AlC phase but also lowers the formation temperatures of the TiAl and Ti3Al phases. In the both systems, the combustion synthesis reactions are ignited at the melting point of Al, so the TiAl alloy and the Ti2AlC/TiAl composites are successfully fabricated at a lower temperature (about 660 °C) with an applied pressure. The yield strength, the ultimate compression strength and the work hardening rate of the Ti2AlC/TiAl composites are all higher than those of the TiAl alloy and increase with the increase in the Ti2AlC content. The average ultimate compression strength of the 6 vol.% Ti2AlC/TiAl composite is 179 MPa higher than that of the TiAl alloy without sacrificing ductility.

  20. Aspectos biopsicosociales asociados al embarazo adolescente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Cogollo Jiménez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El embarazo en la adolescencia, es un evento inesperado, sorpresivo. Este artículo establece la importancia de identificar los aspectos biopsicosociales asociados al embarazo adolescente en las embarazadas asistentes al programa de Control Prenatal de una Empresa Social del Estado de nivel 1 en Montería en 2009, para comprender las actitudes y los comportamientos asociados a esta etapa tan temprana. Materiales y Métodos: Es un estudio descriptivo, cuantitativo, de corte transversal. Población y muestra: 30 adolescentes embarazadas asistentes al Programa, el muestreo por conveniencia. Se utilizó la encuesta y la observación directa, previa autorización del Director de la empresa. Resultados: Caracterización de la población: predominó la edad de 15 a 19 años (adolescencia tardía, uniones libres, baja escolaridad debido a la deserción escolar, ingreso económico menor al salario mínimo legal vigente. Aspectos Biológicos: la menarquía a temprana edad (9 a 14 años, y en ella la mitad de los embarazos. La mayoría de los segundos embarazos terminaron en parto, la minoría en cesárea y aborto. La captación para los controles prenatales fue tardía, algunas no cumplieron con las citas programadas. Aspectos Psicológicos: inestabilidad con la pareja al enterarse del embarazo, tuvieron soporte familiar moral y económico, abandonaron sus estudios y presentaron malestares como estrés, depresión y tristeza. Aspectos Sociales: predominó la convivencia con la familia extensa. Hubo aceptación en el colegio y en los amigos. Discusión y Conclusiones: Se plantean estrategias para disminuir estos aspectos: elaboración de una cartilla sobre “Cuidado de la adolescente embarazada”, creación de espacios de reflexión, jornadas lúdicas educativas, entre otros. (Rev Cuid 2012; 3(3:385-93.Palabras clave: Embarazo en Adolescencia, Bienestar Materno, Atención Prenatal. (Fuente: DeCS BIREME.

  1. 77 FR 73732 - In the Matter of the Amendment of the Designation of al-Qa'ida in Iraq, aka Jam'at al Tawhid wa...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ...al-Nusrah, Jabhet al-Nusra, The Victory Front, Al Nusrah Front for...Jabhet al-Nusra, aka The Victory Front, aka Al Nusrah Front...following new alias and other possible transliterations thereof...al-Nusrah, Jabhet al-Nusra, The Victory Front, Al Nusrah Front...

  2. Calculation of the effective ionic radii of Al1+ and Al2+, the standard enthalpies of formation of the crystalline oxides Al2O, AlO, and Al3O4, and the enthalpies of their crystal lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabukhin, A. G.; Roshin, V. E.; Roshin, A. V.

    2007-04-01

    The sizes of particles (ions and their associations) that participate in processes related to heat and mass transfer and electrotransport in condensed matter, as well as the interaction of the particles, are of importance. The effective radii of the Al1+ and Al2+ ions are calculated in accordance with models proposed earlier. The standard enthalpies of formation of the Al2O, AlO, and Al3O4 oxides and their crystal lattices are determined using these effective ionic radii. The coincidence of the parameters that have been calculated using independent models and initial data for different oxides indicates that these models are reliable and can be used for predictions. The calculated data bring the crystal structure parameters and the thermochemical constants of the oxides into agreement.

  3. Electrochemical formation of Al–Tm intermetallics in eutectic LiCl–KCl melt containing Tm and Al ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work focuses on investigating the electrochemical formation of Al–Tm and Al–Li–Tm alloys in LiCl–KCl–AlCl3–Tm2O3 melt on both W and Al electrodes. Thermodynamic calculation and electrochemical behavior of LiCl–KCl melt containing both AlCl3 and Tm2O3 showed that AlCl3 can chlorinate Tm2O3 to release Tm(III) ions. Three kinds of Al–Tm intermetallics at about ?1.26, ?1.32 and ?1.43 V were detected by means of various electrochemical measurement techniques, i.e. cyclic voltammetry, square wave voltammetry and open circuit chronopotentiometry. Potentiostatic and galvanostatic electrolysis were carried out on Al and W electrodes to prepare Al–Tm and Al–Li–Tm alloys, respectively. The composition of Al–Li–Tm alloys was analyzed by inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES)

  4. Effect of speciation transformation on the coagulation behavior of Al(13) and Al(13) aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohong; Ye, Changqing; Wang, Dongsheng; Ge, Xiaopeng; Tang, Hongxiao

    2009-01-01

    Flocculation of kaolin suspension with aluminium fractal polycations was investigated as a function of aluminium concentration and pH. Aluminium flocculants included Al(13) and Al(13) aggregates with OH/Al ratio of 2.6 and 2.8, respectively. The flocculation kinetics and floc size distribution were monitored by light scattering. The characterization of flocculants showed that the tridecatmer Al(13) and bridged [Al(13)](n) with out-sphere structure were the dominant species for all flocculants in a wide pH range. The coagulation results indicated that the pre and in situ-formed [Al(13)](n) play a key role in removing particles. With the increasing concentration of [Al(13)](n), coagulation mechanisms were transformed from charge-neutralization, electro-patch coagulation to bridge-aggregation. Moreover, sweep-flocculation was involved at higher dosage besides other three mechanisms when amorphous aluminium oxides formed. Hence, chemical interaction between particles and flocculants evolved from surface adsorption to surface precipitation for aluminium polycations by virtue of species transformation. PMID:19237777

  5. Electron irradiation of AlGaN/GaN and AlN/GaN heterojunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of 10 MeV electron irradiation on AlGaN/GaN and AlN/GaN heterojunctions grown by molecular beam epitaxy are reported. The irradiation increases the resistivity of the GaN buffer due to compensation by radiation defects with levels near Ec-1 eV and decreases the mobility of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) near the AlGaN/GaN (or AlN/GaN) interface. The bulk carrier removal rate in the GaN buffer is the same for both types of structures and similar to carrier removal rates for undoped n-GaN films. In structures with a density of residual donors of ?1015 cm-3, irradiation with electron doses of ?5x1015 cm-2 renders the buffer semi-insulating. The 50% degradation of the 2DEG conductivity happens at several times higher doses (close to 3x1016 cm-2 versus 6.5x1015 cm-2) for AlN/GaN than for AlGaN/GaN structures, most likely because of the lower thickness of the AlN barrier

  6. Reactive milling synthesis of nanocrystalline Al-Cu/Al2O3 nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanocrystalline Al-4 wt% Cu alloy reinforced with nanometric Al2O3 particles was synthesized by in situ reactive milling of Al and CuO powder mixture. X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques were employed to study the mechanically induced solid state reaction between the blended powders. The mechanical milling stages were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), bulk density measurement and laser particle size analyzer. It was shown that the reaction between Al and CuO occurs progressively as the mechanical milling continues, leading to formation of nanoscaled alumina particles. The grain refinement of the matrix by severe plastic deformation also resulted in the formation of nanocrystalline Al-Cu alloy. It was determined that the FCC Al (Cu) solid solution has a lattice parameter of 4.04 A, average crystallite size of about 50 nm and lattice strain of 0.35%. The size of alumina particles was in the range of 10-50 nm and they were mostly distributed at the grain boundaries. The processed nanocomposite powder has fine and equiaxed particles with relatively high bulk density. This paper presents structural evolution and morphological changes occurring during attrition milling of Al-CuO powder mixture

  7. Reactive milling synthesis of nanocrystalline Al-Cu/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arami, H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9466, Azadi Avenue, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Simchi, A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9466, Azadi Avenue, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: simchi@sharif.edu

    2007-08-25

    Nanocrystalline Al-4 wt% Cu alloy reinforced with nanometric Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles was synthesized by in situ reactive milling of Al and CuO powder mixture. X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques were employed to study the mechanically induced solid state reaction between the blended powders. The mechanical milling stages were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), bulk density measurement and laser particle size analyzer. It was shown that the reaction between Al and CuO occurs progressively as the mechanical milling continues, leading to formation of nanoscaled alumina particles. The grain refinement of the matrix by severe plastic deformation also resulted in the formation of nanocrystalline Al-Cu alloy. It was determined that the FCC Al (Cu) solid solution has a lattice parameter of 4.04 A, average crystallite size of about 50 nm and lattice strain of 0.35%. The size of alumina particles was in the range of 10-50 nm and they were mostly distributed at the grain boundaries. The processed nanocomposite powder has fine and equiaxed particles with relatively high bulk density. This paper presents structural evolution and morphological changes occurring during attrition milling of Al-CuO powder mixture.

  8. Oxidation and intergranular disintegration of the aluminides NiAl and NbAl sub 3 and phases in the system Nb-Ni-Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabke, H.J.; Steinhorst, M.; Brumm, M.; Wiemer, D. (Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Duesseldorf (West Germany))

    1991-04-01

    The oxidation behavior is very different for an aluminide with a wide homogeneity range such as {beta}-NiAl than for a line compound such as NbAl{sub 3}. Oxidation of {beta}-NiAl at temperatures {ge}1,273 K leads to a slow-growing {alpha}-alumina layer. The metal phase beneath the scale remains as {beta}-NiAl; however, cavity formation is observed. The cavity formation may be favored by sulphur surface segregation. Oxidation of NbAl{sub 3} at temperatures {ge}1,273 K initially leads to {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, but the Al depletion causes the formation of Nb{sub 2}Al beneath the oxide layer. Cracking of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer opens Nb{sub 2}Al to the atmosphere, which oxidizes rapidly to Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} and NbAlO{sub 4}. After consumption of the Nb{sub 2}Al, a layer of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} formed again on the NbAl{sub 3} phase, but failure of the alumina and the fast growth of the other oxides occur as a repeated process. Thus, NbAl{sub 3} exhibited rapid linear oxidation kinetics. Multiphase alloys in the system Nb-Ni-Al generally behave better than NbAl{sub 3}, and the low oxidation rates of {beta}-NiAl can be approached. In the temperature range below 1,273 K, with a maximum at 1,000 K, both NiAl and NbAl{sub 3} show the pest phenomenon, an intergranular disintegration. Preceding the disintegration, oxygen diffuses into the grain boundaries of the material and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is formed at the grain boundaries, beginning from the surface region. NiAl is susceptible only in a very limited range of oxygen pressures and temperatures, whereas NbAl{sub 3} is much more susceptible.

  9. Ultrahigh tensile strength of amorphous Al-Ni-(Nd,Gd)-Fe alloys containing nanocrystalline Al particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, the nanocrystallization of amorphous alloys has attracted great interest because of significantly enhanced mechanical property or magnetic property compared with the amorphous single phase alloys with the same compositions. This paper demonstrates that amorphous Al-Ni(Nd,Gd)-Fe alloys are greatly strengthened by nanocrystalline Al particles formed by aging treatment and the mixed phase alloys consisting of the nanocrystalline Al particles embedded in an amorphous matrix also retain higher tensile strength than that for the amorphous single phase alloy with the same composition even at elevated temperature

  10. 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of Ce3Al11 at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have measured the 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance, NMR, spectra of oriented powder of the intermetallic compound Ce3Al11 at temperatures between 0.03 K and 20 K, and frequencies of 2.815 MHz, 3.925 MHz, 9.208 MHz and 74.81 MHz. In the paramagnetic state the NMR spectra show the quadrupolar-split contribution of the four inequivalent Al-sites with strongly temperature-dependent Knigth shifts. The NMR spectra indicate the onset of a ferromagnetic phase below 6.2 K transforming into a sinusoidally modulated antiferromagnetic state below 3.3 K. (orig.)

  11. Cavitation Erosion Resistance Of FeAl Intermetallic Alloys And Al2O3 – Based Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasionowski R.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the devastation of fluid-flow machinery components is very complex, because it consists of processes of erosion and corrosion. The most dangerous factor is the cavitation phenomenon, which is very difficult to eliminate through the use of design solutions. Usage of materials with greater resistance to cavitation erosion seems to be an obvious effective method of prevention. Such materials as FeAl intermetallic alloys and ceramic materials may be considered as reasonable candidates for this purpose. In the presented work, cavitation erosion resistance of FeAl intermetallic alloys and Al2O3 – based ceramic materials, was investigated and compared.

  12. Superconductivity of Al/Al2O3 interface formed by shock-wave pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palnichenko, A. V.; Shakhrai, D. V.; Avdonin, V. V.; Vyaselev, O. M.; Khasanov, S. S.

    2015-05-01

    A mixture of Al and ? -Al2O3 has been subjected to a shock-wave pressure of ? 170 kbar, followed by vacuum-encapsulating and quenching of the product to liquid nitrogen. The ac magnetic susceptibility measurements of the samples have revealed metastable superconductivity with Tc ? 37 K, characterized by glassy dynamics of the shielding currents below Tc . Comparison of the ac susceptibility and the dc magnetization measurements infers that the superconductivity arises within the interfacial granular layer formed between metallic Al and its oxide due to the shock-wave treatment.

  13. Dynamic structure mediated by graphitelike Al nets on the Al2Cu (001) surface

    OpenAIRE

    Serkovic Loli, L.; Gaudry, Emilie; Fournée, V.; De Weerd, M.-C.; Ledieu, J.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed study of the (001) surface of the Al2Cu crystal using both experimental and ab initio computational methods is presented in this work. The combination of both approaches gives many arguments to match the surface plane with a bulk truncated surface model terminated by incomplete Al planes. The missing rows of Al atoms lead to a 2?2×?2R 45° surface reconstruction with two domains rotated by 90° from each other. Ab initio calculations demonstrate that the energetic cost associated wit...

  14. Assessment of coronary heart diseases in diabetics in al-Madinah al-Munawarah

    OpenAIRE

    al-Nozha O; Mojadadi M; Mosaad M; El-Bab MF

    2012-01-01

    Omar al-Nozha1, Moaz Mojadadi2, Mohamed Mosaad1,3, Mohamed F El-Bab2,41Department of Medicine, 2Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Taibah University, al-Madinah al-Munawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Medicine, 4Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, EgyptBackground: Coronary heart disease is highly prevalent and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to assess the major risk f...

  15. Structure of 26Al studied by one - nucleon transfer reaction 27Al(d,t

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Vishal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The excited states of 26Al have been produced and studied using 27Al(d,t reaction with 25 MeV deuteron as projectile. Optical model potential parameters were extracted from the measured elastic scattering angular distribution. Zero range distorted wave Born approximation analysis for the ground and 0.223 MeV states of 26Al have been done. The spectroscopic factors calculated for these states are found to be in good agreement with the previously reported values.

  16. Ordering process of Fe28Al and Fe28Al5Cr alloys

    OpenAIRE

    L. Paj?k; Kansy, J.; A. Hanc; Dercz, G.; M. Jab?o?ska

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The comparison of ordering process in Fe28Al and Fe28Al5Cr alloys annealed for 8, 16 and 48 hours at 1000°C was performed. The composition of studied alloys is closed to one of Fe3Al phase.Design/methodology/approach: The studied alloys were melted in induction furnace under vacuum. Next the alloys were gravitatively casted into cylindrical graphite moulds. The alloy samples were annealed at 1000°C for 8, 16 and 48 hours. The ordering process was analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Mössba...

  17. Superconductivity of Al/Al2O3 interface formed under shock-wave conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhray, D. V.; Avdonin, V. V.; Palnichenko, A. V.; Vyaselev, O. M.

    2015-11-01

    A mixture of powdered Al and Al2O3 has been subjected to a shock-wave pressure of ? 170 kbar, followed by vacuum-encapsulating and quenching of the product to liquid nitrogen. The ac magnetic susceptibility measurements of the samples have revealed metastable superconductivity with Tc ? 37 K, characterized by glassy dynamics of the shielding currents below Tc. Comparison of the ac susceptibility and the dc magnetization measurements infers that the superconductivity arises within the interfacial granular layer formed between metallic Al and its oxide due to the shock-wave treatment.

  18. Solidification processing of intermetallic Nb-Al alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Preston P.; Oliver, Ben F.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    1992-01-01

    Several Nb-Al alloys, including single-phase NbAl3 and the eutectic of Nb2Al and NbAl3, were prepared either by nonconsumable arc melting in Ar or by zone processing in He following initial induction melting and rod casting, and the effect of the solidification route on the microstructure and room-temperature mechanical properties of these alloys was investigated. Automated control procedures and melt conditions for directional solidification of NbAl3 and the Nb2Al/Nb3Al eutectic were developed; high purity and stoichiometry were obtained. The effects of ternary additions of Ti and Ni are described.

  19. Zinc ion adsorption on montmorillonite-Al hydroxide polymer systems

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, R.P.T.; Bruggenwert, M.G.M.; Riemsdijk, W.H., van

    2003-01-01

    Clay¿Al hydroxide polymers (CAlHO) can bind heavy metals effectively and may play an important role in the adsorption behaviour and metal binding capacity of soils. We studied the dependence of Al loading and pH on the adsorption of Zn on Na-saturated montmorillonite¿Al hydroxide polymer systems. The available binding sites on Al hydroxide polymers (AlHO) had a very strong affinity for Zn ions. Zinc binding on the clay surface became important when the binding sites on the AlHO were nearly al...

  20. Properties of porous FeAlO/FeAl ceramic matrix composite influenced by mechanical activation of FeAl powder

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Usoltsev; S Tikhov; A Salanov; V Sadykov; G Golubkova; O Lomovskii

    2013-12-01

    Porous ceramic matrix composites FeAlO/FeAl with incorporated metal inclusions (cermets) were synthesized by pressureless method, which includes hydrothermal treatment of mechanically alloyed FeAl powder followed by calcination. Their main structural, textural and mechanical features are described. Variation of FeAl powder alloying time results in non-monotonous changes of the porosity and mechanical strength. Details of the cermet microstructure and its relation to the mechanical properties are discussed.

  1. Core-excitonic lines at the Al 2p surface optical-absorption threshold of AlAs and AlP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, M. K.; Niles, D. W.; Perfetti, P.; Colavita, E.; Savoia, A.; Margaritondo, G.; Henzler, M.

    1985-10-01

    The optical-absorption spectra of AlAs and AlP exhibit unusual features-strong Al 2p core-excitonic lines. The data were obtained with synchrotron-radiation photoemission in the partial-yield mode. The analysis was based on the approach proposed by Johnson, Fock, Ley, and Cardona for AlSb and on Onodera and Toyozawa's exciton theory.

  2. Reactive hot pressing and mechanical properties of TiAl3/Ti3AlC2/Al2O3in situ composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Dense TiAl3/Ti3AlC2/Al2O3 composite is prepared via an in situ reactive/hot pressing method. ? The in situ reactive procedure is investigated in detailed based on thermodynamic analysis and microstructure observation. ? The high temperature compressive property is improved by introducing Ti3AlC2 phase. ? The toughening mechanism of TiAl3/Ti3AlC2/Al2O3 composite is summarized. - Abstract: Dense TiAl3/Ti3AlC2/Al2O3 composite was synthesized from Al, TiO2 and TiC powder mixture at 1250 °C and 50 MPa for 10 min using an in situ reaction/hot-pressing method. The reaction kinetic, microstructure, mechanical properties and toughening mechanism of the fabricated composite were investigated. TiO was found to be the transitional phase, and the reaction path for the Al/TiO2/TiC system was proposed. The composite achieved Vickers Hardness, three-point bending strength and fracture toughness of ?8.4 GPa, ?658.9 MPa and ?7.9 MPa/m1/2, respectively. Analysis of microstructure/crack propagation paths interaction revealed that crack deflection, crack bridging, and pull-out of the Ti3AlC2 particles were the main mechanism responsible for the toughening. The compressive strength of the in situ composite was much higher than that of as-cast TiAl3 and could be maintained even at 1000 °C. This was mainly attributed to the cooperative strengthening introduced by Ti3AlC2 and Al2O3

  3. Reconstructions and faceting of H-covered Al(111)

    OpenAIRE

    Stumpf, Roland

    1996-01-01

    First principles calculations show that H overlayers induce a honeycomb vacancy reconstruction on Al(111). Above one ML H coverage, Al(111) facets into surfaces vicinal to (111), with {100} faceted single and double steps and vacancies on the {111} terraces. These H induced reconstructions are stable because H binds more strongly to {100} than to {111} facets. Faceting of Al(111) explains step bunching in H-mediated epitaxy of Al(111). H-covered Al(100) is stable against fac...

