WorldWideScience
 
 
1

More than just a converter; Mehr als nur ein Umwandler  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Inverter can convert more than alternating current. With the presented new products at the INTERSOLAR in Munich the manufacturers are responding to the increased demands. [German] Wechselrichter koennen mehr als nur Wechselstrom umwandeln. Mit den auf der INTERSOLAR in Muenchen vorgestellten Produktneuheiten reagieren die Hersteller auf die gestiegenen Anforderungen.

Wilming, Wilhelm

2013-08-06

2

Verlauf des lokoregionären Prostatakarzinoms unter Diätveränderung und Nahrungsmittelergänzung: Longitudinale Beobachtung über mehr als 3 Jahre  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Einleitung: Auftreten und Verlauf des lokal begrenzten Prostatakarzinoms wird durch Diätveränderungen beeinflußt. Wir haben untersucht, ob durch Veränderung der Diätgewohnheiten und Substitution von Nahrungsergänzungsmittel (Active Surveillance der klinische Verlauf des Karzinoms beeinflußt oder eine radikale Behandlung aufgeschoben oder gar vermieden werden kann. Material und Methode: Wir verfolgten den klinischen Verlauf und die PSA-Werte von 13 Patienten mit einem stanzbioptisch verifizierten organbegrenzten Prostatakarzinom. Allen Patienten mit einem T-Stadium 3 mit einem PSA 10 ng/ml und einem Gleasonscore 7 wurde eine Active Surveillance-Strategie mit zusätzlichen Diätempfehlungen und Nahrungsergänzungsmitteln anstelle einer radikalen Prostatektomie offeriert. Alle Patienten erhielten hierfür täglich als Nahrungsmittelergänzung eine Mischung an Radikalfängern (Karotinoide, Selen, Flavonoide, Vit. A, E und Phytoöstrogene. Alle Patienten wurden routinemäßig einmal pro Jahr mindestens 8-fach biopsiert. PSA-Werte und eine rektale Untersuchung wurde alle drei Monate durchgeführt. Eine radikale Prostatektomie wurde im Falle eines zweimaligen konsekutiven PSA-Anstieges und/oder eines suspekten Tastbefundes und/oder einer Ausdehnung der Anzahl positiver Stanzen bei wiederholten Biopsien durchgeführt. Resultate: Wir überschauen nun median 21 Monate (5?90 einer Active Surveillance-Strategie bei 13 Männern (medianes Alter: 65. Bei 3 Männern führte ein konsekutiver PSA-Anstieg zur Planung einer radikalen Prostatektomie (1 Patient verstarb vor der Operation an einer intrazerebralen Blutung, einer verweigerte den Eingriff. Beim verbliebenen Patienten führten wir 14 Monaten nach Diagnosestellung eine Schnittrand-negative Prostatektomie eines pT2c-Gleason-6-Tumors durch (PSA 0 ng/ml frei nach 11 Monaten Follow-up. Von allen Patienten, die initial maximal bis zu 2 positive Gewebsproben hatten, konnte bei 38 % in den Kontrollbiopsien kein Tumor mehr nachgewiesen werden, bei 46 % blieb die Anzahl der positiven Biopsien gleich. Keiner der Patienten ist bis jetzt klinisch apparent geworden. Konklusion: Eine diätetische Unterstützung (Active Surveillance kann den klinischen Verlauf des organbegrenzten Karzinoms günstig beeinflussen. Diese Therapieoption kann Patienten in Hinblick auf eine Lebensqualitätsorientierte Lebenserwartung auch von mehr als 10 Jahren angeboten werden. Voraussetzung ist ein strenger Follow-up und eine entsprechende Compliance.

Schlarp OM

2006-01-01

3

High speed firing for stoneware piping: new production technique achieves energy savings of more than 40%; Schnellbrandverfahren fuer Steinzeugrohre - Neue Fertigungstechnik bringt mehr als 40% Energieeinsparung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Competition among the various materials is intensifying on the piping market. The following contenders are vying for market shares: Concrete, stoneware, cast iron, plastic and steel. Ecological aspects are playing an increasing role, in addition to quality and price. Considerations include, above all, energy consumption and pollutant emissions during pipe manufacture. These effects have already been scientifically analyzed several times. This article discusses the latest investigations performed by the two materials experts Jeschar (University of Clausthal) and Specht (University of Magdeburg). The two professors are well known for their diverse energy and ecological balances. (orig.) [Deutsch] Auf dem Markt fuer Leitungsrohre findet mit zunehmender Intensitaet ein Wettbewerb der Werkstoffe statt. Als Konkurrenten treten an: Beton, Steinzeug, Gusseisen, Kunststoff und Stahl. Neben Qualitaet und Preis spielen dabei immer mehr auch oekologische Aspekte eine Rolle. Dazu zaehlen vor allem der Energieverbrauch und die Schadstoffemissionen bei der Produktion der Rohre. Schon mehrmals sind diese Auswirkungen wissenschaftlich analysiert worden. Der vorliegende Beitrag befasst sich mit der neuesten Untersuchung der beiden Werkstoffexperten Jeschar, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, und Specht, Magdeburg. Die beiden Professoren sind bekannt durch ihre verschiedenen Energie- und Oekobilanzen. (orig.)

Starosta, E.B.

1998-02-01

4

Mehr als ein Rechtshandbuch. Hinweise zur Arbeit von Frauen- und Gleichstellungsbeauftragten More Than a Legal Handbook. Details on the Work of Women’s and Equal Opportunity Commissioners  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Das vorliegende Handbuch für Frauen- und Gleichstellungsbeauftragte ist auch ein Rechtshandbuch, aber es geht in seinen Inhalten darüber hinaus. Etwa ein Drittel des Werkes behandelt außerrechtliche Fragen. Insgesamt ist das Werk als Leitfaden für die Praxis konzipiert und soll fortlaufend durch Nachlieferungen ergänzt werden; einige Rechtsmaterien, z. B. das Gleichstellungsrecht der meisten Bundesländer, sind gegenwärtig noch nicht enthalten. Während mit dem Arbeitsrecht ein zentraler Bereich der Gleichstellungspraxis recht umfassend und überwiegend gut behandelt wird und an verschiedenen weiteren Punkten teils hervorragende Teilbearbeitungen vorliegen, weist die Darstellung eines anderen zentralen Rechtsgebiets, des Familienrechts, gravierende Mängel auf. Insgesamt kann das Werk in seiner derzeitigen Form noch nicht vorbehaltlos empfohlen werden.The handbook for Women’s and Equal Opportunity Commissioners is also a legal handbook, but it goes beyond this in its contents. About a third of the work deals with extra-legal questions. In general, the work is conceived as a guideline for practice and the intention is that continual additions will supplement the work; some legal materials, for example the equality laws of most federal states, are currently not included. While a central area of equality praxis is extensively and for the most part appropriately handled through employment law and there are some excellent studies of other points, the handbook points to grave deficits in another area of law, and that is family law. Overall, the work cannot be recommended in its current form without reservations.

Arne Duncker

2008-07-01

5

Numerisches Hochskalieren von Mehr-Skalen-Strömungs-Problemen  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Die vorliegende Arbeit behandelt die numerische Lösung von Mehr-Skalen-Problemen, die bei der Modellierung von thermo- und strömungsdynamischen Prozessen auftreten. Viele dieser Prozesse aus Bereichen wie Ingenieur-, Geo- oder Umweltwissenschaften werden durch partielle Differentialgleichungen beschrieben. Insbesondere hat die vorliegende Dissertation die effiziente numerische Berechnung der effektiven makroskopischen Wärmeleitfähigkeits-Tensoren von Verbundwerkstoffen zum Thema. Dabei we...

2009-01-01

6

Photovoltaics - More sun than previously; Photovoltaik. Mehr Sonne als frueher  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This short article discusses the results of long term measurements made at the University of Applied Sciences in Burgdorf, Switzerland. The results of measurements made since 1994 by the institution's photovoltaics laboratory at various test facilities are discussed. Not only the institute's own 60 kWp installation has been continuously monitored but also several private installations in the Burgdorf region. These show that, over the 15 year period, not only average temperatures have risen, but also solar irradiation has increased.

Wellstein, J.

2008-07-01

7

More than wind turbines; Mehr als nur Windturbinen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The contribution takes a closer look at the Husum Wind Energy, the leading wind energy trade fair, which was held on 21 - 25 September 2010 at Husum, Germany. There were many newcomers to the market, including experts in automation and simulation, and a number of innovations in plant monitoring and safety engineering. Some of the innovations are presented here. (orig./AKb)

Buddensiek, Volker; Ellinghaus, Tanja; Gesthuizen, Jan; Maeueler, Desiree; Thomas, Torsten; Wolf, Katharina

2010-09-01

8

"Ich wollte keine Heldentaten mehr vollbringen" : Wehrmachtsdeserteure im II. Weltkrieg: Motive und Folgen untersucht anhand von Selbstzeugnissen  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Im Zweiten Weltkrieg desertierten mehr als 30000 Soldaten aus der deutschen Wehrmacht. Die zuständigen Militärrichter sprachen gegen Deserteure über 20000 Todesurteile aus, von denen mindestens 15000 vollstreckt wurden. Aus welchen Gründen flohen derart viele Soldaten aus der Wehrmacht, mit welchen Folgen hatten sie zu rechnen, wenn ihre Flucht mißlang? Wie ging schließlich die deutsche Gesellschaft nach 1945 mit den überlebenden Deserteuren um? Die vorliegende Studie sucht Antworten a...

1999-01-01

9

Linnamaastike kaitse on osa arengust / Jukka Jokilehto, Mehr Azar Soheil ; intervjueerinud Liisa Pakosta  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Vestlus soome arhitekti, Nova Gorica ülikooli professori, UNESCO ja ICOMOSi konsultandi Jukka Jokilehto ja tema abikaasa, pärslannast arhitekti Mehr Azar Soheiliga. Ka Tallinna vanalinnast maailmapärandi komitees valmivate linnamaastike kaitseks mõeldud soovituste valguses, linna arengust sadama suunas. Eestikeelsena ilmus J. Jokilehto raamat "Arhitektuuri konserveerimise ajalugu" (Tallinn : Eesti Kunstiakadeemia, 2010)

Jokilehto, Jukka

2010-01-01

10

Adipositastherapie: Nahrung als Intervention  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Die Behandlung der Adipositas bedarf einer umfassenden Therapie, wobei die Nahrung als Intervention nicht mehr ausschließlich auf Kalorienreduktion bezogen werden darf. Die ursprüngliche Bedeutung des Begriffes "Diät" im Sinne einer grundlegend vernünftigen Lebensführung muß neu bewertet und in eine lebendige Form der Gesundheitsvorsorge eingebunden werden. Mit einer differenzierten Diagnose der Adipositas kann mit verschiedenen ernährungstherapeutischen Ansätzen individuell g...

2001-01-01

11

Mehr als Kodieren? Evaluation Computerunterstützter qualitativer Datenanalyse-Software (CAQDAS für die Diskursanalyse von Nachrichtentexten More Than Just Coding? Evaluating CAQDAS in a Discourse Analysis of News Texts ¿Algo más que simplemente codificar? Evaluando CAQDAS en un análisis del discurso de textos de noticias  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Computerunterstützte qualitative Datenanalyse-Software (CAQDAS wird häufig als Werkzeug für qualitative Forschung generell beschrieben, wobei "qualitative Forschung" meist als homogene Kategorie behandelt wird. Nur wenige Studien haben sich mit der Tauglichkeit von CAQDAS für spezifische Methoden beschäftigt, und ein noch kleinerer Teil mit der Nutzung von CAQDAS im Feld der Diskursanalyse (DA. In der Regel wird in solchen Studien kurz angemerkt, dass aus CAQDAS technische Begrenzungen für die Diskursanalyse erwachsen, eine hierüber hinausgehende Beschäftigung fehlt jedoch meist. In dem vorliegenden Beitrag soll untersucht werden, ob das geringe Interesse an CAQDAS auf Seiten der Diskursanalytiker(innen bzw. umgekehrt an Diskursanalyse auf Seiten der CAQDAS-Nutzer(innen praktische Gründe hat bzw. aus der Unsicherheit über Analyseverfahren (wie DA erwächst, oder ob es sich um eine methodologische Inkompatibilität handelt. Um diese Frage zu beantworten, wird zum einen die vorliegende Literatur zu CAQDAS und Diskursanalyse gesichtet, zum anderen wird CAQDAS auch einer praktischen Prüfung unterzogen, indem entlang der eigenen Erfahrungen als Diskursanalytiker(innen einige der bekanntesten Software-Tools an einer Medienanalyse von Nachrichtentexten geprobt werden. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0503257Computer assisted qualitative data ana­lysis software (CAQDAS is frequently described as a tool that can be used for "qualitative research" in general, with qualitative analysis treated as a "catch-all" homogeneous category. Few studies have detailed its use within specific methods, and even fewer have appraised its value for discourse analysis (DA. While some briefly comment that CAQDAS has technical limitations for discourse analysis, in general, the topic as a whole is given scant attention. Our aim is to investigate whether this limited interest in CAQDAS as a qualitative tool amongst discourse analysts, and in DA as a research method amongst CAQDAS users, is prac­tically based; due to an uncertainty about research methods, including DA; or because of method­ol­ogical incompatibilities. In order to address these questions, this study is based not only on a review of the literature on CAQDAS and on DA, but also on our own experience as discourse analysts put­ting some of the main CAQDAS to the test in a media analysis of news texts. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0503257El análisis cualitativo de datos asistido por computadora (CAQDAS se describe frecuentemente como una herramienta que puede usarse en general para la "investigación cualitativa", con el análisis cualitativo tratado como una categoría homogénea en la que entra todo. Pocos estudios han detallado su uso en ciertos métodos específicos y menos son los que lo han valorado para el análisis del discurso (AD. Mientras algunos realizan breves comentarios a las limitaciones técnicas de CAQDAS para el análisis del discurso, en general, se presta escasa atención al tema en su conjunto. Nuestro objetivo es investigar si este interés limitado en CAQDAS como herramienta cualitativa para los AD, y en AD como método de investigación entre los usuarios de CAQDAS, está basado en la práctica, se debe a una incertidumbre sobre los métodos de la investigación, incluso en AD, o es debido a incompatibilidades metodológicas. Para orientar estas preguntas, este estudio no sólo se basa en una revisión de la literatura sobre CAQDAS y sobre AD, sino también en nuestra propia experiencia como analistas del discurso que evalúan algunos de los principales CAQDAS para un análisis de los medios de textos de las noticias. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0503257

Katie MacMillan

2005-09-01

12

Mehr als nur diskursive Praxis? – Konzeptionelle Grundlagen und methodische Aspekte der Dispositivanalyse More Than Just a Discursive Practice? Conceptual Principles and Methodological Aspects of Dispositif Analysis ¿Mucho más que una práctica discursiva? Principios conceptuales y aspectos metodológicos del análisis de dispositivos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Der Beitrag gibt einen Einstieg in das sowohl konzeptionell als auch forschungspraktisch bisher kaum erschlossene Feld der Dispositivanalyse. Dazu werden erstens die Begriffe Diskurs und Dispositiv als analytische Konzepte erläutert und aufeinander bezogen. Zweitens erfolgt eine Sichtung des konzeptionellen Instrumentariums und analytischen Vorgehens der Dispositivanalyse. Davon ausgehend werden drittens die machtanalytischen Verhältnisbestimmungen zwischen (a diskursiven/nicht-diskursiven Praxen, (b Subjektivation/Subjektivierung, (c alltagsweltlichen Wissensordnungen und (d gesellschaftlichem Wandel als Leitfragen der Dispositivanalyse entfaltet. Mit Blick auf aktuelle dispositivanalytische Forschungsfelder werden abschließend die methodologischen wie methodischen Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der Dispositivanalyse beispielhaft skizziert. Generell zielt der Beitrag auf eine systematische Weiterung diskurstheoretischer Forschungsperspektiven und diskursanalytischer Forschungspraxis, indem der Wechselbezug zwischen normierenden Wissensordnungen, ihren konkreten handlungspraktischen Wirksamkeiten im sozialen Austausch von Menschen und die damit einhergehenden Selbst-Bezüge als Subjektivitäten empirisch in den Blick zu nehmen sind. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0702281This article gives an introduction into the conceptual and practical field of dispositf analysis—a field that is of great importance but that is as yet underdeveloped. In order to render this introduction, we first explain the terms discourse and dispositif. Then we examine the conceptual instruments and methodological procedures of dispositf analysis. In this way, we define the relations between discourse and (a non discoursive practices (b subjectification, (c everyday orders of knowledge and (d institutional practices like societal changes as central issues of dispositif analysis. Furthermore, we point out the methodological possibilities and limitations of dispositif analysis. We demonstrate these possibilities and limitations with some practical examples. In general, this article aims to provide an extension of the perspectives of discourse theory and research by stressing the relations between normative orders of knowledge, their effects on interactions and individual self–reflections connected with them. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0702281Este artículo ofrece una introducción a los aspectos conceptuales y prácticos del análisis de dispositivos – un campo de gran relevancia que se encuentra todavía bastante subdesarrollado. La estructura de nuestra introducción será la siguiente: Primero explicaremos los términos "discurso" y "dispositivo". A continuación, examinaremos los instrumentos conceptuales y los procedimientos metodológicos del análisis de dispositivos. En ese sentido, definiremos las relación entre el discurso y (a las practicas no discursivas, (b la subjetivación, (c los regimenes cotidianos de conocimiento y (d las prácticas institucionales que, en tanto que cambios societales, aparecen como centrales en el análisis de dispositivos. Además, apuntaremos las posibilidades metodológicas y las limitaciones de tal análisis. Todo esto se mostrará con ejemplos empíricos. En general, este texto aspira a proporcionar una extensión de las perspectivas de la teoría del discurso y la investigación acentuando las relaciones entre los órdenes normativos del conocimiento, sus efectos en las interacciones y en las auto-reflexiones individuales conectadas con ellos. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0702281

Andrea D. Bührmann

2007-05-01

13

Use of fuel cells in multi-MW-thermal power plants; Brennstoffzelleneinsatz im Mehr-MW-Heizkraftwerk  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Natural gas fuel cells with phosphoric acid electrolyte today are already used in small series of compact units ranging up to 500 kW electric capacity. They thus represent a successful contribution to decentralised power production through cogeneration. Their use in multi-MW thermal power stations is technically possible and, in view of their low emissions and great efficiency, a very attractive alternative. This technology merits intensive development work in order to acquire through practical experience the know-how for bringing costs down to an acceptable level. Manufacturers and operators will need to prepare themselves for modifications regarding the operation and maintenance of these larger plants. The results of a feasibility study for a 1.5 MW thermal power plant presented in this article could come in useful here. (orig.) [Deutsch] Erdgasbetriebene Brennstoffzellen mit Phosphorsaeure-Elektrolyt werden heute bereits in Kleinserien als kompakte Einheiten mit einer elektrischen Leistung von bis zu 500 kW gebaut und mit Erfolg in der dezentralen Energieerzeugung auf Basis der Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung betrieben. Der Einsatz in Mehr-MW-Heizkraftwerken ist ebenfalls moeglich und sollte unter dem Aspekt einer schadstoffarmen und effizienten Energieerzeugung intensiv weiter verfolgt werden, um ueber die gewonnenen Erfahrungen die angestrebten Kostenziele zu erreichen. Technologiebedingt muessen sich Hersteller und Betreiber auf die veraenderten Anforderungen bezueglich Betrieb und Wartung rechtzeitig einstellen. Die nachfolgend vorgestellten Ergebnisse einer Machbarkeitsstudie fuer ein 1,5-MW-Heizkraftwerk koennen dabei hilfreich sein. (orig.)

Lezuo, A. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Knappstein, H. [Thyssengas GmbH, Duisburg (Germany); Langnickel, U. [Gas-, Elektrizitaets- und Wasserwerke Koeln AG (GEW) (Germany); Nymoen, H. [Ruhrgas AG, Essen (Germany)

1995-09-01

14

Mehr Leben als Tod in Rom. Josef Winklers römische Novelle «Natura morta»  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The essay’s introduction examines the importance of Italy for Josef Winkler and puts the novella «Natura morta» in context with his oeuvre. The  subsequent analysis of the text highlights the technique used by the author, which shows similarities with the process of film shooting. The narrator’s eye follows the main character like a movie camera and is focused on numerous details as if it were zooming on them. In this process, while advancing the novella’s plot, the author paints a colorful portrait of Rome, bringing the city tolife like a baroque still life.

Franz Haas

2012-06-01

15

Utilization level utilizes more than the effectiveness; Nutzungsgrad nutzt mehr als Wirkungsgrad  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

By virtue of a damage at the turbine gear of the hydroelectric power plant Luisenthal of the Thuringian distant water supply, a new turbine runner had to be provided in order to achieve a better adjustment of the turbine to the new operating details. The maximum efficiency was nearly constant in the redesign of the runner of the Francis turbine. The progress of the efficiency with the hydraulic performance shows a flat optimum resulting in a utilisation level of nearly 14% being relevant for the operator.

Mueller, Martin [Hochschule Ulm (Germany); Treiber, Gerd [TWA Wasserkraft-Anlagenbau GmbH, Ilmtal (Germany); Linz, Hans-Dieter [Thueringer Fernwasserversorgung (TFW), Erfurt (Germany)

2013-02-01

16

More than 85 per cent. A practice report; Mehr als 85 Prozent. Ein Praxisreport  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Electric House Brenner in Herrenberg achieved with a lithium battery storage facility on sunny days 100 % self-sufficiency. [German] Das Elektrohaus Brenner in Herrenberg erreicht mit einer Lithiumbatterie-Speicheranlage an sonnigen Tagen 100 % Autarkie.

Jakobi, Manuela [Centrosolar AG, Muenchen (Germany)

2013-11-01

17

Mehr als eine politische Lehrstunde : V. Baltische Studenten-Seminar in Darmstadt  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

16.-21. novembrini 2010 toimunud viienda balti üliõpilasseminari keskpunktis oli teemadekompleks demokraatiast Baltimaades. Arutleti ka demokraatiakogemuse üle kahel viimasel sajandil Saksamaal. Jugendherberges alanud seminar jätkus Darmstadtis ja lõppes Saksa-Balti Seltsi 60nda juubeli tähistamisega. Viie päeva temaatika haaras Baltimaade ja Euroopa kultuuri, poliitikat ja ajalugu

2010-01-01

18

Hydrogen energy economy: More than utopia. Wasserstoff-Energiewirtschaft: Mehr als nur eine Utopie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Under the pressure of increasing climate changes in the last years the attitude towards hydrogen technology has changed. Germany has taken a leading position in hydrogen research. Above all there is not only government-sponsored research but also industrial research. It is even assumed that an energy economy on the basis of solar energy as well as of hydrogen is technically possible. If the fact that the total power of all cars in the FRG amounts to 200.000 MW - twice as much as all power stations - is taken into consideration it should be possible to produce in large-scale production decentralized solar or hydrogen energy converters at similar kilowatt rates. (BWI).

Weber, R.

1992-04-01

19

Energy efficiency needs more than only one propulsion system; Energieeffizienz braucht mehr als einen Antrieb  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is clear that the issue 'energy efficiency' is not covered with one motor alone. The complexity of this issue also becomes clear on the panel discussion of Central Association of the Electrical Engineering and Electronics Industry (Frankfurt (Main), Federal Republic of Germany) on 'Energy efficiency takes more than one drive'. Several drive specialists discuss on the reasonable and efficient utilization of motors and drives in the industry.

Nolte, Frank

2013-05-01

20

"Mehr als, bloss Bucher" Die Bibliothek Gellerup. Vom "Buchcontainer" zum Community Centre: Ein Beispiel aus Danemark.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Kapitlet handler om bibliotekets mulige rolle som facilitator af empowermentprocesser og social inklusion i marginaliserede byområder med Community Center Gellerup som eksempel. Bidraget indgår i en antologi baseret på et forskningsseminar på Humboldt-Universitat, Berlin om bibliotekers rolle for interkulturel dialog m.v.

Andersen, John; Frandsen, Martin

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

A review on weaknesses and strengths of delivering Mehr housing project in terms of achieving economical goals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Housing is one of the most important sections of development in a country and its economic importance has put it in the center of attention. It can cause rise and depression of habitation by its extended economic aspects. Mehr Housing plan is a state run housing project in most cities started 2007 in Iran to protect and provide cheap housing for poor people and young couples. Mehr housing project by its large scale and wide dimensions can affect the society’s economy. Therefore, to investigate weaknesses and strengths of this project in terms of economic and applying necessary reformation can increase the success probability of this project. For this purpose, this study assess the weaknesses and strengths of Mehr housing of province of Khorram Abad in Iran for achieving economic goals and also presents solutions to better access to these goals. Time scope of the present study is 6 months of 2011 and the second 3 months of 2012. The methodology is applicable in terms of goal and is descriptive survey in terms of nature. In this study, a combined method of interviewing to experts and distributing a questionnaire among the applicants of Mehr housing has been used for data collecting. Among strengths of Khorram Abad in economic section, employment and urban landfill pattern reformation can be implied. In addition, among weaknesses of this project are lack of proper first design and technical justification of the project and use of only 2 shabby fabrics.

Ali Karshenasan

2013-09-01

22

Desinfektion als Infektionsprävention im Wandel der Zeit  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Die Anwendung alkoholischer Lösungen im Bereich der Hygienischen und Chirurgischen Händedesinfektion hat sich in den letzten Jahren und Jahrzehnten immer mehr durchgesetzt. Das herkömmliche Händewaschen mit Wasser und Seife wurde im klinischen Alltag praktisch völlig ersetzt, ebenso wie der Einsatz desinfizierender Seifenlösungen als chirurgische Händedesinfektion. Die Anwendungszeit der alkoholischen Händedesinfektion im OP konnte in den letzten Jahren von 5 auf 3 Minuten reduziert ...

Hell, M.; Pauser, G.

2007-01-01

23

Soil Surface Attributes Prediction Using Digital Topographic Model in Mehr Catchment, Sabzevar, Khorasan Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Conventional soil survey methods for soils within the watersheds in Iran require a significant budget with many soil surveyors and much time. Additionally, no accurate and reliable information exists on the spatial variability of superface soil parameters in order to predict the soil loss by different models (RUSLE, PISAC, EUPOSEM, MORGAN. Also information on planning and management activities is lacking. These limitations call for methods of estimating soil properties using minimum sampling derived from important terrain parameters. This study was performed to develop soil-landscape models in three geological units (E2Sc, Ku, Plc, in a part of Mehr- watershed, Sabzevar. Six soil variables selected for this study were topsoil clay, gravel, sand, organic matter content, field capacity and bulk density measured at 316 sites on a regular 100m grid. Topographic attributes were calculated by a digital elevation model with 100m spacing. Finally, multiple linear regression analyses relating soil to topographic attributes were performed and then models were validated by additional sample points (78 of 316. The developed regression models showed significant relationships between surface soil properties and topographic attributes such as elevation, slope, aspect, wetness index, stream power index and sediment transport index. The mean errors and root mean square errors in the validation of the models were low and acceptable. The regression equations could explain only 26 to 72 % of the variability measured in the soil attributes in the watershed scale with 100m spacing.

Sh. Ayobi

2006-07-01

24

Qualitative Evaluation of Land Suitability for Extensive Grazing in Mehr Watershed, Sabzevar, Khorasan Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Overgrazing is the most important agent which causes accelerated soil erosion and land degradation in arid and semi-arid zones of Iran. Appropriate planning and land use in these areas based on land suitability evaluation provide a suitable base for conserving the land and controling desertification. Land evaluation identifies possible alternatives in land use which will more effectively meet national or local needs and assists in assessing the consequences of these alternatives. Extensive grazing refers to the land utilization type in which animals feed in natural pastures. This study was performed to evaluate physical potential of the given watershed for grazing by sheep and goats, and assess the limiting factors for the land utilization type in Mehr watershed, Sabzevar, Khorasan province. Land qualities which were evaluated include accessibility to animals, soil erodibility, moisture availability, rooting conditions, salinity and alkalinity, and drinking water availability for animals. Above mentioned land qualities were assessed by appropriate land characteristics. The requirement of grazing land utilization type was defined in terms of rated land characteristics. Matching of requirements of LUT with the land qualities of each pixel of DEM (prepared in 200×200m by GIS software resulted in a rating for every land characteristics. Some characteristics such as slope, aspect, and distance to drinking water for animals were calculated directly by GIS. Land index for every pixel was calculated by square root method. Finally, qualitative and physical land suitability classes were determined based on land indices and classified to polygons which would be suitable in grazing management. The results were interpreted under two different scenarios. In the first scenario, drinking water for animals was supplied by permanent sources and in the second one, the supplying of water was developed to temporary rivers besides the permanent sources. With the analysis of spatial modeling it was possible to assess the land suitability with higher accuracy. Overall results showed that the given area was not highly suitable for grazing at all. The most limiting factors included moisture availability for plant growth, slope, rock fragment and outcrops and distance to drinking water. Also during the late winter, spring and early summer, when the seasonal rivers were supplying the drinking water, the limitation of given area was decreased.

Sh. Ayoubi

2006-10-01

25

More, better, cheaper. Market survey: Current inverters for grid connection; Mehr, besser, billiger. Die aktuelle Marktuebersicht: Wechselrichter zur Netzeinspeisung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The market for current inverters for grid connection has increased significantly since last year. Most inverters have additional functions, e.g. emergency power supply, data recording and analysis, external sensors or improved network power quality. [German] Der Markt fuer netzgekoppelte Wechselrichter hat sich seit unserer letzten Uebersicht vor einem Jahr augenfaellig weiterentwickelt. Immer mehr Hersteller mit einer immer groesseren Angebotspalette buhlen um die Gunst der Kunden. Fuer jede denkbare Modulkonfiguration findet sich inzwischen ein passendes Geraet. Das Zauberwort in diesem Jahr heisst: Zusatzfunktion. Ob Notstromversorgung, ausgefeilte Messwerterfassung und -analyse, externe Sensoren oder die gezielte Verbesserung der Stromqualitaet im Netz - alles ist moeglich. (orig.)

Welter, P.

2000-06-01

26

More ecology with roof gardens: Green roofs, our chance. Mehr Oekologie durch Dachgaerten: Gruene Daecher als Chance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Compared with conventional flat roof systems the larger and more inert mass of roof greenings is thermally-energetically favourable, as the cooling down in winter happens slowlier and the reheating in the summer is more gradual. It can be assumed that the energy consumption of a green roof having the same k-factor as a roof surfaced with gravel is lower. There are three systems for the greening of roofs: naturally grown soil, conventional greening and system greening. For the thermal insulation and sealing in principle two main systems can be distinguished: black roofs and plastic roofs. (BWI).

Bollmann, E.

1990-05-01

27

More than 5 years of Bitzer Octagon {sup registered} compressors; Mehr als 5 Jahre Bitzer Octagon {sup registered} -Verdichter  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1998, the Octagon {sup registered} compressors were first introduced on the market. Serial production started from 2003 with the small 4-cylinder C3 series. More than 300,000 compressors have been produced since then. The contribution takes a look back and presents a technical review. (orig.)

Sandkoetter, W. [Bitzer Kuehlmaschinenbau, Werk Rottenburg (Germany)

2005-10-01

28

CCSVI - Ein Erfahrungsbericht: Mehr Fragen als Antworten - mit einem Kommentar aus neurologischer Sicht von W. Lang, Wien  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Obwohl schon seit über 100 Jahren bekannt ist, dass durch nahezu jeden demyelinisierten Herd (Plaque) bei Multipler Sklerose (MS) ein Blutgefäß läuft, konnte bisher kein kausaler Zusammenhang zwischen einer Erkrankung der zerebralen Venen und MS dargestellt werden. Nach der Beschreibung des Syndroms der chronischen zerebrospinalen venösen Insuffizienz (CCSVI) im Jahr 2008 entwickelte sich ein, durch neuen Medien (Google, Facebook, Blogs etc.) potenzierter, außergewöhnlich hoher Druck v...

2011-01-01

29

CCSVI - Ein Erfahrungsbericht: Mehr Fragen als Antworten - mit einem Kommentar aus neurologischer Sicht von W. Lang, Wien  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Obwohl schon seit über 100 Jahren bekannt ist, dass durch nahezu jeden demyelinisierten Herd (Plaque bei Multipler Sklerose (MS ein Blutgefäß läuft, konnte bisher kein kausaler Zusammenhang zwischen einer Erkrankung der zerebralen Venen und MS dargestellt werden. Nach der Beschreibung des Syndroms der chronischen zerebrospinalen venösen Insuffizienz (CCSVI im Jahr 2008 entwickelte sich ein, durch neuen Medien (Google, Facebook, Blogs etc. potenzierter, außergewöhnlich hoher Druck vonseiten zahlreicher Patientengruppen auf Ärzteschaft und Industrie, der hoffnungsgebenden Hypothese einer durch CCSVI bedingten ?venösen MS? nachzugehen. Dieser Bericht soll einen nüchternen Überblick über die fraglich ursächliche Beteiligung der Venen geben, um dem Leser die Möglichkeit zu geben, sich ein eigenes Bild zu machen.

Peloschek P

2011-01-01

30

Computed tomography guidance. Fluoroscopy and more; CT-Steuerung. Fluoroskopie und mehr  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging are competitive imaging modalities for the guidance of needle-based interventions, computed tomography (CT) is the only modality suitable for image-guided interventions in all regions of the body, including the lungs and bone. The ongoing technical development of CT involves accelerated image acquisition, significantly improved spatial resolution, CT scanners with an extended gantry diameter, acceleration of the procedure through joystick control of relevant functions of interventional CT by the interventional radiologist and tube current modulation to protect the hands of the examiner and radiosensitive organs of the patient. CT fluoroscopy can be used as a real-time method (the intervention is monitored under continuous CT fluoroscopy) or as a quick check method (repeated acquisitions of individual CT fluoroscopic images after each change of needle or table position). For the two approaches, multislice CT fluoroscopy (MSCTF) technique with wide detectors is particularly useful because even in the case of needle deviation from the center slice the needle tip is simultaneously visualised in the neighboring slices. With the aid of this technique a precise placement of interventional devices is possible even in angled access routes and in the presence of pronounced respiratory organ movements. As the reduction of CT fluoroscopy time significantly reduces radiation exposure for the patient and staff, the combination of a quick check technique and a low milliampere technique with multislice CT fluoroscopy devices is advantageous. (orig.) [German] Obwohl sonographisch und magnetresonanztomographisch gesteuerte Interventionen ernstzunehmende Konkurrenzverfahren sind, kann die Computertomographie als einzige bildgebende Modalitaet zur Steuerung von Interventionen in allen Koerperregionen (einschliesslich Lunge und Knochen) eingesetzt werden. Die technischen Weiterentwicklungen der Computertomographie beinhalten eine beschleunigte Bildakquisition, eine deutlich verbesserte raeumliche Aufloesung, CT-Scanner mit erweiterter Gantryoeffnung, eine Beschleunigung des Eingriffs durch eine intrainterventionelle Steuerung wesentlicher Funktionen des Interventions-CT ueber eine spezielle Bedieneinheit durch den interventionellen Radiologen selbst sowie die Angular Beam Modulation zur Schonung der Hand des Untersuchers und strahlensensibler Organe des Patienten. Die CT-Fluoroskopie (CTF) kann als Echtzeitverfahren (die Intervention wird unter kontinuierlicher CT-Durchleuchtung ueberwacht) oder als Quick-check-Verfahren (wiederholte Aufnahmen einzelner CT-Durchleuchtungsbilder nach jeder Aenderung der Nadel- oder Tischposition) verwendet werden. Fuer die beiden Vorgehensweisen ist insbesondere die Mehrschicht-CT-Fluoroskopie(MSCTF)-Technik mit breiten Detektoren hilfreich, da auch bei Abweichungen aus der Schicht die Nadelspitze in den gleichzeitig akquirierten Nachbarschichten mit abgebildet wird. Mit dieser Technik ist eine millimetergenaue Nadelplatzierung auch bei angulierten Zugangswegen und ausgepraegten atemabhaengigen Bewegungen der Patientenanatomie moeglich. Da eine Verringerung der CT-Durchleuchtungszeit zu einer deutlich reduzierten Strahlenbelastung fuer den Patient und das Personal fuehrt, ist die Kombination der Quick-check-Technik mit einer Low-Milliampere-Technik an MSCTF-faehigen Geraeten zu empfehlen. (orig.)

Paprottka, P.M.; Reiser, M.F.; Trumm, C.G. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Campus Grosshadern, Angiographie und Interventionelle Radiologie, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany); Helmberger, T. [Staedt. Klinikum Muenchen, Klinikum Bogenhausen, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Neuroradiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Muenchen (Germany)

2013-11-15

31

Better advertising; Mehr Aussenwirkung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fairs and congresses like the PVSEC are central elements of the communication activities of solar enterprises. This was proved in a current enquiry by SONNE WIND WAERME at the Intersolar Europe. The results are presented in this article in summary form.

Intze, Sonja

2011-08-31

32

More safety; Mehr Sicherheit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Which building authority requirements must be fulfilled for solar systems was not clearly defined for a long time. It is certain now that the solar standards are not enough. Mounting systems are already in a special building authority approval process. [German] Welche bauaufsichtlichen Anforderungen Solaranlagen erfuellen muessen, war lange Zeit nicht klar definiert. Sicher ist nun, dass die Solarnormen nicht ausreichen. Montagesysteme befinden sich schon in einem speziellen bauaufsichtlichen Zulassungsprozess.

Meyer, Jens-Peter

2013-06-06

33

ASSESSMENT SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF SOIL ERODIBILITY BY USING OF GEOSTATISTIC AND GIS (Case study MEHR watershed of SABZEVAR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Soil erodibility is one of the key factors on some sediment and soil erosion models such as USLE, MUSLE, RUSLE, AUSLE (USLE modified in LS factor and MMF and represents like K factor and is function of particle distribution, organic mater, soil structure and ermeability. Traditional methods do not take spatial variability and estimate precision of variables in to consideration and amount of them are constant across the whole of soil series .This study was performed to assess spatial variability of soil erodibility and its relevant variables at MEHR watershed from Khorasan province, in northern Iran. Interested network was designed by 110 samples like nested- systematic with distance about 50, 100, 250 and 500 meter across the study area by preparing point map at GIS. Sampling points were identified in field by an Global Positioning system. Soil sampling was done at depth of 0-5cm of ground surface and permeability was studied at depth of 5-30 cm. Some soil properties such as particle distribution and organic mater were measured at laboratory. Particle size distribution was determined by Hydrometer method and Organic matter was measured by wet oxidation approach. Then spatial analysis was done. Variography analysis on soil attributes according to soil erodibility, showed that Gaussian, exponential and spherical models were the most models to predict spatial variability of soil parameters. The range of spatial dependencies was changed from 320 to 3200 m. Soil attribute maps prepared by kriging technique using models parameters. Then soil attributes were composed by Wischmeier (1978 formula in Illwis media to calculate K factor. Amount of soil erodibility changed from 0.13 to 0.91 that it's maximum and minimum was identified in east and southwest of studiedarea. Soil spatial variability pattern, is similar to silt pattern due to high effect of silt on soil rodibility, Also that is partially confirmed with geology map, indicated which soil erodibility attribute controlled by parent material. High amount of soil erodibility in southwest area of given study area showed need to more attention for conservation the soil and control erosion.

Ayoubi, S.A

2005-05-01

34

Fixing waste charges on the basis of waste volume measurement; Abfallvolumenmessung als Grundlage der Gebuehrenfestsetzung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The waste management industry is considering new strategies for fixing waste charges. Goals are: Full cost recovery; transparency for citizens, towns, waste managers; Volume-dependent waste charges; Incentives for waste avoidance and recycling; Prohibition of uncontrolled waste dumping; Equitable distribution of costs. [German] Die Entsorgungswirtschaft hat sich dem aktuellen Zeitgeist, dem Trend nach mehr Individualitaet, nach mehr Transparenz in der oeffentlichen Verwaltung, dem Ziel erhoehter Recyclingaktivitaeten, sowie dem Verursacherprinzip entsprechend anzupassen und Loesungen einzufuehren um die Betrueger zufrieden zu stellen. Die daraus sich ergebenden, moeglichen Abrechnungsvarianten sollten, daher folgende Praemissen erfuellen. - Gebuehren auf jeden Fall kostendeckend, - transparent fuer - Buerger, - Kommune, - Entsorger, - aufwands-/verursacherkonform, individuell, - Anreiz bietend fuer Abfallvermeidung, Recycling, - darf nicht zur ungeordneten Entsorgung verleiten, - gerechter als bisher (als z.B. Pauschalabrechnung). (orig.)

Sonnleitner, W.D. [Veraut GmbH, Linz (Austria)

2000-07-01

35

Instandhaltungsmanagement als Gestaltungsfeld Ganzheitlicher Produktionssysteme  

Science.gov (United States)

Sich kontinuierlich verändernde Rahmenbedingungen, wie beispielsweise eine steigende Variantenvielfalt, verkürzte Produktlebenszyklen sowie Kundenforderungen nach höherer Qualität, kürzeren Lieferzeiten und geringeren Kosten, fordern von produzierenden Unternehmen eine stetige Anpassung der Prozesse, der Organisation und der Strukturen. Seit den 90er Jahren versuchen immer mehr deutsche Unternehmen diesen veränderten Anforderungen mit der Einführung eines Ganzheitlichen Produktionssystems (GPS) zu begegnen. Ganzheitliche Produktionssysteme sind dabei in ihren Grundlagen an das Toyota Produktionssystem angelehnt, vereinigen aber auch weitere Methoden zu einem unternehmensspezifischen Regelwerk. Im Rahmen des langfristigen Trends zu unternehmensindividuellen Produktionssystemen wird sowohl in der Industrie als auch in der Forschung intensiv über das Toyota Produktionssystem, Lean Production, Lean Management und Ganzheitliche Produktionssysteme diskutiert, werden Konzepte zu Implementierung und Betrieb erstellt und die Wirtschaftlichkeit untersucht.

Dombrowski, Uwe; Schulze, Sven; Otano, Isabel Crespo

36

Mehr als 1500 Jahre homoerotische Literatur auf der Iberischen Halbinsel A Survey of over 1500 Years of Gay and Lesbian Literature in Spain and Portugal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mit diesem Buch wird ein kaum bekanntes Kapitel der spanischen und portugiesischen Literaturgeschichte aufgeschlagen. Es macht die sozialen und kulturellen Veränderungen des Lebens von schwulen und lesbischen Menschen auf der iberischen Halbinsel im Spiegel der Literatur und durch lebendige Autor/-innenportraits deutlich. Dabei werden nicht nur die deutlichen positiven Veränderungen der letzten 30 Jahre thematisiert, sondern eine fesselnde historische Perspektive zahlreicher Facetten homoerotischer Literatur bis zurück in die andalusische Literatur des Mittelalters aufgezeigt.This book tackles a rarely known chapter in Spanish and Portuguese history of literature. The articles in the anthology document the social and cultural changes in gay and lesbian life on the Iberian peninsula as portrayed in literature. The articles do not only talk about the positive changes brought about by the queer liberation movement during the last thirty years, but offer a fascinating historical perspective on queer writing and queer life ranging from medieval Andalusian literature to present day fiction.

Guido Müller

2002-07-01

37

Women need more propofol than men during EEG-monitored total intravenous anaesthesia / Frauen benötigen mehr Propofol als Männer während EEG-überwachter total-intravenöser Anästhesie.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gender-related differences in the pharmacology of drugs used in anaesthesiology have been reported by different authors. The aim of this study was to compare propofol dosages in a greater number of male and female patients who had received electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring to maintain a defined depth of anaesthesia. Data from an EEG-controlled study were analysed with regard to gender differences in the consumption of the short-acting hypnotic propofol during maintenance of total intravenous anaesthesia and with regard to recovery times. The 656 patients (239 male, 417 female) were 15 to 97 years old, underwent different surgical procedures, and received propofol in combination with remifentanil, a short-acting opioid. During the steady-state of anaesthesia the EEG stage D(2)/E(0), which corresponds to deep hypnosis, was the target level (EEG monitor: Narcotrend). Propofol dosages were calculated as mg/kg body weight/h and as mg/kg lean body mass/h. Significantly higher propofol dosages were observed in female patients compared to male patients, especially with lean body mass as a reference parameter. The dosages were characterised by a high interindividual variability. The time from stop of propofol until extubation was significantly shorter in women than in men. The propofol dosage for maintenance of anaesthesia at the EEG level D(2)/E(0) decreased with increasing age. PMID:19290850

Haensch, Klaus; Schultz, Arthur; Krauss, Terence; Grouven, Ulrich; Schultz, Barbara

2009-04-01

38

Long-term experience with ventilated plates for more than ten years. An overview; Langfristerfahrung mit hinterluefteten Platten ueber mehr als zehn Jahre. Ein Ueberblick  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors of this contribution report on long-term experiences on ventilated plates under consideration of the following aspects: operation of ventilated plates; documentation of the use of ventilated plates since 1999; pointing out of the different operating conditions; documentation of exchange rates by means of the ascertained data. Finally, the possible influence of the exhaust gas conditions or operation conditions, respectively, on the expected service life of the protection of the pipe wall are discussed on the basis of actual operational experiences.

Moeller, Manfred [Juenger+Graeter GmbH, Schwetzingen (Germany). Sparte Umwelt; Horn, Markus [Juenger+Graeter GmbH, Schwetzingen (Germany)

2013-03-01

39

A successful combination. How microcontrollers and digital signal processors can complement each other; Mehr als nur eine Vernunftehe. Wie sich kuenftig Mikrocontroller und Digitale Signalprozessoren nahtlos ergaenzen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Only five percent of the installed motor capacity in Germany uses energy-saving electronic speed control. With a share of 35 percent, about 16 TWh per annum of energy or about DM 2.4 billion of energy cost could be saved. New functions in the control module are suited even for complex control algorithms. [German] Heutzutage sind es erst fuenf Prozent der in Deutschland installierten Motorleistung, die mit einer energiesparenden elektronischen Drehzahlregelung arbeiten. Wuerde man stattdessen 35 Prozent der Antriebe mit diesen Regelungen ausstatten, liessen sich jaehrlich etwa 16 TWh Energie oder aber rund 2,4 Mrd. DM an Energiekosten einsparen. Neue Funktionen in den Steuerbausteinen erlauben selbst komplexe Regelalgorithmen. (orig.)

Kupris, G. [Motorola, Muenchen (Germany)

2000-11-28

40

Utilization of existing potentials at incinerators. Service - more than only spare parts and revision; Nutzung vorhandener Potentiale bei Verbrennungsanlagen. Service - mehr als Ersatzteile und Revision  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The service of a worldwide renowned and successful general contractors of complete plants is much more than the supply of spare parts and the realization of revisions. Based on the comprehensive Know How from the construction of new facilities, continuous further developments and experiences from the operation of the plant, tailor-made and customer-oriented solutions can be compiled and implemented. Analysis, planning, specification, construction, production, assembly, quality assessment and commissioning from one source, combined with detailed professional knowledge, the correct tools as well as the understanding of solution-oriented concepts are the key for the optimization of a waste incinerator.

Mueck, Michael [Fisia Babcock Environment GmbH, Gummersbach (Germany)

2012-11-01

 
 
 
 
41

More than a wind tunnel. The new Visteon air conditioning test center; Mehr als ein Windkanal. Das neue Klimatestzentrum von Visteon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Visteon air conditioning test center at Kerpen is for fundamental development and testing of innovative air conditioning systems. In June 2005, a new wind tunnel was constructed which is the most modern of its kind in Europe. In a separate building, their is a wind tunnel for conditioned air and a climate chamber with a temperature range from -40 to +55 C. (orig.)

Schuett, B. [Visteon (Germany)

2005-06-01

42

Mehr Verhoer als Gespraech --Eindruecke von der neuen muendlichen Zertifikatspruefung (Cross-Examination Instead of Conversation--Impressions of the New Oral Examination for the Certificate).  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents opinions of persons who took the examination on the oral portion of the revised People's University Certificate, English 1. Suggests changes, such as lengthening the time allowed for the examination and re-introducing reading passages and exercises suitable for students with less practice in communication. (IFS/WGA)

Hellwig, Hilmar

1979-01-01

43

Positive eco-balance. Photovoltaic systems generate more power than their owners consume; Ausgeglichene Oekobilanz. Die Photovoltaikanlagen erzeugen mehr Strom als ihre Besitzer verbrauchen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The contribution describes the home of a German family who invested in a roof-mounted PV system. The system generates electric power for the two heat pumps that are used for space heating. The balance of the system is positive and has induced neighbours to install their own PV systems as well. (orig.)

Ruell, Friederike; Lohse, Andreas

2010-05-15

44

More than 1600 EPR kits sold worldwide. The success story of a paper model; Weltweit bereits mehr als 1600 EPR verkauft. Die Erfolgsgeschichte eines Papiermodells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ''old'' PWR convoy paper model of Siemens KWU, which experienced a total run of 125 000, was a success story in its own right. When the contract for construction of an EPR in Finland had been signed, Framatome ANP, an Areva and Siemens company, felt that the time had come to document the success of this reactor line by preparing a new kit. The Olkiluoto 3 Nuclear Power Station was to be immortalized in a cardboard kit. Its more than 3 100 parts on 33 DIN A3 and A4 size sheets make this 1:350 scale kit a very sophisticated set even for demanding modelers. However, even less experienced amateurs may use it with good chances of success, as the model may be built in a number of variants: (1) Basic version: a straightforward architectural model of all buildings without internals. With its approx. 220 parts, this version takes roughly 55 hours to complete. (2) Extended version: This is the basic version augmented by more extensive internals, removable roofs and partly removable components. Its approx. 2 150 parts take some 220 hours of construction time. (3) Maximum version: This is similar to version 2, but has many additional details, such as three-dimensional pipes, perforated steel girders, LP turbine rotors with blades, two detailed emergency power diesel sets, Castor connection carriages with a gantry crane, or fully detailed transformers. This version consists of more than 3 100 parts and can be completed in approx. 320 hours. (orig.)

Anon.

