WorldWideScience

Sample records for mehr als halbiert

  1. Energy consumption cut by more than half; Energieverbrauch mehr als halbiert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracht, Helmut [Atlas Copco Kompressoren und Drucklufttechnik GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Those who consider all components of compressed-air supply and coordinate them well will be able to generate compressed air in a very energy-efficient way even with strongly varying requirements. Walhalla-Kalk has set up a new central station, which requires less than half the energy previously required for the same amount of compressed air and, consequently, which will pay off quickly. This is due to the modern compressor technology including speed control and superimposed control as well as to the change between refrigeration drying and adsorption drying depending on the season (orig.)

  2. More than just a converter; Mehr als nur ein Umwandler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilming, Wilhelm

    2013-08-06

    Inverter can convert more than alternating current. With the presented new products at the INTERSOLAR in Munich the manufacturers are responding to the increased demands. [German] Wechselrichter koennen mehr als nur Wechselstrom umwandeln. Mit den auf der INTERSOLAR in Muenchen vorgestellten Produktneuheiten reagieren die Hersteller auf die gestiegenen Anforderungen.

  3. (Medienbildung und Informatik. Informatische Bildung muss mehr als Coding sein!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Autenrieth

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Niemand kann die Wichtigkeit der Informatik für unsere Welt abstreiten. Fast jeder Aspekt unseres Lebens steht in einer bestimmten Art in Verbindung mit Software. Es ist daher logisch anzunehmen, dass Kinder die Fähigkeit benötigen die Technik, die sie verwenden, zu verstehen und diese auch kritisch zu betrachten. Dieser Umstand macht Informatik zu einem wichtigen Teilaspekt der Medienbildung. Weiterhin erweitern die Fortschritte aus der Computerentwicklung unsere Fähigkeit Probleme zu lösen in einer bisher unbekannten Dimension. SchülerInnen werden neue Fähigkeiten lernen und einüben müssen (Computational Thinking um diese revolutionären Veränderungen, die der technische Fortschritt mit sich bringt, auszunutzen. Die Schlüsselfrage wird dabei sein, welchen Ansatz man wählen wird, um diese Fähigkeiten auszubilden und welche politischen Beweggründe dahinterstehen. Die aktuelle politische Lage zeigt eine wirtschaftliche Orientierung, die ähnlich ist zur Stärkung der MINT-Fächer vor einigen Jahren, welche ebenfalls von der Wirtschaft gefordert wurde. Bildung muss jedoch mehr sein als die Erfüllung von aus der Wirtschaft stammenden Wünschen. Nobody can deny the importance of computer science for today’s world. Almost every aspect of our daily lives is somehow connected to a piece of software. It is therefore only logical to assume that our children need the ability to comprehend and critically examine the technology they are using, which makes computer science an important issue for media education. Furthermore, advances in computing have expanded our capacity to solve problems at a scale never before imagined, using strategies that have not been available to us before. Students will need to learn and practice new skills — computational thinking skills — to take full advantage of these revolutionary changes brought about by rapid changes in technology. The key issue will be the approach on how to teach children these skills and what the political motives of a curriculum change will be. The current political situation suggests a strongly economic point of view, which is similar to the reinforcement of STEM-subjects, as demanded by the economy some years ago. Education, however, has to be more than the fulfillment of demands expressed by the economy.

  4. Mehr Last als Lust – Ein weiterer Sammelband zu „(Frauen-Körper“

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula-Irene Villa

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dieser Band vereint acht heterogene Aufsätze zu „Lust und Last am eigenen Körper“ von Frauen. Alle Beiträge gehören zum Spektrum psychologischer Reflexion; die Themen reichen dabei von Sport über Kochen und Essen bis Schönheit, die Zugänge von Psychoanalyse über experimentelle Psychologie bis hin zu freier Assoziation auf der Grundlage klinisch-praktischer Arbeit. Ein roter Faden durch die Beiträge ist nicht erkennbar und so wirkt die Vielfalt beliebig. So unterschiedlich die Beiträge sind, so unterschiedlich ist auch ihre Qualität. Leider kommen einige Artikel über die unkritische Zusammenstellung anderer Arbeiten nicht hinaus, die meisten nehmen kaum Bezug auf das inzwischen breite und institutionalisierte Feld der (sozial- und kulturwissenschaftlichen Körperforschung. Doch haben manche Aufsätze interessante empirische Einblicke zu bieten, die zur weiteren Reflexion anregen, und einige wenige Beiträge sind so differenziert, dass sich mit ihnen weiterdenken und -forschen lässt. Insgesamt bereitet die Lektüre des Buches weder ‚Einsteiger/-innen‘ noch ‚Fortgeschrittenen‘ der wissenschaftlichen Beschäftigung mit (Frauen-Körpern Lust, sondern erweist sich – bis auf Ausnahmen, die allerdings auch in ausführlicherer Form anderenorts publiziert wurden – eher als Last. Ärgerlich und alles andere als argumentativ überzeugend ist darüber hinaus das in manchen Texten enthaltene, mehr oder minder explizit artikulierte, ‚Feminismus- bzw. Frauenforschungs-Bashing‘.

  5. Verlauf des lokoregionären Prostatakarzinoms unter Diätveränderung und Nahrungsmittelergänzung: Longitudinale Beobachtung über mehr als 3 Jahre

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    Schlarp OM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Einleitung: Auftreten und Verlauf des lokal begrenzten Prostatakarzinoms wird durch Diätveränderungen beeinflußt. Wir haben untersucht, ob durch Veränderung der Diätgewohnheiten und Substitution von Nahrungsergänzungsmittel (Active Surveillance der klinische Verlauf des Karzinoms beeinflußt oder eine radikale Behandlung aufgeschoben oder gar vermieden werden kann. Material und Methode: Wir verfolgten den klinischen Verlauf und die PSA-Werte von 13 Patienten mit einem stanzbioptisch verifizierten organbegrenzten Prostatakarzinom. Allen Patienten mit einem T-Stadium 3 mit einem PSA 10 ng/ml und einem Gleasonscore 7 wurde eine Active Surveillance-Strategie mit zusätzlichen Diätempfehlungen und Nahrungsergänzungsmitteln anstelle einer radikalen Prostatektomie offeriert. Alle Patienten erhielten hierfür täglich als Nahrungsmittelergänzung eine Mischung an Radikalfängern (Karotinoide, Selen, Flavonoide, Vit. A, E und Phytoöstrogene. Alle Patienten wurden routinemäßig einmal pro Jahr mindestens 8-fach biopsiert. PSA-Werte und eine rektale Untersuchung wurde alle drei Monate durchgeführt. Eine radikale Prostatektomie wurde im Falle eines zweimaligen konsekutiven PSA-Anstieges und/oder eines suspekten Tastbefundes und/oder einer Ausdehnung der Anzahl positiver Stanzen bei wiederholten Biopsien durchgeführt. Resultate: Wir überschauen nun median 21 Monate (5?90 einer Active Surveillance-Strategie bei 13 Männern (medianes Alter: 65. Bei 3 Männern führte ein konsekutiver PSA-Anstieg zur Planung einer radikalen Prostatektomie (1 Patient verstarb vor der Operation an einer intrazerebralen Blutung, einer verweigerte den Eingriff. Beim verbliebenen Patienten führten wir 14 Monaten nach Diagnosestellung eine Schnittrand-negative Prostatektomie eines pT2c-Gleason-6-Tumors durch (PSA 0 ng/ml frei nach 11 Monaten Follow-up. Von allen Patienten, die initial maximal bis zu 2 positive Gewebsproben hatten, konnte bei 38 % in den Kontrollbiopsien kein Tumor mehr nachgewiesen werden, bei 46 % blieb die Anzahl der positiven Biopsien gleich. Keiner der Patienten ist bis jetzt klinisch apparent geworden. Konklusion: Eine diätetische Unterstützung (Active Surveillance kann den klinischen Verlauf des organbegrenzten Karzinoms günstig beeinflussen. Diese Therapieoption kann Patienten in Hinblick auf eine Lebensqualitätsorientierte Lebenserwartung auch von mehr als 10 Jahren angeboten werden. Voraussetzung ist ein strenger Follow-up und eine entsprechende Compliance.

  6. Mehr Last als Lust – Ein weiterer Sammelband zu „(Frauen-Körper“ More Encumbrance than Enjoyment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula-Irene Villa

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dieser Band vereint acht heterogene Aufsätze zu „Lust und Last am eigenen Körper“ von Frauen. Alle Beiträge gehören zum Spektrum psychologischer Reflexion; die Themen reichen dabei von Sport über Kochen und Essen bis Schönheit, die Zugänge von Psychoanalyse über experimentelle Psychologie bis hin zu freier Assoziation auf der Grundlage klinisch-praktischer Arbeit. Ein roter Faden durch die Beiträge ist nicht erkennbar und so wirkt die Vielfalt beliebig. So unterschiedlich die Beiträge sind, so unterschiedlich ist auch ihre Qualität. Leider kommen einige Artikel über die unkritische Zusammenstellung anderer Arbeiten nicht hinaus, die meisten nehmen kaum Bezug auf das inzwischen breite und institutionalisierte Feld der (sozial- und kulturwissenschaftlichen Körperforschung. Doch haben manche Aufsätze interessante empirische Einblicke zu bieten, die zur weiteren Reflexion anregen, und einige wenige Beiträge sind so differenziert, dass sich mit ihnen weiterdenken und -forschen lässt. Insgesamt bereitet die Lektüre des Buches weder ‚Einsteiger/-innen‘ noch ‚Fortgeschrittenen‘ der wissenschaftlichen Beschäftigung mit (Frauen-Körpern Lust, sondern erweist sich – bis auf Ausnahmen, die allerdings auch in ausführlicherer Form anderenorts publiziert wurden – eher als Last. Ärgerlich und alles andere als argumentativ überzeugend ist darüber hinaus das in manchen Texten enthaltene, mehr oder minder explizit artikulierte, ‚Feminismus- bzw. Frauenforschungs-Bashing‘.This volume joins together eight heterogeneous essays by women under the theme “enjoyment and encumbrance of the body.” All of the contributions belong within the spectrum of psychological reflection; the themes range from sports, cooking and eating, and beauty, to the process of psychoanalysis, experimental psychology, and free-association based on clinical practice. The thread throughout the contributions remains indiscernible and thus the multiplicity seems arbitrary. And while the contributions vary, so too their quality. Unfortunately, some of the articles do not go beyond the uncritical compilation of other works and the majority of the essays barely make reference to the broad and long institutionalized field of research on the body in both social and cultural studies. However, some of the essays do offer interesting empirical insights that inspire the reader to reflect further and a select few are so wide-ranging that the reader can utilize the material for continued contemplation and research. Overall, academic scholars of (female bodies, be they “beginners” or more “advanced,” will not enjoy reading the essays in this book, but rather—with few exceptions, which, it fairs mentioning, have already been published elsewhere—find reading an encumbrance. What makes the book even more infuriating and everything but argumentatively convincing is that some of the texts engage in more or less explicitly articulated bashing of feminism and women’s studies.

  7. Mehr als ein Rechtshandbuch. Hinweise zur Arbeit von Frauen- und Gleichstellungsbeauftragten

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    Arne Duncker

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Das vorliegende Handbuch für Frauen- und Gleichstellungsbeauftragte ist auch ein Rechtshandbuch, aber es geht in seinen Inhalten darüber hinaus. Etwa ein Drittel des Werkes behandelt außerrechtliche Fragen. Insgesamt ist das Werk als Leitfaden für die Praxis konzipiert und soll fortlaufend durch Nachlieferungen ergänzt werden; einige Rechtsmaterien, z. B. das Gleichstellungsrecht der meisten Bundesländer, sind gegenwärtig noch nicht enthalten. Während mit dem Arbeitsrecht ein zentraler Bereich der Gleichstellungspraxis recht umfassend und überwiegend gut behandelt wird und an verschiedenen weiteren Punkten teils hervorragende Teilbearbeitungen vorliegen, weist die Darstellung eines anderen zentralen Rechtsgebiets, des Familienrechts, gravierende Mängel auf. Insgesamt kann das Werk in seiner derzeitigen Form noch nicht vorbehaltlos empfohlen werden.

  8. Data Curation oder (Retro Digitalisierung ist mehr als die Produktion von Daten

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    Klaus Kempf

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nahezu jede Bibliothek, die über Altbestand verfügt, beschäftigt sich heute mit dem Thema Digitalisierung. Dabei wird oftmals übersehen, dass die dauerhafte und möglichst nutzerfreundliche Bereitstellung (und letztlich die Archivierung der erzeugten Daten organisatorische Anforderungen ganz eigener Art an die bestandshaltende Institution stellt. Anders als bei analogen Materialien ist es mit dem sachgerechten Vorhalten und der Ausgabe des Sammelguts in buchklimatisch möglichst einwandfreien Räumlichkeiten nicht getan. Elektronische Dokumente, egal welcher Herkunft, welchen Umfangs, Typs und Inhalts, verlangen – weitgehend unabhängig von ihrer tatsächlichen Inanspruchnahme – ein aktives und extrem aufwändiges Datenmanagement sowie eine intensive Datenpflege. Dazu kommen der Betrieb und das regelmäßige Update der für das Datenangebot notwendigen Hard- und Software. Dieses Tun wird in der angelsächsischen Bibliothekswelt gemeinhin mit dem Begriff „digital curation“ oder „data curation“, manchmal auch mit „data stewardship“ umschrieben. Organisationsstrukturen und Arbeitsabläufe (Geschäftsgänge des digitalen Servicekonzepts der Bibliothek müssen darauf ausgelegt sein, die notwendigen personellen und finanziellen Ressourcen müssen dafür eingeplant und bereitgestellt werden. In deutschen Bibliotheken wird diesem wesentlichen Aspekt des digitalen Arbeitens nach wie vor viel zu wenig Aufmerksamkeit geschenkt, dabei ist er für die Qualität des (digitalen Servicekonzepts und seiner Nutzerakzeptanz von herausragender Bedeutung. In dem Beitrag sollen vor dem Hintergrund der langjährigen Erfahrungen in der Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek (BSB die Dimension und Komplexität des Problems aufgezeigt sowie mittlerweile praxiserprobte Lösungsansätze vorgestellt werden. Today almost every library with historic collections faces the question of digitisation. However, it is often ignored that a long-term and user-friendly provision of access to (and ultimately the preservation of the produced data poses special organisational challenges for the respective institution. Unlike with print materials, it is not enough to store and circulate the digital library collection in facilities with the best possible climate. Regardless of their origin, extent, type and content, and largely independent from their actual use, digital documents need an extremely active and complex data management as well as intensive data maintenance. Additionally, the necessary hard- and software for providing the data must be operated and regularly updated. In the Anglo-American library world, these activities are usually called „digital curation“ or „data curation”, sometimes also „data stewardship”. The library must design the organisational structures and workflows (processes of its digital service concept to meet these requirements, and the necessary personnel and financial resources must be budgeted and made available. German libraries still pay far too little attention to this crucial aspect of digital work, although it is of outstanding importance for the quality of the (digital service concept and its acceptance by the users. The paper demonstrates the dimension and complexity of this challenge against the background of the long-term experience of the Bavarian State Library and presents field-proven solutions.

  9. Modern facade techniques. The casing - more than a designed surface?; Moderne Fassadentechniken. Die Huelle - Mehr als gestaltete Oberflaeche?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petzinka, K.H. [Petzinka Pink und Partner, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Concepts as the presented projects are only developed with increasing knowledge. During each planning phase the results must be compared with the aesthetic, functional and technical targets in order to control, to develop and if necessary correct the current design and thinking process. This way of planning corresponds to the planning of an industrial top product. In these days the requirements of complex thinking in case of the application examples can only be met by the combination of research, information, application, experience and exact aesthetic target during the planning process that finally leads to complex solutions. They do not need to be corrected any more and the use of media and materials has got an undeniable reason. (orig.) [German] Konzepte wie die vorgestellten Projekte entwickeln sich in ihrer Art erst mit dem Anwachsen der Erkenntnisse. Auf jeder Planungsstufe muessen Resultate mit aesthetischer und funktionaltechnischer Zielvorstellung verglichen werden, um den laufenden Entwurf und Denkprozess zu steuern, zu entwickeln und, im Zweifel, korrigieren zu koennen. Eine solche Art zu planen, entspricht dann der eines industriellen Spitzenproduktes. Erst durch die Verbindung durch Forschung, Information, Anwendung, Erfahrung und konkreter aesthetischer Zielvorstellung beim Planungsprozess, wird dem komplexen Denken unserer Zeit bei solchen Anwendungsbeispielen entsprochen und fuehrt dann tatsaechlich zur komplexen Loesung, die keiner Korrektur mehr bedarf und bei der jeder Einsatz von Mitteln und Materialien einen unverzichtbaren Grund hat. (orig.)

  10. More than just a bale of hay - energy from cereal straw; Mehr als nur ein Strohfeuer - Energiegewinnung aus Getreidestroh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cost, K.

    1992-12-31

    Chemically bound energy which is contained in straw is transformed into other, more readily usable types of energy by means of controlled thermochemical processes. The core of the plant consists of three reactors. The straw is fed into the reactor first. Under airtight conditions the straw is heated up to 500 C. Volatiles are released, the low-temperature carbonisation gas is fed into a gas processor. All that remains of the straw is coke which is brought from the first to the second reactor. Heat and a certain amount of a gasifying agent are added (air, oxygen or steam). The gasification produces a combustible gas which is fed into a gas processing plant. A small amount of non-gasified code will remain and burnt in the third reactor to which air is supplied. This provides enough energy to run the first two reactors. Combustion waste gas from the reactor are fed to a waste gas purification plant. The remaining ashes from the last reactor are used as natural fertiliser thereby completing the cyclical process. (orig./EF) [Deutsch] Die im Brennstoff Stroh enthaltene chemisch gebundene Energie wird durch kontrollierte thermochemische Verfahren in andere, leichter anwendbare Energieformen ueberfuehrt. Kernstueck der Anlage sind drei Reaktoren. Das Stroh tritt zunaechst in den Reaktor Verschweler ein. Hier wird es unter Luftabschluss mittels Waermezufuhr auf 500 C erhitzt. Die Fluechtigen Bestandteile treten aus und werden als Schwelgase abgefuehrt und einer Gasaufbereitungsanlage zugefuehrt. Vom Stroh verbleibt der verschwelte Rueckstand (= Koks), er tritt aus dem Reaktor aus und tritt in den naechsten Reaktor ein. Hier werden Waermeenergie und ein Vergasungsmittel in festglegter Menge zugefuehrt. Letzteres ist beispielsweise Luft oder Sauerstoff oder Wasserdampf. Es kommt zur Vergasungsreaktion und ein brennbares Gas tritt aus. Dies gelangt dann in eine Gasaufbereitungsanlage. Vom Koks verbleibt eine kleine Restmenge an unvergastem Koks. Dieser Restkoks tritt in den Verbrenner ein. Er wird dort unter Luftzufuhr verbrannt. Es wird Waermeenergie freigesetzt. Diese kann den Energiebedarf der ersten beiden Reaktoren abdecken. Die Abgase der Verbrennung treten aus dem Rekator aus und werden einer Abgasreinigungsanlage zugefuehrt. Es verbleibt die Brennstoffasche, diese verlaesst den letzten Reaktor und wird in einem grossen Kreislauf als natuerliches Duengemittel wieder auf das Feld zurueckgefuehrt. (orig./EF)

  11. Lebensmittelskandale - mehr Fama als Faktum

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    Kiefer I

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lebensmittel sind heute so sicher wie noch nie, trotzdem vergeht kaum ein Jahr ohne ?Lebensmittelskandal?. Dabei deckt sich die Wahrnehmung und Einschätzung von Risiken durch die Öffentlichkeit häufig nicht mit der tatsächlichen Gefährdung. Aufgabe der Kommunikation von Risiken und Gefahren muss es künftig sein, die Risikowahrnehmung in der Bevölkerung verstärkt zu berücksichtigen, um einerseits Bewusstsein für wirkliche Risiken zu schaffen und andererseits Ängste vor vermeintlichen Gefährdungen abzubauen

  12. Interdisciplinarity, more than just a word? Findings of a case study on urban water management; Ist die Interdisziplinaritaet mehr als ein Schlagwort? Erkenntnisse aus einer siedlungswasserwirtschaftlichen Fallstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krejci, V. [Eidgenoessische Anstalt fuer Wasserversorgung, Abwasserreinigung und Gewaesserschutz, Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2000-07-01

    This is the first interdisciplinary approach to urban water and waste water managment. The author presents the knowledge acquired during the project. [German] Die ganzheitliche Betrachtung der Wasserwirtschaft in urbanen Gebieten ist sowohl in der Forschung als auch in der Praxis neu. Zwischen der Bearbeitung eines Forschungsprojektes und eines Ingenieurprojektes gibt es grundsaetzliche Differenzen, trotzdem sind wir der Meinung, dass es bezueglich der interdisziplinaeren Aspekte und der ganzheitlichen Betrachtung der Wasserwirtschaft sowohl in der Forschung als auch in der Praxis aehnliche Probleme gibt. Aus diesem Grunde wird in dieser Arbeit versucht ueber einige Erfahrungen aus dem interdisziplinaeren und ganzheitlichen Forschungsprojekt zu berichten. (orig.)

  13. Learnability of menu systems in vehicles - beyond a learning curve; Erlernbarkeit von Menuesystemen im Fahrzeug - mehr als 'nur' eine Lernkurve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Totzke, I.; Meilinger, T.; Krueger, H.P. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). IZVW

    2003-07-01

    This article contributes to the understanding of how menu-driven information systems in vehicles are learned and which system-immanent and user-immanent attributes influence the learning process. Presentation mode and ambiguity of lexical structures e.g. turned out to be relevant system attributes, concerning user attributes previous knowledge, attitude towards and interest in techniques as well as cognitive speed in information processing played an important role. Empirical studies show that users do not only acquire lexical knowledge about a menu system but also construe some kind of a ''spatial imagery'' of the system. In addition, the design of the operating device affects the learnability of the system. Thus, lexical, spatial and motor representations of the menu system influence the learning process significantly. At the same time the importance of user attributes has to be considered. Therefore, observing the learnability of information systems in vehicles goes beyond the mere consideration of a learning curve. In fact, learning a menu system is a multi-coded process in which lexical, spatial and motor representations of users have to be considered as important factors relevant to learning. (orig.) [German] Dieser Beitrag legt dar, in welcher Weise menuegesteuerte Informationssysteme im Fahrzeug erlernt werden und welche system- und nutzerimmanente Merkmale den Lernprozess beeinflussen. Auf Systemseite sind z.B. Darbietungsmodus und Eindeutigkeit von begrifflichen Hierarchien zu nennen, auf Nutzerseite Vorwissen, Einstellung gegenueber und Interesse an Technik sowie kognitive Verarbeitungsgeschwindigkeit. Eigene Studien legen nahe, dass Nutzer im Umgang mit Menuesystemen nicht nur begriffliche Hierarchien erwerben, sondern zugleich eine Art ''raeumliches Bild'' des Systems konstruieren. Ferner ist die Ausgestaltung des Bedienelements bedeutsam fuer den Lernprozess. Begriffliche, raeumliche und motorische Repraesentationen, die der Nutzer durch den Umgang mit dem System erwirbt, scheinen somit den Kompetenzerwerb in Menuesystemen entscheidend zu beeinflussen. Zugleich ist der Einfluss von Nutzermerkmalen zu beachten. Die Erlernbarkeit von Informationssystemen im Fahrzeug ist folglich nicht ''nur'' als Lernkurve zu betrachten, sondern als multikodierter Prozess, in dem begriffliche, raeumliche und motorische Repraesentationen der Nutzer als lernrelevante Faktoren zu beruecksichtigen sind. (orig.)

  14. Tortuosity and calcification of the splenic artery. More than an additional finding; Schlaengelung und Verkalkung der Milzarterie im Roentgenbild. Mehr als ein Nebenbefund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golder, W.A. [SELARL Association d' Imagerie Medicale, Troyes (France)

    2008-11-15

    Tortuosity of the splenic artery and calcification of the vessel wall are typical additional findings on plain abdominal x-ray. The combination of both anomalies is common in elderly persons presenting without symptoms of splenic ischemia. Its pathogenesis is thought to be multifactorial. In infancy and childhood, the splenic artery is stretched in its entire course. A growing difference between the length of the vessel and the distance between its origin and the splenic hilum gives rise to tortuosity. The artery's proximal segment is involved more frequently and more severely than the distal one. The tortuous route of the vessel is accentuated by the direction of its major branches, which is roughly perpendicular to the main trajectory. Neither tortuosity nor calcification should be taken to be risk factors for the comparatively common splenic artery aneurysm. Calcific deposits are not confined to the media but are also detected in the intima of the vascular wall. Critical narrowings of the lumen arising on the calcium deposits are not observed. Calcifying atherosclerosis of the splenic artery is comparable to medial sclerosis of the peripheral arteries frequently noticed in diabetics and dialysis patients. Only the less important calcification of the intima may be attributed to mechanisms of the hydrohemodynamic theory of atherosclerosis. The spleen's blood storage capacity may contribute to the characteristic age-dependent alterations of the shape and course of the splenic artery. (orig.) [German] Die Schlaengelung der Milzarterie und Verkalkungen in der Wand des Gefaesses sind ein typischer Nebenbefund bei der Roentgenuntersuchung des Abdomens. Die Kombination wird v. a. bei Senioren beobachtet, ohne dass Symptome einer Mangelperfusion der Milz fassbar sind. Bei der Pathogenese wirken eine Reihe verschiedener Faktoren zusammen. Im Kindesalter verlaeuft die A. lienalis stets gestreckt. Die zunehmende Schlaengelung wird durch die wachsende Differenz zwischen der Laenge des Gefaesses und der Distanz zwischen seinem Ursprung und dem Milzhilus hervorgerufen. Der proximale Abschnitt der Arterie ist haeufiger und staerker betroffen als der distale. Die Tortuositas wird durch die zum Hauptstamm senkrechte Verlaufsrichtung der grossen Aeste gefoerdert. Weder die Schlaengelung noch die Verkalkung sind als Risikoindikatoren fuer das vergleichsweise haeufige Aneurysma der Milzarterie zu werten. Der Wandkalk ist sowohl in der Tunica media wie im Endothel lokalisiert. Haemodynamisch wirksame kalkassoziierte Gefaessstenosen fehlen. Die verkalkende Atheromatose der Milzarterie aehnelt der Mediasklerose der peripheren Arterien vom Typ Moenckeberg und wird bei Diabetikern und Dialysepatienten ueberdurchschnittlich haeufig nachgewiesen. Die hydrohaemodynamische Theorie der Arteriosklerose kann nur fuer die quantitativ weniger bedeutsame Verkalkung der Intima verantwortlich gemacht werden. Die Blutspeicherfunktion der Milz foerdert die charakteristische altersabhaengige Form- und Verlaufsveraenderung der A. lienalis. (orig.)

  15. Mehr als ein Rechtshandbuch. Hinweise zur Arbeit von Frauen- und Gleichstellungsbeauftragten More Than a Legal Handbook. Details on the Work of Women’s and Equal Opportunity Commissioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Duncker

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Das vorliegende Handbuch für Frauen- und Gleichstellungsbeauftragte ist auch ein Rechtshandbuch, aber es geht in seinen Inhalten darüber hinaus. Etwa ein Drittel des Werkes behandelt außerrechtliche Fragen. Insgesamt ist das Werk als Leitfaden für die Praxis konzipiert und soll fortlaufend durch Nachlieferungen ergänzt werden; einige Rechtsmaterien, z. B. das Gleichstellungsrecht der meisten Bundesländer, sind gegenwärtig noch nicht enthalten. Während mit dem Arbeitsrecht ein zentraler Bereich der Gleichstellungspraxis recht umfassend und überwiegend gut behandelt wird und an verschiedenen weiteren Punkten teils hervorragende Teilbearbeitungen vorliegen, weist die Darstellung eines anderen zentralen Rechtsgebiets, des Familienrechts, gravierende Mängel auf. Insgesamt kann das Werk in seiner derzeitigen Form noch nicht vorbehaltlos empfohlen werden.The handbook for Women’s and Equal Opportunity Commissioners is also a legal handbook, but it goes beyond this in its contents. About a third of the work deals with extra-legal questions. In general, the work is conceived as a guideline for practice and the intention is that continual additions will supplement the work; some legal materials, for example the equality laws of most federal states, are currently not included. While a central area of equality praxis is extensively and for the most part appropriately handled through employment law and there are some excellent studies of other points, the handbook points to grave deficits in another area of law, and that is family law. Overall, the work cannot be recommended in its current form without reservations.

  16. Hashimoto-Thyreoiditis: Mehr als nur Schilddrüsenhormonmangel?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Führer D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Eine Autoimmunthyreoiditis wird häufig mit einer Vielzahl von Beschwerden in Verbindung gebracht. Die Gründe hierfür sind vielgestaltig. Neue Erkenntnisse zum Wirkmechanismus von Schilddrüsenhormonen im zentralen Nervensystem stellen erstmals eine mögliche molekulare Erklärung für individuell unterschiedliche neurokognitive Manifestationen von Schilddrüsenfunktionsstörungen dar und könnten deshalb auch ein unterschiedliches Ansprechen auf eine Schilddrüsenhormonsubstitutionstherapie "trotz Euthyreose" bei Patienten mit Hashimoto- Thyreoiditis und anderen Ursachen einer Hypothyreose erklären.

  17. Headaches. More than just sinusitis; Kopfschmerzen. Mehr als nur Sinusitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knauth, Michael [Universitaetsklinikum Goettingen (Germany). Abt. Neuroradiologie

    2011-09-15

    Headaches are among the commonest somatic complaints seen in clinical practice. The International Headache Society differentiates about 190 types of headaches. This article focuses on the variety of secondary headaches with a radiologically identifiable cause. (orig.)

  18. "Ich wollte keine Heldentaten mehr vollbringen" : Wehrmachtsdeserteure im II. Weltkrieg: Motive und Folgen untersucht anhand von Selbstzeugnissen

    OpenAIRE

    Schnackenberg, Martin

    1999-01-01

    Im Zweiten Weltkrieg desertierten mehr als 30000 Soldaten aus der deutschen Wehrmacht. Die zuständigen Militärrichter sprachen gegen Deserteure über 20000 Todesurteile aus, von denen mindestens 15000 vollstreckt wurden. Aus welchen Gründen flohen derart viele Soldaten aus der Wehrmacht, mit welchen Folgen hatten sie zu rechnen, wenn ihre Flucht mißlang? Wie ging schließlich die deutsche Gesellschaft nach 1945 mit den überlebenden Deserteuren um? Die vorliegende Studie sucht Antworten auf dies...

  19. Zitieren – ein Thema für Bibliotheken! Zitierleitfaden, Zitierkurs und mehr an der Universitätsbibliothek der TU München

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Leiß

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Die Universitätsbibliothek der Technischen Universität München (TUM bietet mit jährlich mehr als 400 Veranstaltungen für rund 8.000 Teilnehmende ein umfangreiches Programm im Bereich Informationskompetenz an. Im Wintersemester 2014/15 wurde das Angebot im Bereich Zitieren und Plagiat-Vermeidung grundlegend erweitert. Die Universitätsbibliothek hat einen Zitierleitfaden erstellt und bietet einen Kurs zum Zitieren sowie eine Sprechstunde für Fragen zur Literaturverwaltung und zum Zitieren an. Der Beitrag schildert Konzeption, Einführung und erste Erfahrungen der Universitätsbibliothek mit ihren neuen Dienstleistungsangeboten. The University Library of the Technical University of Munich (TUM offers a comprehensive training programme for information literacy including more than 400 training events for approximately 8.000 participants per year. In the winter semester of 2014/2015, the library expanded its services in the field of citation and plagiarism. A citation guide was prepared, and the library now offers a special training course and drop-in advisory sessions for reference management and citation assistance. The paper discusses the design, the implementation and the first experiences with these new support services at the University Library.

  20. Linnamaastike kaitse on osa arengust / Jukka Jokilehto, Mehr Azar Soheil ; intervjueerinud Liisa Pakosta

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jokilehto, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    Vestlus soome arhitekti, Nova Gorica ülikooli professori, UNESCO ja ICOMOSi konsultandi Jukka Jokilehto ja tema abikaasa, pärslannast arhitekti Mehr Azar Soheiliga. Ka Tallinna vanalinnast maailmapärandi komitees valmivate linnamaastike kaitseks mõeldud soovituste valguses, linna arengust sadama suunas. Eestikeelsena ilmus J. Jokilehto raamat "Arhitektuuri konserveerimise ajalugu" (Tallinn : Eesti Kunstiakadeemia, 2010)

  1. Use of fuel cells in multi-MW-thermal power plants; Brennstoffzelleneinsatz im Mehr-MW-Heizkraftwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lezuo, A. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Knappstein, H. [Thyssengas GmbH, Duisburg (Germany); Langnickel, U. [Gas-, Elektrizitaets- und Wasserwerke Koeln AG (GEW) (Germany); Nymoen, H. [Ruhrgas AG, Essen (Germany)

    1995-09-01

    Natural gas fuel cells with phosphoric acid electrolyte today are already used in small series of compact units ranging up to 500 kW electric capacity. They thus represent a successful contribution to decentralised power production through cogeneration. Their use in multi-MW thermal power stations is technically possible and, in view of their low emissions and great efficiency, a very attractive alternative. This technology merits intensive development work in order to acquire through practical experience the know-how for bringing costs down to an acceptable level. Manufacturers and operators will need to prepare themselves for modifications regarding the operation and maintenance of these larger plants. The results of a feasibility study for a 1.5 MW thermal power plant presented in this article could come in useful here. (orig.) [Deutsch] Erdgasbetriebene Brennstoffzellen mit Phosphorsaeure-Elektrolyt werden heute bereits in Kleinserien als kompakte Einheiten mit einer elektrischen Leistung von bis zu 500 kW gebaut und mit Erfolg in der dezentralen Energieerzeugung auf Basis der Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung betrieben. Der Einsatz in Mehr-MW-Heizkraftwerken ist ebenfalls moeglich und sollte unter dem Aspekt einer schadstoffarmen und effizienten Energieerzeugung intensiv weiter verfolgt werden, um ueber die gewonnenen Erfahrungen die angestrebten Kostenziele zu erreichen. Technologiebedingt muessen sich Hersteller und Betreiber auf die veraenderten Anforderungen bezueglich Betrieb und Wartung rechtzeitig einstellen. Die nachfolgend vorgestellten Ergebnisse einer Machbarkeitsstudie fuer ein 1,5-MW-Heizkraftwerk koennen dabei hilfreich sein. (orig.)

  2. Mehr als eine politische Lehrstunde : V. Baltische Studenten-Seminar in Darmstadt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    16.-21. novembrini 2010 toimunud viienda balti üliõpilasseminari keskpunktis oli teemadekompleks demokraatiast Baltimaades. Arutleti ka demokraatiakogemuse üle kahel viimasel sajandil Saksamaal. Jugendherberges alanud seminar jätkus Darmstadtis ja lõppes Saksa-Balti Seltsi 60nda juubeli tähistamisega. Viie päeva temaatika haaras Baltimaade ja Euroopa kultuuri, poliitikat ja ajalugu

  3. Hydrogen - more than just a mobile application; Wasserstoff - mehr als nur eine mobile Anwendung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitschak, Bernd [Hydrogenics GmbH, Gladbeck (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    The securing of a reliable, economical and environmentally friendly energy supply is one of the greatest challenges of the 21st century. Using the energy concept, the Federal Government formulates guidelines for such an energy supply and describes for the first time the way for the age of renewable energy. It is all about the development and implementation of an overall long-term strategy for the time period up to 2050.

  4. More than 85 per cent. A practice report; Mehr als 85 Prozent. Ein Praxisreport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakobi, Manuela [Centrosolar AG, Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    The Electric House Brenner in Herrenberg achieved with a lithium battery storage facility on sunny days 100 % self-sufficiency. [German] Das Elektrohaus Brenner in Herrenberg erreicht mit einer Lithiumbatterie-Speicheranlage an sonnigen Tagen 100 % Autarkie.

  5. Utilization level utilizes more than the effectiveness; Nutzungsgrad nutzt mehr als Wirkungsgrad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Martin [Hochschule Ulm (Germany); Treiber, Gerd [TWA Wasserkraft-Anlagenbau GmbH, Ilmtal (Germany); Linz, Hans-Dieter [Thueringer Fernwasserversorgung (TFW), Erfurt (Germany)

    2013-02-01

    By virtue of a damage at the turbine gear of the hydroelectric power plant Luisenthal of the Thuringian distant water supply, a new turbine runner had to be provided in order to achieve a better adjustment of the turbine to the new operating details. The maximum efficiency was nearly constant in the redesign of the runner of the Francis turbine. The progress of the efficiency with the hydraulic performance shows a flat optimum resulting in a utilisation level of nearly 14% being relevant for the operator.

  6. Mehr Leben als Tod in Rom. Josef Winklers römische Novelle «Natura morta»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Haas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The essay’s introduction examines the importance of Italy for Josef Winkler and puts the novella «Natura morta» in context with his oeuvre. The  subsequent analysis of the text highlights the technique used by the author, which shows similarities with the process of film shooting. The narrator’s eye follows the main character like a movie camera and is focused on numerous details as if it were zooming on them. In this process, while advancing the novella’s plot, the author paints a colorful portrait of Rome, bringing the city tolife like a baroque still life.

  7. A review on weaknesses and strengths of delivering Mehr housing project in terms of achieving economical goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Karshenasan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Housing is one of the most important sections of development in a country and its economic importance has put it in the center of attention. It can cause rise and depression of habitation by its extended economic aspects. Mehr Housing plan is a state run housing project in most cities started 2007 in Iran to protect and provide cheap housing for poor people and young couples. Mehr housing project by its large scale and wide dimensions can affect the society’s economy. Therefore, to investigate weaknesses and strengths of this project in terms of economic and applying necessary reformation can increase the success probability of this project. For this purpose, this study assess the weaknesses and strengths of Mehr housing of province of Khorram Abad in Iran for achieving economic goals and also presents solutions to better access to these goals. Time scope of the present study is 6 months of 2011 and the second 3 months of 2012. The methodology is applicable in terms of goal and is descriptive survey in terms of nature. In this study, a combined method of interviewing to experts and distributing a questionnaire among the applicants of Mehr housing has been used for data collecting. Among strengths of Khorram Abad in economic section, employment and urban landfill pattern reformation can be implied. In addition, among weaknesses of this project are lack of proper first design and technical justification of the project and use of only 2 shabby fabrics.

  8. Soil Surface Attributes Prediction Using Digital Topographic Model in Mehr Catchment, Sabzevar, Khorasan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Ayobi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Conventional soil survey methods for soils within the watersheds in Iran require a significant budget with many soil surveyors and much time. Additionally, no accurate and reliable information exists on the spatial variability of superface soil parameters in order to predict the soil loss by different models (RUSLE, PISAC, EUPOSEM, MORGAN. Also information on planning and management activities is lacking. These limitations call for methods of estimating soil properties using minimum sampling derived from important terrain parameters. This study was performed to develop soil-landscape models in three geological units (E2Sc, Ku, Plc, in a part of Mehr- watershed, Sabzevar. Six soil variables selected for this study were topsoil clay, gravel, sand, organic matter content, field capacity and bulk density measured at 316 sites on a regular 100m grid. Topographic attributes were calculated by a digital elevation model with 100m spacing. Finally, multiple linear regression analyses relating soil to topographic attributes were performed and then models were validated by additional sample points (78 of 316. The developed regression models showed significant relationships between surface soil properties and topographic attributes such as elevation, slope, aspect, wetness index, stream power index and sediment transport index. The mean errors and root mean square errors in the validation of the models were low and acceptable. The regression equations could explain only 26 to 72 % of the variability measured in the soil attributes in the watershed scale with 100m spacing.

  9. Participation rate of housing cooperation members (Mehr) and Explication effective factors on it in 1388 at Mashhad city

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadt Mazlome Khorasani; Mohsen Noghani; Bibi Fatemeh Kishbafan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is finding some answers to description of participation rate of housing cooperation members (Mehr) in 1388 at Mashhad city and Explication effective factors on it. Theoretical discussions have been illustrated based on four paradigms socialistic: social facts, social definition, social behavior, and complex paradigm. The research method of this investigation based on a survey with sample volume about 380 persons with the help of Cocran formula from statistical society...

  10. Participation rate of housing cooperation members (Mehr and Explication effective factors on it in 1388 at Mashhad city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadt Mazlome Khorasani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is finding some answers to description of participation rate of housing cooperation members (Mehr in 1388 at Mashhad city and Explication effective factors on it. Theoretical discussions have been illustrated based on four paradigms socialistic: social facts, social definition, social behavior, and complex paradigm. The research method of this investigation based on a survey with sample volume about 380 persons with the help of Cocran formula from statistical society about 36330 members of housing cooperation (Mehr in Mashhad city. The method of sampling was based on random stratified method. The way of data Collection is information on questionnaires. The analysis of data have been implemented with SPSS application software in the frame of average descriptive statistics, Medium, Standard divergence, Kurosis and Skewness coefficients, hypothesis test with the help of appropriate tests to aim and variable assessment levels and using of regression analysis, finally path analysis. Then we assessed these categories and their independent variables such as: Economical disability and incapability to resources, assessment of financial and political supports of the government, lack of enough time for members, confidence to the managers, assuring to the resultant of the project, traditionalism, thankfulness, respect to the media advertisements, education level, mental preparation, responsibility, acknowledgement, satisfaction toward managers, social base, making in real housing, using mass media, alienation on the rate of cooperation members. In conclusion, member’s acknowledgement, using mass media and respecting to media advertisements and confidence to managers had the major and highest Impact on members cooperation.

  11. CCSVI - Ein Erfahrungsbericht: Mehr Fragen als Antworten - mit einem Kommentar aus neurologischer Sicht von W. Lang, Wien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peloschek P

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obwohl schon seit über 100 Jahren bekannt ist, dass durch nahezu jeden demyelinisierten Herd (Plaque bei Multipler Sklerose (MS ein Blutgefäß läuft, konnte bisher kein kausaler Zusammenhang zwischen einer Erkrankung der zerebralen Venen und MS dargestellt werden. Nach der Beschreibung des Syndroms der chronischen zerebrospinalen venösen Insuffizienz (CCSVI im Jahr 2008 entwickelte sich ein, durch neuen Medien (Google, Facebook, Blogs etc. potenzierter, außergewöhnlich hoher Druck vonseiten zahlreicher Patientengruppen auf Ärzteschaft und Industrie, der hoffnungsgebenden Hypothese einer durch CCSVI bedingten „venösen MS“ nachzugehen. Dieser Bericht soll einen nüchternen Überblick über die fraglich ursächliche Beteiligung der Venen geben, um dem Leser die Möglichkeit zu geben, sich ein eigenes Bild zu machen.

  12. Stenting von Koronarläsionen mit mehr als 40 mm Gesamtlänge mit überlappenden Cypher-Stents - Klinische Erfahrungen bis zu 28 Monate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Das Stenting langstreckiger komplexer Koronarläsionen mit Drug-eluting Stents (DES ist aufgrund der extrem niedrigen Restenoseraten eine zunehmende Herausforderung der interventionellen Kardiologie. Im Gegensatz zum punktuellen Stenting (Spotstenting fokaler hochgradiger Stenosen innerhalb der langstreckigen Läsion mit Bare-metal Stents (BMS scheint heute die komplette Abdeckung der gesamten Läsionslänge mit überlappenden DES die Methode der Wahl. Allerdings geht das Stenting langer Läsionen mit einem höheren prozeduralen Risiko und höheren Restenoseraten einher. Der Operateur ist in der Stentplazierung ("Stent-Delivery" und im optimalen Seitenastmanagement gefordert. Letztlich bleibt gerade beim langen Stenting das nicht gänzlich geklärte Risiko der späten Stentthrombose bestehen. In einer retrospektiven Analyse zeigen wir 33 konsekutive symptomatische Koronarpatienten, die sich im Zeitraum von Jänner 2004 bis April 2006 in unserem Herzkatheterlabor einer PCI unterzogen und bei einer mittleren Läsionslänge von 52,1 mm (41?81 mm mit mehreren überlappenden, Sirolimus-freisetzenden Stents (SES/Cypher-Stents behandelt wurden. Dies war bei allen Patienten technisch gut durchführbar und zeigte im Beobachtungszeitraum sehr gute klinische Früh- und Langzeitergebnisse. Mit Ausnahme eines Patienten, der periinterventionell einen akuten Seitenastverschluß aufwies, war bei allen Patienten ein sehr gutes primäres Interventionsergebnis zu dokumentieren. Im klinischen Follow-up fand sich bei nur einem Patienten nach sieben Monaten eine diffuse Instent-Restenose am intervenierten Hauptgefäß, bei weiteren drei Patienten fand sich eine Seitenast-Restenosierung. Kein Patient erlitt ein schwerwiegendes kardiovaskuläres Ereignis, bei keinem Patienten war eine akute Revaskularisation notwendig.

  13. Model Kassel - more than waste disposal. Kassel days of raw materials; Kasseler Modell - mehr als Abfallentsorgung. Kasseler Wertstofftage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, Arnd I.; Halm, Gerhard (eds.)

    2009-07-01

    Within the meeting at 13th and 14th May, 2009 in Moevenpick Hotel Kassel (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Future waste management between hygienic of housing projects and production of secondary raw materials (Henning Friege); (2) Waste management in Hessen (Edgar Freund); (3) Legal evaluation of model experiments - Regulation of packaging and agreement of coordination (Hartmut Gassner); (4) Model experiments according to alternative recording systems - an actual review (Gabriele Becker); (5) Experiences with the system Yellow Tun Plus in Leipzig and Berlin (Ruediger Oetjen-Dehne); (6) Green Tin Plus - An alternative recording system for recyclable materials (Alfred Ehrhard); (7) ''Sack in a container'' - the trend-setting system of disposal (Michael Wieczorek); (8) Municipal motives and targets (Thomas-Erik Junge); (9) Project ''Wet and dry tun'' Kassel (Gerhard Halm); (10) Process engineering investigation and economic-ecological evaluation of the Kassel model (Arnd I. Urban, Ramona Schroeer); (11) Implementation and experiences in te area of collection with the system ''Wet and dry tun'' (Stefan Stremme, Katja Weiss); (12) First experiences with the utilization of wet and dry material flows from the test area Kassel (Ramona Schroeer, Niklas Schiel); (13) Possibilities and boundary conditions of a recycling of raw materials from waste blends (Joachim Christiani); (14) Possibilities of a waste incinerator as a central component in the waste management of the center of disposal Pohlsche Heide at Minden Luebbecke (Thomas Kropp); (15) The other tuns (Helmut Rechberger).

  14. Belo Monte's dubious claim to fame; Wasserkraftwerk am Tropf. Mehr Tadel als Lob fuer Brasiliens Belo Monte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, Lorenz

    2010-11-29

    The mammoth dam construction on the Rio Xingu interferes brutally with the natural environment, but does not add up in financial terms. Without it's massive public subsidies, president Luiz Inacio da Silva's pet project to expand Brazil's energy supply would not stand a chance. (orig.)

  15. EU ecodesign regulation. More as only a light bulb ban; EU-Oekodesign-Richtlinie. Mehr als ein Gluehbirnenverbot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Corinna [Oeko-Institut e.V., Freiburg (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Within a broader public, the EU Ecodesign Directive (Directive 2009/125/EC) was known and notoriously as a 'light bulb ban'. This resulted in strong emotions. But it has shown an impact in many other areas - usually unnoticed and often for the financial and practical benefits of the consumers. Now, the EU Commission wants to go one step further.

  16. Analysis the opportunities and threats of Mehr Housing in Mashhad Metropolis (A case of Golbahar New Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Ivani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the construction industry has been thriving due to an increase in national and international investment to the extent that it is now the largest in the Middle East region. In order to, the aim of current research is analysis the opportunities and threats of Mehr Housing in Mashhad Metropolis with point on Golbahar New Town housing project. Applied methodology is based on libraries, documents and field study. In the case of library, data were collected by studying books, articles and internet. In continuous it was used of interview and questionnaire for complete the data’s. Results show that 70 percent of the Iranians own homes, with huge amounts of idle money entering the housing market and the annual turnover in the construction industry amounts to 38.4 billion US$

  17. Der Glaube als Erkenntnisquelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Hartwig

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Seit ihrer Kanonisation 1998 und Ernennung zur Mit-Patronin Europas 1999 steht die 1942 in Auschwitz ermordete Phänomenologin Edith Stein, 1922 vom jüdischen zum christlichen Glauben konvertiert und 1933 als Benedicta vom Kreuz in den Kölner Karmel eingetreten, mehr denn je im Blickfeld der Öffentlichkeit. Die Bedeutung ihrer wissenschaftlichen Arbeit u. a. als Assistentin von Edmund Husserl in Freiburg und als Dozentin am Deutschen Institut für wissenschaftliche Pädagogik in Münster, aber auch in privaten Studien wurden im Juli 2000 im Rahmen eines Symposiums des Internationalen Edith Stein Instituts in Würzburg diskutiert. Die Beiträge der vorliegenden Publikation beleuchten breit gefächert Aspekte des Werks und seiner Interpretation mit dem Ziel, die Philosophin neu zu entdecken und die bisherige Forschung zu intensivieren.

  18. Guido Westerwelle: „Die Lösung für unsere gegenwärtigen Probleme ist nicht weniger, sondern mehr Europa“

    OpenAIRE

    Westerwelle, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Wenn in diesen Tagen über Europa diskutiert wird, ist die zentrale Frage: Werden wir die Schuldenkrise erfolgreich meistern? Dennoch, denke ich, ist es Zeit über ein Europa jenseits der Krise nachzudenken. Wir müssen anfangen darüber nachdenken, wie wir Europa als politisches Projekt voranbringen können.

  19. Mining systems engineering from Germany - technology and more; Bergbausystemtechnik aus Deutschland - Technik und mehr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gessner, D. [SaarTech Gesellschaft fuer Industrie- und Bergbautechnologie mbH, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2001-08-30

    Market changes in the international mining industry require from the German mining sector modification of its appearance on the market with a range of products and services adapted to customer requirements. For this purpose the German companies as system suppliers must appear in closed formation on the growth markets of the future. The range of products and services in demand relate to engineering, technology, organisation, training, operation and marketing. The optimisation of existing collieries and the construction of new ones on the basis of German technology should be regarded as the aim. A successful pilot project for German mining systems engineering was realised in Turkey by SaarTech GmbH as project leader and technically responsible project manager. (orig.) [German] Marktveraenderungen im internationalen Bergbau verlangen von der deutschen Bergbaubranche eine Modifizierung des Marktauftritts mit einem auf Kundenwuensche abgestimmten Liefer- und Leistungsangebot. Dazu muessen auf den Wachstumsmaerkten der Zukunft die deutschen Unternehmen als Systemanbieter in geschlossener Formation auftreten. Der nachgefragte Liefer- und Leistungsumfang tangiert dabei die Segmente Ingenieurleistung, Technik, Organisation, Training, Betrieb und Marketing. Durch intelligente Zusammenfuehrung von deutschem Anwender- und Technologie-Know-how sowie durch die Buendelung der in Bergbauprojekten erforderlichen Wertschoepfungsstufen in Allianzen beziehungsweise Projektgesellschaften koennen die Kernkompetenzen fuer den Kunden nutzbar gemacht werden. Als Ziel ist dabei die Optimierung vorhandener Bergwerke und der Aufbau neuer Bergwerke auf Basis deutscher Technik anzusehen. Ein erfolgreiches Pilotprojekt fuer deutsche Bergbausystemtechnik wurde durch die SaarTech GmbH als Projektfuehrer und technisch verantwortlicher Projektmanager in der Tuerkei realisiert. (orig.)

  20. "Immer mehr Studierende und Schüler": Konzepte zur Vermittlung von Informationskompetenz in Bibliotheken für große Gruppen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Luca

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Die Vermittlung von Informationskompetenz ist in vielen Bibliotheken bereits eine etablierte Kernaufgabe. Entsprechende Veranstaltungen nehmen als Zielgruppen vor allem Studierende und Schüler der Sekundarstufe II in den Blick. Dabei ergeben sich aktuell neue Herausforderungen daraus, dass einerseits beide Gruppen in den letzten Jahren immer größer werden, und andererseits das Thema Informationskompetenz aufgrund bildungspolitischer Entwicklungen wie der Bologna-Reform immer größere Bedeutung erlangt. Als Konsequenz steigt die Zahl der potenziellen und tatsächlichen Teilnehmer an bibliothekarischen Veranstaltungen zur Vermittlung von Informationskompetenz, sodass es auch Bibliotheken heute mit großen Gruppen zu tun haben. Im vorliegenden Artikel werden daher die Fragen behandelt, welche Probleme sich im Einzelnen bei die Vermittlung von Informationskompetenz im Hinblick auf Großgruppen stellen, und welche Konzepte dazu geeignet sind, diese Herausforderungen anzugehen und eine zielgruppenorientierte Vermittlung von Informationskompetenz mit geeigneten Mitteln für große Gruppen anzubieten. Verschiedene Ansätze, die sich bereits an Universitätsbibliotheken in Anwendung befinden, werden dazu hinsichtlich ihrer Eignung für Großgruppen bewertet. Die Autorin hofft damit betroffenen Bibliotheken und Bibliothekaren einige Informationen und Anregungen für die praktische Arbeit geben zu können.

  1. E-Portfolio-Literaturwerkstatt - Online für Kinder mit anderen Erstsprachen als Deutsch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Mulley

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Der Einsatz des Computers im Unterricht gewinnt gegenwärtig immer mehr an Bedeutung. Das Projekt "E-Portfolio-Literaturwerkstatt Online" möchte einen Beitrag leisten, diese Wichtigkeit zu unterstreichen, indem es einen Bereich aufzeigt, wo Computereinsatz effizient individuelle und differenzierte Möglichkeiten für SchülerInnen mit anderen Erstsprachen als Deutsch bietet, um in den Unterricht, besonders in der Leistungsdokumentation, integriert zu werden.

  2. Computed tomography guidance. Fluoroscopy and more; CT-Steuerung. Fluoroskopie und mehr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paprottka, P.M.; Reiser, M.F.; Trumm, C.G. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Campus Grosshadern, Angiographie und Interventionelle Radiologie, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany); Helmberger, T. [Staedt. Klinikum Muenchen, Klinikum Bogenhausen, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Neuroradiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    Although ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging are competitive imaging modalities for the guidance of needle-based interventions, computed tomography (CT) is the only modality suitable for image-guided interventions in all regions of the body, including the lungs and bone. The ongoing technical development of CT involves accelerated image acquisition, significantly improved spatial resolution, CT scanners with an extended gantry diameter, acceleration of the procedure through joystick control of relevant functions of interventional CT by the interventional radiologist and tube current modulation to protect the hands of the examiner and radiosensitive organs of the patient. CT fluoroscopy can be used as a real-time method (the intervention is monitored under continuous CT fluoroscopy) or as a quick check method (repeated acquisitions of individual CT fluoroscopic images after each change of needle or table position). For the two approaches, multislice CT fluoroscopy (MSCTF) technique with wide detectors is particularly useful because even in the case of needle deviation from the center slice the needle tip is simultaneously visualised in the neighboring slices. With the aid of this technique a precise placement of interventional devices is possible even in angled access routes and in the presence of pronounced respiratory organ movements. As the reduction of CT fluoroscopy time significantly reduces radiation exposure for the patient and staff, the combination of a quick check technique and a low milliampere technique with multislice CT fluoroscopy devices is advantageous. (orig.) [German] Obwohl sonographisch und magnetresonanztomographisch gesteuerte Interventionen ernstzunehmende Konkurrenzverfahren sind, kann die Computertomographie als einzige bildgebende Modalitaet zur Steuerung von Interventionen in allen Koerperregionen (einschliesslich Lunge und Knochen) eingesetzt werden. Die technischen Weiterentwicklungen der Computertomographie beinhalten eine beschleunigte Bildakquisition, eine deutlich verbesserte raeumliche Aufloesung, CT-Scanner mit erweiterter Gantryoeffnung, eine Beschleunigung des Eingriffs durch eine intrainterventionelle Steuerung wesentlicher Funktionen des Interventions-CT ueber eine spezielle Bedieneinheit durch den interventionellen Radiologen selbst sowie die Angular Beam Modulation zur Schonung der Hand des Untersuchers und strahlensensibler Organe des Patienten. Die CT-Fluoroskopie (CTF) kann als Echtzeitverfahren (die Intervention wird unter kontinuierlicher CT-Durchleuchtung ueberwacht) oder als Quick-check-Verfahren (wiederholte Aufnahmen einzelner CT-Durchleuchtungsbilder nach jeder Aenderung der Nadel- oder Tischposition) verwendet werden. Fuer die beiden Vorgehensweisen ist insbesondere die Mehrschicht-CT-Fluoroskopie(MSCTF)-Technik mit breiten Detektoren hilfreich, da auch bei Abweichungen aus der Schicht die Nadelspitze in den gleichzeitig akquirierten Nachbarschichten mit abgebildet wird. Mit dieser Technik ist eine millimetergenaue Nadelplatzierung auch bei angulierten Zugangswegen und ausgepraegten atemabhaengigen Bewegungen der Patientenanatomie moeglich. Da eine Verringerung der CT-Durchleuchtungszeit zu einer deutlich reduzierten Strahlenbelastung fuer den Patient und das Personal fuehrt, ist die Kombination der Quick-check-Technik mit einer Low-Milliampere-Technik an MSCTF-faehigen Geraeten zu empfehlen. (orig.)

  3. MRI of esophagus. N staging and more...; MRT des Oesophagus. N-Staging und mehr...

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupski-Berdien, G. [Krankenhaus Reinbek St.-Adolf- Stift, Abteilung fuer diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie, Reinbek (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    Esophageal disease is common. Fluoroscopy with or without fast cine-sequences is able to depict swallowing dynamics precisely and therefore is used in cases with swallowing disturbance, achalasia or diverticula etc. It is performed in addition to primary endoscopy. There is no evidence based indication for MRI in these settings as it is not to rule out postsurgical fistula and incompetence. Endoscopy and endosonography are gold standard for the depiction as well as staging of esophageal tumors hence differentiation of the esophageal wall layers and detection of suspicious lymph nodes is possible. And from both, biopsies may be taken. New techniques as OCT (optical coherence tomography) can demonstrate in situ carcinoma and therefore helps to decide for limited treatments as mucosectomy. For today multimodular treatment strategies in esophageal carcinoma the T-stage will lead to the treatment decision whereas the nodal-stage will give information about the prognosis. As a matter of fact endoscopy is unable to pass a stenosis esophageal tumor in up to 50% of the cases and will therefore not be able to give precise information on both T- and N-stage resulting in a good indication for MRI. Fetal MRI of the chest is a new topic in which MRI seems to be superior to ultrasonography. (orig.) [German] Erkrankungen des Oesophagus sind haeufig. Die Durchleuchtungsuntersuchung, ggf. mit schnellen Cinesequenzen, vermag exakt die Dynamik des Schluckakts darzustellen und wird regelhaft bei Fragestellungen wie ''Verschlucken'' und ''Globusgefuehl'', Verdacht auf Achalsie etc. sowie bei der Suche nach Divertikeln eingesetzt und ergaenzt die primaere Endoskopie. Die MRT besitzt hier derzeit keinen gesicherten Stellenwert - ebenso wie bei der haeufigsten Indikation zur Oesophagus-Breischluck-Untersuchung in der Klinik, der Frage nach Paravasation und Fistelung nach oesophagogastralen Eingriffen. Die exakten Lokalisation eines Oesophagustumors erfolgt durch die Endoskopie als unangefochtenem Goldstandard, die heute unter Verwendung der Endosonographie nicht nur in der Lage ist, die Wandschichten des Oesophagus darzustellen, sondern auch lokoregionaere Lymphknoten zu detektieren vermag und von beidem, wenn suspekt, auch bioptisches Material gewinnen laesst. Neuere Verfahren wie die OCT (optical coherence tomography) versetzen den Endoskopiker zusaetzlich in die Lage, auch Carcinomata in situ zu erkennen und limitierte Behandlungen wie die Mukosektomie einzusetzen. Bei der heute ueblichen multimodalen Therapie des Oesophaguskarzinoms entscheiden die Lage und das T-Stadium ueber die therapeutische Strategie, das N-Stadium ueber die Prognose. Doch ist der Oesophagus bei der Diagnose ''Oesophaguskarzinom'' in 30-50% der Faelle insbesondere mit dem Endosonographieschallkopf nicht passierbar, sodass hier eine klare Indikation zur MRT besteht. Ein neues Feld stellt die intrauterine Diagnostik des fetalen Thorax und der Oesophagusatresie dar. Hier zeichnet sich eine deutlicher diagnostischer Vorteil gegenueber der Sonographie ab. (orig.)

  4. Adipositastherapie: Nahrung als Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallner SJ

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Die Behandlung der Adipositas bedarf einer umfassenden Therapie, wobei die Nahrung als Intervention nicht mehr ausschließlich auf Kalorienreduktion bezogen werden darf. Die ursprüngliche Bedeutung des Begriffes "Diät" im Sinne einer grundlegend vernünftigen Lebensführung muß neu bewertet und in eine lebendige Form der Gesundheitsvorsorge eingebunden werden. Mit einer differenzierten Diagnose der Adipositas kann mit verschiedenen ernährungstherapeutischen Ansätzen individuell geholfen werden. Die Sinnhaftigkeit von Formuladiäten, Diät- und Lightprodukten bedarf dringend einer fachspezifischen Information. Neben den entsprechenden Nährstoffempfehlungen hat ein Ernährungsprogramm aber auch der Durchführbarkeit und der Compliance der Patienten zu genügen. Damit soll dem "Risikofaktor Diät" entgegengesteuert und dem Hilfeschrei unserer Patienten Folge geleistet werden.

  5. More safety; Mehr Sicherheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Jens-Peter

    2013-06-06

    Which building authority requirements must be fulfilled for solar systems was not clearly defined for a long time. It is certain now that the solar standards are not enough. Mounting systems are already in a special building authority approval process. [German] Welche bauaufsichtlichen Anforderungen Solaranlagen erfuellen muessen, war lange Zeit nicht klar definiert. Sicher ist nun, dass die Solarnormen nicht ausreichen. Montagesysteme befinden sich schon in einem speziellen bauaufsichtlichen Zulassungsprozess.