  4. Rechargeable Al/Cl2 battery with molten AlCl4/-/ electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleck, G. L.; Giner, J.; Burrows, B.

    1972-01-01

    A molten salt system based on Al- and Cl2 carbon electrodes, with an AlCl3 alkali chloride eutectic as electrolyte, offers promise as a rechargeable, high energy density battery which can operate at a relatively low temperature. Electrode kinetic studies showed that the electrode reactions at the Al anode were rapid and that the observed passivation phenomena were due to the formation at the electrode surface of a solid salt layer resulting from concentration changes on anodic or cathodic current flow. It was established that carbon electrodes were intrinsically active for chlorine reduction in AlCl3-alkali chloride melts. By means of a rotating vitreous carbon disk electrode, the kinetic parameters were determined.

  5. 'Videokunst on tõsine asi,' räägib kunstnik Al Paldrock / Al Paldrok ; interv. Tiiu Leis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paldrok, Al, 1969-

    1998-01-01

    Intervjuu Pärnu filmipäevade (2.-4. apr.) ühe peakorraldaja, Helsingis Kuvataide akadeemias video- ja keskkonnakunsti õppinud Al Paldrokiga filmipäevadest (kus esitatakse nii video-, reklaam- kui dokumentaalfilme), eesti filmist ja videokunstist, rühmitusest 'Vedelik'

  6. Investigation of atomic site occupation of Nb doped TiAl/Ti3Al intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Dual-phase TiAl/ Ti3Al alloys with additions of 0-5 at.%Nb were investigated by means of the Tomographic Atom Probe (TAP) and the electron microscopy technique (TEM and HREM) as well as by TEM in-situ tensile testing. These alloys comprising mainly the ?-phase and a small amount of the ?2-phase are promising candidates for application as high temperature materials. Alloying addition of Nb improves clearly the mechanical strength and the oxidation resistance of these alloys. The impact of Nb on the variation of different microstructural parameters, and in particular the Nb atomic-site occupancies and distribution in TiAl and Ti3Al will be presented and discussed. (author)

  7. Ni{sub 3}Al technology transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K.; Viswanathan, S.; Santella, M.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Ductile Ni{sub 3}Al and Ni{sub 3}Al-based alloys have been identified for a range of applications. These applications require the use of material in a variety of product forms such as sheet, plate, bar, wire, tubing, piping, and castings. Although significant progress has been made in the melting, casting, and near-net-shape forming of nickel aluminides, some issues still remain. These include the need for: (1) high-strength castable composition for many applications that have been identified; (2) castability (mold type, fluidity, hot-shortness, porosity, etc.); (3) weld reparability of castings; and (4) workability of cast or powder metallurgy product to sheet, bar, and wire. The four issues listed above can be {open_quotes}show stoppers{close_quotes} for the commercial application of nickel aluminides. This report describes the work completed to address some of these issues during FY 1996.

  8. Al Maschke and heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is fitting that this symposium be dedicated to the memory of Al Maschke. His recognition of the implication of the very high dE/dx of high energy heavy ions in matter was the first connection made between the mature accelerator technology of high energy physics and inertial confinement fusion of DT. Moreover, he contributed many significant ideas to the development of the field. Especially important was the Maschke power transport limit, elucidated in the first workshop. Its implications are discussed. Al's attention then shifted to the front end of the accelerator system and his contributions include application of the Gabor lens, origination of the Meqalac system, resonance crossing and the concept of momentum-rich beams for fusion applications. These contributions are described together with some personal comments and some recollections of the early evolution of heavy ion fusion as background. While some early events are mentioned, this paper is not meant to be an exhaustive history. (orig.)

  9. en torno al problema del modo causal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo A. Ortega

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La explicación causal propuesta por el análisis conductual se originó por la convergencia de distintas posiciones filosóficas y científicas, por lo cual posee una complejidad no siempre advertida. Dado que la biología evolutiva es una de las perspectivas en juego, se revisa la influencia que tuvo sobre la noción skinneriana de selección por consecuencias; noción que posteriormente se propuso como modo causal único del comportamiento. Un análisis de los antecedentes históricos y discusiones posteriores al respecto sugiere que la variación se constituye como modo causal alternativo a la selección, haciéndose necesaria su inclusión. Por ello, el objetivo de este artículo es defender, partiendo del análisis de las analogías entre evolución y comportamiento, la necesidad de considerar distintos modos causales para comprender el comportamiento; particularmente, se propone ampliar las explicaciones centradas en causas remotas al incorporar las causas próximas del comportamiento. Finalmente, se hace énfasis en una interpretación biológica del comportamiento

  10. Impact of superbends at the ALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To satisfy a demand for high energy, high brightness x-ray sources at the Advanced Light Source (ALS), a plan is in place to replace three 1.3 Tesla normal conducting bending magnets with three 5 Tesla superconducting magnets (superbends) in the year 2001. In this paper they discuss the impact of the superbends on the ALS beam parameters and particle dynamics. In particular they show the effect on the emittance, energy spread, and lifetime. They find that by adjusting the dispersion to be positive in the straight section they are able to largely restore the horizontal emittance. The vertical emittance can be adjusted independently to control the lifetime. The particle dynamics are investigated through particle tracking with a frequency analysis postprocessor. They find that by placing the three superbends symmetrically around the ring there is ample dynamic aperture for injection and lifetime

  11. Ni{sub 3}Al technology transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K.; Santella, M.L.; Alexander, D.J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    Ductile Ni{sub 3}Al and Ni{sub 3}Al-based alloys have been identified for a range of applications. These applications require the use of material in a variety of product forms such as sheet, plate, bar, tubing, piping, and castings. Although significant progress has been made in the melting, casting, and near-net-shape forming of nickel aluminides, some issues still remain. These include the need for (1)high-strength castable composition for turbochargers, furnace furniture, and hot-die applications; (2) castability (fluidity, hot-shortness, porosity, etc.); (3) weld reparability of castings; and (4) hot fabricability of cast ingots. All of the issues listed above can be {open_quotes}show stoppers{close_quotes} for the commercial application of nickel aluminides. This report describes work completed to address some of these issues during the fourth quarter of FY 1994.

  12. Metamagnetism in Ce(Ga,Al)2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K G Suresh; S Radha; A K Nigam

    2002-05-01

    Effect of Al substitution on the magnetic properties of Ce(Ga$_{1-x}$Al$_{x}$)2 ($x = 0$, 0.1 and 0.5) system has been studied. The magnetic state of CeGa2 is found to be FM with a $T_{C}$ of 8 K, whereas the compounds with $x=0.1$ and 0.5 are AFM and possess $T_{N}$ of about 9 K. These two compounds undergo metamagnetic transition and the critical ?elds are about 1.2 T and 0.5 T, respectively at 2 K. These variations are explained on the basis of helical spin structure in these compounds.

  13. Geschlecht als Vexierbild? Gender as a Puzzle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstanze Plett

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Jede Geschichte hat eine Vorgeschichte. Es ist das Verdienst von Rainer Herrn, mit dem hier angezeigten Buch die Frühgeschichte von Transgender auf- und nachgezeichnet zu haben, die sich in Berlin im ersten Drittel des 20. Jahrhunderts zugetragen hat. Verknüpft ist diese Geschichte vor allem mit dem Namen Magnus Hirschfeld, der bislang in erster Linie als Vorkämpfer für die Entkrimininalisierung der Homosexualität wahrgenommen wurde. Einen passenderen Titel als Schnittmuster des Geschlechts hätte der Autor für sein Buch nicht finden können.Every history has a prehistory. Rainer Herrn has produced an accomplished work that records and traces the early history of transgendered people in Berlin during the first third of the twentieth century. This history is particularly connected to the name Magnus Hirschfeld, who, till now, has been primarily perceived as a pioneering campaigner for the decriminalization of homosexuality. The author could not have found a more appropriate title for his book than Patterns of Gender (Schnittmuster des Geschlechts.

  14. Foucault y su crítica al humanismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Bárcenas Monroy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo es determinar el significado de la frase ?la muerte del Hombre? en la filosofía contemporánea. Para ello se comienza por dar un panorama general del lugar que ocupa esta reflexión en la filosofía contemporánea. Después se muestra que, a partir de los análisis de Michel Foucault, el hombre es una invención reciente, pues no ha sido una constante en la historia del pensamiento. En seguida se describen aquellos saberes que tienen como objeto de estudio al hombre, mostrando que en lugar de darnos una respuesta sobre lo que éste sea, antes bien lo disuelven, más aún las ciencias humanas producen mecanismos de poder que normalizan a los seres humanos. Se concluye que una reflexión así planteada promueve la indagación de nuevas formas para pensar al ser humano, alejadas de un viejo humanismo.

  15. Status of the AlCap experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Litchfield, R Phillip

    2015-01-01

    The AlCap experiment is a joint project between the COMET and Mu2e collaborations. Both experiments intend to look for the lepton-flavour violating conversion $\\mu + A \\rightarrow e + A$, using tertiary muons from high-power pulsed proton beams. In these experiments the products of ordinary muon capture in the muon stopping target are an important concern, both in terms of hit rates in tracking detectors and radiation damage to equipment. The goal of the AlCap experiment is to provide precision measurements of the products of nuclear capture on Aluminium, which is the favoured target material for both COMET and Mu2e. The results will be used for optimising the design of both conversion experiments, and as input to their simulations. Data was taken in December 2013 and is currently being analysed.

  16. „Ziel ist das Menschenrecht als Frauenrecht“

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Jebrak

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Frauen, die im Schatten der großen Männern standen, werden als eigenständige Persönlichkeiten im Buch von Gisela Notz reflektiert. Sie, die schon immer Geschichte machten, blieben allzu lange im Hintergrund. Die Historikerin und Sozialwissenschaftlerin Gisela Notz holt sie ans Licht und erteilt ihnen das Wort. Es ist ihr dabei gelungen, mit konkreten biographischen Geschichten der 26 Frauen ein wichtiges Basiswerk zu schaffen. Die Autorin setzt sich mit den Brüchen des Werdeganges dieser Frauen auseinander und berührt die Schwachstellen der sozialdemokratischen Frauenpolitik. Ein Buch, dass nicht nur jungen Frauen als eine gute Tischlektüre empfohlen werden kann, sondern auch erfahrenere Frauen mit den entscheidenden gesellschaftlichen Umständen bekannt macht und sie durch die persönlichen Begegnungen mit diesen Politikerinnen bereichert.

  17. Measurements of collective effects in the ALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a newly commissioned 1.5 GeV third generation synchrotron radiation facility. We present a summary of measurements single and multibunch collective effects in the ALS storage ring and correlations with the expected impedance. Longitudinal and transverse coupled-bunch (CB) oscillations are characterized using measurements of beam spectrum, transverse beam size in dispersive regions, and undulator spectral width. Single bunch transverse head-tail damping rate and frequency shift are used to develop a model of the transverse broadband impedance. To date, storage ring performance is limited by longitudinal coupled-bunch oscillations No deleterious single-bunch effects up to 20 mA have been observed

  18. Kant à la Davidson: Maximen als Proeinstellungen

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver Petersen

    2009-01-01

    Was sind Maximen gemäß Kants Moralphilosophie? Diese Frage entsteht, da Kant zwar eine Explikation von ‚Maxime‘ als ‚subjektives Prinzip des Wollens‘ angibt, diese Explikation aber selbst wieder sehr dunkel bleibt und schwer verständlich ist. Zur Beantwortung dieser Frage werde ich in einem ersten Teil versuchen, plausible Kandidaten dafür zu ermitteln, was unter Maximen zu verstehen ist. Dabei wird sich zeigen, dass Kandidaten, die aus Davidsons Handlungstheorie stammen, sehr geeignete Kandi...

  19. Un camino al éxito: la creatividad

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Carlos Torres Soler

    2011-01-01

    Al conocer un poco la creatividad, vemos inmediatamente que es importante para el mantenimiento de nuestra cultura; luego hay que destinar tiempo para el desarrollo del espíritu creativo. Además, debemos desarrollar el arte del comportamiento persistente y reflexivo, y destinar tiempo suficiente para crecer y florecer. Debemos partir de que la creatividad es un proceso desordenado, que es totalmente personal, que es un viaje a lo desconocido. También hay que destacar que no hay tratado alguno...

  20. Impurity diffusion of Al in ?-Zr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impurity diffusion of Al in ?-Zr has been investigated in the temperature range of 1203 K to 1323 K. The interdiffusion coefficients have been determined by Hall's analytical method. The interdiffusion coefficients bear a linear relation with Al concentration of the type D =a+b CAl in the range 0? CAl ? 2at%. The impurity diffusion coefficients have been established by extrapolation of interdiffusion coefficients to limiting concentration of CAl?0. The impurity diffusion coefficients show an Arrhenius type of temperature dependence and can be described by : DAl(ca=0)?Zr= 5.567-1.80+2.65 x 106exp [( -220.08±3.33)kJmol-1/RT] m2/s. The difference between the activation energies of impurity diffusivity of Al and self-diffusivity of Zr in ?-Zr is 104.3kJmol-1. This positive difference in the activation energies indicates very low impurity-vacancy binding energy. The interrelation between the activation energy Q and the pre-exponential factor D0 of impurity diffusivity is discussed in perspective of Swalin's and Beke's theories. The values of the impurity diffusion parameters are in conformation with these theories. A co-relation between the impurity diffusion coefficients of Dimp?Zr various elements in ?-Zr and their atomic radii (r) has been established and can be presented by the relation logDimp?Zr (m2s-1)=-14.57 ±1.22+ exp[(4.84± 2.83) - (30.22±2.66)r(nm)] The impurity diffusion coefficient value of Al in is in conformation to this relation. (author)

  1. ?+ depolarization in AlGd alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ?+ depolarization rate in dilute AlGd alloys containing 50 and 450 atomic ppm Gd was measured in a transverse field of 80 Oe over the temperature range 6-300 K. For both alloys, ? increased dramatically above 200 K, reaching values of 0.69 and 0.93 ?s-1, respectively, near room temperature. The results are interpreted as providing evidence for a thermally-activated trapping mechanism. (Auth.)

  2. Problemas psicológicos asociados al trasplante de órganos

    OpenAIRE

    Mar\\u00EDa \\u00C1ngeles P\\u00E9rez San Gregorio; Agust\\u00EDn Mart\\u00EDn Rodr\\u00EDguez; Antonio Gal\\u00E1n Rodr\\u00EDguez

    2005-01-01

    El trasplante de órganos es una alternativa terapéutica para aquellos pacientes que tienen problemas graves en el funcionamiento de un órgano vital: corazón, hígado, pulmón, etc. Dada la relevancia de este tema, en el presente estudio teórico analizamos los principales problemas psicológicos asociados al trasplante de órganos. Concretamente, hemos tenido en cuenta los siguientes apartados: 1) Repercusiones psicológicas del trasplante de órganos en los pacientes: delirium, trast...

  3. Commissioning experiences of the ALS booster synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Installation of the ALS booster synchrotron proper was completed on April 30, 1991, and commissioning has just begun. Circulating beam around the booster was observed on the first day of operation, May 3, 1991. The beam was visible for about 400 turns. In this paper we describe the status and commissioning experience of the 1.5-GeV electron synchrotron accelerator. 14 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Corrosion of Al-7075 by uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the Al-7075 corrosion by uranium hexafluoride are presented in this work. The kinetic study shows that corrosion process occurs by two temperature dependent mechanism and that the alloy can be safely used up to 1400C. The corrosion film is formed by uranium oxifluoride with variable composition in depth. Two alternative corrosion models are proposed in order to explain the experimental results, as well as the tests taht will be carried out to confirm one of them

  5. GRAIN BOUNDARY STRUCTURE IN Ni3Al

    OpenAIRE

    Mackenzie, R; Vaudin, M; Sass, S

    1988-01-01

    The influence of boron segregation and non-stoichiometry on grain boundary structure in Ni3Al was studied by transmission and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Small angle twist and tilt boundaries were produced by hot pressing misoriented single crystals of both doped and undoped material. Dislocation structures were observed in both bicrystal and polycrystal grain boundaries. In most cases the grain boundary dislocations were found to have the expected a Burgers vector, however in on...

  6. Structure and ductility of TiAl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of structural factors (grain size and grain boundary structure) and strain rate on the deformation mechanism and ductility of TiAl in the temperature range of brittle-to-ductile transition and at room temperature was systematically investigated. It has been established that it is possible to substantially affect the deformation mechanism and ductility of this intermetallic by controlling structural factors, particularly the grain size, and varying the strain rate

  7. Webjihadism : the case of al Qaeda

    OpenAIRE

    Coutinho, Sara

    2012-01-01

    O presente trabalho examina a forma como o terrorismo Islâmico moderno e a al Qaeda em particular utilizam a Internet e as tecnologias dos novos media. Procura identificar e analisar as várias utilizações e determinar em que medida esta presença na Web contribui para a progressão da causa da jihad global. Assente em fontes primárias de especialistas e numa selecção de relatórios de monitorização de sites radicais Islâmicos, a pesquisa identifica e analisa as várias aplicações das mais recente...

  8. Bacteriosis que afectan al cultivo del tabaco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria Ramírez Medina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Hasta el momento se han estudiado las principales Bacteriosis que afectan al cultivo del tabaco con este material facilitamos información detallada de éstas, su sintomatología en Cuba y otros Países, imágenes de los síntomas, agentes causales y su descripción, su clasificación taxonómica, en fin pretendemos con este material que productores y personas interesadas adquieran más conocimientos a la hora de atender el cultivo y detectar a tiempo cualquier síntoma de enfermedades producidas por bacterias en el cultivo del tabaco

  9. En torno al sentido del dolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Dörr Zegers

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El dolor y el sufrimiento han acompañado al hombre desde siempre. Lo encontramos en los mitos más antiguos y en el Libro del Génesis. Yahvé le dice a la mujer ?Parirás con dolor? (Cap. 3, Vers. 16 y al hombre, ?Ganarás el pan con el sudor de tu frente? (Cap. 3, Vers. 19 y poco antes le había dicho que de ahora en adelante la vida le daría ?espinas y abrojos? (Cap. 3, Vers. 18. Hay al menos dos tipos de dolores: el dolor-sensación y el dolor-sentimiento (Auersperg. El primero es más localizado, brusco en su aparición y pasa sin dejar huellas. Es el caso del dolor provocado por un pinchazo o una quemadura. El segundo es más difuso y pático, tiene una duración mayor y pasa en forma paulatina. Es el caso de la cefalea, del colon irritable, del dolor de columna, etc. Este tipo de dolor físico abunda en las enfermedades psíquicas, particularmente en la depresión. En sus formas enmascaradas, todo el cuadro gira en torno a la experiencia dolorosa, permaneciendo el compromiso del ánimo y el de los ritmos vitales en una suerte de penumbra. En el dolor es el cuerpo el que duele. En el sufrimiento, en cambio, lo que duele es el significado de lo que me ocurre. Ambos tienen al menos dos rasgos en común: el primero es su carácter pático, vale decir, que nos suceden, que no dependen de nuestra voluntad, y el segundo es que ambos aíslan, interrumpen nuestra relación con el mundo. El autor intenta responder la pregunta por el posible sentido del dolor desde una perspectiva histórica y una hermenéutica...

  10. Vacuum metallurgy of TiAl intermetallics.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zem?ík, L.; Dlouhý, Antonín; Król, S.; Pražmowski, M.

    Ostrava : Tanger s.r.o, 2005, s. 1-11. [Metal 2005. Hradec nad Moravicí (CZ), 24.05.2005-26.05.2005] R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA106/04/0853 Grant ostatní: GA MŠMT(CZ) KONTAKT 55 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : vacuum melting * TiAl intermetallics Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy

  11. Thin film interactions of Al and Al(Cu) on TiW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmstrøm, C. J.; Mayer, J. W.; Cunningham, B.; Campbell, D. R.; Totta, P. A.

    1985-11-01

    Thin-film reactions of Al/Ti22W78 (˜10 wt. % Ti) with and without ˜2 at. % Cu in the Al were investigated by transmission electron microscopy for vacuum annealing in the temperature range 300-600 °C. The reactions are nonuniform and the presence of Cu has little effect on the reaction kinetics. Reactions are grain boundary dominated and start at 400 °C with the formation of WAl12.

