WorldWideScience

Sample records for mehr als halbiert

  1. More than just a converter; Mehr als nur ein Umwandler

    Wilming, Wilhelm

    2013-08-06

    Inverter can convert more than alternating current. With the presented new products at the INTERSOLAR in Munich the manufacturers are responding to the increased demands. [German] Wechselrichter koennen mehr als nur Wechselstrom umwandeln. Mit den auf der INTERSOLAR in Muenchen vorgestellten Produktneuheiten reagieren die Hersteller auf die gestiegenen Anforderungen.

  2. (Medienbildung und Informatik. Informatische Bildung muss mehr als Coding sein!

    Daniel Autenrieth

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Niemand kann die Wichtigkeit der Informatik für unsere Welt abstreiten. Fast jeder Aspekt unseres Lebens steht in einer bestimmten Art in Verbindung mit Software. Es ist daher logisch anzunehmen, dass Kinder die Fähigkeit benötigen die Technik, die sie verwenden, zu verstehen und diese auch kritisch zu betrachten. Dieser Umstand macht Informatik zu einem wichtigen Teilaspekt der Medienbildung. Weiterhin erweitern die Fortschritte aus der Computerentwicklung unsere Fähigkeit Probleme zu lösen in einer bisher unbekannten Dimension. SchülerInnen werden neue Fähigkeiten lernen und einüben müssen (Computational Thinking um diese revolutionären Veränderungen, die der technische Fortschritt mit sich bringt, auszunutzen. Die Schlüsselfrage wird dabei sein, welchen Ansatz man wählen wird, um diese Fähigkeiten auszubilden und welche politischen Beweggründe dahinterstehen. Die aktuelle politische Lage zeigt eine wirtschaftliche Orientierung, die ähnlich ist zur Stärkung der MINT-Fächer vor einigen Jahren, welche ebenfalls von der Wirtschaft gefordert wurde. Bildung muss jedoch mehr sein als die Erfüllung von aus der Wirtschaft stammenden Wünschen. Nobody can deny the importance of computer science for today’s world. Almost every aspect of our daily lives is somehow connected to a piece of software. It is therefore only logical to assume that our children need the ability to comprehend and critically examine the technology they are using, which makes computer science an important issue for media education. Furthermore, advances in computing have expanded our capacity to solve problems at a scale never before imagined, using strategies that have not been available to us before. Students will need to learn and practice new skills — computational thinking skills — to take full advantage of these revolutionary changes brought about by rapid changes in technology. The key issue will be the approach on how to teach children these skills and what the political motives of a curriculum change will be. The current political situation suggests a strongly economic point of view, which is similar to the reinforcement of STEM-subjects, as demanded by the economy some years ago. Education, however, has to be more than the fulfillment of demands expressed by the economy.

  3. Data Curation oder (Retro) Digitalisierung ist mehr als die Produktion von Daten

    Klaus Kempf

    2015-01-01

    Nahezu jede Bibliothek, die über Altbestand verfügt, beschäftigt sich heute mit dem Thema Digitalisierung. Dabei wird oftmals übersehen, dass die dauerhafte und möglichst nutzerfreundliche Bereitstellung (und letztlich die Archivierung) der erzeugten Daten organisatorische Anforderungen ganz eigener Art an die bestandshaltende Institution stellt. Anders als bei analogen Materialien ist es mit dem sachgerechten Vorhalten und der Ausgabe des Sammelguts in buchklimatisch möglichst einwandfreien ...

