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Energy consumption cut by more than half; Energieverbrauch mehr als halbiert  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Those who consider all components of compressed-air supply and coordinate them well will be able to generate compressed air in a very energy-efficient way even with strongly varying requirements. Walhalla-Kalk has set up a new central station, which requires less than half the energy previously required for the same amount of compressed air and, consequently, which will pay off quickly. This is due to the modern compressor technology including speed control and superimposed control as well as to the change between refrigeration drying and adsorption drying depending on the season (orig.)

Bracht, Helmut [Atlas Copco Kompressoren und Drucklufttechnik GmbH, Essen (Germany)

2011-07-01

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More than just a converter; Mehr als nur ein Umwandler  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Inverter can convert more than alternating current. With the presented new products at the INTERSOLAR in Munich the manufacturers are responding to the increased demands. [German] Wechselrichter koennen mehr als nur Wechselstrom umwandeln. Mit den auf der INTERSOLAR in Muenchen vorgestellten Produktneuheiten reagieren die Hersteller auf die gestiegenen Anforderungen.

Wilming, Wilhelm

2013-08-06

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Strukturelle Schwächen des transatlantischen Abkommens: TTIP gefährdet weit mehr als den Verbraucherschutz  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In der Diskussion um das geplante transatlantische Handels- und Investitionsabkommen TTIP dominieren bislang Fragen des Verbraucherschutzes. Dies überrascht, denn mit dem Abkommen steht sehr viel mehr auf dem Spiel. Zum einen gefährden TTIP und ähnliche Großprojekte die Zukunft der multilateralen Handelsordnung. Zum anderen sind vor Abschluss des Vertrages gravierende Hürden zu überwinden, die bislang nicht einmal erörtert wurden; das gilt etwa für die Frage der zwischenstaatlichen St...

Dieter, Heribert

2014-01-01

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"Mehr Poesie als in zehn Thalbergs" : die Pianistin Marie Pleyel (1811-1875)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Die Pianistin Marie Pleyel musste erst neu von der Forschung entdeckt werden. Dies unterscheidet sie sehr von ihrer deutschen Antipodin Clara Schumann geb. Wieck. Auch die gebürtige Pariserin Pleyel wird international als Pianistin gefeiert. Auch sie bekleidet später eine Hochschulstelle (in Brüssel), auch sie tritt als Komponistin hervor. - Die vorliegende Arbeit schließt damit eine wichtige Lücke und zeigt, dass die Entdeckungen bei der Geschichtsschreibung der Frauenmusikkultur noch l...

Kip, Jenny

2010-01-01

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TTIP: Mehr als Handelsliberalisierung  

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Seit über einem Jahr verhandeln die EU und die USA über das größte Freihandelsabkommen der Geschichte – die beiden Regionen stehen für rund ein Drittel des Welthandels. Von der Transatlantischen Handels- und Investitionspartnerschaft (TTIP) wird die deutsche Wirtschaft aufgrund ihres hohen Offenheitsgrads erheblich profitieren. Für die deutsche Exportindustrie sind die USA weltweit Exportziel Nummer zwei - rund 8 Prozent der deutschen Warenexporte werden für den US-Markt hergestellt....

Kolev, Galina

2014-01-01

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Die Korb-Bienenzucht : eine kurze und deutliche Anweisung, die Bienen in Strohkörben naturgemäß und vortheilhaft zu behandeln, alle Arten von Strohstöcken sowol für ein Volk, als auch für mehr Völker, mit ganz besonderer Berücksichtigung der ....  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Achtung. Seite 17 fehlt (beim Scannen übersehen)!!! Vollst. Titel: Die Korb-Bienenzucht : eine kurze und deutliche Anweisung, die Bienen in Strohkörben naturgemäß und vortheilhaft zu behandeln, alle Arten von Strohstöcken sowol für ein Volk, als auch für mehr Völker, mit ganz besonderer Berücksichtigung der Dzierzonschen Methode, anzufertigen und die Bienenkolonien auf einfache, fast kunstlose und doch sichere Weise mit Erfolg zu vermehren ; nebst kurzen Andeutungen der Beschäftigun...

Rothe, Friedrich Otto

2006-01-01

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Open Government ist mehr als Open Data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Die digitale Revolution verändert Arbeitsweisen und Erwartungshaltungen. Diese Veränderungen sind auch für das politisch administrative System relevant: Die Öffentlichkeit möchte sich zunehmend einbringen und sucht nach neuen Wegen der politischen Teilhabe. Politische und administrative Entscheider reagieren durch die Entscheidung, sich ihrer Umwelt sowie nach innen zunehmend öffnen zu wollen. Diese Öffnung wird unter dem Schlagwort "Open Government" (deutsch: Offenes Regierungs- und V...

Mu?ller, Lena-sophie; Klessmann, Jens

2012-01-01

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Muttersprache im Fremdsprachenunterricht - mehr als ein Ausweichmanöver?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article deals with the role of the native language in a foreign language class. The practical aspects of moderate native language usage are discussed. Using concrete examples, the author discusses the positive influence of a native language on communication during foreign language class.

Ciepielewska, Luiza

2008-01-01

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Milieuspezifische Einflussfaktoren auf die Entscheidung als Vater Teilzeit zu arbeiten  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"Immer mehr Väter wollen nicht mehr dem traditionellen Männlichkeitsmuster nacheifern, das sie ausschließlich als Ernährer sieht. Die neue Aufmerksamkeit für aktive Väter deutet darauf hin, dass mehr und mehr Männer bereit sind, nach Möglichkeiten zu suchen, Beruf und Familie zu vereinbaren. Für diese Männer kann Teilzeitarbeit eine Alternative sein. Welche Einflussfaktoren wirken auf Väter, wenn diese sich entscheiden, Teilzeit zu arbeiten? Mit Sicherheit ist es nicht ein einzelne...

Buschmeyer, Anna

2006-01-01

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IPSAS in der Praxisanwendung - mehr Richtlinie als Standard?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Die International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS) wurden in erster Linie entwickelt, um die Qualität der Rechnungslegung international zu verbessern. Dass sie auch bei entwickelten Ländern einen wichtigen Ein-flussfaktor darstellen könnten, war zu Beginn unklar - am Beispiel der Schweiz zeigt sich jedoch, dass dem durchaus so ist. Voraussetzung sind jedoch zwei Dinge: Erstens braucht es ein entsprechendes Window of Opportunity für die Einführung, und zweitens müssen die IPSAS...

Kuno Schedler; Bernhard Knechtenhofer

2007-01-01

11

Headaches. More than just sinusitis; Kopfschmerzen. Mehr als nur Sinusitis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Headaches are among the commonest somatic complaints seen in clinical practice. The International Headache Society differentiates about 190 types of headaches. This article focuses on the variety of secondary headaches with a radiologically identifiable cause. (orig.)

Knauth, Michael [Universitaetsklinikum Goettingen (Germany). Abt. Neuroradiologie

2011-09-15

12

More solar power than grid capacity; Mehr Sonne als Netz  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

By 2020, photovoltaic systems may produce as much as 50 GW of electric power for the German power transmission grids. However, problems with solar power in low-capacity grids are common even today. Scientists and engineers are searching for solutions.

Rentzing, Sascha

2011-02-15

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Being in the Internet - more than just being ''cool''? e-business and its strategic importance in the utility and energy services industry; Praesenz im Internet - mehr als eine Imagefrage? Die strategische Bedeutung des e-business fuer die Versorgungs- und Energiewirtschaft  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Internet and related technologies belong into the daily life of supply and energy industry especially in the business to business sector. But the installation of a colourful homepage is not enough if one wants to remain competitive in the deregulated markets. The strategic implementation of e-business not only in relation to customers but also to optimisation of internal processes is a major success factor. The present article sheds light into these aspects and shows which enterprises especially in the USA have made e-business become a reality. (orig.) [German] Das Internet und verwandte Technologien gehoeren auch in der Versorgungs- und Energiewirtschaft laengst zum Alltag, vor allem im Geschaeftskundenbereich. Mit der Einrichtung einer bunten Homepage ist aber es laengst nicht mehr getan, will man in den deregulierten Maerkten wettbewerbsfaehig bleiben. Der strategische Einsatz von e-business zur Verbesserung von Kundenbeziehungen, aber auch zur Optimierung interner Prozesse ist vielmehr ein entscheidender Erfolgsfaktor geworden. Die Verfasser erlaeutern diese Gesichtspunkte und zeigen auf, welche Unternehmen vor allem in den USA bereits e-business zur Realitaet gemacht haben. (orig.)

Greisinger, T.W. [IBM Global Utility and Energy Services Industry, Oak Brook, IL (United States); Moehl, W. [IBM Deutschland, Mainz (Germany). Vertriebsbereich Versorgungsunternehmen

2000-04-03

14

Use of fuel cells in multi-MW-thermal power plants; Brennstoffzelleneinsatz im Mehr-MW-Heizkraftwerk  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Natural gas fuel cells with phosphoric acid electrolyte today are already used in small series of compact units ranging up to 500 kW electric capacity. They thus represent a successful contribution to decentralised power production through cogeneration. Their use in multi-MW thermal power stations is technically possible and, in view of their low emissions and great efficiency, a very attractive alternative. This technology merits intensive development work in order to acquire through practical experience the know-how for bringing costs down to an acceptable level. Manufacturers and operators will need to prepare themselves for modifications regarding the operation and maintenance of these larger plants. The results of a feasibility study for a 1.5 MW thermal power plant presented in this article could come in useful here. (orig.) [Deutsch] Erdgasbetriebene Brennstoffzellen mit Phosphorsaeure-Elektrolyt werden heute bereits in Kleinserien als kompakte Einheiten mit einer elektrischen Leistung von bis zu 500 kW gebaut und mit Erfolg in der dezentralen Energieerzeugung auf Basis der Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung betrieben. Der Einsatz in Mehr-MW-Heizkraftwerken ist ebenfalls moeglich und sollte unter dem Aspekt einer schadstoffarmen und effizienten Energieerzeugung intensiv weiter verfolgt werden, um ueber die gewonnenen Erfahrungen die angestrebten Kostenziele zu erreichen. Technologiebedingt muessen sich Hersteller und Betreiber auf die veraenderten Anforderungen bezueglich Betrieb und Wartung rechtzeitig einstellen. Die nachfolgend vorgestellten Ergebnisse einer Machbarkeitsstudie fuer ein 1,5-MW-Heizkraftwerk koennen dabei hilfreich sein. (orig.)

Lezuo, A. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Knappstein, H. [Thyssengas GmbH, Duisburg (Germany); Langnickel, U. [Gas-, Elektrizitaets- und Wasserwerke Koeln AG (GEW) (Germany); Nymoen, H. [Ruhrgas AG, Essen (Germany)

1995-09-01

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More than 85 per cent. A practice report; Mehr als 85 Prozent. Ein Praxisreport  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Electric House Brenner in Herrenberg achieved with a lithium battery storage facility on sunny days 100 % self-sufficiency. [German] Das Elektrohaus Brenner in Herrenberg erreicht mit einer Lithiumbatterie-Speicheranlage an sonnigen Tagen 100 % Autarkie.

Jakobi, Manuela [Centrosolar AG, Muenchen (Germany)

2013-11-01

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Soil Surface Attributes Prediction Using Digital Topographic Model in Mehr Catchment, Sabzevar, Khorasan Province  

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Full Text Available Conventional soil survey methods for soils within the watersheds in Iran require a significant budget with many soil surveyors and much time. Additionally, no accurate and reliable information exists on the spatial variability of superface soil parameters in order to predict the soil loss by different models (RUSLE, PISAC, EUPOSEM, MORGAN. Also information on planning and management activities is lacking. These limitations call for methods of estimating soil properties using minimum sampling derived from important terrain parameters. This study was performed to develop soil-landscape models in three geological units (E2Sc, Ku, Plc, in a part of Mehr- watershed, Sabzevar. Six soil variables selected for this study were topsoil clay, gravel, sand, organic matter content, field capacity and bulk density measured at 316 sites on a regular 100m grid. Topographic attributes were calculated by a digital elevation model with 100m spacing. Finally, multiple linear regression analyses relating soil to topographic attributes were performed and then models were validated by additional sample points (78 of 316. The developed regression models showed significant relationships between surface soil properties and topographic attributes such as elevation, slope, aspect, wetness index, stream power index and sediment transport index. The mean errors and root mean square errors in the validation of the models were low and acceptable. The regression equations could explain only 26 to 72 % of the variability measured in the soil attributes in the watershed scale with 100m spacing.

Sh. Ayobi

2006-07-01

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Qualitative Evaluation of Land Suitability for Extensive Grazing in Mehr Watershed, Sabzevar, Khorasan Province  

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Full Text Available Overgrazing is the most important agent which causes accelerated soil erosion and land degradation in arid and semi-arid zones of Iran. Appropriate planning and land use in these areas based on land suitability evaluation provide a suitable base for conserving the land and controling desertification. Land evaluation identifies possible alternatives in land use which will more effectively meet national or local needs and assists in assessing the consequences of these alternatives. Extensive grazing refers to the land utilization type in which animals feed in natural pastures. This study was performed to evaluate physical potential of the given watershed for grazing by sheep and goats, and assess the limiting factors for the land utilization type in Mehr watershed, Sabzevar, Khorasan province. Land qualities which were evaluated include accessibility to animals, soil erodibility, moisture availability, rooting conditions, salinity and alkalinity, and drinking water availability for animals. Above mentioned land qualities were assessed by appropriate land characteristics. The requirement of grazing land utilization type was defined in terms of rated land characteristics. Matching of requirements of LUT with the land qualities of each pixel of DEM (prepared in 200×200m by GIS software resulted in a rating for every land characteristics. Some characteristics such as slope, aspect, and distance to drinking water for animals were calculated directly by GIS. Land index for every pixel was calculated by square root method. Finally, qualitative and physical land suitability classes were determined based on land indices and classified to polygons which would be suitable in grazing management. The results were interpreted under two different scenarios. In the first scenario, drinking water for animals was supplied by permanent sources and in the second one, the supplying of water was developed to temporary rivers besides the permanent sources. With the analysis of spatial modeling it was possible to assess the land suitability with higher accuracy. Overall results showed that the given area was not highly suitable for grazing at all. The most limiting factors included moisture availability for plant growth, slope, rock fragment and outcrops and distance to drinking water. Also during the late winter, spring and early summer, when the seasonal rivers were supplying the drinking water, the limitation of given area was decreased.

Sh. Ayoubi

2006-10-01

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Participation rate of housing cooperation members (Mehr and Explication effective factors on it in 1388 at Mashhad city  

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Full Text Available The aim of this research is finding some answers to description of participation rate of housing cooperation members (Mehr in 1388 at Mashhad city and Explication effective factors on it. Theoretical discussions have been illustrated based on four paradigms socialistic: social facts, social definition, social behavior, and complex paradigm. The research method of this investigation based on a survey with sample volume about 380 persons with the help of Cocran formula from statistical society about 36330 members of housing cooperation (Mehr in Mashhad city. The method of sampling was based on random stratified method. The way of data Collection is information on questionnaires. The analysis of data have been implemented with SPSS application software in the frame of average descriptive statistics, Medium, Standard divergence, Kurosis and Skewness coefficients, hypothesis test with the help of appropriate tests to aim and variable assessment levels and using of regression analysis, finally path analysis. Then we assessed these categories and their independent variables such as: Economical disability and incapability to resources, assessment of financial and political supports of the government, lack of enough time for members, confidence to the managers, assuring to the resultant of the project, traditionalism, thankfulness, respect to the media advertisements, education level, mental preparation, responsibility, acknowledgement, satisfaction toward managers, social base, making in real housing, using mass media, alienation on the rate of cooperation members. In conclusion, member’s acknowledgement, using mass media and respecting to media advertisements and confidence to managers had the major and highest Impact on members cooperation.

Mohammadt Mazlome Khorasani

2012-01-01

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Adipositastherapie: Nahrung als Intervention  

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Full Text Available Die Behandlung der Adipositas bedarf einer umfassenden Therapie, wobei die Nahrung als Intervention nicht mehr ausschließlich auf Kalorienreduktion bezogen werden darf. Die ursprüngliche Bedeutung des Begriffes "Diät" im Sinne einer grundlegend vernünftigen Lebensführung muß neu bewertet und in eine lebendige Form der Gesundheitsvorsorge eingebunden werden. Mit einer differenzierten Diagnose der Adipositas kann mit verschiedenen ernährungstherapeutischen Ansätzen individuell geholfen werden. Die Sinnhaftigkeit von Formuladiäten, Diät- und Lightprodukten bedarf dringend einer fachspezifischen Information. Neben den entsprechenden Nährstoffempfehlungen hat ein Ernährungsprogramm aber auch der Durchführbarkeit und der Compliance der Patienten zu genügen. Damit soll dem "Risikofaktor Diät" entgegengesteuert und dem Hilfeschrei unserer Patienten Folge geleistet werden.

Wallner SJ

2001-01-01

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Stenting von Koronarläsionen mit mehr als 40 mm Gesamtlänge mit überlappenden Cypher-Stents - Klinische Erfahrungen bis zu 28 Monate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Das Stenting langstreckiger komplexer Koronarläsionen mit Drug-eluting Stents (DES ist aufgrund der extrem niedrigen Restenoseraten eine zunehmende Herausforderung der interventionellen Kardiologie. Im Gegensatz zum punktuellen Stenting (Spotstenting fokaler hochgradiger Stenosen innerhalb der langstreckigen Läsion mit Bare-metal Stents (BMS scheint heute die komplette Abdeckung der gesamten Läsionslänge mit überlappenden DES die Methode der Wahl. Allerdings geht das Stenting langer Läsionen mit einem höheren prozeduralen Risiko und höheren Restenoseraten einher. Der Operateur ist in der Stentplazierung ("Stent-Delivery" und im optimalen Seitenastmanagement gefordert. Letztlich bleibt gerade beim langen Stenting das nicht gänzlich geklärte Risiko der späten Stentthrombose bestehen. In einer retrospektiven Analyse zeigen wir 33 konsekutive symptomatische Koronarpatienten, die sich im Zeitraum von Jänner 2004 bis April 2006 in unserem Herzkatheterlabor einer PCI unterzogen und bei einer mittleren Läsionslänge von 52,1 mm (41?81 mm mit mehreren überlappenden, Sirolimus-freisetzenden Stents (SES/Cypher-Stents behandelt wurden. Dies war bei allen Patienten technisch gut durchführbar und zeigte im Beobachtungszeitraum sehr gute klinische Früh- und Langzeitergebnisse. Mit Ausnahme eines Patienten, der periinterventionell einen akuten Seitenastverschluß aufwies, war bei allen Patienten ein sehr gutes primäres Interventionsergebnis zu dokumentieren. Im klinischen Follow-up fand sich bei nur einem Patienten nach sieben Monaten eine diffuse Instent-Restenose am intervenierten Hauptgefäß, bei weiteren drei Patienten fand sich eine Seitenast-Restenosierung. Kein Patient erlitt ein schwerwiegendes kardiovaskuläres Ereignis, bei keinem Patienten war eine akute Revaskularisation notwendig.

Wagner R

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
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CCSVI - Ein Erfahrungsbericht: Mehr Fragen als Antworten - mit einem Kommentar aus neurologischer Sicht von W. Lang, Wien  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Obwohl schon seit über 100 Jahren bekannt ist, dass durch nahezu jeden demyelinisierten Herd (Plaque bei Multipler Sklerose (MS ein Blutgefäß läuft, konnte bisher kein kausaler Zusammenhang zwischen einer Erkrankung der zerebralen Venen und MS dargestellt werden. Nach der Beschreibung des Syndroms der chronischen zerebrospinalen venösen Insuffizienz (CCSVI im Jahr 2008 entwickelte sich ein, durch neuen Medien (Google, Facebook, Blogs etc. potenzierter, außergewöhnlich hoher Druck vonseiten zahlreicher Patientengruppen auf Ärzteschaft und Industrie, der hoffnungsgebenden Hypothese einer durch CCSVI bedingten ?venösen MS? nachzugehen. Dieser Bericht soll einen nüchternen Überblick über die fraglich ursächliche Beteiligung der Venen geben, um dem Leser die Möglichkeit zu geben, sich ein eigenes Bild zu machen.

Peloschek P

2011-01-01

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Weniger Engagement bei Jugendlichen, mehr bei den Älteren : Ergebnisse der Freiwilligensurveys 1999, 2004 und 2009  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"Die Qualität einer modernen Gesellschaft bemisst sich unter anderem daran, in welchem Ausmaß Bürgerinnen und Bürger sich an öffentlichen Aktivitäten beteiligen und inwiefern sie sich freiwillig engagieren. Je größer ihre Beteiligung und ihr Engagement, desto gefestigter das 'Zivilgesellschaftliche' als besondere Qualität einer Gesellschaft. Dabei ist es nicht, wie oft behauptet, die Hauptaufgabe der Zivilgesellschaft, soziale Leistungen zu erbringen oder die soziale Integration eine...

Gensicke, Thomas; Geiss, Sabine

2010-01-01

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Körper suchen - Körper wissen - Körper machen : Information als Zeichen einer Metamorphose des Materiellen  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Der vorliegende Artikel beleuchtet die Tatsache, dass die Auseinandersetzungen um den Körper massiver denn je das diskursive Feld beherrschen. Sie konstruieren jedoch ein so hochproduktives Körperwissen, dass dichotome Faktoren wie Freiheit/ Unterdrückung oder Selbstverwirklichung/ Fremdbestimmung einander die Hand geben und somit ein deutlich subtileres Machtgefüge strukturieren. Wesentlich hierbei ist nicht mehr die Konstruktion des Körpers als Einheit, sondern die Produktivität seine...

Borbonus, Valeria

2001-01-01

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Barbara Paul, Johanna Schaffer: Mehr(wert queer – Queer Added (Value. Visuelle Kultur, Kunst und Gender-Politiken – Visual Culture, Art, and Gender Politics. Bielefeld: transcript Verlag 2009.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ‚Mehr Queer‘ lautet die Programmatik der Autor/-innen des Sammelbandes, die sich in ihren Beiträgen mit ästhetischen und politischen Praxen auseinandersetzen, welche die Ordnungsparameter der Binarität und Heterosexualität verunsichern. Der Titel Mehr(wert queer schließt dabei an ökonomische Semantiken an, um die Verwobenheit von symbolischer Kunst und ökonomischen Realitäten in den Blick zu bekommen, aber auch um aktiv an Umdeutungen mitzuwirken. Im Mittelpunkt stehen visuelle Kunst- und Bilderpolitiken, die Normalitätsdiskurse um Sexualität, Geschlecht und Begehren hinterfragen. Die Autor/-innen kommen aus den Kunst- und Kulturwissenschaften, den Medienwissenschaften, der Philosophie, aber auch aus der künstlerischen sowie der kunst- und kulturpolitischen Praxis.“More queer”: this is the program of the authors of this collected volume, who in their essays confront this program with aesthetic and political practice that disrupts the organizational frameworks provided by binary thinking and heterosexuality. The title Mehr(wert queer [Added (value queer] thus picks up on economic semantics in order to bring into focus the entanglement of symbolic art with economic realities, but also to contribute actively to reinterpretation. Central to the study is visual art and image politics, which question normative discourse surrounding sexuality, gender, and desire. The authors come from Art History and Cultural Studies, Media Studies, and Philosophy, but also artistic as well as art and culture political practice.

Julia Jäckel

2010-03-01

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Computed tomography guidance. Fluoroscopy and more; CT-Steuerung. Fluoroskopie und mehr  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging are competitive imaging modalities for the guidance of needle-based interventions, computed tomography (CT) is the only modality suitable for image-guided interventions in all regions of the body, including the lungs and bone. The ongoing technical development of CT involves accelerated image acquisition, significantly improved spatial resolution, CT scanners with an extended gantry diameter, acceleration of the procedure through joystick control of relevant functions of interventional CT by the interventional radiologist and tube current modulation to protect the hands of the examiner and radiosensitive organs of the patient. CT fluoroscopy can be used as a real-time method (the intervention is monitored under continuous CT fluoroscopy) or as a quick check method (repeated acquisitions of individual CT fluoroscopic images after each change of needle or table position). For the two approaches, multislice CT fluoroscopy (MSCTF) technique with wide detectors is particularly useful because even in the case of needle deviation from the center slice the needle tip is simultaneously visualised in the neighboring slices. With the aid of this technique a precise placement of interventional devices is possible even in angled access routes and in the presence of pronounced respiratory organ movements. As the reduction of CT fluoroscopy time significantly reduces radiation exposure for the patient and staff, the combination of a quick check technique and a low milliampere technique with multislice CT fluoroscopy devices is advantageous. (orig.) [German] Obwohl sonographisch und magnetresonanztomographisch gesteuerte Interventionen ernstzunehmende Konkurrenzverfahren sind, kann die Computertomographie als einzige bildgebende Modalitaet zur Steuerung von Interventionen in allen Koerperregionen (einschliesslich Lunge und Knochen) eingesetzt werden. Die technischen Weiterentwicklungen der Computertomographie beinhalten eine beschleunigte Bildakquisition, eine deutlich verbesserte raeumliche Aufloesung, CT-Scanner mit erweiterter Gantryoeffnung, eine Beschleunigung des Eingriffs durch eine intrainterventionelle Steuerung wesentlicher Funktionen des Interventions-CT ueber eine spezielle Bedieneinheit durch den interventionellen Radiologen selbst sowie die Angular Beam Modulation zur Schonung der Hand des Untersuchers und strahlensensibler Organe des Patienten. Die CT-Fluoroskopie (CTF) kann als Echtzeitverfahren (die Intervention wird unter kontinuierlicher CT-Durchleuchtung ueberwacht) oder als Quick-check-Verfahren (wiederholte Aufnahmen einzelner CT-Durchleuchtungsbilder nach jeder Aenderung der Nadel- oder Tischposition) verwendet werden. Fuer die beiden Vorgehensweisen ist insbesondere die Mehrschicht-CT-Fluoroskopie(MSCTF)-Technik mit breiten Detektoren hilfreich, da auch bei Abweichungen aus der Schicht die Nadelspitze in den gleichzeitig akquirierten Nachbarschichten mit abgebildet wird. Mit dieser Technik ist eine millimetergenaue Nadelplatzierung auch bei angulierten Zugangswegen und ausgepraegten atemabhaengigen Bewegungen der Patientenanatomie moeglich. Da eine Verringerung der CT-Durchleuchtungszeit zu einer deutlich reduzierten Strahlenbelastung fuer den Patient und das Personal fuehrt, ist die Kombination der Quick-check-Technik mit einer Low-Milliampere-Technik an MSCTF-faehigen Geraeten zu empfehlen. (orig.)

Paprottka, P.M.; Reiser, M.F.; Trumm, C.G. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Campus Grosshadern, Angiographie und Interventionelle Radiologie, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany); Helmberger, T. [Staedt. Klinikum Muenchen, Klinikum Bogenhausen, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Neuroradiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Muenchen (Germany)

2013-11-15

26

Das Handy als "persönliches Medium" : zur Aneignung des Short Message Service (SMS) durch Jugendliche  

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Das Handy als "persönliches Medium" - Zur Aneignung des Short Message Service (SMS) durch Jugendliche Mit dem Eindringen des mobilen Telefons in den Alltag hat sich, gegen alle Erwartungen, auch eine Form der Nutzung etabliert, die sich nicht mehr allein als Telefonieren ausweisen lässt, selbst wenn sie an telefonischen Nutzungsmodi anknüpft: Das Versenden von kurzen Textbotschaften via Handy über den sogenannten Short Message Service (SMS). Vor diesem Hintergrund wird das Handy als ein...

Ho?flich, Joachim R.

2001-01-01

27

MRI of esophagus. N staging and more...; MRT des Oesophagus. N-Staging und mehr...  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Esophageal disease is common. Fluoroscopy with or without fast cine-sequences is able to depict swallowing dynamics precisely and therefore is used in cases with swallowing disturbance, achalasia or diverticula etc. It is performed in addition to primary endoscopy. There is no evidence based indication for MRI in these settings as it is not to rule out postsurgical fistula and incompetence. Endoscopy and endosonography are gold standard for the depiction as well as staging of esophageal tumors hence differentiation of the esophageal wall layers and detection of suspicious lymph nodes is possible. And from both, biopsies may be taken. New techniques as OCT (optical coherence tomography) can demonstrate in situ carcinoma and therefore helps to decide for limited treatments as mucosectomy. For today multimodular treatment strategies in esophageal carcinoma the T-stage will lead to the treatment decision whereas the nodal-stage will give information about the prognosis. As a matter of fact endoscopy is unable to pass a stenosis esophageal tumor in up to 50% of the cases and will therefore not be able to give precise information on both T- and N-stage resulting in a good indication for MRI. Fetal MRI of the chest is a new topic in which MRI seems to be superior to ultrasonography. (orig.) [German] Erkrankungen des Oesophagus sind haeufig. Die Durchleuchtungsuntersuchung, ggf. mit schnellen Cinesequenzen, vermag exakt die Dynamik des Schluckakts darzustellen und wird regelhaft bei Fragestellungen wie ''Verschlucken'' und ''Globusgefuehl'', Verdacht auf Achalsie etc. sowie bei der Suche nach Divertikeln eingesetzt und ergaenzt die primaere Endoskopie. Die MRT besitzt hier derzeit keinen gesicherten Stellenwert - ebenso wie bei der haeufigsten Indikation zur Oesophagus-Breischluck-Untersuchung in der Klinik, der Frage nach Paravasation und Fistelung nach oesophagogastralen Eingriffen. Die exakten Lokalisation eines Oesophagustumors erfolgt durch die Endoskopie als unangefochtenem Goldstandard, die heute unter Verwendung der Endosonographie nicht nur in der Lage ist, die Wandschichten des Oesophagus darzustellen, sondern auch lokoregionaere Lymphknoten zu detektieren vermag und von beidem, wenn suspekt, auch bioptisches Material gewinnen laesst. Neuere Verfahren wie die OCT (optical coherence tomography) versetzen den Endoskopiker zusaetzlich in die Lage, auch Carcinomata in situ zu erkennen und limitierte Behandlungen wie die Mukosektomie einzusetzen. Bei der heute ueblichen multimodalen Therapie des Oesophaguskarzinoms entscheiden die Lage und das T-Stadium ueber die therapeutische Strategie, das N-Stadium ueber die Prognose. Doch ist der Oesophagus bei der Diagnose ''Oesophaguskarzinom'' in 30-50% der Faelle insbesondere mit dem Endosonographieschallkopf nicht passierbar, sodass hier eine klare Indikation zur MRT besteht. Ein neues Feld stellt die intrauterine Diagnostik des fetalen Thorax und der Oesophagusatresie dar. Hier zeichnet sich eine deutlicher diagnostischer Vorteil gegenueber der Sonographie ab. (orig.)

Krupski-Berdien, G. [Krankenhaus Reinbek St.-Adolf- Stift, Abteilung fuer diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie, Reinbek (Germany)

2007-02-15

28

Mögliche Gründe für eine Unterauslastung der Tiefen Hirnstimulation (THS) als Therapieoption bei Morbus Parkinson: eine repräsentative Umfrage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Das Ziel dieser Studie lag darin zu verstehen warum im Einzugsgebiet der Universitätsklinik Regensburg sich weniger als die zu erwartende Zahl von Parkinsonpatienten nach einer tiefen Hirnstimulation erkundigen bzw. sich einer solchen unterziehen. Anhand dieser Erkenntnisse könnte dann gezielt die Patientenaufklärung und die fachliche Information der zuweisenden Kollegen verbessert werden, um mehr geeigneten Patienten diese lebensqualitätsverbessernde Therapie zu ermöglichen. Daher wurde...

Mauerer, Josef

2014-01-01

29

Mehr Demokratie durch Internet  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Die plötzliche Entwicklung der Information und Kommunikationstechnologien, insbesondere das Internet, hat in allen Bereichen des Lebens eingegriffen. Auswirkungen sind auch sichtbar auf dem Gebiet der Rechtswissenschaft und Demokratie der modernen Gesellschaft. Demokratische Systeme der meisten Länder sind in erster Linie durch die Institutionen der direkten und indirekten Demokratie getan. In dieser Arbeit werde ich mich konzentrieren, wie die Möglichkeiten sind, das Internet mit der Demo...

Penic?, Luka

2012-01-01

30

More safety; Mehr Sicherheit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Which building authority requirements must be fulfilled for solar systems was not clearly defined for a long time. It is certain now that the solar standards are not enough. Mounting systems are already in a special building authority approval process. [German] Welche bauaufsichtlichen Anforderungen Solaranlagen erfuellen muessen, war lange Zeit nicht klar definiert. Sicher ist nun, dass die Solarnormen nicht ausreichen. Montagesysteme befinden sich schon in einem speziellen bauaufsichtlichen Zulassungsprozess.

Meyer, Jens-Peter

2013-06-06

31

Better advertising; Mehr Aussenwirkung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fairs and congresses like the PVSEC are central elements of the communication activities of solar enterprises. This was proved in a current enquiry by SONNE WIND WAERME at the Intersolar Europe. The results are presented in this article in summary form.

Intze, Sonja

2011-08-31

32

More than 1600 EPR kits sold worldwide. The success story of a paper model; Weltweit bereits mehr als 1600 EPR verkauft. Die Erfolgsgeschichte eines Papiermodells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ''old'' PWR convoy paper model of Siemens KWU, which experienced a total run of 125 000, was a success story in its own right. When the contract for construction of an EPR in Finland had been signed, Framatome ANP, an Areva and Siemens company, felt that the time had come to document the success of this reactor line by preparing a new kit. The Olkiluoto 3 Nuclear Power Station was to be immortalized in a cardboard kit. Its more than 3 100 parts on 33 DIN A3 and A4 size sheets make this 1:350 scale kit a very sophisticated set even for demanding modelers. However, even less experienced amateurs may use it with good chances of success, as the model may be built in a number of variants: (1) Basic version: a straightforward architectural model of all buildings without internals. With its approx. 220 parts, this version takes roughly 55 hours to complete. (2) Extended version: This is the basic version augmented by more extensive internals, removable roofs and partly removable components. Its approx. 2 150 parts take some 220 hours of construction time. (3) Maximum version: This is similar to version 2, but has many additional details, such as three-dimensional pipes, perforated steel girders, LP turbine rotors with blades, two detailed emergency power diesel sets, Castor connection carriages with a gantry crane, or fully detailed transformers. This version consists of more than 3 100 parts and can be completed in approx. 320 hours. (orig.)

Anon.

2005-07-01

33

Long-term experience with ventilated plates for more than ten years. An overview; Langfristerfahrung mit hinterluefteten Platten ueber mehr als zehn Jahre. Ein Ueberblick  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors of this contribution report on long-term experiences on ventilated plates under consideration of the following aspects: operation of ventilated plates; documentation of the use of ventilated plates since 1999; pointing out of the different operating conditions; documentation of exchange rates by means of the ascertained data. Finally, the possible influence of the exhaust gas conditions or operation conditions, respectively, on the expected service life of the protection of the pipe wall are discussed on the basis of actual operational experiences.

Moeller, Manfred [Juenger+Graeter GmbH, Schwetzingen (Germany). Sparte Umwelt; Horn, Markus [Juenger+Graeter GmbH, Schwetzingen (Germany)

2013-03-01

34

„Vertrauen ist besser, weil Kontrolle nutzt nix!“ – Safer Internet Aktionsmonat 2011 Mehr als 200 Schulen machen mit: Projekte und Ideen aus österreichischen Schulen  

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Full Text Available Am 8. Februar 2011 fand bereits zum achten Mal der Europäische Safer Internet Day statt. In diesem Jahr waren die österreichischen Aktivitäten rund um den Safer Internet Day erstmals nicht nur auf einen einzelnen Tag konzentriert, sondern verteilt auf einen ganzen Monat. Unter dem EU-weiten Motto „It's more than a game, it's your life!“ hatten Saferinternet.at und das Bundesministerium für Unterricht, Kunst und Kultur eingeladen, eigene Projekte zu starten und vorzustellen.

Barbara Buchegger

2011-03-01

35

We experience more than we comprehend. Quantum physics and quaesions of life; Wir erleben mehr als wir begreifen. Quantenphysik und Lebensfragen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The quantum physics has been arrived by thinking and experimenting to revolutioning knowledges, which determine our world, also if only few have understood these theories in their real sense. The present book follows the question, whether and how far a consciousness trained by quantum physics can reach more directly to the understanding of questions of life and religious questions than a thinking, which is obliged to classical physics. It deals especially with fundamental existential questions: The theme of personal responsibility, the value of the indivdual existence, the evaluation of the personal I-you relation. Hans Peter Duerr, a personality with guiding qualities, as they are necessary in the new milennium, is the ideal speech partner for the deimension of this theme. The connections of natural sciences and religion, ecology, and sociological change have always driven the Heisenberg successo. How can we speech about that, which science cannot comprehend?. What means self, identity, responsibilit for the quantum physicist? An exciting meeting.

Duerr, H.P.; Oesterreicher, M.

2007-07-01

36

Mehr als 1500 Jahre homoerotische Literatur auf der Iberischen Halbinsel A Survey of over 1500 Years of Gay and Lesbian Literature in Spain and Portugal  

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Full Text Available Mit diesem Buch wird ein kaum bekanntes Kapitel der spanischen und portugiesischen Literaturgeschichte aufgeschlagen. Es macht die sozialen und kulturellen Veränderungen des Lebens von schwulen und lesbischen Menschen auf der iberischen Halbinsel im Spiegel der Literatur und durch lebendige Autor/-innenportraits deutlich. Dabei werden nicht nur die deutlichen positiven Veränderungen der letzten 30 Jahre thematisiert, sondern eine fesselnde historische Perspektive zahlreicher Facetten homoerotischer Literatur bis zurück in die andalusische Literatur des Mittelalters aufgezeigt.This book tackles a rarely known chapter in Spanish and Portuguese history of literature. The articles in the anthology document the social and cultural changes in gay and lesbian life on the Iberian peninsula as portrayed in literature. The articles do not only talk about the positive changes brought about by the queer liberation movement during the last thirty years, but offer a fascinating historical perspective on queer writing and queer life ranging from medieval Andalusian literature to present day fiction.

Guido Müller

2002-07-01

37

Couragierter agieren und reagieren - Ein Plädoyer fu?r mehr Zivilgesellschaft im Kampf gegen den Rechtsextremismus aus bayrischer Perspektive  

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Full Text Available Als Antwort auf das Attentat gegen den Passauer Polizeipräsidenten Alois Mannichl am 13.12. 2008, bei dem ein rechtsextremistischer Hintergrund vermutet wurde, aber bis heute nicht geklärt werden konnte, verabschiedete der Bayerische Ministerrat am 12. Januar 2009 das Bayerische Handlungskonzept gegen Rechtsextremismus.

Franz Gervasoni

2014-03-01

38

Patrick Ehnis: Väter in Erziehungszeiten. Politische, kulturelle und subjektive Bedingungen für mehr Engagement in der Familie. Sulzbach im Taunus: Ulrike Helmer Verlag 2009.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Patrick Ehnis analysiert die Voraussetzungen für eine stärkere Beteiligung von Vätern an der Kindererziehung. In seiner Beschäftigung mit zwei Best-practice-Beispielen rekonstruiert er die subjektiven Orientierungen der Väter, normative Erwartungen in den Betrieben, individuelle und strukturelle Barrieren sowie konkrete Erfahrungen von und mit Vätern in Elternzeit. Dabei behält er bei der Deutung ein Ziel stets vor Augen: mehr Geschlechtergerechtigkeit. Für die politische und gesellschaftliche Diskussion um die ‚neuen Väter‘ sowie für nachfolgende Forschungen, welche die neuesten familienpolitischen Entwicklungen einbeziehen, bilden die Ergebnisse des Bandes eine höchst fruchtbare Grundlage.Patrick Ehnis analyses the necessary conditions to elicit better participation of fathers in child rearing. On the basis of two best-practice examples, he reconstructs the subjective positions of fathers, the normative expectations of businesses or companies, individual and structural barriers, and concrete experiences of and with fathers during parental leave. Throughout the interpretation he keeps one goal in mind: more gender equality. The conclusions of the volume offer a very fruitful basis for political and social discussions about the “new father” as well as for subsequent studies that take the newest family-political developments into account.

Claudia Zerle

2010-07-01

39

Wie kommt mehr "Familie" in die "Work-Life-Balance"? – Familienorientierung in der medizinischen Aus-, Weiterbildung und Berufstätigkeit [How to add more "Family" to the Work-Life-Balance? – Family Friendliness in Medical Under- and Postgraduate Studies and the Workplace  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available [english] Today universities have to compete for the best brains more than ever before. The issues of reconciliation of work/study and family and the work-life balance have become increasingly important recently in higher education policy development as higher education institutions in the competition for the best minds are already forced to tackle these issues, some of which are still novel to them, as they are faced with demographic change. High dropout rates among students with children, increasing shortages of physicians and high sector emigration and high levels of childlessness among graduates serve as indicators for urgent action towards more family-oriented university and faculty strategies.But how can medical schools, hospitals and (teaching hospitals achieve a family-oriented profile? Which key players, which areas of higher education management are relevant to management and decision-making structures? What exemplary measures for designing family-friendly medical studies and work places offer success?The underrepresentation of women in the next generation of scientists also poses an additional challenge to the development of an innovative higher education policy if it is to be sustainable. Thus strategies promoting the next generation and family orientation are key factors for a future-oriented higher education policy. These factors should therefore be seen as leadership strategies which will introduce measures that will make (redesign the university’s profile. To this end, a holistic approach which will lead to fundamental reforms of higher education structures which are outlined below and illustrated with examples are a prerequisite for successful implementation.[german] Hochschulen stehen mehr denn je im Wettbewerb um kluge Köpfe. Die Themen „Vereinbarkeit von Beruf/Studium und Familie“ und „Work-Life-Balance“ haben daher in der jüngsten hochschulpolitischen Entwicklung an Dynamik und Triebkraft gewonnen: Hochschulen im Wettbewerb um exzellente Köpfe müssen sich schon vor dem Hintergrund des demographischen Wandels diesen für sie zum Teil noch neuen Herausforderungen stellen. Hohe Studienabbruchquoten unter Studierenden mit Kindern, steigender Mediziner(innenmangel und deutliche Abwanderungsraten, hohe Kinderlosigkeit unter Akademiker(innen erscheinen dabei als Indikatoren für einen dringenden Handlungsbedarf hin zu einer familienorientierten Hochschul- und Fakultätsstrategie.Wie aber können medizinische Fakultäten, Kliniken und (Lehr-Krankenhäuser ein familienorientiertes Profil gewinnen? Welche Akteurinnen und Akteure, welche Handlungsfelder des Hochschulmanagements sind für die Leitungs- und Entscheidungsstrukturen relevant? Welche exemplarischen Maßnahmen für eine familiengerechtere Gestaltung des Studien- und Arbeitsortes „Medizin“ könnten Erfolg versprechend sein? Die Unterrepräsentanz von Frauen beim wissenschaftlichen Nachwuchs stellt darüber hinaus eine zusätzliche Herausforderung dar, für die eine innovative Hochschulpolitik weitere Maßnahmen entwickeln sollte, um zukunftsfähig zu sein. Nachwuchsförderungsstrategien und Familienorientierung sind demnach entscheidende Faktoren für eine zukunftsorientierte Hochschulpolitik. Diese Faktoren sollten deshalb als Führungsstrategien begriffen werden, um Maßnahmen einzuleiten, die das Profil der Hochschule dahingehend (umgestalten. Voraussetzung für eine erfolgreiche Implementierung ist dabei ein holistisches Konzept, das zu grundlegenden Reformen der Hochschulstrukturen führt, die im Folgenden skizziert und anhand von Beispielen illustriert werden sollen.

De Ridder, Daniela

2012-04-01

40

Human-Computer-Interaction. Usability Engineering im Bildungskontext  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Moderne Informationstechnologie im Bildungskontext ermöglicht raschen Zugriff auf immer mehr Daten. Mehr Daten heißt aber nicht mehr Information. Mehr Information heißt erst recht nicht mehr Wissen. Während die technische Performanz steigt, stößt die kognitive Performanz der Lernenden rasch an ihre Grenzen. Die zunehmende Informationsflut bei steigender Komplexität der Inhalte lässt daher Benutzbarkeit (Usability) nicht mehr als Zusatznutzen (added value) erscheinen, sondern vielmehr ...

Holzinger, Andreas

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Topiramat als Phasenprophylaktikum - ein Fallbericht  

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Full Text Available Topiramat ist ein neues Antiepileptikum mit einem breiten Wirkspektrum. Aktuelle klinische Studien geben Hinweise darauf, daß Topiramat stimmungsstabilisierende Eigenschaften besitzt und somit effizient in der Behandlung der bipolaren affektiven Störung sein könnte. Vor dem Hintergrund dieser Studienberichte, behandelten wir eine 41jährige, erstmals vor 10 Jahren erkrankte Patientin mit der Diagnose einer therapierefraktären, bipolaren affektiven Störung (Rapid-Cycling mit Topiramat. Im Rahmen ihrer Erkrankung wurde die Patientin insgesamt 12mal stationär aufgenommen und meist aufgrund von akuten manischen Episoden behandelt. Dabei kamen seit 1991 folgende Phasenprophylaktika zur Anwendung: Carbamazepin, Valproat und Lamotrigin ? zuletzt nur mit mäßigem Erfolg. Daraufhin wurde zu Beginn einer neuerlichen manischen Episode ambulant eine Therapie mit Topiramat begonnen. Acht Wochen nach Therapiestart kam die Patientin in stationäre Behandlung. Der Aufenthalt dauerte weniger als drei Wochen; Topiramat wurde von der Patientin gut vertragen. Infolge eines belastenden Lebensereignisses kam es unter kontinuierlicher Therapie mit Topiramat zu einer Destabilisierung des psychischen Zustandsbildes (manische Symptome. Durch eine ambulante Erhöhung der Topiramatdosis bei gleichzeitiger Gabe von Risperidon und Clonazepam konnte jedoch eine neuerliche manische Episode erstmals ambulant behandelt werden. Die Patientin erhält derzeit 200 mg Topiramat pro Tag und ist seit mehr als 20 Monaten nahezu beschwerdefrei.

Letmaier M

2001-01-01

42

Projektdesign als organisatorischer Rahmen des Projektmanagements  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In den letzten Jahren haben Veränderungsgeschwindigkeit und Komplexität der betrieblichen Umwelt drastisch zugenommen. Die Betriebsstrukturen entsprechen den daraus resultierenden Anforderungen oftmals nicht mehr. Häufig sind die bestehenden Organisationen zu fragmentiert und zu hierarchisch strukturiert und damit für interdisziplinäre Zusammenarbeit und rasche Entscheidungen zu schwerfällig. In dieser Situation ist die Abwicklung von Vorhaben mit den etablierten Abläufen kaum mehr zu ...

Horn-vahlefeld, Marc

2012-01-01

43

"Leitbild ist nicht mehr der erwerbstätige, sondern der tätige Mensch.". Ein bildungshistorischer Kommentar zu den Forderungen der Kommission für Zukunftsfragen der Freistaaten Bayern und Sachsen  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Die deutsche Erziehungswissenschaft wird sich den Kontroversen um die politische Symbolik und den dahinter stehenden sozialen Verteilungskonflikten nicht entziehen können. Es wäre gut, wenn sie nicht nur als Interessenvertreterin, sondern auch als Fachdisziplin zu den sie betreffenden Aspekten eingreifen könnte. Als Beitrag dazu soll im folgenden der Kommissionsbericht wie eine bildungshistorische Quelle gelesen und vier Fragen nachgegangen werden: 1. Wer spricht da, von wem beauftragt, ü...

Zymek, Bernd

1998-01-01

44

Der Computer als Applikation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Virtuelle Maschinen geraten immer mehr in den Mittelpunkt des Interesses der Anbieter und Nutzer von IT-Dienstleistungen. Was sind virtuelle Maschinen und wie funktionieren sie? Ist diese Frage beantwortet, folgt gleich die nächste: Lassen sich diese Technologien auch für die Anwendungen im Verwaltungsnetz einsetzen?

Herbst, Roland

2006-01-01

45

AMANDA und DØ als Testumgebung für das LHC Computing Grid  

CERN Document Server

Die in Bau befindlichen Experimente am Large Hadron Collider LHC am CERN bei Genf werden größere Datenmengen produzieren und mehr Rechenzeit benötigen als jedes bisherige Experiment in der Hochenergiephysik. Diese Anforderung werden nur noch mit Hilfe von Grid-Technologien in einem weltweiten Verbund lösbar sein. Mit Hilfe der Dissertation sollen 2 laufende Experimente in die schon jetzt vorhandenen Grid-Initiativen eingebunden werden, um daraus Rückschlüsse auf deren weitere Entwicklung zu ziehen. Die Arbeit beginnt mit einer Einleitung in den physikalischen Rahmen und mit einer Motivation für die Notwendigkeit zur Anwendung neuer Technologien im Bereich des Computings. Danach werden die Experimente vorgestellt und eine Einleitung in das Grid-Computing gegeben. Die folgenden zwei Kapitel befassen sich dann mit der Anwendung von Techniken des Grid-Computings im Rahmen des AMANDA- und des DØ-Experiments. Beide sind laufende Experimente mit aktiver Datennahme. Die Simulationssoftware dieser Experimente...

Harenberg, Torsten

46

Die Rolle des Semantic Web für Bibliotheken: Linked Open Data und mehr: Welche Strategien können hier die Bibliotheken in die Zukunft führen?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Das Semantic Web ist die Vision einer Erweiterung des World Wide Webs, so dass die Daten nicht nur für Menschen leicht verständlich dargestellt werden, sondern auch von Maschinen verwertbar sind. Mit einer entsprechenden Ausgestaltung von Links zwischen einzelnen Webressourcen wäre das Web als riesige, globale Datenbank nutzbar. Darin könnten dann Softwareagenten für uns auch komplexe Fragestellungen und Planungen bearbeiten. In dieser Arbeit soll gezeigt werden, dass jede Bibliothek interessante Daten für das Semantic Web hat und umgekehrt von ihm profitieren kann. Ein Schwerpunkt liegt auf möglichen Anwendungsszenarien mit dem speziellen Fokus beim Bibliothekswesen.