  6. Patrick Ehnis: Väter in Erziehungszeiten. Politische, kulturelle und subjektive Bedingungen für mehr Engagement in der Familie. Sulzbach im Taunus: Ulrike Helmer Verlag 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Zerle

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Patrick Ehnis analysiert die Voraussetzungen für eine stärkere Beteiligung von Vätern an der Kindererziehung. In seiner Beschäftigung mit zwei Best-practice-Beispielen rekonstruiert er die subjektiven Orientierungen der Väter, normative Erwartungen in den Betrieben, individuelle und strukturelle Barrieren sowie konkrete Erfahrungen von und mit Vätern in Elternzeit. Dabei behält er bei der Deutung ein Ziel stets vor Augen: mehr Geschlechtergerechtigkeit. Für die politische und gesellschaftliche Diskussion um die ‚neuen Väter‘ sowie für nachfolgende Forschungen, welche die neuesten familienpolitischen Entwicklungen einbeziehen, bilden die Ergebnisse des Bandes eine höchst fruchtbare Grundlage.

  7. We experience more than we comprehend. Quantum physics and quaesions of life; Wir erleben mehr als wir begreifen. Quantenphysik und Lebensfragen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerr, H.P.; Oesterreicher, M.

    2007-07-01

    The quantum physics has been arrived by thinking and experimenting to revolutioning knowledges, which determine our world, also if only few have understood these theories in their real sense. The present book follows the question, whether and how far a consciousness trained by quantum physics can reach more directly to the understanding of questions of life and religious questions than a thinking, which is obliged to classical physics. It deals especially with fundamental existential questions: The theme of personal responsibility, the value of the indivdual existence, the evaluation of the personal I-you relation. Hans Peter Duerr, a personality with guiding qualities, as they are necessary in the new milennium, is the ideal speech partner for the deimension of this theme. The connections of natural sciences and religion, ecology, and sociological change have always driven the Heisenberg successo. How can we speech about that, which science cannot comprehend?. What means self, identity, responsibilit for the quantum physicist? An exciting meeting.

  8. Climateneutral 2050. Do residential buildings require more renewable energies as actually expected?; Klimaneutral 2050. Brauchen Wohngebaeude mehr erneuerbare Waerme als bisher erwartet?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hengstenberg, Johannes D.; Becker, Benjamin; Widekind, Justus von [co2online gGmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    In 2050, new residential buildings will consume nearly 200 TWh of renewable energies for the heat production. This is more as expected by earlier estimations. This results from a model based on several 100,000 building data from a co2online database. If the energy efficiency of residential buildings is no longer enhanced as planned, then the climate-neutral room heating requires a massive utilization of renewable energies in 2050.

  9. Mehr als 1500 Jahre homoerotische Literatur auf der Iberischen Halbinsel A Survey of over 1500 Years of Gay and Lesbian Literature in Spain and Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Müller

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Mit diesem Buch wird ein kaum bekanntes Kapitel der spanischen und portugiesischen Literaturgeschichte aufgeschlagen. Es macht die sozialen und kulturellen Veränderungen des Lebens von schwulen und lesbischen Menschen auf der iberischen Halbinsel im Spiegel der Literatur und durch lebendige Autor/-innenportraits deutlich. Dabei werden nicht nur die deutlichen positiven Veränderungen der letzten 30 Jahre thematisiert, sondern eine fesselnde historische Perspektive zahlreicher Facetten homoerotischer Literatur bis zurück in die andalusische Literatur des Mittelalters aufgezeigt.This book tackles a rarely known chapter in Spanish and Portuguese history of literature. The articles in the anthology document the social and cultural changes in gay and lesbian life on the Iberian peninsula as portrayed in literature. The articles do not only talk about the positive changes brought about by the queer liberation movement during the last thirty years, but offer a fascinating historical perspective on queer writing and queer life ranging from medieval Andalusian literature to present day fiction.

  10. Qualität beim E-Learning: Der Lernende als Grundkategorie bei der Qualitätssicherung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Ehlers

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Qualität wird über die zukünftigen Erfolgschancen des E-Learning entscheiden. Das ist das Ergebnis vieler Analysen und Entwicklungen der letzten Zeit. So stellte etwa die KPMG-Studie heraus, dass es beim E-Learning nicht nur auf gute Technologie ankommt, sondern die betriebliche Lernkultur und der Lerner wesentlich mehr als bisher einzubeziehen sind. Dieser Beitrag beschäftigt sich damit, was Qualität beim E-Learning eigentlich ist und welche Konzepte zur Beschreibung und Sicherung von Qualität bestehen.

  11. Lebensgeschichten aus der Fremde. Autobiografien deutschsprachiger emigrierter SchriftstellerInnen als Beispiele literarischer Akkulturation nach 1933

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Krause

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mit der Massenauswanderung aus Deutschland und Europa zwischen 1933 und 1941 nahmen Flucht- und Lebenswege ihren Ausgang, die in zahlreichen Fällen nie mehr zurück in die verlassene Heimat, sondern vielmehr zu einer neuen persönlichen, gesellschaftlichen und kulturellen Existenz führten. Etliche solcher Lebensgeschichten aus der Fremde werden durch autobiografische Texte bezeugt und tragen als Erinnerungen bis heute zum kulturellen Gedächtnis und zur kollektiven Identität der Nachkriegsgesell...

  12. Patrick Ehnis: Väter in Erziehungszeiten. Politische, kulturelle und subjektive Bedingungen für mehr Engagement in der Familie. Sulzbach im Taunus: Ulrike Helmer Verlag 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Zerle

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Patrick Ehnis analysiert die Voraussetzungen für eine stärkere Beteiligung von Vätern an der Kindererziehung. In seiner Beschäftigung mit zwei Best-practice-Beispielen rekonstruiert er die subjektiven Orientierungen der Väter, normative Erwartungen in den Betrieben, individuelle und strukturelle Barrieren sowie konkrete Erfahrungen von und mit Vätern in Elternzeit. Dabei behält er bei der Deutung ein Ziel stets vor Augen: mehr Geschlechtergerechtigkeit. Für die politische und gesellschaftliche Diskussion um die ‚neuen Väter‘ sowie für nachfolgende Forschungen, welche die neuesten familienpolitischen Entwicklungen einbeziehen, bilden die Ergebnisse des Bandes eine höchst fruchtbare Grundlage.Patrick Ehnis analyses the necessary conditions to elicit better participation of fathers in child rearing. On the basis of two best-practice examples, he reconstructs the subjective positions of fathers, the normative expectations of businesses or companies, individual and structural barriers, and concrete experiences of and with fathers during parental leave. Throughout the interpretation he keeps one goal in mind: more gender equality. The conclusions of the volume offer a very fruitful basis for political and social discussions about the “new father” as well as for subsequent studies that take the newest family-political developments into account.

  13. Barbara Paul, Johanna Schaffer: Mehr(wert queer – Queer Added (Value. Visuelle Kultur, Kunst und Gender-Politiken – Visual Culture, Art, and Gender Politics. Bielefeld: transcript Verlag 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Jäckel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available ‚Mehr Queer‘ lautet die Programmatik der Autor/-innen des Sammelbandes, die sich in ihren Beiträgen mit ästhetischen und politischen Praxen auseinandersetzen, welche die Ordnungsparameter der Binarität und Heterosexualität verunsichern. Der Titel Mehr(wert queer schließt dabei an ökonomische Semantiken an, um die Verwobenheit von symbolischer Kunst und ökonomischen Realitäten in den Blick zu bekommen, aber auch um aktiv an Umdeutungen mitzuwirken. Im Mittelpunkt stehen visuelle Kunst- und Bilderpolitiken, die Normalitätsdiskurse um Sexualität, Geschlecht und Begehren hinterfragen. Die Autor/-innen kommen aus den Kunst- und Kulturwissenschaften, den Medienwissenschaften, der Philosophie, aber auch aus der künstlerischen sowie der kunst- und kulturpolitischen Praxis.“More queer”: this is the program of the authors of this collected volume, who in their essays confront this program with aesthetic and political practice that disrupts the organizational frameworks provided by binary thinking and heterosexuality. The title Mehr(wert queer [Added (value queer] thus picks up on economic semantics in order to bring into focus the entanglement of symbolic art with economic realities, but also to contribute actively to reinterpretation. Central to the study is visual art and image politics, which question normative discourse surrounding sexuality, gender, and desire. The authors come from Art History and Cultural Studies, Media Studies, and Philosophy, but also artistic as well as art and culture political practice.

  14. Wie kommt mehr "Familie" in die "Work-Life-Balance"? – Familienorientierung in der medizinischen Aus-, Weiterbildung und Berufstätigkeit [How to add more "Family" to the Work-Life-Balance? – Family Friendliness in Medical Under- and Postgraduate Studies and the Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Ridder, Daniela

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available [english] Today universities have to compete for the best brains more than ever before. The issues of reconciliation of work/study and family and the work-life balance have become increasingly important recently in higher education policy development as higher education institutions in the competition for the best minds are already forced to tackle these issues, some of which are still novel to them, as they are faced with demographic change. High dropout rates among students with children, increasing shortages of physicians and high sector emigration and high levels of childlessness among graduates serve as indicators for urgent action towards more family-oriented university and faculty strategies.But how can medical schools, hospitals and (teaching hospitals achieve a family-oriented profile? Which key players, which areas of higher education management are relevant to management and decision-making structures? What exemplary measures for designing family-friendly medical studies and work places offer success?The underrepresentation of women in the next generation of scientists also poses an additional challenge to the development of an innovative higher education policy if it is to be sustainable. Thus strategies promoting the next generation and family orientation are key factors for a future-oriented higher education policy. These factors should therefore be seen as leadership strategies which will introduce measures that will make (redesign the university’s profile. To this end, a holistic approach which will lead to fundamental reforms of higher education structures which are outlined below and illustrated with examples are a prerequisite for successful implementation.[german] Hochschulen stehen mehr denn je im Wettbewerb um kluge Köpfe. Die Themen „Vereinbarkeit von Beruf/Studium und Familie“ und „Work-Life-Balance“ haben daher in der jüngsten hochschulpolitischen Entwicklung an Dynamik und Triebkraft gewonnen: Hochschulen im Wettbewerb um exzellente Köpfe müssen sich schon vor dem Hintergrund des demographischen Wandels diesen für sie zum Teil noch neuen Herausforderungen stellen. Hohe Studienabbruchquoten unter Studierenden mit Kindern, steigender Mediziner(innenmangel und deutliche Abwanderungsraten, hohe Kinderlosigkeit unter Akademiker(innen erscheinen dabei als Indikatoren für einen dringenden Handlungsbedarf hin zu einer familienorientierten Hochschul- und Fakultätsstrategie.Wie aber können medizinische Fakultäten, Kliniken und (Lehr-Krankenhäuser ein familienorientiertes Profil gewinnen? Welche Akteurinnen und Akteure, welche Handlungsfelder des Hochschulmanagements sind für die Leitungs- und Entscheidungsstrukturen relevant? Welche exemplarischen Maßnahmen für eine familiengerechtere Gestaltung des Studien- und Arbeitsortes „Medizin“ könnten Erfolg versprechend sein? Die Unterrepräsentanz von Frauen beim wissenschaftlichen Nachwuchs stellt darüber hinaus eine zusätzliche Herausforderung dar, für die eine innovative Hochschulpolitik weitere Maßnahmen entwickeln sollte, um zukunftsfähig zu sein. Nachwuchsförderungsstrategien und Familienorientierung sind demnach entscheidende Faktoren für eine zukunftsorientierte Hochschulpolitik. Diese Faktoren sollten deshalb als Führungsstrategien begriffen werden, um Maßnahmen einzuleiten, die das Profil der Hochschule dahingehend (umgestalten. Voraussetzung für eine erfolgreiche Implementierung ist dabei ein holistisches Konzept, das zu grundlegenden Reformen der Hochschulstrukturen führt, die im Folgenden skizziert und anhand von Beispielen illustriert werden sollen.

  15. Topiramat als Phasenprophylaktikum - ein Fallbericht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letmaier M

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Topiramat ist ein neues Antiepileptikum mit einem breiten Wirkspektrum. Aktuelle klinische Studien geben Hinweise darauf, daß Topiramat stimmungsstabilisierende Eigenschaften besitzt und somit effizient in der Behandlung der bipolaren affektiven Störung sein könnte. Vor dem Hintergrund dieser Studienberichte, behandelten wir eine 41jährige, erstmals vor 10 Jahren erkrankte Patientin mit der Diagnose einer therapierefraktären, bipolaren affektiven Störung (Rapid-Cycling mit Topiramat. Im Rahmen ihrer Erkrankung wurde die Patientin insgesamt 12mal stationär aufgenommen und meist aufgrund von akuten manischen Episoden behandelt. Dabei kamen seit 1991 folgende Phasenprophylaktika zur Anwendung: Carbamazepin, Valproat und Lamotrigin ? zuletzt nur mit mäßigem Erfolg. Daraufhin wurde zu Beginn einer neuerlichen manischen Episode ambulant eine Therapie mit Topiramat begonnen. Acht Wochen nach Therapiestart kam die Patientin in stationäre Behandlung. Der Aufenthalt dauerte weniger als drei Wochen; Topiramat wurde von der Patientin gut vertragen. Infolge eines belastenden Lebensereignisses kam es unter kontinuierlicher Therapie mit Topiramat zu einer Destabilisierung des psychischen Zustandsbildes (manische Symptome. Durch eine ambulante Erhöhung der Topiramatdosis bei gleichzeitiger Gabe von Risperidon und Clonazepam konnte jedoch eine neuerliche manische Episode erstmals ambulant behandelt werden. Die Patientin erhält derzeit 200 mg Topiramat pro Tag und ist seit mehr als 20 Monaten nahezu beschwerdefrei.

  16. Hirnleistungsstörungen/Demenzen als Ursache der Inkontinenz - neurologische Aspekte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dal-Bianco P

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Inkontinenz ist ein häufiges Problem älterer dementer Patienten und gilt als einer der Hauptgründe für die Pflegeheimeinweisung. Mehr als die Hälfte der Pflegepatienten leidet an kognitiven Störungen, dessen Schweregrad direkt proportional mit dem Ausmaß der Inkontinenz korreliert [1]. Die Koinzidenz von Demenz und Inkontinenz soll nicht dazu verleiten, sofort auf einen neuropathologischen Zusammenhang zu schließen. Deshalb ist es ratsam, inkontinente Demenzpatienten zum Ausschluß neurologischer, urologischer und interner Ursachen begutachten zu lassen. Inkontinenz ist nicht nur eine Bürde für Betroffene und Betreuer, sondern auch mit erhöhter Mortalitätsrate bei älteren Menschen assoziiert [2]. Patienten mit Hirnleistungsstörungen können durch Toilettentraining profitieren, während Biofeedbackmethoden Erfolge bei Patienten mit geringeren kognitiven Einbußen zeigen. Evaluationsstudien könnten Patientengruppen definieren, die von speziellen "maßgeschneiderten" Inkontinenzmanagements optimal profitieren, um die jeweils kosteneffektivste Vorgangsweise für den klinischen Alltag auswählen zu können.

  17. Das Handy als "persönliches Medium" - Zur Aneignung des Short Message Service (SMS durch Jugendliche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim R. Höflich

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Das Handy als "persönliches Medium" - Zur Aneignung des Short Message Service (SMS durch Jugendliche Mit dem Eindringen des mobilen Telefons in den Alltag hat sich, gegen alle Erwartungen, auch eine Form der Nutzung etabliert, die sich nicht mehr allein als Telefonieren ausweisen lässt, selbst wenn sie an telefonischen Nutzungsmodi anknüpft: Das Versenden von kurzen Textbotschaften via Handy über den sogenannten Short Message Service (SMS. Vor diesem Hintergrund wird das Handy als ein ‚persönliches Medium’ ausgemacht und insbesondere das Versenden von SMS-Botschaften als eine Form der ‚brieflichen Kommunikation’ verortet. Allerdings zeigt sich in dem zwischen Brief und Telefonat, zwischen Schriftlichkeit und Mündlichkeit angesiedelten Charakter solcher Botschaften auch die Differenz zum ‚klassischen’ Brief. Einblicke in erste Ergebnisse einer Reihe von Gruppendiskussionen machen dies schon deutlich. Dabei wird schlussendlich angeregt, die Nutzung von Medien der interpersonalen Kommunikation (wie im übrigen von Medien überhaupt im Gesamtzusammenhang der kommunikativen Alltagsaktivitäten und insbesondere einer umfassenden ‚Mediatisierung’ des Alltags zu untersuchen.

  18. Review Essay: "Wenn jemand mit irgendetwas jeden Tag verbringt, muss er was lernen – oder er ist ganz neben der Kappe": Die Dialektik von Ethnografie als eine Seinsart

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2003-01-01

    Ethnography: A Way of Seeing richtet sich an Student(inn)en der Anthropologie und an Forscher(innen) anderer Disziplinen mit dem Ziel, ihnen nahezubringen, wie die Ethnographie als Disziplin sich von der Ethnographie als Feldmethode unterscheidet. Obwohl ich bestreite, dass die genannte Leserschaft wirklich diejenige ist, die am meisten mit dem Buch anfangen kann – erfahrene Forscher(innen) werden den Inhalt mehr schätzen können – fand ich das Buch, dessen "Textur" ich in meinem Essay nachvol...

  19. Samen-TUNEL-Untersuchung: Ein wichtiger Test für ein IVF-Institut?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leberl F

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Einleitung: Aufgrund männlicher Infertilität werden schon 71 % (IVF-Register 2006 der österreichischen IVF-Versuche als ICSI (Intrazytoplasmatische Spermieninjektion durchgeführt. Das Spermiogramm hat nur eine geringe Vorhersagekraft für den Erfolg dieser Behandlung. Hingegen wird die DNA-Fragmentierung von Spermatozoen als prognostischer Faktor diskutiert. TUNEL ("TdT mediated dUTP nick end labeling" ist, im Zusammenhang mit apoptotischen Vorgängen in Samenzellen, eine übliche Methode zur Feststellung solcher DNA-Strangbrüche. Ziel dieser Arbeit war, den tatsächlichen Einfluss einer erhöhten Rate TUNEL-positiver Spermatozoen auf die Befruchtungsrate, Entwicklung zu Achtzellern (Tag 3 und Blastozysten (Tag 5 sowie auf die Schwangerschaftsrate zu untersuchen. Patienten und Methoden: Samen von Paaren, welche sich einer künstlichen Befruchtung durch ICSI unterzogen, wurden durch Dichtegradient und darauf folgendes Swim-up aufbereitet, auf Objektträger ausgestrichen und dann mit dem FITC-In Situ Cell Death Detection Kit (Roche gefärbt. Die Konzentration TUNEL-positiver Spermatozoen wurde am Fluoreszenzmikroskop ausgezählt und in Beziehung zum Schwangerschafts-Outcome gebracht. Resultate: Es wurden Samen von 56 Paaren untersucht. Ein Cut-off von 20 % TUNEL-positiver Spermatozoen wurde festgelegt. In die Gruppe mit hoher DNA-Fragmentierung fielen 12 Paare (21 %. Diese Gruppe zeigte eine deutlich niedrigere Schwangerschaftsrate (25 % als die Gruppe mit niederer DNAFragmentierung (57 %. Diskussion: Durch eine erhöhte DNA-Fragmentierung von Spermatozoen wird die Schwangerschaftsrate bei etwa jedem fünften Paar mehr als halbiert. Ähnliche Zusammenhänge wurden auch in anderen Untersuchungen gezeigt. Als weiterführende Studie wäre es interessant zu untersuchen, inwieweit es bei einer Anwendung des Tests schon vor der ICSI und darauf folgender Behandlung des Mannes mit Antioxidantien oder Selektion der Samenzellen durch eine IMSI (Intrazytoplasmatische, morphologisch selektierte Spermieninjektion zu einer Verbesserung der Schwangerschaftsrate kommen könnte.

  20. What do we know more than 2012 on the accident progression in Fukushima? What is the actual state of the plant?; Was wissen wir heute mehr als 2012 ueber den Unfallablauf in Fukushima? Wie ist der heutige Zustand der Anlage?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maqua, Michael [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Koeln (Germany)

    2015-06-01

    The contribution includes the official statistics on the accident following the earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011 on the Japanese island Honshu and the nuclear power plant Fukushima Daiichi. The plant was automatically shutdown as consequence of the earthquake. New calculations allow the reconstruction of the accident progress and the meltdown. Estimations of the released radioactivity, esp. the radionuclides I-131 and Cs-137 into the atmosphere and the ocean are summarized. The construction of water cleaning facilities for the contaminated waste water in the leaking tanks, water-tight barriers and the planning for the enclosure for the destroyed reactor buildings are described.

  1. Thermal construction unit activation with supply air gains significance. Ceilings cooling - supply air heating - more than 50 % energy conservation; Thermische Bauteilaktivierung mit Zuluft gewinnt an Bedeutung. Decke kuehlen - Zuluft erwaermen - mehr als 50% Energie einsparen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Wolfgang

    2009-05-15

    In the year 2001, in Stuttgart (Federal Republic of Germany) the first office building was established which uses a thermal construction unit activation with air as cooling agent. Today, the system ''Concret-cool'' already is installed in more than 40 buildings. Computations show that due to the room heating by means of internally finned ventilation pipes embedded in concrete more than 50 % less energy in comparison to comparable systems can be used. In his Green Building project ''Skyline Tower'' in Munich (Federal Republic of Germany), also star architect Helmut Jahn uses the know-how of the manufacturer of ventilation systems from Stuttgart. As one of the first multi-storied buildings in Munich, ''Skyline Tower'' with its 23 floors was prized with the pre-certificate of the German quality seal ''sustainable building ''in gold.

  2. More planned economy than market economy in the energy policy strategy for 2020 of the European Commission; Mehr Plan- als Marktwirtschaft in der energiepolitischen Strategie 2020 der Europaeischen Kommission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haucap, Justus; Coenen, Michael

    2011-04-15

    The Europeanization of energy policies is desirable because the three main objectives of energy policy (climate protection, security of supply and competitiveness) have cross-border impacts. Hence, it is good that the European Union has been granted a competence for energy policy in the article 194 of the Lisbon treaty. In addition, it is good that the European Commission has published its long-term strategy to stabilize expectations which is important for infrastructure investment. It is regrettable though that price signals, competition and market principles only play a minor role for the Commission while rather doubtful objectives such as fostering energy efficiency and promoting renewable dominate the agenda. The Commission's strategy is mainly characterized by bureaucratic dirigisme, intense regulation, state planning and public subsidies. The road to a centrally planned energy industry is being walked down fast.

  3. Culture and Healthcare in Medical Education: Migrants' Health and Beyond [Medizin und ethnisch-kulturelle Vielfalt in der medizinischen Ausbildung: "Migrantenmedizin" und mehr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soydan, Nedim

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available [english] One of the main challenges for teaching programs on immigration, ethnic diversity and health is to transform the commonplace notion of “culture” into a helpful tool for medical training and practice. This paper presents the teaching approach of an interdisciplinary course on “migrants’ health” established at the University of Giessen since 2004, which has recently been complemented by a thematically related collaboration with two universities in Latin America (Ecuador, Peru. The overall goal is to translate the abstract philosophy of into medical practice, and to provide students with the insights, attitudes and skills needed for a fruitful use of concepts like “culture”, “ethnicity” and “migration background”. A key feature of the course is the strong commitment to ethnography as an important means for looking under the surface of superficial attributions to culture, and for grasping the interplay of medicine and health with cultural, social, religious, economic and legal aspects in its particular local and/or individual shape. Three elements of the course are presented to illustrate this approach: First, a unit on Islam and Medicine, as important parts of the local immigrant community are Muslims. The second one deals with psychosomatic aspects, because in case of immigrants, complex symptoms and disease representations like somatisation are easily misinterpreted as “cultural”. The third element consists of a unit with specialized social workers form outside the university, who provide direct insights into the living conditions and health problems of local immigrant communities. [german] Eine der zentralen Herausforderungen für Lehrprojekte zum Thema Medizin und ethnisch-kulturelle Vielfalt besteht in der Vermittlung eines angemessenen Konzepts von „Kultur“. Vor allem gilt es, den exklusiven Fokus auf als „fremd“ wahrgenommene Bevölkerungsgruppen und die Gefahr oberflächlicher kulturelle Zuschreibungen zu überwinden. Der vorliegende Beitrag stellt den Ansatz eines interdisziplinären Kurses zur „Migrantenmedizin“ an der Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen vor, der jüngst durch ein Kooperationsprojekt zur Stärkung interkultureller Aspekte in der medizinischen Ausbildung mit zwei lateinamerikanischen Universitäten ergänzt wurde (in Ecuador und Peru. Durch den internationalen Vergleich soll das abstrakte Prinzip „think global and teach local“ für den medizinischen Bereich nutzbar gemacht werden. Gleichzeitig wird die Bedeutung der Ethnographie für eine sinnvolle Verwendung von Begriffen wie „Kultur“, „Ethnizität“ oder „Migrationshintergrund“ auch in der Medizin betont. Als wichtigste Forschungsmethode der Kultur- und Sozialanthropologie vermittelt die Ethnographie differenzierte Einblicke in die jeweils konkrete Ausprägung der komplexen Zusammenhänge zwischen Krankheit, Medizin und „Kultur“ – jenseits von Stereotypien und unter explizitem Einschluss der im Einzelfall relevanten sozialen, religiösen, ökonomischen und rechtlichen, aber auch medizinischen Aspekte. Der Artikel verdeutlicht die Umsetzung dieser Perspektive in der medizinischen Ausbildung exemplarisch anhand von drei Lehreinheiten des Kurses an der JLU Gießen: Ein Modul zum Thema „Islam und Medizin“, eines zu psychosomatischen Aspekten und eine dritte Einheit, in der Sozialarbeiterinnen eines lokalen Migrationsdienstes unmittelbare Einblicke in die reale Lebenswirklichkeit von Migrant/innen vermitteln.

  4. ALS - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - ALS ... The following organizations are good resources for information on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : Muscular Dystrophy Association - http://mda.org/disease/amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis National Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) ...

  5. Reizdarmsyndrom: Mehr Augenmerk auf die Psyche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moser G

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Die Prävalenz des Reizdarmsyndroms hat sich in den vergangenen Jahren kaum verändert, obwohl es wesentlich stärker in den Fokus ärztlicher Bemühungen gerückt ist. Zu einem wesentlichen Anteil liegt dies an der Komplexität der Erkrankung und ihrem Ursprung an der Schnittstelle zwischen physischem und psychischem Geschehen. Neue Ergebnisse unterstreichen die Bedeutung psychotherapeutischer Ansätze und dabei insbesondere diejenige der bauchzentrierten Hypnose im Gesamtkonzept der stufenweisen Behandlung der Patienten mit Reizdarmsyndrom.

  6. ?????????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? Al – La – Si

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?. ?????????

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available ??????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ????????? ??????????????????? ????????? ?????? Al – Si, Al – La, La – Si ?? ????????? Al – La – Si ?? ??????????????. ???????????, ?? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ??????????????? ??????. ????????, ?? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ????’?????? ? ???????????? ? ????????????? ?? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????-????.??????? ?????: ??????? ??????, ????? ??????????????? ????????????, ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ??????????, ???????? ?? ???????? ???????, ???????? ?????? ???????-????.

  7. AL Amyloidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Desport Estelle; Bridoux Frank; Sirac Christophe; Delbes Sébastien; Bender Sébastien; Fernandez Béatrice; Quellard Nathalie; Lacombe Corinne; Goujon Jean-Michel; Lavergne David; Abraham Julie; Touchard Guy; Fermand Jean-Paul; Jaccard Arnaud

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Definition of the disease AL amyloidosis results from extra-cellular deposition of fibril-forming monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig) light chains (LC) (most commonly of lambda isotype) usually secreted by a small plasma cell clone. Most patients have evidence of isolated monoclonal gammopathy or smoldering myeloma, and the occurrence of AL amyloidosis in patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma or other B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders is unusual. The key event in the development o...

  8. Wortbildungsangaben als Hilfe für den Zugriff auf andere Datentypen und als Hilfe bei kommunikativen und kognitiven Informationsbedürfnissen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning

    2013-01-01

    "Grundsätzlich können unendlich umfangreiche Mengen" von Daten eingespeist werden, schreiben Ulrike Haß und Ulrich Schmitz in der Einleitung zum Themaheft "Lexikographie im Internet" (Lexicographica 26, 2010). Das ist zwar nicht korrekt, da man zwar enorm große Mengen in einer lexikographischen Datenbank erfassen kann, aber sicher nicht unendlich viele. Schwerwiegender ist jedoch der Denkfehler, der daher rührt, dass die beiden Herausgeber den Unterschied zwischen einer Datenbank und einem Wörterbuch nicht beachten: "Je mehr Informationen angeboten werden, desto schwerer wird es dem Nutzer, genau die zu finden, die er braucht." (Haß/Schmitz 2010, 4). Dies gilt nur dann, wenn auch Internetwörterbücher notwendigerweise polyfunktionale Wörterbücher sein sollen, die alle Daten von der lexikographischen Datenbank zeigen, wie es die meisten Papirwörterbücher tun. Entsprechend gilt, dass Bonusangaben eher unnütz sind ("Sind Wörterbücher ausschließlich dazu da, Fragen zu beantworten? Nein, sie sollten auch zu Fragen anregen, solange sie doch auch in irgendeinem Zusammenhang mit Bildung stehen." (Haß/Schmitz 2010, 10)). Man sollte grundsätzlich trennen zwischen der Datenbank und den daraus erstellten Wörterbüchern. Wenn man monofunktionale Wörterbücher konzipiert, verschwindet das Problem vom Informationstress nicht, kann aber größtenteils vermieden werden. Dieses Problem stellt sich in besonderem Masse zu Wortbildungsangaben, die für einige Informationsbedürfnisse wichtig, für andere irrelevant sind, d.h. in einigen Wörterbüchern nützlich sind, in anderen nicht. Prinzipiell gilt, dass Wortbildungsangaben nicht mitgenommen werden sollen für Rezeptionswörterbücher. Auch für Produktionswörterbücher gilt, dass Angaben von allen möglichen Wortbildungen zum Informationsstress führen, dass man stattdessen eine geringe Anzahl der prototypischen Wortbildungen anführen soll (hierzu mehr im Vortrag). Schließlich können sehr reichhaltige Wortbildungsangaben und auch Wortbildungsregeln in vielen Fällen in einem kognitiven Wörterbuchnützlich sein, d.h. in einem Informationswerkzeug, das möglichst viel Wissen bieten will. Wortbildungsdaten in der Datenbank können auch eine andere Funktion erfüllen, und zwar als Zugriffshilfe auf Daten in anderen Wörterbuchartikeln, wenn eine bestimmte Wortbildung nicht lemmatisiert ist. Die morphologischen theoretischen Überlegungen, die metalexikographischen zu monofunktionalen Informationswerkzeugen, sowie Prinzipien des Zugriffs auf Daten mithilfe von Wortbildungsdaten einer Datenbank werden anhand einer Datenbank vorgestellt, aus der insgesamt sechs Wörterbücher herausgezogen werden.

  9. Kommunikation als Medium der Führung – Vier Seiten einer Nachricht und die Kunst des Fragens und des Zuhörens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Catrin Fender

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Durch das digitale Wissenszeitalter stehen wissenschaftliche Bibliotheken mehr denn je unter einem hohen Innovationsdruck bei gleichzeitig knapper werdender finanzieller Ausstattung. Die notwendigen weitreichenden Veränderungen fordern gerade die Führungsriege der Bibliotheken stark heraus, Chancen zum Fortbestand der Einrichtungen zu erkennen und umzusetzen und Akzeptanz innerhalb der Belegschaft für die Veränderung zu gewinnen. Deshalb stellt sich aktuell die Frage nach der Bedeutung von Kommunikation als Medium von Führung auch in wissenschaftlichen Bibliotheken. Der vorliegende Artikel beschäftigt sich mit einigen theoretischen Ansätzen der Kommunikation und ihrer Rolle im Führungsgeschehen. Dabei wird ein besonderes Augenmerk auf das Kommunikationsquadrat von Friedemann Schulz von Thun und die Kunst des Fragens und des Zuhörens gelegt. Anhand der gesichteten Literatur können erste vorsätzliche Einsätze dieses Mediums in wissenschaftlichen Bibliotheken aufgezeigt werden. Nichtdestotrotz scheint der Hinweis auf die Notwendigkeit der bewussten Auseinandersetzung und Intensivierung der Kommunikations-Bemühungen gerade für Personen in leitender Funktion noch nicht überflüssig.

  10. Kinematografische Propaganda und Zensur in Österreich-Ungarn von 1914–1918 als gescheitertes kybernetisches Modell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Winkler

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available (Medien-Pädagogik, verstanden als Medienverbund zur programmierten "Unterrichtung" einer breiten Masse wurde bereits vor 1914 erfahren. Zweifelsohne kam es jedoch während dem Ersten Weltkrieg zu einer intensiven Orchestrierung der zur Verfügung stehenden Medien. Die angestrebte Volkserziehung kann dabei als kybernetisches Regelkreismodell betrachtet werden. Als ganz spezielles systemimmanentes Instrument, stellte sich dabei das Kino heraus. Anfangs etwas zögerlich, verstand man es mit Verlauf des Krieges auch in der Donaumonarchie, die Möglichkeiten der bewegten Bilder immer umfassender auszunützen. Das Kino sollte als Regler, dem Publikum Führungsgrößen vor Augen führen und das einzelne Individuum gleichzeitig zu einer Art Selbstregulation auffordern. Vorstellungs- und Wertewelten der Menschen sollten homogenisiert werden und das System in dieser Weise stabilisieren. Offenes Feedback war unerwünscht; Grundstimmungen und Diskurse innerhalb der Bevölkerung blieben jedoch nicht unbemerkt und wurden auf der Leinwand bearbeitet, wobei begründete Befürchtungen, Zweifel und Ängste, zu entkräften versucht wurden. Mit fortschreitender Kriegsdauer taten sich Zensur und Propaganda immer schwerer, ein geschöntes Bild der Situation glaubhaft darzustellen. Schließlich vermochte das Flimmern der Leinwände, die Botschaften des Systems nicht mehr zu vermitteln. Das kybernetische Modell der Volkserziehung über Kamera und Leinwand, welches die Gesellschaft militärisch überprägte, Überlegenheit predigte, Gewalt normalisierte und das kriegsbedingte Sterben humanisierte, musste letztlich scheitern. Der vorliegende Artikel soll einen kurzen Einblick in den Aufbau dieses – letztlich gescheiterten – regulativen Werkes der kinematografischen Propaganda und Zensur in Österreich-Ungarn geben, wobei der Fokus auf der dokumentarischen Berichterstattung vom Krieg liegt, die eine vermeintliche Realität repräsentieren sollte.

  11. Mehr Nähe durch mehr Partikeln? Zur verwendung der Abtönungspartikeln in persönlichen Briefen / Janika Kärk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kärk, Janika

    2008-01-01

    Partiklite esinemissagedusest isiklikes kirjades ja selle muutumisest 18., 19. ja 20. sajandi vältel ning võimalikest partiklikasutust mõjutanud teguritest. Ülevaade ka värvingupartiklite morfoloogilistest, süntaktilistest ja pragmaatilistest omadustest

  12. Der Glaube als Erkenntnisquelle Belief as the source of knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Hartwig

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Seit ihrer Kanonisation 1998 und Ernennung zur Mit-Patronin Europas 1999 steht die 1942 in Auschwitz ermordete Phänomenologin Edith Stein, 1922 vom jüdischen zum christlichen Glauben konvertiert und 1933 als Benedicta vom Kreuz in den Kölner Karmel eingetreten, mehr denn je im Blickfeld der Öffentlichkeit. Die Bedeutung ihrer wissenschaftlichen Arbeit u. a. als Assistentin von Edmund Husserl in Freiburg und als Dozentin am Deutschen Institut für wissenschaftliche Pädagogik in Münster, aber auch in privaten Studien wurden im Juli 2000 im Rahmen eines Symposiums des Internationalen Edith Stein Instituts in Würzburg diskutiert. Die Beiträge der vorliegenden Publikation beleuchten breit gefächert Aspekte des Werks und seiner Interpretation mit dem Ziel, die Philosophin neu zu entdecken und die bisherige Forschung zu intensivieren.Since her canonisation and her appointment as Martyr and Co-Patroness of Europe in 1999, Edith Stein has, more than ever, been in the public eye. Murdered in Auschwitz in 1942, the phenomenologist converted from Judaism to Catholicism in 1922 and entered the Carmel of Cologne in 1933 as Teresa Benedicta of the Cross. In July 2000, at a symposium of the International Edith Stein Institute in Wurzburg, the significance of her academic work (among other things as an assistant to Edmund Husserl in Freiburg and as a lecturer at the German Institute for Pedagogy in Munster was discussed. The wide-ranging contributions in this publication highlight aspects of this work and its interpretation with the aim of rediscovering the philosopher and of intensifying research conducted to date.

  13. Al Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandanayaka, Tharaka; Azarmi, Fardad

    2014-05-01

    In the present study, cold spraying technique was used to fabricate a metal matrix composite (MMC) that consists of Ni matrix and 20 vol.% Ni3Al particles at two different particle sizes as reinforcement. This study intends to investigate the effect of reinforcement particle size on microstructural and mechanical properties of cold sprayed MMCs. Two different Ni3Al powders with nominal particle size of -45 to +5 and +45 to 100 ?m were used as reinforcement in this study. Cold sprayed Ni-Ni3Al samples were subjected to the microstructural observation and characterization prior to any mechanical testing. Then, samples were tested using nano-indentation, Knoop hardness, Vickers hardness, and Resonance frequency to evaluate their mechanical properties. No significant changes were observed in microstructural characteristics due to different particle sizes. The results obtained from a variety of mechanical testings indicated that the increasing reinforcement particle size resulted in the slight reduction of mechanical properties such as elastic modulus and hardness in cold sprayed MMCs. The mechanical interlock between deposited particles defines the bonding strength in cold sprayed samples. Small size particles have a higher velocity and impact resulting in stronger interlock between deformed particles.

  14. AL Amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desport Estelle

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Definition of the disease AL amyloidosis results from extra-cellular deposition of fibril-forming monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig light chains (LC (most commonly of lambda isotype usually secreted by a small plasma cell clone. Most patients have evidence of isolated monoclonal gammopathy or smoldering myeloma, and the occurrence of AL amyloidosis in patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma or other B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders is unusual. The key event in the development of AL amyloidosis is the change in the secondary or tertiary structure of an abnormal monoclonal LC, which results in instable conformation. This conformational change is responsible for abnormal folding of the LC, rich in ? leaves, which assemble into monomers that stack together to form amyloid fibrils. Epidemiology AL amyloidosis is the most common type of systemic amyloidois in developed countries with an estimated incidence of 9 cases/million inhabitant/year. The average age of diagnosed patients is 65 years and less than 10% of patients are under 50. Clinical description The clinical presentation is protean, because of the wide number of tissues or organs that may be affected. The most common presenting symptoms are asthenia and dyspnoea, which are poorly specific and may account for delayed diagnosis. Renal manifestations are the most frequent, affecting two thirds of patients at presentation. They are characterized by heavy proteinuria, with nephrotic syndrome and impaired renal function in half of the patients. Heart involvement, which is present at diagnosis in more than 50% of patients, leading to restrictive cardiopathy, is the most serious complication and engages prognosis. Diagnostic methods The diagnosis relies on pathological examination of an involved site showing Congo red-positive amyloid deposits, with typical apple-green birefringence under polarized light, that stain positive with an anti-LC antibody by immunohistochemistry and/or immunofluorescence. Due to the systemic nature of the disease, non-invasive biopsies such as abdominal fat aspiration should be considered before taking biopsies from involved organs, in order to reduce the risk of bleeding complications. Differential diagnosis Systemic AL amyloidosis should be distinguished from other diseases related to deposition of monoclonal LC, and from other forms of systemic amyloidosis. When pathological studies have failed to identify the nature of amyloid deposits, genetic studies should be performed to diagnose hereditary amyloidosis. Management Treatment of AL amyloidosis is based on chemotherapy, aimed at controlling the underlying plasma clone that produces amyloidogenic LC. The hematological response should be carefully checked by serial measurements of serum free LC. The association of an alkylating agent with high-dose dexamethasone has proven to be effective in two thirds of patients and is considered as the current reference treatment. New agents used in the treatment of multiple myeloma are under investigation and appear to increase hematological response rates. Symptomatic measures and supportive care is necessary in patients with organ failure. Noticeably, usual treatments for cardiac failure (i.e. calcium inhibitors, ?-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors are inefficient or even dangerous in patients with amyloid heart disease, that should be managed using diuretics. Amiodarone and pace maker implantation should be considered in patients with rhythm or conduction abnormalities. In selected cases, heart and kidney transplantation may be associated with prolonged patient and graft survival. Prognosis Survival in AL amyloidosis depends on the spectrum of organ involvement (amyloid heart disease being the main prognosis factor, the severity of individual organs involved and haematological response to treatment.

  15. High-performance vacuum tubes for more energy efficiency. Building-integrated CPC vacuum tube collectors unite several functions.; Hochleistungs-Vakuumroehren fuer mehr Energieeffizienz. Gebaeudeintegrierte CPC-Vakuumroehren-Kollektoren vereinen mehrere Funktionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theiss, Eric

    2013-10-15

    The performance of solar collectors primarily contributes to increased efficiency and reduced operating costs of solar thermal systems. With the use of building-integrated CPC vacuum tube collectors an extremely high energy yield is achieved on a smaller collector gross area. As a building-integrated system solution the CPC facade provide panels in addition to its use as spandrel panels within the glazed buildings not only an architectural design element, but unite as a multifunctional component for several functions. [German] Die Leistungsfaehigkeit der Solarkollektoren traegt primaer zur Effizienzsteigerung und Reduzierung der Betriebskosten einer Solarthermieanlagen bei. Mit dem Einsatz gebaeudeintegrierter CPC-Vakuumroehrenkollektoren wird auf einer kleineren Kollektorbruttoflaeche ein extrem hoher Energieertrag erreicht. Als gebaeudeintegrierte Systemloesung bieten die CPC-Fassadenkollektoren neben dem Einsatz als Bruestungselemente auch innerhalb der verglasten Gebaeuden nicht nur ein architektonisches Gestaltungselement, sondern vereinen als multifunktionaler Bestandteil noch mehrere Funktionen.

  16. All About ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe All About ALS Understanding a Devastating Disorder In the summer of ... of research dollars—for a fatal disease called ALS. ALS stands for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. It’s also ...

  17. About ALS: FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the potential side effects? What Is ALS? Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a motor neuron disease, first ... not be swallowing your saliva as automatically (without thinking) as you did prior to ALS. For some ...

  18. Mitochondrial pathobiology in ALS

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Lee J.

    2011-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the third most common human adult-onset neurodegenerative disease. Some forms of ALS are inherited, and disease-causing genes have been identified. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of neurodegeneration in ALS are unresolved. Genetic, biochemical, and morphological analyses of human ALS as well as cell and animal models of ALS reveal that mitochondria could have roles in this neurodegeneration. The varied functions and properties of mitochondria might render ...

  19. Intentionalität als Kippfigur

    OpenAIRE

    Grüttemeier, Ralf

    1999-01-01

    Doppeldeutige Bilder, die - je nach Einstellung ihres Betrachters - den Schattenriß am Fenster als Einbruch oder Flucht interpretieren lassen oder - wie im von Grüttemeyer gewählten Beispiel - die Wittgensteinsche Zeichnung als Ente oder Hase, sind uns als Kippfiguren bekannt. Die Intentionalität - in literarischen Texten ganz anders als in wissenschaftlichen - kann sich in vielfacher Weise auch als Kippfigur literarischer Interpretation darstellen, wenn das, was uns der Dichter sagen will, s...

  20. /Cu-Al System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Orel; Froumin, Natalya; Aizenshtein, Michael; Frage, Nachum

    2014-05-01

    Wettability and interfacial interaction of the Ta2O5/Cu-Al system were studied. Pure Cu does not wet the Ta2O5 substrate, and improved spreading is achieved when relatively a high fraction of the active element (~40 at.% Al) was added. The Al2O3 and AlTaO4 phases were observed at the Ta2O5/Cu-Al interface. A thermodynamic evaluation allowed us to suggest that the lack of wetting bellow 40 at.% Al is due to the presence of a native oxide, which covers the drop. The conditions of the native oxide decomposition and the formation of the volatile Al2O suboxide strongly depend on the vacuum level during sessile drop experiments and the composition of the Cu-Al alloy. In our case, Al contents greater than 40% provides thermodynamic conditions for the formation of Al2O (as a result of Al reaction with Al2O3) and the drop spreading. It was suggested that the final contact angle in the Ta2O5/Cu-Al system (50°) is determined by Ta adsorption on the newly formed alumina interlayer.

  1. More comfort for rooms, less energy; Mehr Raumkomfort, weniger Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaehrl, M. [HVAC Products Deutschland, Siemens Building Technologies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    Presented is an intelligent automation system controlling valves of radiators, lighting systems, jalousies and safety components in households. It's a complete system meeting consumers demand and can be programmed by the user in a simple manner. The new RF based house automation system Synco living of Siemens Building technologies connects the different requirements on KNX/EIB-interfaces. The advantage is: All partial components were monitored and operated by a single display. (GL)

  2. 20 percent more yield; 20 Prozent mehr Ertrag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2013-06-15

    Interview with Tino Weber, director of Schmack Biogas GmbH, about the opportunities and prospects of bioenergy use by new concepts. [German] Interview mit Tino Weber, Geschaeftsfuehrer der Schmack Biogas GmbH, ueber Chancen und Perspektiven der Bioenergie durch neue Nutzungskonzepte.

  3. Mit Mathematik zu Mehr Intelligenz in der Logistik

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möhring, Rolf H.; Schenk, Michael

    Die Lösung logistischer Probleme ist ein wichtiger Aspekt menschlichen Handelns seit Menschen gemeinsam zielgerichtet tätig wurden. Die Grundlagen dessen, was wir heute Logistik nennen, entstammen dem militärischen Bereich. So basierte z. B. das römische Imperium in starkem Maße auf militärisch-logistischen Glanzleistungen. Ob damals bereits mathematische Überlegungen eine Rolle spielten, wissen wir heute nicht. Jedoch versuchte z. B. Napoleon, der mit den bedeutendsten Mathematikern seiner Zeit befreundet war, den Transport seiner Truppen und die Verbreitung von Informationen zu optimieren und strategisch einzusetzen.1,2

  4. No way around green tariffs; Oekotarife sind nicht mehr wegzudenken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briese, Dirk [trend:research GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    Just like green electricity, meanwhile a classic, so too now does newcomer ''green gas'' offer energy suppliers with an appropriate marketing mix far-reaching opportunities for improving their corporate image, securing customer loyalty and increasing turnover. However the only beneficiaries of this trend to date have been green-only suppliers which specialise in this market. Although most traditional suppliers have now added green tariffs to their product portfolio, this has given them little commercial success, since eco-minded consumers often consider green-only suppliers to be more credible. A recent study shows that the market volume of green electricity and green gas tariffs will grow markedly over the next five years. Energy suppliers should therefore turn their attention to the question of how they can best exploit this potential.

  5. Price drop and increasing competition; Sinkende Preise und mehr Wettbewerb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berner, Joachim

    2012-01-06

    Competition in the German PV sector is getting harder. German wholesale providers are dropping their prices, strengthening their marketing activities and expanding their range of services. This is the result of an enquiry made by SONNE WIND and WAeRME in November 2011.

  6. Genetic Testing for ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In Your Community Advocate Get Involved Donate Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (FALS) and Genetic Testing By Deborah Hartzfeld, MS, CGC, Certified Genetic Counselor Familial ALS Most of the time ALS is not inherited. ...

  7. Aussprache als motorische Fertigkeit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonner, Maria

    Authentische Aussprache gilt im Fremdsprachenunterricht als schwer erreichbares Ziel, fremdsprachlicher Akzent wird als nahezu unvermeidbar gesehen. Weder die Hypothese einer kritischen Periode für den Erwerb einer authentischen Aussprache noch das Konzept der Fossilierung im Sprachlernprozess...

  8. Initial Symptoms of ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapters Certified Centers and Clinics Support Groups About ALS About Us Our Research In Your Community Advocate ... Diagnosis En español Symptoms The initial symptoms of ALS can be quite varied in different people. One ...

  9. What Is ALS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... world without ALS Start an Event Combine your passion and commitment to finding a cure for ALS while achieving ... 1275 K Street NW - Suite 250 - Washington, DC 20005 All content and works posted on this website are owned and copyrighted ...

  10. Pornographie als Metapher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Schubarth

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In diesem Artikel werden unterschiedliche metaphorische Verwendungen des Pornografiebegriffs und deren Implikationen untersucht. Während die Existenz von Pornografie der feministischen Anti-Porno-Bewegung als Erklärung für die anhaltende Diskriminierung von Frauen in westlichen Gesellschaften dient, nutzen rechtskonservative Kräfte den Pornografievorwurf als Rechtfertigung für die Zensur von als deviant empfundenen Identitäten und sexuellen Praktiken.

  11. Aqidah al-Tauhid Baina al-Tasawwuf al-Sunni wa al-Tasawwuf al-Falsafi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Fathullah Zarkasyi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The philosophers and theologians for a long time, have been conducting a series of intense discourse on many issues from the perspective of tasawuf. Of course, in this regard, they use a theoretical basis and practical rationale. This article, describes the discourse above in the two different conversations perspective, between tasawuf Sunni and tasawuf falsafi. Tasawuf sunni group are represented by Al-Ghazali and al-Qushayri, confronted by Ibn Arabi and Ibn Sab’in from tasawuf falsafi group. Through a descriptive exploratory study, the researcher asserts that Al-Ghazali divides tauhid into four, tauhid of hypocrites, Muslims majority, muqarrabin, and siddiqin, all are based on ahl sunnah wa alJama’ah faith. While Al- ushayri, divides it into three; tauhid al-haq li al-haq, tauhid al-haq li al-khalq, and tauhid al-khalq li al-haq, all are based on empirical aspects of Irfani. In his study, the author concludes that tasawuf Sunni, focuses mainly on the issue of al-fana and wihdah al-syuhud in order to reach a peak of makrifah. Meanwhile, taswuf falsafi declares the existence of monoexistence, that is, human beings and God is one, similar to (wihdah al-wujud. Man is united with God expressed usually in the form syatahat. The implication is no taklif for humans.

  12. Der Demokratie-Index: U?ber die wissenschaftliche Praxis der Normierung von Demokratie als politisches Machtinstrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Stefan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Demokratieindizes sind zentraler Bestandteil von Global Governance – Diskurs und politisch-strategischer Steuerungsprozess, der im Namen der kooperativen Bewa?ltigung weltweiter Herausforderungen (aktuell mehr Nachhaltigkeit im Kampf gegen Klimawandel, auch eine neoliberale, finanzialisierte Umgestaltung von Staat und Gesellschaft vorantreibt. Anhand des Beispiels des „Kombinierten Index der Demokratie“ zeigt vorliegender Artikel, wie diese Methode der vergleichenden Politikwissenschaft dazu beitra?gt, ein historisch spezifisches, sozio-politisches Verha?ltnis der sozialen Ungleichheit als erstrebenswerten Normalzustand zu stabilisieren Der Index basiert auf einem bestimmten „Imaginary“ von Demokratie und produziert dessen „Inskription“, welche den historischen Legitimationsprozess der rechtlichen Festschreibung o?konomischer Ungleichheit durch die Garantie politischer Gleichheitsrechte und kompetitiver Partizipationsmo?glichkeiten ausblendet. Ziel dieser formalisierten, objektiven und (im Fall des KID umfassenden Messung der Demokratiequalita?t ist die Herstellung eines sinnfixierten, wahren Wissensobjekts „Demokratie“, das mo?glichst unvera?nderbar und mobil seine Bedeutung in verschiedene Kontexte weitertra?gt. Eine derartig normierte Demokratie neutralisiert besitzbu?rgerliche Eigentumsinteressen und verleiht einer post-fordistischen Gouvernementalita?t politische Rationalita?t und Legitimita?t.

  13. Underground- and surface technologies for joint flooding of gas caves; Unter- und Uebertagetechnik als Einheit zur Flutung von Gaskavernen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raudonus, K.; Miersch, D. [UGS GmbH, Mittenwalde (Germany); Haensler, G. [Verbundnetz Gas AG, Leipzig (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    After 20 years of operation the oldes caves in the Bernburg storage VNG AG had to repair the facilities. This required flooding of the caves from the start. At the same time geomechanical reserves which were reevaluated on the basis of redimensioning could be used by deepening. Flooding and relocation of the displaced gas should not disturb gas storage and brine extraction. As one of the caves was filled with gas for the first time it was possible to use the brine. Flooding and gas filling were coupled. [Deutsch] Nach mehr als 20jaehriger Betriebszeit der aeltesten Kavernen auf dem Speicher Bernburg stand fuer die VNG AG die Aufgabe der Reparatur. Der Umfang der Arbeiten machte von Anfang an das vollstaendige Fluten der Kavernen erforderlich. Gleicheitig ergab sich dabei die Moeglichkeit, seinerzeit verbliebene geomechanische Reserven, die auf Basis einer auf aktuelle Erkenntnisse beruhenden Neudimensionierung bewertet wurden, durch Nachsolung auszuschoepfen. Die Heranfuehrung des Flutmediums und die Umlagerung des verdraengten Gases sollten ohne nachteilige Rueckwirkung auf den Gasspeicher- und Solegewinnungsbetrieb erfolgen. Da zu diesem Zeitpunkt eine Kaverne in der Phase der Gaserstbefuellung stand, konnte die ausgetragene Sole genutzt werden. Flutprozess und Gaserstbefuellung wurden somit im direkt gekoppelten Betrieb durchgefuehrt. (orig./MSK)

  14. Volver al desarrollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Ornelas Delgado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo, categoría empleada para expresar el crecimiento económico, surge durante la "guerra fría" y si bien fue propuesta por teóricos metropolitanos, se asumió en Latinoamérica como parte de los instrumentos disponibles para lograr el crecimiento y alternativa al socialismo. El desarrollo mantuvo su vigencia entre 1945 y 1975, cuando al advenimiento del neoliberalismo fue paulatinamente retirado de la agenda de las preocupaciones nacionales e internacionales. Al iniciarse el siglo xxi, el fracaso del mercado autorregulado trajo de nueva cuenta al debate los problemas del desarrollo, lo que obliga a revisarlo críticamente, tanto como al concepto mismo para mostrar su carácter colonial, si se quiere construir caminos ajenos al neoliberal y superar los problemas que han hecho de Latinoamérica una de las regiones más desiguales del mundo.

  15. Four-dimensional data assimilation as a method for coupling two meteorological model systems of different scales; Vierdimensionale Datenassimilation als Methode zur Kopplung zweier verschiedenskaliger meteorologischer Modellsysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilms-Grabe, W.

    2001-10-01

    A method of coupling two meteorological models of different scales must meet certain requirements: First, even a big difference in resolution between the two models must not produce disturbances in the smaller-scale model. This means that most nesting approaches are unfit for the purpose. The method presented here is not limited to meteorological models. It can be enhanced without much difficulty to dispersion models taking account of chemical atmospheric reactions, as e.g. in the CTM of the EURAD model or in DRAIS as an enhancement of the KAMM version. [German] Das Ziel dieser Arbeit bestand in der Entwicklung eines geeigneten Kopplungsverfahrens zweier verschiedenskaliger meteorologischer Modelle, das in einem Ein-Weg-Nesting dem kleinerskaligen Modell ermoeglicht, sowohl instationaere superskalige Verhaeltnisse als auch modellinterne kleinraeumige Prozesse miteinander zu verbinden. Im Rahmen des Projektes TFS mussten hierbei entscheidende Bedingungen an das Kopplungsverfahren gestellt werden. Allen voran darf vor allem ein auch grosser Unterschied in der Aufloesung der beiden verschiedenskaligen Modelle keine kuenstlichen Stoerungen im kleinerskaligen Modell produzieren. Somit scheiden die sonst ueblichen Nestingansaetze fuer diesen Fall aus. Das Verfahren ist derart konzipiert, dass es sich nicht auf rein meteorologische Modelle beschraenkt. Eine Ausweitung auf Ausbreitungsmodelle unter Beruecksichtigung chemischer Reaktionen in der Atmosphaere, wie sie etwa im CTM des EURAD-Modells oder im DRAIS als Erweiterung der KAMM-Version zur Verfuegung stehen, stellt keinen allzu grossen Schritt mehr dar. (orig.)

  16. Lou Gehrig's Disease (ALS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Lou Gehrig's Disease (ALS) KidsHealth > For Kids > Lou Gehrig's Disease (ALS) Print A A A Text Size What's in ... Gehrig's disease is a disorder that's also called amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (say: ah-my-uh-TRO-fik LA-tuh- ...

  17. Del latín al rumano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montes Giraldo José Joaquín

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Marius Sala, Del latín al rumano. Versión española de Valeria Neagu, París, Unión Latina - Bucarest, Univers enciclopedic, 2002. El texto se dirige al lector corriente, no especialista, y por eso el aparato técnico-bibliográfico no se presenta en el curso de la exposición.

  18. [Environmental factors in ALS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntas-Morales, Raul; Pageot, Nicolas; Corcia, Philippe; Camu, William

    2014-05-01

    ALS is likely to be a disorder of multifactorial origin. Among all the factors that may increase the risk of ALS, environmental ones are being studied for many years, but in the recent years, several advances have pointed to a new interest in their potential involvement in the disease process, especially for the cyanotoxin BMAA. Food containing BMAA has been found on Guam, a well-known focus of ALS/parkinsonism/dementia and high levels of BMAA have been identified into the brain of these patients. The BMAA cyanotoxin is potentially ubiquitous and have also been found into the food of patients who died from ALS both in Europe and USA. BMAA can be wrongly integrated into the protein structure during mRNA traduction, competing with serine. This may induce abnormal protein folding and a subsequent cell death. Heavy metals, such as lead or mercury may be directly toxic for neuronal cells. Several works have suggested an increased risk of ALS in individuals chronically exposed to these metals. Exposure to pesticides has been suggested to be linked to an increased risk of developing ALS. The mechanism of their toxicity is likely to be mediated by paraoxonases. These proteins are in charge of detoxifying the organism from toxins, and particularly organophosphates. To date, there are insufficient scientific data to suggest that exposure to electromagnetic fields may increase the risk of having ALS. We are particularly missing longitudinal cohorts to demonstrate that risk. PMID:24703731

  19. ALS2 mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Susanne A.; Carr, Lucinda; Deuschl, Guenther; Hopfner, Franziska; Stamelou, Maria; Wood, Nicholas W.; Bhatia, Kailash P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the genetic etiology in 2 consanguineous families who presented a novel phenotype of autosomal recessive juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis associated with generalized dystonia. Methods: A combination of homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing in the first family and Sanger sequencing of candidate genes in the second family were used. Results: Both families were found to have homozygous loss-of-function mutations in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 2 (juvenile) (ALS2) gene. Conclusions: We report generalized dystonia and cerebellar signs in association with ALS2-related disease. We suggest that the ALS2 gene should be screened for mutations in patients who present with a similar phenotype. PMID:24562058

  20. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... New study shows that a molecule called microRNA-209 mounts a protective response to repair nerve-muscle ... release on research showing how mutant proteins may lead to familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Amyotrophic Lateral ...

  1. Kulturmorphologie als Zivilisationskritik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Rikke Alberg

    2010-01-01

    Der Untergang des Abendlandes wird oft als dasjenige Werk betrachtet, das am tiefsten die national gefärbte Gegenüberstellung von Kultur und Zivilisation in der Zwischenkriegszeit geprägt und propagiert hat. Wie auch bei anderen Autoren der Konservativen Revolution, vor allem bei Thomas Mann und...... Arthur Moeller van den Bruck, tritt der Begriff ‚Kultur’ bei Spengler als normativer Wertbegriff auf, der im Kontrast zu einer degenerierten und seelenlosen Zivilisation steht....

  2. Selbstkritik als wissenschaftliches Projekt?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Scholand

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Wallner kritisiert die aktuelle feministische Darstellung der rund 30jährigen Geschichte der Mädchenarbeit als „Legendenbildung“ (S. 9: Sie verkürze und verschweige im Interesse einer Selbst-Heroisierung und sei daher ideologisch. Als eine derjenigen, die seit zwanzig Jahren feministische Mädchenarbeit und -politik betreibt, arbeitet die Autorin damit auch ihre eigenen (Nicht-Bezugnahmen kritisch auf. Ihr grundlegendes Interesse ist es, eine aus ihrer Sicht erforderliche Neupositionierung der Mädchenarbeit in der Jugendhilfe im Zeitalter von Gender Mainstreaming zu befördern.

  3. Verhüllen oder Enthüllen? - Ästhetik als Herausforderung für Sozialwissenschaft und sozialwissenschaftliche Bildungs

    OpenAIRE

    Anja Besand

    2006-01-01

    Gerade in den klassischen Bezugswissenschaften der politischen Bildung haben die Begriffe Ästhetik, ästhetisch und Ästhetisierung seit einigen Jahren Konjunktur. So spricht man in der Soziologie seit fast 20 Jahren wieder von Lebensstilen und beschreibt damit den Sachverhalt, dass gesellschaftliche Gruppen sich nicht mehr ausreichend durch klassische demographische Daten differenzieren lassen, sondern sich durch Konsumstile und Selbstinszenierungen, also durch ästhetisches Verhalten, gruppier...

  4. Fortschritt als Fortschrittsdiskurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Schmid-Zartner

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Zur Erzielung gesellschaftlichen Fortschritts in demokratisch verfassten Gesellschaften soll die Mo?glichkeit am Fortschrittsdiskurs teilnehmen zu ko?nnen fu?r alle Mitglieder der Gesellschaft als selbstversta?ndliche Pra?misse gelten. Fortschritt wird also als Bewusstseinsbildung dem Fortschritt selbst gegenu?ber und als Entscheidungs- und Handlungsfa?higkeit auf individueller und gesellschaftlicher Ebene definiert. Dies setzt entsprechende Maßnahmen zur Befa?higung dazu voraus, die alle Mitglieder der Gesellschaft erfassen. Dabei ist der Bildungsbereich angesprochen, insbesondere der Schulunterricht. Neben dem in der aktuellen blidungspolitischen Debatte forcierten Fokus auf den Aspekt der Kompetenzorientierung, der hier nicht infrage gestellt wird, ist als notwendige Erga?nzung ein reflexionsorientierter Schulunterricht in allen Bildungsfa?chern einzufordern und umzusetzen. Im Weiteren beschreibt der Text den Weg von der Brauchbarkeit zur Bedeutsamkeit von schulischem Wissen durch Relevanzreflexionsprovokationen im Schulunterricht, um Sinn und Bedeutung der vermittelten Bildungsinhalte zu verhandeln. Am Beispiel von Mathematik als Bildungsfach wird der Inhalt von reflexionsorientertem Unterricht verdeutlicht. Daru?ber hinaus beschreibt der Text eine Reihe von konkreten Fallbeispielen aus der aktuell versuchsweise durchgefu?hrten Unterrichtspraxis in Mathematik.