2005-07-01

45

Couragierter agieren und reagieren - Ein Plädoyer fu?r mehr Zivilgesellschaft im Kampf gegen den Rechtsextremismus aus bayrischer Perspektive  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Als Antwort auf das Attentat gegen den Passauer Polizeipräsidenten Alois Mannichl am 13.12. 2008, bei dem ein rechtsextremistischer Hintergrund vermutet wurde, aber bis heute nicht geklärt werden konnte, verabschiedete der Bayerische Ministerrat am 12. Januar 2009 das Bayerische Handlungskonzept gegen Rechtsextremismus.

Franz Gervasoni

2014-03-01

46

"Ich weiß einfach nicht mehr was richtig ist": Zur Nutzung der Foto-Elizitierung mit desillusionierten Interviewten  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foto-Elizitierung ist ein sehr fruchtbares Verfahren, und zwar insbesondere dann, wenn es um die Untersuchung von eher verzweifelten oder  desillusionierten Personen (-gruppen geht. Es kann u.a. genutzt werden, wenn umstrittene Ideen oder Konzepte Thema sind, die für eher skeptische Befragte auch unerwünschte Implikationen haben können, im Falle meiner Studie Farmer, die Zusammenhänge zwischen Bewässerung und Klimawechsel als sehr kritisch erlebten. Im Interviewverlauf wurden fünf Abbildungen präsentiert. Die Interviews wurden aufgezeichnet und später mit Blick auf wiederkehrende, mit den Abbildungen verknüpfte Themen analysiert. Es zeigte sich, dass der Ansatz der Foto-Elizitierung im Falle einiger Befragter für in gewisser Weise optimistischere Lesarten sorgte: Sie sahen in den Fotos das, was sie zu sehen wünschten, und die Fotos wirkten ermutigend, die (zunächst als ausweglos erlebte Eigenverantwortung für unerwünschten Klimawechsel grundsätzlicher mit politischen Verantwortlichkeiten für Wasserverknappung in Verbindung zu setzen.URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs130321

Geoff Kuehne

2013-07-01

47

Patrick Ehnis: Väter in Erziehungszeiten. Politische, kulturelle und subjektive Bedingungen für mehr Engagement in der Familie. Sulzbach im Taunus: Ulrike Helmer Verlag 2009.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Patrick Ehnis analysiert die Voraussetzungen für eine stärkere Beteiligung von Vätern an der Kindererziehung. In seiner Beschäftigung mit zwei Best-practice-Beispielen rekonstruiert er die subjektiven Orientierungen der Väter, normative Erwartungen in den Betrieben, individuelle und strukturelle Barrieren sowie konkrete Erfahrungen von und mit Vätern in Elternzeit. Dabei behält er bei der Deutung ein Ziel stets vor Augen: mehr Geschlechtergerechtigkeit. Für die politische und gesellschaftliche Diskussion um die ‚neuen Väter‘ sowie für nachfolgende Forschungen, welche die neuesten familienpolitischen Entwicklungen einbeziehen, bilden die Ergebnisse des Bandes eine höchst fruchtbare Grundlage.Patrick Ehnis analyses the necessary conditions to elicit better participation of fathers in child rearing. On the basis of two best-practice examples, he reconstructs the subjective positions of fathers, the normative expectations of businesses or companies, individual and structural barriers, and concrete experiences of and with fathers during parental leave. Throughout the interpretation he keeps one goal in mind: more gender equality. The conclusions of the volume offer a very fruitful basis for political and social discussions about the “new father” as well as for subsequent studies that take the newest family-political developments into account.

Claudia Zerle

2010-07-01

48

kf-Wert-Schätzung nach petrographischer Bohrgutansprache - mehr Eingangsdaten für Grundwassermodelle generieren  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Zur Parametrisierung von Grundwassermodellen werden regelmä�ig Erkundungs- und Messstellenbohrungen als ortsbezogene Stützstelle herangezogen. Nur in einem Bruchteil solcher Bohrungen erfolgt eine direkte Ermittlung hydraulischer Parameter, so dass der Durchlässigkeitsbeiwert (kf-Wert) häufig nur für wenige Bohrungen und ausgewählte Schichten vorliegt. Für die Parametrisierung von numerischen Modellen kann daher die Ermittlung von Durch-lässigkeitsverteilungen aus geologischen Be-schreibungen der erbohrten Gesteinsschichten von besonderer Bedeutung sein. Zur Nutzbarmachung der in elektronischen Datenbanken und Bohrarchiven erfassten Informationen wurde ein Algorithmus zur deterministischen Schätzung des kf-Wertes auf Basis petrographischer Bohrgutansprachen entwickelt (FUCHS, 2010). Diese Methode basiert auf der Ableitung der Korngrö�enverteilung aus der petrogra-phischen Beschreibung der beim Bohren gewonnenen Lockergesteinsproben und wird beispielhaft für nach dem Symbolschlüssel Geologie dokumentierte Proben vorgestellt. Für diese Korngrö�enverteilung werden die beim Sieben oder Schlämmen verwendeten Auswerteverfahren zum Ansatz gebracht. Der aus der Unschärfe der Klassifizierung nach dem Symbolschlüssel Geologie resultierende systematische Fehler des vorgestellten Verfahrens liegt im Mittel bei einem kf-Wert-Faktor von 1,13 (1-SD = 0,16). Ein exemplarischer Vergleich der aus der petrographischen Bohrgutansprache erzeugten kf-Werte mit denjenigen, die aus den Siebanalysen der jeweiligen Proben (185) bestimmt wurden, ergab eine mittlere Abweichung von Faktor 3,0 (SD = 1,97) in quartären, vorwiegend rolligen Locker-gesteinen. Die Auswertung von sieben Bohrungsdaten-banken ( rd. 316.000 Schichtbeschreibungen) des jungpleistozänen Tieflandes Nordost-deutschlands führte trotz regionaler Varianzen und vielfältiger Fehlermöglichkeiten (unterschiedliche Qualität der Probennahmen, Qualifikation der Bearbeiter, etc.) zu vergleichbaren Ergebnissen und bestätigte die Anwendbarkeit des Algorithmus zur Ableitung von kf-Werten auf Basis einer deter-ministischen Methode. Das Verfahren findet Anwendung in der hydrogeologischen Praxis in Form eines Softwaretools sowohl bei der Auswertung einzelner geologischer Schichtbeschreibungen als auch bei der Auswertung kompletter Bohrungsdatenbanken.

Fuchs, Sven

49

Alness at Alness (4003)  

Alness at Alness (4003) Back to search results Alness at Alness in North Area * Station name Alness * NRFA reference 4003 * Gauging authority SEPA * Gauging authority reference PR004003 * Watercourse Alness * Area North * Hydrometric Area 4 - Conon Group * NGR NH65406950 * Catchment area and source…

50

Topiramat als Phasenprophylaktikum - ein Fallbericht  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Topiramat ist ein neues Antiepileptikum mit einem breiten Wirkspektrum. Aktuelle klinische Studien geben Hinweise darauf, daß Topiramat stimmungsstabilisierende Eigenschaften besitzt und somit effizient in der Behandlung der bipolaren affektiven Störung sein könnte. Vor dem Hintergrund dieser Studienberichte, behandelten wir eine 41jährige, erstmals vor 10 Jahren erkrankte Patientin mit der Diagnose einer therapierefraktären, bipolaren affektiven Störung (Rapid-Cycling mit Topiramat. Im Rahmen ihrer Erkrankung wurde die Patientin insgesamt 12mal stationär aufgenommen und meist aufgrund von akuten manischen Episoden behandelt. Dabei kamen seit 1991 folgende Phasenprophylaktika zur Anwendung: Carbamazepin, Valproat und Lamotrigin ? zuletzt nur mit mäßigem Erfolg. Daraufhin wurde zu Beginn einer neuerlichen manischen Episode ambulant eine Therapie mit Topiramat begonnen. Acht Wochen nach Therapiestart kam die Patientin in stationäre Behandlung. Der Aufenthalt dauerte weniger als drei Wochen; Topiramat wurde von der Patientin gut vertragen. Infolge eines belastenden Lebensereignisses kam es unter kontinuierlicher Therapie mit Topiramat zu einer Destabilisierung des psychischen Zustandsbildes (manische Symptome. Durch eine ambulante Erhöhung der Topiramatdosis bei gleichzeitiger Gabe von Risperidon und Clonazepam konnte jedoch eine neuerliche manische Episode erstmals ambulant behandelt werden. Die Patientin erhält derzeit 200 mg Topiramat pro Tag und ist seit mehr als 20 Monaten nahezu beschwerdefrei.

Letmaier M

2001-01-01

51

Better label, better service; Mehr Marke, mehr Service  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new study by the 'Europressedienst' provides information on PV producers, experts, and users. (orig.) [German] Die Boombranche Photovoltaik weiss wenig ueber Kunden und Akteure. Der Europressedienst versucht, diese Luecken zu schliessen. Inzwischen liegt eine neue Studie vor. (orig.)

Iken, J.

2004-09-30

52

AMANDA und DØ als Testumgebung für das LHC Computing Grid  

CERN Multimedia

Die in Bau befindlichen Experimente am Large Hadron Collider LHC am CERN bei Genf werden größere Datenmengen produzieren und mehr Rechenzeit benötigen als jedes bisherige Experiment in der Hochenergiephysik. Diese Anforderung werden nur noch mit Hilfe von Grid-Technologien in einem weltweiten Verbund lösbar sein. Mit Hilfe der Dissertation sollen 2 laufende Experimente in die schon jetzt vorhandenen Grid-Initiativen eingebunden werden, um daraus Rückschlüsse auf deren weitere Entwicklung zu ziehen. Die Arbeit beginnt mit einer Einleitung in den physikalischen Rahmen und mit einer Motivation für die Notwendigkeit zur Anwendung neuer Technologien im Bereich des Computings. Danach werden die Experimente vorgestellt und eine Einleitung in das Grid-Computing gegeben. Die folgenden zwei Kapitel befassen sich dann mit der Anwendung von Techniken des Grid-Computings im Rahmen des AMANDA- und des DØ-Experiments. Beide sind laufende Experimente mit aktiver Datennahme. Die Simulationssoftware dieser Experimente...

Harenberg, Torsten

53

Samen-TUNEL-Untersuchung: Ein wichtiger Test für ein IVF-Institut?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Einleitung: Aufgrund männlicher Infertilität werden schon 71 % (IVF-Register 2006 der österreichischen IVF-Versuche als ICSI (Intrazytoplasmatische Spermieninjektion durchgeführt. Das Spermiogramm hat nur eine geringe Vorhersagekraft für den Erfolg dieser Behandlung. Hingegen wird die DNA-Fragmentierung von Spermatozoen als prognostischer Faktor diskutiert. TUNEL ("TdT mediated dUTP nick end labeling" ist, im Zusammenhang mit apoptotischen Vorgängen in Samenzellen, eine übliche Methode zur Feststellung solcher DNA-Strangbrüche. Ziel dieser Arbeit war, den tatsächlichen Einfluss einer erhöhten Rate TUNEL-positiver Spermatozoen auf die Befruchtungsrate, Entwicklung zu Achtzellern (Tag 3 und Blastozysten (Tag 5 sowie auf die Schwangerschaftsrate zu untersuchen. Patienten und Methoden: Samen von Paaren, welche sich einer künstlichen Befruchtung durch ICSI unterzogen, wurden durch Dichtegradient und darauf folgendes Swim-up aufbereitet, auf Objektträger ausgestrichen und dann mit dem FITC-In Situ Cell Death Detection Kit (Roche gefärbt. Die Konzentration TUNEL-positiver Spermatozoen wurde am Fluoreszenzmikroskop ausgezählt und in Beziehung zum Schwangerschafts-Outcome gebracht. Resultate: Es wurden Samen von 56 Paaren untersucht. Ein Cut-off von 20 % TUNEL-positiver Spermatozoen wurde festgelegt. In die Gruppe mit hoher DNA-Fragmentierung fielen 12 Paare (21 %. Diese Gruppe zeigte eine deutlich niedrigere Schwangerschaftsrate (25 % als die Gruppe mit niederer DNAFragmentierung (57 %. Diskussion: Durch eine erhöhte DNA-Fragmentierung von Spermatozoen wird die Schwangerschaftsrate bei etwa jedem fünften Paar mehr als halbiert. Ähnliche Zusammenhänge wurden auch in anderen Untersuchungen gezeigt. Als weiterführende Studie wäre es interessant zu untersuchen, inwieweit es bei einer Anwendung des Tests schon vor der ICSI und darauf folgender Behandlung des Mannes mit Antioxidantien oder Selektion der Samenzellen durch eine IMSI (Intrazytoplasmatische, morphologisch selektierte Spermieninjektion zu einer Verbesserung der Schwangerschaftsrate kommen könnte.

Leberl F

2008-01-01

54

There is more to it than just electricity. Dr. Klinger explains the advantages of long-term contracts; `Mehr als nur Strom`. Dr. Klinger zu den Vorzuegen langfristiger Vertraege  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dr. Heinz Klinger, chief operating officer of the Munich-based Isar-Amperwerke AG, outlines the advantages customers may draw from long-term contracts. One major aspect addressed in this article is reliability in planning. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Dass langfristige Vertragsbindungen Vorteile bieten koennen, legt Dr. Heinz Klinger, Vorstandsvorsitzender der Isar-Amperwerke AG, Muenchen, dar. Einen wesentlichen Aspekt sieht er in der Planungssicherheit. (orig./RHM)

Klinger, H. [Isar-Amperwerke AG, Muenchen (Germany); Bauer, L. [Bayernwerk AG, Muenchen (Germany)

1998-08-01

55

In search of the limit 90 g/km CO{sub 2} for vehicles weighing more than 1500 kg?; Auf der Suche nach der Grenze 90 g/km CO{sub 2} bei mehr als 1500 kg Fahrzeuggewicht?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A reduction of the CO{sub 2} emitted by our motor vehicles is one of the primary research and development goals. Natural gas - as an alternative fuel - has ideal properties for achieving an appreciable reduction in emissions. This is due not only to the approximate 23% more favorable hydro-carbon ratio (H-Gas) of natural gas (high-grade gas) relative to gasoline or diesel, but also to the high knock-resistance properties of the 'natural gas fuel', which can significantly increase the degree of motor efficiency. This article by FKFS describes the technical implementation of a consistent consumption minimization concept based on a hybrid, downsized, turbocharged combustion engine. (orig.)

Bargende, M. [Forschungsinstitut fuer Kraftfahrwesen und Fahrzeugmotoren Stuttgart (FKFS) (Germany)]|[Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verbrennungsmotoren und Kraftfahrwesen; Berner, H.J. [Forschungsinstitut fuer Kraftfahrwesen und Fahrzeugmotoren Stuttgart (FKFS) (Germany)

2005-10-01

56

Culture and Healthcare in Medical Education: Migrants' Health and Beyond [Medizin und ethnisch-kulturelle Vielfalt in der medizinischen Ausbildung: "Migrantenmedizin" und mehr  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available [english] One of the main challenges for teaching programs on immigration, ethnic diversity and health is to transform the commonplace notion of “culture” into a helpful tool for medical training and practice. This paper presents the teaching approach of an interdisciplinary course on “migrants’ health” established at the University of Giessen since 2004, which has recently been complemented by a thematically related collaboration with two universities in Latin America (Ecuador, Peru. The overall goal is to translate the abstract philosophy of into medical practice, and to provide students with the insights, attitudes and skills needed for a fruitful use of concepts like “culture”, “ethnicity” and “migration background”. A key feature of the course is the strong commitment to ethnography as an important means for looking under the surface of superficial attributions to culture, and for grasping the interplay of medicine and health with cultural, social, religious, economic and legal aspects in its particular local and/or individual shape. Three elements of the course are presented to illustrate this approach: First, a unit on Islam and Medicine, as important parts of the local immigrant community are Muslims. The second one deals with psychosomatic aspects, because in case of immigrants, complex symptoms and disease representations like somatisation are easily misinterpreted as “cultural”. The third element consists of a unit with specialized social workers form outside the university, who provide direct insights into the living conditions and health problems of local immigrant communities. [german] Eine der zentralen Herausforderungen für Lehrprojekte zum Thema Medizin und ethnisch-kulturelle Vielfalt besteht in der Vermittlung eines angemessenen Konzepts von „Kultur“. Vor allem gilt es, den exklusiven Fokus auf als „fremd“ wahrgenommene Bevölkerungsgruppen und die Gefahr oberflächlicher kulturelle Zuschreibungen zu überwinden. Der vorliegende Beitrag stellt den Ansatz eines interdisziplinären Kurses zur „Migrantenmedizin“ an der Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen vor, der jüngst durch ein Kooperationsprojekt zur Stärkung interkultureller Aspekte in der medizinischen Ausbildung mit zwei lateinamerikanischen Universitäten ergänzt wurde (in Ecuador und Peru. Durch den internationalen Vergleich soll das abstrakte Prinzip „think global and teach local“ für den medizinischen Bereich nutzbar gemacht werden. Gleichzeitig wird die Bedeutung der Ethnographie für eine sinnvolle Verwendung von Begriffen wie „Kultur“, „Ethnizität“ oder „Migrationshintergrund“ auch in der Medizin betont. Als wichtigste Forschungsmethode der Kultur- und Sozialanthropologie vermittelt die Ethnographie differenzierte Einblicke in die jeweils konkrete Ausprägung der komplexen Zusammenhänge zwischen Krankheit, Medizin und „Kultur“ – jenseits von Stereotypien und unter explizitem Einschluss der im Einzelfall relevanten sozialen, religiösen, ökonomischen und rechtlichen, aber auch medizinischen Aspekte. Der Artikel verdeutlicht die Umsetzung dieser Perspektive in der medizinischen Ausbildung exemplarisch anhand von drei Lehreinheiten des Kurses an der JLU Gießen: Ein Modul zum Thema „Islam und Medizin“, eines zu psychosomatischen Aspekten und eine dritte Einheit, in der Sozialarbeiterinnen eines lokalen Migrationsdienstes unmittelbare Einblicke in die reale Lebenswirklichkeit von Migrant/innen vermitteln.

Soydan, Nedim

2010-05-01

57

Der Glaube als Erkenntnisquelle Belief as the source of knowledge  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seit ihrer Kanonisation 1998 und Ernennung zur Mit-Patronin Europas 1999 steht die 1942 in Auschwitz ermordete Phänomenologin Edith Stein, 1922 vom jüdischen zum christlichen Glauben konvertiert und 1933 als Benedicta vom Kreuz in den Kölner Karmel eingetreten, mehr denn je im Blickfeld der Öffentlichkeit. Die Bedeutung ihrer wissenschaftlichen Arbeit u. a. als Assistentin von Edmund Husserl in Freiburg und als Dozentin am Deutschen Institut für wissenschaftliche Pädagogik in Münster, aber auch in privaten Studien wurden im Juli 2000 im Rahmen eines Symposiums des Internationalen Edith Stein Instituts in Würzburg diskutiert. Die Beiträge der vorliegenden Publikation beleuchten breit gefächert Aspekte des Werks und seiner Interpretation mit dem Ziel, die Philosophin neu zu entdecken und die bisherige Forschung zu intensivieren.Since her canonisation and her appointment as Martyr and Co-Patroness of Europe in 1999, Edith Stein has, more than ever, been in the public eye. Murdered in Auschwitz in 1942, the phenomenologist converted from Judaism to Catholicism in 1922 and entered the Carmel of Cologne in 1933 as Teresa Benedicta of the Cross. In July 2000, at a symposium of the International Edith Stein Institute in Wurzburg, the significance of her academic work (among other things as an assistant to Edmund Husserl in Freiburg and as a lecturer at the German Institute for Pedagogy in Munster was discussed. The wide-ranging contributions in this publication highlight aspects of this work and its interpretation with the aim of rediscovering the philosopher and of intensifying research conducted to date.

Andrea Hartwig

2004-03-01

58

Review Essay: "Wenn jemand mit irgendetwas jeden Tag verbringt, muss er was lernen – oder er ist ganz neben der Kappe": Die Dialektik von Ethnografie als eine Seinsart  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ethnography: A Way of Seeing richtet sich an Student(innen der Anthropologie und an Forscher(innen anderer Disziplinen mit dem Ziel, ihnen nahezubringen, wie die Ethnographie als Disziplin sich von der Ethnographie als Feldmethode unterscheidet. Obwohl ich bestreite, dass die genannte Leserschaft wirklich diejenige ist, die am meisten mit dem Buch anfangen kann – erfahrene Forscher(innen werden den Inhalt mehr schätzen können – fand ich das Buch, dessen "Textur" ich in meinem Essay nachvollziehe, doch sehr empfehlenswert. Ich beziehe mich auf meine eigene Feldarbeit in einer Lachszuchtanlage als Auslegungshorizont und auf (authentische ethnographische Darstellungsweisen, um einen dialektischen Rahmen zu artikulieren, der meinen Leser(innen erlaubt, mehrere Widersprüche zu situieren, die mir beim Lesen bewusst geworden sind. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0303142

Wolff-Michael Roth

2003-09-01

59

Business Wargaming als Waffe des modernen CEO  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Rohstoffpreise auf der Achterbahn, Verwerfungen im Finanzsektor, einschneidende regulatorische Auflagen oder Forderungen nach mehr Nachhaltigkeit â?? wirtschaftliches Handeln findet heute in einem komplexen Umfeld statt. Nicht nur einzelne Unternehmen, sondern auch ganze Industrien wie Automotive, Detailhandel oder die Pharmaindustrie erleben, wie sich die Spielregeln des Wettbewerbs und das vertraute Geschäftsumfeld laufend verändern.

Oriesek, Daniel F.; Schwarz, Jan Oliver

2009-01-01

60

A Maserati as heating plant. What has become of it: heat from underground at Moenchengladbach; Ein Maserati als Heizwerk. Was daraus geworden ist: Geothermie in Moenchengladbach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In winter the halls of the company Capricorn Automotive GmBH are heated by heat pumps and the waste of the mockup. In summer the halls are cooled via heat exchangers and the mixer conducting heat in the underground via an earth/brine cycle. (GL) [German] Eineinhalb Jahre nach dieser Zusage (siehe SHT 6/2001) rief die SHT beim Bauherrn an. Ob ihm denn die Heiz-Kuehl-Bodenplatte im Buero tatsaechlich ein angenehmes Arbeitsklima beschert habe? 'Mehr als versprochen. Anstatt um garantierte sieben fuhr sie die Raumtemperaturen um zwoelf Grad Celsius herunter'. Der Pruefstand produziert mithin genau so viel Waerme wie Forschungsergebnisse. Die gewonnenen Erkenntnisse erhaelt der Auftraggeber, den Kalorienstrom dagegen konserviert die Allianz Capricorn/Schalm sowohl 50 Meter tief im Erdreich neben der Werkstatt als auch in einem 3000-Liter-Speicher. (orig.)

Anon.

2002-11-01

 
 
 
 
61

Mehr Nähe durch mehr Partikeln? Zur verwendung der Abtönungspartikeln in persönlichen Briefen / Janika Kärk  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Partiklite esinemissagedusest isiklikes kirjades ja selle muutumisest 18., 19. ja 20. sajandi vältel ning võimalikest partiklikasutust mõjutanud teguritest. Ülevaade ka värvingupartiklite morfoloogilistest, süntaktilistest ja pragmaatilistest omadustest

Kärk, Janika

2008-01-01

62

High-performance vacuum tubes for more energy efficiency. Building-integrated CPC vacuum tube collectors unite several functions.; Hochleistungs-Vakuumroehren fuer mehr Energieeffizienz. Gebaeudeintegrierte CPC-Vakuumroehren-Kollektoren vereinen mehrere Funktionen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The performance of solar collectors primarily contributes to increased efficiency and reduced operating costs of solar thermal systems. With the use of building-integrated CPC vacuum tube collectors an extremely high energy yield is achieved on a smaller collector gross area. As a building-integrated system solution the CPC facade provide panels in addition to its use as spandrel panels within the glazed buildings not only an architectural design element, but unite as a multifunctional component for several functions. [German] Die Leistungsfaehigkeit der Solarkollektoren traegt primaer zur Effizienzsteigerung und Reduzierung der Betriebskosten einer Solarthermieanlagen bei. Mit dem Einsatz gebaeudeintegrierter CPC-Vakuumroehrenkollektoren wird auf einer kleineren Kollektorbruttoflaeche ein extrem hoher Energieertrag erreicht. Als gebaeudeintegrierte Systemloesung bieten die CPC-Fassadenkollektoren neben dem Einsatz als Bruestungselemente auch innerhalb der verglasten Gebaeuden nicht nur ein architektonisches Gestaltungselement, sondern vereinen als multifunktionaler Bestandteil noch mehrere Funktionen.

Theiss, Eric

2013-10-15

63

Primary AL Amyloidosis  

Science.gov (United States)

Primary AL Description and Background Primary AL Amyloidosis Treatments Options Other/Maintenance Treatments Description of Stem Cell ... legs and arms, and protein in the urine. Primary AL Amyloidosis Treatments Options Under treatment options we ...

64

Konversationsanalyse als methodischer Zugang zum interkulturellen Lernen – Bericht über ein extracurriculares Projekt zum forschenden Lernen  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Die Konversationsanalyse – die zwischen der pragmatischen Linguistik und der qualitativen Sozialforschung verortet werden kann – ist eine komplexe Forschungsmethode, die viel Übung, vor allem viel Zeit und Engagement, benötigt. Mehr als die Anwendung einer Methode gilt es, eine "analytische Mentalität" zu entwickeln. Das in diesem Beitrag beschriebene Projekt war ein Versuch, die theoretischen Fähigkeiten und praktischen Fertigkeiten einer Gruppe von Studie­renden zu fördern, die gemeinsam in dem Projekt zusammenarbeiteten: bei der Materialerhebung, bei der Aufnahme von Gesprächen zwischen ausländischen und deut­schen Studierenden, bei der Transkription des Materials und den gemeinsamen Daten­sitzungen und der Analyse. Ich möchte in diesem Beitrag aufzeigen, was die Studierenden auf der Grundlage qualitativen empirischen Materials auf verschiedenen Ebenen lernen konnten: (1 sie erlebten eine Einführung in die verschiedenen Ebenen eines komplexen Forschungsprozesses und entwickelten eine methodische und metho­do­logische Kompetenz; (2 ihre kommunikative Kompetenz wurde erweitert, insbesondere die fremd­sprach­liche Kompetenz wurde gestärkt; und (3 ihre Kenntnisse von interkulturellen Zusammenhängen wurden vertieft und durch die authentischen Materialien dokumentiert und gestützt. So konnten z.B. Stereotypen und ihre interaktive Herstellung auf der mikroanalytischen Ebene genauestens beschrieben werden. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901335

Gabriele Berkenbusch

2008-10-01

65

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... 12/16/2008 3 Since ALS only affects motor neurons, the disease does not impair personality, intelligence, or memory. ALS ... ALS. MRIs and CAT scans help rule out diseases other than ALS that could be ... riluzole reduces damage to motor neurons. It also prolongs life by several months, mostly ...

66

Die Macht der Übersetzung – Konzeptionelle Überlegungen zur Übersetzung als politische Praktik am Beispiel kulturgeographischer Forschung im arabischen Sprachraum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Übersetzen ist eine notwendige Praktik im Rahmen internationaler Wissenschaft und ein wichtiges Hilfsmittel für die Forschung in ?anderen? sprachlichen Kontexten. Hierbei handelt es sich jedoch nicht um ein unproblematisches Unterfangen, das keiner Reflexion bedarf. Das Anliegen, sich mit dem Thema auch in der Geographie zu beschäftigen, resultiert hier zunächst aus konkreten Übersetzungsschwierigkeiten eines kulturgeographischen Forschungsprojektes, das sich mit Texten in arabischer Sprache befasst. In diesem Beitrag werden kurz die dort zutage tretenden Herausforderungen an die Übersetzung skizziert und darauf aufbauend konzeptionelle Überlegungen angestellt, mit denen sich diese Probleme greifen lassen. Dabei werden verschiedene Ansätze der Translation Studies zusammengeführt und für geographische Fragestellungen fruchtbar gemacht. Ziel ist es, konzeptionelle Herangehensweisen zur Untersuchung und Reflexion von Übersetzungspraktiken aus geographischer Perspektive aufzuzeigen. Die Idee des Übersetzens als bloße Übertragung von Bedeutung von einer Sprache in die andere im Sinne eines Über-Setzens ohne Bedeutungsverlust oder -verschiebung wird hier abgelehnt. Es wird verdeutlicht, dass es sich vielmehr um ein Dazwischen-Setzen handelt, mit dem zwangsweise eine Bedeutungsverschiebung einhergeht und das stets in spezifische Machtverhältnisse verstrickt ist. Dass die Effekte solcher Machtverhältnisse auf allen Ebenen des Übersetzungsprozesses wirken und letztendlich zur Formung kultureller Identitäten und kulturräumlicher Ordnungsvorstellungen beitragen, wird anhand von Beispielen veranschaulicht und problematisiert. Im Anschluss daran werden die Konsequenzen für die Umsetzung ausgelotet. Damit versteht sich der Beitrag nicht nur als Plädoyer für mehr Reflexion von Übersetzungspraktiken in geographischer Forschung, sondern auch dafür, in der Geographie Übersetzung selbst zum Forschungsgegenstand zu machen.

S. Husseini

2009-11-01

67

Die Macht der Übersetzung – Konzeptionelle Überlegungen zur Übersetzung als politische Praktik am Beispiel kulturgeographischer Forschung im arabischen Sprachraum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Übersetzen ist eine notwendige Praktik im Rahmen internationaler Wissenschaft und ein wichtiges Hilfsmittel für die Forschung in ?anderen? sprachlichen Kontexten. Hierbei handelt es sich jedoch nicht um ein unproblematisches Unterfangen, das keiner Reflexion bedarf. Das Anliegen, sich mit dem Thema auch in der Geographie zu beschäftigen, resultiert hier aus konkreten Übersetzungsschwierigkeiten eines kulturgeographischen Forschungsprojektes, das sich mit Texten in arabischer Sprache befasst. In diesem Beitrag werden kurz die dort zutage tretenden Herausforderungen an die Übersetzung skizziert und darauf aufbauend konzeptionelle Überlegungen angestellt, mit denen sich diese Probleme greifen lassen. Dabei werden verschiedene Ansätze der Translation Studies zusammengeführt und für geographische Fragestellungen fruchtbar gemacht. Ziel ist es, konzeptionelle Herangehensweisen zur Untersuchung und Reflexion von Übersetzungspraktiken aus geographischer Perspektive aufzuzeigen. Die Idee des Übersetzens als bloße Übertragung von Bedeutung von einer Sprache in die andere im Sinne eines Über-Setzens ohne Bedeutungsverlust oder -verschiebung wird hier abgelehnt. Es wird verdeutlicht, dass es sich vielmehr um ein Dazwischen-Setzen handelt, mit dem zwangsweise eine Bedeutungsverschiebung einhergeht und das stets in spezifische Machtverhältnisse verstrickt ist. Dass die Effekte solcher Machtverhältnisse auf allen Ebenen des Übersetzungsprozesses wirken und letztendlich zur Formung kultureller Identitäten und kulturräumlicher Ordnungsvorstellungen beitragen, wird anhand von Beispielen veranschaulicht. Im Anschluss daran werden die Konsequenzen für die Umsetzung ausgelotet. Damit versteht sich der Beitrag nicht nur als Plädoyer für mehr Reflexion von Übersetzungspraktiken in geographischer Forschung, sondern auch dafür, in der Geographie Übersetzung selbst zum Forschungsgegenstand zu machen.

S. Husseini

2009-03-01

68

/Cu-Al System  

Science.gov (United States)

Wettability and interfacial interaction of the Ta2O5/Cu-Al system were studied. Pure Cu does not wet the Ta2O5 substrate, and improved spreading is achieved when relatively a high fraction of the active element (~40 at.% Al) was added. The Al2O3 and AlTaO4 phases were observed at the Ta2O5/Cu-Al interface. A thermodynamic evaluation allowed us to suggest that the lack of wetting bellow 40 at.% Al is due to the presence of a native oxide, which covers the drop. The conditions of the native oxide decomposition and the formation of the volatile Al2O suboxide strongly depend on the vacuum level during sessile drop experiments and the composition of the Cu-Al alloy. In our case, Al contents greater than 40% provides thermodynamic conditions for the formation of Al2O (as a result of Al reaction with Al2O3) and the drop spreading. It was suggested that the final contact angle in the Ta2O5/Cu-Al system (50°) is determined by Ta adsorption on the newly formed alumina interlayer.

Kish, Orel; Froumin, Natalya; Aizenshtein, Michael; Frage, Nachum

2014-05-01

69

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... motor neurons, the disease does not impair personality, intelligence, or memory. ALS does not affect the ability ... and home care specialists help with the medical, emotional, and financial challenges of coping with ALS, especially ...

70

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... a lock are difficult. Other patients notice speech problems. ALS causes a wide range of disabilities. Eventually, ... machine. Most people with ALS experience major respiratory problems within 3-5 years of the first symptoms. ...

71

Ratings for Alness  

Alness Back to station Rating History for: Alness at Alness (4003) Note: Place the mouse cursor over a column heading to view a description of the data in that column Ref Limb Details Equation Start Date Max Stage End Date 1 a SEPA Q = 19.028*(h - 0.050)^2.589 01/01/1974 5.00 01/01/2100 Ratings for Alness

72

Al-Anon/Alateen  

Science.gov (United States)

... Alcoholism is a complex problem. More... How does Al-Anon Work? In Al-Anon, members do not give direction or advice ... meeting? If someone else’s drinking troubles you, attending Al-Anon and Alateen Family Group meetings can help. ...

73

HIT-Sanyo: Revolutionary technology, what is the truth and what a hoax? New technology from Japan tested in Germany; ''Sanyo-HIT: Revolutionaere Technik oder mehr Schein als Sein?''. Neue Technik aus Japan in Deutschland erprobt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The new modules from Japanese manufacturer Sanyo with the HIT-Technology are supposed to have the worlds best efficiency. In addition the manufacturer claims that by the HIT-Technology the modules supply more energy output compared to conventional crystalline solar modules. This article tries to prove these statements by outdoor investigation. Measurements of one grid connected system, which contains Sanyo, Kyocera and Ersol modules, show that Sanyo modules have at least 7% more energy output than the other modules. DC-measurements at Sanyo and BP modules even prove that due to the low temperature coefficient the Sanyo modules cope better with high cell temperatures compared to the BP ones. In addition the inspection sheets given by Sanyo seem to contain lower power data than determined in field measurements which may be caused by the different spectral consistence of the test light in Japan. The data collected during the second half of 2003 reveals that systems with Sanyo modules can provide 7% and more plus of energy output than systems with other well-known modules. Nevertheless it will be interesting to gather long time data of plants with Sanyo modules in order to achieve a statement of how the energy output evolves during the period of at least one year. (orig.)

Rust, T. [Atmosphaere GmbH, Laatzen (Germany); Kohake, D. [Fachhochschule Gelsenkirchen (Germany). Fachbereich Elektrotechnik; Rossner, M. [Fachhochschule Coburg (Germany). Fachbereich Elektrotechnik und Informatik

2004-07-01

74

Underground- and surface technologies for joint flooding of gas caves; Unter- und Uebertagetechnik als Einheit zur Flutung von Gaskavernen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After 20 years of operation the oldes caves in the Bernburg storage VNG AG had to repair the facilities. This required flooding of the caves from the start. At the same time geomechanical reserves which were reevaluated on the basis of redimensioning could be used by deepening. Flooding and relocation of the displaced gas should not disturb gas storage and brine extraction. As one of the caves was filled with gas for the first time it was possible to use the brine. Flooding and gas filling were coupled. [Deutsch] Nach mehr als 20jaehriger Betriebszeit der aeltesten Kavernen auf dem Speicher Bernburg stand fuer die VNG AG die Aufgabe der Reparatur. Der Umfang der Arbeiten machte von Anfang an das vollstaendige Fluten der Kavernen erforderlich. Gleicheitig ergab sich dabei die Moeglichkeit, seinerzeit verbliebene geomechanische Reserven, die auf Basis einer auf aktuelle Erkenntnisse beruhenden Neudimensionierung bewertet wurden, durch Nachsolung auszuschoepfen. Die Heranfuehrung des Flutmediums und die Umlagerung des verdraengten Gases sollten ohne nachteilige Rueckwirkung auf den Gasspeicher- und Solegewinnungsbetrieb erfolgen. Da zu diesem Zeitpunkt eine Kaverne in der Phase der Gaserstbefuellung stand, konnte die ausgetragene Sole genutzt werden. Flutprozess und Gaserstbefuellung wurden somit im direkt gekoppelten Betrieb durchgefuehrt. (orig./MSK)

Raudonus, K.; Miersch, D. [UGS GmbH, Mittenwalde (Germany); Haensler, G. [Verbundnetz Gas AG, Leipzig (Germany)

1998-12-31

75

POT for Alness  

POT for Alness Back to station POT Data for: Alness at Alness (4003) Note: Place the mouse cursor over a column heading to view a description of the data in that column Rank Date Time Stage Flow Rating Source Ref Comments 75 18/01/1974 00:00 1.580 57.21 In Range Dundee Univ. 1a 80 11/11/1974 00:00 1…

76

AMAX for Alness  

AMAX for Alness Back to station AMAX Data for: Alness at Alness (4003) QMED = 80.9m 3/s Note: Place the mouse cursor over a column heading to view a description of the data in that column Rank Water Year Date Time Stage Flow Rating Source Ref Available Data Comments 28 1973-74 18/01/1974 00:00 1.580…

77

Al-Zn-Al2Y system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the constructing of state diagram Al-Zn-Y by authors was synthesized more than 100 alloys which have passed thermal treatment during 800 hours at 573 and 773 K. Alloys have been investigated by roentgen-phase, micro-structural and differentially-thermal analysis. It was not found the triple compounds in the system

1994-01-01

78

AL Amyloidosis and Agent Orange  

Science.gov (United States)

... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here AL Amyloidosis and Agent Orange Veterans who develop AL ... receive VA health care and disability compensation. About AL amyloidosis AL amyloidosis is a rare disease caused ...

79

Der Licht-Turbo - mehr Tempo für Datennetze  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Licht breitet sich mit rund 300 000 Kilometer pro Sekunde aus – aber nur im Vakuum. Forscher können dieses Tempo mittlerweile fast beliebig reduzieren und in speziellen Materalien sogar Lichtpulse speichern. Doch ihre Fantasie reicht noch weiter: Neue optische Technologien könnten den weltweiten Datenverkehr deutlich beschleunigen.

The?venaz, Luc; Schneider, Thomas

2012-01-01

80

20 percent more yield; 20 Prozent mehr Ertrag  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Interview with Tino Weber, director of Schmack Biogas GmbH, about the opportunities and prospects of bioenergy use by new concepts. [German] Interview mit Tino Weber, Geschaeftsfuehrer der Schmack Biogas GmbH, ueber Chancen und Perspektiven der Bioenergie durch neue Nutzungskonzepte.

Anon.

2013-06-15

 
 
 
 
81

New systems for greater safety. Mehr Sicherheit durch neue Systeme  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The antiblocking system first introduced in 1978 was the beginning of a rapid development from ASR, ESP and other slip control systems to the future brake-by-wire units. The contribution presents a third generation ABS for motorbikes and an improved continuous braking systems for industrial vehicles. All systems improve active safety in road traffic.

Anon.

1999-04-01

82

Den Pflichtschulabschluss "erwachsenengerecht" nachholen. Mehr Anschluss durch Abschluss?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The new federal law on completing compulsory education enables adults to complete their compulsory education later in life at no costs - and in a suitable, "adult-friendly" way. The present article starts out by outlining the Austrian Adult Education Initiative (Initiative Erwachsenenbildung in German), and then goes one step further: The author asked graduates whether successful participation in a course for obtaining a secondary modern school leaving certificate really increases the...

2014-01-01

83

More dynamics for the electrical network; Mehr Dynamik fuers Netz  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The available regulating energy in the power grid should in future be exactly matched to the demand. Researchers are working on analysis models in order to optimize the required amounts corresponding to the current weather situation and to save costs. [German] Die vorzuhaltende Regelleistung im Stromnetz soll kuenftig exakt auf den Bedarf abgestimmt sein. Forscher arbeiten an Analysemodellen, um die erforderlichen Mengen der aktuellen Wetterlage entsprechend taeglich neu zu optimieren und so Kosten zu sparen.

Janzing, Bernward

2013-06-15

84

Franzoesisch--nicht mehr defensiv (French--No Longer Defensive)  

Science.gov (United States)

In the face of a decline in the number of students electing French in the reform curriculum, upper level, it is argued that the order French--English (as first and second language, respectively) is desirable. The resulting situation from a teaching standpoint is then outlined. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

Meier, Wilhelm

1976-01-01

85

Greater safety through lean management?; Mehr Arbeitssicherheit durch Lean Management?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Undertakings have to adopt very quickly to the new framework and conditions of international competition and the changed limiting conditions of production processes. New management strategies and organizational structures are discussed, and these include slogans such as `lean management`, `business re-engineering` or even `the fractural undertaking`. Departmental thinking is now replaced by orientation towards customers and business processes, which ultimately serve the customer and should satisfy his interests. In conclusion, the contribution of employment protection to the actual business processes is discussed. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Unternehmen muessen sich sehr schnell an die neuen Rahmenbedingungen der internationalen Wettbewerbssituation und die veraenderten Randbedingungen der Produktionsprozesse anpassen. Neue Managementstrategien und Organisationsformen werden diskutiert, Schlagworte dabei sind Lean Management, Business Reengineering oder auch das Fraktale Unternehmen. Das Abteilungsdenken wird jetzt abgeloest durch eine Orientierung an Kunden und an Geschaeftsprozessen, die letztlich dem Kunden diesen und ihn zufriedenstellen sollen. Konsequenterweise wird dabei auch der Beitrag des Arbeitsschutzes zu den eigentlichen Geschaeftsprozessen diskutiert. (orig.)

Bauer, W. [Fraunhofer Inst. fuer Arbeitswirtschaft und Organisation, Stuttgart (Germany)

1997-08-01

86

Certificates for higher safety; Zertifikate fuer mehr Sicherheit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The low-capacity wind power sector is focusing on developing Germany's wind power potential, but politicians are not much interested. Only recently, the amended Renewables Act was passed without considering low-capacity wind power systems. What the industry needs is a powerful lobby.

Frey, Martin

2012-01-30

87

No way around green tariffs; Oekotarife sind nicht mehr wegzudenken  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Just like green electricity, meanwhile a classic, so too now does newcomer ''green gas'' offer energy suppliers with an appropriate marketing mix far-reaching opportunities for improving their corporate image, securing customer loyalty and increasing turnover. However the only beneficiaries of this trend to date have been green-only suppliers which specialise in this market. Although most traditional suppliers have now added green tariffs to their product portfolio, this has given them little commercial success, since eco-minded consumers often consider green-only suppliers to be more credible. A recent study shows that the market volume of green electricity and green gas tariffs will grow markedly over the next five years. Energy suppliers should therefore turn their attention to the question of how they can best exploit this potential.

Briese, Dirk [trend:research GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

2011-05-15

88

Price drop and increasing competition; Sinkende Preise und mehr Wettbewerb  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Competition in the German PV sector is getting harder. German wholesale providers are dropping their prices, strengthening their marketing activities and expanding their range of services. This is the result of an enquiry made by SONNE WIND and WAeRME in November 2011.

Berner, Joachim

2012-01-06

89

Moxonidin als Initialtherapie und in Kombination bei der Behandlung der essentiellen Hypertonie: Ergebnisse der Topic-Studie (Trial of Physiotens in Combination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Die Wirksamkeit von Moxonidin in der Behandlung der essentiellen Hypertonie wurde in einer Studie in 138 Allgemeinarztpraxen in Großbritannien untersucht. Bei etwas mehr als der Hälfte der Patienten, die die 8-wöchige Open-label-Therapie mit Moxonidin (294 von 566 abschlossen, wurde eine gute Kontrolle des Blutdruckes (definiert als diastolischer Blutdruck im Sitzen 90 mmHg oder die Blutdrucksenkung im Vergleich zum Ausgangswert von mindestens 10 mmHg mit der einmal täglichen Gabe von 200 oder 400 mcg Moxonidin erreicht. Die übrigen 272 Patienten wurden nach dem Zufallsprinzip der 4-wöchigen Doppelblindtherapie zugeteilt, während der sie zusätzlich zu Moxonidin (400 mcg einmal täglich Amlodipin 5 mg (n = 87, Enalapril 10 mg (n = 88 oder Hydrochlorothiazid 12,5 mg (n = 97 erhielten. Hierbei zeigte sich, daß bei 46,9 % der mit Moxonidin+Amlodipin, 26,8 % der mit Moxonidin+Enalapril und 21,1 % der mit Moxonidin+Hydrochlorothiazid behandelten Patienten ein zufriedenstellender diastolischer Blutdruck erreicht werden konnte. Die Ergebnisse dieser Studie lassen erkennen, daß Moxonidin wirksam ist, wenn es entweder alleine oder in Kombination für die Behandlung der essentiellen Hypertonie bei Patienten in Allgemeinarztpraxen verwendet wird. Weiterführende Untersuchungen der Kombination von Moxonidin mit Amlodipin, die wirksam und auch gut verträglich war, ist wünschenswert.

Waters J

2000-01-01

90

[Phenotypic variation in ALS].  

Science.gov (United States)

Making a diagnosis of typical amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is not a tough job, but when it comes to atypical forms of motor neuron disease (MND) which are not uncommon in clinical setting, we may have some difficulty to diagnose ALS/MND. There is striking phenotypic variation in sporadic ALS/MND, such as frail arm syndrome (brachial amyotrophic diplegia), pseudopolyneuritic form, hemiplegic type, ALS/MND with markedly extended involvement beyond the motor system, and MND with basophilic inclusion bodies. These variations must be recognized if physicians are to tailor advice on disease progression, prognosis, drug therapy, and care to the needs of the individual. Clinical trials of new therapeutic agents have been performed, on the assumption that patients with ALS/MND have the same underlying etiology, addressing the heterogeneous population of the patients under a single diagnostic category. This can be detrimental to the well-being of the individual, because clinical heterogeneity may mask drug effects in clinical trials. The attempt to categorize subgroups based on the clinical and pathological backgrounds within the spectrum of ALS/MND may be a critical step in facilitating clinical research in ALS/MND. Definition of clinicopathologic syndromes in patients with ALS/MND is an important challenging task that cannot be ignored. PMID:17432191

Sasaki, Shoichi

2006-11-01

91

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... muscles. There are no cures for ALS. However, research and new forms of treatment are being developed. Knowing about ALS and its progression will help patients make informed decisions concerning their health care. This document is for informational purposes and ...

92

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... X-Plain.com nr180103 Last reviewed: 12/16/2008 1 ALS ALS attacks the neurons that control ... X-Plain.com nr180103 Last reviewed: 12/16/2008 2 This document is a summary of what ...

93

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Inc. www.X-Plain.com nr180103 Last reviewed: 12/16/2008 1 ALS ALS attacks the neurons ... Inc. www.X-Plain.com nr180103 Last reviewed: 12/16/2008 2 This document is a summary ...

94

[Environmental factors in ALS].  

Science.gov (United States)

ALS is likely to be a disorder of multifactorial origin. Among all the factors that may increase the risk of ALS, environmental ones are being studied for many years, but in the recent years, several advances have pointed to a new interest in their potential involvement in the disease process, especially for the cyanotoxin BMAA. Food containing BMAA has been found on Guam, a well-known focus of ALS/parkinsonism/dementia and high levels of BMAA have been identified into the brain of these patients. The BMAA cyanotoxin is potentially ubiquitous and have also been found into the food of patients who died from ALS both in Europe and USA. BMAA can be wrongly integrated into the protein structure during mRNA traduction, competing with serine. This may induce abnormal protein folding and a subsequent cell death. Heavy metals, such as lead or mercury may be directly toxic for neuronal cells. Several works have suggested an increased risk of ALS in individuals chronically exposed to these metals. Exposure to pesticides has been suggested to be linked to an increased risk of developing ALS. The mechanism of their toxicity is likely to be mediated by paraoxonases. These proteins are in charge of detoxifying the organism from toxins, and particularly organophosphates. To date, there are insufficient scientific data to suggest that exposure to electromagnetic fields may increase the risk of having ALS. We are particularly missing longitudinal cohorts to demonstrate that risk. PMID:24703731

Juntas-Morales, Raul; Pageot, Nicolas; Corcia, Philippe; Camu, William

2014-05-01

95

ALS2 mutations  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To determine the genetic etiology in 2 consanguineous families who presented a novel phenotype of autosomal recessive juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis associated with generalized dystonia. Methods: A combination of homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing in the first family and Sanger sequencing of candidate genes in the second family were used. Results: Both families were found to have homozygous loss-of-function mutations in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 2 (juvenile) (ALS2) gene. Conclusions: We report generalized dystonia and cerebellar signs in association with ALS2-related disease. We suggest that the ALS2 gene should be screened for mutations in patients who present with a similar phenotype.

Schneider, Susanne A.; Carr, Lucinda; Deuschl, Guenther; Hopfner, Franziska; Stamelou, Maria; Wood, Nicholas W.; Bhatia, Kailash P.

2014-01-01

96

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... ALS called riluzole. Scientists believe that riluzole reduces damage to motor neurons. It also prolongs life by ... have trouble swallowing. Riluzole does not reverse the damage already done to motor neurons. Other treatments for ...

97

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... to contract, which helps us adapt to our environment by talking, walking, chewing, and running. This document ... Most ALS patients do not have a family history of it, nor do family members have an ...

98

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... professional for your specific condition. ©1995-2008, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.X-Plain.com nr180103 ... cases, ALS affects only one leg at first. Patients notice that they are awkward when they walk ...

99

MDA ALS Caregiver's Guide  

Science.gov (United States)

... coordinator for the loved one with ALS, the manager of the loved one's medical, social, financial and ... Other caregivers should treat this person as the leader, the one who coordinates and keeps track of ...

100

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... more likely to get ALS than women. This reference summary will help you understand ... system. The brain is similar to a very complex computer that processes input from our senses and ...

 
 
 
 
101

About ALS: FAQ  

Science.gov (United States)

... experts in physical therapy, speech, occupational therapy, nursing, psychology, social work, nutrition and other fields, the ALS ... when you are hungry, anxious or smell good food. If your saliva is bothersome, there are several ...

102

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available X-Plain Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Reference Summary Introduction Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, or ALS, is a serious neurological disease that affects the ability to move. It is also ...