  12. Mechanical properties of laminated composites of Al 1100/Al 2024 in three aging states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laminated composites consisting of alternating layers of Al 2024 were produced by hot rolling, with a volume fraction of 49% of Al 2024. These composites used in nuclear reactor tecnology, were given under-aging, aging and over-aging heat treatments at 448k for 1h, 4h and 96h, respectively. Tests of microhardness, tension and fatigue in the divider orientation were performed. (Author)

  13. A model of Fe3+-Kaolinite, Al3+-Goethite, Al3+-Hematite equilibria in laterites

    OpenAIRE

    Trolard, F.; Tardy, Yves

    1989-01-01

    Cet article propose un modèle thermodynamique, basé sur un équilibre idéal solide-solution, pour le système Fe2O3-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O prenant en compte les activités de l'eau et de la silice. Le modèle permet de calculer la quantité des phases présentes, les pourcentages de substitution en Al et Fe pour la geothite, l'hématite, la Kaolinite ainsi que la stabilité des phases sous différentes conditions.

  14. A SIMULATION STUDY OF INTERFACES IN Ni, Al AND Ni3Al WITH AND WITHOUT BORON

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, S.; Voter, A.; Srolovitz, D.

    1988-01-01

    Atomistic simulations of free surfaces and [001] symmetric tilt grain boundaries in pure Ni and Al and the intermetallic, Ni3Al, are presented. In the vicinity of the grain boundary, we show the existence of a rapidly decaying oscillatory strain which is similar to that observed at free surfaces. The total expansion or excess volume associated with the grain boundary is shown to be proportional to the grain boundary energy. The atomistic structures of the simulated grain boundaries have been ...

  15. Neural network application in simulations of composites Al-Al2O3 tribological properties

    OpenAIRE

    L. A. Dobrza?ski; M. Kremzer; J. Trzaska; A. W?odarczyk-Fligier

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is application of neural networks in tribological properties simulation ofcomposite materials based on porous ceramic preforms infiltrated by liquid aluminium alloy.Design/methodology/approach: The material for investigations was manufactured by pressure infiltrationmethod of ceramic porous preforms. The eutectic aluminium alloy EN AC – AlSi12 was use as a matrix while asreinforcement were used ceramic preforms manufactured by sintering of Al2O3 Alcoa CL 250...

  16. PREVALENCE OF TRICHODERMA SPECIES IN AL JABAL AL AKHDAR REGION, LIBYA

    OpenAIRE

    Idress Hamad Attitalla

    2013-01-01

    Trichoderma occurs in moderate frequency in Al Jabal Al Akdar soil it was isolated from 5 out of 23 soil samples. Trichoderma selective medium, Martin's medium and potato dextrose agar were the superior media for isolating Trichoderma from the tested soil than the others media examined, while martin's medium and malt extract medium were the most valuable for isolating the greatest number of total fungal count. Trichoderma counts (by dilution plates method) were ranged from 0.5- 1103× CFU/g ov...

  17. Bimodal sintering of Al2O3/Al2O3 platelet ceramic composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sintering behavior of an Al2O3 compact containing uniformly dispersed Al2O3 platelets has been investigated. The results reveal a significant decrease in the sintering rate as well as the formation of voids and cracklike defects in the presence of nonsinterable platelets. The addition of a small amount (2 vol%) of tetragonal-ZrO2 particles enhances the sintering rate, increases end-point density (? 99.5% of theoretical density) and prevents formation of sintering defects

  18. Ni-Al and NiO-Al Composite Coatings by Combustion-Assisted Flame Spraying

    OpenAIRE

    Galina Xanthopoulou; Amalia Marinou; George Vekinis; Aggeliki Lekatou; Michalis Vardavoulias

    2014-01-01

    A new, cost-efficient and on-site-applicable thermal spraying process for depositing NiAl metallic overlay or bond-coat coatings for high temperature applications by synthesizing the desired intermetallic phases in-flight during oxy-acetylene flame spraying is presented. Base-metal powders were used for spraying and, by adjusting the spraying conditions, excellent NiAl-based coatings were achieved on various substrates, including mild steel, stainless steel and aluminium alloys. Expensive, pr...

  19. Behandlung vorwiegend psychisch orientierter, klimakterischer Beschwerden mit der fixen Kombination eines Traubensilberkerzen- und eines Johanniskrautextraktes (Remifemin(R plus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blohmer JU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Außer an klimakterischen Beschwerden mit einem überwiegend vegetativ-vasomotorischen Erscheinungsbild (Hitzewallungen leidet eine große Anzahl von Wechseljahrespatientinnen unter Symptomen mit einer ausgeprägten psychischen Komponente (depressive Verstimmungszustände. Viele klassische Wechseljahrestherapeutika haben oftmals gerade hier eine therapeutische Lücke. So sollte nun im Rahmen einer doppelblinden, randomisierten, placebokontrollierten, klinischen Prüfung an 301 Frauen, die unter klimakterischen Beschwerden mit einer ausgeprägten psychischen Symptomatik litten, die Wirksamkeit der fixen Kombination zweier Extrakte aus Traubensilberkerze (Actaea, syn. Cimicifuga racemosa und Johanniskraut (Hypericum perforatum untersucht werden. Nach einer achtwöchigen Hochdosisphase wurde die Dosis für die restlichen 8 Wochen halbiert. Die klimakterischen Beschwerden wurden anhand der Menopause Rating Scale (MRS-I, die psychischen Beschwerden anhand der Hamilton Depression Scale 17 (HAMD-17 ausgewertet. Im Ergebnis zeigte sich, daß die Verummedikation deutlich wirksamer als Placebo war. Die Gruppendifferenz des MRS-Gesamtscores (0,14 Punkte, 95%-Konfidenzintervall: 0,11?0,17 bzw. 30,4 %-Punkte; Prä/Post-Vergleich fiel signifikant (p 0,001 zugunsten der Verummedikation aus. Der Prä/Post-Vergleich des HAMD-17-Gesamtscores zeigte signifikant (p 0,001 eine Gruppendifferenz von 5,5 Punkten (95%-Konfidenzintervall: 4,6?6,5 Punkte bzw. 29,1 %-Punkte zugunsten der Verummedikation. Somit konnte gezeigt werden, daß die Einnahme der fixen Kombination von Traubensilberkerze und Johanniskraut signifikant und klinisch relevant wirksamer als Placebo ist. Hinsichtlich der Reduktion klimakterischer Beschwerden und besonders zur Behandlung von deren psychischer Komponente stellt sie eine wirksame und gleichzeitig sichere therapeutische Möglichkeit dar.

  20. Processing of harmonicity, onset, and spatial cues in complex acoustic environments

    OpenAIRE

    Klinge, Astrid

    2010-01-01

    Harmonizität, Stimulusbeginn und Raumrichtungsinformationen gehören zu den wichtigsten Schallmerkmalen, um simultan auftretende Frequenzen in Hörobjekte zu gruppieren. Da in natürlichen akustischen Reizen mehr als nur ein Merkmal für die Gruppierung oder Trennung von Frequenzkomponenten vorhanden ist, wurden in drei Experimenten nicht nur Harmonizität als einzelnes Merkmal sondern auch Merkmalskombinationen untersucht. Im ersten Experiment konnte ich zeigen, dass Wüstenrennmäuse als gewähltes...

  1. Hybrid Power System Modelling - Simulation and Energy Management Unit Development

    OpenAIRE

    Saiju, Rajesh

    2008-01-01

    Weltweit leben mehr als 2 Milliarden Menschen in ländlichen Gebieten. Als Konzept für die elektrische Energieversorgung solcher Gebiete kommen dezentrale elektrische Energieversorgungseinheiten zum Einsatz, die lokal verfügbare erneuerbare Ressourcen nutzen. Stand der Technik bilden Einheiten, die auf PV-Diesel-Batterie System basieren. Die verwendeten Versorgungsskonzepte in Hybridsystemen sind durch den Einsatz von Batterien als Energiespeicher meist wenig zuverlässig und teuer. Diese E...

  2. Model for metabolic resistance against ALS inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richter, Otto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to herbicide selection pressure metabolic resistance has evolved in many weed species. In this paper we analyse the interaction between the branched chain amino acid (BBC pathway and detoxifying pathways for herbicide breakdown. The four phase detoxification pathway of herbicides comprising the action of P450, GST, glycosyltransferase and ABC transporter is modelled by a system of coupled enzyme kinetic reactions represented by nonlinear differential equations. The herbicide under consideration inhibits the enzyme ALS, which is the key enzyme for the biosynthesis of branched amino acids. For the kinetics of ALS a Monod approach is employed with a binding site for the inhibitor. Synthetic and detoxification pathways are coupled. The model is used to study the production of branched amino acids under the action of ALS inhibitors for different structures and modes of action of the detoxification pathway. The model is capable of generating typical dose response curves and their shift in dependence of the activity pattern of the enzymes of the detoxification pathway of the inhibitor.

  3. Aberrant immunoglobulin synthesis in AL amyloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone marrow cells obtained from 13 patients with biopsy documented AL disease were incubated in short term culture with radioactive amino acids. Immunologic precipitation of cytoplasm and secreted material was performed and the precipitates analyzed on SDS containing polyacrylamide gels. All the patients synthesized excess free light chains and light chain dimers. In addition, 8 of 13 patients synthesized molecules smaller than intact light chains which were precipitable with anti-L-chain constant region sera. Two of thirteen patients synthesized heavy chain fragments. These data show that some patients with AL disease synthesize L-chain fragments and suggest that these aberrant synthetic products may play a role in the pathogenesis of AL deposition. Over the last decade investigation of the amyloidoses has been dominated by the identification and structural analysis of fibrillar material in tissue deposits by either immunologic or biochemical techniques. The rewards of these approaches are apparent with six (at last count) distinct molecules being identified as the major fibrillar components of hereditary acquired and local forms of the disease (1). In addition, by inference, physiologically soluble proteins which are related to the fibrillar material have been implicated as precursors of the fibrils. Experimentally however, the steps whereby the soluble presumed precursors are transformed into the insoluble fibrillar deposits have been difficult to define. For the moment it appears that both different precursors and different mechanisms of biogenesis may be discovered for each of the amyloid diseases

  4. Microplastic flow in SIC/AL composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, N. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Arsenault, R.J. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Experimentally it has been determined that if a composite containing a reinforcement which has a different (in general lower) thermal coefficient of expansion as compared to the matrix, then upon cooling from the processing or annealing temperature, plastic relaxation of the misfit strain will occur. Also, experimentally it has been shown that as the size of the reinforcement is increased, i.e., from small spheres to large spheres, there is a decrease in the summation of the effective plastic strain in the matrix. In other words there is a decrease in the average dislocation density in the matrix. However, if the shape of the reinforcement is changed from spherical to short fiber to continuous filament, then the dislocation density increases. This experimental data is obtained at a constant volume fraction. A very simple model of plastic relaxation based on prismatic punching of dislocations from the interface can account for the decrease in the dislocation density with an increase reinforcement size, and the increase in dislocation density when changing the shape from a sphere to a continuous filament. A FEM analysis of the shape factor is also capable of predicting the correct trend. However, at present the continuum mechanics methods that have been investigated can not predict the size dependence. A simple model to explain the size effect in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/NiAl composites based on the deformation characteristics of NiAl will be discussed.

  5. Globalización y posmodernidad: Desafíos al aprendizaje humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulette Barberousse

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En el marco de las coordenadas de nuestra realidad nacional, ¿cómo ubicar la práctica pedagógica universitaria contemporánea en un mundo ?global y posmoderno?? ¿Qué valor otorgarle al ?saber? y al ?saber pedagógico? en la era de la información, de la ?sociedad educativa? y de la realidad virtual? ¿Cuáles son las demandas educativas de la ?civilización cognitiva? y los desafíos que plantea la ?mundialización? al aprendizaje humano? ¿Qué influencias ejercen sobre nuestro discurso los planteamientos de Dakar 2000, las manifestaciones anti-neoliberales de Niza y Seattle, el nuevo renacimiento del alfabetismo y arte digital, las luchas sociales de ATTAC, el amor en tiempos de Internet y el debate mass-mediático entre el Foro Económico Mundial de Davos y el Foro Social Mundial de Porto Alegre? Constituyen éstas las principales interrogantes que pretenderemos plantear desde nuestra intervención a sabiendas que desde nuestra ?exclusión? de Tercer Mundo reinvindicar la educación equivale a reinvindicar que en este mundo todos tengamos alguna inserción. Tan solo alguna

  6. Keanekaragaman dalam al-Qur’an

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Chirzin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of race, language, class, and culture is a wealth; basically, it is a beautiful gift in this life. However, the reality is precesely the social conflict among the society. This article explores the issue of diversity contained in al Qur’an. Some of the key themes included: diversity as sunnatullah, diversity in unity, religious and ethnic diversity, and diversity of professions. Al Qur’an has mentioned several groups of religious believers and provided guidance association order among religious believers. Religious diversity certainly makes Muslim necessitates acknowledging and respecting other religion save Islam. Al Qur’an has mentioned also a variety of occupations based on interests, talents, expertise, and particular skills. The fragmentation and understanding diversity have caused by egoism and truth claiming of each group and individual, but no one has knowledge covering everything from different sides or corners. Above all knowledge is the Almighty owner off all knowledge. With feeling most true someone or group tends to feel the best and have the right to insult any others. That is the base of the dispute and spiritual decline. Mukmin has to preserve the noble character in association, and keep away from bad manner. Among mukmin must love each other and maintain good manners. Finally, this study is intended to promote the establishment of harmony, peace and happiness of living together.

  7. Heterogeneous reactivity of carbonyl sulfide on ?-Al 2O 3 and ?-Al 2O 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongchun; He, Hong; Mu, Yujing

    The heterogeneous reactions of trace gases in the atmosphere on atmospheric particles could greatly affect the nitrogen, sulfur, ozone, and photochemical oxidant cycles. The uptake coefficient is an important kinetic parameter for atmospheric models to assess the role of heterogeneous reaction in the global cycles of trace gases. In this study, the heterogeneous uptake coefficients of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) on Al 2O 3 have been measured using a Knudsen cell reactor at 300 K. Hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) and carbon dioxide (CO 2) were found to be the gaseous products. The reaction mechanism of OCS on Al 2O 3 was confirmed based on previous work and this study. The true initial uptake coefficient and steady-state uptake coefficient of OCS on ?-Al 2O 3 were (3.8±0.8)×10 -7 and (6.5±2.49)×10 -8, and the corresponding uptake coefficients on ?-Al 2O 3 were (7.0±0.7)×10 -8 and (1.8±0.4)×10 -8, respectively. The annual flux of OCS due to heterogeneous reaction on ?-Al 2O 3 was calculated to be 0.11-0.63 Tg yr -1 based on the initial uptake coefficient and the steady-state uptake coefficient. When the fraction of Al 2O 3 in authentic atmospheric particles is taken into account, the annual flux of OCS due to heterogeneous reaction on atmospheric particles in the troposphere should be 0.02-0.10 Tg yr -1.

  8. Fabrication and Characterization of Al/p-CuInAlSe2 Thin Film Schottky Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Parihar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Al/p-CuInAlSe2 polycrystalline schottky diodes fabricated by flash evaporation method were undertaken for their electrical analysis at room temperature. Diode parameters of the undertaken diodes were then derived from the current-voltage (I-V as well as capacitance-voltage (C-V characteristics. It has been observed that the schottky barrier height deduced from the room temperature I-V is lower to that obtained from the C-V characteristics and is attributed to the fact that I-V analysis includes both the image force and dipole lowering effects and is also reduced by the tunneling and leakage currents. The slope variation of the frequency dependent C – 2-V characteristics for the Al/p-CuInAlSe2 Schottky diode at varying frequency values from 50 kHz to 1 MHz suggests a large density of slow traps or interface states at the M-S junction. As emerging from the parameters values energy band diagram of Al and P-CuInAlSe2 has been reconstructed.

  9. Redistribution of Ti and Al in deuterium charged TiAl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legzdina, D.; Robertson, I. M.; Birnbaum, H. K.

    1992-01-01

    The redistribution of titanium and aluminum in a single-phase TiAl alloy that has been exposed to a high pressure of deuterium gas at high temperature is studied. The microstructure in the as-received, uncharged condition consisted of single-phase gamma TiAl grains and a random distribution of precipitates. Precipitates were distributed throughout the matrix and along the grain boundaries. The chemistry of the precipitates varied considerably; some were rich in Al, while other were mostly Ti with some Si and Al. The dislocation density in most grains was low, although in a few grains a high dislocation density was observed. FCC deuterides with a lattice parameter of 0.45 nm form in a Ti-52.1Al-2.1Ta (at. pct) alloy after exposure to 1.38 MPa of deuterium gas at 650 C for 213 hr. The structure and lattice parameter are consistent with the formation of Ti(l)D2. The deuterides that form in this alloy are enriched in Ti and deficient in Al and Ta compared to the deuteride-free matrix. Regions of the matrix contiguous with the deuterides have a correspondingly enhanced aluminum and tantalum concentration.

  10. TEM and HRTEM characterization of TiAl diffusion bonds using Ni/Al nanolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Sónia; Viana, Filomena; Ramos, Ana S; Vieira, Maria T; Vieira, Manuel F

    2015-02-01

    Diffusion bonding of TiAl alloys can be enhanced by the use of reactive nanolayer thin films as interlayers. Using these interlayers, it is possible to reduce the conventional bonding conditions (temperature, time, and pressure) and obtain sound and reliable joints. The microstructural characterization of the diffusion bond interfaces is a fundamental step toward understanding and identifying the bonding mechanisms and relating them to the strength of the joints. The interface of TiAl samples joined using Ni/Al nanolayers was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy. Microstructural characterization of the bond revealed that the interfaces consist of several thin layers of different composition and grain size (nanometric and micrometric). The bonding temperature (800, 900, or 1,000°C) determines the grain size and thickness of the layers present at the interface. Phase identification by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy combined with fast Fourier transform and electron energy-loss spectroscopy analyses reveals the presence of several intermetallic compounds: AlTiNi, NiAl, and Al2TiNi. For bonds produced at 800 and 900°C, nanometric grains of Ti were detected at the center of the interface. PMID:25170561

  11. Redistribution of Ti and Al in deuterium charged TiAl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The redistribution of titanium and aluminum in a single-phase TiAl alloy that has been exposed to a high pressure of deuterium gas at high temperature is studied. The microstructure in the as-received, uncharged condition consisted of single-phase gamma TiAl grains and a random distribution of precipitates. Precipitates were distributed throughout the matrix and along the grain boundaries. The chemistry of the precipitates varied considerably; some were rich in Al, while other were mostly Ti with some Si and Al. The dislocation density in most grains was low, although in a few grains a high dislocation density was observed. FCC deuterides with a lattice parameter of 0.45 nm form in a Ti-52.1Al-2.1Ta (at. pct) alloy after exposure to 1.38 MPa of deuterium gas at 650 C for 213 hr. The structure and lattice parameter are consistent with the formation of Ti(l)D2. The deuterides that form in this alloy are enriched in Ti and deficient in Al and Ta compared to the deuteride-free matrix. Regions of the matrix contiguous with the deuterides have a correspondingly enhanced aluminum and tantalum concentration. 10 refs

  12. In situ synthesis of Ti2AlC–Al2O3/TiAl composite by vacuum sintering mechanically alloyed TiAl powder coated with CNTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Using zwitterionic surfactant to enhance the dispersion of the CNTs on the powder surface. •CNTs as carbon source decreased the formation temperature of Ti2AlC. •Al2O3 was generated in situ from the oxygen atoms introduced in the drying procedure. •Nanosized Ti3Al was precipitated at 1250 °C and distribute in the TiAl matrix homogeneously. •Ti2AlC–Al2O3/TiAl composite was synthesized in situ by sintering pre-alloy Ti–Al coated with CNTs. -- Abstract: Bulk Ti2AlC–Al2O3/TiAl composites were in situ synthesized by vacuum sintering mechanically alloyed Ti–50 at.% Al powders coated with carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The pre-alloyed Ti–50 at.% Al powder was obtained by ball milling Ti and Al powders. The multi-walled carbon nanotubes as the carbon resource were covered on the surface of the pre-alloyed powders by immersing them into a water solution containing the CNTs. A zwitterionic surfactant was used to enhance the dispersion of the CNTs on the powder surface. The samples were cold pressed and sintered in vacuum at temperatures from 950 to 1250 °C, respectively. The results show that the reaction of forming Ti2AlC can be achieved below 950 °C, which is 150 °C lower than in the Ti–Al–TiC system and 250 °C lower than for the Ti–Al–C system due to the addition of CNTs. Additionally, the reinforcement of Al2O3 particles was introduced in situ in Ti2AlC/TiAl by the drying process and subsequent sintering of the composite powders. Dense Ti2AlC–Al2O3/TiAl composites were obtained by sintering at 1250 °C and exhibited a homogeneous distribution of Ti2AlC, Al2O3 and precipitated Ti3Al particles and a resulting high hardness