  5. Coupled growth of Al-Al2Cu eutectics in Al-Cu-Ag alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coupled eutectic growth of Al and Al2Cu was investigated in univariant Al-Cu-Ag alloys during solidification with planar and cellular morphology. Experiments reveal the dynamic selection of small spacings, below the minimum undercooling spacing and show that distinct morphological features pertain to nearly isotropic or anisotropic Al-Al2Cu interfaces.

  6. ALS superbend magnet performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been engaged in the design, construction and testing of four superconducting dipoles (Superbends) that are installed in three arcs of the Advanced Light Source (ALS), with the fourth magnet as a spare. This represents a major upgrade to the ALS providing an enhanced flux and brightness at photon energies above 10 keV. In preparation for installation, an extensive set of tests and measurements have been conducted to characterize the magnetic and cryogenic performance of the Superbends and to fiducialize them for accurate placement in the ALS storage ring. The magnets are currently installed, and the storage ring is undergoing final commissioning. This paper will present the results of magnetic and cryogenic testing

  7. Pornographie als Metapher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Schubarth

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In diesem Artikel werden unterschiedliche metaphorische Verwendungen des Pornografiebegriffs und deren Implikationen untersucht. Während die Existenz von Pornografie der feministischen Anti-Porno-Bewegung als Erklärung für die anhaltende Diskriminierung von Frauen in westlichen Gesellschaften dient, nutzen rechtskonservative Kräfte den Pornografievorwurf als Rechtfertigung für die Zensur von als deviant empfundenen Identitäten und sexuellen Praktiken.This article examines different metaphorical uses of the term pornography and the resulting implications. While the existence of pornography for the feminist anti-porno movement serves as factor in the continuing discrimination of women in western societies, conservative powers on the right use the allegation of pornography as a justification for censorship of those identities and sexual practices deemed deviant.

  8. ALS superbend magnet system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is preparing to upgrade the Advanced Light Source (ALS) with three superconducting dipoles (Superbends). In this paper we present the final magnet system design which incorporates R and D test results and addresses the ALS operational concerns of alignment, availability, and economy. The design incorporates conduction-cooled Nb-Ti windings and HTS current leads, epoxy-glass suspension straps, and a Gifford-McMahon cryocooler to supply steady state refrigeration. We also present the current status of fabrication and testing

  9. Del analizando al analista

    OpenAIRE

    González Rivera, Pilar

    2010-01-01

    Es un tópico corriente representar al psicoanalista tomando notas, escribiendo lo que el analizando dice. Por su lado, y tal vez atendiendo a este mismo estereotipo, éste a veces también lo fantasea así, "escribiendo su historia", como una forma de demostrar su interés en el paciente (lo cual no es incompatible con otro pensamiento: el de que daría lo mismo hablar con una pared ...)

  10. Abraham Kuyper als theoloog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Velema

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Men zou in Nederland de herdenking van Kuypers honderdvijftigste geboortedag hebben kunnen aangrijpen als een gelegenheid om diens theologie en diens levenswerk in kerk en samenleving te evalueren. Niemand kan ontkennen dat er in genoemde publicaties iets van een evaluatie is te vinden.

  11. Ausbildung als zentrale Aufgabe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Walter; Schmerbach, Sibylle

    Anders als Lesen und Schreiben zählen Grundkenntnisse in Statistik heute noch nicht zu den Voraussetzungen einer sinnvollen Teilhabe am Sozialgeschehen. Und auch in der akademischen Statistik-Ausbildung gibt es noch einiges zu tun. Das vorliegende Kapitel zeichnet die Geschichte dieser akademischen Ausbildung an deutschen Universitäten nach dem zweiten Weltkrieg nach, stellt aktuelle Defizite vor und weist auf mögliche Verbesserungen hin.

  12. MDA ALS Caregiver's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ll read many comments from people about the happiness and satisfaction they’ve found while living with ALS. Resourceful caregivers have come up with ingenious solutions to their challenges. Not every suggestion works for every caregiver; sometimes you’ll find a ...

  13. BERKELEY: ALS ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everybody at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Center for Beam Physics is pleased with the rapid progress in commissioning LBL's Advanced Light Source (ALS) electron storage ring, the foundation for this third-generation synchrotron radiation facility. Designed for a maximum current of 400 mA, the ALS storage ring reached 407 mA just 24 days after storing the first beam on 16 March. ALS construction as a US Department of Energy (DOE) national user facility to provide high-brightness vacuum ultra-violet and soft x-ray radiation began in October 1987. One technical requirement marking project completion was to accumulate a 50-mA current in the storage ring. The ALS passed this milestone on 24 March, a week ahead of the official deadline. Once injected, the electron beam decays quasi-exponentially primarily because of interactions with residual gas molecules in the storage-ring vacuum chamber. Eventually, when the pressure in the vacuum chamber with beam decreases toward the expected operating level of 1 nano Torr, it will only be necessary to refill the storage ring at intervals of four to eight hours. At present the vacuum is improving rapidly as surfaces are irradiated (scrubbed) by the synchrotron radiation itself. At 100 mA, beam lifetime was about one hour (9 April)

  14. Electroforming of continuous Al-AlN granular films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuous Al-AlN granular films (Al granules embedded in the AlN matrix) were proposed to serve as surface conduction-electron emission emitters. The electroforming process and the electron emission characteristics of the continuous Al-AlN granular films were investigated. The electroforming mechanism of the Al-AlN granular film emitter could be attributed to the fact that the Al granules were evaporated from the Al-AlN granular films. The voltage control negative resistance (VCNR) properties of the Al-AlN granular films could be repeated with periodic changes of the device voltage during electroforming. After electroforming, the nano-fissures with a width of 60-250 nm on the surface of Al-AlN granular films were obtained. A stable electron emission current of 2.79 ?A for a line array with 18 electron emitters could be reproducibly observed at a device voltage of 13 V and anode voltage of 2.5 kV.

  15. Electroforming of continuous Al-AlN granular films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, H.F. [Key Laboratory of Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Key Laboratory of Optical Measurement and Thin Film of Shanxi Province, Xi' an Technological University, Xi' an 710032 (China)], E-mail: hfliang2004@yahoo.com.cn; Meng, L.G.; Liu, C.L. [Key Laboratory of Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2008-12-30

    Continuous Al-AlN granular films (Al granules embedded in the AlN matrix) were proposed to serve as surface conduction-electron emission emitters. The electroforming process and the electron emission characteristics of the continuous Al-AlN granular films were investigated. The electroforming mechanism of the Al-AlN granular film emitter could be attributed to the fact that the Al granules were evaporated from the Al-AlN granular films. The voltage control negative resistance (VCNR) properties of the Al-AlN granular films could be repeated with periodic changes of the device voltage during electroforming. After electroforming, the nano-fissures with a width of 60-250 nm on the surface of Al-AlN granular films were obtained. A stable electron emission current of 2.79 {mu}A for a line array with 18 electron emitters could be reproducibly observed at a device voltage of 13 V and anode voltage of 2.5 kV.

  16. Electroforming of continuous Al-AlN granular films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, H. F.; Meng, L. G.; Liu, C. L.

    2008-12-01

    Continuous Al-AlN granular films (Al granules embedded in the AlN matrix) were proposed to serve as surface conduction-electron emission emitters. The electroforming process and the electron emission characteristics of the continuous Al-AlN granular films were investigated. The electroforming mechanism of the Al-AlN granular film emitter could be attributed to the fact that the Al granules were evaporated from the Al-AlN granular films. The voltage control negative resistance (VCNR) properties of the Al-AlN granular films could be repeated with periodic changes of the device voltage during electroforming. After electroforming, the nano-fissures with a width of 60-250 nm on the surface of Al-AlN granular films were obtained. A stable electron emission current of 2.79 ?A for a line array with 18 electron emitters could be reproducibly observed at a device voltage of 13 V and anode voltage of 2.5 kV.

  17. Factores asociados al bajo peso al nacer

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Georgina J, Peraza Roque; Silvia de la C, Pérez Delgado; Zoe de los A, Figueroa Barreto.

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available El bajo peso al nacer (BPN) ha constituido un enigma en la ciencia a través de los tiempos. Múltiples son las investigaciones realizadas acerca de las causas que lo producen y las consecuencias que provoca. Su importancia no solo radica en lo que significa en la morbilidad y la mortalidad infantil, [...] sino que estos niños tienen habitualmente múltiples problemas posteriores. El Programa para la Reducción del BPN señala que los niños nacidos con un peso inferior a los 2 500 g presentan riesgo de mortalidad 14 veces mayor durante el primer año de vida, en comparación con los niños que nacen con un peso normal a término. Dentro de los factores de riesgo del BPN se han encontrado con mayor frecuencia en estudios realizados por diferentes autores, los siguientes: el embarazo en la adolescencia, la desnutrición en la madre, el hábito de fumar, la hipertensión arterial durante el embarazo, la sepsis cervicovaginal, la anemia y los embarazos gemelares, entre otros. Es innegable la influencia que el BPN tiene sobre las futuras generaciones, por lo que debe constituir la diana de los esfuerzos que el médico y la enfermera deben desarrollar en su prevención, sobre todo en la comunidad Abstract in english Low birth weight has been an enigma for Science through times. A lot of research works have been carried out about its causes and consequences. The importance of LBW not only lies in its meaning for infant mortality and morbidity but also in the many problems that low birth weight children regularly [...] face in the future. The program for the reduction of LBW points out that newborns weighing under 2500g have during his/her first year of life a mortality risk 14 times higher than newborns with a normal weight at term. Among the low birth weight risk factors, a number of studies by various authors have frequently found the following; pregnancy at adolescence; undernourishment in mothers, smoking, blood hypertension during pregnancy, cervix-vaginal sepsis; anemia, twin pregnancies and others. The influence of LBW on the future generations can not be denied, therefore, LBW should be a target for the efforts of physicians and nurses to prevent it within the community

  18. Factores asociados al bajo peso al nacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina J Peraza Roque

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available El bajo peso al nacer (BPN ha constituido un enigma en la ciencia a través de los tiempos. Múltiples son las investigaciones realizadas acerca de las causas que lo producen y las consecuencias que provoca. Su importancia no solo radica en lo que significa en la morbilidad y la mortalidad infantil, sino que estos niños tienen habitualmente múltiples problemas posteriores. El Programa para la Reducción del BPN señala que los niños nacidos con un peso inferior a los 2 500 g presentan riesgo de mortalidad 14 veces mayor durante el primer año de vida, en comparación con los niños que nacen con un peso normal a término. Dentro de los factores de riesgo del BPN se han encontrado con mayor frecuencia en estudios realizados por diferentes autores, los siguientes: el embarazo en la adolescencia, la desnutrición en la madre, el hábito de fumar, la hipertensión arterial durante el embarazo, la sepsis cervicovaginal, la anemia y los embarazos gemelares, entre otros. Es innegable la influencia que el BPN tiene sobre las futuras generaciones, por lo que debe constituir la diana de los esfuerzos que el médico y la enfermera deben desarrollar en su prevención, sobre todo en la comunidadLow birth weight has been an enigma for Science through times. A lot of research works have been carried out about its causes and consequences. The importance of LBW not only lies in its meaning for infant mortality and morbidity but also in the many problems that low birth weight children regularly face in the future. The program for the reduction of LBW points out that newborns weighing under 2500g have during his/her first year of life a mortality risk 14 times higher than newborns with a normal weight at term. Among the low birth weight risk factors, a number of studies by various authors have frequently found the following; pregnancy at adolescence; undernourishment in mothers, smoking, blood hypertension during pregnancy, cervix-vaginal sepsis; anemia, twin pregnancies and others. The influence of LBW on the future generations can not be denied, therefore, LBW should be a target for the efforts of physicians and nurses to prevent it within the community

  19. ALS insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), the first US third generation synchrotron radiation source, is currently under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The low-emittance, 1.5 GeV electron storage ring and the insertion devices are specifically designed to produce high brightness beams in the UV to soft X-Ray range. The planned initial complement of insertion devices includes four 4.6 m long undulators, with period lengths of 3.9 cm, 5.0 cm (2) and 8.0 cm, and a 2.9 m long wiggler of 16 cm period length. Undulator design is well advanced and fabrication has begun on the 5.0 cm and 8.0 cm period length undulators. This paper discusses ALS insertion device requirements; general design philosophy; and design of the magnetic structure, support structure/drive systems, control system and vacuum system. 18 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs

  20. ALS Project Management Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupnick, Jim; Harkins, Joe

    2000-05-01

    This manual has been prepared to help establish a consistent baseline of management practices across all ALS projects. It describes the initial process of planning a project, with a specific focus on the production of a formal project plan. We feel that the primary weakness in ALS project management efforts to date stems from a failure to appreciate the importance of ''up-front'' project planning. In this document, we present a guide (with examples) to preparing the documents necessary to properly plan, monitor, and control a project's activities. While following the manual will certainly not guarantee good project management, failure to address the issues we raise will dramatically reduce the chance of success. Here we define success as meeting the technical goals on schedule and within the prescribed budget.

  1. Camino al diseño

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar Gómez, Miguel Ángel

    2000-01-01

    Como resultado de la investigación DISEÑO Y MÉTODO, adelantada por los profesores D.I. Luz María Jiménez Narváez y Arq. Miguel Ángel Aguilar Gómez, pertenecientes a la Facultad de Ingeniería y Arquitectura de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales; se obtuvieron algunas conclusiones y recomendaciones con respecto al ejercicio de diseño. Este documento tiene como objeto servir de punto de partida a los profesores para la formación de los alumnos en el área de Proyectivas (asigna...

  2. Introducción al comportamiento estructural

    OpenAIRE

    Cervera Bravo, Jaime; Jaenicke Cendoya, Ignacio; Ruiz Palomeque, Luis Gerardo; Sanchez Quiroga, Luis; Asenjo, José

    1982-01-01

    Texto de introducción al panorama teórico (y de aplicación) necesario para abordar el análisis y el proyecto de las estructuras de edificación: Se detallan los problemas abordados así como el lenguaje y los conceptos básicos de la teoría y sus relaciones con la realidad física y constructiva, de la que se presenta una tipología básica. Se presentan las relaciones fundamentales entre conceptos (y sus expresiones matemáticas).

  3. Excursión al ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Universidad Nacional, colombia

    2010-01-01

    "Con el envío de siete profesores y veinticuatro alumnos al Ecuador, hecho ocurrido en el mes de enero [1945], la Universidad Nacional inició una política de vinculación directa con institutos similares de América. Es un paso obligado, producto de la evolución experimentada en nuestro plantel, pues a tiempo que se registra en él un gran crecimiento interno, es lógico que sienta la necesidad de proyectarse hacia el exterior, en un vivo impulso de establecer relaciones con los centros que obede...

  4. Industrial residues as an external carbon source in denitrification; Industrielle Reststoffe als externe Kohlenstoffquelle fuer die Denitrifikation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schories, G. [TECON GmbH, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Geissen, S.U.; Vogelpohl, A. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Verfahrenstechnik

    1999-07-01

    Biological waste water treatment requires biologically readily degradable carbon in order to permit elimination of as much nitrogen as possible. Often now this type of carbon is no longer present in waste water in an appropriate quantity, so that external carbon must be added. Apart from industrially fabricated substrates, the use of industrial residues and waste products as well as of partial waste water streams with a high organic pollutant load is lately being considered for cost reasons. But this is not altogether harmless. Those partial streams may contain substances that inhibit denitrification, impose an additional burden on subsequent cleaning stages or may even pass them unmodified, so that they are emitted into the environment and pose an ecological hazard potential. Hence, industrial residual products need to be specifically selected for use as an external carbon source in denitrification. A suitable strategy is described and demonstrated by means of different examples. (orig.) [German] In der biologischen Abwasserbehandlung ist fuer eine weitestgehende Stickstoffelimination oftmals biologisch gut abbaubarer Kohlenstoff im Abwasser nicht (mehr) in ausreichendem Masse vorhanden. Dann ist die Zugabe einer sog. externen Kohlenstoffquelle erforderlich. Neben industriell hergestellten Substraten wird in letzter Zeit aus Kostengruenden vielfach der Einsatz industrieller Rest- und Abfallstoffe sowie organisch hochbelasteter Abwasserteilstroeme erwogen. Dies ist jedoch nicht unproblematisch, da in diesen Stoffstroemen auch Substanzen enthalten sein koennen, die die Denitrifikation hemmen, nachfolgende Reinigungsstufen zusaetzlich belasten oder diese sogar unveraendert passsieren, dadurch in die Umwelt emittiert werden und damit moeglicherweise aus oekologischer Sicht ein Gefahrenpotential darstellen koennen. Es muss also eine besondere Auswahl der Pruefung industrieller Reststoffe im Hinblick auf den Einsatz als externe Kohlenstoffquelle in der Denitrifikation erfolgen. Hierzu wird eine geeignete Strategie vorgestellt und anhand verschiedener Beispiele erlaeutert. (orig.)

  5. Programa salud al colegio

    OpenAIRE

    Acuña Ramos, Clara; Polanco Narváez, Héctor; Villamil Barrera, Luz Alicia; Mena Bejarano, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes. El Plan de Desarrollo Bogotá Positiva:“Para Vivir Mejor”, de la alcaldía distrital de Bogotá, sepropone mejorar la calidad de vida de la población, pormedio del reconocimiento, garantía y restablecimientode derechos como la salud y la educación, se vinculaal proyecto “Salud al Colegio” de la Secretaria deEducación de Bogotá.Objetivo. Diseño y ejecución de estrategias pedagógicasy comunicativas para promover la salud oral en ColegiosDistritales para el fortalecimiento del desarro...

  6. Atención al paciente crítico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parra Vargas Myriam

    1993-08-01

    Full Text Available

    El presente artículo resume la experiencia docente-investigativa sobre la atención al paciente crítico, desde un enfoque que describe problemas inherentes a los sistemas cardiovasculares, respiratorio y neurológico, considerados sistemas vitales del ser humano. Se pretende describir una serie de metas, que orientan la intervención del profesional de enfermería y sustentan la planeación, ejecución, control y evaluación de intervenciones específicas, encaminadas a detectar oportunamente las complicaciones o tratar problemas complejos en el grupo de pacientes críticamente enfermos.

  7. Huerta al alba

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlomagno, Sol Tlachi.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Efraín Huerta nació en Silao, Guanajuato, en 1914, y murió en el D. F. en 1982. En este año 2014, se cumplen setenta años de la aparición de Los hombres del alba. Si la generación Contemporáneos marca el antes y el después de la poesía mexicana actual, Huerta, con la edición de su libro en 1944, es [...] un referente obligado si se pretende llegar al lugar de donde es oriunda la poesía moderna y contemporánea mexicana. A partir del contexto ideológico que le toca vivir al poeta guanajuatense en la capital, que dejó huella profunda en sus primeros libros, se pone en relieve el giro de 180 grados que, después de aquella primera etapa, dieron los poemas que constituyen Los hombres del alba a la poesía mexicana. Abstract in english Efraín Huerta was born in Silao, Guanajuato, México, in 1914. He died in Mexico City in 1982. This year (2014) is the 70th anniversary of the apparition of Los hombres del alba. If the Contemporáneos generation marks a before and after of the current Mexican poetry, then Huerta, with the publication [...] of his book in 1944, is a obligatory point of reference in order to arrive to where modern and contemporary Mexican poetry hails. The ideological context, in which this poet lived in the capital city, marked his first books. Moreover, it is emphasized the 180 degrees turn that, after this first stage, the poems that constitute Los hombres del alba gave to Mexican poetry.

  8. al trasplante de órganos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ángeles Pérez San Gregorio

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El trasplante de órganos es una alternativa terapéutica para aquellos pacientes que tienen problemas graves en el funcionamiento de un órgano vital: corazón, hígado, pulmón, etc. Dada la relevancia de este tema, en el presente estudio teórico analizamos los principales problemas psicológicos asociados al trasplante de órganos. Concretamente, hemos tenido en cuenta los siguientes apartados: 1 Repercusiones psicológicas del trasplante de órganos en los pacientes: delirium, trastornos sexuales, trastornos del estado de ánimo, trastornos de ansiedad, fantasías sobre el donante, insatisfacción con la imagen corporal y otros trastornos; 2 variables psicosociales que influyen en las repercusiones psicológicas asociadas al trasplante de órganos: apoyo familiar, trastornos psicológicos en los familiares, hospitalización, expectativas pre y post-trasplante, estrategias de afrontamiento, duración de la enfermedad, etiología del trasplante, procedencia del órgano implantado y otras variables; 3 fases psicológicas en los trasplantados renales, hepáticos y cardíacos en función de diferentes periodos temporales de comparación; 4 calidad de vida en los trasplantados y variables que la predicen: adherencia terapéutica, hospitalización, apoyo familiar, expectativas hacia el trasplante y etiología del trasplante; y 5 repercusiones psicológicas del trasplante de órganos en los familiares, teniendo en cuenta la influencia que ejerce el apoyo social sobre la salud mental de estos familiares.

  9. COMENTARIO AL CASO PINOCHET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Contreras Clunes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El fallo en el caso Pinochet tiene distintas formas de ser analizado. De partida, desde un punto de vista político, también constitucional, del derecho penal. Sin embargo, nos abocaremos al estudio desde el punto de vista procesal, en especial a lo referido al Debido Proceso. Para ello se analizará los presupuestos, la solución dada por la Excma. Corte Suprema y las consecuencias del mismo. Además, se criticará la solución dada, desde la óptica de las garantías procesales del imputado, contenidas en el nuevo proceso penal y lo dispuesto en la Constitución y la Convención Americana de Derechos Humanos. Finalmente, se argumentará en favor de una interpretación finalista y armónica de la Constitución y los tratados internacionales de derechos humanos.The verdict of the Pinochet Case has different ways of being analyzed: from the political, the constitutional, and the penal law points of view. However, we will approach this study from the legal point of view, especially to that referred to as the Proper Process. To do this, the budgets, the solution given by the Most Excellent Supreme Court, and its consequences will be analyzed. Furthermore, the given solution will be criticized from the point of view of the legal guarantees of the accused contained in the new penal process and what is contained in the Constitution and in the American Convention of Human Rights. In conclusion, we will argue in favor of a final and harmonious interpretation of the Constitution and the international agreement of human rights.

  10. Derivados vinculados al seguro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Paz Cobo, Sonia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo la presentación de los derivados financieros como instrumentos de cobertura de los riesgos del seguro, así como de los principales proyectos que se desarrollan a través de los mismos, como por ejemplo los derivados sobre el clima. Hay que tener presente las pérdidas multimillonarias ocasionadas en casos como el de la banca Baring’s, o el de Orange County, por citar algunas, que si bien ciertos autores afirman que están en relación directa con el uso de estos productos, no podemos olvidar que los instrumentos derivados se desarrollaron con el objetivo principal de proteger al usuario de la posible volatilidad del activo subyacente. Ya en la industria aseguradora los derivados vinculados a tal actividad son instrumentos donde el pago se condiciona a la ocurrencia de su suceso de siniestro, o serie de sucesos múltiples que disparen las pérdidas. Tras el repaso efectuado y la descripción que este tipo de instrumentos puede tener en la gestión del riesgo por parte de la industria aseguradora, concluiremos con la exposición de las relaciones con el reaseguro tradicional así como una breve referencia al futuro de este tipo de instrumentos

  11. AL-USRCRN Station Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Documentation of United States Alabama Regional Climate Reference Network (AL-USRCRN) installations in 2006. Installations documented are for AL-USRCRN pilot...

  12. Mercaptursäure und Nukleosidaddukt im Harn als Biomarker in 1-Hydroxymethylpyren-exponierten Ratten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lan

    2002-01-01

    1-Methylpyren (MP) ist hepatokanzerogen in neugeborenen männlichen Mäusen. Durch Hydroxylierung an der benzylischen Stelle und anschließende Sulfonierung wird MP zu DNA-reaktivem 1-Sulfooxymethylpyren (SMP) aktiviert. In der Ratte führt die Exposition des benzylischen Alkohols, 1-Hydroxymethylpyren (HMP), zur DNA-Adduktbildung in verschiedenen Geweben. Eventuelle Konsequenz der Toxifizierung ist die Ausscheidung entsprechender Mercaptursäure und Nukleosidaddukt im Harn, welche aufgrund ihrer Herkunft als Biomarker eignen könnten. In dieser Arbeit wird die Ausscheidung der Mercaptursäure und des N2-Desoxyguanosinadduktes in HMP-exponierten Ratten untersucht. Nach der Applikation von HMP bzw. MP wurden weniger als 1 % der Dosis als MPMA über Urin und Faeces ausgeschieden (0 - 48 h). Die Ausscheidung erfolgt hauptsächlich in den ersten 24 h nach der Applikation. MPdG konnte weder in Urin noch in Faeces der HMP-behandelten Tieren identifiziert werden. Nach direkter SMP-Applikation wurde MPdG nur in sehr geringe Menge (weniger als 0,9 ppm in 12 h) im Urin gefunden. Aufgrund der geringen Menge eignet sich MPdG nicht als Biomarker. MPMA dagegen, lässt sich analytisch gut erfassen. Es sollte daher untersucht werden, ob MPMA die Toxifizierung des HMP wiederspiegelt. Die Voraussetzung dafür ist die Kenntnisse über das Metabolismusmuster von HMP. Es wurde daher umfassende Untersuchungen zum Metabolismus des HMP durchgeführt. Die Ergebnisse zeigten, dass mehr als 80 % der Metaboiten in ihrer oxidierten Form (PCS, deren Glucuronsäure-Konjugate sowie phenolische Sulfatester der PCS) ausgeschieden wurden. Demnach spielt die Oxidation des HMP zu PCS eine sehr wichtige Rolle bei der Detoxifizierung und Ausscheidung von HMP. Ferne konnte nachgewiesen werden, dass die Enzyme Alkohol- und Aldehyd-Dehydrogenase an der Oxidation von HMP beteiligt waren. Die Inhibitoren Disulfiram und Ethanol der o. g. Enzyme wurde daher zur Modulation der Detoxifizierung in vivo eingesetzt. Die Veränderungen in der Toxifizierung von HMP zu SMP wurden durch die SMP-Konzentration im Plasma, die DNA-Addukthäufigkeit und die MPMA-Ausscheidung erfasst. Die Vorbehandlung von Disulfiram und Ethanol führte zu tendentielle Erhöhung der SMP-Konzentration im Plasma, DNA-Addukthäufigkeit in der Leber und die MPMA-Ausscheidung. Bemerkenswert ist jedoch, dass bereits eine Dosis von 0,2 g Ethanol/kg Körpermasse bereits zu statistisch signifikanten Erhöhungen der MPMA-Ausscheidung bei weiblichen Ratten. 1-Methylpyrene is hepatocarcinogenic in rodents. It is metabolized primarily to 1-hydroxymethylpyrene (HMP) by various cDNA-expressed rat and human cytochromes P450. HMP is activated to a highly reactive sulfuric acid ester, 1-sulfooxymethylpyrene (SMP), by sulphotransferases. In the rat, this activation pathway leads to the formation of DNA adducts in various tissues. Possible consequences of the toxification could be the excretion of the corresponding mercapturic acid and nucleosidadduct in urine and feces. Because of their origin, these substances should reflex the toxification process may be used as biomarkers. We investigate the excretion of 1-methylpyrenyl-mercapturic acid (MPMA) and the excretion of N2-(1-methylpyrenyl)-desoxyguanosin (MPdG) in urine and feces of HMP-treated rats. These studies showed that only a minor portion ( 30 %). Minor metabolites were phenolic sulpho conjugates of HMP (< 5 %). The glucuronic acid conjugate of HMP was found in very s

  13. Editorial: Cartas al Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Llanos

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En todas las revistas biomédicas del mundo existe una sección habitual denominada como el título de este editorial y que en Colombia Médica la llamamos correspondencia. Este espacio tiene como objetivo fundamental que los lectores escriban a los autores (investigadores comentando los artículos que se han publicado en números anteriores de la revista. Las cartas son, entonces, breves comentarios de desacuerdo o acuerdo (conceptual, metodológico, interpretativo sobre falencias ubicadas por un lector alerta al tema debatido en cualquiera de las secciones como en los artículos originales, editoriales, revisiones, presentación de casos, etc. publicados previamente en la revista. Las cartas deben permitir el intercambio de opiniones y formas de pensar y analizar los problemas planteados entre los autores y los lectores. En ocasiones una serie de cartas motivadas por un artículo original puede ser tan o más interesante como el artículo que generó la correspondencia. Las cartas son también un formato adecuado para comunicar un hecho novedoso de una observación clínica juiciosa no descrita antes. Un ejemplo de ello es la carta de un gineco-obstetra australiano cuando informó a Lancet los primeros efectos adversos informados de la talidomida. Colombia Médica, a pesar de mantener vigente esta sección, no ha sido muy afortunada en establecer una buena cultura del envío de cartas al editor. Pero últimamente han llegado juiciosas observaciones a las cuales se les ha dado prioridad en su publicación. Toda carta que comenta los hallazgos de un artículo es enviada a los autores para su respuesta, porque ello genera el debate académico buscado, y luego se publican, tanto la carta como su respuesta. El Estilo Vancouver recomienda que la carta y su respuesta deban ser breve, no pasar de dos o tres párrafos y contener sólo cuatro o cinco referencias. En lo posible (a menos que sea indispensable no presentar ni cuadros ni gráficos. El título de la carta debe ser informativo, innovativo y obviamente relacionado con el tema a presentar. La carta debe referirse en forma clara y explícita al hecho que la motiva y a partir de ahí seguir un esquema expositivo progresivo. Los párrafos siguientes deben ser la argumentación a favor o en contra, o los comentarios adicionales que se quieren hacer. Luego debe seguir una pequeña discusión de estos aportes y se debe finalizar con una conclusión. Las cartas son finalmente una indicador bibliométrico de la lectura juiciosa de quienes leen la revista. Por ello los editores buscamos y facilitamos el envío de ellas. En Colombia Médica queremos estimular que nos escriban y ojalá nuestros lectores se vuelvan socios muy activos en el proceso de comunicación científica y para ello utilicen nuestra sección de correspondencia.

  14. QUDRAH THALABAH QISM AL-LUGHAH AL-'ARABIYAH 'ALA FAHM AL-QASHR FI AL-AYAT AL-QUR'ANIYAH AL-TARBAWIYAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sirojudin Syah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pemahaman mahasiswa PBA UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta tentang kaidah qashr dan penerapannya pada ayat-ayat pendidikan serta mengetahui materi qashr yang perlu dikuatkan. Penelitian ini bersifat deskriptif kuantitatif. Populasi dan sampel dalam penelitian ini adalah seluruh mahasiswa jurusan PBA UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta semester 5 tahun ajaran 2013-2014. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan cara: wawancara, tes, dan dokumentasi. Berdasarkan hasil analisis data, diperoleh hasil penelitian berikut. Kemampuan mahasiswa dalam memahami kaidah qashr dinyatakan baik dengan rata-rata nilai tes 70,69. Kemampuan mahasiswa menerapkan kaidah qashr dalam ayat al-Qurʼan juga dinyatakan baik dengan rata-rata nilai tes 70,44. Mean rata-rata nilai tes adalah 70,56. Berdasarkan hasil tes, materi “qashr al-shifah ‘alâ al-maushûf dan qahsr al-maushûf ‘alâ al-shifah” perlu dikuatkan lagi dalam pembelajaran.

  15. Kirchengeschichte als Ketzergeschichte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Lanwerd

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Die katholische Theologin Daniela Müller spricht am Ende ihres Buches von der „Notwendigkeit der Ketzerei“ und begründet diesen Gedanken wie folgt: „‚Ketzer‘ und ‚Ketzerinnen‘ sind die dunklen Geschwister, ohne die man nicht so wäre wie man ist, die man deshalb so bekämpft, weil sie solch starke Gefühle mit uns teilen, weil sie die gleichen Eltern, den gleichen Ursprung haben wie wir und das gleiche Ziel: zur Familie Gottes zu gehören"; die Kirche als „Hüterin der Glaubenswahrheit“ solle daher die „Ketzergeschichte […] in den immerwährenden Prozess der Wahrheitsfindung“ einbeziehen (S. 233 f.. In diesen Prozess will auch die Autorin mit ihrer Studie eingreifen, und zwar am Beispiel der Katharerinnen, deren Geschichte sie für den Zeitraum von 1143 bis 1275 rekonstruiert; sie verfolgt das fragwürdige Ziel, die Geschichte der Katharerinnen im Modus einer emotionalen und identifikatorischen „Aneignung“ dem „eigenen Leben, der eigenen Sinngebung, der eigenen Verarbeitung“ integrieren zu wollen (S. 15.

  16. Religionspädagogik als Fachdidaktik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lehner-Hartmann

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISH: One chapter of the Austrian National Education Report 2012 explicitly discusses the role of special subject didactics in educational contexts. The considerations of the present paper are due to the fact, that the report is not concerned with religious didactics. Within the academic dialogue between theological disciplines, religious education (as an academic discipline is often connoted with the narrow understanding as “the theory of religious education in schools”. From the perspectives of other specific subject didactics and educational policy it does not seem to be evident, that religious education as an academic discipline also performs tasks of religious didactics. The present paper discusses examples of divergent views on this topic and identifies challenges for subject didactics in general. Finally, it formulates desiderata for the further development of religious didactics based on the analysis of its status quo. DEUTSCH: Im nationalen Bildungsbericht des österreichischen BIFIE des Jahres 2012 gibt es ein eigenes Kapitel über die Rolle der Fachdidaktiken. In diesem Text kommt die Fachdidaktik Religion nicht vor. Diese Wahrnehmung ist der Ausgangspunkt für die Überlegungen dieses Beitrages: Religionspädagogik wird im Gespräch zwischen den theologischen Fächern oft – verkürzt – als Theorie des Religionsunterrichtes, und damit als Fachdidaktik des Unterrichtsfaches Religion wahrgenommen. Anders verhält es sich offenbar aus einer Außenperspektive: Von Seiten anderer Fachdidaktiken oder auch von Seiten der Bildungspolitik ist es nicht von vorneherein evident, dass Religionspädagogik auch die Aufgabe einer Fachdidaktik Religion wahrnimmt. Dieser Beitrag nennt Beispiele für diese divergierenden Sichtweisen, geht Herausforderungen an Fachdidaktik insgesamt nach und formuliert auf der Grundlage einer Analyse des IST-Standes der Fachdidaktik Religion Desiderate für deren Weiterentwicklung.

  17. Corrosion behaviour of Al/SiC and Al/Al2O3 nanocomposites

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tamer Samir, Mahmoud; El-Sayed Yousef, El-Kady; Ayed Saad Merzen, Al-Shihiri.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, the static immersion corrosion behavior of Al/Al2O3 and Al/SiC nanocomposites in 1 M HCl acidic solution was evaluated. The nanocomposites were fabricated using conventional powder metallurgy (P/M) route. The effect of nanoparticulates size and volume fraction on the co [...] rrosion behavior of nanocomposites was studied. The durations of the corrosion tests ranged from 24 to 120 hours and the temperatures of the solution ranged from ambient to 75 ºC. The corrosion rates of the nanocomposites were calculated using the weight loss method. The results showed that both Al/SiC and Al/Al2O3 MMNCs have lower corrosion rates than the pure Al matrix. Such behavior was noticed at both ambient and higher temperatures. Generally, the Al/Al2O3 nanocomposites exhibited lower corrosion rates than the Al/SiC nanocomposites. The Al/Al2O3 (60 nm) nanocomposites exhibited the highest corrosion resistance among all the investigated nanocomposites. The corrosion rate was found to be reduced by increasing of the exposure time and the volume fraction of the nanoparticulates, while it was found to be increased by increasing of the nanoparticulates size and the solution temperature.

  18. Corrosion behaviour of Al/SiC and Al/Al2O3 nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Samir Mahmoud

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, the static immersion corrosion behavior of Al/Al2O3 and Al/SiC nanocomposites in 1 M HCl acidic solution was evaluated. The nanocomposites were fabricated using conventional powder metallurgy (P/M route. The effect of nanoparticulates size and volume fraction on the corrosion behavior of nanocomposites was studied. The durations of the corrosion tests ranged from 24 to 120 hours and the temperatures of the solution ranged from ambient to 75 ºC. The corrosion rates of the nanocomposites were calculated using the weight loss method. The results showed that both Al/SiC and Al/Al2O3 MMNCs have lower corrosion rates than the pure Al matrix. Such behavior was noticed at both ambient and higher temperatures. Generally, the Al/Al2O3 nanocomposites exhibited lower corrosion rates than the Al/SiC nanocomposites. The Al/Al2O3 (60 nm nanocomposites exhibited the highest corrosion resistance among all the investigated nanocomposites. The corrosion rate was found to be reduced by increasing of the exposure time and the volume fraction of the nanoparticulates, while it was found to be increased by increasing of the nanoparticulates size and the solution temperature.

  19. Relevance of 2,4 dienoyl-CoA-reductase of Leishmania mexicana and L. major for virulence

    OpenAIRE

    Paape, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Bestandteil dieser Arbeit waren zwei Proteomanalysen des Parasiten Leishmania mexicana. In der ersten wurde das Proteom von aus ihrem intrazellulären Habitat aufgereinigten Amastigoten, mit dem Proteom von Promastigoten, der extrazellulären Lebensform, verglichen. Der Fokus der zweiten Proteomanalyse war die Identifizierung von bei Amatigoten sezernierten Proteinen. Insgesamt wurden mehr als 1800 Proteine identifiziert, von denen mehr als 740 zuvor noch nicht detektiert worden waren. Diese...

  20. Alkoholische Kardiomyopathie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silberbauer K

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkoholische Kardiomyopathie (AKM ist eine spezifische Herzmuskelerkrankung, die in 2 Stadien verläuft: einem asymptomatischen und einem symptomatischen Stadium. Patienten, die mehr als 90 g Alkohol pro Tag über mehr als 5 Jahre trinken, setzen sich dem Risiko einer AKM aus. In den Frühstadien besteht eine diastolische Dysfunktion des linken Ventrikels, später entwickelt sich eine systolische Dysfunktion mit den Symptomen der Herzinsuffizienz.

  1. „Vertrieben 1938“ – Sonder-Blogserie im Van Swieten Blog der Medizinischen Universität Wien: Work in Progress über die mehr als 143 an der Medizinischen Fakultät der Universität Wien entlassenen Professoren und Dozenten / "Displaced 1938" – a special run in the Van Swieten Blog at the Medical University Vienna: Work in progress about 143+ professors and university teachers displaced from the Medical Faculty at the University Vienna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer, Bruno

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 11th March 2008 the university library at the Medical University Vienna runs the special blog series "Displaced 1938" as part of its regular Van Swieten Blog (http://ub.meduniwien.ac.at/blog/. Each day one out of 143 displaced professors and university teachers is introduced in a seperate weblog posting. Biographies from a dissertation in the library's repositoy were scanned for this particular purpose. Moreover the corresponding publications from and about the displaced persons in stock of the branch library of the history of medicine were electronically catalogued in the library's OPAC. The postings also refer to pictures and documents in the picture archives and manuscript collection at the Medical University Vienna. Links to appropriate free internet web sites are offered in the postings to further inform on the displaced professors and university teachers.

  2. Epitaxial growth of Al/Al2O3 multilayer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to obtain Al-Al2O3 quantum effect devices, it is necessary to deposit epitaxially Al on Al2O3 and Al2O3 on Al. We have already obtained an epitaxial Al/Al2O3/Al structures on Si(111). In this paper, we have deposit Al/Al2O3/Al structures on Si(111), and investigated the crystallinity by using RBS. (author)

  3. al sector industrial español

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Vargas Montoya

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La relación entre intangibles tecnológicos y resultados ha sido ampliamente estudiada. Sin embargo, son pocos los trabajos que han tratado de analizar si la forma en que se produce la acumulación de dichos recursos modifica sustancialmente el efecto que previsiblemente la inversión en intangibles tecnológicos tiene sobre los resultados empresariales. En este sentido, los argumentos teóricos utilizados nos llevan a considerar que la utilización de uno u otro método de desarrollo (interno, externo o mixto afecta de forma distinta al stock de activos tecnológicos de la empresa y, como consecuencia, a los resultados alcanzados por ésta. Las hipótesis resultantes del planteamiento teórico son contrastadas mediante un panel de empresas manufactureras españolas. Los resultados obtenidos permiten observar cómo la acumulación de activos intangibles tecnológicos es un factor relevante a la hora de explicar los resultados empresariales. Asimismo, se comprueba cómo el método de desarrollo utilizado para acceder a dichos activos influye en la intensidad con la que el gasto en I+D actúa sobre los resultados empresariales.

  4. PENSAR AL SUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Obarrio

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Este articulo explora la cuestion de la definicion y territorialidad del Sur Global, evocando categorias que en el pasado han definido el espacio del "tercer mundo" o "mundo en desarrollo", y como estas han dado paso a una nueva conceptualizacion a partir de los debates sobre globalizacion. Se postula al Sur como una forma de vida, y como un espacio de historias paralelas de poder, capital y subjetivacion.A partir de esta discusion, se plantea de que manera en el presente el Sur Global es un espacio de produccion innovador de teorizacion sobre lo social, que genera sus propias disciplinas y marcos epistemologicos.Palabras Claves: Sur Global , globalizacion, epistemologia Abstract:This article explored the definition and territorial scope of teh Global South, evoking past categories that have defined the space of the "Third world" or teh "developing world", and how they have paved the way to new conceptualiziations, since the beginning of the debate on globalization. The essays posits the South as a form of life and as a space of parallel histories of power, capital and subjectivation.Departing from this discussion, the essay poses the question about the way in which currently the Global Southconstitutes an innovative space of theorization of the social,qhich generates its own disciplines and epistemological frameworks. Keywords: Global South, globalization, epistemology

  5. Interfacial reactions and oxidation behavior of Al 2O 3 and Al 2O 3/Al coatings on an orthorhombic Ti 2AlNb alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H. Q.; Wang, Q. M.; Gong, J.; Sun, C.

    2011-02-01

    The uniform and dense Al2O3 and Al2O3/Al coatings were deposited on an orthorhombic Ti2AlNb alloy by filtered arc ion plating. The interfacial reactions of the Al2O3/Ti2AlNb and Al2O3/Al/Ti2AlNb specimens after vacuum annealing at 750 °C were studied. In the Al2O3/Ti2AlNb specimens, the Al2O3 coating decomposed significantly due to reaction between the Al2O3 coating and the O-Ti2AlNb substrate. In the Al2O3/Al/Ti2AlNb specimens, a ?-TiAl layer and an Nb-rich zone came into being by interdiffusion between the Al layer and the O-Ti2AlNb substrate. The ?-TiAl layer is chemically compatible with Al2O3, with no decomposition of Al2O3 being detected. No internal oxidation or oxygen and nitrogen dissolution zone was observed in the O-Ti2AlNb alloy. The Al2O3/Al/Ti2AlNb specimens exhibited excellent oxidation resistance at 750 °C.

  6. Undulators at the ALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's (LBL) Advanced Light Source (ALS), three 4.6 m long undulators have been completed, tested and installed. A fourth is under construction. The completed undulators include two 5.0 cm period length, 89 period devices (U5.0s) which achieve a 0.85 T effective field at a 14 mm minimum gap and a 8.0 cm period length, 55 period device (U8.0) that reaches a 1.2 T effective field at a 14 mm minimum gap. The undulator under construction is a 10.0 cm period length, 43 period device (U10.0) that is designed to achieve 0.98 T at a 23 mm gap. Undulator magnetic gap variation (rms) is within 25 microns over the periodic structure length. Reproducibility of the adjustable magnetic gap has been measured to be within +/- 5 microns. Gap adjusting range is from 14 mm to 210 mm, which can be scanned in one minute. The 5.1 m long vacuum chambers are flat in the vertical direction to within 0.74 mm and straight in the horizontal direction to within 0.08 mm over the 4.6 m magnetic structure sections. Vacuum chamber base pressures after UHV beam conditioning are. in the mid 10-11 Torr range and storage ring operating pressures with full current are in the low 10-10 Torr range. Measurements show that the uncorrelated magnetic field errors are 0.23%, and 0.20% for the two U5.Os and the U8.0 respectively and that the field integrals are small over the 1 cm by 6 cm beam aperture. Device description, fabrication, and measurements are presented

  7. Half life of 26Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The half-life of 26Al has been redetermined because of suggestions of an error in the accepted value based on its use in calculating 21Ne production rates from cosmic rays in meteorites. Two solutions of 26Al were analyzed for the specific radioactivity and mass spectrometric determination of the 26Al concentration. The half-life obtained for 26Al was 7.05 x 105 years +- 3.7% at the two sigma level. This is identical to the accepted value of 7.16 x 105 years and indicates that problems with the 21Ne production rate is not due to an erroneous half-life

  8. Al versus Si competition in FeSiAl alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In FeSiAl alloys, when Si substitutes for Al, important changes take place in the magnetism as well as in the structural properties. Alloys in the two composition series Fe75Al25-xSix (x=0, 7.5, 12.5, 17.5, 25) and Fe70Al30-xSix (x=0, 9, 15, 21, 30) were prepared by induction melting; afterwards they were crushed and then annealed in order to recover the DO3 stable phase. The deformed FeAl samples show larger lattice parameters than the ordered ones; however, this difference (Δa) decreases when Si substitutes for Al until it becomes zero (i.e. until the ordered samples and the deformed ones have the same lattice parameters). This trend is the same for both sample series and does not depend on the Fe content of the alloy. However, the magnetization has a different behaviour depending on the Fe content. For deformed Fe75Al25-xSix alloys the saturation magnetization decreases with increasing Si content while for Fe70Al30-xSix deformed alloys the saturation magnetization has a plateau in which the saturation magnetization values do not vary

  9. On the cathodic dissolution of Al and Al alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The cathodic dissolution of pure Al and AA6061 aluminum alloy is measured. • Cathodic dissolution of Al occurs with a stoichiometry of 4.62 ± 0.22 OH?/Al3+ over several orders of magnitude of cathodic current. • Cathodic dissolution of SiO2 observed at high cathodic current. • Mg2+ species precipitated on the surface perhaps in the form of MgSiO3. • Aln[Fem,Mn1?m]Si phases serve as local cathodes forming “trenches” around the intermetallic particles. - Abstract: The cathodic dissolution of aluminum and aluminum alloys is a potentially important but poorly understood phenomenon. In this work, the dissolution of pure Al and AA6061 aluminum alloy under cathodic polarizations was investigated. The dissolution rates of the base metal and minor alloying elements were measured in real time using atomic emission spectroelectrochemistry. These data were used to verify the stoichiometry of 4.62 ± 0.22 hydroxides per dissolved Al ion for pure Al. It was found that at high cathodic currents, the cathodic dissolution of SiO2 was observed while Mg2+ species precipitated on the surface perhaps in the form of MgSiO3. These precipitated solid phases did not alter the OH/Al stoichiometry. The Aln[Fem,Mn1?m]Si phases appear to serve as local cathodes accelerating Al dissolution leading to the formation of “trenches” around the intermetallic particles

  10. Schizophrenia as a disconnection syndrome. Studies with functional magnetic resonance imaging and structural equation modeling; Schizophrenie als Diskonnektionssyndrom. Studien mit funktioneller Magnetresonanztomographie und Strukturgleichungsmodellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schloesser, R. [Universitaet Jena, Psychiatrische Klinik (Germany); Universitaet Jena, Psychiatrische Klinik, Jena (Germany); Wagner, G.; Koehler, S.; Sauer, H. [Universitaet Jena, Psychiatrische Klinik (Germany)

    2005-02-01

    Aside from characteristic psychopathological symptoms, cognitive deficits are a core feature of schizophrenia. These deficits can only be addressed within the context of widespread functional interactions among different brain areas. To examine these interactions, structural equation modeling (SEM) was used for the analysis of fMRI datasets. In a series of studies, both in antipsychotic-treated and drug-free schizophrenic patients, a pattern of enhanced thalamocortical functional connectivity could be observed as an indicator for possible disruptions of frontostriatal thalamocortical circuitry. Moreover, drug-free patients and those receiving typical antipsychotic drugs were characterized by reduced interhemispheric corticocortical connectivity. This difference relative to normal controls was less in patients under atypical antipsychotic drugs. The results could be interpreted as a beneficial effect of atypical antipsychotic drugs on information processing in schizophrenic patients. The present findings are consistent with the model of schizophrenia as a disconnection syndrome and earlier concepts of ''cognitive dysmetria'' in schizophrenia. (orig.) [German] Neben der charakteristischen psychopathologischen Symptomatik stellen kognitive Defizite ein zentrales Merkmal der Schizophrenie dar. Diese Defizite koennen nur im Kontext miteinander interagierender Hirnareale verstanden werden. Zur Untersuchung dieser funktionellen Wechselbeziehungen wurden Strukturgleichungsmodelle (''structural equation modeling'', SEM) zur Auswertung von fMRT-Datensaetzen verwendet. In einer Untersuchungsreihe bei schizophrenen Patienten ergab sich sowohl bei antipsychotisch behandelten als auch bei unbehandelten Patienten ein Muster gesteigerter thalamokortikaler funktioneller Konnektivitaet als Hinweis auf eine moegliche Stoerung fronto-striato-thalamo-kortikaler Regelkreise. Unbehandelte Patienten und Patienten unter typischen Antipsychotika zeichneten sich zudem durch eine reduzierte interhemisphaerische kortikokortikale Konnektivitaet aus. Dieser Unterschied zu den Gesunden war bei den Patienten unter atypischen Antipsychotika nicht mehr in dieser Auspraegung zu beobachten, was als Ausdruck einer moeglichen positiven Beeinflussung der Informationsverarbeitung bei Patienten unter Atypika interpretiert werden koennte. Die erhaltenen Ergebnisse sind konsistent mit dem Modell der Schizophrenie als einem Diskonnektionssyndrom und frueheren Konzeptionen einer ''kognitiven Dysmetrie'' als Grundlage kognitiver Defizite bei dieser Erkrankung. (orig.)

  11. The cathodic dissolution of Al, Al{sub 2}Cu, and Al alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogle, K., E-mail: kevin-ogle@chimie-paristech.f [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, ParisTech, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Serdechnova, M.; Mokaddem, M.; Volovitch, P. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, ParisTech, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France)

    2011-01-15

    The cathodic dissolution of aluminum has been investigated for 99.99% Al, synthetic Al{sub 2}Cu, and three Al-Cu-Mg alloys: AA2024, AA7050, and AA2214 offering a range of over two orders of magnitude in hydrogen reduction activity. Atomic emission spectroelectrochemistry (AESEC) was used to directly measure the dissolution rate of the alloy components as a function of the cathodic current during potential sweep and potential step experiments. It was found that for all samples, regardless of the cathodic current density, the stoichiometric ratio of OH produced to Al dissolved varied between 1.4 and 1.8. This value is interpreted in terms of a simple model in which hydroxide generation, Al(OH){sub 3} formation/dissolution, and Al(OH){sub 4}{sup -} diffusion are kinetically coupled together. The selective dissolution of Mg and Cu is also measured and discussed.

  12. The cathodic dissolution of Al, Al2Cu, and Al alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cathodic dissolution of aluminum has been investigated for 99.99% Al, synthetic Al2Cu, and three Al-Cu-Mg alloys: AA2024, AA7050, and AA2214 offering a range of over two orders of magnitude in hydrogen reduction activity. Atomic emission spectroelectrochemistry (AESEC) was used to directly measure the dissolution rate of the alloy components as a function of the cathodic current during potential sweep and potential step experiments. It was found that for all samples, regardless of the cathodic current density, the stoichiometric ratio of OH produced to Al dissolved varied between 1.4 and 1.8. This value is interpreted in terms of a simple model in which hydroxide generation, Al(OH)3 formation/dissolution, and Al(OH)4- diffusion are kinetically coupled together. The selective dissolution of Mg and Cu is also measured and discussed.

  13. "Mediman" – Smartphone als Plattform zum Lernen? ["Mediman" – The smartphone as a learning platform?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boeder, Niklas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available [english] Mobile devices with a connection to the internet – smartphones – are seen all over the place since the popular introduction of the Apple iPhone. Similar products existed but no company managed to combine simplicity and functionality so seamlesly. Their market share increases constantly and web sites get optimised for the small display sizes (often referred to as „responsive webdesign“ otherwise the usability lacks. Students seem to like smartphones aswell and a good question is if and to what extend those devices can play a role in e-learning.„Mediman“, an adaptation of the common game Hangman has been developed for smartphones. Test users asked to complete an online questionnaire. So far, only few e-learning applications for smartphones seem to exist. This is reflected in the low usage frequency. Especially the fact that most of the test users wear a smartphone with them all the time makes it an ideal learning plattform. Short learning sessions were rated more important than continuous text. The majority of the 11 test users rated Mediman as well developed. The foremost question whether a smartphone e-learning application is feasible must be answered positive – acceptance in the test user group was shown. E-learning applications on smartphones will be an important topic in the future as market shares increase constantly. Further studies are required due to the small number of partitipants in our survey. [german] Mobile Endgeräte mit Internetzugang (Smartphones sind seit Apples revolutionärer iPhone-Markteinführung nicht mehr aus dem Alltag wegzudenken und erfreuen sich ausgesprochener Beliebtheit. Ihr Marktanteil wächst stetig und Webseitenbetreiber kommen nicht umher, ihre Webseiten an die neuen kleinen Displaygrößen und Bedienungstechniken anzupassen – häufig als „Responsive Webdesign“ beschrieben. Anwendungen, die nicht für die Anzeige auf kleinen Bildschirmen optimiert sind, schränken den Bedienkomfort ein. Auch bei Studierenden sind Smartphones sehr verbreitet und so stellt sich die Frage, ob sie nicht auch als Plattform für Lernanwendungen dienen können.„Mediman“, eine Portierung des klassischen Spielprinzips von Galgenmännchen, wurde für Smartphones entwickelt. Testbenutzer wurden dann gebeten, einen Onlinefragebogen auszufüllen. Zur Zeit scheinen nur wenige Lernanwendungen für Smartphones zu existieren, was sich in der eingeschränkten Benutzungshäufigkeit widerspiegelt. Vor allem die Tatsache, dass Smartphone-Besitzer ihre Geräte meist bei sich tragen, wird als ideale Voraussetzung gesehen, die Geräte für Lernanwendungen einzusetzen. Hier scheint vor allem das Lernen in kurzen Sitzungen von Interesse. Mediman wurde von der Mehrzahl der 11 Testbenutzer als gut umgesetzte Beispielanwendung bewertet. Die zentrale Frage der Umsetzbarkeit einer Smartphone-Lernanwendung wurde damit erreicht – die notwendige Akzeptanz scheint vorhanden.Für die Zukunft ist mit einer zunehmenden Verbreitung von Smartphones zu rechnen, sodass Lernanwendungen und –szenarien für Endgeräte mit kleinen Bildschirmen optimiert werden sollten. Aufgrund der geringen Fallzahl in der Onlineumfrage sollten weitere Untersuchungen angeschlossen werden.

  14. El miedo al rey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François FORONDA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La peur du roi. Sources et premières réflexions à propos d’une émotion aristocratique dans la Castille du XIVe siècleFace à un roi qui à présent pousse les effets de son ire jusqu’au meurtre pour faire le vide autour de lui et imposer sa différence souveraine, ses parents et les riches hommes, soit les principaux visés par cette politique de l’arbitraire qui enfreint les règles du jeu autant qu’elle contribue à les redéfinir, disent la peur (metus qu’ils ressentent, qu’ils utilisent aussi afin de donner à leur stratégie de pouvoir un fondement légitime. Et l’expression de cette émotion politique, qui tend à se muer en un stéréotype d’un discours aristocratique d’opposition, surtout présente dans les chroniques, mises ici en relation ici avec d’autres sources, notamment des correspondances, marque profondément l’histoire des relations souvent conflictuelles au sein de cette compagnie en définitive très étroite pendant un siècle, de la fin du XIIIe siècle à la fin du XIVe siècle. Cet article se propose d’ébaucher une première réflexion sur le sujet et d’en présenter les principales sources.El miedo al rey. Fuentes y primeras reflexiones acerca de una emoción aristocrática en la Castilla del siglo XIVFrente a un rey que ahora lleva hasta la muerte los efectos de su ira para hacer el vacío entorno a su persona e imponer su soberana, sus parientes y ricos hombres, o sea los principales afectados por esta política de la arbitrariedad que rompe las reglas del juego a la vez que contribuye a redefinirlas, dicen el miedo (metus que sienten, que utilizan también para darle a su estrategia de poder un fundamento legítimo. Y la expresión de esta emoción política, que tiende a convertirse en un estereotipo de un discurso aristocrático de oposición, sobre todo presente en la crónicas, aquí puestas en relación con otras fuentes, en particular cartas, marca profundamente la historia de las relaciones a menudo conflictivas dentro de esta compañia finalemente muy estrecha durante un siglo, de finales del XIII a finales del XIV. En este artículo, me propongo esbozar una primera reflexión sobre el tema y presentar sus principales fuentes.

  15. Silver segregation to \\theta' (Al2Cu)-Al interfaces in Al-Cu-Ag alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Rosalie, Julian M.; Bourgeois, Laure

    2012-01-01

    \\theta' (Al2Cu) precipitates in Al-Cu-Ag alloys were examined using high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM). The precipitates nucleated on dislocation loops on which assemblies of {\\gamma}' (AlAg2) precipitates were present. These dislocation loops were enriched in silver prior to \\theta' precipitation. Coherent, planar interfaces between the aluminium matrix and \\theta' precipitates were decorated by a layer of silver of two atomic layers in thick...

  16. Growth and Optical Properties of Al rich AlN/AlGaN Quantum Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahtamouni, T. M. Al; Nepal, N.; Nakarmi, M. L.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.

    2006-03-01

    Al rich AlGaN alloys are promising materials for the applications in the optoelectronic devices such as deep ultraviolet (UV) emitters and detectors in the spectral range down to 200 nm. AlGaN based UV emitters (?bio-chemical agent detection and medical research/ health care. To realize deep UV emission (?0.65) on AlN/sapphire templates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Deep UV photoluminescence (PL) was employed to study the optical properties of the QWs. Well width (Al composition) dependence was studied by varying the QW thickness (Al composition) with fixed x ˜ 0.65 (well width at 3 nm). Optical properties of these QWs such as the effects of alloy fluctuation, temperature, strain and piezoelectric field, carrier and exciton localizations on the quantum efficiency have been studied. Carrier and exciton dynamics were probed. Implications of our findings on the applications of Al rich AlN/AlGaN QWs for UV emitters and detectors will also be discussed.

  17. Psychoanalyse als Theorie autopoeitischer Systeme

    OpenAIRE

    Wasser, Harald

    1995-01-01

    Der Artikel vertritt die These, daß es möglich ist, die Freudsche Psychoanalyse als systemtheoretische Psychologie zu rekonstruieren. Im Vordergrund steht dabei der Versuch, psychische Systeme als codierte, in Teilsysteme differenzierte Systeme zu verstehen. Die Freudsche Unterscheidung bewußt/unbewußt ist allerdings nur dann kompatibel mit dieser Theorie der Codierung, wenn man sich von der Vorstellung trennt, psychische Systeme seien über den Operationsmodus "Bewußtsein" geschlossen.

  18. estigma tolerable al estigma intolerable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Arteaga Botello

    2006-01-01

    cristalización pasa por dos referentes de interacción y relación social al interior del espacio escolar. El primero está constituido por parámetros de normalidad y anormalidad a partir de la localización de estigmas. El segundo se encuentra, a contrapelo de la tendencia anterior, tratando de diluir los efectos de los estigmas al señalarlos como una práctica de tipificación social intolerable o inaceptable.

  19. Analysis of Venkaiah et al.'s AES Design

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Nakahara

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes impossible differential (ID) attacks on an AES variant designed by Venkaiah et al.. They claim that their cipher has improved resistance to ID attacks due to a new MixColumns matrix with a branch number 4, which is smaller than that of the original AES. We argue against this statement. The contributions of this paper include ID distinguishers for Venkaiah et al.'s cipher, and a discussion of the susceptibility of such variants to impossible differential and other modern c...

  20. Characteristics of CeCoIn5/Al/AlOx/Nb and CeCoIn5/Al/AlOx/Al tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report characteristics of CeCoIn5/Al/AlOx/Nb and CeCoIn5/Al/AlOx/Al tunnel junctions fabricated on the (0 0 1) surface of CeCoIn5 crystal platelets. The main result of this work is the observation of a low Josephson current (as compared with that expected from the Ambegaokar-Baratoff formula), which is consistent with idea that the order parameter in the heavy-fermion superconductor CeCoIn5 has unconventional pairing symmetry.

  1. Frequently Asked Questions about ALS and the ALS Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... suggested a possible link with exposure to heavy metals (e.g., lead and mercury). Other studies suggested ... It is not necessary to report a participant death to the ALS Registry. We will check death ...

  2. El pensamiento frente al arte

    OpenAIRE

    Bergmann, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Es un hecho histórico de gran importancia el que el hombre haya creado arte antes de haberse dedicado a la filosofía. Al mencionar esto no pienso en las pinturas pre-históricas que se encuentran en las cuevas de España y en el Sur de Francia, sino ante todo, en el arte egipcio y mesopotámico.  En Egipto y Mesopotamia --y Mesopotamia parece ser la región más importante -no nació sino que se creó al hombre humano, al hombre como ser arquitectónico.

  3. Medical application of 26Al

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhausen, C.; Gerisch, P.; Heisinger, B.; Hohl, Ch.; Kislinger, G.; Korschinek, G.; Niedermayer, M.; Nolte, E.; Dumitru, M.; Alvarez-Brückmann, M.; Schneider, M.; Ittel, T. H.

    1996-06-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements with 26Al as tracer were performed in order to study the aluminium metabolism and anomalies in the human body and in rats. In particular, the differences between healthy volunteers and patients with renal failure were investigated. The obtained data points of 26Al in blood and urine were described by an open compartment model with three peripheral compartments. It was found that the minimum of peripheral compartments needed to describe 26Al concentrations in blood and urine over a time period of three years is at least three.