  4. Data Curation oder (Retro Digitalisierung ist mehr als die Produktion von Daten

    Klaus Kempf

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nahezu jede Bibliothek, die über Altbestand verfügt, beschäftigt sich heute mit dem Thema Digitalisierung. Dabei wird oftmals übersehen, dass die dauerhafte und möglichst nutzerfreundliche Bereitstellung (und letztlich die Archivierung der erzeugten Daten organisatorische Anforderungen ganz eigener Art an die bestandshaltende Institution stellt. Anders als bei analogen Materialien ist es mit dem sachgerechten Vorhalten und der Ausgabe des Sammelguts in buchklimatisch möglichst einwandfreien Räumlichkeiten nicht getan. Elektronische Dokumente, egal welcher Herkunft, welchen Umfangs, Typs und Inhalts, verlangen – weitgehend unabhängig von ihrer tatsächlichen Inanspruchnahme – ein aktives und extrem aufwändiges Datenmanagement sowie eine intensive Datenpflege. Dazu kommen der Betrieb und das regelmäßige Update der für das Datenangebot notwendigen Hard- und Software. Dieses Tun wird in der angelsächsischen Bibliothekswelt gemeinhin mit dem Begriff „digital curation“ oder „data curation“, manchmal auch mit „data stewardship“ umschrieben. Organisationsstrukturen und Arbeitsabläufe (Geschäftsgänge des digitalen Servicekonzepts der Bibliothek müssen darauf ausgelegt sein, die notwendigen personellen und finanziellen Ressourcen müssen dafür eingeplant und bereitgestellt werden. In deutschen Bibliotheken wird diesem wesentlichen Aspekt des digitalen Arbeitens nach wie vor viel zu wenig Aufmerksamkeit geschenkt, dabei ist er für die Qualität des (digitalen Servicekonzepts und seiner Nutzerakzeptanz von herausragender Bedeutung. In dem Beitrag sollen vor dem Hintergrund der langjährigen Erfahrungen in der Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek (BSB die Dimension und Komplexität des Problems aufgezeigt sowie mittlerweile praxiserprobte Lösungsansätze vorgestellt werden. Today almost every library with historic collections faces the question of digitisation. However, it is often ignored that a long-term and user-friendly provision of access to (and ultimately the preservation of the produced data poses special organisational challenges for the respective institution. Unlike with print materials, it is not enough to store and circulate the digital library collection in facilities with the best possible climate. Regardless of their origin, extent, type and content, and largely independent from their actual use, digital documents need an extremely active and complex data management as well as intensive data maintenance. Additionally, the necessary hard- and software for providing the data must be operated and regularly updated. In the Anglo-American library world, these activities are usually called „digital curation“ or „data curation”, sometimes also „data stewardship”. The library must design the organisational structures and workflows (processes of its digital service concept to meet these requirements, and the necessary personnel and financial resources must be budgeted and made available. German libraries still pay far too little attention to this crucial aspect of digital work, although it is of outstanding importance for the quality of the (digital service concept and its acceptance by the users. The paper demonstrates the dimension and complexity of this challenge against the background of the long-term experience of the Bavarian State Library and presents field-proven solutions.

  5. Modern facade techniques. The casing - more than a designed surface?; Moderne Fassadentechniken. Die Huelle - Mehr als gestaltete Oberflaeche?

    Petzinka, K.H. [Petzinka Pink und Partner, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Concepts as the presented projects are only developed with increasing knowledge. During each planning phase the results must be compared with the aesthetic, functional and technical targets in order to control, to develop and if necessary correct the current design and thinking process. This way of planning corresponds to the planning of an industrial top product. In these days the requirements of complex thinking in case of the application examples can only be met by the combination of research, information, application, experience and exact aesthetic target during the planning process that finally leads to complex solutions. They do not need to be corrected any more and the use of media and materials has got an undeniable reason. (orig.) [German] Konzepte wie die vorgestellten Projekte entwickeln sich in ihrer Art erst mit dem Anwachsen der Erkenntnisse. Auf jeder Planungsstufe muessen Resultate mit aesthetischer und funktionaltechnischer Zielvorstellung verglichen werden, um den laufenden Entwurf und Denkprozess zu steuern, zu entwickeln und, im Zweifel, korrigieren zu koennen. Eine solche Art zu planen, entspricht dann der eines industriellen Spitzenproduktes. Erst durch die Verbindung durch Forschung, Information, Anwendung, Erfahrung und konkreter aesthetischer Zielvorstellung beim Planungsprozess, wird dem komplexen Denken unserer Zeit bei solchen Anwendungsbeispielen entsprochen und fuehrt dann tatsaechlich zur komplexen Loesung, die keiner Korrektur mehr bedarf und bei der jeder Einsatz von Mitteln und Materialien einen unverzichtbaren Grund hat. (orig.)