Philipp Zumstein

2012-07-01

47

More planned economy than market economy in the energy policy strategy for 2020 of the European Commission; Mehr Plan- als Marktwirtschaft in der energiepolitischen Strategie 2020 der Europaeischen Kommission  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Europeanization of energy policies is desirable because the three main objectives of energy policy (climate protection, security of supply and competitiveness) have cross-border impacts. Hence, it is good that the European Union has been granted a competence for energy policy in the article 194 of the Lisbon treaty. In addition, it is good that the European Commission has published its long-term strategy to stabilize expectations which is important for infrastructure investment. It is regrettable though that price signals, competition and market principles only play a minor role for the Commission while rather doubtful objectives such as fostering energy efficiency and promoting renewable dominate the agenda. The Commission's strategy is mainly characterized by bureaucratic dirigisme, intense regulation, state planning and public subsidies. The road to a centrally planned energy industry is being walked down fast.

Haucap, Justus; Coenen, Michael

2011-04-15

48

Culture and Healthcare in Medical Education: Migrants' Health and Beyond [Medizin und ethnisch-kulturelle Vielfalt in der medizinischen Ausbildung: "Migrantenmedizin" und mehr  

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Full Text Available [english] One of the main challenges for teaching programs on immigration, ethnic diversity and health is to transform the commonplace notion of “culture” into a helpful tool for medical training and practice. This paper presents the teaching approach of an interdisciplinary course on “migrants’ health” established at the University of Giessen since 2004, which has recently been complemented by a thematically related collaboration with two universities in Latin America (Ecuador, Peru. The overall goal is to translate the abstract philosophy of into medical practice, and to provide students with the insights, attitudes and skills needed for a fruitful use of concepts like “culture”, “ethnicity” and “migration background”. A key feature of the course is the strong commitment to ethnography as an important means for looking under the surface of superficial attributions to culture, and for grasping the interplay of medicine and health with cultural, social, religious, economic and legal aspects in its particular local and/or individual shape. Three elements of the course are presented to illustrate this approach: First, a unit on Islam and Medicine, as important parts of the local immigrant community are Muslims. The second one deals with psychosomatic aspects, because in case of immigrants, complex symptoms and disease representations like somatisation are easily misinterpreted as “cultural”. The third element consists of a unit with specialized social workers form outside the university, who provide direct insights into the living conditions and health problems of local immigrant communities. [german] Eine der zentralen Herausforderungen für Lehrprojekte zum Thema Medizin und ethnisch-kulturelle Vielfalt besteht in der Vermittlung eines angemessenen Konzepts von „Kultur“. Vor allem gilt es, den exklusiven Fokus auf als „fremd“ wahrgenommene Bevölkerungsgruppen und die Gefahr oberflächlicher kulturelle Zuschreibungen zu überwinden. Der vorliegende Beitrag stellt den Ansatz eines interdisziplinären Kurses zur „Migrantenmedizin“ an der Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen vor, der jüngst durch ein Kooperationsprojekt zur Stärkung interkultureller Aspekte in der medizinischen Ausbildung mit zwei lateinamerikanischen Universitäten ergänzt wurde (in Ecuador und Peru. Durch den internationalen Vergleich soll das abstrakte Prinzip „think global and teach local“ für den medizinischen Bereich nutzbar gemacht werden. Gleichzeitig wird die Bedeutung der Ethnographie für eine sinnvolle Verwendung von Begriffen wie „Kultur“, „Ethnizität“ oder „Migrationshintergrund“ auch in der Medizin betont. Als wichtigste Forschungsmethode der Kultur- und Sozialanthropologie vermittelt die Ethnographie differenzierte Einblicke in die jeweils konkrete Ausprägung der komplexen Zusammenhänge zwischen Krankheit, Medizin und „Kultur“ – jenseits von Stereotypien und unter explizitem Einschluss der im Einzelfall relevanten sozialen, religiösen, ökonomischen und rechtlichen, aber auch medizinischen Aspekte. Der Artikel verdeutlicht die Umsetzung dieser Perspektive in der medizinischen Ausbildung exemplarisch anhand von drei Lehreinheiten des Kurses an der JLU Gießen: Ein Modul zum Thema „Islam und Medizin“, eines zu psychosomatischen Aspekten und eine dritte Einheit, in der Sozialarbeiterinnen eines lokalen Migrationsdienstes unmittelbare Einblicke in die reale Lebenswirklichkeit von Migrant/innen vermitteln.

Soydan, Nedim

2010-05-01

49

Der Glaube als Erkenntnisquelle Belief as the source of knowledge  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seit ihrer Kanonisation 1998 und Ernennung zur Mit-Patronin Europas 1999 steht die 1942 in Auschwitz ermordete Phänomenologin Edith Stein, 1922 vom jüdischen zum christlichen Glauben konvertiert und 1933 als Benedicta vom Kreuz in den Kölner Karmel eingetreten, mehr denn je im Blickfeld der Öffentlichkeit. Die Bedeutung ihrer wissenschaftlichen Arbeit u. a. als Assistentin von Edmund Husserl in Freiburg und als Dozentin am Deutschen Institut für wissenschaftliche Pädagogik in Münster, aber auch in privaten Studien wurden im Juli 2000 im Rahmen eines Symposiums des Internationalen Edith Stein Instituts in Würzburg diskutiert. Die Beiträge der vorliegenden Publikation beleuchten breit gefächert Aspekte des Werks und seiner Interpretation mit dem Ziel, die Philosophin neu zu entdecken und die bisherige Forschung zu intensivieren.Since her canonisation and her appointment as Martyr and Co-Patroness of Europe in 1999, Edith Stein has, more than ever, been in the public eye. Murdered in Auschwitz in 1942, the phenomenologist converted from Judaism to Catholicism in 1922 and entered the Carmel of Cologne in 1933 as Teresa Benedicta of the Cross. In July 2000, at a symposium of the International Edith Stein Institute in Wurzburg, the significance of her academic work (among other things as an assistant to Edmund Husserl in Freiburg and as a lecturer at the German Institute for Pedagogy in Munster was discussed. The wide-ranging contributions in this publication highlight aspects of this work and its interpretation with the aim of rediscovering the philosopher and of intensifying research conducted to date.

Andrea Hartwig

2004-03-01

50

More out of less; Mehr aus weniger  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biogas is a flexible energy source which may make an important contribution to the German energy turnaround. However, the increasing land use is criticized by many. The industry is now looking for higher efficiency.

Wiedemann, Karsten

2012-06-15

51

Explosionsfeste Transportbehälter – mehr Sicherheit für das Transportwesen  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Weltweit ist eine Zunahme terroristischer Aktivitäten zu verzeichnen, sodass allgemein damit gerechnet werden muss, dass auch das zivile Verkehrs- und Transportwesen ein bevorzugtes Ziel terroristischer Anschläge darstellt. Mehrfach wurden schon Sprengkörper in Transportmittel des öffentlichen und zivilen Personen- aber auch Güterverkehrs eingeschleust, um die Bevölkerung durch materielle Zerstörung und massive Personenschäden einzuschüchtern und zu beängstigen. Daher ist eine Anpassung der sich derzeit im Einsatz befindlichen Transportbehälter an die geänderten Rahmenbedingungen unerlässlich, um auch den Schutz vor Sprengkörpern, die gemeinsam mit dem Handgepäck in Luft-, Land- und Wasserfahrzeuge eingeschleust werden, zu gewährleisten. The worldwide increase of terrorist activities leads to the assumption that the civilian transportation and traffic system, too, is a preferred target of terrorist attacks. Several times, explosive charges have already been smuggled into means of public transport and also of goods traffic to intimidate and frighten the population through material destruction and massive personal damage. This is why it is necessary to adapt the containers currently used to the changed conditions, to guarantee the protection against explosives that are smuggled into aircrafts, surface vehicles and watercraft with the hand luggage.

Dipl.-Kff. Johanna Haag

2007-04-01

52

Strategien für mehr Arbeit und soziale Gerechtigkeit  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Der Beitrag vom Vorsitzenden des DGB, Dieter Schulte beschäftigt sich mit den politischen und strategischen Konsequenzen der beschäftigungspolitischen Untätigkeit von Politik und Wirtschaft. Jürgen Hoffmann umreißt die gewerkschaftspolitischen Handlungsspielräume unter den Bedingungen von globalisierten Ökonomien, insbesondere im Hinblick auf soziale Gerechtigkeit und ökologische Vernunft. Hans Jürgen Sattler und Walter Siebel thematisieren die sozialen und beschäftigungswirksamen F...

Schulte, Dieter

1997-01-01

53

Mehr Transparenz in der Preisgestaltung ist wünschenswert  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Der Markt der strukturierten Produkte für Privatanleger hat eine eindrückliche Ent-wicklung hinter sich und zeichnet sich heute durch eine grosse Vielfalt an Angeboten aus. Während sich die Produkte bezüglich ihrer Auszahlungsstruktur meist anhand der Term Sheets gut nachvollziehen lassen, sind sie bezüglich ihrer Kosten für die Anleger oft intransparent. Hier sind die Emittenten gefordert. http://www.manuel-ammann.com/pdf/PubsAmmann2006NZZ_StrukProd.pdf

Manuel Ammann

2006-01-01

54

Der (Mehr-)Wert der Wissenschaftskommunikation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In research on scientific communication there are above all theory?less and formal technical/ natural scientific models of scientific communication. These are juxtaposed to social?scientific, power?sensitive models (Elias, Bourdieu, Merton). The (surplus) value of scientific communication can be variously understood: either as inherent surplus values in the sense of potential effects of stimulation, synergy, critique, quality control; or as symbolic surplus value in the sense of symboli...

Fro?hlich, Gerhard

1994-01-01

55

Structure and properties of the intermetallic lightweight alloys TiAl(Cr,Mo,Si) for engine components; Struktur und Eigenschaften der intermetallischen Leichtbaulegierungen TiAl(Cr,Mo,Si) fuer Motorkomponenten  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lightweight construction is a priority in engine construction. Intermetallic {gamma}-Ti-Al base alloys, with a density that is about 50% lower than steel - are particularly well suited for lightweight engine components for high-temperature applications, e.g. valves. [German] Die oekonomische Nutzung fossiler Brennstoffe sowie eine stetige Verringerung der Schadstoff- und Geraeuschemission begruenden den zunehmenden Bedarf an Leichtbauwerkstoffen fuer Energiewandlungssysteme - Verbrennungsmotoren und Triebwerke. Bei der Werkstoffentwicklung fuer Motorkomponenten steht immer mehr die Reduzierung der bewegten Massen und der erforderlichen Bauteilquerschnitte im Vordergrund. Intermetallische {gamma}-Ti-Al-Basislegierungen mit einer im Vergleich zu Stahl um ca. 50% niedrigeren Dichte eignen sich besonders fuer den Leichtbau von thermisch beanspruchten Motorkomponenten wie z.B. von Ventilen. (orig.)

Knippscheer, S.; Frommeyer, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

1999-07-01

56

Efficiency losses at least halved. 2nd generation of CSS technologies; Effizienzeinbussen mindestens halbiert. CCS-Technologien der zweiten Generation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In cooperation with Darmstadt Technical University, Alstom is testing two new processes for CO2 removal from flue gas. Especially the chemical looping process is very promising as it involves an extremely low reduction of the power plant efficiency.

Jopp, Klaus

2011-07-01

57

Chinas "neue" Seidenstraßeninitiative: regionale Nachbarschaft als Kern der chinesischen Außenpolitik unter Xi Jinping  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Der chinesische Staatspräsident Xi Jinping will den Beziehungen seines Landes zu den direkten Nachbarstaaten deutlich mehr Gewicht geben. Im September 2013 hat Xi angekündigt, dass China in Eurasien einen Wirtschaftsgürtel, einen Silk Road Economic Belt, aufbauen will. Diese neue Seidenstraßeninitiative der chinesischen Regierung ist ein Hinweis darauf, dass die Volksrepublik ihre Politiken gegenüber Zentralasien, Westasien, dem Kaukasus und der Schwarzmeerregion konzeptionell nicht mehr...

Godehardt, Nadine

2014-01-01

58

Wortbildungsangaben als Hilfe für den Zugriff auf andere Datentypen und als Hilfe bei kommunikativen und kognitiven Informationsbedürfnissen  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

"Grundsätzlich können unendlich umfangreiche Mengen" von Daten eingespeist werden, schreiben Ulrike Haß und Ulrich Schmitz in der Einleitung zum Themaheft "Lexikographie im Internet" (Lexicographica 26, 2010). Das ist zwar nicht korrekt, da man zwar enorm große Mengen in einer lexikographischen Datenbank erfassen kann, aber sicher nicht unendlich viele. Schwerwiegender ist jedoch der Denkfehler, der daher rührt, dass die beiden Herausgeber den Unterschied zwischen einer Datenbank und einem Wörterbuch nicht beachten: "Je mehr Informationen angeboten werden, desto schwerer wird es dem Nutzer, genau die zu finden, die er braucht." (Haß/Schmitz 2010, 4). Dies gilt nur dann, wenn auch Internetwörterbücher notwendigerweise polyfunktionale Wörterbücher sein sollen, die alle Daten von der lexikographischen Datenbank zeigen, wie es die meisten Papirwörterbücher tun. Entsprechend gilt, dass Bonusangaben eher unnütz sind ("Sind Wörterbücher ausschließlich dazu da, Fragen zu beantworten? Nein, sie sollten auch zu Fragen anregen, solange sie doch auch in irgendeinem Zusammenhang mit Bildung stehen." (Haß/Schmitz 2010, 10)). Man sollte grundsätzlich trennen zwischen der Datenbank und den daraus erstellten Wörterbüchern. Wenn man monofunktionale Wörterbücher konzipiert, verschwindet das Problem vom Informationstress nicht, kann aber größtenteils vermieden werden. Dieses Problem stellt sich in besonderem Masse zu Wortbildungsangaben, die für einige Informationsbedürfnisse wichtig, für andere irrelevant sind, d.h. in einigen Wörterbüchern nützlich sind, in anderen nicht. Prinzipiell gilt, dass Wortbildungsangaben nicht mitgenommen werden sollen für Rezeptionswörterbücher. Auch für Produktionswörterbücher gilt, dass Angaben von allen möglichen Wortbildungen zum Informationsstress führen, dass man stattdessen eine geringe Anzahl der prototypischen Wortbildungen anführen soll (hierzu mehr im Vortrag). Schließlich können sehr reichhaltige Wortbildungsangaben und auch Wortbildungsregeln in vielen Fällen in einem kognitiven Wörterbuchnützlich sein, d.h. in einem Informationswerkzeug, das möglichst viel Wissen bieten will. Wortbildungsdaten in der Datenbank können auch eine andere Funktion erfüllen, und zwar als Zugriffshilfe auf Daten in anderen Wörterbuchartikeln, wenn eine bestimmte Wortbildung nicht lemmatisiert ist. Die morphologischen theoretischen Überlegungen, die metalexikographischen zu monofunktionalen Informationswerkzeugen, sowie Prinzipien des Zugriffs auf Daten mithilfe von Wortbildungsdaten einer Datenbank werden anhand einer Datenbank vorgestellt, aus der insgesamt sechs Wörterbücher herausgezogen werden.

Bergenholtz, Henning

2013-01-01

59

Kinematografische Propaganda und Zensur in Österreich-Ungarn von 1914–1918 als gescheitertes kybernetisches Modell  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available (Medien-Pädagogik, verstanden als Medienverbund zur programmierten "Unterrichtung" einer breiten Masse wurde bereits vor 1914 erfahren. Zweifelsohne kam es jedoch während dem Ersten Weltkrieg zu einer intensiven Orchestrierung der zur Verfügung stehenden Medien. Die angestrebte Volkserziehung kann dabei als kybernetisches Regelkreismodell betrachtet werden. Als ganz spezielles systemimmanentes Instrument, stellte sich dabei das Kino heraus. Anfangs etwas zögerlich, verstand man es mit Verlauf des Krieges auch in der Donaumonarchie, die Möglichkeiten der bewegten Bilder immer umfassender auszunützen. Das Kino sollte als Regler, dem Publikum Führungsgrößen vor Augen führen und das einzelne Individuum gleichzeitig zu einer Art Selbstregulation auffordern. Vorstellungs- und Wertewelten der Menschen sollten homogenisiert werden und das System in dieser Weise stabilisieren. Offenes Feedback war unerwünscht; Grundstimmungen und Diskurse innerhalb der Bevölkerung blieben jedoch nicht unbemerkt und wurden auf der Leinwand bearbeitet, wobei begründete Befürchtungen, Zweifel und Ängste, zu entkräften versucht wurden. Mit fortschreitender Kriegsdauer taten sich Zensur und Propaganda immer schwerer, ein geschöntes Bild der Situation glaubhaft darzustellen. Schließlich vermochte das Flimmern der Leinwände, die Botschaften des Systems nicht mehr zu vermitteln. Das kybernetische Modell der Volkserziehung über Kamera und Leinwand, welches die Gesellschaft militärisch überprägte, Überlegenheit predigte, Gewalt normalisierte und das kriegsbedingte Sterben humanisierte, musste letztlich scheitern. Der vorliegende Artikel soll einen kurzen Einblick in den Aufbau dieses – letztlich gescheiterten – regulativen Werkes der kinematografischen Propaganda und Zensur in Österreich-Ungarn geben, wobei der Fokus auf der dokumentarischen Berichterstattung vom Krieg liegt, die eine vermeintliche Realität repräsentieren sollte.

Paul Winkler

2014-12-01

60

Kritische Mangelperfusion als wichtigster pathophysiologischer Faktor für die Behandlung des ischämischen Insults  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Die Verminderung der Blutversorgung von Arterien des Gehirns als Ursache des Schlaganfalls führt zu plötzlich eintretenden funktionellen Ausfällen, bei längerem Bestehen zu irreversiblen neurologischen und morphologischen Defekten. Für das funktionell gestörte, aber morphologisch noch intakte Gewebe - die Penumbra - besteht die Möglichkeit der Erholung, wenn die Durchblutung innerhalb einer kurzen Zeitspanne - dem therapeutischen Fenster - wieder auf ein ausreichendes Niveau angehoben wird. Die Identifikation von irreversibel geschädigtem ischämischem Gewebe und dessen Differenzierung von der nur funktionell gestörten Penumbra ist für die Einleitung erfolgversprechender therapeutischer Maßnahmen von entscheidender Bedeutung. Dies kann durch funktionelle bildgebende Verfahren erfolgen, wobei der Positronenemissionstomographie (PET zur Quantifizierung von Durchblutung und Energiestoffwechsel und zur Darstellung der Benzodiazepinrezeptoren als Marker der neuronalen Integrität eine besondere wissenschaftliche Bedeutung zukommt. Damit konnten in den ersten Stunden nach Insult mehr als 50 % des endgültigen Infarkts dem bereits irreversibel geschädigten Gewebe und 20 % der Penumbra zugeordnet werden. Nur ein relativ kleiner Anteil - etwa 12 % des endgültigen Infarkts - betraf Gewebe, das in den ersten Stunden ausreichend perfundiert war. Der raschen Reperfusion kommt somit in der Therapie des Schlaganfalls die größte Bedeutung zu, während Maßnahmen, die mit biochemischen, molekularen oder entzündlichen Noxen interferieren sollen, bisher klinisch nicht erfolgreich waren. Die Effizienz der Reperfusionstherapie durch systemische Thrombolyse wurde in kontrollierten Studien unter Beweis gestellt; auch die breitere Anwendung in der klinischen Routinebehandlung ist bei Berücksichtigung der Ein- und Ausschlußkriterien ohne vergrößertes Risiko möglich, wobei die Erfolgsraten mit den Studienergebnissen vergleichbar sind.

Heiss W-D

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

High-performance vacuum tubes for more energy efficiency. Building-integrated CPC vacuum tube collectors unite several functions.; Hochleistungs-Vakuumroehren fuer mehr Energieeffizienz. Gebaeudeintegrierte CPC-Vakuumroehren-Kollektoren vereinen mehrere Funktionen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The performance of solar collectors primarily contributes to increased efficiency and reduced operating costs of solar thermal systems. With the use of building-integrated CPC vacuum tube collectors an extremely high energy yield is achieved on a smaller collector gross area. As a building-integrated system solution the CPC facade provide panels in addition to its use as spandrel panels within the glazed buildings not only an architectural design element, but unite as a multifunctional component for several functions. [German] Die Leistungsfaehigkeit der Solarkollektoren traegt primaer zur Effizienzsteigerung und Reduzierung der Betriebskosten einer Solarthermieanlagen bei. Mit dem Einsatz gebaeudeintegrierter CPC-Vakuumroehrenkollektoren wird auf einer kleineren Kollektorbruttoflaeche ein extrem hoher Energieertrag erreicht. Als gebaeudeintegrierte Systemloesung bieten die CPC-Fassadenkollektoren neben dem Einsatz als Bruestungselemente auch innerhalb der verglasten Gebaeuden nicht nur ein architektonisches Gestaltungselement, sondern vereinen als multifunktionaler Bestandteil noch mehrere Funktionen.

Theiss, Eric

2013-10-15

62

Al Composites  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, cold spraying technique was used to fabricate a metal matrix composite (MMC) that consists of Ni matrix and 20 vol.% Ni3Al particles at two different particle sizes as reinforcement. This study intends to investigate the effect of reinforcement particle size on microstructural and mechanical properties of cold sprayed MMCs. Two different Ni3Al powders with nominal particle size of -45 to +5 and +45 to 100 ?m were used as reinforcement in this study. Cold sprayed Ni-Ni3Al samples were subjected to the microstructural observation and characterization prior to any mechanical testing. Then, samples were tested using nano-indentation, Knoop hardness, Vickers hardness, and Resonance frequency to evaluate their mechanical properties. No significant changes were observed in microstructural characteristics due to different particle sizes. The results obtained from a variety of mechanical testings indicated that the increasing reinforcement particle size resulted in the slight reduction of mechanical properties such as elastic modulus and hardness in cold sprayed MMCs. The mechanical interlock between deposited particles defines the bonding strength in cold sprayed samples. Small size particles have a higher velocity and impact resulting in stronger interlock between deformed particles.

Chandanayaka, Tharaka; Azarmi, Fardad

2014-05-01

63

AL Amyloidosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Definition of the disease AL amyloidosis results from extra-cellular deposition of fibril-forming monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig light chains (LC (most commonly of lambda isotype usually secreted by a small plasma cell clone. Most patients have evidence of isolated monoclonal gammopathy or smoldering myeloma, and the occurrence of AL amyloidosis in patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma or other B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders is unusual. The key event in the development of AL amyloidosis is the change in the secondary or tertiary structure of an abnormal monoclonal LC, which results in instable conformation. This conformational change is responsible for abnormal folding of the LC, rich in ? leaves, which assemble into monomers that stack together to form amyloid fibrils. Epidemiology AL amyloidosis is the most common type of systemic amyloidois in developed countries with an estimated incidence of 9 cases/million inhabitant/year. The average age of diagnosed patients is 65 years and less than 10% of patients are under 50. Clinical description The clinical presentation is protean, because of the wide number of tissues or organs that may be affected. The most common presenting symptoms are asthenia and dyspnoea, which are poorly specific and may account for delayed diagnosis. Renal manifestations are the most frequent, affecting two thirds of patients at presentation. They are characterized by heavy proteinuria, with nephrotic syndrome and impaired renal function in half of the patients. Heart involvement, which is present at diagnosis in more than 50% of patients, leading to restrictive cardiopathy, is the most serious complication and engages prognosis. Diagnostic methods The diagnosis relies on pathological examination of an involved site showing Congo red-positive amyloid deposits, with typical apple-green birefringence under polarized light, that stain positive with an anti-LC antibody by immunohistochemistry and/or immunofluorescence. Due to the systemic nature of the disease, non-invasive biopsies such as abdominal fat aspiration should be considered before taking biopsies from involved organs, in order to reduce the risk of bleeding complications. Differential diagnosis Systemic AL amyloidosis should be distinguished from other diseases related to deposition of monoclonal LC, and from other forms of systemic amyloidosis. When pathological studies have failed to identify the nature of amyloid deposits, genetic studies should be performed to diagnose hereditary amyloidosis. Management Treatment of AL amyloidosis is based on chemotherapy, aimed at controlling the underlying plasma clone that produces amyloidogenic LC. The hematological response should be carefully checked by serial measurements of serum free LC. The association of an alkylating agent with high-dose dexamethasone has proven to be effective in two thirds of patients and is considered as the current reference treatment. New agents used in the treatment of multiple myeloma are under investigation and appear to increase hematological response rates. Symptomatic measures and supportive care is necessary in patients with organ failure. Noticeably, usual treatments for cardiac failure (i.e. calcium inhibitors, ?-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors are inefficient or even dangerous in patients with amyloid heart disease, that should be managed using diuretics. Amiodarone and pace maker implantation should be considered in patients with rhythm or conduction abnormalities. In selected cases, heart and kidney transplantation may be associated with prolonged patient and graft survival. Prognosis Survival in AL amyloidosis depends on the spectrum of organ involvement (amyloid heart disease being the main prognosis factor, the severity of individual organs involved and haematological response to treatment.

Desport Estelle

2012-08-01

64

[AL amyloidosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

AL amyloidosis belongs to the group of conformational diseases. It is the most common type of amyloidosis with an estimated 500 new cases per year in France. It is due to a small and usually indolent plasma cell clone which synthesizes an unstable, misfolded monoclonal immunoglobulin light chain that is prone to aggregate and form amyloid fibrils. Non-invasive biopsy such as abdominal fat aspiration or minor salivary gland biopsy should be performed to confirm the diagnosis and if negative, involved tissues have to be examined. Clinical presentation is very diverse, as AL amyloidosis can affect almost any organ or tissue in the body, other than the brain. The kidney is the most frequent organ involved, whereas heart disease characterized by restrictive cardiomyopathy is the most severe. Early diagnosis, before advanced cardiomyopathy, is essential for improving outcome. The association of alkylating agent and high-dose dexamethasone is effective in almost two-thirds of patients. Combinations of proteasome inhibitors, dexamethasone, and alkylating agents achieve high response rates. Close monitoring of clonal and organ response is mandatory to guide therapy changes and duration. New treatments designed to eliminate amyloid deposits are under development. PMID:25194219

Jaccard, A; Desport, E; Mohty, D; Bridoux, F

2014-09-01

65

Elfenbein als Nasenimplantat bei Jacques Joseph  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aufgrund schlechter Erfahrungen mit der Resorption von Knochentransplantaten benutzte Jacques Joseph in geeigneten Fällen Elfenbeinspäne für die Sattelnasenkorrektur. Vor dem Hintergrund, dass sicher nicht mehr viele von Joseph so operierte Patienten am Leben sind, berichten die Autoren über Langzeitergebnisse von 3 Fällen, bei denen 42, 43 und 63 Jahre zuvor Elfenbeinspäne in den Nasenrücken implantiert worden waren. Die Langzeitprognose aus heutiger Sicht und Josephs eigene Beobachtu...

Staindl, O.; Hellmich, S.; Berghaus, Alexander

1989-01-01

66

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Men are more likely to get ALS than women. This reference summary will help you understand ALS ... in the diaphragm and chest wall no longer work, ALS patients cannot breathe without support from a ...

67

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... are available to help ALS patients with pain, depression, sleep problems, and constipation. ALS patients who have ... muscles. There are no cures for ALS. However, research and new forms of treatment are being developed. ...

68

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Science.gov (United States)

... with ALS. The Registry includes data from national databases as well as de-identified information provided by persons with ALS. Persons living with ALS who choose to participate can add their information to the Registry by clicking the ...

69

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Most ALS patients do not have a family history of it, nor do family members have an ... diagnoses ALS after reviewing a very detailed medical history and doing a physical examination. ALS is usually ...

70

Spondyloarthritis oder Morbus Bechterew: Neue Klassifikation der axialen Spondyloarthritis mit Morbus Bechterew als Endstadium  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mit einer Prävalenz von 0,6?1,9 % ist die axiale Spondyloarthritis (SpA der Sammelbegriff für eine Gruppe von entzündlichen rheumatischen Krankheiten, die vor allem das axiale Skelett und die Insertionsstellen der Sehnen am Knochen (Enthesen betreffen. Je nach Subtyp der SpA besteht eine unterschiedlich starke Assoziation mit dem MHC-I-Antigen HLA-B27. Entsprechend der ?Assessment of Spondyloarthritis International Society? (ASAS wird die SpA anhand der prädominant betroffenen Region in die periphere und die axiale Form unterteilt. Die aktuelle Klassifikation der axialen SpA erfolgt mittels der 2009 veröffentlichten ASAS-Kriterien. Bei Sakroiliitis in der Bildgebung müssen ? 1 SpAParameter, bei positivem HLA-B27-Befund ? 2 andere SpA-Parameter für die Klassifikation als SpA vorhanden sein. SpA-Parameter sind entzündlicher Rückenschmerz, Arthritis, Familienanamnese, Uveitis anterior, entzündliche Darmerkrankung, Psoriasis, Daktylitis, Enthesitis, gutes Ansprechen auf NSAR und HLA-B27-Positivität. Die Sensitivität dieser Kriterien liegt bei 82,9 %, die Spezifität bei 84,4 %. Für die axiale Beteiligung der Psoriasis arthropathica werden auch die ähnlichen CASPAR-Kriterien verwendet. Für die Klassifikation des Morbus Bechterew werden die 1984 modifizierten New York-Kriterien verwendet, bei denen neben spezifischen klinischen Kriterien radiologisch eine Sacroiliitis Grad 2 oder mehr bilateral oder Grad 3?4 unilateral vorhanden sein muss. Bei schwerem Verlauf kann prinzipiell jede Form der SpA mit einer axialen Beteiligung in einen Morbus Bechterew übergehen. Somit ist der Morbus Bechterew sowohl ein Subtyp der SpA, als auch eine mögliche Spätform anderer Subtypen. Zur Verlaufs- bzw. Therapiekontrolle werden sowohl bei axialer SpA als auch bei Morbus Bechterew spezifische Scores verwendet, um Krankheitsaktivität und Funktionsveränderungen zu dokumentieren (BASFI, BASDAI, ASDAS.

Schirmer M

2011-01-01

71

Autonomie für Länder und Kommunen bei der Einkommensteuer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Die Finanzbeziehungen zwischen den staatlichen Ebenen brauchen eine neue Ordnung - hin zu mehr Entflechtung, mehr Transparenz und mehr Eigenverantwortung. Die Einkommensteuer bietet einen Ansatzpunkt, diese Ziele voranzutreiben. Als Gemeinschaftsteuer von Bund, Ländern und Gemeinden lässt sich an ihr exemplarisch verdeutlichen, welche Reformschritte notwendig sind. Der offene Ausweis der Anteile von Bund, Land und Gemeinde auf dem Steuerbescheid ermöglicht in einem ersten Schritt auch für...

Schulte, Bernd

2014-01-01

72

Mitochondrial pathobiology in ALS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the third most common human adult-onset neurodegenerative disease. Some forms of ALS are inherited, and disease-causing genes have been identified. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of neurodegeneration in ALS are unresolved. Genetic, biochemical, and morphological analyses of human ALS as well as cell and animal models of ALS reveal that mitochondria could have roles in this neurodegeneration. The varied functions and properties of mitochondria might render ...

Martin, Lee J.

2011-01-01

73

Kurokawa's secret. Or: Why you need lemonade to feed more than 10 kW of solar power into the public grid; Kurokawas Geheimnis. Oder: Warum man in Japan Brause braucht, um mehr als zehn Kilowatt Solarstrom ans Netz zu bringen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Japan was among the first countries to think about solar power in gigawatt dimensions, but then the country opted increasingly for nuclear power. Now, after the earthquake and tsunami in March and with the ongoing nuclear catastrophe, there appears to be a renaissance of renewable energy sources and especially photovoltaic conversion. To make it happen, the government must take steps and permit competition in the energy market.

Krause, Matthias B.

2011-05-15

74

Less interpretation, more control; Weniger interpretieren, mehr regeln  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Installers of PV systems often have to make do with insufficient regulations. A group of experts now attempts to narrow down the room for interpretation. For example, they intend to regulate how the number of fastening points on a roof should be calculated.

Riedel, Anja

2012-07-01

75

Jobs. Jobs? Jobs! Orientierungshilfen für den Weg zu mehr Beschäftigung  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Die Bekämpfung der Arbeitslosigkeit genießt oberste wirtschaftspolitische Priorität - dieser Feststellung wird kaum jemand widersprechen wollen. Eher scheiden sich die Geister an der Frage nach dem \\wirklichen" quantitativen Ausmaß der Unterbeschäftigung, ihren Ursachen und welche Maßnahmen Erfolg versprechen. Folglich bildet eine Analyse dieser Themen den Inhalt dieses Beitrags.

Fitzenberger, Bernd; Franz, Wolfgang

2000-01-01

76

Kritischer Blick auf die Prävention – wann ist weniger mehr?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Vorbeugung kann Leiden und irreparable Schäden an der Gesundheit vermeiden helfen – kaum jemand wird die Logik und die Berechtigung präventiven Denkens und Handelns anzweifeln. Aber es gibt auch Schattenseiten: Prävention kann sich ungünstig auf die Balance zwischen Kosten und Nutzen und auf das Lebensgefühl auswirken. Im ersten Teil dieses Artikels versuchen wir, diese «Schatten auszuleuchten», im zweiten Teil werden konkrete Beispiele aus der kardiovaskulär...

Neuner-jehle, S.

2010-01-01

77

/Cu-Al System  

Science.gov (United States)

Wettability and interfacial interaction of the Ta2O5/Cu-Al system were studied. Pure Cu does not wet the Ta2O5 substrate, and improved spreading is achieved when relatively a high fraction of the active element (~40 at.% Al) was added. The Al2O3 and AlTaO4 phases were observed at the Ta2O5/Cu-Al interface. A thermodynamic evaluation allowed us to suggest that the lack of wetting bellow 40 at.% Al is due to the presence of a native oxide, which covers the drop. The conditions of the native oxide decomposition and the formation of the volatile Al2O suboxide strongly depend on the vacuum level during sessile drop experiments and the composition of the Cu-Al alloy. In our case, Al contents greater than 40% provides thermodynamic conditions for the formation of Al2O (as a result of Al reaction with Al2O3) and the drop spreading. It was suggested that the final contact angle in the Ta2O5/Cu-Al system (50°) is determined by Ta adsorption on the newly formed alumina interlayer.

Kish, Orel; Froumin, Natalya; Aizenshtein, Michael; Frage, Nachum

2014-05-01

78

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... help you understand ALS and its treatment options. Anatomy Brain Peripheral Nerves Spinal Cord The brain and ... Most ALS patients do not have a family history of it, nor do family members have an ...

79

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... or ALS, is a serious neurological disease that affects the ability to move. It is also called ... more are diagnosed with it each year. ALS affects people of all races and ethnic backgrounds. It ...

80

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Men are more likely to get ALS than women. This reference summary will help you understand ALS ... for the advice of a doctor or healthcare professional or a recommendation for any particular treatment plan. ...

 
 
 
 
81

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... mobile and comfortable as possible. Doctors can prescribe medications to reduce • fatigue • muscle cramps • excess saliva • phlegm Drugs are available to help ALS patients with pain, depression, sleep problems, and constipation. ALS patients who have difficulty speaking ...

82

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... motor neurons gradually weaken, waste away, and twitch. Early symptoms of ALS affect the parts of the ... physical examination. ALS is usually difficult to diagnose early because it can appear to be another disease, ...

83

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... as spinal cord tumors, multiple sclerosis, or nerve compression. As the symptoms of ALS progress, it becomes easier to diagnose. ALS can be diagnosed using electric tests on the muscles and nerves. These tests are ...

84

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... motor neurons, the disease does not impair personality, intelligence, or memory. ALS does not affect the ability ... and home care specialists help with the medical, emotional, and financial challenges of coping with ALS, especially ...

85

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... between the ages of 40 and 60 years old. Men are more likely to get ALS than ... are no cures for ALS. However, research and new forms of treatment are being developed. Knowing about ...

86

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Lateral Sclerosis, or ALS, is a serious neurological disease that affects the ability to move. It is also called Lou Gehrig’s disease. Thousands of people have ALS. Thousands more are ...

87

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... available to help ALS patients with pain, depression, sleep problems, and constipation. ALS patients who have difficulty ... Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a very serious neurological disease that affects the body's ability to control voluntary ...

88

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... muscles. There are no cures for ALS. However, research and new forms of treatment are being developed. Knowing about ALS and its progression will help patients make informed decisions concerning their health care. This ...

89

Underground- and surface technologies for joint flooding of gas caves; Unter- und Uebertagetechnik als Einheit zur Flutung von Gaskavernen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After 20 years of operation the oldes caves in the Bernburg storage VNG AG had to repair the facilities. This required flooding of the caves from the start. At the same time geomechanical reserves which were reevaluated on the basis of redimensioning could be used by deepening. Flooding and relocation of the displaced gas should not disturb gas storage and brine extraction. As one of the caves was filled with gas for the first time it was possible to use the brine. Flooding and gas filling were coupled. [Deutsch] Nach mehr als 20jaehriger Betriebszeit der aeltesten Kavernen auf dem Speicher Bernburg stand fuer die VNG AG die Aufgabe der Reparatur. Der Umfang der Arbeiten machte von Anfang an das vollstaendige Fluten der Kavernen erforderlich. Gleicheitig ergab sich dabei die Moeglichkeit, seinerzeit verbliebene geomechanische Reserven, die auf Basis einer auf aktuelle Erkenntnisse beruhenden Neudimensionierung bewertet wurden, durch Nachsolung auszuschoepfen. Die Heranfuehrung des Flutmediums und die Umlagerung des verdraengten Gases sollten ohne nachteilige Rueckwirkung auf den Gasspeicher- und Solegewinnungsbetrieb erfolgen. Da zu diesem Zeitpunkt eine Kaverne in der Phase der Gaserstbefuellung stand, konnte die ausgetragene Sole genutzt werden. Flutprozess und Gaserstbefuellung wurden somit im direkt gekoppelten Betrieb durchgefuehrt. (orig./MSK)

Raudonus, K.; Miersch, D. [UGS GmbH, Mittenwalde (Germany); Haensler, G. [Verbundnetz Gas AG, Leipzig (Germany)

1998-12-31

90

What Is ALS?  

Science.gov (United States)

... l ateral s clerosis (ALS), often referred to as "Lou Gehrig's Disease," is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects nerve ... to remember that ALS is a quite variable disease; no two people will have the same journey or experiences. ... by The ALS Association. ©2010 Lou Gehrig® used with permission of the Rip Van Winkle ...

91

Four-dimensional data assimilation as a method for coupling two meteorological model systems of different scales; Vierdimensionale Datenassimilation als Methode zur Kopplung zweier verschiedenskaliger meteorologischer Modellsysteme  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method of coupling two meteorological models of different scales must meet certain requirements: First, even a big difference in resolution between the two models must not produce disturbances in the smaller-scale model. This means that most nesting approaches are unfit for the purpose. The method presented here is not limited to meteorological models. It can be enhanced without much difficulty to dispersion models taking account of chemical atmospheric reactions, as e.g. in the CTM of the EURAD model or in DRAIS as an enhancement of the KAMM version. [German] Das Ziel dieser Arbeit bestand in der Entwicklung eines geeigneten Kopplungsverfahrens zweier verschiedenskaliger meteorologischer Modelle, das in einem Ein-Weg-Nesting dem kleinerskaligen Modell ermoeglicht, sowohl instationaere superskalige Verhaeltnisse als auch modellinterne kleinraeumige Prozesse miteinander zu verbinden. Im Rahmen des Projektes TFS mussten hierbei entscheidende Bedingungen an das Kopplungsverfahren gestellt werden. Allen voran darf vor allem ein auch grosser Unterschied in der Aufloesung der beiden verschiedenskaligen Modelle keine kuenstlichen Stoerungen im kleinerskaligen Modell produzieren. Somit scheiden die sonst ueblichen Nestingansaetze fuer diesen Fall aus. Das Verfahren ist derart konzipiert, dass es sich nicht auf rein meteorologische Modelle beschraenkt. Eine Ausweitung auf Ausbreitungsmodelle unter Beruecksichtigung chemischer Reaktionen in der Atmosphaere, wie sie etwa im CTM des EURAD-Modells oder im DRAIS als Erweiterung der KAMM-Version zur Verfuegung stehen, stellt keinen allzu grossen Schritt mehr dar. (orig.)

Wilms-Grabe, W.

2001-10-01

92

Wenn Rotkäppchen den Wolf heiratet : Grimms Märchen als Manga  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Der Froschkönig, der eigentlich eine Prinzessin ist, das Schneewittchen, das sich beinahe in einen niedlichen Feenzwerg verliebt, der narzisstische Hänsel, der Klein-Gretel wegen der betörenden Hexe Hildegard im Wald stehen lässt, der Bishônen-Jüngling Rapunzel, der die sportliche Jungfer Eva schwängert – diese Geschichten und einige andere mehr entstammen dem Universum der japanischen Comics des 21. Jahrhunderts. Die Manga haben mittlerweile begeisterte Leser und Nachahmer selbst im...

Dolle-weinkauff, Bernd

2013-01-01

93

????????? ????????????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?? ?????? PrAlO3 ?? LaAlO3  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

???????????? ??????? ????????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????? ? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ??????? Pr1-xRxAlO3 ? La1-xRxAlO3 (R – ????????????????? ???????). ???????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ?? ??????...

?????, ?. ?.; ?????????, ?. ?.

2009-01-01

94

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... for your specific condition. ©1995-2013, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.X-Plain.com nr180104 Last reviewed: 03/20/2013 1 ALS ALS attacks the neurons that control muscles, the motor neurons. Messages from motor neurons ...

95

[Phenotypic variation in ALS].  

Science.gov (United States)

Making a diagnosis of typical amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is not a tough job, but when it comes to atypical forms of motor neuron disease (MND) which are not uncommon in clinical setting, we may have some difficulty to diagnose ALS/MND. There is striking phenotypic variation in sporadic ALS/MND, such as frail arm syndrome (brachial amyotrophic diplegia), pseudopolyneuritic form, hemiplegic type, ALS/MND with markedly extended involvement beyond the motor system, and MND with basophilic inclusion bodies. These variations must be recognized if physicians are to tailor advice on disease progression, prognosis, drug therapy, and care to the needs of the individual. Clinical trials of new therapeutic agents have been performed, on the assumption that patients with ALS/MND have the same underlying etiology, addressing the heterogeneous population of the patients under a single diagnostic category. This can be detrimental to the well-being of the individual, because clinical heterogeneity may mask drug effects in clinical trials. The attempt to categorize subgroups based on the clinical and pathological backgrounds within the spectrum of ALS/MND may be a critical step in facilitating clinical research in ALS/MND. Definition of clinicopathologic syndromes in patients with ALS/MND is an important challenging task that cannot be ignored. PMID:17432191

Sasaki, Shoichi

2006-11-01

96

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... because it has mistaken them for foreign cells. Diagnosis A neurologist usually diagnoses ALS after reviewing a very detailed medical history ... a physical examination. ALS is usually difficult to diagnose early because it can appear to be another ...

97

[Environmental factors in ALS].  

Science.gov (United States)

ALS is likely to be a disorder of multifactorial origin. Among all the factors that may increase the risk of ALS, environmental ones are being studied for many years, but in the recent years, several advances have pointed to a new interest in their potential involvement in the disease process, especially for the cyanotoxin BMAA. Food containing BMAA has been found on Guam, a well-known focus of ALS/parkinsonism/dementia and high levels of BMAA have been identified into the brain of these patients. The BMAA cyanotoxin is potentially ubiquitous and have also been found into the food of patients who died from ALS both in Europe and USA. BMAA can be wrongly integrated into the protein structure during mRNA traduction, competing with serine. This may induce abnormal protein folding and a subsequent cell death. Heavy metals, such as lead or mercury may be directly toxic for neuronal cells. Several works have suggested an increased risk of ALS in individuals chronically exposed to these metals. Exposure to pesticides has been suggested to be linked to an increased risk of developing ALS. The mechanism of their toxicity is likely to be mediated by paraoxonases. These proteins are in charge of detoxifying the organism from toxins, and particularly organophosphates. To date, there are insufficient scientific data to suggest that exposure to electromagnetic fields may increase the risk of having ALS. We are particularly missing longitudinal cohorts to demonstrate that risk. PMID:24703731

Juntas-Morales, Raul; Pageot, Nicolas; Corcia, Philippe; Camu, William

2014-05-01

98

Bevölkerungsumfrage "Soziale Unternehmensverantwortung". Pragmatische Überlegungen zur unternehmensethischen Forschung als Interaktionsprozess zwischen Akademikern und Wirtschaftsvertretern  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Das Ringen um anerkennenswerte Handlungsorientierungen wird immer mehr zum Bestandteil des Unternehmensalltags. Akademische Inputs hierzu gelingen nicht immer in konstruktiver Weise. Illustriert mit Bezügen auf eine derzeit entstehende Studie zur sozialen Unternehmensverantwortung stellt dieser ‚Praxisbeitrag‘ hierzu einige Grundüberlegungen an – themenbedingt bewusst von akademisch-pragmatischer Natur. Englisches Abstract: Public Survey “Corporate Social Responsibility” – The c...

York Lunau; Florian Wettstein

2004-01-01

99

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... and NCV, for ElectroMyoGram and Nerve Conduction Velocity. Studies of spinal fluid obtained by performing a spinal ... muscles. There are no cures for ALS. However, research and new forms of treatment are being developed. ...

100

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... the disease does not impair personality, intelligence, or memory. ALS does not affect the ability to see, ... these other treatments, health care professionals team up, including doctors, pharmacists, therapists, social workers, and home care ...

 
 
 
 
101

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... brain. They communicate with each other by sending electric signals through wires called axons. Neurons that control ... easier to diagnose. ALS can be diagnosed using electric tests on the muscles and nerves. These tests ...

102

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... machine is called a respirator. Social workers, hospice nurses, and home care specialists help with the medical, emotional, and financial challenges of coping with ALS, especially ...

103

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Messages from motor neurons in the brain called upper motor neurons are transmitted to motor neurons in ... on to the muscles. With ALS, both the upper motor neurons and the lower motor neurons die ...

104

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... to contract, which helps us adapt to our environment by talking, walking, chewing, and running. This document ... ALS called riluzole. Scientists believe that riluzole reduces damage to motor neurons. It also prolongs life by ...

105

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... the brain’s ability to control voluntary movement is lost. Patients lose strength and the ability to move ... the disease does not impair personality, intelligence, or memory. ALS does not affect the ability to see, ...

106

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... genetic. Researchers have been able to identify the gene related to some cases of familial ALS and ... design an individual plan of medical and physical therapies. They can also provide equipment to keep patients ...

107

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... motor neurons, the disease does not impair personality, intelligence, or memory. ALS does not affect the ability ... be another disease, such as spinal cord tumors, multiple sclerosis, or nerve compression. As the symptoms of ...

108

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... nurses, and home care specialists help with the medical, emotional, and financial challenges of coping with ALS, especially during the final stages. This document is for informational purposes and ...

109

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... The nerves in the body, such as the arms, legs, chest, abdomen, and pelvis, make up the ... first signs of ALS in their hand or arm. They may find that simple tasks such as ...

110

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... and home care specialists help with the medical, emotional, and financial challenges of coping with ALS, especially ... for your specific condition. ©1995-2013, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.X-Plain.com nr180104 Last ...

111

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Introduction Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, or ALS, is a serious neurological disease that affects the ability to move. It is also called Lou Gehrig’s disease. ...

112

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... a machine. Most people with ALS experience major respiratory problems within 3- 5 years of the first ... design an individual plan of medical and physical therapies. They can also provide equipment to keep patients ...

113

MDA ALS Caregiver's Guide  

Science.gov (United States)

... coordinator for the loved one with ALS, the manager of the loved one's medical, social, financial and ... Other caregivers should treat this person as the leader, the one who coordinates and keeps track of ...

114

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... The brain is similar to a very complex computer that processes input from our senses and then ... Most ALS patients do not have a family history of it, nor do family members have an ...

115

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... speech therapist. Physical therapy and special equipment or devices such as ramps, braces, walkers, and wheelchairs can help ALS patients keep their independence and remain mobile. When patients can no longer get enough nourishment ...

116

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... recognize touch. ALS patients usually retain control of eye muscles and bladder and bowel functions. Causes The ... quality of life. To provide these other treatments, health care professionals team up, including doctors, pharmacists, therapists, ...

117

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... affects motor neurons, the disease does not impair personality, intelligence, or memory. ALS does not affect the ... difficulty speaking may benefit from working with a speech therapist. Physical therapy and special equipment or devices ...

118

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... ALS and its treatment options. Anatomy Brain Peripheral Nerves Spinal Cord The brain and spinal cord are called the central nervous system. The nerves in the body, such as the arms, legs, ...

119

Leakage current behaviors of Al/ZrO2/Al and Al/YSZ/Al devices  

Science.gov (United States)

The leakage current behaviors of Al/ZrO2/Al and Al/yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/Al devices are investigated for resistive random access memory (RRAM) applications. A silicon oxide layer (450 nm) is first formed on a Si wafer by thermal oxidation. Onto it an Al bottom electrode (270 nm), a ZrO2 or YSZ nano-film (75 nm), and an Al top electrode (270 nm) are sequentially deposited by sputtering. These RRAM devices exhibit ohmic behaviors in the low-field region, while Schottky and Poole–Frenkel emissions take over in the high-field regions. Both the Schottky and trap barrier levels are decreased when monoclinic ZrO2 is replaced by cubic YSZ in the metal/oxide/metal structure. This is attributed not only to the higher symmetry crystal structure and lower binding energy of YSZ, but also to the formation of more oxygen vacancies and their re-distribution associated with yttria doping.