  13. Deutsch als "leicht zu erlernende Fremdsprache"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtz, Gunde

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to encourage the search for accessible language features and teaching and learning facilitators which can ease the way into German as a Foreign Language (DaF.The paper begins with a terminological discussion, followed by a first model of the most important factors concerning the initial entry into FL territory. After a short review on previous work in this area, I consider methods for utilising knowledge of accessible language features and teaching and learning facilitators. Finally, suspected facilitating features - which have come to light through research as well as classroom observations – are exemplified. These, however, are to be understood as working hypotheses and thus still 'under construction'.Through this paper, I would like to invite other researchers to consider a new perspective on DaF with the intention of changing the status quo:"Applied linguistics is not simply a matter of matching up findings about language with pre-existing problems but of using findings to explore how the perception of problems might be changed. It may be that when problems are reformulated from a different point of view they become more amenable to solution. This changed perception may then, in turn, have implications for linguistics." (Cook : 2003: 10My goal will have been achieved when the focus of this paper becomes a motivation for improving DaF teaching ("problems [...] become more amenable to solution" - and, should it lead to "implications for linguistics", so much the better.Ziel dieses Beitrages ist, eine umfassende Suche nach leichten Stellen und Erleichterungen beim Zugang zum Deutschen als fremder Sprache anzuregen.Nach Begriffsklärung und einem ersten Vorschlag zu den für die Zugänglichkeit einer Sprache ausschlaggebenden Faktoren (1 sowie einem kurzen Überblick über Fundstücke zum Thema (2 steht die Rolle der praktischen Umsetzung von Erkenntnissen als Hauptinstrument für den Bereich der Erleichterungen und die Nutzung leichter Stellen im Mittelpunkt (3. Dabei werden einige Kandidaten benannt, die sowohl aus vorliegenden Forschungsergebnissen als auch aus Beobachtungen in Alltag und Fremdsprachenunterricht (FSU gewonnen wurden. Die so gewonnenen Einsichten sind als Arbeitshypothesen und somit als im Wandel begriffen zu verstehen.Ich möchte mit diesem Beitrag einladen zu einer neuen Perspektive auf das Deutsche als Fremdsprache, und zwar mit der Absicht etwas zu verändern:"Applied linguistics is not simply a matter of matching up findings about language with pre-existing problems but of using findings to explore how the perception of problems might be changed. It may be that when problems are reformulated from a different point of view they become more amenable to solution. This changed perception may then, in turn, have implications for linguistics." (Cook : 2003: 10Mein Ziel ist erreicht, wenn sich vorliegende Fragestellung als Schlüssel zu verbesserter DaF-Unterrichtspraxis ("problems [...] become more amenable to solution" erweist. Falls sie sogar "implications for linguistics" zeitigt, umso besser.

  14. Microstructural characterisation of TiAlTiAu and TiAlPdAu ohmic contacts to AlGaN/GaN

    OpenAIRE

    Fay, Mike W.; Harrison, Ian; Birbeck, J.C.; Hughes, B.T.; Uren, M. J.; Martin, T.; Brown, Paul D.

    2001-01-01

    Ti/Al/Ti/Au and Ti/Al/Pd/Au contacts to AlGaN/GaN have been investigated to ascertain the effect of annealing temperature on the structural evolution of the contacts. Ti/Al/Ti/Au contacts become ohmic after rapid thermal annealing at 750°C or higher, corresponding to the formation of an interfacial TiN phase, with inclusions penetrating through the AlGaN layer observed after annealing at 950°C. The Pd layer is shown to be more efficient at inhibiting diffusion of Au to the interface than Ti. ...

  15. The atomic details of the interfacial interaction between the bottom electrode of Al/AlO{sub x}/Al Josephson junctions and HF-treated Si substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, L. J.; Nik, S.; Olsson, E. [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Krantz, P.; Delsing, P. [Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2015-04-28

    The interface between the Al bottom contact layer and Si substrates in Al based Josephson junctions is believed to have a significant effect on the noise observed in Al based superconducting devices. We have studied the atomic structure of it by transmission electron microscopy. An amorphous layer with a thickness of ?5?nm was found between the bottom Al electrode and HF-treated Si substrate. It results from intermixing between Al, Si, and O. We also studied the chemical bonding states among the different species using energy loss near edge structure. The observations are of importance for the understanding of the origin of decoherence mechanisms in qubits based on these junctions.

  16. 222-282 nm AlGaN and InAlGaN based deep-UV LEDs fabricated on high-quality AlN template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Hideki; Noguchi, Norimichi; Fujikawa, Sachie; Norimatsu, Jun; Kamata, Norihiko; Takano, Takayoshi; Tsubaki, Kenji

    2009-02-01

    We demonstrate 222-282 nm AlGaN and InAlGaN-based deep ultraviolet (DUV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) fabricated on low threading dislocation density (TDD) AlN template. Low TDD AlN templates were realized by using ammonia (NH3) pulse-flow multilayer (ML) growth technique. The edge- and screw-type dislocation densities of AlN layer were reduced to 7.5×108 and 3.8×107, respectively. We obtained significant increase of an AlGaN quantum well (QW) emission (by more than 50 times) by fabricating them on a low TDD ML-AlN template. We fabricated AlGaN multi (M)QW DUV-LEDs with emission range of 222-273 nm on ML-AlN templates. Single-peaked electroluminescence (EL) was obtained for AlGaN DUV-LEDs. We obtained the maximum output power of 1.1, 2.4 and 3.3 mW for the AlGaN LEDs with wavelengths of 241, 253 and 273 nm, respectively, under RT CW operation. The maximum output power of 227 and 222 nm AlGaN-QW were 0.15mW and 0.014mW, respectively, under RT pulsed operation. The maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of the 227 and 250 nm AlGaN LEDs were 0.2% and 0.43 %, respectively. We also fabricated 280 nm-band quaternary InAlGaN-MQW DUV-LEDs with p-type InAlGaN layers on low TDD ML-AlN templates. We obtained significant increase of photoluminescence (PL) intensity by introducing Si-doped InAlGaN buffer and barrier layers and undoped InAlGaN interlayer. We then demonstrated high internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of 284 nm InAlGaN-QW emission, which was confirmed by the fact that the ratio of the integrated intensity of the RT-PL against the 77K-PL was 86%. The maximum output power and EQE of the 282 nm InAlGaN LED were 10.6 mW and 1.2%, respectively, under RT CW operation.

  17. Regulation of the Bacillus subtilis alsS, alsD, and alsR genes involved in post-exponential-phase production of acetoin.

    OpenAIRE

    Renna, M C; N. Najimudin; Winik, L R; Zahler, S A

    1993-01-01

    Acetoin is a major extracellular product of Bacillus subtilis grown on glucose and other fermentable carbon sources. The enzymes responsible for the formation of acetoin, acetolactate synthase, and acetolactate decarboxylase are synthesized in detectable amounts only in cells that have reached stationary phase. We have cloned and sequenced the genes encoding these enzymes, alsS and alsD, as well as a gene, alsR, that regulates their expression. alsS and alsD appear to compose a single operon,...

  18. Some Maudu (Fabricated) Narrations in Tafsir Al-Dur Al-Manth'ur (Sura Al-Nisa of the Holy Quran)

    OpenAIRE

    Nasrullah Khan2; Janas Khan; Ziaullah Al-Azhari; Muhammad Ayaz; Abaad ur Rahman; Jannat Naeem Khan; Karim Dad

    2012-01-01

    "Tafseer Al-Dur Al-Man'thur Fi Tafsir Al-Math'ur" is the commentary of the Holy Quran written by Jalal Al-Din Al-Suyuti. He was born in Cairo, Egypt in 849H/1445AH. He was a renowned scholar of his time having mastery in many fields of Islamic Studies like Quran, Hadith, fiqh and history. In the last days of his life, he got isolated himself from all the worldly affairs and concentrated on writing books. He wrote almost in every field of knowledge and authored nearly 600 books. He died in 91...

  19. Al-Al2O3 core-shell composite by microwave induced oxidation of aluminium powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microwave processing is gaining importance in the preparation of composite materials mainly because of its predominance in the improvement of uniformity for different phases formed. In the present study, commercial Al powder was heat treated using microwave radiation to synthesize Al-Al2O3 core-shell composite powder. The as received Al powder and the microwave heated Al powders were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and zeta potential measurement. XRD data confirmed the formation of Al-Al2O3 composite. FTIR studies indicated the core-shell type Al-Al2O3 composite formation. SEM observations suggested the formation of Al-Al2O3 core-shell composite. TEM images, corresponding selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns and EDX analysis confirmed the Al-Al2O3 core-shell composite development. Zeta potential measurements also indicated that Al core particles were surrounded with Al2O3 shell.

  20. Enhanced Light Extraction in AlInGaN UV Light-Emitting Diodes by an Embedded AlN/AlGaN Distributed Bragg Reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel kind of AlInGaN ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diode (LED) with an embedded AlN/Al0.3Ga0.7N distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) is proposed to enhance light extraction efficiency (LEE). The simulation technique we adopt to calculate the LEE of LEDs is based on the theory of spontaneous emission in a layered medium, the well-known mode-matching technique and the scattering matrix approach. The AlN/Al0.3Ga0.7N DBR was intentionally designed to have peak reflectivity at the LED emission wavelength and the optical properties of the DBR were simulated by using the transfer matrix method. A high LEE of 45.7% at 370 nm wavelength was predicted for a proposed AlInGaN UV LED consisting of 24 periods of the AlN/Al0.3Ga0.7N DBR, which is 1.5 times of that of the conventional AlInGaN UV LED. The investigation shows that the AlN/Al0.3Ga0.7N DBR grown on GaN templates with sapphire as a substrate by MOCVD can enhance the LEE effectively and would be very promising for the fabrication of high performance GaN-based UV LEDs

  1. AlGaN nanocolumns and AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN nanostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ristic, J.; Sanchez-Garcia, M.A.; Ulloa, J.M.; Calleja, E. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sanchez-Paramo, J.; Calleja, J.M. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Jahn, U.; Trampert, A.; Ploog, K.H. [Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoerperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2002-12-01

    This work reports on the characterization of hexagonal, single crystal AlGaN nanocolumns with diameters in the range of 30 to 100 nm grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111) substrates. The change of the flux ratio between the Al and the total III-element controls the alloy composition. The Al composition trend versus the Al flux is consistent both with the E{sub 2} phonon energy values measured by inelastic light scattering and the luminescence emission peaks position. High quality low dimensional AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN heterostructures with five GaN quantum discs, 2 and 4 nm thick, embedded into the AlGaN columns, were designed in order to study the quantum confinement effects. (Abstract Copyright [2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  2. Effects of AlN and AlGaN Interlayer on Properties of InAlN/GaN Heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    InAlN/GaN heterojunction structures are grown on two-inch c-face(0001) sapphire substrates by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition. AlN and AlGaN interlayers are intentionally inserted into the structure to improve the electrical properties. The lowest sheet resistance of 359?/sq and the highest room-temperature two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) mobility of 1051 cm2 V?1s?1 is obtained in the structure with AlN thickness of 1.3 nm. The structure with AlN thickness of 2 nm exhibits the highest 2DEG concentration of 1.84 × 1013 cm?2. The sample with an AlGaN interlayer gives a smoother surface morphology compared to the one using an AlN interlayer, indicating potential applications of this technique in device fabrication. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  3. Peringkat Pemikiran Imam al-Ash'ari dalam Akidah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rashidi Wahab

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Imam al-Ash’ari was the founder and leading figure of the Asha’irah sect of the Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama’ah. His approach is often used as a main reference by Muslims since the time of its appearance until now concerning questions of faith. Some other schools of thought try to claim that the holding of Imam al-Ash’ari doctrine coincides with their beliefs. Imam al-Ash’ari is said to go through three stages of thought before he returned to the Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama’ah at the end of his life to follow Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal the leadership of Salaf. Therefore, anyone who does not abide by the final stand of Imam al-Ash'ari, they are not considered as Asha’irah followers for conflicting Imam al-Ash’ari and Salaf scholars as recognized the best of generations. To assure the issues, this article is put forward to reexamine of the truth of the allegations either Imam al-Ash’ari has gone through three stages of thought or otherwise. Through document analysis method based on the works of Imam al-Ash’ari and his followers, the study found that Imam al-Ash’ari only used two stages of thought; Mu’tazilah initially and Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama’ah in the end. Imam al-Ash’ari also used the tafwid Salaf and Khalaf interpretation methods especially in interacting with mutashabihat texts throughout his stay with the Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama’ah. The study also identified that the disagreements among Asha’irah when determining the thoughts of Imam al-Ash’ari is due to their uncertainty about the exact date of his works written.

  4. intermetallic Co-Al powder for nuclear application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Intermetallic compounds from the Al-Co system were synthesized by solid state method - mechanical alloying - and their properties were investigated using XRD, SEM, and DSC. The powder will be used to make new targets of irradiation for gamma sources in order to enhance the specific activity and to reduce the materials consumption. The intermetallic compound Al-Co was formed in the first 4 hours of milling and Al3Co was formed in the range of 28 hours of milling. After 8 hours of milling the medium size of crystallites are 6 nm for Co-Al and 5 nm for Al3Co. This decrease with increasing of milling time up to 4 nm and 3 nm, for Al3Co respectively corresponds to 28 hours of milling. The enthalpy of formation of selected intermetallic compounds from Al-Co system was defined by Differential Scanning Calorimetry. There were investigated Al-Co, Al3Co and AlCo3 compounds. ?HfAlCo = 88.60 KJ/ mol; ?Hf3AlCo = 31.83 KJ/mol and ?HfAl3Co = 22.06 KJ/mol are in agreement with the published experimental values and, as order of magnitude, with the semi-empirical model of Midema. To establish the thermodynamic feasibility of synthesis and stability of intermetallic compounds Co-Al, it was calculated and plotted the Gibbs function using the data obtained from calorimetric measurements, i.e., ?Gf0 for the reaction of formation of AlCo, Al3Co and AlCo3 from the Al-Co system. For investigated compounds ?Gf0 has negative values over the entire range of temperature. (authors)

  5. Al-Ca and Al-Fe metal-metal composite strength, conductivity, and microstructure relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyong June

    2011-12-01

    Deformation processed metal-metal composites (DMMC’s) are composites formed by mechanical working (i.e., rolling, swaging, or wire drawing) of two-phase, ductile metal mixtures. Since both the matrix and reinforcing phase are ductile metals, the composites can be heavily deformed to reduce the thickness and spacing of the two phases. Recent studies have shown that heavily drawn DMMCs can achieve anomalously high strength and outstanding combinations of strength and conductivity. In this study, Al-Fe wire composite with 0.07, 0.1, and 0.2 volume fractions of Fe filaments and Al-Ca wire composite with 0.03, 0.06, and 0.09 volume fractions of Ca filaments were produced in situ, and their mechanical properties were measured as a function of deformation true strain. The Al-Fe composites displayed limited deformation of the Fe phase even at high true strains, resulting in little strengthening effect in those composites. Al-9vol%Ca wire was deformed to a deformation true strain of 13.76. The resulting Ca second-phase filaments were deformed to thicknesses on the order of one micrometer. The ultimate tensile strength increased exponentially with increasing deformation true strain, reaching a value of 197 MPa at a true strain of 13.76. This value is 2.5 times higher than the value predicted by the rule of mixtures. A quantitative relationship between UTS and deformation true strain was determined. X-ray diffraction data on transformation of Al + Ca microstructures to Al + various Al-Ca intermetallic compounds were obtained at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. Electrical conductivity was measured over a range of true strains and post-deformation heat treatment schedules.

  6. Erlebten Frauen den Holocaust anders als Männer? Did Men and Women Experience the Holocaust in Different Ways?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Schwarz

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Der vorliegende Sammelband basiert auf Vorträgen einer Konferenz aus dem Jahr 1995, auf der nach dem spezifischen Erleben des Holocaust durch Frauen gefragt wurde. In der Regel waren es Zeugnisse von Überlebenden, die die Grundlage für die Analyse von Verhalten und Reaktionen von Frauen bildeten. Diskutiert wurde aber nicht nur über die einzelnen Erfahrungsbereiche jüdischer Frauen in West- und Osteuropa in Zwischenkriegs- und Kriegszeit, sondern ebenso über die Anwendbarkeit der „Gender-Frage“ auf den Holocaust generell. Entstanden ist so ein interessanter Überblick über den aktuellen Stand der Diskussion, der die Grenzen und mehr noch die Chancen eines solchen Zugangs hervortreten läßt.h the limits of the gender approach in this field of research are obvious, the gains promised by a further look into this matter outweigh them by far.

  7. Lead ion adsorption on montmorillonite-Al hydroxide polymer systems

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, R.P.T.; Bruggenwert, M.G.M.; Dijk, G. van; Riemsdijk, W.H., van

    2007-01-01

    Clay¿Al hydroxide polymer systems (CAlHO) can bind heavy metals effectively. Their adsorption behaviour depends on the type of metal. We studied the dependence of Al-loading and pH on the adsorption of Pb to Na-saturated montmorillonite¿Al hydroxide polymer systems. The available binding sites on the Al hydroxide polymers (AlHO) had a strong affinity for Pb ions, whereas a minor amount of Pb was bound to the clay surface. The pH had a pronounced effect on the Pb binding to the AlHO. At pH 6.0...

  8. 77 FR 73732 - In the Matter of the Amendment of the Designation of al-Qa'ida in Iraq, aka Jam'at al Tawhid wa...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... Matter of the Amendment of the Designation of al-Qa'ida in Iraq, aka Jam'at al Tawhid wa'al-Jihad, aka... fi Bilad al-Rafidayn, aka The Organization of al-Jihad's Base of Operations in Iraq, aka al-Qaida of Jihad in Iraq, aka al-Qaida in Iraq, aka al-Qaida in Mesopotamia, aka al-Qaida in the Land of the...

  9. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti{sub 2}AlC-reinforced TiAl composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ai, Taotao; Yu, Qi; Feng, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yingtang; Li, Wenhu [Shaanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong (China). School of Materials Science and Engineering; Liu, Fang [Shaanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong (China). School of Management

    2014-11-15

    Ti{sub 2}AlC/TiAl composites were successfully in-situ synthesized by reaction hot pressing using Ti, Al, TiC and CNTs as starting materials. The results indicate that the as-sintered composites mainly consist of Ti{sub 2}AlC and TiAl phases. The mechanical properties of the 23 wt.% Ti{sub 2}AlC/TiAl composite exhibit the highest values, with a flexural strength and fracture toughness of 652.5 ± 76.8 MPa and 6.6 ± 0.5 MPa m{sup 1/2}, respectively. The complex structure coupled with dispersed Ti{sub 2}AlC micro-particulates is responsible for the enhancement in the strength. Toughening of the composite is mainly attributed to crack deflection, crack bridging, crack branching and pull-out of the Ti{sub 2}AlC particles, as well as transgranular cracking.

  10. Urchin-like AlOOH nanostructures on Al microspheres grown via in-situ oxide template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jiaquan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Estruga, Marc [Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Chen, Lianyi [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Yahata, Brennan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Choi, Hongseok [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Li, Xiaochun, E-mail: xcli@seas.ucla.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We present a simple, scalable method to grow urchin-like AlOOH on Al microspheres. • Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles from the native oxide films and self-assemble to form templates. • Urchin-like nanostructures spontaneously form and growth on the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} templates. - Abstract: Three dimensional (3D) metal oxide hydroxide nanostructures are highly desirable for numerous applications. Here, we present a simple, scalable method to grow urchin-like AlOOH nanostructures on the surface of Al microspheres. Al nanoparticles with native oxide film were melted in molten salts, forming an immiscible materials system. During ultrasonic processing of the mixture, emulsion of micro Al droplets occurs and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles form from the native oxide films and self-assemble to form in-situ nanostructured templates on the surfaces of Al microspheres. When the solidified mixture of Al spheres and salt is exposed to water, urchin-like nanostructures spontaneously form on the Al microspheres due to a heterogeneous nucleation and growth of ?-AlOOH on the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} templates. This work could be readily extended to other metals, providing a novel and scalable method for the fabrication of urchin-like metal oxide hydroxide nanostructures on metal microspheres.