  6. Lebensmittelskandale - mehr Fama als Faktum

    Kiefer I

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lebensmittel sind heute so sicher wie noch nie, trotzdem vergeht kaum ein Jahr ohne „Lebensmittelskandal“. Dabei deckt sich die Wahrnehmung und Einschätzung von Risiken durch die Öffentlichkeit häufig nicht mit der tatsächlichen Gefährdung. Aufgabe der Kommunikation von Risiken und Gefahren muss es künftig sein, die Risikowahrnehmung in der Bevölkerung verstärkt zu berücksichtigen, um einerseits Bewusstsein für wirkliche Risiken zu schaffen und andererseits Ängste vor vermeintlichen Gefährdungen abzubauen

  7. Mehr als Kodieren? Evaluation Computerunterstützter qualitativer Datenanalyse-Software (CAQDAS) für die Diskursanalyse von Nachrichtentexten

    MacMillan, Katie

    2005-01-01

    Computerunterstützte qualitative Datenanalyse-Software (CAQDAS) wird häufig als Werkzeug für qualitative Forschung generell beschrieben, wobei "qualitative Forschung" meist als homogene Kategorie behandelt wird. Nur wenige Studien haben sich mit der Tauglichkeit von CAQDAS für spezifische Methoden beschäftigt, und ein noch kleinerer Teil mit der Nutzung von CAQDAS im Feld der Diskursanalyse (DA). In der Regel wird in solchen Studien kurz angemerkt, dass aus CAQDAS technische Begrenzungen für ...

  8. Tortuosity and calcification of the splenic artery. More than an additional finding; Schlaengelung und Verkalkung der Milzarterie im Roentgenbild. Mehr als ein Nebenbefund

    Golder, W.A. [SELARL Association d' Imagerie Medicale, Troyes (France)

    2008-11-15

    Tortuosity of the splenic artery and calcification of the vessel wall are typical additional findings on plain abdominal x-ray. The combination of both anomalies is common in elderly persons presenting without symptoms of splenic ischemia. Its pathogenesis is thought to be multifactorial. In infancy and childhood, the splenic artery is stretched in its entire course. A growing difference between the length of the vessel and the distance between its origin and the splenic hilum gives rise to tortuosity. The artery's proximal segment is involved more frequently and more severely than the distal one. The tortuous route of the vessel is accentuated by the direction of its major branches, which is roughly perpendicular to the main trajectory. Neither tortuosity nor calcification should be taken to be risk factors for the comparatively common splenic artery aneurysm. Calcific deposits are not confined to the media but are also detected in the intima of the vascular wall. Critical narrowings of the lumen arising on the calcium deposits are not observed. Calcifying atherosclerosis of the splenic artery is comparable to medial sclerosis of the peripheral arteries frequently noticed in diabetics and dialysis patients. Only the less important calcification of the intima may be attributed to mechanisms of the hydrohemodynamic theory of atherosclerosis. The spleen's blood storage capacity may contribute to the characteristic age-dependent alterations of the shape and course of the splenic artery. (orig.) [German] Die Schlaengelung der Milzarterie und Verkalkungen in der Wand des Gefaesses sind ein typischer Nebenbefund bei der Roentgenuntersuchung des Abdomens. Die Kombination wird v. a. bei Senioren beobachtet, ohne dass Symptome einer Mangelperfusion der Milz fassbar sind. Bei der Pathogenese wirken eine Reihe verschiedener Faktoren zusammen. Im Kindesalter verlaeuft die A. lienalis stets gestreckt. Die zunehmende Schlaengelung wird durch die wachsende Differenz zwischen der Laenge des Gefaesses und der Distanz zwischen seinem Ursprung und dem Milzhilus hervorgerufen. Der proximale Abschnitt der Arterie ist haeufiger und staerker betroffen als der distale. Die Tortuositas wird durch die zum Hauptstamm senkrechte Verlaufsrichtung der grossen Aeste gefoerdert. Weder die Schlaengelung noch die Verkalkung sind als Risikoindikatoren fuer das vergleichsweise haeufige Aneurysma der Milzarterie zu werten. Der Wandkalk ist sowohl in der Tunica media wie im Endothel lokalisiert. Haemodynamisch wirksame kalkassoziierte Gefaessstenosen fehlen. Die verkalkende Atheromatose der Milzarterie aehnelt der Mediasklerose der peripheren Arterien vom Typ Moenckeberg und wird bei Diabetikern und Dialysepatienten ueberdurchschnittlich haeufig nachgewiesen. Die hydrohaemodynamische Theorie der Arteriosklerose kann nur fuer die quantitativ weniger bedeutsame Verkalkung der Intima verantwortlich gemacht werden. Die Blutspeicherfunktion der Milz foerdert die charakteristische altersabhaengige Form- und Verlaufsveraenderung der A. lienalis. (orig.)