Yeh, Tsung-Her; Lin, Ruei-De; Cherng, Bo-Ruei; Cherng, Jyh-Shiarn

2015-01-01

120

Emotionen und Lernen aus abgebrochenen F&E Projekten – Vergleichende Fallstudien  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Obwohl Organisationstheoretiker argumentieren, dass wir mehr von unseren Fehlern lernen als durch unsere Erfolge, ist weniger bekannt, warum manche mehr aus Fehlern lernen als andere. Die Analyse von acht Fallstudien zu F&E-Projekten ergab, dass eine Verzögerung der Entscheidung des Projektabbruchs gegenläufige Effekte hat. Einerseits ermöglicht ein verzögerter Abbruch eine kognitive Vorbereitung des Lernvorgangs der Projektmitglieder. Andererseits wird die Verzögerung als ‚schleichend...

Warnecke, Dennis

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Pornographie als Metapher  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In diesem Artikel werden unterschiedliche metaphorische Verwendungen des Pornografiebegriffs und deren Implikationen untersucht. Während die Existenz von Pornografie der feministischen Anti-Porno-Bewegung als Erklärung für die anhaltende Diskriminierung von Frauen in westlichen Gesellschaften dient, nutzen rechtskonservative Kräfte den Pornografievorwurf als Rechtfertigung für die Zensur von als deviant empfundenen Identitäten und sexuellen Praktiken.This article examines different metaphorical uses of the term pornography and the resulting implications. While the existence of pornography for the feminist anti-porno movement serves as factor in the continuing discrimination of women in western societies, conservative powers on the right use the allegation of pornography as a justification for censorship of those identities and sexual practices deemed deviant.

Caroline Schubarth

2010-03-01

122

ALS superbend magnet performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been engaged in the design, construction and testing of four superconducting dipoles (Superbends) that are installed in three arcs of the Advanced Light Source (ALS), with the fourth magnet as a spare. This represents a major upgrade to the ALS providing an enhanced flux and brightness at photon energies above 10 keV. In preparation for installation, an extensive set of tests and measurements have been conducted to characterize the magnetic and cryogenic performance of the Superbends and to fiducialize them for accurate placement in the ALS storage ring. The magnets are currently installed, and the storage ring is undergoing final commissioning. This paper will present the results of magnetic and cryogenic testing

123

ALS superbend magnet system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is preparing to upgrade the Advanced Light Source (ALS) with three superconducting dipoles (Superbends). In this paper we present the final magnet system design which incorporates R and D test results and addresses the ALS operational concerns of alignment, availability, and economy. The design incorporates conduction-cooled Nb-Ti windings and HTS current leads, epoxy-glass suspension straps, and a Gifford-McMahon cryocooler to supply steady state refrigeration. We also present the current status of fabrication and testing

124

Carta al Editor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La medicina al basarse generalmente en la clínica, correlacionaexámenes complementarios y organiza un diagnóstico y tratamiento, es una disciplina donde es imprescindible saber recolectar, analizar, interpretar y concretar una respuesta adecuada, es así que la información que se recibe es esencial para el desempeño médico.La certeza es una realidad que se da en algunas situaciones y enotras las probabilidades establecen conclusiones. Lo normal muchas veces se define sobre la base de criterios estadísticos, basados en riesgos poblacionales que no necesariamente se aplican al caso boliviano.

José Andrés Burgos Zuleta

2010-06-01

125

Modulus measurements in ordered Co-Al, Fe-Al, and Ni-Al alloys  

Science.gov (United States)

The composition and/or temperature dependence of the dynamic Young's modulus for the ordered B2 Co-Al, Fe-Al, and Ni-Al aluminides has been investigated using the piezoelectric ultrasonic composite oscillator technique (PUCOT). The modulus has been measured in the composition interval 48.49 to 52.58 at. pct Co, 50.87 to 60.2 at. pct Fe, and 49.22 to 55.95 at. pct Ni for Co-Al, Fe-Al, and Ni-Al, respectively. The measured values for Co-Al are in the temperature interval 300 to 1300 K, while those for the other systems are for ambient temperature only. The data points show that Co-Al is stiffer than Fe-Al, which is stiffer than Ni-Al. The data points for Fe-Al and Ni-Al are slightly higher than those reported in the literature.

Harmouche, M. R.; Wolfenden, A.

1985-01-01

126

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... the ability to move. It is also called Lou Gehrig’s disease. Thousands of people have ALS. Thousands more are ... nr180104 Last reviewed: 03/20/2013 4 Summary Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a very serious neurological disease that affects ...

127

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... material, it may become out of date over time. It is important that you rely on the advice of a doctor or ... that they are awkward when they walk or run or that they stumble more often. Some ALS ...

128

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... to diagnose. ALS can be diagnosed using electric tests on the muscles and nerves. These tests are called EMG and NCV, for ElectroMyoGram and ... of life. To provide these other treatments, health care professionals team up, including doctors, pharmacists, therapists, social ...

129

Lou Gehrig's Disease (ALS)  

Science.gov (United States)

... at an advanced stage, can still see, hear, smell, and feel touch. The nerves that carry feelings of hot, cold, pain, pressure, or even being tickled, are not affected by Lou Gehrig's disease. In some people with ALS, the parts of the brain that allow us to think, remember, and learn ...

130

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Administration, or the FDA, has approved the first drug treatment for ALS called riluzole. Scientists believe that riluzole ... to reduce • fatigue • muscle ... difficulty speaking may benefit from working with a speech therapist. Physical therapy and special equipment or devices such as ramps, ...

131

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... brain’s ability to control voluntary movement is lost. Patients lose strength and the ability to move their arms, legs, and body. When muscles in the diaphragm and chest wall no longer work, ALS patients cannot breathe without support from a machine. Most ...

132

ALS renewal moves forward  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As the result of an extensive long-term planning process involving all its stakeholders-management, staff, and users-the ALS has seen its future and is aggressively moving ahead to implement its vision for keeping the facility at the cutting edge for the next 2-3 decades. The evolving strategic plan now in place aims to renew the ALS so it can address a new generation of fundamental questions about size dependent and dimensional-confinement phenomena at the nanoscale; correlation and complexity in physical, biological, and environmental systems; and temporal evolution, assembly, dynamics and ultrafast phenomena. The renewal spans three areas: (1) increased staffing at beamlines to support the growing user community and safety professionals to keep an increasingly complex facility hazard free; (2) implementing advances in accelerator, insertion device, beamline, and detector technology that will make it possible for ALS users to address emerging grand scientific and technological challenges with incisive world-class tools; and (3) construction of a user support building and guest housing that will increase the safety and user friendliness of the ALS by providing users office, meeting, experiment staging, and laboratory space for their work and on-site accommodations at reasonable rates

133

Titanschäume als Knochenimplantat  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Der Inhalt dieser Arbeit befasst sich mit einer allgemein gehaltenen Realisierbarkeitsstudie für die Verwendung von Titanschäumen als Implantate im Bereich des Knochens. Dabei werden zu Beginn die rechtlich vorgeschriebenen medizintechnischen Anforderungen für Medizinprodukte in diesem Anwendungsfall umrissen, um eine geeignete Vorgehensweise bei dieser Studie zu ermitteln. Desweiteren wird auf das spezielle Herstellungsverfahren und dessen Problemstellungen eingegangen, im Hinblick auf di...

Mu?ller, Daniel Wyn

2012-01-01

134

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... you understand ALS and its treatment options. Anatomy Brain Peripheral Nerves Spinal Cord The brain and spinal cord are called the central nervous ... pelvis, make up the peripheral nervous system. The brain is similar to a very complex computer that ...

135

Al doende leren  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Zowel in Nederland als in Vlaanderen stimuleert de overheid invoering van techniek in het onderwijs. Via het creëren van een rijke leeromgeving wordt gepoogd leerlingen steeds grotere diepgang te laten begrijpen. Daarbij gaat het om hantere, begrijpe en dudien van techniek. Er kunnen veel varianten van invoering zijn maar het gaat uiteindelijk om de ontwikkeleing van het denken van het kind.

Slangen, Lou

2009-01-01

136

In service monitoring based on fatigue analyses, possibilities and limitations; Ermuedungsanalysen als Hilfsmittel zur Betriebsueberwachung, Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

German LWR reactors are equipped with monitoring systems which are to enable a comparison of real transients with load case catalogues and fatigue catalogues for fatigue analyses. The information accuracy depends on the accuracy of measurements, on the consideration of parameters influencing fatigue (medium, component surface, component size, etc.), and on the accuracy of the load analyses. The contribution attempts a critical evaluation, also inview of the fact that real fatigue damage often are impossible to quantify on the basis of fatigue analyses at a later stage. The effects of the consideration or non-consideration of various influencing factors are discussed, as well as the consequences of the scatter of material characteristics on which the analyses are based. Possible measures to be taken in operational monitoring are derived. (orig.) [German] In der Bundesrepublik Deutschland ist in allen Leichtwasserreaktoren eine mehr oder weniger aufwendige Betriebsueberwachung installiert, die anhand von betrieblichen Messdaten (Druck, Temperatur, Massenstrom) und unter Einbeziehung lokaler Temperaturmessstellen den Vergleich der tatsaechlich auftretenden Transienten mit den in den Lastfallkatalogen und in den Ermuedungshandbuechern fuer die Ermuedungsanalysen zugrunde gelegten ermoeglichen sollen. Die daraus abgeleiteten Aussagen zum tatsaechlich erreichten Erschoepfungsgrad des ueberwachten Bauteiles haengen wesentlich von der Genauigkeit der Messwerterfassung, der Beruecksichtigung von das Ermuedungsverhalten beeinflussenden Faktoren (Medium, Oberflaechengestaltung, Bauteilgroesse,...) und der Genauigkeit der Beanspruchungsanalyse ab. Der Beitrag hat eine kritische Wertung zum Ziel auch unter dem Gesichtspunkt, dass tatsaechlich aufgetretene Ermuedungsschaeden bei einer Nachbewertung anhand von Ermuedungsanalysen oft nicht verifiziert werden koennen. Dazu wird beispielhaft auf die Auswirkungen der Beruecksichtigung oder Nichtberuecksichtigung verschiedener Einflussfaktoren und die Folgerung aus der Streuung der den Analysen zugrunde liegenden Werkstoffkennwerte eingegangen. Als Folgerung aus Ergebnissen werden moegliche aus diesen Betrachtungen fuer die Betriebsueberwachung abzuleitende Massnahmen diskutiert. (orig.)

Dittmar, S. [TUeV NORD SysTec GmbH und Co. KG, Hamburg (Germany); Binder, F. [TUeV Sued Industrie Service GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

2004-07-01

137

/Al-Si Composite  

Science.gov (United States)

The cyclic fatigue characteristics of spray-deposited SiCp/Al-Si composite were investigated in comparison with the unreinforced Al-Si alloy. The as-extruded specimens were cyclically deformed with fully reversed loading under a range of total strain amplitudes. The results show that the cyclic response characteristics for the reinforced and unreinforced materials are similar to each other. Both the composite and matrix alloys display cyclic hardening under total strain amplitude of 0.35-0.5%. Otherwise, the composite exhibits higher degree of strain hardening than that of the matrix alloy. Dislocation substructure developed during cyclic deformation was analyzed using transmission electron microscopy. The discrepancy between dislocation substructures obtained from processing compared to its development during cyclic strain loading is thought to give rise to the observed cyclic stress response behavior. Fractographic analysis shows that particle/matrix debonding and particle cracking are the main mechanisms of failure in the SiC particle-reinforced composite.

Li, Wei; Chen, Jian; Hu, Yongle; Cong, Li; Sun, YouPing; Yang, JiMing

2014-08-01

138

Thomas Morley als musiktheoretiker  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available (nema?ki Der Komponist und Musiktheoretiker Thomas Morley hat in seiner Abhandlung "A Plaine and Easie Introduction into Practicall Musicke" (heraus-gegeben 1597 in London die Kompositionslehre seiner Zeit auf verständliche und anschauliche Weise dargestellt. Der vorliegende Beitrag untersucht sowohl den wissenschaftlichen als auch den didaktischen Wert dieses Traktats. Neben der Besprechung der allgemeinen Charakteristika der Abhandlung, wird im Beitrag auch Morleys Behandlung einzelner Themenbereiche untersucht, so u.a. auch die Klauseldisposition und die Frage, ob die Aussagen Morleys darüber als Wende vom modalen hin zum tonalen Denken interpretiert werden können: In diesem Kontext wird eine Antwort auf Martina Rebmanns Kritik an Carl Dahlhaus' Interpretation der Lehre Morleys gegeben.

Popovi? Tihomir T.

2005-01-01

139

Aproximación al mito  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se propone entender ?mito? como ?narración verdadera?, aceptada como tal por quien ?vive? el mito, por quien lo ?siente? como verdadero. Su función es entregar un fondo al hombre, un conjunto de puntos de referencia que le permiten guiar su vida, entender la realidad y comprenderse a sí mismo en ella. Los mitos arcaicos narran una historia religiosa; pero no todos los mitos son religiosos. Los mitos cambian en el tiempo. En diversos momentos de la historia hay mitos dominantes. Articular mitos otorga poder. Cuando desaparecen los ?grandes mitos? su lugar es ocupado por otros de tono menor, que ?a falta de otra cosa? igual guían al individuo. Hoy, en nuestra nación carecemos de mitos que involucren a la totalidad, tenemos sólo los mitos de la globalización: la democracia y el mercado. Conviene reconocer los mitos, y a la vez, reconocer también que parte de nuestro juicio se afinca en aquellos mitos que nos sustentan.

Patricio Oyaneder Jara

2003-01-01

140

ALS insertion devices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Advanced Light Source (ALS), the first US third generation synchrotron radiation source, is currently under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The low-emittance, 1.5 GeV electron storage ring and the insertion devices are specifically designed to produce high brightness beams in the UV to soft X-Ray range. The planned initial complement of insertion devices includes four 4.6 m long undulators, with period lengths of 3.9 cm, 5.0 cm (2) and 8.0 cm, and a 2.9 m long wiggler of 16 cm period length. Undulator design is well advanced and fabrication has begun on the 5.0 cm and 8.0 cm period length undulators. This paper discusses ALS insertion device requirements; general design philosophy; and design of the magnetic structure, support structure/drive systems, control system and vacuum system. 18 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs

 
 
 
 
141

Atención al paciente crítico  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

El presente artículo resume la experiencia docente-investigativa sobre la atención al paciente crítico, desde un enfoque que describe problemas inherentes a los sistemas cardiovasculares, respiratorio y neurológico, considerados sistemas vitales del ser humano. Se pretende describir una serie de metas, que orientan la intervención del profesional de enfermería y sustentan la planeación, ejecución, control y evaluación de intervenciones específicas, encaminadas a detectar op...

Parra Vargas Myriam

1993-01-01

142

Waldorfpädagogik als Erziehungskunst  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Die Notwendigkeit einer Besinnung auf den „Menschen im Lehrer“ wird durch aktuelle Untersuchungen angeregt. Durch die ganzheitliche Förderung von Selbständigkeit, Streben nach Erkenntnis und Durchgeistigung des tätigen Daseins ist die Waldorfpädagogik funktional als eine künstlerische Aktion eingestuft (Bildungsprozesse statt Bildungsökonomie. Sie stellt den Menschen in den Mittelpunkt des pädagogischen Geschehens und befragt die Möglichkeit der objektiven (unverzerrten und zugleich künstlerisch intuitiven Durchschaubarkeit von Lernvorgängen.

Walter Hutter

2012-07-01

143

Aproximación al mito  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Se propone entender ?mito? como ?narración verdadera?, aceptada como tal por quien ?vive? el mito, por quien lo ?siente? como verdadero. Su función es entregar un fondo al hombre, un conjunto de puntos de referencia que le permiten guiar su vida, entender la realidad y comprenderse a sí mismo en ella. Los mitos arcaicos narran una historia religiosa; pero no todos los mitos son religiosos. Los mitos cambian en el tiempo. En diversos momentos de la historia hay mitos dom...

Patricio Oyaneder Jara

2003-01-01

144

Dal Ramayana al Sitayana  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Il primo lungometraggio animato Nina Paley è un cartone animato di 82 minuti. La tecnica è mista: animazione bidimensionale in flash, collage, fotografie, scenografie ad acquarello, con una grafica che passa da coloratissima e ornata al tratto abbozzato. presenta una nuova versione del Ramayana, divertente e coinvolgente. Il film è un musical, con coreografie elaboratissime, dove la voce cristallina di Annette Hanshaw, decisamente datata anni Venti, guida un cast di scimmie volanti, mos...

Consolaro, Alessandra

2009-01-01

145

Bildung als Selbstverständigung  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Weder die Analyse des aktuellen Sprachgebrauchs noch der Blick auf historische Prägungen der Bildungsidee erlauben die Entwicklung eines klar profilierten Verständnisses von Bildung. [Der Autor umreißt Bildung als] die Befähigung zur Selbstverständigung. [In diesem Ausdruck ist] der Begriff der Verständigung enthalten, der wiederum auf Begriffe wie Verständnis oder Verstehen verweist. Auf diese wird im Beitrag eingegangen. [Im Folgenden] wird der Begriff des Selbstverstehens in den Bli...

Giesinger, Johannes

2010-01-01

146

Alkoholische Kardiomyopathie  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Alkoholische Kardiomyopathie (AKM ist eine spezifische Herzmuskelerkrankung, die in 2 Stadien verläuft: einem asymptomatischen und einem symptomatischen Stadium. Patienten, die mehr als 90 g Alkohol pro Tag über mehr als 5 Jahre trinken, setzen sich dem Risiko einer AKM aus. In den Frühstadien besteht eine diastolische Dysfunktion des linken Ventrikels, später entwickelt sich eine systolische Dysfunktion mit den Symptomen der Herzinsuffizienz.

Silberbauer K

2003-01-01

147

Optical gain characteristics in Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum wells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The optical gain characteristics of Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum wells (QWs) were assessed by the variable stripe length method at room temperature. An Al0.79Ga0.21N/AlN QW with a well width of 5?nm had a large optical gain of 140?cm?1. Increasing the excitation length induced a redshift due to the gain consumption and the consequent saturation of the amplified spontaneous emission. Moreover, a change in the dominant gain polarization with Al composition, which was attributed to switching of the valence band ordering of strained AlGaN/AlN QWs at Al compositions of ?0.8, was experimentally demonstrated

148

???????? ???????????? ???????? Al2O3/TiN ????? ????????? ??????????? ??????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

? ????????? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? Al2O3/TiN. ???????? ?? Al2O3 ???? ???????? ?????????-????????????? ??????? ?? ???????? ?? ????? 3 [1]. ?????? ????? ??????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??????, ?????????? ????????-??????? ??????? ?? ????????? ?...

????????????, ????? ????????; ????????????, ????? ????????; Kulmentieva, Olha Petrivna; ?????, ?. ?.

2008-01-01

149

Al Jazirah, Sudan  

Science.gov (United States)

Al Jazirah (also Gezira) is one of the 26 states of Sudan. The state lies between the Blue Nile and the White Nile in the east-central region of the country. It is a well populated area suitable for agriculture. The area was at the southern end of Nubia and little is known about its ancient history and only limited archaeological work has been conducted in this area. The region has benefited from the Gezira Scheme, a program to foster cotton farming begun in 1925. At that time the Sennar Dam and numerous irrigation canals were built. Al Jazirah became the Sudan's major agricultural region with more than 2.5 million acres (10,000 km) under cultivation. The initial development project was semi-private, but the government nationalized it in 1950. Cotton production increased in the 1970s but by the 1990s increased wheat production has supplanted a third of the land formerly seeded with cotton. The image was acquired December 25, 2006, covers an area of 56 x 36.4 km, and is located near 14.5 degrees north latitude, 33.1 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2008-01-01

150

Corrosion behaviour of Al/SiC and Al/Al2O3 nanocomposites  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In the present investigation, the static immersion corrosion behavior of Al/Al2O3 and Al/SiC nanocomposites in 1 M HCl acidic solution was evaluated. The nanocomposites were fabricated using conventional powder metallurgy (P/M) route. The effect of nanoparticulates size and volume fraction on the co [...] rrosion behavior of nanocomposites was studied. The durations of the corrosion tests ranged from 24 to 120 hours and the temperatures of the solution ranged from ambient to 75 ºC. The corrosion rates of the nanocomposites were calculated using the weight loss method. The results showed that both Al/SiC and Al/Al2O3 MMNCs have lower corrosion rates than the pure Al matrix. Such behavior was noticed at both ambient and higher temperatures. Generally, the Al/Al2O3 nanocomposites exhibited lower corrosion rates than the Al/SiC nanocomposites. The Al/Al2O3 (60 nm) nanocomposites exhibited the highest corrosion resistance among all the investigated nanocomposites. The corrosion rate was found to be reduced by increasing of the exposure time and the volume fraction of the nanoparticulates, while it was found to be increased by increasing of the nanoparticulates size and the solution temperature.

Tamer Samir, Mahmoud; El-Sayed Yousef, El-Kady; Ayed Saad Merzen, Al-Shihiri.

2012-12-01

151

Al Mashriq: Lebanon  

Science.gov (United States)

Part of the Al-Mashriq online Web resource for countries located in the Levant, this site is devoted to providing a host of materials, thematically organized, about the country of Lebanon. Persons seeking to read a bit about Lebanon's early history will want to read the first chapter of Kamal Salibi's "A House of Many Mansions-The History of Lebanon," which is provided here. For those looking for a geographic orientation to the landscape of Lebanon, an interactive map provides a number of photographs and brief remarks on various important cities and cultural sites, such as Beirut and the Roman temples at Baalbak. Along with these sections, the site also offers thematic sections devoted to education, food, maps, money, politics, and religion that will be useful to those students looking for background information on Lebanon.

152

‚Zwang’ der Gesetze als Garantie für Veränderungen? Am Beispiel der neuen Richtlinien im ungarischen Bildungswesen  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"Entlastung": Mit diesem Wort kann die rapide Veränderung im ungarischen Bildungswesen charakterisiert werden. Keine Leistungsbeurteilung mit Noten im Grundschulbereich, keine Hausaufgaben für das Wochenende und in den Ferien, weniger Unterrichtsmaterial, mehr Autonomie für Schule und Eltern, Reduktion von Druck und Distanz zu den Problemen, die ursächlich mit dem Versuch zur Erreichung von Chancengleichheit verknüpft werden. Diese neue Form der Entlastung soll mit dem Bildungsgesetz gew...

Sujbert, Monika

2005-01-01

153

Der Comet Assay als Test im Biomonitoring - Untersuchungen zum Nachweis genotoxischer Effekte des Rauchens  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Der Comet Assay ist ein gut etablierter in vitro- und in vivo-Genotoxizitätstest und wird zunehmend in der Substanzprüfung eingesetzt. Aufgrund seiner einfachen Durchführung und seiner hohen Sensitivität gegenüber verschiedensten DNA-schädigenden Agenzien findet er auch immer mehr Verwendung in Biomonitoring-Untersuchungen. Die Eignung des Comet Assay für Biomonitoring-Studien wurde bisher kaum systematisch untersucht und bisher durchgeführte Studien haben häufig zu widersprüchliche...

Hoffmann, Heike

2006-01-01

154

Schizophrenia as a disconnection syndrome. Studies with functional magnetic resonance imaging and structural equation modeling; Schizophrenie als Diskonnektionssyndrom. Studien mit funktioneller Magnetresonanztomographie und Strukturgleichungsmodellen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aside from characteristic psychopathological symptoms, cognitive deficits are a core feature of schizophrenia. These deficits can only be addressed within the context of widespread functional interactions among different brain areas. To examine these interactions, structural equation modeling (SEM) was used for the analysis of fMRI datasets. In a series of studies, both in antipsychotic-treated and drug-free schizophrenic patients, a pattern of enhanced thalamocortical functional connectivity could be observed as an indicator for possible disruptions of frontostriatal thalamocortical circuitry. Moreover, drug-free patients and those receiving typical antipsychotic drugs were characterized by reduced interhemispheric corticocortical connectivity. This difference relative to normal controls was less in patients under atypical antipsychotic drugs. The results could be interpreted as a beneficial effect of atypical antipsychotic drugs on information processing in schizophrenic patients. The present findings are consistent with the model of schizophrenia as a disconnection syndrome and earlier concepts of ''cognitive dysmetria'' in schizophrenia. (orig.) [German] Neben der charakteristischen psychopathologischen Symptomatik stellen kognitive Defizite ein zentrales Merkmal der Schizophrenie dar. Diese Defizite koennen nur im Kontext miteinander interagierender Hirnareale verstanden werden. Zur Untersuchung dieser funktionellen Wechselbeziehungen wurden Strukturgleichungsmodelle (''structural equation modeling'', SEM) zur Auswertung von fMRT-Datensaetzen verwendet. In einer Untersuchungsreihe bei schizophrenen Patienten ergab sich sowohl bei antipsychotisch behandelten als auch bei unbehandelten Patienten ein Muster gesteigerter thalamokortikaler funktioneller Konnektivitaet als Hinweis auf eine moegliche Stoerung fronto-striato-thalamo-kortikaler Regelkreise. Unbehandelte Patienten und Patienten unter typischen Antipsychotika zeichneten sich zudem durch eine reduzierte interhemisphaerische kortikokortikale Konnektivitaet aus. Dieser Unterschied zu den Gesunden war bei den Patienten unter atypischen Antipsychotika nicht mehr in dieser Auspraegung zu beobachten, was als Ausdruck einer moeglichen positiven Beeinflussung der Informationsverarbeitung bei Patienten unter Atypika interpretiert werden koennte. Die erhaltenen Ergebnisse sind konsistent mit dem Modell der Schizophrenie als einem Diskonnektionssyndrom und frueheren Konzeptionen einer ''kognitiven Dysmetrie'' als Grundlage kognitiver Defizite bei dieser Erkrankung. (orig.)

Schloesser, R. [Universitaet Jena, Psychiatrische Klinik (Germany); Universitaet Jena, Psychiatrische Klinik, Jena (Germany); Wagner, G.; Koehler, S.; Sauer, H. [Universitaet Jena, Psychiatrische Klinik (Germany)

2005-02-01

155

Interfacial reactions and oxidation behavior of Al 2O 3 and Al 2O 3/Al coatings on an orthorhombic Ti 2AlNb alloy  

Science.gov (United States)

The uniform and dense Al2O3 and Al2O3/Al coatings were deposited on an orthorhombic Ti2AlNb alloy by filtered arc ion plating. The interfacial reactions of the Al2O3/Ti2AlNb and Al2O3/Al/Ti2AlNb specimens after vacuum annealing at 750 °C were studied. In the Al2O3/Ti2AlNb specimens, the Al2O3 coating decomposed significantly due to reaction between the Al2O3 coating and the O-Ti2AlNb substrate. In the Al2O3/Al/Ti2AlNb specimens, a ?-TiAl layer and an Nb-rich zone came into being by interdiffusion between the Al layer and the O-Ti2AlNb substrate. The ?-TiAl layer is chemically compatible with Al2O3, with no decomposition of Al2O3 being detected. No internal oxidation or oxygen and nitrogen dissolution zone was observed in the O-Ti2AlNb alloy. The Al2O3/Al/Ti2AlNb specimens exhibited excellent oxidation resistance at 750 °C.

Li, H. Q.; Wang, Q. M.; Gong, J.; Sun, C.

2011-02-01

156

EL CÁNTARO AL AGUA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este artículo es una respuesta a las objeciones que plantean Ignacio Ávila y Leonardo Cárdenas contra mi defensa de la metafísica esencialista. Se insiste en que el esencialismo puede ser compatible con la relatividad conceptual, y en que dicha metafísica puede hacer frente a la objeción según la cu [...] al debe irrespetar la máxima de que dos expresiones coextensivas son intercambiables salva veritate. Contra las observaciones de Cárdenas, se muestra que el esencialismo puede hacer uso, sin problemas, de ejemplos que apelan a los hechos institucionales, y que la idea de que sólo puede haber modalidades de dicto constituye una petición de principio si se la utiliza como argumento contra el esencialismo. Abstract in english This paper replies to independent objections by Ignacio Ávila and Leonardo Cárdenas against my defense of an essentialist metaphysics. I argue, again, that essentialism may be compatible with conceptual relativity, and that such metaphysics can face the objection according to which it is forced to b [...] e disrespectful of the dictum that two coextensive statements are interchangeable salva veritate. Against Cárdenas' views, I show that essentialism may use, without trouble, examples that appeal to institutional facts, and that the idea that there can be only de dicto modalities is question begging if it is used as an argument against essentialism.

Pablo R, Arango.

2007-09-01

157

Rub' al Khali, Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Rub' al Khali is one of the largest sand deserts in the world, encompassing most of the southern third of the Arabian Peninsula. It includes parts of Oman, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. The desert covers 650,000 square kilometers, more than the area of France. Largely unexplored until recently, the desert is 1000 km long and 500 km wide. The first documented journeys made by Westerners were those of Bertram Thomas in 1931 and St. John Philby in 1932. With daytime temperatures reaching 55 degrees Celsius, and dunes taller than 330 meters, the desert may be one of the most forbidding places on Earth. The image was acquired December 2, 2005, covers an area of 54.8 x 61.9 km, and is located near 20.7 degrees north latitude, 53.6 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2008-01-01

158

PENSAR AL SUR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Resumen:Este articulo explora la cuestion de la definicion y territorialidad del Sur Global, evocando categorias que en el pasado han definido el espacio del "tercer mundo" o "mundo en desarrollo", y como estas han dado paso a una nueva conceptualizacion a partir de los debates sobre globalizacion. Se postula al Sur como una forma de vida, y como un espacio de historias paralelas de poder, capital y subjetivacion.A partir de esta discusion, se plantea de que manera en el presente el Sur Global es un espacio de produccion innovador de teorizacion sobre lo social, que genera sus propias disciplinas y marcos epistemologicos.Palabras Claves: Sur Global , globalizacion, epistemologia Abstract:This article explored the definition and territorial scope of teh Global South, evoking past categories that have defined the space of the "Third world" or teh "developing world", and how they have paved the way to new conceptualiziations, since the beginning of the debate on globalization. The essays posits the South as a form of life and as a space of parallel histories of power, capital and subjectivation.Departing from this discussion, the essay poses the question about the way in which currently the Global Southconstitutes an innovative space of theorization of the social,qhich generates its own disciplines and epistemological frameworks. Keywords: Global South, globalization, epistemology

Juan Obarrio

2013-07-01

159

Half life of 26Al  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The half-life of 26Al has been redetermined because of suggestions of an error in the accepted value based on its use in calculating 21Ne production rates from cosmic rays in meteorites. Two solutions of 26Al were analyzed for the specific radioactivity and mass spectrometric determination of the 26Al concentration. The half-life obtained for 26Al was 7.05 x 105 years +- 3.7% at the two sigma level. This is identical to the accepted value of 7.16 x 105 years and indicates that problems with the 21Ne production rate is not due to an erroneous half-life

160

Undulators at the ALS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's (LBL) Advanced Light Source (ALS), three 4.6 m long undulators have been completed, tested and installed. A fourth is under construction. The completed undulators include two 5.0 cm period length, 89 period devices (U5.0s) which achieve a 0.85 T effective field at a 14 mm minimum gap and a 8.0 cm period length, 55 period device (U8.0) that reaches a 1.2 T effective field at a 14 mm minimum gap. The undulator under construction is a 10.0 cm period length, 43 period device (U10.0) that is designed to achieve 0.98 T at a 23 mm gap. Undulator magnetic gap variation (rms) is within 25 microns over the periodic structure length. Reproducibility of the adjustable magnetic gap has been measured to be within +/- 5 microns. Gap adjusting range is from 14 mm to 210 mm, which can be scanned in one minute. The 5.1 m long vacuum chambers are flat in the vertical direction to within 0.74 mm and straight in the horizontal direction to within 0.08 mm over the 4.6 m magnetic structure sections. Vacuum chamber base pressures after UHV beam conditioning are. in the mid 10-11 Torr range and storage ring operating pressures with full current are in the low 10-10 Torr range. Measurements show that the uncorrelated magnetic field errors are 0.23%, and 0.20% for the two U5.Os and the U8.0 respectively and that the field integrals are small over the 1 cm by 6 cm beam aperture. Device description, fabrication, and measurements are presented

 
 
 
 
161

The cathodic dissolution of Al, Al2Cu, and Al alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cathodic dissolution of aluminum has been investigated for 99.99% Al, synthetic Al2Cu, and three Al-Cu-Mg alloys: AA2024, AA7050, and AA2214 offering a range of over two orders of magnitude in hydrogen reduction activity. Atomic emission spectroelectrochemistry (AESEC) was used to directly measure the dissolution rate of the alloy components as a function of the cathodic current during potential sweep and potential step experiments. It was found that for all samples, regardless of the cathodic current density, the stoichiometric ratio of OH produced to Al dissolved varied between 1.4 and 1.8. This value is interpreted in terms of a simple model in which hydroxide generation, Al(OH)3 formation/dissolution, and Al(OH)4- diffusion are kinetically coupled together. The selective dissolution of Mg and Cu is also measured and discussed.

162

The cathodic dissolution of Al, Al{sub 2}Cu, and Al alloys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The cathodic dissolution of aluminum has been investigated for 99.99% Al, synthetic Al{sub 2}Cu, and three Al-Cu-Mg alloys: AA2024, AA7050, and AA2214 offering a range of over two orders of magnitude in hydrogen reduction activity. Atomic emission spectroelectrochemistry (AESEC) was used to directly measure the dissolution rate of the alloy components as a function of the cathodic current during potential sweep and potential step experiments. It was found that for all samples, regardless of the cathodic current density, the stoichiometric ratio of OH produced to Al dissolved varied between 1.4 and 1.8. This value is interpreted in terms of a simple model in which hydroxide generation, Al(OH){sub 3} formation/dissolution, and Al(OH){sub 4}{sup -} diffusion are kinetically coupled together. The selective dissolution of Mg and Cu is also measured and discussed.

Ogle, K., E-mail: kevin-ogle@chimie-paristech.f [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, ParisTech, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Serdechnova, M.; Mokaddem, M.; Volovitch, P. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, ParisTech, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France)

2011-01-15

163

Emanzipation oder Kindergeld? Wie sich die unterschiedlichen Kinderzahlen in den Ländern Europas erklären  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"(...) Den stetigen Rückgang der Kinderzahlen in modernen Industriegesellschaften bezeichnen manche Bevölkerungswissenschaftler als 'ökonomisch-demografisches Paradoxon'. Je mehr Kinder sich Menschen in den immer wohlhabenderen Gesellschaften theoretisch leisten könnten, je mehr individuelle Freiheiten sich ihnen eröffnen, um so weniger Nachwuchs setzen sie in die Welt. Nach dieser Theorie müssten liberale, marktwirtschaftlich und kapitalistisch orientierte Gesellschaften langfristig au...

Kro?hnert, Steffen; Olst, Nienke; Klingholz, Reiner

2004-01-01

164

Pilot-scale process development for the purification of the recombinant antibody 2G12 from transgenic tobacco  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Die Produktion von rekombinanten therapeutischen Proteinen erfährt ein mehr und mehr steigendes Interesse. Dies kommt sowohl durch den ansteigenden Bedarf als auch durch das Erreichen einer Produktionskapazität von rekombinanten Therapeutika. Transgene Pflanzen bilden hier ein ergänzendes Produktionssystem zur den bereits etablierten Produktionsplattformen. Die Etablierung einer neuen Plattform erfordert allerdings die Entwicklung eines Aufreinigungsprozesses, der von der Produktionspflanz...

Lobedann, Martin

2009-01-01

165

Kompakte Speicherung für die effiziente Verwaltung von XML-Dokumenten  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

XML wird mehr und mehr für Datenaustausch und -manipulation genutzt. Viele Ansätze verarbeiten XML-Daten im Hauptspeicher. Weil XML zunehmend häufig verwendet wird und die XML-Syntax zusätzlichen Speicher benötigt, können grössere XML-Dateien nicht im Hauptspeicher verarbeitet werden. Infolgedessen leiden diese Dateien unter den Begrenzungen aktueller Arbeitsspeicher. Hingegen werden objektrelationale Datenbanktechnologien wegen ihrer Ausgereiftheit und weiten Verbreitung als Alte...

Alkhatib, Ramez

2010-01-01

166

Crowd Innovation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Die öffentliche Verwaltung ist im Wandel: Das „selbstreferenzielle System“ öffentliche Verwaltung ist längst kein statisches Gebilde mehr. Die Verwaltung, die sich nur an selbst definierten Massstäben ausrichtet und vorgibt was gute Qualität ihrer Leistungen bedeutet, muss sich immer mehr an Massstäben Dritter messen lassen. Öffentliche Verwaltungen und öffentliche Betriebe haben die Dynamik der Umwelt aufgenommen und sind gefordert, sich ihr anzupassen. Al...

Kuno Schedler; Alexandra Collm

2011-01-01

167

Thin Films Using Al Doping  

Science.gov (United States)

We have studied the influence of Al doping on the microstructural, optical, and electrical properties of spray-deposited WO3 thin films. XRD analyses confirm that all the films are of polycrystalline WO3 in nature, possessing monoclinic structure. EDX profiles of the Al-doped films show aluminum peaks implying incorporation of Al ions into WO3 lattice. On Al doping, the average crystallite size decreases due to increase in the density of nucleation centers at the time of film growth. The observed variation in the lattice parameter values on Al doping is attributed to the incorporation of Al ions into WO3 lattice. Enhancement in the direct optical band gap compared to the undoped film has been observed on Al doping due to decrease in the width of allowed energy states near the conduction band edge. The refractive indices of the films follow the Cauchy relation of normal dispersion. Electrical resistivity compared to the undoped film has been found to increase on Al doping.

Mukherjee, Ramnayan; Prajapati, C. S.; Sahay, P. P.

2014-09-01

168

AL1-dependent repression of transcription enhances expression of Tomato golden mosaic virus AL2 and AL3  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Studies using Nicotiana benthamiana protoplasts have determined that repression of upstream transcription by AL1 protein enhances AL2 and AL3 expression in Tomato golden mosaic virus (TGMV). Mutations resulting in the inability of TGMV AL1 protein to associate with its cognate binding site, result in a decrease in both AL2 and AL3 expression. Reduced expression correlates with an increase in transcription from the AL62 start site, and decreased transcription from downstream initiation sites (...

Shung, Chia-yi; Sunter, Garry

2007-01-01

169

Frequently Asked Questions about ALS and the ALS Registry  

Science.gov (United States)

... e.g. iPad, Motorola XOOM, Dell Streak, or Blackberry Playbook) work with the National ALS Registry web ... e.g. iPad, Motorola XOOM, Dell Streak, or Blackberry Playbook)? Is there a way to increase the ...

170

Die Bedeutung der postprandialen Hyperglykämie als kardiovaskulärer Risikofaktor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Im Hinblick auf das hohe mikro- und makrovaskuläre Risiko von Typ-2-Diabetikern fordern Experten immer vehementer eine möglichst frühzeitige Diagnose und Therapie. Neben den prognostisch wichtigen Zielwerten für den Nüchternblutzucker und für das HbA1c rückt dabei die Vermeidung postprandialer Blutzuckerspitzen immer mehr ins Zentrum therapeutischer Bestrebungen. Der HbA1c-Wert wird nicht nur durch die Nüchtern-, sondern auch durch die postprandialen Blutzuckerspitzen mitbestimmt. Eine Reduktion des HbA1c-Wertes vermindert die diabetische Spätkomplikationsrate, wie die UKPDS darstellen konnte. Im folgenden werden die Epidemiologie und die Therapie der postprandialen Hyperglykämie mit Schwerpunkt auf die Behandlung des Diabetes mellitus Typ 2 dargestellt.

Hoppichler F

2002-01-01

171

Grenzregime als symbolische Politik, Grenze als politisches Symbol  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Der Beitrag erörtert die These, wonach Staatsgrenzen als politische Symbole und deshalb Grenz(sicherungs)regime - nicht nur, aber auch - als Akte symbolischer Politik begriffen und analysiert werden müssen. Ein solcher Zugang kann eventuell erklären, warum die Regulierung des 'illegalen' Grenzverkehrs allem Anschein nach wenig effektiv (im ökonomischen Sinne) ist. Die Ausführungen zur politischen Symbolhaftigkeit der Grenze gliedern sich in drei Aspekte: Im ersten Schritt wird aus histor...

Schmidt, Daniel

2004-01-01

172

In Memory of Al Cameron  

CERN Document Server

Al Cameron, who died recently (October 3, 2005) at 80, was one of the giants in astrophysics. His insights were profound and his interests were wide-ranging. Originally trained as a nuclear physicist, he made major contributions in a number of fields, including nuclear reactions in stars, nucleosynthesis, the abundances of the elements in the Solar System, and the origin of the Solar System and the Moon. In 1957, Cameron and, independently, Burbidge, Burbidge, Fowler and Hoyle, wrote seminal papers on nuclear astrophysics. Most of our current ideas concerning element formation in stars have followed from those two pioneering and historical works. Al also made many contributions in the field of Solar System physics. Particularly noteworthy in this regard was Cameron's work on the formation of the Moon. Al was also a good friend and mentor of young people. Al Cameron will be missed by many in the community both for his scientific contributions and for his friendship.

Cowan, J J; Cowan, John J.; Truran, James W.

2006-01-01

173

Suicidio por salto al vacío  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

La tendencia al suicidio se asocia con problemas de soledad, abandono sicológico en la infancia, drogadicción, enfermedades graves, etc. Y en pacientes psiquiátricos es más común tras ser dados de alta. En Argentina los suicidios aumentaron en 25% de 1990 a 1992, y el 78 % de las víctimas fueron de sexo masculino. La proporción por salto al vacío aumentó , especialmente en áreas urbanas. En 40 casos argentinos hubo introducción basal del fémur (25%), fractura del calcáneo en 17%,...

Linares, Braulio Ernesto P.; Félix Antonio Bikic

1995-01-01

174

Marketing als Konzeption des Wissenschaftsmanagements  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Das Marketing hat sich im Bereich der Privatwirtschaft als ein wesentlicher Erfolgsfaktor der Unternehmensführung erwiesen (vgl. Fritz, 1995a). Darüber hinaus ist das Marketing als Managementkonzeption auch auf den Sektor der öffenlichen Betriebe übertragen worden und wird dort bereits seit geraumer Zeit z. B. von öffentlichen Unternehmen erfolgreich praktiziert (vgl. Raffée/Fritz/Wiedmann, 1994). Jedoch hat die jüngere Diskussion um eine zukunftsträchtige, betriebswirtschaftlich akze...

Fritz, Wolfgang

1995-01-01

175

Radiation detection with Nb/Al-AlOx/Al/Nb superconducting tunnel junctions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Superconductor radiation detectors have the possibility of 20-30 times better energy resolution than that of a high resolution Si detector. We fabricated Nb/Al-AlOx/Al/Nb superconducting tunnel junctions with low leakage current. X rays were detected with large area junctions of 178x178 ?m2. High energy resolution of 160 eV for 5.9 keV was obtained. We also fabricated series connected junctions which covers a rather large area of 4x4 mm2. ? particles injected into the rear substrate were detected using nonthermal phonons induced by the radiations in the substrate. (author)

176

Diffusion AlSi-MeCrAlY coatings obtained on intermetallic ?-TiAl phase  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose: The development of new protective coatings for TiAl intermetallics was conducted. The MeCrAlYAlSi slurry was used with different amount of aluminium-silicon powder in the binder.Design/methodology/approach: The slurry consisting of aluminium and silicon powder with the addition of MeCrAlY powder were used during the procedure. The inorganic solution made from chromic and phosphoric acid was applied as a binder. The preliminary research of microstructure of obtained coatings was condu...

Go?ral, M.; Moskal, G.

2012-01-01

177

Comparing the Thermodynamic Behaviour of Al(1)+ZrO2(s) to Al(1)+Al2O3(s)  

Science.gov (United States)

In an effort to better determine the thermodynamic properties of Al(g) and Al2O(g). the vapor in equilibrium with Al(l)+ZrO2(s) was compared to the vapor in equilibrium with Al(l)+Al2O3(s) over temperature range 1197-to-1509K. The comparison was made directly by Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry with an instrument configured for a multiple effusion-cell vapor source (multi-cell KEMS). Second law enthalpies of vaporization of Al(g) and Al2O(g) together with activity measurements show that Al(l)+ZrO2(s) is thermodynamically equivalent to Al(l)+Al2O3(s), indicating Al(l) remained pure and Al2O3(s) was present in the ZrO2-cell. Subsequent observation of the Al(l)/ZrO2 and vapor/ZrO2 interfaces revealed a thin Al2O3-layer had formed, separating the ZrO2-cell from Al(l) and Al(g)+Al2O(g), effectively transforming it into an Al2O3 effusion-cell. This behavior agrees with recent observations made for Beta-NiAl(Pt) alloys measured in ZrO2 effusion-cell.

Copland, Evan

2004-01-01

178

Strain sensing with sub-micron sized Al-AlOx-Al tunnel junctions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We demonstrate a local strain sensing method for nanostructures based on metallic Al tunnel junctions with AlOx barriers. The junctions were fabricated on top of a thin silicon nitride membrane, which was actuated with an AFM tip attached to a stiff cantilever. A large relative change in the tunneling resistance in response to the applied strain (gauge factor) was observed, up to a value 37. This facilitates local static strain variation measurements down to ~10^{-7}.

Koppinen, P. J.; Lievonen, J. T.; Ahlskog, M.; Maasilta, I. J.

2009-01-01

179

Al-Fudhayl al-Wartilani, un Algérien au Yémen  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Les acteurs du "mouvement constitutionnel" de 1948 -qui a coûté la vie à l’Imam Yahya d’une part et à la fine fleur de l’élite yéménite de l’époque d’autre part- sont unanimes pour reconnaître que le personnage-clé de ce mouvement et sans lequel celui-ci n’aurait jamais vu le jour est l’Algérien al-Fudhayl al-Wartilani. Son rôle essentiel dans la préparation des esprits, l’élaboration du manifeste et l’exécution de ce qu’on appelle désormais la "révolution de 1948" est attesté par les his...

Mohamed al-Ahnaf

1999-08-01

180

Gefahr aus dem Netz - Der Internet-Chatroom als neuer Tatort für Bullying und sexuelle Viktimisierung von Kindern und Jugendlichen  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Die Phänomene ?Bullying? und ?sexuelle Viktimisierung? sind nicht mehr auf das physische Umfeld begrenzt. Formen verbaler Gewalt, sozialer Manipulation und sexueller Aggression spielen auch in Internet- Chatrooms eine bedeutende Rolle. Mehrere Fragenkomplexe standen im Mittelpunkt der vorliegenden Studie: 1. Welche Formen von Bullying und sexueller Aggression treten in Internet-Chatrooms auf? 2. Wer wird in Internet-Chatrooms zu Tätern und zu Opfern von Bullying? Wer wird zu Opfern ...

Katzer, Catarina

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Personalidad y tolerancia al dolor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se examina la relación de algunas variables de personalidad -EPQ-A (Eysenck y Eysenck, 1975, NEO-PI (McCrae y Costa, 1988 y STA -personalidad esquizotípica- y STB -personalidad límite-, de Claridge y Broks (1984, con la tolerancia al dolor experimental inducido mediante agua fría (cold pressor test, según el procedimiento de Staats, Heckmat y Staats (1998 en una muestra filtrada mediante un cuestionario sobre dolor crónico, dolores de cabeza, de espalda, artritis, síndrome de Raynaud, y personas bajo medicación. La tolerancia al dolor experimental se evaluó mediante el Umbral del dolor (tiempo en segundos desde la introducción de la mano en el agua hasta el primer informe de dolor, Mantenimiento del dolor (duración en segundos de la inmersión de la mano desde la aparición del umbral hasta su retirada y Tolerancia al dolor (duración total en segundos de la inmersión de la mano desde su introducción hasta su retirada. Un análisis correlacional, factorial y de regresión por pasos mostraron un efecto cruzado entre medidas de ansiedad (tolerancia negativa al dolor y psicoticismo, siendo psicoticismo junto con control emocional predictores de tolerancia positiva al dolor. En cuanto a psicoticismo, parece que son sus elementos de naturaleza paranoide y de "dureza" los que afectan a una percepción atenuada del dolor.

JES\\u00DAS M.\\u00AA CARRILLO

2005-01-01

182

eLearning als Herausforderung für KMU  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In mehreren Untersuchungen wurde festgestellt, dass kleine und mittlere Unternehmen (KMU) netzbasierten Lernformen wie eLearning nach wie vor zurückhaltend gegenüber stehen. Dies gilt sowohl in der Rolle als Nachfragende als auch als Anbieter von netzbasierter Weiterbildung. Es werden verschiedene Studien zum Thema vorgestellt und mögliche Perspektiven für KMU sowohl in der Rolle als Nachfrager als auch als Anbieter von eLearning aufgezeigt.

Thomas, L.