  11. Transplacental passage of 26Al from pregnant rats to fetuses and 26Al transfer through maternal milk to suckling rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumoto, S.; Nagai, H.; Matsuzaki, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Tada, W.; Ohki, Y.; Kakimi, S.; Kobayashi, K.

    2000-10-01

    Aluminium (Al) is toxic to the growth of fetuses and sucklings. However, the incorporation of Al into fetuses and sucklings in the periods of gestation and lactation has not been well clarified because Al lacks a suitable isotope for a tracer experiment. In this study, we used 26Al (a radioisotope of Al with half-life of 716,000 yr) as a tracer, and measured 26Al incorporation into fetuses and sucklings by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). To investigate Al incorporation into fetuses through transplacental passage, 26Al ( 26AlCl 3) was subcutaneously injected into pregnant rats on day 15 of gestation. 26Al was also subcutaneoulsy injected into lactating rats from day 1 to day 20 postpartum. By day 20 of gestation, 0.2% of the 26Al injected into a pregnant rat had been transferred to the fetuses, and 26Al was detected in the brain and liver of the fetuses. On day 9 postpartum, high levels of 26Al were demonstrated in the brain, liver, kidneys and blood of suckling rats. It is concluded that 26Al subcutaneously injected into pregnant rats and/or lactating rats is incorporated into their offspring through transplacental passage and/or maternal milk.

  12. Transplacental passage of 26Al from pregnant rats to fetuses and 26Al transfer through maternal milk to suckling rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluminium (Al) is toxic to the growth of fetuses and sucklings. However, the incorporation of Al into fetuses and sucklings in the periods of gestation and lactation has not been well clarified because Al lacks a suitable isotope for a tracer experiment. In this study, we used 26Al (a radioisotope of Al with half-life of 716,000 yr) as a tracer, and measured 26Al incorporation into fetuses and sucklings by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). To investigate Al incorporation into fetuses through transplacental passage, 26Al (26AlCl3) was subcutaneously injected into pregnant rats on day 15 of gestation. 26Al was also subcutaneoulsy injected into lactating rats from day 1 to day 20 postpartum. By day 20 of gestation, 0.2% of the 26Al injected into a pregnant rat had been transferred to the fetuses, and 26Al was detected in the brain and liver of the fetuses. On day 9 postpartum, high levels of 26Al were demonstrated in the brain, liver, kidneys and blood of suckling rats. It is concluded that 26Al subcutaneously injected into pregnant rats and/or lactating rats is incorporated into their offspring through transplacental passage and/or maternal milk

  13. Relationship between the growth rate and Al incorporation of AlGaN by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Y. [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhao, D.G., E-mail: dgzhao@red.semi.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Le, L.C.; Jiang, D.S.; Wu, L.L.; Zhu, J.J.; Wang, H.; Liu, Z.S.; Zhang, S.M. [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Yang, Hui [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215125 (China); Liang, J.W. [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2011-01-21

    Research highlights: The growth rate and its relationship with Al content of MOCVD-grown AlGaN alloy films are investigated. It is found that both parasitic reaction and competitive adsorption play important roles in determining the growth rate and Al incorporation in AlGaN. Low reactor pressure and a decrease of absolute amount of Ga atoms arriving on the substrate may lead to a higher Al content in AlGaN film. The research results are helpful to control the Al content of AlGaN during the materials growth. - Abstract: The growth rate and its relationship with growth conditions of AlGaN alloy films by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) are investigated. It is found that both parasitic reaction and competitive adsorption play important roles in determining the growth rate and Al incorporation in AlGaN. Low reactor pressure can weaken parasitic reactions, thus increasing the Al composition. In addition, a decrease of absolute amount of Ga atoms arriving on the substrate may lead to a lower Ga competitive power, and then a higher Al content in AlGaN film.

  14. Characterization of Al2O3 coatings oxidized from Al with different proportion of seed crystals at a lower temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al layer with ?-Al2O3 seed crystals was prepared on the surface of 316L stainless steel (SS) by a double cathodes discharge technique, in which the mixed targets of pure Al doped with different proportions of ?-Al2O3 were used. Then, Al2O3 coatings were obtained after plasma oxidization at 580 °C. The phase composition, microstructure and morphology of the coatings were studied respectively by means of glancing-angle (1°) X-ray diffractometry (GAXRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, the bonding force and corrosion resistance of the coatings were measured. The results indicated that ?-Al2O3 nucleated and grew surrounding the seed crystals as the Volmer–Weber Mode. The Al2O3 coating was compact, performing a good corrosion resistance and metallurgical bonding. The inducing effects of ?-Al2O3 with different fractions were discussed. ?-Al2O3 (5.5 wt.%) was distributed in the Al layer when the target possessing 10% ?-Al2O3 was used. After plasma oxidation, 65.54 wt.% ?-Al2O3 was obtained which was 10.34% more than that obtained by the oxidation of pure Al at the same condition. However, the inducing effects became weak with the further increment of content of ?-Al2O3 seed crystals.

  15. Altern als Widerstand Aging as Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Maierhofer

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Gullettes kulturwissenschaftliche Untersuchung Aged by Culture ist wie bereits ihre zwei vorangehenden Werke, die sich mit Altern beschäftigen – Safe at Last in the Middle Years: The Invention of the Midlife Progress Novel (1988 und Declining to Decline. Cultural Combat and the Politics of the Middle (1997 –, von großem persönlichen Engagement und durch ein politisches Anliegen motiviert. Sowohl die Dringlichkeit als auch der Widerstand, den Gullette, die sich als „age critic“ definiert, als moralische und politische Notwendigkeit postuliert, werden in der Zweiteilung der Abhandlung angesprochen: „Cultural Urgencies“ und „Theorizing Age Resistantly“. Während Gullette den Begriff „aged by culture“ bereits in Declining to Decline einführt, stellt sie ihn nun in den Mittelpunkt ihrer Untersuchung. Das Buch ist einerseits einer gesellschaftspolitischen Analyse der USA gewidmet, andererseits wird eine Theorie des Widerstands gegenüber Altersdiskriminierung entwickelt.Gullette’s cultural studies based analysis Aged by Culture is marked by great personal engagement and motivated by political goals, as are her two previous texts that deal with aging: Safe at Last in the Middle Years: The Invention of the Midlife Progress Novel (1988 and Declining to Decline. Cultural Combat and the Politics of the Middle (1997. Both the urgency as well as the resistance that Gullette, who defines herself as an “age critic,” postulates as a moral and political necessity are addressed in the two parts of the text: “Cultural Urgencies” and “Theorizing Age Resistantly.” Whereas Gullette had already introduced the concept “aged by culture” in Declining to Decline, now she has placed it at the center of her examination. On the one hand, the book is devoted to a sociopolitical analysis of the USA; on the other hand, it develops a theory of resistance to age discrimination.

  16. Metodologías ágiles enfocadas al modelado de requerimientos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Gabriela Rivadeneira Molina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El dinamismo y la variabilidad de la industria del software hace necesario replantear las bases y prácticas que sustentan el desarrollo de software convencional. Un reciente estudio realizado por (Boehm, 2006, sobre tendencias en ingeniería del software, muestra que el mercado actual está caracterizado por el desarrollo rápido de aplicaciones y la reducción de la vida de los productos. En este contexto variable e inestable se requiere como ventaja competitiva aumentar la productividad y satisfacer las necesidades cambiantes de los clientes en el menor tiempo posible para proporcionar un mayor valor al negocio. Ante este panorama, cabe reflexionar sobre el grado de adaptación de las metodologías convencionales a estas circunstancias. La mayoría de los estudios coinciden en que el carácter normativo y la fuerte dependencia de planificaciones previas al desarrollo que definen a las metodologías convencionales, implican que resulten excesivamente pesadas para cubrir las necesidades de un amplio porcentaje del mercado software actual. Las metodologías ágiles surgidas a fines de los ’90, no han sidomuy tenidas en cuenta por el mundo académico, quizás recién a mediados de la década anterior se comienzan a encontrar trabajos de investigación al respecto. En este trabajo se analizan las metodologías ágiles más utilizadas enfocándose en las primeras etapas del ciclo de vida del software ydeteniéndose en las prácticas, técnicas y productos que se utilizan en las mencionadas etapas. Para ello se indagó en la literatura existente para conocer cada una de las metodologías involucradas, logrando una primera selección y comparación de las mismas, y exponiendo los resultados y sus conclusiones en este informe.

  17. TiAl compounds for structural applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive progress and improvements in two-phase TiAl alloys have been made in the last five years. In particular, understanding of relationships between microstructure and mechanical properties has been substantially deepened. Based on these achievements, several engineering two-phase TiAl alloys in duplex form with room-temperature ductility up to 3--4% and improved strength have been developed. Significant progress has also been made towards clarifying the basic mechanical properties of the gamma and alpha-2 phases which comprise the two-phase alloys in lamellar form. However, the lamellar structures are still poor in ductility, although they are beneficial for toughness and high-temperature strength. The lamellar structures are of special interest and importance since they are so common and persistent, not only under as-cast conditions but also after thermal treatment. More work is thus needed to achieve an improved balance of strength and ductility in the lamellar form. Some alloying elements such as Cr, V and Mn have been reported to increase the room-temperature ductility of the two-phase alloys in duplex form. However, none of them is effective in ductilizing the two-phase alloys in lamellar form. Knowledge of the specific role of a particular alloying element is still very limited. This article will review the recent progress made in understanding the microstructure, deformation and fracture behavior, alloying effects and environmental embrittlement in two-phase TiAl alloys together with some attempts at their structural applications. 129 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Yield point behavior of NiAl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margevicius, R.W.; Lewandowski, J.J. [Case Western Reserve univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Locci, I.E. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering]|[NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States); Noebe, R.D. [NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1993-11-15

    The authors have reported dislocation densities of cast/extruded and as-annealed NiAl to be typically 10{sup 8} cm-{sup 2}; pressurization to 1,400MPa increased the dislocation density to 10{sup 9} cm-{sup 2} in isolated regions. The representative dislocation density of the material pressurized to 1,400 MPa and aged at 673K/2 h is also on the order of 10{sup 9} cm-{sup 2} in isolated regions, confirming again that pressurization increased the dislocation density and also establishing that the treatment at 673K/2 h/furnace cool does not return the dislocation density to the level present in the material annealed at 1,100K/2 h. However, the reestablishment of the yield point to virtually its as-annealed level in both tension and compression, indicate that these pressure-induced dislocations become pinned after aging at a suitably high temperature. The high interstitial content in the present material suggests that the mechanism responsible for the locking of the dislocations generated due to pressurization is related to interstitial locking, although other mechanisms involving either defect pinning, precipitation, or dislocation rearrangement may also play a role in such a phenomenon. The large body of work on yield point phenomena in b.c.c. metals indicate the need for carefully controlled experiments in order to separate the mechanism(s) contributing to the yield point behavior in general. Additional experiments are in progress on single crystal and polycrystalline NiAl containing different impurity levels to establish the mechanism(s) responsible for the present observations. Finally, the data clearly show that the mere generation of mobile dislocations of their subsequent relocking does not significantly affect the tensile fracture stress or the tensile ductility of the presently tested polycrystalline NiAl.

  19. Keberagamaan Otentik dalam Al-Qur’an

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamim Ilyas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractMulti-dimensional crisis experienced by the muslims are related to their religiosity. To overcome the crisis, they need develop authentic religiosity. This research examines the authentic type of religiosity taught by the Qur’an with the method of tafsir (Qur’anic interpretation. The study found that the religiosity taught by the Qur’an is ethicalreligiosity which manifests in two frameworks: works and capacity. The first framework consists of two works: first, total surrender in God in term of comprehending and submitting to God’s will manifested in His qauliyya (speech, kauniyya (universe, and tarikhiyya (history verses. Second, following the milla (religion of Abraham. The secondframework consists of five capacities: muhsin (social capacity, hanif (moral capacity,muslim (intelectual capacity, qanit (spiritual capacity, and syakir (personal capacity.Keywords: Authentic religiosity, Islam, the Qur’anAbstrakKrisis multi dimensi yang dialami umat Islam berhubungan dengan keberagamaan mereka. Untuk mengatasinya mereka harus mengembangkan keberagamaan otentik. Penelitian ini mengkaji tipe keberagamaan otentik yang diajarkan al-Qur’an denganmetode tafsir. Ditemukan bahwa tipe keberagamaan yang diajarkan al-Qur’an adalah keberagamaan etis yang terwujud dalam dua kerangka: amal dan kapasitas. Kerangka pertama terdiri atas dua amal. Pertama, berserah diri kepada Allah dalam pengertianmemahami dan tunduk kepada kehendak-Nya yang diungkapkan dalam ayat-ayat qauliyah, kauniyah dan tarikhiyah. Kedua, mengikuti Millah Ibrahim. Kemudian kerangka kedua terdiri atas lima kapasitas: muhsin (kapasitas sosial, hanif (kapasitas moral, muslim (kapasitas kecendekiaan, qanit (kapasitas spiritual dan syakir (kapasitas personal.Kata kunci: Keberagamaan otentik, Islam, al-Qur’an

  20. ANÁLISIS DE LA CRÍTICA SOCIAL AL MARKETING

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    RAYMOND, PRADA DAZA.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Cada vez un mayor número de analistas y críticos sociales asocian el marketing con el consumo exagerado, y afirman que las empresas a menudo planifican la obsolescencia de sus productos con el ánimo de que los compradores adquieran nuevas versiones que incorporan muy pocas mejoras funcionales. Pero, [...] además, aseveran que la publicidad agrega demasiados costos al precio de los productos y que la ganancia bruta de los fabricantes es exagerada. Las críticas se extienden al señalamiento de abusos en el poder político de algunos grupos de industrias y a la discriminación de distritos habitados por familias de bajos ingresos. Al compás de las respuestas de los mercadólogos, los consumidores se organizan y cobra relevancia el concepto de que el marketing debe ser socialmente responsable y que los compradores potenciales pueden educar sus deseos más superfluos y caprichosos. Abstract in english An ever increasing number of analysts and social critics associate marketing with conspicuous consumption, even to the point of claiming that firms often engage in the planned obsolescence of their products with a view to selling newer versions with few if any functional improvements. Furthermore, t [...] hey claim that advertising adds a stiff surcharge to such products and that manufacturer´s profits are excessive. Such critics also point to abuses of the political power wielded by certain industries, and even to discrimination agains residents of low-income areas. The revelations of market analysts and critics have led to the formation of consumer´s groups and to the belief that marketing must exercise social responsibility. Potential buyers are also urged to rein in their more superfluous and whimsical desires.

  1. Formation of Nb3Al in powder processed Nb-Al superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In high magnetic fields, the critical current density is strongly dependent on the upper critical field, which is determined primarily by the stoichiometry of the Nb3Al. The critical temperature (T/sub c/), like the upper critical field, is considered to be a measure of the ''intrinsic'' quality of the superconductor, indicating the stoichiometry, order, and strain. If the A15 phase is stoichiometric and well ordered, a high T/sub c/ (and high H/sub C2/) is expected, regardless of the volume fraction of superconductor. On the other hand, if sigma phase is present with the A15, the resultant composition gradient across the sigma-A15 interface(s) requires that some of the A15 be off-stoichiometric, and therefore that the T/sub c/ (and H/sub C2/) be low. Thus the extent of the A15 (Nb3Al) reaction and the quality of the A15 formed are interdependent. This work focuses on the factors that control the extent of Nb3Al formation in Nb/Al powder wires. The morphology and content of the reacted and unreacted wires are studied in optical, SEM, and TEM micrographs. Critical current density data and its dependence on processing are explained in terms of the unreacted microstructure and its effect on the extent of Nb3Al formation. As a method of improving the critical current density, a new variation of the conventional powder process for wire manufacturing is developed and tested

  2. Deep SiO2 etching with Al and AlN masks for MEMS devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliznetsov, Vladimir; Mao Lin, Hua; Zhang, Yue Jia; Johnson, David

    2015-08-01

    Silicon oxide-based materials such as quartz and silica are widely used in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). One way to enhance the capability of their deep plasma etching is to increase selectivity by the use of hard masks. Although this approach was studied previously, information on the use of hard masks for the etching of silicon-oxide based materials on 200?mm substrates is scarce. We present the results of etching process development for amorphous silicon oxide using Al and AlN masks with a view of the application of the results for the etching of silica and quartz. Three gas chemistries (C4F8/O2, CF4 and SF6) and their mixtures were compared in an industrial reactive ion etch (RIE) chamber with two plasma sources. It was established that pure SF6 is the best etchant and AlN is a better mask than Al for providing higher selectivity and a sidewall angle close to vertical. A range of etching parameters for micromasking-free etching was established and etched structures of up to a 4?:?1 aspect ratio were created in 21??m-thick oxide using the process with an etch rate of 0.32-0.36??m?min-1 and a selectivity to AlN mask of (38-49) : 1.

  3. Creep strength of centrifugally cast Al-rich TiAl alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturm, D., E-mail: daniel.sturm@masch-bau.uni-magdeburg.de [Otto-von-Guericke-Universitaet Magdeburg, Institut fuer Werkstoff- und Fuegetechnik, Lehrstuhl Werkstoffprueftechnik, Postfach 4120, D-39016 Magdeburg (Germany); Heilmaier, M.; Saage, H. [Otto-von-Guericke-Universitaet Magdeburg, Institut fuer Werkstoff- und Fuegetechnik, Lehrstuhl Werkstoffprueftechnik, Postfach 4120, D-39016 Magdeburg (Germany); Paninski, M.; Schmitz, G.J.; Drevermann, A. [ACCESS e.V., Intzestrasse 5, D-52072 Aachen (Germany); Palm, M.; Stein, F.; Engberding, N. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-40237 Duesseldorf (Germany); Kelm, K.; Irsen, S. [Stiftung Caesar, Electron Microscopy, Ludwig-Erhard-Allee 2, 53175 Bonn (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    High-temperature creep of a binary Al{sub 60}Ti{sub 40} (at.%) alloy in the as-cast state and after annealing at 1223 K for 200 h which produced nearly lamellar {gamma}-TiAl + r-Al{sub 2}Ti microstructure was studied utilizing creep compression tests in a temperature range between 1173 and 1323 K in air. The material was manufactured by centrifugal casting. Microstructural characterization was carried out employing light-optical scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) as well as X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. It is shown that the alloy exhibits reasonable creep resistance at 1173 K, especially in relation to its low density of around 3.8 g/cm{sup 3}. Stress exponents calculated as n = {Delta}log (strain rate)/{Delta}log (stress) = 4 were found to be relatively constant for the temperature and stress regime investigated. This indicates that dislocation climb may be the rate controlling creep mechanism. The assessment of creep tests conducted at identical stress levels and varying temperatures yielded activation energies for creep of around Q = 457 kJ/mol in the as-cast condition. This value is significantly higher than those found in literature for interdiffusion of Al or Ti in {gamma}-TiAl. It is concluded that the difference is a due to the instability of the microstructure of the as-cast multi-phase alloy.