  9. Mehr als ein Rechtshandbuch. Hinweise zur Arbeit von Frauen- und Gleichstellungsbeauftragten More Than a Legal Handbook. Details on the Work of Womens and Equal Opportunity Commissioners

    Arne Duncker

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Das vorliegende Handbuch fr Frauen- und Gleichstellungsbeauftragte ist auch ein Rechtshandbuch, aber es geht in seinen Inhalten darber hinaus. Etwa ein Drittel des Werkes behandelt auerrechtliche Fragen. Insgesamt ist das Werk als Leitfaden fr die Praxis konzipiert und soll fortlaufend durch Nachlieferungen ergnzt werden; einige Rechtsmaterien, z. B. das Gleichstellungsrecht der meisten Bundeslnder, sind gegenwrtig noch nicht enthalten. Whrend mit dem Arbeitsrecht ein zentraler Bereich der Gleichstellungspraxis recht umfassend und berwiegend gut behandelt wird und an verschiedenen weiteren Punkten teils hervorragende Teilbearbeitungen vorliegen, weist die Darstellung eines anderen zentralen Rechtsgebiets, des Familienrechts, gravierende Mngel auf. Insgesamt kann das Werk in seiner derzeitigen Form noch nicht vorbehaltlos empfohlen werden.The handbook for Womens and Equal Opportunity Commissioners is also a legal handbook, but it goes beyond this in its contents. About a third of the work deals with extra-legal questions. In general, the work is conceived as a guideline for practice and the intention is that continual additions will supplement the work; some legal materials, for example the equality laws of most federal states, are currently not included. While a central area of equality praxis is extensively and for the most part appropriately handled through employment law and there are some excellent studies of other points, the handbook points to grave deficits in another area of law, and that is family law. Overall, the work cannot be recommended in its current form without reservations.

  10. Appearance and reality; Mehr Schein als Wirklichkeit

    Waldl, H.P. [Overspeed GmbH and Co. KG, Oldenburg (Germany)

    2003-10-01

    Condition monitoring has been discussed and tested by the wind power industry since almost three years ago. Experience so far has been shattering, but hopes are still high. The high incidence of damage in wind turbine induced insurance companies to include revision clauses in their insurance contracts, in which complete exchange of powertrain components is specified as a preventive measure. Condition monitoring is views as an alternative to these revision clauses as wind power operators get a better picture of the condition of individual components. [German] Seit fast drei Jahren wird Condition Monitoring in der Windbranche diskutiert und erprobt. Die bisherigen Erfahrungen sind ernuechternd. Aber Besserung scheint in Sicht. Ausgeloest durch die zunehmenden Schaeden bei Windturbinen haben die Versicherungsgesellschaften begonnen, Revisionsklauseln in Versicherungsvertraege einzufuegen. Diese Klauseln fordern den kompletten vorbeugenden Austausch einzelner Komponenten des Triebstrangs nach einem bestimmten Zeitraum - beispielsweise Getriebe und Lager. Eine Moeglichkeit, diese Revisionsklauseln zu umgehen, bieten Zustandsueberwachungssysteme - auch Condition Monitoring Systeme (CMS) genannt. Mit ihnen soll der Betreiber einen besseren Ueberblick ueber den Status quo einzelner Bauteile bekommen. (orig.)

  11. Muttersprache im Fremdsprachenunterricht - mehr als ein Ausweichmanöver?

    Ciepielewska, Luiza

    2008-01-01

    The article deals with the role of the native language in a foreign language class. The practical aspects of moderate native language usage are discussed. Using concrete examples, the author discusses the positive influence of a native language on communication during foreign language class.