2004-01-01

183

A united refinement technology for commercial pure Al by Al-10Ti and Al-Ti-C master alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because flake-like TiAl3 particles in Al-Ti-C master alloys prepared in a melt reaction method dissolve slowly when they are added into Al melt at 720 deg. C, Ti atoms cannot be released rapidly to play the assistant role of grain refinement, leading to a poor refinement efficiency of Al-Ti-C master alloys. A united refinement technology by Al-10Ti and Al-Ti-C master alloys was put forward in this paper. The rational combination of fine blocky TiAl3 particles in Al-10Ti and TiC particles in Al-Ti-C can improve the nucleation rate of ?-Al. It not only improves the grain refinement efficiency of Al-Ti-C master alloys, but also reduces the consumption

184

Particle distribution and orientation in Al-Al3Zr and Al-Al3Ti FGMs produced by the centrifugal method  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Al-Al3Zr and Al-Al3Ti functionally graded materials (FGMs) were produced by a centrifugal method from Al-5wt% Zr and Al-5wt% Ti alloys, respectively. Applied centrifugal forces were 30, 60 and 120G (units of gravity). Microstructural characterization was performed to evaluate the intermetallic particles’ distribution and orientation. Knoop hardness tests were carried out, with the indenter’s long diameter normal to the centrifugal force direction. Both the Al3Zr and the Al3Ti intermetalli...

Sequeira, P. D.; Watanabe, Y.; Rocha, L. A.

2005-01-01

185

Analisis Prosedur Transfer Dalam Terjemahan Surah Al-Baqarah Pada Syamil Al-Qur`An  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Penelitian Prosedur Transfer ini membahas tentang cara atau proses penerjemahan surah Al-Baqarah pada Syamil Al-quran menurut prosedur transfer serta menilik seberapa konsistenkah prosedur transfer dalam penerjemahan surah Al-Baqarah pada Syamil Al-Qur’an. Permasalahan yang diteliti adalah bagaimanakah prosedur transfer dalam penerjemahan surah Al-Baqarah pada Syamil Al-Qur’an dan konsistensi prosedur transfer dalam penerjemahan surah Al-Baqarah pada Syamil Al-Qur’an. Tujuan penel...

Hasibuan, Baihaki

2010-01-01

186

Modeling of the ALS linac  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ALS injector linac is used for the Beam Test Facility (BTF) and the Damping Experiments when it is available in between the ALS filings. These experiments usually require higher quality beams and a better characterization than is normally required for ALS operations. This paper focuses on the beam emittance, energy tilt, and especially the longitudinal variation of the beam parameters. For instance, the authors want to avoid longitudinal variations at the low beta section of the BTF. On the other hand, a large energy tilt is required for post-acceleration compression of the bunch using an alpha magnet. The PARMELA code was modified to calculate and display longitudinal variations of the emittance ellipse. Using the Microsoft Development Studio under Windows NT environment the code can handle a much larger number of particles than was previously possible

187

AlN/Fe/AlN nanostructures for magnetooptic magnetometry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

AlN/Fe/AlN/Cu nanostructures with ultrathin Fe grown by sputtering on Si substrates are evaluated as probes for magnetooptical (MO) mapping of weak currents. They are considered for a laser wavelength of ??=?410?nm (3.02?eV) and operate at oblique light incidence angles, ?{sup (0)}, to enable detection of both in-plane and out-of-plane magnetization. Their performance is evaluated in terms of MO reflected wave electric field amplitudes. The maximal MO amplitudes in AlN/Fe/AlN/Cu are achieved by a proper choice of layer thicknesses. The nanostructures were characterized by MO polar Kerr effect at ?{sup (0)}???5° and longitudinal Kerr effect spectra (?{sup (0)}?=?45°) at photon energies between 1 and 5?eV. The nominal profiles were refined using a model-based analysis of the spectra. Closed form analytical expressions are provided, which are useful in the search for maximal MO amplitudes.

Lišková-Jakubisová, E., E-mail: liskova@karlov.mff.cuni.cz; Viš?ovský, Š. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Ke Karlovu 5, 12116 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Široký, P.; Hrabovský, D.; Pištora, J. [Nanotechnology Center, Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 70833 Ostrava Poruba (Czech Republic); Harward, I.; Celinski, Z. [Center for Magnetism and Magnetic Nanostructures, University of Colorado at Colorado Springs, 1420 Austin Bluffs Pkwy., Colorado Springs, Colorado 80918 (United States)

2014-05-07

188

Mo-Co-Al system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An isothermal section of the Mo-Co-Al system at 1000 deg C is given. X-ray diffraction and X-ray emission analyses have been used to draw the phase diagram. The ternary compound identified in the system is MoCosub(0.28)Alsub(2.72) having the structure of the TiAl3 type and the following lattice parameters: a=3.743, c=8.401 A, c/a=2.244. The compound exists at 1000 deg and 800 deg C

189

Burdai ya Al-Busiri  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Burda (or `mantle´), an Arabic poem in praise of the prophet Muhammad (s. a.u.), was composed in Egypt by the 7th /13th century poet al-Busiri. Over the centuries the Burda of al-Busiri has become familiar in many parts of the Islamic world, including Swahili-land -where it is known as Burdai. Although it has already been translated into Swahili verse, this seems to be the first occasion that the Burdai has been translated into Swahili prose (into kiMvita, the speech of Swahili Mambasa)....

Omar, Yahya Ali

2012-01-01

190

VENEZUELA: OTRA ALTERNATIVA AL NEOLIBERALISMO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

con las fuerzas que se oponen al cambio y que aún no han sido derrotadas totalmente. Estas fuerzas, aunque están desprestigiadas política y socialmente, cuentan con poder económico, financiero, militar, con los medios de comunicación a su favor y con el apoyo incondicional de los Estados Unidos.

Huber Fern\\u00E1ndez Gonz\\u00E1lez

2008-01-01

191

Uslub Al-Qur'an  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bahasa Arab pertama sekali dikenal sebagai bahasa orang-orang di Jazirah Semenanjung Arabia, kemudian setelah datangnya Agama Islam dikenal pula sebagai bahasa agama sebab Al-Quran sebagai pedoman hidup kaum muslimin itu dituliskan dalam bahas Arab yang sangat indah susunan dan rangkaian kalimatnya.

Aminullah

2002-01-01

192

Cathodic electrochemiluminescence at double barrier Al/Al2O3/Al/Al2O3 tunnel emission electrodes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Double insulating barrier tunnel emission electrodes were fabricated by adding a new pure aluminum layer upon oxidized aluminum electrodes by vacuum evaporation and thermally oxidizing the new aluminum layer in air at room temperature. Resulting Al/Al2O3/Al/Al2O3 electrodes allow the use of various aluminum alloys in the electrode body necessary for hardness or shaping ability of the electrode while obtaining the luminescence properties of pure aluminum oxide. During electrical excitation of luminescent labels by cathodic hot electron injection into aqueous electrolyte solution, the background noise is mainly based on high-field-induced solid-state electroluminescence and F-center luminescence of the outer aluminum oxide film. The more defect states and/or impurity centers the outer oxide film contains, the higher is the background emission intensity. The present electrode fabrication method provides a considerable improvement in signal-to-noise ratio for time-resolved electrochemiluminescence (TR-ECL) measurements when the original native oxide film of the electrode body contains luminescence centers displaying long-lived luminescence. The excellent performance of the present electrodes is demonstrated by extremely low-level detection of Tb(III) chelates, luminol, Pt(II) coproporphyrin and Tb(III) labels in an immunometric immunoassay by time-resolved electrochemiluminescence

193

Entscheidungsfreiheit als Grundlage wirtschaftswissenschaftlicher Forschung  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Der Beitrag untersucht die Frage, ob Entscheidungsfreiheit als zentrale Voraussetzung der normativen Entscheidungstheorie durch Ethik und Neurobiologie in Frage gestellt wird. Nach dem in ihm entwickelten Verständnis von Unternehmensethik ist die Handlungsfreiheit der betrieblichen Handlungsträger eine notwendige Basis für die Behandlung ethischer Problem-stellungen von Unternehmungen, nicht deren Beschränkung. Die Analyse der von der Neuro-biologie aufgeworfenen Frage der Willensfreiheit...

Ku?pper, Hans-ulrich

2006-01-01

194

Online-Beratung als Präventionsmaßnahme.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In diesem Artikel werden die Erfahrungen, Ergebnisse und Perspektiven des Modellprojektes „BKK Lebenshilfe Online“ dargestellt, das sich aufgrund der besonderen Kooperation unterschiedlicher Akteure in Deutschland als bundesweit einmalig auszeichnet. So wurde durch den Bundesverband der Betriebkrankenkassen (BKK BV) zusammen mit dem Projekt beranet.de und der Beteiligung von 36 Beratungsstellen und Selbsthilfeorganisationen ein verbandsübergreifendes Onlineratungsangebot zur gesundheitli...

Petra Risau

2005-01-01

195

Dynamic Modeling of ALS Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of dynamic modeling and simulation of Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems is to help design them. Static steady state systems analysis provides basic information and is necessary to guide dynamic modeling, but static analysis is not sufficient to design and compare systems. ALS systems must respond to external input variations and internal off-nominal behavior. Buffer sizing, resupply scheduling, failure response, and control system design are aspects of dynamic system design. We develop two dynamic mass flow models and use them in simulations to evaluate systems issues, optimize designs, and make system design trades. One model is of nitrogen leakage in the space station, the other is of a waste processor failure in a regenerative life support system. Most systems analyses are concerned with optimizing the cost/benefit of a system at its nominal steady-state operating point. ALS analysis must go beyond the static steady state to include dynamic system design. All life support systems exhibit behavior that varies over time. ALS systems must respond to equipment operating cycles, repair schedules, and occasional off-nominal behavior or malfunctions. Biological components, such as bioreactors, composters, and food plant growth chambers, usually have operating cycles or other complex time behavior. Buffer sizes, material stocks, and resupply rates determine dynamic system behavior and directly affect system mass and cost. Dynamic simulation is needed to avoid the extremes of costly over-design of buffers and material reserves or system failure due to insufficient buffers and lack of stored material.

Jones, Harry

2002-01-01

196

Atomic and electronic structure of ultra-thin Al/AlOx/Al interfaces  

CERN Document Server

Interfaces between metals based on AlO$_{x}$ represent the most popular basis for Josephson junctions or, more recently, also for junctions exhibiting substantial tunneling magneto-resistance. We have performed a computational study of possible local geometric structures of such interfaces at the ab-initio DFT/GGA level of approximation to complement recent experimental data on ultra-thin AlO$_{x}$-based interfaces. We present two competing structures that we characterise with their electronic properties: fragmentation and interface energies.

Dieskova, M; Bokes, P

2006-01-01

197

First principles calculation of ac conductance for Al-BDT-Al and Al-Cn-Al systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We perform first-principles calculation to investigate the dynamic conductance of atomic wires of the benzenedithiol (BDT as well as carbon chains with different length in contact with two Al(100 electrodes (Al-Cn-Al. Our calculation is based on the combination of the non-equilibrium Green's function and the density functional theory. For ac conductance, there are two theories that ensures the current conservation: (1. the global formula which is a phenomenological theory that partitions the total displacement current into each leads so that the current is conserved.(2. the local formula which is a microscopic theory that includes Coulomb interaction explicitly so that the current is conserved automatically. In this work, we use the local formula to calculate the dynamic conductance, especially the emittance. We give a detailed comparison and analysis for the results obtained from two theories. Our numerical results show that the global formula overestimates the emittance by two orders of magnitude. We also obtain an inequality showing that the emittance from global formula is greater than that from local formula for real atomic structures. For Al-Cn-Al structures, the oscillatory behavior as the number of carbon chain N varies from even to odd remains unchanged when local formula is used. However, the prediction of local formula gives rise to opposite response when N is odd (inductive-like as compared with that of global formula. Therefore, one should use the local formula for an accurate description of ac transport in nanoscale structures. In addition, the ‘size effect’ of the ac emittance is analyzed and can be understood by the kinetic inductance. Since numerical calculation using the global formula can be performed in orbital space while the local formula can only be used in real space, our numerical results indicate that the calculation using the local formula is extremely computational demanding.

Jia-Ning Zhuang

2011-12-01

198

The temperature dependence of elasticity modulus for TiAl and Ni3Al – basic alloy components for turbine rotor blade. ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ??????????????? TiAl ? Ni3Al – ???????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??????.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Possibility of theoretical determination of elastic characteristics for intermetallides on the example of TiAl and Ni3Al on the base of electrostatic nature of elasticity is demonstrated. Elaborated method is able for using for computing modeling of mono- and polycrystal materials under conditions of experimental data absence. ????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ???? ?? ?????? ?????????????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????????? ?? ??????? TiAl ? Ni3Al. ????????????? ????? ????? ???????????? ??? ????????????? ????????????? ????- ? ??????????????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ????????????????? ??????.

?. ?. ????????

2013-01-01

199

AlSb/InAs/AlSb quantum wells  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers studied the InAs/AlSb system recently, obtaining 12nm wide quantum wells with room temperature mobilities up to 28,000 cm(exp 2)/V center dot S and low-temperature mobilities up to 325,000 cm(exp 2)/V center dot S, both at high electron sheet concentrations in the 10(exp 12)/cm(exp 2) range (corresponding to volume concentrations in the 10(exp 18)/cm(exp 2) range). These wells were not intentionally doped; the combination of high carrier concentrations and high mobilities suggest that the electrons are due to not-intentional modulation doping by an unknown donor in the AlSb barriers, presumably a stoichiometric defect, like an antisite donor. Inasmuch as not intentionally doped bulk AlSb is semi-insulating, the donor must be a deep one, being ionized only by draining into the even deeper InAs quantum well. The excellent transport properties are confirmed by other observations, like excellent quantum Hall effect data, and the successful use of the quantum wells as superconductive weak links between Nb electrodes, with unprecendentedly high critical current densities. The system is promising for future field effect transistors (FETs), but many processing problems must first be solved. Although the researchers have achieved FETs, the results so far have not been competitive with GaAs FETs.

Kroemer, Herbert

1990-01-01

200

Diffusion AlSi-MeCrAlY coatings obtained on intermetallic ?-TiAl phase  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: The development of new protective coatings for TiAl intermetallics was conducted. The MeCrAlYAlSi slurry was used with different amount of aluminium-silicon powder in the binder.Design/methodology/approach: The slurry consisting of aluminium and silicon powder with the addition of MeCrAlY powder were used during the procedure. The inorganic solution made from chromic and phosphoric acid was applied as a binder. The preliminary research of microstructure of obtained coatings was conducted.Findings: The obtained coating consisting of 3 or 4 zones (depending on chemical composition of the slurry was obtained during the annealing process (950°C/4h.Research limitations/implications: The research results revealed the possibility of obtaining coatings with complex phase and chemical composition.Practical implications: Many problems connected with sedimentation of heavier MeCrAlY powder were observed.Originality/value: The copletele new technologies was described in article

M. Góral

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
201

Molecular dynamics study of Al and Ni3Al sputtering by Al clusters bombardment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sputtering of Al and Ni3Al (1 0 0) surfaces induced by impact of Al ions and AlN clusters (N=2,4,6,9,13,55) with energies of 100 and 500 eV/atom is studied at atomic scale by means of classical molecular dynamics (MD). The MD code we used implements many-body tight binding potential splined to ZBL at short distances. Special attention has been paid to model dense cascades: we used quite big computation cells with lateral periodic and damped boundary conditions. In addition, long simulation times (10-25 ps) and representative statistics (up to 1000 runs per each case) were considered. The total sputtering yields, energy and time spectrums of sputtered particles, as well as preferential sputtering of compound target were analyzed, both in the linear and non-linear regimes. The significant 'cluster enhancement' of sputtering yield was found for cluster sizes N?13. In parallel, we estimated collision cascade features depending on cluster size in order to interpret the nature of observed non-linear effects

202

Publikationsmanagement an Hochschulen. Wie erreiche ich mehr durch weniger? Das Projekt PUMA an der Universität Kassel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Publication Management within Universities - How can I get more with less? (Translation of the title). Universities and scientific publishing belong together. In universities the support of publication management gets increasing relevance. The different interests are complex. Authors need comfortable working environments, the presiding committees of the universities need more information about research and libraries provide infrastructure with repositories. New trends in library will depend l...

Steenweg, Helge

2012-01-01

203

Neue Anlagevorschriften für Vorsorgewerke bringen weniger Regulierung: mehr Eigenverantwortung für die Stiftungsräte von Schweizer Pensionskassen  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Am 1. Januar treten die neuen Anlagerichtlinien für Schweizer Vorsorgeeinrichtungen in Kraft. Mit ihnen dürfte die Professionalisierung der zweiten Säule weiter vorangetrieben werden. Der Anpassungsbedarf bei den Vorsorgewerken ist unterschiedlich.

Skaanes, Stephan; Reichlin, Andreas

2008-01-01

204

Verfassungsrechtliche Maßstäbe der Familienpolitik: die Familie mehr, die traditionelle Ehe weniger fördern  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Das Bundesverfassungsgericht hat gefordert, künftig im Steuer- und Sozialrecht verstärkt zu berücksichtigen, dass Eltern einen erheblichen Aufwand für den Lebensunterhalt und die Erziehung der Kinder tragen. Dazu wäre die Erhöhung monetärer und realer Transferleistungen zugunsten der Kinderbetreuung und Kindererziehung der richtige Weg. Die Verfassung gebietet es, die knappen öffentlichen Mittel dort einzusetzen, wo der Bedarf der Familien am größten ist. Dem würde eine Erhöhung d...

Kirner, Ellen

2002-01-01

205

Risked a lot and won a lot more; Viel gewagt, mehr gewonnen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

What do 7,300 inhabitants with a 90 hectare great ammunition depot of the Bundeswehr? They build a bioenergy park. This courageous decision not only attracts hordes of visitors to Saerbeck, it also provides for regular incomes. [German] Was fangen 7.300 Einwohner mit einem 90 ha grossen Munitionsdepot der Bundeswehr an? Sie bauen einen Bioenergiepark. Die mutige Entscheidung lockt nicht nur Heerscharen von Besuchern nach Saerbeck, sie sorgt auch fuer regelmaessige Einnahmen.

Thomas, Torsten

2013-07-05

206

Greater efficiency for man and machine; Mehr Effizienz fuer Mensch und Maschine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With its new family of shunting locomotives, Vossloh Locomotives sets new standards in technology, safeguarding of investment and consultancy. Alongside three diesel-hydraulic models, the standard portfolio now also includes two diesel-electric models with power output of up to 1,800 kilowatts. The latter models have been designed such that Vossloh will be able to supply spare parts at short notice over a service life of up to 30 years. All locomotives are based on a modular architecture that can be adapted to individual and country-specific requirements depending on the application. In addition, Vossloh has developed innovative tools for the new loco family that enable operators to analyse their locomotives' fuel consumption and optimise it according to their use. (orig.)

Ramcke, Bernd; Hildebrandt, Tim [Vossloh Locomotives GmbH, Kiel (Germany)

2010-09-15

207

Mehr Erdgas für den Klimaschutz? Chancen und Risiken einer erweiterten Gasstrategie für die europäische Energieversorgung  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

'For the foreseeable future the European energy supply will continue to depend on fossil energy carriers. In that context, natural gas has the potential to contribute to saving CO2 emissions. According to this study, an increased utilization of natural gas could avoid approximately 85 million tons of CO2 emissions throughout Europe in the long term. The study shows that an expansion of the natural gas share would be a responsible step towards securing a reliable and competitive energy supply....

Hobohm, Jens

2008-01-01

208

Das Human Factors Projekt im Wilhelminenspital - mehr Sicherheit in der Medizin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "Aus Fehlern lernt man" ? jedoch nur dann, wenn dieses Thema auch offen angesprochen wird. Um die Patientensicherheit an der Gynäkologisch- Geburtshilflichen Abteilung des Wilhelminenspitals zu optimieren, kommen seit nunmehr zwei Jahren Methoden der Human-Factors-Forschung zur Anwendung. Diese Sicherheitsinstrumente werden in der Luftfahrt bereits seit Jahrzehnten erfolgreich angewandt und sind zum Teil sogar gesetzlich vorgeschrieben. Zentrales Anliegen ist hierbei die genaue Analyse der sicherheitsrelevanten Abläufe und somit ein kritisches Hinterfragen der täglichen Routine. Denn bevor ein Mensch einen Fehler begehen kann, muß er zuerst die passenden Voraussetzungen dafür vorfinden: im System. Der Einsatz von Analysegruppen und Checklisten bietet in diesem Zusammenhang die Möglichkeit, zum einen die Genese von Fehlern exakt zu überprüfen und zum anderen mit Hilfe eines klaren Leitfadens Unsicherheiten bereits im Vorfeld zu reduzieren. Höchstleistungen in der Medizin sind nur dann möglich, wenn hochqualifizierte Menschen unter ebenso qualitativ hochwertigen Bedingungen zusammenarbeiten können. Effiziente und wertschätzende Kommunikation im Team bildet die Grundlage für eine solche Zusammenarbeit. Und genau hier setzt der Human-Factors-Gedanke an: In einer Arbeitsumwelt, die von enormer Verantwortung, Stress und Leistungsdruck geprägt ist, muß der wichtigste Sicherheitsfaktor gestärkt und gesichert werden: der Mensch.

Lass H

2006-01-01

209

Das Human Factors Projekt im Wilhelminenspital - mehr Sicherheit in der Medizin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"Aus Fehlern lernt man" ? jedoch nur dann, wenn dieses Thema auch offen angesprochen wird. Um die Patientensicherheit an der Gynäkologisch- Geburtshilflichen Abteilung des Wilhelminenspitals zu optimieren, kommen seit nunmehr zwei Jahren Methoden der Human-Factors-Forschung zur Anwendung. Diese Sicherheitsinstrumente werden in der Luftfahrt bereits seit Jahrzehnten erfolgreich angewandt und sind zum Teil sogar gesetzlich vorgeschrieben. Zentrales Anliegen ist hierbei die genaue Analyse d...

Lass H; Ujcik A; Brunbauer M; Salzer H

2006-01-01

210

Unterstützung und stärkeorientierte Schulentwicklung durch das Programm "Ideen für mehr! Ganztägig lernen."  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Noch vor wenigen Jahren spaltete allein das Wort „Ganztagsschule“ die Geister. Große Kontroversen über das Für und Wider und über die beste Ganztagsschule prägten das Bild. Mit den Erfahrungen der ersten Jahre und mit dem Konzept, dialogisch mit allen Partnern bedarfsspezifische Lösungen und länderadäquate Formen zu entwickeln, in jedem Falle aber von den Bedürfnissen des Kindes aus Schule zu denken, hat sich eine sachbezogene Diskussion entwickelt, die Heterogenität nicht nur a...

Kahl, Heike; Wichmann, Maren

2011-01-01

211

Al-Hadith Text Classifier  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study explore the implementation of a text classification method to classify the prophet Mohammed (PBUH hadiths (sayings using Sahih Al-Bukhari classification. The sayings explain the Holy Qur`an, which considered by Muslims to be the direct word of Allah. Present method adopts TF/IDF (Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency which is used usually for text search. TF/IDF was used for term weighting, in which document weights for the selected terms are computed, to classify non-vocalized sayings, after their terms (keywords have been transformed to the corresponding canonical form (i.e., roots, to one of eight Books (classes, according to Al-Bukhari classification. A term would have a higher weight if it were a good descriptor for a particular book, i.e., it appears frequently in the book but is infrequent in the entire corpus.

Mohammed Naji Al-Kabi

2005-01-01

212

Het Rijksmuseum als historisch museum  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Het vorig jaar heropende Rijksmuseum afficheert zich expressis verbis alsMuseum van Nederland. Het pretendeert ‘kunst, geschiedenis en mensente verbinden’ en doet dat aan de hand van voorwerpen die het museumsinds zijn oprichting verzamelt. Nadat enkele redactieleden van dit blad denieuwe presentatie hadden aanschouwd, speciaal met het oog op de manierwaarop kunst en geschiedenis in samenhang worden gepresenteerd, kwambij de redactie de behoefte op om h...

Catrien Santing

2014-01-01

213

Die Metamorphosen als intertextuelles Prinzip  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Die Metamorphosen als intertextuelles Prinzip 1. Antike Intertextualität im Spannungsfeld von aemulatio und imitatio Ein antikes Werk steht in nahezu keinem Fall für sich, sondern ist immer die Antwort auf einen Vorgängertext in variierender, fortführender, antithetischer etc. Manier. Dies macht sich nicht nur in der begrenzten Stoffwahl merkbar, die meistenteils aus dem mythischen und heroischen Bereich schöpft und sich für Modernisierung und Aktualisierung auf Stil, Ideolekt u...

Reber, Ursula

2002-01-01

214

Als opvoeden niet vanzelf gaat.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Alle kinderen zijn op opvoeding aangewezen. Binnen de vanzelfsprekendheid van een pedagogische relatie en de wederzijdse betrokkenheid tussen opvoeder en kind ontwikkelt het kind zich op weg naar volwassenheid. Meestal verloopt dit proces zonder al te veel problemen. Bij zo'n tien tot vijftien procent van de kinderen verlopen ontwikkeling en opvoeding echter niet vanzelf. Dit uit zich veelal in achterstanden en probleemgedrag bij het kind en een grote handelingsverlegenheid bij de opvoeder...

Hoof, van, Liesbeth; De Vries

2011-01-01

215

Estomatitis protésica: puesta al dia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

La estomatitis protésica es una inflamación crónica de la mucosa oral debida al contacto con una prótesis extraible. Es un proceso difícil de controlar en los pacientes portadores de este tipo de prótesis. La patología involucra diferentes factores predisponentes, y el más importante de ellos es la presencia de Candida. En el presente artículo se describe el manejo del paciente y las dificultades de los tratamientos actuales para eliminar de las prótesis y de la mucosa oral los resi...

Ayuso Montero, Rau?l; Torrent-collado, Jose?; Lo?pez Lo?pez, Jose?

2004-01-01

216

La Ris?la al-dahabiyya, traité médical attribué à l'im?m 'Al? al-Ri??'  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Les dires des imams chiites, et en particulier ceux de Ja'far al-Sadiq (699-765) et de 'Ali al-Riza (770-818), inclurent, comme ceux du prophète Muhammad, références variées au sujet du savoir médicale. Celles-ci furent englobées dans des collections canoniques des traditions chiites, telle le Kitab al-Kafi de al-Kulayni (m. 940 env.). À partir de IX siècle, les dires sur la médecine de Muhammad furent réunis dans textes médicales divers en arabe telle le Tibb al-nabi de Abu al-Qas...

Speziale, Fabrizio

2004-01-01

217

The effect of Si in Al-alloy on electromigration performance in Al filled vias  

Science.gov (United States)

Electromigration performance of vias filled with Al-Si-Cu alloys on Ti glue layers was investigated in comparison with W-stud vias. In Al-Si-Cu filled vias, voids were formed at only a few locations in the test structure, while voids were formed at every via in W-stud via chains. It is supposed that Al moves through the Al-Si-Cu via during electromigration in spite of the existence of a glue layer at the via bottom. This phenomenon was observed only in the vias filled with Al-Si-Cu alloy. Al movement was prohibited in Al-Cu filled vias. In Al-Si-Cu filled vias, an Al-Ti-Si alloy was formed at the via bottom while Al3Ti was formed at Al-Cu filled vias. Al is speculated to move through this Al-Ti-Si alloy during electromigration.

Kageyama, Makiko; Hashimoto, Keiichi; Onoda, Hiroshi

1998-01-01

218

AlN nanoparticle-reinforced nanocrystalline Al matrix composites: Fabrication and mechanical properties  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To improve the specific strength and stiffness of Al-based composites, AlN/Al nanoparticles were in-situ synthesized by arc plasma evaporation of Al in nitrogen atmosphere and consolidated by hot-pressing to fabricate AlN nanoparticle-reinforced nanocrystalline Al composites (0-39 vol.% AlN). Microstructure characterization shows that AlN nanoparticles homogeneously distribute in the matrix of Al nanocrystalline, which forms atomically bonded interfaces of AlN/Al. The hardness and the elastic modulus of the nanocomposite have been improved dramatically, up to 3.48 GPa and 142 GPa, respectively. Such improvement is believed to result from the grain refinement strengthening and the interface strengthening (load transfer) between the Al matrix and AlN nanoparticles.

Liu, Y.Q. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Cong, H.T. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)], E-mail: htcong@imr.ac.cn; Wang, W. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Sun, C.H. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Functional Nanomaterials, Centre for Computational Molecular Science, Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, AIBN Building 75, University of Queensland, Qld 4072, Brisbane (Australia); Cheng, H.M. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

2009-04-15

219

First-principles calculations on Al/AlB 2 interfaces  

Science.gov (United States)

The AlB 2 (1 1 1) surfaces and Al (1 1 1)/AlB 2 (0 0 0 1) interface were studied by first-principles calculations to clarify the heterogeneous nucleation potential of ?-Al grains on AlB 2 particles in purity aluminium and hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys. It is demonstrated that the AlB 2 (0 0 0 1) surface models with more than nine atomic layers exhibit bulk-like interior, wherein the interlayer relaxations localized within the top three layers are well converged. The outmost layer of AlB 2 free surface having a preference of metal atom termination is evidenced by surface energy calculations. With Al atoms continuing the natural stacking sequence of bulk AlB 2, Al-Al metallic bonds are formed across interface during the combination of Al atoms with Al-terminated AlB 2 surface. The calculated interfacial energy of the Al/AlB 2 interface is much larger than that between the ?-Al and aluminium melts, elucidating the poor nucleation potency of ?-Al grains on AlB 2 particles from thermodynamic considerations.

Han, Y. F.; Dai, Y. B.; Wang, J.; Shu, D.; Sun, B. D.

2011-06-01

220

Microstructural study of the ?-Al2O3??-Al2O3 transformation in CVD ?-Al2O3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The microstructural variations occurring during the ? ? ? transformation in CVD ?-Al2O3 coatings subjected to isothermal heat treatments have been investigated. The microstructures developed in the partly transformed ?-Al2O3 layer (32% ?-Al2O3) and fully transformed ?-Al2O3 layer (100% ?-Al2O3) were studied and compared with as-deposited ?-Al2O3 (100% ?-Al2O3). The occurrence of extensive cracking in the transformed alumina layer resulting from the volume contraction encountered in the ? ? ? transformation was confirmed. No changes could be detected in the surface morphology of the alumina coatings as a result of the ? ? ? transformation. The ?-Al2O3 which formed as a result of the ? ? ? transformation exhibited a totally different microstructure from that of the as-deposited ?-Al2O3. Except for the cracks, the microstructure of ?-Al2O3 thus formed did not differ significantly from that reported for CVD ?-Al2O3. The cracks in ?-Al2O3 were situated mainly at the grain boundaries of as-deposited ?-Al2O3 and formed a relatively regular crack network. The ? ? ? transformation appeared to be initiated at free surfaces; accordingly the phase transformation occution occurred preferentially along the thermal cracks which were formed in the coating during cooling from the deposition temperature

 
 
 
 
221

The Collections - Dar al-Athar al-Islamiyyah  

Science.gov (United States)

Regarded by experts as one of a handful of the most comprehensive collections of Islamic art in the world, the al-Sabah holdings in Kuwait feature 20,000 objects from geographically and chronologically diverse locations. Nine categories - Metals, Ceramics, Glass, Ivory & Wood, Jewelry & Hardstone, Numismatics, Rugs & Textiles, Manuscripts & Calligraphy, and Stone & Stucco - can be accessed from the collections page with the click of a mouse. Within each category, short essays contextualize the beautiful photographs of ancient, medieval, and modern Islamic art in a wide variety of mediums and styles.

222

Aportació al coneixement del gènere Orobanche L. als Països Catalans  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

S'ha fet una aportació al coneixement del gènere Orobanche L. per la flora dels Països Catalans. La revisió s'ha fet mitjançant un estudi crític de la informació bibliogràfica i dels principals herbaris relacionats amb el territori. Ressaltem la presència de tàxons de marcat interès corològic, com és el cas d'Orobanche schultzii i d'O. ballotae, primeres cites pels Països Catalans, i també d'altres espècies poc citades o conflictives com són O. foetida i O. crinita. En alguns...

Pujadas Salva?, A. J.

2001-01-01

223

Synthesis of AlN/Al Polycrystals along with Al Nanoparticles Using Thermal Plasma Route  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper for the first time reports the (200) oriented growth of hexagonal Aluminum nitride crystals during synthesis of aluminum nanoparticles in dc transferred arc thermal plasma reactor by gas phase condensation in nitrogen plasma. The structural and morphological study of as synthesized AlN crystal and aluminium nanoparticles was done by using the x-ray diffraction method, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy.

224

Vom Gewohnheitstier zur reflektierten Nutzung – Ein Diskussionsanstoß über Betriebssysteme und Programmnutzung nachzudenken  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Das Nutzungsverhalten bei digitalen Medien entspringt mehr der Gewohnheit als dem vorhandenen Angebot. Ein kleiner Einblick in die Philosophie und Möglichkeiten der Nutzung von Freier Software.

Christian Berger

2010-06-01

225

Produktion von Screencasts mit Screencast-O-Matic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wenn Bilder manchmal mehr als 1000 Worte sagen, wie schaut es dann mit Videos aus? Eine Beschreibung der praktischen Nutzung eines Online Tools für Screenrecording (Bildschirmaufnahme und Webpublikation (Youtube zur einfachen Erstellung audiovisueller Unterrichtsmaterialien.

Felix Studencki

2013-09-01

226

Schattenwirtschaft: Vorsicht vor hohen Makroschätzungen  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Die Schattenwirtschaft wird in Deutschland regelmäßig sehr hoch geschätzt. Diese Makroschätzungen lassen sich jedoch mit den viel niedrigeren Mikroschätzungen nicht in Einklang bringen. Fraglich ist, ob aufgrund der Fehleinschätzung der Schattenwirtschaft teure Kontrollinstrumente geschaffen wurden, die mehr schaden als nutzen.

Thießen, Ulrich

2011-01-01

227

77 FR 73732 - In the Matter of Amendment of the Designation of al-Qa'ida in Iraq, aka Jam'at al Tawhid wa'al...  

Science.gov (United States)

...al-Rafidayn, aka The Organization of al-Jihad's Base of Operations in Iraq, aka al-Qaida of Jihad in Iraq, aka al-Qaida in Iraq, aka al-Qaida in Mesopotamia, aka al-Qaida in the Land of the Two Rivers, aka al-Qaida of the...

2012-12-11

228

Al-?aq?qah al-Muw?faqah li al-Shar?‘ah: al-Ta??lu? bayn al-Ta?awuf wa al-Shar?‘ah bi Nusantara fi al-Qarn al-S?dis ‘Ashr al-M?l?d?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article discusses the reinterpretation of wa?dat al-wuj?d doctrine among Muslims of the archipelago, using the shar?‘ah approach in Sufism as suggested by Al-B?rhanp?r? (d.1620 in his work al-Haq?qah al-Muw?faqah li al-Shar?‘ah. This work is one of the commentaries (shar? from al-Tu?fah al-Mursalah ila r?? al-Nab? SAW, that invited much debate among Muslims of the archipelago. Al-B?rhanp?r?’s detailed interpretation of wa?dat al-wuj?d doctrine proved that the essence of the concept did not contradict the basic principles of Islam as contained in the Quran and Hadith. Al-B?rhanp?r?  interpreted the concept through explanations that adjusted to the audience’s competence, utilizing oral language carefully in revealing spiritual experience not easily explained, as well as employing the bases of shar?‘ah. Al-Haq?qah al-Muw?faqah has provided the information about the explanations of interpretation tradition among the archipelago sufis.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v20i1.350 

Iin Suryaningsih

2013-04-01

229

"PULS." – ein Blog als Online-Magazin für Medizinstudierendeder Goethe-Universität Frankfurt ["PULS." – a Blog-based Online-Magazine for Students of Medicine of the Goethe University Frankfurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available [english] In the context of nationwide protests 2009 also students of the faculty of medicine/dentistry at Goethe-University in Frankfurt demanded more transparency and communication. To satisfy these demands, a web 2.0-tool offered an innovative solution: A blog-based online-magazine for students and other faculty-members.The online-magazine „PULS.“ is realized with the share-ware blog-software (wordpress version 3.1.3 and is conceived and written by an online-journalist. „PULS.“ is available from .The articles are generated from own investigations and from ideas of different groups of the faculty– deanship, students and lecturers. A user-analysis is conducted with the open-source software Piwik and considers the data security. Additionally, every year an anonymous online-user-survey (Survey Monkey is conducted.“PULS.” is continuously online since 14.02.2010 and has published 806 articles (state: 27.11.2012 and has about 2400 readers monthly. The content focuses on the needs of Frankfurt medical students. The close cooperation with different groups of the faculty - deanship, students and lecturers - furthermore guarantees themes relevant to the academic faculty. “PULS.” flanks complex projects and decisions with background-information and communicates them understandable.The user-evaluation shows a growing number of readers and a high acceptance for the online-magazine, its themes and its style. The web 2.0-tool “Blog” and the web-specific language comply with media habits of the main target group, the students of the faculty medicine/dentistry.Thus, “PULS.” has proven as a suitable and strategic instrument. It pushes towards a higher transparency, more communication and a stronger identification of the students with their faculty.[german] Im Herbst 2009 forderten Studierende im Rahmen landesweiter Proteste auch am Fachbereich Medizin/Zahnmedizin der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt mehr Transparenz und Kommunikation zu Angelegenheiten ihres Studiums. Einen innovativen Lösungsansatz, um diesen Forderungen nachzukommen, bietet eines der Web 2.0 Werkzeuge: ein auf einer Blog-Software basierendes Online-Magazin für Studierende und andere Mitglieder des Fachbereichs.Das öffentlich zugängliche Online-Magazin „PULS.“ ( wird mit einer freien Blog-Software (wordpress Version 3.1.3. realisiert und von einer Online-Redakteurin konzipiert und geschrieben. Die Beiträge entstehen nach eigenen Recherchen sowie aus Anregungen und Gesprächen mit verschiedenen Personengruppen des Fachbereichs. Die datenschutzkonforme Auswertung der Zugriffe erfolgt über eine open-source Webanalyse-Software (Piwik. Zusätzlich werden jährlich mit dem Online-Umfrage-Tool Survey Monkey die Nutzer anonym befragt.„PULS.“ ist seit dem 14.02.2010 ununterbrochen online und hat seitdem 806 Beiträge (Stand: 27.11.2012 publiziert und wird von ca. 2400 Besuchern monatlich gelesen. Das Themenspektrum ist zentriert auf die Anliegen der Frankfurter Medizin- und Zahnmedizinstudierenden. Die enge Zusammenarbeit mit verschiedenen Gruppierungen des Fachbereichs – Dekanat, Studierende und Lehrende – garantiert darüber hinaus ein fachbereichs-relevantes Themenspektrum. Das Online-Magazin begleitet komplexe Projekte und Entscheidungen mit Hintergrundinformationen und kommuniziert sie verständlich. Eine jährliche Nutzer-Evaluierung zeigt eine wachsende Leserzahl und eine sehr hohe Zustimmung für das Online-Magazin, seine Inhalte und seinen Stil. Das Web 2.0-Medium „Blog“ und seine web-typische Sprache entsprechen dem Medienverhalten der Zielgruppe, d.h. den Studierenden des Fachbereichs Medizin. „PULS.“ hat sich als ein geeignetes und strategisches Instrument erwiesen, um größere Transparenz, mehr Kommunikation und letztendlich eine stärkere Identifikation der Studierenden mit ihrem Fachbereich voranzutreiben.

Nürnberger, Frank

2013-02-01

230

Synthesis of AlON and MgAlON Ceramics and Their Chemical Corrosion Resistance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In view of the excellent mechanical, chemical and opticalproperties, AlON (Aluminum oxynitride) as well as MgAlON(Magnesium Aluminum oxynitride) have drawn the attention ofmaterials scientists in past decades. In this thesis,thermodynamic properties, synthesis and corrosion resistance tooxygen and slag of AlON and MgAlON ceramics have beeninvestigated. Gibbs energy of AlON and MgAlON with different compositionsand temperatures were estimatedby using thermodynamicquasi-parabola rule. Phase sta...

Wang, Xidong

2001-01-01

231

Jongerenwerk als werkplaats voor professionalisering  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Partnership approach as alternate professionalization strategy for youth work In the Netherlands, there is a growing debate on the need for the professionalization of youth work practice. There is a consensus on the necessity and relevance of professionalization. Opinions differ however on the appropriate pathways towards professionalization. Classic professionalization strategies, with a focus on the gathering of scientific experimental evidence, often do not match with the complex and flexible nature of youth work practice. To gain insight in alternative strategies, providers of youth work and study programs in Amsterdam joined forces and set up Youth Spot, a research and practice centre for youth work. This article describes how the centre, youth work organizations, education and researchers cooperate in the professionalization of youth work. On the one hand this article provides insight in youth work’s own professionalism and, on the other hand, it offers experiences with an alternate professionalization strategy. Jongerenwerk als werkplaats voor professionalisering Dit artikel beschrijft hoe opleidingen, welzijnsorganisaties en onderzoekers samenwerken in de professionalisering van het jongerenwerk tegen de achtergrond van het debat over professionalisering van de sociaal agogische beroepen. Het probleem met klassieke professionaliseringstrategieën, met wetenschappelijke experimentele kennis als norm, is dat zij niet altijd goed aansluiten bij de complexiteit en flexibiliteit van de uitvoeringspraktijk. Vraag is: wat dan wel? In Amsterdam richten opleidingen en werkveld in 2008 Youth Spot op, het onderzoek- en praktijkcentrum voor jongerenwerk, met als doel om gezamenlijk te werken aan de profilering, professionalisering en praktijkontwikkeling van het jongerenwerk. Dit artikel belicht de aanleiding voor het ontstaan van Youth Spot, de structuur van de samenwerking, de ervaringen met de wijze van samen werken en de meerwaarde voor de professionalisering van het grootstedelijk jongerenwerk. Daarmee biedt dit artikel enerzijds een kijkje in de keuken van het (grootstedelijke jongerenwerk en anderzijds biedt zij inzicht in ervaringen met alternatieve professionalisering strategieën.

Judith Metz

2012-03-01

232

Alergia al semen / Semen allergy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La alergia al semen comprende una variedad de síntomas tanto locales como sistémicos causados por reacciones de hipersensibilidad inmediata y caracterizados por títulos elevados de IgE. El objetivo de este estudio es describir el caso de una paciente con alergia al semen: mujer de 21 años de edad qu [...] e presenta ardor y sensación de quemazón en el área genital luego de tener contacto con el semen de su pareja. El análisis seminal del compañero sexual no presenta ningún tipo de alteración. Los síntomas desaparecen con el uso de condón o con la práctica del coito interrumpido. La alergia al semen es una alteración, que si bien es poco frecuente, puede afectar los deseos de concepción de las mujeres que la presentan, es un fenómeno poco estudiado por lo que se requieren más reportes para su caracterización. Abstract in english Semen allergy includes several local and systemic symptoms caused by immediate hypersensitivity reactions and it is characterized by high levels of IgE. The objective of this study was to describe the case of a patient with semen allergy. A 21 year-old woman experienced itching and burning sensation [...] in the genital area after contact with the semen of her sexual partner. Semen analysis was normal. Symptoms disappear with the use of condom or the practice of coitus interruptus. Semen allergy is a condition, although rare, can affect the desire of conceiving in women who suffers it. It is a briefly studied phenomenon which requires more reports for proper characterization.

Laura, Franco Cuadros; Jenniffer, Puerta Suárez; Ángela, Cadavid Jaramillo; Walter, Cardona Maya.

2013-12-01

233

The ALS Gun Electronics system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ALS Gun Electronics system has been designed to accommodate gun with a custom made socket and high speed electronics circuit which is capable of producing single and multiple electron bunches with time jitters measured at better than 50 PS. The system generates the gated RF signal at ground level before sending it up to the 120 KV-biased gun deck via a fiber optic cable. The current pulse width as a function of grid bias, using an Eimac 8847A planar triode simulating an electron gun, was measured to show the relationship between the two parameters

234

The ALS gun electronics system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ALS Gun Electronics system has been designed to accommodate the gun with a custom made socket and a high speed electronics circuit which is capable of producing single and multiple electron bunches with time jitters measured at better than 50 PS. The system generates the gated RF signal at ground level before sending it up to the 120 KV-biased gun deck via a fiber optic cable. The current pulse width as a function of grid bias, using an Eimac 8847A planar triode simulating an electron gun, was measured to show the relationship between the two parameters

235

Online-Beratung als Präventionsmaßnahme.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In diesem Artikel werden die Erfahrungen, Ergebnisse und Perspektiven des Modellprojektes „BKK Lebenshilfe Online“ dargestellt, das sich aufgrund der besonderen Kooperation unterschiedlicher Akteure in Deutschland als bundesweit einmalig auszeichnet. So wurde durch den Bundesverband der Betriebkrankenkassen (BKK BV zusammen mit dem Projekt beranet.de und der Beteiligung von 36 Beratungsstellen und Selbsthilfeorganisationen ein verbandsübergreifendes Onlineratungsangebot zur gesundheitlichen Prävention geschaffen, das mittlerweile auf den Webseiten von rund 60 Betriebskrankenkassen ausgewiesen wird. Ziel ist es, Ratsuchenden einen anonymen und niedrigschwelligen Zugang zu individueller Beratung und gesundheitsrelevanten Informationen zu ermöglichen, um damit eine Lücke in der gesundheitlichen Versorgung zu schließen und zu einer Vermei-dung von psychosomatischen Erkrankungen beizutragen.

Petra Risau

2005-09-01

236

A study of the Al-rich part of the Al-Re alloy system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Al-rich part of the Al-Re phase diagram was reinvestigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis. The earlier reported Al{sub 12}Re, Al{sub 6}Re, and Al{sub 11}Re{sub 4} phases were confirmed. Close to the Al{sub 4}Re composition a high-temperature h-Al{sub 4}Re and a low-temperature l-Al{sub 4}Re phase were found to be formed at slightly different compositions. Both exhibited compositional ranges. A new phase was revealed close to the Al{sub 3}Re composition. The Al{sub 11}Re{sub 4} phase is formed congruently at 1650 deg. C, Al{sub 3}Re peritectically at 1610 deg. C, h-Al{sub 4}Re peritectically at 1410 deg. C, l-Al{sub 4}Re peritectically at {approx}1000 deg. C, Al{sub 6}Re peritectically at 813 deg. C and Al{sub 12}Re peritectically at 746 deg. C. Finally, the Al{sub 12}Re-(Al) eutectic is formed at 658 deg. C. The Al{sub 3}Re and h-Al{sub 4}Re are decomposed by eutectoid reactions at {approx}946 and 833 deg., respectively. The structure of the h-Al{sub 4}Re phase has not yet been clarified, but it is distinctly different from the Al{sub 4}W phase suggested earlier. The structure of l-Al{sub 4}Re was confirmed. The Al{sub 3}Re phase was found to have a monoclinic structure with a = 0.5180(4) nm, b = 3.97641(9) nm, c = 0.4955(3) nm and {beta} = 99.55(7){sup o}.

Balanetskyy, S. [Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); I.N. Frantsevich Institute for Problems of Materials Science, 03680 Kiev 142 (Ukraine); Grushko, B. [Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)], E-mail: b.grushko@fz-juelich.de

2008-06-12

237

Aluminium distribution in ZSM-5 revisited: The role of Al-Al interactions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present a theoretical study of the distribution of Al atoms in zeolite ZSM-5 with Si/Al=47, where we focus on the role of Al-Al interactions rather than on the energetics of Al/Si substitutions at individual sites. Using interatomic potential methods, we evaluate the energies of the full set of symmetrically independent configurations of Al siting in a Si{sub 94}Al{sub 2}O{sub 192} cell. The equilibrium Al distribution is determined by the interplay of two factors: the energetics of the Al/Si substitution at an individual site, which tends to populate particular T sites (e.g., the T14 site), and the Al-Al interaction, which at this Si/Al maximises Al-Al distances in general agreement with Dempsey's rule. However, it is found that the interaction energy changes approximately as the inverse of the square of the distance between the two Al atoms, rather than the inverse of the distance expected if this were merely charge repulsion. Moreover, we find that the anisotropic nature of the framework density plays an important role in determining the magnitude of the interactions, which are not simply dependent on Al-Al distances. - Graphical abstract: Role of Al-Al interactions in high silica ZSM-5 is shown to be anisotropic in nature and not dependent solely on Coulombic interactions. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Si-Al distribution in ZSM-5 is revisited, stressing the role of the Al-Al interaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coulomb interactions are not the key factors controlling the Al siting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anisotropy of the framework is identified as a source of departure from Dempsey's rule.

Ruiz-Salvador, A. Rabdel, E-mail: rabdel@imre.oc.uh.cu [Group of Materials Developed by Design, Division of Chemistry and Technology of Materials, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering (IMRE), University of Havana, Havana 10400 (Cuba); Grau-Crespo, Ricardo; Gray, Aileen E.; Lewis, Dewi W. [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London, WC1H OAJ (United Kingdom)

2013-02-15

238

Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis as an adverse drug reaction of gadolinium-based contrast media for magnetic resonance imaging; Nephrogene systemische Fibrose als unerwuenschte Arzneimittelwirkung gadoliniumhaltiger Kontrastmittel fuer die Magnetresonanztomographie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) was first described as nephrogenic fibrosing dermopathy (NFD), a disease occurring exclusively in patients with severe renal insufficiency. Recently NSF was recognised to be a very rare adverse drug reaction (ADR) of gadolinium-based contrast media for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Over 200 million applications of gadolinium-based contrast agents have been performed worldwide, including about 80 million of Magnevist {sup registered} and 33 million of Omniscan {sup registered}. Cases of NSF have been reported so far only for Omniscan {sup registered} (180 including 77 from the EU), for Magnevist {sup registered} (78 including 9 from the EU, 4 of which were also exposed to Omniscan {sup registered}) and for OptiMARK registered [7], which is not authorised in the EU. Because of this risk an EU-wide contraindication was ordered for patients with severe renal failure for the use of Omniscan {sup registered} (gadodiamid), which is one of eight gadolinium-based substances authorised in Germany and the EU and which has the highest risk potential, and just recently also for Magnevist {sup registered} (gadopentetate-dimeglumine). Whether similar measures will be implemented for other gadolinium-based substances, for which no cases of NSF have been reported, but a risk potential may exist, is still under discussion. (orig.) [German] Die nephrogene systemische Fibrose (NSF), urspruenglich als nephrogene fibrosierende Dermopathie (NFD) beschrieben und bislang fast ausschliesslich bei Patienten mit schwerer Niereninsuffizienz festgestellt, erwies sich kuerzlich als eine sehr seltene unerwuenschte Arzneimittelwirkung (UAW) gadoliniumhaltiger Kontrastmittel fuer die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT). Insgesamt wurden mehr als 200 Mio. Behandlungen mit gadoliniumhaltigen Kontrastmitteln durchgefuehrt, davon ca. 80 Mio. mit Magnevist {sup registered} und ca. 33 Mio. mit Omniscan {sup registered} [5]. Faelle einer NSF wurden bislang nur zu Omniscan {sup registered} (180, davon 77 aus der EU), zu Magnevist {sup registered} (78, davon 9 Faelle aus der EU inklusive 4 Faelle mit zusaetzlicher Omniscan registered -Applikation) sowie zu OptiMARK {sup registered} [7], das in der EU nicht zugelassen ist, gemeldet. Aufgrund dieses Risikos wurde fuer Omniscan {sup registered} (Gadodiamid), eins der 8 in Deutschland und der EU verfuegbaren Wirkstoffe mit dem hoechsten Risikopotenzial, und zuletzt auch fuer Magnevist {sup registered} (Gadopentetat-Dimeglumine), eine Einschraenkung der Anwendung (Kontraindikation) bei Patienten mit terminaler Niereninsuffizienz EU-weit angeordnet. Ob aehnliche Massnahmen fuer weitere Wirkstoffe ergriffen werden, bei denen dieses Risikopotenzial bislang nicht nachgewiesen wurde, jedoch moeglich erscheint, ist noch nicht endgueltig geklaert. (orig.)