  4. Positron study of plastically deformed Al and Al+0.55 AT.% Mn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron trapping in metals undergoing plastic deformation has been investigated by positron lifetime spectroscopy. Samples of Al and Al+0.55 at% Mn have been deformed to various degree resulting in thickness reduction (TR) in the range 0 - 51.9%. Two lifetime components have been identified for all deformed samples. The short lifetime component ?1 is ascribed to free positron annihilation. The long lifetime component ?2 increases with TR for both Al and Al+0.55 at% Mn but at different rates (saturation points at 18% TR and 11% TR respectively). It is concluded that Shockley partial dislocations are formed in both metals in the process of plastic deformation. They act only as shallow positron traps with specific trapping efficiency ?d=0.085 cm2 s-1 but can be a precursor state for deeper traps. The observed ?2 is attributed to positron trapping in point-like defects along dislocation lines (vacancies or jogs). The presence of Mn atoms in the Al lattice increases the concentration of the trapping centres at low deformations and results in earlier saturation of ?2. The results confirm model predictions of other authors and show that positron annihilation technique can be used for obtaining detailed information about dislocation structure in metals and alloys. 3 figs., 9 refs

  5. Josephson effect in Al/Bi2Se3/Al coplanar hybrid devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Superconducting proximity effect induced in Al/Bi2Se3/Al coplanar hybrid devices. • Comparative study of Al/Bi2Se3 interfaces with various buffer layers. • Towards a Josephson super-current through the edge states of topological insulators. - Abstract: The edge states of Topological Insulators (TI) are protected against backscattering, thanks to the topological properties arising from their band structure. Coupling a TI to a superconductor (S) can induce unconventional effects, including the creation of Majorana bound states (MBS). The fabrication of coplanar hybrid devices is a fundamental step to pave the way to the understanding of proximity effects in topologically non-trivial systems, and to a large variety of experiments aimed at the possible detection of MBS. We discuss the feasibility and some relevant properties of Al–Bi2Se3–Al coplanar proximity devices. Special attention is devoted to the design of the junction, aimed at enhancing the coupling between the electrodes and the TI

  6. 27Al-NQR/NMR study of Kondo semiconductor CeFe2Al10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    27Al-NQR/NMR measurements have been performed on CeFe2Al10 in relevance to the novel phase below T0=27 K of isostructural CeRu2Al10. NQR peaks are assigned to five crystallographically inequivalent Al sites. No splitting of the NQR spectra down to 1.5 K confirms the lack of phase transition in this compound. The gaplike decrease in the spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T1 above about 20 K, following the Korringa law (T1T = const.) below 20 K, indicates a pseudogap opening near the Fermi level. The gap magnitude of 70 K with a mid-gap state of 42% is estimated based on a rectangular density of states. The gap magnitude is much larger than the gap of 15 K evaluated previously from the electrical resistivity, which suggests CeFe2Al10 to be a Kondo semiconductor with a Kondo temperature much higher than 300 K. (author)

  7. Polvos de Al-Al3Ti obtenidos mediante aleado mecánico y tratamiento térmico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallardo, J. M.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Mixed powders of aluminium and titanium (10 wt % have been mechanically alloyed in an Attritor mill. A metastable solution of titanium in an aluminium matrix is obtained. Changes produced on shape and particle size, structure and microstructure, have been studied when milling time varies between 2 and 10 h. The final processing is carried out for a milling time of 10 h, with approximately 9 wt % of titanium dissolved in the matrix. Finally, a heat treatment is carried out at different temperatures, up to a maximum of 625 °C, which produces the precipitation of different phases such as different structures of Al3Ti and Al4C3. The appearance of these second phases is characterized according to the selected heat treatment temperature.Polvos mezclados de aluminio y titanio (10 % en peso han sido aleados mecánicamente en un molino Attritor, obteniéndose una solución metaestable de titanio en la matriz de aluminio. Se han estudiado los cambios producidos en la forma y tamaño de las partículas, estructura y microestructura, al variar el tiempo de molienda entre 2 y 10 h. El procesado final se realiza para un tiempo de 10 h, habiéndose disuelto aproximadamente un 9 % en peso de titanio. Finalmente, se realiza un tratamiento térmico a diversas temperaturas, hasta un máximo de 625 °C, lo que produce la precipitación de diversas fases, como distintas estructuras de Al3Ti y Al4C3. La aparición de estas segundas fases es caracterizada en función de la temperatura de tratamiento utilizada.

  8. para medir adicción al amor en adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Estela Retana Franco

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La llamada ?adicción al amor? no es privativa de cierto grupo de individuos, máxime en etapas de la vida en las que se inicia el proceso de atracción y cortejo. Dado lo anterior, resultó importante desarrollar un instrumento para medir dicha adicción en los adolescentes. El instrumento, con validez y confiabilidad robustas, comprendió 45 reactivos y se aplicó a 300 estudiantes de secundaria. Los resultados indican la presencia de diez factores: dependencia, necesidad apremiante, alivio, celos, fisiología, emociones negativas, no adicción, cuidado de la relación, obsesión y resistencia. Se discuten el concepto y su impacto en la salud de individuos y parejas.

  9. Der Arabische Frühling als Ruf für Generationengerechtigkeit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thau, Sonja

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Der Arabische Frühling begann eruptionsartig und für viele internationale Beobachter unvorhergesehen. Dabei steckte die Wirtschaft vieler nahöstlicher Staaten bereits seit längerem in einer Krise. Insbesondere junge Leute litten infolgedessen unter Arbeitslosigkeit, Perspektivlosigkeit und Repression. In dem Protest der jungen Nordafrikaner drückte sich zudem ein Generationenkonflikt aus. Dieser bestand zwischen der Jugend und der gesamten älteren Generation. Er kulminierte in einem grundsätzlichen Misstrauen gegenüber dem Staat und der älteren herrschenden Elite. Der Beitrag beleuchtet das dichte Gewebe aus sozialen, politischen und ökonomischen Ursachen, die als auslösende Momente für die Proteste in den Ländern Tunesien und Ägypten im Jahr 2011 angesehen werden können.

  10. Homenaje al Dr. Fernando Merino Niño

    OpenAIRE

    Lisbeth Berrueta; Siham Salmen

    2013-01-01

    encuentra tu pasión y hazla posible, dale un propósito a tu vida por encima de todo; que la motivación por alcanzar tus metas sea siempre mayor que el temor al fracaso” Anónimo FERNANDO MERINO NINO (1946-2011) DEDICO SU VIDA A SU PASION MÁS GRANDE: LA INVESTIGACION. Nació en España y a los 7 años de edad se mudó con su familia a Caracas, Venezuela, en donde creció y se obtuvo su título de Médico Cirujano a los 22 años de edad, en las aulas de la ilustre Universi...

  11. Ibn al-Haytham and geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Rashed, Roshdi

    2013-01-01

    Theory of Conics, Geometrical Constructions and Practical Geometry: A History of Arabic Sciences and Mathematics Volume 3, provides a unique primary source on the history and philosophy of mathematics and science from the mediaeval Arab world. The present text is complemented by two preceding volumes of A History of Arabic Sciences and Mathematics, which focused on founding figures and commentators in the ninth and tenth centuries, and the historical and epistemological development of 'infinitesimal mathematics' as it became clearly articulated in the oeuvre of Ibn al-Haytham.

  12. Problemas éticos al final de la vida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Graciela De Ortuzar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente informe trata sobre el análisis filosófico de un tema complejo y controvertido, como lo es la ?definición de muerte?. Por ello, es importante subrayar que no desarrollaré aquí los aspectos antropológicos, sicológicos, médicos y técnicos de la muerte. Sólo me centraré en las teorías filosóficas principales que justifican diferentes definiciones de muerte (esencialista vs. biológica y sus consecuentes problemas prácticos. La necesidad de realizar esta investigación surge a partir del reconocimiento de confusiones conceptuales y contradicciones cuando se comunica ?la muerte? (falta de concordancia entre la definición filosófica, criterios y tests; contradicciones reflejadas cotidianamente en el lenguaje y en las actitudes del personal médico y de enfermería de nuestras Unidades de Terapia Intensiva (UTIs. Hablar de paciente al referirse a un cadáver al que se le ha diagnosticado la muerte encefálica; hablar de muerte cuando se produce el paro cardiorespitariaco (¿dos muertes?; hablar de eutanasia cuando se retira el respirador al individuo muerto cuyos órganos están siendo mantenidos artificialmente; éstas situaciones -entre otras- reflejan conflictos y falta de claridad conceptual sobre los conceptos básicos de muerte y eutanasia. Dichos conflictos constituyen problemas éticos claves al final de la vida, los cuáles nacen a partir del reciente cambio en el criterio de muerte en un contexto de acelerada ?tecnologización? de la salud. He aquí la necesidad del análisis crítico sobre el marco teórico-conceptual requerido en UTIs y su confrontación aplicada, con el fin de esclarecer los citados problemas. Para ello, estudiaré la teoría moral unificada de Bernard Gert, examinando su justificación teórica y su aplicabilidad práctica, como así también las posiciones alternativas a la misma (Wikler. En términos generales, considero que la defensa de la coherencia, sistematicidad y aplicabilidad de las teorías filosóficas a los problemas prácticos en salud permitirá defender la profesionalidad de la ética como una disciplina académica. El rol del filósofo resulta clave si pensamos en la responsabilidad indelegable que posee dicho profesional de favorecer la creación del marco normativo, y participar en el mismo a través de comisiones de ética, para dirimir conflictos morales originados en el contexto actual de atención de la salud.

  13. Devitrification of rapidly quenched Al–Cu–Ti amorphous alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D K Misra; R S Tiwari; O N Srivastava

    2003-08-01

    X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry were carried out to study the transformation from amorphous to icosahedral/crystalline phases in the rapidly quenched Al50Cu45Ti5 and Al45Cu45Ti10 alloys. In the present investigation, we have studied the formation and stability of amorphous phase in Al50Cu45Ti5 and Al45Cu45Ti10 rapidly quenched alloys. The DSC curve shows a broad complex type of exothermic overlapping peaks (288–550°C) for Al50Cu45Ti5 and a well defined peak around 373°C for Al45Cu45Ti10 alloy. In the case of Al50Cu45Ti5 alloy amorphous to icosahedral phase transformation has been observed after annealing at 280°C for 73 h. Large dendritic growth of icosahedral phase along with -Al phase has been found. Annealing of Al50Cu45Ti5 alloy at 400°C for 8 h results in formation of Al3Ti type phase. Al45Cu45Ti10 amorphous alloy is more stable in comparison to Al50Cu45Ti5 alloy and after annealing at 400°C for 8 h it also transforms to Al3Ti type phase. However, this alloy does not show amorphous to icosahedral phase transformation.

  14. Micro-structural evaluation of Ti/Al/Ni/Au ohmic contacts with different Ti/Al thicknesses in AlGaN/GaN HEMTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahajan, Somna S., E-mail: somnamahajan@gmail.com; Dhaul, Anuradha; Laishram, Robert; Kapoor, Sonalee; Vinayak, Seema; Sehgal, B.K.

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Ohmic contacts with four different Ti/Al metal thickness ratios were fabricated on undoped Al{sub .28}Ga{sub .72}N/GaN HEMT under various annealing cycles using Rapid thermal processor. • Ohmic contact with Ti/Al metal thickness ratio, 1/5 showed superior quality in terms of R{sub c} and surface morphology. • Ni–Al alloy segregation on the surface as analyzed by EDAX seems to be related to bumpy surface morphology. • Ohmic contact with Ti/Al metal ratio 1/5 showed the presence of TiN by X-ray diffraction analysis. This was further confirmed by SIMS analysis. • The lower level of elemental Ti and Al at the surface of the contact with Ti/Al metal thickness ratio 1/5 compared to the other contacts indicated lower oxidation possibility and therefore superior quality ohmic contacts with the metal ratio 1/5. - Abstract: In this work, ohmic contacts were formed by varying the Ti/Al thickness ratio in the metal stack of Ti/Al/Ni/Au on Al{sub .28}Ga{sub .72}N/GaN HEMT epistructure followed by annealing in the temperature range 740–860 °C by rapid thermal processor (RTP). The contacts were electrically characterized for contact resistance (R{sub c}) and the sheet resistance (R{sub s}) of AlGaN/GaN epistructure. The ohmic contacts formed by Ti/Al metal thickness ratio of 1/5 exhibited lowest R{sub c} values and better surface morphology compared to the contacts formed by other Ti/Al metal thickness ratios. The difference observed in the electrical characterization of these contacts was correlated with their X-ray diffraction (XRD) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analyses. The surface morphology of the ohmic metal post annealing showed two distinct regions in scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. The energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) identified these regions as Ni–Al and Au–Al rich. Ni–Al rich region is believed to be responsible for rough morphology. Further, the contact formed with Ti/Al metal thickness ratio 1/5 showed less number of elemental Al and Ti atoms and therefore was correlated with lower oxidation probability of the contact compared to ohmic contact formed by other metal thickness ratios.

  15. Theory and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy for Aluminum Coordination Complexes – Al K-Edge Studies of Charge and Bonding in (BDI)Al, (BDI)AlR2, and (BDI)AlX2 Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Alison B; Pemmaraju, C D; Camp, Clément; Arnold, John; Minasian, Stefan G; Prendergast, David; Shuh, David K; Tyliszczak, Tolek

    2015-08-19

    Polarized aluminum K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and first-principles calculations were used to probe electronic structure in a series of (BDI)Al, (BDI)AlX2, and (BDI)AlR2 coordination compounds (X = F, Cl, I; R = H, Me; BDI = 2,6-diisopropylphenyl-?-diketiminate). Spectral interpretations were guided by examination of the calculated transition energies and polarization-dependent oscillator strengths, which agreed well with the XANES spectroscopy measurements. Pre-edge features were assigned to transitions associated with the Al 3p orbitals involved in metal-ligand bonding. Qualitative trends in Al 1s core energy and valence orbital occupation were established through a systematic comparison of excited states derived from Al 3p orbitals with similar symmetries in a molecular orbital framework. These trends suggested that the higher transition energies observed for (BDI)AlX2 systems with more electronegative X(1-) ligands could be ascribed to a decrease in electron density around the aluminum atom, which causes an increase in the attractive potential of the Al nucleus and concomitant increase in the binding energy of the Al 1s core orbitals. For (BDI)Al and (BDI)AlH2 the experimental Al K-edge XANES spectra and spectra calculated using the eXcited electron and Core-Hole (XCH) approach had nearly identical energies for transitions to final state orbitals of similar composition and symmetry. These results implied that the charge distributions about the aluminum atoms in (BDI)Al and (BDI)AlH2 are similar relative to the (BDI)AlX2 and (BDI)AlMe2 compounds, despite having different formal oxidation states of +1 and +3, respectively. However, (BDI)Al was unique in that it exhibited a low-energy feature that was attributed to transitions into a low-lying p-orbital of b1 symmetry that is localized on Al and orthogonal to the (BDI)Al plane. The presence of this low-energy unoccupied molecular orbital on electron-rich (BDI)Al distinguishes its valence electronic structure from that of the formally trivalent compounds (BDI)AlX2 and (BDI)AlR2. The work shows that Al K-edge XANES spectroscopy can be used to provide valuable insight into electronic structure and reactivity relationships for main-group coordination compounds. PMID:26258886

  16. Hydriding behavior of Mg-Al and leached Mg-Al compounds prepared by high-energy ball-milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouaricha, S.; Dodelet, J.P.; Guay, D. [INRS-Energie et Materiaux, Varennes, Que. (Canada); Huot, J.; Boily, S.; Schulz, R. [Technologies Emergentes de production et de stockage, Institut de Recherche d' Hydro-Quebec, 1800 Blvd. Lionel-Boulet, C. P. 1000, Varennes (Canada)

    2000-02-02

    The structure and hydrogen absorption properties of Mg:Al alloys prepared by high-energy ball milling were studied over the whole compositional range. These materials were prepared in their as-milled and Al-leached forms. The latter are obtained from the former materials by leaching out Al in a 1 N NaOH solution. The structure of the various alloys was determined by X-ray diffraction. The structure of the material in the hydrided state was also determined in some cases. In the as-milled state, hcp Mg(Al) with a small proportion of Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} and fcc Al(Mg) are formed at Mg:Al(90:10) and (20:80) compositions, respectively. At intermediate (58:42) and (37:63) compositions, the intermetallic Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} and Mg{sub 3}Al{sub 2} phases are formed, respectively. Following leaching, the Al content of Mg:Al(90:10) and (20:80) varies from 10.4 and 77.0 to 3.0 and 51.0 at.%, respectively. In both cases, noticeable change in the XRD pattern confirms that bulk dissolution of Al has been achieved. There is a two-fold increase in the specific surface area of Mg:Al(90:10) following leaching of Al. In the case of Mg:Al with intermediate compositions, dissolution of Al, if any, does not lead to discernable modification in the structure of the material. The measured hydrogen capacity of the as milled material decreases with Al content, from H/M=1.74 for pure un-milled Mg, to 1.38 for Mg:Al(90:10), and then to 1.05 for Mg:Al (75:25). In each case, there is a further 10-15% decline of the hydrogen absortion capacity after leaching. In the case of Mg:Al(58:42), which basically only contains a nanocrystalline Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} intermetallic phase, hydriding leads to the formation of MgH{sub 2} and Al. This reaction is totally reversible and Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} is recovered upon de-hydriding. In each case, there is an increase in the kinetics of hydrogen absorption and desorption following Al leaching. (orig.)

  17. Bonding strength of Al/Mg/Al alloy tri-metallic laminates fabricated by hot rolling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    X P Zhang; M J Tan; T H Yang; X J Xu; J T Wang

    2011-07-01

    One of major drawbacks of magnesium alloy is its low corrosion resistance, which can be improved by using an aluminized coating. In this paper, 7075 Al/Mg–12Gd–3Y–0.5Zr/7075 Al laminated composites were produced by a hot roll bonding method. The rolling temperature was determined based on the flow stresses of Mg–12Gd–3Y–0.5Zr magnesium alloy and 7075 Al alloy at elevated temperature. The bonding strength of the laminate composites and their mechanism were studied. The effects of the reduction ratio (single pass), the rolling temperature, and the subsequent annealing on the bonding strength were also investigated. It was observed that the bonding strength increased rapidly with the reduction ratio and slightly with the rolling temperature. The bonding strength increases with the annealing time until the annealing time reaches 2 h and then decreases. The mechanical bond plays a major role in the bonding strength.

  18. The core structures of transformation dislocations at TiAl/Ti3Al interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Ti-40%Al alloy is investigated using High Resolution Electron Microscopy. The alloy structure consists mainly of alternate lamellae of ?(TiAl, L10 structure) and ?2 (Ti3Al, DO19 structure) phases. These lamellae are parallel to each other and the interfaces between them are flat and parallel to the densest planes of the crystals. It is found that, among the variety of interfacial dislocations relieving the misfit, some have cores involving four (111) planes in height. The elastic displacement fields around these interfacial ledges, compared with the experimental atomic positions determined from HREM images, are in agreement with Burgers vector contents 1/6 left angle 112 right angle . (orig.)

  19. 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance spectra in CeAl3 at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have measured the nuclear magnetic resonance, NMR, spectra of CeAl3 at 3.964 MHz, 2.095 MHz and 0.937 MHz in the temperature range between 0.04 K and 20 K. The complicated NMR absorption line of CeAl3 powder is shown to have more than one component, corresponding to at least two inequivalent Al sites. Below 0.9 K the relative intensity of a broad asymmetric structure increases, and the width of the NMR spectrum shows a rapid increase. At fields of the order of two kilogauss the asymmetry is strongly supressed. The temperature dependence of the asymmetry and width of the spectrum below 0.9 K, can neither be explained in terms of a temperature dependent Knight shift nor in terms of conventional magnetic ordering. (orig.)

  20. Local stress-induced effects on AlGaAs/AlOx oxidation front shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lateral oxidation of thick AlGaAs layers (>500?nm) is studied. An uncommon shape of the oxide tip is evidenced and attributed to the embedded stress distribution, inherent to the oxidation reaction. Experimental and numerical studies of the internal strain in oxidized AlxGa1?xAs/GaAs structures were carried out by dark-field electron holography and finite element methods. A mapping of the strain distribution around the AlGaAs/oxide interface demonstrates the main role of internal stress on the shaping of the oxide front. These results demonstrate the high relevance of strain in oxide-confined III-V devices, in particular, with over-500-nm thick AlOx confinement layers.