  4. Medical application of 26Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements with 26Al as tracer were performed in order to study the aluminium metabolism and anomalies in the human body and in rats. In particular, the differences between healthy volunteers and patients with renal failure were investigated. The obtained data points of 26Al in blood and urine were described by an open compartment model with three peripheral compartments. It was found that the minimum of peripheral compartments needed to describe 26Al concentrations in blood and urine over a time period of three years is at least three. (orig.)

  5. Mehr Nähe durch mehr Partikeln? Zur verwendung der Abtönungspartikeln in persönlichen Briefen / Janika Kärk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kärk, Janika

    2008-01-01

    Partiklite esinemissagedusest isiklikes kirjades ja selle muutumisest 18., 19. ja 20. sajandi vältel ning võimalikest partiklikasutust mõjutanud teguritest. Ülevaade ka värvingupartiklite morfoloogilistest, süntaktilistest ja pragmaatilistest omadustest

  6. Die Bedeutung der postprandialen Hyperglykämie als kardiovaskulärer Risikofaktor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoppichler F

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Im Hinblick auf das hohe mikro- und makrovaskuläre Risiko von Typ-2-Diabetikern fordern Experten immer vehementer eine möglichst frühzeitige Diagnose und Therapie. Neben den prognostisch wichtigen Zielwerten für den Nüchternblutzucker und für das HbA1c rückt dabei die Vermeidung postprandialer Blutzuckerspitzen immer mehr ins Zentrum therapeutischer Bestrebungen. Der HbA1c-Wert wird nicht nur durch die Nüchtern-, sondern auch durch die postprandialen Blutzuckerspitzen mitbestimmt. Eine Reduktion des HbA1c-Wertes vermindert die diabetische Spätkomplikationsrate, wie die UKPDS darstellen konnte. Im folgenden werden die Epidemiologie und die Therapie der postprandialen Hyperglykämie mit Schwerpunkt auf die Behandlung des Diabetes mellitus Typ 2 dargestellt.

  7. AL Amyloidosis and Agent Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety Organizations Administrative Clinical Quick Links Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here AL Amyloidosis and Agent Orange Veterans who ... joints, and lungs. Symptoms include fatigue, anemia (low red blood cell count), weight loss, numbness and tingling ...

  8. Alergia al látex: Una revisión

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Oscar, Porras Madrigal.

    Full Text Available La alergia al látex de hule natural, se ha convertido en un problema importante de salud en los trabajadores de la salud y en pacientes con espina bífida e intervenciones quirúrgicas múltiples. El tratamiento curativo con inmunoterapia no produce una solución al problema.Las medidas preventivas perm [...] iten reducir la incidencia de la alergia al látex y son una mejor estrategia para intervenir en este problema de salud pública. Con el objetivo de aumentar el conocimiento sobre el problema de alergia al látex, discutimos los aspectos relacionados con historia, epidemiología, diagnóstico, prevención y tratamiento. Se definen los términos sensibilización y alergia y se describen los aspectos químicos del látex de hule natural y de sus proteínas. La definición de grupos de riesgo permite desarrollar una estrategia en las intituciones de salud que disminuye la exposición y como consecuencia las manifestaciones clínicas de los individuos sensibilizados

  9. Coaching als Grundform pädagogischer Beratung

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann, Melanie

    2004-01-01

    Basierend auf der Weiterführung einer Synthese ausgewählter theoretischer Ansätze erfolgt in der vorliegenden Arbeit die Darlegung einer formalen Verortung und theoretischen Grundlegung eines Verständnisses von Coaching als Grundform professioneller pädagogischer Beratung im Sinne eines genuin pädagogischen Bildungsgeschehens.

  10. In memory of Al Cameron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, John; Truran, James W.

    Al Cameron, who died recently (October 3, 2005) at 80, was one of the giants in astrophysics. His insights were profound and his interests were wide-ranging. Originally trained as a nuclear physicist, he made major contributions in a number of fields, including nuclear reactions in stars, nucleosynthesis, the abundances of the elements in the Solar System, and the origin of the Solar System and the Moon. In 1957, Cameron and, independently, Burbidge, Burbidge, Fowler and Hoyle, wrote seminal papers on nuclear astrophysics. Most of our current ideas concerning ele- ment formation in stars have followed from those two pioneering and historical works. Al also made many contributions in the field of Solar System physics. Particularly noteworthy in this regard was Cameron's work on the formation of the Moon. Al was also a good friend and mentor of young people. Al Cameron will be missed by many in the community both for his scientific contributions and for his friendship.

  11. Mohrrübenpolitik: Zielvereinbarungen zwischen reflexivem Management und fortgeschrittener Erbsenzählung

    OpenAIRE

    Moldaschl, Manfred

    2007-01-01

    Zielvereinbarungen finden - der Literaturlage zufolge - rasch zunehmende Verbreitung. Das mag damit erklärt werden, daß sie als Universalwerkzeug betrieblicher Gestaltung dienen können, sich gar zu einem machtvollen Mittel strategischen Managements entwickeln lassen. Einen „Quantensprung zu mehr Leistung“ verspricht etwa Bühner (2000), „mehr Motivation durch Transparenz, bessere Führung durch Controlling, und höhere Leistung durch Fairness.“ Abgesehen von der üblichen Unkenntnis der Physik, d...

  12. Emergence and development of spiritual-religious groups in the Peoples Republic of China after 1978

    OpenAIRE

    Kupfer, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    Charismatische Anführer, geheime Netzwerke und eschantologische Lehren - spirituell-religiöse Gruppierungen finden seit 1978 in der Volksrepublik mehr und mehr Anhänger. Die chinesische Regierung verfolgt sie als "häretische Lehren". Diese Studie vergleicht die Entstehung und Entwicklung christlich-inspirierter und Qigong-basierter Gruppen. Dazu analysiert sie ihre ideellen, organisatorischen und aktions-orientierten Ressourcen. Anschließend werden die Interaktionen zwischen den G...

  13. Differences in US-German Time-Allocation: Why Do Americans Work Longer Hours than Germans?

    OpenAIRE

    Schettkat, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    "Nach allgemeiner Auffassung arbeiten Amerikaner länger pro Jahr als Deutsche oder andere Europäer. Wenn jedoch die Arbeit im Haushalt einbezogen wird, ist die Gesamtarbeitszeit auf beiden Seiten des Atlantiks fast gleich. Amerikaner leisten mehr Arbeitsstunden in bezahlter Arbeit, Deutsche investieren mehr Arbeitsstunden in Hausarbeit. Dieser Beitrag untersucht, ob diese unterschiedliche Arbeitszeitverteilung durch unterschiedliche Anreizstrukturen erklärt werden kann, das heißt Steuerzwänge...

  14. Corrosion behaviour of Al/SiC and Al/Al2O3 nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Tamer Samir Mahmoud; El-Sayed Yousef El-Kady; Ayed Saad Merzen Al-Shihiri

    2012-01-01

    In the present investigation, the static immersion corrosion behavior of Al/Al2O3 and Al/SiC nanocomposites in 1 M HCl acidic solution was evaluated. The nanocomposites were fabricated using conventional powder metallurgy (P/M) route. The effect of nanoparticulates size and volume fraction on the corrosion behavior of nanocomposites was studied. The durations of the corrosion tests ranged from 24 to 120 hours and the temperatures of the solution ranged from ambient to 75 ºC. The corrosion rat...

  15. Hong et al reply to Canul-Chay et al

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, D C; Luding, S; Hong, Daniel C.; Quinn, Paul V.; Luding, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    Canul-Chay et al. [1] have conducted the segregation experiment of binary granular mixtures in a bed and subjected the bed to vibration. They report that the reverse Brazil-Nut phenomenon (RBNP) was never observed in their experiments and thus conclude that such does not exist. However, we have clearly demonstrated in [2] by Molecular Dynamics simulations that the reverse Brazil-Nut problem not only exists, but can be determined from the solid-liquid phase boundary by a scaling theory for the crossover from RBNP. Hence, instead of disputing Canul-Chay et al.'s sound experimental results [1], in this reply we want to draw the reader's attention to the experimental set up and the interpretation of the experimental results.

  16. Experimental and simulation investigations of tensile response of (Al2O3f/Al)w/2024Al composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tensile response of a 2024Al alloy reinforced with Al2O3f/Al composite wires [(Al2O3f/Al)w/2024Al composite] has been investigated by both performing tensile tests and using the finite element method (FEM). Microstructure and tensile fracture surfaces of (Al2O3f/Al)w/2024Al composites were examined using optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. It is found that the longitudinal tensile response of (Al2O3f/Al)w/2024Al composite is nearly elastic up to failure. The longitudinal tensile strength of (Al2O3f/Al)w/2024Al composite reaches its fiber bundle strength and the longitudinal elastic modulus is consistent with that predicted using the rule of mixture. The contribution of matrix is negligible to the longitudinal tensile strength but not to the modulus of elasticity. Coating composite wires (CWs) with Ni can improve the interfacial bonding between the CWs and 2024Al alloy. Diffusion annealing can further improve the interfacial bonding. The transverse tensile strength is dependent strongly on the interfacial bonding between the CWs and 2024Al alloy. The stronger the interfacial bonding, the higher the transverse tensile strength. Following the diffusion annealing, ageing treatment can improve the transverse tensile strength of (Al2O3f/Al)w/2024Al composite to a higher level due to the increased strength of matrix 2024Al alloy. To reveal the fracture mode of (Al2O3f/Al)w/2024Al composite under transverse loading, the transverse tensile response of a model material, (Al2O3f/matrix1)w/matrix2 composite, whose microstructure is similar to that of the (Al2O3f/Al)w/2024Al composite, was analyzed using FEM. FEM results indicate that, under transverse loading, the stress distribution in the (Al2O3f/matrix1)w/matrix2 composite depends on the strength of matrix2. When matrix1 and matrix2 are both pure Al, failure initiates in matrix1. When matrix1 is pure Al and matrix2 is aged 2024Al alloy, however, failure initiates in matrix2 (2024Al). Therefore, for (Al2O3f/Al)w/2024Al composites with weak interfacial bonding between CWs and 2024Al matrix, cracks initiate at interfaces between the CWs and 2024Al matrix and propagate along the interfaces and then through 2024Al matrix, resulting in the global fracture. For (Al2O3f/Al)w/2024Al composite with strong interfacial bonding between CWs and 2024Al matrix, cracks initiate in either pure Al or 2024Al alloy and then propagate in both Al and 2024Al, resulting in the global fracture

  17. Kisah Cinta Platonik Jalâl al-Dîn al-Rûmî

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zayyin Alfi Jihad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The research attempts to discover and find the very roots of love concept by Jalâl al-Dîn Rûmî to develop Sufism method, which connects human’s hearts with their God. This study employs philosophical qualitative method, which tends to be descriptive and interpretative. Using the basis of love, Jalâl al-Dîn Rûmî built sufistic epistemological foundation in the form of mystical poems. Poems are means of spiritual pilgrimage, which is performed in order to find the culmination of fusion ectacy between human and their God, i.e. Allah The Almighty.

  18. Everyday Life with ALS: A Practical Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in this one. Back to top Resources MDA ALS Division The Muscular Dystrophy Association, one of the ... 572-1717. Back to top General Resources About ALS In addition, consult the MDA ALS Caregiver’s Guide, ...

  19. Vormundschaftsrecht als Grundlage politischer Herrschaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Duncker

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In ihrer beachtlichen und sehr gewissenhaft dokumentierten Arbeit über vormundschaftliche Regentschaften im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert beschreibt Pauline Puppel unter ausführlichem Bezug auf zeitgenössische Literatur und Archivalien sowohl die allgemeine Rechtslage im damaligen Reich als auch die Anwendungsfälle in Hessen, wo zwischen 1500 und 1700 insgesamt viermal eine Landgräfin als Vormünderin des Fürsten zur Regentin ihres Landes wurde. Dies steht exemplarisch für eine bereits in der Frühen Neuzeit mögliche und nicht einmal ganz seltene Form politischer Frauenherrschaft, die bisher oft nicht hinreichend gewürdigt wurde. Puppels Untersuchung ist in zwei Hauptteile gegliedert. Der erste Teil (Das juristische Regelwerk“, S. 34-143 behandelt die zeitgenössischen Rahmenbedingungen der durch Frauen ausgeübten Vormundschaft und Regentschaft. Der zweite Abschnitt („Die Landgräfinnen von Hessen als Regentinnen“, S. 144-307 befasst sich mit der Ausfüllung dieser Regeln durch konkrete Fallbeispiele in Gestalt von Leben und Regentschaft der regierenden Landgräfinnen von Hessen.

  20. Preparation and Properties of Hot-pressed Al2O3/Al-steel Mesh-Al Laminated Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAI Ming-Min, LI Wei-Xin, LI Yan-Hui, ZHAO Wei, RAO Ping-Gen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Al2O3/Al-steel mesh-Al laminated composites with sandwich Al-steel mesh-Al layer as interlayer, which was consisted of two Al foils and one steel mesh, were prepared by vacuum hot pressing at 580? and 1.5 MPa. The results indicate that the interface of Al2O3/Al is bonded tightly and no reaction is observed. Intermetallic compound (IMC is detected in Al/steel interface which improves the connection conditions between the steel and Al. The laminated composites have much higher fracture toughness, work-of-fracture than that of the Al2O3 monolith, as well as having a close strength to Al2O3. Crack blunting and arresting, crack bridging, interface debonding, and ductile deformation of sandwich Al-steel mesh-Al layer are the main reasons for improving the toughness and work-of-fracture of laminated composites. Low-velocity impact results suggest that the Al2O3/Al-steel mesh-Al laminated composites have good impact resistance.

  1. Das Altern als gesamtgesellschaftliche Herausforderung -Konsequenzen des Wandels von Altersideen und Lebensläufen für betriebliche Arbeitsgestaltung und die Sozialpolitik

    OpenAIRE

    Franiek, Corinna

    2008-01-01

    Die Relevanz der Themen Alter, Altern, sowie demographischer Wandel wurde gerade in jüngster Zeit deutlich. Die ARD widmete sich ab dem 21. April 2008 für eine Woche verstärkt dem Thema „Mehr Zeit zu Leben“ und zeigte Chancen einer alternden Gesellschaft auf. Am 14. Juli 2008 wurde in Halle feierlich die Leopoldina zur „Nationalen Akademie der Wissenschaften“ ernannt, welche sich auch dem Thema demographischer Wandel widmen will und zusammen mit „acatech“ einen Bericht über „Chancen und Probl...

  2. Production of Al nanocomposite reinforced by Fe-Al intermetallic, Al4C3 and nano-Al2O3 particles using wet milling in toluene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Production of Al nanocomposite reinforced by Fe-Al intermetallic, Al4C3 and nano-Al2O3 particles using wet milling in toluene. ? Production of Al4C3 particles from mechanochemical reaction of Al with PCA. ? Effect of second phase particles on sintering. - Abstract: Al matrix nanocomposites were produced by wet milling of Al and nano-alumina powders in a toluene media. X-ray diffraction patterns, inductively coupled plasma, carbon measurement analysis and scanning electron microscopy show that impurities introduced by decomposition of toluene and abrasion of balls and vials are uniformly dispersed in the Al matrix as Al4C3 and Fe-Al intermetallic particles. Though producing homogenous nanocomposites, these second phase particles seem to have a retarding effect on densification of nanocomposite powders.

  3. Dynamic Modeling of ALS Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of dynamic modeling and simulation of Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems is to help design them. Static steady state systems analysis provides basic information and is necessary to guide dynamic modeling, but static analysis is not sufficient to design and compare systems. ALS systems must respond to external input variations and internal off-nominal behavior. Buffer sizing, resupply scheduling, failure response, and control system design are aspects of dynamic system design. We develop two dynamic mass flow models and use them in simulations to evaluate systems issues, optimize designs, and make system design trades. One model is of nitrogen leakage in the space station, the other is of a waste processor failure in a regenerative life support system. Most systems analyses are concerned with optimizing the cost/benefit of a system at its nominal steady-state operating point. ALS analysis must go beyond the static steady state to include dynamic system design. All life support systems exhibit behavior that varies over time. ALS systems must respond to equipment operating cycles, repair schedules, and occasional off-nominal behavior or malfunctions. Biological components, such as bioreactors, composters, and food plant growth chambers, usually have operating cycles or other complex time behavior. Buffer sizes, material stocks, and resupply rates determine dynamic system behavior and directly affect system mass and cost. Dynamic simulation is needed to avoid the extremes of costly over-design of buffers and material reserves or system failure due to insufficient buffers and lack of stored material.

  4. Eine wasserdurchlässige Dampfbremse als Hygrodiode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sagelsdorff, Ralph; Rode, Carsten

    Hohe Feuchtigkeit unde freies Wasser in Baukonstruktionen könne zu Bauphysikalischen Problemen und Schäden führen. Vor allem während der Bauphase eingebrachchtes oder durch Risse eindringendes Wasser, das bei ungünstigen Konstruktionen nur schlecht austrocknet, wird in der Winterperiode durch...... Diffusionsprozesse noch erhöht. Eine wasserdurchlässige Dampfbremse als Hygrodiode erlaubt die sichere kapillare Rückführung des Wassers zur Raumseite, wo es verdunsten kann....

  5. Der Nutzer als besserer Fachreferent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Scheuble

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Am 9. Juli 2014 veranstaltete der VDB-Regionalverband Südwest in Kooperation mit der Deutschen Nationalbibliothek in Frankfurt am Main eine Fortbildungsveranstaltung zum Thema „Der Nutzer als besserer Fachreferent?”, die sich mit Formen von und Erfahrungen mit nutzergesteuerter Erwerbung (PDA in wissenschaftlichen Bibliotheken beschäftigte.

  6. VENEZUELA: OTRA ALTERNATIVA AL NEOLIBERALISMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huber Fernández González

    2008-01-01

    con las fuerzas que se oponen al cambio y que aún no han sido derrotadas totalmente. Estas fuerzas, aunque están desprestigiadas política y socialmente, cuentan con poder económico, financiero, militar, con los medios de comunicación a su favor y con el apoyo incondicional de los Estados Unidos.

  7. Cathodic electrochemiluminescence at double barrier Al/Al2O3/Al/Al2O3 tunnel emission electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Double insulating barrier tunnel emission electrodes were fabricated by adding a new pure aluminum layer upon oxidized aluminum electrodes by vacuum evaporation and thermally oxidizing the new aluminum layer in air at room temperature. Resulting Al/Al2O3/Al/Al2O3 electrodes allow the use of various aluminum alloys in the electrode body necessary for hardness or shaping ability of the electrode while obtaining the luminescence properties of pure aluminum oxide. During electrical excitation of luminescent labels by cathodic hot electron injection into aqueous electrolyte solution, the background noise is mainly based on high-field-induced solid-state electroluminescence and F-center luminescence of the outer aluminum oxide film. The more defect states and/or impurity centers the outer oxide film contains, the higher is the background emission intensity. The present electrode fabrication method provides a considerable improvement in signal-to-noise ratio for time-resolved electrochemiluminescence (TR-ECL) measurements when the original native oxide film of the electrode body contains luminescence centers displaying long-lived luminescence. The excellent performance of the present electrodes is demonstrated by extremely low-level detection of Tb(III) chelates, luminol, Pt(II) coproporphyrin and Tb(III) labels in an immunometric immunoassay by time-resolved electrochemiluminescence

  8. Corrosion mechanism of Al, Al–Zn and Al–Zn–Sn alloys in 3 wt.% NaCl solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We elaborate Al–5Zn–xSn sacrificial anodes (x = 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.4%). • Increasing Sn amount does activate Al alloys. • The anode dissolution in NaCl initiates at precipitations where Sn is enriched. • Sn enhances uniform attack on the surface of the Al alloy. • Al–Zn–Sn anodes perform better than the Al–Zn anode. - Abstract: The effect of zinc and tin addition to pure aluminum was investigated in 3 wt.% NaCl solution. The corrosion behavior of the elaborated samples (Al, Al–Zn and Al–Zn–Sn) was studied by open circuit potential, Tafel plot and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. For the microstructure characterization, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy were used. The aluminum activation increases in the following order: Al < Al–5Zn < Al–5Zn–0.1Sn < Al–5Zn–0.2Sn < Al–5Zn–0.4Sn. The impedance measurements and the microscopic observations confirmed the great activity of Al–Zn and Al–Zn–Sn compared to pure Al. The segregation at the grain boundaries leads to intergranular corrosion

  9. Identification of Candida albicans ALS2 and ALS4 and Localization of Als Proteins to the Fungal Cell Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyer, L L; Payne, T. L.; Hecht, J E

    1998-01-01

    Additional genes in the growing ALS family of Candida albicans were isolated by PCR screening of a genomic fosmid library with primers designed from the consensus tandem-repeat sequence of ALS1. This procedure yielded fosmids encoding ALS2 and ALS4. ALS2 and ALS4 conformed to the three-domain structure of ALS genes, which consists of a central domain of tandemly repeated copies of a 108-bp motif, an upstream domain of highly conserved sequences, and a domain of divergent sequences 3? of the t...

  10. Zur ethischen Imagination: Gespräche als Praxis und Komitees als Gatekeeper

    OpenAIRE

    Redwood, Sabi; Todres, Les

    2006-01-01

    Das Gespräch, aus dem Auszüge im Folgenden wiedergegeben werden, entstand im Rahmen der Vorbereitung für eine erziehungswissenschaftliche Doktorarbeit zu ethischen Entscheidungsprozessen in der qualitativen Forschung in Gesundheitssettings. Wir hoffen, dass Leser und Leserinnen, die unsere Bedenken gegenüber der Art und Weise teilen, wie qualitative Studien in diesem Feld begutachtet werden, zu dem hier eröffneten Gespräch beitragen, so dass wir als Gemeinschaft von Forscherinnen und Forscher...

  11. Large rectification magnetoresistance in nonmagnetic Al/Ge/Al heterojunctions

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Magnetoresistance and rectification are two fundamental physical properties of heterojunctions and respectively have wide applications in spintronics devices. Being different from the well known various magnetoresistance effects, here we report a brand new large magnetoresistance that can be regarded as rectification magnetoresistance: the application of a pure small sinusoidal alternating-current to the nonmagnetic Al/Ge Schottky heterojunctions can generate a significant direct-current volt...

  12. The temperature dependence of elasticity modulus for TiAl and Ni3Al – basic alloy components for turbine rotor blade. ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ??????????????? TiAl ? Ni3Al – ???????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??????.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?. ?. ????????

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Possibility of theoretical determination of elastic characteristics for intermetallides on the example of TiAl and Ni3Al on the base of electrostatic nature of elasticity is demonstrated. Elaborated method is able for using for computing modeling of mono- and polycrystal materials under conditions of experimental data absence. ????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ???? ?? ?????? ?????????????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????????? ?? ??????? TiAl ? Ni3Al. ????????????? ????? ????? ???????????? ??? ????????????? ????????????? ????- ? ??????????????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ????????????????? ??????.

  13. Grain boundary diffusion of Al in Mg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grain boundary diffusion of Al in polycrystalline Mg was measured from diffusion couple experiments between 603 and 693 K by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy microanalysis. Grain boundary diffusion of Al is found to increase with increasing misorientation between adjacent Mg grains, and the grain boundary diffusion coefficients of Al can be two orders of magnitude faster than the volume diffusion of Al in Mg. The difference between grain boundary and volume diffusion of Al becomes larger at lower temperatures

  14. Al-Anon and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermak, T L

    1989-01-01

    The history of Al-Anon and its current demographics are reviewed. In order to understand 12-step recovery and psychotherapy for family members of alcoholics, the concept of codependence is defined with a set of diagnostic criteria consistent with the DSM-III-R definition of personality traits and disorders. At the core of codependence are denial and an unrealistic relationship to willpower. The therapeutic implications of considering codependence as a personality disorder are explored, as are the characteristics that make codependence unique among personality disorders: the central role of denial and the existence of a self-help organization to facilitate recovery. The dynamics of working the 12 steps on codependent characteristics are outlined. A synergistic relationship between psychotherapy and the 12 steps is described. Special attention is given the emergence of Al-Anon adult children of alcoholic meetings, and the future of codependence is discussed. PMID:2648500

  15. Blut ist dicker als Wasser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Benöhr-Laqueur

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Der Band basiert auf Beiträgen des an der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin angesiedelten Forschungsprojektes „Verwandtschaft als Repräsentation sozialer Ordnung und sozialer Praxis: Kulturen der Zusammengehörigkeit im Kontext sozialer und reproduktionsmedizinischer Transformationsprozesse”. In dreizehn Artikeln wird anhand der Länder Deutschland, Türkei und Großbritannien der Frage nachgegangen: „Wie macht man Verwandtschaft?“ Angesichts des unaufhaltsamen Voranschreitens der Reproduktionsmedizin ist die Lektüre dieses Bandes vorbehaltlos zu empfehlen.

  16. Net als in de film

    OpenAIRE

    Visser, D.J.G.; Vrendenbarg, C.J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Een MOOC is een relatief nieuw fenomeen dat is overgewaaid uit de Verenigde Staten. De “MOOC mania” ontstond daar zo’n twee jaar geleden aan Stanford University, toen hoogleraren Thurn en Norvig de gratis online cursus getiteld ‘An Introduction to Artificial Intelligence’ aankondigden op YouTube. Een maand na de aankondiging hadden zich meer dan 120.000 geïnteresseerden aangemeld. De cursus werd uiteindelijk door ruim 160.000 deelnemers gevolgd, waarvan 23.000 het examen haalden. Al snel volg...

  17. Al Zubarah - eine vergessene Legende

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinzel, Moritz

    2014-01-01

    Die im 18. Jahnhundert an der Nordwestküste Katars entstandene Handelsstadt Al Zubarah bildet den Forschungsschwerpunkt des Qatar Islamic Archaeology and Heritage Projects (QIAH), das die Universität Kopenhagen in Zusammenarbeit mit der Katarischen Museumsbehörde (QMA) seit 2009 durchführt. Neben der archäologischen Erforschung der Stadtanlage und ihrer Elemente, stehen die Erhaltung und Präsentation des Fundortes und seiner Bauten von Anfang an ebenfalls im Fokus der Arbeiten. Auf Grundlage der...

  18. Wilayat al-Faqih Baina al-Fiqhiyyah wa al-Kalamiyyah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khalid Muslih

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The early fourteenth century of Hijra is a new transitional phase for the historical development of Syiah Imamiyah. This can be traced by their success in establishing an Islamic state using 12 Imam Ideology which is based on “Welayat al-Faqih” system. This system is the antithesis of the theory of al-ghaibah al- kubra, which until now has been running more than 1000 years and has forbidden Shiite followers to perform various social, political and religious activities until reappearance of Imam Mahdi. As a result, many teachings of the religion cannot be applied. If this condition  continues, the Islamic teachings will be destructed in the future, so that the bearer of this idea see the necessity for the fuqaha ‘(scholars’ of Shiite who have reached the degree of “Mujtahid” to take over the role of Imam Mahdi in establishing and leading the Islamic State, thus, a guardian Jurist in a country which is built up under the system of welayat faqih, holds a supreme power, who covers the whole territory granted to the Prophet and the Imams. In spite of  saying that welayat fakih included in the category of Islamic jurisprudence, the Shiite Jurists argue that it has a dimensions of kalam, as it also discusses the problem of  “af ’âlullâh”. Eventually, the form of  the State born cannot be avoided from the format of  “Theocracy”. historical development of Syiah Imamiyah. This can be traced by their success  in establishing an Islamic state using 12 Imam Ideology which is based on  "Welayat al-Faqih" system. This system is the antithesis of the theory of  al- ghaibah al-kubra, which until now has been running more than 1000 years and  has forbidden Shiite followers to perform various social, political and religious  activities until reappearance of Imam Mahdi. As a result, many teachings of  the religion  cannot be applied. If this condition  continues, the Islamic teachings will be destructed in the future, so that the bearer of this idea see the necessity for the fuqaha '(scholars' of Shiite who have reached the degree of "Mujtahid" to take over the role of Imam Mahdi in establishing and leading the Islamic State, thus, a guardian Jurist in a country which is built up under the system of  welayat faqih, holds a supreme power, who covers the whole territory granted to the Prophet and the Imams. In spite of saying that welayat fakih included in the category of Islamic jurisprudence, the Shiite Jurists argue that it has a dimensions of kalam, as it also discusses the problem of "af'âlullâh". Eventually, the form of the State born cannot be avoided from the format of "Theocracy".  

  19. Laser-driven performance of the Al/Al2O3/Al multi-layer flyer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaojie; Wu, Lizhi; Shen, Ruiqi; Ye, Yinghua; Hua, Tianli

    2013-12-01

    To assess the effect of the Al2O3 layer on the performance of a laser-driven flyer, the photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV) and the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric film were used. The experiment results show that because of the addition of Al2O3 insulation layer the velocity of the Al/Al2O3/Al multi-layer flyer decreased 4.8% in comparison with the Al single-layer flyer, but the impact stress increased 61.4%, up to 870 MPa at 248 mJ laser energy. Moreover, the planarity and the integrity of the flyer plate were improved.

  20. Casting fabrication of in situ Al3Ti-Al composites and their wear behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Tijun; Li Jian; Hao Yuan

    2009-01-01

    The Al3Ti intermetallic reinforced pure Al, Al-13Si and Al-17Cu matrix composites were prepared by casting method. Their microstructures and dry sliding wear behaviors at room temperature and 100? were particularly investigated. The results indicated that the Al3Ti phases in these composites were all in fl aky form. But the aspect ratio of the Al3Ti platelets decreased with the increase of Ti content in the pure Al, Al-Cu and Al-Si matrix composites, in order of effectiveness. The effect of S...

  1. The Structure and Main Issues of “al-Tasdid” of Husam al-Din al-Syghnaqi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniyar B. Shalkarov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of the theological maturidia in the Central Asia was developed by the majority of outstanding scientists in the Turkic area and was known from generation to generation with manuscripts. One of these famous scientists was Abu al-Mu‘in al-Nasafi. In Central Asia, in the branch of the Islamic kalam theology there were the works “Tabsira al-Adilla”, “Bahr al-Kalam”, “al-Tamheed li qawa‘id al-Tawheed”, which considered the issues of maturidia theological study. In the XIV century the great scientist from Syghanaq Husam al-din al-Syghnaqi made a detailed research of the work “al-Tamheed li qawa‘id al-Tawheed” of Abu al-Mu‘in al-Nasafi and wrote the work “al-Tasdeed fi sharh al-Tamheed” by giving a full explanation of all questions relating to the issue. This article considers the content and the kept versions in the World libraries and the importance of this work for today. There is a different information about the original version of the manuscript. The first, the manuscript is by Amca Zade Huseyn 309 number, written by Husam al-din al-Syghnaqi personally and kept in the turkic library. This information is written in the work “Syghanaq Sanlagi/ The star of the Syghanaq” of Shamshaddin Kerim, the second manuscript is kept in the Egypt Arabic Republic, in the library “Dar al-Kutub Misrya”. It is written in this manuscript, that the manuscript was published in 1125 according hizhra calendar. Therefore the article gives an explanation of the main maturidia kalam principles, which cover five chapters of the work. 

  2. Auf dem Weg zu mehr Gleichheit? Sozialpolitik in Brasilien und Chile nach dem „Linksruck“

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Fischer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In dem Beitrag werden die sozialpolitischen Initiativen in der Regierungsperiode von Michelle Bachelet (2006–2011 in Chile und von Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (2003–2011 in Brasilien dargestellt. Beide sozialdemokratischen Regierungen markieren im jeweiligen nationalen Kontext einen Linksruck. Die Untersuchung geht der Frage nach, ob die Reformen eine gleichheitsfördernde Wirkung entfaltet haben und einen Bruch mit neoliberalen Paradigmen in der Sozialpolitik bedeuten. Um die aktuellen Veränderungen einschätzen zu können, werden diese in einen größeren historischen und politökonomischen Kontext eingebettet. Die Analyse der Wohlfahrtsregime der beiden Länder stützt sich auf den institutionalistischen Zugang von Esping-Andersen. Mit Bezug auf Kategorien wie Universalisierung, De-Kommodifizierung/Anti-Wert, De-Familialisierung und Informalität wagen die AutorInnen am Ende eine Einschätzung, inwiefern unter Lula und Bachelet sozialdemokratische Politik betrieben wurde.

  3. Airborne aerial power line inspection; Luftgestuetzte Inspektion von Freileitungssystemen. Helikopter fuer Inspektionen heute nicht mehr wegzudenken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, B.A. [NDT Application, Pergam-Suisse AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2008-11-03

    Germany is proud: in 2007 the energy customers had to accept only 19 min of power cut on average. One reason for this is the good maintenance of the aerial power lines. It is not possible to achieve this without the use of helicopters. To make this method more effective Pergam-Suisse used the existing knowledge and experience from the airborne gas leak detection to realize a concept for power line inspection: A 4-axis stabilized gimbal, equipped with a measuring high resolution thermal imaging camera, a visual camera and a GPS module for mounting on several types of helicopters. (orig.)

  4. Energy conservation potentials of up to 35% and more; Einsparpotenziale von 35 % und mehr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimberg, Thorsten; Knetsch, Joerg; Martin, Lars; Wagner, Steffen [Rittal GmbH und Co. KG, Herborn (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    The automobile industry sets standards in many areas such as in the topic energy efficiency. Thus, the innovation alliance 'Green Carbody Technologies' aims to realizes a car body manufacturing with 50% lower energy consumption. One of the subprojects within the research project concerned itself with an energy efficient air conditioning of switch control boxes. The company Rittal GmbH and Co. KG (Herborn, Federal Republic of Germany) is involved in this subproject. First results of this subproject are described now.

  5. Risked a lot and won a lot more; Viel gewagt, mehr gewonnen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Torsten

    2013-07-05

    What do 7,300 inhabitants with a 90 hectare great ammunition depot of the Bundeswehr? They build a bioenergy park. This courageous decision not only attracts hordes of visitors to Saerbeck, it also provides for regular incomes. [German] Was fangen 7.300 Einwohner mit einem 90 ha grossen Munitionsdepot der Bundeswehr an? Sie bauen einen Bioenergiepark. Die mutige Entscheidung lockt nicht nur Heerscharen von Besuchern nach Saerbeck, sie sorgt auch fuer regelmaessige Einnahmen.

  6. Das Informatik-Forum Stuttgart - mehr Dialog zwischen Theorie und Anwendung notwendig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieber, Ludwig

    Mit der Gründung des Informatik- Forum Stuttgart wird seit 1996 eine Plattform angeboten, die den Dialog zwischen der universitären Forschung, der Informatikausbildung und der IT-Wirtschaft in der Region Stuttgart intensivieren soll. In der Informatik hat sich eine Lücke zwischen Theorie und Anwendung entwickelt. Es ist nicht erkennbar, dass diese Lücke kleiner wird, eher das Gegenteil zeichnet sich ab. Verglichen mit anderen Branchen besteht die Gefahr, dass Anwender wesentlich später von Erkenntnissen aus der Forschung profitieren. Der entstandene Interaktionsstau zwischen Theorie und Anwendung der Informatik sollte abgebaut werden. An einigen Beispielen wird aufgezeigt, wo das besonders wichtig erscheint.

  7. Das Human Factors Projekt im Wilhelminenspital - mehr Sicherheit in der Medizin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lass H

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available "Aus Fehlern lernt man" ? jedoch nur dann, wenn dieses Thema auch offen angesprochen wird. Um die Patientensicherheit an der Gynäkologisch- Geburtshilflichen Abteilung des Wilhelminenspitals zu optimieren, kommen seit nunmehr zwei Jahren Methoden der Human-Factors-Forschung zur Anwendung. Diese Sicherheitsinstrumente werden in der Luftfahrt bereits seit Jahrzehnten erfolgreich angewandt und sind zum Teil sogar gesetzlich vorgeschrieben. Zentrales Anliegen ist hierbei die genaue Analyse der sicherheitsrelevanten Abläufe und somit ein kritisches Hinterfragen der täglichen Routine. Denn bevor ein Mensch einen Fehler begehen kann, muß er zuerst die passenden Voraussetzungen dafür vorfinden: im System. Der Einsatz von Analysegruppen und Checklisten bietet in diesem Zusammenhang die Möglichkeit, zum einen die Genese von Fehlern exakt zu überprüfen und zum anderen mit Hilfe eines klaren Leitfadens Unsicherheiten bereits im Vorfeld zu reduzieren. Höchstleistungen in der Medizin sind nur dann möglich, wenn hochqualifizierte Menschen unter ebenso qualitativ hochwertigen Bedingungen zusammenarbeiten können. Effiziente und wertschätzende Kommunikation im Team bildet die Grundlage für eine solche Zusammenarbeit. Und genau hier setzt der Human-Factors-Gedanke an: In einer Arbeitsumwelt, die von enormer Verantwortung, Stress und Leistungsdruck geprägt ist, muß der wichtigste Sicherheitsfaktor gestärkt und gesichert werden: der Mensch.

  8. Der Licht-Turbo - mehr Tempo für Datennetze

    OpenAIRE

    Thévenaz, Luc; Schneider, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Licht breitet sich mit rund 300 000 Kilometer pro Sekunde aus – aber nur im Vakuum. Forscher können dieses Tempo mittlerweile fast beliebig reduzieren und in speziellen Materalien sogar Lichtpulse speichern. Doch ihre Fantasie reicht noch weiter: Neue optische Technologien könnten den weltweiten Datenverkehr deutlich beschleunigen.

  9. More effectivity in the gas supply through network codes; Mehr Effektivitaet bei der Gasversorgung durch Netzkodizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremer, Andreas [EVB Energy Solutions GmbH, Velbert (Germany). EVB Akademie

    2013-02-15

    Already in the year 2003, the European Commission has regulated the complete opening of the market by means of the regulation 2003/55/EG in order to develop the European Single Market positively. Practically, in Germany industrial customers can freely choose their gas suppliers since 1st July, 2004, while private customers can choose their gas suppliers since 1st July, 2007. The regulation 2003/55/EG is valid for the gas market inclusive natural gas, liquefied natural gas (LNG), biogas, gas from biomass and any other types of gas which can be transported through the natural gas distribution system.

  10. Biogas - more courage to compete in the market; Biogas. Mehr Mut zum Markt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasch, Karl-Heinz [EnD-I AG, Halle (Saale) (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    Biogas has excellent prospects for becoming the fastest growing renewable energy resource in Germany over the coming decades. Its great versatility in application (electricity, heat, drive energy), and its good storability open up a wide array of opportunities. However, the biogas industry will harm itself if it continues to insist on the enactment of a renewable gas feed law with statutory remuneration rates. This would not only curb the profit opportunities that result from the great versatility of biologically produced gas but would even create economic risks. What the market really needs on the other hand is nondiscriminatory access for biomethane suppliers to the German natural gas grid and their participation in the market as equal partners.

  11. More PV systems in noise protection walls; Mehr Gehoer fuer PV im Laermschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2009-07-01

    Photovoltaic systems are rarely installed on noise protection walls although according to the EEG they would receive the same reimbursement as roof-mounted systems. Politicians and officials tend to neglect the issue, but some interested companies and administrative staff members are making attempts to promote the combination of photovoltaic systems and noise protection walls along roadways and railways. (orig.)

  12. Fire-detection systems: Microprocessors for increased safety. Brandmeldesysteme: Mehr Sicherheit durch Mikroprozessoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderhub, W. (Zettler AG, Naefels (Switzerland))

    1990-06-01

    With the help of microprocessor engineering a fire detection system has been developed which does not have the disadvantage of false alarm occurring with conventional fire detectors. A microcomputer placed in the central office controls four transmission lines with up to 32 sensors. These do not give an alarm signal any more but a signal which is analogous to the fire parameter, the measured value. The measured value depends on the environmental conditions such as atmospheric humidity, temperature, atmospheric pressure, and aerosole content of the air at the location of the sensor. Thus also fire fighting systems can be centrally controlled (shutting of fire doors, opening of smoke vents, automatic control of extinguishing systems, disconnection of the machines in the area at risk). (BWI).

  13. Entwicklung von kristallisierenden Glasloten für planare Hochtemperatur-Brennstoffzellen

    OpenAIRE

    Geasee, Pisit

    2003-01-01

    Glas- und Glaskeramiklote wurden für planare Hochtemperatur-Brennstoffzellen enwickelt. Die Anforderung an das Glaslot war: hoher thermischer Ausdehnungskoeffizient (11.0-12.0×10-6 K-1), hoher elektrischer Widerstand (mehr als 2 kW/cm2), gute thermochemische Kompatibilität mit den übrige Werkstoffen der Brennstoffzelle und Langzeitstabilität in H2- und H2O- Atmosphäre bei 800 oC für mehr als 40,000 Stunden. Als Ergebnisse werden der kristalline Phasenbestand, der Benetzungswinkel, die Fügeeig...

  14. Magnetic behaviour of RCuAl compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied structural and magnetic properties of the RCuAl (R=rare earth) intermetallic compounds by means of X-ray diffraction, susceptibility, magnetization and specific heat measurements. Magnetic ordering at low temperatures was observed in most of these materials. Results provide indications of ferromagnetic coupling in the heavy rare-earth compounds (R=Gd-Er), while PrCuAl and NdCuAl show antiferromagnetic behaviour. Additional magnetic phase transition in the ordered state was found in GdCuAl and DyCuAl. A metamagnetic transition was observed in DyCuAl. (orig.)

  15. Density functional theory study of Al{sub 23}, Al{sub 26} and Al{sub 92} clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, A; Halls, M D; Kung, P; Liang, J-J [Materials Science Division, Accelrys Inc., 10188 Telesis Ct., San Diego, CA 92121 (United States)], E-mail: agoldberg@accelrys.com

    2009-06-28

    In this paper we present results of the structural, energetic and electronic properties of Al{sub n} (n = 23, 26, 92) clusters calculated using density functional theory (DFT). Our main focus is the highly symmetric and energetically stable hollow Al{sub 92} cluster. This cluster appears as a natural extension of the smaller clusters, Al{sub 23} and Al{sub 26}, that manifest similar structural motifs of pentagonal and hexagonal pyramids. The Al{sub 92} cluster maintains I{sub h} symmetry and its central framework is similar to the structure of the well-known C{sub 60} fullerene and the recently reported B{sub 80} cluster. It has an additional Al atom below each hexagon centre and another one above each pentagon plane. To the best of our knowledge Al{sub 92} is the largest Al hollow cluster studied so far.

  16. Alergia al semen / Semen allergy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Laura, Franco Cuadros; Jenniffer, Puerta Suárez; Ángela, Cadavid Jaramillo; Walter, Cardona Maya.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La alergia al semen comprende una variedad de síntomas tanto locales como sistémicos causados por reacciones de hipersensibilidad inmediata y caracterizados por títulos elevados de IgE. El objetivo de este estudio es describir el caso de una paciente con alergia al semen: mujer de 21 años de edad qu [...] e presenta ardor y sensación de quemazón en el área genital luego de tener contacto con el semen de su pareja. El análisis seminal del compañero sexual no presenta ningún tipo de alteración. Los síntomas desaparecen con el uso de condón o con la práctica del coito interrumpido. La alergia al semen es una alteración, que si bien es poco frecuente, puede afectar los deseos de concepción de las mujeres que la presentan, es un fenómeno poco estudiado por lo que se requieren más reportes para su caracterización. Abstract in english Semen allergy includes several local and systemic symptoms caused by immediate hypersensitivity reactions and it is characterized by high levels of IgE. The objective of this study was to describe the case of a patient with semen allergy. A 21 year-old woman experienced itching and burning sensation [...] in the genital area after contact with the semen of her sexual partner. Semen analysis was normal. Symptoms disappear with the use of condom or the practice of coitus interruptus. Semen allergy is a condition, although rare, can affect the desire of conceiving in women who suffers it. It is a briefly studied phenomenon which requires more reports for proper characterization.

  17. Jongerenwerk als werkplaats voor professionalisering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Metz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Partnership approach as alternate professionalization strategy for youth work In the Netherlands, there is a growing debate on the need for the professionalization of youth work practice. There is a consensus on the necessity and relevance of professionalization. Opinions differ however on the appropriate pathways towards professionalization. Classic professionalization strategies, with a focus on the gathering of scientific experimental evidence, often do not match with the complex and flexible nature of youth work practice. To gain insight in alternative strategies, providers of youth work and study programs in Amsterdam joined forces and set up Youth Spot, a research and practice centre for youth work. This article describes how the centre, youth work organizations, education and researchers cooperate in the professionalization of youth work. On the one hand this article provides insight in youth work’s own professionalism and, on the other hand, it offers experiences with an alternate professionalization strategy. Jongerenwerk als werkplaats voor professionalisering Dit artikel beschrijft hoe opleidingen, welzijnsorganisaties en onderzoekers samenwerken in de professionalisering van het jongerenwerk tegen de achtergrond van het debat over professionalisering van de sociaal agogische beroepen. Het probleem met klassieke professionaliseringstrategieën, met wetenschappelijke experimentele kennis als norm, is dat zij niet altijd goed aansluiten bij de complexiteit en flexibiliteit van de uitvoeringspraktijk. Vraag is: wat dan wel? In Amsterdam richten opleidingen en werkveld in 2008 Youth Spot op, het onderzoek- en praktijkcentrum voor jongerenwerk, met als doel om gezamenlijk te werken aan de profilering, professionalisering en praktijkontwikkeling van het jongerenwerk. Dit artikel belicht de aanleiding voor het ontstaan van Youth Spot, de structuur van de samenwerking, de ervaringen met de wijze van samen werken en de meerwaarde voor de professionalisering van het grootstedelijk jongerenwerk. Daarmee biedt dit artikel enerzijds een kijkje in de keuken van het (grootstedelijke jongerenwerk en anderzijds biedt zij inzicht in ervaringen met alternatieve professionalisering strategieën.

  18. From Kit?b al-?ad?’iq to Kit?b al-daw?’ir: Reconsidering Ibn al-S?d al-Batalyaws?’s Philosophical Treatise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliyahu, Ayala

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The philosophical treatise known as Kit?b al-?ad?’iq is generally ascribed to the 12th century Andalusian author Ibn al-S?d al-Batalyaws?, although this attribution is sometimes contested. This paper offers a new interpretation of the title, textual history, authorship, sources, and literary genre of this treatise, on the basis of new textual evidence, a reexamination of known evidence, and a comparison between the treatise and Batalyaws?’s works. The conclusions of this study are first, that Kit?b al-?ad?’iq was not the treatise’s original title, and therefore it should be renamed Kit?b al-daw?’ir; second, that Kit?b al-daw?’ir was originally part of (one of the versions of Batalyaws?’s Kit?b al-mas?’il; and third, that the textual and stylistic similarities between this treatise and Batalyaws?’s other works prove the authenticity of the treatise’s attribution to Batalyaws?. In addition, new findings regarding Batalyaws?’s use of formulas from the Ras?’il Ikhw?n al-Saf?, in Kit?b al-daw?’ir and Kit?b al-mas?’il provide further evidence for the deep impact of the Ikhw?n on Batalyaws?’s thought, as well as for the close connection between Kit?b al-daw?’ir and Kit?b al-mas?’il. This connection is further highlighted according to the attribution of both treatises to the genre of questions and answers in Arabic literature. The evidence gathered in this paper supports the claim that Batalyaws?’s Kit?b al-daw?’ir should be seen as an integral part of his literary oeuvre, as well as of Andalusian philosophical literature in general.Generalmente el tratado filosófico conocido como Kit?b al-?ad?’iq se asocia al autor andalusí del siglo XII Ibn al-Sid al-Batalyaws?, aunque esta atribución ha sido discutida en ocasiones. Este artículo ofrece una nueva interpretación del título, la historia del texto, la autoría, las fuentes e incluso del género literario al que se adscribe este tratado, teniendo en cuenta su texto, una revisión de los datos ya conocidos y la comparación entre este tratado y el resto de la producción de al-Batalyaws?. Como conclusión se propone, en primer lugar, que el Kit?b al-?ad?’iq no es el título original del tratado, sino que debe ser Kit?b al-daw?’ir. Por otro lado, este Kit?b al-daw?’ir era originalmente parte (una de las versiones del Kit?b al-mas?’il de al-Batalyaws?. En tercer lugar, las similitudes textuales y estilísticas entre este tratado con otras obras de al-Batalyaws? prueban su autoría. Además, el uso que al-Batalyaws? hace de fórmulas que ya encontramos en las Ras?’il Ikhw?n al-Saf?, y que aparecen en sus Kit?b al-?ad?’iq y Kit?b al-mas?’il, profundizan en la hipótesis del impacto que las Ras?’il causaron en el pensamiento del autor, así como en la estrecha conexión que existe entre el Kit?b al-?ad?’iq y el Kit?b al-mas?’il. De hecho, esta conexión resulta más clara cuando se atribuyen ambos tratados al género de «preguntas y respuestas» en la literatura árabe. Este artículo demuestra, por tanto, que el Kit?b al-daw?’ir de al-Batalyaws? debe entenderse como parte de su obra literaria y, así, como parte de la producción filosófica andalusí.

  19. The ALS project: lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monckton, Simon; Collier, Jack; Giesbrecht, Jared; Broten, Greg; MacKay, David; Erickson, David; Verret, Sean; Digney, Bruce

    2006-05-01

    In support of Canadian Forces transformation, Defence R&D Canada (DRDC) has established an ongoing program to develop machine intelligence for semi-autonomous vehicles and systems. Focussing on mine clearance and remote scouting for over a decade, DRDC Suffield has developed numerous UGVs controlled remotely over point-to-point radio links. Though this strategy removes personnel from potential danger, DRDC recognized that human factors and communications bandwidth limit teleoperation and that only networked, autonomous unmanned systems can conserve these valuable resources. This paper describes the outcome of the first autonomy project, Autonomous Land Systems (ALS), designed to demonstrate basic autonomous multivehicle land capabilities.

  20. The ALS Gun Electronics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ALS Gun Electronics system has been designed to accommodate gun with a custom made socket and high speed electronics circuit which is capable of producing single and multiple electron bunches with time jitters measured at better than 50 PS. The system generates the gated RF signal at ground level before sending it up to the 120 KV-biased gun deck via a fiber optic cable. The current pulse width as a function of grid bias, using an Eimac 8847A planar triode simulating an electron gun, was measured to show the relationship between the two parameters

  1. Aproximación al derecho concursal colombiano.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jose Rodriguez Espitia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Con ocasión de la reciente modificación a que se vió sometido el régimen concursal colombiano, el presente artículo pretende aprovechar esa oportunidad con el propósito de abordar algunos temas relacionados con la insolvencia empresarial, y que no obstante ser añejos, a raíz de la mentada reforma, readquieren vigencia académica. El autor pretende mediante una aproximación histórica completada de referencias prácticas, poner de presente al lector temas y puntos álgidos que dentro de la evolución del derecho concursal se encuentran aún en punto de discusión.

  2. Aproximaciones cientificas al mestizo mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Lopez-Beltran

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La categoría colonial del mestizo fue un recurso ideológico, formador de la identidad nacional en la posrevolución mexicana. El eje indio-mestizo sirvió para organizar las interacciones étnicas y las políticas del estado. Médicos y antropólogos reforzaron esta taxonomía dual en estudios de poblaciones humanas, produciendo con marcadores biomédicos y descripciones diferenciadas del indio y del mestizo. Las descripciones genómicas han contribuido tanto a la construcción de una noción cientificista del mestizo arraigada en porcentajes de ancestría india, europea y africana, como al surgimiento de dos objetos tecnocientíficos que llamamos el mestizo molecular y el mestizo bioinformático. Aquí describimos las interacciones entre las encarnaciones ideológicas y científicas del mestizo.

  3. Bioética frente al paciente moribundo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laides Luna Vázquez

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo y transversal en el Servicio de Cuidados Intermedios del Hospital Clinicoquirúrgico "Dr. Ambrosio Grillo Portuondo" de Santiago de Cuba, con el objetivo de analizar la aplicación de la bioética frente al paciente moribundo. El universo estuvo constituido por 42 fallecidos en el segundo semestre de 1996. Las principales causas de muerte fueron las neumopatías inflamatorias y los accidentes vasculares encefálicos, con predominio de los varones mayores de 60 años; la mayoría de los enfermos al fallecer tenía pérdida de la conciencia, no siempre afectada por enfermedad; en uno de ellos por indicación facultativa al estar acoplado a ventiladores artificiales. La participación de la enfermera y la relación activopasiva, que es la fundamental en relación con el cumplimiento de los principios bioéticos, resultó positiva en todos los casos. Se actuó con beneficencia y justicia al respetar la autonomía del moribundo, donde el consentimiento informado desempeñó un papel importante, sin llegar a la práctica de la eutanasia en ninguna de sus variantes, ya que este proceder en nuestra sociedad implicaría un delito de homicidio.A descriptive, retrospective and cross-sectional study was conducted at the Service of Intermediate Care of the "Dr. Ambrosio Grillo Portuondo" Clinical and Surgical Hospital, in Santiago de Cuba, aimed at analyzing the application of bioethics in the dying patient. The universe was composed of 42 persons that died in the second semester of l996. The main causes of death were the inflammatory lung diseases and the cerebrovascular accidents, with predominance of males over 60. On dying, most of the patients had lost conciousness, which was not always affected by the disease. One of them was coupled to artifical ventilators by facultative indication. The participation of the nurse and the active-passive relation , that is the fundamental in connection with the fulfillment of the bioethical principles, was positive in all cases. The moribund?s autonomy was respected and the reported consent played an important role. Euthanasia was not applied in any of its variants, since this procedure in our society will be considered as a homicide.

  4. Bioética frente al paciente moribundo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Laides, Luna Vázquez; Mariela, Valiente Duany; José Miguel, Goderich Lalán.

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo y transversal en el Servicio de Cuidados Intermedios del Hospital Clinicoquirúrgico "Dr. Ambrosio Grillo Portuondo" de Santiago de Cuba, con el objetivo de analizar la aplicación de la bioética frente al paciente moribundo. El universo estuvo constitu [...] ido por 42 fallecidos en el segundo semestre de 1996. Las principales causas de muerte fueron las neumopatías inflamatorias y los accidentes vasculares encefálicos, con predominio de los varones mayores de 60 años; la mayoría de los enfermos al fallecer tenía pérdida de la conciencia, no siempre afectada por enfermedad; en uno de ellos por indicación facultativa al estar acoplado a ventiladores artificiales. La participación de la enfermera y la relación activopasiva, que es la fundamental en relación con el cumplimiento de los principios bioéticos, resultó positiva en todos los casos. Se actuó con beneficencia y justicia al respetar la autonomía del moribundo, donde el consentimiento informado desempeñó un papel importante, sin llegar a la práctica de la eutanasia en ninguna de sus variantes, ya que este proceder en nuestra sociedad implicaría un delito de homicidio. Abstract in english A descriptive, retrospective and cross-sectional study was conducted at the Service of Intermediate Care of the "Dr. Ambrosio Grillo Portuondo" Clinical and Surgical Hospital, in Santiago de Cuba, aimed at analyzing the application of bioethics in the dying patient. The universe was composed of 42 p [...] ersons that died in the second semester of l996. The main causes of death were the inflammatory lung diseases and the cerebrovascular accidents, with predominance of males over 60. On dying, most of the patients had lost conciousness, which was not always affected by the disease. One of them was coupled to artifical ventilators by facultative indication. The participation of the nurse and the active-passive relation , that is the fundamental in connection with the fulfillment of the bioethical principles, was positive in all cases. The moribund?s autonomy was respected and the reported consent played an important role. Euthanasia was not applied in any of its variants, since this procedure in our society will be considered as a homicide.

  5. The ALS gun electronics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ALS Gun Electronics system has been designed to accommodate the gun with a custom made socket and a high speed electronics circuit which is capable of producing single and multiple electron bunches with time jitters measured at better than 50 PS. The system generates the gated RF signal at ground level before sending it up to the 120 KV-biased gun deck via a fiber optic cable. The current pulse width as a function of grid bias, using an Eimac 8847A planar triode simulating an electron gun, was measured to show the relationship between the two parameters

  6. Betaalde arbeid als verdringer van vrijwilligerswerk? Overbelasting als mogelijke verklaring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Kok-Van Meer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Do paid work activities displace volunteering? A potential explanation from role overload theoryRecent changes in Dutch society might lead to a shortage of volunteers. On the one hand, the demand for volunteers is increasing: in the social welfare domain because of governmental austerity policies and in other domains such as sports because of the higher supervision intensity of activities. On the other hand, the supply of volunteers is likely to decrease as more and more women and older workers are active in the labor market, which reduces the time that is available for volunteering. Role overload theory would suggest that the increasing labor participation rate of certain categories of workers goes along with a decline of participation in voluntary work. The secondary data analysis shows that various role loads (work, care for children living at home are associated with differences in participation in voluntary work. However, while a higher number of contractual work hours and hours spent on work-related training are negatively associated with volunteer work, care for children living at home is positively associated with volunteering. These results provide only limited support for role overload theory.Betaalde arbeid als verdringer van vrijwilligerswerk? Overbelasting als mogelijke verklaringDe afgelopen jaren hebben zich enkele maatschappelijke veranderingen voorgedaan, die wellicht tot schaarste op de Nederlandse vrijwilligersmarkt zouden kunnen leiden. Enerzijds neemt de vraag naar vrijwilligers toe doordat subsidieregelingen versoberen (bijvoorbeeld in zorg en welzijn en de begeleidingsintensiteit in bepaalde organisaties stijgt (bijvoorbeeld in sport. Anderzijds neemt het aanbod van vrijwilligers af doordat vrouwen en ouderen meer en langer op de arbeidsmarkt actief zijn, waardoor minder tijd beschikbaar is voor vrijwilligerswerk. In dit artikel wordt aan de hand van de role overload theorie nagegaan of het al dan niet deelnemen aan vrijwilligerswerk van diverse categorieën werknemers samenhangt met de belasting door betaalde arbeid. Uit de secundaire data-analyse blijkt dat verschillen in belasting samenhangen met verschillen in deelname aan vrijwilligerswerk. Terwijl hogere arbeidsbelasting negatief samenhangt met het verrichten van vrijwilligerswerk, hangt zorg voor kinderen thuis positief samen met vrijwilligerswerk. Hierdoor is de steun voor de role overload theorie beperkt.

  7. Betaalde arbeid als verdringer van vrijwilligerswerk? Overbelasting als mogelijke verklaring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Kok-Van Meer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Do paid work activities displace volunteering? A potential explanation from role overload theoryRecent changes in Dutch society might lead to a shortage of volunteers. On the one hand, the demand for volunteers is increasing: in the social welfare domain because of governmental austerity policies and in other domains such as sports because of the higher supervision intensity of activities. On the other hand, the supply of volunteers is likely to decrease as more and more women and older workers are active in the labor market, which reduces the time that is available for volunteering. Role overload theory would suggest that the increasing labor participation rate of certain categories of workers goes along with a decline of participation in voluntary work. The secondary data analysis shows that various role loads (work, care for children living at home are associated with differences in participation in voluntary work. However, while a higher number of contractual work hours and hours spent on work-related training are negatively associated with volunteer work, care for children living at home is positively associated with volunteering. These results provide only limited support for role overload theory.Betaalde arbeid als verdringer van vrijwilligerswerk? Overbelasting als mogelijke verklaringDe afgelopen jaren hebben zich enkele maatschappelijke veranderingen voorgedaan, die wellicht tot schaarste op de Nederlandse vrijwilligersmarkt zouden kunnen leiden. Enerzijds neemt de vraag naar vrijwilligers toe doordat subsidieregelingen versoberen (bijvoorbeeld in zorg en welzijn en de begeleidingsintensiteit in bepaalde organisaties stijgt (bijvoorbeeld in sport. Anderzijds neemt het aanbod van vrijwilligers af doordat vrouwen en ouderen meer en langer op de arbeidsmarkt actief zijn, waardoor minder tijd beschikbaar is voor vrijwilligerswerk. In dit artikel wordt aan de hand van de role overload theorie nagegaan of het al dan niet deelnemen aan vrijwilligerswerk van diverse categorieën werknemers samenhangt met de belasting door betaalde arbeid. Uit de secundaire data-analyse blijkt dat verschillen in belasting samenhangen met verschillen in deelname aan vrijwilligerswerk. Terwijl hogere arbeidsbelasting negatief samenhangt met het verrichten van vrijwilligerswerk, hangt zorg voor kinderen thuis positief samen met vrijwilligerswerk. Hierdoor is de steun voor de role overload theorie beperkt.

  8. Suicidio por salto al vacío

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braulio Ernesto P. Linares

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available La tendencia al suicidio se asocia con problemas de soledad, abandono sicológico en la infancia, drogadicción, enfermedades graves, etc. Y en pacientes psiquiátricos es más común tras ser dados de alta. En Argentina los suicidios aumentaron en 25% de 1990 a 1992, y el 78 % de las víctimas fueron de sexo masculino. La proporción por salto al vacío aumentó , especialmente en áreas urbanas. En 40 casos argentinos hubo introducción basal del fémur (25%, fractura del calcáneo en 17%, fracturas de pelvis o cuello del fémur en 7% y estallido hepático en 20%.Suicidal tendencies are associated with loneliness, lack of psychological attention during childhood, drug addiction, serious illness, etc., In psyciatric patients, it is more frequent shortly after they are dismissed from the hospital. In Argentina, the suicide rate increased by 25% from 1990 to 1992, and 78% of the victims are males. The proportion that jumped to death increased, particularly inurban areas. In 40 Argentinian cases there was a basalpenetration of the femur (25%, fracture of the calcaneus bone (17%, fracture of pelvis o femur cervix (7% and explosion of the liver (20%.

  9. Suicidio por salto al vacío

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Braulio Ernesto, P. Linares; Félix Antonio, Bikic.

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available La tendencia al suicidio se asocia con problemas de soledad, abandono sicológico en la infancia, drogadicción, enfermedades graves, etc. Y en pacientes psiquiátricos es más común tras ser dados de alta. En Argentina los suicidios aumentaron en 25% de 1990 a 1992, y el 78 % de las víctimas fueron de [...] sexo masculino. La proporción por salto al vacío aumentó , especialmente en áreas urbanas. En 40 casos argentinos hubo introducción basal del fémur (25%), fractura del calcáneo en 17%, fracturas de pelvis o cuello del fémur en 7% y estallido hepático en 20%. Abstract in english Suicidal tendencies are associated with loneliness, lack of psychological attention during childhood, drug addiction, serious illness, etc., In psyciatric patients, it is more frequent shortly after they are dismissed from the hospital. In Argentina, the suicide rate increased by 25% from 1990 to 19 [...] 92, and 78% of the victims are males. The proportion that jumped to death increased, particularly inurban areas. In 40 Argentinian cases there was a basalpenetration of the femur (25%), fracture of the calcaneus bone (17%), fracture of pelvis o femur cervix (7%) and explosion of the liver (20%).