  12. Headaches. More than just sinusitis; Kopfschmerzen. Mehr als nur Sinusitis

    Knauth, Michael [Universitaetsklinikum Goettingen (Germany). Abt. Neuroradiologie

    2011-09-15

    Headaches are among the commonest somatic complaints seen in clinical practice. The International Headache Society differentiates about 190 types of headaches. This article focuses on the variety of secondary headaches with a radiologically identifiable cause. (orig.)

  13. Being in the Internet - more than just being ''cool''? e-business and its strategic importance in the utility and energy services industry; Praesenz im Internet - mehr als eine Imagefrage? Die strategische Bedeutung des e-business fuer die Versorgungs- und Energiewirtschaft

    Greisinger, T.W. [IBM Global Utility and Energy Services Industry, Oak Brook, IL (United States); Moehl, W. [IBM Deutschland, Mainz (Germany). Vertriebsbereich Versorgungsunternehmen

    2000-04-03

    The Internet and related technologies belong into the daily life of supply and energy industry especially in the business to business sector. But the installation of a colourful homepage is not enough if one wants to remain competitive in the deregulated markets. The strategic implementation of e-business not only in relation to customers but also to optimisation of internal processes is a major success factor. The present article sheds light into these aspects and shows which enterprises especially in the USA have made e-business become a reality. (orig.) [German] Das Internet und verwandte Technologien gehoeren auch in der Versorgungs- und Energiewirtschaft laengst zum Alltag, vor allem im Geschaeftskundenbereich. Mit der Einrichtung einer bunten Homepage ist aber es laengst nicht mehr getan, will man in den deregulierten Maerkten wettbewerbsfaehig bleiben. Der strategische Einsatz von e-business zur Verbesserung von Kundenbeziehungen, aber auch zur Optimierung interner Prozesse ist vielmehr ein entscheidender Erfolgsfaktor geworden. Die Verfasser erlaeutern diese Gesichtspunkte und zeigen auf, welche Unternehmen vor allem in den USA bereits e-business zur Realitaet gemacht haben. (orig.)

  14. Linnamaastike kaitse on osa arengust / Jukka Jokilehto, Mehr Azar Soheil ; intervjueerinud Liisa Pakosta

    Jokilehto, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    Vestlus soome arhitekti, Nova Gorica likooli professori, UNESCO ja ICOMOSi konsultandi Jukka Jokilehto ja tema abikaasa, prslannast arhitekti Mehr Azar Soheiliga. Ka Tallinna vanalinnast maailmaprandi komitees valmivate linnamaastike kaitseks meldud soovituste valguses, linna arengust sadama suunas. Eestikeelsena ilmus J. Jokilehto raamat "Arhitektuuri konserveerimise ajalugu" (Tallinn : Eesti Kunstiakadeemia, 2010)

  15. Für mehr Produktivität in Marketing und Vertrieb

    Belz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Produktivität ist in Marketing und Vertrieb gefordert. Allerdings beobachten wir auch starke Tendenzen zu Unproduktivität. Falls die folgenden Entwicklungen beim Leser nicht zutreffen - umso besser. Ohnehin beschreibe ich sie u?berzeichnet, und die Probleme sind nicht neu, wie folgender Text zeigt. [http://www.marke41.de/content/fuer-mehr-produktivitaet-marketing-und-vertrieb

  16. Linnamaastike kaitse on osa arengust / Jukka Jokilehto, Mehr Azar Soheil ; intervjueerinud Liisa Pakosta

    Jokilehto, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    Vestlus soome arhitekti, Nova Gorica ülikooli professori, UNESCO ja ICOMOSi konsultandi Jukka Jokilehto ja tema abikaasa, pärslannast arhitekti Mehr Azar Soheiliga. Ka Tallinna vanalinnast maailmapärandi komitees valmivate linnamaastike kaitseks mõeldud soovituste valguses, linna arengust sadama suunas. Eestikeelsena ilmus J. Jokilehto raamat "Arhitektuuri konserveerimise ajalugu" (Tallinn : Eesti Kunstiakadeemia, 2010)

  17. Use of fuel cells in multi-MW-thermal power plants; Brennstoffzelleneinsatz im Mehr-MW-Heizkraftwerk

    Lezuo, A. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Knappstein, H. [Thyssengas GmbH, Duisburg (Germany); Langnickel, U. [Gas-, Elektrizitaets- und Wasserwerke Koeln AG (GEW) (Germany); Nymoen, H. [Ruhrgas AG, Essen (Germany)