  1. Hydrogen Sensors Based on AlGaN/AlN/GaN Schottky Diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pt/AlGaN/AlN/GaN Schottky diodes are fabricated and characterized for hydrogen sensing. The Pt Schottky contact and the Ti/Al/Ni/Au ohmic contact are formed by evaporation. Both the forward and reverse currents of the device increase greatly when exposed to hydrogen gas. A shift of 0.3V at 300K is obtained at a fixed forward current after switching from N2 to 10%H2+N2. The sensor responses under different concentrations from 50ppm H2 to 10%H2+N2 at 373K are investigated. Time dependences of the device forward current at 0.5V forward bias in N2 and air atmosphere at 300 and 373K are compared. Oxygen in air accelerates the desorption of the hydrogen and the recovery of the sensor. Finally, the decrease of the Schottky barrier height and sensitivity of the sensor are calculated

  2. Al-Jazeera... varsti BBC asemel / Merle Krigul

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krigul, Merle

    2005-01-01

    Ülemaailmne televisiooni-impeerium, mille üks osa on ka uudistekanal Al-Jazeera, kavatseb laieneda. Tulemas on uus Al-Jazeera lastekanal ja spordikanal, rahvusvaheline inglisekeelse uudistekanal. Lisa: BBC püüab araabiakeelset turgu

  3. Abrupt Schottky Junctions in Al/Ge Nanowire Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In this Letter we report on the exploration of axial metal/semiconductor (Al/Ge) nanowire heterostructures with abrupt interfaces. The formation process is enabled by a thermal induced exchange reaction between the vapor–liquid–solid grown Ge nanowire and Al contact pads due to the substantially different diffusion behavior of Ge in Al and vice versa. Temperature-dependent I–V measurements revealed the metallic properties of the crystalline Al nanowire segments with a maximum current carrying capacity of about 0.8 MA/cm2. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization has confirmed both the composition and crystalline nature of the pure Al nanowire segments. A very sharp interface between the ?111? oriented Ge nanowire and the reacted Al part was observed with a Schottky barrier height of 361 meV. To demonstrate the potential of this approach, a monolithic Al/Ge/Al heterostructure was used to fabricate a novel impact ionization device. PMID:26052733

  4. Microstructure and properties of Mg-Al binary alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHENG Wei-chao

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different amounts of added Al, ranging from 1 % to 9 %, on the microstructure and properties of Mg-Al binary alloys were investigated. The results showed that when the amount of added Al is less than 5%, the grain size of the Mg-Al binary alloys decreases dramatically from 3 097 ?m to 151 ?m with increasing addition of Al. Further addition of Al up to 9% makes the grain size decrease slowly to 111 ?m. The ?-Mg dendrite arms are also refined. Increasing the amount of added Al decreases the hot cracking susceptibility of the Mg-Al binary alloys remarkably, and enhances the micro-hardness of the ?-Mg matrix.

  5. The SrO-Al2O3 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studied has been the condition diagram of the SrO-Al2O3 at the 0.21 at partial pressure of oxygen in the air. The existence of the SrAl4O7, SrAl2O4 and Sr3Al2O6 compounds, possessing a congruent melting temperature of 1,780, 1,960 and 1,720 deg C respectively has been determined. The Sr4Al2O7 and SrAl12O19 are being melted incongruently at 1,800 and 1,790 deg C respectively. A polymorphous transition is observed in the Sr4Al2O7 compound at 1,450 deg C. A certain amount of Al2O3 dissolves in the low-temperature modification

  6. Growth and photoluminescence characteristics of AlGaAs nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growth of high-quality single-crystal AlGaAs nanowires was demonstrated using the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism with molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE). Highly ordered AlGaAs nanowire arrays and GaAs/AlGaAs multilayer nanowires were also prepared. Photoluminescence (PL) from homogeneous AlGaAs and GaAs/AlGaAs multilayer nanowires was measured. The Al composition of the AlGaAs nanowires was found to be significantly lower than that for planar MBE films grown under the same conditions, as determined from PL and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy measurements. This is explained in terms of the different growth mechanisms for VLS and normal MBE. Such AlGaAs nanowires are expected to have a wide range of applications in electronic and photonic devices

  7. Synthesis and crystal structure of ?-AlD3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ?-AlD3 was synthesized from LiAlD4 and AlCl3 via thermal decomposition of aluminum hydride etherate in presence of LiBH4 and excess LiAlD4. ?-AlD3 was determined by powder neutron diffraction and synchrotron X-ray diffraction to take the pyrochlore structure and it crystallizes in space group Fd3bar m. The cubic structure has unit-cell dimension a=9.0037(1)A and consists of corner-sharing AlD6 octahedra where each hydrogen is shared between two octahedra. Each of the six octahedra surrounding an octahedron is interconnected to two of the other surrounding octahedra. The octahedra are forming a 3D network with about 3.9A channels. There is one Al and one D crystallographic site and the Al-D distance is 1.712(1)A

  8. Suurajatolla Ali al-Sistani saabus Najaffi / Kalev Vilgats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vilgats, Kalev

    2004-01-01

    Mässulise shiiidivaimuliku Moqtada al-Sadri Mahdi armee võitlejad on pidanud Najafis USA vägedega lahinguid juba kolm nädalat. Iraagi kõrgeim shiiiavaimulik suurajatolla Ali al-Sistani kutsub kõiki iraaklasi endaga Najaffi marssima, et lahingutele lõpp teha

  9. Irradiation behaviour of UAl3-Al and UAl2-Al dispersion fuel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UAl3-Al and UAl2-Al dispersion fuel plates were prepared and irradiated in a pressurized water loop of the FR 2 (Karlsruhe). The irradiation tests were to give information on the chemical reaction of the UAlsub(x) particles with the Al matrix and on the swelling of the fuel plates by fission products, particularly by fission gas. After irradiation, the fuel plates did not show cladding failures by blister or crack formation in any case, which could be attributed to the irradiation behaviour of the fuel. To examine the overheating behaviour of irradiated fuel plates, annealing tests ('blister tests') were made at 200, 300, 400 and 5000C. The irradiation-induced reaction of the fuel particles with the Al matrix was followed by quantitative evaluation of microstructure components in micrographs of the fuel section. That evaluation was supported by some microprobe analyses and by microhardness measurements. The results show that Al-base dispersion fuels containing UAl3 or UAl2 are likewise suited for high burnups in research reactors. A uranium burnup of 40% is permissible in any case, independent of irradiation temperature at least up to 1800C. Above a burnup of 30 to 40%, fission product precipitation processes will strongly influence the behaviour of the dispersion fuel. The reaction of UAl3 and UAl2 fuel particles with the Al matrix results in the formation of a non-stoichiometric UAl4 phase, whose composition is about UAl5. However, that does not increase the volume percentage of the particles at high burnup. (orig./GSCH)

  10. DEGRADACIÓN FOTOCATALÍTICA DE FENOL EMPLEANDO ARCILLAS PILARIZADAS CON Al-Fe y Al-Cu

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jury, Ñungo-Moreno; J. G., Carriazo; S., Moreno; R. A., Molina.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se muestra la pilarización de una arcilla colombiana tipo bentonita con los sistemas Al-Fe y Al-Cu, y la evaluación de su actividad fotocatalítica en la eliminación de fenol en medio acuoso diluido. Los sólidos obtenidos se caracterizaron por difracción de rayos X (DRX) y capa [...] cidad de intercambio catiónico (CIC), mostrando la efectiva modificación vía pilarización. La evaluación de la actividad catalítica de los sólidos revela el potencial de aplicación de éstos en la degradación de compuestos orgánicos contaminantes en medio acuoso mediante procesos fotoasistidos con radiación UV. Los resultados evidencian una mayor actividad fotocatalítica para la arcilla modificada con hierro y una mayor selectividad de la arcilla modificada con cobre hacia la formación de CO2 y H2O. Abstract in english In this work the pillaring of a Colombian natural clay (bentonite) with the Al-Fe and Al-Cu systems, and the assessment of their photocatalytic activity in the phenol elimination in aqueous solution are shown. The obtained solids were characterized by X-ray diffraction analyses and cationic exchange [...] capacity, showing the effective modification via pillaring. The catalytic activity assessment of the solids confirms the potential application of these catalysts on the organic pollutants degradation in aqueous medium by means of catalytic processes photo-assisted with UV radiation. The results show a higher photocatalytic activity for the Al-Fe-pillared clay and a higher selectivity for the Al-Cu-pillared clay towards the formation of CO2 and H2O.

  11. FACTORES DE SERVICIOS DE SALUD Y SATISFACCIÓN DE USUARIAS ASOCIADOS AL ACCESO AL CONTROL PRENATAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Tatiana Rivera Mejía

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir los factores de los servicios de salud y satisfacción de usuarias que se asocian con el acceso al control prenatal (CP en instituciones de salud de Manizales y Cali. Materiales y métodos: Estudio de casos y de controles con una muestra de gestantes que asistieron al CP en 7 instituciones. Se aplicó un cuestionario para la recolección de información a 823 gestantes. Otro cuestionario fue aplicado a 4 enfermeras encargadas de manejar los programas de CP. La variable dependiente fue el acceso al CP y las independientes: la presencia de barreras administrativas, económicas, geográficas y percepción del trato, orientación brindada y aspecto físico de los servicios de salud. Las variables que indagaron por las estrategias de búsqueda activa fueron: proporción de gestantes inscritas en el primer trimestre, utilización de folletos y carteles informativos para generar conciencia sobre la importancia del acceso oportuno al CP. Resultados: Factores como la etnia (P = 0, 01, el tipo de afiliación al régimen de salud (P = 0,001, actividad de la madre en el último mes (P = 0,04, baja capacidad económica (P = 0,038, no estar afiliada al Sistema General de Seguridad Social en Salud (SGSSS (P < 0,001 y la tramitología (P = 0,003 presentaron diferencias significativas entre los grupos. En ambos grupos se encontraron valoraciones positivas del trato, orientación y aspecto físico en los servicios de salud. Conclusiones: Aspectos como la disminución del gasto de bolsillo, las incomodidades derivadas de la atención y de las instalaciones, además del buen trato, respeto, empatía con las gestantes deben ser parte de los planes de mejoramiento de la calidad de la atención del CP.

  12. Urbane Neoliberalisierung – ein Plädoyer für etwas mehr Differenz. Kommentar zu Margit Mayers „Urbane soziale Bewegungen in der neoliberalisierenden Stadt“

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Eick

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available [Dieser Artikel ist Teil einer Debatte] In ihrem Beitrag nimmt Margit Mayer die neoliberale Stadt und urbane soziale Bewegungen in globaler Perspektive in den Blick. Die auch von Margit Mayer maßgeblich vorangetriebene Diskussion, die sich in der letzten Dekade zwischen Urban Studies, lokaler Politik- und Bewegungsforschung durchaus konstruktiv am „actually existing neoliberalism“ (Brenner/Theodore 2002 abgearbeitet hat, wird mit Blick auf die dieser Diskussion ursprünglich inneliegenden regulationstheoretischen Herausforderungen kritisch gegengelesen. Der Kommentar verweist zudem auf einige theoretische Leerstellen, die in der Folge zu empirischen Ungenauigkeiten führen.

  13. Energy cards create transparency for energy efficiency-oriented planning and control processes; Energiekarten schaffen mehr Transparenz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Egon; Hopf, Hendrik; Arndt, Romina; Krones, Manuela [Technische Univ. Chemnitz (Germany). Professur Fabrikplanung und Fabrikbetrieb

    2012-10-15

    Detailed energy information is required for energy efficiency improvements. This leads to the need to illustrate the issue ''energy'' in a tangible and visible form. The presented tool enables the transfer of energy information and knowledge in the factory environment in a structured and clear manner.

  14. MEGA. Higher energy-efficiency through systematic user information - Final report; MEGA. Mehr Energieeffizienz durch gezielte Anwenderinformationen - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fercu, M.; Kistler, R. [Hochschule Luzern Technik und Architektur, CEESAR - iHomeLab, Horw (Switzerland); Egli, A. [Hochschule Luzern Technik und Architektur, ISIS, Horw (Switzerland); Gallati, J. [Hochschule Luzern Technik und Architektur, Wirtschaft, Horw (Switzerland)

    2010-09-15

    Individuals are empowered to conserve energy and natural resources when provided with motivational and personalized information on its use. By presenting information about the energy consumption from the home's energy meters along with recommended actions, the residential customer becomes aware of how in/efficiently energy is consumed within his home and can decide on how to act to conserve. This information can provide an accurate metric of how effective a conservation action is even to inhabitants that are not yet knowledgeable about or self-motivated by the monetary and ecologic rewards of conserving. This project was designed to build knowledge on technically and economically feasible ways to create an awareness of energy (especially electricity) for the sake of conservation. Specifically, it implements an exemplar prototype of a highly effective energy feedback system that is an interactive, real-time, in-home display. Toward this goal, four system architecture configuration proposals, a set of system requirements, and ideal system features are synthesized; they are based on the results of the research that evaluates effectiveness of existing energy-efficiency and -conservation methods and studies related technologies. Three of the four systems proposed represent energy technologies expected to be available within the next decade. The fourth system proposal is a demonstration prototype designed for implementation in the iHomeLab. This prototype is an open, modular, robust, cross-platform software framework that collects data, processes, and presents it interactively and visually on hardware available in most households. The results of this project both indicate that the creation of such energy feedback systems appear beneficial and also provide guidelines for their design. However, further development of infrastructure and elaboration of design is foreseen as necessary for this system to be suitable for mass deployment. (author)

  15. More momentum instead of mass. Network control by municipal public utilities; Mehr Schwung statt Masse. Netzsteuerung durch Stadtwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarzburger, Heiko

    2013-10-01

    Inverters can simulate the inertia of the turbine and generator from conventional power plants. Therefore the fossil power power plants blocks are unnecessary. From 2017 solar farms have to enable this function. [German] Wechselrichter koennen die Traegheit der Turbinen und Generatoren aus herkoemmlichen Kraftwerken nachbilden. Damit werden die fossilen Bloecke ueberfluessig. Ab 2017 muessen Solarparks diese Funktion ermoeglichen.

  16. Modernisation of hydrogenerators. Upgrading of power plants for more efficiency; Modernisierung von Hydrogeneratoren. Kraftwerks-Upgrade fuer mehr Effizienz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, John

    2012-07-01

    Ever since the construction of the first alternating current hydroelectric power plant with a performance of 12.5 kW in the year 1882, the number and performance of hydroelectric power plants had increased substantially. For example, the hydroelectric power plant at the Three Gorges Dam in the People's Republic of China has a total performance of 22,500 MW. The isolation systems of the hydrogenerators have a limited lifetime and have to be exchanged after fifty years usually. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration reports on the upgrading of hydrogenerators for more efficiency.

  17. Nature's powerhouse. Innovative technologies for a more sustainable future; Kraftwerk Natur. Innovative Technologien fuer mehr Nachhaltigkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2013-09-01

    Across the globe, our hunger for energy continues to grow. Yet climate change and dwindling fossil fuel supplies are forcing us to rethink our energy policy and turn increasingly to renewable resources. Achieving a sustainable energy mix and eco-friendly mobility options demands innovative technologies. And that is where Linde's gas and plant engineering specialists come in, developing efficient processes and providing crucial momentum for a greener future. (orig.)

  18. Neumonía asociada al cuidado de la salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Ceccato

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available La neumonía asociada al cuidado de la salud (NACS es una entidad diferente a la neumonía adquirida en la comunidad y a la neumonía intrahospitalaria. Existen circunstancias de riesgo para su desarrollo, se describen diferentes formas de presentación, gravedad y patógenos; y hay desacuerdo sobre el tratamiento empírico inicial. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la etiología, las características clínicas y la evolución de la NACS en un hospital general. Estudio prospectivo observacional con 60 pacientes; 32 con internación previa en los últimos 90 días, 9 en hemodiálisis, 12 residentes en hogares asistenciales y 7 en tratamiento en un hospital de día. El promedio de edad fue de 63 años; los índices de gravedad al ingreso fueron elevados. Las comorbilidades más frecuentes fueron las cardiológicas. El compromiso radiológico abarcó más de un lóbulo en el 42% de los casos y un 18% mostró derrame pleural. Se aisló el germen patógeno en 18 pacientes (30%; Streptococcus pneumoniae fue el más aislado (9 casos. Solo hubo un caso de multirresistencia. La estadía hospitalaria promedio fue de 11 días; 6 pacientes presentaron complicaciones, y la mortalidad fue del 5%. Las complicaciones, aunque no la mortalidad, fueron significativamente mayores en el grupo en diálisis (valor de p: 0.011 y 0.056, respectivamente. Los cuadros fueron graves pero la mortalidad fue baja. La resistencia antibiótica hallada no justifica un cambio en el esquema antibiótico usado habitualmente en las neumonías de la comunidad.

  19. Kant à la Davidson: Maximen als Proeinstellungen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Petersen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Was sind Maximen gemäß Kants Moralphilosophie? Diese Frage entsteht, da Kant zwar eine Explikation von ‚Maxime‘ als ‚subjektives Prinzip des Wollens‘ angibt, diese Explikation aber selbst wieder sehr dunkel bleibt und schwer verständlich ist. Zur Beantwortung dieser Frage werde ich in einem ersten Teil versuchen, plausible Kandidaten dafür zu ermitteln, was unter Maximen zu verstehen ist. Dabei wird sich zeigen, dass Kandidaten, die aus Davidsons Handlungstheorie stammen, sehr geeignete Kandidaten sind. In einem zweiten Teil sollen diese Kandidaten dann ‚auf Herz und Nieren‘ geprüft werden. Dazu werde ich in Anlehnung an Rüdiger Bittner diskutieren, ob die Kandidaten, die sich im ersten Teil als die plausibelsten erweisen, gewisse Grundanforderungen an Maximen erfüllen (An die auf der Annahme, Maximen seien die hier favorisierten Kandidaten, beruhende Maximenkonzeption gibt es folgende zwei Grundanforderungen: erstens die Möglichkeit der Explikation, was es heißt, dass eine Maxime vorliegt, auch wenn ihr nicht gefolgt wird, zweitens die Möglichkeit der Unterscheidung zwischen dem Befolgen einer Maxime und dem Handeln lediglich gemäß einer Maxime. Und ich werde mich dazu ferner der Frage widmen, ob bestimmte Kritiken, die an – nicht identischen, aber – ähnlichen Kandidaten für Maximen vorgebracht wurden, auch für die hier präsentierten Kandidaten einschlägig sind. Schließlich werde ich in diesem zweiten Teil noch gewisse Schwächen der von mir favorisierten Maximenkonzeptionen erläutern, die man unabhängig von Bittners Kritikpunkten konstatieren könnte.

  20. Mul??a?ah ‘Ammah ‘an al-Kutub al-?afr? f? al-Ma‘?hid al-D?n?yah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affandi Mochtar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Islamic intellectual tradition in Indonesia, among others, enriched by literature dars (textbooks that classical Arabic is still maintained boarding school until today. Literature known as the Kitab Kuning (KK it marks an important phase that arises from contact archipelago-Middle East more intensive and institutionalized in the scientific world of Islam in Indonesia since the early 16th century until the late 18th century. Until now in the Islamic tradition, the books became major elements that distinguish it from the modern education system. He is transmitted from one generation to the next as if not to appreciate the development and changes in society. But the question; justified in boarding schools of Islamic scholarship so static? If not, why KK used as the main reference for generations? Is not Islam supposed al-Quran and al-Hadith which they referenced?Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v3i2.809

  1. Ozone as air pollutant; Ozon als Luftschadstoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englert, N. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Ozone is a natural component in the air. However, its concentration is increased due to anthropogenic activities. Being a strong oxidant of low water solubility, ozone can penetrate deeply into the respiratory tract where it acts as an irritant. Increased concentrations of ozone result in impaired lung function values, in an increase in asthma attacks, and presumably in hospital admissions due to respiratory effects, too. Associations with increased daily mortality as well as with carcinogenicity and premature ageing of the lungs are under discussion. Groups at special risk are all persons exercising or working outdoors with increased ventilation; old persons don't seem to be a risk group. Ozone concentrations often exceed health-related guideline values. Legally binding limit values are problematic in the case of secondary pollutants like ozone. (orig.) [German] Ozon ist ein natuerlicher Bestandteil der Luft, dessen Konzentration durch anthropogene Aktivitaeten deutlich erhoeht ist. Als starkes Oxidationsmittel reizt es die Atemwege, in die es wegen seiner geringen Wasserloeslichkeit tief eindringen kann. Erhoehte Ozon-Konzentrationen fuehren zu einer Verschlechterung der Lungenfunktionswerte und zu einer Zunahme von Asthmaanfaellen und vermutlich auch von Krankenhausaufnahmen wegen Atemwegserkrankungen. Ob auch die taegliche Mortalitaet bei hohen Ozonbelastungen ansteigt, ist umstritten, ebenso wie eine moegliche krebserzeugende Wirkung und ein 'vorzeitiges Altern' der Lunge. Als Risikogruppen koennen alle Personen gelten, die ueber laengere Zeitraeume koerperlich anstrengende Taetigkeiten im Freien ausueben, Senioren gehoeren nicht dazu. Gesundheitsbezogene Richtlinie fuer Ozon werden haeufig ueberschritten. Rechtsverbindliche Grenzwerte sind fuer sekundaere Schadstoffe wie Ozon problematisch. (orig.)