  10. Synthesis of AlON and MgAlON Ceramics and Their Chemical Corrosion Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xidong

    2001-01-01

    In view of the excellent mechanical, chemical and opticalproperties, AlON (Aluminum oxynitride) as well as MgAlON(Magnesium Aluminum oxynitride) have drawn the attention ofmaterials scientists in past decades. In this thesis,thermodynamic properties, synthesis and corrosion resistance tooxygen and slag of AlON and MgAlON ceramics have beeninvestigated. Gibbs energy of AlON and MgAlON with different compositionsand temperatures were estimatedby using thermodynamicquasi-parabola rule. Phase sta...

  11. Benefits for Military Veterans with ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapters Certified Centers and Clinics Support Groups About ALS About Us Our Research In Your Community Advocate ... Veterans Resources for Military Veterans, Families & Survivors The ALS Association is working everyday to support people with ...

  12. 77 FR 73732 - In the Matter of Amendment of the Designation of al-Qa'ida in Iraq, aka Jam'at al Tawhid wa'al...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... Matter of Amendment of the Designation of al-Qa'ida in Iraq, aka Jam'at al Tawhid wa'al-Jihad, aka The... al-Rafidayn, aka The Organization of al-Jihad's Base of Operations in Iraq, aka al-Qaida of Jihad in Iraq, aka al-Qaida in Iraq, aka al-Qaida in Mesopotamia, aka al-Qaida in the Land of the Two...

  13. Rethinking ALS: the FUS about TDP-43

    OpenAIRE

    Lagier-Tourenne, Clotilde; Cleveland, Don W.

    2009-01-01

    Mutation in TDP-43, a DNA/RNA binding protein, causes an inherited form of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Combination of its mislocalization in most incidences of sporadic ALS (as well as other neurodegenerative disorders) with discovery of ALS-causing mutations in FUS/TLS, another DNA/RNA binding protein, has initiated a paradigm shift in understanding ALS pathogenesis. TDP-43 and FUS/TLS have striking structural and functional similarities, implicating alterations in RNA processing as...

  14. Photoelectrical, photophysical and photocatalytic properties of Al based MOFs: MIL-53(Al) and MIL-53-NH2(Al)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yang; Li, Huiliang; Liu, Yuanyuan; Huang, Baibiao; Sun, Qilong; Dai, Ying; Qin, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xiaoyang

    2016-01-01

    Two Al based MOFs (MIL-53(Al) and MIL-53-NH2 (Al)) were synthesized, and their photoelectrical, photophysical and photocatalytic properties towards oxygen evolution from water were investigated. Different from the ligand to metal charge transfer process previously reported, we proposes a new photocatalytic mechanism based on electron tunneling according to the results of theoretical calculation, steady state and time resolved fluorescence spectra. The organic linkers absorb photons, giving rise to electrons and holes. Then, the photogenerated electrons tunnel through the AlO6-octahedra, which not only inhibit the recombination of photogenerated charge carriers, but also is a key factor to the photocatalytic activity of Al based MOFs.

  15. Thermoluminescence properties of AlN ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinkler, L.; Christensen, P.; Agersnap Larsen, N.; Berzina, B.

    The paper describes thermoluminescence (TL) properties of AlN:Y2O3 ceramics irradiated with ionising radiation. A high TL sensitivity of AlN:Y2O3 ceramics to radiation encouraged a study of the AlN ceramics for application as a dosimetric material. The paper presents experimental data on: glow...

  16. Bipolar characteristics of AlGaN/AlN/GaN/AlGaN double heterojunction structure with AlGaN as buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •2DEG and 2DHG coexist in the AlGaN/AlN/GaN/AlGaN DH-structure. •The sheet densities of 2DEG and 2DHG vary with buffer Al content and GaN thickness. •The conditions for the disappearance of 2DHG are discussed. •Increasing buffer Al content provides better electron confinement. •Dislocation scattering is reduced in the DH-structure. -- Abstract: This is a theoretical study of AlGaN/AlN/GaN/AlGaN double heterojunction (DH) structure with AlGaN as buffer layer. Our calculation shows that as the buffer Al content increases, though two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) sheet density decreases, the channel back-barrier caused by polarization-induced electric field in GaN provides better electron confinement. And under certain conditions the DH-structure shows bipolar characteristics, with an additional two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) formed at GaN/AlGaN interface. The influence of the buffer Al content and GaN channel thickness on the 2DEG and 2DHG sheet densities are investigated, and the conditions for the disappearance of 2DHG are discussed. Also, the mobility inhibited by dislocation scattering is enhanced in DH-structure due to the enhancement of screening effect of the 2DEG

  17. The effects of boron in TiAl/Ti3Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors discuss the TiAl/Ti3Al interfacial misfit dislocations structures investigated by TEM in Ti-45Al alloy and Ti-45Al/TiB2 composite. For TiAl with c/a = 1.02, only a single set of misfit dislocation arrays are crystallographically possible; these were observed in Ti-45Al alloy. However, the observation of three sets of misfit dislocation arrays in the Ti-45Al/TiB2 composite suggests that the occupation of octahedral sites in the TiAl structure by excess boron was responsible for a decrease in the c/a ratio leading to an increased fcc character of the TiAl at the TiAl/Ti3Al interface

  18. "PULS." – ein Blog als Online-Magazin für Medizinstudierendeder Goethe-Universität Frankfurt ["PULS." – a Blog-based Online-Magazine for Students of Medicine of the Goethe University Frankfurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nürnberger, Frank

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available [english] In the context of nationwide protests 2009 also students of the faculty of medicine/dentistry at Goethe-University in Frankfurt demanded more transparency and communication. To satisfy these demands, a web 2.0-tool offered an innovative solution: A blog-based online-magazine for students and other faculty-members.The online-magazine „PULS.“ is realized with the share-ware blog-software (wordpress version 3.1.3 and is conceived and written by an online-journalist. „PULS.“ is available from .The articles are generated from own investigations and from ideas of different groups of the faculty– deanship, students and lecturers. A user-analysis is conducted with the open-source software Piwik and considers the data security. Additionally, every year an anonymous online-user-survey (Survey Monkey is conducted.“PULS.” is continuously online since 14.02.2010 and has published 806 articles (state: 27.11.2012 and has about 2400 readers monthly. The content focuses on the needs of Frankfurt medical students. The close cooperation with different groups of the faculty - deanship, students and lecturers - furthermore guarantees themes relevant to the academic faculty. “PULS.” flanks complex projects and decisions with background-information and communicates them understandable.The user-evaluation shows a growing number of readers and a high acceptance for the online-magazine, its themes and its style. The web 2.0-tool “Blog” and the web-specific language comply with media habits of the main target group, the students of the faculty medicine/dentistry.Thus, “PULS.” has proven as a suitable and strategic instrument. It pushes towards a higher transparency, more communication and a stronger identification of the students with their faculty.[german] Im Herbst 2009 forderten Studierende im Rahmen landesweiter Proteste auch am Fachbereich Medizin/Zahnmedizin der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt mehr Transparenz und Kommunikation zu Angelegenheiten ihres Studiums. Einen innovativen Lösungsansatz, um diesen Forderungen nachzukommen, bietet eines der Web 2.0 Werkzeuge: ein auf einer Blog-Software basierendes Online-Magazin für Studierende und andere Mitglieder des Fachbereichs.Das öffentlich zugängliche Online-Magazin „PULS.“ ( wird mit einer freien Blog-Software (wordpress Version 3.1.3. realisiert und von einer Online-Redakteurin konzipiert und geschrieben. Die Beiträge entstehen nach eigenen Recherchen sowie aus Anregungen und Gesprächen mit verschiedenen Personengruppen des Fachbereichs. Die datenschutzkonforme Auswertung der Zugriffe erfolgt über eine open-source Webanalyse-Software (Piwik. Zusätzlich werden jährlich mit dem Online-Umfrage-Tool Survey Monkey die Nutzer anonym befragt.„PULS.“ ist seit dem 14.02.2010 ununterbrochen online und hat seitdem 806 Beiträge (Stand: 27.11.2012 publiziert und wird von ca. 2400 Besuchern monatlich gelesen. Das Themenspektrum ist zentriert auf die Anliegen der Frankfurter Medizin- und Zahnmedizinstudierenden. Die enge Zusammenarbeit mit verschiedenen Gruppierungen des Fachbereichs – Dekanat, Studierende und Lehrende – garantiert darüber hinaus ein fachbereichs-relevantes Themenspektrum. Das Online-Magazin begleitet komplexe Projekte und Entscheidungen mit Hintergrundinformationen und kommuniziert sie verständlich. Eine jährliche Nutzer-Evaluierung zeigt eine wachsende Leserzahl und eine sehr hohe Zustimmung für das Online-Magazin, seine Inhalte und seinen Stil. Das Web 2.0-Medium „Blog“ und seine web-typische Sprache entsprechen dem Medienverhalten der Zielgruppe, d.h. den Studierenden des Fachbereichs Medizin. „PULS.“ hat sich als ein geeignetes und strategisches Instrument erwiesen, um größere Transparenz, mehr Kommunikation und letztendlich eine stärkere Identifikation der Studierenden mit ihrem Fachbereich voranzutreiben.

  19. Aspectos Introductorios al Crédito Documentario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Rodríguez Fernández

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available En el comercio internacional uno de los temas de mayor importancia para los agentes del mercado es la incorporación de mecanismos contractuales que les blinden de seguridad y garantía suficientes de que su contraparte cumplirá lo prometido. Las cartas de crédito contribuyen a ese propósito. Al crearse como mecanismos que confieren a ambas partes un alto grado de seguridad de que las condiciones pactadas en el contrato internacional, especialmente el de compraventa, serán cumplidas por cada una de las partes, todo, gracias a la participación o intermediación de una institución financiera, se constituyen en instrumentos necesarios para el normal desarrollo del comercio internacional. El presente texto estudia, a manera de introducción, el crédito documentario valiéndose de la abundante doctrina y jurisprudencia que en la materia se ha generado en el ámbito local e internacional alrededor de la figura.

  20. DE LA BIOPOLÍTICA AL CAMPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Benente

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se realiza una breve aproximación a los conceptos de biopolítica y tanatopolítica. Para ello se trabajará, principalmente, con las obras de Michel Foucault, Roberto Esposito y Giorgio Agamben, intentando relevar tanto coincidencias como disidencias en la reflexión que los autores hacen sobre la temática. Luego de realizar una aproximación conceptual a la biopolítica, se mostrará que mientras para Foucault y para Espósito el surgimiento del fenómeno se da con la modernidad, para Agamben su origen es correlativo al origen mismo de la soberanía. Finalmente, y tras mostrar la coincidencia de la biopolítica con la tanatopolítica ¿para lo cual se profundizará en algunas reflexiones aportadas por Roberto Esposito- se abordará la problemática de los campos tal como lo hace Giorgio Agamben.

  1. Biodigestor: una aproximación al diseño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Mario Rodríguez Devis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available EI estudio y evaluación de los Sistemas de Biogas forma parte de la Electiva Técnica "Sistemas Alternativos de Energía", ofrecida por la Facultad de Ingeniería. EI presente artículo es un producto de dicho curso e intenta ser informativo, estando centra do en el proceso del diseño preliminar. Las ecuaciones han sido extraídas de diversas fuentes y se pretende dar las pautas de evaluación técnica de cualquier Biodigestor, sin tocar los problemas prácticos y de experiencia que de ello se deriva. Agradezco la colaboración prestada por los estudiantes Guillermo Garcés y Pedro A. Cuervo y en especial al Ingeniero Arturo Martínez R. por su participación en la parte correspondiente a Biogas en el curso mencionado.

  2. y los obstáculos al cambio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Cadena Inostroza

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo analiza la administración pública a la luz de los cambios políticos. Parte del marco del institucionalismo histórico presentando a las instituciones como conjuntos de pautas de actuación que condicionan a los actores incluso más allá de su voluntad. Las transformaciones políticas en México no se han traducido en acciones que ofrezcan un trato igualitario a los ciudadanos frente al poder público con una más eficiente administración. Ésta se conformó históricamente como mecanismo clientelar que si bien permitió el funcionamiento del poder, limitó la eficiencia. Los cambios estructurales en el país son condición necesaria pero no suficiente para la transformación política democrática, en consecuencia ha de tomarse en cuenta la reforma de la administración pública.

  3. Entscheidung als Häresie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaanus Sooväli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Man könnte sagen, dass Aristoteles so etwas wie eine traditionelle und dominierende Auffassung der Entscheidung in der westlichen Philosophie gründet. Das Ziel dieses Aufsatzes ist es, diese Auffassung von Aristoteles zu entwerfen, einige ihrer wichtigsten Probleme anzusprechen, und sie damit zu kontrastieren, was ich Jacques Derridas häretische „Konzeptualisierung“ der Entscheidung nennen würde. Es wird gezeigt, dass diese häretische Thematisierung von Derrida nicht nur und einfach mit dem traditionellen aristotelischen Begriff bricht, sondern vielmehr auch zu Recht einige seiner wichtigsten Züge auf solcher Weise schärft, dass von diesem radikalisierten Standpunkt die Behandlung von Aristoteles als die Annullierung der Entscheidung zum Vorschein kommt. Es wird zudem impliziert, wie Derridas häretische Auffassung die Erneuerung der Ethik und Politik mit sich bringt.

  4. Systems Engineering Techniques for ALS Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, Luis F.; Drysdale, Alan E.; Jones, Harry; Levri, Julie A.

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Life Support (ALS) Metric is the predominant tool for predicting the cost of ALS systems. Metric goals for the ALS Program are daunting, requiring a threefold increase in the ALS Metric by 2010. Confounding the problem, the rate new ALS technologies reach the maturity required for consideration in the ALS Metric and the rate at which new configurations are developed is slow, limiting the search space and potentially giving the perspective of a ALS technology, the ALS Metric may remain elusive. This paper is a sequel to a paper published in the proceedings of the 2003 ICES conference entitled, "Managing to the metric: an approach to optimizing life support costs." The conclusions of that paper state that the largest contributors to the ALS Metric should be targeted by ALS researchers and management for maximum metric reductions. Certainly, these areas potentially offer large potential benefits to future ALS missions; however, the ALS Metric is not the only decision-making tool available to the community. To facilitate decision-making within the ALS community a combination of metrics should be utilized, such as the Equivalent System Mass (ESM)-based ALS metric, but also those available through techniques such as life cycle costing and faithful consideration of the sensitivity of the assumed models and data. Often a lack of data is cited as the reason why these techniques are not considered for utilization. An existing database development effort within the ALS community, known as OPIS, may provide the opportunity to collect the necessary information to enable the proposed systems analyses. A review of these additional analysis techniques is provided, focusing on the data necessary to enable these. The discussion is concluded by proposing how the data may be utilized by analysts in the future.

  5. Authors, subjects and fame in the Kit?b al-Fihrist by Ibn al-Nad?m : the case of al-?abar? and al-??l?

    OpenAIRE

    OSTI, LETIZIA

    1999-01-01

    This paper suggests an approach to the study of the Kitab al-fihrist by Ibn al-Nadim (d. 386/995), which takes into account his criteria of priority and order within the book’s structure, when analysing the information the author provides about a scholar or group of scholars. The case studies for the present paper are Ab? Bakr al-Suli (d. 335-947) and Muhammad b. Jarir al-Tabari (d. 310-923), two prominent scholars who lived one generation before Ibn al-Nadim, and whose biographical informati...

  6. Der intermittierende Selbstkatheterismus - "safety first": Eine Übersicht über Produkte und deren Anwendungsmöglichkeiten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schersach P

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Der intermittierende Selbstkatheterismus (ISK ist seit mehr als 15 Jahren die führende und international anerkannte konservative Therapieform der Neurogenen Blasenfunktionsstörung (NBS. Bei Betroffenen mit erworbener Querschnittlähmung entleeren ca. 70 % ihre Blase durch den intermittierenden Selbstkatheterismus.

  7. Risikobasiertes Supply-Chain-Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Andreas; Schinz, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Das Management erlebt seit einigen Jahren dahingehend einen Paradigmenwechsel, dass nicht mehr Unternehmen als einzelne autonome Einheiten im Wettbewerb zueinander stehen, sondern die Supply Chains, in denen diese Unternehmen eingebunden sind. Ursachen hierfür sind beispielsweise die Auslagerung ...

  8. Vom Gewohnheitstier zur reflektierten Nutzung – Ein Diskussionsanstoß über Betriebssysteme und Programmnutzung nachzudenken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Berger

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Das Nutzungsverhalten bei digitalen Medien entspringt mehr der Gewohnheit als dem vorhandenen Angebot. Ein kleiner Einblick in die Philosophie und Möglichkeiten der Nutzung von Freier Software.

  9. Produktion von Screencasts mit Screencast-O-Matic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Studencki

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wenn Bilder manchmal mehr als 1000 Worte sagen, wie schaut es dann mit Videos aus? Eine Beschreibung der praktischen Nutzung eines Online Tools für Screenrecording (Bildschirmaufnahme und Webpublikation (Youtube zur einfachen Erstellung audiovisueller Unterrichtsmaterialien.

  10. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis as an adverse drug reaction of gadolinium-based contrast media for magnetic resonance imaging; Nephrogene systemische Fibrose als unerwuenschte Arzneimittelwirkung gadoliniumhaltiger Kontrastmittel fuer die Magnetresonanztomographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giersig, C. [Bundesinstitut fuer Arzneimittel und Medizinprodukte (Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices), Bonn (Germany)

    2007-09-15

    Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) was first described as nephrogenic fibrosing dermopathy (NFD), a disease occurring exclusively in patients with severe renal insufficiency. Recently NSF was recognised to be a very rare adverse drug reaction (ADR) of gadolinium-based contrast media for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Over 200 million applications of gadolinium-based contrast agents have been performed worldwide, including about 80 million of Magnevist {sup registered} and 33 million of Omniscan {sup registered}. Cases of NSF have been reported so far only for Omniscan {sup registered} (180 including 77 from the EU), for Magnevist {sup registered} (78 including 9 from the EU, 4 of which were also exposed to Omniscan {sup registered}) and for OptiMARK registered [7], which is not authorised in the EU. Because of this risk an EU-wide contraindication was ordered for patients with severe renal failure for the use of Omniscan {sup registered} (gadodiamid), which is one of eight gadolinium-based substances authorised in Germany and the EU and which has the highest risk potential, and just recently also for Magnevist {sup registered} (gadopentetate-dimeglumine). Whether similar measures will be implemented for other gadolinium-based substances, for which no cases of NSF have been reported, but a risk potential may exist, is still under discussion. (orig.) [German] Die nephrogene systemische Fibrose (NSF), urspruenglich als nephrogene fibrosierende Dermopathie (NFD) beschrieben und bislang fast ausschliesslich bei Patienten mit schwerer Niereninsuffizienz festgestellt, erwies sich kuerzlich als eine sehr seltene unerwuenschte Arzneimittelwirkung (UAW) gadoliniumhaltiger Kontrastmittel fuer die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT). Insgesamt wurden mehr als 200 Mio. Behandlungen mit gadoliniumhaltigen Kontrastmitteln durchgefuehrt, davon ca. 80 Mio. mit Magnevist {sup registered} und ca. 33 Mio. mit Omniscan {sup registered} [5]. Faelle einer NSF wurden bislang nur zu Omniscan {sup registered} (180, davon 77 aus der EU), zu Magnevist {sup registered} (78, davon 9 Faelle aus der EU inklusive 4 Faelle mit zusaetzlicher Omniscan registered -Applikation) sowie zu OptiMARK {sup registered} [7], das in der EU nicht zugelassen ist, gemeldet. Aufgrund dieses Risikos wurde fuer Omniscan {sup registered} (Gadodiamid), eins der 8 in Deutschland und der EU verfuegbaren Wirkstoffe mit dem hoechsten Risikopotenzial, und zuletzt auch fuer Magnevist {sup registered} (Gadopentetat-Dimeglumine), eine Einschraenkung der Anwendung (Kontraindikation) bei Patienten mit terminaler Niereninsuffizienz EU-weit angeordnet. Ob aehnliche Massnahmen fuer weitere Wirkstoffe ergriffen werden, bei denen dieses Risikopotenzial bislang nicht nachgewiesen wurde, jedoch moeglich erscheint, ist noch nicht endgueltig geklaert. (orig.)

  11. Eutectic microstructures of Al-ThA13 and Al-UA14 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals on the microstructures of systems Al-ThAl3 and Al-UAL4, which are composed by a non faceted phase (aluminium) and an intermetallic phase (ThAl3 or UAL4) which is normally faceted phase. (C.M.)

  12. Measurements of tunneling barrier thicknesses for Nb/Al–AlOx/Nb tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We estimate the average barrier height (?) of Nb/Al–AlOx/Nb tunnel junctions. • Dependence of the AlOx thickness (dAlOx) on O2 exposure was described. • The thicknesses of AlOx barriers were measured using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). • X-ray Reflection (XRR) measurements and simulations were used to verify the AlOx thickness. - Abstract: The tunnel barrier thicknesses of Nb/Al–AlOx/Nb tunnel junctions were measured using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray Reflection (XRR). By investigating the barrier thickness dependence of current density Jc, the barrier height for Nb/Al–AlOx/Nb junctions was calculated. Nb/Al–AlOx/Nb junctions with different Jc were fabricated by controlling the O2 exposure in Al oxidation. The junctions show good tunneling properties with subgap leakage factor Vm larger than 30 mV in the range of Jc from tens of A/cm2 to several kA/cm2. TEM images showed clear interface and indicated the AlOx thicknesses ranging from 0.8 nm to 1.9 nm, and the average barrier height was estimated to be 0.17 eV for Nb/Al–AlOx/Nb tunnel junctions

  13. Joining of Al-Al micro foils by ultrasonic friction welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultrasonic friction welding (UFW) method was employed to realize the joining of 20-25 ?m thick Al-Al foils without the introduction of difference to parents materials, since the conventional UFW puts more focus on large scale of bulk metal materials. The monomer and post-joining Al foils were analyzed and compared including surface roughness, thickness uniformity, and interface characteristics by using white light interfere profiler (WLI), optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The experimental results indicate that the high quality Al-Al foils components and one kind of Al-Al device are well prepared by our improved UFW. (authors)

  14. Insostenibilidad: aproximación al conflicto socioecológico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Josep, Lobera.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La preocupación por el impacto humano sobre el entorno está documentada desde la Antigüedad. Situaciones de insostenibilidad han conducido en varios momentos de la historia a retrocesos en las condiciones de vida de la población. Si bien el impacto ambiental de las culturas preindustriales se encont [...] raba restringido fundamentalmente al ámbito local, con la revolución industrial las consecuencias de la presión sobre el medio ambiente crecieron exponencialmente, sobrepasando la localidad para alcanzar dimensiones globales. La búsqueda de un estadio o un desarrollo que sea sostenible implica la necesidad de comprender el conflicto socio-ecológico en su perspectiva histórica. Observamos que sus dimensiones básicas están presentes desde la etapa eotécnica hasta nuestros días. En el centro del debate se encuentra la necesidad de comprender la génesis de la ideología del progreso y del dominio de la naturaleza. La sostenibilidad es, en definitiva, una búsqueda compleja que implica una corrección de las causas de la insostenibilidad. La sensibilidad al riesgo y a la crisis de insostenibilidad se ha incrementado de forma considerable, en un momento en que se observa una cierta pérdida de legitimidad de la política representativa. La participación es, hoy más que nunca, uno de los imperativos de la búsqueda de la sostenibilidad. Abstract in english The concern about the human impact on the environment is documented since ancient times. Situations of unsustainability led at various times in history to setbacks in the living conditions of the population. While the environmental impact of preindustrial cultures was limited primarily to local leve [...] l, with the industrial revolution the consequences of the pressure on the environment grew exponentially, surpassing the locality to achieve global dimensions. The search for a sustainable stadium or development leads to the need to understand the socio-ecological conflict in its historical perspective. We note that their basic dimensions are present from the eotechnic phase until today. At the center of the debate is the need to understand the genesis of the ideology of progress and the domain of nature. Environmental conflicts in preindustrial cultures are often linked to agricultural production, waste from the activities of some guilds, sanitation problems in cities and energy demand. Sustainability is a complex search that involves a correction of the causes of unsustainability. Sensitivity to risk and to the unsustainability crisis has increased considerably, and a loss of legitimacy of representative politics is perceived. Participation is, more than ever, one of the imperatives of the search for sustainability.

  15. Atom probe analysis of AlN interlayers in AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atom probe tomography was used to characterize AlN interlayers in AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructures grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE), NH3-based molecular beam epitaxy (NH3-MBE), and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The PAMBE-grown AlN interlayer had the highest purity, with nearly 100% of group-III sites occupied by Al. The group-III site concentrations of Al for interlayers grown by NH3-MBE and MOCVD were ?85% and ?47%, respectively. Hall measurements were performed to determine the two-dimensional electron gas mobility and sheet concentration. Sheet concentrations were ?25%–45% higher with molecular beam epitaxy than with MOCVD, and these results matched well with atom probe data.

  16. Adrenoleucodistrofia ligada al cromosoma X

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elsa, Tangari; Juan Carlos, Rampa; Aida, Lemes; Magdalena, Piñeyrúa; Leopoldo, Peluffo; Ariadna, Mauri.

    Full Text Available Resumen La adrenoleucodistrofia es un trastorno genéticamente determinado, ligado al cromosoma X, que involucra principalmente la sustancia blanca cerebral y la corteza adrenal. Se asocia con una acumulación anormal de ácidos grasos saturados de cadena muy larga en tejidos y fluidos corporales, cuya [...] demostración en plasma es el "test" diagnóstico. Se presenta un caso clínico en el que un inicio brusco hizo pensar inicialmente en infección del sistema nervioso central, instalándose posteriormente síntomas característicos. Se destaca la importancia de una evaluación genealógica, clínica y paraclínica de los individuos en situación de riesgo, para clasificarlos y brindar en cada situación particular asesoramiento genético adecuado. Abstract in english Summary Adrenoleukodystrophy is an X-linked genetically determined disorder that involves mainly the nervous system, white matter and adrenal cortex. It is associated with the abnormal accumulation of saturated very long chain fatty acids in tissues and body fluid. The demonstration of these fatty a [...] cids excess in plasma is the most frequently used diagnostic test. We present a clinic case that from its sudden beginning made initially think of central nervous system infection, installing later characteristics symptoms. We remark the importance of a genealogical, clinical and paraclinical evaluation of the individual in situation of risk to classify and give in each particular situation tha suitable professional advice.

  17. interna y al diálogo transcultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Monroy Álvarez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Inspirado en los conceptos de An-Na´im (1995 del discurso interno y el diálogo transcultural, este artículo está focalizado en el análisis de dos herramientas que usan los practicantes de derecho y los usuarios del Consultorio Jurídico Rural de Fredonia (Antioquia durante su interacción y que, de ser estimuladas adecuadamente, pueden derivar no solo en procesos pedagógicos de refl exión sobre presupuestos fundamentales en materia de derechos, sino que también pueden llegar a constituirse en estrategias que permitan la actualización de las expectativas de los propios sujetos frente a su cultura. Para el caso de los practicantes, se explora en el tránsito entre dos lenguajes, uno eminentemente jurídico y otro coloquial, donde se da un acercamiento al lenguaje y valores de los consultantes. Ya en lo que atañe a los usuarios del Consultorio Jurídico, el análisis se construye en torno a la red local de consejos, pieza clave a partir de la cual se articulan ideas y valores de los actores sobre su entorno, pero donde el hilo conductor es la intención de resolver un confl icto por la vía jurídica.

  18. Casting fabrication of in situ Al3Ti-Al composites and their wear behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Tijun

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The Al3Ti intermetallic reinforced pure Al, Al-13Si and Al-17Cu matrix composites were prepared by casting method. Their microstructures and dry sliding wear behaviors at room temperature and 100? were particularly investigated. The results indicated that the Al3Ti phases in these composites were all in fl aky form. But the aspect ratio of the Al3Ti platelets decreased with the increase of Ti content in the pure Al, Al-Cu and Al-Si matrix composites, in order of effectiveness. The effect of Si on the Al3Ti morphology seemed to be greater than that of Cu. The distributions of the Al3Ti platelets were different in the different matrix composites, leading to different grain refi ning effects. Except for the sub-wear regime of adhesive wear, the plastic deformation induced wear was a dominant wear mechanism for all of the composites at room temperature and 100?. Increasing the testing temperature, decreasing the Al3Ti content or the hardness of materials could enhance these two wear mechanisms, and thus increase the wear rate. The Al-Cu matrix composite had the best wear resistance, while the pure Al matrix composite showed the worst for the same Ti content. These differences or changes were attributed to the differences in materials’ hardness or the strengthening effects of the Al3Ti platelets.

  19. Nichtinvasive periphere Gefäßdiagnostik ? derzeitiger Stand der MR- und CT-Angiographie in der Diagnostik der peripheren arteriellen Verschlußkrankheit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cejna M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Derzeit stellen die CT-Angiographie (CTA und die MR-Angiographie (MRA in der Gefäßstatuserhebung zur Therapie der PAVK eine veritable Alternative zur Duplex-Ultraschalluntersuchung dar. CTA und MRA erreichen jeweils Sensitivitäten und Spezifitäten von mehr als 90 % in der Detektion hämodynamisch relevanter Stenosen und von mehr als 50 % in großen Studien und Metaanalysen. Offen ist die Evaluation aller Verfahren in Hinblick auf Kosteneffektivität und Effizienz in der Erstellung von Behandlungsplänen zur endovaskulären oder chirurgischen Therapie der PAVK.

  20. The muonic hydrogen lamb shift experiment: lifetime and population of the ?p(2S) state

    OpenAIRE

    Ludhova, Livia; Schaller, Lukas; Kottmann, Franz; Mulhauser, Françoise

    2006-01-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit befasst sich mit dem Lambshift-Experiment an myonischem Wasserstoff (?p), welches am Paul Scherrer Institut in Villigen durchgeführt wird. Es hat zum Ziel, die 2S — 2P Energiedifferenz in ?p-Atomen zu messen und daraus den mittleren quadratischen Ladungs-Radius des Protons (rms-Radius rp) mit einer Genauigkeit von 1 Promille zu bestimmen, d.h. um eine Grössenordnung besser als bisher. Dieser Radius wird mehr und mehr als eine der grundlegenden Eigenschaften des einfachs...

  1. Al-Si/Al2O3 in situ composite prepared by displacement reaction of CuO/Al system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jing

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Al2O3 particle-reinforced ZL109 composite was prepared by in situ reaction between CuO and Al. The microstructure was observed by means of OM, SEM and TEM. The Al2O3 particles in sub-micron sizes distribute uniformly in the matrix, and the Cu displaced from the in situ reaction forms net-like alloy phases with other alloy elements. The hardness and the tensile strength of the composites at room temperature have a slight increase as compared to that of the matrix. However, the tensile strength at 350 ? has reached 90.23 MPa, or 16.92 MPa higher than that of the matrix. The mechanism of the reaction in the CuO/Al system was studied by using of differential scanning calorimetry(DSC and thermodynamic calculation. The reaction between CuO and Al involves two steps. First, CuO reacts with Al to form Cu2O and Al2O3 at the melting temperature of the matrix alloy, and second, Cu2O reacts with Al to form Cu and Al2O3 at a higher temperature. At ZL109 casting temperature of 750–780 ?, the second step can also take place because of the effect of exothermic reaction of the first step.

  2. Epitaxial growth of Al films on sapphire substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to obtain epitaxial Al-Al2O3 multi-layer devices, it is necessary to deposit epitaxially Al on Al2O3 and Al2O3 on Al. We have already obtained an epitaxial Al2O3 film on Al/Si (111). In this paper, we have grown Al films on sapphire (0001) substrates, and investigated the crystallinity by using RBS, RHEED, and X-ray diffraction measurements. (author)

  3. La inmigración japonesa al Valle del Cauca

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Andrea Jara

    2011-01-01

    Una de las inmigraciones menos estudiadas en Colombia es aquella de los japoneses que llegaron durante la década de 1920 al suroccidente colombiano, en un principio al Cauca, y posteriormente al Valle del Cauca. El propósito de este texto es explicar, a través de la legislación colombiana y japonesa, la evolución de las migraciones dirigidas que llegaron a Colombia, en especial, se señalará por qué el Japón la auspició. Además, el autor buscará exponer cómo progresó, paulatinamente, la coloni...

  4. Juan Goytisolo en al aule de ELE

    OpenAIRE

    Zubia Fernandez, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Al integrar en el aula de ELE artículos periodísticos sobre un determinado escritor como una práctica de expresión oral y escrita, se aproxima al alumno principiante de ELE al universo literario del autor escogido con el propósito de entrelazar la enseñanza de la lengua y la de la(s) literatura(s) en lengua española. Con este enfoque se estimula la capacidad lectora del alumno en la lengua meta ya que los textos periodísticos constituyen modelos ejemplares para este propósito d...

  5. CALCULUL CINETOSTATIC AL MECANISMELOR PLANETARE CILINDRICE

    OpenAIRE

    P?un ANTONESCU; Ovidiu ANTONESCU

    2012-01-01

    În lucrare se prezint? o metod? analitic? pentru calculul cinetostatic al mecanismului planetarmonomobil cu dou? ro?i din?ate centrale. Se consider? mai întâi cazul general al schemelor cinematice cu dou?ro?i din?ate solidare tip satelit, în dou? variante practice (multiplicator ?i reductor de tura?ie). Este men?ionatcazul particular al mecanismelor planetare cu o singur? roat? satelit cu angrenare dubl? (exterioar? ?iinterioar?). Pe baza modelului de analiz? cinetostatic? a mecanismului plan...

  6. Growth and Stress-induced Transformation of Zinc blende AlN Layers in Al-AlN-TiN Multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Yadav, Satyesh K.; Wang, Jian; Liu, Xiang-Yang; Misra, Amit

    2015-12-01

    AlN nanolayers in sputter deposited {111}Al/AlN/TiN multilayers exhibit the metastable zinc-blende-structure (z-AlN). Based on density function theory calculations, the growth of the z-AlN is ascribed to the kinetically and energetically favored nitridation of the deposited aluminium layer. In situ nanoindentation of the as-deposited {111}Al/AlN/TiN multilayers in a high-resolution transmission electron microscope revealed the z-AlN to wurzite AlN phase transformation through collective glide of Shockley partial dislocations on every two {111} planes of the z-AlN.

  7. Chemical mixing at "Al on Fe" and "Fe on Al" interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süle, P.; Kaptás, D.; Bujdosó, L.; Horváth, Z. E.; Nakanishi, A.; Balogh, J.

    2015-10-01

    The chemical mixing at the "Al on Fe" and "Fe on Al" interfaces was studied by molecular dynamics simulations of the layer growth and by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The concentration distribution along the layer growth direction was calculated for different crystallographic orientations, and atomically sharp "Al on Fe" interfaces were found when Al grows over (001) and (110) oriented Fe layers. The Al/Fe(111) interface is also narrow as compared to the intermixing found at the "Fe on Al" interfaces for any orientation. Conversion electron Mössbauer measurements of trilayers—Al/57Fe/Al and Al/57Fe/Ag grown simultaneously over Si(111) substrate by vacuum evaporation—support the results of the molecular dynamics calculations.

  8. Effect of Al incorporation on the AlGaN growth by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of Al incorporation on the AlGaN growth by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition is investigated. With the increase of trimethylalluminum (TMAl) flux, the crystal quality becomes worse, and the epilayer surface becomes rougher. An interesting phenomenon is that the growth rate of AlGaN decrease with increasing TMAl flux, which is opposite to the AlN growth rate dependence on the TMAl flux. All these effects are attributed to the different properties of Al atoms due to the higher bond strength of Al-N compared with Ga-N, which lead to lower surface mobility and stronger competitive ability of Al atoms during the growth. The enhancement of the surface mobility of Al is especially important for improving the quality of AlGaN

  9. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti2AlC-reinforced TiAl composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ti2AlC/TiAl composites were successfully in-situ synthesized by reaction hot pressing using Ti, Al, TiC and CNTs as starting materials. The results indicate that the as-sintered composites mainly consist of Ti2AlC and TiAl phases. The mechanical properties of the 23 wt.% Ti2AlC/TiAl composite exhibit the highest values, with a flexural strength and fracture toughness of 652.5 ± 76.8 MPa and 6.6 ± 0.5 MPa m1/2, respectively. The complex structure coupled with dispersed Ti2AlC micro-particulates is responsible for the enhancement in the strength. Toughening of the composite is mainly attributed to crack deflection, crack bridging, crack branching and pull-out of the Ti2AlC particles, as well as transgranular cracking.

  10. Effects of Al Contents on Carburization Behavior and Corrosion Resistance of TiAl Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Cui Jiao; He, Yue Hui; Ming, Xing Zu

    2015-09-01

    TiAl alloys with Al contents of 30.7, 37, 46.5, and 54.2 at.% were carburized. Corrosion resistance of the untreated and the carburized TiAl alloys was comparatively analyzed. The phase and microstructure of the carburized TiAl alloys were studied by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Electrochemical corrosion behavior of the untreated and the carburized TiAl alloys was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Experimental results indicate that different Al contents bring about distinct microstructure of the carburized layers. The lower Al content leads to the formation of the thicker binary carbides and the thinner Ti2AlC phase. Additionally, the lower Al content leads to higher corrosion resistance in the untreated and the carburized states.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of TiAl/?-Al2O3 nanocomposite by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TiAl/?-Al2O3 nanocomposite was synthesized by mechanical alloying of the Al and TiO2 powder mixture. The powder particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that the mechanochemical reaction between Al and TiO2 gradually took place through intermediate stages during milling, resulted in the formation of disordered fcc-TiAl and Al2O3 phases. The in situ processing involved two steps in which diffusion of Ti into Al is prominent. Annealing of milled product led to transition of metastable fcc-TiAl into equilibrium ?-TiAl. The crystallite size of phases in produced nanocomposite powder estimated to be about 50 nm.

  12. Respuesta inmune adaptativa al rotavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel A. Franco

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available

    El rotavirus (RV es un importante patógeno humano y el estudio de la respuesta inmune específica de éste en humanos, es un buen modelo para caracterizar la respuesta inmune de la mucosa intestinal (1. Nuestros estudios han tenido como objetivo la caracterización fenotípica y funcional de las células T y B específicas de RV con énfasis importante en la expresión de marcadores de migración intestinal. Estas células son estudiadas en muestras de sangre periférica de niños y adultos recientemente infectados con RV. Los análisis se hicieron por citometría de flujo y ELISPOT. Estudio de células T: los adultos sanos presentan bajas frecuencias circulantes tanto de LT CD4+, como de LT CD8+ específicos de RV que secretan INF_ .

    Significativamente mayores porcentajes de éstas células se detectaron en adultos sintomáticos infectados por RV. Sin embargo, las frecuencias de LT específicos de RV en todos los grupos de estudio fueron muy bajas comparadas con las observadas para otros patógenos.

    Sorprendentemente, en niños sintomáticos infectados por RV se detectaron bajas frecuencias de LT CD8+ circulantes específicos de RV secretando INF-g y muy pocos o ningún LT CD4+ secretando INF-g o LT CD4+ y CD8+ al secretar IL-13 o IL4 (2,3. Esto sugiere que el RV es un inductor relativamente pobre de células T de memoria secretando estas citoquinas. Los LT circulantes CD4+ , INF-g.+ específicos de RV presentes en adultos sanos, expresan en su mayoría el receptor de migración intestinal a4b7(3.

    Estudio de las células B (3,4: las células vírgenes circulantes CD19+, IgD+ y de memoria CD19+, IgDespecíficas de RV se identifican por citometría de flujo por la coexpresión de marcadores de superficie y de Ig de membrana específica del virus, con la ayuda de un antígeno viral acoplado a la proteína de fluorescencia verde (GFP. Las CSA se caracterizan funcionalmente por ELISPOT y fenotípicamente por citometría de flujo. Durante la fase aguda de infección en niños, los LB IgD- circulantes específicos de RV son predominantemente células grandes CD38alto, CD27alto, CD138+/-, CCR6-, a4b7 +, CCR9+, CCR10+, CLA-, L-Selectina int/- y sIgM+, sIgG-, sIgA+/ - Este fenotipo muy probablemente corresponde a CSA y plasmablastos con capacidad de migrar al intestino.

    Durante la convalescencia, el fenotipo cambia a células pequeñas y grandes CD38int/-, CD27int/-, CCR6+, a4b7+/-, CCR9+/- y CCR10-, muy probablemente representando células de memoria, algunas con capacidad de migrar al intestino y otras con capacidad de permanecer en la circulaci

  13. Genetics of Familial and Sporadic ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-21

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS); Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis With Frontotemporal Dementia; Lou Gehrig's Disease; Motor Neuron Disease; Primary Lateral Sclerosis

  14. Growth of CdTe: Al films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CdTe: AI films were grown by the close space vapor transport technique combined with free evaporation (CSVT-FE). The Aluminum (Al) evaporation was made by two kinds of sources: one made of graphite and the other of tantalum. The films were deposited on glass substrates. The Al source temperature was varied maintaining the CdTe source temperature fixed as well as the substrate temperature. The films were characterized by x-ray energy dispersive analysis (EDAX), x-ray diffraction and optical transmission. The results showed for the films grown with the graphite source for Al evaporation, the Al did not incorporate in the CdTe matrix, at least to the level of EDAX sensitivity; they maintained the same crystal structure and band gap. For the samples grown with the tantalum source, we were able to incorporate the Al. The x-ray diffraction patterns show that the films have a crystal structure that depends on Al concentration. They were cubic up to 2.16 at. % Al concentration; for 19.65 at. % we found a mixed phase; for Al concentration higher than 21 at. % the films were amorphous. For samples with cubic structure it was found that the lattice parameter decreases and the band gap increases with Al concentration. (Author)

  15. The impact of ?ad?th perception on disputes between ahl al-Sunnah and al-Sh?‘ah al-Im?miyyah al-Ithn? ‘Ashariyyah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Demirel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the main reasons for the controversies among legal schools in Islam revolves around the methodology of distinguishing authentic a??d?th from those of rejected ones and applying the acceptable a??d?th to different cases. This article studies ?ad?th perception in the light of this methodology to reveal the nature of disputes between ahl al-Sunnah and al-Sh?'ah al-Im?miyyah al-Ithn? 'Ashariyyah which is the biggest madhhab (school among other madh?hib apart from the ahl al-Sunnah. The disagreements among the madhhab of the ahl al-Sunnah are confined to al-fur?' (applications related to secondary issues, whereas the disputes between the Sunni and the Sh?'ah schools are based on both al-u??l (principles and al-fur?'. The main ground for this difference is their perception of ?ad?th. If this fact is overlooked, the differences between the two schools cannot be grasped appropriately.

  16. DECOMPOSITION IN BINARY Al-Li ALLOYS

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Kassab, T.; MENAND, A; Auger, P.; Haasen, P.

    1989-01-01

    We have investigated the influence of aging on the morphology and phase composition of annealed Al-Li binary alloys by means of an atom probe with a multi-detection system. The influence of artifacts such as the preferential evaporation of the Li-atoms and the pile-up effects for the Al-atoms were analysed as well. Specimens of Al- 2.0 wt%Li and Al -2.9 wt%Li were solution treated and aged at 190°C and 150°C for several times. ?'-precipitates were observed by FIM and their composition as well...

  17. n-type conductivity control of AlGaN with high Al mole fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsuno, Takuya; Liu, Yuhuai; Miyake, Hideto; Hiramatsu, Kazumasa [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mie University, 1577 Kurima machiya, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan); Li, Dabing [Satellite Venture Business Laboratory, Mie University, 1577 Kurima machiya, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan); Shibata, Tomohiko; Tanaka, Mitsuhiro [NGK Insulators, Ltd., 2-56 Suda-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, 467-8530 (Japan)

    2006-06-15

    Silicon doped Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N with high Al mole fraction was grown using epitaxial AlN as a underlying layer by low-pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. n-type conductivity control of high quality Si-doped Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N was achieved successfully. Structural, electrical and optical properties were investigated for various Al mole fractions, flow rates of silicon, and Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N thickness, respectively. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Observations of Al segregation around dislocations in AlGaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transmission electron microscopy has been used to observe Al segregation around the threading dislocations in Al0.1Ga0.9N and Al0.3Ga0.7N grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on 6H--SiC. Dislocation lines were found to have up to 70% more Al concentration than those regions free of dislocations in the matrix. The Al-depleted regions around the dislocations are shown to be within a few nanometers from the dislocation lines. The results also show that more Al segregate to edge dislocations than to screw ones. Copyright 2001 American Institute of Physics

  19. Evaluation of Methods of Soldering AlSi and AlSi-SiC Particle Composite Al Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacki, Jerzy; Moraniec, Kacper

    2015-01-01

    The cellular structure and unique properties of aluminum foams are the reason of their numerous applications and interests in respect of their joining. The paper includes the characterization of the essence of properties and application of aluminum and aluminum composite foams, the limitations, and possibilities of their soldering. The aim of the research is the consideration of methods of soldering AlSi foams and AlSi-SiC composite foams, and the joint structure. EDS and XRD investigations of the AlSi-SiC composite foams' joints were done. The possibility of soldering AlSi9 foams and AlSi9-SiC composite foams using S-Bond 220 solder was confirmed, and higher tensile strength of the joint than the parent material was also ascertained

  20. Strengthening of Al and Al-Mg alloy wires by melt inoculation with Al/MgB2 nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florián-Algarín, David; Marrero, Raúl; Padilla, Alexandra; Suárez, Oscar Marcelo

    2015-12-01

    This study hinges on the feasibility of strengthening Al and Al-Mg wires by adding Al nanocomposite pellets containing MgB2 nanoparticles into the melt upon fabrication. These MgB2 nanoparticles were obtained by fragmentation using a high-energy ball mill, and were, afterward, mechanically alloyed with pure aluminum. The resulting MgB2/Al nanocomposite pellets were sintered at 260°C to be subsequently added into molten aluminum and an Al-Mg alloy melt. Cold rolling intercalated with stepwise annealing allowed the fabrication of 1 mm diameter wires with a final area reduction of 96%. Mechanical and physical properties of the treated wire specimens were compared to those of similarly processed pure aluminum wire. The ultimate tensile strength of the treated wires increased approximately double fold with respect to untreated wires at the expense of some loss in electrical conductivity.

  1. Ternary invariant point at 374°C in the three phase region AlSb-Al-Zn inside the Al-Sb-Zn ternary system

    OpenAIRE

    Klan?nik G.; Medved J.

    2011-01-01

    Al-Sb-Zn ternary system was investigated in the three phase region Al-AlSb-Zn, using differential thermal analysis (DTA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS). The position and temperature of the invariant eutectic L ? AlSb + ?-Al + ? - Zn point inside Al-AlSb-Zn region was experimentally determined. To confirm the obtained results X-ray powder diffraction analysis or XRD was also done. All result...

  2. De las fuentes al público

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lisbeth, Fog.

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available A responsabilidade social do jornalista científico se inicia com a abordagem de suas fontes, passa pela redação de seu texto e termina com o impacto que este gera em sua audiência. Suas fontes são a matéria prima. Fazer as perguntas adequadas às fontes adequadas, para conseguir a informação que mais [...] se aproxime à realidade, é o desafio do jornalista que divulga a ciência. O texto discute os conceitos de verdade científica e verdade jornalística, e fala sobre as diferenças e as semelhanças entre científicos e jornalistas, para concluir fazendo uma reflexão ao exercício da reportagem em ciência, onde tanto as fontes como a necessidade de conhecer o perfil do público que tem acesso a nossa informação são elementos chave. Abstract in spanish La responsabilidad social del periodista científico se inicia con el abordaje de sus fuentes, pasa por la redacción de su texto y termina con el impacto que éste genera en su audiencia. Sus fuentes son la materia prima. Hacer las preguntas adecuadas a las fuentes adecuadas, para conseguir la informa [...] ción que más se acerque a la realidad, es el desafío del reportero que divulga la ciencia. El texto discute los conceptos de verdad científica y verdad periodística, y habla sobre las diferencias y las semejanzas entre científicos y periodistas, para concluir haciendo una reflexión al ejercicio de la reportería en ciencia, donde tanto las fuentes como la necesidad de conocer el perfil del público que tiene acceso a nuestra información son elementos clave. Abstract in english The social responsibility of the science journalist starts with the approach to the sources, runs through the writing of the text and ends with the impact that the latter generates in his audience. His sources are the raw material. The challenge of the reporter diffusing science is to make the adequ [...] ate questions to the adequate sources, in order to obtain the information that comes the closest to reality. The text discusses concepts of scientific truth and of journalistic truth, and deals with the similarities and differences between scientists and journalists, to conclude with a reflexion on the practice of reporting in science, where the sources as well as the need to know the profile of the public with access to our information, are key elements.

  3. Preparation and Thermoelectric Properties of YbAl3 Thermoelectric Materials with Excessive Al

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dan-qi; Zhao, Wen-Yu; Mu, Xin; Zhou, Hong-yu; Zhang, Qing-jie

    2015-06-01

    A method to prepare YbAl3 sample with an accurate stoichiometric ratio has been developed by a melting, quenching, annealing and spark plasma sintering (SPS) method. A series of YbAl3 thermoelectric materials with nominal compositions YbAl3+ x ( x = 0-0.3, ? x = 0.1) have been prepared using the method. We have explored the effects of the excessive Al on phase compositions, microstructure and transport properties. The quenched samples are composed of YbAl3, YbAl2, Yb, and Al. All the annealed samples are composed of main phase YbAl3 and a trace of Al; some annealed samples with x = 0 and x = 0.1 still contain a trace of YbAl2. The SPSed samples with x ? 0.1 are composed of single-phase YbAl3, though a trace of YbAl2 still occured in the SPSed sample with x = 0. The electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, power factor, thermal conductivity and ZT values are first increased with increasing x in the range of 0-0.2 and then decreased when x > 0.2. These thermoelectric properties evolutions originate from the change of densities and chemical composition induced by the excessive Al. The highest ZT value reaches 0.28 at 300 K for the SPSed sample with x = 0.2.

  4. Composition and precipitation inhomogeneities in melt-spun Al-Cu and Al-Zn ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-uniform distributions of solute content in the supersaturated ? Al matrix and inhomogeneous precipitation of metastable/stable phases have been studied in rapidly solidified Al-Cu and Al-Zn ribbons. Double peaked X-ray diffraction lines from the ? Al matrix were observed in three as-quenched Al-Cu alloys and one annealed Al-Zn alloy. For as-quenched Al-Cu ribbons, variations in composition, microstructure and precipitate density across the ribbons results from local differences in coolingrates. These differences originate from recalescence during the solidification. The double peaked diffraction lines for these alloys corresponds to two compositions of the ? Al phase with less copper solute in the topside than in the wheelside of the ribbons. Subsequently, annealing of the samples leads to inhomogeneous precipitation of the metastable ?' phase across the whole thickness of the ribbons. Such inhomogeneities do not appear in as-quenched Al-Zn alloys which are quenched into a single ? Al phase. Splitting of the diffraction lines in the annealed ribbons arises from differences in the composition of two different ? Al matrix phases. The ? Al phase between the R phase lamellae has low zinc content, while the ? Al phase where high densities of G.P. zones are retained has higher zinc concentration. (orig.)

  5. Grain refining mechanism in the Al/Al–Ti–B system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al–Ti–B is the most widely used grain refiner for many Al alloys. However, the precise mechanism of grain refinement is still not clear after 60 years of intensive research. This work aims to further our understanding on the grain refining mechanism involving Al–Ti–B-based grain refiners. Extensive high-resolution electron microscopy investigation has confirmed the existence of a Ti-rich monolayer on the (0 0 0 1) TiB2 surface, which is most likely to be a (1 1 2) Al3Ti two-dimensional compound (2DC). Further experimental investigation was carried out to understand the potency of TiB2 particles and the stability of the Al3Ti 2DC. Our results showed that the potency of TiB2 particles is significantly increased by the formation of a monolayer of Al3Ti 2DC on their surface. The Al3Ti 2DC forms at the liquid–Al/TiB2 interface in concentrated Al–Ti solutions, but dissolves in dilute Al–Ti solutions, although the kinetics of both the formation and dissolution of Al3Ti 2DC are relatively sluggish. Effective grain refinement by the Al–5Ti–1B grain refiner is directly attributed to the enhanced potency of TiB2 particles with the Al3Ti 2DC and sufficient free Ti solute in the melt after grain refiner addition to achieve the columnar-to-equiaxed transition

  6. Translate als kognitive Entitäten oder die Natürlichkeitstheorie im Kontext der sprachlichen und psychosozialen Paradigmata der mehrsprachlichen Kommunikation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Teržan Kopecky

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Jahrtausende alt ist das Gefiihl bzw. - gepaart mit Überlegungen und Reflexionen die spatere Überzeugung von Philosophen, Literaten und Denkern, dass der ins Wort gefasste Gedanke den Gedanken selbst beeinflusst, värandert, ihm zu einer neuen, wenn auch vergleichbaren Existenz verhilft, aber dennoch den intendierten Sinn in entsprechender Kombination mit alien möglichen - auch nichtsprachlichen - Faktoren zu vermitteln und an Menschen zu transportieren vermag, die uns schon dadurch mehr oder weniger nahe stehen, dass sie die natürliche, soziale und kulturelle Umwelt mit uns teilen, aber unter gewissen Voraussetzungen auch an jene, die anderen Kulturkreisen, Religionen, ja Welten (und sei es nur im Sinne von Generationen angehören.

  7. Ceramic foams for Al-recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luyten, J.; Vandermeulen, W.; Schutter, F. de [VITO, Materials Technology, Mol (Belgium); Simensen, C. [Sintef, Materials Technology, Blindern, Oslo (Norway); Ryckeboer, M. [Remi Claeys Aluminium, Lichtervelde (Belgium)

    2006-08-15

    The recycling of Al scrap requires an efficient purification step. In this investigation a filter technique is used to remove intermetallic compounds containing Fe, Mn and Si out of the molten Al. The paper describes the synthesis of the filters, the construction of the filter installation, and the results of the different filter tests. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Novel TARDBP mutations in Nordic ALS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiang, Huei-Hsin; Andersen, Peter M; Tysnes, Ole-Bjørn; Gredal, Ole; Christensen, Peter B; Graff, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative syndrome primarily affecting the upper and lower motor neurons. A characteristic neuropathological finding in ALS patients is neuronal inclusions positive for TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43). Subsequently, mutations in the gene encoding...

  9. Diana Al-Hadid: Identity and Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungerberg, Tom; Smith, Anna; Borsh, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    Diana Al-Hadid's sculptures reflect the many locations, cultures, histories, and mythologies that have shaped her as an artist. In large-scale works which have the appearance of architectural ruins, Al-Hadid employs imagery drawn from many diverse interests including science and technology, history, and literature. She also incorporates images and…

  10. Comments to Özkaya et al. (2006)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian

    We review the paper of Özkaya et al. (2006). Though the mathematical derivations seem technically correct, we have some reservations about their numerical results.......We review the paper of Özkaya et al. (2006). Though the mathematical derivations seem technically correct, we have some reservations about their numerical results....

  11. Proton threshold states in 26Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy levels of 26Al between Esub(x) = 6.3 and 6.5 MeV, corresponding to proton threshold energies in the 25Mg + p reaction from Esub(p) = 0 to 200 keV, have been investigated using the reactions 27Al(3He,?)26Al and 24Mg(3He,p)26Al. Despite early work reporting a doublet at Esub(x) = 6346 keV and Esub(x) = 6362 keV, most subsequent work reported a single state with conflicting spin and parity assignments. Our work clearly establishes the presence of the doublet and resolves the conflicts. We find that there are six states in this excitation energy region, including a new state at Esub(x) = 6410 +- 5 keV. The l-values leading to possible spin and parity assignments for all these states have been made using DWBA. We conclude however that only three of these six states may contribute to the production of 26Al by the 25Mg(p,?) reaction in the MgAl cycle and the new structure of 26Al reported here can substantially increase the production rate of 26Al in stellar reactions. (orig.)

  12. Durability Assessment of TiAl Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Susan L.; Lerch, Bradley A.

    2008-01-01

    The durability of TiAl is a prime concern for the implementation of TiAl into aerospace engines. Two durability issues, the effect of high temperature exposure on mechanical properties and impact resistance, have been investigated and the results are summarized in this paper. Exposure to elevated temperatures has been shown to be detrimental to the room temperature ductility of gamma alloys with the most likely mechanisms being the ingress of interstitials from the surface. Fluorine ion implantation has been shown to improve the oxidation resistance of gamma alloys, and ideally it could also improve the environmental embrittlement of high Nb content TiAl alloys. The effect of F ion implantation on the surface oxidation and embrittlement of a third generation, high Nb content TiAl alloy (Ti-45Al-5Nb-B-C) were investigated. Additionally, the ballistic impact resistance of a variety of gamma alloys, including Ti-48Al-2Cr- 2Nb, Ti-47Al-2Cr-2Nb, ABB-2, ABB-23, NCG359E, 95A and Ti-45Al-5Nb-B-C was accessed. Differences in the ballistic impact properties of the various alloys will be discussed, particularly with respect to their manufacturing process, microstructure, and tensile properties.

  13. Thermodynamical properties of Al2Te3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The temperature (300-450 K) and concentrative dependence of EMF for the alloys of Al-Tesystems have been investigated. There have been calculated the Gibbs energy, enthalpies, entropies, absolute entropy values, atomization energies of Al2Te3 at 298 k

  14. Electric quadrupole moments of neutron-rich nuclei {sup 32}Al and {sup 31}Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kameda, D., E-mail: kameda@ribf.riken.jp; Ueno, H. [RIKEN Nishina Center (Japan); Asahi, K.; Nagae, D.; Takemura, M.; Shimada, K. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Physics (Japan); Yoshimi, A.; Nagatomo, T.; Sugimoto, T. [RIKEN Nishina Center (Japan); Uchida, M.; Arai, T.; Takase, K.; Suda, S.; Inoue, T. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Physics (Japan); Murata, J.; Kawamura, H. [Rikkyo University, Department of Physics (Japan); Watanabe, H. [Australian National University, Department of Nuclear Physics (Australia); Kobayashi, Y.; Ishihara, M. [RIKEN Nishina Center (Japan)

    2007-11-15

    The electric quadrupole moments for the ground states of {sup 32}Al and {sup 31}Al have been measured by the {beta} ray-detected nuclear quadrupole resonance method. Spin-polarized {sup 32}Al and {sup 31}Al nuclei were obtained from the fragmentation of {sup 40}Ar projectiles at E/A = 95 MeV/nucleon, and were implanted in a single crystal {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} stopper. The measured Q moment of {sup 32}Al, |Q({sup 32}Al)| = 24(2) mb, is in good agreement with a conventional shell-model calculation with a full sd model space and empirical effective charges, while that of {sup 31}Al is considerably smaller than the sd calculations.

  15. Studies on SiC(p) reinforced Al-Al sub 3 Ni eutectic matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation on processing of Al-5.69wt% Ni eutectic with SiC particulate composites is reported. The intermetallic composites are prepared by elemental powder metallurgy route and sintered at two different temperatures, i.e., 600 degree C and 620 degree C. Results show that the metal matrix was Al-Al sub 3 Ni eutectic. The phase analysis by XRD identified the presence of Al sub 3 Ni and Al as dominant phases together with silicon and Al sub 4 C sub 3 phase as minor phases. The Al sub 4 C sub 3 and Si phases are formed during sintering due to SiC-Al interface reaction. SEM micrographs also reveal the formation of microvoid surrounding the SiC particle

  16. Preparation of Al2O3 sample and measurement of 26Al by AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical procedure for preparing Al2O3 sample used in AMS was reported. The fact that different ions are precipitated at different pH values was used to purify Al which was covered to Al2O3 at high temperature. A set of Al2O3 samples including standard and blank have been prepared. For the blank the ratio 26Al/27Al was measured to be 1.1 x 10-13. The result showed that the interference of 26Mg in sample was negligible and the chemical procedure of preparing Al2O3 samples were successful. The measurement procedure of 26Al by AMS was also reported

  17. Production of high-purity 26Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    26Al is a positron emitting radioisotope of aluminium and has a half-life of 7.16x105y. In addition to annihilation ?-rays of 511 keV, there are three high energy ?-rays 1129 (2.4%), 1809 (99.73%) and 2938 (0.27%) keV. 26Al is the only radioisotope of aluminium available for radiochemical applications, the half-lives of the other aluminium isotopes are seconds and minutes. The usage of 26Al is very important in the investigations of the metabolism of Al in human body (for example in Alzheimer disease studies) or as a tracer in radiochemical studies. But 26Al is such a long-lived isotope that the task of producing it in tangible amounts is a very difficult one. (author). 2 refs

  18. NiAl alloys for structural uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, D. A.

    1991-01-01

    Alloys based on the intermetallic compound NiAl are of technological interest as high temperature structural alloys. These alloys possess a relatively low density, high melting temperature, good thermal conductivity, and (usually) good oxidation resistance. However, NiAl and NiAl-base alloys suffer from poor fracture resistance at low temperatures as well as inadequate creep strength at elevated temperatures. This research program explored macroalloying additions to NiAl-base alloys in order to identify possible alloying and processing routes which promote both low temperature fracture toughness and high temperature strength. Initial results from the study examined the additions of Fe, Co, and Hf on the microstructure, deformation, and fracture resistance of NiAl-based alloys. Of significance were the observations that the presence of the gamma-prime phase, based on Ni3Al, could enhance the fracture resistance if the gamma-prime were present as a continuous grain boundary film or 'necklace'; and the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy was ductile in ribbon form despite a microstructure consisting solely of the B2 beta phase based on NiAl. The ductility inherent in the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy was explored further in subsequent studies. Those results confirm the presence of ductility in the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy after rapid cooling from 750 - 1000 C. However exposure at 550 C caused embrittlement; this was associated with an age-hardening reaction caused by the formation of Fe-rich precipitates. In contrast, to the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy, exploratory research indicated that compositions in the range of Ni-35Al-12Fe retain the ordered B2 structure of NiAl, are ductile, and do not age-harden or embrittle after thermal exposure. Thus, our recent efforts have focused on the behavior of the Ni-35Al-12Fe alloy. A second parallel effort initiated in this program was to use an alternate processing technique, mechanical alloying, to improve the properties of NiAl-alloys. Mechanical alloying in the conventional sense requires ductile powder particles which, through a cold welding and fracture process, can be dispersion strengthened by submicron-sized oxide particles. Using both the Ni-35Al-Fe alloys to contain approx. 1 v/o Y2O3. Preliminary results indicate that mechanically alloyed and extruded NiAl-Fe + Y2O3 alloys when heat treated to a grain-coarsened condition, exhibit improved creep resistance at 1000 C when compared to NiAl; oxidation resistance comparable to NiAl; and fracture toughness values a factor of three better than NiAl. As a result of the research initiated on this NASA program, a subsequent project with support from Inco Alloys International is underway.