Giersig, C. [Bundesinstitut fuer Arzneimittel und Medizinprodukte (Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices), Bonn (Germany)

2007-09-15

239

Thermodynamic properties of Al Mn, Al Cu, and Al Fe Cu melts and their relations to liquid and quasicrystal structure  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermodynamic properties of molten Al-Mn, Al-Cu and Al-Fe-Cu alloys in a wide temperature range of 1123-1878 K and the whole range of concentrations have been studied using the integral effusion method and Knudsen mass spectrometry. Thermodynamic functions of melts were described by the associated solution model. The possibility of icosahedral quasicrystal (i-QC) precipitation from liquid Al-Mn and Al-Cu-Fe alloys was found to be a consequence of the existence in liquid associates (clusters). A geometric model is suggested for the structure of associates in liquid.

Zaitsev, A. I.; Zaitseva, N. E.; Shimko, R. Yu; Arutyunyan, N. A.; Dunaev, S. F.; Kraposhin, V. S.; Thanh Lam, Ha

2008-03-01

240

Suicidio por salto al vacío  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La tendencia al suicidio se asocia con problemas de soledad, abandono sicológico en la infancia, drogadicción, enfermedades graves, etc. Y en pacientes psiquiátricos es más común tras ser dados de alta. En Argentina los suicidios aumentaron en 25% de 1990 a 1992, y el 78 % de las víctimas fueron de [...] sexo masculino. La proporción por salto al vacío aumentó , especialmente en áreas urbanas. En 40 casos argentinos hubo introducción basal del fémur (25%), fractura del calcáneo en 17%, fracturas de pelvis o cuello del fémur en 7% y estallido hepático en 20%. Abstract in english Suicidal tendencies are associated with loneliness, lack of psychological attention during childhood, drug addiction, serious illness, etc., In psyciatric patients, it is more frequent shortly after they are dismissed from the hospital. In Argentina, the suicide rate increased by 25% from 1990 to 19 [...] 92, and 78% of the victims are males. The proportion that jumped to death increased, particularly inurban areas. In 40 Argentinian cases there was a basalpenetration of the femur (25%), fracture of the calcaneus bone (17%), fracture of pelvis o femur cervix (7%) and explosion of the liver (20%).

Braulio Ernesto, P. Linares; Félix Antonio, Bikic.

1995-05-01

 
 
 
 
241

Comparison of TiAlN, AlCrN, and AlCrN/TiAlN coatings for cutting-tool applications  

Science.gov (United States)

Monolayer and bilayer coatings of TiAlN, AlCrN, and AlCrN/TiAlN were deposited onto tungsten carbide inserts using the plasma enhanced physical vapor deposition process. The microstructures of the coatings were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The SEM micrographs revealed that the AlCrN and AlCrN/TiAlN coatings were uniform and highly dense and contained only a limited number of microvoids. The TiAlN coating was non-uniform and highly porous and contained more micro droplets. The hardness and scratch resistance of the specimens were measured using a nanoindentation tester and scratch tester, respectively. Different phases formed in the coatings were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The AlCrN/TiAlN coating exhibited a higher hardness (32.75 GPa), a higher Young's modulus (561.97 GPa), and superior scratch resistance ( L CN = 46 N) compared to conventional coatings such as TiAlN, AlCrN, and TiN.

Sampath Kumar, T.; Balasivanandha Prabu, S.; Manivasagam, Geetha; Padmanabhan, K. A.

2014-08-01

242

Bipolar characteristics of AlGaN/AlN/GaN/AlGaN double heterojunction structure with AlGaN as buffer layer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: •2DEG and 2DHG coexist in the AlGaN/AlN/GaN/AlGaN DH-structure. •The sheet densities of 2DEG and 2DHG vary with buffer Al content and GaN thickness. •The conditions for the disappearance of 2DHG are discussed. •Increasing buffer Al content provides better electron confinement. •Dislocation scattering is reduced in the DH-structure. -- Abstract: This is a theoretical study of AlGaN/AlN/GaN/AlGaN double heterojunction (DH) structure with AlGaN as buffer layer. Our calculation shows that as the buffer Al content increases, though two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) sheet density decreases, the channel back-barrier caused by polarization-induced electric field in GaN provides better electron confinement. And under certain conditions the DH-structure shows bipolar characteristics, with an additional two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) formed at GaN/AlGaN interface. The influence of the buffer Al content and GaN channel thickness on the 2DEG and 2DHG sheet densities are investigated, and the conditions for the disappearance of 2DHG are discussed. Also, the mobility inhibited by dislocation scattering is enhanced in DH-structure due to the enhancement of screening effect of the 2DEG.

Peng, Enchao, E-mail: ecpeng@semi.ac.cn [Key Lab of Semiconductor Materials Science, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Wang, Xiaoliang [Key Lab of Semiconductor Materials Science, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); ISCAS-XJTU Joint Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Informatics, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Xiao, Hongling; Wang, Cuimei; Yin, Haibo; Chen, Hong; Feng, Chun; Jiang, Lijuan [Key Lab of Semiconductor Materials Science, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Hou, Xun [ISCAS-XJTU Joint Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Informatics, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Wang, Zhanguo [Key Lab of Semiconductor Materials Science, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China)

2013-11-05

243

Ge-Al and Sn-Al alloys capillary properties in contact with aluminum nitride  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experimental isotherms are presented for (1) wettability of AlN ceramics by Ge-Al and Sn-Al alloys, (2) surface tension and density of Ge-Al and Sn-Al alloys in the whole concentration range. Complex consideration of capillary characteristics of the melts under study is performed taking into account data available on thermodynamic activities of the melt components. The contact angle isotherms pass the minimum point for both systems. The contact angle value drops with Al addition more sharply for the Sn-Al system than for the Ge-Al alloys. This is in qualitative agreement with the higher thermodynamic activity of the components of the Sn-Al alloys. Sn decreases Al surface tension more than Ge. The reason for this is not only lower surface tension of Sn as compared to Ge, but also the higher thermodynamic activity of Sn in the Al melt

244

Comparison of Ir-Al and Co-Al intermetallic mixtures for nuclear applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper refers to the composition of Co-Al and Ir-Al mixtures in the field of rich aluminum compounds. It is very difficult to obtain these as pure compounds, and their long time life maintaining at high temperatures due to the incongruous compounds that form. The part of the Al-Co diagram aluminum-rich was completed by Grushko who reported the existence of two phases very close to each and other, Al13Co4 and Al3Co, in the range of Al9Co2 and Al2Co5 compounds. In the Ir-Al binary system seven intermetallic compounds were reported. The crystal structure of Al2,75Ir phase was observed by Ferro and determined as cP60. The invariance reaction Melt + AlIr Al2,75Ir was reported as eutectic. This is very important a fact which makes these two systems to distinguish each other. (authors)

245

Systems Engineering Techniques for ALS Decision Making  

Science.gov (United States)

The Advanced Life Support (ALS) Metric is the predominant tool for predicting the cost of ALS systems. Metric goals for the ALS Program are daunting, requiring a threefold increase in the ALS Metric by 2010. Confounding the problem, the rate new ALS technologies reach the maturity required for consideration in the ALS Metric and the rate at which new configurations are developed is slow, limiting the search space and potentially giving the perspective of a ALS technology, the ALS Metric may remain elusive. This paper is a sequel to a paper published in the proceedings of the 2003 ICES conference entitled, "Managing to the metric: an approach to optimizing life support costs." The conclusions of that paper state that the largest contributors to the ALS Metric should be targeted by ALS researchers and management for maximum metric reductions. Certainly, these areas potentially offer large potential benefits to future ALS missions; however, the ALS Metric is not the only decision-making tool available to the community. To facilitate decision-making within the ALS community a combination of metrics should be utilized, such as the Equivalent System Mass (ESM)-based ALS metric, but also those available through techniques such as life cycle costing and faithful consideration of the sensitivity of the assumed models and data. Often a lack of data is cited as the reason why these techniques are not considered for utilization. An existing database development effort within the ALS community, known as OPIS, may provide the opportunity to collect the necessary information to enable the proposed systems analyses. A review of these additional analysis techniques is provided, focusing on the data necessary to enable these. The discussion is concluded by proposing how the data may be utilized by analysts in the future.

Rodriquez, Luis F.; Drysdale, Alan E.; Jones, Harry; Levri, Julie A.

2004-01-01

246

Wallada Bint al Mustakfi entre dos culturas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

La princesa cordobesa Wallada Bint al Mustakfi bil-lah, hija del califa al Mustakfi Muhammad Ibn Abdel Rahman Ibn Obaidil-lah Ibn Al Nasir lidin Al-lah era una poetisa estimable, a quien los grandes poetas no podían superar. Era una mujer única, guapa y decente. Mantenía una relación sentimental con el  poeta y visir Ibn Zaydún. Dicha pasión, narrada por los poemas escritos por ambos amantes, se terminó por la separación debida a los celos, también de ambos;  al poeta le gustó ...

shreen Mahmoud Al Refai

2013-01-01

247

"Magia en al-Andalus: Ras?’il Ijw?n al-?af?’, Rutbat al-?ak?m y G?yat al-?ak?m (Picatrix)"  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article is concerned with the introduction of the Rasa’il Ikhwan al-Safa’ to al-Andalus, and the implication this question has for the history of Arabic science and philosophy. More specifically, it focuses on the impact of the encyclopaedia of the Brethren of Purity on the Rutbat al-Hakim and the Ghayat al- Hakim, two important works of the literature of al-Andalus in the field of occult sciences. The article revisits the issue of authorship and chronology of the three works, highli...

Callatay, Godefroid Auteur Godefroid Decallatay Uclouvain Be Ucl

2013-01-01

248

Authors, subjects and fame in the Kit?b al-Fihrist by Ibn al-Nad?m : the case of al-?abar? and al-??l?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper suggests an approach to the study of the Kitab al-fihrist by Ibn al-Nadim (d. 386/995), which takes into account his criteria of priority and order within the book’s structure, when analysing the information the author provides about a scholar or group of scholars. The case studies for the present paper are Ab? Bakr al-Suli (d. 335-947) and Muhammad b. Jarir al-Tabari (d. 310-923), two prominent scholars who lived one generation before Ibn al-Nadim, and whose biographical infor...

Osti, Letizia

1999-01-01

249

DE LA BIOPOLÍTICA AL CAMPO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se realiza una breve aproximación a los conceptos de biopolítica y tanatopolítica. Para ello se trabajará, principalmente, con las obras de Michel Foucault, Roberto Esposito y Giorgio Agamben, intentando relevar tanto coincidencias como disidencias en la reflexión que los autores hacen sobre la temática. Luego de realizar una aproximación conceptual a la biopolítica, se mostrará que mientras para Foucault y para Espósito el surgimiento del fenómeno se da con la modernidad, para Agamben su origen es correlativo al origen mismo de la soberanía. Finalmente, y tras mostrar la coincidencia de la biopolítica con la tanatopolítica ¿para lo cual se profundizará en algunas reflexiones aportadas por Roberto Esposito- se abordará la problemática de los campos tal como lo hace Giorgio Agamben.

Mauro Benente

2009-01-01

250

Aspectos Introductorios al Crédito Documentario  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En el comercio internacional uno de los temas de mayor importancia para los agentes del mercado es la incorporación de mecanismos contractuales que les blinden de seguridad y garantía suficientes de que su contraparte cumplirá lo prometido. Las cartas de crédito contribuyen a ese propósito. Al crearse como mecanismos que confieren a ambas partes un alto grado de seguridad de que las condiciones pactadas en el contrato internacional, especialmente el de compraventa, serán cumplidas por cada una de las partes, todo, gracias a la participación o intermediación de una institución financiera, se constituyen en instrumentos necesarios para el normal desarrollo del comercio internacional. El presente texto estudia, a manera de introducción, el crédito documentario valiéndose de la abundante doctrina y jurisprudencia que en la materia se ha generado en el ámbito local e internacional alrededor de la figura.

Maximiliano Rodríguez Fernández

2009-07-01

251

Biodigestor: una aproximación al diseño  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available EI estudio y evaluación de los Sistemas de Biogas forma parte de la Electiva Técnica "Sistemas Alternativos de Energía", ofrecida por la Facultad de Ingeniería. EI presente artículo es un producto de dicho curso e intenta ser informativo, estando centra do en el proceso del diseño preliminar. Las ecuaciones han sido extraídas de diversas fuentes y se pretende dar las pautas de evaluación técnica de cualquier Biodigestor, sin tocar los problemas prácticos y de experiencia que de ello se deriva. Agradezco la colaboración prestada por los estudiantes Guillermo Garcés y Pedro A. Cuervo y en especial al Ingeniero Arturo Martínez R. por su participación en la parte correspondiente a Biogas en el curso mencionado.

Julio Mario Rodríguez Devis

2011-11-01

252

Organic bi-stable device fabricated with a sandwich structure of Al / AIDCN / Al nano-crystals surrounded by amorphous Al2O3 / AIDCN / Al  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An organic bi-stable device (OBD) was developed and exhibited non-volatile memory characteristics with a current conduction bi-stability of ? 1 x 102 and a threshold voltage of 2.8 V for the writing state. The OBD was fabricated with the following structure: aluminum (Al) layer / conductive organic layer / Al nano-crystals surrounded by amorphous Al2O3 / conductive organic layer / Al layer, where the organic material was 2-amino-4, 5-imidazoledicarbonitrile (AIDCN). The Al nano-crystals surrounded by the amorphous Al2O3 were several nanometers in size, with a density of ?1 x 1011/cm2. The OBD could only achieve current conduction bi-stability with an Al evaporation rate of less than 0.3 A/s.

253

Al?qat ?arakat Nashr al-Isl?m wa al-Tarb?yah al-Isl?miyyah f? ?ultanah Aceh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The emergence of such great 'ulama' in the Sultanate of Aceh, north of Sumatra, as Hamzah Fansuri (Hamzah al-Fansuri, Syamsuddin Sumatrani (Shams al-Din al-Sumatrani, Nuruddin Arraniri (Nur al-Din al-Raniri and Abdurrauf Singkel ('Abd al-Rauf al-Sinkili could lead one to pose an important questions. Why they emerged in the Sultanate of Aceh and not in other part of Nusantara. This study argues that that their emergence had closely to do with the fact that activity of Islamic learning was strongly supported by the Acehnese sultans.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v3i1.815

Eri Rosatria

2014-03-01

254

A Study on the Disbonding Detection of Al/Al Honeycomb Sandwich Structures by Ultrasonic Methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study the disbonding tests of adhesively bonded Al/Al honeycomb structures were performed by ultrasonic methods. Ultrasonic C-scan squiter method and ultrasonic surface wave attenuation measuring method were applied for the detection of skin/core disbonding. The bonding quality of Al/Al honeycomb structures could be well evaluated by properly controlled ultrasonic parameters

255

Eutectic microstructures of Al-ThA13 and Al-UA14 alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper deals on the microstructures of systems Al-ThAl3 and Al-UAL4, which are composed by a non faceted phase (aluminium) and an intermetallic phase (ThAl3 or UAL4) which is normally faceted phase. (C.M.)

256

Structure and mechanical properties of Al/AlN multilayer with different AlN layer thickness  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nanometer scale Al/AlN multilayers have been prepared by dc magnetron sputtering technique with a columnar target. A set of Al/AlN multilayers with the Al layer thickness of 2.9 nm and the AlN layer thickness variation from 1.13 to 6.81 nm were determined. Low angle X-ray diffraction (LAXRD) was used to analyze the layered structure of multilayers. The phase structure of the coatings was investigated with grazing angle XRD (GAXRD). Mechanical properties of these multilayers were thoroughly studied using a nanoindentation and ball-on-disk micro-tribometer. It was found that the multilayer hardness and reduced modulus showed no strong dependence on the AlN layer thickness. Al2.9 nm/AlN1.13 nm multilayer had more excellent tribological properties than single layers and other proportion multilayers with a lowest friction coefficient of 0.15. And the tribological properties of all the multilayers are superior to the AlN single layer

257

Joining of Al-Al micro foils by ultrasonic friction welding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ultrasonic friction welding (UFW) method was employed to realize the joining of 20-25 ?m thick Al-Al foils without the introduction of difference to parents materials, since the conventional UFW puts more focus on large scale of bulk metal materials. The monomer and post-joining Al foils were analyzed and compared including surface roughness, thickness uniformity, and interface characteristics by using white light interfere profiler (WLI), optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The experimental results indicate that the high quality Al-Al foils components and one kind of Al-Al device are well prepared by our improved UFW. (authors)

258

TEM characterization of Al-C-Cu-Al2O3 composites produced by mechanical milling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Novel Al-based composites (Al-C-Cu-Al2O3) obtained by mechanical milling (MM), were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Analyses of composites were carried out in both, the as-milled and the as-sintered conditions. C nanoparticles were found in the as-milled condition and Al2O3 nanofibers were found in as-sintered products, as determined by EELS. C and Cu react with Al to crystallize in Al3C4 and Al2Cu structures, respectively

259

Ab initio molecular dynamics of Al irradiation-induced processes during Al(2)O(3) growth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Al bombardment induced structural changes in alpha-Al(2)O(3) (R-3c) and gamma-Al(2)O(3) (Fd-3m) were studied using ab initio molecular dynamics. Diffusion and irradiation damage occur for both polymorphs in the kinetic energy range from 3.5 to 40 eV. However, for gamma-Al(2)O(3)(001) subplantation of impinging Al causes significantly larger irradiation damage and hence larger mobility as compared to alpha-Al(2)O(3). Consequently, fast diffusion along gamma-Al(2)O(3)(001) gives rise to prefere...

Music, Denis; Nahif, Farwah; Sarakinos, Kostas; Friederichsen, Niklas; M Schneider, Jochen

2011-01-01

260

Phase equilibria in the ternary systems Nb-Al-N and Ta-Al-N  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the system Nb-Al-N the ternary phase Nb3Al2N with the ?-Mn-type structure coexists with AlN, NbAl3 and Nb2N. The Gibbs free energy of formation ?Gsub(Nb3Al2N) is estimated from binary thermochemical data and tielines experimentally determined in isothermal sections at 1273 and 1773 K. In the System Ta-Al-N no ternary phase was found. An isothermal section at 1523 K shows AlN to coexist in equillibrium with TaAl3, h.t.-Ta2Al3, Ta2Al and Ta2N but not with Ta(ss). (orig.)

 
 
 
 
261

Analisis Makna Leksikal Dan Relasinya Pada Kata al-haqqu Dalam Al-Quran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Penelitian ini membahas tentang makna leksikal dan relasinya pada kata /Al-haqqu/ dalam Al-Quran. Makna leksikal adalah makna yang diambil dari arti kata itu. Relasi makna adalah hubungan semantik yang terdapat antara satuan bahasa yang satu dengan yang lainnya. Permasalahan yang diteliti mengenai apakah makna lesikal dan berapakah jenis relasinya pada kata /Al-haqqu/ dalam Al-Quran. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui makna leksikal dan jenis relasinya pada kata /Al-ha...

Husnul Fadhilah Nasution, M.

2009-01-01

262

Nanoindentation hardness, texture and microstructure of ?-Al2O3 and ?-Al2O3 coatings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nanoidentation responses of Al2O3 coatings obtained using chemical vapour deposition on cemented carbides were studied and related to the Al2O3 modification and microstructure. Five different Al2O3 layers were studied: (i) ?-Al2O3, (ii) ?-Al2O3, obtained through the ? ? ? phase transformation, (iii) as-grown ?-Al2O3 with (101-bar 2) texture, (iv) as-grown ?-Al2O3 with (101-bar 4) texture and (v) as-grown ?-Al2O3 with (0001) texture. All the Al2O3 coatings were deposited to a thickness of at least 6 ?m onto identical WC - 6 wt.% Co cemented carbide substrates. Nanoindentation was performed on taper-section specimens. The microstructure, phase and texture were elucidated by using transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Nanoindentation responses of the as-grown, textured ?-Al2O3 coatings were compared with ?-Al2O3 and ?-Al2O3 formed as a result of the ? ? ? phase transformation. The as-grown, textured ?-Al2O3 layers exhibited clearly a higher hardness and Young's modulus than the ?-Al2O3 and the ?-Al2O3 layers formed as a result of the phase transformation. Only slight differences iy slight differences in hardness and modulus could be detected between the (101-bar 2), (101-bar 4) and (0001) textured ?-Al2O3 films. Among these the (101-bar 2) textured ?-Al2O3 coating exhibited the lowest hardness and modulus. Opposite to earlier reports, the present investigation clearly showed that ?-Al2O3 exhibited both the lowest hardness and Young's modulus as compared with the other studied coatings. It is emphasised that the earlier nanoindentation investigations that were intended to deal with ?-Al2O3 were in fact performed on transformed ?-Al2O3

263

Atom probe analysis of AlN interlayers in AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Atom probe tomography was used to characterize AlN interlayers in AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructures grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE), NH{sub 3}-based molecular beam epitaxy (NH{sub 3}-MBE), and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The PAMBE-grown AlN interlayer had the highest purity, with nearly 100% of group-III sites occupied by Al. The group-III site concentrations of Al for interlayers grown by NH{sub 3}-MBE and MOCVD were {approx}85% and {approx}47%, respectively. Hall measurements were performed to determine the two-dimensional electron gas mobility and sheet concentration. Sheet concentrations were {approx}25%-45% higher with molecular beam epitaxy than with MOCVD, and these results matched well with atom probe data.

Mazumder, Baishakhi; Kaun, Stephen W.; Speck, James S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Lu, Jing; Keller, Stacia; Mishra, Umesh K. [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

2013-03-18

264

Al-Ta?awwuf wa al-?uruq al-??fiyyah f? Ind?n?siy?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the 17th century, the history of tasawwuf or mysticism and Islamic congregation in Indonesia shows the dynamics and development. At that time, the world is very fierce battle marked tasawwuf among which tends unortodoks (wujudiyyah with the orthodox (fiqh orientation. This phenomenon can be seen both in Java and in Aceh. Pendulum understand Sufism in Aceh during the first swing to flow wujudiyyah pioneered Fansuri Hamzah and his teachings later developed by his student, Shams al-Sumatrani. This paper discusses the history and development of tasawwuf and Sufi congregations in Indonesia dates to the 17th century until the early 20th century.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v3i3.803

Hamid Nasuhi Zain

2014-03-01

265

Novel TARDBP mutations in Nordic ALS patients  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative syndrome primarily affecting the upper and lower motor neurons. A characteristic neuropathological finding in ALS patients is neuronal inclusions positive for TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43). Subsequently, mutations in the gene encoding TDP-43, TARDBP, proved to be involved in the development of ALS. We thus sequenced TARDBP in 177 Nordic ALS patients and found two previously reported (p.A90V and p.S379P) and two novel (p.G357R and p.R361T) missense variations in three familial ALS patients. The p.A90V and p.G357R variations were detected in the same patient and p.R361T was present in a family with both ALS and frontotemporal dementia-ALS. None of the missense variations were present in 200 neurologically healthy controls. However, p.A90V has also been reported in healthy individuals by others. Thus, the data suggest that these variations are rare and p.G357R, p.R361T and p.S379P are likely pathogenic but further functional characterization is needed to prove their pathogenicity. The mutation frequency in TARDBP in Nordic ALS patients was 1.7%. The ALS cohort was highly selected for a positive family history suggesting that mutations in TARDBP generally are a rare cause of ALS in Nordic countries.

Chiang, Huei-Hsin; Andersen, Peter M

2012-01-01

266

Al-Si/Al2O3 in situ composite prepared by displacement reaction of CuO/Al system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Al2O3 particle-reinforced ZL109 composite was prepared by in situ reaction between CuO and Al. The microstructure was observed by means of OM, SEM and TEM. The Al2O3 particles in sub-micron sizes distribute uniformly in the matrix, and the Cu displaced from the in situ reaction forms net-like alloy phases with other alloy elements. The hardness and the tensile strength of the composites at room temperature have a slight increase as compared to that of the matrix. However, the tensile strength at 350 ? has reached 90.23 MPa, or 16.92 MPa higher than that of the matrix. The mechanism of the reaction in the CuO/Al system was studied by using of differential scanning calorimetry(DSC and thermodynamic calculation. The reaction between CuO and Al involves two steps. First, CuO reacts with Al to form Cu2O and Al2O3 at the melting temperature of the matrix alloy, and second, Cu2O reacts with Al to form Cu and Al2O3 at a higher temperature. At ZL109 casting temperature of 750–780 ?, the second step can also take place because of the effect of exothermic reaction of the first step.

Zhang Jing

2010-02-01

267

Insostenibilidad: aproximación al conflicto socioecológico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La preocupación por el impacto humano sobre el entorno está documentada desde la Antigüedad. Situaciones de insostenibilidad han conducido en varios momentos de la historia a retrocesos en las condiciones de vida de la población. Si bien el impacto ambiental de las culturas preindustriales se encont [...] raba restringido fundamentalmente al ámbito local, con la revolución industrial las consecuencias de la presión sobre el medio ambiente crecieron exponencialmente, sobrepasando la localidad para alcanzar dimensiones globales. La búsqueda de un estadio o un desarrollo que sea sostenible implica la necesidad de comprender el conflicto socio-ecológico en su perspectiva histórica. Observamos que sus dimensiones básicas están presentes desde la etapa eotécnica hasta nuestros días. En el centro del debate se encuentra la necesidad de comprender la génesis de la ideología del progreso y del dominio de la naturaleza. La sostenibilidad es, en definitiva, una búsqueda compleja que implica una corrección de las causas de la insostenibilidad. La sensibilidad al riesgo y a la crisis de insostenibilidad se ha incrementado de forma considerable, en un momento en que se observa una cierta pérdida de legitimidad de la política representativa. La participación es, hoy más que nunca, uno de los imperativos de la búsqueda de la sostenibilidad. Abstract in english The concern about the human impact on the environment is documented since ancient times. Situations of unsustainability led at various times in history to setbacks in the living conditions of the population. While the environmental impact of preindustrial cultures was limited primarily to local leve [...] l, with the industrial revolution the consequences of the pressure on the environment grew exponentially, surpassing the locality to achieve global dimensions. The search for a sustainable stadium or development leads to the need to understand the socio-ecological conflict in its historical perspective. We note that their basic dimensions are present from the eotechnic phase until today. At the center of the debate is the need to understand the genesis of the ideology of progress and the domain of nature. Environmental conflicts in preindustrial cultures are often linked to agricultural production, waste from the activities of some guilds, sanitation problems in cities and energy demand. Sustainability is a complex search that involves a correction of the causes of unsustainability. Sensitivity to risk and to the unsustainability crisis has increased considerably, and a loss of legitimacy of representative politics is perceived. Participation is, more than ever, one of the imperatives of the search for sustainability.

Josep, Lobera.

2008-12-01

268

Superplasticity in commercial Al 7475  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Commercially produced sheets of superplastic grade Al 7475 with various thicknesses have been characterised in terms of their microstructure and mechanical properties. Gold grids deposited on polished surfaces of tensile specimens were used to measure the surface strains on mesoscopic and microscopic length scales, and fracture surfaces were examined using SEM. The results show that mechanically the alloy behaves like other superplastic materials, with a maximum strain rate sensitivity, m, of 0.6, and a grain size exponent, p, of 2.6. Thinner sheets had smaller grain sizes and therefore higher superplastic strain rates. The surface studies showed that the actual strain rate in the gauge length was considerably smaller than the ratio of the crosshead velocity to the nominal gauge length owing to extrusion of material from the gauge head. Evidence for grain boundary sliding and localised tensile separation of material were found. The latter effect was responsible for about 30% of the strain in the surface. The separated regions were bridged by filaments of similar dimensions to whiskers observed protruding from the fracture surfaces. These whiskers were rich in Mg and were oxidised. It is suggested that the solid oxide layer is responsible for stabilising the filaments against necking. (orig.)

Griffiths, S.; Whittle, D.; Todd, R.I. [Univ. of Oxford, Dept. of Materials, Oxford (United Kingdom); Ridley, N. [Manchester Materials Science Centre, Manchester (United Kingdom)

2004-07-01

269

Reply to Vance et al.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In our report of a family with a motor and sensory polyneuropathy that was linked to chromosome 3q, we classified this neuropathy as a form of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy II (HMSN II, also known as {open_quotes}CMT2{close_quotes}). Doubts have been raised by Vance et al. as to whether this neuropathy should be classified as hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy I (HSAN I) instead of HMSN II. While it is reasonable to raise such doubts, we believe that the neuropathy is best designated as HMSN II for the reasons described below. The group of disorders described as HSAN are characterized by primary or predominant involvement of sensory and autonomic neurons that fail to develop or that undergo atrophy and degeneration. These disorders were extensively reviewed by Dyck and Ohta, who initially described them as the hereditary sensory neuropathies (HSN). It was Dyck who subsequently suggested that these disorders be designated HSAN rather than HSN, because of the presence of autonomic involvement. 8 refs.

Woon-Chee Yee; Elliott, J.L; Kwon, J.M.; Goodfellow, P. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

1996-07-01

270

interna y al diálogo transcultural  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inspirado en los conceptos de An-Na´im (1995 del discurso interno y el diálogo transcultural, este artículo está focalizado en el análisis de dos herramientas que usan los practicantes de derecho y los usuarios del Consultorio Jurídico Rural de Fredonia (Antioquia durante su interacción y que, de ser estimuladas adecuadamente, pueden derivar no solo en procesos pedagógicos de refl exión sobre presupuestos fundamentales en materia de derechos, sino que también pueden llegar a constituirse en estrategias que permitan la actualización de las expectativas de los propios sujetos frente a su cultura. Para el caso de los practicantes, se explora en el tránsito entre dos lenguajes, uno eminentemente jurídico y otro coloquial, donde se da un acercamiento al lenguaje y valores de los consultantes. Ya en lo que atañe a los usuarios del Consultorio Jurídico, el análisis se construye en torno a la red local de consejos, pieza clave a partir de la cual se articulan ideas y valores de los actores sobre su entorno, pero donde el hilo conductor es la intención de resolver un confl icto por la vía jurídica.

Silvia Monroy \\u00C1lvarez

2007-01-01

271

Microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti2AlC-reinforced TiAl composites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ti2AlC/TiAl composites were successfully in-situ synthesized by reaction hot pressing using Ti, Al, TiC and CNTs as starting materials. The results indicate that the as-sintered composites mainly consist of Ti2AlC and TiAl phases. The mechanical properties of the 23 wt.% Ti2AlC/TiAl composite exhibit the highest values, with a flexural strength and fracture toughness of 652.5 ± 76.8 MPa and 6.6 ± 0.5 MPa m1/2, respectively. The complex structure coupled with dispersed Ti2AlC micro-particulates is responsible for the enhancement in the strength. Toughening of the composite is mainly attributed to crack deflection, crack bridging, crack branching and pull-out of the Ti2AlC particles, as well as transgranular cracking.

272

Reactivity of aluminum cluster anions with ammonia: selective etching of Al11(-) and Al12(-).  

Science.gov (United States)

Reactivity of aluminum cluster anions toward ammonia was studied via mass spectrometry. Highly selective etching of Al(11)(-) and Al(12)(-) was observed at low concentrations of ammonia. However, at sufficiently high concentrations of ammonia, all other sizes of aluminum cluster anions, except for Al(13)(-), were also observed to deplete. The disappearance of Al(11)(-) and Al(12)(-) was accompanied by concurrent production of Al(11)NH(3)(-) and Al(12)NH(3)(-) species, respectively. Theoretical simulations of the photoelectron spectrum of Al(11)NH(3)(-) showed conclusively that its ammonia moiety is chemisorbed without dissociation, although in the case of Al(12)NH(3)(-), dissociation of the ammonia moiety could not be excluded. Moreover, since differences in calculated Al(n)(-) + NH(3) (n=9-12) reaction energies were not able to explain the observed selective etching of Al(11)(-) and Al(12)(-), we concluded that thermodynamics plays only a minor role in determining the observed reactivity pattern, and that kinetics is the more influential factor. In particular, the conversion from the physisorbed Al(n)(-)(NH(3)) to chemisorbed Al(n)NH(3)(-) species is proposed as the likely rate-limiting step. PMID:19916602

Grubisic, Andrej; Li, Xiang; Gantefoer, Gerd; Bowen, Kit H; Schnöckel, Hansgeorg; Tenorio, Francisco J; Martinez, Ana

2009-11-14

273

Tensile Behavior of Al2o3/feal + B and Al2o3/fecraly Composites  

Science.gov (United States)

The feasibility of Al2O3/FeAl + B and Al2O3/FeCrAlY composites for high-temperature applications was assessed. The major emphasis was on tensile behavior of both the monolithics and composites from 298 to 1100 K. However, the study also included determining the chemical compatibility of the composites, measuring the interfacial shear strengths, and investigating the effect of processing on the strength of the single-crystal Al2O3 fibers. The interfacial shear strengths were low for Al203/FeAl + B and moderate to high for Al203/FeCrAlY. The difference in interfacial bond strengths between the two systems affected the tensile behavior of the composites. The strength of the Al203 fiber was significantly degraded after composite processing for both composite systems and resulted in poor composite tensile properties. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) values of the composites could generally be predicted with either rule of mixtures (ROM) calculations or existing models when using the strength of the etched-out fiber. The Al2O3/FeAl + B composite system was determined to be unfeasible due to poor interfacial shear strengths and a large mismatch in coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Development of the Al2O3/FeCrAlY system would require an effective diffusion barrier to minimize the fiber strength degradation during processing and elevated temperature service.

Draper, S. L.; Eldridge, J. I.; Aiken, B. J. M.

1995-01-01

274

Growth and characterization of AlGaN/AlN/GaN/AlGaN double heterojunction structures with AlGaN as buffer layers  

Science.gov (United States)

High electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) structures with GaN, Al0.025Ga0.975N and Al0.04Ga0.96N high resistivity (HR) buffers were grown on sapphire by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The structural and electrical properties of these three samples were investigated and compared. By increasing Al composition of AlGaN buffer, full width at half maximum (FWHM) values of (0002) and (10-12) x-ray rocking curves for buffer increase, indicating higher threading dislocation density. Room temperature noncontact Hall measurements were performed, and the measured 2DEG mobility was 1828 cm2/V s for GaN buffer, 1728 cm2/V s for Al0.025Ga0.975N buffer, and 1649 cm2/V s for Al0.04Ga0.96N buffer, respectively. Combining the theoretical calculation with the experiments, it was demonstrated that the decrease of mobility was attributed to higher dislocation density in sample with higher Al composition of AlGaN buffer. Devices were fabricated and it was found that the double heterojunction (DH) HEMT with Al0.025Ga0.975N buffer could effectively reduce the buffer leakage current.

Peng, Enchao; Wang, Xiaoliang; Xiao, Hongling; Wang, Cuimei; Yin, Haibo; Chen, Hong; Feng, Chun; Jiang, Lijuan; Hou, Xun; Wang, Zhanguo

2013-11-01

275

HOW DID AL-SUYUTI ABRIDGE IBN TAYMIYYA’S NASIHAT AHL AL-IMAN FI AL-RADD ‘ALA MANTIQ AL-YUNAN?  

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Full Text Available Al-Radd ‘ala ’l-Mantiqiyyin (an alternative title for Nasihat Ahl al-Iman is a work composed by Ibn Taymiyya to demolish each principle of logic as well as to unravel the depravity of their foundation. Probably due to Ibn Taymiyya’s being genius, when he destroys those principles, he could not avoid himself to discuss digressively irrelevant topics dealing with theological as well as metaphysical issues. In a number of passages in al-Radd, he could not even hinder himself to make a good deal of repetitions. Therefore, al-Radd ‘ala’l-Mantiqiyyin is complex and difficult to use. The coherence of arguments that Ibn Taymiyya formulated is not solid and comprehensive. His criticism of logic is not penetrating as well. On the basis of my analysis of al-Suyuti’s method of abridgement of Ibn Taymiyya’s al-Radd, I argue that al-Suyuti succeeded in rendering Ibn Taymiyya’s sequence of ideas superior to that found in the original work of the latter. The result of this study confirms Hallaq’s argument that the overall result of al-Suyuti’s abridgement of Ibn Taymiyya’s al-Radd is ‘a more effective critique of logic than that originally formulated by Ibn Taymiyya

Mufti Ali

2008-08-01

276

27Al NMR measurement of fcc Al configurations in as-quenched Al85Ni11Y4 metallic glass and crystallization kinetics of Al nanocrystals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The crystallization of melt spun Al85Ni11Y4 ribbon has been studied through systematic heat treatment in the 200–550 °C temperature range using the techniques of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, electrical resistivity, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). 27Al NMR spectroscopy provides a direct and sensitive method for determining the atomic fraction of ?-Al and analysis of the ?-Al crystallization kinetics. NMR results revealed low concentrations (3.9 at.%) of ?-Al configuration in the as-quenched material and confirm that they have ?-Al short-range order. The ability of NMR to directly detect the ?-Al configuration in the as-quenched state is compared and contrasted with XRD. Volume fractions of ?-Al phase calculated from NMR are also compared and contrasted with that calculated from XRD for samples subjected to isothermal annealing. Qualitative and quantitative agreement between the two techniques is found after the XRD fractions are corrected according to literature methods. Heat treatment at moderate temperatures (200 °C) is shown to result in transformation kinetics dominated by the growth of ?-Al consistent with heterogeneous nucleation, while higher temperatures (300 °C) lead to kinetics consistent with growth from homogeneous nucleation sites.

277

Memory deficits and retrieval processes in ALS.  

Science.gov (United States)

Subtle neuropsychological deficits have been described in patients affected by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) without dementia. Overall, selective impairment in memory function has been reported, but the source of memory impairment in ALS has yet to be defined. We performed neuropsychological screening in 20 ALS patients. Semantic encoding and post-encoding cue effects on the retrieval of word lists were investigated in the ALS patients and normal controls. Severity of memory impairment was correlated to cerebral blood perfusion detected by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). ALS patients showed moderate impairments in frontal and memory tests. Short-term memory was normal, while serial position retrieval of word lists with normal recency effect but poor primacy effect showed long-term memory deficit. ALS patients performed better in cued encoding than in cued post-encoding recall condition. In the cued post-encoding condition, the primacy effect in word list recall improved significantly in controls, but not in ALS patients, as compared with both the free recall and cued encoding conditions. SPECT hypoperfusion was observed in frontal and temporal areas in ALS patients. ALS patients showed a long-term memory deficit which did not improve in cued post-encoding condition as it does for controls. We hypothesize abnormal retrieval processes related to frontal lobe dysfunction which entails difficulties in generating stable long-memory traces at encoding. PMID:12752394

Mantovan, M C; Baggio, L; Dalla Barba, G; Smith, P; Pegoraro, E; Soraru', G; Bonometto, P; Angelini, C

2003-05-01

278

Optical properties of ?'-CoAl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The optical absorptance of ?'-CoAl in the 0.1--2.5-eV region was measured and analyzed by the Kramers-Kronig method. The optical conductivity shows interband features beginning below 0.1 eV, with several structures below 2 eV. These structures agree with those calculated from the energy bands of Moruzzi, Williams, and Gelatt. The experimentally observed systematics in CoAl and NiAl confirm our previous interpretation of the spectra of ?'-NiAl, and disagree with other experimental and theoretical attempts to understand the optical properties of these compounds

279

Ternary Al-Ni-Ru phases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four stable ternary crystalline phases were identified in the Al-rich part of the Al-Ni-Ru phase diagram using powder X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. They are monoclinic with an approximate composition of Al82.4Ni12.0Ru5.6 (a=0.8636(3) nm, b=0.6333(2) nm, c=0.6273(3) nm, ?=95.12(3) deg., isostructural to Al9Co2), hexagonal with a composition of Al75.5Ni16.0Ru8.5 (a=1.2132(3) nm and c=2.7020(9) nm), orthorhombic with a composition of Al76.0Ni8.0Ru16.0 (a=1.4960(6) nm, b=0.8253(3) nm, c=1.2668(6) nm, isostructural to O-Al13Co4) and cubic with a composition of Al71.8Ni11.2Ru17.0 (a=0.7674(2) nm, isostructural to C-Al5Rh2)

280

Das vaskuläre Endothel als Zielorgan körperlicher Aktivität  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Die endotheliale Dysfunktion wurde bereits als ein wichtiger Prädiktor zukünftiger kardiovaskulärer Ereignisse identifiziert und geht makroskopischen Gefäßveränderungen zeitlich voraus. Auch physiologische Alterungsprozesse scheinen die Endothelfunktion mit einzubeziehen. Regelmäßige körperliche Aktivität als Teil einer multifaktoriellen Intervention verbessert die Symptomatik von Patienten mit verschiedenen kardiovaskulären Erkrankungen als Folge einer Zunahme der myokardialen Perfusion. Die folgende Übersichtsarbeit erläutert potenzielle Mechanismen, die diese trainingsvermittelte Reduktion der Mortalität in der Sekundärprävention bewirken könnten. Die Korrektur der Endotheldysfunktion als Folge molekularer Adaptionen wird in diesem Zusammenhang ebenso diskutiert wie die Aktivierung von adulten Vorläuferzellen, die das Potenzial besitzen, im Rahmen der Vaskulogenese zur Bildung funktionell kompetenter Gefäße beizutragen bzw. Schäden am Endothelzellverband zu regenerieren.

Sandri M

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Ternary invariant point at 374°C in the three phase region AlSb-Al-Zn inside the Al-Sb-Zn ternary system  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Al-Sb-Zn ternary system was investigated in the three phase region Al-AlSb-Zn, using differential thermal analysis (DTA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS). The position and temperature of the invariant eutectic L ? AlSb + ?-Al + ? - Zn point inside Al-AlSb-Zn region was experimentally determined. To confirm the obtained results X-ray powder diffraction analysis or XRD was also done. All re...

Klan?nik G.; Medved J.

2011-01-01

282

Observation of triatomic species with conflicting aromaticity: AlSi2- and AlGe2-.  

Science.gov (United States)

We created mixed triatomic clusters, AlCGe(-), AlSi(2)(-), and AlGe(2)(-), and studied their electronic structure and chemical bonding using photoelectron spectroscopy and ab initio calculations. Excellent agreement between theoretical and experimental photoelectron spectra confirmed the predicted global minimum structures for these species. Chemical bonding analysis revealed that the AlSi(2)(-) and AlGe(2)(-) anions can be described as species with conflicting (sigma-antiaromatic and pi-aromatic) aromaticity. The AlCGe(-) anion represents an interesting example of chemical species which is between classical and aromatic. PMID:16706418

Zubarev, Dmitry Yu; Boldyrev, Alexander I; Li, Xi; Wang, Lai-Sheng

2006-05-25

283

Interdiffusion in U 3Si-Al, U 3Si 2-Al, and USi-Al dispersion fuels during irradiation  

Science.gov (United States)

Uranium-silicide compound fuel dispersion in an Al matrix is used in research and test reactors worldwide. Interaction layer (IL) growth between fuel particles and the matrix is one of performance issues. The interaction layer growth data for U 3Si, U 3Si 2 and USi dispersions in Al were obtained from both out-of-pile and in-pile tests. The IL is dominantly U(AlSi) 3 from out-of-pile tests, but its (Al + Si)/U ratio from in-pile tests is higher than the out-of-pile data, because of amorphous behavior of the ILs. IL growth correlations were developed for U 3Si-Al and U 3Si 2-Al. The IL growth rates were dependent on the U/Si ratio of the fuel compounds. During irradiation, however, the IL growth rates did not decrease with the decreasing U/Si ratio by fission. It is reasoned that transition metal fission products in the IL compensate the loss of U atoms by providing chemical potential for Al diffusion and volume expansion by solid swelling and gas bubble swelling. The addition of Mo in U 3Si 2 reduces the IL growth rate, which is similar to that of UMo alloy dispersion in a silicon-added Al matrix.

Kim, Yeon Soo; Hofman, Gerard L.

2011-03-01

284

Respuesta inmune adaptativa al rotavirus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

El rotavirus (RV es un importante patógeno humano y el estudio de la respuesta inmune específica de éste en humanos, es un buen modelo para caracterizar la respuesta inmune de la mucosa intestinal (1. Nuestros estudios han tenido como objetivo la caracterización fenotípica y funcional de las células T y B específicas de RV con énfasis importante en la expresión de marcadores de migración intestinal. Estas células son estudiadas en muestras de sangre periférica de niños y adultos recientemente infectados con RV. Los análisis se hicieron por citometría de flujo y ELISPOT. Estudio de células T: los adultos sanos presentan bajas frecuencias circulantes tanto de LT CD4+, como de LT CD8+ específicos de RV que secretan INF_ .

Significativamente mayores porcentajes de éstas células se detectaron en adultos sintomáticos infectados por RV. Sin embargo, las frecuencias de LT específicos de RV en todos los grupos de estudio fueron muy bajas comparadas con las observadas para otros patógenos.

Sorprendentemente, en niños sintomáticos infectados por RV se detectaron bajas frecuencias de LT CD8+ circulantes específicos de RV secretando INF-g y muy pocos o ningún LT CD4+ secretando INF-g o LT CD4+ y CD8+ al secretar IL-13 o IL4 (2,3. Esto sugiere que el RV es un inductor relativamente pobre de células T de memoria secretando estas citoquinas. Los LT circulantes CD4+ , INF-g.+ específicos de RV presentes en adultos sanos, expresan en su mayoría el receptor de migración intestinal a4b7(3.

Estudio de las células B (3,4: las células vírgenes circulantes CD19+, IgD+ y de memoria CD19+, IgDespecíficas de RV se identifican por citometría de flujo por la coexpresión de marcadores de superficie y de Ig de membrana específica del virus, con la ayuda de un antígeno viral acoplado a la proteína de fluorescencia verde (GFP. Las CSA se caracterizan funcionalmente por ELISPOT y fenotípicamente por citometría de flujo. Durante la fase aguda de infección en niños, los LB IgD- circulantes específicos de RV son predominantemente células grandes CD38alto, CD27alto, CD138+/-, CCR6-, a4b7 +, CCR9+, CCR10+, CLA-, L-Selectina int/- y sIgM+, sIgG-, sIgA+/ - Este fenotipo muy probablemente corresponde a CSA y plasmablastos con capacidad de migrar al intestino.