103

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... ALS and its treatment options. Anatomy Brain Peripheral Nerves Spinal Cord The brain and spinal cord are called the central nervous system. The nerves in the body, such as the arms, legs, ...

104

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... There is no cure for ALS. However, the Food and Drug Administration, or the FDA, has approved ... risk of pneumonia that could result from inhaling food and drinks into the lungs. A feeding tube ...

105

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... brain. They communicate with each other by sending electric signals through wires called axons. Neurons that control ... easier to diagnose. ALS can be diagnosed using electric tests on the muscles and nerves. These tests ...

106

Isokinetic assessment in ALS.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three measures of lower extremity function were compared in a homogenous population of ALS patients. Isokinetic dynamometry was shown to be a sensitive tool for change in strength over time. It demonstrated positive correlations with gait velocity as well as other behavioral measures. Manual muscle tests were relatively insensitive and no more reliable than isokinetics. Isokinetics are a useful adjunct in the assessment of ALS. PMID:11681399

Sufit, R; Clough, J A; Schram, M; Conrad, J; Erickson, L; Brooks, B R

1987-05-01

107

Schule als Polis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Die viel beachtete und ursprünglich von Hartmut von Hentig in den 1990er-Jahren geprägte Formel der "Schule als Polis" bezeichnet einen pädagogischen Entwurf schulischer Demokratie, in der alle Schüler/-innen (ähnlich wie einst die freien Bürger der antiken attischen Polis zu deren demokratischer Blütezeit) möglichst vielfältige Gelegenheiten erhalten sollen, ihr Leben und Lernen als gemeinsam und selbstbestimmt gestaltbare Sache zu erfahren. Der Ansatz des Konzepts stellt ei...

2005-01-01

108

Biological adsorption process for removal of organic substances from raw water as a preliminary stage of full-scale desalination systems; Biologisch adsorbtives Verfahren zur Entfernung von Organika aus Rohwaessern als Vorstufe fuer Vollentsalzungsanlagen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At Rostock power plant, KNG mgH in cooperation with DVGW of Hamburg Harburg University and STEAG encotec GmbH Essen developed and tested a two-stage desalination process with a biological activated carbon filter in the preparatory stage. Results were satisfactory. [German] Die Erzeugung von hochreinem Deionat als Speisewasser fuer Zwangsdurchlaufkessel mit Werten von <0,2 {mu}S/cm Leitfaehigkeit und <200 ppb TOC ist fuer die Dampfqualitaet im Wasser-Dampf-Kreislauf von immenser Bedeutung. Vor allem bei der kombinierten Fahrweise unter Zudosierung von Sauerstoff muessen diese Werte nicht nur eingehalten sondern eher noch weit unterschritten werden. Deionat entsprechender Leitfaehigkeit zu erzeugen ist seit langem kein Problem mehr. Schwierigkeiten gibt es jedoch in vielen Faellen bei der ausreichenden Entfernung des TOCs. Im Kraftwerk Rostock wurde durch die KNG mbH unter Mitwirkung des DVGW der Universitaet Hamburg Harburg und der STEAG encotec GmbH Essen ein Verfahren entwickelt und ueber 2 Jahre unter begleitenden Untersuchungen erprobt, bei dem eine zweistufige Vorreinigung von TOC auf weit unter 500 ppb und die nachgeschaltete Vollentsalzungsanlage auf <60 ppb reduziert. Neu an diesem Verfahren ist der in der Vorreinigung betriebene biologisch arbeitende Aktivkohlefilter, der als 1. Stufe, raeumlich getrennt von dem adsorbtiv arbeitenden Aktivkohlefilter, gerade die assimilierbaren organischen Bestandteile entfernt, die weder durch Adsorbtion an Aktivkohle, noch in den Ionenaustauschern der VE zurueckgehalten werden konnten. Dies brachte sowohl entscheidende Verbesserungen beim Betrieb der VE als auch bei der Reinheit des Wasser-Dampf-Kreislaufes. (orig.)

Schoenfelder, T. [KNG, Rostock (Germany); Keil, U. [STEAG encotec GmbH, Essen (Germany)

2000-07-01

109

Al-rich region of Al?Pt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: •The constitution of Al?Pt above 65 at.% Al is specified. •The previously reported Al4Pt, Al21Pt8 and Al2Pt phases are confirmed. •A new stable orthorhombic phase was revealed at ?75–76 at.% Al and 801–915 °C. -- Abstract: The constitution of the Al-rich part of the Al?Pt alloy system is revised. Apart from the previously reported equilibrium Al4Pt, Al21Pt8 and Al2Pt phases, a complex intermetallic was revealed at 75-76 at.% Al between 801 and 915 °C. Its structure determined by electron diffraction is orthorhombic (Bmmb, a = 1.983, b = 1.636 and c = 1.422 nm)

2013-12-15

110

Al-rich region of Al?Pt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: •The constitution of Al?Pt above 65 at.% Al is specified. •The previously reported Al{sub 4}Pt, Al{sub 21}Pt{sub 8} and Al{sub 2}Pt phases are confirmed. •A new stable orthorhombic phase was revealed at ?75–76 at.% Al and 801–915 °C. -- Abstract: The constitution of the Al-rich part of the Al?Pt alloy system is revised. Apart from the previously reported equilibrium Al{sub 4}Pt, Al{sub 21}Pt{sub 8} and Al{sub 2}Pt phases, a complex intermetallic was revealed at 75-76 at.% Al between 801 and 915 °C. Its structure determined by electron diffraction is orthorhombic (Bmmb, a = 1.983, b = 1.636 and c = 1.422 nm)

Grushko, B., E-mail: b.grushko@fz-juelich.de [PGI-5, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Kapush, D. [Dept. of Physical Chemistry of Inorganic Materials, I.N. Frantsevich Institute for Problems of Materials Science, 03680 Kyiv 142 (Ukraine); Su, J.; Wan, W.; Hovmöller, S. [Dept. of Structural Chemistry MMK, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

2013-12-15

111

Photoelectron spectroscopy of the aluminum hydride anions: AlH2-, AlH3-, Al2H6-, Al3H9-, and Al4H12-  

Science.gov (United States)

We report measurements of the negative ion photoelectron spectra of the simple aluminum hydride anions: AlH2-, AlH3-, Al2H6-, Al3H9-, and Al4H12-. From these spectra, we measured the vertical detachment energies of the anions, and we estimated the electron affinities of their neutral counterparts. Our results for AlH2-, AlH3-, and Al2H6- were also compared with previous predictions by theory.

Zhang, Xinxing; Wang, Haopeng; Collins, Evan; Lim, Alane; Ganteför, Gerd; Kiran, Boggavarapu; Schnöckel, Hansgeorg; Eichhorn, Bryan; Bowen, Kit

2013-03-01

112

Coupled growth of Al-Al2Cu eutectics in Al-Cu-Ag alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coupled eutectic growth of Al and Al2Cu was investigated in univariant Al-Cu-Ag alloys during solidification with planar and cellular morphology. Experiments reveal the dynamic selection of small spacings, below the minimum undercooling spacing and show that distinct morphological features pertain to nearly isotropic or anisotropic Al-Al2Cu interfaces.

2012-01-12

113

Pornographie als Metapher  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In diesem Artikel werden unterschiedliche metaphorische Verwendungen des Pornografiebegriffs und deren Implikationen untersucht. Während die Existenz von Pornografie der feministischen Anti-Porno-Bewegung als Erklärung für die anhaltende Diskriminierung von Frauen in westlichen Gesellschaften dient, nutzen rechtskonservative Kräfte den Pornografievorwurf als Rechtfertigung für die Zensur von als deviant empfundenen Identitäten und sexuellen Praktiken.This article examines different metaphorical uses of the term pornography and the resulting implications. While the existence of pornography for the feminist anti-porno movement serves as factor in the continuing discrimination of women in western societies, conservative powers on the right use the allegation of pornography as a justification for censorship of those identities and sexual practices deemed deviant.

Caroline Schubarth

2010-03-01

114

ALS superbend magnet system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is preparing to upgrade the Advanced Light Source (ALS) with three superconducting dipoles (Superbends). In this paper we present the final magnet system design which incorporates R&D test results and addresses the ALS operational concerns of alignment, availability, and economy. The design incorporates conduction-cooled Nb-Ti windings and HTS current leads, epoxy-glass suspension straps, and a Gifford-McMahon cryocooler to supply steady state refrigeration. We also present the current status of fabrication and testing.

Zbasnik, J.; Wang, S.T.; Chen, J.Y.; DeVries, G.J.; DeMarco, R.; Fahmie, M.; Geyer, A.; Green, M.A.; Harkins, J.; Henderson, T.; Hinkson, J.; Hoyer, E.H.; Krupnick, J.; Marks, S.; Ottens, F.; Paterson, J.A.; Pipersky, P.; Portmann, G.; Robin, D.A.; Schlueter, R.D.; Steier, C.; Taylor, C.E.; Wahrer, R.

2000-09-15

115

ALS superbend magnet system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is preparing to upgrade the Advanced Light Source (ALS) with three superconducting dipoles (Superbends). In this paper we present the final magnet system design which incorporates R and D test results and addresses the ALS operational concerns of alignment, availability, and economy. The design incorporates conduction-cooled Nb-Ti windings and HTS current leads, epoxy-glass suspension straps, and a Gifford-McMahon cryocooler to supply steady state refrigeration. We also present the current status of fabrication and testing

2000-09-18

116

Al Qaeda Training Manual  

Science.gov (United States)

The first resource is a US Department of Justice release of portions of an English translation of the Al Qaeda training manual located by police in Manchester, England during a search of an Al Qaeda member's home. The manual was found in a computer file described as "the military series" related to the "Declaration of Jihad." The cover and excerpts from the 12 chapters can be viewed as a .pdf file. Content of the text includes religious commentary, organizational tactics, guidelines for member selection, techniques for spying, and security measures. The DOJ does not provide the entire document because it does not want to encourage terrorism.

2001-01-01

117

Können die Parameter Dauerkatheter-Liegezeit, postoperatives Miktionsvolumen und Prostatagewicht als Parameter zur Vorhersage der Kontinenzwahrscheinlichkeit nach endoskopischer, extraperitonealer radikaler Prostatektomie dienen?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Die Kontinenzergebnisse nach den verschiedenen Verfahren der radikalen Prostatektomie zeigen bei entsprechender Erfahrung der Operateure keine Unterschiede und erreichen je nach Definition Raten bis zu 90 %. Es sollen deshalb unabhängige Parameter auf ihre Wertigkeit zur Abschätzung der Kontinenzwahrscheinlichkeit nach EERPE untersucht werden, um die Kontinenzraten verfahrensunabhängig optimieren zu können. Zur Erfassung der Kontinenzraten wird den Patienten jeweils 3, 6 und 12 Monate nach EERPE ein in der eigenen Abteilung entwickelter Fragebogen zugesandt. Das postoperative Miktionsvolumen wird mittels Uroflowmetrie ermittelt. Der Einfluss der zu untersuchenden Parameter wurde in Abhängigkeit der Ergebnisse der Fragebögen nach den entsprechenden Zeitintervallen analysiert. So zeigte sich, dass Patienten, welche 12 Monate nach radikaler Prostatektomie max. 1 Vorlage pro Tag benötigten, eine mittlere Dauerkatheter-Liegezeit von 10,2 Tagen hatten. Männer, die nach demselben Zeitraum 3 Vorlagen über 24 h benötigten, wurden im Mittel 19,5 Tage dauerhaft abgeleitet. Das mittlere Miktionsvolumen in der postoperativen Uroflowmetrie zeigte zu keinem Zeitpunkt einen signifikanten Unterschied zwischen den verschiedenen Gruppen. Ein höheres Prostatagewicht zeigte einen negativen Einfluss auf die Kontinenzergebnisse 3 Monate nach der Operation. Sechs und 12 Monate nach der EERPE ließen sich keine Auswirkungen des Organgewichtes auf das Kontinenzergebnis mehr darstellen. Als Konsequenz ergibt sich deshalb die Forderung nach einer Vermeidung verlängerter Katheter-Liegezeiten. Dies kann bereits intraoperativ durch eine sorgfältige Naht der vesiko-urethralen Anastomose erreicht werden. Voraussetzung dafür ist die sichere Beherrschung des angewandten Operationsverfahrens.

Sehovic M

2010-01-01

118

The new generation of BMW 4-cylinder engines (NG-4). A challenge for materials management; Die neue BMW Vierzylinder-Motorengeneration (NG-4) als materialwirtschaftliche Herausforderung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On 8 February 2001, BMW's new plant at Hams Hall in England, one of the most modern engine plants in the world, was officially opened. BMW is currently producing around 350 high-tech engines there per day. By the end of the year, production will have risen to 600 units per day. By the time the plant reaches its full capacity of over 400,000 units per year, around 1500 workers will be employed there. This successful project is the culmination of years of detailed work carried out in the engineering, sales and materials management fields. (orig.) [German] Am 8. Februar 2001 wurde das neue BMW Werk Hams Hall in England, eines der modernsten Motorenwerke der Welt, offiziell eingeweiht. Heute produziert BMW dort taeglich rund 350 High-Tech-Vierzylindermotoren. Bis Ende des Jahres wird die Produktion auf ueber 600 Einheiten pro Tag ansteigen. Wenn die volle Kapazitaet von mehr als 400.000 Einheiten pro Jahr erreicht ist, werden rund 1500 Mitarbeiter im Werk beschaeftigt sein. Dem ging eine jahrelange technische, kaufmaennische und materialwirtschaftliche Detailarbeit voraus. (orig.)

Bergmann, D.; Prinz, G. [BMW Group (Germany)

2001-08-01

119

Bâb al–Yaman  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bâb al–Yaman, porte méridionale de la ville de Sanaa, est devenue, un siècle après sa reconstruction, à la fois le symbole d’une identité urbaine héritée et l’emblème de la vitalité politique et culturelle du Yémen. C’est l’analyse de la persistance et de la symbolisation d’une forme urbaine archétypale qui est ici proposée à travers une triple lecture : celle des perceptions des citadins qui recentrent la porte dans les pratiques spatiales, celle, interprétative, des représentations iconographiques de Bâb al–Yaman qui s’inscrivent dans un processus de valorisation des richesses patrimoniales et culturelles du pays, et, enfin, celle des discours de quelques acteurs institutionnels qui font de la porte un objet de revendications.One century after its reconstruction, the southern gate of Sana’a, Bâb al–Yaman, has become not only the symbol of an ancient urban identity but also the emblem of Yemen’s political and cultural vitality. This article analyses the persistence and the symbolization of such an archetypal urban form through three levels of interpretations: first, the city dwellers’ perceptions, which replace the gate in spatial practices; then the iconographic representations of Bâb al–Yaman, which are in line with the process of promotion of Yemen’s patrimonial and cultural treasures; and last but not least, the discourse analysis of some institutional actors, who have turned the gate into an object of claim.

Roman Stadnicki

2006-10-01

120

ALS renewal moves forward  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As the result of an extensive long-term planning process involving all its stakeholders-management, staff, and users-the ALS has seen its future and is aggressively moving ahead to implement its vision for keeping the facility at the cutting edge for the next 2-3 decades. The evolving strategic plan now in place aims to renew the ALS so it can address a new generation of fundamental questions about size dependent and dimensional-confinement phenomena at the nanoscale; correlation and complexity in physical, biological, and environmental systems; and temporal evolution, assembly, dynamics and ultrafast phenomena. The renewal spans three areas: (1) increased staffing at beamlines to support the growing user community and safety professionals to keep an increasingly complex facility hazard free; (2) implementing advances in accelerator, insertion device, beamline, and detector technology that will make it possible for ALS users to address emerging grand scientific and technological challenges with incisive world-class tools; and (3) construction of a user support building and guest housing that will increase the safety and user friendliness of the ALS by providing users office, meeting, experiment staging, and laboratory space for their work and on-site accommodations at reasonable rates

2007-11-11

 
 
 
 
121

Al-Ahw?z  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Al-Ahw?z, principale ville du Kh?zist?n (province de la Perse méridionale), est implantée sur les deux rives de la rivière K?r?n. La ville se développa au cours des quatre premiers siècles de l'hégire (VIIe-Xe siècle) et devint un important carrefour du commerce terrestre et fluvial.

Tillier, Mathieu

2007-01-01

122

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... axons. Neurons that control our muscles are called motor neurons. The axons of motor neurons cause our muscles to contract, which helps ... ALS attacks the neurons that control muscles, the motor neurons. Messages from motor neurons in the brain ...

123

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... to diagnose. ALS can be diagnosed using electric tests on the muscles and nerves. These tests are called EMG and NCV, for ElectroMyoGram and ... of life. To provide these other treatments, health care professionals team up, including doctors, pharmacists, therapists, social ...

124

THE THERMODYNAMICAL PROPERTIES OF MELTS OF SYSTEM Al – La – Si ?????????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? Al – La – Si ?????????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? Al – La – Si  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An aluminium, rare-earth metals (La and their alloys, is used as deoxidants, desulfurizers andmodifiers of steels. In addition, the alloys of aluminium with silicon (silumins are very widely usedin the different areas of industry. Therefore an aim hired was the use of reliable values ofthermodynamics properties of the systems of Al – La, Al – Si, La – Si which analogical propertiesof triple alloys from Al – La – Si were expected. Experimental researches of thermo-chemicaldata (the partial enthalpy of mixing of silicon is in melts of Al – Si, for the systems of Al – La, Al– Si and La – Si was conducted by the method of isoperibelical calorimetry. States of activity ofcomponents of melts expected from a diagram Al – Si at 1800 K comport with the most knownliterary data. Energies of Gibbs mixing of melts of Al – La were modelled on the describedmethodology (Gsurplus = – 25 kJ/mol at xAl = 0,37. With the use of the obtained datathermodynamics properties of the triple system Al – La – Si are expected on the formulas of Cohlerand Bonier-Cabo. It is set, that between the experimental and expected data there is goodcorrelation??????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ????????? ??????????????????? ????????? ?????? Al – Si, Al – La, La – Si ?? ????????? Al – La – Si ?? ??????????????. ???????????, ?? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ??????????????? ??????. ????????, ?? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ????’?????? ? ???????????? ? ????????????? ?? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????-????.??????? ?????: ??????? ??????, ????? ??????????????? ????????????, ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ??????????, ???????? ?? ???????? ???????, ???????? ?????? ???????-????.??????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ????????? ??????????????????? ????????? ?????? Al – Si, Al – La, La – Si ?? ????????? Al – La – Si ?? ??????????????. ???????????, ?? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ??????????????? ??????. ????????, ?? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ????’?????? ? ???????????? ? ????????????? ?? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????-????

?. ???????

2011-04-01

125

Thomas Morley als musiktheoretiker  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available (nema?ki Der Komponist und Musiktheoretiker Thomas Morley hat in seiner Abhandlung "A Plaine and Easie Introduction into Practicall Musicke" (heraus-gegeben 1597 in London die Kompositionslehre seiner Zeit auf verständliche und anschauliche Weise dargestellt. Der vorliegende Beitrag untersucht sowohl den wissenschaftlichen als auch den didaktischen Wert dieses Traktats. Neben der Besprechung der allgemeinen Charakteristika der Abhandlung, wird im Beitrag auch Morleys Behandlung einzelner Themenbereiche untersucht, so u.a. auch die Klauseldisposition und die Frage, ob die Aussagen Morleys darüber als Wende vom modalen hin zum tonalen Denken interpretiert werden können: In diesem Kontext wird eine Antwort auf Martina Rebmanns Kritik an Carl Dahlhaus' Interpretation der Lehre Morleys gegeben.

Popovi? Tihomir T.

2005-01-01

126

Advanced aerospace Al alloys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

SiC particulate or whisker-reinforced aluminum alloys are very attractive for applications requiring high stiffness coupled with a comparatively light weight. The dispersion strengthened Al alloys produced through the rapid solidification processing/powder metallurgy route demonstrate superior elevated temperature strength and microstructural stability, extending the useful service temperature of Al alloys to 350 C. However, low ductility and poor fracture toughness levels dictate that stringent controls regarding reinforcement quality and the purity of the matrix alloy, powders and processing are implemented to maximize the alloys' increased stiffness and strength. This paper compares mechanical behavior through structure-property relationships currently being established for many new aluminum alloys. 40 references.

Ravichandran, K.S.; Dwarakadasa, E.S.

1987-05-01

127

Al-Al7Cr eutectic in Al-Cr alloys synthesized by laser alloying  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Al-Cr surface alloys prepared by injecting Cr powder into the melt pool generated in an Al substrate by a high-powered CO2 laser beam followed by laser remelting present a microstructure consisting of equiaxed cells comprised of extremely fine Al7Cr particles radially distributed in an ?-Al matrix. The analysis of this microstructure shows that it originated from solidification. Its morphology is typically eutectic, confirming the existence of the L ? ?-Al + Al7Cr eutectic reaction predicted by some Al-Cr phase diagram configurations proposed recently.

2010-10-01

128

Factores asociados al bajo peso al nacer  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El bajo peso al nacer (BPN) ha constituido un enigma en la ciencia a través de los tiempos. Múltiples son las investigaciones realizadas acerca de las causas que lo producen y las consecuencias que provoca. Su importancia no solo radica en lo que significa en la morbilidad y la mortalidad infantil, [...] sino que estos niños tienen habitualmente múltiples problemas posteriores. El Programa para la Reducción del BPN señala que los niños nacidos con un peso inferior a los 2 500 g presentan riesgo de mortalidad 14 veces mayor durante el primer año de vida, en comparación con los niños que nacen con un peso normal a término. Dentro de los factores de riesgo del BPN se han encontrado con mayor frecuencia en estudios realizados por diferentes autores, los siguientes: el embarazo en la adolescencia, la desnutrición en la madre, el hábito de fumar, la hipertensión arterial durante el embarazo, la sepsis cervicovaginal, la anemia y los embarazos gemelares, entre otros. Es innegable la influencia que el BPN tiene sobre las futuras generaciones, por lo que debe constituir la diana de los esfuerzos que el médico y la enfermera deben desarrollar en su prevención, sobre todo en la comunidad Abstract in english Low birth weight has been an enigma for Science through times. A lot of research works have been carried out about its causes and consequences. The importance of LBW not only lies in its meaning for infant mortality and morbidity but also in the many problems that low birth weight children regularly [...] face in the future. The program for the reduction of LBW points out that newborns weighing under 2500g have during his/her first year of life a mortality risk 14 times higher than newborns with a normal weight at term. Among the low birth weight risk factors, a number of studies by various authors have frequently found the following; pregnancy at adolescence; undernourishment in mothers, smoking, blood hypertension during pregnancy, cervix-vaginal sepsis; anemia, twin pregnancies and others. The influence of LBW on the future generations can not be denied, therefore, LBW should be a target for the efforts of physicians and nurses to prevent it within the community

Georgina J, Peraza Roque; Silvia de la C, Pérez Delgado; Zoe de los A, Figueroa Barreto.

129

Factores asociados al bajo peso al nacer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El bajo peso al nacer (BPN ha constituido un enigma en la ciencia a través de los tiempos. Múltiples son las investigaciones realizadas acerca de las causas que lo producen y las consecuencias que provoca. Su importancia no solo radica en lo que significa en la morbilidad y la mortalidad infantil, sino que estos niños tienen habitualmente múltiples problemas posteriores. El Programa para la Reducción del BPN señala que los niños nacidos con un peso inferior a los 2 500 g presentan riesgo de mortalidad 14 veces mayor durante el primer año de vida, en comparación con los niños que nacen con un peso normal a término. Dentro de los factores de riesgo del BPN se han encontrado con mayor frecuencia en estudios realizados por diferentes autores, los siguientes: el embarazo en la adolescencia, la desnutrición en la madre, el hábito de fumar, la hipertensión arterial durante el embarazo, la sepsis cervicovaginal, la anemia y los embarazos gemelares, entre otros. Es innegable la influencia que el BPN tiene sobre las futuras generaciones, por lo que debe constituir la diana de los esfuerzos que el médico y la enfermera deben desarrollar en su prevención, sobre todo en la comunidadLow birth weight has been an enigma for Science through times. A lot of research works have been carried out about its causes and consequences. The importance of LBW not only lies in its meaning for infant mortality and morbidity but also in the many problems that low birth weight children regularly face in the future. The program for the reduction of LBW points out that newborns weighing under 2500g have during his/her first year of life a mortality risk 14 times higher than newborns with a normal weight at term. Among the low birth weight risk factors, a number of studies by various authors have frequently found the following; pregnancy at adolescence; undernourishment in mothers, smoking, blood hypertension during pregnancy, cervix-vaginal sepsis; anemia, twin pregnancies and others. The influence of LBW on the future generations can not be denied, therefore, LBW should be a target for the efforts of physicians and nurses to prevent it within the community

Georgina J Peraza Roque

2001-10-01

130

26Al measurements with VERA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Vienna environmental research accelerator (VERA) is a 3-MV Pelletron tandem mass spectrometer system. Since July 1996, extensive tests with 26Al detection were performed. Systematic investigations of reproducibility, transmission, overall efficiency etc. are necessary for a new facility such as VERA in order to come up with reliable results. To this end several different 26Al standards with an 26Al/27Al isotopic ratio between 5 x 10-10 and 1 x 10-12 were used. The results of these investigations revealed no systematic deviation beyond counting statistics. In order to determine the cross section for the 27Al(n,2n)26Al reaction Al-metal samples with 26Al produced from neutron irradiation were measured and compared with 26Al standards. (orig.)

1998-04-01

131

Photoelectron spectroscopy of the aluminum hydride anions: AlH2(-), AlH3(-), Al2H6(-), Al3H9(-), and Al4H12(-).  

Science.gov (United States)

We report measurements of the negative ion photoelectron spectra of the simple aluminum hydride anions: AlH2(-), AlH3(-), Al2H6(-), Al3H9(-), and Al4H12(-). From these spectra, we measured the vertical detachment energies of the anions, and we estimated the electron affinities of their neutral counterparts. Our results for AlH2(-), AlH3(-), and Al2H6(-) were also compared with previous predictions by theory. PMID:23556719

Zhang, Xinxing; Wang, Haopeng; Collins, Evan; Lim, Alane; Ganteför, Gerd; Kiran, Boggavarapu; Schnöckel, Hansgeorg; Eichhorn, Bryan; Bowen, Kit

2013-03-28

132

Soil-mortar as building material for district heat pipeline construction; Boden-Moertel als Baustoff im Fernwaermeleitungsbau  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Soil-mortar is a building material which can be described - as a basic material dug-out earth or suitable recycling-building materials (RC-building materials) - a plasticizer and a - stabilizer. After mixing these components, the soil-mortar goes through a period of plastic consistency (destabilization). After the filling process in the trench is completed, it restabilizes - but only to an extent that makes it possible - if needed - to loosen it again, for example with a shovel. By using further additives, its consistency can be manipulated. The destabilization can be reached by adding a plasticizer. Expandable clay of the Montmorillonit-type in watery suspensions qualifies for this purpose. Here, swollen clay chips layer between the grain of the ground-material and form sliding layers, thus minimizing the transversal strength. During production and pouring of the soil-mortar, it should have a low transversal strength, i.e. a high plasticity. The duration of the soft-smooth consistency can be controlled by re-stabilization. This can be done by adding a stabilizer. (orig.) [German] Als Boden-Moertel wird ein Baustoff bezeichnet, der zu rd. 93 bis 97% aus oertlich anstehendem Boden, natuerlichem Sand oder aus recycelten Baustoffen besteht. Dieser Baustoff wird durch Zugabe und Durchmischen mit einem Plastifikator sowie einem Stabilisator zum Zweck des hohlraumarmen Einbaues zeitweilig in eine fliessfaehige Konsistenz ueberfuehrt. Anschliessend erfolgt eine selbstaendige Verfestigung des Boden-Moertels ohne Verdichtungsarbeit. Fallbeispiele haben gezeigt, dass sich bei der Anwendung von Boden-Moertel die anteiligen Strassen- und Tiefbaukosten im Leitungsbau um bis zu 30% senken lassen. Hinzukommt, dass keine Gewaehrleistungskosten fuer setzungsbedingte Schaedigungen der Strassenbefestigungen mehr anfallen. (orig.)

Berger, W. [Forschungsinstitut fuer Tief- und Rohrleitungsbau Weimar e.V. (Germany)

1999-11-01

133

Editorial: Cartas al Editor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En todas las revistas biomédicas del mundo existe una sección habitual denominada como el título de este editorial y que en Colombia Médica la llamamos correspondencia. Este espacio tiene como objetivo fundamental que los lectores escriban a los autores (investigadores comentando los artículos que se han publicado en números anteriores de la revista. Las cartas son, entonces, breves comentarios de desacuerdo o acuerdo (conceptual, metodológico, interpretativo sobre falencias ubicadas por un lector alerta al tema debatido en cualquiera de las secciones como en los artículos originales, editoriales, revisiones, presentación de casos, etc. publicados previamente en la revista. Las cartas deben permitir el intercambio de opiniones y formas de pensar y analizar los problemas planteados entre los autores y los lectores. En ocasiones una serie de cartas motivadas por un artículo original puede ser tan o más interesante como el artículo que generó la correspondencia. Las cartas son también un formato adecuado para comunicar un hecho novedoso de una observación clínica juiciosa no descrita antes. Un ejemplo de ello es la carta de un gineco-obstetra australiano cuando informó a Lancet los primeros efectos adversos informados de la talidomida. Colombia Médica, a pesar de mantener vigente esta sección, no ha sido muy afortunada en establecer una buena cultura del envío de cartas al editor. Pero últimamente han llegado juiciosas observaciones a las cuales se les ha dado prioridad en su publicación. Toda carta que comenta los hallazgos de un artículo es enviada a los autores para su respuesta, porque ello genera el debate académico buscado, y luego se publican, tanto la carta como su respuesta. El Estilo Vancouver recomienda que la carta y su respuesta deban ser breve, no pasar de dos o tres párrafos y contener sólo cuatro o cinco referencias. En lo posible (a menos que sea indispensable no presentar ni cuadros ni gráficos. El título de la carta debe ser informativo, innovativo y obviamente relacionado con el tema a presentar. La carta debe referirse en forma clara y explícita al hecho que la motiva y a partir de ahí seguir un esquema expositivo progresivo. Los párrafos siguientes deben ser la argumentación a favor o en contra, o los comentarios adicionales que se quieren hacer. Luego debe seguir una pequeña discusión de estos aportes y se debe finalizar con una conclusión. Las cartas son finalmente una indicador bibliométrico de la lectura juiciosa de quienes leen la revista. Por ello los editores buscamos y facilitamos el envío de ellas. En Colombia Médica queremos estimular que nos escriban y ojalá nuestros lectores se vuelvan socios muy activos en el proceso de comunicación científica y para ello utilicen nuestra sección de correspondencia.

Guillermo Llanos

2006-06-01

134

Corrosion behaviour of Al/SiC and Al/Al2O3 nanocomposites  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In the present investigation, the static immersion corrosion behavior of Al/Al2O3 and Al/SiC nanocomposites in 1 M HCl acidic solution was evaluated. The nanocomposites were fabricated using conventional powder metallurgy (P/M) route. The effect of nanoparticulates size and volume fraction on the co [...] rrosion behavior of nanocomposites was studied. The durations of the corrosion tests ranged from 24 to 120 hours and the temperatures of the solution ranged from ambient to 75 ºC. The corrosion rates of the nanocomposites were calculated using the weight loss method. The results showed that both Al/SiC and Al/Al2O3 MMNCs have lower corrosion rates than the pure Al matrix. Such behavior was noticed at both ambient and higher temperatures. Generally, the Al/Al2O3 nanocomposites exhibited lower corrosion rates than the Al/SiC nanocomposites. The Al/Al2O3 (60 nm) nanocomposites exhibited the highest corrosion resistance among all the investigated nanocomposites. The corrosion rate was found to be reduced by increasing of the exposure time and the volume fraction of the nanoparticulates, while it was found to be increased by increasing of the nanoparticulates size and the solution temperature.

Mahmoud, Tamer Samir; El-Kady, El-Sayed Yousef; Al-Shihiri, Ayed Saad Merzen.

135

Al Mashriq: Lebanon  

Science.gov (United States)

Part of the Al-Mashriq online Web resource for countries located in the Levant, this site is devoted to providing a host of materials, thematically organized, about the country of Lebanon. Persons seeking to read a bit about Lebanon's early history will want to read the first chapter of Kamal Salibi's "A House of Many Mansions-The History of Lebanon," which is provided here. For those looking for a geographic orientation to the landscape of Lebanon, an interactive map provides a number of photographs and brief remarks on various important cities and cultural sites, such as Beirut and the Roman temples at Baalbak. Along with these sections, the site also offers thematic sections devoted to education, food, maps, money, politics, and religion that will be useful to those students looking for background information on Lebanon.

136

Alkoholische Kardiomyopathie  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Alkoholische Kardiomyopathie (AKM ist eine spezifische Herzmuskelerkrankung, die in 2 Stadien verläuft: einem asymptomatischen und einem symptomatischen Stadium. Patienten, die mehr als 90 g Alkohol pro Tag über mehr als 5 Jahre trinken, setzen sich dem Risiko einer AKM aus. In den Frühstadien besteht eine diastolische Dysfunktion des linken Ventrikels, später entwickelt sich eine systolische Dysfunktion mit den Symptomen der Herzinsuffizienz.

Silberbauer K

2003-01-01

137

Ubiquitous Navigation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ortsbezogene Dienste (Location-based Services, LBS) sind in den letzten Jahren durch die weite Verfügbarkeit von GPS zu einem Massenphänomen gewachsen. Insbesondere für die Steuerung von mobilen Endgeräten wird mehr und mehr Kontextinformation hinzugenommen, da sowohl die Bedienbarkeit als auch die Informationsdichte auf den kleinen Smartphones im Kontrast zur Informationsfülle des Internets stehen. Daher werden vielfach Dienste nicht mehr allein auf der Nutzereingabe basierend erbracht ...

2012-01-01

138

Al versus Si competition in FeSiAl alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In FeSiAl alloys, when Si substitutes for Al, important changes take place in the magnetism as well as in the structural properties. Alloys in the two composition series Fe75Al25-xSix (x=0, 7.5, 12.5, 17.5, 25) and Fe70Al30-xSix (x=0, 9, 15, 21, 30) were prepared by induction melting; afterwards they were crushed and then annealed in order to recover the DO3 stable phase. The deformed FeAl samples show larger lattice parameters than the ordered ones; however, this difference (?a) decreases when Si substitutes for Al until it becomes zero (i.e. until the ordered samples and the deformed ones have the same lattice parameters). This trend is the same for both sample series and does not depend on the Fe content of the alloy. However, the magnetization has a different behaviour depending on the Fe content. For deformed Fe75Al25-xSix alloys the saturation magnetization decreases with increasing Si content while for Fe70Al30-xSix deformed alloys the saturation magnetization has a plateau in which the saturation magnetization values do not vary

2008-10-01

139

Undulators at the ALS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory`s (LBL) Advanced Light Source (ALS), three 4.6 m long undulators have been completed, tested and installed. A fourth is under construction. The completed undulators include two 5.0 cm period length, 89 period devices (U5.0s) which achieve a 0.85 T effective field at a 14 mm minimum gap and a 8.0 cm period length, 55 period device (U8.0) that reaches a 1.2 T effective field at a 14 mm minimum gap. The undulator under construction is a 10.0 cm period length, 43 period device (U10.0) that is designed to achieve 0.98 T at a 23 mm gap. Undulator magnetic gap variation (rms) is within 25 microns over the periodic structure length. Reproducibility of the adjustable magnetic gap has been measured to be within +/{minus} 5 microns. Gap adjusting range is from 14 mm to 210 mm, which can be scanned in one minute. The 5.1 m long vacuum chambers are flat in the vertical direction to within 0.74 mm and straight in the horizontal direction to within 0.08 mm over the 4.6 m magnetic structure sections. Vacuum chamber base pressures after UHV beam conditioning are. in the mid 10{sup {minus}11} Torr range and storage ring operating pressures with full current are in the low 10{sup {minus}10} Torr range. Measurements show that the uncorrelated magnetic field errors are 0.23%, and 0.20% for the two U5.Os and the U8.0 respectively and that the field integrals are small over the 1 cm by 6 cm beam aperture. Device description, fabrication, and measurements are presented.

Hoyer, E.; Akre, J.; Chin, J. [and others

1994-07-01

140

Online-Dienstleistung als Herausforderung für AnbieterInnen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Situation in Österreich  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Online-Beratung findet zunehmend auch im Dienstleistungssektor statt und damit nicht mehr nur im psychosozialen Beratungskontext. Gerade die Interaktivität des Mediums Internet macht dabei den Reiz für AnbieterInnen aus, die Dienstleistungsangebote auch im virtuellen Raum den KundInnen anzubieten. Der Artikel beleuchtet die notwendigen Schritte und Sichtweisen für eine professionelle Projektplanung solcher Angebote im Internet unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Situation in Österreich.

Birgit Kollek

2006-03-01

 
 
 
 
141

Heat pumps, a factor in enhancing customer loyalty; Waermepumpen als Erfolgsfaktor bei der Kundenbindung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heat pump sales in Switzerland soared n the past year. This favourable market development is a great chance for the electric power industry in many respects. [German] Die Waermepumpen-Verkaeufe haben im vergangenen Jahr einen erneuten Sprung nach oben gemacht. Immer mehr Schweizer ersetzen ihre alten Feuerungsanlagen durch umweltfreundliche Waermepumpen-Heizungen. Diese erfreuliche Marktentwicklung ist fuer die Elektrizitaetswirtschaft in verschiedener Hinsicht eine grosse Chance. (orig.)

Beyeler, F. [MKR Consulting AG, Bern (Switzerland)

1999-12-03

142

"Mediman" – Smartphone als Plattform zum Lernen? ["Mediman" – The smartphone as a learning platform?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available [english] Mobile devices with a connection to the internet – smartphones – are seen all over the place since the popular introduction of the Apple iPhone. Similar products existed but no company managed to combine simplicity and functionality so seamlesly. Their market share increases constantly and web sites get optimised for the small display sizes (often referred to as „responsive webdesign“ otherwise the usability lacks. Students seem to like smartphones aswell and a good question is if and to what extend those devices can play a role in e-learning.„Mediman“, an adaptation of the common game Hangman has been developed for smartphones. Test users asked to complete an online questionnaire. So far, only few e-learning applications for smartphones seem to exist. This is reflected in the low usage frequency. Especially the fact that most of the test users wear a smartphone with them all the time makes it an ideal learning plattform. Short learning sessions were rated more important than continuous text. The majority of the 11 test users rated Mediman as well developed. The foremost question whether a smartphone e-learning application is feasible must be answered positive – acceptance in the test user group was shown. E-learning applications on smartphones will be an important topic in the future as market shares increase constantly. Further studies are required due to the small number of partitipants in our survey. [german] Mobile Endgeräte mit Internetzugang (Smartphones sind seit Apples revolutionärer iPhone-Markteinführung nicht mehr aus dem Alltag wegzudenken und erfreuen sich ausgesprochener Beliebtheit. Ihr Marktanteil wächst stetig und Webseitenbetreiber kommen nicht umher, ihre Webseiten an die neuen kleinen Displaygrößen und Bedienungstechniken anzupassen – häufig als „Responsive Webdesign“ beschrieben. Anwendungen, die nicht für die Anzeige auf kleinen Bildschirmen optimiert sind, schränken den Bedienkomfort ein. Auch bei Studierenden sind Smartphones sehr verbreitet und so stellt sich die Frage, ob sie nicht auch als Plattform für Lernanwendungen dienen können.„Mediman“, eine Portierung des klassischen Spielprinzips von Galgenmännchen, wurde für Smartphones entwickelt. Testbenutzer wurden dann gebeten, einen Onlinefragebogen auszufüllen. Zur Zeit scheinen nur wenige Lernanwendungen für Smartphones zu existieren, was sich in der eingeschränkten Benutzungshäufigkeit widerspiegelt. Vor allem die Tatsache, dass Smartphone-Besitzer ihre Geräte meist bei sich tragen, wird als ideale Voraussetzung gesehen, die Geräte für Lernanwendungen einzusetzen. Hier scheint vor allem das Lernen in kurzen Sitzungen von Interesse. Mediman wurde von der Mehrzahl der 11 Testbenutzer als gut umgesetzte Beispielanwendung bewertet. Die zentrale Frage der Umsetzbarkeit einer Smartphone-Lernanwendung wurde damit erreicht – die notwendige Akzeptanz scheint vorhanden.Für die Zukunft ist mit einer zunehmenden Verbreitung von Smartphones zu rechnen, sodass Lernanwendungen und –szenarien für Endgeräte mit kleinen Bildschirmen optimiert werden sollten. Aufgrund der geringen Fallzahl in der Onlineumfrage sollten weitere Untersuchungen angeschlossen werden.

Boeder, Niklas

2013-02-01

143

„Vertrieben 1938“ – Sonder-Blogserie im Van Swieten Blog der Medizinischen Universität Wien: Work in Progress über die mehr als 143 an der Medizinischen Fakultät der Universität Wien entlassenen Professoren und Dozenten / "Displaced 1938" – a special run in the Van Swieten Blog at the Medical University Vienna: Work in progress about 143+ professors and university teachers displaced from the Medical Faculty at the University Vienna  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since 11th March 2008 the university library at the Medical University Vienna runs the special blog series "Displaced 1938" as part of its regular Van Swieten Blog (http://ub.meduniwien.ac.at/blog/. Each day one out of 143 displaced professors and university teachers is introduced in a seperate weblog posting. Biographies from a dissertation in the library's repositoy were scanned for this particular purpose. Moreover the corresponding publications from and about the displaced persons in stock of the branch library of the history of medicine were electronically catalogued in the library's OPAC. The postings also refer to pictures and documents in the picture archives and manuscript collection at the Medical University Vienna. Links to appropriate free internet web sites are offered in the postings to further inform on the displaced professors and university teachers.

Bauer, Bruno

2008-06-01

144

AlN/Fe/AlN nanostructures for magnetooptic magnetometry  

Science.gov (United States)

AlN/Fe/AlN/Cu nanostructures with ultrathin Fe grown by sputtering on Si substrates are evaluated as probes for magnetooptical (MO) mapping of weak currents. They are considered for a laser wavelength of ? = 410 nm (3.02 eV) and operate at oblique light incidence angles, ?(0), to enable detection of both in-plane and out-of-plane magnetization. Their performance is evaluated in terms of MO reflected wave electric field amplitudes. The maximal MO amplitudes in AlN/Fe/AlN/Cu are achieved by a proper choice of layer thicknesses. The nanostructures were characterized by MO polar Kerr effect at ?(0) ? 5° and longitudinal Kerr effect spectra (?(0) = 45°) at photon energies between 1 and 5 eV. The nominal profiles were refined using a model-based analysis of the spectra. Closed form analytical expressions are provided, which are useful in the search for maximal MO amplitudes.

Lišková-Jakubisová, E.; VišÅovský, Š.; Široký, P.; Hrabovský, D.; Pištora, J.; Harward, I.; Celinski, Z.

2014-05-01

145

Frequently Asked Questions about ALS and the ALS Registry  

Science.gov (United States)

... one of a group of conditions known as motor neuron diseases (MNDs). ALS affects nerve cells for muscles of ... it is a good tool to track other motor neuron diseases (e.g., PLS). Back to Top Can someone ...

146

AlN synthesis on AlN/SiC template using Li-Al-N solvent  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We investigated the possibility of AlN synthesis using Li-Al-N solvent. In this work, Li-Al-N solvent was obtained by heating a mixture composed of Al and Li{sub 3}N. First, we studied the relationship between Al/Li{sub 3}N composition of the initial mixture and shape of obtained crystal. The results showed that polyhedral crystals instead of needle-like crystals were obtained under an Al-rich condition, i.e., 4/3<Al/Li{sub 3}N<4/1. Next, we performed AlN synthesis on an AlN/SiC template under an Al-rich condition. The results suggested that a large AlN single-phase region was formed by using the template. The possibility of growth of bulk AlN using Li-Al-N solvent was shown by the present investigations. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

Kangawa, Yoshihiro [RIAM, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Kakimoto, Koichi [RIAM, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

2010-06-15

147

Coaching als Grundform pädagogischer Beratung  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Basierend auf der Weiterführung einer Synthese ausgewählter theoretischer Ansätze erfolgt in der vorliegenden Arbeit die Darlegung einer formalen Verortung und theoretischen Grundlegung eines Verständnisses von Coaching als Grundform professioneller pädagogischer Beratung im Sinne eines genuin pädagogischen Bildungsgeschehens.

Hartmann, Melanie

2004-01-01

148

Corrosion behaviour of Al/SiC and Al/Al2O3 nanocomposites  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the present investigation, the static immersion corrosion behavior of Al/Al2O3 and Al/SiC nanocomposites in 1 M HCl acidic solution was evaluated. The nanocomposites were fabricated using conventional powder metallurgy (P/M) route. The effect of nanoparticulates size and volume fraction on the corrosion behavior of nanocomposites was studied. The durations of the corrosion tests ranged from 24 to 120 hours and the temperatures of the solution ranged from ambient to 75 ºC. The corrosion ra...

Tamer Samir Mahmoud; El-Sayed Yousef El-Kady; Ayed Saad Merzen Al-Shihiri

2012-01-01

149

Radiation detection with Nb/Al-AlOx/Al/Nb superconducting tunnel junctions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Superconductor radiation detectors have the possibility of 20-30 times better energy resolution than that of a high resolution Si detector. We fabricated Nb/Al-AlOx/Al/Nb superconducting tunnel junctions with low leakage current. X rays were detected with large area junctions of 178x178 ?m2. High energy resolution of 160 eV for 5.9 keV was obtained. We also fabricated series connected junctions which covers a rather large area of 4x4 mm2. ? particles injected into the rear substrate were detected using nonthermal phonons induced by the radiations in the substrate. (author)

1992-12-01

150

Bound and resonant surface states at the (110) surfaces of AlSb, AlAs, and AlP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dispersion curves E(k-bar) have been calculated for bound and resonant (110) surface states of AlSb, AlAs, and AlP. AlSb is predicted to have no surface states within the bulk fundamental band gap, but AlAs and AlP are predicted to have surface state band minima which are very near the conduction band edge, and could lie either within the gap or immediately above the edge

1982-01-01

151

Experimental and simulation investigations of tensile response of (Al2O3f/Al)w/2024Al composite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tensile response of a 2024Al alloy reinforced with Al2O3f/Al composite wires [(Al2O3f/Al)w/2024Al composite] has been investigated by both performing tensile tests and using the finite element method (FEM). Microstructure and tensile fracture surfaces of (Al2O3f/Al)w/2024Al composites were examined using optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. It is found that the longitudinal tensile response of (Al2O3f/Al)w/2024Al composite is nearly elastic up to failure. The longitudinal tensile strength of (Al2O3f/Al)w/2024Al composite reaches its fiber bundle strength and the longitudinal elastic modulus is consistent with that predicted using the rule of mixture. The contribution of matrix is negligible to the longitudinal tensile strength but not to the modulus of elasticity. Coating composite wires (CWs) with Ni can improve the interfacial bonding between the CWs and 2024Al alloy. Diffusion annealing can further improve the interfacial bonding. The transverse tensile strength is dependent strongly on the interfacial bonding between the CWs and 2024Al alloy. The stronger the interfacial bonding, the higher the transverse tensile strength. Following the diffusion annealing, ageing treatment can improve the transverse tensile strength of (Al2O3f/Al)w/2024Al composite to a higher level due to the increased strength of matrix 2024Al alloy. To reveal the fracture mode of (Al2O3f/Al)w/2024Al composite under transverse loading, the transverse tensile response of a model material, (Al2O3f/matrix1)w/matrix2 composite, whose microstructure is similar to that of the (Al2O3f/Al)w/2024Al composite, was analyzed using FEM. FEM results indicate that, under transverse loading, the stress distribution in the (Al2O3f/matrix1)w/matrix2 composite depends on the strength of matrix2. When matrix1 and matrix2 are both pure Al, failure initiates in matrix1. When matrix1 is pure Al and matrix2 is aged 2024Al alloy, however, failure initiates in matrix2 (2024Al). Therefore, for (Al2O3f/Al)w/2024Al composites with weak interfacial bonding between CWs and 2024Al matrix, cracks initiate at interfaces between the CWs and 2024Al matrix and propagate along the interfaces and then through 2024Al matrix, resulting in the global fracture. For (Al2O3f/Al)w/2024Al composite with strong interfacial bonding between CWs and 2024Al matrix, cracks initiate in either pure Al or 2024Al alloy and then propagate in both Al and 2024Al, resulting in the global fracture

2008-12-15

152

The alloys of Al-Co, Al-Ni and Al-Re systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this chapter authors made conclusion that at developing of aluminium alloys, for exploitation as alloy additions which make second phase, it's better to use elements which make aluminide of Me Al>3 mixture

2007-01-01

153

Contracting in the power supply sector; Contracting als Energiedienstleistung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

`Contracting` has become a fashionale term. In practice, it may be hard to distinguish between `Contracting`, `Leasing`, `Bank loan` and `Outsourcing`. In the classic manner of power supply, the consumer of energy himself converts primary energy into useful energy in plants constructed with his own investments. In contracting, in contrast, it is not the consumer of useful energy who invests in the plants but a so-called contractor. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der schwer zu uebersetzende englische Begriff `Contracting` ist zu einem Modewort gekommen. Die Abgrenzung von `Contracting` gegenueber `Leasing`, `Bankdarlehen` oder `Outsourcing` ist oft schwierig. Bei der klassischen Energieversorgung besorgt der Energieverbraucher die Umwandlung der Primaerenergie in den von ihm selber investierten Anlagen in die benoetigte Nutzenergie. Im Gegensatz dazu investiert beim Contracting nicht mehr der Nutzenergieverbraucher in die fuer die Energieumwandlung benoetigten Anlagen, sondern ein sogenannter Contractor. (orig.)