    1995-09-01

    Natural gas fuel cells with phosphoric acid electrolyte today are already used in small series of compact units ranging up to 500 kW electric capacity. They thus represent a successful contribution to decentralised power production through cogeneration. Their use in multi-MW thermal power stations is technically possible and, in view of their low emissions and great efficiency, a very attractive alternative. This technology merits intensive development work in order to acquire through practical experience the know-how for bringing costs down to an acceptable level. Manufacturers and operators will need to prepare themselves for modifications regarding the operation and maintenance of these larger plants. The results of a feasibility study for a 1.5 MW thermal power plant presented in this article could come in useful here. (orig.) [Deutsch] Erdgasbetriebene Brennstoffzellen mit Phosphorsaeure-Elektrolyt werden heute bereits in Kleinserien als kompakte Einheiten mit einer elektrischen Leistung von bis zu 500 kW gebaut und mit Erfolg in der dezentralen Energieerzeugung auf Basis der Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung betrieben. Der Einsatz in Mehr-MW-Heizkraftwerken ist ebenfalls moeglich und sollte unter dem Aspekt einer schadstoffarmen und effizienten Energieerzeugung intensiv weiter verfolgt werden, um ueber die gewonnenen Erfahrungen die angestrebten Kostenziele zu erreichen. Technologiebedingt muessen sich Hersteller und Betreiber auf die veraenderten Anforderungen bezueglich Betrieb und Wartung rechtzeitig einstellen. Die nachfolgend vorgestellten Ergebnisse einer Machbarkeitsstudie fuer ein 1,5-MW-Heizkraftwerk koennen dabei hilfreich sein. (orig.)

  18. Mehr Schaden als Nutzen? Problematischer Einsatz von Textvergleichsprogrammen zur vermeintlichen Plagiatsvermeidung

    Miljković, Natascha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The number of so called plagiarism detection software is ever-growing, though hardly any of those products are really useful as marketed. since their producers force-fed the term plagiarism detection – in stark contrast to the only function they have, which is text matching – to their customers, several misconceptions have established, which keep circulating within higher education institutions rather persistently, thus even hindering the establishment of efficient prevention strategies within. By all means are those products not sufficient enough as sole preventing method against plagiarism and will never be technically mature enough to find all forms of scientifically unethical writing .

  19. "Mehr als, bloss Bucher" Die Bibliothek Gellerup. Vom "Buchcontainer" zum Community Centre: Ein Beispiel aus Danemark

    Andersen, John; Frandsen, Martin; Hedelund, Lone

    Kapitlet handler om bibliotekets mulige rolle som facilitator af empowermentprocesser og social inklusion i marginaliserede byområder med Community Center Gellerup som eksempel. Bidraget indgår i en antologi baseret på et forskningsseminar på Humboldt-Universitat, Berlin om bibliotekers rolle for...

  20. Mehr Armut durch steigende Arbeitslosigkeit: Niedriglöhne überwiegend als Zusatzeinkommen im Haushalt

    Jan Goebel; Peter Krause; Jürgen Schupp

    2005-01-01

    In den letzten Jahren ist die Ungleichheit der individuellen Erwerbseinkommen gestiegen. Dies ging einher mit einer Veränderung der haushaltsspezifischen Erwerbskonstellation und der individuellen Erwerbsbeteiligung (z. B. Minijobs). Insbesondere ist seit 2000 ein steigender Anteil von Haushalten ohne Markteinkommen zu beobachten, weil deren Mitglieder arbeitslos sind oder zur stillen Reserve gehören. Diese Befunde bedeuten nicht zwangsläufig einen Anstieg der relativen Einkommensarmut, denn ...