  19. Cyclic deformation response of ultrafine pure Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cyclic deformation response of ultrafine pure Al produced by cryo-rolling was investigated using low-cycle fatigue and electron microscopy. The ultrafine pure Al was cyclically deformed under a fully reversed total strain control (R = -1) corresponding to a plastic strain amplitude range of 8 x 10-4 and 1.4 x 10-2. It was found that cryo-rolled pure Al is very susceptible to cyclic softening, resulting in a much lower fatigue life compared with the coarse-grained counterpart. Shear banding and associated grain coarsening were the most prominent microstructural features of the cyclically deformed cryo-rolled pure Al. Furthermore, annealing led to a slight decrease in the cyclic softening rate, giving a slight increase in the fatigue life of cryo-rolled Al.

  20. The wobbler mouse, an ALS animal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moser, Jakob Maximilian; Bigini, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    This review article is focused on the research progress made utilizing the wobbler mouse as animal model for human motor neuron diseases, especially the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The wobbler mouse develops progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons and shows striking similarities to ALS. The cellular effects of the wobbler mutation, cellular transport defects, neurofilament aggregation, neuronal hyperexcitability and neuroinflammation closely resemble human ALS. Now, 57 years after the first report on the wobbler mouse we summarize the progress made in understanding the disease mechanism and testing various therapeutic approaches and discuss the relevance of these advances for human ALS. The identification of the causative mutation linking the wobbler mutation to a vesicle transport factor and the research focussed on the cellular basis and the therapeutic treatment of the wobbler motor neuron degeneration has shed new light on the molecular pathology of the disease and might contribute to the understanding the complexity of ALS

  1. Interaction in Cu/Al and Pt/Cu/Al thin films: Competing oxygen effects and preferential reaction between Pt and CuAl alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chin-An

    1984-02-01

    The effects of oxygen on the interactions of the Cu-Al thin-film system are studied using both Cu/Al and Pt/Cu/Al structures. For the Cu/Al structure, oxygen-enhanced outdiffusion of Al and accumulation of Al on the Cu surface are observed. Using the Pt/Cu/Al structure, however, no surface accumulation of Al on Pt is observed; instead, the observed interdiffusion and alloy formation between Cu and Al are both suppressed by oxygen. At increasing temperatures, Al preferentially outdiffuses from the CuAl alloy to form a Pt Al alloy with the top Pt layer. This last process is also suppressed by oxygen, similar to the binary Pt/Al system reported previously. The mechanisms for the competing interactions and ambient effects observed are discussed.

  2. Al compositional inhomogeneity of AlGaN epilayer with a high Al composition grown by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Al compositional distribution of AlGaN is investigated by cathodoluminescence (CL). Monochromatic CL images and CL spectra reveal a lateral Al compositional inhomogeneity, which corresponds to surface hexagonal patterns. Cross-sectional CL images show a relatively uniform Al compositional distribution in the growth direction, indicating columnar growth mode of AlGaN films. In addition, a thin AlGaN layer with lower Al composition is grown on top of the buffer AlN layer near the bottom of the AlGaN epilayer because of the larger lateral mobility of Ga adatoms on the growth surface and their accumulation at the grain boundaries

  3. AlAs-like TO-phonon dephasing time in high Al content AlGaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zibik, E.A.; Green, R.P.; Wilson, L.R.; Wells, J.P.R.; Cockburn, J.W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, S3 7RH, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Phillips, P.J.; Carder, D.A. [FOM Institute Rijnhuizen, PO Box 1207, NL-3430BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Steer, M.J.; Hopkinson, M. [EPSRC National Centre for III-V Technologies, S1 3JD, Mappin St, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2004-11-01

    The AlAs-like TO-phonon decay in Al{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}As has been investigated using an infrared four wave mixing technique with picosecond resolution. The low temperature TO-phonon lifetime is found to be {proportional_to}5 ps and is significantly shorter than {proportional_to}40 ps recently predicted for the TO-phonon in AlAs [A. Debernardi, Phys. Rev. B 57, 12847 (1998)]. In alloy materials Al and Ga atoms are randomly distributed on the Group III sublattice of the zincblende structure. This disorder considerably reduces the lifetime of AlAs phonon mode due to scattering of the TO phonon with Ga atoms which results in an additional decay channel: AlAs-TO {yields} GaAs-L(T)O + LA in AlGaAs alloy materials. The new decay channel also leads to stronger temperature dependence of the TO-phonon lifetime. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Micromechanisms of fracture and fatigue in Ti3Al based and TiAl based intermetallics

    OpenAIRE

    James, A; Chave, R.; Hippsley, C.; Bowen, P.

    1993-01-01

    Micromechanisms of fracture and fatigue crack growth resistance in specific Ti3Al based and TiAl based intermetallics are reviewed. Effects of test temprature, environment and microstructure on crack growth resistance are considered in detail for several Ti3Al and TiAl based intermetallic systems under development. The implications of these studies for the structural reliability of these materials is also addressed briefly.

  5. Staggered Pairing Phenomenology for UPd_2Al_3 and UNi_2Al_3

    OpenAIRE

    Martisovits, V.; Cox, D. L.

    1997-01-01

    We apply the staggered-pairing Ginzburg-Landau phenomenology to describe superconductivity in UPd_2Al_3 and UNi_2Al_3. The phenomenology was applied successfully to UPt_3 so it explains why these materials have qualitatively different superconducting phase diagrams although they have the same point-group symmetry. UPd_2Al_3 and UNi_2Al_3 have a two-component superconducting order parameter transforming as an H-point irreducible representation of the space group. Staggered su...

  6. Corrosion Studies of 2195 Al-Li Alloy and 2219 Al Alloy with Differing Surface Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danford, M. D.; Mendrek, M. J.

    1998-01-01

    Corrosion studies of 2195 Al-Li and 2219 Al alloys have been conducted using the scanning reference electrode technique (SRET) and the polarization resistance (PR) technique. The SRET was used to study corrosion mechanisms, while corrosion rate measurements were studied with the PR technique. Plates of Al203 blasted, soda blasted and conversion coated 2219 Al were coated with Deft primer and the corrosion rates studied with the EIS technique. Results from all of these studies are presented.

  7. High temperature creep behaviour of Al-rich Ti-Al alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturm, D; Heilmaier, M; Saage, H [Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Institute for Materials and Joining Technology, PO Box 4120, D-39016 Magdeburg (Germany); Aguilar, J; Schmitz, G J; Drevermann, A [ACCESS e.V., Intzestrasse 5, D-52072 Aachen (Germany); Palm, M; Stein, F; Engberding, N [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-40237 Duesseldorf (Germany); Kelm, K; Irsen, S, E-mail: daniel.sturm@ovgu.d [Stiftung caesar, Electron Microscopy, Ludwig-Erhard-Allee 2, D-53175 Bonn (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Compared to Ti-rich {gamma}-TiAl-based alloys Al-rich Ti-Al alloys offer an additional reduction of in density and a better oxidation resistance which are both due to the increased Al content. Polycrystalline material was manufactured by centrifugal casting. Microstructural characterization was carried out employing light-optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and XRD analyses. The high temperature creep of two binary alloys, namely Al{sub 60}Ti{sub 40} and Al{sub 62}Ti{sub 38} was comparatively assessed with compression tests at constant true stress in a temperature range between 1173 and 1323 K in air. The alloys were tested in the cast condition (containing various amounts of the metastable phases Al{sub 5}Ti{sub 3} and h-Al{sub 2}Ti) and after annealing at 1223 K for 200 h which produced (thermodynamically stable) lamellar {gamma}-TiAl + r-Al{sub 2}Ti microstructures. In general, already the as-cast alloys exhibit a reasonable creep resistance at 1173 K. Compared with Al{sub 60}Ti{sub 40}, both, the as-cast and the annealed Al{sub 62}Ti{sub 38} alloy exhibit better creep resistance up to 1323 K which can be rationalized by the reduced lamella spacing. The assessment of creep tests conducted at identical stress levels and varying temperatures yielded apparent activation energies for creep of Q = 430 kJ/mol for the annealed Al{sub 60}Ti{sub 40} alloy and of Q = 383 kJ/mol for the annealed Al{sub 62}Ti{sub 38} material. The latter coincides well with that of Al diffusion in {gamma}-TiAl, whereas the former can be rationalized by the instability of the microstructure containing metastable phases.

  8. Spray forming of Al-Fe-Cr-Ti and Al-Si-Li alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Banjongprasert, C; Hogg, SC; Palmer, IG; Grennan-Heaven, N; Stone, IC; Grant, PS

    2007-01-01

    This work presents an investigation of the spray forming and downstream processing of Al alloys that are difficult to produce in bulk by conventional solidification processing: Al-Fe-Cr-Ti alloys for intermediate temperature applications and Al-Si-Li alloys for high stiffness, low density applications in fast moving machinery. For the Al-Fe-Cr-Ti alloys, spray forming is being investigated to allow the scale-up of alloy compositions previously explored only as ribbons or powders in traditiona...

  9. Magnetic behaviour of PrCuAl and NdCuAl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results of a specific heat and magnetization study of PrCuAl and NdCuAl. PrCuAl orders antiferromagnetically below TN = 7.9 K. The magnetic behaviour of NdCuAl is more complex. Our experiments reveal the ordering temperature of 18 K and indications of magnetic ordering characterized by a coexistence of ferro- and antiferromagnetic components of Nd moments. (orig.)

  10. Dynamic recrystallization in TiAl and Ti3Al intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanical behaviour and microstructure evolution during hot deformation were investigated in TiAl and Ti3Al intermetallic compounds. The features of development of dynamic recrystallization in the both titanium aluminides were established. It is shown that we can use the dynamic recrystallization to obtain the micro- ( anti d?1 ?m) and submicrocrystalline ( anti d?0,1 ?m) structures in the TiAl and Ti3Al intermetallic compounds. (orig.)

  11. Uslûb al-Hiwâr al-Qur’âni bayna al-Muslimîn wa al-Nasâra ‘inda Badî’uzzamân Sa’îd al-Nursi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujiat Zubaidi Saleh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve some issues, the scholars’ dialogue often generates new ideas as it works to clarify the values of al-Qur’an and to enrich their understanding about it. Therefore, Nursi pointed to unite at present not only with the Muslim community and even with Christians, aside from the differences and disputes over union issues. It is possible to do so when the Muslims and the Christians refrain from their controversies among them. Nursi’s idea does not mean that he does not recognize any differences between them. There are some significant differences between the Christian and the Muslim faith, but those differences should not prevent them from the most important goal to provide new humanitarian look for human life, where God is the axis and the divine will for the moral values of this point. Nursi believes that the current religious relationship marred by erroneous thought as the result of post-modernism worldview. In fact, al-Qur’an recommended a mutual awareness of the communities that shapes them to gain a common goal in God witnesses as the divine values of this modern civilization in opposition to “clash of civilizations”, but this task needs some efforts to discuss on Quranic Dialogue. This dialogue could be undertaken well, as long as it sets out with full love and affection rather than with the fierce conflict and distress. Thus, Nursi introduced new ideas into interfaith dialogue between Muslims and Christians, to build a true civilization based on mutual relations of love.

  12. Analysis and chemometry of heavy metal concentrations in the Saale, Ilm and Unstrut as a basis for assessing the pollutant level and the prospects for success of sanitation measures. Final report; Analyse und chemometrische Bewertung von Schwermetallgehalten der Saale, Ilm und Unstrut als Bestandsaufnahme und zur Abschaetzung der Auswirkungen von Sanierungsmassnahmen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einax, J.W.; Truckenbrodt, D.; Kampe, O.

    1997-09-01

    Since the mid-1980`s, heavy metal characterisation was carried out on sediments of selected sections of the river Saale and methodical work was done on the analysis of flowing water at the Friedrich Schiller University at Jena. However, there was no comprehensive and current information about the state of contamination along the whole course of the river before. The most important aim was therefore the first and current stocktaking of this extent of contamination of the water, sediment and suspended matter of the Saale. The basis of these considerations was formed by about 15,000 determined features in water samples and more than 1,000 examinations of suspended matter and 4,600 examinations of sediment. In the characterisation of contamination of flowing watercourses, it was generally usual to evaluate the change of individual features according to geographic or time aspects. The application of methods of multi-variate statistics makes it possible to identify anthropogenic and geogenic sources and to discover latent connections. A comprehensive evaluation of the actual contamination situation is possible in this way. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Seit Mitte der achtziger Jahre werden an der Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena Schwermetallcharakterisierungen an Sedimenten ausgewaehlter Flussabschnitte der Saale sowie methodische Arbeiten zur Fliessgewaesseranalytik durchgefuehrt. Umfassende und aktuelle Informationen ueber den Belastungszustand entlang des gesamten Flussablaufes gab es jedoch bisher nicht. Wichtigstes Ziel war deshalb eine in diesem Umfang erstmalige und aktuelle Bestandsaufnahme zur Belastung von Wasser, Sediment und Schwebstoffe der Saale. Die Grundlage dieser Betrachtungen bilden ca. 15.000 bestimmte Merkmale in Wasserproben und mehr als 1.000 Schwebstoff- und 4.600 Sedimentuntersuchungen. Bei der Belastungscharakterisierung von Fliessgewaessern ist es derzeit allgemein ueblich, die Aenderung einzelner Merkmale nach geographischen oder zeitlichen Aspekten zu bewerten. Die Anwendung von Methoden der multivariaten Statistik ermoeglicht die Identifizierung anthropogener und geogener Quellen und die Aufdeckung latenter Zusammenhaenge. Damit ist eine umfassende Bewertung der tatsaechlichen Belastungssituation moeglich. (orig./SR)

  13. Thermodynamic calculations in alloys Ti-Al, Ti-Fe, Al-Fe and Ti-Al-Fe

    OpenAIRE

    Kostov Ana; Friedrich B; Živkovi? D.

    2008-01-01

    Thermodynamic calculations of three binary Ti-based alloys: Ti-Al, Ti-Fe, and Al-Fe, as well as ternary alloy Ti-Al-Fe, is shown in this paper. Thermodynamic calculations involved thermodynamic determination of activities, coefficient of activities, partial and integral values for enthalpies and Gibbs energies of mixing and excess energies at different temperatures: 1873K, 2000K and 2073K, as well as calculated phase diagrams for the investigated binary and ternary systems. The FactSage is us...

  14. Thermodynamic calculations in alloys Ti-Al, Ti-Fe, Al-Fe and Ti-Al-Fe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostov Ana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic calculations of three binary Ti-based alloys: Ti-Al, Ti-Fe, and Al-Fe, as well as ternary alloy Ti-Al-Fe, is shown in this paper. Thermodynamic calculations involved thermodynamic determination of activities, coefficient of activities, partial and integral values for enthalpies and Gibbs energies of mixing and excess energies at different temperatures: 1873K, 2000K and 2073K, as well as calculated phase diagrams for the investigated binary and ternary systems. The FactSage is used for all thermodynamic calculations.

  15. Phase periodic conductance oscillations at subgap Andreev resonances in Nb-Al-AlOx-Al-Nb tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senapati, Kartik; Blamire, Mark G.; Barber, Zoe H.

    2010-10-01

    We show evidence of a magnetic field dependent oscillation of subgap dynamic conductivity in a series of Nb-Al-AlOx-Al-Nb Josephson tunnel junctions in the voltage biased state. Our measurements show that the amplitude of conductance oscillations was maximum close to the subharmonic conductance peaks of the junctions, which are collective resonances of multiple Andreev reflected quasiparticles via pinholes in the tunnel barrier. The period of oscillations was commensurate with the macroscopic phase evolution of the junction. This observation suggests that under certain conditions practical Josephson tunnel junctions are analogous to Andreev interferometers, where the junction itself acts as the flux quantizer.

  16. SAP-like ultrafine-grained Al composites dispersion strengthened with nanometric AlN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the development of novel Sinter-Aluminum-Pulver (SAP)-like Al–AlN nanocomposites via replacing the native Al2O3 thin films on fine Al powder with a large volume fraction of in situ formed nanometric AlN dispersoids. Fine gas-atomized Al powder (d50=1.3 µm) compacts were first partially nitrided at 590 °C in flowing nitrogen, controlled by a small addition of Sn (0.3–0.4 wt%), and subsequently consolidated by hot direct extrusion. The resulting Al–AlN composites consisted of submicrometric Al grains reinforced with nanometric AlN dispersoids together with some nanometric Al2O3 dispersoids. An Al–13 vol% AlN nanocomposite fabricated this way achieved exceptional ultimate tensile strength of 227 MPa, yield strength of 195 MPa and Young's modulus of 66 GPa at 300 °C, superior to typical SAP materials and coarse grained Al–AlN composites. In addition, the Al–13 vol% AlN nanocomposite exhibited good thermal stability up to 500 °C. The strengthening mechanism is discussed

  17. Agricultural power generation; Die Landwirtschaft als Energieerzeuger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Within the KTBL meeting between 4th and 5th May, 2009, in Osnabrueck (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Evaluation of renewable energy sources (Sebastian Wulf et al.); (2) The future of bio fuels (Norbert Schmitz); (3) Supply of biomass for BtL fuels (Ludwig Leible et al.); (4) Combined heat and power generation with biomass (Juergen Karl); (5) Site-specific sustainable production of energy plants (Armin Vetter et al.); (6) Biomass logistics (Juergen Hahn et al.); (7) Process and costs of the production of wood fuel at agricultural areas (Volkard Scholz et al.); (8) Miscanthus: Cultivation, economic efficiency and properties as a fuel (Klaus Mastel); (9) Costs of supplying energy plants (Henning Eckel et al.); (10) Residuals as a substrate for bio gas plants (Susanne Klages et al.); (11) Innovations at the development of energy plants - view of a breeding company (Andreas von Felde et al.); (12) Processing of solid biomass - ravelling, drying and pelletizing (Stephan Sternowsky et al.); (13) Technology, operational experiences and yields of photovoltaic plants in southern Germany (Gottfried Gronbach); (14) Solar thermal plants in the agriculture - Technology and economic efficiency (Albert Esper); (15) Quality is worth-wile - Design and realization of biomass power plants (Gilbert Krapf); (16) When repays a near-by district heating grids in municipalities itself? (Helmut Doehler); (17) Agriculture in municipal power management and material stream management (Frank Wagener et al.); (18) Energetic utilization of stalk materials (Thomas Hering); (19) Modern wood firing - State of the art and tendencies of development (Peter Turowski et al.); (20) Gasification of biomass in combined heat and power cogeneration plants - state of the knowledge, efforts for the practice (Andrej Stanev); (21) Production of rapeseed oil fuel in decentral oil mills (Edgar Remmele); (22) Plant oil as a fuel in agricultural machines (Hardwin Traulsen); (23) Experiences in the utilization of rapeseed oil in the Austrian 35-tractors-program (Josef Breinesberger); (24) The remuneration regulation of EEG2009 for biogas plants (Helmut Loibl); (25) Technical further developments in the construction of biogas plants (Waldemar Gruber); (26) Economical efficiency of biogas plants in the natural gas grid (Christian Boese); (27) Concepts for heat utilization for biogas plants (Anke Nierbaum et al.); (28) Biomethane as a fuel for vehicles - practical experiences from Europe (Michael Beil et al.).

  18. Formation of Ta-Al intermetallics by combustion synthesis involving Al-based thermite reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, C.L., E-mail: clyeh@fcu.edu.t [Department of Aerospace and Systems Engineering, Feng Chia University, 100 Wenhwa Road, Seatwen, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China); Wang, H.J. [Department of Aerospace and Systems Engineering, Feng Chia University, 100 Wenhwa Road, Seatwen, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China)

    2010-02-18

    Thermite-based combustion synthesis was conducted to investigate in situ formation of tantalum aluminides (Ta{sub 2}Al, TaAl, TaAl{sub 2}, and TaAl{sub 3}) and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} from the powder compacts of Al and Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} under a molar ratio ranging from Al/Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} = 13/3 to 28/3. Effects of the sample stoichiometry on the combustion behavior and degree of phase conversion were studied. Experimental evidence showed that upon ignition, the synthesis reaction proceeded in a self-sustaining manner featuring a planar combustion front or two localized reaction zones traveling spirally. The combustion front temperature varies between 1135 and 1460 {sup o}C. In agreement with composition dependence of the reaction exothermicity, the reaction front velocity in the axial direction increased from 5.8 to 7.2 mm/s with molar ratio of Al/Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} from 13/3 to 16/3, beyond which the flame velocity decreased substantially. The slowest reaction front with an axial velocity of 1.15 mm/s was observed in the sample of Al/Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} = 28/3. Based upon the XRD analysis, in situ formation of the composites composed of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and tantalum aluminides was confirmed. For the samples with Al contents of Al/Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} = 13/3-18/3, an increase in the Al/Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} ratio improved the production of tantalum aluminides and caused the change in the dominant aluminide phase from Ta{sub 2}Al, TaAl, to TaAl{sub 2}. Due to lack of adequate reaction time, the phase conversion was not stoichiometrically achieved in the samples of Al/Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} = 13/3-18/3. However, it was found that the slower reaction front provided longer reaction time to complete the phase conversion almost stoichiometrically in the samples of Al/Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} = 22/3-28/3, which yielded the Al-rich phases TaAl{sub 2} and/or TaAl{sub 3} in the final products.

  19. „Das Internet“ als Effekt diskursiver Bedeutungskämpfe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Carstensen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Der Artikel zeigt, wie politische Kontroversen am Thema Internet ausgehandelt werden und wie das Internet dabei erst interpretativ hergestellt wird. Hierzu werden zunächst technik­soziologische Sichtweisen auf Technik als Bedeutungsträgerin vorgestellt. Anschließend wird unter Bezugnahme auf die Diskursforschung und die Soziale Bewegungsforschung eine Per­spektive auf Technik entwickelt, die politische Diskurse über Technik als Kämpfe um Deu­tungsmacht und damit als Versuche, (potenzielle AnhängerInnen und UnterstützerInnen zu mobilisieren, versteht. Anhand dieses theoretischen Konzepts werden dann Ergebnisse einer Inhaltsanalyse von gewerkschaftlichen Diskursen über das Internet vorgestellt. Dabei lassen sich vier Deutungsmuster unterscheiden. Es zeigt sich, dass am Internet interne und nach au­ßen gerichtete Debatten der Gewerkschaften um Reformbedarf, Imageprobleme, Mitglieder-, Macht- und Kontrollverluste geführt werden, in denen das Internet – jeweils passend – sozial konstruiert wird. Die als dominant und gültig anerkannten Bedeutungen des Internet sind demnach als Ergebnisse kollektiver interpretativer Aushandlungsprozesse und damit als Aus­druck der bestehenden Verteilung von Deutungsmacht zu betrachten – und nicht als Aussagen über materielle Eigenschaften des Internet.

  20. Thermodynamics And Concentration Fluctuations Of Liquid Al-Cu And Al-Zn Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trybu?a M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic properties of liquid Al-Cu and Al-Zn alloys are investigated using the free volume model. We also analyse local atomic arrangements and concentration fluctuations in both liquid binary alloys from the determination of the Warren-Cowley short-range order. For liquid Al-Cu alloys, our findings indicate a strong preference for heteroatomic nearest-neighbors bonds on the Cu-rich side and weaker ones in the Al-rich part while for the liquid Al-Zn alloy, a tendency to the phase separation is observed. Basing on Darken’s thermodynamic relationship, diffusivity has been examined for both liquid alloys.

  1. Effects of hydrogen absorption in TbNiAl and UNiAl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although hydrides of intermetallic compounds are used extensively as hydrogen-storage media, little is known about the exact nature of metal-hydrogen interactions. However, this knowledge is of essential importance for the understanding of thermodynamics and other properties. Hydrides (deuterides) of TbNiAl and UNiAl have been widely studied because of drastic increase of magnetic ordering temperature under hydrogenation. Here the authors report neutron-diffraction results of the three deuterides, TbNiAlD1.28, TbNiAlD0.8a nd UNiAlD2.23

  2. The influence of Al content on the Zener relaxation of Fe-Al alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of Al content on the Zener relaxation peak of annealed Fe-Al alloys has been investigated using a computer-controlled automatic inverted torsion pendulum through the method of free decay and forced vibration. It has been shown that alloys with medium Al contents show strong relaxation while lower or higher Al contents lead to relatively weak Zener relaxation peaks. The Zener relaxation in Fe-Al alloys originates from the next-nearest-neighbour atom pairs and their interaction rather than the nearest-neighbour atom pairs. The latter may not produce Zener relaxation because of the ordered structure, which suppresses Zener relaxation

  3. Single-crystal27 Al NMR study of corundum ?-Al2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    27Al NMR chemical shielding, quadrupolar coupling, and dipolar coupling interactions for corundum (?-Al2O3) are determined from the single-crystal 27Al NMR spectra according to the rotation about three orthogonal axis. 27Al NMR parameters obtained in this work with high accuracy are as follows: ?iso =7.4(4) ppm, QCC=2.30(4) MHz, ?=0.08(3), and R=2.0(3) kHz. This work appears to be the first NMR measurement of an aluminum-aluminum dipolar coupling interaction in ?-Al2O3 crystals

  4. Electronic transport in the heavy fermion superconductors UPd 2 Al 3 and UNi 2 Al 3

    OpenAIRE

    Foerster, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This work addresses the electronical properties of the superconductors UPd2Al3 and UNi2Al3 on the basis of thin film experiments. These isotructural compounds are ideal candiates to study the interplay of magnetism and superconductivity due to the differences of their magnetically ordered states, as well as the experimental evidence for a magnetic pairing mechanism in UPd2Al3. Epitaxial thin film samples of UPd2Al3 and UNi2Al3 were prepared using UHV Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE). For UPd2...

  5. Strength of Al and Al-Mg/alumina bonds prepared using ultrahigh vacuum diffusion bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have measured the cross-breaking strength of Al and Al-Mg alloys bonded with alumina. Diffusion bonding of Al and Al-Mg alloys requires significantly more bonding time than previously thought to obtain complete bonding. In contrast to previous diffusion bonding studies, fracture morphologies are similar to those obtained in bonds formed by liquid phase reaction; i.e., bonds are as strong or stronger than the ceramic; and fracture tends to propagate in the metal for pure Al and near the interface in the ceramic for the alloys. There are indications that the fracture morphology depends on Mg content and therefore on plasticity in the metal

  6. Reaction of Ti and Ti-Al alloys with alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay K.

    1991-01-01

    The reaction of single-crystal Al2O3 with pure Ti and Ti-Al alloys with different Al concentrations was examined in the temperature range of 1173 to 1573 K. Significant reaction occurred between Al2O3 and the Ti-Al alloys with Al concentrations lower than that corresponding to the gamma-TiAl phase. The reaction mechanism was determined to be simultaneous diffusion of Al and atomic oxygen from Al2O3 into Ti and the Ti-Al alloys.

  7. MICROSTRUCTURE OF CVD - Al2O3

    OpenAIRE

    Chatfield, C; LindstrÖm, J.; SjÖstrand, M.

    1989-01-01

    The reaction mechanisms of CVD-Al2O3 are briefly reviewed. Two independent reaction paths exist, one of which is rate limited by a volume reaction and the second one by a surface reaction. Al2O3 crystallizes in several different phases. The ?-structure is the stable phase at normal deposition temperature (950-1050°C). The metastable ?-phase is the second most commonly occurring phase. It is shown that ? - and ? - Al2O3 nucleate on pure TiC (111) facets with well defined lattice orientation-re...

  8. TAFSIR SEMANTIK TERHADAP SURAT AL-KAFIRUN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Muslimin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The problems about the reading of al-Qur’an is always interesting to be discussed, in which the use of Arabic includes sound or ‘nash’ is acrucial factor to understand the implicit meaning of the Arabic-written texts. Al-Qur’an discusses problem based on the society’s culture. Al-Kafirun discusses not only about the normative theology but more about sociological contexts in which it tends to show transparency, fight against fanaticism and regionalism. And all of the will bring to the first process of the making of the text meaning to the situational context that creates them.

  9. Evolution of deformation texture in Al/Al–Mg/Al composite sheets during cold-roll cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Al/Al–Mg/Al composite sheets were fabricated by roll cladding. ? EBSD analysis captured the heterogeneity of deformation texture in each component layer. ? The deformation history from the FEA was used to simulate the evolution of deformation texture. ? The simulations revealed how the friction-induced shear component of Lij affects the development of shear–strain texture. - Abstract: Al/Al–Mg/Al composite sheets were fabricated by roll cladding to investigate the evolution of deformation texture through the thickness direction. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) was used to analyze the heterogeneity of deformation texture in each component layer of the composite sheets. Finite element analysis (FEA) was conducted to simulate the deformation history in each component layer during roll cladding. The deformation history from the FEA was used in a full-constraints polycrystal model to simulate the evolution of deformation texture through the thickness direction during roll cladding. The simulation results revealed that the development of distinct shear–strain texture components in the clad layer could be explained by the friction-induced shear component of a velocity gradient tensor.

  10. Characterization of different-Al-content AlGaN/GaN heterostructures on sapphire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Guojian; Guo, Liwei; Xing, Zhigang; Chen, Yao; Xu, Peiqiang; Jia, Haiqiang; Zhou, Junming; Chen, Hong

    2010-01-01

    Al x Ga1- x N/GaN high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) structures with Al composition ranging from x = 0.13 to 0.36 are grown on sapphire substrates by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (LP-MOCVD). The effects of Al content on crystal quality, surface morphology, optical and electrical characteristics of the AlGaN/GaN heterostructures have been analyzed. Although high Al-content (36%) heterostructure exhibits a distinguished photoluminescence peak related to recombination between the two-dimensional electron gas and photoexcited holes (2DEG-h), its crystal quality and rough surface morphology are poor. 2DEG mobility increases with the Al content up to 26% and then it apparently decreases for high Al-content (36%) AlGaN/GaN heterostructure. The increase of sheet carrier density with the increase of Al content has been observed. A high mobility at room temperature of 2105 cm2/V s with a sheet carrier density of n s = 1.10 × 1013 cm-2, for a 26% Al-content AlGaN/GaN heterostructure has been obtained, which is approaching state-of-the-art for HEMT grown on SiC. Sheet resistance as low as 274 ?/? has also been achieved.

  11. Electrical investigations of AlGaN/AlN structures for LEDs on Si(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, H.; Rohrbeck, A.; Guenther, K.M.; Saengkaew, P.; Blaesing, J.; Dadgar, A.; Krost, A. [Department of Semiconductor Epitaxy, Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Magdeburg, 39106 Magdeburg (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    The carrier transport in AlGaN light emission diode (LED) structures on Si-substrates including an AlN multilayer (ML) buffer for reduction of defects was investigated using I-V-characteristics and admittance spectroscopy. Additionally, AlN on Si ML and AlN/AlGaN:Si on Si structures were grown and analyzed separately. The AlN-ML/AlGaN:Si heterojunction, and the pn-junction including the AlGaN/GaN multi quantum well (MQW)-structure were identified. As the main space charge regions (SCRs) controlling the carrier transport through the ultraviolet-light emission diode (UV-LED) structure the Si-substrate/AlN-ML heterojunctions pointed out. The I-V-characteristic of the LED structure is described by the series resistance of the AlN-ML and a parallel resistance with respect to the pn-junction. Interface defect states and/or deep defects impact the series resistance. The carrier transport through the LED structure is controlled by a tunnel process described by a Fowler-Nordheim (FN)-emission mainly through the AlN-ML buffer forming the series resistance. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Some aspects of anelastic and microplastic creep of pure Al and two Al-alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sgobba, S. (Lab. de Metallurgie Mecanique, Dept. des Materiaux, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland)); Kuenzi, H.U. (Lab. de Metallurgie Mecanique, Dept. des Materiaux, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland)); Ilschner, B. (Lab. de Metallurgie Mecanique, Dept. des Materiaux, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland))

    1993-11-01

    Anelastic creep of pure Al, commercial Al-Cu and a binary Al-Cu alloy has been measured at room temperature by means of a high resolution laser interferometer. The irreversible component of the deformation was also quantified from measurements of the anelastic creep recovery. The dependence of the deformation-time curves on thermal treatment and cold work is analyzed. The mechanisms responsible for the room temperature anelastic creep are discussed. Materials loaded below their elastic limit can present either a pure anelastic behavior (commercial Al-Cu) or additional viscoelastic creep (pure Al, high purity Al-Cu). For commercial Al-Cu, the presence of an irreversible deformation appears to be mainly related to the state of the surface. A viscoelastic after effect has been measured for this alloy after a Cu-electroplating treatment. As a typical result for room temperature creep, the irreversible deformation depends logarithmically on load time. (orig.).

  13. Some aspects of anelastic and microplastic creep of pure Al and two Al-alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anelastic creep of pure Al, commercial Al-Cu and a binary Al-Cu alloy has been measured at room temperature by means of a high resolution laser interferometer. The irreversible component of the deformation was also quantified from measurements of the anelastic creep recovery. The dependence of the deformation-time curves on thermal treatment and cold work is analyzed. The mechanisms responsible for the room temperature anelastic creep are discussed. Materials loaded below their elastic limit can present either a pure anelastic behavior (commercial Al-Cu) or additional viscoelastic creep (pure Al, high purity Al-Cu). For commercial Al-Cu, the presence of an irreversible deformation appears to be mainly related to the state of the surface. A viscoelastic after effect has been measured for this alloy after a Cu-electroplating treatment. As a typical result for room temperature creep, the irreversible deformation depends logarithmically on load time. (orig.)

  14. Multipliers from Sobolev space $H^\\al_p$ into $H^{-\\al}_p$

    CERN Document Server

    Neiman-Zade, M I

    2003-01-01

    A function $q(x)$ is said to be a multiplier from the Sobolev space $H^\\al_p(R^n)$ into $H^{-\\al}_p(R^n)$ if the operator $Lf(x)=q(x)f(x)$ is a bounded operator from the first space into the second one. Let $M^\\al_p$ the the space of such multipliers. In this paper we give the description of the spaces $M^\\al_p$ provided the condition $\\al>min(n/p,n/p')$. In the case $\\al\\le min(n/p,n/p')$ we obtain some embedding theorems for Sobolev spaces with negative smoothness indices into $M^\\al_p$.

  15. Mission impossible. Robots, an answer to new challenges; Mission impossible. Fahrroboter als Antwort auf neue Herausforderungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, H.; Hachmeister, J. [Caesar Datensysteme GmbH, Oberhaching (Germany)

    2004-08-01

    New safety specifications issued by NHTSA, ISO, EU and others, as well as extremely shortened model cycles and high quality requirements require a much larger number of measurements in a much shorter period of time. Robots may be a solution here, especially as human drivers are no longer able to produce the required test profiles in terms of precision and reproducibility. (orig.) [German] Verschaerfte Regelwerke zur Fahrsicherheit - initiiert von NHTSA, ISO, EU und anderen - konfrontieren Fahrzeughersteller, deren Zulieferer und Dienstleister mit erheblich gestiegenen Anforderungen. Erschwerend kommt hinzu, dass heute - bei extrem verkuerzten Modellzyklen und hoechstem Qualitaetsniveau - in immer kuerzeren Zeitspannen ein Vielfaches der frueher notwendigen Messergebnisse geliefert werden muss. Eine moegliche Antwort ist der Einsatz von Fahrrobotern, zumal die geforderten Testprofile ohnehin vom 'menschlichen' Fahrer in der geforderten Praezision und Reproduzierbarkeit oft nicht mehr zu erfuellen sind. (orig.)

  16. Electroforming and Ohmic contacts in Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickmott, T. W.

    2012-03-01

    Electroforming of metal-insulator-metal (MIM) diodes is a non-destructive dielectric breakdown process that changes the diode from its initial high resistance state (HRS) to a low resistance state (LRS). After electroforming, resistance switching memories (RSMs) use voltages to switch from HRS to LRS and back. Many MIM combinations are proposed for use in RSMs. In many cases conduction in the LRS is nearly temperature independent at low temperatures; an Ohmic contact with a barrier to electron injection of ˜0 eV results from electroforming. Electroforming of Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes with amorphous anodic Al2O3 thicknesses between 12 and 41 nm has been studied. Two anodizing electrolytes have been used; 0.1 M ammonium pentaborate (bor-H2O) and a solution of 0.1 M of ammonium pentaborate per liter of ethylene glycol (bor-gly). Polarization of Al2O3 and negative charge in Al2O3 are much larger when Al2O3 is formed in bor-H2O solution than when Al is anodized in bor-gly solution. Electroforming of Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes results in an Ohmic contact at the Al-Al2O3 interface, voltage-controlled negative resistance (VCNR) in the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics, electroluminescence (EL), and electron emission into vacuum (EM) from filamentary conducting channels. Two distinct modes of electroforming occur for Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes. ?-forming occurs for 2.5 V ? VS ? 5 V, where VS is the applied voltage. It is characterized by an abrupt current jump with the simultaneous appearance of EL and EM. ?-forming occurs for VS ? 7 V. I-V curves, EL, and EM develop gradually and are smaller than for ?-forming. Electroforming occurs more readily for diodes with Al2O3 formed in bor-H2O that have greater defect densities. Fully developed I-V curves have similar VCNR, EL, and EM after ?-forming or ?-forming. A model is proposed in which excited states of F-centers, oxygen vacancies in amorphous anodic Al2O3, form defect conduction bands. Electroforming that results in an Ohmic contact requires injection of positive charge at the Al-Al2O3 interface. ?-forming is the result of ionization of F-center recombination centers with energies that are close to the Al Fermi level. Hole injection by high-field ionization of valence band states of Al2O3 causes ?-forming.

  17. The effects of LT AlN buffer thickness on the optical properties of AlGaN grown by MOCVD and Al composition inhomogeneity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the growth of AlGaN epilayers on a sapphire substrate by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition using various low-temperature (LT) AlN buffer thicknesses. Combined scanning electron microscopy and cathodoluminescence investigations reveal the correlation between the surface morphology and optical properties of AlGaN films in a microscopic scale. It is found that the suitable thickness of the LT AlN buffer for high quality AlGaN growth is around 20 nm. The Al compositional inhomogeneity of the AlGaN epilayer is attributed to the low lateral mobility of Al adatoms on the growing surface

  18. In situ (Al3Zr + Al2O3np)/2024Al metal matrix composite with novel reinforcement distributions fabricated by reaction hot pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •(Al3Zr + Al2O3np)/2024Al MMC with a novel network distribution was tailored. •Al3Zr and Al2O3np were in situ synthesized at 740 °C using the 2024Al–ZrO2 system. •The effect of sintering parameters on Al3Zr morphology was investigated. •Influence of Al3Zr morphology on tensile properties of the composite was studied. -- Abstract: In situ hybrid (Al3Zr + Al2O3np)/2024Al metal matrix composites with unique controlled reinforcement distributions were fabricated using low energy ball milling and reactive hot pressing. The reaction system between 2024Al and ZrO2 was studied using differential thermal analysis (DTA). In situ formed aluminium oxide (Al2O3) and zirconium tri-aluminide (Al3Zr) with varying morphology and sizes were produced under different fabricating conditions. Al3Zr with varying morphologies such as particle, plate and flakes were observed. With a total 10 vol.% of reinforcements, the composite containing a three-dimensional network of closely spaced in situ synthesized Al3Zr and Al2O3 particles had a YS of 175 MPa and a UTS of 261 MPa, effectively strengthening the 2024Al matrix. The effect of different sintering conditions on the microstructure and tensile properties of the composite was systematically investigated

  19. On Dobbert et al, 'Cultural Transmission...'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearing, Frederick

    1984-01-01

    Criticizes Dobbert et al's model of cultural transmission (presented in earlier article) as being a species of social physics. Suggests improvements to the model, notably that observation and analysis at the emic level be taken into account. (RDN)

  20. [Nordosteuropa als Geschichtsregion] / Hans-Jürgen Bömelburg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bömelburg, Hans-Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Nordosteuropa als Geschichtsregion. Beiträge des III. Internationalen Symposiums zur deutschen Kultur und Geschichte im europäischen Nordosten vom 20.-22. September 2001 in Tallinn. Lübeck : Verlag Schmidt-Römhild 2006. (Veröffentlihungen der Aue-Stiftung. 17)

  1. Thermal Conductivity of Al-Salt Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Zhang, Mei; Wang, Lijun; Seetharaman, Seshadri

    2015-11-01

    With a view to examine the possibility of estimating the content of entrapped metallic aluminium in the salt cake from aluminium remelting, the thermal diffusivity of reference composites of KCl-NaCl-Al was measured as a function of aluminium metal content at room temperature. The thermal conductivity of the reference composites was found to increase with the metallic Al content. The lumped parameter model approach was carried out to discuss the influence of different geometry arrangements of each phase, viz. air, salts and metallic aluminium on the thermal conductivity. Application of the present results to industrial samples indicates that factors such as the interfacial condition of metallic Al particles have to be considered in order to estimate the amount of entrapped Al in the salt cake.

  2. CALCULUL CINETOSTATIC AL MECANISMELOR PLANETARE CILINDRICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P?un ANTONESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available În lucrare se prezint? o metod? analitic? pentru calculul cinetostatic al mecanismului planetarmonomobil cu dou? ro?i din?ate centrale. Se consider? mai întâi cazul general al schemelor cinematice cu dou?ro?i din?ate solidare tip satelit, în dou? variante practice (multiplicator ?i reductor de tura?ie. Este men?ionatcazul particular al mecanismelor planetare cu o singur? roat? satelit cu angrenare dubl? (exterioar? ?iinterioar?. Pe baza modelului de analiz? cinetostatic? a mecanismului planetar monomobil cu dou? ro?i din?atecentrale, în finalul lucr?rii se abordeaz? o problem? practic? de calcul cinetostatic al unui mecanism planetarcilindric simplu folosit la capul de frezat pentru prelucrarea ro?ilor din?ate cilindrice cu din?i curbi înhipocicloid?.

  3. RESPUESTA HIPERTENSIVA AL ESFUERZO EN PACIENTES PREHIPERTENSOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Noel Santana Téllez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo para conocer la respuesta hipertensiva al esfuerzo en pacientes prehipertensos atendidos en consulta externa de medicina interna de hospital "Manuel Ascunce Domenech" de Camagüey durante el año 2005. El universo ascendió a 40 pacientes, a los cuales se les aplicó una encuesta con variables según criterios bibliográficos: grupos de edades, factores de riesgo y respuesta hipertensiva al esfuerzo. Los datos se procesaron mediante el programa estadístico Microstat. El grupo de edad que predominó fue el de 35-52 años con el 45.7 %; los factores de riesgo que con mayor frecuencia se presentaron fueron el hábito de fumar y el antecedente patológico familiar de enfermedad cardiovascular prematura; la respuesta presora ligera al esfuerzo fue la más frecuente con el 59.37 % y se presentó en más de la mitad de los pacientes prehipertensos. Se observó que la respuesta hipertensiva al esfuerzo se asoció de manera significativa a factores de riesgo.

  4. Higher order elastic constants of the shape memory alloys Cu-Al-Ni, Cu-Al-Zn, Cu-Al-Be and Cu-Al-Pd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical and experimental investigations are being carried out on Cu based alloys due to their technologically important shape memory properties and pseudo-elasticity, which are intimately associated with the Martensitic transformation. In this paper we have determined the complete sets of third-order elastic constants of Cu-Al-Ni, Cu-Al-Zn, Cu-Al-Be and Cu-Al-Pd. A combination of deformation theory and finite strain elasticity theory has been employed to arrive at the expressions for the strain energy density of the lattice based on the Keating's approach. This is compared with the strain-dependent lattice energy from continuum model approximation to obtain the expressions for elastic constants. (author)

  5. Communication Support for People with ALS

    OpenAIRE

    David Beukelman; Susan Fager; Amy Nordness

    2011-01-01

    Almost all people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) experience a motor speech disorder, such as dysarthria, as the disease progresses. At some point, 80 to 95% of people with ALS are unable to meet their daily communication needs using natural speech. Unfortunately, once intelligibility begins to decrease, speech performance often deteriorates so rapidly that there is little time to implement an appropriate augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) intervention; therefore, appro...

  6. Fabrication studies of Nb3Al superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worzala, F. J.; Yang, W. J.; Boom, R. W.; Strauss, B. P.; Laurence, J.

    1972-01-01

    Study aimed at developing fabrication techniques for the production of stabilized conductors containing both binary and ternary intermetallics of the Nb-Al system. Processes are described that offer a foundation for practical fabricating techniques suitable for the production of long lengths of stabilized Nb3Al superconductor. Once the parameters are optimized, it is conceivable that multistrand twisted composites of both binary and ternary intermetallics should become feasible.

  7. Der Wortschatz als "Wahrheitsvermittler" im außenpolitischen Pressekommentar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Jesenšek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Bekannterweise weist die ausgewählte journalistische Textsorte eine spezifische textuelle Struktur auf; ihre inhaltliche (evaluative und intentionale Komponente sind zunächst in Kürze zu erläutern. Es zeigt sich, daß die Bewertung als obligatorisches Element eines Kommentartextes textstrukturell und stilistisch-pragmatisch bedingt ist und daß sie im Prinzip mittels Lexik realisiert wird. Das Funktionieren der Lexik als Bewertungsträger wird anschließend aufgrund einer exemplarischen Fallanalyse dargestellt, wobei hauptsächlich Zusammenhänge zwischen textstrukturellen Besonderheiten der Kommentartexte und stilistisch-pragmatischen Eigenschaften der Lexik interessieren.

  8. Hydrogenation properties of Mg-Al alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the properties of Mg-Al alloys in relation to hydrogen storage are reviewed. The main topics of this paper are materials preparation, hydrogen capacity, thermodynamics of hydride formation, and the kinetics of hydride formation and decomposition. Hydrogenation of Mg-Al leads to disproportionation with the formation of magnesium hydride and metallic aluminum as the final product. Experimental evidence renders this process reversible. It is observed that the enthalpy of hydride forma...

  9. Electric quadrupole moment of {sup 31}Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagae, D. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)], E-mail: nagae.daisuke@jaea.go.jp; Ueno, H.; Kameda, D. [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Takemura, M.; Asahi, K.; Takase, K. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Yoshimi, A.; Sugimoto, T. [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Shimada, K. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Nagatomo, T. [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Uchida, M.; Arai, T.; Inoue, T.; Kagami, S.; Hatakeyama, N. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Murata, J.; Kawamura, H.; Narita, K. [Department of Physics, Rikkyo University, 3-34-1 Nishi-ikebukuro, Toshima, Tokyo 171-8501 (Japan)

    2008-10-15

    The electric quadrupole moment Q for the ground state of {sup 31}Al (I{sup {pi}} = 5/2{sup +}) was measured by means of the {beta} ray-detected nuclear quadrupole resonance. A spin-polarized radioactive beam of {sup 31}Al was produced in the projectile-fragmentation reaction of a {sup 40}Ar beam on a {sup 93}Nb target. For the Q moment measurement, we developed a new radio-frequency application system to induce the spin reversal.

  10. High Temperature Intermetallic Compounds Ni3Al

    OpenAIRE

    Kursa, M.; Hypeská, L.; Drápala, J.; Kárník, T.; Losertová, M.

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes the preparation of Ni3Al intermetallic compounds, and investigations of their structures in the as-cast, remelted, and annealed states. The materials were produced by three techniques : in a high frequency vacuum furnace, by zonal remelting in an electron beam furnace, and by remelting with unidirectional solidification. Those melted in an h. f. vacuum furnace and poured into graphite moulds had well developed dendritic structures, a Ni3Al (?) phase, with interdendritic sp...

  11. Periodistas: el acceso al mercado laboral

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Javier Caro Gonz\\u00E1lez; Gloria Jim\\u00E9nez Marin

    2006-01-01

    El presente estudio analiza la situación profesional de los Licenciados en Periodismo en España. Para ello esta investigación sigue la lógica del proceso de acceso al mercado laboral, es decir, se estudia, en primer lugar, la oferta de egresados y las demandas del sector; a continuación, se analiza la forma en la que un titulado en la Licenciatura de Periodismo accede al mercado laboral y el tiempo que tarda en hacerlo; y por último, se examinan los medios de comunicación en lo...

  12. Veränderte Genexpression als Grundlage für vaskuläres Remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang I

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Gefäßwandumbau oder "vascular remodeling" ist definiert als Änderung im Gefäßkaliber, oft ohne Veränderung der Gesamtgewebsmasse. Die Verfügbarkeit des intravaskulären Ultraschalls hat dazu geführt, Gefäßremodeling als dynamischen Prozeß zu beobachten. Zelltod, Zellwachstum, Zellmigration und Produktion oder Abbau extrazellulärer Matrix sind durch die Expression von Genen in der Gefäßwand gesteuert. Anhand von Analysen solcher Genexpressionsmuster in verschiedenen Gefäßgebieten wird die Signifikanz des Forschungskonzepts "Genexpression in der Gefäßwand" an Beispielen illustriert.

  13. Defensa constitucional del derecho al espacio público

    OpenAIRE

    Belalcázar Erazo, Edison Andrés

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo de esta investigación es contribuir a la construcción de líneas jurisprudenciales que permitan, identificar patrones decisionales en casos concretos, en los que se discute el amparo del derecho al espacio público ante la Corte Constitucional. Para el logro de este propósito empleé la metodología para la construcción de líneas jurisprudenciales, orientada a determinar la evolución y alcance general del derecho al espacio público, con el objeto responder a la siguiente pregunta: ¿Cu...

  14. Continuous germanene layer on Al(111).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derivaz, Mickael; Dentel, Didier; Stephan, Régis; Hanf, Marie-Christine; Mehdaoui, Ahmed; Sonnet, Philippe; Pirri, Carmelo

    2015-04-01

    Germanene, a 2D honeycomb structure similar to silicene, has been fabricated on Al(111). The 2D germanene layer covers uniformly the substrate with a large coherence over the Al(111) surface atomic plane. It is characterized by a (3 × 3) superstructure with respect to the substrate lattice, shown by low energy electron diffraction and scanning tunnelling microscopy. First-principles calculations indicate that the Ge atoms accommodate in a very regular atomic configuration with a buckled conformation. PMID:25802988

  15. Performance of the ALS injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors started commissioning the Advanced Light Source (ALS) storage ring on January 11, 1993. The stored beam reached 60 mA on March 24, 1993 and 407 mA on April 9, 1993. The fast pace of storage ring commissioning can be attributed partially to the robust injection system. In this paper they describe the operating characteristics of the ALS injection system

  16. In Situ Fabrication of AlN Coating by Reactive Plasma Spraying of Al/AlN Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Shahien

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Reactive plasma spraying is a promising technology for the in situ formation of aluminum nitride (AlN coatings. Recently, it became possible to fabricate cubic-AlN-(c-AlN based coatings through reactive plasma spraying of Al powder in an ambient atmosphere. However, it was difficult to fabricate a coating with high AlN content and suitable thickness due to the coalescence of the Al particles. In this study, the influence of using AlN additive (h-AlN to increase the AlN content of the coating and improve the reaction process was investigated. The simple mixing of Al and AlN powders was not suitable for fabricating AlN coatings through reactive plasma spraying. However, it was possible to prepare a homogenously mixed, agglomerated and dispersed Al/AlN mixture (which enabled in-flight interaction between the powder and the surrounding plasma by wet-mixing in a planetary mill. Increasing the AlN content in the mixture prevented coalescence and increased the nitride content gradually. Using 30 to 40 wt% AlN was sufficient to fabricate a thick (more than 200 µm AlN coating with high hardness (approximately 1000 Hv. The AlN additive prevented the coalescence of Al metal and enhanced post-deposition nitriding through N2 plasma irradiation by allowing the nitriding species in the plasma to impinge on a larger Al surface area. Using AlN as a feedstock additive was found to be a suitable method for fabricating AlN coatings by reactive plasma spraying. Moreover, the fabricated coatings consist of hexagonal (h-AlN, c-AlN (rock-salt and zinc-blend phases and certain oxides: aluminum oxynitride (Al5O6N, cubic sphalerite Al23O27N5 (ALON and Al2O3. The zinc-blend c-AlN and ALON phases were attributed to the transformation of the h-AlN feedstock during the reactive plasma spraying. Thus, the zinc-blend c-AlN and ALON phases were not included in the feedstock and were not formed through nitriding of the Al.

  17. PEMBARUAN MASLA?AH DALAM MAQ??ID AL- SHAR?‘AH: TELAAH HUMANISTIS TENTANG AL-KULLIYY?T AL-KHAMSAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenuddin Mansyur

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:   In order to answer a variety of issues faced by human being in the current era, such as human rights abuses, social disintegration, and terrorism, the renewal of Islamic law in the level of theoretical and practical aspects is very urgent. This paper aims to examine one of the Islamic legal reform efforts, namely to build a more technical understanding of the concept of ma?la?ah contained in the maq???d shar?‘ah, called the al-kulliyat al-khamsah. Therefore, the concept of ma?la?ah in ?if? al-d?n is technically defined as al-?urriyah al-i‘tiq?d (freedom of religion and schools; in ?if? al-nafs as al-karamat al-ins?n (human being breeding; in ?if? al-nasl as ?if? al-usrah (wholeness and harmony of the family; in ?if? al-m?l as al-ta?ammun al-ins?n (social solidarity , and in ?if? al-‘aql as al-?uq?q as al-tarbiy?t (increasing human resources quality.Abstrak: Demi menjawab aneka persoalan zaman yang dihadapi manusia era sekarang, seperti penyelewengan terhadap HAM, disintegrasi sosial, dan terorisme, maka pembaharuan hukum Islam dalam tataran teoretis dan praktis urgen dilakukan. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji salah satu upaya pembaruan hukum Islam, yaitu membangun pemahaman yang lebih teknis terhadap konsep ma?la?ah yang terkandung dalam maq???d shar?‘ah, yang disebut dengan al-kulliy?t al-khamsah. Oleh karena itu, konsep ma?la?ah dalam ?if?u al-d?n secara teknis dimaknai sebagai ?urriyah al-i‘tiq?d (kebebasan untuk beragama dan beraliran; dalam ?if?u al-nafs sebagai al-kar?m?t al-ins?n (pemuliaan kemanusiaan; dalam ?if?u al-nasl sebagai ?if?u al-usrah (keutuhan dan keharmonisan keluarga; dalam ?if?u al-m?l sebagai al-ta?ammun al-ins?n (solidaritas sosial; dan dalam ?if?u al-‘aql sebagai al-?uq?q al-tarbiy?t (peningkatan sumber daya manusia.

  18. Thermoluminescence properties of AlN ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinkler, L.; Christensen, P.

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes thermoluminescence (TL) properties of AlN:Y2O3 ceramics irradiated with ionising radiation. A high TL sensitivity of AlN:Y2O3 ceramics to radiation encouraged a study of the AlN ceramics for application as a dosimetric material. The paper presents experimental data on: glow curve, emission spectrum, dose response, energy dependence, influence of heating rate and fading rate. The measured TL characteristics were compared with those of well-known, widely used TLDs, i.e. LiF:Mg,Ti, LiF:Mg,Cu,P and Al2O3:C. It is concluded that AlN:Y2O3 ceramics showing a radiation sensitivity which is approximately 50 times greater than that of LiF:Mg,Ti is an interesting dosimetry material; however due to a high fading rate of the TL of AlN:Y2O3 on storage at room temperature, a further development of the material for improving the fading characteristics is needed for its application for dosimetry purposes. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Physical properties of Al-R melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we present experimental data of physical properties (viscosity, surface tension, magnetic susceptibility and electroresistivity) studies for Al-R (R = Ce, Pr, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Yb and Y) alloys and first intermetallic compounds from aluminum side, Al11R3 (Al3R). All properties were measured during heating up to 2000 K and the following cooling down under helium atmosphere. The main results are: (1) the electronic characteristics of the objects are in good correlation with R positions in the periodic table, but rather lower than for pure elements. The conclusion is that through all investigated temperature range, the rare-earth elements have partly covalent but not only metallic states; (2) all the melts remain strongly microheterogeneous even at high overheatings above liquidus. The existence of associations with Al2R type is highly probable here. Some destruction of these associations takes place with increasing temperature above melting point at the composition of Al2R compound. However, the transformation into true solution state is somewhere above 1900 K. To check the idea, the thermodynamic modeling of the melts was performed. It was shown that associates with Al2R type are stable up to 2000 K

  20. Next-generation sequencing of 28 ALS-related genes in a Japanese ALS cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ryoichi; Sone, Jun; Atsuta, Naoki; Tohnai, Genki; Watanabe, Hazuki; Yokoi, Daichi; Nakatochi, Masahiro; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Ito, Mizuki; Senda, Jo; Katsuno, Masahisa; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Li, Yuanzhe; Izumi, Yuishin; Morita, Mitsuya; Taniguchi, Akira; Kano, Osamu; Oda, Masaya; Kuwabara, Satoshi; Abe, Koji; Aiba, Ikuko; Okamoto, Koichi; Mizoguchi, Kouichi; Hasegawa, Kazuko; Aoki, Masashi; Hattori, Nobutaka; Tsuji, Shoji; Nakashima, Kenji; Kaji, Ryuji; Sobue, Gen

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the frequency and contribution of variants of the 28 known amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-related genes in Japanese ALS patients. We designed a multiplex, polymerase chain reaction-based primer panel to amplify the coding regions of the 28 ALS-related genes and sequenced DNA samples from 257 Japanese ALS patients using an Ion Torrent PGM sequencer. We also performed exome sequencing and identified variants of the 28 genes in an additional 251 ALS patients using an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. We identified the known ALS pathogenic variants and predicted the functional properties of novel nonsynonymous variants in silico. These variants were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Known pathogenic variants were identified in 19 (48.7%) of the 39 familial ALS patients and 14 (3.0%) of the 469 sporadic ALS patients. Thirty-two sporadic ALS patients (6.8%) harbored 1 or 2 novel nonsynonymous variants of ALS-related genes that might be deleterious. This study reports the first extensive genetic screening of Japanese ALS patients. These findings are useful for developing genetic screening and counseling strategies for such patients. PMID:26742954

  1. Heterogeneous nucleation of solid Al from the melt by Al 3 Ti : Molecular dynamics simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Junsheng

    2010-10-27

    It has been known experimentally for some time that Al3 Ti is a powerful nucleant for the solidification of aluminum from the melt; however, a full microscopic understanding is still lacking. To develop this understanding, we have performed molecular dynamics simulations of the nucleation and early stages of growth using published embedded atom method potentials for Al-Ti, but modified by us to stabilize the D 022 structure. We discover that Al3 Ti can indeed be very effective in promoting the growth of solid Al but the manner in which growth takes place depends sensitively on the surface on which the Al nucleates. In particular, complete growth of solid Al from the liquid on the (001) and (110) surfaces of Al3 Ti occurs at a lower temperature than on the (112) surface. This anisotropy agrees with observations in previous experiments. We explain this observation in terms of interfacial energies. On the preferential (111) surface of Al the solid-liquid interfacial energy is highest while the solid-vacuum energy is lowest. Our simulations also show that the extent of ordering taking place in liquid Al close to the Al 3 Ti substrate above the melting point correlates well with the effectiveness of the substrate as a nucleant below the melting temperature: this could provide a computationally efficient scheme to identify good nucleants. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

  2. Corrosion behavior of solid solution (Ti,Al)N as a function of Al concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larijani, M.M.; Seyedi, H. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, P. O. Box 31485-498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Manouchehrian, M. [Department of Physics, Science Faculty, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yari, M. [Engineering Department Materials, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    In this work, a series of (Ti, Al) N coatings with different Al contents were deposited on 304 stainless steel substrates by Hollow Cathode Discharge (HCD) method. The coatings were grown on 304 stainless steel substrates at 400 C. The coatings were characterized using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and microhardness test. The XRD confirmed the transition from TiN phase to (Ti, Al) N phase and then to AlN phase with increasing Al concentration in the solid solution. It was found that with increasing Al concentration the hardness of the coatings initially increased up to a maximum value of about 30 GPa at around 32 at.% of Al and then the coating hardness decreased rapidly with further increase of Al content (Al > 32 at.%). The potentiodynamic polarization analysis was carried out in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solutions to study the corrosion resistance of the coatings. From the corrosion test it can be inferred that the amount of Al atoms in the coatings plays an important role for reducing the corrosion. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Comparisons of interface microstructure and mechanical behavior between Ti/Al and Ti-6Al-4V/Al bimetallic composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-yu Nie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure, interface thickness, element distribution and interfacial mechanical behavior of Ti-6Al-4V/Al couples prepared by an insert moulding method were investigated in depth in this paper. Moreover, Ti/Al bonding was also given as a comparison for understanding the interface bonding mechanism. It is shown that there is much thinner compact sub-layer for the interface of the Ti-6Al-4V/Al joint, whose morphology is obviously different from that of the Ti/Al joint. The Ti-6Al-4V/Al interface has been proven to contain a slight content of vanadium. Moreover, both the shear strength and the interface reaction rate of Ti-6Al-4V/Al compound materials are lower than those of the Ti/Al ones.

  4. Phase relationships in the Al-rich region of the Al-Cu-Er system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: ? One ternary phase ?1-Al8Cu4Er in Al-rich region with a composition of 59.4-60.4 at.% Al, 32.2-33.8 at.% Cu, and 6.4-7.7 at.% Er is observed in both as-cast and annealed alloys. At 673 K, the binary Al3Er phase dissolves about 3.51 at.% Cu. ? The calculated solidification paths (based on the CALPHAD method) of as-cast alloys are in agreement with the experimental results. ? It can be found that the resultant thermodynamic database can be applied to case studies of as-cast alloys, showing that the literature thermodynamic description of the Al-Cu-Er system is reliable as a working basis for computer-assisted alloy design. - Abstract: The Al-rich region of the ternary Al-Cu-Er system is investigated using the method of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Phase equilibria in the Al-rich region of the Al-Cu-Er system at 673 K have been obtained, and the microstructures of as-cast alloys in the Al-rich region are also investigated. One ternary phase ?1-Al8Cu4Er with a composition of 59.4-60.4 at.% Al, 32.2-33.8 at.% Cu, and 6.4-7.7 at.% Er is observed in both as-cast and annealed alloys. At 673 K, the binary Al3Er phase dissolves about 3.51 at.% Cu. The calculated solidification paths (based on the CALPHAD method) of as-cast alloys are in agreement with the experimental results.