Durante la convalescencia, el fenotipo cambia a células pequeñas y grandes CD38int/-, CD27int/-, CCR6+, a4b7+/-, CCR9+/- y CCR10-, muy probablemente representando células de memoria, algunas con capacidad de migrar al intestino y otras con capacidad de permanecer en la circulaci

Manuel A. Franco

2004-03-01

285

On the structure of the Ti3Al phase in Ti-Al and Ti-Al-Nb alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present work describes the calculation of the atomic shift of titanium atoms (6(h) Wyckoff positions) in Ti-20Al, Ti-25Al, Ti-30Al and Ti-45Al-5Nb alloys (all atom%) in the ?2-phase using a Rietveld refinement procedure. The Ti atoms are slightly shifted from their regular cph atomic sites. This is related to the presence of symmetry elements in the ?2-phase with D019 structure, which in turn allows local shifts due to different site occupancies resulting in different atomic potentials. The shift in the Ti positions changes the Ti-Ti and Ti-Al first neighbor bond lengths within and out of plane and also the size of tetrahedron

286

Evaluation of Methods of Soldering AlSi and AlSi-SiC Particle Composite Al Foams  

Science.gov (United States)

The cellular structure and unique properties of aluminum foams are the reason of their numerous applications and interests in respect of their joining. The paper includes the characterization of the essence of properties and application of aluminum and aluminum composite foams, the limitations, and possibilities of their soldering. The aim of the research is the consideration of methods of soldering AlSi foams and AlSi-SiC composite foams, and the joint structure. EDS and XRD investigations of the AlSi-SiC composite foams' joints were done. The possibility of soldering AlSi9 foams and AlSi9-SiC composite foams using S-Bond 220 solder was confirmed, and higher tensile strength of the joint than the parent material was also ascertained

Nowacki, Jerzy; Moraniec, Kacper

2015-01-01

287

Development of X-ray detectors based on Nb/Al/AlOx/Al/Nb superconducting tunnel junctions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

X-ray detectors based on Nb/Al/AlOx/Al/Nb superconducting tunnel junctions (STJ) have been fabricated. X-ray responses of the fabricated STJs were measured by illumination with X-rays from a 55Fe electron capture source. The energy resolution of 41, 58 and 65 eV (FWHM) at 5.9 keV were obtained for 20x20, 100x100, 200x200 ?m2, square-shaped devices, respectively. The X-ray measurements were performed at 0.35 K using a charge-sensitive preamplifier at room temperature. We also discussed the capability to suppress the substrate phonon events using Al2O3 insulation layer. An advantage for the combined use of the Al2O3 insulation layer and the sapphire substrate was demonstrated

288

Candida albicans ALS3 and insights into the nature of the ALS gene family.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ALS1 (agglutinin-like sequence) gene of Candida albicans encodes a protein similar to alpha-agglutinin, a cell-surface adhesion glycoprotein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Hoyer et al. 1995). A central domain of a tandemly repeated 108-bp sequence is found in the ALS1 coding region. This tandem-repeat motif hybridizes to multiple C. albicans genomic DNA fragments, indicating the possibility of other ALS1-like genes in C. albicans (Hoyer et al. 1995). To determine if these fragments constitute a gene family, tandem-repeat-hybridizing genomic fragments were isolated from a fosmid library by PCR screening using primers based on the consensus tandem-repeat sequence of ALS1 (Hoyer et al. 1995). One group of fosmids, designated ALS3, encodes a gene with 81% identity to ALS1. The sequences of ALS1 and ALS3 are most conserved in the tandem-repeat domain and in the region 5' of the tandem repeats. Northern-blot analysis using unique probes from the 3' end of each gene demonstrated that ALS1 expression varies, depending on which C. albicans strain is examined, and that ALS3 is hyphal-specific. Both genes are found in a variety of C. albicans and C. stellatoidea strains examined. The predicted Als1p and Als3p exhibit features suggesting that both are cell-surface glycoproteins. Southern blots probed with conserved sequences from the region 5' of the tandem repeats suggest that other ALS-like sequences are present in the C. albicans genome and that the ALS family may be larger than originally estimated. PMID:9644209

Hoyer, L L; Payne, T L; Bell, M; Myers, A M; Scherer, S

1998-06-01

289

Effects of renal impairment on aluminum (Al) kinetics and Al-induced toxicity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Al-induced toxicity most commonly occurs in the renally impaired. To study the influence of renal impairment on Al kinetics and toxicity, renally impaired rabbits were prepared by the remnant kidney procedure. Six weeks after partial nephrectomy creatinine clearance was 21% of controls and serum creatinine, BUN, Ca, and PO/sub 4/ were 222, 248, 122, and 50% of presurgery levels respectively. Serum Al kinetics after i.v. Al were: Al clearance 27%, initial and steady state volumes of distribution 50 and 80%, half life 362% and mean residence time 300% of controls (renally intact rabbits). Beginning 9 weeks after partial nephrectomy, rabbits received 145 to 160 ..mu..mole Al/kg s.c. daily, 5 x weekly x 4 weeks. Acquisition of a classically conditioned reflex (nictitating membrane extension) was impaired comparable to that produced by 100-200 ..mu..mole Al in controls but retention and extinction deficits were greater than those seen after 400 ..mu..mole Al in controls. Tissue Al concentrations were less than those seen after 200 ..mu..mole Al in controls. Body weight was comparable to that produced by 400 ..mu..mole Al in controls. These results suggest that renal impairment alters Al serum distribution, impairs its clearance, and increases the Al-induced impairment of memory and body weight gain.

Yokel, R.A.; McNamara, P.J.

1986-03-01

290

Preparation and Thermoelectric Properties of YbAl3 Thermoelectric Materials with Excessive Al  

Science.gov (United States)

A method to prepare YbAl3 sample with an accurate stoichiometric ratio has been developed by a melting, quenching, annealing and spark plasma sintering (SPS) method. A series of YbAl3 thermoelectric materials with nominal compositions YbAl3+x (x = 0-0.3, ?x = 0.1) have been prepared using the method. We have explored the effects of the excessive Al on phase compositions, microstructure and transport properties. The quenched samples are composed of YbAl3, YbAl2, Yb, and Al. All the annealed samples are composed of main phase YbAl3 and a trace of Al; some annealed samples with x = 0 and x = 0.1 still contain a trace of YbAl2. The SPSed samples with x ? 0.1 are composed of single-phase YbAl3, though a trace of YbAl2 still occured in the SPSed sample with x = 0. The electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, power factor, thermal conductivity and ZT values are first increased with increasing x in the range of 0-0.2 and then decreased when x > 0.2. These thermoelectric properties evolutions originate from the change of densities and chemical composition induced by the excessive Al. The highest ZT value reaches 0.28 at 300 K for the SPSed sample with x = 0.2.

He, Dan-qi; Zhao, Wen-Yu; Mu, Xin; Zhou, Hong-yu; Zhang, Qing-jie

2015-01-01

291

Modeling analysis of AlN and AlGaN HVPE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comprehensive model of AlN and AlGaN HVPE is developed. The model combines detailed description of the transport processes and quasi-thermodynamic model of surface kinetics at the Al/Ga metal surfaces and AlN/AlGaN crystal surfaces. It is shown with the model that HCl dominantly converts into trichloride AlCl{sub 3} in the Al source but into monochloride GaCl in the Ga source. Then, AlN grows from AlCl{sub 3} under essentially non-equilibrium conditions while GaN - from GaCl under near-equilibrium conditions. The revealed differences between the AlN and GaN growth features explain many experimentally observed phenomena, including a sharp saturated behavior of the AlN growth rate in variation of the precursors flow rates and a strong effect of carrier H{sub 2} on the AlGaN composition. Generally, the model predicts a high sensitivity of the AlGaN composition to variation of the species flow rates due to their effect on the Ga incorporation. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

Segal, A.S.; Bazarevskiy, D.S.; Bogdanov, M.V.; Yakovlev, E.V. [STR-Group - Soft-Impact Ltd., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

2009-06-15

292

Al compositional inhomogeneity of AlGaN epilayer with a high Al composition grown by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Al compositional distribution of AlGaN is investigated by cathodoluminescence (CL). Monochromatic CL images and CL spectra reveal a lateral Al compositional inhomogeneity, which corresponds to surface hexagonal patterns. Cross-sectional CL images show a relatively uniform Al compositional distribution in the growth direction, indicating columnar growth mode of AlGaN films. In addition, a thin AlGaN layer with lower Al composition is grown on top of the buffer AlN layer near the bottom of the AlGaN epilayer because of the larger lateral mobility of Ga adatoms on the growth surface and their accumulation at the grain boundaries

293

The temperature dependence of elasticity modulus for TiAl and Ni3Al – basic alloy components for turbine rotor blade. ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ??????????????? TiAl ? Ni3Al – ???????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??????.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Possibility of theoretical determination of elastic characteristics for intermetallides on the example of TiAl and Ni3Al on the base of electrostatic nature of elasticity is demonstrated. Elaborated method is able for using for computing modeling of mono- and poly...

????????, ?. ?.; ??????, ?. ?.

2013-01-01

294

Quantitatively Probing the Al Distribution in Zeolites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The degree of substitution of Si4+ by Al3+ in the oxygen-terminated tetrahedra (Al T-sites) of zeolites determines the concentration of ion-exchange and Brønsted acid sites. As the location of the tetrahedra and the associated subtle variations in bond angles influence the acid strength, quantitative information about Al T-sites in the framework is critical to rationalize catalytic properties and to design new catalysts. A quantitative analysis is reported that uses a combination of extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis and 27Al MAS NMR spectroscopy supported by DFT-based molecular dynamics simulations. To discriminate individual Al atoms, sets of ab initio EXAFS spectra for various T-sites are generated from DFT-based molecular dynamics simulations allowing quantitative treatment of the EXAFS single- and multiple-photoelectron scattering processes out to 3-4 atom shells surrounding the Al absorption center. It is observed that identical zeolite types show dramatically different Al-distributions. A preference of Al for T-sites that are part of one or more 4-member rings in the framework over those T-sites that are part of only 5- and 6-member rings in the HBEA150 sample has been determined from a combination of these methods. This work was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences.

Vjunov, Aleksei; Fulton, John L.; Huthwelker, Thomas; Pin, Sonia; Mei, Donghai; Schenter, Gregory K.; Govind, Niranjan; Camaioni, Donald M.; Hu, Jian Z.; Lercher, Johannes A.

2014-06-11

295

Sporadic and hereditary amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic discoveries in ALS have a significant impact on deciphering molecular mechanisms of motor neuron degeneration. The identification of SOD1 as the first genetic cause of ALS led to the engineering of the SOD1 mouse, the backbone of ALS research, and set the stage for future genetic breakthroughs. In addition, careful analysis of ALS pathology added valuable pieces to the ALS puzzle. From this joint effort, major pathogenic pathways emerged. Whereas the study of TDP43, FUS and C9ORF72 pointed to the possible involvement of RNA biology in motor neuron survival, recent work on P62 and UBQLN2 refocused research on protein degradation pathways. Despite all these efforts, the etiology of most cases of sporadic ALS remains elusive. Newly acquired genomic tools now allow the identification of genetic and epigenetic factors that can either increase ALS risk or modulate disease phenotype. These developments will certainly allow for better disease modeling to identify novel therapeutic targets for ALS. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neuromuscular Diseases: Pathology and Molecular Pathogenesis. PMID:25193032

Ajroud-Driss, Senda; Siddique, Teepu

2014-09-01

296

Studies on SiC(p) reinforced Al-Al sub 3 Ni eutectic matrix composites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An investigation on processing of Al-5.69wt% Ni eutectic with SiC particulate composites is reported. The intermetallic composites are prepared by elemental powder metallurgy route and sintered at two different temperatures, i.e., 600 degree C and 620 degree C. Results show that the metal matrix was Al-Al sub 3 Ni eutectic. The phase analysis by XRD identified the presence of Al sub 3 Ni and Al as dominant phases together with silicon and Al sub 4 C sub 3 phase as minor phases. The Al sub 4 C sub 3 and Si phases are formed during sintering due to SiC-Al interface reaction. SEM micrographs also reveal the formation of microvoid surrounding the SiC particle

297

De las fuentes al público  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese A responsabilidade social do jornalista científico se inicia com a abordagem de suas fontes, passa pela redação de seu texto e termina com o impacto que este gera em sua audiência. Suas fontes são a matéria prima. Fazer as perguntas adequadas às fontes adequadas, para conseguir a informação que mais [...] se aproxime à realidade, é o desafio do jornalista que divulga a ciência. O texto discute os conceitos de verdade científica e verdade jornalística, e fala sobre as diferenças e as semelhanças entre científicos e jornalistas, para concluir fazendo uma reflexão ao exercício da reportagem em ciência, onde tanto as fontes como a necessidade de conhecer o perfil do público que tem acesso a nossa informação são elementos chave. Abstract in spanish La responsabilidad social del periodista científico se inicia con el abordaje de sus fuentes, pasa por la redacción de su texto y termina con el impacto que éste genera en su audiencia. Sus fuentes son la materia prima. Hacer las preguntas adecuadas a las fuentes adecuadas, para conseguir la informa [...] ción que más se acerque a la realidad, es el desafío del reportero que divulga la ciencia. El texto discute los conceptos de verdad científica y verdad periodística, y habla sobre las diferencias y las semejanzas entre científicos y periodistas, para concluir haciendo una reflexión al ejercicio de la reportería en ciencia, donde tanto las fuentes como la necesidad de conocer el perfil del público que tiene acceso a nuestra información son elementos clave. Abstract in english The social responsibility of the science journalist starts with the approach to the sources, runs through the writing of the text and ends with the impact that the latter generates in his audience. His sources are the raw material. The challenge of the reporter diffusing science is to make the adequ [...] ate questions to the adequate sources, in order to obtain the information that comes the closest to reality. The text discusses concepts of scientific truth and of journalistic truth, and deals with the similarities and differences between scientists and journalists, to conclude with a reflexion on the practice of reporting in science, where the sources as well as the need to know the profile of the public with access to our information, are key elements.

Lisbeth, Fog.

2002-02-01

298

Band Structure of AlSb Nanoclusters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ab initio restricted Hartree-Fock method within the framework of large unit cell formalism is used to investigate the band structure of AlSb nanoclusters. Large unit cells of 8, 16, 54, 64 and 128 atoms are used to analyze the cohesive energy, energy gap, valence bandwidth, and the density of states of the energy levels for AlSb nanoclusters. The results of the present work revealed that the band structure of AlSb nanoclusters differs significantly from that of the bulk AlSb crystal. Also, it is found that the valence band width and the cohesive energy (absolute value increase as the AlSb crystal size increases, and they tend to stabilize for nanoclusters of more than 50 atoms.

Haider I. Isa

2012-08-01

299

Peripheral nerve ultrasound in ALS phenotypes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction. We sought to determine the cross sectional area (CSA) of peripheral nerves in patients with distinct subtypes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Methods. Ulnar and median nerve ultrasound was performed in 78 ALS patients [classic, n=21, upper motor neuron dominant (UMND), n=14, lower motor neuron dominant (LMND), n=20, bulbar, n=15, primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) n=8] and 18 matched healthy controls. Results. Compared to controls ALS patients had significant, distally pronounced reductions of ulnar CSA (forearm/wrist level) across all disease groups except for PLS. Median nerve CSA (forearm/wrist level) did not differ between controls and ALS. Conclusion. Ulnar nerve ultrasound in ALS subgroups revealed significant differences in distal CSA values, which suggests it has value as a marker of LMN involvement. Its potential was particularly evident in UMND and PLS groups, which can be hard to separate clinically, yet their accurate separation has important prognostic implications. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25155020

Schreiber, Stefanie; Abdulla, Susanne; Debska-Vielhaber, Grazyna; Machts, Judith; Dannhardt-Stieger, Verena; Feistner, Helmut; Oldag, Andreas; Goertler, Michael; Petri, Susanne; Kollewe, Katja; Kropf, Siegfried; Schreiber, Frank; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Dengler, Reinhard; Nestor, Peter J; Vielhaber, Stefan

2014-08-25

300

Al-Akhawayni's description of pulmonary circulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since antiquity, heart function and the mechanism of blood circulation within the human body have been the focus of attention of scientists from different parts of the world. Over the passage of time, the theories and works of these scientists have resulted in the achievement of today's knowledge of circulation. The medieval Persian scholar, Al-Akhawayni Bukhari (?-983AD), is among the physicians who investigated both the anatomy and the physiology of the human body. Al-Akhawayni describes the mechanism of pulmonary circulation in his only extant book, "Hidayat al-Muta`llemin fi al-Tibb" (A Scholar's Guide to Medicine) with which he made a contribution to the development of knowledge regarding this mechanism in the medicine of the Islamic world. In this paper, Al-Akhawayni's viewpoints on anatomy and the function of the heart, its related vessels, and also pulmonary circulation will be briefly discussed. PMID:23890868

Yarmohammadi, Hassan; Dalfardi, Behnam; Rezaian, Jafar; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
301

NiAl alloys for structural uses  

Science.gov (United States)

Alloys based on the intermetallic compound NiAl are of technological interest as high temperature structural alloys. These alloys possess a relatively low density, high melting temperature, good thermal conductivity, and (usually) good oxidation resistance. However, NiAl and NiAl-base alloys suffer from poor fracture resistance at low temperatures as well as inadequate creep strength at elevated temperatures. This research program explored macroalloying additions to NiAl-base alloys in order to identify possible alloying and processing routes which promote both low temperature fracture toughness and high temperature strength. Initial results from the study examined the additions of Fe, Co, and Hf on the microstructure, deformation, and fracture resistance of NiAl-based alloys. Of significance were the observations that the presence of the gamma-prime phase, based on Ni3Al, could enhance the fracture resistance if the gamma-prime were present as a continuous grain boundary film or 'necklace'; and the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy was ductile in ribbon form despite a microstructure consisting solely of the B2 beta phase based on NiAl. The ductility inherent in the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy was explored further in subsequent studies. Those results confirm the presence of ductility in the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy after rapid cooling from 750 - 1000 C. However exposure at 550 C caused embrittlement; this was associated with an age-hardening reaction caused by the formation of Fe-rich precipitates. In contrast, to the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy, exploratory research indicated that compositions in the range of Ni-35Al-12Fe retain the ordered B2 structure of NiAl, are ductile, and do not age-harden or embrittle after thermal exposure. Thus, our recent efforts have focused on the behavior of the Ni-35Al-12Fe alloy. A second parallel effort initiated in this program was to use an alternate processing technique, mechanical alloying, to improve the properties of NiAl-alloys. Mechanical alloying in the conventional sense requires ductile powder particles which, through a cold welding and fracture process, can be dispersion strengthened by submicron-sized oxide particles. Using both the Ni-35Al-Fe alloys to contain approx. 1 v/o Y2O3. Preliminary results indicate that mechanically alloyed and extruded NiAl-Fe + Y2O3 alloys when heat treated to a grain-coarsened condition, exhibit improved creep resistance at 1000 C when compared to NiAl; oxidation resistance comparable to NiAl; and fracture toughness values a factor of three better than NiAl. As a result of the research initiated on this NASA program, a subsequent project with support from Inco Alloys International is underway.

Koss, D. A.

1991-01-01

302

Production of high-purity 26Al  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

26Al is a positron emitting radioisotope of aluminium and has a half-life of 7.16x105y. In addition to annihilation ?-rays of 511 keV, there are three high energy ?-rays 1129 (2.4%), 1809 (99.73%) and 2938 (0.27%) keV. 26Al is the only radioisotope of aluminium available for radiochemical applications, the half-lives of the other aluminium isotopes are seconds and minutes. The usage of 26Al is very important in the investigations of the metabolism of Al in human body (for example in Alzheimer disease studies) or as a tracer in radiochemical studies. But 26Al is such a long-lived isotope that the task of producing it in tangible amounts is a very difficult one. (author). 2 refs

303

The wobbler mouse, an ALS animal model  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This review article is focused on the research progress made utilizing the wobbler mouse as animal model for human motor neuron diseases, especially the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The wobbler mouse develops progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons and shows striking similarities to ALS. The cellular effects of the wobbler mutation, cellular transport defects, neurofilament aggregation, neuronal hyperexcitability and neuroinflammation closely resemble human ALS. Now, 57 years after the first report on the wobbler mouse we summarize the progress made in understanding the disease mechanism and testing various therapeutic approaches and discuss the relevance of these advances for human ALS. The identification of the causative mutation linking the wobbler mutation to a vesicle transport factor and the research focussed on the cellular basis and the therapeutic treatment of the wobbler motor neuron degeneration has shed new light on the molecular pathology of the disease and might contribute to the understanding the complexity of ALS

Moser, Jakob Maximilian; Bigini, Paolo

2013-01-01

304

Kinetics of oxidation of Zn 5 Al and Zn 55 Al alloys alloyed by erbium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article is devoted to influence of temperature and chemical composition on kinetics of oxidation of Zn 5 Al and Zn 55 Al alloys alloyed by erbium. The influence of temperature and chemical composition on kinetics of oxidation of Zn 5 Al and Zn 55 Al alloys alloyed by erbium is studied by means of thermogravimetry method with continuous samples weighing. Zinc, aluminium A 7 and its alloy with erbium (10%) are chosen as initial materials for alloys synthesis.

305

Micromechanisms of fracture and fatigue in Ti3Al based and TiAl based intermetallics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Micromechanisms of fracture and fatigue crack growth resistance in specific Ti3Al based and TiAl based intermetallics are reviewed. Effects of test temprature, environment and microstructure on crack growth resistance are considered in detail for several Ti3Al and TiAl based intermetallic systems under development. The implications of these studies for the structural reliability of these materials is also addressed briefly.

James, A.; Chave, R.; Hippsley, C.; Bowen, P.

1993-01-01

306

Magnetic behaviour of PrCuAl and NdCuAl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present results of a specific heat and magnetization study of PrCuAl and NdCuAl. PrCuAl orders antiferromagnetically below TN = 7.9 K. The magnetic behaviour of NdCuAl is more complex. Our experiments reveal the ordering temperature of 18 K and indications of magnetic ordering characterized by a coexistence of ferro- and antiferromagnetic components of Nd moments. (orig.)

307

Thermal stability of TiAlN and nanocomposite TiAlSiN thin films.  

Science.gov (United States)

TiAlN and TiAlSiN coatings were synthesized by a cathodic arc deposition process. Titanium, Ti50Al50 alloy and AlSi (88 at.% of Al and 12 at.% of Si) alloy targets were adopted as the cathode materials. X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that Ti0.5Al0.5N and Ti49Al0.44Si0.07N possess a B1-NaCl crystal structure. The lattice constants of the Ti0.5Al0.5N and Ti0.49Al0.44Si0.07N calculated from XRD pattern were 0.418 nm and 0.422 nm, respectively. For the high temperature oxidation test, the coated samples were annealed at 900 degrees C in air atmosphere for 2 hours. In this study, the deposited Ti0.5Al0.5N had completely transformed to TiO2 and Al2O3, and Ti0.49Al0.44Si0.07N remained the as-deposited structure after oxidation treatment. It indicated that Ti0.49Al0.44Si0.07N possesses superior oxidation resistance than Ti0.5Al0.5N, due to the amorphous SiNx phase existed in the nanocomposite structure. The different oxidation mechanisms of Ti50Al50N and Ti0.49Al0.44Si0.07N at high temperature of 900 degrees C are developed in this study. PMID:19441466

Yang, Sheng-Min; Chang, Yin-Yu; Lin, Dong-Yih; Wang, Da-Yung; Wu, Weite

2009-02-01

308

Assessment of isotopically exchangeable Al in soil materials using 26Al tracer  

Science.gov (United States)

The solubility of aluminium (Al) in many acidic soils is controlled by complexation reactions with soil organic matter. In such soils, Al solubility is theoretically a function of the pool size of "active" Al, i.e., the total amount of Al that equilibrates with the soil solution within a defined period of time. To date, no reliable measurements of "active" Al in soil materials exist. In this study, we determined the isotopically exchangeable pool of Al ( EAl) as an operationally defined assessment of "active" Al in acidic mineral soils. The suitability of CuCl 2 and pyrophosphate (Na 4P 2O 7) as extractants for "active" Al was also evaluated. Eleven samples, mostly from spodic B horizons, were spiked with carrier-free 26Al and equilibrated for different time periods (1-756 h). The size of the Al pool with which the 26Al tracer exchanged increased with time during the whole experimental period. Thus, contact time between solid and solution phases needs to be defined when assessing the "active" Al pool. Values of EAl obtained after 1 to 5 d of equilibration were equal to the amount of CuCl 2 extractable Al, but considerably smaller than the Na 4P 2O 7-extractable pool. Equilibration times greater than 5 d resulted in CuCl 2 extractable Al concentrations that under-estimated the "active" Al pool. Three of the investigated samples were rich in imogolite-type materials (ITM). In these samples, 30-50 % of the added 26Al rapidly became associated with soil constituents in forms that could not be extracted by Na 4P 2O 7, indicating that a part of ITM may be in a dynamic state.

Kleja, D. Berggren; Standring, W.; Oughton, D. H.; Gustafsson, J.-P.; Fifield, K.; Fraser, A. R.

2005-11-01

309

AL(0) in municipal waste incinerator ash  

Science.gov (United States)

Disposal of municipal waste is a challenge to society. Waste volume is substantially decreased by incineration but residual ash usually contains a number of toxic components which must be immobilised to insure environmental protection. One element, chromium, is mobile and toxic in its oxidised state as Cr(VI) but it can be reduced to Cr(III) and immobilised. Reduction can be promoted by ash treatment with Fe(0) or Fe(II), but recent evidence shows that at least some Cr(VI) is reduced spontaneously in the ash. Aspects of ash behaviour suggest metallic aluminium as the reducing agent, but no direct evidence of Al(0) has been found until now. We examined filter ash from an energy-producing, municipal-waste incinerator (Vest-forbrænding) near Copenhagen. X-ray diffraction (XRD) identified expected salts of Na, K and Ca such as halite, sylvite, calcite, anhydrite and gypsum as well as quartz, feldspar and some hematite. Wave-dispersive electron microprobe produced elemen-tal maps of the ash; Al-rich areas were analysed quantitatively by comparison with standards. We identified metallic Al particles, averaging 50 to 100 micrometers in di-ameter, often with a fractured, glassy border of aluminum oxide. The particles were porous, explaining fast Cr(VI) reduction and they contained thin exsolution lamellae of Al-alloys of Pb and Cu or Mn, Fe and Ag, which provide clues of the Al(0) origin in the waste. Sometimes Al(0) occurred inside glassy globes of Al2O3. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) proved that surface Al concentrations on ash particles were below detection, confirming reactivity of the Al(0) bulk. The persistence of reduced Al through the highly oxidising combustion procedure comes as a surprise and is a benefit in the immobilisation of Cr(VI) from municipal-waste incineration residues.

Stipp, S. L.; Ronsbo, J. G.; Zunic, T. B.; Christensen, T. H.

2003-04-01

310

XPS Studies on Thermal Switching in Thick Film Al-VP Glass-Al Structure  

Science.gov (United States)

Thick film sandwich structures of Me-VP glass-Me (Me=Au, Al) have been prepared. The I-V characteristics are non-linear in all cases but thermal switching has been observed only in Al-VP glass-Al structure. Presence of VO2 was identified from XPS studies in the vanadium phosphate glass in the post breakdown state.

Setty, M. S.; Sainkar, S. R.; Sinha, A. P. B.

1983-07-01

311

The annealing behaviour of hydrogen implanted into Al metal and Al-Si alloy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present experiment, we have investigated how defects and elements as additive play a role as trap site by observing the annealing behaviour of hydrogen implanted into Al and Al-Si alloy. It was found that hydrogen is trapped as molecules in grain boundaries of Si in Al. (author)

312

Cu-segregation at the Q'/?-Al interface in Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cu segregation was detected at the Q'/?-Al interface in an Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy by energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy. By contrast, in a Cu-free Al-Mg-Si alloy no segregation was observed at the interface between the matrix and Type-C precipitate

313

Tribological properties of Al6061-Al2O3 nanocomposite prepared by milling and hot pressing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tribological properties of bulk Al6061-Al2O3 nanocomposite prepared by mechanical milling and hot pressing were investigated. Al6061 chips were milled for 30 h to achieve a homogenous nanostructured powder. A 3 vol.% Al2O3 nanoparticles (?30 nm) were added to the Al6061 after 15 and 30 h from the beginning of milling. The milling times with Al2O3 in these two samples were then 15 h and 30 min, respectively. Additionally, 3 vol.% Al2O3 (1 ?m and 60 ?m) was added to the Al6061 after 15 h of milling; where, the micron size Al2O3 in these two samples, was milled 15 h with the matrix. Hot pressing of milled samples was executed at 400 oC under 128 MPa pressure in a uniaxial die. The hot pressed samples were characterized by micro-hardness test, bulk density measurements, pin on disc wear test, and finally scanning electron microscopy observations. Fifteen hour-milled nanocomposite with nanoscale Al2O3, showed improvement in wear resistance and bulk density compared with that of 30 min-milled nanocomposites due to better dispersion of Al2O3 nanoparticles, improved surface quality of nanocomposite particles before pressing and more grain refinement of Al matrix. Moreover, increasing the reinforcement size increased the wear rate because of reduction in relative density, hardness and inter-particle spacing.

314

Vertragsabschlüsse auf Internetplattformen: Rechtliche Risiken und Gestaltungsmöglichkeiten am Beispiel der Internetplattform eBay  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

[Einleitung] Die Zahl der Vertragsabschlüsse im Internet ist in den letzten Jahren stark gestiegen. Tatsächlich hat das Internet neue Möglichkeiten eröffnet, Waren oder Dienstleistungen einem breiten Publikum auf nationaler oder sogar internationaler Ebene anzubieten. Immer mehr Unternehmen vertreiben ihre Waren ausschließlich oder zumindest auch über das Internet. Aber auch Verbraucher treten im Internet heute längst nicht mehr nur als Kunden auf, sondern nutzen die diversen Möglichk...

Coburger, Dieter

2013-01-01

315

Thermodynamic calculations in alloys Ti-Al, Ti-Fe, Al-Fe and Ti-Al-Fe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thermodynamic calculations of three binary Ti-based alloys: Ti-Al, Ti-Fe, and Al-Fe, as well as ternary alloy Ti-Al-Fe, is shown in this paper. Thermodynamic calculations involved thermodynamic determination of activities, coefficient of activities, partial and integral values for enthalpies and Gibbs energies of mixing and excess energies at different temperatures: 1873K, 2000K and 2073K, as well as calculated phase diagrams for the investigated binary and ternary systems. The FactSage is us...

Kostov Ana; Friedrich B.; Živkovi? D.

2008-01-01

316

Reduction of low-frequency 1/f noise in Al-AlOx-Al tunnel junctions by thermal annealing  

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We report that annealing Al-AlOx-Al tunnel junctions in a vacuum chamber at temperature of 400C reduces the characteristic 1/f noise in the junctions, in some cases by an order of magnitude. Both ultra high vacuum and high vacuum fabricated samples demonstrated a significant reduction in the 1/f noise level. Temperature dependence of the noise was studied between 4.2 and 340 Kelvin, with a linear dependence below 100 K, but a faster increase above. The results are consistent...

Julin, Juhani; Koppinen, Panu; Maasilta, Ilari

2010-01-01

317

Low resistance Mo/Al/Mo/Au ohmic contact scheme to InAlN/AlN/GaN heterostructure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mo/Al/Mo/Au metallization scheme was investigated to develop low-resistance ohmic contacts on InAlN/AlN/GaN field-effect transistor heterostructure using a pre-metallization surface treatment with SiCl{sub 4} plasma in a reactive ion etching system and a relatively low-temperature anneal at 650 C. The contact resistance and specific contact resistivity were dramatically improved to as low as 0.15 {omega} mm and 7.8 x 10{sup -7}{omega} cm{sup 2} at 650 C, respectively. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

Lee, Jaesun; Yan, Minjun; Ofuonye, Benedict; Jang, Jaehyung; Adesida, Ilesanmi [Micro and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL 61801 (United States); Gao, X. [Micro and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL 61801 (United States); IQE RF LLC, Somerset, NJ 08873 (United States); Guo, Shiping [IQE RF LLC, Somerset, NJ 08873 (United States)

2011-07-15

318

Natural bond orbital, nuclear magnetic resonance analysis and hybrid-density functional theory study of ?-aromaticity in Al?F?, Al?Cl?, Al?Br? and Al?I?.  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural bond orbital (NBO), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis and hybrid-density functional theory based method (B3LYP/Def2-TZVPP) were used to investigate the correlation between the nucleus-independent chemical shifts [NICS, as an aromaticity criterion], ? Al(1)-X2(b) ? ?*Al(3)-X?(b) electron delocalizations and the dissociation energies of Al?F?, Al?Cl?, Al?Br? and Al?I? to 2AlX? (X?=?F, Cl, Br, I). The results obtained showed that the dissociation energies of Al?F?, Al?Cl?, Al?Br? and Al?I? decrease from Al?F? to Al?I?. Like aromatic molecules, these compounds have relatively significant negative NICSiso(0) values. Clearly, based on magnetic criteria, they exhibit aromatic character and make it possible to consider them as ?-delocalized aromatic species, such as Möbius ?-aromatic species. The ?-aromatic character which is demonstrated by their NICSiso(0) values decreases from Al?F? to Al?I?. The NICSiso values are dominated by the in-plane ??? (i.e., ?yy, the plane containing halogen atoms bridged) chemical shift components. The increase of the NICSiso values explains significantly the decrease of the corresponding dissociation energies of Al?F?, Al?Cl?, Al?Br? and Al?I?. Importantly, the NBO results suggest that in these compounds the dissociation energies are controlled by the stabilization energies associated with ? Al(1)-X2(b) ??*Al(3)-X4(b) electron delocalizations. The decrease of the stabilization energies associated with ? Al(1)-X?(b) ??*Al(3)-X4(b) electron delocalizations is in accordance with the variation of the calculated NICSiso values. The correlations between the dissociation energies of Al?F?, Al?Cl?, Al?Br? and Al?I?, ? Al(1)-X?(b) ??*Al(3)-X4(b) electron delocalizations, natural atomic orbitals (NAOs) and NICSiso values have been investigated. PMID:23455929

Nori-Shargh, Davood; Yahyaei, Hooriye; Mousavi, Seiedeh Negar; Maasoomi, Akram; Kayi, Hakan

2013-06-01

319

Formation and properties of Al composites reinforced by quasicrystalline AlCuFeB particles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Al-based composites reinforced by icosahedral (i-) Al59Cu25.5Fe12.5B3 quasicrystalline particles were prepared by solid state sintering. It is found that Al diffusion from the matrix to the quasicrystalline particles induces phase transformation into the ?-Al7Cu2Fe tetragonal phase. In order to preserve the i phase, we use an oxidation pre-treatment of the particles and study its influence onto the kinetics of the phase transformation (Al + i ? ?) as a func...

Kenzari, Samuel; Weisbecker, Patrick; Curulla, Marco; Geandier, Guillaume; Fourne?e, Vincent; Dubois, Jean-marie

2008-01-01

320

Laser processing and microstructure of Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystalline coatings on Al-base materials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is a large interest in using high power lasers for surface alloying or cladding on aluminium alloys, in order to enhance hardness and to improve wear resistance. A partly quasicrystalline surface layer (QC) (Al-Cu-Fe coating) has been obtained by laser cladding on Al-base materials. In addition to crystalline phases (Al5Fe2 and Al13Fe4, with dissolved copper), a quasicrystalline Al-Cu-Fe phase is detected. However, crystallization of this quasicrystalline phase occurs during isothermal ...

Sallamand, P.; Pelletier, J.

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Effects of Al(III) and Nano-Al13 Species on Malate Dehydrogenase Activity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effects of different aluminum species on malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity were investigated by monitoring amperometric i-t curves for the oxidation of NADH at low overpotential using a functionalized multi-wall nanotube (MWNT) modified glass carbon electrode (GCE). The results showed that Al(III) and Al13 can activate the enzymatic activity of MDH, and the activation reaches maximum levels as the Al(III) and Al13 concentration increase. Our study also found that the effects of Al(III) ...

Rong Fu Chen; Huihui Li; Xiaodi Yang; Yu Peng; Ling Cai; Ren Fang Shen

2011-01-01

322

Formation of AlFeSi phase in AlSi12 alloy with Ce addition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The influence of cerium addition on the solidification sequence and microstructure constituents of the Al-Si alloys with 12,6 mass % Si was examined. The solidification was analyzed by a simple thermal analysis. The microstructures were examined with conventional light and scanning electron microscopy. Ternary AlSiCe phase was formed in the Al-Si alloys with added cerium during the solidification process. AlSiCe and ?-AlFeSi phases solidified together in the region that solidified the last. ...

Kores, S.; Vonc?ina, M.; Kosec, B.; Medved, J.

2012-01-01

323

The influence of Al content on the Zener relaxation of Fe-Al alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of Al content on the Zener relaxation peak of annealed Fe-Al alloys has been investigated using a computer-controlled automatic inverted torsion pendulum through the method of free decay and forced vibration. It has been shown that alloys with medium Al contents show strong relaxation while lower or higher Al contents lead to relatively weak Zener relaxation peaks. The Zener relaxation in Fe-Al alloys originates from the next-nearest-neighbour atom pairs and their interaction rather than the nearest-neighbour atom pairs. The latter may not produce Zener relaxation because of the ordered structure, which suppresses Zener relaxation

324

KHAN, Geoffrey – GALLEGO, María Ángeles – OLSZOWY-SCHLANGER, Judith (Leiden – Boston, 2003), The Karaite Tradition of Hebrew Grammatical Thought in its Classical Form. A Critical Edition and English Translation of al-Kit?b al-K?f? f? al-Lu?a al-?Ibr?niyya by ?Ab? al-Faraj H?r?n ibn al-Faraj  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Reseña de: The Karaite Tradition of Hebrew Grammatical Thought in its Classical Form. A Critical Edition and English Translation of al-Kit?b al-K?f? f? al-Lu?a al-?Ibr?niyya by ?Ab? al-Faraj H?r?n ibn al-Faraj

Huertas Abril, Cristina

2007-01-01

325

Die sexualerhaltende Chirurgie als Herausforderung an die operative Gynäkologie und Onkologie  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Die sexualitätserhaltende Chirurgie ist wie die Sexualität selbst in den zurückliegenden Jahrzehnten von einem Tabuthema zu einem in der Öffentlichkeit diskutierten Lebensbereich geworden. Wie so häufig in der Medizin richtete sich das Interesse von Ärzten und Industrie in erster Linie auf Therapieoptionen für betroffene Männer. Erst seit wenigen Jahren gerät die ? komplexere ? weibliche Sexualfunktion in den Fokus der operativ tätigen Gynäkologen. Dabei geht es nicht mehr nur um anatomische Strukturen, sondern auch um funktionelle Aspekte wie die Lubrikation und Orgasmusfähigkeit. Die nervenschonende Radikaloperation ist in unterschiedlichem Ausmaß, abhängig vom Stadium der Erkrankung, möglich und zu fordern. Neben der entsprechenden Operationstechnik sind eine adäquate Sexualanamnese, eine entsprechende Aufklärung und postoperative Begleittherapien wichtige Voraussetzungen für ein möglichst unbeeinträchtigtes Sexualleben der betroffenen Frauen.

Bassim S

2009-01-01

326

Effect of Al-Fe and Al-Fe-Si phases on the porosity of Al foils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Correlations between the porosity and the microstructure of foils produced from commercial Al-Fe-Si alloy have been studied by transmission scanning electron microscopy. It was established that higher homogenization and hot rolling temperature is more favourable

327

Electrical investigations of AlGaN/AlN structures for LEDs on Si(111)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The carrier transport in AlGaN light emission diode (LED) structures on Si-substrates including an AlN multilayer (ML) buffer for reduction of defects was investigated using I-V-characteristics and admittance spectroscopy. Additionally, AlN on Si ML and AlN/AlGaN:Si on Si structures were grown and analyzed separately. The AlN-ML/AlGaN:Si heterojunction, and the pn-junction including the AlGaN/GaN multi quantum well (MQW)-structure were identified. As the main space charge regions (SCRs) controlling the carrier transport through the ultraviolet-light emission diode (UV-LED) structure the Si-substrate/AlN-ML heterojunctions pointed out. The I-V-characteristic of the LED structure is described by the series resistance of the AlN-ML and a parallel resistance with respect to the pn-junction. Interface defect states and/or deep defects impact the series resistance. The carrier transport through the LED structure is controlled by a tunnel process described by a Fowler-Nordheim (FN)-emission mainly through the AlN-ML buffer forming the series resistance. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

Witte, H.; Rohrbeck, A.; Guenther, K.M.; Saengkaew, P.; Blaesing, J.; Dadgar, A.; Krost, A. [Department of Semiconductor Epitaxy, Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Magdeburg, 39106 Magdeburg (Germany)

2011-07-15

328

Nanoindentation Study of Al356-Al2O3 Nanocomposite Prepared by Ball Milling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study ball milling of Al356 and Al2O3 powder mixture was carried out in order to produce Al356-Al2O3 nano-composite containing 20 vol.% Al2O3. The structural evolution and morphological changes of powder particles during ball milling were studied by X-ray diffractometery and scanning electron microscopy analysis. As a result of ball milling Al2O3 particles were uniformly dispersed in Al356 matrix. Furthermore the crystallite size of the Al356 decreased to 25 nm after ball milling for 10 h. Morphological studies of powder particles indicated that the powder particle size continuously decreases with increasing milling time. Hardness and elastic modulus values of powder particles were measured by nanoindentation method. It was found that the hardness and elastic modulus of Al356-20 vol.% Al2O3 nanocomposite were about 216 Hv and 86 GPa, respectively which is higher than 75 Hv and 74 GPa for as-received Al356.

Y. Mazaheri

2010-10-01

329

Al6H18: A baby crystal of ?-AlH3  

Science.gov (United States)

Using global-minima search methods based on the density functional theory calculations of (AlH3)n (n = 1-8) clusters, we show that the growth pattern of alanes for n ? 4 is dominated by structures containing hexa-coordinated Al atoms. This is in contrast to the earlier studies where either linear or ring structures of AlH3 were predicted to be the preferred structures in which the Al atoms can have a maximum of five-fold coordination. Our calculations also reveal that the Al6H18 cluster, with its hexa-coordination of the Al atoms, resembles the unit-cell of ?-AlH3, thus Al6H18 is designated as the "baby crystal." The fragmentation energies of the (AlH3)n (n = 2-8) along with the dimerization energies for even n clusters indicate an enhanced stability of the Al6H18 cluster. Both covalent (hybridization) and ionic (charge) contribution to the bonding are the driving factors in stabilizing the isomers containing hexa-coordinated Al atoms.

Kiran, B.; Kandalam, Anil K.; Xu, Jing; Ding, Y. H.; Sierka, M.; Bowen, K. H.; Schnöckel, H.

2012-10-01

330

Al-matrix composite materials reinforced by Al-Cu-Fe particles  

Science.gov (United States)

Al-matrix material composites were produced using hot isostatic pressing technique, starting with pure Al and icosahedral (i) Al-Cu-Fe powders. Depending on the processing temperature, the final reinforcement particles are either still of the initial i-phase or transformed into the tetragonal ?-Al00.70Cu0.20Fe0.10 crystalline phase. Compression tests performed in the temperature range 293K - 823K on the two types of composite, i.e. Al/i and Al/?, indicate that the flow stress of both composites is strongly temperature dependent and exhibit distinct regimes with increasing temperature. Differences exist between the two composites, in particul ar in yield stress values. In the low temperatureregime (T 570K both composites exhibit similar yield stress values. The results are interpreted in terms of load transfer contribution between the matrix and the reinforcement particles and elementary dislocation mechanisms in the Al matrix.

Bonneville, J.; Laplanche, G.; Joulain, A.; Gauthier-Brunet, V.; Dubois, S.

2010-07-01

331

Oxidation of Al2O3 continuous fiber-reinforced/NiAl composites  

Science.gov (United States)

The 1200 C and 1300 C isothermal and cyclic oxidation behavior of Al2O3 continuous fiber-reinforced/NiAl composites were studied. Oxidation resulted in formation of Al2O3 external scales in a similar manner as scales formed on monolithic NiAl. The isothermal oxidation of an Al2O3/NiAl composite resulted in oxidation of the matrix along the fiber/matrix interface near the fiber ends. This oxide acted as a wedge between the fiber and the matrix, and, under cyclic oxidation conditions, led to further oxidation along the fiber lengths and eventual cracking of the composite. The oxidation behavior of composites in which the Al2O3 fibers were sputter coated with nickel prior to processing was much more severe. This was attributed to open channels around the fibers which formed during processing, most likely as a result of the diffusion of the nickel coating into the matrix.

Doychak, J.; Nesbitt, J. A.; Noebe, R. D.; Bowman, R. R.

1992-01-01

332

Ni{sub 3}Al aluminide alloys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper provides a brief review of the recent progress in research and development of Ni{sub 3}Al and its alloys. Emphasis has been placed on understanding low ductility and brittle fracture of Ni{sub 3}Al alloys at ambient and elevated temperatures. Recent studies have resulted in identifying both intrinsic and extrinsic factors governing the fracture behavior of Ni{sub 3}Al alloys. Parallel efforts on alloy design using physical metallurgy principles have led to properties for structural use. Industrial interest in these alloys is high, and examples of industrial involvement in processing and utilization of these alloys are briefly mentioned.

Liu, C.T.

1993-10-01

333

MICROSTRUCTURE OF CVD - Al2O3  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The reaction mechanisms of CVD-Al2O3 are briefly reviewed. Two independent reaction paths exist, one of which is rate limited by a volume reaction and the second one by a surface reaction. Al2O3 crystallizes in several different phases. The ?-structure is the stable phase at normal deposition temperature (950-1050°C). The metastable ?-phase is the second most commonly occurring phase. It is shown that ? - and ? - Al2O3 nucleate on pure TiC (111) facets with well defined lattice orientati...

Chatfield, C.; Lindstro?m, J.; Sjo?strand, M.

1989-01-01

334

The effects of LT AlN buffer thickness on the optical properties of AlGaN grown by MOCVD and Al composition inhomogeneity analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have investigated the growth of AlGaN epilayers on a sapphire substrate by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition using various low-temperature (LT) AlN buffer thicknesses. Combined scanning electron microscopy and cathodoluminescence investigations reveal the correlation between the surface morphology and optical properties of AlGaN films in a microscopic scale. It is found that the suitable thickness of the LT AlN buffer for high quality AlGaN growth is around 20 nm. The Al compositional inhomogeneity of the AlGaN epilayer is attributed to the low lateral mobility of Al adatoms on the growing surface

335

Analysis of the Candida albicans Als2p and Als4p adhesins suggests the potential for compensatory function within the Als family  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ALS (agglutinin-like sequence) gene family encodes eight large cell-surface glycoproteins. The work presented here focuses on Als2p and Als4p, and is part of a larger effort to deduce the function of each Als protein. Both ALS4 alleles were deleted from the Candida albicans genome and the phenotype of the mutant strain (als4?/als4?; named 2034) studied. Loss of Als4p slowed germ tube formation of cells grown in RPMI 1640 medium and resulted in decreased adhesion of C. albicans to vascul...

Zhao, X.; Oh, S. -h; Yeater, K. M.; Hoyer, L. L.

2005-01-01

336

Evolution of deformation texture in Al/Al–Mg/Al composite sheets during cold-roll cladding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Al/Al–Mg/Al composite sheets were fabricated by roll cladding. ? EBSD analysis captured the heterogeneity of deformation texture in each component layer. ? The deformation history from the FEA was used to simulate the evolution of deformation texture. ? The simulations revealed how the friction-induced shear component of Lij affects the development of shear–strain texture. - Abstract: Al/Al–Mg/Al composite sheets were fabricated by roll cladding to investigate the evolution of deformation texture through the thickness direction. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) was used to analyze the heterogeneity of deformation texture in each component layer of the composite sheets. Finite element analysis (FEA) was conducted to simulate the deformation history in each component layer during roll cladding. The deformation history from the FEA was used in a full-constraints polycrystal model to simulate the evolution of deformation texture through the thickness direction during roll cladding. The simulation results revealed that the development of distinct shear–strain texture components in the clad layer could be explained by the friction-induced shear component of a velocity gradient tensor.

337

Electromagnetic enhancement of wetting in the Al-Al2O3 and Al-graphite systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of a pulsed electromagnetic field on wetting in the Al-Al2O3 and Al-graphite systems has been investigated in this study. In the sessile drop test the applied electromagnetic field can cause strong circulating surface flow and oscillation of the aluminum droplet. At temperatures above 800 degree C the oxide film breaks up and fragments can be seen to move over the surface of the droplet under the action of the induced electromagnetic stirring. A rapid decrease of contact angle was observed to occur when surface oscillation occurred. The rate of decrease of the contact angle has been found to be related to the intensity of the oscillation induced by the field. The amplitude of the resonant oscillation is a function of the pulse frequency and amplitude. The treatment temperature and oxygen partial pressure can also influence the strength of oscillation and therefore the rate of decrease of the contact angle. The measured data provide an insight into the influence of the electromagnetic field on wetting. Within 15 minutes the use of the field can reduce the contact angle by 25 degree and 22 degree respectively for the Al-graphite and the Al-Al2O3 systems at 800 degree C

338

Interdiffusion in Diffusion Couples: U-Mo v. Al and Al-Si  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Interdiffusion and microstructural development in the U-Mo-Al system was examined using solid-tosolid diffusion couples consisting of U-7wt.%Mo, U-10wt.%Mo and U-12wt.%Mo vs. pure Al, annealed at 600°C for 24 hours. The influence of Si alloying addition (up to 5 wt.%) in Al on the interdiffusion microstructural development was also examined using solid-to-solid diffusion couples consisting of U-7wt.%Mo, U-10wt.%Mo and U-12wt.%Mo vs. pure Al, Al-2wt.%Si, and Al-5wt.%Si annealed at 550°C up to 20 hours. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) were employed to examine the development of a very fine multiphase intermetallic layer. In ternary U-Mo-Al diffusion couples annealed at 600°C for 24 hours, interdiffusion microstructure varied of finely dispersed UAl3, UAl4, U6Mo4Al43, and UMo2Al20 phases while the average composition throughout the interdiffusion zone remained constant at approximately 80 at.% Al. Interdiffusion microstructure observed by SEM/TEM analyses and diffusion paths drawn from concentration profiles determined by EPMA appear to deviate from the assumption of “local thermodynamic equilibrium,” and suggest that interdiffusion occurs via supersaturated UAl4 followed by equilibrium transformation into UAl3, U6Mo4Al43, UAl4 and UMo2Al20 phases. Similar observation was made for U-Mo vs. Al diffusion couples annealed at 550°C. The addition of Si (up to 5 wt.%) in Al significantly reduced the thickness of the intermetallic layer by changing the constituent phases of the interdiffusion zone developed in U-Mo vs. Al-Si diffusion couples. Specifically, the formation of (U,Mo)(Al,Si)3 with relatively large solubility for Mo and Si, along with UMo2Al20 phases was observed along with disappearance of U6Mo4Al43 and UAl4 phases. Simplified understanding based on U-Al, U-Si, and Mo-Si binary phase diagrams is discussed in the light of the beneficial effect of Si alloying addition.