Waelchli, T. [Elektra Birseck Muenchenstein (EBM) (Germany)

1997-02-07

154

Die Bedeutung der postprandialen Hyperglykämie als kardiovaskulärer Risikofaktor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Im Hinblick auf das hohe mikro- und makrovaskuläre Risiko von Typ-2-Diabetikern fordern Experten immer vehementer eine möglichst frühzeitige Diagnose und Therapie. Neben den prognostisch wichtigen Zielwerten für den Nüchternblutzucker und für das HbA1c rückt dabei die Vermeidung postprandialer Blutzuckerspitzen immer mehr ins Zentrum therapeutischer Bestrebungen. Der HbA1c-Wert wird nicht nur durch die Nüchtern-, sondern auch durch die postprandialen Blutzuckerspitzen mitbestimmt. Eine Reduktion des HbA1c-Wertes vermindert die diabetische Spätkomplikationsrate, wie die UKPDS darstellen konnte. Im folgenden werden die Epidemiologie und die Therapie der postprandialen Hyperglykämie mit Schwerpunkt auf die Behandlung des Diabetes mellitus Typ 2 dargestellt.

Hoppichler F

2002-01-01

155

Self-employed individuals, time use, and earnings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Auf Grundlage zweier deutscher Datensätze untersucht diese Studie die Zeitallokation von selbständigen Frauen und Männern im Vergleich zu abhängig beschäftigten Frauen und Männern sowie den Einfluss der Hausarbeits-zeit auf die Verdienste der Selbständigen. Im Gegensatz zu abhängig Beschäftigten verwenden selbständige Frauen mehr Zeit für Hausarbeit, während selbständige Männer mehr Zeit für Marktarbeit aufwenden. Sowohl die deskriptiven Analysen als auch gepoolte OLS Einkommen...

2012-01-01

156

Are the self-employed really jacks-of-all-trades? Testing the assumptions and implications of Lazear's theory of entrepreneurship with German data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Unter Verwendung eines großen, repräsentativen Datensatzes für Deutschland und verschiedener Abgrenzungen der Selbständigkeit überprüft diese Arbeit die 'jack-of-all-trades'-Sicht des Unternehmertums von Lazear (AER 2004). In Übereinstimmung mit ihren theoretischen Annahmen finden wir, dass Selbständige mehr verschiedene Tätigkeiten ausüben und Kenntnisse aus mehr verschiedenen Gebieten benötigen als nicht-selbständige Arbeitnehmer. Im Gegensatz zu Lazear's Annahmen benötigen Sel...

Lechmann, Daniel S. J.; Schnabel, Claus

2011-01-01

157

Production of Al nanocomposite reinforced by Fe-Al intermetallic, Al4C3 and nano-Al2O3 particles using wet milling in toluene  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Production of Al nanocomposite reinforced by Fe-Al intermetallic, Al4C3 and nano-Al2O3 particles using wet milling in toluene. ? Production of Al4C3 particles from mechanochemical reaction of Al with PCA. ? Effect of second phase particles on sintering. - Abstract: Al matrix nanocomposites were produced by wet milling of Al and nano-alumina powders in a toluene media. X-ray diffraction patterns, inductively coupled plasma, carbon measurement analysis and scanning electron microscopy show that impurities introduced by decomposition of toluene and abrasion of balls and vials are uniformly dispersed in the Al matrix as Al4C3 and Fe-Al intermetallic particles. Though producing homogenous nanocomposites, these second phase particles seem to have a retarding effect on densification of nanocomposite powders.

2011-06-02

158

Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Al/Al-Mg/Al composite sheet metals  

Science.gov (United States)

Two different types of aluminum alloys of AA1050 and AA5182 were used to manufacture Al/Al-Mg/Al composite sheet metals by roll bonding technology at room temperature. The composite sheet metals were annealed at 400 °C and carried out uniaxial tension tests to investigate mechanical properties. Macroscopic mechanical properties are strongly dependent on the volume (or thickness) fraction of two component layers. Microstructure and texture evolution were also investigated during roll bonding process. The AA1050 sheets located in the outer layer mainly consist of shear texture components and the AA5182 sheet located in the center layer consists of plane strain texture components. With differential speeds of the top and bottom rolls, roll bonding was also carried out. Elongation along the RD and TD was improved at a speed difference of approximately 10%-20%.

Cho, Jaehyung; Kim, Su-Hyeon; Kim, Hyoung-Wook; Lim, Cha-Yong; Kim, Eun-Young; Choi, Shi-Hoon

2011-08-01

159

Breve apología al transporte paralelo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En este artículo se hace un reconocimiento a una de las herramientas poderosas de que dispone la geometría diferencial de variedades, que es el transporte paralelo, pues sin ella sería muy difícil entender la derivada de campos vectoriales, la teoría de geodésica, la curvatura, conceptos que están bien definidos debido al transporte paralelo.

Carlos Arturo Escudero

2012-01-01

160

ALS Research and Clinical Centers  

Science.gov (United States)

... TX 75235?8897 MDA/ALS Center at Texas Neurology Daragh Heitzman, M.D., FAAN, Director Texas Neurology, P.A. 6301 Gaston Ave., Suite 200W Dallas, ... Center Michael Weiss, M.D., Director Department of Neurology/Electromyography 1959 NE Pacific, Suite 356115 Seattle, WA ...

 
 
 
 
161

What happened to Sayf al-Rijal?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sayf al-Rijal is the least known Sheikh al-Islam, the highest religious appointee in the court of Aceh Dar al-Salam, in the seventeenth century. Yet, he replaced the renowned Sheikh Nur al-Din in 1643 and in turn was succeeded by another famous ulama Abd al- Ra’uf al-Sinkili in 1661. As of date, there is very little information on al-Rijal and his writings after he won the struggle against al-Raniri and was appointed as the Sheikh al-Islam by Sultanah SafiatuddinSyah in 1643. So, what happened to Sayf al-Rijal after his appointment? This article provides an explanation and throws some light on this mysterious figure.

Sher Banu A.L. Khan

2012-05-01

162

Synthesis of NiAl, CoAl intermetallics and NiAl-Nb and CoAl-Co composites from elemental powders via solid state reactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

NiAl, CoAl intermetallics and NiAl-Nb, CoAl-Co composites were synthesized in solid state from elemental powders. Blends of ultrafine powders were high pressure consolidated to full density. This was followed by heat treatments, resulting in multistage solid state reactive diffusion. The phase composition and microstructure of obtained materials were investigated employing X-ray diffraction, SEM/EDX and TEM. The sequence of reactions in consolidated powder blends was determined, the kinetics of formation of different phases was measured. For Ni-Al-Nb blends, formation of only Ni-Al intermetallic phases including NiAl was detected in temperature range 425 C--550 C. Followed heat treatment at higher temperatures resulted information of NiAl-Nb composite. Phase stability of NiAl-Nb and CoAl-Co composites was investigated in temperature range 800 C--1,100 C

1995-02-12

163

AlSb/InAs/AlSb quantum wells  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers studied the InAs/AlSb system recently, obtaining 12nm wide quantum wells with room temperature mobilities up to 28,000 cm(exp 2)/V center dot S and low-temperature mobilities up to 325,000 cm(exp 2)/V center dot S, both at high electron sheet concentrations in the 10(exp 12)/cm(exp 2) range (corresponding to volume concentrations in the 10(exp 18)/cm(exp 2) range). These wells were not intentionally doped; the combination of high carrier concentrations and high mobilities suggest that the electrons are due to not-intentional modulation doping by an unknown donor in the AlSb barriers, presumably a stoichiometric defect, like an antisite donor. Inasmuch as not intentionally doped bulk AlSb is semi-insulating, the donor must be a deep one, being ionized only by draining into the even deeper InAs quantum well. The excellent transport properties are confirmed by other observations, like excellent quantum Hall effect data, and the successful use of the quantum wells as superconductive weak links between Nb electrodes, with unprecendentedly high critical current densities. The system is promising for future field effect transistors (FETs), but many processing problems must first be solved. Although the researchers have achieved FETs, the results so far have not been competitive with GaAs FETs.

Kroemer, Herbert

1990-01-01

164

Transient oxidation of Al-deposited Fe-Cr-Al alloy foil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The oxide phases formed on an Al-deposited Fe-Cr-Al alloy foil and an Fe-Cr-Al alloy foil of the same levels of Al and (La+Ce) contents, and their oxidation kinetics have been studied in air at 1173 and 1373 K using TGA, XRD and SEM. Al deposition promotes the growth of metastable aluminas (?-Al2O3, ?-Al2O3). Scales consisting of ?-Al2O3 and a small amount of ?-Al2O3 develop on the Al-deposited foil at 1173 K and exhibit the whisker-type morphology. In the early stage of oxidation at 1373 K, thick scales consisting of ?-Al2O3 and ?-Al2O3 grow rapidly on the Al-deposited foil. The transformation from ?-Al2O3 to ?-Al2O3 is very fast, and the scales result in only ?-Al2O3. In contrast, ?-Al2O3 scales containing a minor amount of FeAl2O4 develop on the alloy foil. The growth rate of ?-Al2O3 scales on the Al-deposited foil is smaller than that on the alloy foil and very close to that on NiAl at 1373 K. (orig.)

1996-05-20

165

Grabpflege: Mit Mutter auf dem Friedhof Grave Tending: With Mom at the Cemetery Visitas a los sepulcros: con mamá al cementerio  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Diese autoethnographische Erzählung beschäftigt sich mit dem Prozess der Grabpflege für Familienangehörige: In der Vergangenheit hatte die Autorin eher widerstrebend ihre Mutter bei deren Besuchen an Familiengräbern begleitet. Als die Mutter dies nicht mehr selbst tun konnte, kümmerte die Autorin sich um die Blumenarrangements auf den Gräbern. Erst durch diese Tätigkeit begann sie, sich mit der Bedeutung des Friedhofbesuches zu beschäftigen, sie fühlte (ihre Verbundenheit und die erlittenen Verluste, und sie befasste sich mit den Bräuchen, die sie sich für ihren eigenen Tod wünschte. Als ihre Mutter starb, übernahm die nächste Frauengeneration – die Autorin, ihre Schwester, ihre Schwägerin – die Grabpflege, verbunden durch ihre Liebe und ihren Respekt für ihre (Schwieger- Mutter, durch ihre Familiengefühle und durch ihre familiäre Verantwortung. Mit dieser Erzählung soll die Bedeutung familiärer Todesrituale und deren Weitergabe über Generationen nachvollziehbar werden. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0302285This autoethnographic story shows the process of tending the graves of family members. In the past, the author reluctantly accompanied her mother on her visits to the family cemetery. Once there, she took on the role of distant observer as her mother took care of the family cemetery plots. When her mother becomes disabled, the author begins to arrange the flowers on the graves. Doing so leads her to examine the meaning of visiting the cemetery, feel and connect with her losses, and consider the customs she wants to be part of her own death. When her mother dies, the next generation of women in the family—the author, her sister, and sister-in-law—take on the role of tending the graves, connected in their love and respect for their mother and their feelings of family and family responsibility. This story examines the meanings of family rituals around death and how they are passed from generation to generation. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0302285Este relato auto-etnográfico se refiere al proceso de las visitas al cementerio de familiares: en el pasado la autora acompañaba más bien de mala gana a su madre a sus visitas al cementerio. Una vez allí, ella tomaba el papel de observadora distante mientras su madre atendía las tumbas. Cuando la madre ya no pudo más llevarlo a cabo por ella misma, la autora comenzó a ocuparse del arreglo de las flores en el cementerio. A partir de esta actividad ella inició el examen del significado de las visitas al cementerio, ella sentía (su implicación y sus pérdidas y se ocupó de los detalles de las costumbres que ella desearía para su propia muerte. Cuando su madre murió, la generación de mujeres que seguía (la autora, su hermana y su cuñada se hicieron cargo de los cuidados funerarios, unidos al amor y al respeto por su madre, por el sentimiento familiar y por su responsabilidad familiar. Con este relato se examina el significado de rituales familiares ante la muerte y como se transmite de generación a generación. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0302285

Carolyn Ellis

2003-05-01

166

«Palabras al viento». Bitácora virtual  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Breve descripción de la bitácora virtual «Palabras al viento» (www.palviento.blogspot.com>, un intento de contribuir a la corrección del lenguaje español mediante ejemplos de su uso en medicina y escritos de temas diversos en los que se pretende mantener un estilo que se rige por las normas del buen uso del idioma. Se incluyen temas literarios, históricos, semánticos y otros. La página cuenta también con unas breves descripciones de fuentes bibliográficas de temas sobre puntuación, gramática, etimología y redacción en español, así como con vínculos a diccionarios o a sitios que pueden resultar prácticos para quienes muestran interés por el idioma español, además de vínculos cruzados con otras páginas del mismo autor. --------------------------------------- The Blog «Palabras al viento». Brief description of the blog «Palabras al viento» (www.palviento.blogspot.com>, an attempt to contribute to the correct use of the Spanish language through examples of its use in medicine and texts of various subjects in which the intention is to maintain a style dictated by the rules of proper language usage. Included are literary, historical, semantic and other entries. The blog has also several brief descriptions of bibliographic sources of themes about punctuation, grammar, etymology and style in Spanish, and some links to dictionaries or sites that may be practical for those interested in the Spanish language, plus crossed links to other pages by the same author.

Aníbal J. Morillo

2010-12-01

167

TiN/Al2O3/TiAlON Composite.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present invention pertains to novel improved density ceramic composites of TiN/Al2O3/TiAlON in which there is no spinel and no AlN, but alpha-alumina, titanium nitride, and titanium aluminum oxynitride. In general, the improved density TiN/Al2O3/TiAlO...

K. Han

1990-01-01

168

[Coagulation behavior of Al13 species].  

Science.gov (United States)

Coagulation behavior of Al13 species was examined in synthetic water with high alkalinity and high humic acid concentration from viewpoint of the transformation of Al hydrolysis products during the coagulation process. The results indicated that coagulation efficiency of Al coagulants positively correlated with the content of Al13 in the coagulation process. Aluminum chloride (AlCl3) was more effective than polyaluminum chloride (PACI) in removing turbidity and dissolved organic matter in the synthetic water because AlCl3 could not only generate Al13 species but also function as pH control agent in the coagulation process. During coagulation process pH control can improve coagulation process through regulating Al speciation, and AlCl3 benefited most from pH control. PMID:17304842

Hu, Cheng-zhi; Liu, Hui-juan; Qu, Jiu-hui

2006-12-01

169

Microstructural study of the ?-Al2O3??-Al2O3 transformation in CVD ?-Al2O3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The microstructural variations occurring during the ? ? ? transformation in CVD ?-Al2O3 coatings subjected to isothermal heat treatments have been investigated. The microstructures developed in the partly transformed ?-Al2O3 layer (32% ?-Al2O3) and fully transformed ?-Al2O3 layer (100% ?-Al2O3) were studied and compared with as-deposited ?-Al2O3 (100% ?-Al2O3). The occurrence of extensive cracking in the transformed alumina layer resulting from the volume contraction encountered in the ? ? ? transformation was confirmed. No changes could be detected in the surface morphology of the alumina coatings as a result of the ? ? ? transformation. The ?-Al2O3 which formed as a result of the ? ? ? transformation exhibited a totally different microstructure from that of the as-deposited ?-Al2O3. Except for the cracks, the microstructure of ?-Al2O3 thus formed did not differ significantly from that reported for CVD ?-Al2O3. The cracks in ?-Al2O3 were situated mainly at the grain boundaries of as-deposited ?-Al2O3 and formed a relatively regular crack network. The ? ? ? transformation appeared to be initiated at free surfaces; accordingly the phase transformation occurred preferentially along the thermal cracks which were formed in the coating during cooling from the deposition temperature

1992-11-16

170

Plasmonics properties of trimetallic Al@Al2O3@Ag@Au and Al@Al2O3@AuAg nanostructures  

Science.gov (United States)

Bimetallic and trimetallic nanoparticles have attracted significant attention in recent times due to their enhanced electrochemical and catalytic properties compared to monometallic nanoparticles. The numerical calculations using Mie theory has been carried out for three-layered metal nanoshell dielectric-metal-metal (DMM) system consisting of a particle with a dielectric core (Al@Al2O3), a middle metal Ag (Au) layer and an outer metal Au (Ag) shell. The results have been interpreted using plasmon hybridization theory. We have also prepared Al@Al2O3@Ag@Au and Al@Al2O3@AgAu triple-layered core-shell or alloy nanostructure by two-step laser ablation method and compared with calculated results. The synthesis involves temporal separations of Al, Ag, and Au deposition for step-by-step formation of triple-layered core-shell structure. To form Al@Ag nanoparticles, we ablated silver for 40 min in aluminium nanoparticle colloidal solution. As aluminium oxidizes easily in water to form alumina, the resulting structure is core-shell Al@Al2O3. The Al@Al2O3 particle acts as a seed for the incoming energetic silver particles for multilayered Al@Al2O3@Ag nanoparticles is formed. The silver target was then replaced by gold target and ablation was carried out for different ablation time using different laser energy for generation of Al@Al2O3@Ag@Au core-shell or Al@Al2O3@AgAu alloy. The formation of core-shell and alloy nanostructure was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy. The absorption spectra show shift in plasmon resonance peak of silver to gold in the range 400-520 nm with increasing ablation time suggesting formation of Ag-Au alloy in the presence of alumina particles in the solution.

Singh, Rina; Soni, R. K.

2014-05-01

171

Aportació al coneixement del gènere Orobanche L. als Països Catalans  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

S'ha fet una aportació al coneixement del gènere Orobanche L. per la flora dels Països Catalans. La revisió s'ha fet mitjançant un estudi crític de la informació bibliogràfica i dels principals herbaris relacionats amb el territori. Ressaltem la presència de tàxons de marcat interès corològic, com és el cas d'Orobanche schultzii i d'O. ballotae, primeres cites pels Països Catalans, i també d'altres espècies poc citades o conflictives com són O. foetida i O. crinita. En alguns...

2001-01-01

172

Armaflex in Burj al Arab; Armaflex im Burj al Arab  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article describes the Burj al Arab in Dubai, the unique seven-star high-rise hotel. The construction of the hotel, that is built on 250 piles driven into the sand of an artificial island in the Persian Gulf, is described. In particular, various special materials used in the building are described, as are the luxurious fittings and furnishings of the hotel. The cooling and air-conditioning installations that are necessary as a result of the desert climate of Dubai are described and the use of 'Armaflex' elastomer insulating material for the insulation of refrigeration machines and cold-water piping is discussed.

Steiner, B.

2003-07-01

173

Form of Al changes with Al concentration in leaves of buckwheat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. cv. Jianxi) is known as an Al-accumulating plant. The process leading to the accumulation of Al in the leaves was investigated, focusing on the chemical form of Al using 27Al-nuclear magnetic resonance. Leaves with different Al concentrations were prepared by growing buckwheat on a very acidic soil (Andosol) amended with or without CaCO3 (1 or 3 g x kg-1 soil). When the Al concentration of the leaves was lower, only one major signal was observed at a chemical shift of 16.1 ppm, which was assigned to an Al-oxalate complex at a 1:3 ratio. However, when the Al concentration of the leaves increased to a high level (e.g. 12 g Al kg-1), an additional signal at a chemical shift of 11.2 ppm was observed. This signal was assigned to an Al-citrate complex at a 1:1 ratio. In the leaf with a high Al concentration, both Al-oxalate (1:3) and Al-citrate (1:1) were detected in marginal and middle parts, while only Al-oxalate was detected in the basal part. The oxalate concentration did not differ very much between leaves with low and high Al concentrations at the same position, while citrate concentration significantly increased with increasing Al concentration when the oxalate/Al ratio became lower than 3.0. As the Al-citrate complex has been demonstrated to be the form of transport in the xylem, the results suggest that when internal oxalate is enough to form a complex with Al at a 3:1 ratio in the leaves with a low Al concentration, Al-citrate converts to Al-oxalate. However, this conversion does not occur in the leaves with a very high Al concentration, resulting in the coexistence of both Al-oxalate and Al-citrate complexes. PMID:14645389

Shen, Renfang; Iwashita, Takashi; Ma, Jian Feng

2004-01-01

174

Synthesis of AlON and MgAlON Ceramics and Their Chemical Corrosion Resistance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In view of the excellent mechanical, chemical and opticalproperties, AlON (Aluminum oxynitride) as well as MgAlON(Magnesium Aluminum oxynitride) have drawn the attention ofmaterials scientists in past decades. In this thesis,thermodynamic properties, synthesis and corrosion resistance tooxygen and slag of AlON and MgAlON ceramics have beeninvestigated. Gibbs energy of AlON and MgAlON with different compositionsand temperatures were estimatedby using thermodynamicquasi-parabola rule. Phase sta...

Wang, Xidong

2001-01-01

175

The structure of 27Al  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gamma decay modes and spin assignments of levels in 27Al have been investigated by proton-?-ray angular correlation measurements in the 24Mg(?,p?) reaction at 14.2, 15 and 15.6 MeV bombarding energy and by ?-ray angular distribution measurements on the Ep = 1820, 2114 2293 and 2574 keV resonances of the 26Mg(p,?) reaction. Unique spin assignments were obtained as follows: I = 3/2 for the 5827 KeV state, I = 5/2 for the 6115, 6465, 6765, 7577, 7721, 8097, 8136, 8324 keV states, I = 7/2 for the 5433, 6533, 7413, 8037, 8442, 8586 keV states, I = 9/2 for the 5418, 6512, 6713, 7997 keV states, I = 11/2 for the 5500, 6948, 7400, 8396 keV states. The level scheme and electromagnetic properties of levels are compared with the results of shell model calculations which use the complete configuration space of the 0d5/2-1s1/2-0d3/2 shell and the unified s-d shell Hamiltonian. The agreement is good to excellent and extends into the region of high level density above 7 MeV excitation energy. The total B(M1?) below 8.5 MeV excitation energy is evaluated, using published resonance fluorescence and (e,e') data, and quenching relative to the free-nucleon predictions is reexamined. Evidence in favour of a prolate ground state deformation of 27Al and implications of this work for the astrophysically interesting 26Al(p,?) reaction are discussed. (orig.)

1988-12-01

176

Alergia al semen / Semen allergy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La alergia al semen comprende una variedad de síntomas tanto locales como sistémicos causados por reacciones de hipersensibilidad inmediata y caracterizados por títulos elevados de IgE. El objetivo de este estudio es describir el caso de una paciente con alergia al semen: mujer de 21 años de edad qu [...] e presenta ardor y sensación de quemazón en el área genital luego de tener contacto con el semen de su pareja. El análisis seminal del compañero sexual no presenta ningún tipo de alteración. Los síntomas desaparecen con el uso de condón o con la práctica del coito interrumpido. La alergia al semen es una alteración, que si bien es poco frecuente, puede afectar los deseos de concepción de las mujeres que la presentan, es un fenómeno poco estudiado por lo que se requieren más reportes para su caracterización. Abstract in english Semen allergy includes several local and systemic symptoms caused by immediate hypersensitivity reactions and it is characterized by high levels of IgE. The objective of this study was to describe the case of a patient with semen allergy. A 21 year-old woman experienced itching and burning sensation [...] in the genital area after contact with the semen of her sexual partner. Semen analysis was normal. Symptoms disappear with the use of condom or the practice of coitus interruptus. Semen allergy is a condition, although rare, can affect the desire of conceiving in women who suffers it. It is a briefly studied phenomenon which requires more reports for proper characterization.

Franco Cuadros, Laura; Puerta Suárez, Jenniffer; Cadavid Jaramillo, Ángela; Cardona Maya, Walter.

177

Bioética frente al paciente moribundo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo y transversal en el Servicio de Cuidados Intermedios del Hospital Clinicoquirúrgico "Dr. Ambrosio Grillo Portuondo" de Santiago de Cuba, con el objetivo de analizar la aplicación de la bioética frente al paciente moribundo. El universo estuvo constitu [...] ido por 42 fallecidos en el segundo semestre de 1996. Las principales causas de muerte fueron las neumopatías inflamatorias y los accidentes vasculares encefálicos, con predominio de los varones mayores de 60 años; la mayoría de los enfermos al fallecer tenía pérdida de la conciencia, no siempre afectada por enfermedad; en uno de ellos por indicación facultativa al estar acoplado a ventiladores artificiales. La participación de la enfermera y la relación activopasiva, que es la fundamental en relación con el cumplimiento de los principios bioéticos, resultó positiva en todos los casos. Se actuó con beneficencia y justicia al respetar la autonomía del moribundo, donde el consentimiento informado desempeñó un papel importante, sin llegar a la práctica de la eutanasia en ninguna de sus variantes, ya que este proceder en nuestra sociedad implicaría un delito de homicidio. Abstract in english A descriptive, retrospective and cross-sectional study was conducted at the Service of Intermediate Care of the "Dr. Ambrosio Grillo Portuondo" Clinical and Surgical Hospital, in Santiago de Cuba, aimed at analyzing the application of bioethics in the dying patient. The universe was composed of 42 p [...] ersons that died in the second semester of l996. The main causes of death were the inflammatory lung diseases and the cerebrovascular accidents, with predominance of males over 60. On dying, most of the patients had lost conciousness, which was not always affected by the disease. One of them was coupled to artifical ventilators by facultative indication. The participation of the nurse and the active-passive relation , that is the fundamental in connection with the fulfillment of the bioethical principles, was positive in all cases. The moribund?s autonomy was respected and the reported consent played an important role. Euthanasia was not applied in any of its variants, since this procedure in our society will be considered as a homicide.

Laides, Luna Vázquez; Mariela, Valiente Duany; José Miguel, Goderich Lalán.

178

Aluminium distribution in ZSM-5 revisited: The role of Al-Al interactions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present a theoretical study of the distribution of Al atoms in zeolite ZSM-5 with Si/Al=47, where we focus on the role of Al-Al interactions rather than on the energetics of Al/Si substitutions at individual sites. Using interatomic potential methods, we evaluate the energies of the full set of symmetrically independent configurations of Al siting in a Si{sub 94}Al{sub 2}O{sub 192} cell. The equilibrium Al distribution is determined by the interplay of two factors: the energetics of the Al/Si substitution at an individual site, which tends to populate particular T sites (e.g., the T14 site), and the Al-Al interaction, which at this Si/Al maximises Al-Al distances in general agreement with Dempsey's rule. However, it is found that the interaction energy changes approximately as the inverse of the square of the distance between the two Al atoms, rather than the inverse of the distance expected if this were merely charge repulsion. Moreover, we find that the anisotropic nature of the framework density plays an important role in determining the magnitude of the interactions, which are not simply dependent on Al-Al distances. - Graphical abstract: Role of Al-Al interactions in high silica ZSM-5 is shown to be anisotropic in nature and not dependent solely on Coulombic interactions. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Si-Al distribution in ZSM-5 is revisited, stressing the role of the Al-Al interaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coulomb interactions are not the key factors controlling the Al siting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anisotropy of the framework is identified as a source of departure from Dempsey's rule.

Ruiz-Salvador, A. Rabdel, E-mail: rabdel@imre.oc.uh.cu [Group of Materials Developed by Design, Division of Chemistry and Technology of Materials, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering (IMRE), University of Havana, Havana 10400 (Cuba); Grau-Crespo, Ricardo; Gray, Aileen E.; Lewis, Dewi W. [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London, WC1H OAJ (United Kingdom)

2013-02-15

179

La personalità borderline al test di Rorschach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Il testo fornisce gli elementi fondamentali per la lettura al Rorschach della personalità borderline, con riferimento al problema dell'identità, all'esame di realtà, ai meccanismi di difesa e all'organizzazione affettiva. Viene fatto riferimento alle principali scale (Urist, Coonerty, Blatt ecc.) per la valutazione di alcuni aspetti. Completa il lavoro l'analisi del narcisismo al Rorschach.

2005-01-01

180

Nonstoichiometry of Al-Zr intermetallic phases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nonstoichiometry of metastable cubic {beta}{prime} and equilibrium tetragonal {beta} Al-Zr intermetallic phases of the nominal composition Al{sub 3}Zr in Al-rich alloys has been extensively studied. It is proposed that the ``dark contrast`` of {beta}{prime} core in {beta}{prime}/{sigma}{prime} complex precipitates, in Al-Li-Zr based alloys, is caused by incorporation of Al and Li atoms into the {beta}{prime} phase on Zr sublattice sites, forming nonstoichiometric Al-Zr intermetallic phases, rather than by Li partitioning only. {beta}{prime} particles contain very small amounts of Zr, approximately 5 at.%, much less than the stoichiometric 25 at.% in the Al{sub 3}Zr metastable phase. These particles are, according to simulation of high resolution images, of the Al{sub 3}(Al{sub 0.4}Li{sub 0.4}Zr{sub 0.2}) type. Nonstoichiometric particles of average composition Al{sub 4}Zr and Al{sub 6}Zr are observed also in the binary Al-Zr alloy, even after annealing for several hours at 600{degree}C.

Radmilovic, V.; Thomas, G.

1994-06-01

 
 
 
 
181

Nonstoichiometry of Al-Zr intermetallic phases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nonstoichiometry of metastable cubic (beta)(prime) and equilibrium tetragonal (beta) Al-Zr intermetallic phases of the nominal composition Al(sub 3)Zr in Al-rich alloys has been extensively studied. It is proposed that the ''dark contrast'' of (beta)(prim...

V. Radmilovic G. Thomas

1994-01-01

182

Bipolar characteristics of AlGaN/AlN/GaN/AlGaN double heterojunction structure with AlGaN as buffer layer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: •2DEG and 2DHG coexist in the AlGaN/AlN/GaN/AlGaN DH-structure. •The sheet densities of 2DEG and 2DHG vary with buffer Al content and GaN thickness. •The conditions for the disappearance of 2DHG are discussed. •Increasing buffer Al content provides better electron confinement. •Dislocation scattering is reduced in the DH-structure. -- Abstract: This is a theoretical study of AlGaN/AlN/GaN/AlGaN double heterojunction (DH) structure with AlGaN as buffer layer. Our calculation shows that as the buffer Al content increases, though two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) sheet density decreases, the channel back-barrier caused by polarization-induced electric field in GaN provides better electron confinement. And under certain conditions the DH-structure shows bipolar characteristics, with an additional two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) formed at GaN/AlGaN interface. The influence of the buffer Al content and GaN channel thickness on the 2DEG and 2DHG sheet densities are investigated, and the conditions for the disappearance of 2DHG are discussed. Also, the mobility inhibited by dislocation scattering is enhanced in DH-structure due to the enhancement of screening effect of the 2DEG

2013-11-05

183

Bipolar characteristics of AlGaN/AlN/GaN/AlGaN double heterojunction structure with AlGaN as buffer layer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: •2DEG and 2DHG coexist in the AlGaN/AlN/GaN/AlGaN DH-structure. •The sheet densities of 2DEG and 2DHG vary with buffer Al content and GaN thickness. •The conditions for the disappearance of 2DHG are discussed. •Increasing buffer Al content provides better electron confinement. •Dislocation scattering is reduced in the DH-structure. -- Abstract: This is a theoretical study of AlGaN/AlN/GaN/AlGaN double heterojunction (DH) structure with AlGaN as buffer layer. Our calculation shows that as the buffer Al content increases, though two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) sheet density decreases, the channel back-barrier caused by polarization-induced electric field in GaN provides better electron confinement. And under certain conditions the DH-structure shows bipolar characteristics, with an additional two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) formed at GaN/AlGaN interface. The influence of the buffer Al content and GaN channel thickness on the 2DEG and 2DHG sheet densities are investigated, and the conditions for the disappearance of 2DHG are discussed. Also, the mobility inhibited by dislocation scattering is enhanced in DH-structure due to the enhancement of screening effect of the 2DEG.

Peng, Enchao, E-mail: ecpeng@semi.ac.cn [Key Lab of Semiconductor Materials Science, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Wang, Xiaoliang [Key Lab of Semiconductor Materials Science, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); ISCAS-XJTU Joint Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Informatics, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Xiao, Hongling; Wang, Cuimei; Yin, Haibo; Chen, Hong; Feng, Chun; Jiang, Lijuan [Key Lab of Semiconductor Materials Science, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Hou, Xun [ISCAS-XJTU Joint Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Informatics, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Wang, Zhanguo [Key Lab of Semiconductor Materials Science, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China)

2013-11-05

184

U-Al alloy charge makeup equation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The (sup 235)U content in fuel tubes (g(sup 235)U/ft) is directly proportional to the (sup 235)U concentration (g(sup 235)U/cc) in the U-Al core alloy. In order to prepare enriched uranium metal, aluminum, and U-Al scrap for U-Al production melts, the ove...

F. C. Rhode

1988-01-01

185

Entwicklung von kristallisierenden Glasloten für planare Hochtemperatur-Brennstoffzellen  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Glas- und Glaskeramiklote wurden für planare Hochtemperatur-Brennstoffzellen enwickelt. Die Anforderung an das Glaslot war: hoher thermischer Ausdehnungskoeffizient (11.0-12.0×10-6 K-1), hoher elektrischer Widerstand (mehr als 2 kW/cm2), gute thermochemische Kompatibilität mit den übrige Werkstoffen der Brennstoffzelle und Langzeitstabilität in H2- und H2O- Atmosphäre bei 800 oC für mehr als 40,000 Stunden. Als Ergebnisse werden der kristalline Phasenbestand, der Benetzungswinkel, die ...

Geasee, Pisit

2003-01-01

186

Comparison of Ir-Al and Co-Al intermetallic mixtures for nuclear applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper refers to the composition of Co-Al and Ir-Al mixtures in the field of rich aluminum compounds. It is very difficult to obtain these as pure compounds, and their long time life maintaining at high temperatures due to the incongruous compounds that form. The part of the Al-Co diagram aluminum-rich was completed by Grushko who reported the existence of two phases very close to each and other, Al13Co4 and Al3Co, in the range of Al9Co2 and Al2Co5 compounds. In the Ir-Al binary system seven intermetallic compounds were reported. The crystal structure of Al2,75Ir phase was observed by Ferro and determined as cP60. The invariance reaction Melt + AlIr Al2,75Ir was reported as eutectic. This is very important a fact which makes these two systems to distinguish each other. (authors)

2010-05-26

187

Possibility of AlN growth using Li-Al-N solvent  

Science.gov (United States)

The possibility of AlN growth using Li-Al-N solvent was investigated. Based on theoretical prediction, we selected Li 3N as a suitable nitrogen source for AlN growth. First, vapor phase epitaxy using Li 3N and Al as source materials was performed to confirm the following reaction on the growth surface: Li 3N+Al=AlN+3Li. The results suggest that the reaction proceeds to form AlN on the substrate under appropriate conditions. Next, AlN growth using Li-Al-N solvent was carried out. The Li-Al-N solvent was prepared by annealing of mixtures composed of Li 3N and Al. The results imply that AlN was formed under an Al-rich condition. Moreover, it was found that Li was swept out from AlN grains during growth. The results suggest that AlN growth using Li-Al-N solvent might be a key technology to obtain an AlN crystal boule.

Kangawa, Yoshihiro; Kakimoto, Koichi

2010-09-01

188

Polythermal cutting of Al-Si-YAl2 system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Given the out come of the research of the Al-Si-YAl2 system with studies of polythermal cutting. It was found out that the most cutting of Al-YSi2Al2, Al-YSiAl2, Al-Y5SiAl14, YSiAl2-YSi2Al2, Y5SiAl14-YSiAl2 and Y5SiAl14-YAl2, Si-YSiAl2 has the nature of quasibinary eutectics

2008-01-01

189

System Design &  

...Zur Suche English Sitemap RSS Drucken Suche Suche Startseite Abteilungen System Design & Integration System Design & Integration Fraunhofer-Institut für Zuverlässigkeit und Mikrointegration IZM Effizienter Entwurf elektronischer Systeme In der Abteilung System Design & Integration werden neue Methoden und Werkzeuge für den zielgerichteten technologieorientierten Entwurf elektronischer Systeme entwickelt. Dies erfolgt auf Basis entwicklungsbegleitender Simulationen der unterschiedlichen Phänomene elektrischer, magnetischer und elektromagnetischer, aber auch thermischer und mechanischer Kopplungen. Bereits in der Konzeptphase ... Mithilfe dieser neuen Methoden und Werkzeuge werden in der Abteilung Technologiedemonstratoren und Prototypen sowohl für elektronische Baugruppen als auch für eingebettete Systeme realisiert.  Arbeitsgruppen Technology-oriented Product Design mehr Info RF & High-Speed Systems mehr Info Autonomous Micro System Design mehr Info Technology-oriented Design Methods mehr Info Piezo-based Power and Microelectronic Systems mehr Info Weitere Informationen Mitarbeiter/-innenMitarbeiter/-innen ProjekteProjekte Social Bookmarks Facebook Youtube Twitter Xing Linkedin Google ...

190

Peritectoid formation of ordered Zr3Al  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The kinetics of the peritectoid transformation Zr + Zr2Al ? Zr3Al have been examined in Zr 7.6 to 9.0 wt% Al ingots using isothermal annealing and optical microscopy. The transformation is a nucleation and thermally activated growth process in which nucleation occurs heterogeneously at Zr2Al/Zr interface and growth occurs by the diffusion controlled migration in opposite directions of the Zr3Al/Zr and Zr3Al/Zr2Al interfaces. The nucleation rate is a maximum at approximately equal to 11600K (i.e., at approximately equal to 1000K below the equilibrium peritectoid temperature). Isothermal transformation curves are presented and explained quantitatively in terms of the nucleation and parabolic growth kinetics

1976-01-01

191

Aspectos Introductorios al Crédito Documentario  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En el comercio internacional uno de los temas de mayor importancia para los agentes del mercado es la incorporación de mecanismos contractuales que les blinden de seguridad y garantía suficientes de que su contraparte cumplirá lo prometido. Las cartas de crédito contribuyen a ese propósito. Al crearse como mecanismos que confieren a ambas partes un alto grado de seguridad de que las condiciones pactadas en el contrato internacional, especialmente el de compraventa, serán cumplidas por cada una de las partes, todo, gracias a la participación o intermediación de una institución financiera, se constituyen en instrumentos necesarios para el normal desarrollo del comercio internacional. El presente texto estudia, a manera de introducción, el crédito documentario valiéndose de la abundante doctrina y jurisprudencia que en la materia se ha generado en el ámbito local e internacional alrededor de la figura.

Maximiliano Rodríguez Fernández

2009-07-01

192

A Study on the Disbonding Detection of Al/Al Honeycomb Sandwich Structures by Ultrasonic Methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study the disbonding tests of adhesively bonded Al/Al honeycomb structures were performed by ultrasonic methods. Ultrasonic C-scan squiter method and ultrasonic surface wave attenuation measuring method were applied for the detection of skin/core disbonding. The bonding quality of Al/Al honeycomb structures could be well evaluated by properly controlled ultrasonic parameters

1990-05-01

193

Eutectic microstructures of Al-ThA13 and Al-UA14 alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper deals on the microstructures of systems Al-ThAl3 and Al-UAL4, which are composed by a non faceted phase (aluminium) and an intermetallic phase (ThAl3 or UAL4) which is normally faceted phase. (C.M.)

1990-01-01

194

Heats of formation of (U,Mo)Al3 and U(Al,Si)3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The heats of formation of (U,Mo)Al3 intermetallic compounds were obtained by measuring the reaction heats of U-Mo/Al dispersion samples by differential scanning calorimetry. Based on literature data for the reaction heats of U3Si/Al and U3Si2/Al dispersion samples, the heats of formation of U(Al,Si)3 as a function of the Si content were calculated. The heat of formation of (U,Mo)Al3 becomes less negative as the Mo content increases. Conversely, the heat of formation of U(Al,Si)3 becomes more negative with increasing Si content

2006-11-15

195

Ibn al-?Arab? and Ab? Yaz?d al-Bist?m?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many Sufis appear in Ibn al-?Arab?’s al-Fut?h?t al-Makkiyya, a treatise in which the author puts forward his principal ideas. Ab? Yaz?d al-Bist?m? is mentioned in this work 143 times, more than any other Sufi. The present article seeks to examine Ibn al-?Arab?’s attitude toward his Sufi predecessor by considering al-Bist?mi’s personality as it appears in Ibn al-?Arab?, as well as Ibn al-?Arab?’s views on al-Bist?m?’s Sufi practice, his presence as a model of moral conduct and his mystical philosophical notions. Ibn al-?Arab? does not accept all the notions and statements expressed by al-Bist?m?. Sometimes he mitigates al-Bist?mi’s daring assertions and thus reveals his unfavorable attitude toward shatah?t. However, in some cases al-Bist?m?’s statements serve as corroboration for Ibn al-?Arab?’s theses.

Aparecen muchos sufíes en la obra de Ibn al-?Arab? al-Fut?h?t al-Makkiyya, un tratado en el que el autor presenta sus ideas principales. En esta obra se menciona a Ab? Yaz?d al-Bist?mi un total de 143 veces, más que a cualquier otro sufí. Este artículo tiene el propósito de examinar la actitud de Ibn al-?Arab? hacia su predecesor sufí considerando la personalidad de al-Bist?m? tal y como aparece en la obra de Ibn al-?Arab?, además de analizar las ideas de Ibn al-?Arab? sobre las prácticas al-Fut?h?t sufíes de al-Bist?m?, su presencia como modelo de conducta moral y sus ideas filosóficas místicas. Ibn al-?Arab? no acepta todas las ideas y declaraciones de al-Bist?mi. A veces suaviza sus afirmaciones más atrevidas y de esta manera revela su actitud negativa hacia šatah?t. Sin embargo, en algunos casos Ibn al-?Arab? se sirve de las afirmaciones de al-Bist?mi para corroborar sus tesis.

Abrahamov, Binyamin

2011-12-01

196

Microstructure and properties of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al(Si) and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al(Si)-Si composites formed by in situ reaction of Al with aluminosilicate ceramics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al(Si) and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al(Si)-Si composites have been formed by in situ reaction of molten Al with aluminosilicate ceramics. This reactive metal penetration (RMP) process is driven by a strongly negative Gibbs energy for reaction. In the Al/mullite system, Al reduces mullite to produce {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and elemental Si. With excess Al (i.e., x > 0), a composite of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Al(Si) alloy, and Si can be formed. Ceramic-metal composites containing up to 30 vol pct Al(Si) were prepared by reacting molten Al with dense, aluminosilicate ceramic preforms or by reactively hot pressing Al and mullite powder mixtures. Both reactive metal-forming techniques produce ceramic composite bodies consisting of a fine-grained alumina skeleton with an interpenetrating Al(Si) metal phase. The rigid alumina ceramic skeletal structure dominates composite physical properties such as the Young`s modulus, hardness, and the coefficient of thermal expansion, while the interpenetrating ductile Al(Si) metal phase contributes to composite fracture toughness. Microstructural analysis of composite fracture surfaces shows evidence of ductile metal failure of Al(Si) ligaments. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al(Si) and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al(Si)-Si composites produced by in situ reaction of aluminum with mullite have improved mechanical properties and increased stiffness relative to dense mullite, and composite fracture toughness increases with increasing Al(Si) content.

Ewsuk, K.G.; Glass, S.J.; Loehman, R.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tomsia, A.P. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Fahrenholtz, W.G. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering

1996-08-01

197

Mechanochemical synthesis of (Fe,Ti)3Al-Al2O3 nanocomposite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Formation mechanism of (Fe,Ti)3Al-Al2O3 nanocomposite prepared by mechanical alloying of Fe, Al and TiO2 with molar ratio of 6:7:3 was studied. The structural changes of powder particles during mechanical alloying were investigated by X-ray diffractometery. Morphology and microstructure of powder particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. It was found that during mechanical alloying Al first reacts with TiO2 leading to the gradual formation of crystalline Ti and amorphous Al2O3 phases. In the second stage Ti and remaining Al diffuse into the Fe lattice and as a result a Fe(Al,Ti) solid solution develops. This structure transformed to (Fe,Ti)3Al intermetallic compound at longer milling times. Heat treatment of this structure led to the crystallization of Al2O3 and ordering of (Fe,Ti)3Al phases.

2009-11-20

198

Activated Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} for transformation of chlorinated hydrocarbons  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method for the preparation of activated Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} mixture has been developed in the laboratory. Al and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} are infused and activated within an alkaline solution. Optimal Al to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratio is in the range of 0.1 to 1. Batch experiments have demonstrated that the activated Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} mixture can rapidly dechlorinate tetrachloroethylene (PCE), carbon tetrachloride (CT) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). Due to the high reactivity, light density and low cost, the activated Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} may be used as a remediation agent in ex-situ treatment of industrial effluent, in-situ treatment wall, and for direct injection into ground water.

Lien, H.L.; Zhang, W.X.

1999-07-01

199

Adsorption of triethylenediamine on Al2O3-III: Bonding to Lewis acid Al3+ sites.  

Science.gov (United States)

The adsorption of triethylenediamine (TEDA) on Lewis acid (Al(3+)) sites of the highly dehydroxylated Al(2)O(3) surface has been observed by FT-IR spectroscopy. This was done by monitoring the competitive adsorption of TEDA and CO on the Al(3+) sites. A stoichiometric replacement of Al(3+)-CO species was observed as Al(3+)-TEDA surface species were formed. PMID:16851705

Kim, Sunhee; Byl, Oleg; Yates, John T

2005-04-01

200

Nanoindentation hardness, texture and microstructure of ?-Al2O3 and ?-Al2O3 coatings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nanoidentation responses of Al2O3 coatings obtained using chemical vapour deposition on cemented carbides were studied and related to the Al2O3 modification and microstructure. Five different Al2O3 layers were studied: (i) ?-Al2O3, (ii) ?-Al2O3, obtained through the ? ? ? phase transformation, (iii) as-grown ?-Al2O3 with (101-bar 2) texture, (iv) as-grown ?-Al2O3 with (101-bar 4) texture and (v) as-grown ?-Al2O3 with (0001) texture. All the Al2O3 coatings were deposited to a thickness of at least 6 ?m onto identical WC - 6 wt.% Co cemented carbide substrates. Nanoindentation was performed on taper-section specimens. The microstructure, phase and texture were elucidated by using transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Nanoindentation responses of the as-grown, textured ?-Al2O3 coatings were compared with ?-Al2O3 and ?-Al2O3 formed as a result of the ? ? ? phase transformation. The as-grown, textured ?-Al2O3 layers exhibited clearly a higher hardness and Young's modulus than the ?-Al2O3 and the ?-Al2O3 layers formed as a result of the phase transformation. Only slight differences in hardness and modulus could be detected between the (101-bar 2), (101-bar 4) and (0001) textured ?-Al2O3 films. Among these the (101-bar 2) textured ?-Al2O3 coating exhibited the lowest hardness and modulus. Opposite to earlier reports, the present investigation clearly showed that ?-Al2O3 exhibited both the lowest hardness and Young's modulus as compared with the other studied coatings. It is emphasised that the earlier nanoindentation investigations that were intended to deal with ?-Al2O3 were in fact performed on transformed ?-Al2O3

2008-07-31

 
 
 
 
201

Preparation of Nb/Al--AlO/sub x//Nb tunnel junction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports the process for fabricating Nb/Al-AlO/sub x//Nb tunnel junction using rf-magnetron sputtering. The S-I-S sandwich structure is prepared without breaking vacuum. A detailed AES and XTEM analysis of the Nb/Al-AlO/sub x//Nb sandwich structure shows the good quality of Al barrier. Typical I-V characteristic curves of tunnel junction are also given.

Zhang Yong-ming; Li Yuan; Yang Sen-zhu; Wu Pei-heng

1988-05-01

202

Epitaxial growth of Al films on sapphire substrates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to obtain epitaxial Al-Al2O3 multi-layer devices, it is necessary to deposit epitaxially Al on Al2O3 and Al2O3 on Al. We have already obtained an epitaxial Al2O3 film on Al/Si (111). In this paper, we have grown Al films on sapphire (0001) substrates, and investigated the crystallinity by using RBS, RHEED, and X-ray diffraction measurements. (author)

1993-07-01

203

Atom probe analysis of AlN interlayers in AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Atom probe tomography was used to characterize AlN interlayers in AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructures grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE), NH{sub 3}-based molecular beam epitaxy (NH{sub 3}-MBE), and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The PAMBE-grown AlN interlayer had the highest purity, with nearly 100% of group-III sites occupied by Al. The group-III site concentrations of Al for interlayers grown by NH{sub 3}-MBE and MOCVD were {approx}85% and {approx}47%, respectively. Hall measurements were performed to determine the two-dimensional electron gas mobility and sheet concentration. Sheet concentrations were {approx}25%-45% higher with molecular beam epitaxy than with MOCVD, and these results matched well with atom probe data.

Mazumder, Baishakhi; Kaun, Stephen W.; Speck, James S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Lu, Jing; Keller, Stacia; Mishra, Umesh K. [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

2013-03-18

204

"PULS." – ein Blog als Online-Magazin für Medizinstudierendeder Goethe-Universität Frankfurt ["PULS." – a Blog-based Online-Magazine for Students of Medicine of the Goethe University Frankfurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available [english] In the context of nationwide protests 2009 also students of the faculty of medicine/dentistry at Goethe-University in Frankfurt demanded more transparency and communication. To satisfy these demands, a web 2.0-tool offered an innovative solution: A blog-based online-magazine for students and other faculty-members.The online-magazine „PULS.“ is realized with the share-ware blog-software (wordpress version 3.1.3 and is conceived and written by an online-journalist. „PULS.“ is available from .The articles are generated from own investigations and from ideas of different groups of the faculty– deanship, students and lecturers. A user-analysis is conducted with the open-source software Piwik and considers the data security. Additionally, every year an anonymous online-user-survey (Survey Monkey is conducted.“PULS.” is continuously online since 14.02.2010 and has published 806 articles (state: 27.11.2012 and has about 2400 readers monthly. The content focuses on the needs of Frankfurt medical students. The close cooperation with different groups of the faculty - deanship, students and lecturers - furthermore guarantees themes relevant to the academic faculty. “PULS.” flanks complex projects and decisions with background-information and communicates them understandable.The user-evaluation shows a growing number of readers and a high acceptance for the online-magazine, its themes and its style. The web 2.0-tool “Blog” and the web-specific language comply with media habits of the main target group, the students of the faculty medicine/dentistry.Thus, “PULS.” has proven as a suitable and strategic instrument. It pushes towards a higher transparency, more communication and a stronger identification of the students with their faculty.[german] Im Herbst 2009 forderten Studierende im Rahmen landesweiter Proteste auch am Fachbereich Medizin/Zahnmedizin der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt mehr Transparenz und Kommunikation zu Angelegenheiten ihres Studiums. Einen innovativen Lösungsansatz, um diesen Forderungen nachzukommen, bietet eines der Web 2.0 Werkzeuge: ein auf einer Blog-Software basierendes Online-Magazin für Studierende und andere Mitglieder des Fachbereichs.Das öffentlich zugängliche Online-Magazin „PULS.“ ( wird mit einer freien Blog-Software (wordpress Version 3.1.3. realisiert und von einer Online-Redakteurin konzipiert und geschrieben. Die Beiträge entstehen nach eigenen Recherchen sowie aus Anregungen und Gesprächen mit verschiedenen Personengruppen des Fachbereichs. Die datenschutzkonforme Auswertung der Zugriffe erfolgt über eine open-source Webanalyse-Software (Piwik. Zusätzlich werden jährlich mit dem Online-Umfrage-Tool Survey Monkey die Nutzer anonym befragt.„PULS.“ ist seit dem 14.02.2010 ununterbrochen online und hat seitdem 806 Beiträge (Stand: 27.11.2012 publiziert und wird von ca. 2400 Besuchern monatlich gelesen. Das Themenspektrum ist zentriert auf die Anliegen der Frankfurter Medizin- und Zahnmedizinstudierenden. Die enge Zusammenarbeit mit verschiedenen Gruppierungen des Fachbereichs – Dekanat, Studierende und Lehrende – garantiert darüber hinaus ein fachbereichs-relevantes Themenspektrum. Das Online-Magazin begleitet komplexe Projekte und Entscheidungen mit Hintergrundinformationen und kommuniziert sie verständlich. Eine jährliche Nutzer-Evaluierung zeigt eine wachsende Leserzahl und eine sehr hohe Zustimmung für das Online-Magazin, seine Inhalte und seinen Stil. Das Web 2.0-Medium „Blog“ und seine web-typische Sprache entsprechen dem Medienverhalten der Zielgruppe, d.h. den Studierenden des Fachbereichs Medizin. „PULS.“ hat sich als ein geeignetes und strategisches Instrument erwiesen, um größere Transparenz, mehr Kommunikation und letztendlich eine stärkere Identifikation der Studierenden mit ihrem Fachbereich voranzutreiben.