  5. Predicting glass-forming compositions in the Al-La and Al-La-Ni systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: ? The glass-forming ability of the Al-La and Al-La-Ni systems was studied using the ?* and the ?.?e criteria. ? Both criteria predicted with just 1% at. of error the best glass-former verified so far in the Al-La system. ? Four new glass-former compositions could be predicted in the Al-La-Ni system using the ?.?e criterion. ? The best glass-former reported so far in the Al-La-Ni system was found. - Abstract: In this work, a criterion considering the topological instability (?) and the differences in the electronegativity of the constituent elements (?e) was applied to the Al-La and Al-Ni-La systems in order to predict the best glass-forming compositions. The results were compared with literature data and with our own experimental data for the Al-La-Ni system. The alloy described in the literature as the best glass former in the Al-La system is located near the point with local maximum for the ?.?e criterion. A good agreement was found between the predictions of the ?.?e criterion and literature data in the Al-La-Ni system, with the region of the best glass-forming ability (GFA) and largest supercooled liquid region (?Tx) coinciding with the best compositional region for amorphization indicated by the ?.?e criterion. Four new glassy compositions were found in the Al-La-Ni system, with the best predicted composition presenting the best glass-forming ability observed so far for this system. Although the ?.?e criterion needs further refinements for completely describe the glass-forming ability in the Al-La and Al-La-Ni systems, the results demonstrated that this criterion is a good tool to predict new glass-forming compositions.

  6. Phase relationships in the Al-rich region of the Al-Cu-Er system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Ligang, E-mail: Ligang.Zhang@vtc.tu-freiberg.de [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Lushan Street 105, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Freiberg University of Mining and Technology, Centre for Innovation Competence Virtuhcon, Fuchsmuehlenweg 9, D-09596 Freiberg (Germany); Science Center for Phase Diagram and Materials Design and Manufacture, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Masset, Patrick J. [Freiberg University of Mining and Technology, Centre for Innovation Competence Virtuhcon, Fuchsmuehlenweg 9, D-09596 Freiberg (Germany); Cao Fuyong [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Lushan Street 105, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Meng Fangui [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410004 (China); Liu Libin, E-mail: PDC@mail.csu.edu.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Lushan Street 105, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Science Center for Phase Diagram and Materials Design and Manufacture, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Jin Zhanpeng [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Lushan Street 105, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Science Center for Phase Diagram and Materials Design and Manufacture, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2011-03-03

    Research highlights: > One ternary phase {tau}{sub 1}-Al{sub 8}Cu{sub 4}Er in Al-rich region with a composition of 59.4-60.4 at.% Al, 32.2-33.8 at.% Cu, and 6.4-7.7 at.% Er is observed in both as-cast and annealed alloys. At 673 K, the binary Al{sub 3}Er phase dissolves about 3.51 at.% Cu. > The calculated solidification paths (based on the CALPHAD method) of as-cast alloys are in agreement with the experimental results. > It can be found that the resultant thermodynamic database can be applied to case studies of as-cast alloys, showing that the literature thermodynamic description of the Al-Cu-Er system is reliable as a working basis for computer-assisted alloy design. - Abstract: The Al-rich region of the ternary Al-Cu-Er system is investigated using the method of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Phase equilibria in the Al-rich region of the Al-Cu-Er system at 673 K have been obtained, and the microstructures of as-cast alloys in the Al-rich region are also investigated. One ternary phase {tau}{sub 1}-Al{sub 8}Cu{sub 4}Er with a composition of 59.4-60.4 at.% Al, 32.2-33.8 at.% Cu, and 6.4-7.7 at.% Er is observed in both as-cast and annealed alloys. At 673 K, the binary Al{sub 3}Er phase dissolves about 3.51 at.% Cu. The calculated solidification paths (based on the CALPHAD method) of as-cast alloys are in agreement with the experimental results.

  7. Degradasi Lapisan Aluminida pada Paduan Intermetalik ?2-Ti3Al / ?-TiAl Akibat Oksidasi Siklik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toto Saputra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-phase inter-metallic alloy ?2-Ti3Al/?-TiAl is developed to operated at high temperature in oxidative environment. However its oxidation rate can not be tolerated due to formation of TiO2 which is not protective. If the alloy is used in gas turbine that often have thermal cycle, it will cause cracking and flaking oxide crust. Coating is correct solution to improve properties of this alloy so that it can be used at high temperature. By enriching the material surface with significant amount of Al element there will be a formation of Al2O3 protective oxide. The method applied to get formation of Al2O3 is the pack cementation. This study discusses of characteristic coating and oxide crust formation at two-phase inter-metallic alloy of ?2-Ti3Al/?-TiAl from pack aluminizing process Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia; Paduan intermetalik dua fasa ?2-Ti3Al/?-TiAl dikembangkan untuk operasi temperature tinggi dalam lingkungan oksidatif. Namun laju oksidasinya tidak dapat ditolelir karena akan teroksidasi membentuk kerak oksida TiO2 yang tidak protektif. Pada Mesin turbin gas yang seringkali mengalami siklus thermal, dapat mengakibatkan peretakan (cracking dan pengelupasan (spalling kerak oksida. Coating merupakan solusi yang tepat agar paduan ini dapat digunakan pada temperature tinggi. Dengan memperkaya permukaan benda kerja dengan unsur Al sehingga material mampu membentuk kerak oksida protektif Al2O3 saat teroksidasi. Metoda pelapisan temperature tinggi yang sering diterapkan untuk keperluan ini adalah pack cementation. Studi ini membahas sebagian dari hasil pengujian oksidasi siklik. Khususnya pembahasan karakteristik coating dan kerak oksida yang terbentuk pada paduan intermetalik dua fasa ?2-Ti3Al/?-TiAl hasil pack aluminizing. Kata kunci: Coating, cyclic oxidation, pack aluminizing.

  8. Invisible technology. Microsystem technology in motor cars; Unsichtbare Geister. Mikrosystemtechnik im Automobil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, S. [VDI/VDE Technologiezentrum Informationstechnik GmbH (Germany)

    2001-03-20

    Sensors and actors are used in motor vehicles, e.g. in safety systems (passenger seating detection, out-of-position detection) or as fuel consumption or pollutant emission meters. [German] Sensoren und Aktoren finden als Mikrosysteme im Kraftfahrzeug mehr und mehr Anwendung. Anzutreffen sind sie unter anderem in den Bereichen Sicherheit (z.B. Sitzbelegungserkennung, Out-of-Position-Detektion) und Kraftstoffverbrauch sowie Schadstoffausstoss. (orig.)

  9. Compact Storage for Efficient Management of XML Documents

    OpenAIRE

    Alkhatib, Ramez

    2010-01-01

    XML wird mehr und mehr für Datenaustausch und -manipulation genutzt. Viele Ansätze verarbeiten XML-Daten im Hauptspeicher. Weil XML zunehmend häufig verwendet wird und die XML-Syntax zusätzlichen Speicher benötigt, können grössere XML-Dateien nicht im Hauptspeicher verarbeitet werden. Infolgedessen leiden diese Dateien unter den Begrenzungen aktueller Arbeitsspeicher.Hingegen werden objektrelationale Datenbanktechnologien wegen ihrer Ausgereiftheit und weiten Verbreitung als Alternativen zum ...

  10. Risk management products for the German gas market; Risikomanagement-Produkte fuer den deutschen Gasmarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlueter, N. [D-Gas b.v., London (United Kingdom)

    2003-09-01

    Also in Germany risk management products are establishing more and more as regular elements in decision making during supply and demand. A strong reason to offer an appropriate transaction platform for German speaking suppliers. (GL) [German] Auch in Deutschland etablieren sich Risikomanagement-Produkte mehr und mehr als regulaerer Bestandteil in den Entscheidungsprozessen bei der Beschaffungs- bzw. Absatzoptimierung. Grund genug, eine entsprechende Informations- und Transaktionsplattform fuer den deutschsprachigen Raum anzubieten. (orig.)

  11. Determinants of Music Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Schäfer, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Musik begleitet uns seit vielen Jahrtausenden und ist ein Teil der menschlichen Entwicklungsgeschichte. Mehr über den Ursprung und die Bedeutung von Musik zu wissen bedeutet mehr über uns selbst zu wissen. Die meisten Menschen mögen Musik und für viele ist es eine der wichtigsten Freizeitbeschäftigungen in ihrem Leben. Doch unterschiedliche Menschen mögen unterschiedliche Musik, und die Bindung an Musik kann stark oder schwach sein. Dieses als Musikpräferenz bezeichnete Phänome...

  12. A Field Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Beresford, Alastair R.; Kübler, Dorothea; Preibusch, Sören

    2011-01-01

    "Wir messen die Zahlungsbereitschaft für Datenschutz in einem Feldexperiment. Die Teilnehmer konnten maximal eine DVD bei einem von zwei Online-Shops kaufen. Einer der beiden Läden verlangte immer mehr sensitive Daten als der andere, aber abgesehen davon waren die Läden gleich. Im ersten Treatment waren alle DVDs genau einen Euro günstiger bei dem Laden, der mehr sensitive Daten abfragte, und fast alle Käufer wählten diesen günstigeren Laden. In einem zweiten Treatment mit identischen Preisen...

  13. Optical microcavities and enhanced electroluminescence from electroformed Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electroluminescence (EL) and electron emission into vacuum (EM) occur when a non-destructive dielectric breakdown of Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes, electroforming, results in the development of a filamentary region in which current-voltage (I-V) characteristics exhibit voltage-controlled negative resistance. The temperature dependence of I-V curves, EM, and, particularly, EL of Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes with anodic Al2O3 thicknesses between 12?nm and 30?nm, has been studied. Two filters, a long-pass (LP) filter with transmission of photons with energies less than 3.0?eV and a short-pass (SP) filter with photon transmission between 3.0 and 4.0?eV, have been used to characterize EL. The voltage threshold for EL with the LP filter, VLP, is ?1.5?V. VLP is nearly independent of Al2O3 thickness and of temperature and is 0.3–0.6?V less than the threshold voltage for EL for the SP filter, VSP. EL intensity is primarily between 1.8 and 3.0?eV when the bias voltage, VS ? 7?V. EL in the thinnest diodes is enhanced compared to EL in thicker diodes. For increasing VS, for diodes with the smallest Al2O3 thicknesses, there is a maximum EL intensity, LMX, at a voltage, VLMX, followed by a decrease to a plateau. LMX and EL intensity at 4.0?V in the plateau region depend exponentially on Al2O3 thickness. The ratio of LMX at 295?K for a diode with 12?nm of Al2O3 to LMX for a diode with 25?nm of Al2O3 is ?140. The ratio of EL intensity with the LP filter to EL intensity with the SP filter, LP/SP, varies between ?3 and ?35; it depends on Al2O3 thickness and VS. Enhanced EL is attributed to the increase of the spontaneous emission rate of a dipole in a non-resonant optical microcavity. EL photons interact with the Ag and Al films to create surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at the metal-Al2O3 interfaces. SPPs generate large electromagnetic fields in the filamentary region of the electroformed Al-Al2O3-Ag diode, which then acts as an optical microcavity. A model is proposed for electronic processes in electroformed Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes

  14. Reversibility of Al/Ti Modified LiBH4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanchard, Didier; Shi, Qing; Boothroyd, Chris; Vegge, Tejs

    2009-01-01

    borohydride can be modified by ball-milling with Al- and/or Ti-containing compounds. In this study, lithium alanate (LiAlH4), is used as an Al source. From careful examination of the ball-milled samples, it appears that LiBH4 remains unchanged during milling. The samples contain 100 nm diameter Al and/or Al...

  15. 27Al NMR studies of NpPd5Al2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present 27Al NMR studies for a single crystal of the Np-based superconductor NpPd5Al2(Tc=4.9K). We have observed a five-line 27Al NMR spectrum with a center line and four satellite lines separated by first-order nuclear quadrupole splittings. The Knight shift clearly drops below Tc. The temperature dependence of the 27Al nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate shows no coherence peak below Tc, indicating that NpPd5Al2 is an unconventional superconductor with an anisotropic gap. The analysis of the present NMR data provides evidence for strong-coupling d-wave superconductivity in NpPd5Al2.

  16. Effect of AL on Electric Conductivity and Superconductivity of NB-Si-AL-O Ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koba, S.; Higo, S.; Hakuraku, Y.; Kawano, I.; Ogushi, T.; Nakao, A.

    Metal-insulator transition and superconductivity with changing Al composition were observed in the Nb-Si-Al-O system. Semiconductor-like characteristic and normal conductive characteristic were observed for Al50% respectively. Super-conductive compositions are distributed around the boundary between those two types of conductivity, such as NbxSiAl(?-x)Oz((?, x)=(1.5, 0.7), (2.0,0.8), (3.0, 0.7~1.4)). The superconductivity was confirmed by resistive transitions and diamagnetic transitions. The superconductors in this study have Tc=10.0~11.5 K with resistive transitions, and the amplitudes of the diamagnetism reach 30~58% of that of pure Nb powder. X-ray diffraction patterns of any other superconducting Nb-systems such as Nb, Nb3Al, Nb3Si, NbN, and NbC, have not been observed in Nb-Si-Al-O.

  17. Magnetic structure study of ErCuAl and ErNiAl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polycrystalline samples of ErCuAl and ErNiAl have been studied by powder neutron diffraction and, in the case of ErCuAl, by specific heat and AC-susceptibility measurements. ErCuAl orders ferromagnetically with Er magnetic moments aligned along the c-axis below Tc=6.8 K. In the case of ErNiAl, magnetic ordering below TN=5.4 K and indications of an additional phase transition at 4.2 K have been observed. The magnetic structure of ErNiAl is described by the propagation vector (1/2,0,1/2). The magnetic moments lie in the basal plane at 1.8 K. (orig.)

  18. Fabrication, structure and consolidation of NiAl-Al2O3 mechanically alloyed nanocomposite powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactive milling of NiO + Al powder mixture resulted in the formation of NiAl-Al2O3 nanocomposite powders, with a crystallite size of about 20 nm. The Hall-Williamson analysis revealed that NiAl showed an orientation dependent crystallite size after short processing time and orientation dependent internal strain after long milling time. Both anisotropies were removed by heating the powders in the differential scanning calorimetry. Calorimetric studies showed one exothermic effect attributed to the reduction reaction of NiO and endothermic one associated with melting of Al. Two methods were applied for powders compaction: resistance sintering and pulse electric discharge. In both cases the densities of abut 90% of the theoretical value were achieved. A significant increase in average NiAl crystallites size in compacted samples was observed, up to several hundreds of nanometers.(author)

  19. 60Co gamma radiation effect on AlGaN//AlN/GaN HEMT devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The testing techniques and experimental methods of the 60Co gamma irradiation effect on AlGaN/AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) are established. The degradation of the electrical properties of the device under the actual radiation environment are analyzed theoretically, and studies of the total dose effects of gamma radiation on AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMTs at three different radiation bias conditions are carried out. The degradation patterns of the main parameters of the AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMTs at different doses are then investigated, and the device parameters that were sensitive to the gamma radiation induced damage and the total dose level induced device damage are obtained. (authors)

  20. Microscopic Properties of Long-Period Ordering in Al-Rich TiAl Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, S.; Nakano, T.; Kuwano, N.; Itakura, M.; Matsumura, S.; Umakoshi, Y.

    2008-07-01

    The ordering mechanism of long-period superstructures (LPSs) in Al-rich TiAl alloys has been investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The LPSs are classified in terms of arrangements of base clusters with different shapes and compositions formed in Ti-rich (002) layers of L10-TiAl matrix: square Ti4Al, fat rhombus Ti3Al, and lean rhombus Ti2Al type clusters. The HRTEM observations revealed that antiphase boundaries of long-range-ordered LPS domains and short-range-ordered microdomains are constructed by various space-filling arrangements of the base clusters. Such a microscopic property characterized by the base clusters and their arrangements is markedly analogous to that of the {left< {{text{1,1/2,0}}} rightrangle } * special-point ordering alloys such as Ni-Mo.

  1. Analog resistive switching behavior of Al/Nb2O5/Al device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resistive switching effects in metal–insulator–metal (MIM) structures are strongly influenced by the electrode materials. In this work a platinum-free symmetric Al/Nb2O5/Al device is compared to a device with platinum bottom electrode. For the device with the platinum bottom electrode, filamentary based resistive switching with good data retention was observed up to 125 °C. For the Al/Nb2O5/Al device, an area dependent pure electronic based resistive switching was observed. Electron trapping at the bottom electrode interface is responsible for the observed analog switching behavior which makes an Al/Nb2O5/Al device suitable for neuromorphic applications. (paper)

  2. Quantum chemical study of the reactions of Al, AlO and AlOH with H2O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharipov, Alexander S.; Starik, Alexander M.

    2016-02-01

    Quantum chemical calculations with the use of hybrid density functional with perturbative second-order correlation and dispersion correction are carried out to study the reactions of Al, AlO and AlOH with the H2O2 molecule. The values of energy barriers are estimated by means of extrapolation to the basis set limit. The energetically favorable reaction pathways have been revealed during the examination of the potential energy surfaces. Complex character of the processes under study has been established. It has been found that the initial stages of the considered processes are barrierless. Appropriate rate constants for principal channels of the reactions under study have been estimated by using capture model and canonical variational theory. The Arrhenius approximations for these channels have been proposed for the temperature range T = 300-4000 K.

  3. Comment on Wu et al.'s Server-aided Verification Signature Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Wang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In ProvSec 2008, Wu et al. constructed two server-aided verification signature (SAV-Sigma schemes based on BLS signature. In this paper, we provide a new definition of the security of SAV-Sigma against collusion and adaptive chosen message attacks. We founded that Wu et al.'s first scheme is secure, while their second scheme is insecure based on our definition.

  4. Fabrication, phase transformation studies, and characterization of SiC-AlN-Al2OC ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Principal focus was on phase transformation, microstructure development, and elevated temperature creep, with some effort on room- temperature mechanical properties of selected materials. Fabrication was largely hot pressing, although many of the compositions can be densified by pressureless sintering; hot pressing was to ensure full attainment of density with fine microstructure. Most of the work was on SiC-AlN and AlN-Al2OC pseudobinaries

  5. Another Security Improvement over the Lin et al.'s E-voting Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaar, Maryam Rajabzadeh; Mohajeri, Javad; Salmasizadeh, Mahmoud

    In 2003, Lin et al. have proposed an electronic voting scheme which can be utilized in large-scale elections, and claimed it detects double voting. But in this paper, by presenting an attack, we show that voters can successfully vote more than once without being detected. Hence, we propose a new modified scheme based on the Lin et al.'s scheme with the same efficiency to solve this weakness and analyze its security.

  6. Effect of the interface in laminated composites of Al-1100 and Al-2024

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laminated composites consisting of alternating layers of Al-1100 and Al-2024 were produced by hot rolling, with 45% Al-2024 volume fraction. These composites were subjected to cyclic thermal treatment (various numbers of cycles) and to isothermal treatment (various numbers of cycles) and to isothermal treatment (at peak temperature and for times equivalent to those of the thermal cycles. Microhardness, tensile and fatigue crack arrester modes) were studied in the initial state and after treatments. (E.G.)

  7. Some aspects of anelastic and microplastic creep of pure Al and two Al-alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Sgobba, S.; KÜnzi, H.-U.; Ilschner, B.

    1993-01-01

    Anelastic creep of pure Al, commercial Al-Cu and a binary Al-Cu alloy has been measured at room temperature by means of a high resolution laser interferometer. The irreversible component of the deformation was also quantified from measurements of the anelastic creep recovery. The dependence of the deformation-time curves on thermal treatment and cold work is analyzed. The mechanisms responsible for the room temperature anelastic creep are discussed. Materials loaded below their elastic limit ...

  8. Two-Phase (TiAl+TiCrAl) Coating Alloys for Titanium Aluminides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Michael P. (Inventor); Smialek, James L. (Inventor); Brindley, William J. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A coating for protecting titanium aluminide alloys, including the TiAl gamma + Ti3Al (alpha(sub 2)) class, from oxidative attack and interstitial embrittlement at temperatures up to at least 1000 C. is disclosed. This protective coating consists essentially of titanium, aluminum. and chromium in the following approximate atomic ratio: Ti(41.5-34.5)Al(49-53)Cr(9.5-12.5)

  9. DISTRIBUTION OF Al IN Nd-Fe-Al-B PERMANENT MAGNETS

    OpenAIRE

    Hauet, A.; Lemarchand, D.; Labulle, B.; Teillet, J.; Vigier, P.

    1988-01-01

    57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and electron microprobe analysis are used to determine the Al-distribution in the Nd-Fe-Al-B alloys ; Mössbauer spectroscopy gives the Al distribution between the J2 and K2 sites of Nd2Fe14B-like-phase ; microprobe analysis gives the composition of both matrix and minor phases and their evolution with sintering.

  10. Molecular dynamic investigation of atomic distribution in molten Al-Al2Cu eutectic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structure of Al0.83Cu0.17 eutectic alloy has been studied in liquid state by means of X-ray diffraction and molecular dynamic methods. The total and partial structure factors are analyzed. These functions were used in order to calculate pair correlation functions and partial correlation functions, whose analysis allowed us to conclude that Al2Cu-like atomic groups are distributed in Al-matrix.

  11. From Ti–Al- to Ti–Al–N-sputtered 2D materials

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Maria; Ramos, Ana; Castanho, José; Oliveira, João; Cavaleiro, Albano

    2007-01-01

    Abstract This paper reviews thin films constituted by elements based on the Ti–Al–N system, bearing in mind the role of the condensed phases in the development of structural components and functional devices. In recent decades, the Ti–Al, Ti–N and Al–N nanocrystalline binary systems have rapidly attracted research and industry interest. These systems have revealed a great performance via atomic-level structural control, making it possible to tailor new atomic structures and morphologies suit...

  12. A note on Wang et al's attack on Zhang et al's multiparty quantum secret sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, Wang et al (2008 Phys. Lett. A 373 65) proposed an attack on Zhang et al's (2007 Opt. Commun. 269 418) multiparty quantum secret sharing scheme, in which the first and the last agent are reported to be able to cooperatively eavesdrop on all the secret messages without being detected. In this paper, we show that in Wang et al's attack, on average no more than half the secret messages can be eavesdropped. (paper)

  13. Current-Transport Mechanisms in the AlInN/AlN/GaN single-channel and AlInN/AlN/GaN/AlN/GaN double-channel heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arslan, Engin, E-mail: engina@bilkent.edu.tr [Nanotechnology Research Center, Department of Physics, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, Bilkent, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Turan, Sevil; Gökden, Sibel; Teke, Ali [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Letters, Bal?kesir University, Ça??? Kampüsü, 10145 Bal?kesir (Turkey); Özbay, Ekmel [Nanotechnology Research Center, Department of Physics, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, Bilkent, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2013-12-02

    Current-transport mechanisms were investigated in Schottky contacts on AlInN/AlN/GaN single channel (SC) and AlInN/AlN/GaN/AlN/GaN double channel (DC) heterostructures. A simple model was adapted to the current-transport mechanisms in DC heterostructure. In this model, two Schottky diodes are in series: one is a metal–semiconductor barrier layer (AIInN) Schottky diode and the other is an equivalent Schottky diode, which is due to the heterojunction between the AlN and GaN layer. Capacitance–voltage studies show the formation of a two-dimensional electron gas at the AlN/GaN interface in the SC and the first AlN/GaN interface from the substrate direction in the DC. In order to determine the current mechanisms for SC and DC heterostructures, we fit the analytical expressions given for the tunneling current to the experimental current–voltage data over a wide range of applied biases as well as at different temperatures. We observed a weak temperature dependence of the saturation current and a fairly small dependence on the temperature of the tunneling parameters in this temperature range. At both a low and medium forward-bias voltage values for Schottky contacts on AlInN/AlN/GaN/AlN/GaN DC and AlInN/AlN/GaN SC heterostructures, the data are consistent with electron tunneling to deep levels in the vicinity of mixed/screw dislocations in the temperature range of 80–420 K. - Highlights: • Current mechanisms were investigated on single and double channel heterostructures. • A model was adapted to the current mechanisms in double channel heterostructures. • We observed a weak temperature dependence of the saturation current. • And a small dependence of the tunneling parameters in this temperature range.

  14. Some reactive processing aspects of high-temperature aluminides Nb3Al and RuAl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, K. E.; Stover, D.; Buchkremer, H. P.

    1997-12-01

    In the present investigation elemental powder mixtures with nominal composition of Nb-25at. % Al and Ru-50at.% Al corresponding to Nb3Al and RuAl intermetallic phases were prepared. Green compacts from these mixtures were reactive sintered in vacuum or hot isostatically pressed after being encapsulated and reacted in quartz capsules. In the absence of pressure, reactive sintering at temperatures up to 1800 °C did not lead to densification, and swelling effects were observed. Reactions of formation of Nb3Al and RuAl were found to take place at different temperature regions characteristic for each aluminide system, with clear dependence of the reaction temperature on the heating rate of the powder mixtures. Dilatometry studies showed that swelling occurred instantaneously at temperatures corresponding to the reaction temperature and led to a volume increase of about 25% and 42% for Nb3Al and RuAl, respectively. The activation energy for the reactions was estimated from the differential thermal analysis. Similar data for the NiAl intermetallic phase were also obtained for comparison. The densification behavior and the phase composition of the reaction products were investigated and correlated with the heating rate, the mutual solubility of the reactants, and the amount of liquid phase available during the reaction.

  15. Growth of CdTe: Al films; Crecimiento de peliculas de CdTe: Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez A, M.; Zapata T, M. [CICATA-IPN, 89600 Altamira, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Melendez L, M. [CINVESTAV-IPN, A.P. 14-740, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Pena, J.L. [CINVESTAV-IPN, A.P. 73 Cordemex, 97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    CdTe: AI films were grown by the close space vapor transport technique combined with free evaporation (CSVT-FE). The Aluminum (Al) evaporation was made by two kinds of sources: one made of graphite and the other of tantalum. The films were deposited on glass substrates. The Al source temperature was varied maintaining the CdTe source temperature fixed as well as the substrate temperature. The films were characterized by x-ray energy dispersive analysis (EDAX), x-ray diffraction and optical transmission. The results showed for the films grown with the graphite source for Al evaporation, the Al did not incorporate in the CdTe matrix, at least to the level of EDAX sensitivity; they maintained the same crystal structure and band gap. For the samples grown with the tantalum source, we were able to incorporate the Al. The x-ray diffraction patterns show that the films have a crystal structure that depends on Al concentration. They were cubic up to 2.16 at. % Al concentration; for 19.65 at. % we found a mixed phase; for Al concentration higher than 21 at. % the films were amorphous. For samples with cubic structure it was found that the lattice parameter decreases and the band gap increases with Al concentration. (Author)

  16. CASTABILITY OF Al-Li-Mg AND Al-Li-Cu-Mg ALLOYS

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, C.; YAO, L; Nieh, C.; Chang, C.; Hsu, S.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to study the casting characteristics of various Al-Li alloys, which include fluidity and strengths of the alloys and their interaction with cast molds. Materials investigated are Al-Li-Mg and Al-Li-Cu-Mg alloys with Li content of 2.5 wt%. The results show that sand molds with resin binders are good for Al-Li casting. Ceramic coatings can further reduce the metal-mold interactions. However, the permeability is also reduced by coating. The fluidity of Li-bea...

  17. I have never touched her: the body in Al-Ghazal Al-‘Udhri

    OpenAIRE

    Alharthi, Jokha Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Al-ghazal al-‘udhri emerged as a remarkable literary genre in Arabic literature during the Umayyad period (7th-8th centuries CE). The leaders of this genre are famous poet-lovers who were known for their dramatic love stories and unique poetry, such as Majnun Layla, Qays Lubna and Jamil Buthaynah. There is a common presumption of the absence of the concept of the body in al-ghazal al-‘udhri; most scholars to date have only reproduced commonly- held ideas about the purity of ‘ud...

  18. UNDERSTANDING THE MULTIDIMENSIONAL ISLAMIC FAITH THROUGH ‘ABD AL-GHANI AL-NABULUSI’S MYSTICAL PHILOSOPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Yamamoto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to present a new perspective on Islamic faith and Muslim identity to Muslim minorities who are challenged in practicing or following Islamic law in non-Islamic countries or non-Muslims in the contemporary world. It will uncover the multidimensional perspective of the concept of faith based on sin (dhanb and repentance (tawbah through the mystical philosophy of a Syrian scholar, Abd al-Ghani al-Nabulusi (d. 1143/1741 of the 18th century Ottoman Damascus who contributed to the field of Sufism particularly based on Ibn ‘Arabi’s thought of wahdat al-wujud (oneness of being and insan kamil (the perfect man. Nabulusi believes that anyone who lived during the inexistence of prophet’s revelation, inhabited an isolated place cut off from information about Islam, or lived in dar al-harb and did not make a hijra to dar al-islam could not be regarded as sinful in their deeds. However, faith in Allah is essential and infidelity is not forgiven regardless whether or not they live in dar al-islam or dar al-harb. Further, Nabulusi insists that true faith can be achieved by understanding the sin of existence; the ignorance of the difference of existence between Allah and men.  [Artikel ini menjelaskan identitas keberagamaan umat Islam minoritas yang dituntut untuk menerapkan syariat, namun harus hidup di negara non-muslim, dengan mendiskusikan perspektif multidimensional terhadap konsep dosa dan tobat seperti dikembangkan oleh Abd al-Ghan? al-Nabulus? (1143/1741, seorang sufi pemikir Syria, khususnya  wahdat al-wuj?d dan insan kamil, yang hidup di masa kesultanan Usmani di Damaskus. Nabulus? berkeyakinan bahwa siapa saja yang hidup sebelum turunnya wahyu di masa Nabi, hidup di daerah terpencil yang tidak mengenal Islam, atau hidup di dar al-harb dan tidak hijrah ke dar al-islam, tidaklah dibebani dosa atas perbuatannya. Namun demikian, iman kepada Allah amatlah penting dan kekufuran tidaklah dimaafkan, baik seseorang tersebut hidup di dar al-islam ataupun dar al-harb. Nabulus? beranggapan bahwa iman yang hakiki bisa dicapai dengan memahami dosa eksistensial, yaitu kegagalan dalam memahami perbedaan antara Allah dan manusia.] Keywords: Ibn ‘Arab?, wahdat al-wuj?d, dar al-harb

  19. Study on Mg/Al Weld Seam Based on Zn–Mg–Al Ternary Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Liu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the idea of alloying welding seams, a series of Zn–xAl filler metals was calculated and designed for joining Mg/Al dissimilar metals by gas tungsten arc (GTA welding. An infrared thermography system was used to measure the temperature of the welding pool during the welding process to investigate the solidification process. It was found that the mechanical properties of the welded joints were improved with the increasing of the Al content in the Zn–xAl filler metals, and when Zn–30Al was used as the filler metal, the ultimate tensile strength could reach a maximum of 120 MPa. The reason for the average tensile strength of the joint increasing was that the weak zone of the joint using Zn–30Al filler metal was generated primarily by ?-Al instead of MgZn2. When Zn–40Al was used as the filler metal, a new transition zone, about 20 ?m-wide, appeared in the edge of the fusion zone near the Mg base metal. Due to the transition zones consisting of MgZn2- and Al-based solid solution, the mechanical property of the joints was deteriorated.

  20. Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of NiAl-(Cr) and TiAl-(Cr) Intermetallic Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Frommeyer, G.; Derder, C.

    1997-01-01

    The oxidation resistant light weight aluminides: NiAl and TiAl with ordered B2 and L10 super lattices show promising mechanical properties for high temperature applications. The ductility and strength properties at room and higher temperatures are strongly dependent upon the degree of ordering of the intermetallic compounds and of the microstructural parameters of the multiphase alloys, such as NiAl-(Cr) and TiAl-(Cr,Si). The presented paper describes and discusses the influence of second pha...

  1. HYDROGEN ADSORPTION ON ?-TiAl (001) AND Ni/TiAl (001) SURFACES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, A. A. Karim; Alelaimi, Mahmoud

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we present first principles calculations of the energetic, electronic and magnetic properties of the variant termination of TiAl (001) and Ni/TiAl (001) surfaces with and without hydrogen atoms. The calculations have been performed within the density functional theory using full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method. The generalized gradient approximation (GGA) is utilized as the exchange-correlation energy. The octahedral site is the stable absorption site of H atom in the ?-TiAl system. This absorption reduces the cohesive energy of ?-TiAl system due to increase in the lattice constant. The surface energy for both TiAl (001) terminations is calculated. The stable adsorption site of H atoms on the variant termination of TiAl (001) surface is performed. The adsorption energy of hydrogen on Ti is more energetic than that on Al. The adsorption of H atom on both terminations of H/Ni/TiAl (001) is more preferable at the bridge site. The adsorption energies are enhanced on Ni atom due to the contraction between d-Ni bands and TiAl substrate band.

  2. Effect of Crystalline State of Anodized Porous Al2O3/Al as Supports by Hydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Qi, JIANG Zhong-Rui, SUN Dong-Mei, HAN Da-Ying, ZHU Zi-Bin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The porous alumina as a plate catalytic support was prepared by anodization. Effects of hydration condition on the property of alumina supports were studied. The samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, BET and etc. to illustrate the Al2O3/Al forming mechanism. The results show that the best hydration temperature is 80¡?at which the amorphous alumina can be transformed into AlOOH, and become ?-Al2O3 after 500¡?alcination. Meanwhile, the monoliths catalytic carriers have a superior stability for crystalline structures in the steam atmosphere at high temperature.

  3. Ternary invariant point at 374°C in the three phase region AlSb-Al-Zn inside the Al-Sb-Zn ternary system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klan?nik G.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Al-Sb-Zn ternary system was investigated in the three phase region Al-AlSb-Zn, using differential thermal analysis (DTA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS. The position and temperature of the invariant eutectic L ? AlSb + ?-Al + ? - Zn point inside Al-AlSb-Zn region was experimentally determined. To confirm the obtained results X-ray powder diffraction analysis or XRD was also done. All results were compared to the calculated isopleth phase diagrams using Thermo-Calc software (TCW 5. All calculations were done using the SSOL4 data base.

  4. A novel TiAl3/Al2O3 composite coating on ?-TiAl alloy and evaluating the oxidation performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiqiang; Kong, Lingyan; Li, Tiefan; Xiong, Tianying

    2016-01-01

    A novel TiAl3/Al2O3 composite coating was prepared on ?-TiAl alloy. The process included two steps: (1) TiAl3/Al2O3 composite powders were prepared by high energy ball milling of pure Al and nano-TiO2 powders, followed by a heat-treatment; (2) the as-prepared composite powders were deposited on ?-TiAl substrate by cold spray. The cyclic oxidation was conducted at 900 °C to test the performance of the composite coating. The results showed that the composite coating had good crack resistance and effectively decreased the oxidation rate of the substrate.

  5. Oxidability of certain cast and sintered alloys on the base of TiAl, NiAl and Ni3Al intermetallides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TiAl, NiAl, Ni3Al produced by the methods of power metallurgy and casting are studied for heat-resistance and strength. It is stated that the heat-resistance and strength of TiAl produced by the powder metallurgy method is lower than those of the cast one. The heat-resistance of the powdered Ni3Al is similar to the heat-resistance of the cast one at 1000 deg C, but its strength is higher. Yttrium microalloying of TiAl as well as molybdenum alloying of Ni3Al appreciably decreases the oxidation rate of intermetallides mentioned above

  6. MOSQUE ARCHITECTURE AS A SUSTAINABLE BUILDING IN URBAN (Case Study: Al Markas Al Islamic Mosque Makassar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imriyanti Imriyanti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mosque Architecture is a part of Islamic architecture. Mosque should be fused with elements of nature because its function as a place to pray to God who created the universe. Al Markas Al Islamic Makassar mosque is used as a center of Islamic aspirations of the people and the government to accommodate all the activities of moslems in Makassar. Through this function, the provision of Al Markas Al Islamic mosque began from the desire of Islamic societies in Makassar, which wants the Islamic center to be equipped with facilities and infrastructure as well as architectural, monumental buildings and structures that can be last for hundreds of years (continuous, blend with the environment, and also can be used by the public. Having regard to the function of a mosque especially at the Al Markas Al Islamic Makassar mosque, then the problem that arise is how the Al Markas Al Islamic mosque can be survived/sustainable  in order  to function  as a place  of worship  and  as a center  of Islam.  This research  is a descriptive qualitative research that is trying to generate data in the form of systematic and accurate picture of the object of study. The sustaiprophetlity  of Al Markas AL Islamic mosque can be known through the concept of Islam  in accordance with the view of Islam as well as the sustaiprophetlity of the buildings that seen in the spatial pattern of the mosque, appearance, natural lighting, natural ventilation, and user behavior of the mosque. Keywords: mosque architecture, sustaiprophetlity, view of Islam     Abstrak Arsitektur masjid merupakan bagian dari arsitektur Islam. Bangunan masjid sebaiknya dapat menyatu dengan unsur alam karena masjid difungsikan sebagai wadah dalam bersujud/sembahyang  kepada Allah SWT yang menciptakan alam semesta ini. Masjid Al Markas Al Islamic Makassar merupakan kompleks kegiatan Islam yang digunakan sebagai pusat aspirasi masyarakat  dan pemerintahan  yang dapat menampung  seluruh kegiatan  umat Islam di Makassar. Melalui fungsi inilah maka  pengadaan masjid Al Markas Al-Islamic bermula dari keinginan masyarakat Islam di kota Makassar, yang mana menginginkan pusat kegiatan Islam yang dilengkapi dengan sarana dan prasarana juga bangunannya monumental yang secara arsitektur dan struktur bisa bertahan sampai ratusan tahun (berkelanjutan, dan menyatu dengan lingkungannya  serta dapat digunakan  oleh masyarakat  luas. Dengan memperhatikan  fungsi masjid terutama pada masjid Al Markas Al Islamic Makassar maka permasalahan yang muncul adalah bagaimanakah arsitektur  masjid  Al  Markas  Al  Islamic  dapat  bertahan/berkelanjutan   agar  dapat  difungsikan  sebagai  tempat beribadah dan sebagai pusat kegiatan Islam. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif yang bersifar kualitatif yaitu penelitian yang berusaha menghasilkan data berupa gambaran yang sistematis dan akurat dari objek kajian. Keberlanjutan  masjid Al Markas Al Islamic dapat diketahui melalui penyatuan konsep masjid Al Markas Al Islamic sesuai  dengan  pandangan  Islam  serta  keberlanjutan  dilihat  pada  bangunan  yakni  pola  tata  ruang  masjid, penampilan, pencahayaan dan penghawaan alami serta perilaku pemakai masjid. Kata Kunci : Arsitektur masjid, keberlanjutan, pandangan Islam

  7. Deletion of ALS5, ALS6 or ALS7 increases adhesion of Candida albicans to human vascular endothelial and buccal epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xiaomin; OH, SOON-HWAN; Hoyer, Lois L.

    2007-01-01

    C. albicans yeast forms deleted for ALS5, ALS6 or ALS7 are more adherent than a relevant control strain to human vascular endothelial cell monolayers and buccal epithelial cells. In the buccal and vaginal reconstituted human epithelium (RHE) disease models, however, mutant and control strains caused a similar degree of tissue destruction. Deletion of ALS5 or ALS6 significantly slowed growth of the mutant strain; this phenotype was not affected by addition of excess uridine to the culture medi...

  8. Bush lubas al-Zarqawi järglase kinni püüda / Aadu Hiietamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiietamm, Aadu, 1954-

    2006-01-01

    USA president George W. Bush teatas, et tapetud terrorivõrgustiku al Qaeda Iraagi haru liidri Abu Musab al-Zarqawi järglaseks nimetatud Abu Hamsa al-Muhajir on kuulutatud enim tagaotsitavaks terroristiks

  9. Comments on optimization of the boron content in FeAl (40 at.% Al) alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a recent paper, Webb, Juliet and Lefort indicated, based on tensile tests of two boron-doped FeAl alloys and one undoped FeAl alloy, that they had determined the optimum concentration of boron for good ductility to be 48 appm (12 wppm) in Fe-40Al (compositions given in atomic percent throughout). It is the author's view that this is not the case for the following reasons: (1) The Fe-40Al alloys studied by Webb et al. contained 42:4, (heat number-sign 1), 45.7 (heat number-sign 2) and 39.7 (heat number-sign 3) atomic percent Al. (2) The maximum solubility of an element may depend on the presence of other elements. (3) Other workers, notably Liu and George have obtained greater elongations in Fe-40Al in air (4.3%) than the 2.5% obtained by Webb et al. with a greater boron concentration (300 wppm as opposed to 12 wppm). Similarly, Crimp et al. found little difference in the tensile behavior of slow-cooled Fe-40Al with boron levels in the range 500 to 2000 wppm, with a ductility at 3% elongation that was comparable to the highest obtained by Webb et al. (4) Boron in FeAl presumably partitions between the lattice and the grain boundaries. (5) The grain size in the boron-free alloys studied by Webb et al. was larger at 54 ?m than in the boron-doped alloys (37 ?m and 27 ?m for the alloys containing 12 and 80 wppm B, respectively). (6) When tensile tests are performed on FeAl in air, the ductility is reduced due to water vapor. To some extent boron may ameliorate this environmental effect. Thus, differences in ductility in air are not necessarily due to intrinsic behavior but may be due to a reduced environmental effect in boron-doped alloys. (7) Webb et al. conducted their tensile tests at a strain rate of 3 x 10-2s-1

  10. Synthesis of intercalated Al-hydroxy-montmorillonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. de Lourdes Chávez-García

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Montmorillonita procedente de Durango, México, de composición (Si3.88Al0.12(Al1.41Mg0.59O10(OH2(Ca0.07Mg0.11Na0.28K0.06, área superficial 42.07 m2g-1, espaciamiento d001 12.50 Å, y volumen de poro 0.002 cm3g-1, fue intercalada con el oligómero de Al. La arcilla modificada desarrolló un área superficial de 287.86 m2g-1, volumen de poro 0.103 cm3g-1, y espaciamiento d001 18.70 Å. Se deshidrata a 70 °C reduciendo el espaciamiento d001 a 17.29 Å; su deshidroxilación se inicia a 150 °C y a 300 °C perdió 1.92 % en peso, modificando d001 a 17.34 Å.

  11. Sistemas auditivos anclados al hueso: perspectiva actual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Mayté Durán Morales

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La tecnología de los sistemas auditivos anclados al hueso se adoptó a partir de la investigación dental en implantes de titanio y su proceso de osteointegración. Inicialmente, los sistemas auditivos anclados al hueso se introdujeron para reemplazar los dispositivos de vibración ósea, para pacientes incapaces de usar auxiliares auditivos de conducción aérea (pacientes con cavidades de mastoidectomía, otorrea recurrente, atresia aural congénita. La aplicación más reciente es como método de transmisión transcraneal de la señal en casos de hipoacusia sensorineural unilateral, como neurinoma del acústico, hipoacu- sia súbita, enfermedad de Ménière y otros. En este artículo se revisan la historia de los sistemas auditivos anclados al hueso, su tecnología, sus indicaciones, la cirugía para su colocación, las complicaciones y resultados.

  12. Calcium: the Darth Vader of ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, S H; Beers, D; Siklos, L; Engelhardt, J I; Mosier, D R

    2001-03-01

    Motor neuron dysfunction and loss in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have been attributed to several different mechanisms, including increased intracellular calcium, glutamate excitotoxicity, oxidative stress and free radical damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, and neurofilament aggregation and dysfunction of transport mechanisms. These alterations are not mutually exclusive, and increased calcium could be a common denominator. Furthermore, the selective vulnerability of spinal motor neurons and the relative sparing of eye motor neurons represent striking features of both sporadic and familial ALS. Here we review the evidence that calcium homeostasis is altered in ALS, and that low levels of the calcium binding proteins parvalbumin and calbindin-D28K contribute to selective vulnerability by decreasing the ability of motor neurons to handle an increased calcium load, with cell injury and death as the consequence. PMID:11465925

  13. Al- Khwarizmi and axiomatic foundation of algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper intends to investigate the axiomatic foundations of algebra, as they were presented in the book of algebra of al-Khwarizmi (9 th century), and as they were developed in many subsequent Arabic works. The paper gives also a description of algebra evolution towards a discipline independent ofgeometry and arithmetic: the two disciplines whosemarriage had led to its birth.By an in depth reading of some details in the text of al Khwarizmi , we concluded that this mathematician intended to lay down the axiomatic foundations of that new discipline. His resort to arithmetical and geometrical means was a way of making his theory more accessible. He used them to justify the axioms: those that were not explicitly introduced per se, and those that were remained implicit. The paper also relies on some unedited writingsof al-Khwarizmi's successors, which could shedlight on the ways they used to consolidate the foundations of algebra and improve its methods. (author)

  14. Boron strengthening in FeAl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, I.; Li, X.; Xiao, H.; Klein, O.; Nelson, C. [Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH (United States). Thayer School of Engineering; Carleton, R.L.; George, E.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

    1998-11-01

    The effect of boron on the strength of B2-structured FeAl is considered as a function of composition, grain size and temperature. Boron does not affect the concentrations of antisite atoms or vacancies present, with the former increasing and the latter decreasing with increasing deviation from the stoichiometric composition. When vacancies are absent, the strength increase per at. % B per unit lattice strain, {Delta}{sigma}/({Delta}c x {epsilon}) increases with increasing aluminum concentration, but when vacancies are present (>45 at. % Al), {Delta}{sigma}/({Delta}c x {epsilon}) decreases again. Boron increases grain size strengthening in FeAl. B strengthening is roughly independent of temperature up to the yield strength peak but above the point, when diffusion-assisted deformation occurs, boron strengthening increases dramatically.

  15. Diffusion AlSi-MeCrAlY coatings obtained on intermetallic γ-TiAl phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Góral

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The development of new protective coatings for TiAl intermetallics was conducted. The MeCrAlYAlSi slurry was used with different amount of aluminium-silicon powder in the binder.Design/methodology/approach: The slurry consisting of aluminium and silicon powder with the addition of MeCrAlY powder were used during the procedure. The inorganic solution made from chromic and phosphoric acid was applied as a binder. The preliminary research of microstructure of obtained coatings was conducted.Findings: The obtained coating consisting of 3 or 4 zones (depending on chemical composition of the slurry was obtained during the annealing process (950°C/4h.Research limitations/implications: The research results revealed the possibility of obtaining coatings with complex phase and chemical composition.Practical implications: Many problems connected with sedimentation of heavier MeCrAlY powder were observed.Originality/value: The copletele new technologies was described in article

  16. Comic als künstlerische Ausdrucksform, als Zeitvertreib oder als Bildungsanlass? - Das erste Comics-Festival im Institut français d'Autriche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Horvatic

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Das erste Comics-Festival im Institut français d'Autriche.Eva Horvatic berichtet eingehend über das erste Comic Festival des Insitut français de Vienne und zeigt auf, dass Comics in Frankreich als ernst zu nehmende Medien behandelt werden, die auch die französische Kultur in sich aufnehmen und vermitteln. Darüber hinaus zeigt sie die bildungstheoretische Relevanz von Comics.

  17. Total energy, equation of state and bulk modulus of AlP, AlAs and AlSb semiconductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A R Jivani; H J Trivedi; P J Gajjar; A R Jani

    2005-01-01

    Recently proposed model potential which combines both linear and quadratic types of interactions is employed for the investigation of some properties like the total energy, equation of state and bulk modulus of AlP, AlAs and AlSb semiconductor compounds using higher-order perturbation theory. The model potential parameter is determined using zero pressure condition. The ratio of the covalent bonding term E cov to the second-order term $E_{2}$ is $6.77$% to $11.85$% which shows that contribution from higher order terms are important for zinc-blende-type crystals. The calculated numerical results of the total energy, energy band gap at Jones-zone face and bulk modulus of these compounds are in good agreement with the experimental data and found much better than other such theoretical findings. We have also studied pressure–volume relations of these compounds. The present study is carried out using six different screening functions along with latest screening function proposed by Sarkar et al. It is found from the present study that effect of exchange and correlation is clearly distinguishable.

  18. Das Lesen als Sprachtätigkeit und Ihre Grundzüge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giedr? Knizikevi?i?t?

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Im Artikel wird das Lesensproblem an der technischen Hochschule behandelt. Aufgrund der methodi-schen Untersuchungen und der Arbeitserfahrung versuchen die Autoren das Lesenswesen als die Art der Sprachtätigkeit, seine Bestandteile und die Arbeitsmethodik zu analysieren. An der technischen Hochschule schenkt man dem Hauptobjekt des Lesens - dem Text besondere Aufmerksamkeit. Es wird die Struktur der Texte vom Standpunkt der Grammatik und des Textinhalts aus beschrieben. Im Beitrag werden die Formen und Methoden des Lesens als Mittel bei der Vorbereitung der Hauptarten des Lesens (Informations-, Studiums- und Übersichtslesen betrachtet.

  19. Nb3Al Development for HEP Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumption, M. D.; Wu, X.; Buta, F.; Tomsic, M.; Phillips, J.; McFadden, K.; Collings, E. W.

    2004-06-01

    Recent developments in Nb3Al strand for HEP applications are presented and discussed. The present state of available precursor is detailed. Two routes have been shown to lead to successful construction of MF NbAl composite wires. An extrusion method has so far produced the highest filament counts and smallest filament diameters, but requires more processing steps. A direct restack and draw approach has also been demonstrated which minimizes the number of processing steps while still leading to a high performance conductor. This latter route also allows for a lower cost per billet, potentially allowing the exploration of more process parameters.

  20. Aspectos biopsicosociales asociados al embarazo adolescente

    OpenAIRE

    Regina Cogollo Jiménez

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: El embarazo en la adolescencia, es un evento inesperado, sorpresivo. Este artículo establece la importancia de identificar los aspectos biopsicosociales asociados al embarazo adolescente en las embarazadas asistentes al programa de Control Prenatal de una Empresa Social del Estado de nivel 1 en Montería en 2009, para comprender las actitudes y los comportamientos asociados a esta etapa tan temprana. Materiales y Métodos: Es un estudio descriptivo, cuantitativo, de corte transver...

  1. Niedermolekulare Verbindungen aus Spinnen als chemische Sensoren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Christian Adam; Kristensen, Anders S.; Strømgaard, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    Spinnen sind für viele Ökosysteme wichtig, und als Hauptfeinde von Insekten verfügen sie über eine Fülle von niedermolekularen Naturstoffen mit faszinierenden biologischen Wirkungen. Die Isolierung und die biologische Charakterisierung dieser Verbindungen sind wohlbekannt, aber erst kürzlich wurden...... sie als Leitstrukturen für die Entwicklung, Synthese und biologische Untersuchung synthetischer Analoga verwendet. Weit weniger erforscht sind hingegen Verbindungen, die der Kommunikation von Spinnen dienen. Vor kurzem wurden jedoch auf dem Gebiet der Pheromone und Allomone aus Spinnen neue...... Erkenntnisse erhalten, die wir hier zusammenfassen und mit früheren Ergebnissen in Zusammenhang bringen. Abschließend geben wir einen Ausblick auf künftige Untersuchungen an dieser Art von Verbindungen....

  2. Nb3Al Development for HEP Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent developments in Nb3Al strand for HEP applications are presented and discussed. The present state of available precursor is detailed. Two routes have been shown to lead to successful construction of MF NbAl composite wires. An extrusion method has so far produced the highest filament counts and smallest filament diameters, but requires more processing steps. A direct restack and draw approach has also been demonstrated which minimizes the number of processing steps while still leading to a high performance conductor. This latter route also allows for a lower cost per billet, potentially allowing the exploration of more process parameters

  3. ANÁLISIS ESTRUCTURAL PROSPECTIVO APLICADO AL SISTEMA LOGÍSTICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA PAOLA BALLESTEROS RIVEROS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La intención de este trabajo es compartir con los lectores una forma de hacer análisis estructural prospectivo al sistema logístico. Para ello, se hace un breve recorrido histórico de este método de escenarios, conociendo los aportes de Godet y Duperrin, luego se presenta una breve descripción del método con sus objetivos y fases, la identificación de variables en el sistema logístico del sector de las confecciones en Pereira, localización de las relaciones en la matriz de análisis estructural, la búsqueda de las variables clave, planos de motricidad y al final se exponen para reflexión algunas conclusiones.

  4. Frauen als Akteurinnen während des Nationalsozialismus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Gerodetti

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Das vorliegende Buch stellt die wichtigen Fragen nach der Beteiligung von Fürsorgerinnnen (Sozialarbeiterinnen am System der öffentlichen Fürsorge während des Dritten Reiches. Betrachtet werden die Anforderungen an fürsorgerische Aktivitäten während des Nationalsozialismus im Spannungsfeld von Auslese und „Ausmerze“. Esther Lehnert kann zeigen, dass die von der Wissenschaft und der interessierten Öffentlichkeit bislang kaum wahrgenommene Arbeit der Fürsorgerinnen einen wichtigen Ort der Umsetzung und Bildung der Kategorie „minderwertig“ darstellte. Sie präsentiert Fürsorge nicht als „unpolitisches Helfen“, sondern in ihrer Schlüsselfunktion für die nationalsozialistische Diskriminierungs- und Ausmerzpolitik. Lehnerts Studie basiert explizit auf Forschungspositionen, in denen Frauen nicht ausschließlich als Opfer des Nationalsozialismus gesehen und polare Opfer-Täter Stukturen aufgebrochen werden.

  5. Hydrogenation properties of Mg-Al alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the properties of Mg-Al alloys in relation to hydrogen storage are reviewed. The main topics of this paper are materials preparation, hydrogen capacity, thermodynamics of hydride formation, and the kinetics of hydride formation and decomposition. Hydrogenation of Mg-Al leads to....... Further, it is found that the kinetics of hydrogenation, as well dehydrogenation, may be significantly improved by alloying compared to pure Mg. The expense of these improvements of the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation properties is a lower gravimetric hydrogen density in the hydrogenated product, (C) 2008...... International Association for Hydrogen Energy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  6. The wobbler mouse, an ALS animal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moser, Jakob Maximilian; Bigini, Paolo; Schmitt-John, Thomas

    This review article is focused on the research progress made utilizing the wobbler mouse as animal model for human motor neuron diseases, especially the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The wobbler mouse develops progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons and shows striking...... disease mechanism and testing various therapeutic approaches and discuss the relevance of these advances for human ALS. The identification of the causative mutation linking the wobbler mutation to a vesicle transport factor and the research focussed on the cellular basis and the therapeutic treatment of...

  7. Structure analysis of Al cast alloy

    OpenAIRE

    L. A. Dobrza?ski; M. Krupi?ski; B. Krupi?ska

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The developed design methodologies both the material and technological ones will make it possible to improve shortly the quality of materials from the light alloys in the technological process, and the automatic process flow correction will make the production cost reduction possible, and - first of all - to reduce the amount of the waste products.Design/methodology/approach: Castings were analysed in the paper of car engine blocks and heads from the Al-Si-Cu alloys of the AC-AlSi7Cu...

  8. Resistencia al cambio en organizaciones modernas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Esperanza López Duque

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo se fundamenta en la mirada del ser humano como pilar de todos los cambios al interior de la organización; considera como los procesos de cambio se inician con el cambio personal, y como las organizaciones modernas son conscientes de ello. Señala la necesidad de comprender los procesos que viven las personas sometidas al cambio constante, así como también se requiere contar con herramientas para establecer los criterios de implantación y reducción de barreras que interfieran en su aceptación, haciendo importantes aportes en el área de medición y cambio de actitudes.

  9. Electronic states and spin-forbidden cooling transitions of AlH and AlF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Nathan; Lane, Ian C

    2011-11-14

    The feasibility of laser cooling AlH and AlF is investigated using ab initio quantum chemistry. All the electronic states corresponding to the ground and lowest two excited states of the Al atom are calculated using multi-reference configuration interaction (MRCI) and the large AV6Z basis set for AlH. The smaller AVQZ basis set is used to calculate the valence electronic states of AlF. Theoretical Franck-Condon factors are determined for the A(1)?? X(1)?(+) transitions in both radicals and found to agree with the highly diagonal factors found experimentally, suggesting computational chemistry is an effective method for screening suitable laser cooling candidates. AlH does not appear to have a transition quite as diagonal as that in SrF (which has been laser cooled) but the A(1)?? X(1)?(+) transition transition of AlF is a strong candidate for cooling with just a single laser, though the cooling frequency is deep in the UV. Furthermore, the a(3)?? X(1)?(+) transitions are also strongly diagonal and in AlF is a practical method for obtaining very low final temperatures around 3 ?K. PMID:21842049

  10. Plotting of Sr-Al-Si and Ba-Al-Si phase diagrams using simplex planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are given of construction of the liquidus surface for ternary systems Sr-Al-Si, Ba-Al-Si using ''Promin-2'' and ''M-220M'' computers. Compositions of quasi-ternary systems, selected by the simplex method, have been studied by microstructural, X-ray diffraction and differential thermal methods of analysis in combination with measurements of microhardness of structural components

  11. Melting, Processing, and Properties of Disordered Fe-Al and Fe-Al-C Based Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satya Prasad, V. V.; Khaple, Shivkumar; Baligidad, R. G.

    2014-09-01

    This article presents a part of the research work conducted in our laboratory to develop lightweight steels based on Fe-Al alloys containing 7 wt.% and 9 wt.% aluminum for construction of advanced lightweight ground transportation systems, such as automotive vehicles and heavy-haul truck, and for civil engineering construction, such as bridges, tunnels, and buildings. The melting and casting of sound, porosity-free ingots of Fe-Al-based alloys was accomplished by a newly developed cost-effective technique. The technique consists of using a special flux cover and proprietary charging schedule during air induction melting. These alloys were also produced using a vacuum induction melting (VIM) process for comparison purposes. The effect of aluminum (7 wt.% and 9 wt.%) on melting, processing, and properties of disordered solid solution Fe-Al alloys has been studied in detail. Fe-7 wt.% Al alloy could be produced using air induction melting with a flux cover with the properties comparable to the alloy produced through the VIM route. This material could be further processed through hot and cold working to produce sheets and thin foils. The cold-rolled and annealed sheet exhibited excellent room-temperature ductility. The role of carbon in Fe-7 wt.% Al alloys has also been examined. The results indicate that Fe-Al and Fe-Al-C alloys containing about 7 wt.% Al are potential lightweight steels.

  12. Infarto agudo al miocardio asociado al uso de cocaína: ¿una entidad diferente?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alberto, Fuenzaiida; Martín, Valdebenito; Alejandro, Fajuri.

    Full Text Available El interesante trabajo presentado por Veas et al¹ en este número de la revista genera ciertas interrogantes sobre la fisiopatología y manejo de aquellos pacientes que están cursando un infarto agudo al miocardio con supradesnivel del ST y que refieren consumo reciente de cocaína. [...

  13. Diffusion bonding of gamma-TiAl using modified Ti/Al nanolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Ti/Al multilayers are promising interlayers for getting joins between titanium aluminides. ? When Ti/Al multilayers are doped with Ag or Cu it is observed a higher reactivity of the multilayers. ? A doped Ti/Al multilayer decreases the temperature of the process and the quality of the bonding increases. - Abstract: Solid state diffusion bonding has been successfully employed to join ?-TiAl alloys. Processed in vacuum, at high temperature and pressure, the thin interfaces and the lack of structural discontinuity across the interface are the main advantage of this joining technique. An interlayer made of alternated Ti and Al nanometric layers that increases the diffusivity at the joint interface, was used in order to assist the bonding process of ?-TiAl alloys. The use of Ti/Al interlayer has efficiently reduced the joining temperature. Sound joints have been achieved at a temperature of 900 °C under a pressure of 50 MPa in vacuum. In the present work Cu was added as third element to the Ti/Al multilayers and its effect improved the bonding quality. The interface microstructure was studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy.

  14. High quality Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb Josephson junctions. Technological development and macroscopic quantum experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes the development of a technology for producing high-quality submicron Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb Josephson junctions. The resulting components in different experiments have not previously observed macroscopic quantum effects have been demonstrated. Furthermore, Nb-based phase qubits have been designed, fabricated and measured, the longer coherence times than the related components from the literature.

  15. Diffusion bonding of gamma-TiAl using modified Ti/Al nanolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, L.I., E-mail: liliana.duarte@empa.ch [EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Joining and Interface Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Viana, F. [CEMUC, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Porto, R. Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Ramos, A.S.; Vieira, M.T. [CEMUC, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Coimbra, R. Luis Reis Santos, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal); Leinenbach, C. [EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Joining and Interface Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Klotz, U.E. [FEM, Research Institute Precious Metals and Metals Chemistry, D-73525 Schwaebisch Gmuend (Germany); Vieira, M.F. [CEMUC, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Porto, R. Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)

    2012-09-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ti/Al multilayers are promising interlayers for getting joins between titanium aluminides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer When Ti/Al multilayers are doped with Ag or Cu it is observed a higher reactivity of the multilayers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A doped Ti/Al multilayer decreases the temperature of the process and the quality of the bonding increases. - Abstract: Solid state diffusion bonding has been successfully employed to join {gamma}-TiAl alloys. Processed in vacuum, at high temperature and pressure, the thin interfaces and the lack of structural discontinuity across the interface are the main advantage of this joining technique. An interlayer made of alternated Ti and Al nanometric layers that increases the diffusivity at the joint interface, was used in order to assist the bonding process of {gamma}-TiAl alloys. The use of Ti/Al interlayer has efficiently reduced the joining temperature. Sound joints have been achieved at a temperature of 900 Degree-Sign C under a pressure of 50 MPa in vacuum. In the present work Cu was added as third element to the Ti/Al multilayers and its effect improved the bonding quality. The interface microstructure was studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy.

  16. Optical investigation on the valence band structure of AlGaN with low Al content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meisch, Tobias; Neuschl, Benjamin; Thonke, Klaus [Institut of Quantum Matter, Ulm University, 89069 Ulm (Germany); Lipski, Frank; Forghani, Kamran; Scholz, Ferdinand [Institut of Optoelectronics, Ulm University, 89069 Ulm (Germany); Feneberg, Martin [Institut fuer Experimentelle Physik, Abt. Materialphysik, Otto-von-Guericke-Universitaet Magdeburg, Universitaetsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    For the binary semiconductors GaN and AlN, the crystal field splitting determining the valence band structure changes from {approx}+20 meV (GaN) to {approx}-200 meV (AlN), whereas the spin orbit splitting should remain constant at {approx} 20 meV. Therefore, for unstrained AlGaN ternary layers an interchange of the character of the topmost valence band from {gamma}{sub 9} to {gamma}{sub 7} is theoretically expected for an Al content in the range of 5-10%, manifesting itself mainly in a change of polarization of optical transitions. Strain in epitaxial layers alters the situation and shifts this crossing point. Literature reports experimental values ranging from 20% to 75% Al for the crossover. We present results of temperature dependent photoluminescence and reflectivity experiments on AlGaN layers with Al content ranging from 0 to 30%, and find different contributions from free and bound excitons. The Al content and strain were determined from multiple HRXRD reflections, and entered in a 6 x 6 k.p model calculation. We discuss our experimental spectra on the basis of this calculation.