  2. Aproximación psicológica al comportamiento de automedicación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Díaz-Caycedo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available La automedicación es un fenómeno global creciente que tradicionalmente se ha definido como la acción individual de consumir un medicamento o seguir un tratamiento sin prescripción médica. Sin embargo, esta visión se ha quedado corta ante las manifestaciones contemporáneas del fenómeno que van más allá del autocuidado y se asocia cada vez más al consumo masivo de medicamentos inducido por la publicidad. En ese sentido, este artículo presenta las definiciones y las teorías explicativas de la automedicación ofrecidas por la literatura científica, especialmente aquellas que enfatizan en la dimensión del autocuidado (por ejemplo, el concepto de la Zoofarmacognosia y desarrolla una nueva hipótesis sobre la automedicación, como comportamiento individual de consumo, explicada por un posicionamiento cognitivo causal simple acerca de la acción de los medicamentos, facilitado por la publicidad y el mercadeo de estos. Se concluye al mostrar la importancia de contrarrestar el efecto de la publicidad mediante la educación del consumidor acerca del riesgo que implica la complejidad de la automedicación a partir de la acción de los medicamentos en el organismo.

  3. Modeling extrusion of particulate Al matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanical forming, notably at high temperatures to minimize cracking and particle-matrix degradation, of particulate Al matrix composites prepared by liquid metal mixing is an effective, rapid and inexpensive means of final fabrication into components. A hot torsion project on alloys and composites of 6061, A356, 7075 and 2618 with 10 to 20% of Al2O3 or SiC determined hot strength and ductility, constitutive constants and microstructural evolution. The modeling of extrusion of the various particulate metal matrix composites was conducted by DEFORM finite element analysis to develop strain rate, stress and temperature distributions through the peak load and into steady state following development of the hot zone. The relative load-stroke curves for these materials were determined for several billet temperatures, extrusion ratios and ram speeds. The extrudability was estimated on the basis of load, ductility and microstructure developed. The last is estimated from the torsion substructure which is very heterogeneous exhibiting regions of (i) subgrains (less recovered than the bulk alloy), (ii) non-cellular dense clouds of dislocations, and (iii) small highly misoriented cells potentially dynamic recrystallization nuclei which did not grow. (author)

  4. Estrategia, Orientación al Mercado y Desempeño Organizacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Berenice Ynzunza Cortés

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La pequeña industria desempeña una función crucial en la economía y el desarrollo de los países. De acuerdo con datos del Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía [1], la PYME en México representa el 99.1% de la estructura empresarial. Sin embargo, el nivel de desarrollo alcanzado, producto de la globalización, ha sido bajo en comparación a otros países. Por ello, dentro de los objetivos de investigación planteados en este trabajo están el analizar el impacto que las fuerzas de mercado tienen sobre las estrategias competitivas prospectoras y analizadoras; y determinar el vínculo existente entre las capacidades de orientación al mercado, la estrategia competitiva y el desempeño organizacional, en 116 Pymes del sector industrial del Estado de Querétaro, mediante un modelo estructural con un muestreo de conveniencia no probabilístico. Los resultados indican que las fuerzas del mercado afectan las estrategias competitivas prospectoras y analizadoras y que éstas favorecen la creación de las capacidades necesarias para generar una ventaja competitiva como la orientación al mercado, encontrándose que ésta capacidad organizacional es un factor importante para el crecimiento y el desempeño organizacional.

  5. Seminoma: puesta al día / Seminoma: an update

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    B., Álvarez Moratinos; S., Angulo Acosta; J., Barrio Cortes; G., García González; A., Domínguez Gordillo; J.C., Alpuente Román; A., Moreno Reyes; JA., Cabrera Cabrera.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Revisar y actualizar los aspectos epidemiológicos, factores de riesgo (con especial atención a los aspectos genéticos e inmunohistoquímicos), diagnósticos y terapéuticos del seminoma. Material y Métodos: Se ha realizado una revisión de la literatura en la base de datos PUBMED, utilizando [...] la palabra clave principal »seminoma», y los subtítulos (subheadings) «diagnóstico», «epidemiologia», «etiología», «genética, «mortalidad» y «tratamiento», sin restricciones en cuanto al tipo de estudio, seleccionando aquellos artículos considerados de interés para una revisión. La información se ha completado con otras fuentes bibliográficas como guías clínicas de referencia, registros de cáncer y tratados de Oncología y Urología. Se ha restringido la búsqueda a artículos en inglés o castellano. Así mismo se ha utilizado el Programa de Vigilancia, Epidemiología y Resultados Finales del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (SEER) para obtener datos de incidencia y mortalidad de cáncer en los Estados Unidos, y de GLOBOCAN para los datos referentes a otros 184 países del mundo. Resultados: Se han revisado un total de 3.131 artículos, con un periodo de búsqueda objeto de la revisión comprendido entre el 1 de enero de 1990 y el 31 de marzo del 2012, incluyendo un total de 51 revisiones sobre la epidemiología del tumor, 23 sobre los factores de riesgo genético, 66 revisiones sobre los distintos aspectos del diagnóstico y tratamiento, un estudio prospectivo y tres estudios randomizados, incluyéndose así mismo las directrices de 3 Guías Clínicas. Conclusiones: El tumor de células germinativas del testículo (TCGT) supone el tumor sólido más frecuente en los varones entre los 20 y 34 años, representando, el seminoma, entre el 40 y el 50% de todos ellos. Los factores de riesgo son múltiples, congénitos y adquiridos, destacándose entre ellos la predisposición familiar y bilateralidad, la criptorquidia y la acción de determinados agentes carcinógenos químicos considerados como disruptores endocrinos, que podrían favorecer el desarrollo de estos tumores. El aumento del volumen testicular y la palpación de un nódulo duro, doloroso o no, y de tamaño variable es el síntoma más frecuente de presentación. En el diagnóstico juega un importante papel la ecografía testicular y los marcadores tumorales AFP y ?-hCG, sustancias onco-fetales que, además, son muy útiles en la estadificación y monitoreo de la respuesta al tratamiento. Actualmente se disponen de tres sistemas de estadificación de estos tumores que, utilizados de manera conjunta, permiten al equipo multidisciplinar realizar un tratamiento adaptado al riesgo, alcanzándose tasas de supervivencia específica superiores al 98% a los 5 años. El tratamiento del seminoma en el estadio I es la orquiectomía radical como primer gesto terapéutico, existiendo algunas discrepancias sobre el tratamiento adyuvante. Actualmente se consideran tres opciones: la vigilancia, la quimioterapia basada en derivados del platino y la radioterapia. Para los estadios II y III, las opciones tras la cirugía radical son la radioterapia con o sin quimioterapia. Abstract in english Objectives: To review and update the epidemiological aspects, risk factors (mainly genetic and immunohistochemical aspects), diagnosis and treatment of the seminoma. Material and Methods: A literature review has been carried out, using the keyword «seminoma» and the subheadings «diagnosis», «epidemi [...] ology», «etiology», «genetics», «mortality» and «treatment» without restrictions on types of study, selecting those articles considered of interest for a review. Information has been completed with other bibliographic references as clinical guidelines, cancer registries and Oncology and Urology texts. The search was limited to articles in English and Spanish. The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program (SEER) has also been used to obtain data on cancer incidence and mortality in the US, while GLOBOCAN was utilized to

  6. „Der Islam begann als Fremder und als Fremder wird er wiederkehren“

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riexinger, Martin Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Mu?ammad b. ?Abd al-Wahh?b embeds in his Mukhta?ar s?rat al-ras?l the biography of Mu?ammad in an overarching vision of history that begins with Adam and ends in the Mongol period. In this cyclical concept the promulgation of Islam is followed by a relapse into shirk due to misdirected piety. But whereas until the time of Mu?ammad God himself reinstalled Islam with the help of prophets and miracles, the true Muslims are obliged to fight aberrations themselves. The paradigmatic example for this i...

  7. Molar Volume Modeling of Ti-Al-Nb and Ti-Al-Mo Ternary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Chuan; Cao, Weisheng; Chen, Shuanglin; Zhang, Fan; Park, Joon Sik; Yi, Seonghoon

    2015-08-01

    Molar volume modeling was performed for both Ti-Al-Nb and Ti-Al-Mo ternary systems based on the thermodynamic modeling of these two systems. Comparison between the calculated phase equilibria and the experimental data proved the accuracy of thermodynamic modeling. With the calculated density contour curves superimposed on the equilibrium phase diagram, it provides a map for alloy developers to identify the promising alloy compositions that satisfy both the phase stability and density requirements and rule out those that fail to meet the requirements.

  8. UNDERSTANDING THE MULTIDIMENSIONAL ISLAMIC FAITH THROUGH ‘ABD AL-GHANI AL-NABULUSI’S MYSTICAL PHILOSOPHY

    OpenAIRE

    Naoki Yamamoto

    2013-01-01

    This paper tries to present a new perspective on Islamic faith and Muslim identity to Muslim minorities who are challenged in practicing or following Islamic law in non-Islamic countries or non-Muslims in the contemporary world. It will uncover the multidimensional perspective of the concept of faith based on sin (dhanb) and repentance (tawbah) through the mystical philosophy of a Syrian scholar, Abd al-Ghani al-Nabulusi (d. 1143/1741) of the 18th century Ottoman Damascus who contributed to t...

  9. Oxidation resistance of TiAl improved by a CoCrAl coating

    OpenAIRE

    Taniguchi, Shigeji; Shibata, Toshio; Asanuma, Naoyuki; Luo, Hanyi; Wang, Fuhui; Wu, Weitao

    1993-01-01

    The oxidation behavior of TiAl coupons coated with a fine-grained Co-30Cr-4Al (mass %) layer of about 30 µm thickness was studied at 1100-1400 K in a flow of purified oxygen at atmospheric pressure for up to 500 ks. Three oxidation stages were recognized: initial transient, parabolic, and acceleration stages. However, at 1100 K a parabolic stage continues for more than 800 ks. The parabolic rate constants agree well with the reported values for alumina-former alloys. Voids are developed mainl...

  10. Die Verbindung von Recht und Soziologie als Chimäre

    OpenAIRE

    Estermann, Josef

    2010-01-01

    Die Soziologie des Rechts stand bei der Konstitution der Soziologie als Disziplin durch Weber, Durkheim oder Spencer durchaus im wissenschaftlichen Fokus. Die Verbindung beider Disziplinen erschien aber seit den siebziger Jahren des vergangenen Jahrhunderts eher als problembelastet, da die Soziologie durch die juristische Disziplin teilweise als „überkritisch“ oder „juristenfeindlich“ wahrgenommen wurde, sobald sie sich mit etwas anderem als der bloßen Beschaffung von Grundlagenwissen für die...

  11. Thermodynamic stability of Co–Al–W L12??

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Co-based superalloys in the Co–Al–W system exhibit coherent L12 Co3(Al,W) ?? precipitates in an face-centered cubic Co ? matrix, analogous to Ni3Al in Ni-based systems. Unlike Ni3Al, however, experimental observations of Co3(Al,W) suggest that it is not a stable phase at 1173 K. Here, we perform an extensive series of density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the ?? Co3(Al,W) phase stability, including point defect energetics and finite-temperature contributions. We first confirm and extend previous DFT calculations of the metastability of L12 Co3(Al0.5W0.5) ?? at 0 K with respect to hexagonal close-packed Co, B2 CoAl and D019 Co3W using the special quasi-random structure (SQS) approach to describe the Al/W solid solution, employing several exchange/correlation functionals, structures with varying degrees of disorder, and newly developed larger SQSs. We expand the validity of this conclusion by considering the formation of antisite and vacancy point defects, predicting defect formation energies similar in magnitude to Ni3Al. However, in contrast to the Ni3Al system, we find that substituting Co on Al sites is thermodynamically favorable at 0 K, consistent with experimental observation of Co excess and Al deficiency in ?? with respect to the Co3(Al0.5W0.5) composition. Lastly, we consider vibrational, electronic and magnetic contributions to the free energy, finding that they promote the stability of ??, making the phase thermodynamically competitive with the convex hull at elevated temperature. Surprisingly, this is due to the relatively small finite-temperature contributions of one of the ?? decomposition products, B2 CoAl, effectively destabilizing the Co, CoAl and Co3W three-phase mixture, thus stabilizing the ?? phase

  12. Aluminum metabolism studied by 26Al tracer using AMS technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), we studied aluminum metabolism using 26Al as a tracer. To investigate the role of aluminum toxicity in the etiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Alzheimer's disease, aluminum incorporation into the rat cerebrum was studied. When healthy rats were injected intraperitoneally with 26Al, a considerable amount of the tracer was incorporated into the brain within only 5 days after the injection. This 26Al accumulation was apparently irreversible, since it persisted even after 75 days. (author)

  13. ACOUSTIC EMISSION DURING DEFORMATION OF Al-Li ALLOYS

    OpenAIRE

    Furukawa, M; Miura, Y; Nemoto, M.

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between tensile elongation and acoustic emission (AE) detected during compressive deformation of Al-Li and Al-Li-Zr alloys has been investigated for a range of microstructure. For comparison, AE measurements have been carried out for Al-Cu and commercial 7050 alloys. In the polycrystalline binary Al-Li alloys, the most pronounced AE was detected in the underaged condition during the onset of plastic deformation. The AE increased with increasing Li content, attained a maximum ...

  14. Jihadhybriden: Fra hellig oprørskamp til toneangivende al-Qaeda-filial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestenskov, David

    2015-01-01

    I Jihadhybriden: Fra hellig oprørskamp til toneangivende al-Qaeda- filial sporres oprindelsen tilbage til den sovjetiske intervention i Afghanistan og udviklingen mellem direkte -og indirekte jihad personificeret ved henholdsvis ISIS’s idegrundlægger Abu Musab al-Zarqawi og den tidligere al-Qaeda-leder Osama Bin Laden. Kapitlet beskriver, hvorledes den nuværende bevægelse og organisation har udviklet sig til en såkaldt jihadhybrid på baggrund af dels den mujahedinske frihedskamp i 1980ernes Afghanistan, dels al-Qaedas internationale og antivestlige strategi.

  15. Lamellar orientation control in directionally solidified TiAl intermetallics

    OpenAIRE

    Su Yanqing; Liu Tong; Li Xinzhong

    2014-01-01

    TiAl-based alloys are potentially used as high-temperature structural materials with a high specific strength in the range of ~ 900 °C. However, the mechanical properties of TiAl-based alloys are extremely anisotropic with respect to the lamellar orientation of the microstructures. A balance combination of room-temperature ductility and strength can be achieved when the lamellar orientation are aligned parallel to the tensile stress direction. Lamellar orientation control of TiAl-based al...

  16. Effect of Al Doping on Optical Band Gap Energy of Al-TiO2 Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yo-Seung; Kim, Bae-Yeon; Cho, Nam-Ihn; Lee, Deuk Yong

    2015-07-01

    Al-TiO2 thin films were prepared using a sol-gel derived spin coating by varying the Al/Ti molar ratio from 0 to 0.73 to investigate the effect of Al doping on the optical band gap energy (Eg) of the films. GAXRD results indicated that Al-TiO2 is composed of anatase and FTO phases when the Al/Ti molar ratio was less than 0.18. Above 0.38, no other peaks except FTO were found and transparency of the films was severely deteriorated. Eg of Al-TiO2 decreased from 3.20 eV to 2.07 eV when the Al/Ti ratio was raised from 0 to 0.38. Eg of 2.59 eV was found for the anatase Al-TiO2 films having the Al/Ti ratio of 0.18. The absorption band of Al-TiO2 coatings shifted dramatically from the UV region to the visible region with increasing the amount of Al dopant. The Al doping was mainly attributed to the optical band gap energy of Al-TiO2. PMID:26373112

  17. Comparison on the interaction of Al3+/nano-Al13 with calf thymus DNA /salmon sperm DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fei; Ma, Yue; Du, Changwen; Yang, Xiaodi; Shen, Renfang

    2015-11-01

    The conformation change, binding mode and binding site between Al3+/nano-Al13 and calf thymus DNA/salmon sperm DNA were investigated by UV-vis absorption, FTIR spectra, Raman spectroscopy and CD spectra, as well as melting curves measurement. The UV-vis spectra and circular dichroism spectra results suggested that the phosphate group structure was changed when Al3+ interacted with DNA, while the double-helix was distorted when nano-Al13 interacted with DNA. The FTIR and Raman spectroscopy revealed that the binding sites were Al3+ … PO2, Al3+ … N7/guanine PO2 … Al13 … N7-C8/guanine with calf thymus DNA, and Al3+ … N3-O2/cytosine, Al3+ … N7-C8/guanine, PO2 … Al13 … N7-C8/guanine, PO2 … Al13 … N1/adenine with salmon sperm DNA, respectively. The electrostatic binding was existed between Al3+ and DNA, and the electrostatic binding and complexing were found between nano-Al13 and DNA.

  18. Effect of Al on the Wetting Behavior Between TiC x and Molten Ti-Al Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuyang; Lv, Xuewei; Dong, Hongbiao; Li, Chunxin; Bai, Chenguang

    2015-10-01

    The wetting behavior and the interfacial reactions between TiC x substrate and molten Ti-Al alloys with different Al contents were studied using the Sessile Drop method at 1758 K (1485 °C) in argon atmosphere. It is found that the wettability and interface reaction products depend on Al content in the molten alloy. The initial contact angles between the molten Ti-Al alloy and TiC0.78 surface reduces from 110 to 80 deg when Al content in the alloy changes from 40 to 80 wt pct. The reduction in the initial contact angle is due to the decrease of surface tension of the molten Ti-Al alloys with increasing Al contents. The segregation of Al atoms to the surface occurred at all bulk concentrations of Ti-Al alloys. Al with lower surface tension tends to segregate on the surface of liquid Ti-Al alloy. In the spreading stage, the interfacial reaction led to the decrease in the contact angle. The adhesion in Ti-Al/TiC x system can be interpreted in terms of strong chemical interactions, which is greatly affected by the diffusion of C. The equilibrium contact angle was measured less than 10 deg. Finally, the reaction sequence at the Ti-Al melt and TiC x substrate interface is proposed.

  19. Intermetallic Co-Al powder for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intermetallic compounds based on the Al-Co system were synthesized by solid state method - mechanical alloying and their properties were investigated using XRD, SEM, and DSC. The powder was used to make new targets of irradiation for gamma sources in order to enhance the specific activity and to reduce the consumption of material. The intermetallic compound AlCo was formed in the first 4 hours of milling. After 8 hours of milling the medium size of crystallites were of 5.58 nm. This value decreases with the increase of milling time up to 3 nm, corresponding to the 28 hours of grinding. There was calculated and plotted the Gibbs function, ?f0, for the reaction of formation AlCo and Al3Co from the Al-Co system. It had negative values over the entire range of temperatures for both investigated compounds. After 28 hours milling a phase composition was obtained as follows: 0.2% Al; 21%Co ; 55.5%AlCo; 23.3% Al13Co4. AlCo 98% has been obtained after a treatment of the powder at 1200 deg. C. The final phase composition of the powder was as follows: 0.2% Al ; 1%Co; 97.5%AlCo;1.3 % Al13Co4 . Determined were the variation of grain size, microtensions II and dislocation density during the milling process. (authors)

  20. Thermally induced structural modification in the Al/Zr multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Qi; Zhang, Zhong; Ma, Shuang; Qi, Runze; Li, Jia [MOE Key Laboratory of Advanced Micro-Structured Materials, Institute of Precision Optical Engineering, Department of Physics, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wang, Zhanshan, E-mail: wangzs@tongji.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Advanced Micro-Structured Materials, Institute of Precision Optical Engineering, Department of Physics, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Jonnard, Philippe; Le Guen, Karine; André, Jean-Michel [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique – Matière Rayonnement, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS UMR 7614, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France)

    2013-08-15

    The effect of increasing temperature on the structural stability and interactions of two kinds of Al/Zr (Al(1%wtSi)/Zr and Al(Pure)/Zr) multilayer mirrors are investigated. All Al/Zr multilayers annealed from 200 °C to 500 °C were deposited on Si wafers by using direct-current magnetron sputtering technology. A detailed and consistent picture of the thermally induced changes in the microstructure is obtained using an array of complementary measurements including grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The first significant structural changes of two systems are observed at 250 °C, characterized by asymmetrical interlayers appearing at interface. At 290 °C, the interface consisting of amorphous Al–Zr alloy is transformed to amorphous Al–Zr alloy and cubic ZrAl{sub 3} in both systems. At 298 °C for Al(1%wtSi)/Zr and 295 °C for Al(Pure)/Zr multilayers, the interfacial phases of Al–Zr alloy transform into polycrystalline mixtures of hcp-ZrAl{sub 2} and cubic-ZrAl{sub 3}, which smooth the interface boundary and lower the surface roughness in the multilayers. Up to 500 °C, the multilayer structure still exists in both systems, and the differences between the asymmetrical interlayers are much larger in the multilayers. Finally, we discuss the transformation from symmetrical to asymmetrical in the annealing process for other multilayer systems.