Nürnberger, Frank

2013-02-01

205

Casting fabrication of in situ Al3Ti-Al composites and their wear behaviors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Al3Ti intermetallic reinforced pure Al, Al-13Si and Al-17Cu matrix composites were prepared by casting method. Their microstructures and dry sliding wear behaviors at room temperature and 100? were particularly investigated. The results indicated that the Al3Ti phases in these composites were all in fl aky form. But the aspect ratio of the Al3Ti platelets decreased with the increase of Ti content in the pure Al, Al-Cu and Al-Si matrix composites, in order of effectiveness. The effect of Si on the Al3Ti morphology seemed to be greater than that of Cu. The distributions of the Al3Ti platelets were different in the different matrix composites, leading to different grain refi ning effects. Except for the sub-wear regime of adhesive wear, the plastic deformation induced wear was a dominant wear mechanism for all of the composites at room temperature and 100?. Increasing the testing temperature, decreasing the Al3Ti content or the hardness of materials could enhance these two wear mechanisms, and thus increase the wear rate. The Al-Cu matrix composite had the best wear resistance, while the pure Al matrix composite showed the worst for the same Ti content. These differences or changes were attributed to the differences in materials’ hardness or the strengthening effects of the Al3Ti platelets.

Chen Tijun

2009-11-01

206

Influences of Al particles on the microstructure and property of electrodeposited Ni-Al composite coatings  

Science.gov (United States)

Ni-Al composite coatings with different contents of Al microparticles were prepared from a conventional Watt bath. The influences of Al particle loadings in the bath on the surface morphology, composition, texture, grain size, microstrain, residual stress and anti-corrosion of the Ni-Al composite coating were investigated. The friction coefficients of the coatings at 200 °C were also evaluated by a pin-on-disctribometer. The results showed that the surface morphology of the coatings changed from pyramid + colonied structure to colonied structure with increasing Al particle loadings. The (2 0 0) preferred orientation for pure Ni coating evolved to random orientation with increasing Al particle loadings. The grain size obtained the minimum value of 72.28 nm at Al particle loading of 100 g/L and the microstrain of the coating increased with increasing the Al particle loadings. The incorporation of Al particles decreased the residual stress of the electro-deposited coating and all the coatings deposited at different Al particle loadings possessed low residual stress. As the Al particle loading increased, the anti-corrosion of the Ni-Al coatings increased owing to the combined effect of increasing Al content in the coatings and the texture evolution from (2 0 0) plane to (1 1 1) plane. The wear result suggested that the increasing Al particle content did not improve the wear performance of the Ni-Al composite coatings.

Cai, Fei; Jiang, Chuanhai

2014-02-01

207

Analysis of smoking and LPO in ALS.  

Science.gov (United States)

Smoking has been suggested as one of the risk factor for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) development. In order to investigate whether adverse effects of cigarette smoke in ALS have any association with increase in oxidative stress, disease severity, lipid hydroperoxides (LPO) and superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) levels were measured in biofluids of smoker and never smoker ALS patients and clinically correlated. Serum and CSF from sporadic ALS patients (n=50) diagnosed with El Escorial criteria were collected in the study. Serum (n=50) and CSF (n=42) were also collected from normal healthy controls. The LPO levels were estimated using commercially available kits. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were used to quantitate SOD1. Their levels were further analyzed among smoker and never smoker subjects. Significantly elevated LPO in sera and CSF of ALS patients were observed (p0.05). In addition, no change has been observed in SOD1 levels in ALS subjects who smoke (p>0.05). Increased LPO and unaltered SOD1 in ALS patients may suggest the neuro-pathological association of LPO with ALS disease independent of SOD1. With current findings, it may be proposed that LPO levels might constitute as probable biomarker for smoker ALS patients, however, it cannot be concluded without larger gender matched studies. Additional investigations are needed to determine whether LPO upregulation is primary or secondary to motor neuron degeneration in ALS. PMID:24726768

Anand, Akshay; Gupta, Pawan K; Prabhakar, Sudesh; Sharma, Suresh; Thakur, Keshav

2014-05-01

208

„wäre er nicht mehr Staat“: Schelling and Rosenzweig on the state and beyond the state  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The surprising thing about “Das älteste Systemprogramm des deutschen Idealismus. Ein handshriftliher Fund,” one of Rosenzweig’s best supported and most carefully detailed texts, is that he almost completely ignores one of the most stunning and mysterious fragments of this brief, two-page manuscript that he discovers in 1914 at the Prussian State Library in Berlin. Not only that: while discussing and justifying in detail every part of this manuscript, attempting to prove that just because it is in Hegel’s handwriting, does not necessarily mean that Hegel is its author, Rosenzweig completely sidelines the famous, completely anarchistic, and radical fragment about the state. My question then is, why does Rosenzweig leave out any argument about Schelling’s understanding of the state? Or more precisely, how have Schelling’s positions on the state been incorporated and transformed in Rosenzweig’s texts? How does Rosenzweig use these fragments? Why does he nowhere thematize Schelling’s thoughts on the state, or what in eine revolutionäre Staatslehre Rosenzweig calls Schelling’s revolutionary teachings on the matter?

Bojani? Petar

2012-01-01

209

Less means more. ``Frankfurter Hof`` now energy-optimised; Weniger ist mehr. ``Frankfurter Hof`` energieoptimiert  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy-optimised operation can do much to improve the profitability of hotels and restaurants. According to the statisitics of DEHOGA, the German Association of Hotel and Restaurant Enterprises, the cost of operating heating, ventilation, and air conditioning plants and other electricity consumers amount to approx. 4% of the total cost of a gastronomic business. Reducing this contribution to 2% will raise profits by about the same factor. ``Frankfurter Hof``, a luxury hotel of the Steigenberger chain located in the metropolis on the Main, demonstrates that this sort of calculation is more than just theory. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer Hotels und Gaststaetten ist die energieoptimierte Betriebsfuehrung von gewinntraechtiger Bedeutung. Nach den Statistiken des Deutschen Hotel- und Gaststaettenverbandes DEHOGA belaufen sich die Aufwendungen fuer den Betrieb der Heizungs-, Lueftungs-, Klimaanlagen sowie weiterer Stromverbraucher auf etwa 4% der Gesamtausgaben der Herbergen. Eine Reduktion auf 2% steigert in gleicher Hoehe den Jahresertrag. Dass derartige Kalkulationen keine graue Theorie sind, belegt das Steigenberger Luxushotel Frankfurter Hof in der Main-Metropole. (orig.)

Anon.

1997-09-01

210

Risked a lot and won a lot more; Viel gewagt, mehr gewonnen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

What do 7,300 inhabitants with a 90 hectare great ammunition depot of the Bundeswehr? They build a bioenergy park. This courageous decision not only attracts hordes of visitors to Saerbeck, it also provides for regular incomes. [German] Was fangen 7.300 Einwohner mit einem 90 ha grossen Munitionsdepot der Bundeswehr an? Sie bauen einen Bioenergiepark. Die mutige Entscheidung lockt nicht nur Heerscharen von Besuchern nach Saerbeck, sie sorgt auch fuer regelmaessige Einnahmen.

Thomas, Torsten

2013-07-05

211

Mehr Objektivitaet im muendlichen Abitur (More Objectivity in the Oral Graduation Examination)  

Science.gov (United States)

Proposes, for the oral portion of the final (graduation) examination, the text as basic object, from which a section should be read aloud. A 15-point grading scale is described. Regarding content, performance in "informing,""interpreting and extrapolating," and "evaluating and discussion" are to be graded. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

Miklitz, Guenther

1977-01-01

212

Das Informatik-Forum Stuttgart - mehr Dialog zwischen Theorie und Anwendung notwendig  

Science.gov (United States)

Mit der Gründung des Informatik- Forum Stuttgart wird seit 1996 eine Plattform angeboten, die den Dialog zwischen der universitären Forschung, der Informatikausbildung und der IT-Wirtschaft in der Region Stuttgart intensivieren soll. In der Informatik hat sich eine Lücke zwischen Theorie und Anwendung entwickelt. Es ist nicht erkennbar, dass diese Lücke kleiner wird, eher das Gegenteil zeichnet sich ab. Verglichen mit anderen Branchen besteht die Gefahr, dass Anwender wesentlich später von Erkenntnissen aus der Forschung profitieren. Der entstandene Interaktionsstau zwischen Theorie und Anwendung der Informatik sollte abgebaut werden. An einigen Beispielen wird aufgezeigt, wo das besonders wichtig erscheint.

Hieber, Ludwig

213

Stopper for higher flexibility in engine construction; Hoehenprofilierte Stopper fuer mehr Flexibilitaet in der Motorenkonstruktion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Simulations and FEA of engine types induced the development of optimised stoppers as in the new cylinder head gaskets, which will reduce loads on all components, especially cylinder head screws. This development of Freudenberg Dichtungs- und Schwingungstechnik gives the designer high flexibility in developing new engine concepts. [German] Simulationen und FEM-Berechnungen unter Einbeziehung der gesamten Motorkonstruktion fuehren zu optimiert hoehenprofilierten Stoppern, wie sie in den neuesten Zylinderkopfdichtungen realisiert sind. Die Dichtspaltbewegung wird dadurch erheblich reduziert, so dass die Belastung aller Bauteile - insbesondere der Zylinderkopfschrauben - deutlich geringer ist. Damit ermoeglicht Freudenberg Dichtungs- und Schwingungstechnik dem Konstrukteur ein hohes Mass an Flexibilitaet bei der Realisierung neuer Motorenkonzepte. (orig.)

Pepin, F.; Golombek, C. [Freudenberg Dichtungs- und Schwingungstechnik (Germany)

2003-05-01

214

Soil Surface Attributes Prediction Using Digital Topographic Model in Mehr Catchment, Sabzevar, Khorasan Province  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Conventional soil survey methods for soils within the watersheds in Iran require a significant budget with many soil surveyors and much time. Additionally, no accurate and reliable information exists on the spatial variability of superface soil parameters in order to predict the soil loss by different models (RUSLE, PISAC, EUPOSEM, MORGAN). Also information on planning and management activities is lacking. These limitations call for methods of estimating soil properties using minimum sampling...

2006-01-01

215

Airborne aerial power line inspection; Luftgestuetzte Inspektion von Freileitungssystemen. Helikopter fuer Inspektionen heute nicht mehr wegzudenken  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Germany is proud: in 2007 the energy customers had to accept only 19 min of power cut on average. One reason for this is the good maintenance of the aerial power lines. It is not possible to achieve this without the use of helicopters. To make this method more effective Pergam-Suisse used the existing knowledge and experience from the airborne gas leak detection to realize a concept for power line inspection: A 4-axis stabilized gimbal, equipped with a measuring high resolution thermal imaging camera, a visual camera and a GPS module for mounting on several types of helicopters. (orig.)

Horn, B.A. [NDT Application, Pergam-Suisse AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

2008-11-03

216

Insostenibilidad: aproximación al conflicto socioecológico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La preocupación por el impacto humano sobre el entorno está documentada desde la Antigüedad. Situaciones de insostenibilidad han conducido en varios momentos de la historia a retrocesos en las condiciones de vida de la población. Si bien el impacto ambiental de las culturas preindustriales se encont [...] raba restringido fundamentalmente al ámbito local, con la revolución industrial las consecuencias de la presión sobre el medio ambiente crecieron exponencialmente, sobrepasando la localidad para alcanzar dimensiones globales. La búsqueda de un estadio o un desarrollo que sea sostenible implica la necesidad de comprender el conflicto socio-ecológico en su perspectiva histórica. Observamos que sus dimensiones básicas están presentes desde la etapa eotécnica hasta nuestros días. En el centro del debate se encuentra la necesidad de comprender la génesis de la ideología del progreso y del dominio de la naturaleza. La sostenibilidad es, en definitiva, una búsqueda compleja que implica una corrección de las causas de la insostenibilidad. La sensibilidad al riesgo y a la crisis de insostenibilidad se ha incrementado de forma considerable, en un momento en que se observa una cierta pérdida de legitimidad de la política representativa. La participación es, hoy más que nunca, uno de los imperativos de la búsqueda de la sostenibilidad. Abstract in english The concern about the human impact on the environment is documented since ancient times. Situations of unsustainability led at various times in history to setbacks in the living conditions of the population. While the environmental impact of preindustrial cultures was limited primarily to local leve [...] l, with the industrial revolution the consequences of the pressure on the environment grew exponentially, surpassing the locality to achieve global dimensions. The search for a sustainable stadium or development leads to the need to understand the socio-ecological conflict in its historical perspective. We note that their basic dimensions are present from the eotechnic phase until today. At the center of the debate is the need to understand the genesis of the ideology of progress and the domain of nature. Environmental conflicts in preindustrial cultures are often linked to agricultural production, waste from the activities of some guilds, sanitation problems in cities and energy demand. Sustainability is a complex search that involves a correction of the causes of unsustainability. Sensitivity to risk and to the unsustainability crisis has increased considerably, and a loss of legitimacy of representative politics is perceived. Participation is, more than ever, one of the imperatives of the search for sustainability.

Josep, Lobera.

217

La sîmîâ’ en Al-Andalus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Resumen: S?miy?’ es una palabra árabe que en los diccionarios al uso suele traducirse como ‘magia blanca’ o ‘magia natural’. En efecto, la llamada “ciencia de la s?miy?’” (‘ilm al-s?miy?’ es un tipo de magia bien conocida en el mundo árabe desde la Edad Media hasta nuestrosdías. Tras discutir brevemente las etimologías propuestas para el término, repasaremos las definiciones que han dado de esta ciencia medieval autores clásicos como Šhih?b al-D?n al-Qar?f? (s. XIII, Ibn Jald?n (s. XIV o H?y?? Jal?fa (s. XVII, subrayando sus divergencias.También comentaremos su práctica tal como se expone en algunos textos de ciencias ocultas antiguos.Tras ello, analizaremos el significado, conceptos básicos y práctica de la s?miy?’ en al-Andalus, basándonos principalmente en la obra del autor sufí Muhammad b. ‘Al? b. T?mart al-Andalus? (s. XIII - XIV titulada Kanz al-‘ul?m wa-l-durr al-manz?m (“El Tesoro de las cienciasy la Perla ensartada”, donde dedica un breve capítulo a dicha ciencia, lo que nos llevará a relacionar el sufismo con la práctica de las ciencias ocultas en el mundo islámico. Abstract: S?miy?’ is an Arabic word that uses to be translated as ‘white magic’ or ‘natural magic’. In fact, the so-called “science of al-S?miy?’” is a kind of magic well known in the Arab world since the Middle Ages. In this paper, after a short revision of the different etymologies suggested for this word, we discuss the definitions given to the this magical science by classic authors, namely Šhih?b al-D?n al-Qar?f? (s. XIII, Ibn Jald?n (s. XIV and H?y?? Jal?fa (s. XVII, remarking the differences in their definitions.After that, we analyze the meaning, basic concepts and practice of the s?miy?’ in al-Andalus, as exposed in the book entitled Kanz al-‘ul?m wa-l-durr al-manz?m, written by the sufi author Muhammad b. ‘Al? Ibn T?mart al-Andalus? (s. XIII- XIV, what lead us to relatesufism with the practice of occult sciences in the Islamic world.

Jaime Coullaut Cordero

2010-03-01

218

Hypothetical AlF3 crystal structures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Applying a structure prediction computer programme (GRINSP=Geometrically Restrained INorganic Structure Prediction), the occurrence of 6-connected 3D networks was investigated, through AlF6 octahedra exclusive corner sharing. The five known AlF3 varieties were reproduced (?-, ?-, ?-, ?- and ?-AlF3) and seven hypothetical models were predicted. Among these still to be synthesized AlF3 phases, one can recognize two known structure types (TlCa2Ta5O15, Ba4CoTa10O30) and some easy to imagine intergrowths; however, a few others are completely unexpected, though simple. A comparison of the ab initio total energies of all the structures is provided, leading to the conclusion that the virtual models could well be viable. - Graphical abstract: Hypothetical AlF3 structure with a dense packing of corner-sharing AlF6 octahedra packed in tetrahedral blocks

2006-10-01

219

Der intermittierende Selbstkatheterismus - "safety first": Eine Übersicht über Produkte und deren Anwendungsmöglichkeiten  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Der intermittierende Selbstkatheterismus (ISK ist seit mehr als 15 Jahren die führende und international anerkannte konservative Therapieform der Neurogenen Blasenfunktionsstörung (NBS. Bei Betroffenen mit erworbener Querschnittlähmung entleeren ca. 70 % ihre Blase durch den intermittierenden Selbstkatheterismus.

Schersach P

2004-01-01

220

Ernährungstherapie bei Diarrhoe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Unter Diarrhoe versteht man mehr als 3 konsistenzverminderte, flüssige Stuhlentleerungen pro Tag sowie eine vermehrte Stuhlmenge - zu häufig, zu flüssig, zu viel. Nach ärztlicher Abklärung der Diarrhoe kann eine adäquate Ernährungstherapie stattfinden.

Kührner S

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Respuestas al neoliberalismo en Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Hacia finales de la década pasada comienza a cobrar dinamismo la protesta social en Argentina como respuesta a la crisis resultante de las políticas neoliberales que dominaron la escena nacional en los noventa. En ese contexto, grupos de trabajadores ocupan empresas en riesgo de cerrar sus puertas, [...] organizándose para operarlas en forma autogestionaria. Aquí se estudian las características del mercado de trabajo, así como las tradiciones y los recursos que permitieron a los trabajadores llevar adelante este tipo de acciones, delineando distintas trayectorias que otorgaron inteligibilidad al fenómeno analizado. Abstract in english Towards the end of the past decade, social protests in Argentina started to gain strength and become more dynamic in response to the crisis that ensued from the neoliberal policies that were predominant in said country during the 1990's. In such framework, workers' groups started to take over compan [...] ies who were at risk of shutting down, thus organizing themselves to manage and operate said companies under a self-rule scheme. This paper reviews the labor market characteristics as well as the traditions and resources that enabled workers to undertake and advance such kind of actions, through an outline of various courses of action that provided intelligibility to the situation and events being reviewed.

Davolos, Patricia; Perelman, Laura.

222

DOLOR LUMBAR RELACIONADO AL EMBARAZO  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El dolor lumbar ha sido considerado la complicación más frecuente del embarazo, a pesar de ello, su etiopatogenia aún es controvertida. La prevalencia en nuestro medio es desconocida, y el tratamiento se basa para muchos médicos solo en el reposo, medida que no tiene sustento en la literatura. En es [...] ta revisión, nos centramos en la historia clínica, terminología, mecanismos fisiológicos teóricamente implicados, factores de riesgo, prevalencia y proponemos un enfoque de tratamiento del dolor lumbar asociado al embarazo Abstract in english The low back pain has been considered the most frequent complication of pregnancy, despite this fact, etiology and pathophysiology is unclear at present time. The prevalence in our country is unknown, and the treatment is based on in rest-periods for the most physicians, instead literature rationali [...] ty. In our research, based in the literature, we focus in the history, terminology, theoretical physiological mechanism, risk factors, prevalence and we propose pathways for treatment of pregnancy-related low back pain

Milan, Munjin L; Francisco, llabaca G; Juan, Rojas B.

223

Electron channelling enhanced microanalysis on Ni-Al-Mn and Al-Mn-Si  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Atom location by channelling enhanced microanalysis (ALCHEMI) was performed for Ni-Al-Mn compounds and Al-Mn-Si quasicrystals. For Ni75Al25-xMnx (x=5,9) with the L12-type structure, an occupation fraction of Mn atoms at the Ni site was quantitatively determined using planar channelling conditions. The occupation fraction increases with the Mn concentration or by quenching the compound from high temperature. In quasicrystals of Al74Mn20Si6 and Al68Mn20Ru8Si4, axial channelling conditions were used to locate Si and Ru, respectively. It was shown that Si atoms occupy the Al site in Al74Mn20Si6 whereas Ru atoms occupy the site different from that of Al in Al68Mn20Ru8Si4. (author)

1990-01-01

224

Influence of modifier on base Al and Si on structure and elongation Al-7%Si alloy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A homogenous modifier with Al and Si obtained by the rapid solidification at a cooling rate equal to v=200 K/s was applied to the modification of the Al-7%Si alloy. The different modifiers were obtained by means of the Al-Si alloys. The components Al, Al-7%Si and Al-12%Si were put into crucible containing the liquid Al-7%Si alloy and kept for one minute to obtain a new homogenous alloy which after break-up was homogenous modifier. Both, effect of cooling rate applied to obtain modifier and weight in weight modifier concentration in the melt on structure and elongations of Al-7%Si alloy are determined. A structural, and elongations resulting from the Al-7%Si alloy treatment by modifiers are studied in details.

T. Lipi?ski

2008-08-01

225

The strengthening effect of Al atoms into Mg-Al alloy: A first-principles study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate the strengthening effect of Al atoms into Mg-Al alloy, the tensile and fracture processes of three supercell models Mg54, Mg53Al and Mg51Al3(I) were simulated using first-principles calculations. These simulations present directly the strain-stress relationships and the ideal tensile strengths for three models. The results show that the ideal tensile strength for Mg51Al3(I) noticeably increases but slightly drops for Mg53Al, compared with Mg54. By means of charge density and density of states analyses, we find that for Mg51Al3(I), Al atom on the (0 0 0 1) plane draws many electrons from neighbouring Mg atoms, leading to the formation of strong covalent bond between Al and Mg.

2009-08-12

226

Internal Detoxification Mechanism of Al in Hydrangea (Identification of Al Form in the Leaves).  

Science.gov (United States)

An internal detoxification mechanism for Al was investigated in an Al-accumulating plant, hydrangea (Hydrangea macrophylla), focusing on Al forms present in the cells. The leaves of hydrangea contained as much as 15.7 mmol Al kg-1 fresh weight, and more than two-thirds of the Al was found in the cell sap. Using 27Al- nuclear magnetic resonance, the dominant peak of Al was observed at a chemical shift of 11 to 12 parts per million in both intact leaves and the extracted cell sap, which is in good accordance with the chemical shift for the 1:1 Al-citrate complex. Purification of cell sap by molecular sieve chromatography (Sephadex G-10) combined with ion-exclusion chromatography indicated that Al in fractions with the same retention time as citric acid contributed to the observed 27Al peak in the intact leaves. The molar ratio of Al to citric acid in the crude and purified cell sap approximated 1. The structure of the ligand chelated with Al was identified to be citric acid. Bioassay experiments showed that the purified Al complex from the cell sap did not inhibit root elongation of corn (Zea mays L.) and the viability of cells on the root tip surface was also not affected. These observations indicate that Al is bound to citric acid in the cells of hydrangea leaves. PMID:12223659

Ma, J. F.; Hiradate, S.; Nomoto, K.; Iwashita, T.; Matsumoto, H.

1997-04-01

227

Reactivity of aluminum cluster anions with ammonia: selective etching of Al11(-) and Al12(-).  

Science.gov (United States)

Reactivity of aluminum cluster anions toward ammonia was studied via mass spectrometry. Highly selective etching of Al(11)(-) and Al(12)(-) was observed at low concentrations of ammonia. However, at sufficiently high concentrations of ammonia, all other sizes of aluminum cluster anions, except for Al(13)(-), were also observed to deplete. The disappearance of Al(11)(-) and Al(12)(-) was accompanied by concurrent production of Al(11)NH(3)(-) and Al(12)NH(3)(-) species, respectively. Theoretical simulations of the photoelectron spectrum of Al(11)NH(3)(-) showed conclusively that its ammonia moiety is chemisorbed without dissociation, although in the case of Al(12)NH(3)(-), dissociation of the ammonia moiety could not be excluded. Moreover, since differences in calculated Al(n)(-) + NH(3) (n=9-12) reaction energies were not able to explain the observed selective etching of Al(11)(-) and Al(12)(-), we concluded that thermodynamics plays only a minor role in determining the observed reactivity pattern, and that kinetics is the more influential factor. In particular, the conversion from the physisorbed Al(n)(-)(NH(3)) to chemisorbed Al(n)NH(3)(-) species is proposed as the likely rate-limiting step. PMID:19916602

Grubisic, Andrej; Li, Xiang; Gantefoer, Gerd; Bowen, Kit H; Schnöckel, Hansgeorg; Tenorio, Francisco J; Martinez, Ana

2009-11-14

228

The wobbler mouse, an ALS animal model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This review article is focused on the research progress made utilizing the wobbler mouse as animal model for human motor neuron diseases, especially the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The wobbler mouse develops progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons and shows striking similarities to ALS. The cellular effects of the wobbler mutation, cellular transport defects, neurofilament aggregation, neuronal hyperexcitability and neuroinflammation closely resemble human ALS. Now,...

Moser, Jakob Maximilian; Bigini, Paolo; Schmitt-john, Thomas

2013-01-01

229

Interfacial Phenomena in Al/Al, Al/Cu, and Cu/Cu Joints Soldered Using an Al-Zn Alloy with Ag or Cu Additions  

Science.gov (United States)

The studies of soldered joints were carried out in systems: Al/solder/Al, Al/solder/Cu, Cu/solder/Cu, where the solder was (Al-Zn)EUT, (Al-Zn)EUT with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 at.% of Ag and (Al-Zn)EUT with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 at.% of Cu addition. Brazing was performed at 500 °C for 3 min. The EDS analysis indicated that the composition of the layers starting from the Cu pad was CuZn, Cu5Zn8, and CuZn4, respectively. Wetting tests were performed at 500 °C for 3, 8, 15, and 30 min, respectively. Thickness of the layers and their kinetics of growth were measured based on the SEM micrographs. The formation of interlayers was not observed from the side of Al pads. On the contrary, dissolution of the Al substrate and migration of Al-rich particles into the bulk of the solder were observed.

Pstru?, Janusz; Gancarz, Tomasz

2014-03-01

230

Growth and characterization of AlGaN/AlN/GaN/AlGaN double heterojunction structures with AlGaN as buffer layers  

Science.gov (United States)

High electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) structures with GaN, Al0.025Ga0.975N and Al0.04Ga0.96N high resistivity (HR) buffers were grown on sapphire by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The structural and electrical properties of these three samples were investigated and compared. By increasing Al composition of AlGaN buffer, full width at half maximum (FWHM) values of (0002) and (10-12) x-ray rocking curves for buffer increase, indicating higher threading dislocation density. Room temperature noncontact Hall measurements were performed, and the measured 2DEG mobility was 1828 cm2/V s for GaN buffer, 1728 cm2/V s for Al0.025Ga0.975N buffer, and 1649 cm2/V s for Al0.04Ga0.96N buffer, respectively. Combining the theoretical calculation with the experiments, it was demonstrated that the decrease of mobility was attributed to higher dislocation density in sample with higher Al composition of AlGaN buffer. Devices were fabricated and it was found that the double heterojunction (DH) HEMT with Al0.025Ga0.975N buffer could effectively reduce the buffer leakage current.

Peng, Enchao; Wang, Xiaoliang; Xiao, Hongling; Wang, Cuimei; Yin, Haibo; Chen, Hong; Feng, Chun; Jiang, Lijuan; Hou, Xun; Wang, Zhanguo

2013-11-01

231

Interfacial Phenomena in Al/Al, Al/Cu, and Cu/Cu Joints Soldered Using an Al-Zn Alloy with Ag or Cu Additions  

Science.gov (United States)

The studies of soldered joints were carried out in systems: Al/solder/Al, Al/solder/Cu, Cu/solder/Cu, where the solder was (Al-Zn)EUT, (Al-Zn)EUT with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 at.% of Ag and (Al-Zn)EUT with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 at.% of Cu addition. Brazing was performed at 500 °C for 3 min. The EDS analysis indicated that the composition of the layers starting from the Cu pad was CuZn, Cu5Zn8, and CuZn4, respectively. Wetting tests were performed at 500 °C for 3, 8, 15, and 30 min, respectively. Thickness of the layers and their kinetics of growth were measured based on the SEM micrographs. The formation of interlayers was not observed from the side of Al pads. On the contrary, dissolution of the Al substrate and migration of Al-rich particles into the bulk of the solder were observed.

Pstru?, Janusz; Gancarz, Tomasz

2014-05-01

232

Magia en al-Andalus: Ras?’il ijw?n al-?af?’, Rutbat al-?ak?m y G?yat al-?ak?m (Picatrix  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article is concerned with the introduction of the Ras?’il ikhw?n al-?af?’ to al-Andalus, and the implication this question has for the history of Arabic science and philosophy. More specifically, it focuses on the impact of the encyclopaedia of the Brethren of Purity on the Rutbat al-?ak?m and the G?yat al-?ak?m, two important works of the literature of al-Andalus in the field of occult sciences. The article revisits the issue of authorship and chronology of the three works, highlighting the fact that the corpus of the Ras?’il is the product of a historically long process of composition and confirming with some new clues the identification of the author of the Rutba and the Gh?ya with Maslama al-Qur?ub? (d. 964. The textual comparison of these three works and, in particular, the study of the still unedited Rutba enables one to identify Maslama al-Qur?ub? as the genuine transmitter of the Ikhw?nian corpus to al-Andalus.El artículo analiza la introducción de las Ras?’il ijw?n al-?af?’ en al-Andalus y la implicación de esta cuestión en la historia de la ciencia y la filosofía árabes. Más particularmente, se centra en el impacto de la enciclopedia de los Hermanos de la Pureza en dos obras importantes de la literatura de al-Andalus en el campo de las ciencias ocultas: la Rutbat al-?ak?m y la G?yat al-?ak?m. Retoma el tema de la autoría y cronología de estas tres obras, destacando el hecho de que el corpus de las Ras?’il es el resultado final de un proceso de compilación históricamente largo y confirmando, a partir de algunos elementos nuevos, la identificación del autor de la Rutba y de la G?ya con Maslama al-Qur?ub? (m. 964. La comparación textual de estas tres obras y, en particular, el análisis de la Rutba, obra aún inédita, permite identificar a Maslama al-Qur?ub? como el transmisor genuino del corpus ijw?niano a al-Andalus.

de Callataÿ, Godefroid

2013-12-01

233

HOW DID AL-SUYUTI ABRIDGE IBN TAYMIYYA’S NASIHAT AHL AL-IMAN FI AL-RADD ‘ALA MANTIQ AL-YUNAN?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Al-Radd ‘ala ’l-Mantiqiyyin (an alternative title for Nasihat Ahl al-Iman is a work composed by Ibn Taymiyya to demolish each principle of logic as well as to unravel the depravity of their foundation. Probably due to Ibn Taymiyya’s being genius, when he destroys those principles, he could not avoid himself to discuss digressively irrelevant topics dealing with theological as well as metaphysical issues. In a number of passages in al-Radd, he could not even hinder himself to make a good deal of repetitions. Therefore, al-Radd ‘ala’l-Mantiqiyyin is complex and difficult to use. The coherence of arguments that Ibn Taymiyya formulated is not solid and comprehensive. His criticism of logic is not penetrating as well. On the basis of my analysis of al-Suyuti’s method of abridgement of Ibn Taymiyya’s al-Radd, I argue that al-Suyuti succeeded in rendering Ibn Taymiyya’s sequence of ideas superior to that found in the original work of the latter. The result of this study confirms Hallaq’s argument that the overall result of al-Suyuti’s abridgement of Ibn Taymiyya’s al-Radd is ‘a more effective critique of logic than that originally formulated by Ibn Taymiyya

Mufti Ali

2008-08-01

234

27Al NMR measurement of fcc Al configurations in as-quenched Al85Ni11Y4 metallic glass and crystallization kinetics of Al nanocrystals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The crystallization of melt spun Al85Ni11Y4 ribbon has been studied through systematic heat treatment in the 200–550 °C temperature range using the techniques of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, electrical resistivity, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). 27Al NMR spectroscopy provides a direct and sensitive method for determining the atomic fraction of ?-Al and analysis of the ?-Al crystallization kinetics. NMR results revealed low concentrations (3.9 at.%) of ?-Al configuration in the as-quenched material and confirm that they have ?-Al short-range order. The ability of NMR to directly detect the ?-Al configuration in the as-quenched state is compared and contrasted with XRD. Volume fractions of ?-Al phase calculated from NMR are also compared and contrasted with that calculated from XRD for samples subjected to isothermal annealing. Qualitative and quantitative agreement between the two techniques is found after the XRD fractions are corrected according to literature methods. Heat treatment at moderate temperatures (200 °C) is shown to result in transformation kinetics dominated by the growth of ?-Al consistent with heterogeneous nucleation, while higher temperatures (300 °C) lead to kinetics consistent with growth from homogeneous nucleation sites.

2012-01-01

235

Calcium platinum aluminium, CaPtAl  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A preliminary X-ray study of CaPtAl has been reported previously by Hulliger [J. Alloys Compd (1993), 196, 225–228] based on X-ray powder diffraction data without structure refinement. With the present single-crystal X-ray study, we confirm the assignment of the TiNiSi type for CaPtAl, in a fully ordered inverse structure. All three atoms of the asymmetric unit have .m. site symmetry. The structure features a ?3[AlPt] open framework with a fourfold coordination of Pt by Al atoms a...

Patrice Kenfack Tsobnang; Daniel Fotio; Siméon Ponou; Charles Fon Abi

2011-01-01

236

Fabrication and Characterization of Single-Electron Transistors Based on Al/AlOx/Al and Nb/AlOx/Nb Tunnel Junctions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The SAIL (self-aligned in-line) technique has been applied to the preparation of ultrasmall metallic tunnel junctions. By using e-beam lithography and sputter methods the area of both Al/AlOx/Al and Nb/AlOx/Nb contacts has so far been reduced to less than 0.005µm2. At low temperatures high-ohmic double junctions with a small metallic island in between show the Coulomb blockade effect. The current through such a device can be modulated by a voltage applied to a gate electrode capacitively cou...

Blu?thner, K.; Go?tz, M.; Krech, W.; Mu?hlig, H.; Wagner, Th; Fuchs, H. -j; Schelle, D.; Fritzsch, L.; Nachtmann, B.; Nowack, A.

1996-01-01

237

Ensitietopaketti ALS:iin vastasairastuneille : Terveysnetti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

ALS or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a rare neurological disease which will cause the degeneration and weakening of the musculature as a result of the degeneration of the motor nerve track. ALS is a fatal disease. Sometimes the disease can lead to death in less than two years, but it may take up to ten years. In Finland, there are approximately 350-400 patients diagnosed with ALS and the age when ALS is diagnosed is from 55 to 60 years. New cases are found each year, approximately 130 of t...

2012-01-01

238

Das vaskuläre Endothel als Zielorgan körperlicher Aktivität  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Die endotheliale Dysfunktion wurde bereits als ein wichtiger Prädiktor zukünftiger kardiovaskulärer Ereignisse identifiziert und geht makroskopischen Gefäßveränderungen zeitlich voraus. Auch physiologische Alterungsprozesse scheinen die Endothelfunktion mit einzubeziehen. Regelmäßige körperliche Aktivität als Teil einer multifaktoriellen Intervention verbessert die Symptomatik von Patienten mit verschiedenen kardiovaskulären Erkrankungen als Folge einer Zunahme der myokardialen Perfusion. Die folgende Übersichtsarbeit erläutert potenzielle Mechanismen, die diese trainingsvermittelte Reduktion der Mortalität in der Sekundärprävention bewirken könnten. Die Korrektur der Endotheldysfunktion als Folge molekularer Adaptionen wird in diesem Zusammenhang ebenso diskutiert wie die Aktivierung von adulten Vorläuferzellen, die das Potenzial besitzen, im Rahmen der Vaskulogenese zur Bildung funktionell kompetenter Gefäße beizutragen bzw. Schäden am Endothelzellverband zu regenerieren.

Sandri M

2009-01-01

239

Material Review: Alumina (Al2O3)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Alumina (Al2O3( or Aluminum Oxide is the only oxide formed by the metal aluminum and occurs in nature as the minerals corundum (Al2O3); diaspore (Al2O3·H 2O(; gibbsite (Al2O3·3H2O); and most commonly as bauxite, which is an impure form of gibbsite. The precious stones ruby and sapphire are composed of corundum (and thus also natural forms of alumina(­ getting their colors by small amounts of impurities. The importance of alumina is two...

Karen Davis (MSc)

2010-01-01

240

Formation of AlFeSi phase in AlSi12 alloy with Ce addition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The influence of cerium addition on the solidification sequence and microstructure constituents of the Al-Si alloys with 12,6 mass % Si was examined. The solidification was analyzed by a simple thermal analysis. The microstructures were examined with conventional light and scanning electron microscopy. Ternary AlSiCe phase was formed in the Al-Si alloys with added cerium during the solidification process. AlSiCe and ?-AlFeSi phases solidified together in the region that solidified the last. Cerium addition influenced on the morphology of the ?-AlFeSi phase solidification.

S. Kores

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
241

Sterol Biosynthesis Inhibition by Paclobutrazol Induces Greater Aluminum (Al) Sensitivity in Al-Tolerant Rice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Al tolerance is one of the main growth and yield limiting factor in world and mechanism for Al-tolerance or Al-sensitivity yet to be clarified. We previously reported Japonica rice (Oryza sariva L.) cultivar Rikuu-20 as Al-sensitive, whereas a closely related cultivar that is a descendant of Rikuu-20, Rikuu-132, was Al tolerant. The objective of the present study was to clarify the role of plasma membrane lipid layer for Al tolerance in rice. The previously stated two cultivars w...

Khan, M. S. H.; Wagatsuma, T.; Akhter, A.; Tawaraya, K.

2009-01-01

242

Phase equilibria in ternary systems Al-Ba-Sm and Al-Sr-Sm  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By the method of X ray phase analysis isothermal cross sections are plotted (at 500 deg C) of Al-Ba-Sm and Al-Sr-Sm ternary systems in the whole concentration range. Isothermal cross sections of the above ternary systems are characterized by the presence of decomposition region on the base of Ba-Sm and Sr-Sm binary systems. It has been found that the highest solubility in a solid state at the annealing temperature is observed on BaAl4-SmAl2 and SrAl4-SmAl2 and constitutes 6.5 % Ba and 4.5 % Sr

1982-01-01

243

Luz al final del túnel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La desaparición forzada deja a los familiares sin un cuerpo que permita hacer el duelo. Muchos no aceptan la pérdida y se niegan a renunciar al lazo con el desaparecido. A partir de la experiencia de Luz, cuyo hermano fue desaparecido en el contexto del conflicto armado colombiano, se interpela a quienes han reflexionado sobre el duelo. Su testimonio da cuenta de su encuentro con dos presos que presume culpables. Se examinan las motivaciones de Luz para encontrarse con el perpetrador. La pregunta que orienta el texto es ¿hasta qué punto los actos de luz buscan restaurar su narcisismo herido? Résumé La disparition forcée enlève aux endeuillés un corps qui leur permette de faire son deuil. La plupart n’acceptent pas la perte et refusent de renoncer au lien avec le disparu. Le frère de Luz a été disparu au contexte du conflit armé colombien; son vécu interpelle ceux qui ont réfléchi sur le deuil. Son témoignage rend compte de sa rencontre avec deux prisonniers qu’elle présume coupables. Les raisons qui poussent Luz à trouver celui qui a tué son frère sont examinées. L’article est orienté par la question suivante : est-ce que les actes de LUZ cherchent à rétablir son narcissisme blessé? Abstract Forced disappearances leave families without a body to mourn. Many individuals do not accept the loss and refuse to let go of the bond with the disappeared person. The experience of Luz, whose brother disappeared in the context of the Colombian armed conflict, interpellates those who have reflected on mourning. Her testimony narrates her encounter with two prisoners presumed guilty. The article examines Luz’s motivations in meeting with the perpetrators, on the basis of a guiding question: to what extent does Luz’s behavior seek to heal her wounded narcissism?

Uribe María Victoria

2011-12-01

244

Respuesta inmune adaptativa al rotavirus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

El rotavirus (RV es un importante patógeno humano y el estudio de la respuesta inmune específica de éste en humanos, es un buen modelo para caracterizar la respuesta inmune de la mucosa intestinal (1. Nuestros estudios han tenido como objetivo la caracterización fenotípica y funcional de las células T y B específicas de RV con énfasis importante en la expresión de marcadores de migración intestinal. Estas células son estudiadas en muestras de sangre periférica de niños y adultos recientemente infectados con RV. Los análisis se hicieron por citometría de flujo y ELISPOT. Estudio de células T: los adultos sanos presentan bajas frecuencias circulantes tanto de LT CD4+, como de LT CD8+ específicos de RV que secretan INF_ .

Significativamente mayores porcentajes de éstas células se detectaron en adultos sintomáticos infectados por RV. Sin embargo, las frecuencias de LT específicos de RV en todos los grupos de estudio fueron muy bajas comparadas con las observadas para otros patógenos.

Sorprendentemente, en niños sintomáticos infectados por RV se detectaron bajas frecuencias de LT CD8+ circulantes específicos de RV secretando INF-g y muy pocos o ningún LT CD4+ secretando INF-g o LT CD4+ y CD8+ al secretar IL-13 o IL4 (2,3. Esto sugiere que el RV es un inductor relativamente pobre de células T de memoria secretando estas citoquinas. Los LT circulantes CD4+ , INF-g.+ específicos de RV presentes en adultos sanos, expresan en su mayoría el receptor de migración intestinal a4b7(3.

Estudio de las células B (3,4: las células vírgenes circulantes CD19+, IgD+ y de memoria CD19+, IgDespecíficas de RV se identifican por citometría de flujo por la coexpresión de marcadores de superficie y de Ig de membrana específica del virus, con la ayuda de un antígeno viral acoplado a la proteína de fluorescencia verde (GFP. Las CSA se caracterizan funcionalmente por ELISPOT y fenotípicamente por citometría de flujo. Durante la fase aguda de infección en niños, los LB IgD- circulantes específicos de RV son predominantemente células grandes CD38alto, CD27alto, CD138+/-, CCR6-, a4b7 +, CCR9+, CCR10+, CLA-, L-Selectina int/- y sIgM+, sIgG-, sIgA+/ - Este fenotipo muy probablemente corresponde a CSA y plasmablastos con capacidad de migrar al intestino.

Durante la convalescencia, el fenotipo cambia a células pequeñas y grandes CD38int/-, CD27int/-, CCR6+, a4b7+/-, CCR9+/- y CCR10-, muy probablemente representando células de memoria, algunas con capacidad de migrar al intestino y otras con capacidad de permanecer en la circulaci

Manuel A. Franco

2004-03-01

245

Nichtinvasive periphere Gefäßdiagnostik ? derzeitiger Stand der MR- und CT-Angiographie in der Diagnostik der peripheren arteriellen Verschlußkrankheit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Derzeit stellen die CT-Angiographie (CTA und die MR-Angiographie (MRA in der Gefäßstatuserhebung zur Therapie der PAVK eine veritable Alternative zur Duplex-Ultraschalluntersuchung dar. CTA und MRA erreichen jeweils Sensitivitäten und Spezifitäten von mehr als 90 % in der Detektion hämodynamisch relevanter Stenosen und von mehr als 50 % in großen Studien und Metaanalysen. Offen ist die Evaluation aller Verfahren in Hinblick auf Kosteneffektivität und Effizienz in der Erstellung von Behandlungsplänen zur endovaskulären oder chirurgischen Therapie der PAVK.

Cejna M

2005-01-01

246

Children of American soldiers in Europe: a comparison of British and German GI children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

'Eine der Folgen des amerikanischen Truppenaufbaus in Großbritannien in Vorbereitung der Öffnung der Zweiten Front 1944 waren die mehr als 22.000 Kinder der US-Stationierungssoldaten und einheimischer Frauen. Ein ähnliches Phänomen zog die amerikanische Besatzung eines Teils Deutschlands nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg nach sich. Mehr als 37.000 Kinder amerikanischer GIs und deutscher Frauen wurden allein zwischen 1945 und 1955 geboren. Ziel dieses Aufsatzes ist es, die Hintergründe der beide...

2009-01-01

247

The muonic hydrogen lamb shift experiment: lifetime and population of the ?p(2S) state  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Die vorliegende Arbeit befasst sich mit dem Lambshift-Experiment an myonischem Wasserstoff (?p), welches am Paul Scherrer Institut in Villigen durchgeführt wird. Es hat zum Ziel, die 2S — 2P Energiedifferenz in ?p-Atomen zu messen und daraus den mittleren quadratischen Ladungs-Radius des Protons (rms-Radius rp) mit einer Genauigkeit von 1 Promille zu bestimmen, d.h. um eine Grössenordnung besser als bisher. Dieser Radius wird mehr und mehr als eine der grundlegenden Eigenschaften des ei...

Ludhova, Livia; Schaller, Lukas; Kottmann, Franz; Mulhauser, Franc?oise

2006-01-01

248

Stoichiomeetric interlayer bonding of NiAl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

New joining methods must be developed in order to fully utilize the high temperature properties of advanced intermetallic alloys such as NiAl. In this study, a liquid-assisted diffusion bonding method is evaluated which eliminates the need for foreign melting-point depressants. Instead, the intermetallic compound, NiAl, is synthesized within the joint by isothermal reaction of elemental Ni and Al coatings preplaced in stoichiometric proportions on the surfaces to be joined. The kinetics of this bonding process were evaluated from a series of interrupted thermal treatments. Single-crystal NiAl substrates were coated with a stoichiometric proportion of Al on one side of the joint and Ni on the other by electron beam evaporation. The joints were heated in vacuum above the aluminum liquidus (1200{degrees}C) but below the melting point of the NiAl substrates for times between 1 and 32 h. Relatively thick interlayers, 0.25 mm (0.010 in.) Al and 0.165 mm (0.0065 in.) Ni, were used to facilitate characterization of the bond evolution. The composition profiles across the joints were measured by electron probe microanalysis. The liquid Al readily wet the Ni interlayer such that a commercial stop-off agent was required to control liquid spreading at 1200{degrees}C. Isothermal solidification was completed after approximately 1 h at 1200{degrees}C and a residual layer of Ni solid-solution fully transformed to NiAl within 4 h at 1200{degrees}C. Grain boundary migration across the joint interface was observed for all heat treatments. The process of stoichiometric interlayer bonding was demonstrated to be a feasible, and potentially very useful method for joining intermetallic compounds such as NiAl. Single-phase NiAl bonds were produced at relatively low temperatures, without applied pressure, and without the addition of foreign melting-point depressants.

Strum, M.J.; Henshall, G.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1994-12-31

249

Modeling analysis of AlN and AlGaN HVPE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comprehensive model of AlN and AlGaN HVPE is developed. The model combines detailed description of the transport processes and quasi-thermodynamic model of surface kinetics at the Al/Ga metal surfaces and AlN/AlGaN crystal surfaces. It is shown with the model that HCl dominantly converts into trichloride AlCl{sub 3} in the Al source but into monochloride GaCl in the Ga source. Then, AlN grows from AlCl{sub 3} under essentially non-equilibrium conditions while GaN - from GaCl under near-equilibrium conditions. The revealed differences between the AlN and GaN growth features explain many experimentally observed phenomena, including a sharp saturated behavior of the AlN growth rate in variation of the precursors flow rates and a strong effect of carrier H{sub 2} on the AlGaN composition. Generally, the model predicts a high sensitivity of the AlGaN composition to variation of the species flow rates due to their effect on the Ga incorporation. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

Segal, A.S.; Bazarevskiy, D.S.; Bogdanov, M.V.; Yakovlev, E.V. [STR-Group - Soft-Impact Ltd., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

2009-06-15

250

Composition and precipitation inhomogeneities in melt-spun Al-Cu and Al-Zn ribbons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Non-uniform distributions of solute content in the supersaturated ? Al matrix and inhomogeneous precipitation of metastable/stable phases have been studied in rapidly solidified Al-Cu and Al-Zn ribbons. Double peaked X-ray diffraction lines from the ? Al matrix were observed in three as-quenched Al-Cu alloys and one annealed Al-Zn alloy. For as-quenched Al-Cu ribbons, variations in composition, microstructure and precipitate density across the ribbons results from local differences in coolingrates. These differences originate from recalescence during the solidification. The double peaked diffraction lines for these alloys corresponds to two compositions of the ? Al phase with less copper solute in the topside than in the wheelside of the ribbons. Subsequently, annealing of the samples leads to inhomogeneous precipitation of the metastable ?' phase across the whole thickness of the ribbons. Such inhomogeneities do not appear in as-quenched Al-Zn alloys which are quenched into a single ? Al phase. Splitting of the diffraction lines in the annealed ribbons arises from differences in the composition of two different ? Al matrix phases. The ? Al phase between the R phase lamellae has low zinc content, while the ? Al phase where high densities of G.P. zones are retained has higher zinc concentration. (orig.)