  17. MgAl2O4–-Al2O3 solid solution interaction: mathematical framework and phase separation of -Al2O3 at high temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soumen Pal; A K Bandyopadhyay; S Mukherjee; B N Samaddar; P G Pal

    2011-07-01

    Although existence of MgAl2O4–-Al2O3 solid solution has been reported in the past, the detailed interactions have not been explored completely. For the first time, we report here a mathematical framework for the detailed solid solution interactions of -Al2O3 in MgAl2O4 (spinel). To investigate the solid solubility of -Al2O3 in MgAl2O4, Mg–Al spinel (MgO–Al2O3; = 1, 1.5, 3, 4.5 and an arbitrary high value 30) precursors have been heat treated at 1000°C. Presence of only non-stoichiometric MgAl2O4 phase up to = 4.5 at 1000°C indicates that alumina (as -Al2O3) present beyond stoichiometry gets completely accommodated in MgAl2O4 in the form of solid solution. → alumina phase transformation and its subsequent separation from MgAl2O4 has been observed in the Mg–Al spinel powders ( > 1) when the 1000°C heat treated materials are calcined at 1200°C. In the mathematical framework, unit cell of MgAl2O4 (Mg8Al16O32) has been considered for the solid solution interactions (substitution of Mg2+ ions by Al3+ ions) with -Al2O3. It is suggested that combination of unit cells of MgAl2O4 takes part in the interactions when > 5 (MgO–Al2O3).

  18. Fluctuations of charge variance and interaction time for dissipative processes in 27 Al + 27 Al collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The systematic studies of dissipative processes in light systems were completed with experiments dedicated to the measurement of the excitation functions in 19 F + 27 Al and 27 Al + 27 Al systems in order to obtain deeper insight on DNS configuration and its time evolution. The excitation function for 19 F + 27 Al system evidenced fluctuations larger than the statistical errors. Large Z and angular cross correlation coefficients supported their non-statistical nature. The energy dependence of second order observables, namely the second moment of the charge distribution and the product ?·? (? - the angular velocity of the DNS and ? its mean lifetime) extracted from the angular distributions were studied for 19 F + 27 Al case. In this contribution we are reporting the preliminary results of similar studies performed for 27 Al + 27 Al case. The variance of the charge distribution were obtained fitting the experimental charge distribution with a Gaussian centered on Z = 13 and the product ?·? was extracted from the angular distributions. The results for 19 F + 27 Al case are confirmed by a preliminary analysis of the data for 27 Al + 27 Al system. The charge variance and ?·? excitation functions for Z = 11 fragment are represented together with the excitation function of the cross section. One has to mention that the data for 27 Al + 27 Al system were not corrected for particle evaporation processes. The effect of the evaporation corrections on the excitation function was studied using a Monte Carlo simulation. The ? particle evaporation was also included and the evaluation of the particle separation energies was made using experimental masses of the fragments. The excitation functions for 27 Al + 27 Al system for primary and secondary fragments were simulated. No structure due to particle evaporation was observed. The correlated fluctuations in ?Z and ?·? excitation functions support a stochastic exchange of nucleons as the main mechanism for interpreting dissipative processes in light systems. The same conclusion is sustained by the fact that the dependence of ln(?Z2) as a function of TKEL/lgr for light systems has the same slope as the one for medium and heavy systems. (authors)

  19. Superconducting properties of nanocrystalline Nb3Al in Nb-Al matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Puspen; Manekar, Meghmalhar; Kumar, Ravi; Ganguli, Tapas; Roy, S. B.

    2008-02-01

    We present the results of x-ray diffraction and magnetization measurements on the nanocrystalline as-cast compound Nb3Al. X-ray diffraction shows the presence of the A15 Nb3Al phase embedded in a matrix of a bcc Nb-Al solid solution. The average grain size of Nb3Al estimated from the line broadening is about 35nm. Magnetization measurements give a lower limit of the superconducting transition temperature to be about 16.8K, which is amongst the highest known TC for the as-cast sample of Nb3Al. In the superconducting state, the sample shows anomalous thermomagnetic history effects in the temperature and field variation of magnetization.

  20. Properties and structure of oxidized coatings deposited onto Al-Cu and Al-Mg alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrebnyak, A. D.; Kylyshkanov, M. K.; Tyurin, Yu. N.; Kaverina, A. Sh.; Yakushchenko, I. V.; Borisenko, A. A.; Postol'ny, B. A.; Kulik, I. A.

    2012-06-01

    The results of new studies of creating protective oxide coatings based on Al2O3 (Si, Mn) and deposited onto aluminum alloys using electrolyte-plasma oxidation are presented. An analysis is performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering of 4He+ and protons, nanoindentation, scratching, friction coefficient measurements, and acoustic emission measurements. The results demonstrate that the deposited coatings have a high quality, hardness, and wear resistance and a low thermal diffusivity. Apart from Al2O3, the coatings are found to have Si, Mn, C, and Ca. The stoichiometry of the coatings is determined. The density and hardness of the coatings are close to those of ?-Al2O3 in the coating on an Al-Cu (D-16) substrate, and these values of the coating on an Al-Mg (S006) are lower by a factor of 1.5.

  1. FABRICATION OF Al/Al2O3 FGM ROTATING DISC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Sanuddin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a method of fabricating a disc made of Al/Al2O3 functionally graded materials (FGM, using a powder metallurgy manufacturing process. The aim is to develop a processing method for a rotating disc made of FGM, by stacking the slurry, layer by layer in a radial direction. A three-layer functionally graded material of Al/Al2O3 is fabricated with compositions of 10, 20, 30 vol.% Al2O3. The ceramic composition increases from the discs inner (centre to the outer. The combination of these materials can offer the ability to withstand high temperature conditions whilst maintaining strength in extreme environments.

  2. An impedance study of complex Al/Cu-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisova, J; Katkevics, J; Viksna, A [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Latvia, Kr. Valdemara Str. 48, Riga, LV-1013 (Latvia); Erts, D, E-mail: arturs.viksna@lu.lv [Institute of Chemical Physics, University of Latvia, Kronvalda blvd. 4, Riga, LV-1586 (Latvia)

    2011-06-23

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to investigate different Cu deposition regimes on Al surface obtained by internal electrolysis and to characterize properties of fabricated electrodes. EIS experimental data confirmed that Cu deposition by internal electrolysis is realized and the complex electrode system is obtained. The main difficulty in preparation of Al/Cu electrodes is to prevent aluminium oxidation before and during electrochemical deposition of Cu particles. In this work NaCl, CH{sub 3}COONa, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, mono- and diammonium citrate electrolytes were examined to determine their suitability for impedance measurements. Al/Cu-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} electrode composition was approved by equivalent circuit analysis, optical and scanning electron microscope methods. The most optimal Cu deposition mode using internal electrolysis was determined. The obtained results are promising for future electrochemical fabrication of nanostructures directly on Al surfaces by internal electrolysis.

  3. Tensile deformation behavior of a sub-micrometer Al2O3/6061Al composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 0.3 ?m Al2O3/6061Al composite with 33% volume fraction of Al2O3 was fabricated by the patented squeeze-casting technology. The tensile properties were studied, and the dynamic tensile deformation behavior was investigated by an in situ TEM tensile technique. The as-cast composite exhibits excellent tensile properties with a fracture strength of 504 MPa, and the strength increases to 579 MPa after a T6 treatment. The high strength is mainly attributed to the dispersion strengthening effect of the finer sub-micrometer Al2O3 particles. Dynamic transmission electron microscopy indicates that micro-cracks initiate and propagate mainly in the matrix. The Al2O3 particles can hinder the growth and deflect the cracks, but the resistance of the particles to crack propagation is small. The propagation stage is accordingly short, leading to the fracture of the composite

  4. Structural and local electrical properties of AlInN/AlN/GaN heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minj, A.; Cavalcoli, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Cavallini, A., E-mail: anna.cavallini@unibo.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2012-08-01

    GaN layers and Al{sub 1-x}In{sub x}N/AlN/GaN heterostructures have been studied by scanning probe microscopy methods. Threading dislocations (TDs), originating from the GaN (0 0 0 1) layer grown on sapphire, have been investigated. Using Current-Atomic Force Microscopy (C-AFM) TDs have been found to be highly conductive in both GaN and AlInN, while using semi-contact AFM (phase-imaging mode) indium segregation has been traced at TDs in AlInN/AlN/GaN heterostructures. It has been assessed that In segregation is responsible for high conductivity at dislocations in the examined heterostructures.

  5. Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ adherence on CoCrAl alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingsley, L.M.

    1980-04-01

    Adherence of protective oxides on NiCrAl and CoCrAl superalloys has been promoted by a dispersion of a highly oxygen reactive element or its oxide being produced within the protection system. Two aspects of this subject are investigated here: the use of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ as both the dispersion and protective oxide; and the production of an HfO/sub 2/ dispersion while simultaneously aluminizing the alloy. It was found that an Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ dispersion will act to promote the adherence of an external scale of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ to a degree comparable to previously tested dispersions and an HfO/sub 2/ dispersion comparable to that produced by a Rhines pack treatment is produced during aluminization.

  6. Nucleation and growth of the ?'(AlAg2) precipitate in Al-Ag(-Cu) alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precipitation of the ?'(AlAg2) phase was investigated in Al-Ag(-Cu) alloys using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy. Precipitation commenced with segregation of Ag to stacking faults, followed by thickening in steps corresponding to single unit cell height ledges. In conjunction with gradual segregation of Ag and Al into ordered layers, this yielded ?' phase platelets with a thickness of either 2 or 3 x the AlAg2c-lattice parameter. Plates with a thickness of 2c(AlAg2) could not achieve self-accommodation of the shape strain for transformation. Further thickening of the precipitates was slow, despite considerable Ag segregation around the precipitates. Growth by the addition of single unit cell height ledges is expected to lead to an additional shear strain energy barrier to ledge nucleation and this may contribute to a process of nucleation-limited growth.

  7. An impedance study of complex Al/Cu-Al2O3 electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisova, J.; Katkevics, J.; Erts, D.; Viksna, A.

    2011-06-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to investigate different Cu deposition regimes on Al surface obtained by internal electrolysis and to characterize properties of fabricated electrodes. EIS experimental data confirmed that Cu deposition by internal electrolysis is realized and the complex electrode system is obtained. The main difficulty in preparation of Al/Cu electrodes is to prevent aluminium oxidation before and during electrochemical deposition of Cu particles. In this work NaCl, CH3COONa, K2SO4, mono- and diammonium citrate electrolytes were examined to determine their suitability for impedance measurements. Al/Cu-Al2O3 electrode composition was approved by equivalent circuit analysis, optical and scanning electron microscope methods. The most optimal Cu deposition mode using internal electrolysis was determined. The obtained results are promising for future electrochemical fabrication of nanostructures directly on Al surfaces by internal electrolysis.

  8. An impedance study of complex Al/Cu-Al2O3 electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to investigate different Cu deposition regimes on Al surface obtained by internal electrolysis and to characterize properties of fabricated electrodes. EIS experimental data confirmed that Cu deposition by internal electrolysis is realized and the complex electrode system is obtained. The main difficulty in preparation of Al/Cu electrodes is to prevent aluminium oxidation before and during electrochemical deposition of Cu particles. In this work NaCl, CH3COONa, K2SO4, mono- and diammonium citrate electrolytes were examined to determine their suitability for impedance measurements. Al/Cu-Al2O3 electrode composition was approved by equivalent circuit analysis, optical and scanning electron microscope methods. The most optimal Cu deposition mode using internal electrolysis was determined. The obtained results are promising for future electrochemical fabrication of nanostructures directly on Al surfaces by internal electrolysis.

  9. The anodic and cathodic dissolution of Al and Al-Cu-Mg alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic emission spectroelectrochemistry (AESEC) was used to monitor the release of Al from 99.99% aluminum (1199 alloy) and Al, Mg, and Cu from 2024 Al alloy in 30 g/l NaCl electrolyte as a function of pH. The cathodic dissolution of Al was demonstrated and attributed to an increase in the pH at the interface due to the water reduction reaction. The dissolution of Mg was also observed but was a more complex function of current probably depending on the interfacial pH and the Al dissolution rate. The detachment of copper-rich particles was observed as very rapid spectroscopic emission transients (peak width < 10 ms).

  10. Al2O3 adherence on CoCrAl alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adherence of protective oxides on NiCrAl and CoCrAl superalloys has been promoted by a dispersion of a highly oxygen reactive element or its oxide being produced within the protection system. Two aspects of this subject are investigated here: the use of Al2O3 as both the dispersion and protective oxide; and the production of an HfO2 dispersion while simultaneously aluminizing the alloy. It was found that an Al2O3 dispersion will act to promote the adherence of an external scale of Al2O3 to a degree comparable to previously tested dispersions and an HfO2 dispersion comparable to that produced by a Rhines pack treatment is produced during aluminization

  11. In situ microscopy of rapidly heated nano-Al and nano-Al/WO3 thermites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The initiation and reaction mechanism of nano-Al and nano-Al thermites in rapid heating environments is investigated in this work. A semiconductor-based grid/stage was used, capable of in situ heating of a sample from room temperature to 1473 K, and at a rate of 106 K/s, inside an electron microscope. Nano-Al was rapidly heated in a transmission electron microscope, and before and after images indicate that the aluminum migrates through the shell, consistent with a diffusion-based mechanism. A nano-Al/WO3 composite was then heated in a scanning electron microscope. The results indicate that a reactive sintering mechanism is occurring for the nano-Al/WO3 thermite, as the products are found to be in surface contact and significantly deformed after the heating pulse.

  12. Resistance switching of thin AlO{sub x} and Cu-doped-AlO{sub x} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ya-Ting; Jou, Shyankay, E-mail: sjou@mail.ntust.edu.tw; Yang, Ping-Jung

    2013-10-01

    Thin copper-doped aluminum oxide (Cu-doped-AlO{sub x}) and AlO{sub x} films of about 5 nm thick were generated by oxidizing the surfaces of Al and Al-5 wt.% Cu (Al-Cu) films in an oxygen plasma. According to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses, these two oxide films were found to be deficient in oxygen and had gradient concentrations of Al and O. The oxide films were employed as resistor layers sandwiched between an Al top electrode and an Al or Al-Cu bottom electrode to form resistive memory devices. The devices demonstrated unipolar resistance switching between high resistance state and low resistance state (LRS), and their resistance ratios measured at + 0.2 V were around 10{sup 5}. Furthermore, their current–voltage characteristics showed ohmic conduction with the resistance increasing with temperature, in LRS. Conductive filaments were thought to form inside the AlO{sub x} film and the Cu-doped AlO{sub x} film, causing resistive switching. The resistive memory device using the AlO{sub x} film had unstable switching behaviors during cyclic testing, whereas the device using the Cu-doped AlO{sub x} film demonstrated stable resistance switching during 100 cycles of testing. The presence of the Cu ingredient in the AlO{sub x} film is likely to facilitate the formation and rupture of conductive filaments and induced stable resistance switching. - Highlights: • AlO{sub x} layers are formed by plasma oxidation for resistance memory device (RRAM). • Al/AlO{sub x}/Al and Al/AlO{sub x}-CuO{sub x}/Al-Cu exhibit unipolar resistance switching. • Cu doping assists formation of the filaments of mixed Al and Cu in AlO{sub x}. • Cu doping improves endurance and retention of the AlO{sub x}-based RRAM.

  13. Retention of chromium by modified Al-Bentonite / Retenção de cromo por Al-bentonita modificada

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C., Volzone; L. B., Garrido.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a retenção de cromo (III) de águas residuais por meio de Al-bentonitas modificadas. Foi usada uma bentonita da província de San Juan, Argentina. As bentonitas-Al forma preparadas colocando-as em contato com soluções (0,10 M Al) hydrolizadas de OH-Al durante 24 horas. As bentonitas-Al mo [...] didicadas foram obtidas por meio de: a) tratamento com cloreto de sódio 0,5 M; b) com cloreto de sódio 0,5 M sodium com pH ajustado para 8; e c) tratamento com uma solução de hexametafosfato após a adição de sódio. As amostras foram então secas a 100 °C e aquecidas a 500 °C. A retenção do cromo (III) pelas amostras foi feita em lotes colocando o material em contato em diferentes tempos com um resíduo contendo 2000 ppm de cromo. O cromo retido foi caracterizado por meio de análise do sobrenadante usando espectroscopia UV-visível. As diferentes retenções de cromo foram correlacionadas com características estruturais dos sólidos. Abstract in english Retention of chromium (III) from a tanning wastewater by modified Al-bentonites was studied. One bentonite from San Juan province, Argentina, was used. Al-bentonite was prepared by contact of bentonite with hydrolyzed OH-Al solutions (0.10 M in Al) for 24 hours. The modified Al-bentonites were obtai [...] ned by: a) treatment with 0.5 M sodium chloride; b) with 0.5 M sodium chloride adjusted at pH 8; and c) treatment with an hexametaphosphate solution after sodium addition. Then, the samples were dried at 100 °C and heated at 500 °C. The chromium (III) retention by samples was carried out in batch system putting in contact the material with a 2000 ppm Cr tannery waste at different times. The retained chromium was characterized by analyzing the supernatant using UV-visible spectroscopy. The different chromium retention was correlated with structural characteristics of the solids.

  14. Retention of chromium by modified Al-Bentonite Retenção de cromo por Al-bentonita modificada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Volzone

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Retention of chromium (III from a tanning wastewater by modified Al-bentonites was studied. One bentonite from San Juan province, Argentina, was used. Al-bentonite was prepared by contact of bentonite with hydrolyzed OH-Al solutions (0.10 M in Al for 24 hours. The modified Al-bentonites were obtained by: a treatment with 0.5 M sodium chloride; b with 0.5 M sodium chloride adjusted at pH 8; and c treatment with an hexametaphosphate solution after sodium addition. Then, the samples were dried at 100 °C and heated at 500 °C. The chromium (III retention by samples was carried out in batch system putting in contact the material with a 2000 ppm Cr tannery waste at different times. The retained chromium was characterized by analyzing the supernatant using UV-visible spectroscopy. The different chromium retention was correlated with structural characteristics of the solids.Foi estudada a retenção de cromo (III de águas residuais por meio de Al-bentonitas modificadas. Foi usada uma bentonita da província de San Juan, Argentina. As bentonitas-Al forma preparadas colocando-as em contato com soluções (0,10 M Al hydrolizadas de OH-Al durante 24 horas. As bentonitas-Al modidicadas foram obtidas por meio de: a tratamento com cloreto de sódio 0,5 M; b com cloreto de sódio 0,5 M sodium com pH ajustado para 8; e c tratamento com uma solução de hexametafosfato após a adição de sódio. As amostras foram então secas a 100 °C e aquecidas a 500 °C. A retenção do cromo (III pelas amostras foi feita em lotes colocando o material em contato em diferentes tempos com um resíduo contendo 2000 ppm de cromo. O cromo retido foi caracterizado por meio de análise do sobrenadante usando espectroscopia UV-visível. As diferentes retenções de cromo foram correlacionadas com características estruturais dos sólidos.

  15. TiAl-Nb melt interaction with AlN refractory crucibles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper considers contamination of cast TiAl-based alloy, related microstructure evolution and chemical contact interaction when using refractory aluminium nitride crucibles/moulds as an alternative to the traditional Al2O3-, ZrO2- and Y2O3-based oxide ceramics. A series of melting tests has been performed in resistive SiC electro-furnace with Ti-46Al-8Nb (at%) alloy in 99.99% purity AlN boat crucibles with fixed melt superheating times 5, 12 and 25 min at 1670 deg. C and consequent quenching with high-purity Ar gas flow. As-cast samples were examined by X-ray diffractometry, SEM, SIMS, EDX, EBSD and vacuum fusion analysis of O, N, C and S interstitials content with respect to the initial material. The key features of TiAl-Nb melt interaction with AlN ceramics are revealed. As a result of slow thermal dissociation AlN ? Al + N, and the reaction of nascent nitrogen with the melt, a solid continuous TiN-based reaction layer is formed up to 6.4 ?m in thickness, together with an enriched Al liquid film between it and the crucible wall. It causes perfect wetting of crucible with the melt and easy removal of the solidified sample. The partial suitability of AlN crucible is restricted by 12 min of the melt superheating from the point of view of invariable (?2 + ?)-microstructure and reasonable contamination of the as-cast samples.

  16. Al-Cu approximants in the Al3Cu4 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Al3Cu4 composition, with an e/a ratio of 1.86 being close to ternary Al-Cu-TM (transition metal) quasicrystals, has been chosen for the search of Al-Cu approximants. Phase structures and compositions were studied using TEM, X-ray diffraction and EPMA techniques. Two new phases were found: face-centered orthorhombic oF-Al43.2Cu56.8 (a = 0.8166, b = 1.4149, c = 0.9995 nm) and body-centered orthorhombic oI-Al41.3Cu58.7 (oI, a = 0.4083, b = 0.7074, c = 0.9995 nm). Their e/a ratios are the same as that of the Al-Cu-Fe icosahedral quasicrystal. Their space groups are probably oF-Fmm2 and oI-Imm2. Both are B2 vacancy-containing superstructures; unit cell compositions can be expressed approximately as oF-Al36Cu46-12 and oI-Al8Cu12?4 (?: vacancies). They both exist in twinning variants of the types 120 /[001] and 180 /[310]. Such twinning modes indicate that these orthorhombic phases are the decomposition products of a high-temperature parent phase ?2-Al2Cu3, the atomic structure of which contains pentagonal atomic arrangements. Therefore the oF, oI, and ?2 phases are all B2-based approximants corresponding to the Al-Cu-TM quasicrystals. (orig.)

  17. Alloy inhomogeneity and carrier localization in AlGaN sections and AlGaN/AlN nanodisks in nanowires with 240–350?nm emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himwas, C.; Hertog, M. den; Dang, Le Si; Songmuang, R. [Université Grenoble Alpes, 38000 Grenoble (France); Institut Néel-CNRS, 25 rue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Monroy, E. [Université Grenoble Alpes, 38000 Grenoble (France); CEA-Grenoble, INAC/SP2M/NPSC, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2014-12-15

    We present structural and optical studies of AlGaN sections and AlGaN/AlN nanodisks (NDs) in nanowires grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The Al-Ga intermixing at Al(Ga)N/GaN interfaces and the chemical inhomogeneity in AlGaN NDs evidenced by scanning transmission electron microscopy are attributed to the strain relaxation process. This interpretation is supported by the three-dimensional strain distribution calculated by minimizing the elastic energy in the structure. The alloy inhomogeneity increases with the Al content, leading to enhanced carrier localization signatures in the luminescence characteristics, i.e., red shift of the emission, s-shaped temperature dependence, and linewidth broadening. Despite these effects, the emission energy of AlGaN/AlN NDs can be tuned in the 240–350?nm range with internal quantum efficiencies around 30%.

  18. Effects of the AlN Interlayer on the Distribution and Mobility of Two-Dimensional Electron Gas in AlGaN/AlN/GaN Heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiguo Hu,; Bei Ma,; Dabing Li,; Reina Miyagawa,; Hideto Miyake,; Kazumasa Hiramatsu,

    2010-03-01

    Al0.25Ga0.75N/AlN/GaN heterojunctions with AlN interlayers of various thicknesses were grown on c-plane sapphire by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). We have revealed that the AlN interlayer hardly affects morphologies and crystal qualities; however, it prominently enhances the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) mobility. The optimum thickness of the AlN interlayer is 1 nm, and the corresponding room temperature Hall mobility and the sheet carrier density are 1700 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 1.27 × 1013 cm-2, respectively. Self-consistent calculation results indicates that with increasing AlN thickness, i) the conduction-band discontinuity between AlGaN and GaN linearly increases; ii) the percentage of the total carriers in the AlGaN layer exponentially decreases, and content in the AlN layer exponentially increases.

  19. Formation of gamma'-Ni3Al via the Peritectoid Reaction: gamma plus beta (+Al2O3) equals gamma'(+Al2O3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copland, Evan

    2008-01-01

    The activities of Al and Ni were measured using multi-cell Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry (multi-cell KEMS), over the composition range 8 - 32 at.%Al and temperature range T = 1400 - 1750 K in the Ni-Al-O system. These measurements establish that equilibrium solidification of gamma'-Ni3Al-containing alloys occurs by the eutectic reaction, L (+ Al2O3) = gamma + beta (+ Al2O3), at 1640 plus or minus 1 K and a liquid composition of 24.8 plus or minus 0.2 at.%Al (at an unknown oxygen content). The {gamma + beta + Al2O3} phase field is stable over the temperature range 1633 - 1640 K, and gamma'-Ni3Al forms via the peritectiod, gamma + beta (+ Al2O3) = gamma'(+ Al2O3), at 1633 plus or minus 1 K. This behavior is inconsistent with the current Ni-Al phase diagram and a new diagram is proposed. This new Ni-Al phase diagram explains a number of unusual steady state solidification structures reported previously and provides a much simpler reaction scheme in the vicinity of the gamma'-Ni3Al phase field.

  20. Formation of gamma(sup prime)-Ni3Al via the Peritectoid Reaction: gamma + beta (+ Al2O3)=gamma(sup prime)(+ Al2O3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Evan

    2008-01-01

    The activities of Al and Ni were measured using multi-cell Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry (multi-cell KEMS), over the composition range 8-32 at.%Al and temperature range T=1400-1750 K in the Ni-Al-O system. These measurements establish that equilibrium solidification of gamma(sup prime)-Ni3Al-containing alloys occurs by the eutectic reaction, L (+ Al2O3)=gamma + Beta(+ Al2O3), at 1640 +/- 1 K and a liquid composition of 24.8 +/- 0.2 at.%al (at an unknown oxygen content). The {gamma + Beta (+Al2O3} phase field is stable over the temperature range 1633-1640 K, and gamma(sup prime)-Ni3Al forms via the peritectoid, gamma + Beta (+ Al2O3)=gamma(sup prime) (+ Al2O3), at 1633 +/- 1 K. This behavior is consistent with the current Ni-Al phase diagram and a new diagram is proposed. This new Ni-Al phase diagram explains a number of unusual steady-state solidification structures reported previously and provides a much simpler reaction scheme in the vicinity of the gamma(sup prime)-Ni2Al phase field.

  1. Production of Al nanocomposite reinforced by Fe-Al intermetallic, Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} and nano-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles using wet milling in toluene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razavi-Tousi, S.S., E-mail: ser105@mail.usask.ca [Islamic Azad University, Shahrood Branch, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yazdani-Rad, R. [Materials and Energy Research Center, P.O. Box 31787/316, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Manafi, S.A. [Islamic Azad University, Shahrood Branch, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-06-02

    Highlights: > Production of Al nanocomposite reinforced by Fe-Al intermetallic, Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} and nano-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles using wet milling in toluene. > Production of Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} particles from mechanochemical reaction of Al with PCA. > Effect of second phase particles on sintering. - Abstract: Al matrix nanocomposites were produced by wet milling of Al and nano-alumina powders in a toluene media. X-ray diffraction patterns, inductively coupled plasma, carbon measurement analysis and scanning electron microscopy show that impurities introduced by decomposition of toluene and abrasion of balls and vials are uniformly dispersed in the Al matrix as Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} and Fe-Al intermetallic particles. Though producing homogenous nanocomposites, these second phase particles seem to have a retarding effect on densification of nanocomposite powders.

  2. Microstructural defects modeling in the Al-Mo system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we have utilized computer simulation techniques to study microstructural defects, such as point defects and interfaces, in the Al-Mo alloy. Such alloy is taken as a model to study the Al(fcc)/U-Mo(bcc) interface. The EAM interatomic potential used has been fitted to the formation energy and lattice constant of the AlMo3 intermetallic. Formation of vacancies for both components Al and Mo and anti-sites, AlMo and MoAl, as well as vacancy migration was studied in this structure. We found that the lowest energy defect complex that preserves stoichiometry is the antisite pair AlMo+MoAl, in correspondence with other intermetallics of the same structure. Our results also suggest that the structure of the Al(fcc)/Mo(bcc) interface is unstable, while that of the Al(fcc)/Al5Mo interface is stable, as observed experimentally. (author)

  3. Un nuovo approccio al “discorso politico” francescano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Lambertini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available L'Autore discute del libro di Paolo Evangelisti e sottolinea rispetto a un percorso di scuola (Ovidio Capitani, Giacomo Todeschini l'evoluzione in chiave eminentemente politica del suo approccio al discorso dei Francescani riguardo la costruzione dello Stato.

  4. Synthesis of Ti-Al porous perform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Naplocha

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Article describes production method of intermetallic porous perform for reinforcing of composite materials. Usefulness of the high temperature self-propagating synthesis (SHS, with appropriate modification, to produce perform for production of composite was evaluated.Design/methodology/approach: Mixture of aluminum and titanium powder was cold isostatically pressed (CIPed and produced cylindrical pill was ignited in microwave field. Obtained structure usually have open porosity what enables for pressure infiltration with molten metal. The investigations of the structure of preforms on the scanning electron microscope (SEM were made.Findings: The produced performs in most cases reveal open porosity, uniform morphology and are suitable for infiltration process. After reaction Al-Ti compounds form partly globular structure with microhardness much higher than substratesResearch limitations/implications: In the actual stages of this work proposed method can be used for manufacturing of porous performs, which mainly contain Al3Ti. During reaction, mixture compacts with the molar ratio of Al/Ti=1 were transformed into inhomogeneous structure.Practical implications: Obtained perform can be widely used as the reinforcement to produce hybrid composite materials by the infiltration method. Aluminum casting alloys can be locally reinforced to improve hardness and resistance to oxidization at high temperature.Originality/value: Article is valuable for persons engaged in production of casting composite materials reinforced with porous perform. Proposed method allows to incorporate hard structures from Al-Ti compounds into aluminum casting.

  5. High temperature intermetallic compounds Ni3Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the preparation of Ni3Al intermetallic compounds, and investigations of their structures in the as-cast, remelted, and annealed states. The materials were produced by three techniques : in a high frequency vacuum furnace, by zonal remelting in an electron beam furnace, and by remelting with unidirectional solidification. Those melted in an h. f. vacuum furnace and poured into graphite moulds had well developed dendritic structures, a Ni3Al (?') phase, with interdendritic spaces formed by Ni5Al3 + ?'. Many specimens contained shrinkage cavities. Unidirectional solidification allowed casting defects to be eliminated and the grain size to be controlled in dependence on the solidification rate. Rates from 650 to 60 mm per hour were tried to examine their effects on the grain size, homogeneity, and structure. The authors further investigated the influence of B and Zr additions on the solidification process and formation of the structure of Ni3Al. Annealing, in an argon atmosphere at 1100 C for various durations, was tried out for homogenizing the as-cast structures. (orig.)

  6. Thermoluminescence of LaAlO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the thermoluminescent properties of doped lanthanum aluminate (LaAlO3) with dysprosium ion (Dy) were studied. The thermoluminescence characteristics in the samples were obtained using an ultraviolet radiation of 220 nm. The LaAlO3:Dy samples were prepared by the modified Pechini method (Spray Dryer). The structural and morphological characterization was obtained by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (Sem) techniques respectively. The size particle composing the agglomerate was determined by Sem, agglomerated particles composed size of 2?m were observed. The thermoluminescence response of LaAlO3:Dy was compared with that obtained with the undoped sample. Thermoluminescence brightness curves of LaAlO3:Dy showed a peak centered at 185 grades C. Sensitivity of doped sample was greater, about 100 times compared with the undoped sample. Thermoluminescence response in function of the wavelength showed a maximum at 220 nm. Also the fading in thermoluminescence response was studied. (Author)

  7. Joint SSRTNet/ALS-MES Workshop report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This joint workshop brought together experimentalists and theorists interested in synchrotron radiation and highlighted subjects relevant to molecular environmental science (MES). The strong mutual interest between the participants resulted in joint sessions on the first day, followed by more specialized parallel sessions on the second day. Held in conjunction with the Advanced Light Source (ALS) Users' Association Annual Meeting at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab), the Synchrotron Radiation Research Theory Network (SRRTNet) workshop was co-organized by Michel Van Hove (Berkeley Lab and University of California, Davis) and Andrew Canning (Berkeley Lab), while David Shuh (Berkeley Lab) organized the ALS-MES workshop. SRRTNet is a global network that promotes the interaction of theory and experiment (http://www.cse.clrc.ac.uk/Activity/SRRTnet). The ALS-MES project is constructing Beamline 11.0.2.1-2, a new soft x-ray beamline for MES investigations at photon energies from 75 eV to 2 keV, to provide photons for wet spectroscopy end stations and an upgraded scanning transmission x-ray microscope (STXM). The ALS-MES beamline and end stations will be available for users in the late fall of 2002

  8. EMBRIOPATÍAS ASOCIADAS AL USO DE MISOPROSTOL

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andrea, Osorío O; Juan Guillermo, Rodríguez A; Osear, Plzarro R; Axel, Paredes V; Susana, Aguilera P.

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso clínico de síndrome de Moebius y artrogriposis asociado al uso de misoprostol durante el primer trimestre de gestación [...] Abstract in english We present a case of Moebius syndrome and arthrogriposis associated to the use of misoprostol during the first trimester of gestation. [...

  9. EMBRIOPATÍAS ASOCIADAS AL USO DE MISOPROSTOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Osorío O

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso clínico de síndrome de Moebius y artrogriposis asociado al uso de misoprostol durante el primer trimestre de gestaciónWe present a case of Moebius syndrome and arthrogriposis associated to the use of misoprostol during the first trimester of gestation.

  10. La visita médica al hogar Home visit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Díaz Novás

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Se hace un breve resumen de la historia de la visita médica al hogar en Cuba, y se señala su evolución en las diferentes formas organizativas de la atención primaria en la etapa revolucionaria. Se enumeran las ventajas de las visitas médicas al hogar, su necesidad como componente fundamental e insustituible de la atención a los pacientes, y como complemento necesario del trabajo en el consultorio. Se exponen los motivos de la visita al hogar: enfermedades agudas, procesos crónicos, discapacidades, evaluar el entorno familiar e higiénico-epidemiológico del paciente, los ingresos domiciliarios, las altas hospitalarias precoces, y los pacientes con enfermedades terminales o con afecciones dispensarizadas, entre otros Se presenta un grupo de orientaciones para el desarrollo exitoso de la visita médica al hogarA summary of the history of home visit in Cuba is made, stressing its evolution in the different organizative ways of primary care in the revolutionary stage. The advantages of home visits, their need as a fundamental and irreplaceable component of the patients' care and a necessary complement of the work in the office are given. The reasons of the visits are explained: acute diseases, chronic processes, disabilities, evaluation of the family and hygienic-epidemiological setting of the patient, home admissions, early hospital discharges, and patients with end-stage diseases, or with categorized diseases, among others. Some instructions for the success of home visit are exposed.

  11. Cathodic electrochemiluminescence at double barrier Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} tunnel emission electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakansson, Markus [Laboratory of Analytical and Inorganic Chemistry, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 6100, FIN-02015 HUT (Finland); Jiang, Qinghong [Laboratory of Analytical and Inorganic Chemistry, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 6100, FIN-02015 HUT (Finland); Suomi, Johanna [Laboratory of Analytical and Inorganic Chemistry, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 6100, FIN-02015 HUT (Finland); Loikas, Kari [Workshop, Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, FIN-20014 (Finland); Nauma, Mauri [Workshop, Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, FIN-20014 (Finland); Ala-Kleme, Timo [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, FIN-20014 (Finland); Kankare, Jouko [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, FIN-20014 (Finland); Juhala, Pentti [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, FIN-20014 (Finland); Eskola, Jarkko U. [Labmaster Oy, P.O. Box 71, FIN-20521 Turku (Finland); Kulmala, Sakari [Laboratory of Analytical and Inorganic Chemistry, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 6100, FIN-02015 HUT (Finland)

    2006-01-25

    Double insulating barrier tunnel emission electrodes were fabricated by adding a new pure aluminum layer upon oxidized aluminum electrodes by vacuum evaporation and thermally oxidizing the new aluminum layer in air at room temperature. Resulting Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} electrodes allow the use of various aluminum alloys in the electrode body necessary for hardness or shaping ability of the electrode while obtaining the luminescence properties of pure aluminum oxide. During electrical excitation of luminescent labels by cathodic hot electron injection into aqueous electrolyte solution, the background noise is mainly based on high-field-induced solid-state electroluminescence and F-center luminescence of the outer aluminum oxide film. The more defect states and/or impurity centers the outer oxide film contains, the higher is the background emission intensity. The present electrode fabrication method provides a considerable improvement in signal-to-noise ratio for time-resolved electrochemiluminescence (TR-ECL) measurements when the original native oxide film of the electrode body contains luminescence centers displaying long-lived luminescence. The excellent performance of the present electrodes is demonstrated by extremely low-level detection of Tb(III) chelates, luminol, Pt(II) coproporphyrin and Tb(III) labels in an immunometric immunoassay by time-resolved electrochemiluminescence.

  12. Precipitation peak in Al-Mg-Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The internal friction spectrum of commercial Al-Mg-Si alloys in poly- and macro-crystals is analyzed on the basis of three componets, and the model for the P2 effects (situated at 460K for 1 Hz) is developed. (Author)

  13. Irradiation of Al-Mg-Si alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilute Al-Mg-Si alloys have been irradiated to 2,5x1020n/cm2 at pile temperature. No voids were found in any of the alloys whose composition varied about the stoichiometric value of two Mg to one Si atom

  14. Lebensführung als Grundlage der ‚Gläsernen Decke‘

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Wolffram

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In der Studie wird aufgezeigt, wie die an gesellschaftlichen Vorgaben ausgerichtete Lebensführung von Frauen als strukturelle Barriere deren Karrierechancen beeinflusst. Im Gegensatz dazu befördert eine männliche Lebensführung, die tradierte Vorstellungen einer geschlechtertypischen Arbeitsteilung erfüllt, immer noch eine männliche Karriere. Mit dem Konzept der bürgerlichen Lebensführung entlarvt Bärbel Könekamp somit einen bedeutsamen Mechanismus für die Reproduktion vertikaler Arbeitsmarktsegregation.

  15. Management of respiratory symptoms in ALS.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hardiman, Orla

    2012-02-01

    Respiratory insufficiency is a frequent feature of ALS and is present in almost all cases at some stage of the illness. It is the commonest cause of death in ALS. FVC is used as important endpoint in many clinical trials, and in decision-making events for patients with ALS, although there are limitations to its predictive utility. There are multiple causes of respiratory muscle failure, all of which act to produce a progressive decline in pulmonary function. Diaphragmatic fatigue and weakness, coupled with respiratory muscle weakness, lead to reduced lung compliance and atelectasis. Increased secretions increase the risk of aspiration pneumonia, which further compromises respiratory function. Bulbar dysfunction can lead to nutritional deficiency, which in turn increases the fatigue of respiratory muscles. Early recognition of respiratory decline and symptomatic intervention, including non-invasive ventilation can significantly enhance both quality of life and life expectancy in ALS. Patients with respiratory failure should be advised to consider an advance directive to avoid emergency mechanical ventilation.

  16. 75 FR 3895 - Yale University, et al.;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... International Trade Administration Yale University, et al.; Notice of Consolidated Decision on Applications for... Number: 09-064. Applicant: Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8284. Instrument: Electron Microscope... notice at 74 FR 67851, December 21, 2009. Docket Number: 09-065. Applicant: U.S. Department of...

  17. Management of respiratory symptoms in ALS.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hardiman, Orla

    2011-03-01

    Respiratory insufficiency is a frequent feature of ALS and is present in almost all cases at some stage of the illness. It is the commonest cause of death in ALS. FVC is used as important endpoint in many clinical trials, and in decision-making events for patients with ALS, although there are limitations to its predictive utility. There are multiple causes of respiratory muscle failure, all of which act to produce a progressive decline in pulmonary function. Diaphragmatic fatigue and weakness, coupled with respiratory muscle weakness, lead to reduced lung compliance and atelectasis. Increased secretions increase the risk of aspiration pneumonia, which further compromises respiratory function. Bulbar dysfunction can lead to nutritional deficiency, which in turn increases the fatigue of respiratory muscles. Early recognition of respiratory decline and symptomatic intervention, including non-invasive ventilation can significantly enhance both quality of life and life expectancy in ALS. Patients with respiratory failure should be advised to consider an advance directive to avoid emergency mechanical ventilation.

  18. Plastic deformation behaviour and deformation substructure in Al-rich TiAl single crystals deformed at high temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    K Hayashi, T Nakano and Y Umakoshi

    2001-01-01

    Plastic deformation behaviour in Ti–54.7 at.%Al and Ti–58.0 at.%Al single crystals was examined around and above the anomalous strengthening peak temperature (Tp) focusing on the effect of Al5Ti3 superstructure. The Al5Ti3 superstructure developed in the L10 matrix of Ti–58.0 at.%Al, and the size of the Al5Ti3 phase once increased during annealing at 800°C and then decreased with increasing temperature, while no significant evidence of the Al5Ti3 particles was obtained in Ti–54.7 at.%Al from ...

  19. The modulation structure induced changes in mechanical properties of TiAlN/Al2O3 multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TiAlN/Al2O3 multilayers which had different separate layer thickness of TiAlN or Al2O3 were synthesized by sputtering Ti3Al and Al2O3 targets with N2 and Ar gases. The influence of modulation periods and modulation ratios on structure and properties of TiAlN/Al2O3 multilayers was investigated using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, surface profiler, and nanoindenter. Compared to TiAlN layer with only (2 0 0) preferred orientation, TiAlN/Al2O3 multilayers were crystallized with orientations in the TiAlN (1 1 1), TiAlN (2 2 2) and AlN (1 0 0). Besides, weak Al2O3 (0 2 2) orientation is observed, when modulation period is 8.9 nm. The maximum hardness about 36.6 GPa was obtained at modulation period of 10.4 nm and modulation ratio of 10:1. The hardness and the toughness of TiAlN/Al2O3 multilayers increase as individual TiAlN layer thickness increases

  20. Aspectos biopsicosociales asociados al embarazo adolescente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Cogollo Jiménez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El embarazo en la adolescencia, es un evento inesperado, sorpresivo. Este artículo establece la importancia de identificar los aspectos biopsicosociales asociados al embarazo adolescente en las embarazadas asistentes al programa de Control Prenatal de una Empresa Social del Estado de nivel 1 en Montería en 2009, para comprender las actitudes y los comportamientos asociados a esta etapa tan temprana. Materiales y Métodos: Es un estudio descriptivo, cuantitativo, de corte transversal. Población y muestra: 30 adolescentes embarazadas asistentes al Programa, el muestreo por conveniencia. Se utilizó la encuesta y la observación directa, previa autorización del Director de la empresa. Resultados: Caracterización de la población: predominó la edad de 15 a 19 años (adolescencia tardía, uniones libres, baja escolaridad debido a la deserción escolar, ingreso económico menor al salario mínimo legal vigente. Aspectos Biológicos: la menarquía a temprana edad (9 a 14 años, y en ella la mitad de los embarazos. La mayoría de los segundos embarazos terminaron en parto, la minoría en cesárea y aborto. La captación para los controles prenatales fue tardía, algunas no cumplieron con las citas programadas. Aspectos Psicológicos: inestabilidad con la pareja al enterarse del embarazo, tuvieron soporte familiar moral y económico, abandonaron sus estudios y presentaron malestares como estrés, depresión y tristeza. Aspectos Sociales: predominó la convivencia con la familia extensa. Hubo aceptación en el colegio y en los amigos. Discusión y Conclusiones: Se plantean estrategias para disminuir estos aspectos: elaboración de una cartilla sobre “Cuidado de la adolescente embarazada”, creación de espacios de reflexión, jornadas lúdicas educativas, entre otros. (Rev Cuid 2012; 3(3:385-93.Palabras clave: Embarazo en Adolescencia, Bienestar Materno, Atención Prenatal. (Fuente: DeCS BIREME.

  1. Medien als Lernform und die Trimediale Redaktion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Hilzensauer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Der vorliegende Artikel beschreibt ein Konzept für eine handlungsorientierte Medienpädagogik im Bildungsbereich. Im Mittelpunkt steht dabei die SO!-Campusredaktion, die als Methode für expansives Lernen die Möglichkeit bietet, unabhängig von Thema oder Medium die Verantwortung für den Lernprozess in die Hände der Lernenden zu legen. Der Dokumentation von Reflexion über den Lernprozess wird dabei eine besondere Bedeutung zugesprochen. Gleichzeitig werden unterschiedliche mediale Gestaltungsmöglichkeiten (Audio/Radio, Video/Fernsehen und Zeitung – sowohl als Print- als auch als Onlinemedium vorgestellt, die durch das Konzept BYOD – bring your own device – auch einfach und niederschwellig im Bildungskontext umsetzbar sind. Dadurch ergeben sich innovative Möglichkeiten, einen Lernprozess sichtbar zu machen und gleichzeitig eine Grundlage für eine alternative Leistungsbeurteilung anzubieten. Die SO!-Campusredaktion wird derzeit an der Pädagogischen Hochschule Salzburg in Kooperation mit dem Communitysender FS1 und der Radiofabrik entwickelt und erprobt. Community Medien nehmen als MedienpartnerInnen eine bedeutende Stellung ein: Durch ihren offenen Zugang zu Know How und Equipment sowie durch die Möglichkeit, Medienproduktionen über die verfügbaren Distibutionskanäle (Radiofrequenz oder Sendeplatz einer breiten Bevölkerung zugänglich zu machen, gewinnt die Medienpädagogik einen wichtigen Mehrwert in ihrer schulischen und außerschulischen Arbeit. (Dieser Artikel knüpft an den Artikel "BYOD, Smartphonefilme und webbasierte Videoschnittprogramme" der Medienimpulse, Ausgabe 2/2014, an.

  2. Phase transitions and compression properties of Ti2AlC/TiAl composites fabricated by combustion synthesis reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Phase transitions in the Ti–Al–C system during combustion synthesis were studied. ? The Ti2AlC/TiAl composites were successfully fabricated in the Ti–Al–C system. ? The addition of the C improves the compression properties of the TiAl alloy. ? The work-hardening behavior of the Ti2AlC/TiAl composites was discussed in detail. - Abstract: The phase transitions in the Ti–Al and the Ti–Al–C systems are investigated by the differential thermal analysis (DTA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results reveal that the addition of C not only leads to the formation of the Ti2AlC phase but also lowers the formation temperatures of the TiAl and Ti3Al phases. In the both systems, the combustion synthesis reactions are ignited at the melting point of Al, so the TiAl alloy and the Ti2AlC/TiAl composites are successfully fabricated at a lower temperature (about 660 °C) with an applied pressure. The yield strength, the ultimate compression strength and the work hardening rate of the Ti2AlC/TiAl composites are all higher than those of the TiAl alloy and increase with the increase in the Ti2AlC content. The average ultimate compression strength of the 6 vol.% Ti2AlC/TiAl composite is 179 MPa higher than that of the TiAl alloy without sacrificing ductility.

  3. Dissolution of hydrogen and deuterium in titanium, Ti94Al6 and Ti3Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solubility of hydrogen and deuterium in ?-, ?,?- and ?-titanium , Ti94Al6 and in ?2-Ti3Al has been volumetrically measured in the ranges of temperature 623-1323 K and hydrogen concentration (atomic ratio) 0.001-0.25. The equilibrium hydrogen pressure at a given temperature and hydrogen concentration has been found to increase greatly as the aluminium content increases. This is explicable on the assumption that aluminium atoms block some of the sites available to hydrogen atoms. In contrast, the heat of solution of hydrogen only slightly increases with the aluminium content and in ?-titanium, ?-Ti94Al6 and ?2-Ti3Al, the ratio of the deuterium pressure to the hydrogen pressure at identical hydrogen and deuterium concentrations is almost independent of the aluminium content. A possible cause of the small dependence of the measured heat and ratio on the aluminium content is discussed and occupation of the tetrahedral site by hydrogen atoms is suggested for ?-titanium, ?-T94Al6 and ?2-Ti3Al. The origin of the sloping plateaus observed in the pressure-composition isotherms for ?,?-Ti94Al6 is also briefly discussed. (Author)

  4. Effect of speciation transformation on the coagulation behavior of Al(13) and Al(13) aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohong; Ye, Changqing; Wang, Dongsheng; Ge, Xiaopeng; Tang, Hongxiao

    2009-01-01

    Flocculation of kaolin suspension with aluminium fractal polycations was investigated as a function of aluminium concentration and pH. Aluminium flocculants included Al(13) and Al(13) aggregates with OH/Al ratio of 2.6 and 2.8, respectively. The flocculation kinetics and floc size distribution were monitored by light scattering. The characterization of flocculants showed that the tridecatmer Al(13) and bridged [Al(13)](n) with out-sphere structure were the dominant species for all flocculants in a wide pH range. The coagulation results indicated that the pre and in situ-formed [Al(13)](n) play a key role in removing particles. With the increasing concentration of [Al(13)](n), coagulation mechanisms were transformed from charge-neutralization, electro-patch coagulation to bridge-aggregation. Moreover, sweep-flocculation was involved at higher dosage besides other three mechanisms when amorphous aluminium oxides formed. Hence, chemical interaction between particles and flocculants evolved from surface adsorption to surface precipitation for aluminium polycations by virtue of species transformation. PMID:19237777

  5. Some TEM observations of Al2O3 scales formed on NiCrAl alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smialek, J.; Gibala, R.

    1979-01-01

    The microstructural development of Al2O3 scales on NiCrAl alloys has been examined by transmission electron microscopy. Voids have been observed within grains in scales formed on a pure NiCrAl alloy. Both voids and oxide grains grew measurably with oxidation time at 1100 C. The size and amount of porosity decreased towards the oxide-metal growth interface. It was postulated that the voids resulted from an excess number of oxygen vacancies near the oxide-metal interface. Short-circuit diffusion paths were discussed in reference to current growth stress models for oxide scales. Transient oxidations of pure, Y-doped, and Zr-doped NiCrAl was also examined. Oriented alpha-(Al,Cr)2O3 and Ni(Al,Cr)2O4 scales often coexisted in layered structures on all three alloys. Close-packed oxygen planes and directions in the corundum and spinel layers were parallel. The close relationships between oxide layers provided a gradual transition from initial transient scales to steady state Al2O3 growth.

  6. Al p conduction states in quasi-crystalline Al-Cu-Fe alloy and related compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have examined in details the Al p conduction states as well as the Al 3p valence distributions in quasi-crystalline Al62Cu25.5Fe12.5, rhombohedral approximant R-Al62.5Cu26.5Fe11 and tetragonal ?-Al7Cu2Fe phase. A significant issue is that, in a wide energy range beyond the Fermi level, there is a noticeable decrease of the density of the Al p conduction states in the quasi-crystalline material. Conversely, the conduction Al p band is very much different in metallic aluminium, whereas the situation is found intermediate in the ?- and R-compounds. We point out that a major difference between the icosahedral quasi-crystalline alloy and its rhombohedral approximant is shown by the conduction electronic distributions in contrast with many other properties which, as is well known, present no significant difference. Such a behaviour may be ascribed in part to the progressive disappearance of the crystalline periodic order. Our result is the first experimental evidence in favour of theoretical predictions made elsewhere that the electronic band structure of approximant phase and merely of quasi-crystals consists in a succession of numerous spikes and gaps. (orig.)

  7. Electrochemical formation of Al–Tm intermetallics in eutectic LiCl–KCl melt containing Tm and Al ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work focuses on investigating the electrochemical formation of Al–Tm and Al–Li–Tm alloys in LiCl–KCl–AlCl3–Tm2O3 melt on both W and Al electrodes. Thermodynamic calculation and electrochemical behavior of LiCl–KCl melt containing both AlCl3 and Tm2O3 showed that AlCl3 can chlorinate Tm2O3 to release Tm(III) ions. Three kinds of Al–Tm intermetallics at about ?1.26, ?1.32 and ?1.43 V were detected by means of various electrochemical measurement techniques, i.e. cyclic voltammetry, square wave voltammetry and open circuit chronopotentiometry. Potentiostatic and galvanostatic electrolysis were carried out on Al and W electrodes to prepare Al–Tm and Al–Li–Tm alloys, respectively. The composition of Al–Li–Tm alloys was analyzed by inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES)

  8. Non-volatile Al2O3 Memory using Nanoscale Al-rich Al2O3 Thin Film as a Charge Storage Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Shunji; Saito, Kunio; Shimada, Masaru

    2006-04-01

    This article describes the fabrication process and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of a new non-volatile Al2O3 memory with nanoscale thin film deposited by electron-cyclotron-resonance sputtering. Al-rich Al2O3 shows characteristics somewhere between Al and Al2O3 in the refractive index and wet etching rate. C-V characteristics of Al-rich Al2O3 memory show a large hysteresis window due to the Al-rich structure, while there is no hysteresis window in the case of stoichiometric Al2O3. This memory is expected to stay non-volatile for several years or more because the capacitance value after writing and erasing operation remained almost unchanged after 4 h at T=85 °C. Also, another new memory structure comprising SiO2/Al2O3 and the Al-rich Al2O3 structure is proposed, which features increased mobility due to the reduction of electron scattering at the Si/Al2O3 interface.

  9. Oxidation and intergranular disintegration of the aluminides NiAl and NbAl sub 3 and phases in the system Nb-Ni-Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabke, H.J.; Steinhorst, M.; Brumm, M.; Wiemer, D. (Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Duesseldorf (West Germany))

    1991-04-01

    The oxidation behavior is very different for an aluminide with a wide homogeneity range such as {beta}-NiAl than for a line compound such as NbAl{sub 3}. Oxidation of {beta}-NiAl at temperatures {ge}1,273 K leads to a slow-growing {alpha}-alumina layer. The metal phase beneath the scale remains as {beta}-NiAl; however, cavity formation is observed. The cavity formation may be favored by sulphur surface segregation. Oxidation of NbAl{sub 3} at temperatures {ge}1,273 K initially leads to {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, but the Al depletion causes the formation of Nb{sub 2}Al beneath the oxide layer. Cracking of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer opens Nb{sub 2}Al to the atmosphere, which oxidizes rapidly to Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} and NbAlO{sub 4}. After consumption of the Nb{sub 2}Al, a layer of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} formed again on the NbAl{sub 3} phase, but failure of the alumina and the fast growth of the other oxides occur as a repeated process. Thus, NbAl{sub 3} exhibited rapid linear oxidation kinetics. Multiphase alloys in the system Nb-Ni-Al generally behave better than NbAl{sub 3}, and the low oxidation rates of {beta}-NiAl can be approached. In the temperature range below 1,273 K, with a maximum at 1,000 K, both NiAl and NbAl{sub 3} show the pest phenomenon, an intergranular disintegration. Preceding the disintegration, oxygen diffuses into the grain boundaries of the material and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is formed at the grain boundaries, beginning from the surface region. NiAl is susceptible only in a very limited range of oxygen pressures and temperatures, whereas NbAl{sub 3} is much more susceptible.

  10. A high degree of enhancement of strength of sputter deposited Al/Al2O3 multilayers upon post annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report here an order of magnitude enhancement of strength of sputter deposited Al/Al2O3 multilayers after annealing. The increase in strength is shown to be mostly associated with the precipitation of extremely fine ?-Al2O3, 5–10 nm in diameter, in Al layers. This provides a new method of achieving high strength in Al/Al2O3 multilayers that cannot be explained by the Koehler effect or modified Hall–Petch, which will lead to the growth and development of new generation of Al/Al2O3 multilayers. We also examine the fracture behavior of the post annealed Al/Al2O3 multilayered composites with TEM and density functional theory (DFT) simulations. DFT showed that the multilayers are not likely to delaminate at the Al/Al2O3 interface, consistent with the experimental observations. The simulations are also used to determine elastic constants for the ?-Al2O3 phase and to calculate a driving force for O transport from the ?-Al2O3 to the Al layers. The formation of these precipitates is consistent with DFT calculations, which predict an energetic driving force for the dissolution of O atoms from the ?-Al2O3 layers into the Al layers

  11. 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of Ce3Al11 at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have measured the 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance, NMR, spectra of oriented powder of the intermetallic compound Ce3Al11 at temperatures between 0.03 K and 20 K, and frequencies of 2.815 MHz, 3.925 MHz, 9.208 MHz and 74.81 MHz. In the paramagnetic state the NMR spectra show the quadrupolar-split contribution of the four inequivalent Al-sites with strongly temperature-dependent Knigth shifts. The NMR spectra indicate the onset of a ferromagnetic phase below 6.2 K transforming into a sinusoidally modulated antiferromagnetic state below 3.3 K. (orig.)

  12. Superconductivity of Al/Al2O3 interface formed by shock-wave pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palnichenko, A. V.; Shakhrai, D. V.; Avdonin, V. V.; Vyaselev, O. M.; Khasanov, S. S.

    2015-05-01

    A mixture of Al and ? -Al2O3 has been subjected to a shock-wave pressure of ? 170 kbar, followed by vacuum-encapsulating and quenching of the product to liquid nitrogen. The ac magnetic susceptibility measurements of the samples have revealed metastable superconductivity with Tc ? 37 K, characterized by glassy dynamics of the shielding currents below Tc . Comparison of the ac susceptibility and the dc magnetization measurements infers that the superconductivity arises within the interfacial granular layer formed between metallic Al and its oxide due to the shock-wave treatment.

  13. Ultrahigh tensile strength of amorphous Al-Ni-(Nd,Gd)-Fe alloys containing nanocrystalline Al particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, the nanocrystallization of amorphous alloys has attracted great interest because of significantly enhanced mechanical property or magnetic property compared with the amorphous single phase alloys with the same compositions. This paper demonstrates that amorphous Al-Ni(Nd,Gd)-Fe alloys are greatly strengthened by nanocrystalline Al particles formed by aging treatment and the mixed phase alloys consisting of the nanocrystalline Al particles embedded in an amorphous matrix also retain higher tensile strength than that for the amorphous single phase alloy with the same composition even at elevated temperature

  14. Dynamic structure mediated by graphitelike Al nets on the Al2Cu (001) surface

    OpenAIRE

    Serkovic Loli, L.; Gaudry, Emilie; Fournée, V.; De Weerd, M.-C.; Ledieu, J.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed study of the (001) surface of the Al2Cu crystal using both experimental and ab initio computational methods is presented in this work. The combination of both approaches gives many arguments to match the surface plane with a bulk truncated surface model terminated by incomplete Al planes. The missing rows of Al atoms lead to a 2?2×?2R 45° surface reconstruction with two domains rotated by 90° from each other. Ab initio calculations demonstrate that the energetic cost associated wit...

  15. The Influence of al-Makkī on al-Ghazālī

    OpenAIRE

    Wan Mohd Azam

    1998-01-01

    This article focuses on the influence that Abū Tālib al-Makkī had on the thoughts of al Ghazālī, and particularly on his writings on mysticism. This is explained in terms of the traditions of Muslim scholars who have usually unhesitatingly drawn upon the ideas of other Muslim scholars, as well as from sources outside Islam to expound and explain the teachings of Islam. Al-Ghazālī who has written extensively on Islamic law, philosophy, logic, kalām, ethics and mysticism, has delved deeply into...

  16. Structure of 26Al studied by one - nucleon transfer reaction 27Al(d,t

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Vishal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The excited states of 26Al have been produced and studied using 27Al(d,t reaction with 25 MeV deuteron as projectile. Optical model potential parameters were extracted from the measured elastic scattering angular distribution. Zero range distorted wave Born approximation analysis for the ground and 0.223 MeV states of 26Al have been done. The spectroscopic factors calculated for these states are found to be in good agreement with the previously reported values.

  17. Ordering process of Fe28Al and Fe28Al5Cr alloys

    OpenAIRE

    L. Paj?k; Kansy, J.; A. Hanc; Dercz, G.; M. Jab?o?ska

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The comparison of ordering process in Fe28Al and Fe28Al5Cr alloys annealed for 8, 16 and 48 hours at 1000°C was performed. The composition of studied alloys is closed to one of Fe3Al phase.Design/methodology/approach: The studied alloys were melted in induction furnace under vacuum. Next the alloys were gravitatively casted into cylindrical graphite moulds. The alloy samples were annealed at 1000°C for 8, 16 and 48 hours. The ordering process was analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Mössba...

  18. Structure of Ti-50%Nb-8%Al and Ti-65%Nb-8%Al-2%Cu alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods of transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis have been applied to study structure and phase composition in Ti-50%Nb-8%Al and Ti-65%Nb-8%Al-2%Cu alloys. It is shown that at constant Al concentration the ordering in quenched ?-matrix and B2-structure decomposition on annealing proceed more actively in the alloy with 50%Nb. Decomposition of quenched $?+B2)-structure happens with ordered phase precipitation according to the mechanism of nucleation and grain growth with particle shape varying from equiaxial to laminated one. Low cold reduction (2%) of quenched alloy promotes formation of homogeneous structure morphology on subsequent annealing. 6 refs., 6 figs

  19. Assessment of coronary heart diseases in diabetics in al-Madinah al-Munawarah

    OpenAIRE

    al-Nozha O; Mojadadi M; Mosaad M; El-Bab MF

    2012-01-01

    Omar al-Nozha1, Moaz Mojadadi2, Mohamed Mosaad1,3, Mohamed F El-Bab2,41Department of Medicine, 2Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Taibah University, al-Madinah al-Munawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Medicine, 4Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, EgyptBackground: Coronary heart disease is highly prevalent and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to assess the major risk f...

  20. Quantitative x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of Al/AlOx bilayers

    OpenAIRE

    Batlle Gelabert, Xavier; Hattink, Bart Jan; Labarta, Amílcar; Åkerman, Johan J.; Escudero, Roberto; Schuller, Ivan K.

    2002-01-01

    An x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of Nb/Al wedge bilayers, oxidized by both plasma and natural oxidation, is reported. The main goal is to show that the oxidation state¿i.e., O:(oxidize)Al ratio¿, structure and thickness of the surface oxide layer, as well as the thickness of the metallic Al leftover, as functions of the oxidation procedure, can be quantitatively evaluated from the XPS spectra. This is relevant to the detailed characterization of the insulating barriers in (m...