D. D. Keiser, Jr.; E. Perez; B. Yao; Y. H. Sohn

2009-11-01

339

In Situ Fabrication of AlN Coating by Reactive Plasma Spraying of Al/AlN Powder  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reactive plasma spraying is a promising technology for the in situ formation of aluminum nitride (AlN coatings. Recently, it became possible to fabricate cubic-AlN-(c-AlN based coatings through reactive plasma spraying of Al powder in an ambient atmosphere. However, it was difficult to fabricate a coating with high AlN content and suitable thickness due to the coalescence of the Al particles. In this study, the influence of using AlN additive (h-AlN to increase the AlN content of the coating and improve the reaction process was investigated. The simple mixing of Al and AlN powders was not suitable for fabricating AlN coatings through reactive plasma spraying. However, it was possible to prepare a homogenously mixed, agglomerated and dispersed Al/AlN mixture (which enabled in-flight interaction between the powder and the surrounding plasma by wet-mixing in a planetary mill. Increasing the AlN content in the mixture prevented coalescence and increased the nitride content gradually. Using 30 to 40 wt% AlN was sufficient to fabricate a thick (more than 200 µm AlN coating with high hardness (approximately 1000 Hv. The AlN additive prevented the coalescence of Al metal and enhanced post-deposition nitriding through N2 plasma irradiation by allowing the nitriding species in the plasma to impinge on a larger Al surface area. Using AlN as a feedstock additive was found to be a suitable method for fabricating AlN coatings by reactive plasma spraying. Moreover, the fabricated coatings consist of hexagonal (h-AlN, c-AlN (rock-salt and zinc-blend phases and certain oxides: aluminum oxynitride (Al5O6N, cubic sphalerite Al23O27N5 (ALON and Al2O3. The zinc-blend c-AlN and ALON phases were attributed to the transformation of the h-AlN feedstock during the reactive plasma spraying. Thus, the zinc-blend c-AlN and ALON phases were not included in the feedstock and were not formed through nitriding of the Al.

Mohammed Shahien

2011-10-01

340

Load relaxation behavior of superplastic Al alloys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The high temperature deformation behavior of superplastic Al alloys, such as 8090 Al-Li and 7475 Al, has been studied experimentally within the framework of an internal variable theory of inelastic deformation. A simple rheological model including the grain boundary sliding (GBS) has been developed and used to interpret the plastic flow behavior of these alloys at high temperatures. A series of load relaxation tests has been carried out for fine grained specimens of superplastic Al alloys at various temperatures. The effect of grain size has also been examined. A Hall-Petch type relation has been found between the grain size and an internal strength variable ({sigma}{sup *}), instead of generally used flow stress ({sigma}). Based on the experimental observation, a necessary condition for superplastic deformation has finally been proposed in terms of {sigma}{sup *} and the static friction stress for GBS ({Sigma}{sub g}) as {Sigma}{sub g}{<=}{sigma}{<=}{sigma}{sup *}. (orig.) 23 refs.

Ha, T.K.; Chang, Y.W. [Pohang Univ. of Sci. and Technol. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Mater. Sci. and Eng.

1997-12-31

 
 
 
 
341

CALCULUL CINETOSTATIC AL MECANISMELOR PLANETARE CILINDRICE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available În lucrare se prezint? o metod? analitic? pentru calculul cinetostatic al mecanismului planetarmonomobil cu dou? ro?i din?ate centrale. Se consider? mai întâi cazul general al schemelor cinematice cu dou?ro?i din?ate solidare tip satelit, în dou? variante practice (multiplicator ?i reductor de tura?ie. Este men?ionatcazul particular al mecanismelor planetare cu o singur? roat? satelit cu angrenare dubl? (exterioar? ?iinterioar?. Pe baza modelului de analiz? cinetostatic? a mecanismului planetar monomobil cu dou? ro?i din?atecentrale, în finalul lucr?rii se abordeaz? o problem? practic? de calcul cinetostatic al unui mecanism planetarcilindric simplu folosit la capul de frezat pentru prelucrarea ro?ilor din?ate cilindrice cu din?i curbi înhipocicloid?.

P?un ANTONESCU

2012-05-01

342

Religiöse Bildung Erwachsener als gesellschaftliche Aufgabe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Religiöse Bildung Erwachsener ist ein Bestandteil allgemeiner, individueller und persönlicher Bildung. Sie bedarf der Reflexion und Begründung sowohl im Rahmen der Erwachsenenbildung in evangelischer Trägerschaft als auch innerhalb der Gesellschaft. (DIPF/Orig.)

Deutsche Evangelische Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Erwachsenenbildung

1999-01-01

343

The Al-B-Nb-Ti system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thermodynamic description of the ternary system Al-B-Ti is obtained by modelling the Gibbs energy of all individual phases in the system using the CALPHAD approach. The model parameters have been evaluated using the computer optimization technique PARROT based on the available descriptions of the constituent binary systems Al-B, B-Ti and Al-Ti recently published and relevant experimental information on phase equilibria for the ternary system. For the ternary system Al-B-Ti the reaction scheme, projection of the liquidus, solidus and solvus surfaces, selected vertical and isothermal sections are calculated using the proposed thermodynamic description. An acceptable agreement between the calculations and experimental data is achieved

344

High Temperature Intermetallic Compounds Ni3Al  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper describes the preparation of Ni3Al intermetallic compounds, and investigations of their structures in the as-cast, remelted, and annealed states. The materials were produced by three techniques : in a high frequency vacuum furnace, by zonal remelting in an electron beam furnace, and by remelting with unidirectional solidification. Those melted in an h. f. vacuum furnace and poured into graphite moulds had well developed dendritic structures, a Ni3Al (?) phase, with interdendritic s...

Kursa, M.; Hypeska?, L.; Dra?pala, J.; Ka?rni?k, T.; Losertova?, M.

1995-01-01

345

Menciones al Mérito Deportivo a dirigentes deportivos.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

foto a blanco y negro en buen estado en la cual se aprecia un homenaje en la que el gobierno del Valle confirió menciones al Mérito deportivo D eportivo a los dirigentes Beatreiz Uribe de Borrero, Alex Gorayeb y "Maravilla" Gamboa, por las realizaciónes positivas que desde los distintos campos han brindado al deporte regional. La foto recoje un aspecto de la ceremonia efectuada contando con la presencia del gobernador Manuel Francisco Becerra Barney. El Archivo del Patrimonio Fotográfico...

Occidente, Diario

1988-01-01

346

The Microglial-Motoneuron dialogue in ALS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Neuroinflammation is a pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and is characterized by activated microglia at sites of neuronal injury. In ALS. neurons do not die alone; neuronal injury is noncell- autonomous and depends upon a well-orchestrated dialogue between motor neurons and microglia. Evidence from transgenic models expressing mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD) suggests that the dialogue between motor neuro...

Appel, S. H.; Zhao, W.; Beers, D. R.; Henkel, J. S.

2011-01-01

347

Periodistas: el acceso al mercado laboral  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

El presente estudio analiza la situación profesional de los Licenciados en Periodismo en España. Para ello esta investigación sigue la lógica del proceso de acceso al mercado laboral, es decir, se estudia, en primer lugar, la oferta de egresados y las demandas del sector; a continuación, se analiza la forma en la que un titulado en la Licenciatura de Periodismo accede al mercado laboral y el tiempo que tarda en hacerlo; y por último, se examinan los medios de comunicació...

Lez, Francisco Javier Caro Gonz U. E.; Nez Marin, Gloria Jim U. E.

2006-01-01

348

17th Annual ALS Users' Association Meeting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It's not exactly Russian roulette, but scheduling October events outdoors is not risk-free, even in usually sunny California. An overflow crowd of more than 400 registered users, ALS staff, and vendors enjoyed a full indoor program featuring science highlights and workshops spread over two and a half days from October 18 to October 20. However, a major storm, heralding the onset of the San Francisco Bay Area rainy season, posed a few weather challenges for the events on the ALS patio

349

EVOLUCIÓN: DE LA ESPECIE HUMANA AL CYBORG  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Resumen: Gracias a la evolución biológica y cultural el ser humano ha sido capaz de adaptarse al ambiente. Una opción para mejorar las prestaciones humanas podría ser la obtención de un cyborg o ser humano biónico en el cual la parte inorgánica fuese un chip computacional conectado directamente al cerebro. Esta y otras posibilidades se debaten en el presente artículo. Palabras clave: Evolución biológica, selección natural, evolución cultural, cyborg, biónico, inteligencia.

Francesc Mestres

2011-01-01

350

LA CONTRIBUCIÓN DEL TURISMO AL CRECIMIENTO ECONÓMICO  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

En este artículo se presenta una metodología para medir la contribución del turismo al crecimiento económico. Ésta consiste en el desglose del crecimiento económico generado por el turismo y el crecimiento económico generado por el resto de las actividades económicas. Después el método se aplica al caso de España, Francia, Italia, Reino Unido y Estados Unidos y los resultados se comparan con los de algunos países de América Latina.

Juan Gabriel Brida; Pereyra, Juan Sebasti U. E. N.; Fas Such Devesa, Mar U. Eda Jes U.; Sandra Zapata Aguirre

2008-01-01

351

The Al-B-Nb-Ti system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thermodynamic description of the binary system Al-Ti is obtained by modelling the Gibbs energy of all individual phases using the CALPHAD approach. The model parameters have been evaluated by means of the computer optimization module PARROT, available within Thermo-Calc, taking into account recent experimental data and critically assessed information on phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties. The calculations are in close agreement with the experimental data on both phase equilibria and thermodynamics in the entire Al-Ti system

352

Interdiffusion in the Mg-Al System and Intrinsic Diffusion in ?-Mg2Al3  

Science.gov (United States)

Solid-to-solid diffusion couples were assembled and annealed to examine the diffusion between pure Mg (99.96 pct) and Al (99.999 pct). Diffusion anneals were carried out at 573 K, 623 K and 673 K (300 °C, 350 °C and 400 °C) for 720, 360, and 240 hours, respectively. Optical and scanning electron microscopes were used to identify the formation of the intermetallic phases, ?-Mg17Al12, and ?-Mg2Al3, as well as the absence of the ?-Mg23Al30 in the diffusion couples. The thicknesses of the ?-Mg17Al12 and ?-Mg2Al3 phases were measured and the parabolic growth constants were calculated to determine the activation energies for growth. Concentration profiles were determined with electron microprobe analysis using pure elemental standards. Composition-dependent interdiffusion coefficients in Mg-solid solution, ?-Mg17Al12, ?-Mg2Al3, and Al-solid solutions were calculated based on the Boltzmann-Matano analysis. Integrated and average effective interdiffusion coefficients for each phase were also calculated, and the magnitude was the highest for the ?-Mg2Al3 phase, followed by ?-Mg17Al12, Al-solid solution, and Mg-solid solution. Intrinsic diffusion coefficients based on Huemann's analysis ( e.g., marker plane) were determined for the ~ Mg-62 at. pct Al in the ?-Mg2Al3 phase. Activation energies and the pre-exponential factors for the interdiffusion and intrinsic diffusion coefficients were calculated for the temperature range examined. The ?-Mg2Al3 phase was found to have the lowest activation energies for growth and interdiffusion among all four phases studied. At the marker location in the ?-Mg2Al3 phase, the intrinsic diffusion of Al was found to be faster than that of Mg. Extrapolations of the impurity diffusion coefficients in the terminal solid solutions were made and compared with the available self-diffusion and impurity diffusion data from the literature. Thermodynamic factor, tracer diffusion coefficients, and atomic mobilities at the marker plane composition were approximated using the available literature values of Mg activity in the ?-Mg2Al3 phase.

Brennan, Sarah; Bermudez, Katrina; Kulkarni, Nagraj S.; Sohn, Yongho

2012-11-01

353

AuAl2 and PtAl2 as potential plasmonic materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: •The electronic structure dielectric functions of PtAl2, AuAl2 and intermediate alloys were calculated. •The experimental reflectivity and EELS for PtAl2 showed good agreement with the theoretical spectra. •The yellow color of PtAl2 is associated with a bulk plasmon at 3 eV. •These materials are good candidates for applications in plasmonics. -- Abstract: The dielectric functions of PtAl2, AuAl2 and hypothetical intermediate alloys of the two in the form of AuxPt1?xAl2 were calculated from first principles using density functional theory (DFT) and the random phase approximation (RPA). From these, the reflectivity, electron energy-loss spectra (EELS) and small sphere extinction spectra are predicted. The experimental reflectivity and EELS were measured for PtAl2 and showed good agreement with the theoretical spectra. The yellow color of PtAl2 is associated with a bulk plasmon at 3 eV. We predict that the optical properties of hypothetical intermediate alloys would show a smooth evolution with composition. The details of this change can be understood by examination of the underlying density of states (DOS). The predicted small sphere extinction spectra and quality factors show a strong surface plasmon resonance for these materials, with PtAl2 having the optimum performance. The results indicate that these materials are good candidates for applications in plasmonics

354

Corrosion behavior of solid solution (Ti,Al)N as a function of Al concentration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work, a series of (Ti, Al) N coatings with different Al contents were deposited on 304 stainless steel substrates by Hollow Cathode Discharge (HCD) method. The coatings were grown on 304 stainless steel substrates at 400 C. The coatings were characterized using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and microhardness test. The XRD confirmed the transition from TiN phase to (Ti, Al) N phase and then to AlN phase with increasing Al concentration in the solid solution. It was found that with increasing Al concentration the hardness of the coatings initially increased up to a maximum value of about 30 GPa at around 32 at.% of Al and then the coating hardness decreased rapidly with further increase of Al content (Al > 32 at.%). The potentiodynamic polarization analysis was carried out in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solutions to study the corrosion resistance of the coatings. From the corrosion test it can be inferred that the amount of Al atoms in the coatings plays an important role for reducing the corrosion. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

Larijani, M.M.; Seyedi, H. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, P. O. Box 31485-498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Manouchehrian, M. [Department of Physics, Science Faculty, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yari, M. [Engineering Department Materials, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-08-15

355

Modeling of precipitation in Al alloys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objective was the development of a computational model of precipitation from a supersaturated alloy solid solution. The model is based on the formalism of chemical-reaction-rate theory combined with classical descriptions of precipitate thermodynamic properties and a mean-field treatment of diffusion-limited growht and coarsening. For the case of precipitation of Al{sub 3}Sc in supersaturated Al-Sc alloys, it is demonstrated how the model can be used to calculate number densities and size distributions of precipitates as a function of aging time and temperature, including effects of continuous cooling and thermally generated point defects. Application of the model to a specific alloy system requires knowledge of diffusion data, point defect energetics, and thermodynamic properties for bulk phases and interphase interfaces. For interfaces and point defects, thermodynamic data can be difficult to measure and reliable values of defect free energies are often unavailable. For this reason, part of the efforts were devoted to applying semiempirical and first-principles atomistic techniques to the calculation of interfacial and point-defect thermodynamic properties. This report discusses applications for interphase interfaces in the Al-Ag, Al-Sc, and Al-Li alloy systems. We also describe atomistic work aimed at understanding the energetics of vacancy clusters in Al. These clusters serve as sinks for isolated vacancies during aging and their growth can lead to more complex defects, such as dislocation loops, that act as heterogeneous nucleation sites.

Asta, M.; Foiles, S.M.; Wolfer, W.G. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)] [and others

1996-10-01

356

Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Sporadic ALS  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To investigate oxidative stress biomarkers in a cross-sectional pilot study of 50 participants with sporadic ALS (sALS) compared to 46 control subjects. Methods We measured urinary 8-oxodeoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), urinary 15-F2t-isoprostane (IsoP), and plasma protein carbonyl by ELISA methods. We also determined if ELISA measurement of 8-oxodG could be validated against measures from high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detection, the current standard method. Results 8-oxodG and IsoP levels adjusted for creatinine were significantly elevated in sALS participants. These differences persisted after age and gender were controlled in regression analyses. These markers are highly and positively correlated with each other. 8-oxodG measured by the two techniques from the same urine sample were positively correlated (P < .0001). Protein carbonyl was not different between sALS participants and controls. Conclusion Using ELISA we confirmed that certain oxidative stress biomarkers were elevated in sALS participants. ELISA may be reliable and thus useful in epidemiology studies requiring large numbers of samples to determine the significance of increased oxidative stress markers in sALS. Further studies are required. PMID:18574762

Mitsumoto, Hiroshi; Santella, Regina M.; Liu, Xinhua; Bogdanov, Mikhail; Zipprich, Jennifer; Wu, Hui-Chen; Mahata, Julie; Kilty, Mary; Bednarz, Kate; Bell, Daniel; Gordon, Paul H.; Hornig, Mady; Mehrazin, Mahsa; Naini, Ali; Beal, M. Flint; Factor-Litvak, Pam

2015-01-01

357

Improving arc joining of Al to steel and Al to stainless steel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Al alloy was joined to galvanized steel with assistance of ultrasonic vibration. ? Ultrasonic vibration during GTAW increased the joint strength by 27%. ? Al alloy was joined to stainless steel with Zn-15Al flux-cored filler wire. ? Postweld heat treatment doubled or even tripled the joint strength. ? Weld solidification microstructure was explained based on ternary phase diagrams. - Abstract: Gas-tungsten arc welding (GTAW) with controlled heat input could avoid the formation of massive brittle Al–Fe intermetallics during solidification in dissimilar-metal joining of aluminum to steel. In the first part of the present study an Al–Mg alloy was joined to galvanized steel by GTAW with an Al–Si filler metal. The weld solidification microstructure was explained based on the Al–Mg–Si phase diagram. Ultrasonic vibration during GTAW increased the joint strength by 27%. Grain refinement, decreased Fe–Al intermetallics, and increased microhardness in both the heat-affected zone and the weld were observed, thus explaining the improved joint strength. In the second part, an Al–Mg alloy was joined to 304 stainless steel using a Zn-15Al filler metal with a noncorrosive flux core. The weld solidification microstructure was explained based on the Al–Zn–Mg phase diagram. Postweld heat treatment (PWHT) at 280 °C for 30 min doubled or even tripled the joint strength depending on the Al-sheet thickness. Dissolution of coarse Zn-rich particles ah particles at the weld/steel interface was observed after PWHT, thus eliminating these weak particles from the interface. The formation of Zn-rich particles near the interface and their dissolution by PWHT were explained based on the Al–Fe–Zn phase diagram.

358

Improving arc joining of Al to steel and Al to stainless steel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al alloy was joined to galvanized steel with assistance of ultrasonic vibration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ultrasonic vibration during GTAW increased the joint strength by 27%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al alloy was joined to stainless steel with Zn-15Al flux-cored filler wire. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Postweld heat treatment doubled or even tripled the joint strength. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Weld solidification microstructure was explained based on ternary phase diagrams. - Abstract: Gas-tungsten arc welding (GTAW) with controlled heat input could avoid the formation of massive brittle Al-Fe intermetallics during solidification in dissimilar-metal joining of aluminum to steel. In the first part of the present study an Al-Mg alloy was joined to galvanized steel by GTAW with an Al-Si filler metal. The weld solidification microstructure was explained based on the Al-Mg-Si phase diagram. Ultrasonic vibration during GTAW increased the joint strength by 27%. Grain refinement, decreased Fe-Al intermetallics, and increased microhardness in both the heat-affected zone and the weld were observed, thus explaining the improved joint strength. In the second part, an Al-Mg alloy was joined to 304 stainless steel using a Zn-15Al filler metal with a noncorrosive flux core. The weld solidification microstructure was explained based on the Al-Zn-Mg phase diagram. Postweld heat treatment (PWHT) at 280 Degree-Sign C for 30 min doubled or even tripled the joint strength depending on the Al-sheet thickness. Dissolution of coarse Zn-rich particles at the weld/steel interface was observed after PWHT, thus eliminating these weak particles from the interface. The formation of Zn-rich particles near the interface and their dissolution by PWHT were explained based on the Al-Fe-Zn phase diagram.

Dong Honggang, E-mail: donghg@dlut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116085 (China); Yang Liqun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116085 (China); Dong Chuang [Key Lab of Materials Modification, Dalian University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Dalian 116085 (China); Kou Sindo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Wisconsin, 1509 University Ave, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

2012-02-01

359

Predicting glass-forming compositions in the Al-La and Al-La-Ni systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research highlights: ? The glass-forming ability of the Al-La and Al-La-Ni systems was studied using the ?* and the ?.?e criteria. ? Both criteria predicted with just 1% at. of error the best glass-former verified so far in the Al-La system. ? Four new glass-former compositions could be predicted in the Al-La-Ni system using the ?.?e criterion. ? The best glass-former reported so far in the Al-La-Ni system was found. - Abstract: In this work, a criterion considering the topological instability (?) and the differences in the electronegativity of the constituent elements (?e) was applied to the Al-La and Al-Ni-La systems in order to predict the best glass-forming compositions. The results were compared with literature data and with our own experimental data for the Al-La-Ni system. The alloy described in the literature as the best glass former in the Al-La system is located near the point with local maximum for the ?.?e criterion. A good agreement was found between the predictions of the ?.?e criterion and literature data in the Al-La-Ni system, with the region of the best glass-forming ability (GFA) and largest supercooled liquid region (?Tx) coinciding with the best compositional region for amorphization indicated by the ?.?e criterion. Four new glassy compositions were found in the Al-La-Ni system, with the best predicted composition presenting the best glass-forming ability observed so far for this system. Although the ?.?e criterih the ?.?e criterion needs further refinements for completely describe the glass-forming ability in the Al-La and Al-La-Ni systems, the results demonstrated that this criterion is a good tool to predict new glass-forming compositions.

360

Optical microcavities and enhanced electroluminescence from electroformed Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes  

Science.gov (United States)

Electroluminescence (EL) and electron emission into vacuum (EM) occur when a non-destructive dielectric breakdown of Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes, electroforming, results in the development of a filamentary region in which current-voltage (I-V) characteristics exhibit voltage-controlled negative resistance. The temperature dependence of I-V curves, EM, and, particularly, EL of Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes with anodic Al2O3 thicknesses between 12 nm and 30 nm, has been studied. Two filters, a long-pass (LP) filter with transmission of photons with energies less than 3.0 eV and a short-pass (SP) filter with photon transmission between 3.0 and 4.0 eV, have been used to characterize EL. The voltage threshold for EL with the LP filter, VLP, is ˜1.5 V. VLP is nearly independent of Al2O3 thickness and of temperature and is 0.3-0.6 V less than the threshold voltage for EL for the SP filter, VSP. EL intensity is primarily between 1.8 and 3.0 eV when the bias voltage, VS ? 7 V. EL in the thinnest diodes is enhanced compared to EL in thicker diodes. For increasing VS, for diodes with the smallest Al2O3 thicknesses, there is a maximum EL intensity, LMX, at a voltage, VLMX, followed by a decrease to a plateau. LMX and EL intensity at 4.0 V in the plateau region depend exponentially on Al2O3 thickness. The ratio of LMX at 295 K for a diode with 12 nm of Al2O3 to LMX for a diode with 25 nm of Al2O3 is ˜140. The ratio of EL intensity with the LP filter to EL intensity with the SP filter, LP/SP, varies between ˜3 and ˜35; it depends on Al2O3 thickness and VS. Enhanced EL is attributed to the increase of the spontaneous emission rate of a dipole in a non-resonant optical microcavity. EL photons interact with the Ag and Al films to create surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at the metal-Al2O3 interfaces. SPPs generate large electromagnetic fields in the filamentary region of the electroformed Al-Al2O3-Ag diode, which then acts as an optical microcavity. A model is proposed for electronic processes in electroformed Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes.

Hickmott, T. W.

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
361

Optical microcavities and enhanced electroluminescence from electroformed Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electroluminescence (EL) and electron emission into vacuum (EM) occur when a non-destructive dielectric breakdown of Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes, electroforming, results in the development of a filamentary region in which current-voltage (I-V) characteristics exhibit voltage-controlled negative resistance. The temperature dependence of I-V curves, EM, and, particularly, EL of Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes with anodic Al2O3 thicknesses between 12?nm and 30?nm, has been studied. Two filters, a long-pass (LP) filter with transmission of photons with energies less than 3.0?eV and a short-pass (SP) filter with photon transmission between 3.0 and 4.0?eV, have been used to characterize EL. The voltage threshold for EL with the LP filter, VLP, is ?1.5?V. VLP is nearly independent of Al2O3 thickness and of temperature and is 0.3–0.6?V less than the threshold voltage for EL for the SP filter, VSP. EL intensity is primarily between 1.8 and 3.0?eV when the bias voltage, VS ? 7?V. EL in the thinnest diodes is enhanced compared to EL in thicker diodes. For increasing VS, for diodes with the smallest Al2O3 thicknesses, there is a maximum EL intensity, LMX, at a voltage, VLMX, followed by a decrease to a plateau. LMX and EL intensity at 4.0?V in the plateau region depend exponentially on Al2O3 thickness. The ratio of LMX at 295?K for a diode with 12?nm of Al2O3 to LMX for a diode with 25?nm of Al2O3 is ?140. The ratio of EL intensity with the LP filter to EL intensity with the SP filter, LP/SP, varies between ?3 and ?35; it depends on Al2O3 thickness and VS. Enhanced EL is attributed to the increase of the spontaneous emission rate of a dipole in a non-resonant optical microcavity. EL photons interact with the Ag and Al films to create surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at the metal-Al2O3 interfaces. SPPs generate large electromagnetic fields in the filamentary region of the electroformed Al-Al2O3-Ag diode, which then acts as an optical microcavity. A model is proposed for electronic processes in electroformed Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes

362

Thermophysical properties of ?Al2O3, MgAl2O4 and AlN at low tempertures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A possibility for producing energy in future might be the nuclear fusion. The process of nuclear fusion is characterized by melting nuclei of hydrogen atoms (deuterium and tritium) which yield to the production of helium atom nuclei. For this process extremely high temperatures of the deuterium-tritium-gas plasma are necessary. The additional heating of the plasma by microwaves requires materials with low diaelectric losses and high thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity can be increased by cooling the windows which lead to the plasma chambre. Experimental investigations with the aim to check the influence of liquid nitrogen (T=70 K) on the cooling of the windows were performed in the temperature region 70 K2O3, MgAl2O4 and AlN were measured. The thermal conductivity can be calculated using the equation ?=?cp? ?=thermal conductivity ?=thermal diffusivity cp=specific heat (at constant pressure) ?=density. Furthermore a theoretical method to calculate the thermal conductivity at low temperatures is presented; this is done by using a model modification of heat transport in electric insulators. As result the influence of intrinsic parameters (crystal structure, interatomar binding, anharmonicity) and extrinsic parameters (point defects, dislocations, boundary areas) upon thermal conductivity of ?-Al2O3, MgAl2O4 and AlN are achieved. (orig.)

363

TEM studies of oxidized NiAl and Ni3Al cross sections  

Science.gov (United States)

Cross sections of oxide scale/(Ni-Al) intermetallics were prepared by a new method and studied using primarily TEM. The cross sections were prepared by encasing an oxidized metal specimen sandwich in a low-melting-temperature zinc alloy. Observations of oxidized zirconium-doped beta-NiAl cross sections revealed crystallographic voids beneath an adherent Al2O3 scale. The oxide-metal interface was incoherent, but a high dislocation density in the metal near the interface suggested that a large tensile stress was induced by the attached oxide scale. A duplex Al2O3-NiAl2O4 scale formed on zirconium-doped and zirconium/boron-doped gamma-prime-Ni3Al alloys. Additional results are presented involving oxidation mechanisms and oxide-metal interface structures.

Doychak, J.; Ruhle, M.

1989-01-01

364

{sup 27}Al NMR studies of NpPd{sub 5}Al{sub 2}  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present {sup 27}Al NMR studies for a single crystal of the Np-based superconductor NpPd{sub 5}Al{sub 2}(T{sub c}=4.9K). We have observed a five-line {sup 27}Al NMR spectrum with a center line and four satellite lines separated by first-order nuclear quadrupole splittings. The Knight shift clearly drops below T{sub c}. The temperature dependence of the {sup 27}Al nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate shows no coherence peak below T{sub c}, indicating that NpPd{sub 5}Al{sub 2} is an unconventional superconductor with an anisotropic gap. The analysis of the present NMR data provides evidence for strong-coupling d-wave superconductivity in NpPd{sub 5}Al{sub 2}.

Chudo, H., E-mail: chudo.hiroyuki@jaea.go.j [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Sakai, H.; Tokunaga, Y.; Kambe, S. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Aoki, D.; Homma, Y.; Shiokawa, Y. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Haga, Y.; Ikeda, S.; Matsuda, T.D. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Onuki, Y. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Yasuoka, H. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

2009-10-15

365

Relationship between electrical conductivity and stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of Al 7075 and Al 7475 alloys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A relationship between electrical conductivity and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance of the 7,000-series Al-Zn-Mg alloys has been established, although only from the near-peak strength T6 temper to the overaged T73 tempered condition. The present work investigated whether this relationship exists for all periods of aging and for Al alloys with different compositions and grain structures. The materials studied were commercial 2-mm thick Al 7075 (Al-5.76% Zn-2.46% Mg-1.70% Cu-0.20% Cr-0.12% Fe-0.09% Si-0.06% Mn-0.04% Ti) and Al 7475 (Al-5.80% Zn-2.24% Mg-1.53% Cu-0.19% Cr-0.08% Fe-0.02% Si-0.01% Mn-0.02% Ti) alloy plates.

Tsai, T.C.; Chuang, T.H. [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Inst. of Materials Science and Engineering

1996-06-01

366

Mixed-interstitial recovery in AlTi and AlAg dilute alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

AlTi and AlAg dilute alloys were electron-irradiated at temperatures ranging from ? 10 K to ? 100 K, that is below and above stage I. The annealing of the defects was studied through electrical resistivity measurements. In both alloys, mixed interstitials are formed either during stage Isub(E) recovery at around 45 K or during irradiation itself if the temperature is 50 K or higher. A study of the stage II recovery (70-180 K) shows that the Al-Ti mixed interstitials are unstable above 130 K. Al-Ag mixed interstitials are found to be stable up to at least 180 K, in contrast to recent reports in the literature. In both alloys, the trapped di-interstitials recover during stage II, around 100 K for AlTi and around 130 K for AlAg. (author)

367

Protective Al2O3 scale formation on NbAl3-base alloys  

Science.gov (United States)

The oxidation of NbAl3 with additions of Cr and Y was studied to determine the mechanisms of the beneficial effects of these elements upon oxidation. Cr additions to the binary NbAl3 alloy of up to 6.8 at. percent reduced the scale growth rates and promoted alpha-Al2O3 formation over much longer times relative to binary NbAl3. A major effect of Cr is to form a layer of AlNbCr at the metal/scale interface, which is inherently more oxidation-resistant than the matrix alloy in the long term. Yttrium additions to a Cr-containing alloy improved the scale growth rate and adherence and changed the scale microstructure to mimic that of a typical protective Al2O3 scale.

Doychak, J.; Hebsur, M. G.

1991-01-01

368

A note on Wang et al's attack on Zhang et al's multiparty quantum secret sharing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently, Wang et al (2008 Phys. Lett. A 373 65) proposed an attack on Zhang et al's (2007 Opt. Commun. 269 418) multiparty quantum secret sharing scheme, in which the first and the last agent are reported to be able to cooperatively eavesdrop on all the secret messages without being detected. In this paper, we show that in Wang et al's attack, on average no more than half the secret messages can be eavesdropped. (paper)

369

Magnetism and local order in AlPdMn and AlMn quasicrystals and liquids  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to understand the magnetic properties of AlPdMn and AlMn quasicrystals, a closely related crystalline phase, namely the approximant ?-Al4Mn, was studied. N. M. R. experiments revealed the intrinsic and homogeneous nature of this magnetism. Susceptibility measurements were interpreted within a Kondo model which allowed to evaluate quantitatively the percentage of magnetic Mn atoms and to identify the magnetic site (non icosahedral environment). These results were generalized to quasi...

Simonet, Virginie

1998-01-01

370

Magnétisme et ordre local des quasicristaux et liquides AlPdMn et AlMn  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pour comprendre les propriétés magnétiques des quasicristaux d'AlPdMn et d'AlMn, nous avons étudié une phase cristalline approximante, ?-Al4Mn. Des expériences de RMN ont révélé un magnétisme intrinsèque et inhomogène. Nous avons interprété des mesures de susceptibilité magnétique dans un modèle Kondo ce qui a permis de chiffrer la faible fraction d'atomes de Mn magnétiques et d'identifier le site magnétique (environnement non icosaédrique). Ces résultats ont été gén?...

Simonet, Virginie

1998-01-01

371

Effect of the interface in laminated composites of Al-1100 and Al-2024  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laminated composites consisting of alternating layers of Al-1100 and Al-2024 were produced by hot rolling, with 45% Al-2024 volume fraction. These composites were subjected to cyclic thermal treatment (various numbers of cycles) and to isothermal treatment (various numbers of cycles) and to isothermal treatment (at peak temperature and for times equivalent to those of the thermal cycles. Microhardness, tensile and fatigue crack arrester modes) were studied in the initial state and after treatments. (E.G.)

372

Two-Phase (TiAl+TiCrAl) Coating Alloys for Titanium Aluminides  

Science.gov (United States)

A coating for protecting titanium aluminide alloys, including the TiAl gamma + Ti3Al (alpha(sub 2)) class, from oxidative attack and interstitial embrittlement at temperatures up to at least 1000 C. is disclosed. This protective coating consists essentially of titanium, aluminum. and chromium in the following approximate atomic ratio: Ti(41.5-34.5)Al(49-53)Cr(9.5-12.5)

Brady, Michael P. (Inventor); Smialek, James L. (Inventor); Brindley, William J. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

373

Lowest ionization potentials of Al2  

Science.gov (United States)

Potential curves for the lowest two electronic states, X 2Sigma(+)g and A 2Pi(u), of Al2(+) were computed using complete active space SCF/multireference CI wave functions and large Gaussian basis sets. The lowest observable vertical ionization potential, to Al2(+) X 2Sigma(+)g, of the Al2 X 3 Pi(u) ground state is calculated to occur around 6.1 eV, in excellent agreement with the experimental range of 6.0 to 6.42 eV obtained in recent cluster ionization studies by Cox and co-workers. The second vertical ionization potential, to Al2(+) A 2Pi(u), occurs near 6.4 eV, also within the experimental range. The adiabatic IP of 5.90 eV is in good agreement with the value of 5.8 to 6.1 eV deduced by Hanley and co-workers from the difference in thresholds between collision induced dissociation processes of Al3(+). The computed IP values are somewhat larger than those deduced from branching ratios in cluster fragmentation experiments by Jarrold and co-workers. The observation of an ionization threshold below 6.42 eV is shown to be incompatible with an Al2 ground electronic state assignment of 3Sigma(-)g, but the separation between the two lowest states of Al2 is so small that it is likely that both are populated in the experiments, so that this does not provide unambiguous support for the recent theoretical assignment of the ground state as 3Pi(u).

Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Barnes, Leslie A.; Taylor, Peter R.

1989-01-01

374

The lowest ionization potentials of Al2  

Science.gov (United States)

Potential curves for the lowest two electronic states (X 2 sigma g + and A 2 pi u) of Al2(+) were computed using complete active space SCF/multireference CI wave functions and large Gaussian basis sets. The lowest observable vertical ionization potential (to Al2(+) X 2 sigma g +) of the Al2 X 3 pi u ground state is calculated to occur around 6.1 eV, in excellent agreement with the experimental range of 6.0 to 6.42 eV obtained in recent cluster ionization studies by Cox and co-workers. The second vertical ionization potential (to Al2(+) A 2 pi u) occurs near 6.4 eV, also within the experimental range. The adiabatic IP of 5.90 eV is in good agreement with the value of 5.8 to 6.1 eV deduced by Hanley and co-workers from the difference in thresholds between collision induced dissociation processes of Al3(+). The computed IP values are somewhat larger than those deduced from branching ratios in cluster fragmentation experiments by Jarrold and co-workers. The observation of an ionization threshold below 6.42 eV is shown to be incompatible with an Al2 ground electronic state assignment of 3 sigma g -, but the separation between the two lowest states of Al2 is so small that it is likely that both are populated in the experiments, so that this does not provide unambiguous support for the recent theoretical assignment of the ground state as 3 pi u.

Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Barnes, Leslie A.; Taylor, Peter R.

1988-01-01

375

Micro Arc Oxidation of Wire Arc Sprayed Al-Mg6, Al-Si12, Al Coatings on Low Alloyed Steel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Micro arc oxidation of wire arc sprayed Al-Mg6, Al-Si12 and Pure Al coatings on low carbon steel has been performed. The coatings have been analyzed using optic microscope, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and surface roughness tester. At the same time, voltage and current regimes are investigated during the process. Then after MAO process, uniform Al2O3 ceramic coatings have been deposited on surface of Al-Mg6, Al-Si12 and Al coate...

Levent Cenk Kumruoglu; Fatih Ustel; Ahmet Ozel; Abdullah Mimaroglu

2011-01-01

376

Ternary invariant point at 374°C in the three phase region AlSb-Al-Zn inside the Al-Sb-Zn ternary system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Al-Sb-Zn ternary system was investigated in the three phase region Al-AlSb-Zn, using differential thermal analysis (DTA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS. The position and temperature of the invariant eutectic L ? AlSb + ?-Al + ? - Zn point inside Al-AlSb-Zn region was experimentally determined. To confirm the obtained results X-ray powder diffraction analysis or XRD was also done. All results were compared to the calculated isopleth phase diagrams using Thermo-Calc software (TCW 5. All calculations were done using the SSOL4 data base.

Klan?nik G.

2011-01-01

377

The effect of thermal annealing on the properties of Al-AlOx-Al single electron tunneling transistors  

CERN Document Server

The effect of thermal annealing on the properties of Al-AlOx-Al single electron tunneling transistors is reported. After treatment of the devices by annealing processes in forming gas atmosphere at different temperatures and for different times, distinct and reproducible changes of their resistance and capacitance values were found. According to the temperature regime, we observed different behaviors as regards the resistance changes, namely the tendency to decrease the resistance by annealing at T = 200 degree C, but to increase the resistance by annealing at T = 400 degree C. We attribute this behavior to changes in the aluminum oxide barriers of the tunnel junctions. The good reproducibility of these effects with respect to the changes observed allows the proper annealing treatment to be used for post-process tuning of tunnel junction parameters. Also, the influence of the annealing treatment on the noise properties of the transistors at low frequency was investigated. In no case did the noise figures in t...

Scherer, H; Zorin, A B; Niemeyer, J C; Weimann, Th.

2001-01-01

378

Solid state synthesis of Al-based amorphous and nanocrystalline Al-Nb-Si and Al-Zr-Si alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study concerns the development of high-specific-strength Al-based amorphous and/or nanocrystalline alloys by mechanical alloying of Al40Tm40Si20 and Al30TM40Si30 (TM=transition metal, Nb and Zr) elemental powder blends by high-energy ball milling. Microstructure of the milled product in different stages of milling has been characterized by X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Both the systems are amenable to partial solid state amorphisation and development of a composite microstructure comprising varying amounts of nanocrystalline face-centred cubic Nb- or Zr-based solid solution and amorphous phase by appropriate hours of milling. The body-centred to face-centred cubic polymorphic change in Nb or Zr seems closely related to grain refinement and plastic strain. (orig.)

379

Electronic Structure and Properties of SrAlGe and BaAlGe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The electronic structures of BaAlGe and SrAlGe which are superconductors with hexagonal honeycomb layers have been studied by using a first principles method. Energy bands, Fermi surafces, and density of states are presented. The two materials have topologically different Fermi surfaces. BaAlGe has two Fermi surfaces: One has a three dimensional spinning-top-like shape and the other has a cylindrical shape with two dimensional character. SrAlGe has only one connected Fermi s...

Youn, S. J.; Freeman, A. J.

2012-01-01

380

Control of AlN buffer/sapphire substrate interface for AlN growth  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The growth condition of AlN buffer layer has been studied in order to fabricate a high-quality AlN layer on a sapphire substrate. The growth of high-quality AlN is extremely difficult due to the weak surface migration of Al adatoms. Therefore we have focused on the AlN buffer layer, and examined the growth condition while controlling the thickness and growth temperature. The crystalline quality of the AlN layer grown on an AlN buffer layer at a growth temperature of 1250 C was improved, and the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) value of the X-ray rocking curve (XRC) obtained for (0002) and (10-10) diffractions were 138 and 464 arcsec, respectively. Moreover, AlO{sub x}N{sub 1-x} was formed when the AlN buffer layer was grown at a high temperature (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

Miyagawa, Reina; Yang, Shibo; Miyake, Hideto; Hiramatsu, Kazumasa [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Mie University, 1577 Kurimamachiya, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan)

2011-07-15

 
 
 
 
381

Strain Rates and Grain Growth in Al 5754 and Al 6061 Friction Stir Spot Welds  

Science.gov (United States)

The stir zone temperature and microstructures are compared in friction stir spot welds produced in Al 5754 and Al 6061 alloys. Electron backscattered diffraction was used to determine the relationship between tool rotation speed during welding and final stir zone grain size. Comparison of the grain sizes in rapidly quenched welds with those in air-cooled joints confirmed that grain growth occurred only in Al 6061 spot welds. There was no evidence of abnormal grain growth in the stir zones of Al 6061 welds; the final grain size could be represented using an Arrhenius equation. The strain rates during welding were determined by incorporating the stir zone temperature and average subgrain sizes in quenched spot welds in the Zener-Hollomon relation. When the tool rotation speed increased from 750 to 3000 RPM, the strain rate values ranged from 180 to 497 s-1 in Al 5754 spot welds and from 55 to 395 s-1 in Al 6061 spot welds. It is suggested that a no-slip boundary condition may be appropriate during numerical modeling of Al 5754 and 6061 friction stir spot welding. This is not the case during Al 7075, Al 2024, and Mg-alloy AZ91 spot welding because spontaneous melting facilitates slippage at the tool contact interface.

Gerlich, A.; Yamamoto, M.; North, T. H.

2007-06-01

382

Al-matrix composite materials reinforced by Al-Cu-Fe particles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Al-matrix material composites were produced using hot isostatic pressing technique, starting with pure Al and icosahedral (i) Al-Cu-Fe powders. Depending on the processing temperature, the final reinforcement particles are either still of the initial i-phase or transformed into the tetragonal {omega}-Al0{sub 0.70}Cu{sub 0.20}Fe{sub 0.10} crystalline phase. Compression tests performed in the temperature range 293K - 823K on the two types of composite, i.e. Al/i and Al/{omega}, indicate that the flow stress of both composites is strongly temperature dependent and exhibit distinct regimes with increasing temperature. Differences exist between the two composites, in particular in yield stress values. In the low temperature regime (T {<=} 570K), the yield stress of the Al/{omega} composite is nearly 75% higher than that of the Al/i composite, while for T > 570K both composites exhibit similar yield stress values. The results are interpreted in terms of load transfer contribution between the matrix and the reinforcement particles and elementary dislocation mechanisms in the Al matrix.

Bonneville, J; Laplanche, G; Joulain, A; Gauthier-Brunet, V; Dubois, S, E-mail: joel.bonneville@univ-poitiers.f [Universite de Poitiers, PHYMAT, CNRS-UMR 6630, SP2MI, F-86962 Chasseneuil (France)

2010-07-01

383

Al-matrix composite materials reinforced by Al-Cu-Fe particles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Al-matrix material composites were produced using hot isostatic pressing technique, starting with pure Al and icosahedral (i) Al-Cu-Fe powders. Depending on the processing temperature, the final reinforcement particles are either still of the initial i-phase or transformed into the tetragonal ?-Al00.70Cu0.20Fe0.10 crystalline phase. Compression tests performed in the temperature range 293K - 823K on the two types of composite, i.e. Al/i and Al/?, indicate that the flow stress of both composites is strongly temperature dependent and exhibit distinct regimes with increasing temperature. Differences exist between the two composites, in particular in yield stress values. In the low temperature regime (T ? 570K), the yield stress of the Al/? composite is nearly 75% higher than that of the Al/i composite, while for T > 570K both composites exhibit similar yield stress values. The results are interpreted in terms of load transfer contribution between the matrix and the reinforcement particles and elementary dislocation mechanisms in the Al matrix.

384

UNDERSTANDING THE MULTIDIMENSIONAL ISLAMIC FAITH THROUGH ‘ABD AL-GHANI AL-NABULUSI’S MYSTICAL PHILOSOPHY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper tries to present a new perspective on Islamic faith and Muslim identity to Muslim minorities who are challenged in practicing or following Islamic law in non-Islamic countries or non-Muslims in the contemporary world. It will uncover the multidimensional perspective of the concept of faith based on sin (dhanb and repentance (tawbah through the mystical philosophy of a Syrian scholar, Abd al-Ghani al-Nabulusi (d. 1143/1741 of the 18th century Ottoman Damascus who contributed to the field of Sufism particularly based on Ibn ‘Arabi’s thought of wahdat al-wujud (oneness of being and insan kamil (the perfect man. Nabulusi believes that anyone who lived during the inexistence of prophet’s revelation, inhabited an isolated place cut off from information about Islam, or lived in dar al-harb and did not make a hijra to dar al-islam could not be regarded as sinful in their deeds. However, faith in Allah is essential and infidelity is not forgiven regardless whether or not they live in dar al-islam or dar al-harb. Further, Nabulusi insists that true faith can be achieved by understanding the sin of existence; the ignorance of the difference of existence between Allah and men.  [Artikel ini menjelaskan identitas keberagamaan umat Islam minoritas yang dituntut untuk menerapkan syariat, namun harus hidup di negara non-muslim, dengan mendiskusikan perspektif multidimensional terhadap konsep dosa dan tobat seperti dikembangkan oleh Abd al-Ghan? al-Nabulus? (1143/1741, seorang sufi pemikir Syria, khususnya  wahdat al-wuj?d dan insan kamil, yang hidup di masa kesultanan Usmani di Damaskus. Nabulus? berkeyakinan bahwa siapa saja yang hidup sebelum turunnya wahyu di masa Nabi, hidup di daerah terpencil yang tidak mengenal Islam, atau hidup di dar al-harb dan tidak hijrah ke dar al-islam, tidaklah dibebani dosa atas perbuatannya. Namun demikian, iman kepada Allah amatlah penting dan kekufuran tidaklah dimaafkan, baik seseorang tersebut hidup di dar al-islam ataupun dar al-harb. Nabulus? beranggapan bahwa iman yang hakiki bisa dicapai dengan memahami dosa eksistensial, yaitu kegagalan dalam memahami perbedaan antara Allah dan manusia.] Keywords: Ibn ‘Arab?, wahdat al-wuj?d, dar al-harb

Naoki Yamamoto

2013-12-01

385

Stagnation of the exploitation of Al ores and the depression of world prices of Al  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the contribution, data on Al ? a metal of the 20th century are compiled together with the problems of genesis of the Al mineral raw ma-terials as well as types of bauxite and Al-laterite deposits. Furthermore, an overview of the world exploitation of bauxite during 1935-1980 is given along with the prognoses to 2000 and present situation (1992-1996). Overviews of the production of Al follows, providing its rela-tion to the bauxite exploitation. Contrary to the prognoses, a stabilization ...

Slavkovský Jozef

1999-01-01

386

Glassy ferromagnetism in Al-doped 4H-SiC: AlSi-V complexes  

Science.gov (United States)

The recent observed glassy ferromagnetism in Al-doped 4 H-SiC is investigated using first principles calculations. We find that the formation energy of V is significantly reduced by Al atoms doped in SiC. The Al Si- V complex induces a half-filled narrow a level in the band gap and contributes a net local moment of 1 ?. The exchange parameter J can be either positive or negative along different directions. Both the strong anisotropy of J and the correlation effects of the a level can lead to a glassy ferromagnetism in Al-doped 4 H-SiC.

Yang, Mao; Shi, Jun-jie

2010-07-01

387

Study on Mg/Al Weld Seam Based on Zn–Mg–Al Ternary Alloy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on the idea of alloying welding seams, a series of Zn–xAl filler metals was calculated and designed for joining Mg/Al dissimilar metals by gas tungsten arc (GTA welding. An infrared thermography system was used to measure the temperature of the welding pool during the welding process to investigate the solidification process. It was found that the mechanical properties of the welded joints were improved with the increasing of the Al content in the Zn–xAl filler metals, and when Zn–30Al was used as the filler metal, the ultimate tensile strength could reach a maximum of 120 MPa. The reason for the average tensile strength of the joint increasing was that the weak zone of the joint using Zn–30Al filler metal was generated primarily by ?-Al instead of MgZn2. When Zn–40Al was used as the filler metal, a new transition zone, about 20 ?m-wide, appeared in the edge of the fusion zone near the Mg base metal. Due to the transition zones consisting of MgZn2- and Al-based solid solution, the mechanical property of the joints was deteriorated.

Liming Liu

2014-02-01

388

MODELS FOR FROZEN-FREE-SPLIT PHENOMENA IN e- -IRRADIATED Al AND Al-Fe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Samples of pure Al and Al containing 400 atppm Fe have been irradiated with electrons at 4.2K and annealed at subsepuently higher temperatures. During the annealing program in pure Al, the growth and decay of two pairs of mechanical relaxation peaks was observed, and in Al-Fe of one pair. The members of each pair grow and decay in a parallel fashion. They are explained as being due to the stress induced occupation of two different sets of elastic energy levels via two different relaxation mod...

Robrock, K. -h; Schober, H.

1981-01-01

389

Optical properties of Fe2NiAl and Fe2MnAl Heusler alloys  

Science.gov (United States)

Results of the investigation of the optical properties and of the calculations of the electronic structure of Fe2NiAl and Fe2MnAl alloys are presented. The main attention is paid to the ellipsometric study of the spectral dependence of the real (?1) and imaginary (?2) parts of the dielectric constant in the range of wavelengths ? = 0.3-13 ?m. An anomalous behavior of the optical conductivity ?(?) at IR frequencies has been revealed in Fe2MnAl, which differs substantially from that in Fe2NiAl. The results obtained are discussed based on the calculations of the electronic structure of the alloys.

Shreder, E. I.; Svyazhin, A. D.; Fomina, K. A.