1991-01-01

251

Haulage bridges in Niederlausitz lignite mines; Der Einsatz von Foerderbruecken in der Niederlausitz - eine moderne Tagebautechnik als Grundlage einer effektiven Braunkohlengewinnung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author outlines the status and trends of haulage bridges in the Niederlausitz. This brown coal district was chosen as it is the last in East Germany where haulage bridges are still operated. [German] Der Autor traegt zur Entwicklung und zum derzeitigen technischen Stand der Foerderbrueckentechnik vor. Die Beschraenkung auf das Niederlausitzer Braunkohlenrevier erfolgte, da sich in den Tagebauen des Weisselsterbeckens und des Bitterfelder Reviers keine Foerderbruecke mehr im Einsatz befindet. (orig.)

Schindler, W.

2002-06-01

252

Microstructural Evolution of Al-Li and Al-Li-Cu-Mg Alloys.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since subsequent microstructures and properties depend upon initial decomposition processes, the early developments in a binary Al-Li and quaternary Al-Li-Cu-Mg alloy were observed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Interpretation of hig...

S. Miyasato G. Thomas

1989-01-01

253

Bonding in CoAl and NiAl metal alloys using multipole and MEM techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The precise electron density distribution and bonding in metal alloys CoAl and NiAl is characterized using MEM (maximum entropy method) and multipole method. Reported X-ray single crystal data have been utilized for this purpose. Clear evidence of the metal bonding between the constituent atoms in these two systems has been obtained. The mid-bond electron densities in these systems are found to be 0.358 and 0.251 e/A3, respectively for CoAl and NiAl in the MEM analysis. The two-dimensional maps and one-dimensional electron density profiles have been constructed and analyzed. The thermal vibration of the individual atoms Co, Ni and Al has also been studied and reported. The contraction of atoms in CoAl and expansion of Ni and contraction of Al atom in NiAl is found from the multipole analysis, in line with the MEM electron density distribution

2007-04-04

254

Quantitatively probing the Al distribution in zeolites.  

Science.gov (United States)

The degree of substitution of Si(4+) by Al(3+) in the oxygen-terminated tetrahedra (Al T-sites) of zeolites determines the concentration of ion-exchange and Brønsted acid sites. Because the location of the tetrahedra and the associated subtle variations in bond angles influence the acid strength, quantitative information about Al T-sites in the framework is critical to rationalize catalytic properties and to design new catalysts. A quantitative analysis is reported that uses a combination of extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis and (27)Al MAS NMR spectroscopy supported by DFT-based molecular dynamics simulations. To discriminate individual Al atoms, sets of ab initio EXAFS spectra for various T-sites are generated from DFT-based molecular dynamics simulations, allowing quantitative treatment of the EXAFS single- and multiple-photoelectron scattering processes out to 3-4 atom shells surrounding the Al absorption center. It is observed that identical zeolite types show dramatically different Al distributions. A preference of Al for T-sites that are part of one or more 4-member rings in the framework over those T-sites that are part of only 5- and 6-member rings in an HBEA150 zeolite has been determined using this analysis. PMID:24815517

Vjunov, Aleksei; Fulton, John L; Huthwelker, Thomas; Pin, Sonia; Mei, Donghai; Schenter, Gregory K; Govind, Niranjan; Camaioni, Donald M; Hu, Jian Zhi; Lercher, Johannes A

2014-06-11

255

Diana Al-Hadid: Identity and Heritage  

Science.gov (United States)

Diana Al-Hadid's sculptures reflect the many locations, cultures, histories, and mythologies that have shaped her as an artist. In large-scale works which have the appearance of architectural ruins, Al-Hadid employs imagery drawn from many diverse interests including science and technology, history, and literature. She also incorporates images and…

Jungerberg, Tom; Smith, Anna; Borsh, Colleen

2012-01-01

256

Ceramic foams for Al-recycling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The recycling of Al scrap requires an efficient purification step. In this investigation a filter technique is used to remove intermetallic compounds containing Fe, Mn and Si out of the molten Al. The paper describes the synthesis of the filters, the construction of the filter installation, and the results of the different filter tests. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

Luyten, J.; Vandermeulen, W.; Schutter, F. de [VITO, Materials Technology, Mol (Belgium); Simensen, C. [Sintef, Materials Technology, Blindern, Oslo (Norway); Ryckeboer, M. [Remi Claeys Aluminium, Lichtervelde (Belgium)

2006-08-15

257

Proton threshold states in 26Al  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The energy levels of 26Al between Esub(x) = 6.3 and 6.5 MeV, corresponding to proton threshold energies in the 25Mg + p reaction from Esub(p) = 0 to 200 keV, have been investigated using the reactions 27Al(3He,?)26Al and 24Mg(3He,p)26Al. Despite early work reporting a doublet at Esub(x) = 6346 keV and Esub(x) = 6362 keV, most subsequent work reported a single state with conflicting spin and parity assignments. Our work clearly establishes the presence of the doublet and resolves the conflicts. We find that there are six states in this excitation energy region, including a new state at Esub(x) = 6410 +- 5 keV. The l-values leading to possible spin and parity assignments for all these states have been made using DWBA. We conclude however that only three of these six states may contribute to the production of 26Al by the 25Mg(p,?) reaction in the MgAl cycle and the new structure of 26Al reported here can substantially increase the production rate of 26Al in stellar reactions. (orig.)

1985-04-08

258

Observation of precipitation of the intermetallic phase Mg17Al12 in Mg-Al alloys by 25Mg and 27Al NMR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The strength of the lightweight Mg(Al) alloys with Al concentration less than 10 wt% is due to controlled precipitation of the intermetallic phase Mg17Al12. This phase and its solid solution host have been characterized by 25Mg and 27Al NMR in terms of Knight shifts and nuclear quadrupole interactions for the distinguishable Mg and Al sites

1994-12-02

259

De las fuentes al público  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese A responsabilidade social do jornalista científico se inicia com a abordagem de suas fontes, passa pela redação de seu texto e termina com o impacto que este gera em sua audiência. Suas fontes são a matéria prima. Fazer as perguntas adequadas às fontes adequadas, para conseguir a informação que mais [...] se aproxime à realidade, é o desafio do jornalista que divulga a ciência. O texto discute os conceitos de verdade científica e verdade jornalística, e fala sobre as diferenças e as semelhanças entre científicos e jornalistas, para concluir fazendo uma reflexão ao exercício da reportagem em ciência, onde tanto as fontes como a necessidade de conhecer o perfil do público que tem acesso a nossa informação são elementos chave. Abstract in spanish La responsabilidad social del periodista científico se inicia con el abordaje de sus fuentes, pasa por la redacción de su texto y termina con el impacto que éste genera en su audiencia. Sus fuentes son la materia prima. Hacer las preguntas adecuadas a las fuentes adecuadas, para conseguir la informa [...] ción que más se acerque a la realidad, es el desafío del reportero que divulga la ciencia. El texto discute los conceptos de verdad científica y verdad periodística, y habla sobre las diferencias y las semejanzas entre científicos y periodistas, para concluir haciendo una reflexión al ejercicio de la reportería en ciencia, donde tanto las fuentes como la necesidad de conocer el perfil del público que tiene acceso a nuestra información son elementos clave. Abstract in english The social responsibility of the science journalist starts with the approach to the sources, runs through the writing of the text and ends with the impact that the latter generates in his audience. His sources are the raw material. The challenge of the reporter diffusing science is to make the adequ [...] ate questions to the adequate sources, in order to obtain the information that comes the closest to reality. The text discusses concepts of scientific truth and of journalistic truth, and deals with the similarities and differences between scientists and journalists, to conclude with a reflexion on the practice of reporting in science, where the sources as well as the need to know the profile of the public with access to our information, are key elements.

Fog, Lisbeth.

260

Opportunities for improving therapy development in ALS.  

Science.gov (United States)

In May 2013, The ALS Association and The Northeast ALS Consortium (NEALS) convened a meeting of stakeholders for a round-table discussion of ways to improve therapy development in ALS. The following overview summarizes issues raised and potential new directions discussed at the meeting. We recommend that future phase II clinical trials in ALS proceed when the proposed treatment is directed at targets that are likely to be involved in ALS pathogenesis in a defined subgroup of patients, and be accompanied by one or more biomarkers to track both clinical progression and pharmacodynamic engagement of the target. Innovations in trial structure and design, and greater involvement of patient advocates, may also improve trials. PMID:24472060

Bruijn, Lucie; Cudkowicz, Merit

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
261

Metallographic investigations of Fe-Al and Ni-Al intermetallic phases. Metallographische Untersuchungen intermetallischer Phasen der Systeme Fe-Al und Ni-Al  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ordered intermetallic phases are increasingly gaining in importance as new materials for high temperature applications. Because of their excellent corrosion resistance and relatively low density, the ordered phases of the Fe-Al and Ni-Al systems are at present being intensively researched with the aim of improving their grain boundary cohesion. In the metallographical preparation of specimens of these systems, the well known wet chemical methods for Fe-, Ni- and Al-alloys are not successful, but the range of use of the molybdic acid etching technique developed by Leistner/Weck can be extended to include the Fe- and Ni-rich binary Al-alloys. With the Al-rich alloys, a detailed visible development of the microstructure can be achieved by the use of polarisation microscopy. (orig.).

Laag, R.; Taeffner, U.; Kaysser, W.A.; Petzow, G. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Metallforschung, Stuttgart (Germany, F.R.). Pulvermetallurgisches Lab.)

1989-08-01

262

The wobbler mouse, an ALS animal model.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review article is focused on the research progress made utilizing the wobbler mouse as animal model for human motor neuron diseases, especially the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The wobbler mouse develops progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons and shows striking similarities to ALS. The cellular effects of the wobbler mutation, cellular transport defects, neurofilament aggregation, neuronal hyperexcitability and neuroinflammation closely resemble human ALS. Now, 57 years after the first report on the wobbler mouse we summarize the progress made in understanding the disease mechanism and testing various therapeutic approaches and discuss the relevance of these advances for human ALS. The identification of the causative mutation linking the wobbler mutation to a vesicle transport factor and the research focussed on the cellular basis and the therapeutic treatment of the wobbler motor neuron degeneration has shed new light on the molecular pathology of the disease and might contribute to the understanding the complexity of ALS. PMID:23539154

Moser, Jakob Maximilian; Bigini, Paolo; Schmitt-John, Thomas

2013-06-01

263

Al-26 in the interstellar medium  

Science.gov (United States)

The amount of dispersed interstellar Al-26 detected by the HEAO 3 gamma-ray spectrometer cannot have been synthesized by supernova explosions if current calculations of the production ratio p(26)/p(27) approximately equal to 0.001 are correct. Simple models of chemical evolution of the Galaxy are presented to explain this point. The observed Al-26 is more likely due to about 100 million dispersed novae, or to a single old (10,000-1,000,000 yr) supernova remnant that today surrounds the solar system. If the Al-26 is dispersed, the high interstellar ratio today Al-26/Al-27 about equal to 0.00002 calls into question the requirement that a supernova trigger for formation of the solar system was the cause of a concentration 3-times larger. Also discussed is p-process production in novae with application to the question of live Sm-146 in the solar system.

Clayton, D. D.

1984-01-01

264

NiAl alloys for structural uses  

Science.gov (United States)

Alloys based on the intermetallic compound NiAl are of technological interest as high temperature structural alloys. These alloys possess a relatively low density, high melting temperature, good thermal conductivity, and (usually) good oxidation resistance. However, NiAl and NiAl-base alloys suffer from poor fracture resistance at low temperatures as well as inadequate creep strength at elevated temperatures. This research program explored macroalloying additions to NiAl-base alloys in order to identify possible alloying and processing routes which promote both low temperature fracture toughness and high temperature strength. Initial results from the study examined the additions of Fe, Co, and Hf on the microstructure, deformation, and fracture resistance of NiAl-based alloys. Of significance were the observations that the presence of the gamma-prime phase, based on Ni3Al, could enhance the fracture resistance if the gamma-prime were present as a continuous grain boundary film or 'necklace'; and the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy was ductile in ribbon form despite a microstructure consisting solely of the B2 beta phase based on NiAl. The ductility inherent in the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy was explored further in subsequent studies. Those results confirm the presence of ductility in the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy after rapid cooling from 750 - 1000 C. However exposure at 550 C caused embrittlement; this was associated with an age-hardening reaction caused by the formation of Fe-rich precipitates. In contrast, to the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy, exploratory research indicated that compositions in the range of Ni-35Al-12Fe retain the ordered B2 structure of NiAl, are ductile, and do not age-harden or embrittle after thermal exposure. Thus, our recent efforts have focused on the behavior of the Ni-35Al-12Fe alloy. A second parallel effort initiated in this program was to use an alternate processing technique, mechanical alloying, to improve the properties of NiAl-alloys. Mechanical alloying in the conventional sense requires ductile powder particles which, through a cold welding and fracture process, can be dispersion strengthened by submicron-sized oxide particles. Using both the Ni-35Al-Fe alloys to contain approx. 1 v/o Y2O3. Preliminary results indicate that mechanically alloyed and extruded NiAl-Fe + Y2O3 alloys when heat treated to a grain-coarsened condition, exhibit improved creep resistance at 1000 C when compared to NiAl; oxidation resistance comparable to NiAl; and fracture toughness values a factor of three better than NiAl. As a result of the research initiated on this NASA program, a subsequent project with support from Inco Alloys International is underway.

Koss, D. A.

1991-01-01

265

Corrosion Studies of 2195 Al-Li Alloy and 2219 Al Alloy with Differing Surface Treatments  

Science.gov (United States)

Corrosion studies of 2195 Al-Li and 2219 Al alloys have been conducted using the scanning reference electrode technique (SRET) and the polarization resistance (PR) technique. The SRET was used to study corrosion mechanisms, while corrosion rate measurements were studied with the PR technique. Plates of Al203 blasted, soda blasted and conversion coated 2219 Al were coated with Deft primer and the corrosion rates studied with the EIS technique. Results from all of these studies are presented.

Danford, M. D.; Mendrek, M. J.

1998-01-01

266

Kinetics of oxidation of Zn 5 Al and Zn 55 Al alloys alloyed by erbium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article is devoted to influence of temperature and chemical composition on kinetics of oxidation of Zn 5 Al and Zn 55 Al alloys alloyed by erbium. The influence of temperature and chemical composition on kinetics of oxidation of Zn 5 Al and Zn 55 Al alloys alloyed by erbium is studied by means of thermogravimetry method with continuous samples weighing. Zinc, aluminium A 7 and its alloy with erbium (10%) are chosen as initial materials for alloys synthesis.

2012-01-01

267

Growth directions in directionally solidified Al-Zn and Zn-Al alloys near eutectic composition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Growth directions and crystallographic orientations of solidification microstructures have been measured in Al-Zn alloy near the eutectic composition. Al dendrites in Al-92 wt.% Zn alloy were found to grow along the I 10) directions while Zn dendrites in Al-96 and 98 wt.% Zn have trunks. In the lamellar eutectic, a crystallographic relationship has been found between the dense plane of each phase, i.e. {111}(fcc) parallel to {0001}(hcp), and the dense directions, i.e. < 1...

Rheme, M.; Gonzales, F.; Rappaz, M.

2008-01-01

268

Density and atomic volume in liquid Al-Fe and Al-Ni binary alloys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The density of liquid Al-Fe and Al-Ni binary alloys have been determined over a wide temperature range by a noncontact technique combining electromagnetic levitation and optical dilatometry. The temperature and composition dependences of the density are analysed. A negative excess volume correlates with the negative enthalpy of mixing, compound forming ability and chemical short-range ordering in liquid Al-Fe and Al-Ni alloys. (orig.)

Plevachuk, Yu. [Ivan Franko National Univ., Lviv (Ukraine). Dept. of Metal Physics; Egry, I.; Brillo, J.; Holland-Moritz, D. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, Koeln (Germany). Inst. fuer Raumsimulation; Kaban, I. [Chemnitz Univ. of Technolgy (Germany). Inst. of Physics

2007-02-15

269

Thermal stability of TiAlN and nanocomposite TiAlSiN thin films.  

Science.gov (United States)

TiAlN and TiAlSiN coatings were synthesized by a cathodic arc deposition process. Titanium, Ti50Al50 alloy and AlSi (88 at.% of Al and 12 at.% of Si) alloy targets were adopted as the cathode materials. X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that Ti0.5Al0.5N and Ti49Al0.44Si0.07N possess a B1-NaCl crystal structure. The lattice constants of the Ti0.5Al0.5N and Ti0.49Al0.44Si0.07N calculated from XRD pattern were 0.418 nm and 0.422 nm, respectively. For the high temperature oxidation test, the coated samples were annealed at 900 degrees C in air atmosphere for 2 hours. In this study, the deposited Ti0.5Al0.5N had completely transformed to TiO2 and Al2O3, and Ti0.49Al0.44Si0.07N remained the as-deposited structure after oxidation treatment. It indicated that Ti0.49Al0.44Si0.07N possesses superior oxidation resistance than Ti0.5Al0.5N, due to the amorphous SiNx phase existed in the nanocomposite structure. The different oxidation mechanisms of Ti50Al50N and Ti0.49Al0.44Si0.07N at high temperature of 900 degrees C are developed in this study. PMID:19441466

Yang, Sheng-Min; Chang, Yin-Yu; Lin, Dong-Yih; Wang, Da-Yung; Wu, Weite

2009-02-01

270

Assessment of isotopically exchangeable Al in soil materials using 26Al tracer  

Science.gov (United States)

The solubility of aluminium (Al) in many acidic soils is controlled by complexation reactions with soil organic matter. In such soils, Al solubility is theoretically a function of the pool size of "active" Al, i.e., the total amount of Al that equilibrates with the soil solution within a defined period of time. To date, no reliable measurements of "active" Al in soil materials exist. In this study, we determined the isotopically exchangeable pool of Al ( EAl) as an operationally defined assessment of "active" Al in acidic mineral soils. The suitability of CuCl 2 and pyrophosphate (Na 4P 2O 7) as extractants for "active" Al was also evaluated. Eleven samples, mostly from spodic B horizons, were spiked with carrier-free 26Al and equilibrated for different time periods (1-756 h). The size of the Al pool with which the 26Al tracer exchanged increased with time during the whole experimental period. Thus, contact time between solid and solution phases needs to be defined when assessing the "active" Al pool. Values of EAl obtained after 1 to 5 d of equilibration were equal to the amount of CuCl 2 extractable Al, but considerably smaller than the Na 4P 2O 7-extractable pool. Equilibration times greater than 5 d resulted in CuCl 2 extractable Al concentrations that under-estimated the "active" Al pool. Three of the investigated samples were rich in imogolite-type materials (ITM). In these samples, 30-50 % of the added 26Al rapidly became associated with soil constituents in forms that could not be extracted by Na 4P 2O 7, indicating that a part of ITM may be in a dynamic state.

Kleja, D. Berggren; Standring, W.; Oughton, D. H.; Gustafsson, J.-P.; Fifield, K.; Fraser, A. R.

2005-11-01

271

Programmed know-how as a basis of modern plant management and maintenance strategies; Programmiertes Know-how als Basis moderner Betriebsfuehrungs- und Instandhaltungsstrategien  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Plant management system can only serve as an intelligent basis for transparent, economically optimised operating routines if their methods and procedures are adapted to the working methods of the user and to the branch-specific structures of the company. The ability to create data models and programs for a plant management system therefore presupposes a knowledge of the technical structures of the plant as well as an intimate knowledge of internal information channels, voucher routing, priorities and organisational structures. As a means of securing the long-term availability and of managing the basic economic situation of power plants STEAG AG has developed and introduced the DP-assisted plant management system SI. This plant management system guarantees an optimal flow of information around the clock and has found full acceptance among users. STEAG's SI plant management system has been especially designed for use in power plants, waste incineration plants and waste processing plants and is proven through many years of practical use. Twenty years of experiences gained in the construction, commissioning and operation of more than 20 power plants went into the development of the SI plant management system. Its functionality has been further improved through long years of practical use in STEAG's own plants and increasingly also in other plants. This knowledge-based functionality of the SI system also provided the basis for adapting the its DP structures to present-day information technology standards. The system's primary focus is on documentation and maintenance. As these areas of activity also influence other plant management tasks, they reveal the benefits of the system for power plant management more clearly than do other areas. Modules for shift planning, payment data recording, order control and budget control supplement these classical areas in an efficient manner. In dealing with data relevant to local plant management the SI system communicates via interfaces with the central business system, the CAD system and the BDE system. [German] Betriebsfuehrungssysteme als intelligente Basis transparenter und wirtschaftlich optimierter Arbeitsweisen sind nur dann erfolgreich einsetzbar, wenn ihre Verfahren und Ablaeufe den Arbeitsweisen der Anwender entsprechen und den branchenspezifischen Strukturen angepasst sind. Die Gestaltung der Datenmodelle und der Programme eines Betriebsfuehrungssystems setzt daher neben der Kenntnis der technischen Strukturen der Anlagen die intime Kenntnis der betriebsinternen Informationswege, Beleglaeufe, Prioritaeten und Organisationsstrukturen voraus. STEAG AG hat zur langfristigen Sicherung der Verfuegbarkeit und der betriebswirtschaftlichen Rahmenbedingungen der Kraftwerksanlagen das DV-gestuetzte Betriebsfuehrungssystem SI entwickelt und eingefuehrt. Dieses Betriebsfuehrungssystem garantiert die optimale Informationsbereitstellung 'rund um die Uhr' und hat die volle Akzeptanz der Anwender gefunden. Das STEAG-Betriebsfuehrungssystem SI ist speziell fuer den Einsatz in Energieversorgungs-, Muellverbrennungs- und Abfallverwertungsanlagen konzipiert und hat sich in langjaehrigem Einsatz in der Praxis bewaehrt. Bei der Entwicklung des Betriebsfuehrungssystems SI flossen die Erfahrungen, die beim Bau, bei der Inbetriebsetzung und bei der Betriebsfuehrung von mehr als zwanzig Kraftwerken gewonnen wurden, mit ein. Der langjaehrige Einsatz im praktischen Betrieb, sowohl in eigenen Anlagen als auch zunehmend in fremden Anlagen, hat die Funktionalitaet des SI-Systems weiter verbessert. Diese wissensbasierte Funktionalitaet des SI-Systems war auch Grundlage fuer die Anpassung der DV-Strukturen an den modernen Stand der Informationstechnik von heute. Das System hat seine Schwerpunkte in den Bereichen der Dokumentation und Instandhaltung. Diese Bereiche beeinflussen uebergreifend auch die sonstigen Betriebsfuehrungsaufgaben und lassen den Nutzen des Systems fuer die Kraftwerks-Betriebsfuehrung deutlicher als in anderen Bereichen erkennen. Module zur Schichtplanung, Entgeltsdat

Stebel, H. [STEAG AG (Germany). Heizkraftwerk Walsum

2000-07-01

272

Effect of growth conditions on the Al composition and quality of AlGaN film  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effects of growth conditions on Al composition and quality of Al xGa1-xN epilayer grown by low-pressure matelorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) have been investigated. The dependences of Al composition, growth rate and quality on the NH3 flow rate, TMAl flow rate and growth temperature were studied. The Al composition and quality of Al xGa1-xN film depend not only on the TMAl flow rate, but also on the NH3 flow rate and on the growth temperature. The Al composition of Al xGa1-xN film becomes saturated when the gas-phase composition TMAl/(TMAl + TMGa) increases to 0.4, while quality of Al xGa1-xN film becomes much worse. The Al composition of Al xGa1-xN film increases with increase in the NH3 flow rate. The quality of Al xGa1-xN epilayer is improved when the growth temperature increases. Possible Al incorporation mechanism is discussed

2007-01-15

273

Production of exp 26 Al by Spallation of Fe, Si, Al Nuclei.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cross sections for exp 7 Be, exp 10 Be and exp 26 Al formation in Al, Si and Fe targets bombarded with 0.6 and 24GeV protons have been measured by using highly selective chemical separation and low-level background counters. Results for exp 26 Al at 0.6Ge...

P. Paillard

1977-01-01

274

Tribological properties of Al6061-Al2O3 nanocomposite prepared by milling and hot pressing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tribological properties of bulk Al6061-Al2O3 nanocomposite prepared by mechanical milling and hot pressing were investigated. Al6061 chips were milled for 30 h to achieve a homogenous nanostructured powder. A 3 vol.% Al2O3 nanoparticles (?30 nm) were added to the Al6061 after 15 and 30 h from the beginning of milling. The milling times with Al2O3 in these two samples were then 15 h and 30 min, respectively. Additionally, 3 vol.% Al2O3 (1 ?m and 60 ?m) was added to the Al6061 after 15 h of milling; where, the micron size Al2O3 in these two samples, was milled 15 h with the matrix. Hot pressing of milled samples was executed at 400 oC under 128 MPa pressure in a uniaxial die. The hot pressed samples were characterized by micro-hardness test, bulk density measurements, pin on disc wear test, and finally scanning electron microscopy observations. Fifteen hour-milled nanocomposite with nanoscale Al2O3, showed improvement in wear resistance and bulk density compared with that of 30 min-milled nanocomposites due to better dispersion of Al2O3 nanoparticles, improved surface quality of nanocomposite particles before pressing and more grain refinement of Al matrix. Moreover, increasing the reinforcement size increased the wear rate because of reduction in relative density, hardness and inter-particle spacing.

2010-12-01

275

The structure and mechanical properties of Fe3Al-30 vol.% Al2O3 nanocomposite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fe3Al-30 vol.% Al2O3 nanocomposite powder was fabricated via two routes. The first route involved the ball milling of Fe2O3-Al-Fe powder mixtures to produce in situ Al2O3 nanoparticles in Fe3Al matrix via mechanochemical reaction of Fe2O3 and Al. In the second route, Fe3Al-Al2O3 nanocomposite was prepared by ex situ addition of Al2O3 nanopowder to Fe-Al powder mixture followed by ball milling. The prepared powders were subsequently consolidated using cold pressing and sintering. The phase analysis, morphology and microstructure of samples were studied by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. Mechanical properties of consolidated powders were determined using hardness test and flexural strength measurements using three-point flexure test at room temperature. The results showed that the Fe3Al-Al2O3 produced via the first route had a significantly improved microstructure and mechanical characteristics in comparison with material obtained via the second route as well as some other techniques.

2009-11-20

276

?-Al2O3 thin film formation via oxidation of ?-NiAl(1 1 0)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

?-NiAl(1 1 0) was oxidized in air for 1-2 h in the temperature range of 650-950 deg. C. The structure and morphology of the oxide films were characterized using a cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) method. Only a thin film of aluminum oxide, ?-Al2O3, was formed. The epitaxial relationship between NiAl and ?-Al2O3 as well as the surface roughness depends on the oxidation temperature. The Nishiyama-Wassermann (NW) orientation relation (OR) between ?-NiAl and ?-Al2O3 was noted at an oxidation temperature of 850 deg. C while the Kurdjumov-Sachs (KS) OR was observed at 650 deg. C. The changes in the epitaxial relationship between the ?-Al2O3 film and the NiAl substrate were caused by lattice mismatch-induced strain energy during oxide growth. It was also noted that short time oxidation at T = 750 deg. C created ?' phase precipitates between the NiAl substrate and the ?-Al2O3 film, while oxidation at the higher temperature of 950 deg. C resulted in textured polycrystalline ?-Al2O3 films. The smoothest single crystal epitaxial ?-Al2O3 film formed at an oxidation temperature of 850 deg. C in air.

2011-09-01

277

Comparison of Al samples from electrolysis production and elemental Al from colloids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sediments of specific composition and content of precipitates were found as a consequence of increased concentration of sulphate at the Quaternary groundwater. Precipitates with elemental Al0 and fibres of alloy of Si0, Fe0 and Al0 (max size of Al0 spots cca 300x100 microns from colloids of Al2O3.nH2O from borewells at Podluží were identified by RTG analyses and SEM in more then 20 analyses. Structure of colloids of Al2O3.nH2O was verified by 27Al MAS NMR from several VIS borewells:A comparison of chemical composition of Al samples produced by electrolysis at Slovalco Ltd. Co. and of elemental Al0 revealed some parallel in composition and their appearance. Samples ŽIAR1 and ŽIAR3 have similar chemical composition of Al with Al from VIS 15 but they differ in appearance. The rest of group (samples ŽIAR 2, ŽIAR 4, ŽIAR 5 differs from VIS 15 in composition and appearance of basic Al matter and specific alloys of Al, Si, and Fe.

Libuše ?ur?ová

2005-11-01

278

High quality Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb Josephson junctions : technological development and macroscopic quantum experiments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Diese Arbeit beschreibt die Entwicklung einer Technologie für die Herstellung hochqualitativer sub-µm Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb-Josephson-Kontakte. Mit den dadurch entstandenen Bauteilen wurden verschiedene experimentell zuvor noch nicht beobachtete makroskopische Quanteneffekte nachgewiesen. Weiterhin wurden Nb-basierte Phasen-Qubits entworfen, hergestellt und gemessen, die längere Kohärenzzeiten als vergleichbare Bauelemente aus der Literatur aufweisen.

Kaiser, Christoph

2011-01-01

279

The system Nb-Al with emphasis on the low temperature superconductor Nb3Al  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liquid alloys of the system Nb-Al with Al contents up to 27.5 at.% were rapidly quenched. At calculated cooling rates of about 105 Ks-1 a metastable extension of the Nb solid solution field up to 27 at.% Al was achieved. At temperatures between 600 and 700 C the retransformation of the metastable state with Al contents between 18.5 and 27 at.% results in single phase Nb3Al. At temperature below 700 C no formation of the Nb2Al equilibrium phase was observed in samples with Al contents between 21.5 and 27.5 at.%. The hardness of the quenched samples with Al contents between 18.5 and 27 at.% containing only metastable Nb88 is less than 50% that of the stable state (Nb3Al or Nb3Al + Nb2Al). In order to produce ductile powders out of the metastable material was milled completely to an average grain size of about 80 ?m within 1 minute independent of the aluminium concentration. The milled hydrides were degassed quantitatively for between 7 and 9 h at 400 C and a starting pressure of 3 x 10-5 Pa. The annealing required for the combined hydriding and dehydriding of the powders do not result in a premature retransformation of the metastable Nb88 into stable Nb3Al

1993-10-17

280

High temperature sulphide corrosion of TiAlNb and TiAlAg alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sulfidation behaviour of binary Ti-48Al and ternary Ti-52Al-2Nb, Ti-51.2Al-5Nb, TI-48 Al-10Nb and Ti-45.9Al-15Nb (at%) alloys were studied in sulphur vapour atmosphere at 900 oC in the pressure range 10-1000 Pa. Binary TiAl and ternary TiAlNb TiAlAg intermetallic alloys were prepared by mechanical alloying (MA) process. After annealing at 1250 oC for 2 hrs in vacuum all three kinds of alloys were crystalline including two main phases ?-TiAl and ?2-Ti3Al with grain size in the range from about 0.2 to 1 ?m. Some amounts of ?-Ti, AlNb3 and Ag3Al were also detected. In the present study the influence of the niobium and silver additions to TiAl on the sulphidation kinetics, microstructure and chemical composition was investigated. Sulphidation of the TiAlNb and TiAlAg alloys in sulphur vapour atmosphere at 900 0C in the pressure range 10 - 1000n Pa followed parabolic or parabolic-linear rate law depending on the time of reaction. The amounts of sulfidation increased with increasing addition of niobium in the range from 2 - 15 at.%. In the case of Ti-49Al-2Ag alloy sulphidation kinetics was much faster in comparison with other alloy compositions, caused probably by an Ag-Al liquid phase formation. The sulphide scales formed on TiAlNb with 2 - 15 at.% of Nb and TiAl - 2 at.% Ag alloys had multi-layered structures of three different layers. It was observed that outermost sulphide layer is rich in Al2S3 with addition of some amount of Ti-sulphides and outer layer is rich in Ti-sulphides. The inner layer consisted of mixture of Ti-sulphides and Al2S3. Ti-sulphides were represented by TiS, Ti3S4, TiS2, Ti5S8 depending on the sulphidation conditions, p(S2) = 10-1000 Pa. The cross-sectional microstructure and phase composition of the reaction products were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). (author)

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Thermodynamic calculations in alloys Ti-Al, Ti-Fe, Al-Fe and Ti-Al-Fe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thermodynamic calculations of three binary Ti-based alloys: Ti-Al, Ti-Fe, and Al-Fe, as well as ternary alloy Ti-Al-Fe, is shown in this paper. Thermodynamic calculations involved thermodynamic determination of activities, coefficient of activities, partial and integral values for enthalpies and Gibbs energies of mixing and excess energies at different temperatures: 1873K, 2000K and 2073K, as well as calculated phase diagrams for the investigated binary and ternary systems. The FactSage is used for all thermodynamic calculations.

Kostov Ana

2008-01-01

282

Reaction of Ti and Ti-Al alloys with alumina  

Science.gov (United States)

The reaction of single-crystal Al2O3 with pure Ti and Ti-Al alloys with different Al concentrations was examined in the temperature range of 1173 to 1573 K. Significant reaction occurred between Al2O3 and the Ti-Al alloys with Al concentrations lower than that corresponding to the gamma-TiAl phase. The reaction mechanism was determined to be simultaneous diffusion of Al and atomic oxygen from Al2O3 into Ti and the Ti-Al alloys.

Misra, Ajay K.

1991-01-01

283

The influence of Al content on the Zener relaxation of Fe-Al alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of Al content on the Zener relaxation peak of annealed Fe-Al alloys has been investigated using a computer-controlled automatic inverted torsion pendulum through the method of free decay and forced vibration. It has been shown that alloys with medium Al contents show strong relaxation while lower or higher Al contents lead to relatively weak Zener relaxation peaks. The Zener relaxation in Fe-Al alloys originates from the next-nearest-neighbour atom pairs and their interaction rather than the nearest-neighbour atom pairs. The latter may not produce Zener relaxation because of the ordered structure, which suppresses Zener relaxation

2003-10-15

284

Atomistic Modeling of RuAl and (RuNi) Al Alloys  

Science.gov (United States)

Atomistic modeling of RuAl and RuAlNi alloys, using the BFS (Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith) method for alloys is performed. The lattice parameter and energy of formation of B2 RuAl as a function of stoichiometry and the lattice parameter of (Ru(sub 50-x)Ni(sub x)Al(sub 50)) alloys as a function of Ni concentration are computed. BFS based Monte Carlo simulations indicate that compositions close to Ru25Ni25Al50 are single phase with no obvious evidence of a miscibility gap and separation of the individual B2 phases.

Gargano, Pablo; Mosca, Hugo; Bozzolo, Guillermo; Noebe, Ronald D.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

285

Inhibited Al diffusion and growth roughening on Ga-coated Al (100)  

CERN Multimedia

Ab initio calculations indicate that the ground state for Ga adsorption on Al (100) is on-surface with local unit coverage. On Ga-coated Al (100), the bridge diffusion barrier for Al is large, but the Al$\\rightarrow$Ga {\\it exchange barrier is zero}: the ensuing incorporation of randomly deposited Al's into the Ga overlayer realizes a percolation network, efficiently recoated by Ga atoms. Based on calculated energetics, we predict rough surface growth at all temperatures; modeling the growth by a random deposition model with partial relaxation, we find a power-law divergent roughness $w\\sim t^{\\,0.07\\pm0.02}$.

Fiorentini, V; Opps, S B; Fiorentini, Vincenzo; Fois, Donatella; Oppo, Sabrina

1996-01-01

286

Retention of chromium by modified Al-Bentonite Retenção de cromo por Al-bentonita modificada  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Retention of chromium (III) from a tanning wastewater by modified Al-bentonites was studied. One bentonite from San Juan province, Argentina, was used. Al-bentonite was prepared by contact of bentonite with hydrolyzed OH-Al solutions (0.10 M in Al) for 24 hours. The modified Al-bentonites were obtained by: a) treatment with 0.5 M sodium chloride; b) with 0.5 M sodium chloride adjusted at pH 8; and c) treatment with an hexametaphosphate solution after sodium addition. Then, the samples were dr...

Volzone, C.; Garrido, L. B.

2002-01-01

287

Laser processing and microstructure of Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystalline coatings on Al-base materials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is a large interest in using high power lasers for surface alloying or cladding on aluminium alloys, in order to enhance hardness and to improve wear resistance. A partly quasicrystalline surface layer (QC) (Al-Cu-Fe coating) has been obtained by laser cladding on Al-base materials. In addition to crystalline phases (Al5Fe2 and Al13Fe4, with dissolved copper), a quasicrystalline Al-Cu-Fe phase is detected. However, crystallization of this quasicrystalline phase occurs during isothermal ...

1994-01-01

288

Development of tough ?-SiAlON  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of tough ?-SiAlON with elongated grains in the last five years is summarized. This progress has been guided by the improved understanding of phase relations and nucleation/growth kinetics in SiAlON ceramics. Although most ?-SiAlON compositions can be processed to contain some elongated grains, their microstructure, fracture toughness and R-curve behavior vary greatly. Such variability is due to the different phase stability of ?-SiAlONs and the varying physical chemistry of the competing phases, including the transient/residual liquid. For this reason, microstructure control of ?-SiAlON must pay close attention to the composition, starting powder and heating schedule. Seeding with single crystals of an appropriate ?-SiAlON composition provides an attractive alternative that simplifies the task of microstructure control, since such seeds are thermodynamically stable and they completely dominate the nucleation statistics. Tough and hard ?-SiAlON ceramics containing Ca, Y, Nd, and Yb stabilizers have been obtained using this method, some with toughness exceeding 10 MPam1/2. The ability of maintaining a uniform microstructure of highly elongated grains is the key to high toughness material. (orig.)

2003-01-01

289

AlN substrates and epitaxy results  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aluminum nitride (AlN) is a true bulk-grown native substrate for III-nitrides. The crystals are grown by seeded physical vapor transport (PVT) using AlN seeds. AlN has high thermal conductivity (comparable to, and perhaps higher than SiC), high bulk resistivity (>1x10{sup 11} Ohm cm), high bulk-breakdown field (7-8 MV/cm), the highest surface acoustic wave (SAW) velocity and since it has the smallest lattice constant of the III-nitrides all AlInGaN compositions grown on AlN are in compression, thus making it easier to grow crack-free epitaxy. Additionally, AlN is transparent down to nearly 200 nm, making it attractive for deep UV LED structures. AlN has excellent cleavage planes making it suitable for edge-emitting lasers and low cost manufacturing. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

Helava, Heikki; Ramm, Mark [Helava Systems Inc., 181 E Industry Ct, Ste B, Deer Park, NY 11729 (United States); Chemekova, Tat' jana; Avdeev, Oleg; Mokhov, Eugeny; Nagalyuk, Sergey; Makarov, Yuri [Nitride Crystals Ltd., 27 Engels Ave, 194256 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

2010-07-15

290

Magnetism in bcc Fe-Al alloy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The magnetic moment ?, hyperfine field B_h_f and isomer shift IS at the Fe site in bcc Fe-Al alloys were calculated from first principle. Contrary to the belief that Al atoms reside in the iron lattice as magnetic holes, it was found that the local magnetic moment of Fe is decreased when Al is at a nearest neighbour site (NN), while it increases if Al is at a next-nearest neighbour site (NNN). Consequently, the average ? per Fe atom was found to be, initially, independent of Al content. Assuming a linear dependence of ?_F_e on the number of Al atoms at NN and NNN sites, we calculated the average ?, which was found to agree with experimental results of cold worked alloys for disordered Fe-Al alloy. On the other hand, antiferromagnetic coupling appears in the CsCl ordered structures. The average B_h_f was also calculated and compared to experimental data and the trends in the IS are considered. (orig.)

1994-11-01

291

A New Diamond-Related Compound in the System Al 2O 3-Al 4C 3-AlN  

Science.gov (United States)

A new compound has been identified in the system Al 2O 3Al 4C 3-AlN, which crystallizes in a diamond-related structure. This compound, for which the acronym "ALCON" is used, has the composition Al 28O 21C 6N 6. ALCON crystallizes in a rhombohedral space group ( R - 3 m, no. 166): a = 5.459(2) Å and c = 14,952(6) Å (hexagonal description) or a = 5.897(2) Å and ? = 55.15(4)° (rhombohedral description). ALCON is a compound with a very limited phase width with respect to the molar C/O ratio and the aluminium content. Electron diffraction results are in agreement with the structure as determined by X-ray powder diffraction. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed the existence of twin defects in the (100) plane (hexagonal description).

Groen, W. A.; Kraan, M. J.; van Hal, P. F.; De Veirman, A. E. M.

1995-12-01

292

Reactivity of aluminum cluster anions with ammonia: Selective etching of Al11- and Al12-  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reactivity of aluminum cluster anions toward ammonia was studied via mass spectrometry. Highly selective etching of Al11- and Al12- was observed at low concentrations of ammonia. However, at sufficiently high concentrations of ammonia, all other sizes of aluminum cluster anions, except for Al13-, were also observed to deplete. The disappearance of Al11- and Al12- was accompanied by concurrent production of Al11NH3- and Al12NH3- species, respectively. Theoretical simulations of the photoelectron spectrum of Al11NH3- showed conclusively that its ammonia moiety is chemisorbed without dissociation, although in the case of Al12NH3-, dissociation of the ammonia moiety could not be excluded. Moreover, since differences in calculated Aln-+NH3 (n=9-12) reaction energies were not able to explain the observed selective etching of Al11- and Al12-, we concluded that thermodynamics plays only a minor role in determining the observed reactivity pattern, and that kinetics is the more influential factor. In particular, the conversion from the physisorbed Aln-(NH3) to chemisorbed AlnNH3- species is proposed as the likely rate-limiting step.

2009-11-14

293

Electrical investigations of AlGaN/AlN structures for LEDs on Si(111)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The carrier transport in AlGaN light emission diode (LED) structures on Si-substrates including an AlN multilayer (ML) buffer for reduction of defects was investigated using I-V-characteristics and admittance spectroscopy. Additionally, AlN on Si ML and AlN/AlGaN:Si on Si structures were grown and analyzed separately. The AlN-ML/AlGaN:Si heterojunction, and the pn-junction including the AlGaN/GaN multi quantum well (MQW)-structure were identified. As the main space charge regions (SCRs) controlling the carrier transport through the ultraviolet-light emission diode (UV-LED) structure the Si-substrate/AlN-ML heterojunctions pointed out. The I-V-characteristic of the LED structure is described by the series resistance of the AlN-ML and a parallel resistance with respect to the pn-junction. Interface defect states and/or deep defects impact the series resistance. The carrier transport through the LED structure is controlled by a tunnel process described by a Fowler-Nordheim (FN)-emission mainly through the AlN-ML buffer forming the series resistance. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

Witte, H.; Rohrbeck, A.; Guenther, K.M.; Saengkaew, P.; Blaesing, J.; Dadgar, A.; Krost, A. [Department of Semiconductor Epitaxy, Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Magdeburg, 39106 Magdeburg (Germany)

2011-07-15

294

Nanoindentation Study of Al356-Al2O3 Nanocomposite Prepared by Ball Milling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study ball milling of Al356 and Al2O3 powder mixture was carried out in order to produce Al356-Al2O3 nano-composite containing 20 vol.% Al2O3. The structural evolution and morphological changes of powder particles during ball milling were studied by X-ray diffractometery and scanning electron microscopy analysis. As a result of ball milling Al2O3 particles were uniformly dispersed in Al356 matrix. Furthermore the crystallite size of the Al356 decreased to 25 nm after ball milling for 10 h. Morphological studies of powder particles indicated that the powder particle size continuously decreases with increasing milling time. Hardness and elastic modulus values of powder particles were measured by nanoindentation method. It was found that the hardness and elastic modulus of Al356-20 vol.% Al2O3 nanocomposite were about 216 Hv and 86 GPa, respectively which is higher than 75 Hv and 74 GPa for as-received Al356.

Y. Mazaheri

2010-10-01

295

High-performance nonvolatile Al/AlOx/CdTe:Sb nanowire memory device  

Science.gov (United States)

Here we demonstrate a room temperature processed nonvolatile memory device based on an Al/AlOx/CdTe:Sb nanowire (NW) heterojunction. Electrical analysis shows an echelon hysteresis composed of a high-resistance state (HRS) and a low-resistance state (LRS), which can allow it to write and erase data from the device. The conductance ratio is as high as 106, with a retention time of 3 × 104 s. Moreover, the SET voltages ranged from +6 to +8 V, whilst the RESET voltage ?0 V. In addition, flexible memory nano-devices on PET substrate with comparable switching performance at bending condition were fabricated. XPS analysis of the Al/AlOx/CdTe:Sb NW heterojunction after controlled Ar+ bombardment reveals that this memory behavior is associated with the presence of ultra-thin AlOx film. This Al/AlOx/CdTe:Sb NW heterojunction will open up opportunities for new memory devices with different configurations.

Xie, Chao; Nie, Biao; Zhu, Long; Zeng, Long-Hui; Yu, Yong-Qiang; Wang, Xian-He; Fang, Qun-Ling; Luo, Lin-Bao; Wu, Yu-Cheng

2013-09-01

296

Calcium platinum aluminium, CaPtAl  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A preliminary X-ray study of CaPtAl has been reported previously by Hulliger [J. Alloys Compd (1993), 196, 225–228] based on X-ray powder diffraction data without structure refinement. With the present single-crystal X-ray study, we confirm the assignment of the TiNiSi type for CaPtAl, in a fully ordered inverse structure. All three atoms of the asymmetric unit have .m. site symmetry. The structure features a ? 3[AlPt] open framework with a fourfold coordination of Pt by...

Kenfack Tsobnang, Patrice; Fotio, Daniel; Ponou, Sime?on; Fon Abi, Charles

2011-01-01

297

Development of superconducting Nb/Al detectors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We have fabricated superconducting Nb/Al microstrip detectors. The low sensitivity to radiation damage and aging and the high energy resolution make these devices very attractive. The samples are fabricated by superposing a 2 mm × 2 mm Al area on a 5 ?m wide, 100 ?m long Nb strip. The thickness of each film is between 50 and 200 nm. We present the results both of steady and dynamical tests on Nb/Al bilayers, after irradiation with a 241Am alpha-source (T = 5.47 MeV). These devices can oper...

Menichetti, Ezio; Rinaudo, Giuseppina; Greco, Michela

2000-01-01

298

Electromagnetic enhancement of wetting in the Al-Al2O3 and Al-graphite systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of a pulsed electromagnetic field on wetting in the Al-Al2O3 and Al-graphite systems has been investigated in this study. In the sessile drop test the applied electromagnetic field can cause strong circulating surface flow and oscillation of the aluminum droplet. At temperatures above 800 degree C the oxide film breaks up and fragments can be seen to move over the surface of the droplet under the action of the induced electromagnetic stirring. A rapid decrease of contact angle was observed to occur when surface oscillation occurred. The rate of decrease of the contact angle has been found to be related to the intensity of the oscillation induced by the field. The amplitude of the resonant oscillation is a function of the pulse frequency and amplitude. The treatment temperature and oxygen partial pressure can also influence the strength of oscillation and therefore the rate of decrease of the contact angle. The measured data provide an insight into the influence of the electromagnetic field on wetting. Within 15 minutes the use of the field can reduce the contact angle by 25 degree and 22 degree respectively for the Al-graphite and the Al-Al2O3 systems at 800 degree C

1993-02-15

299

Sterol Biosynthesis Inhibition by Paclobutrazol Induces Greater Aluminum (Al Sensitivity in Al-Tolerant Rice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Al tolerance is one of the main growth and yield limiting factor in world and mechanism for Al-tolerance or Al-sensitivity yet to be clarified. We previously reported Japonica rice (Oryza sariva L. cultivar Rikuu-20 as Al-sensitive, whereas a closely related cultivar that is a descendant of Rikuu-20, Rikuu-132, was Al tolerant. The objective of the present study was to clarify the role of plasma membrane lipid layer for Al tolerance in rice. The previously stated two cultivars were compared to determine mechanisms underlying variations in Al tolerance. The sensitive cultivar Rikuu-20 showed increased permeability of the Plasma Membrane (PM and greater Al uptake within 24 h of Al treatment. Lipid composition of the PM differed between these cultivars was considered to be the primary account for the difference in Al tolerance. The tolerant cultivar Rikuu-132 showed a less PM permeabilization and Al accumulation which was drastically decreased in presence of paclobutrazol, a sterol metabolism inhibitor which reduces ?5-sterols and accumulates abnormal sterols by inhibiting obtusifoliol-14?-demethylase. The tolerant cultivar Rikuu-132 had lower phospholipids than that of sensitive cultivar Rikuu-20, suggesting that the PM of Rikuu-132 is less negatively charged and less permeabilized than that of Rikuu-20. We used inhibitor of ?5-sterol synthesis to alter the ratio of phospholipids to ?5-sterols in both cultivars. These inhibitors reduced Al tolerance in Rikuu-132 whereas Al tolerance of Rikuu-20 was unchanged suggesting that PM lipid composition greatly regulating Al tolerance in rice.

K. Tawaraya

2009-01-01

300

Interdiffusion in Diffusion Couples: U-Mo v. Al and Al-Si  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Interdiffusion and microstructural development in the U-Mo-Al system was examined using solid-to-solid diffusion couples consisting of U-7wt.%Mo, U-10wt.%Mo and U-12wt.%Mo vs. pure Al, annealed at 600 deg C for 24 hours. The influence of Si alloying addition (up to 5 wt.%) in Al on the interdiffusion microstructural development was also examined using solid-to-solid diffusion couples consisting of U-7wt.%Mo, U-10wt.%Mo and U-12wt.%Mo vs. pure Al, Al-2wt.%Si, and Al-5wt.%Si annealed at 550 deg C up to 20 hours. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) were employed to examine the development of a very fine multiphase intermetallic layer. In ternary U-Mo-Al diffusion couples annealed at 600 deg C for 24 hours, interdiffusion microstructure varied of finely dispersed UAl3, UAl4, U6Mo4Al43, and UMo2Al20 phases while the average composition throughout the interdiffusion zone remained constant at approximately 80 at.% Al. Interdiffusion microstructure observed by SEM/TEM analyses and diffusion paths drawn from concentration profiles determined by EPMA appear to deviate from the assumption of 'local thermodynamic equilibrium,' and suggest that interdiffusion occurs via supersaturated UAl4 followed by equilibrium transformation into UAl3, U6Mo4Al43, UAl4 and UMo2Al20 phases. Similar observation was made for U-Mo vs. Al diffusion couples annealed at 550 deg C. The addition of Si (up to 5 wt.%) in Al significantly reduced the thickness of the intermetallic layer by changing the constituent phases of the interdiffusion zone developed in U-Mo vs. Al-Si diffusion couples. Specifically, the formation of (U,Mo)(Al,Si)3 with relatively large solubility for Mo and Si, along with UMo2Al20 phases was observed along with disappearance of U6Mo4Al43 and UAl4 phases. Simplified understanding based on U-Al, U-Si, and Mo-Si binary phase diagrams is discussed in the light of the beneficial effect of Si alloying addition.

2009-11-01

 
 
 
 
301

Analysis and chemometry of heavy metal concentrations in the Saale, Ilm and Unstrut as a basis for assessing the pollutant level and the prospects for success of sanitation measures. Final report; Analyse und chemometrische Bewertung von Schwermetallgehalten der Saale, Ilm und Unstrut als Bestandsaufnahme und zur Abschaetzung der Auswirkungen von Sanierungsmassnahmen. Abschlussbericht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since the mid-1980`s, heavy metal characterisation was carried out on sediments of selected sections of the river Saale and methodical work was done on the analysis of flowing water at the Friedrich Schiller University at Jena. However, there was no comprehensive and current information about the state of contamination along the whole course of the river before. The most important aim was therefore the first and current stocktaking of this extent of contamination of the water, sediment and suspended matter of the Saale. The basis of these considerations was formed by about 15,000 determined features in water samples and more than 1,000 examinations of suspended matter and 4,600 examinations of sediment. In the characterisation of contamination of flowing watercourses, it was generally usual to evaluate the change of individual features according to geographic or time aspects. The application of methods of multi-variate statistics makes it possible to identify anthropogenic and geogenic sources and to discover latent connections. A comprehensive evaluation of the actual contamination situation is possible in this way. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Seit Mitte der achtziger Jahre werden an der Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena Schwermetallcharakterisierungen an Sedimenten ausgewaehlter Flussabschnitte der Saale sowie methodische Arbeiten zur Fliessgewaesseranalytik durchgefuehrt. Umfassende und aktuelle Informationen ueber den Belastungszustand entlang des gesamten Flussablaufes gab es jedoch bisher nicht. Wichtigstes Ziel war deshalb eine in diesem Umfang erstmalige und aktuelle Bestandsaufnahme zur Belastung von Wasser, Sediment und Schwebstoffe der Saale. Die Grundlage dieser Betrachtungen bilden ca. 15.000 bestimmte Merkmale in Wasserproben und mehr als 1.000 Schwebstoff- und 4.600 Sedimentuntersuchungen. Bei der Belastungscharakterisierung von Fliessgewaessern ist es derzeit allgemein ueblich, die Aenderung einzelner Merkmale nach geographischen oder zeitlichen Aspekten zu bewerten. Die Anwendung von Methoden der multivariaten Statistik ermoeglicht die Identifizierung anthropogener und geogener Quellen und die Aufdeckung latenter Zusammenhaenge. Damit ist eine umfassende Bewertung der tatsaechlichen Belastungssituation moeglich. (orig./SR)

Einax, J.W.; Truckenbrodt, D.; Kampe, O.

1997-09-01

302

Glial cells in ALS: the missing link?  

Science.gov (United States)

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) was initially known as Charcot's sclerosis, named after the French neurobiologist and physician Jean-Martin Charcot who first described this type of muscular atrophy in the early nineteenth century. In the United States, ALS became widely known as Lou Gehrig's disease after the famous baseball player who succumbed to the disease in the late 1930s. Currently, ALS is the most common motor neuron disease, with a worldwide incidence of 8 cases per 100,000 population per year. Familial forms constitute approximately 5% to 10% of all cases. Onset increases with age, with a peak in the seventh decade and a slight preponderance (relative risk, 1.3-1.5) among men compared with women. Rapid progression of motor neuron loss leads to death an average of 3 to 5 years after symptom onset. The cause of ALS remains unknown and there is still no curative therapy. PMID:18625409

Raibon, Elsa; Todd, Lisa Marie; Möller, Thomas

2008-08-01

303

Protein Aggregation Inhibitors for ALS Therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive loss of motor neurons, leading to death within 3-5 years. Gulf War veterans, and military personnel in general, exhibit a significant increased risk of d...

B. Diamond D. R. Kirsch R. B. Silverman R. I. Morimoto R. J. Ferrante

2013-01-01

304

Reply to comments of Wu et al  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The comments of Wu, Kalend, Zwicker, and Sternick on the electron beam energy using the TG-21 protocol are answered. The authors are in general agreement with Wu et al. They also discuss other protocols and present experimental data

1984-01-01

305

Substitutional alloy of Ce and Al.  

Science.gov (United States)

The formation of substitutional alloys has been restricted to elements with similar atomic radii and electronegativity. Using high-pressure at 298 K, we synthesized a face-centered cubic disordered alloy of highly dissimilar elements (large Ce and small Al atoms) by compressing the Ce(3)Al intermetallic compound >15 GPa or the Ce(3)Al metallic glass >25 GPa. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction, Ce L(3)-edge absorption spectroscopy, and ab initio calculations revealed that the pressure-induced Kondo volume collapse and 4f electron delocalization of Ce reduced the differences between Ce and Al and brought them within the Hume-Rothery (HR) limit for substitutional alloying. The alloy remained after complete release of pressure, which was also accompanied by the transformation of Ce back to its ambient 4f electron localized state and reversal of the Kondo volume collapse, resulting in a non-HR alloy at ambient conditions. PMID:19188608

Zeng, Qiao-Shi; Ding, Yang; Mao, Wendy L; Luo, Wei; Blomqvist, Andreas; Ahuja, Rajeev; Yang, Wenge; Shu, Jinfu; Sinogeikin, Stas V; Meng, Yue; Brewe, Dale L; Jiang, Jian-Zhong; Mao, Ho-Kwang

2009-02-24

306

Western Baldwin County, AL Grid Interconnection Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Objective of this Project was to provide an additional supply of electricity to the affected portions of Baldwin County, AL through the purchase, installation, and operation of certain substation equipment.

Thomas DeBell

2011-09-30

307

26Al in the interstellar medium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The amount of dispersed interstellar 26Al detected by the HEAO 3 ?-ray spectrometer cannot have been synthesized by supernova explosions if current calculations of the production ratio p(26)/p(27)roughly-equal1 x 10-3 are correct. Simple models of chemical evolution of the Galaxy are presented to explain this point. The observed 26Al is more likely due to about 108 dispersed novae, or to a single old (104--106 yr) supernova remnant that today surrounds the solar system. If the 26Al is dispersed, the high interstellar ratio today 26Al/27Alroughly-equal2 x 10-5 calls into question the requirement that a supernova trigger for formation of the solar system was the cause of a concentration 3-times larger then. I also disuss p-process production in novae with application to the question of live 146Sm in the solar system

1984-05-01

308

Spin excitations in CePdAl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The heavy-fermion compound CePdAl orders antiferromagnetically below the Neel temperature TN = 2.7 K. Heat capacity measurements reveal a Kondo temperature of TK ? 5 K. Magnetic order can be continuously suppressed by Ni doping on the Pd site or application of hydrostatic pressure and a quantum critical point is approached. Moreover, as inferred from neutron scattering, geometrical frustration is present in CePdAl. So far, no detailed microscopic measurements have been published on the crystalline electric field (CEF) excitations in CePdAl. Here, we report on our inelastic neutron scattering on CePdAl powder samples to study the characteristic energy scales. The measurements yield the CEF excitations and the quasielastic spin fluctuations. Two excited CEF levels have been detected at ? 240 K and > 400 K. The results are compared to the thermodynamic measurements.

2012-03-25

309

Spin excitations in CePdAl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The heavy-fermion compound CePdAl orders antiferromagnetically below the Neel temperature T{sub N} = 2.7 K. Heat capacity measurements reveal a Kondo temperature of T{sub K} {approx} 5 K. Magnetic order can be continuously suppressed by Ni doping on the Pd site or application of hydrostatic pressure and a quantum critical point is approached. Moreover, as inferred from neutron scattering, geometrical frustration is present in CePdAl. So far, no detailed microscopic measurements have been published on the crystalline electric field (CEF) excitations in CePdAl. Here, we report on our inelastic neutron scattering on CePdAl powder samples to study the characteristic energy scales. The measurements yield the CEF excitations and the quasielastic spin fluctuations. Two excited CEF levels have been detected at {approx} 240 K and > 400 K. The results are compared to the thermodynamic measurements.

Woitschach, S.; Stockert, O.; Steglich, F. [Max-Planck-Institut CPfS, Dresden (Germany); Koza, M. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Fritsch, V.; Loehneysen, H. v. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Physikalisches Institut, Karlsruhe (Germany)

2012-07-01

310

Al-induced faceting of Si(113)  

Science.gov (United States)

Adsorption of Al on a Si(113) substrate at elevated temperatures causes a faceting transition of the initially flat surface. The (113) surface decomposes into a quasi-periodic sequence of Al terminated (115)- and (112)-facets. The resulting surface morphology is characterized in-situ by reciprocal space maps obtained with in-situ spot profile analyzing low-energy electron diffraction and ex-situ atomic force microscopy. The periodicity length of the faceted surface increases with adsorption temperature from 7 nm at 650 °C to 80 nm at 800 °C. The stability of the Al terminated Si(112) surface is the driving force for the faceting transition. Al induced faceting of Si(113) at elevated temperatures. SPA-LEED and AFM Characterization facet morphology. Tuning the facet periodicity from 6 nm to 80 nm by variation of temperature. Si surfaces between (112) & (115) are expected to decompose into (112) & (115) facets.

Klein, Claudius; Heidmann, Inga; Nabbefeld, Tobias; Speckmann, Moritz; Schmidt, Thomas; Meyer zu Heringdorf, Frank-J.; Falta, Jens; Horn-von Hoegen, Michael

2013-12-01

311

Magnetic Properties of Disordered Fe3Al  

Science.gov (United States)

The magnetic properties of Fe3Al powders prepared by filing the ingot in both as-filed and annealed form are studied. Results of Mössbauer, X-ray diffraction and DC magnetization studies show that the magnetic properties are modified due to formation of non-magnetic Fe3AlC0.5 phase due to C intercalated on filing. The hyperfine fields obtained are explained in terms of nearest and next nearest neighbor configurations of 57Fe.

Nehra, J.; Kabra, K.; Jani, S.; Ranjith, P. M.; Lakshmi, N.; Venugopalan, K.

2011-07-01

312

The Microglial-Motoneuron dialogue in ALS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Neuroinflammation is a pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and is characterized by activated microglia at sites of neuronal injury. In ALS. neurons do not die alone; neuronal injury is noncell- autonomous and depends upon a well-orchestrated dialogue between motor neurons and microglia. Evidence from transgenic models expressing mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD) suggests that the dialogue between motor neuro...

Appel, S. H.; Zhao, W.; Beers, D. R.; Henkel, J. S.

2011-01-01

313

Veränderte Genexpression als Grundlage für vaskuläres Remodeling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gefäßwandumbau oder "vascular remodeling" ist definiert als Änderung im Gefäßkaliber, oft ohne Veränderung der Gesamtgewebsmasse. Die Verfügbarkeit des intravaskulären Ultraschalls hat dazu geführt, Gefäßremodeling als dynamischen Prozeß zu beobachten. Zelltod, Zellwachstum, Zellmigration und Produktion oder Abbau extrazellulärer Matrix sind durch die Expression von Genen in der Gefäßwand gesteuert. Anhand von Analysen solcher Genexpressionsmuster in verschiedenen Gefäßgebieten wird die Signifikanz des Forschungskonzepts "Genexpression in der Gefäßwand" an Beispielen illustriert.

Lang I

2000-01-01

314

Recoil implantation of Al into disordered silicon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Depth profiles of the acceptor concentration is disordered silicon are studied after recoil implantation of Al. The silicon samples are disordered by multiple ion implantation of He ions in the energy range from 30 to 150 keV. Recoil implantation is carried out in the Al/Si(p) system using 100 keV Ar ions. The profiles are compared with those obtained by direct implantation. (author)

1986-03-16

315

LA CONTRIBUCIÓN DEL TURISMO AL CRECIMIENTO ECONÓMICO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta una metodología para medir la contribución del turismo al crecimiento económico. Ésta consiste en el desglose del crecimiento económico generado por el turismo y el crecimiento económico generado por el resto de las actividades económicas. Después el método se aplica al caso de España, Francia, Italia, Reino Unido y Estados Unidos y los resultados se comparan con los de algunos países de América Latina.

Juan Gabriel Brida

2008-01-01

316

Análisis del miembro superior al tocar piano  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tocar piano, representa una integración fisiología, mecánica, neurológica, y anatómica compleja. El trabajo "análisis del miembro superior al tocar piano" describe cuáles son los músculos que interactúan, y cómo lo hacen cuando se toca piano. Tocar piano es una acción tan completa y variable, que los movimientos pueden cambiar de canción en canción, pero manteniendo una posición estándar que siempre está presente al hacerlo.

JAIRO ALEJANDRO ALDANA BITAR

2011-01-01

317

Simulations of the premelting of Al(110)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The premelting of Al(110) is studied by molecular dynamics simulations using the potential for Al derived from effective medium theory. We find a progressive disordering of the surface region as the bulk melting point is approached. This disorder is mediated by the formation of adatom–vacancy pairs. Based on the calculated radial distribution function and the analytical expression for the energy, it is demonstrated that the thermodynamics of disorder and melting is reflected in the single p...

Stoltze, Per

2009-01-01

318

Effect of elevated Al and pH on the growth and root morphology of Al-tolerant and Al-sensitive wheat seedlings in an acid soil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aluminium ion (Al3+ toxicity and hydrogen ion (H+ activity are the major constraints for plant growth in acid soil. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of pH and Al on the growth response and changes in root morphology of Al-tolerant (ET8 and Al-sensitive (ES8 wheat seedlings. Different levels of AlCl3 and CaCO3 were added to the soils to manipulate soil pH and extractable Al. The results showed that the bulk soil pH remained constant at pH 4.1 with further applications of AlCl3, and that the seedlings died at the 200 mg AlCl3/kg treatments. The ET8 seedlings responded better than the ES8 seedlings in both low and high Al and pH. The ET8 seedlings had higher root surface areas and root tip numbers than the ES8 seedlings in the Al treatment. In contrast, the ES8 had higher root diameters than the ET8 seedlings due to the elevated Al supply. Apoplast Al increased with the increase of soil available extractable Al, and declined with the decrease of soil extractable Al. The ET8 seedlings accumulated more Al in their apoplast than the ES8 seedlings. This study concluded that accumulation of Al in the apoplast is also involved in Al tolerance mechanism with the addition of organic acid exudation.

Md. Toufiq Iqbal

2014-03-01

319

AuAl2 and PtAl2 as potential plasmonic materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: •The electronic structure dielectric functions of PtAl2, AuAl2 and intermediate alloys were calculated. •The experimental reflectivity and EELS for PtAl2 showed good agreement with the theoretical spectra. •The yellow color of PtAl2 is associated with a bulk plasmon at 3 eV. •These materials are good candidates for applications in plasmonics. -- Abstract: The dielectric functions of PtAl2, AuAl2 and hypothetical intermediate alloys of the two in the form of AuxPt1?xAl2 were calculated from first principles using density functional theory (DFT) and the random phase approximation (RPA). From these, the reflectivity, electron energy-loss spectra (EELS) and small sphere extinction spectra are predicted. The experimental reflectivity and EELS were measured for PtAl2 and showed good agreement with the theoretical spectra. The yellow color of PtAl2 is associated with a bulk plasmon at 3 eV. We predict that the optical properties of hypothetical intermediate alloys would show a smooth evolution with composition. The details of this change can be understood by examination of the underlying density of states (DOS). The predicted small sphere extinction spectra and quality factors show a strong surface plasmon resonance for these materials, with PtAl2 having the optimum performance. The results indicate that these materials are good candidates for applications in plasmonics

2013-11-15

320

Al/sub 3/Li precipitate modification in an Al-Li-Zr alloy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An Al-2.34Li-1.07Zr (weight percent) alloy was produced using rapid solidification processing in an attempt to modify the ?' (Al/sub 3/Li) precipitate found in the Al-Li binary system to a complex Al/sub 3/(Li,Zr) phase. Such a modification is expected to increase fracture toughness and ductility by decreasing shear localization, which is a major drawback in Al-Li alloys. A novel microstructure is presented in which a zirconium-rich phase present as fine spheres or discontinuously precipitated rods (with diameters of 6 to 20 nm) is subsequently enveloped by ?' during aging at 1900C. Electron diffraction effects, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis in scanning transmission electron microscopy, and preliminary electron energy loss spectroscopy results indicate that the precipitate phase stable at 5000C is Al/sub 3/(Li/sub x/,Zr/sub 1-x/), where x appears to be 0.45 to 0.8. This is in contrast to the Al-Li and AL-Zr binary systems, in which the equilibrium phases at 5000C for these solute levels are aluminum solid solution and Al/sub 3/Zr in an aluminum matrix, respectively. The alloy shows longitudinal strength-ductility combinations which are significantly better than those of a low-zirconium control alloy and which compare quite favorably with those of other Al-Li alloys

1984-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Thermoluminescence properties of AlN ceramics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper describes thermoluminescence (TL) properties of AlN:Y2O3 ceramics irradiated with ionising radiation. A high TL sensitivity of AlN:Y2O3 ceramics to radiation encouraged a study of the AlN ceramics for application as a dosimetric material. The paper presents experimental data on: glow curve, emission spectrum, dose response, energy dependence, influence of heating rate and fading rate. The measured TL characteristics were compared with those of well-known, widely used TLDs, i.e. LiF:Mg,Ti, LiF:Mg,Cu,P and Al2O3:C. It is concluded that AlN:Y2O3 ceramics showing a radiation sensitivity which is approximately 50 times greater than that of LiF:Mg,Ti is an interesting dosimetry material; however due to a high fading rate of the TL of AlN:Y2O3 on storage at room temperature, a further development of the material for improving the fading characteristics is needed for its application for dosimetry purposes. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Trinkler, L.; Christensen, P.

1998-01-01

322

Modeling of precipitation in Al alloys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objective was the development of a computational model of precipitation from a supersaturated alloy solid solution. The model is based on the formalism of chemical-reaction-rate theory combined with classical descriptions of precipitate thermodynamic properties and a mean-field treatment of diffusion-limited growht and coarsening. For the case of precipitation of Al{sub 3}Sc in supersaturated Al-Sc alloys, it is demonstrated how the model can be used to calculate number densities and size distributions of precipitates as a function of aging time and temperature, including effects of continuous cooling and thermally generated point defects. Application of the model to a specific alloy system requires knowledge of diffusion data, point defect energetics, and thermodynamic properties for bulk phases and interphase interfaces. For interfaces and point defects, thermodynamic data can be difficult to measure and reliable values of defect free energies are often unavailable. For this reason, part of the efforts were devoted to applying semiempirical and first-principles atomistic techniques to the calculation of interfacial and point-defect thermodynamic properties. This report discusses applications for interphase interfaces in the Al-Ag, Al-Sc, and Al-Li alloy systems. We also describe atomistic work aimed at understanding the energetics of vacancy clusters in Al. These clusters serve as sinks for isolated vacancies during aging and their growth can lead to more complex defects, such as dislocation loops, that act as heterogeneous nucleation sites.

Asta, M.; Foiles, S.M.; Wolfer, W.G. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)] [and others

1996-10-01

323

Improving arc joining of Al to steel and Al to stainless steel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al alloy was joined to galvanized steel with assistance of ultrasonic vibration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ultrasonic vibration during GTAW increased the joint strength by 27%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al alloy was joined to stainless steel with Zn-15Al flux-cored filler wire. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Postweld heat treatment doubled or even tripled the joint strength. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Weld solidification microstructure was explained based on ternary phase diagrams. - Abstract: Gas-tungsten arc welding (GTAW) with controlled heat input could avoid the formation of massive brittle Al-Fe intermetallics during solidification in dissimilar-metal joining of aluminum to steel. In the first part of the present study an Al-Mg alloy was joined to galvanized steel by GTAW with an Al-Si filler metal. The weld solidification microstructure was explained based on the Al-Mg-Si phase diagram. Ultrasonic vibration during GTAW increased the joint strength by 27%. Grain refinement, decreased Fe-Al intermetallics, and increased microhardness in both the heat-affected zone and the weld were observed, thus explaining the improved joint strength. In the second part, an Al-Mg alloy was joined to 304 stainless steel using a Zn-15Al filler metal with a noncorrosive flux core. The weld solidification microstructure was explained based on the Al-Zn-Mg phase diagram. Postweld heat treatment (PWHT) at 280 Degree-Sign C for 30 min doubled or even tripled the joint strength depending on the Al-sheet thickness. Dissolution of coarse Zn-rich particles at the weld/steel interface was observed after PWHT, thus eliminating these weak particles from the interface. The formation of Zn-rich particles near the interface and their dissolution by PWHT were explained based on the Al-Fe-Zn phase diagram.

Dong Honggang, E-mail: donghg@dlut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116085 (China); Yang Liqun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116085 (China); Dong Chuang [Key Lab of Materials Modification, Dalian University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Dalian 116085 (China); Kou Sindo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Wisconsin, 1509 University Ave, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

2012-02-01

324

Degradasi Lapisan Aluminida pada Paduan Intermetalik ?2-Ti3Al / ?-TiAl Akibat Oksidasi Siklik  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two-phase inter-metallic alloy ?2-Ti3Al/?-TiAl is developed to operated at high temperature in oxidative environment. However its oxidation rate can not be tolerated due to formation of TiO2 which is not protective. If the alloy is used in gas turbine that often have thermal cycle, it will cause cracking and flaking oxide crust. Coating is correct solution to improve properties of this alloy so that it can be used at high temperature. By enriching the material surface with significant amount of Al element there will be a formation of Al2O3 protective oxide. The method applied to get formation of Al2O3 is the pack cementation. This study discusses of characteristic coating and oxide crust formation at two-phase inter-metallic alloy of ?2-Ti3Al/?-TiAl from pack aluminizing process Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia; Paduan intermetalik dua fasa ?2-Ti3Al/?-TiAl dikembangkan untuk operasi temperature tinggi dalam lingkungan oksidatif. Namun laju oksidasinya tidak dapat ditolelir karena akan teroksidasi membentuk kerak oksida TiO2 yang tidak protektif. Pada Mesin turbin gas yang seringkali mengalami siklus thermal, dapat mengakibatkan peretakan (cracking dan pengelupasan (spalling kerak oksida. Coating merupakan solusi yang tepat agar paduan ini dapat digunakan pada temperature tinggi. Dengan memperkaya permukaan benda kerja dengan unsur Al sehingga material mampu membentuk kerak oksida protektif Al2O3 saat teroksidasi. Metoda pelapisan temperature tinggi yang sering diterapkan untuk keperluan ini adalah pack cementation. Studi ini membahas sebagian dari hasil pengujian oksidasi siklik. Khususnya pembahasan karakteristik coating dan kerak oksida yang terbentuk pada paduan intermetalik dua fasa ?2-Ti3Al/?-TiAl hasil pack aluminizing. Kata kunci: Coating, cyclic oxidation, pack aluminizing.

Toto Saputra

2008-01-01

325

Predicting glass-forming compositions in the Al-La and Al-La-Ni systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research highlights: ? The glass-forming ability of the Al-La and Al-La-Ni systems was studied using the ?* and the ?.?e criteria. ? Both criteria predicted with just 1% at. of error the best glass-former verified so far in the Al-La system. ? Four new glass-former compositions could be predicted in the Al-La-Ni system using the ?.?e criterion. ? The best glass-former reported so far in the Al-La-Ni system was found. - Abstract: In this work, a criterion considering the topological instability (?) and the differences in the electronegativity of the constituent elements (?e) was applied to the Al-La and Al-Ni-La systems in order to predict the best glass-forming compositions. The results were compared with literature data and with our own experimental data for the Al-La-Ni system. The alloy described in the literature as the best glass former in the Al-La system is located near the point with local maximum for the ?.?e criterion. A good agreement was found between the predictions of the ?.?e criterion and literature data in the Al-La-Ni system, with the region of the best glass-forming ability (GFA) and largest supercooled liquid region (?Tx) coinciding with the best compositional region for amorphization indicated by the ?.?e criterion. Four new glassy compositions were found in the Al-La-Ni system, with the best predicted composition presenting the best glass-forming ability observed so far for this system. Although the ?.?e criterion needs further refinements for completely describe the glass-forming ability in the Al-La and Al-La-Ni systems, the results demonstrated that this criterion is a good tool to predict new glass-forming compositions.

2011-06-01

326

Optical microcavities and enhanced electroluminescence from electroformed Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes  

Science.gov (United States)

Electroluminescence (EL) and electron emission into vacuum (EM) occur when a non-destructive dielectric breakdown of Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes, electroforming, results in the development of a filamentary region in which current-voltage (I-V) characteristics exhibit voltage-controlled negative resistance. The temperature dependence of I-V curves, EM, and, particularly, EL of Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes with anodic Al2O3 thicknesses between 12 nm and 30 nm, has been studied. Two filters, a long-pass (LP) filter with transmission of photons with energies less than 3.0 eV and a short-pass (SP) filter with photon transmission between 3.0 and 4.0 eV, have been used to characterize EL. The voltage threshold for EL with the LP filter, VLP, is ˜1.5 V. VLP is nearly independent of Al2O3 thickness and of temperature and is 0.3-0.6 V less than the threshold voltage for EL for the SP filter, VSP. EL intensity is primarily between 1.8 and 3.0 eV when the bias voltage, VS ? 7 V. EL in the thinnest diodes is enhanced compared to EL in thicker diodes. For increasing VS, for diodes with the smallest Al2O3 thicknesses, there is a maximum EL intensity, LMX, at a voltage, VLMX, followed by a decrease to a plateau. LMX and EL intensity at 4.0 V in the plateau region depend exponentially on Al2O3 thickness. The ratio of LMX at 295 K for a diode with 12 nm of Al2O3 to LMX for a diode with 25 nm of Al2O3 is ˜140. The ratio of EL intensity with the LP filter to EL intensity with the SP filter, LP/SP, varies between ˜3 and ˜35; it depends on Al2O3 thickness and VS. Enhanced EL is attributed to the increase of the spontaneous emission rate of a dipole in a non-resonant optical microcavity. EL photons interact with the Ag and Al films to create surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at the metal-Al2O3 interfaces. SPPs generate large electromagnetic fields in the filamentary region of the electroformed Al-Al2O3-Ag diode, which then acts as an optical microcavity. A model is proposed for electronic processes in electroformed Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes.

Hickmott, T. W.

2013-12-01

327

Fabrication, structure and consolidation of NiAl-Al2O3 mechanically alloyed nanocomposite powders  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reactive milling of NiO + Al powder mixture resulted in the formation of NiAl-Al2O3 nanocomposite powders, with a crystallite size of about 20 nm. The Hall-Williamson analysis revealed that NiAl showed an orientation dependent crystallite size after short processing time and orientation dependent internal strain after long milling time. Both anisotropies were removed by heating the powders in the differential scanning calorimetry. Calorimetric studies showed one exothermic effect attributed to the reduction reaction of NiO and endothermic one associated with melting of Al. Two methods were applied for powders compaction: resistance sintering and pulse electric discharge. In both cases the densities of abut 90% of the theoretical value were achieved. A significant increase in average NiAl crystallites size in compacted samples was observed, up to several hundreds of nanometers.(author)

2001-09-23

328

Tin/Al sub 2 O sub 3 /TiAlOn composite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention pertains to novel improved density ceramic composites of TiN/Al2O3/TiAlON in which there is no spinel and no AlN, but alpha-alumina, titanium nitride, and titanium aluminum oxynitride. In general, the improved density TiN/Al2O3/TiAlON ceramic composites of the invention are prepared by: adding aluminum isobutoxide (Al(O-iBu)3) to a refluxing mixture of deionized water and formic acid at elevated temperatures to obtain an aluminum sol; casting the slurry in molds; drying the cast material and calcining it at about 600 C; screening the calcined material to minus 200 mesh; pressing pellets at about 10 KPsi, isostatically pressing them at about 40 KPsi; and sintering the pellets below 1,700 C to obtain sintered bodies having densities greater than about 4.2 g/cc.

Han, K.

1990-04-02

329

Toward Detection of AlCH2 and AlCH_{{2}}^+ in the Interstellar Medium  

Science.gov (United States)

Highly reliable molecular properties have been computed for AlCH2 and AlCH_{2}^{+} at the CCSD(T)/cc-pwCVQZ level of theory. These simple aluminum species are relevant to the chemistry of the interstellar medium (ISM) and circumstellar medium, and are proposed to form in regions where aluminum and methylene exist in appreciable concentrations because AlCH2 and AlCH_2^+ are thermodynamically stable with respect to dissociation. Herein, dissociation energies were computed for both species through extrapolation to the complete basis set limit using focal point analysis. For the neutral species, 86 kcal mol-1 is required to heterolytically cleave the Al-C single bond, while the cationic species requires 38 kcal mol-1. To aid in identification within the ISM, the anharmonic (fundamental) frequencies, spectroscopic constants, and vibrationally averaged properties for AlCH2 and the corresponding cation are also reported.

Compaan, Katherine R.; Agarwal, Jay; Dye, Bryson E.; Yamaguchi, Yukio; Schaefer, Henry F., III

2013-12-01

330

Nanocrack-induced leakage current in AlInN/AlN/GaN  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Here we report on the study of nano-crack formation in Al1?xInxN/AlN/GaN heterostructures, on its association with composition fluctuation and on its local electrical properties. It is shown here that indium segregation at nano-cracks and threading dislocations originating from the non-pseudomorphic AlN interlayer could be the cause of the high reverse-bias gate leakage current of Ni/Au Schottky contacts on Al1?xInxN/AlN/GaN heterostructures and significantly affects the contact rectifying behavior. Segregation of indium around crack tips in Al1?xInxN acting as conductive paths was assessed with conductive atomic force microscopy.

2012-03-01

331

Crystal structures of isotypic aluminides CeRuAl and CeRhAl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The crystal structures of the compounds CeRuAl and CeRhAl were studied by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Both compounds crystallize in the orthorhombic LaNiAl type with space group Pnma (No. 62) and are related to the structure types of hexagonal ZrNiAl and orthorhombic TiNiSi. Parameters for CeRuAl and CeRhAl are: a = 7.2057(2) A, b = 4.0589(1) A, c = 15.8728(5) A; RF = 0.023; a = 7.107(2) A, b = 4.2237(10) A, c = 15.965(3) A; RF 0.032, respectively

2008-04-24

332

Structure and mechanical properties of Al-12%Si alloy with fast cooling Al-12%Si  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A homogenous modifier obtained by the rapid solidification at a cooling rate equal to v=300 K/s was applied to the modification of the Al-12%Si alloy. The different modifiers were obtained by means of the Al-Si alloys. The components Al-12%Si were put into crucible containing the liquid Al-12%Si alloy and kept for one minute to obtain a new homogenous alloy which after break-up was homogenous modifier. Both, effect of cooling rate applied to obtain modifier and weight in weight modifier concentration in the melt on structure, tensile strength, elongations and hardness of Al-12%Si alloy are determined. A structural, physical and mechanical properties resulting from the Al-12%Si alloy treatment by modifiers are studied in details.

T. Lipi?ski

2008-08-01

333

?-phase formation in NiAl and Ni2Al alloys  

Science.gov (United States)

The phase stability of bcc-like NiAl and Ni2Al with respect to phase transformations into the ? phase is examined by first-principles, full-potential, linear muffin-tin orbital method (FPLMTO), band-structure calculations. In agreement with experiment we find that bcc-like NiAl is stable, whereas Ni2Al is unstable. We have also performed some calculations in slightly disordered phases, and find that the disordering tends to inhibit the transformation. This supports the suggestion that a combined displacive/ordering transformation mechanism is involved in the phase transformations of the Ni2Al system. Calculated lattice parameters and the degree of internal shuffling of atoms for the ordered Ni2Al phase were found to be in excellent agreement with the experiment

Sanati, M.; Albers, R. C.; Pinski, F. J.

2001-06-01

334

Review Essay: Erwägen als Prüfstein ethischer und alltagsrelevanter Reife der Psychologie  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Suchprozesse der Seele. Die Psychologie des Erwägens ist eine gute und repräsentative Vorstellung aktuellen psychologischen Denkens und Forschens. Insofern ist das Buch jeder/jedem zu empfehlen, die/der sich über den aktuellen Stand der Psychologie informieren möchte, denn für den Laien und die Laiin wird in der Tat anhand des Gegenstands "Erwägen" erkennbar, auf welchem Niveau und an welchen Themen die aktuelle Psychologie arbeitet. Für den Experten/die Expertin beweist das Buch allerdings, dass die Psychologie nicht reif ist für ein Denken des Erwägens sowie für Phänomene der Unentscheidbarkeit und Gleichwertigkeit. Erwägen wird überwiegend mit Entscheiden oder generell dem Denken gleichgesetzt – und nur in wenigen Beiträgen eigenständig und erfrischend neu thematisiert; diese lohnen gelesen zu werden. Wer mehr erwartet hat, ist naiv. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901119

Lars Allolio-Näcke

2008-10-01

335

The Gendering of «Death» in Kit?b al-‘Iqd al-Far?d  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article studies a subsection of the adab compilation of Ibn ‘Abd Rabbih’s, al-‘Iqd al-far?d, namely “The Book of Lamentations, Condolences, and Elegies”. The article analyzes al-‘Iqd’s ideological function, specifically, the way gender is organized through the occasion of death. It locates what seems to be «repressed» in the text attempting to determine what material was ignored, buried, end edited, and how priorit...

El Cheikh, Nadia Maria

2010-01-01

336

Molecular dynamic investigation of atomic distribution in molten Al-Al{sub 2}Cu eutectic alloy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Structure of Al{sub 0.83}Cu{sub 0.17} eutectic alloy has been studied in liquid state by means of X-ray diffraction and molecular dynamic methods. The total and partial structure factors are analyzed. These functions were used in order to calculate pair correlation functions and partial correlation functions, whose analysis allowed us to conclude that Al{sub 2}Cu-like atomic groups are distributed in Al-matrix.

Mudry, S; Shtablavyi, I [Physics of Metals Department, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Kyrylo and Mephodii Str. 8, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Rybicki, J, E-mail: sihor@ukr.ne [Faculty of Technical Physics and Applied Mathematics, Technical University of Gdansk, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)

2011-04-01

337

Mechanism of charge transport in Si/Al2O3/Al structures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The investigation of current – voltage characteristics of structures Si/Al2O3/Al on the basis of aluminium oxide layers obtained by a method atomic layer deposition is carried out. It is established, that the possible mechanism of charge transport in structure is the space charge limited currents. The charge carrier concentration (Nt), concentration of traps (n0) and electron mobility (?) in Al2O3 layer are calculated

2013-08-28

338

Fabrication, phase transformation studies, and characterization of SiC-AlN-Al2OC ceramics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Principal focus was on phase transformation, microstructure development, and elevated temperature creep, with some effort on room- temperature mechanical properties of selected materials. Fabrication was largely hot pressing, although many of the compositions can be densified by pressureless sintering; hot pressing was to ensure full attainment of density with fine microstructure. Most of the work was on SiC-AlN and AlN-Al2OC pseudobinaries

1994-01-01

339

Effect of the interface in laminated composites of Al-1100 and Al-2024  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laminated composites consisting of alternating layers of Al-1100 and Al-2024 were produced by hot rolling, with 45% Al-2024 volume fraction. These composites were subjected to cyclic thermal treatment (various numbers of cycles) and to isothermal treatment (various numbers of cycles) and to isothermal treatment (at peak temperature and for times equivalent to those of the thermal cycles. Microhardness, tensile and fatigue crack arrester modes) were studied in the initial state and after treatments. (E.G.)

1983-01-01

340

Microsegregation and microstructural features of directionally solidified AlSi and AlSiMg alloys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A challenge to current growth theories arises from the comparison of binary and ternary AlSi alloys processed under the same solidification conditions: to explain the phenomena, new concepts on primary spacing, mush evolution, and connective mass transport are needed. The Figure shows an optical micrograph of an AlSiMg alloy, where {alpha}-Al dendrites, silicon lamellae and Mg{sub 2}Si precipitates can be differentiated. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

Ahrweiler, S.; Ratke, L. [Institute of Space Simulation, German Aerospace Center DLR, D-51140 Cologne (Germany); Lacaze, J. [22. Cirimat, UMR 5085 UPS-INPT-CNRS, ENSIACET, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Depolarization currents in Al2O3 and MgAl2O4 oxides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present work, dipole defects in ?-irradiated and thermally treated samples of Al2O3 and MgAl2O4 oxides are investigated, applying the thermally stimulated depolarisation currents technique (TSDC). The TSDC spectra of MgAl2O4 doped with Fe2+, Fe3+, Co2+, Cr3+ and Mn2+ show four bands at 130 K, 160 K, 250 K and 320 K, and the spectra of Al2O3 doped with Mg2+, Cr3+ and Fe3+ show bands between 230 K and 260 K. It has been observed that the bands at 130 K, 160 K and 250 K in MgAl2O4 spinel and that the 230 K and 240 K bands in Al2O3 are related to dipole defects. The other bands are possibly related to different types of charge storage mechanisms (space-charge and interfacial polarisation) or deal with distributions in activation energies and/or in relaxation times. A thermal decrease of the TSDC bands for heat treatments above 1000 K has been observed. In MgAl2O4 spinel, the 250 K band could be recovered after ?-irradiation and the two dipole peaks in Al2O3 were partially recovered. Thermal treatments affect the dipole aggregation processes in both oxides. Optical absorption (AO) results indicate that the presence of bands of water molecules in the infrared region obstructs the appearance of the TSDC bands in both Al2O3 and MgAl2O4. The 250 K peak in MgAl2O4 was correlated to V-type centres and the 250 K peak in Al2O3 to a substitutional Mg2+ ion near a trapped hole localised on an adjacent oxygen ion

2004-06-01

342

Water Quality and Planktonic Communities in Al-Khadoud Spring, Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: Al-Khadoud spring is one of the most important water resources in Al- Hassa Governorate, Saudi Arabia. However, much of its biotic information is still unknown. This study presented preliminary ecological information of this aquatic body. The aim of this research was to study the water characteristics and the planktonic organisms inhibiting Al-Khadoud spring and its irrigational channels for a period of 1 year. Approach: A regular visit was...

Fathi, Adel A.; Al-kahtani, Mohammed A.

2009-01-01

343

A note on Wang et al's attack on Zhang et al's multiparty quantum secret sharing  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, Wang et al (2008 Phys. Lett. A 373 65) proposed an attack on Zhang et al's (2007 Opt. Commun. 269 418) multiparty quantum secret sharing scheme, in which the first and the last agent are reported to be able to cooperatively eavesdrop on all the secret messages without being detected. In this paper, we show that in Wang et al's attack, on average no more than half the secret messages can be eavesdropped.

Gao, Gan

2012-08-01

344

A note on Wang et al's attack on Zhang et al's multiparty quantum secret sharing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently, Wang et al (2008 Phys. Lett. A 373 65) proposed an attack on Zhang et al's (2007 Opt. Commun. 269 418) multiparty quantum secret sharing scheme, in which the first and the last agent are reported to be able to cooperatively eavesdrop on all the secret messages without being detected. In this paper, we show that in Wang et al's attack, on average no more than half the secret messages can be eavesdropped. (paper)

2012-08-01

345

From Ti–Al- to Ti–Al–N-sputtered 2D materials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract This paper reviews thin films constituted by elements based on the Ti–Al–N system, bearing in mind the role of the condensed phases in the development of structural components and functional devices. In recent decades, the Ti–Al, Ti–N and Al–N nanocrystalline binary systems have rapidly attracted research and industry interest. These systems have revealed a great performance via atomic-level structural control, making it possible to tailor new atomic structures and morphol...

Vieira, Maria; Ramos, Ana; Castanho, Jose?; Oliveira, Joa?o; Cavaleiro, Albano

2007-01-01

346

Ternary invariant point at 374°C in the three phase region AlSb-Al-Zn inside the Al-Sb-Zn ternary system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Al-Sb-Zn ternary system was investigated in the three phase region Al-AlSb-Zn, using differential thermal analysis (DTA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS. The position and temperature of the invariant eutectic L ? AlSb + ?-Al + ? - Zn point inside Al-AlSb-Zn region was experimentally determined. To confirm the obtained results X-ray powder diffraction analysis or XRD was also done. All results were compared to the calculated isopleth phase diagrams using Thermo-Calc software (TCW 5. All calculations were done using the SSOL4 data base.

Klan?nik G.

2011-01-01

347

Micro Arc Oxidation of Wire Arc Sprayed Al-Mg6, Al-Si12, Al Coatings on Low Alloyed Steel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Micro arc oxidation of wire arc sprayed Al-Mg6, Al-Si12 and Pure Al coatings on low carbon steel has been performed. The coatings have been analyzed using optic microscope, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and surface roughness tester. At the same time, voltage and current regimes are investigated during the process. Then after MAO process, uniform Al2O3 ceramic coatings have been deposited on surface of Al-Mg6, Al-Si12 and Al coate...

Levent Cenk Kumruoglu; Fatih Ustel; Ahmet Ozel; Abdullah Mimaroglu

2011-01-01

348

First-principle study of adhesion, wetting and bonding on Al/Al3V(001) interface  

Science.gov (United States)

The adhesion, wetting, and bonding on fcc-Al(001)/D022-Al3V(001) interface were investigated using density functional calculations. Considering different terminations of Al3V(001) (Al- and Al + V-terminated) and stacking sites (center-, hollow- and top-sites), six Al/Al3V(001) models were calculated. For the models with same stacking site, Al + V-terminated model has larger work of adhesion (Wad) than the Al-terminated one. For the models with same termination, the work of adhesion decreases, and the interface energy (?int) increases as the order of top-, bridge- and center-sites. Al-terminated-center-sited and Al + V-terminated-center-sited models are more stable among six models. After complete structure relaxation, both models have the same epitaxial stacking style. Therefore, the both models can be regarded as of the same and most stable one (noted as CSI model), but separating along Al-Al and Al-Al+V inter-planes. Based on the perfect wetting and strong adhesion in CSI model, the heterogeneous nucleation of ?-Al on Al3V(001) was interpreted in terms of crystallography and thermodynamics. The interfacial bonding was discussed with analysis of valence electron density distribution and partial density of states (PDOS). The bonding is mainly contributed from AlV covalent bonds and AlAl metallic interactions.

Li, Jian; Qi, Yuning; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Yong; Li, Xiao

2014-06-01

349

Structure and composition of MCrAlY coatings modified by Al additions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Plasma spray techniques have been used to increase the Al content on existing NiCoCrAlY films in order to obtain high temperature resistant coatings on Ni-base superalloys for gas turbine applications. Surface alloying has been produced by thermal diffusion under vacuum of the Al and MCrAlY films. This treatment reduces the surface roughness and increases the coating density by sealing its porosity. The aluminides formed have been analyzed in terms of their structural composition and oxidatio...

Brossa, F.; D Angelo, D.; Gandini, E.

1993-01-01

350

Density and thermal expansion of liquid binary Al-Ag and Al-Cu alloys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Densities and thermal expansion coefficients of liquid Al-Ag and Al-Cu alloys were measured using the technique of electromagnetic levitation. This technique involves producing shadow images of the sample from which the volume is calculated by an image processing algorithm. Data was obtained at temperatures above the melting point. The concentration dependence of density and thermal expansion was studied for both systems. It was found for Al-Ag and Al-Cu that both density and thermal expansion can be related to a negative excess volume and its temperature coefficient. (orig.)

Brillo, J.; Egry, I.; Westphal, J. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Koeln (Germany). Inst. fuer Materialphysik im Weltraum

2008-02-15

351

Control of AlN buffer/sapphire substrate interface for AlN growth  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The growth condition of AlN buffer layer has been studied in order to fabricate a high-quality AlN layer on a sapphire substrate. The growth of high-quality AlN is extremely difficult due to the weak surface migration of Al adatoms. Therefore we have focused on the AlN buffer layer, and examined the growth condition while controlling the thickness and growth temperature. The crystalline quality of the AlN layer grown on an AlN buffer layer at a growth temperature of 1250 C was improved, and the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) value of the X-ray rocking curve (XRC) obtained for (0002) and (10-10) diffractions were 138 and 464 arcsec, respectively. Moreover, AlO{sub x}N{sub 1-x} was formed when the AlN buffer layer was grown at a high temperature (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

Miyagawa, Reina; Yang, Shibo; Miyake, Hideto; Hiramatsu, Kazumasa [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Mie University, 1577 Kurimamachiya, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan)

2011-07-15

352

In situ observation of crack propagation in lamellar Ti/Al/Ti3Al structure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An interesting aspect of TiAl based alloys is their low ductility and poor toughness at ambient temperatures. Recent studies have shown that a two phase microstructure in these alloys consisting of a primary TiAl phase and lamellar TiAl/Ti3Al structure can significantly improve their room-temperature ductility, which is primarily due to the presence of the lamellar structure. This paper reports the results of transmission electron microscope in-situ observations on crack propagation in the lamellar structure

1995-05-01

353

Solid state reaction of Al and Zr in Al/Zr multilayers: A calorimetry study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The exothermic, solid state reaction of Al and Zr has been studied in thick Al/Zr multilayers using Differential Scanning Calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The multilayer samples were magnetron sputter deposited into highly textured alternate layers of Al and Zr with nominal composition Al{sub 3}Zr. The samples used in this study were 47{mu}m thick with a 427{Angstrom} period. When samples were isochronally scanned from 25 to 725C, a large exotherm at {approximately}350C was followed by one or two smaller exotherms at {approximately}650C. The first exotherm is dominated by a diffusion based reaction of Al and Zr that produces two phases in isochronal scans: amorphous Al-Zr and cubic Al{sub 3}Zr, and two additional phases in isothermal anneals: Al{sub 2}Zr and tetragonal Al{sub 3}Zr. The exothermic heat from this multi-phase reaction is measured using isochronal scans and isothermal anneals, and the heat flow is analyzed using a 1-D diffusion based model. An average activation energy and a diffusion constant are determined. In the isothermal scans, the total exothermic heat increases linearly with {radical}time, and layer thicknesses vary linearly with heat.

Blobaum, K.J.; Weihs, T.P.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Wall, M.A.

1995-04-14

354

Thermodynamic properties of alloys of the Al-Co and Al-Co-Sc systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Enthalpies of mixing for melts of the binary Al-Co system at 1870 K in the range 0 Co Co Co-Sc system are investigated at 1870 K for sections Al0.75(1 - x)Co0.25(1 - x)Sc x , 0 Co0.12(1 - x)Sc x , 0 Co system, the thermodynamic properties of liquid and solid alloys of the Al-Co system over a wide range of temperatures and compositions are calculated using a software package of our own design, based on the model of ideal associated solutions (IAS). The enthalpies of mixing and the liquidus surface of the phase diagram of the ternary Al-Co-Sc system over the interval of concentrations are estimated by modeling with data on binary boundary subsystems. All of the components of both the binary Al-Co and ternary Al-Co-Sc systems tend to interact with one another quite strongly: ? H min(Al-Co) = -32.5 kJ/mol at x Co = 0.44; ? H min(Al-Co-Sc) = -46 kJ/mol for Al0.4Co0.3Sc0.3 (estimated).

Shevchenko, M. A.; Berezutskii, V. V.; Ivanov, M. I.; Kudin, V. G.; Sudavtsova, V. S.

2014-05-01

355

Study on Mg/Al Weld Seam Based on Zn–Mg–Al Ternary Alloy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on the idea of alloying welding seams, a series of Zn–xAl filler metals was calculated and designed for joining Mg/Al dissimilar metals by gas tungsten arc (GTA welding. An infrared thermography system was used to measure the temperature of the welding pool during the welding process to investigate the solidification process. It was found that the mechanical properties of the welded joints were improved with the increasing of the Al content in the Zn–xAl filler metals, and when Zn–30Al was used as the filler metal, the ultimate tensile strength could reach a maximum of 120 MPa. The reason for the average tensile strength of the joint increasing was that the weak zone of the joint using Zn–30Al filler metal was generated primarily by ?-Al instead of MgZn2. When Zn–40Al was used as the filler metal, a new transition zone, about 20 ?m-wide, appeared in the edge of the fusion zone near the Mg base metal. Due to the transition zones consisting of MgZn2- and Al-based solid solution, the mechanical property of the joints was deteriorated.