2012-02-01

390

Coarsening of Al3Sc precipitates in an Al-0.28 wt pct Sc alloy  

Science.gov (United States)

The Ostwald ripening of Al3Sc precipitates in an Al-0.28 wt pct Sc alloy during aging at 673, 698, and 723 K has been examined by measuring the average size of precipitates by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the reduction in Sc concentration in the Al matrix with aging time, t, by electrical resistivity. The coarsening kinetics of Al3Sc precipitates obey the t 1/3 time law, as predicted by the Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner (LSW) theory. The kinetics of the reduction of Sc concentration with t are consistent with the predicted t -1/3 time law. Application of the LSW theory has enabled independent calculation of the Al/Al3Sc interface energy, ?, and volume diffusion coefficient, D, of Sc in Al during coarsening of precipitates. The Gibbs-Thompson equation has been used to give a value of ? using coarsening data obtained from TEM and electrical resistivity measurements. The value of ? estimated from the LSW theory is 218 mJ m-2, which is nearly identical to 230 mJ m-2 from the Gibbs-Thompson equation. The pre-exponential factor and activation energy for diffusion of Sc in Al are determined to be (7.2±6.0)×10-4 m2 s-1 and 176±9 kJ mol-1, respectively. The values are in agreement with those for diffusion of Sc in Al obtained from tracer diffusion measurements.

Watanabe, C.; Kondo, T.; Monzen, R.

2004-09-01

391

The PtAl? and PtAl2? anions: Theoretical and photoelectron spectroscopic characterization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report a joint photoelectron spectroscopic and theoretical study of the PtAl? and PtAl2? anions. The ground state structures and electronic configurations of these species were identified to be C?v, 1?+ for PtAl?, and C2v, 2B1 for PtAl2?. Structured anion photoelectron spectra of these clusters were recorded and interpreted using ab initio calculations. Good agreement between theory and experiment was found. All experimental features were successfully assigned to one-electron transitions from the ground state of the anions to the ground or excited states of the corresponding neutral species

392

Moessbauer study of phase transformation in an Al-rich AlFe alloy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The type of intermetallic compounds formed in low alloyed Al-Fe material depends strongly upon the cooling rate during solidification. The equilibrium phase, Al3Fe is reported to form at cooling rates below 1 K/s. This phase is replaced by different metastable compounds in case of rapid solidification-Al6Fe: 1-10 K/s ; 3-11 K/s; AlxFe: 0.5-6 K/s; AlmFe and Al9Fe2: 10 K/s. The cooling rate in DC casting processes usually exceeds 1 K/s, thus the Al-Fe compounds formed in commercial pure aluminium and aluminium alloys, which generally contain a certain amount of iron, are mainly metastable. During homogenization of casting these phases may transform into stable Al3Fe modifying the workability and chemical properties of the material. This is the reason why the investigation of phase transformation in Al-Fe system is of such great importance. This paper describes experiments for studying kinetics of the Al6Fe -> Al3Fe transformation. 8 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

393

Chemical failure modes of AlQ3-based OLEDs: AlQ3 hydrolysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum(III), AlQ3, is used in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) as an electron-transport material and emitting layer. The reaction of AlQ3 with trace H2O has been implicated as a major failure pathway for AlQ3-based OLEDs. Hybrid density functional calculations have been carried out to characterize the hydrolysis of AlQ3. The thermochemical and atomistic details for this important reaction are reported for both the neutral and oxidized AlQ3/AlQ3+ systems. In support of experimental conclusions, the neutral hydrolysis reaction pathway is found to be a thermally activated process, having a classical barrier height of 24.2 kcal mol(-1). First-principles infrared and electronic absorption spectra are compared to further characterize AlQ3 and the hydrolysis pathway product, AlQ2OH. The activation energy for the cationic AlQ3 hydrolysis pathway is found to be 8.5 kcal mol(-1) lower than for the neutral reaction, which is significant since it suggests a role for charge imbalance in promoting chemical failure modes in OLED devices. PMID:16633618

Knox, John E; Halls, Mathew D; Hratchian, Hrant P; Schlegel, H Bernhard

2006-03-28

394

Staggered Pairing Phenomenology for $UPd_2Al_3$ and $UNi_2Al_3$  

CERN Document Server

We apply the staggered-pairing Ginzburg-Landau phenomenology to describe superconductivity in UPd_2Al_3 and UNi_2Al_3. The phenomenology was applied successfully to UPt_3 so it explains why these materials have qualitatively different superconducting phase diagrams although they have the same point-group symmetry. UPd_2Al_3 and UNi_2Al_3 have a two-component superconducting order parameter transforming as an H-point irreducible representation of the space group. Staggered superconductivity can induce charge-density waves characterized by new Bragg peaks suggesting experimental tests of the phenomenology.

Martisovits, V

1998-01-01

395

Synthesis of nanostructured AlN by solid state reaction of Al and diaminomaleonitrile  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The solid state reaction of diaminomaleonitrile (DAMN) with aluminum via both mechanochemical and thermal treatment routes was studied by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. During the milling process, the reaction starts with the deammoniation of the DAMN molecules, followed by the formation of nanostructured AlN powder as the main solid product after milling for 7 h. The reactivity of the mixed powder was also investigated during the conventional thermal treatment process using differential scanning calorimetry, derivative thermogravimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. The results reveal that DAMN starts to polymerize at 192 °C by the elimination of the amine groups. Furthermore, increasing the annealing temperature leads to the formation of a nitrogen-containing carbonaceous material with the structure similar to non-crystalline carbon. However, no evidence for the formation of AlN was observed in the annealed samples even at temperatures as high as the Al melting point. - Graphical abstract: AlN nanoparticles obtained after milling of Al and diaminomaleonitrile (DAMN) for 12 h. Highlights: ? Solid state reaction of diaminomaleonitrile (DAMN) with Al was studied via mechanochemical and thermal treatment routs. ? Nanocrystalline AlN was successfully synthesized by the mechanochemical process. ? The C/N material was formed by polymerization of DAMN during the thermal treatment process. ? No reaction between DAMN and Al was detecton between DAMN and Al was detected during the thermal treatment method.

396

Microstructure and grain boundary relaxation in ultrafine-grained Al/Al oxide composites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The microstructure and grain boundary relaxation in ultrafine-grained Al/Al oxide composites were studied by electron microscopy observation and internal friction measurement, respectively. Both the microstructure and the internal friction behavior of the composites were strongly influenced by the thermomechanical treatment parameters. All the Al particles were still covered by the native amorphous oxide shells in those composites sintered at T < 823 K, and no indication of Al grain boundary relaxation was detected. Some Al oxide shells were cracked, resulting in the formation of a few Al-Al grain boundaries between adjacent particles in the sample sintered at 823 K, and one internal friction peak centered at ?440 K was detected. All the oxide shells were broken into small fragments in those samples sintered at T ? 843 K, and two internal friction peaks were detected, one prominent peak at ?440 K and one weak peak at ?540 K. A microstructure with a bimodal grain size distribution of Al was formed via partial recrystallization after thermomechanical treatment of the sample sintered at 893 K, and two internal friction peaks with comparable intensity were detected. The internal friction peaks were associated with the relaxation of Al grain boundary in the composites.

397

Bush lubas al-Zarqawi järglase kinni püüda / Aadu Hiietamm  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

USA president George W. Bush teatas, et tapetud terrorivõrgustiku al Qaeda Iraagi haru liidri Abu Musab al-Zarqawi järglaseks nimetatud Abu Hamsa al-Muhajir on kuulutatud enim tagaotsitavaks terroristiks

Hiietamm, Aadu, 1954-

2006-01-01

398

Deletion of ALS5, ALS6 or ALS7 increases adhesion of Candida albicans to human vascular endothelial and buccal epithelial cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

C. albicans yeast forms deleted for ALS5, ALS6 or ALS7 are more adherent than a relevant control strain to human vascular endothelial cell monolayers and buccal epithelial cells. In the buccal and vaginal reconstituted human epithelium (RHE) disease models, however, mutant and control strains caused a similar degree of tissue destruction. Deletion of ALS5 or ALS6 significantly slowed growth of the mutant strain; this phenotype was not affected by addition of excess uridine to the culture medi...

Zhao, Xiaomin; Oh, Soon-hwan; Hoyer, Lois L.

2007-01-01

399

Growth behaviors of intermetallic compound layers in Cu/Al joints brazed with Zn–22Al and Zn–22Al–0.05Ce filler metals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • The evolution of interfacial compounds in Cu/Al brazed joints was released. • Adding Ce reduce the growth rate of IMCs as well as the ripening flux of CuAl2. • Adding Ce increased the diffusion activation energy of CuAl2. - Abstract: The structure development and growth rate of intermetallic compounds in Cu/Al brazed joint formed under aging treatment were investigated in this paper. Trace amount of rare earth Ce (0.05 wt.%) was added into Zn–22Al filler metal in order to reform the properties of the Cu/Al joint. The interfacial morphology and constituent phases at the interface were examined by the scanning electron microscopes (SEM) and X-ray energy dispersion spectrometry (EDS), respectively. The growth kinetics of intermetallic compounds formed in both systems (Zn–22Al and Zn–22Al–0.05Ce) was also investigated under different aging conditions. The results indicated that interface structure of Cu/Al brazed joints changed from CuAl2/CuZn3 to CuAl2/CuAl/CuZn3 and finally to ?/CuAl2/CuAl/CuZn3 during aging. The growth rate of intermetallic compounds observed in the Zn–22Al system was higher than that in Zn–22Al–0.05Ce. Meanwhile, the activation energy of CuAl2 phase increased from 76.9 kJ/mol to 87.6 kJ/mol with the 0.05 wt.% Ce addition. The results also revealed that the joint brazed with Zn–22Al–0.05Ce constantly possessed higher shear strength than that of Zn–22Al throughout the aging treatment. The addition of Ce into the Zn–22Al filler metal decreased the thickness of the intermetallic compound layer produced in the aging, resulting in higher fracture toughness

400

Guinier-Preston zones in Al-rich Al-Cu and Al-Ag single crystals  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Guinier-Preston zones in -Ag and -Cu were investigated by diffuse X-ray and neutron scattering. In Al-3 at% Ag no differences are found between zones formed above and below 500 K (epsilon- and eta-zones, respectively). Their average Ag concentration is (80 +/- 10) at%, and the Ag concentration decreases by 10-15% from shell to core of the zones. In Al-1.75 at% Cu, Guinier-Preston I zones are dominantly monolayers with a Cu fraction of (84 +/- 2) at%.

Schönfeld, B.; Malik, A.

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Medien als Lernform und die Trimediale Redaktion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Der vorliegende Artikel beschreibt ein Konzept für eine handlungsorientierte Medienpädagogik im Bildungsbereich. Im Mittelpunkt steht dabei die SO!-Campusredaktion, die als Methode für expansives Lernen die Möglichkeit bietet, unabhängig von Thema oder Medium die Verantwortung für den Lernprozess in die Hände der Lernenden zu legen. Der Dokumentation von Reflexion über den Lernprozess wird dabei eine besondere Bedeutung zugesprochen. Gleichzeitig werden unterschiedliche mediale Gestaltungsmöglichkeiten (Audio/Radio, Video/Fernsehen und Zeitung – sowohl als Print- als auch als Onlinemedium vorgestellt, die durch das Konzept BYOD – bring your own device – auch einfach und niederschwellig im Bildungskontext umsetzbar sind. Dadurch ergeben sich innovative Möglichkeiten, einen Lernprozess sichtbar zu machen und gleichzeitig eine Grundlage für eine alternative Leistungsbeurteilung anzubieten. Die SO!-Campusredaktion wird derzeit an der Pädagogischen Hochschule Salzburg in Kooperation mit dem Communitysender FS1 und der Radiofabrik entwickelt und erprobt. Community Medien nehmen als MedienpartnerInnen eine bedeutende Stellung ein: Durch ihren offenen Zugang zu Know How und Equipment sowie durch die Möglichkeit, Medienproduktionen über die verfügbaren Distibutionskanäle (Radiofrequenz oder Sendeplatz einer breiten Bevölkerung zugänglich zu machen, gewinnt die Medienpädagogik einen wichtigen Mehrwert in ihrer schulischen und außerschulischen Arbeit. (Dieser Artikel knüpft an den Artikel "BYOD, Smartphonefilme und webbasierte Videoschnittprogramme" der Medienimpulse, Ausgabe 2/2014, an.

Wolf Hilzensauer

2015-01-01

402

Al(26) Studies with INTEGRAL's Spectrometer SPI  

CERN Document Server

Al(26) radioactivity traces recent nucleosynthesis throughout the Galaxy, and is known to be produced in massive stars and novae. The map from its decay gamma-ray line suggests massive stars to dominate, but high-resolution line spectroscopy is expected to supplement imaging of Al(26) source regions and thus to help decide about the Al(26) injection process and interstellar environment, hence about the specific massive-star subgroup and phase which produces interstellar Al(26). The INTEGRAL Spectrometer SPI has observed Galactic Al(26) radioactivity in its 1809 keV gamma-ray line during its first inner-Galaxy survey. Instrumental background lines make analysis difficult; yet, a clear signal from the inner Galaxy agrees with expectations. In particular, SPI has constrained the line width to exclude previously-reported line broadenings corresponding to velocities >500 km/s. The signal-to-background ratio of percent implies that detector response and background modeling need to be fine-tuned to eventually enable...

Diehl, R; Lichti, G G; Schönfelder, V; Strong, A W; Von Kienlin, A; Knödlseder, J; Jean, P; Lonjou, V; Weidenspointner, G; Roques, J P; Vedrenne, G; Schanne, S; Mowlavi, N; Winkler, C; Wunderer, C B

2004-01-01

403

26Al in the inner Galaxy  

CERN Document Server

We performed a spectroscopic study of the 1809 keV gamma-ray line from 26Al decay in the Galaxy using the SPI imaging spectrometer with its high-resolution Ge detector camera on the INTEGRAL observatory. We analyzed observations of the first two mission years, fitting spectra from all 7130 telescope pointings in narrow energy bins to models of instrumental background and the 26Al sky. Instrumental background is estimated from independent tracers of cosmic-ray activation. The shape of the 26Al signal is compared to the instrumental response to extract the width of the celestial line. We detect the 26Al line at \\~16sigma significance. The line is broadened only slightly, if at all; we constrain the width to be below 2.8 keV (FWHM, 2 sigma). The average Doppler velocities of 26Al at the time of its decay in the interstellar medium (decay time~1.04 My) therefore are probably around 100 km/s, in agreement with expectations from Galactic rotation and interstellar turbulence. The flux and spatial distribution of the...

Diehl, R; Kretschmer, K; Strong, A W; Wang, W; Jean, P; Lichti, G G; Knödlseder, J; Roques, J P; Schanne, S; Schönfelder, V; Kienlin, A; Weidenspointner, G; Winkler, C; Wunderer, C

2006-01-01

404

Exothermic reactions in Co/Al nanolaminates  

Science.gov (United States)

Vapor-deposited Co/Al nanolaminates having a net equiatomic stoichiometry exhibited rapid, high-temperature synthesis. When ignited locally, 7.5-?m-thick Co/Al foils were characterized by self-sustained propagating reactions with flame front speeds between ˜0.5 and 9 m/s. Speed was largely affected by bilayer thickness and premixed volume fraction, consistent with previous studies of other exothermic multilayers. Cobalt aluminide foils reacted by self-propagating synthesis developed a variety of rough surface morphologies characterized by a large amplitude (peak-to-valley ˜1.0 ?m), multiperiod, wavelike structure. High-temperature reaction was also stimulated by rapid global heating. Tests revealed low ignition temperatures (Tig)˜240-460 °C compared with previous Co-Al powder reactant experiments. Ignition temperature was influenced by bilayer thickness. All foils ignited by global heating and those reacted in a self-propagating mode developed a single-phase B2 (CsCl-type) crystal structure. Thick Co/Al nanolaminates were used successfully to join a few different materials including metalized Al2O3 (by soldering) and polyetheretherketone (by direct attachment).

Adams, D. P.; Hodges, V. C.; Bai, M. M.; Jones, E.; Rodriguez, M. A.; Buchheit, T.; Moore, J. J.

2008-08-01

405

Survey and alignment at the ALS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes survey and alignment at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Advanced Light Source (ALS) accelerators from 1993 to 1995. The ALS is a 1.0 - 1.9 GeV electron accelerator producing extremely bright synchrotron light in the UV and soft-X-ray wavelengths. At the ALS, electrons are accelerated in a LINAC to 50 MeV, injected into a booster ring for further acceleration and finally injected into the storage ring. This is shown schematically in Figure 1. The storage ring, some 200 m in circumference, has been run with electron currents above 400 mA with lifetimes as high as 24 hours. The ALS is a third generation light source and requires for efficient storage ring operation, magnets aligned to within 150 mm of their ideal position. To accomplish this a network of monuments was established and their positions measured with respect to one another. The data was reduced using GEONET'' and STAR*NET'' software. Using the monuments as reference points, magnet positions were measured and alignment confirmed using the Kem Electronic Coordinate Determination System (ECDS''). A number of other papers dealing with survey and alignment (S ampersand A) at the ALS have been written that may further elucidate some details of the methods and systems described in this paper

406

MOSQUE ARCHITECTURE AS A SUSTAINABLE BUILDING IN URBAN (Case Study: Al Markas Al Islamic Mosque Makassar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Mosque Architecture is a part of Islamic architecture. Mosque should be fused with elements of nature because its function as a place to pray to God who created the universe. Al Markas Al Islamic Makassar mosque is used as a center of Islamic aspirations of the people and the government to accommodate all the activities of moslems in Makassar. Through this function, the provision of Al Markas Al Islamic mosque began from the desire of Islamic societies in Makassar, which wants the Islamic center to be equipped with facilities and infrastructure as well as architectural, monumental buildings and structures that can be last for hundreds of years (continuous, blend with the environment, and also can be used by the public. Having regard to the function of a mosque especially at the Al Markas Al Islamic Makassar mosque, then the problem that arise is how the Al Markas Al Islamic mosque can be survived/sustainable  in order  to function  as a place  of worship  and  as a center  of Islam.  This research  is a descriptive qualitative research that is trying to generate data in the form of systematic and accurate picture of the object of study. The sustaiprophetlity  of Al Markas AL Islamic mosque can be known through the concept of Islam  in accordance with the view of Islam as well as the sustaiprophetlity of the buildings that seen in the spatial pattern of the mosque, appearance, natural lighting, natural ventilation, and user behavior of the mosque. Keywords: mosque architecture, sustaiprophetlity, view of Islam     Abstrak Arsitektur masjid merupakan bagian dari arsitektur Islam. Bangunan masjid sebaiknya dapat menyatu dengan unsur alam karena masjid difungsikan sebagai wadah dalam bersujud/sembahyang  kepada Allah SWT yang menciptakan alam semesta ini. Masjid Al Markas Al Islamic Makassar merupakan kompleks kegiatan Islam yang digunakan sebagai pusat aspirasi masyarakat  dan pemerintahan  yang dapat menampung  seluruh kegiatan  umat Islam di Makassar. Melalui fungsi inilah maka  pengadaan masjid Al Markas Al-Islamic bermula dari keinginan masyarakat Islam di kota Makassar, yang mana menginginkan pusat kegiatan Islam yang dilengkapi dengan sarana dan prasarana juga bangunannya monumental yang secara arsitektur dan struktur bisa bertahan sampai ratusan tahun (berkelanjutan, dan menyatu dengan lingkungannya  serta dapat digunakan  oleh masyarakat  luas. Dengan memperhatikan  fungsi masjid terutama pada masjid Al Markas Al Islamic Makassar maka permasalahan yang muncul adalah bagaimanakah arsitektur  masjid  Al  Markas  Al  Islamic  dapat  bertahan/berkelanjutan   agar  dapat  difungsikan  sebagai  tempat beribadah dan sebagai pusat kegiatan Islam. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif yang bersifar kualitatif yaitu penelitian yang berusaha menghasilkan data berupa gambaran yang sistematis dan akurat dari objek kajian. Keberlanjutan  masjid Al Markas Al Islamic dapat diketahui melalui penyatuan konsep masjid Al Markas Al Islamic sesuai  dengan  pandangan  Islam  serta  keberlanjutan  dilihat  pada  bangunan  yakni  pola  tata  ruang  masjid, penampilan, pencahayaan dan penghawaan alami serta perilaku pemakai masjid. Kata Kunci : Arsitektur masjid, keberlanjutan, pandangan Islam

Imriyanti Imriyanti

2013-12-01

407

Comments on optimization of the boron content in FeAl (40 at.% Al) alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a recent paper, Webb, Juliet and Lefort indicated, based on tensile tests of two boron-doped FeAl alloys and one undoped FeAl alloy, that they had determined the optimum concentration of boron for good ductility to be 48 appm (12 wppm) in Fe-40Al (compositions given in atomic percent throughout). It is the author's view that this is not the case for the following reasons: (1) The Fe-40Al alloys studied by Webb et al. contained 42:4, (heat number-sign 1), 45.7 (heat number-sign 2) and 39.7 (heat number-sign 3) atomic percent Al. (2) The maximum solubility of an element may depend on the presence of other elements. (3) Other workers, notably Liu and George have obtained greater elongations in Fe-40Al in air (4.3%) than the 2.5% obtained by Webb et al. with a greater boron concentration (300 wppm as opposed to 12 wppm). Similarly, Crimp et al. found little difference in the tensile behavior of slow-cooled Fe-40Al with boron levels in the range 500 to 2000 wppm, with a ductility at 3% elongation that was comparable to the highest obtained by Webb et al. (4) Boron in FeAl presumably partitions between the lattice and the grain boundaries. (5) The grain size in the boron-free alloys studied by Webb et al. was larger at 54 ?m than in the boron-doped alloys (37 ?m and 27 ?m for the alloys containing 12 and 80 wppm B, respectively). (6) When tensile tests are performed on FeAl in air, the ductility is reduced due to water vapor. To some extent boron may ameliorate this esome extent boron may ameliorate this environmental effect. Thus, differences in ductility in air are not necessarily due to intrinsic behavior but may be due to a reduced environmental effect in boron-doped alloys. (7) Webb et al. conducted their tensile tests at a strain rate of 3 x 10-2s-1

408

Corrosion behaviour of Al/Al3Ti and Al/Al3Zr functionally graded materials produced by centrifugal solid-particle method: Influence of the intermetallics volume fraction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Intermetallic particles, Al3Ti and Al3Zr were formed in Al–5mass%Ti and Al–5mass%Zr alloys, respectively, by centrifugal casting, in order to create functionally graded materials (FGMs). At present, no information is available on the influence of the amount of intermetallics on the electrochemical properties of these alloys. In this paper, the corrosion resistance of Al/Al3Ti and Al/Al3Zr FGMs was investigated by open-circuit measurements, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemi...

Ferreira, S. C.; Rocha, L. A.; Ariza, E.; Sequeira, P. D.; Watanabe, Yoshimi; Fernandes, J. C. S.

2011-01-01

409

Hydrogenation properties of Mg-Al alloys  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper the properties of Mg-Al alloys in relation to hydrogen storage are reviewed. The main topics of this paper are materials preparation, hydrogen capacity, thermodynamics of hydride formation, and the kinetics of hydride formation and decomposition. Hydrogenation of Mg-Al leads to disproportionation with the formation of magnesium hydride and metallic aluminum as the final product. Experimental evidence renders this process reversible. It is observed that the enthalpy of hydride formation of magnesium is lowered upon alloying with Al due to a slightly endothermic disproportionation reaction. Further, it is found that the kinetics of hydrogenation, as well dehydrogenation, may be significantly improved by alloying compared to pure Mg. The expense of these improvements of the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation properties is a lower gravimetric hydrogen density in the hydrogenated product, (C) 2008 International Association for Hydrogen Energy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Andreasen, Anders

2008-01-01

410

Sistemas auditivos anclados al hueso: perspectiva actual  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La tecnología de los sistemas auditivos anclados al hueso se adoptó a partir de la investigación dental en implantes de titanio y su proceso de osteointegración. Inicialmente, los sistemas auditivos anclados al hueso se introdujeron para reemplazar los dispositivos de vibración ósea, para pacientes incapaces de usar auxiliares auditivos de conducción aérea (pacientes con cavidades de mastoidectomía, otorrea recurrente, atresia aural congénita. La aplicación más reciente es como método de transmisión transcraneal de la señal en casos de hipoacusia sensorineural unilateral, como neurinoma del acústico, hipoacu- sia súbita, enfermedad de Ménière y otros. En este artículo se revisan la historia de los sistemas auditivos anclados al hueso, su tecnología, sus indicaciones, la cirugía para su colocación, las complicaciones y resultados.

Karin Mayt\\u00E9 Dur\\u00E1n Morales

2013-01-01

411

Superbends expand the scope of Berkeley's ALS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

While the ALS has turned out to be a world-leader in providing beams of soft X-rays -- indeed, furnishing these beams remains its core mission -- there has nonetheless been a steadily growing demand from synchrotron radiation users for harder X-rays with higher photon energies. The clamor has been strongest from protein crystallographers whose seemingly insatiable appetite for solving structures of biological macromolecules could not be satisfied by the number of crystallography beamlines available worldwide. But how to provide these X-rays in a cost-effective way without disrupting the thriving research programs of the existing ALS users was the problem. Superconducting bend magnets (superbends) provided the answer for the ALS, which adopted a proposal to replace some of the normal combined-function (gradient) magnets in the curved arcs of the storage ring with superconducting dipoles that could generate higher magnetic fields and thus synchrotron light with a higher critical energy

412

Halo structure of nucleus 23Al  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The recently measured reaction cross section of 23Al is analysed in the Glauber model with an optical limit or few-body approach. It is found that the conventional fixed core-plus-nucleon model for halo nuclei is unable to explain the observed abnormally large reaction cross section of 23Al by any selection of the halo nucleon configurations. The reaction cross section of 23Al can be described when the core size is enlarged, although the Coulomb barrier largely hinders the formation of a halo structure for proton-rich nuclei. This is consistent with the case in s-d shell neutron-rich nuclei, where an enlarged core was proposed to explain both the reaction cross section and longitudinal momentum distribution data

413

The mechanical properties of FeAl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Only in the last few years has progress been made in obtaining reproducible mechanical properties data for FeAl. Two sets of observations are the foundation of this progress. The first is that the large vacancy concentrations that exist in FeAl at high temperature are easily retained at low temperature and that these strongly affect the low-temperature mechanical properties. The second is that RT ductility is adversely affected by water vapor. Purpose of this paper is not to present a comprehensive overview of the mechanical properties of FeAl but rather to highlight our understanding of key phenomena and to show how an understanding of the factors which control the yield strength and fracture behavior has followed the discovery of the above two effects. 87 refs, 9 figs.

Baker, I. [Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH (United States); George, E.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1996-12-31

414

Synthesis of intercalated Al-hydroxy-montmorillonite  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Montmorillonita procedente de Durango, México, de composición (Si3.88Al0.12(Al1.41Mg0.59O10(OH2(Ca0.07Mg0.11Na0.28K0.06, área superficial 42.07 m2g-1, espaciamiento d001 12.50 Å, y volumen de poro 0.002 cm3g-1, fue intercalada con el oligómero de Al. La arcilla modificada desarrolló un área superficial de 287.86 m2g-1, volumen de poro 0.103 cm3g-1, y espaciamiento d001 18.70 Å. Se deshidrata a 70 °C reduciendo el espaciamiento d001 a 17.29 Å; su deshidroxilación se inicia a 150 °C y a 300 °C perdió 1.92 % en peso, modificando d001 a 17.34 Å.

M. de Lourdes Chávez-García

2006-01-01

415

Niedermolekulare Verbindungen aus Spinnen als chemische Sensoren  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Spinnen sind für viele Ökosysteme wichtig, und als Hauptfeinde von Insekten verfügen sie über eine Fülle von niedermolekularen Naturstoffen mit faszinierenden biologischen Wirkungen. Die Isolierung und die biologische Charakterisierung dieser Verbindungen sind wohlbekannt, aber erst kürzlich wurden sie als Leitstrukturen für die Entwicklung, Synthese und biologische Untersuchung synthetischer Analoga verwendet. Weit weniger erforscht sind hingegen Verbindungen, die der Kommunikation von Spinnen dienen. Vor kurzem wurden jedoch auf dem Gebiet der Pheromone und Allomone aus Spinnen neue Erkenntnisse erhalten, die wir hier zusammenfassen und mit früheren Ergebnissen in Zusammenhang bringen. Abschließend geben wir einen Ausblick auf künftige Untersuchungen an dieser Art von Verbindungen.

Olsen, Christian Adam; Kristensen, Anders S.

2011-01-01

416

Nb3Al Development for HEP Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent developments in Nb3Al strand for HEP applications are presented and discussed. The present state of available precursor is detailed. Two routes have been shown to lead to successful construction of MF NbAl composite wires. An extrusion method has so far produced the highest filament counts and smallest filament diameters, but requires more processing steps. A direct restack and draw approach has also been demonstrated which minimizes the number of processing steps while still leading to a high performance conductor. This latter route also allows for a lower cost per billet, potentially allowing the exploration of more process parameters.

Sumption, M. D.; Wu, X.; Buta, F.; Tomsic, M.; Phillips, J.; McFadden, K.; Collings, E. W.

2004-06-01

417

Nb3Al Development for HEP Applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent developments in Nb3Al strand for HEP applications are presented and discussed. The present state of available precursor is detailed. Two routes have been shown to lead to successful construction of MF NbAl composite wires. An extrusion method has so far produced the highest filament counts and smallest filament diameters, but requires more processing steps. A direct restack and draw approach has also been demonstrated which minimizes the number of processing steps while still leading to a high performance conductor. This latter route also allows for a lower cost per billet, potentially allowing the exploration of more process parameters

418

Structure analysis of Al cast alloy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose: The developed design methodologies both the material and technological ones will make it possible to improve shortly the quality of materials from the light alloys in the technological process, and the automatic process flow correction will make the production cost reduction possible, and - first of all - to reduce the amount of the waste products.Design/methodology/approach: Castings were analysed in the paper of car engine blocks and heads from the Al-Si-Cu alloys of the AC-AlSi7Cu...

Dobrzan?ski, L. A.; Krupin?ski, M.; Krupin?ska, B.

2008-01-01

419

Al-lugha al-fu??â : archéologie d’un concept « idéolinguistique » Al-lugha al-fu??â: archaeology of an ideolinguistic concept  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Every French Arabicist knows that the expression al-lugha al-fu??â designates the Arabic variety that they themselves call Classical Arabic. But today, we have forgotten this expression comes from and what was its original meaning. In the first part of this paper, entitled « Theology and philology of Medieval Islam » we will recall that the expression is primarily a rewritting of ’af?a? al-lughât al-‘arabiyya (« the most polished Arabic way of speaking », which designs the lughat Quraysh, to whom the Quranic language is identified on a scriptural basis and not on a linguistic one. In a second part, entitled « Ideology and Linguistics at the Modern Period » we examine how and when this medieval expression was revitalized to design what a famous Arab nationalist thinker described as a lugha muwa??ida wa-muwa??ada (« a unifying and unified language». In both cases, we will point out that the concept is at the crossroad of ideology and linguistics; a reason why we suggest to define it as ideolinguistic, on the model of sociolinguistic.Tous les arabisants savent que l’expression d’al-lugha al-fu’??â désigne la variété d’arabe qu’ils appellent eux-mêmes « arabe classique ». Mais on a oublié aujourd’hui d’où venait l’expression et ce qu’elle signifiait à l’origine. Dans une première partie, intitulée « Théologie et philologie dans l’islam médiéval », nous rappellerons que cette expression est au premier chef une réécriture de ’af?a? al-lughât al-‘arabiyya (« la plus châtiée des manières de parler arabes », qui qualifie la lughat Quraysh, à laquelle est identifiée, sur une base non pas linguistique, mais scripturaire (Cor. 14, 4, la langue du Coran. Dans une seconde partie, intitulée « Idéologie et linguistique dans le domaine arabe à l’époque moderne », nous examinerons quand et comment cette expression médiévale a été ressuscitée pour désigner ce qu’un célèbre nationaliste arabe qualifiait de lugha muwa??’ida wa-muwa??ada (« langue unificatrice et unifiée ». Dans les deux cas, nous pointerons que le concept est au croisement de l’idéologie et de la linguistique, raison pour laquelle nous proposons de le qualifier, sur le modèle de «sociolinguistique », d’idéolinguistique.

Pierre Larcher

2011-12-01

420

Periodistas: el acceso al mercado laboral  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El presente estudio analiza la situación profesional de los Licenciados en Periodismo en España. Para ello esta investigación sigue la lógica del proceso de acceso al mercado laboral, es decir, se estudia, en primer lugar, la oferta de egresados y las demandas del sector; a continuación, se analiza la forma en la que un titulado en la Licenciatura de Periodismo accede al mercado laboral y el tiempo que tarda en hacerlo; y por último, se examinan los medios de comunicación en los que encuentran trabajos estos egresados y las condiciones de estos puestos: formación requerida, tipología de contrato y sueldo.

Francisco Javier Caro Gonz\\u00E1lez

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
421

Pyroelectric properties of AlN  

Science.gov (United States)

Pyroelectric properties of high-quality (0001)AlN films grown on (111) Si were studied. The pyroelectric coefficient p was measured using the dynamic method. The value was in the range of 6-8 ?C/(m2 K), yielding a p/? figure-of-merit of 0.8-0.95. The pyroelectric coefficient was independent of temperature and applied bias. Leakage current as low as 1-2×10-9 A/cm2 was measured at 5 V on large area devices. The obtained results indicate that AlN films can be used in pyroelectric thin-film devices.

Fuflyigin, V.; Salley, E.; Osinsky, A.; Norris, P.

2000-11-01

422

Arte, derecho y derecho al arte  

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Full Text Available El artículo defiende que existe un derecho subjetivo al arte fundamentado en la autonomía del arte, que lo diferencia de otras formas expresivas; en la capacidad de apropiación subjetiva del arte exclusivamente por parte de los seres humanos; en las posibilidades del arte para la construcción de formas de expresión varias; y en el potencial uso del arte en políticas públicas propias de los sistemas democráticos, que ayudaría al derecho a la paz y a la reconciliación, así como formas alternativas de reparación y rehabilitación en sociedad. La exclusividad de la relación del hombre con el arte fundamentaría su objetivación y, por ello, lo convertiría en un derecho jurídicamente exigible.

Rubén Martínez Dalmau

2014-07-01

423

Adhesion of metal-carbide/nitride interfaces: Al/TiC and Al/TiN  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We employ density functional theory to investigate and compare Al/TiC and Al/TiN interfaces by electronic structures, relaxed atomic geometries and adhesions. The results show that the preferred bonding site is the interfacial Al atoms above the ceramic's metalloid atoms for both systems. The calculated adhesion energies are quantitatively in agreement with other calculated and experimental results of Al on the carbide and nitride. A detailed comparison of the adhesion energies and relaxed structures shows weaker bonding and less relaxation in the Al/nitride case, which is correlated with the lower surface energy of the ceramic. We have thoroughly characterized the electronic structure and determined that the polar covalent Al3sp-C(N)2s bonds constitute the primary interfacial bonding interaction. The larger overlapping bonding states at the Al/TiC interface reveal the reason why it exhibits relatively larger adhesion energy. Cleavage may take place preferentially at the interface, especially for the Al/TiN, which is in agreement with experimental results

424

Diffusion bonding of gamma-TiAl using modified Ti/Al nanolayers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Ti/Al multilayers are promising interlayers for getting joins between titanium aluminides. ? When Ti/Al multilayers are doped with Ag or Cu it is observed a higher reactivity of the multilayers. ? A doped Ti/Al multilayer decreases the temperature of the process and the quality of the bonding increases. - Abstract: Solid state diffusion bonding has been successfully employed to join ?-TiAl alloys. Processed in vacuum, at high temperature and pressure, the thin interfaces and the lack of structural discontinuity across the interface are the main advantage of this joining technique. An interlayer made of alternated Ti and Al nanometric layers that increases the diffusivity at the joint interface, was used in order to assist the bonding process of ?-TiAl alloys. The use of Ti/Al interlayer has efficiently reduced the joining temperature. Sound joints have been achieved at a temperature of 900 °C under a pressure of 50 MPa in vacuum. In the present work Cu was added as third element to the Ti/Al multilayers and its effect improved the bonding quality. The interface microstructure was studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy.

425

Melting, Processing, and Properties of Disordered Fe-Al and Fe-Al-C Based Alloys  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents a part of the research work conducted in our laboratory to develop lightweight steels based on Fe-Al alloys containing 7 wt.% and 9 wt.% aluminum for construction of advanced lightweight ground transportation systems, such as automotive vehicles and heavy-haul truck, and for civil engineering construction, such as bridges, tunnels, and buildings. The melting and casting of sound, porosity-free ingots of Fe-Al-based alloys was accomplished by a newly developed cost-effective technique. The technique consists of using a special flux cover and proprietary charging schedule during air induction melting. These alloys were also produced using a vacuum induction melting (VIM) process for comparison purposes. The effect of aluminum (7 wt.% and 9 wt.%) on melting, processing, and properties of disordered solid solution Fe-Al alloys has been studied in detail. Fe-7 wt.% Al alloy could be produced using air induction melting with a flux cover with the properties comparable to the alloy produced through the VIM route. This material could be further processed through hot and cold working to produce sheets and thin foils. The cold-rolled and annealed sheet exhibited excellent room-temperature ductility. The role of carbon in Fe-7 wt.% Al alloys has also been examined. The results indicate that Fe-Al and Fe-Al-C alloys containing about 7 wt.% Al are potential lightweight steels.

Satya Prasad, V. V.; Khaple, Shivkumar; Baligidad, R. G.

2014-09-01

426

Is Thieberger's Result Inconsistent with Stubbs et al.'s One?  

Science.gov (United States)

As to the presence of a fifth force Thieberger's outcome can be compatible with Stubbs et al.'s one if the force is assumed to arise universal vector coupling to `oblique' fermion number defined by a linear combination of quark number and lepton number.

Hayashi, K.; Shirafuji, T.

1987-08-01

427

Oxidation behaviour of TiAl-based intermetallic coatings on {gamma}-TiAl alloys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

TiAl-based intermetallic layers with additions of Ag, Cr, Y and Hf were deposited on {gamma}-TiAl specimens using magnetron sputtering. The oxidation behaviour of the coated Ti-45Al-8Nb (at.%) alloy was investigated at 850 C and 900 C under cyclic oxidation conditions in air. The ternary Ti-50Al-2Ag (at.%) coating did not provide oxidation protection to the substrate material at 850 C. Two-phase {gamma}-TiAl + Ti(Cr, Al){sub 2} Laves coatings exhibited high oxidation resistance at 900 C for up to 1000 cycles of 1 h dwell time at high temperature. During thermal exposure phase dissolution and transformation occurred. The slow oxide growth rates observed for the Ti-Al-Cr intermetallic layers were associated with the formation of a thin continuous alumina top scale established by the Laves, B2 and Z-phases. Small additions of hafnium and yttrium improved the oxidation resistance. In contrast, Ti-Al-Cr-Ag coatings exhibited poor oxidation behaviour at 900 C. (orig.)

Braun, Reinhold; Froehlich, Maik [DLR - German Aerospace Center, Koeln (Germany). Inst. of Materials Research; Leyens, Christoph [DLR - German Aerospace Center, Koeln (Germany). Inst. of Materials Research; Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Materials Science

2010-05-15

428

Dynamic structure mediated by graphitelike Al nets on the Al2Cu (001) surface.  

Science.gov (United States)

A detailed study of the (001) surface of the Al(2)Cu crystal using both experimental and ab initio computational methods is presented in this work. The combination of both approaches gives many arguments to match the surface plane with a bulk truncated surface model terminated by incomplete Al planes. The missing rows of Al atoms lead to a 2?2×?2R 45° surface reconstruction with two domains rotated by 90° from each other. Ab initio calculations demonstrate that the energetic cost associated with the removal of pairs of Al atoms is the lowest for the two nearest surface Al atoms (covalentlike interaction). They reveal that the remaining atomic rows of various widths are oriented according to the graphitelike Al 6(3) nets used to describe the Al(2)Cu bulk structure. The surface dynamics observed at 300 K at the Al(2)Cu surface is also presented. Finally, configurational and vibrational entropies are introduced to discuss the reduced surface plane density. PMID:22540807

Serkovic Loli, L N; Gaudry, É; Fournée, V; de Weerd, M-C; Ledieu, J

2012-04-01

429

Electronic circuits having NiAl and Ni.sub.3 Al substrates  

Science.gov (United States)

An electronic circuit component having improved mechanical properties and thermal conductivity comprises NiAl and/or Ni.sub.3 Al, upon which an alumina layer is formed prior to applying the conductive elements. Additional layers of copper-aluminum alloy or copper further improve mechanical strength and thermal conductivity.

Deevi, Seetharama C. (Midlothian, VA); Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1999-01-01

430

Fluctuations of charge variance and interaction time for dissipative processes in 27 Al + 27 Al collision  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The systematic studies of dissipative processes in light systems were completed with experiments dedicated to the measurement of the excitation functions in 19 F + 27 Al and 27 Al + 27 Al systems in order to obtain deeper insight on DNS configuration and its time evolution. The excitation function for 19 F + 27 Al system evidenced fluctuations larger than the statistical errors. Large Z and angular cross correlation coefficients supported their non-statistical nature. The energy dependence of second order observables, namely the second moment of the charge distribution and the product ?·? (? - the angular velocity of the DNS and ? its mean lifetime) extracted from the angular distributions were studied for 19 F + 27 Al case. In this contribution we are reporting the preliminary results of similar studies performed for 27 Al + 27 Al case. The variance of the charge distribution were obtained fitting the experimental charge distribution with a Gaussian centered on Z = 13 and the product ?·? was extracted from the angular distributions. The results for 19 F + 27 Al case are confirmed by a preliminary analysis of the data for 27 Al + 27 Al system. The charge variance and ?·? excitation functions for Z = 11 fragment are represented together with the excitation function of the cross section. One has to mention ts section. One has to mention that the data for 27 Al + 27 Al system were not corrected for particle evaporation processes. The effect of the evaporation corrections on the excitation function was studied using a Monte Carlo simulation. The ? particle evaporation was also included and the evaluation of the particle separation energies was made using experimental masses of the fragments. The excitation functions for 27 Al + 27 Al system for primary and secondary fragments were simulated. No structure due to particle evaporation was observed. The correlated fluctuations in ?Z and ?·? excitation functions support a stochastic exchange of nucleons as the main mechanism for interpreting dissipative processes in light systems. The same conclusion is sustained by the fact that the dependence of ln(?Z2) as a function of TKEL/lgr for light systems has the same slope as the one for medium and heavy systems. (authors)

431

Al compositional inhomogeneity of AlGaN epilayer with a high Al composition grown by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Al compositional distribution of AlGaN is investigated by cathodoluminescence (CL). Monochromatic CL images and CL spectra reveal a lateral Al compositional inhomogeneity, which corresponds to surface hexagonal patterns. Cross-sectional CL images show a relatively uniform Al compositional distribution in the growth direction, indicating columnar growth mode of AlGaN films. In addition, a thin AlGaN layer with lower Al composition is grown on top of the buffer AlN layer near the bottom of the AlGaN epilayer because of the larger lateral mobility of Ga adatoms on the growth surface and their accumulation at the grain boundaries. PMID:21690942

Wang, X L; Zhao, D G; Jiang, D S; Yang, H; Liang, J W; Jahn, U; Ploog, K

2007-04-30

432

Site selectivity and bonding in the ?-phase aluminides: Studies of RuAl, PdAl, and Pd and Ru dopants in NiAl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have determined the site selectivity of Ru and Pd dopants in ?-phase NiAl. For both transition metal rich and poor compositions, the Ru or Pd dopant goes to the Ni sublattice. The local structural disorder introduced by Pd dopants is significantly greater for the Al-rich than for the TM-rich composition. We have also determined the temperature dependence of the x-ray absorption fine structure Debye-Waller term for Ru atoms in stoichiometric RuAl, Ru in NiAl, and Pd in NiAl. We find evidence for large local shear resistance for Ru dopants in NiAl relative to Pd dopants in NiAl. These results are discussed in terms of calculated elastic moduli and cohesive energies of PdAl and RuAl. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

433

Al2O3 adherence on CoCrAl alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Adherence of protective oxides on NiCrAl and CoCrAl superalloys has been promoted by a dispersion of a highly oxygen reactive element or its oxide being produced within the protection system. Two aspects of this subject are investigated here: the use of Al2O3 as both the dispersion and protective oxide; and the production of an HfO2 dispersion while simultaneously aluminizing the alloy. It was found that an Al2O3 dispersion will act to promote the adherence of an external scale of Al2O3 to a degree comparable to previously tested dispersions and an HfO2 dispersion comparable to that produced by a Rhines pack treatment is produced during aluminization

434

FABRICATION OF Al/Al2O3 FGM ROTATING DISC  

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Full Text Available This study presents a method of fabricating a disc made of Al/Al2O3 functionally graded materials (FGM, using a powder metallurgy manufacturing process. The aim is to develop a processing method for a rotating disc made of FGM, by stacking the slurry, layer by layer in a radial direction. A three-layer functionally graded material of Al/Al2O3 is fabricated with compositions of 10, 20, 30 vol.% Al2O3. The ceramic composition increases from the discs inner (centre to the outer. The combination of these materials can offer the ability to withstand high temperature conditions whilst maintaining strength in extreme environments.

A. B. Sanuddin

2012-06-01

435

Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ adherence on CoCrAl alloys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Adherence of protective oxides on NiCrAl and CoCrAl superalloys has been promoted by a dispersion of a highly oxygen reactive element or its oxide being produced within the protection system. Two aspects of this subject are investigated here: the use of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ as both the dispersion and protective oxide; and the production of an HfO/sub 2/ dispersion while simultaneously aluminizing the alloy. It was found that an Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ dispersion will act to promote the adherence of an external scale of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ to a degree comparable to previously tested dispersions and an HfO/sub 2/ dispersion comparable to that produced by a Rhines pack treatment is produced during aluminization.

Kingsley, L.M.

1980-04-01

436

Structural and local electrical properties of AlInN/AlN/GaN heterostructures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

GaN layers and Al1-xInxN/AlN/GaN heterostructures have been studied by scanning probe microscopy methods. Threading dislocations (TDs), originating from the GaN (0 0 0 1) layer grown on sapphire, have been investigated. Using Current-Atomic Force Microscopy (C-AFM) TDs have been found to be highly conductive in both GaN and AlInN, while using semi-contact AFM (phase-imaging mode) indium segregation has been traced at TDs in AlInN/AlN/GaN heterostructures. It has been assessed that In segregation is responsible for high conductivity at dislocations in the examined heterostructures.

437

Structural and local electrical properties of AlInN/AlN/GaN heterostructures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

GaN layers and Al{sub 1-x}In{sub x}N/AlN/GaN heterostructures have been studied by scanning probe microscopy methods. Threading dislocations (TDs), originating from the GaN (0 0 0 1) layer grown on sapphire, have been investigated. Using Current-Atomic Force Microscopy (C-AFM) TDs have been found to be highly conductive in both GaN and AlInN, while using semi-contact AFM (phase-imaging mode) indium segregation has been traced at TDs in AlInN/AlN/GaN heterostructures. It has been assessed that In segregation is responsible for high conductivity at dislocations in the examined heterostructures.

Minj, A.; Cavalcoli, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Cavallini, A., E-mail: anna.cavallini@unibo.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy)

2012-08-01

438

Displacement threshold energies in Ni(Al) solid solutions and in Ni3Al  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Resistivity damage rates, determined during low-temperature electron irradiations in the energy range 0.3-2.5 MeV, were used for evaluating displacement threshold energies of nickel and aluminium in pure nickel, short-range ordered Ni-6 at% Al and Ni-10 at% Al solid solutions, and in long-range ordered Ni3Al. These parameters were deduced from a comparison of normalized experimental displacement cross-section variations as a function of electron energy, with theoretical curves based on a displacement model for diatomic materials. The threshold energy of nickel is about the same in the three investigated alloys (TNid = 23 ± 2 eV) as in the pure metal. The threshold energy of aluminium TAld is of the same order as TNid in the Ni(Al) solid solutions (22 ± 2 eV) but it is larger in the long-range ordered Ni3Al: 30 ± 2 eV. (orig.)

439

Oxidation behavior of TiAl/TiAl-SiC gradient coatings on gamma titanium aluminides  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gradient TiAl/TiAl+SiC coatings on the gamma titanium aluminide were fabricated by using electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) technique, and the oxidation resistance behavior was investigated. The coating surface was in the structure containing mainly TiAl and SiC identified by the X-ray diffractometer. The oxidation resistance depends on the ratio of the surfacial content of SiC to TiAl. Only 1.03 mg/cm{sup 2} weight gain was recorded after isothermal oxidation at 1173 K in air for 200 h, and no spallation was recognized after cyclic oxidation at 1173 K in air for 100 h for the coating with the ratio of approximately 8:3 TiAl/SiC. The contribution of SiC to the improvement of the oxidation resistance can be considered as the formation of amorphous SiO{sub 2}. (orig.)

Gong, S.; Xu, H.; Yu, Q.; Zhou, C. [Univ. of Aeronaut. and Astronaut., Beijing (China). Dept. of Mater. Sci. and Eng.

2000-08-01

440

In situ microscopy of rapidly heated nano-Al and nano-Al/WO3 thermites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The initiation and reaction mechanism of nano-Al and nano-Al thermites in rapid heating environments is investigated in this work. A semiconductor-based grid/stage was used, capable of in situ heating of a sample from room temperature to 1473 K, and at a rate of 106 K/s, inside an electron microscope. Nano-Al was rapidly heated in a transmission electron microscope, and before and after images indicate that the aluminum migrates through the shell, consistent with a diffusion-based mechanism. A nano-Al/WO3 composite was then heated in a scanning electron microscope. The results indicate that a reactive sintering mechanism is occurring for the nano-Al/WO3 thermite, as the products are found to be in surface contact and significantly deformed after the heating pulse.