Liming Liu

2014-02-01

356

UNDERSTANDING THE MULTIDIMENSIONAL ISLAMIC FAITH THROUGH ‘ABD AL-GHANI AL-NABULUSI’S MYSTICAL PHILOSOPHY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper tries to present a new perspective on Islamic faith and Muslim identity to Muslim minorities who are challenged in practicing or following Islamic law in non-Islamic countries or non-Muslims in the contemporary world. It will uncover the multidimensional perspective of the concept of faith based on sin (dhanb and repentance (tawbah through the mystical philosophy of a Syrian scholar, Abd al-Ghani al-Nabulusi (d. 1143/1741 of the 18th century Ottoman Damascus who contributed to the field of Sufism particularly based on Ibn ‘Arabi’s thought of wahdat al-wujud (oneness of being and insan kamil (the perfect man. Nabulusi believes that anyone who lived during the inexistence of prophet’s revelation, inhabited an isolated place cut off from information about Islam, or lived in dar al-harb and did not make a hijra to dar al-islam could not be regarded as sinful in their deeds. However, faith in Allah is essential and infidelity is not forgiven regardless whether or not they live in dar al-islam or dar al-harb. Further, Nabulusi insists that true faith can be achieved by understanding the sin of existence; the ignorance of the difference of existence between Allah and men.  [Artikel ini menjelaskan identitas keberagamaan umat Islam minoritas yang dituntut untuk menerapkan syariat, namun harus hidup di negara non-muslim, dengan mendiskusikan perspektif multidimensional terhadap konsep dosa dan tobat seperti dikembangkan oleh Abd al-Ghan? al-Nabulus? (1143/1741, seorang sufi pemikir Syria, khususnya  wahdat al-wuj?d dan insan kamil, yang hidup di masa kesultanan Usmani di Damaskus. Nabulus? berkeyakinan bahwa siapa saja yang hidup sebelum turunnya wahyu di masa Nabi, hidup di daerah terpencil yang tidak mengenal Islam, atau hidup di dar al-harb dan tidak hijrah ke dar al-islam, tidaklah dibebani dosa atas perbuatannya. Namun demikian, iman kepada Allah amatlah penting dan kekufuran tidaklah dimaafkan, baik seseorang tersebut hidup di dar al-islam ataupun dar al-harb. Nabulus? beranggapan bahwa iman yang hakiki bisa dicapai dengan memahami dosa eksistensial, yaitu kegagalan dalam memahami perbedaan antara Allah dan manusia.] Keywords: Ibn ‘Arab?, wahdat al-wuj?d, dar al-harb

Naoki Yamamoto

2013-12-01

357

Experimental studies on the ignition of single Ni/Al, Fe/Al, and Ti particles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The work presented here focuses on the ignition of single Ni- and Fe-coated Al particles in pure CO2 and Ar atmospheres and Ti particles in O2/N2 and O2/Ar environments. The importance of studying Ni- and Fe-coated Al particles is related to their potential use in propulsion and materials synthesis applications. Meanwhile, Ti combustion may be utilized to eliminate hazardous chemical and biological air pollutants. ^ Ni- and Fe-coated Al particles. The use of Ni- or Fe-coated Al particles (1...

2007-01-01

358

Radiative cooling of Al-4 and Al-5 in a cryogenic environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have investigated the radiative cooling of initially hot Al-4 and Al-5 cluster anions during storage in a cryogenic ion beam trap at an ambient temperature of -4 suggest that the vibrational cooling slows down considerably once the ion reaches approximately room temperature. This suggests the participation of transitions from recently found low-lying electronic states of the anion in the cooling process, prior to reaching approximately room temperature. The experimental results for Al-5 suggest slightly slower radiative cooling than for Al-4. (paper)

2012-06-01

359

CASTABILITY OF Al-Li-Mg AND Al-Li-Cu-Mg ALLOYS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of the present work is to study the casting characteristics of various Al-Li alloys, which include fluidity and strengths of the alloys and their interaction with cast molds. Materials investigated are Al-Li-Mg and Al-Li-Cu-Mg alloys with Li content of 2.5 wt%. The results show that sand molds with resin binders are good for Al-Li casting. Ceramic coatings can further reduce the metal-mold interactions. However, the permeability is also reduced by coating. The fluidity of Li-bea...

Tong, C.; Yao, L.; Nieh, C.; Chang, C.; Hsu, S.

1987-01-01

360

Tetragonal phase in Al-rich region of U-Fe-Al system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new ternary aluminide U{sub 2}FeAl{sub 20} with the approximate composition Al-4.2at% Fe-8.5at% U was observed in the Al-rich corner of the U-Al-Fe system. Transmission electron microscopy and electron microdiffraction technique were used for characterization of the structure of this phase. It has a tetragonal unit cell with the parameters a=12.4A and c=10.3A and can be described by the space group I4-bar 2m.

Meshi, L. [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Zenou, V. [Nuclear Research Center-Negev, P.O. Box 9001, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Ezersky, V. [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Munitz, A. [Nuclear Research Center-Negev, P.O. Box 9001, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Talianker, M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)]. E-mail: mital@bgumail.bgu.ac.il

2005-10-27

 
 
 
 
361

Structure and mechanical properties of Al-12%Si alloy with fast cooling Al-12%Si  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A homogenous modifier obtained by the rapid solidification at a cooling rate equal to v=300 K/s was applied to the modification of the Al-12%Si alloy. The different modifiers were obtained by means of the Al-Si alloys. The components Al-12%Si were put into crucible containing the liquid Al-12%Si alloy and kept for one minute to obtain a new homogenous alloy which after break-up was homogenous modifier. Both, effect of cooling rate applied to obtain modifier and weight in weight modifier conce...

2008-01-01

362

Effect of Crystalline State of Anodized Porous Al2O3/Al as Supports by Hydration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The porous alumina as a plate catalytic support was prepared by anodization. Effects of hydration condition on the property of alumina supports were studied. The samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, BET and etc. to illustrate the Al2O3/Al forming mechanism. The results show that the best hydration temperature is 80¡?at which the amorphous alumina can be transformed into AlOOH, and become ?-Al2O3 after 500¡?alcination. Meanwhile, the monoliths catalytic carriers have a superior stability for crystalline structures in the steam atmosphere at high temperature.

ZHANG Qi, JIANG Zhong-Rui, SUN Dong-Mei, HAN Da-Ying, ZHU Zi-Bin

2012-07-01

363

Comments on the Security Flaw of Hwang et al.'s Blind Signature Scheme  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 2003, Hwang et al. proposed a new blind signature based on the RSA cryptosystem by employing Extended Euclidean algorithm. They claimed that the proposed scheme was untraceable and it could meet all requirements of a blind signature. In 2004, Chang and Chang indicated that the signer in Hwang et al.' scheme could trace the blind signature applicant in some cases. However, the authors find that Chang and Chang's attack is invalid and Hwang et al.'s scheme is still untraceable in this paper.

Fang-Ping Chiang

2008-03-01

364

Solid state synthesis of Al-based amorphous and nanocrystalline Al-Nb-Si and Al-Zr-Si alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study concerns the development of high-specific-strength Al-based amorphous and/or nanocrystalline alloys by mechanical alloying of Al40Tm40Si20 and Al30TM40Si30 (TM=transition metal, Nb and Zr) elemental powder blends by high-energy ball milling. Microstructure of the milled product in different stages of milling has been characterized by X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Both the systems are amenable to partial solid state amorphisation and development of a composite microstructure comprising varying amounts of nanocrystalline face-centred cubic Nb- or Zr-based solid solution and amorphous phase by appropriate hours of milling. The body-centred to face-centred cubic polymorphic change in Nb or Zr seems closely related to grain refinement and plastic strain. (orig.)

2003-07-01

365

78 FR 72008 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Aliceville, AL  

Science.gov (United States)

...Establishment of Class E Airspace; Aliceville, AL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...establishes Class E Airspace at Aliceville, AL, to accommodate a new Area Navigation...establish Class E airspace at Aliceville, AL(78 FR 52111) Docket No....

2013-12-02

366

75 FR 57846 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Brewton, AL  

Science.gov (United States)

...Amendment of Class E Airspace; Brewton, AL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...at Brewton Municipal Airport, Brewton, AL, by updating the geographic coordinates...of Brewton Municipal Airport, Brewton, AL. This action makes the adjustment....

2010-09-23

367

77 FR 19076 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Marion, AL  

Science.gov (United States)

...Establishment of Class E Airspace; Marion, AL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...establishes Class E Airspace at Marion, AL, to accommodate the new Area Navigation...to establish Class E airspace at Marion, AL (77 FR 771) Docket No....

2012-03-30

368

76 FR 80232 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Oneonta, AL  

Science.gov (United States)

...Establishment of Class E Airspace; Oneonta, AL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...establishes Class E Airspace at Oneonta, AL, to accommodate the new Area Navigation...establish Class E airspace at Oneonta, AL (76 FR 58728) Docket No....

2011-12-23

369

78 FR 76054 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Chatom, AL  

Science.gov (United States)

...Establishment of Class E Airspace; Chatom, AL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...establishes Class E Airspace at Chatom, AL, to accommodate the Area Navigation (RNAV...to establish Class E airspace at Chatom, AL (78 FR 54412) Docket No....

2013-12-16

370

Bush lubas al-Zarqawi järglase kinni püüda / Aadu Hiietamm  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

USA president George W. Bush teatas, et tapetud terrorivõrgustiku al Qaeda Iraagi haru liidri Abu Musab al-Zarqawi järglaseks nimetatud Abu Hamsa al-Muhajir on kuulutatud enim tagaotsitavaks terroristiks

Hiietamm, Aadu, 1954-

2006-01-01

371

Deletion of ALS5, ALS6 or ALS7 increases adhesion of Candida albicans to human vascular endothelial and buccal epithelial cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

C. albicans yeast forms deleted for ALS5, ALS6 or ALS7 are more adherent than a relevant control strain to human vascular endothelial cell monolayers and buccal epithelial cells. In the buccal and vaginal reconstituted human epithelium (RHE) disease models, however, mutant and control strains caused a similar degree of tissue destruction. Deletion of ALS5 or ALS6 significantly slowed growth of the mutant strain; this phenotype was not affected by addition of excess uridine to the culture medi...

Zhao, Xiaomin; Oh, Soon-hwan; Hoyer, Lois L.

2007-01-01

372

Cd ion implantation in AlN  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd ion implanted in AlN thin films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XRD shows damage produced during implantation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Annealing recovers damage in low fluence sample. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RBS/C measurements show that Cd occupies substitutional sites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd can be a good candidate for p-type doping. - Abstract: AlN thin films were implanted with cadmium, to fluences of 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} and 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} at/cm{sup 2}. The implanted samples were annealed at 950 Degree-Sign C under flowing nitrogen. Although implantation damage in AlN is known to be extremely stable the crystal could be fully recovered at low fluences. At high fluences the implantation damage was only partially removed. Implantation defects cause an expansion of the c-lattice parameter. For the high fluence sample the lattice site location of the ions was studied by Rutherford Backscattering/Channelling Spectrometry. Cd ions are found to be incorporated in substitutional Al sites in the crystal and no significant diffusion is seen upon thermal annealing. The observed high solubility limit and site stability are prerequisite for using Cd as p-type dopant in AlN.

Miranda, S.M.C., E-mail: smmiranda@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Franco, N.; Alves, E. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Lorenz, K., E-mail: lorenz@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal)

2012-10-15

373

Comments on optimization of the boron content in FeAl (40 at.% Al) alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a recent paper, Webb, Juliet and Lefort indicated, based on tensile tests of two boron-doped FeAl alloys and one undoped FeAl alloy, that they had determined the optimum concentration of boron for good ductility to be 48 appm (12 wppm) in Fe-40Al (compositions given in atomic percent throughout). It is the author's view that this is not the case for the following reasons: (1) The Fe-40Al alloys studied by Webb et al. contained 42:4, (heat number-sign 1), 45.7 (heat number-sign 2) and 39.7 (heat number-sign 3) atomic percent Al. (2) The maximum solubility of an element may depend on the presence of other elements. (3) Other workers, notably Liu and George have obtained greater elongations in Fe-40Al in air (4.3%) than the 2.5% obtained by Webb et al. with a greater boron concentration (300 wppm as opposed to 12 wppm). Similarly, Crimp et al. found little difference in the tensile behavior of slow-cooled Fe-40Al with boron levels in the range 500 to 2000 wppm, with a ductility at 3% elongation that was comparable to the highest obtained by Webb et al. (4) Boron in FeAl presumably partitions between the lattice and the grain boundaries. (5) The grain size in the boron-free alloys studied by Webb et al. was larger at 54 ?m than in the boron-doped alloys (37 ?m and 27 ?m for the alloys containing 12 and 80 wppm B, respectively). (6) When tensile tests are performed on FeAl in air, the ductility is reduced due to water vapor. To some extent boron may ameliorate this environmental effect. Thus, differences in ductility in air are not necessarily due to intrinsic behavior but may be due to a reduced environmental effect in boron-doped alloys. (7) Webb et al. conducted their tensile tests at a strain rate of 3 x 10-2s-1

1993-09-01

374

EARLY SOLAR NEBULA CONDENSATES WITH CANONICAL, NOT SUPRACANONICAL, INITIAL 26Al/27Al RATIOS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The short-lived radionuclide 26Al existed throughout the solar nebula 4.57 Ga ago, and the initial abundance ratio (26Al/27Al)0, as inferred from magnesium isotopic compositions of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in chondritic meteorites, has become a benchmark for understanding early solar system chronology. Internal mineral isochrons in most CAIs measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) give (26Al/27Al)0 ? (4-5) x 10-5, called 'canonical'. Some recent high-precision analyses of (1) bulk CAIs measured by multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS), (2) individual CAI minerals and their mixtures measured by laser-ablation MC-ICPMS, and (3) internal isochrons measured by multicollector (MC)-SIMS indicated a somewhat higher 'supracanonical' (26Al/27Al)0 ranging from (5.85 ± 0.05) x 10-5 to >7 x 10-5. These measurements were done on coarse-grained Type B and Type A CAIs that probably formed by recrystallization and/or melting of fine-grained condensate precursors. Thus the supracanonical ratios might record an earlier event, the actual nebular condensation of the CAI precursors. We tested this idea by performing in situ high-precision magnesium isotope measurements of individual minerals in a fine-grained CAI whose structures and volatility-fractionated trace element abundances mark it as a primary solar nebula condensate. Such CAIs are ideal candidates for the fine-grained precursors to the coarse-grained CAIs, and thus should best preserve a supracanonical ratio. Yet, our measured internal isochron yields (26Al/27Al)0 = (5.27 ± 0.17) x 10-5. Thus our data do not support the existence of supracanonical (26Al/27Al)0 = (5.85-7) x 10-5. There may not have been a significant time interval between condensation of the CAI precursors and their subsequent melting into coarse-grained CAIs.

2010-03-10

375

Experimental analysis of the intermediary phases AlB2,AlB12 and TiB2 in the Al-B and Al-Ti-B systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The phases AlB2,AlB12 and TiB2 were studied in Al-rich Al-B and Al-Ti-B alloys produced by several different sample fabrication methods. The samples were examined using light optical microscopy (LOM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis (EDS) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The results indicate that only a limited solubility of Al in TiB2 and Ti in AlB2 exists, hence a continuous compound (Al,Ti)B2 is not stable. (orig.)

1999-02-01

376

Determinants of Music Preference  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Musik begleitet uns seit vielen Jahrtausenden und ist ein Teil der menschlichen Entwicklungsgeschichte. Mehr über den Ursprung und die Bedeutung von Musik zu wissen bedeutet mehr über uns selbst zu wissen. Die meisten Menschen mögen Musik und für viele ist es eine der wichtigsten Freizeitbeschäftigungen in ihrem Leben. Doch unterschiedliche Menschen mögen unterschiedliche Musik, und die Bindung an Musik kann stark oder schwach sein. Dieses als Musikpräferenz bezeichnete ...

Scha?fer, Thomas

2009-01-01

377

Al-Z?? al-Mustawfà de Ibn al-Raqq?m y los apogeos planetarios en la tradición andaluso-magrebí  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The manuscript 2461 extant in the Rabat General Library contains a third z?? of the astronomer Mu?ammad ibn al-Raqq?m al-Andalus? (d. 1315: al-Z?? al-Mustawfà. The canons (chapter 18 and the table of the motion of the apogee that appear in al-Mustawfàare related to Is??q al-T?nis? (fl. 1193-1222 who, probably, compiled a set of tables without canons. Ibn al- Raqq?m knew well Ibn Is??q´s Z?j of which we knew, until recently, two recensions: : al- Z?? al-'?mil y al- Z?? al-Qaw?m. In al-Mustawfà, a third recension of the same work, Ibn al- Raqq?m clarifies what was Ibn Is??q´s opinion about the motion of the planetary apogees and gives information related to the different opinions the astronomers of the Andalusian-Maghrib? school had on this topic.

El manuscrito 2461 de la Biblioteca General de Rabat conserva un tercer z?? del astrónomo Mu?ammad ibn al-Raqq?m al-Andalus? (m. 1315: al-Z?? al-Mustawfà. Los cánones (capítulo 18 y la tabla del movimiento del apogeo de al-Mustawfà están relacionados con el trabajo de Ibn Is??q al-T?nis? (fl. 1193-1222, quien compiló, probablemente, un conjunto de tablas carentes de cánones. Ibn al-Raqq?m conocía bien el z?? de Ibn Is??q del que realizó dos recensiones conocidas hasta ahora: al- Z?? al-'?mil y al- Z?? al-Qaw?m. En al-Mustawfà, tercera recensión de la misma obra, Ibn al-Raqq?m aclara cuál era la opinión de Ibn Is??q sobre el movimiento de los apogeos planetarios y la división que existía, a este respecto, entre los astrónomos de la escuela andaluso-magrebí.

Díaz-Fajardo, Montse

2005-06-01

378

Hydrogenation properties of Mg-Al alloys  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper the properties of Mg-Al alloys in relation to hydrogen storage are reviewed. The main topics of this paper are materials preparation, hydrogen capacity, thermodynamics of hydride formation, and the kinetics of hydride formation and decomposition. Hydrogenation of Mg-Al leads to disproportionation with the formation of magnesium hydride and metallic aluminum as the final product. Experimental evidence renders this process reversible. It is observed that the enthalpy of hydride formation of magnesium is lowered upon alloying with Al due to a slightly endothermic disproportionation reaction. Further, it is found that the kinetics of hydrogenation, as well dehydrogenation, may be significantly improved by alloying compared to pure Mg. The expense of these improvements of the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation properties is a lower gravimetric hydrogen density in the hydrogenated product, (C) 2008 International Association for Hydrogen Energy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Andreasen, Anders

2008-01-01

379

CORAK PEMIKIRAN TASAWUF AL-GHAZALI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article discusses the mysticism thought of a prominent sufi master, al-Ghazali. It argues that his thoughts is influenced by Sunni theological orientation by giving an emphasis on Islamic orthodoxy. Therefore, to study his mysticism, it is important not only to discuss his background, but also his orientation. These two are of significant topics of discussion of the article. Artikel ini mendiskusikan pemikiran tasawuf al-Ghazali. Penulis berargumen bahwa pemikirannya sangat dipengaruhi oleh teologi Sunni, karena itu menekankan pada aspek ortodoksi. Menjelaskan pemikiran tasawufnya, oleh karena itu, harus memperhatikan tidak saja latar kehidupannya, namun juga latar teologinya. Keduanya menjadi topik inti dalam artikel ini. Kata Kunci: al-Ghazali, tasawuf, Ahl as-Sunnah

Hasnani Siri

2011-09-01

380

The mechanical properties of FeAl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Only in the last few years has progress been made in obtaining reproducible mechanical properties data for FeAl. Two sets of observations are the foundation of this progress. The first is that the large vacancy concentrations that exist in FeAl at high temperature are easily retained at low temperature and that these strongly affect the low-temperature mechanical properties. The second is that RT ductility is adversely affected by water vapor. Purpose of this paper is not to present a comprehensive overview of the mechanical properties of FeAl but rather to highlight our understanding of key phenomena and to show how an understanding of the factors which control the yield strength and fracture behavior has followed the discovery of the above two effects. 87 refs, 9 figs.

Baker, I. [Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH (United States); George, E.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1996-12-31

 
 
 
 
381

Superbends expand the scope of Berkeley's ALS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

While the ALS has turned out to be a world-leader in providing beams of soft X-rays -- indeed, furnishing these beams remains its core mission -- there has nonetheless been a steadily growing demand from synchrotron radiation users for harder X-rays with higher photon energies. The clamor has been strongest from protein crystallographers whose seemingly insatiable appetite for solving structures of biological macromolecules could not be satisfied by the number of crystallography beamlines available worldwide. But how to provide these X-rays in a cost-effective way without disrupting the thriving research programs of the existing ALS users was the problem. Superconducting bend magnets (superbends) provided the answer for the ALS, which adopted a proposal to replace some of the normal combined-function (gradient) magnets in the curved arcs of the storage ring with superconducting dipoles that could generate higher magnetic fields and thus synchrotron light with a higher critical energy

2002-01-01

382

Thoughts on the Poetry of the Contemporary Bahraini Poet ‘Al? ‘Abd All?h ?al?fa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Al? ‘Abd All?h ?al?fa is one of the most eminent of contemporary poets in Bahrain. This small Gulf state has become the homeland for many excellent poets including ?arafa Ibn al-‘Abd-the author of the longest mu‘allaqa in pre-Islamic poetry. Other names worthy of note are Al-Mutalammis and Al-Muraqqaš al-A??ar.

2000-01-01

383

Phase constituents and microstructure of laser cladding Al2O3/Ti3Al reinforced ceramic layer on titanium alloy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research highlights: ? In this study, Fe3Al has been chosen as cladding powder due to its excellent properties of wear resistance and high strength, etc. ? Laser cladding of Fe3Al + TiB2/Al2O3 pre-placed alloy powder on Ti-6Al-4V alloy substrate can form the Ti3Al/Fe3Al + TiB2/Al2O3 ceramic layer, which can increase wear resistance of substrate. ? In cladding process, Al2O3 can react with TiB2 leading to formation of Ti3Al and B. ? This principle can be used to improve the Fe3Al + TiB2 laser-cladded coating. - Abstract: Laser cladding of the Fe3Al + TiB2/Al2O3 pre-placed alloy powder on Ti-6Al-4V alloy can form the Ti3Al/Fe3Al + TiB2/Al2O3 ceramic layer, which can greatly increase wear resistance of titanium alloy. In this study, the Ti3Al/Fe3Al + TiB2/Al2O3 ceramic layer has been researched by means of electron probe, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and micro-analyzer. In cladding process, Al2O3 can react with TiB2 leading to formation of amount of Ti3Al and B. This principle can be used to improve the Fe3Al + TiB2 laser cladded coating, it was found that with addition of Al2O3, the microstructure performance and micro-hardness of the coating was obviously improved due to the action of the Al-Ti-B system and hard phases.

2011-04-07

384

Growth and characterization of TiAlN/CrAlN superlattices prepared by reactive direct current magnetron sputtering  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

TiAlN and CrAlN coatings were prepared using a reactive direct current magnetron sputtering system from TiAl and CrAl targets. Structural characterization of the coatings using x-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed the B1 NaCl structure of TiAlN and CrAlN coatings with a prominent reflection along the (111) plane. The XPS data confirmed the bonding structures of TiAlN and CrAlN single layer coatings. Subsequently, nanolayered multilayer coatings of TiAlN/CrAlN were deposited on silicon and mild steel (MS) substrates at different modulation wavelengths (?) with a total thickness of approximately 1.0 ?m. The modulation wavelengths were calculated from the x-ray reflectivity data using modified Bragg's law. TiAlN/CrAlN multilayer coatings were textured along (111) for ?<200 A and the XRD patterns showed the formation of superlattice structure for coatings deposited at ?=102 A. The x-ray reflectivity data showed reflections of fifth and seventh orders for multilayer coatings deposited at ?=102 and 138 A, respectively, indicating the formation of sharp interfaces between TiAlN and CrAlN layers. The cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy image of TiAlN/CrAlN multilayer coatings indicated a noncolumnar and dense microstructure. A maximum hardness of 39 GPa was observed for TiAlN/CrAlN multilayer coatings deposited at ?=93 A, which was higher than the rule-of-mixture value (30 GPa) for TiAlN and CrAlN. Study of thermal stability of the coatings in air using micro-Raman spectroscopy indicated that the TiAlN/CrAlN multilayer coatings were stable up to 900 deg. C in air. TiAlN/CrAlN multilayer coatings also exhibited improved corrosion resistance when compared to the MS substrate

2009-01-01

385

Levels of "2"6Al excited through the "2"7Al("3He,?) reaction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

New levels of "2"6Al in the region of higher than 5.0 MeV excitation energies were found through the "2"7Al("3He,?) reaction. Some of them were identified as isobaric analogs to states in "2"6Mg. (author)

1979-01-01

386

Optical investigation on the valence band structure of AlGaN with low Al content  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the binary semiconductors GaN and AlN, the crystal field splitting determining the valence band structure changes from {approx}+20 meV (GaN) to {approx}-200 meV (AlN), whereas the spin orbit splitting should remain constant at {approx} 20 meV. Therefore, for unstrained AlGaN ternary layers an interchange of the character of the topmost valence band from {gamma}{sub 9} to {gamma}{sub 7} is theoretically expected for an Al content in the range of 5-10%, manifesting itself mainly in a change of polarization of optical transitions. Strain in epitaxial layers alters the situation and shifts this crossing point. Literature reports experimental values ranging from 20% to 75% Al for the crossover. We present results of temperature dependent photoluminescence and reflectivity experiments on AlGaN layers with Al content ranging from 0 to 30%, and find different contributions from free and bound excitons. The Al content and strain were determined from multiple HRXRD reflections, and entered in a 6 x 6 k.p model calculation. We discuss our experimental spectra on the basis of this calculation.

Meisch, Tobias; Neuschl, Benjamin; Thonke, Klaus [Institut of Quantum Matter, Ulm University, 89069 Ulm (Germany); Lipski, Frank; Forghani, Kamran; Scholz, Ferdinand [Institut of Optoelectronics, Ulm University, 89069 Ulm (Germany); Feneberg, Martin [Institut fuer Experimentelle Physik, Abt. Materialphysik, Otto-von-Guericke-Universitaet Magdeburg, Universitaetsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg (Germany)

2011-07-01

387

Is Thieberger's Result Inconsistent with Stubbs et al.'s One?  

Science.gov (United States)

As to the presence of a fifth force Thieberger's outcome can be compatible with Stubbs et al.'s one if the force is assumed to arise universal vector coupling to `oblique' fermion number defined by a linear combination of quark number and lepton number.

Hayashi, K.; Shirafuji, T.

1987-08-01

388

Diffusion bonding of gamma-TiAl using modified Ti/Al nanolayers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Ti/Al multilayers are promising interlayers for getting joins between titanium aluminides. ? When Ti/Al multilayers are doped with Ag or Cu it is observed a higher reactivity of the multilayers. ? A doped Ti/Al multilayer decreases the temperature of the process and the quality of the bonding increases. - Abstract: Solid state diffusion bonding has been successfully employed to join ?-TiAl alloys. Processed in vacuum, at high temperature and pressure, the thin interfaces and the lack of structural discontinuity across the interface are the main advantage of this joining technique. An interlayer made of alternated Ti and Al nanometric layers that increases the diffusivity at the joint interface, was used in order to assist the bonding process of ?-TiAl alloys. The use of Ti/Al interlayer has efficiently reduced the joining temperature. Sound joints have been achieved at a temperature of 900 °C under a pressure of 50 MPa in vacuum. In the present work Cu was added as third element to the Ti/Al multilayers and its effect improved the bonding quality. The interface microstructure was studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy.

2012-09-25

389

Plotting of Sr-Al-Si and Ba-Al-Si phase diagrams using simplex planning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results are given of construction of the liquidus surface for ternary systems Sr-Al-Si, Ba-Al-Si using ''Promin-2'' and ''M-220M'' computers. Compositions of quasi-ternary systems, selected by the simplex method, have been studied by microstructural, X-ray diffraction and differential thermal methods of analysis in combination with measurements of microhardness of structural components

1977-01-01

390

Pseudo-binary sections and liquidus surface of the Al-Mg-LaAl2 system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pseudobinary sections and projections of Al-Mg-LaAl2 system liquids surface are constructed by X-ray phase, differential-thermal and metallographic analysis methods. Twelve binary e1-e12 and six ternary E-1-E6 non variant eutectic points are detected in the system. 6 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

1995-01-01

391

Oxidation kinetics of Zn 5 Al and Zn 55 Al alloys doped by beryllium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article is devoted to influence of temperature and chemical composition on oxidation kinetics of Zn 5 Al and Zn 55 Al alloys doped by beryllium in solid condition. Thus, the thermogravimetry method with continuous weighting of samples is used. Zink, aluminium and its alloy with beryllium are used as initial materials. The oxidation true velocity as well as apparent activation energy are found.

2011-01-01

392

Bonding in CoAl and NiAl metal alloys using multipole and MEM techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The precise electron density distribution and bonding in metal alloys CoAl and NiAl is characterized using MEM (maximum entropy method) and multipole method. Reported X-ray single crystal data have been utilized for this purpose. Clear evidence of the metal bonding between the constituent atoms in these two systems has been obtained. The mid-bond electron densities in these systems are found to be 0.358 and 0.251 e/A{sup 3}, respectively for CoAl and NiAl in the MEM analysis. The two-dimensional maps and one-dimensional electron density profiles have been constructed and analyzed. The thermal vibration of the individual atoms Co, Ni and Al has also been studied and reported. The contraction of atoms in CoAl and expansion of Ni and contraction of Al atom in NiAl is found from the multipole analysis, in line with the MEM electron density distribution.

Saravanan, R. [Department of Physics, The Madura College, Madurai 625 011, Tamil Nadu (India)]. E-mail: saragow@dataone.in; Rani, M. Prema [Department of Physics, The Madura College, Madurai 625 011, Tamil Nadu (India)

2007-04-04

393

Directional Solidification and Mechanical Properties of NiAl-NiAlTa Alloys  

Science.gov (United States)

Directional solidification of eutectic alloys is a promising technique for producing in-situ composite materials exhibiting a balance of properties. Consequently, the microstructure, creep strength and fracture toughness of directionally solidified NiAl-NiAlTa alloys were investigated. Directional solidification was performed by containerless processing techniques to minimize alloy contamination. The eutectic composition was found to be NiAl-15.5 at% Ta and well-aligned microstructures were produced at this composition. A near-eutectic alloy of NiAl-14.5Ta was also investigated. Directional solidification of the near-eutectic composition resulted in microstructures consisting of NiAl dendrites surrounded by aligned eutectic regions. The off-eutectic alloy exhibited promising compressive creep strengths compared to other NiAl-based intermetallics, while preliminary testing indicated that the eutectic alloy was competitive with Ni-base single crystal superalloys. The room temperature toughness of these two-phase alloys was similar to that of polycrystalline NiAl even with the presence of the brittle Laves phase NiAlTa.

Johnson, D. R.; Chen, X. F.; Oliver, B. F.; Noebe, R. D.; Whittenberger, J. D.

1995-01-01

394

Electronic circuits having NiAl and Ni.sub.3 Al substrates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An electronic circuit component having improved mechanical properties and thermal conductivity comprises NiAl and/or Ni.sub.3 Al, upon which an alumina layer is formed prior to applying the conductive elements. Additional layers of copper-aluminum alloy or copper further improve mechanical strength and thermal conductivity.

Deevi, Seetharama C. (Midlothian, VA); Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1999-01-01

395

Synthesis of nanostructured AlN by solid state reaction of Al and diaminomaleonitrile  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The solid state reaction of diaminomaleonitrile (DAMN) with aluminum via both mechanochemical and thermal treatment routes was studied by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. During the milling process, the reaction starts with the deammoniation of the DAMN molecules, followed by the formation of nanostructured AlN powder as the main solid product after milling for 7 h. The reactivity of the mixed powder was also investigated during the conventional thermal treatment process using differential scanning calorimetry, derivative thermogravimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. The results reveal that DAMN starts to polymerize at 192 Degree-Sign C by the elimination of the amine groups. Furthermore, increasing the annealing temperature leads to the formation of a nitrogen-containing carbonaceous material with the structure similar to non-crystalline carbon. However, no evidence for the formation of AlN was observed in the annealed samples even at temperatures as high as the Al melting point. - Graphical abstract: AlN nanoparticles obtained after milling of Al and diaminomaleonitrile (DAMN) for 12 h. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid state reaction of diaminomaleonitrile (DAMN) with Al was studied via mechanochemical and thermal treatment routs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanocrystalline AlN was successfully synthesized by the mechanochemical process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The C/N material was formed by polymerization of DAMN during the thermal treatment process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No reaction between DAMN and Al was detected during the thermal treatment method.

Rounaghi, S.A., E-mail: s.a.rounaghi@gmail.com [Department of Materials Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. P.O. Box no. 91775-1111, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); IFW Dresden, Institut fuer Komplexe Materialien, Postfach 27 01 16, Dresden D-01171 (Germany); Eshghi, H., E-mail: heshghi@ferdowsi.um.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. P.O. Box no. 91775-1436, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kiani Rashid, A.R.; Vahdati Khaki, J. [Department of Materials Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. P.O. Box no. 91775-1111, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Samadi Khoshkhoo, M.; Scudino, S. [IFW Dresden, Institut fuer Komplexe Materialien, Postfach 27 01 16, Dresden D-01171 (Germany); Eckert, J. [IFW Dresden, Institut fuer Komplexe Materialien, Postfach 27 01 16, Dresden D-01171 (Germany); TU Dresden, Institut fuer Werkstoffwissenschaft, Dresden D-01062 (Germany)

2013-02-15

396

Al-lugha al-fu??â : archéologie d’un concept « idéolinguistique » Al-lugha al-fu??â: archaeology of an ideolinguistic concept  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Every French Arabicist knows that the expression al-lugha al-fu??â designates the Arabic variety that they themselves call Classical Arabic. But today, we have forgotten this expression comes from and what was its original meaning. In the first part of this paper, entitled « Theology and philology of Medieval Islam » we will recall that the expression is primarily a rewritting of ’af?a? al-lughât al-‘arabiyya (« the most polished Arabic way of speaking », which designs the lughat Quraysh, to whom the Quranic language is identified on a scriptural basis and not on a linguistic one. In a second part, entitled « Ideology and Linguistics at the Modern Period » we examine how and when this medieval expression was revitalized to design what a famous Arab nationalist thinker described as a lugha muwa??ida wa-muwa??ada (« a unifying and unified language». In both cases, we will point out that the concept is at the crossroad of ideology and linguistics; a reason why we suggest to define it as ideolinguistic, on the model of sociolinguistic.Tous les arabisants savent que l’expression d’al-lugha al-fu’??â désigne la variété d’arabe qu’ils appellent eux-mêmes « arabe classique ». Mais on a oublié aujourd’hui d’où venait l’expression et ce qu’elle signifiait à l’origine. Dans une première partie, intitulée « Théologie et philologie dans l’islam médiéval », nous rappellerons que cette expression est au premier chef une réécriture de ’af?a? al-lughât al-‘arabiyya (« la plus châtiée des manières de parler arabes », qui qualifie la lughat Quraysh, à laquelle est identifiée, sur une base non pas linguistique, mais scripturaire (Cor. 14, 4, la langue du Coran. Dans une seconde partie, intitulée « Idéologie et linguistique dans le domaine arabe à l’époque moderne », nous examinerons quand et comment cette expression médiévale a été ressuscitée pour désigner ce qu’un célèbre nationaliste arabe qualifiait de lugha muwa??’ida wa-muwa??ada (« langue unificatrice et unifiée ». Dans les deux cas, nous pointerons que le concept est au croisement de l’idéologie et de la linguistique, raison pour laquelle nous proposons de le qualifier, sur le modèle de «sociolinguistique », d’idéolinguistique.

Pierre Larcher

2011-12-01

397

Grain boundary precipitation in Magnox AL80  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Grain boundary precipitates in Magnox AL80 (Mg-0.8% Al) formed after certain heat treatments have been identified as magnesium hydride, MgH2. The solvus temperature for the precipitates was found to be in the range of 300 to 3500C. Ageing at 2500C resulted in overall precipitate growth accompanied by the formation of some grain boundary cavities. Cavities were also formed when hydride precipitates were reheated to higher temperatures. The solvus temperature and the behaviour of the precipitates during ageing at 2500C and subsequent heating to higher temperatures are discussed in terms of the magnesium-hydrogen system. (author)

1988-01-01

398

Integración estocástica con respecto al movimiento browniano  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En este artículo damos algunos elementos básicos que se utilizan al estudiar las propiedades y las aplicaciones de la integral estocástica con respecto al movimiento browniano cuando esta integral estocástica se considera en los sentidos de Itô, Skorohod y hacia adelante (definida por Russo y Vallois [32]. La idea principal es brindar una presentación para que el lector comience a entender las herramientas del cálculo estocástico basado en estas integrales, así como sus aplicaciones. También, para cada interpretación de integral estocástica, mencionamos algunos resultados de existencia y unicidad para ecuaciones diferenciales estocásticas gobernadas por el movimiento browniano.

Jorge A. León

2006-01-01

399

Synthesis of biphasic Al/Al2O3 nanostructures under microgravity and laser structuring on Al/Al2O3 surfaces for selective cell guidance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The first part of this thesis is dealing with gravity effect on the synthesis of biphasic core/shell Al/Al2O3 composites. By chemical vapor deposition of the precursor [tBuOAlH2]2 at 400°C, only spherical nanoparticles were observed on the substrate surface. The formation of nanowires was observed at 600°C. It is a good agreement with our previous results on earth condition and there is no gravity impact on the chemical reaction. At increased gravity levels, the nanoparticles formed large c...

Lee, Juseok

2013-01-01

400

InAlGaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells: line widths, transition energies and segregation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We investigate the optical properties of InAlCaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells pseudomorphically grown on GaAs using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The transition energies, measured with photoluminescence (PL), are modelled solving the Schrodinger equation, and taking into account segregation in the group III sublattice. From a fit to the transition energies, an empirical band gap relation for InAlGaAs is found, in the composition range relevant for growth on GaAs. The PL lines at low temperature (T = 10 K) are broadened due to random alloy fluctuations and an interface roughness of 1.1 monolayers. Finally, the use of InAlGaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells for making strained T-shaped quantum wires is demonstrated. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Jensen, Jacob Riis; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Beta decay of "2"4Al and "2"4Al/sup m/  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ?"+ decays of "2"4Al and "2"4Al/sup m/ have been studied with a Ge(Li) detector. Ten ?"+ branches including weak transitions to "2"4Mg levels at 10576, 10824, 11017 and 11318 keV were observed. The super-allowed ?"+ decay of "2"4Al/sup m/ and two additional branches from "2"4Al/sup m/ were also detected. The resulting log ft values and GT matrix elements are compared to shell model calculations by Brown, Chung and Wildenthal, which are quite successful in accounting for the data. From ? decay and M1 transition strengths it is concluded that the analog of the "2"4Al/sup m/ ground state is split between two closely spaced 1"+ levels in "2"4Mg. An isospin violating matrix element of a 50 keV is inferred

402

26Al+ p elastic and inelastic scattering reactions and galactic abundances of 26Al  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Galactic 26Al is the first radioactive nucleus to be positively identified by -ray astronomy with detection of the 1.809 MeV ray associated with its decay. This nucleus is destroyed in astrophysical environments in the 26Al(p, )27Si and inelastic 26Al+p scattering reactions where properties of 27Si levels determine reaction rates. To investigate these properties, elastic and inelastic 26Al+p scattering reactions were measured between Ec.m. = 0.5 1.5 MeV at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). A candidate for a new resonance in the 26Al(p, )27Si reaction was identified. Upper limits were also set on the strengths of postulated resonances and on the cross section of the inelastic reaction, but there is little effect on current reaction rate calculations.

Pittman, S. T. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Bardayan, Daniel W [ORNL; Chae, K. Y. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Chipps, K. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden; Jones, K. L. [Rutgers University; Kozub, R. L. [Tennessee Technological University; Matei, Catalin [Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU); Matos, M. [Louisiana State University; Moazen, Brian [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Nesaraja, Caroline D [ORNL; O' Malley, Patrick [Rutgers University; Pain, Steven D [ORNL; Parker, P.D. [Yale University; Peters, W. A. [Rutgers University; ShrinerJr., J. F. [Tennessee Technological University; Smith, Michael Scott [ORNL

2012-01-01

403

FABRICATION OF Al/Al2O3 FGM ROTATING DISC  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study presents a method of fabricating a disc made of Al/Al2O3 functionally graded materials (FGM, using a powder metallurgy manufacturing process. The aim is to develop a processing method for a rotating disc made of FGM, by stacking the slurry, layer by layer in a radial direction. A three-layer functionally graded material of Al/Al2O3 is fabricated with compositions of 10, 20, 30 vol.% Al2O3. The ceramic composition increases from the discs inner (centre to the outer. The combination of these materials can offer the ability to withstand high temperature conditions whilst maintaining strength in extreme environments.

A. B. Sanuddin

2012-06-01

404

Measurement of absolute Al concentration in Al_xGa_1_-_xAs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A technique has been developed to measure the absolute Al concentration x in Al_xGa_1_-_xAs. The technique involves simultaneous measurements of the "2"7Al(p,?)"2"8Si resonant nuclear reaction and Rutherford backscattering (RBS), and comparisons with an AlAs reference sample. A detailed description of the experimental procedure is given. Samples analyzed in this study were prepared by LPE and MOVPE growth on GaAs substrates, with expitaxial layer thicknesses in the range 1-3 ?m and Al concentrations in the range 0.10< x<0.85. Measurements of x with an absolute error <0.02 were obtained. Factors limiting the precision obtainable with this technique are discussed. (orig.)

1987-04-01

405

The abundance of 26Al in the MgAl cycle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The capture reaction 26Al(p, ?)27Si has been investigated in the energy range of Esub(p)=0.17-1.58 MeV. High-spin resonances were found at Esub(R)=287, 376, 719, 727, 790, 856 amd 927 keV. Resonances for the reaction 26Al(p, p2?)26Al were observed at Esub(R)=927, 1122, 1252, and 1363 keV. Information on resonance energies, total widths, branching ratios and resonance strengths is reported. The investigated energy range corresponds to the stellar temperature region of T=(0.2-1.0)x109 K. The deduced stellar reaction rates are used to calculate the abundance of 26Al in the hydrogen burning MgAl cycle. (orig.)

1984-03-05

406

Formation of gamma(sup prime)-Ni3Al via the Peritectoid Reaction: gamma + beta (+ Al2O3)=gamma(sup prime)(+ Al2O3)  

Science.gov (United States)

The activities of Al and Ni were measured using multi-cell Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry (multi-cell KEMS), over the composition range 8-32 at.%Al and temperature range T=1400-1750 K in the Ni-Al-O system. These measurements establish that equilibrium solidification of gamma(sup prime)-Ni3Al-containing alloys occurs by the eutectic reaction, L (+ Al2O3)=gamma + Beta(+ Al2O3), at 1640 +/- 1 K and a liquid composition of 24.8 +/- 0.2 at.%al (at an unknown oxygen content). The {gamma + Beta (+Al2O3} phase field is stable over the temperature range 1633-1640 K, and gamma(sup prime)-Ni3Al forms via the peritectoid, gamma + Beta (+ Al2O3)=gamma(sup prime) (+ Al2O3), at 1633 +/- 1 K. This behavior is consistent with the current Ni-Al phase diagram and a new diagram is proposed. This new Ni-Al phase diagram explains a number of unusual steady-state solidification structures reported previously and provides a much simpler reaction scheme in the vicinity of the gamma(sup prime)-Ni2Al phase field.

Copeland, Evan

2008-01-01

407

The origin of Al(OH)(3)-rich and Al(13)-aggregate flocs composition in PACl coagulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The composition of hydrolyzed Al species is essential for the understanding of coagulation with Al-based coagulants. Surface characteristics of flocs formed by coagulation with two distinct polyaluminum chloride (PACl) coagulants were identified. One commercial coagulant (PACl-C) with voluminous monomeric Al and colloidal Al(OH)(3) and a custom-made PACl (PACl-Al(13)) containing high Al(13) content were applied to destabilize kaolin particles. The flocs formed by PACl-C and PACl-Al(13) at neutral and alkaline pH ranges, respectively, were observed by FE-SEM and HR-TEM. In addition, the Al composition of these flocs was characterized by XPS and HR-XRD, and the imaging of Al(OH)(3) precipitates and Al(13) aggregates were conducted by SEM as well as tapping mode AFM in liquid system. The observations of flocs indicate that the morphology of Al(OH)(3)-rich flocs are fluffy and porous around the edge of flocs, while the Al(13)-aggregate flocs have a glossy contour and irregular structure. Both Al(OH)(3)-rich and Al(13)-aggregate flocs do not possess well-formed crystalline structure except for the Al(13)-like crystal exists in the Al(13)-aggregate flocs. Among Al(OH)(3) precipitates, colloidal Al(OH)(3) is micro-scale in size, while amorphous Al(OH)(3) is nano-scale. During the formation of Al(13) aggregates, some coiled and clustered Al(13) aggregates with smoother surface were observed. The XPS study on floc surface showed that tetrahedral (Al(IV)) /octahedral (Al(VI)) Al ratio on the surfaces of PACl-C and PACl-Al(13) flocs is 1:1.6 and 1:9.9, respectively. Of the in situ formed Al(13), almost half of Al-hydroxide precipitates on the surface of Al(OH)(3)-rich flocs possess the Al(IV) center. It also found that the irregularly aggregated Al(13) with a similar Al(13) crystalline structure subsists on the surface of Al(13)-aggregate flocs. PMID:19592064

Lin, Jr-Lin; Huang, Chihpin; Chin, Ching-Ju M; Pan, Jill R

2009-09-01

408

The modulation structure induced changes in mechanical properties of TiAlN/Al2O3 multilayers  

Science.gov (United States)

TiAlN/Al2O3 multilayers which had different separate layer thickness of TiAlN or Al2O3 were synthesized by sputtering Ti3Al and Al2O3 targets with N2 and Ar gases. The influence of modulation periods and modulation ratios on structure and properties of TiAlN/Al2O3 multilayers was investigated using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, surface profiler, and nanoindenter. Compared to TiAlN layer with only (2 0 0) preferred orientation, TiAlN/Al2O3 multilayers were crystallized with orientations in the TiAlN (1 1 1), TiAlN (2 2 2) and AlN (1 0 0). Besides, weak Al2O3 (0 2 2) orientation is observed, when modulation period is 8.9 nm. The maximum hardness about 36.6 GPa was obtained at modulation period of 10.4 nm and modulation ratio of 10:1. The hardness and the toughness of TiAlN/Al2O3 multilayers increase as individual TiAlN layer thickness increases.

Yan, J. Y.; Li, D. J.; Dong, L.; Gao, C. K.; Wang, N.; Deng, X. Y.; Gu, H. Q.; Wan, R. X.; Sun, X.

2013-07-01

409

AuAl{sub 2} and PtAl{sub 2} as potential plasmonic materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: •The electronic structure dielectric functions of PtAl{sub 2}, AuAl{sub 2} and intermediate alloys were calculated. •The experimental reflectivity and EELS for PtAl{sub 2} showed good agreement with the theoretical spectra. •The yellow color of PtAl{sub 2} is associated with a bulk plasmon at 3 eV. •These materials are good candidates for applications in plasmonics. -- Abstract: The dielectric functions of PtAl{sub 2}, AuAl{sub 2} and hypothetical intermediate alloys of the two in the form of Au{sub x}Pt{sub 1?x}Al{sub 2} were calculated from first principles using density functional theory (DFT) and the random phase approximation (RPA). From these, the reflectivity, electron energy-loss spectra (EELS) and small sphere extinction spectra are predicted. The experimental reflectivity and EELS were measured for PtAl{sub 2} and showed good agreement with the theoretical spectra. The yellow color of PtAl{sub 2} is associated with a bulk plasmon at 3 eV. We predict that the optical properties of hypothetical intermediate alloys would show a smooth evolution with composition. The details of this change can be understood by examination of the underlying density of states (DOS). The predicted small sphere extinction spectra and quality factors show a strong surface plasmon resonance for these materials, with PtAl{sub 2} having the optimum performance. The results indicate that these materials are good candidates for applications in plasmonics.

Keast, V.J., E-mail: vicki.keast@newcastle.edu.au [School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Zwan, B. [School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Supansomboon, S.; Cortie, M.B. [Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Technology, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Persson, P.O.Å. [Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden)

2013-11-15

410

EMBRIOPATÍAS ASOCIADAS AL USO DE MISOPROSTOL  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presenta un caso clínico de síndrome de Moebius y artrogriposis asociado al uso de misoprostol durante el primer trimestre de gestación [...] Abstract in english We present a case of Moebius syndrome and arthrogriposis associated to the use of misoprostol during the first trimester of gestation. [...

Andrea, Osorío O; Juan Guillermo, Rodríguez A; Osear, Plzarro R; Axel, Paredes V; Susana, Aguilera P.

411

EMBRIOPATÍAS ASOCIADAS AL USO DE MISOPROSTOL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se presenta un caso clínico de síndrome de Moebius y artrogriposis asociado al uso de misoprostol durante el primer trimestre de gestaciónWe present a case of Moebius syndrome and arthrogriposis associated to the use of misoprostol during the first trimester of gestation.

Andrea Osorío O

2007-01-01

412

High temperature intermetallic compounds Ni3Al  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper describes the preparation of Ni3Al intermetallic compounds, and investigations of their structures in the as-cast, remelted, and annealed states. The materials were produced by three techniques : in a high frequency vacuum furnace, by zonal remelting in an electron beam furnace, and by remelting with unidirectional solidification. Those melted in an h. f. vacuum furnace and poured into graphite moulds had well developed dendritic structures, a Ni3Al (?') phase, with interdendritic spaces formed by Ni5Al3 + ?'. Many specimens contained shrinkage cavities. Unidirectional solidification allowed casting defects to be eliminated and the grain size to be controlled in dependence on the solidification rate. Rates from 650 to 60 mm per hour were tried to examine their effects on the grain size, homogeneity, and structure. The authors further investigated the influence of B and Zr additions on the solidification process and formation of the structure of Ni3Al. Annealing, in an argon atmosphere at 1100 C for various durations, was tried out for homogenizing the as-cast structures. (orig.)

1995-11-01

413

Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy.sub.1-x Er.sub.x)Al.sub.2 for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant.

Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A. (Ames, IA); Takeya, Hiroyuki (Ibaraki, JP)

1995-07-25

414

The Science of al-Biruni  

CERN Document Server

Al-Biruni (973-1048) was one of the greatest scientists of all times. He was an astronomer, mathematician and philosopher, and studied physics and natural sciences. In this paper, we will discuss some of his experimental methods and some instruments he used.

Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

2013-01-01

415

Neumann system and hyperelliptic al functions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article shows that the Neumann dynamical system is described well in terms of the Weierstrass hyperelliptic al functions. The descriptions are very primitive; their proofs are provided only by residual computations but don't require any theta functions.

Shigeki Matsutani

2008-04-01

416

Management of respiratory symptoms in ALS.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Respiratory insufficiency is a frequent feature of ALS and is present in almost all cases at some stage of the illness. It is the commonest cause of death in ALS. FVC is used as important endpoint in many clinical trials, and in decision-making events for patients with ALS, although there are limitations to its predictive utility. There are multiple causes of respiratory muscle failure, all of which act to produce a progressive decline in pulmonary function. Diaphragmatic fatigue and weakness, coupled with respiratory muscle weakness, lead to reduced lung compliance and atelectasis. Increased secretions increase the risk of aspiration pneu