  1. Mehr als eine politische Lehrstunde : V. Baltische Studenten-Seminar in Darmstadt

    2010-01-01

    16.-21. novembrini 2010 toimunud viienda balti lipilasseminari keskpunktis oli teemadekompleks demokraatiast Baltimaades. Arutleti ka demokraatiakogemuse le kahel viimasel sajandil Saksamaal. Jugendherberges alanud seminar jtkus Darmstadtis ja lppes Saksa-Balti Seltsi 60nda juubeli thistamisega. Viie peva temaatika haaras Baltimaade ja Euroopa kultuuri, poliitikat ja ajalugu

  2. Mehr als eine politische Lehrstunde : V. Baltische Studenten-Seminar in Darmstadt

    2010-01-01

    16.-21. novembrini 2010 toimunud viienda balti üliõpilasseminari keskpunktis oli teemadekompleks demokraatiast Baltimaades. Arutleti ka demokraatiakogemuse üle kahel viimasel sajandil Saksamaal. Jugendherberges alanud seminar jätkus Darmstadtis ja lõppes Saksa-Balti Seltsi 60nda juubeli tähistamisega. Viie päeva temaatika haaras Baltimaade ja Euroopa kultuuri, poliitikat ja ajalugu

  3. Hydrogen - more than just a mobile application; Wasserstoff - mehr als nur eine mobile Anwendung

    Pitschak, Bernd [Hydrogenics GmbH, Gladbeck (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    The securing of a reliable, economical and environmentally friendly energy supply is one of the greatest challenges of the 21st century. Using the energy concept, the Federal Government formulates guidelines for such an energy supply and describes for the first time the way for the age of renewable energy. It is all about the development and implementation of an overall long-term strategy for the time period up to 2050.

  4. More than 85 per cent. A practice report; Mehr als 85 Prozent. Ein Praxisreport

    Jakobi, Manuela [Centrosolar AG, Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    The Electric House Brenner in Herrenberg achieved with a lithium battery storage facility on sunny days 100 % self-sufficiency. [German] Das Elektrohaus Brenner in Herrenberg erreicht mit einer Lithiumbatterie-Speicheranlage an sonnigen Tagen 100 % Autarkie.

  5. A review on weaknesses and strengths of delivering Mehr housing project in terms of achieving economical goals

    Ali Karshenasan; Mahsa Beiranvand

    2013-01-01

    Housing is one of the most important sections of development in a country and its economic importance has put it in the center of attention. It can cause rise and depression of habitation by its extended economic aspects. Mehr Housing plan is a state run housing project in most cities started 2007 in Iran to protect and provide cheap housing for poor people and young couples. Mehr housing project by its large scale and wide dimensions can affect the society’s economy. Therefore, to investigat...

  6. A review on weaknesses and strengths of delivering Mehr housing project in terms of achieving economical goals

    Ali Karshenasan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Housing is one of the most important sections of development in a country and its economic importance has put it in the center of attention. It can cause rise and depression of habitation by its extended economic aspects. Mehr Housing plan is a state run housing project in most cities started 2007 in Iran to protect and provide cheap housing for poor people and young couples. Mehr housing project by its large scale and wide dimensions can affect the society’s economy. Therefore, to investigate weaknesses and strengths of this project in terms of economic and applying necessary reformation can increase the success probability of this project. For this purpose, this study assess the weaknesses and strengths of Mehr housing of province of Khorram Abad in Iran for achieving economic goals and also presents solutions to better access to these goals. Time scope of the present study is 6 months of 2011 and the second 3 months of 2012. The methodology is applicable in terms of goal and is descriptive survey in terms of nature. In this study, a combined method of interviewing to experts and distributing a questionnaire among the applicants of Mehr housing has been used for data collecting. Among strengths of Khorram Abad in economic section, employment and urban landfill pattern reformation can be implied. In addition, among weaknesses of this project are lack of proper first design and technical justification of the project and use of only 2 shabby fabrics.

  7. Soil Surface Attributes Prediction Using Digital Topographic Model in Mehr Catchment, Sabzevar, Khorasan Province

    Sh. Ayobi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Conventional soil survey methods for soils within the watersheds in Iran require a significant budget with many soil surveyors and much time. Additionally, no accurate and reliable information exists on the spatial variability of superface soil parameters in order to predict the soil loss by different models (RUSLE, PISAC, EUPOSEM, MORGAN. Also information on planning and management activities is lacking. These limitations call for methods of estimating soil properties using minimum sampling derived from important terrain parameters. This study was performed to develop soil-landscape models in three geological units (E2Sc, Ku, Plc, in a part of Mehr- watershed, Sabzevar. Six soil variables selected for this study were topsoil clay, gravel, sand, organic matter content, field capacity and bulk density measured at 316 sites on a regular 100m grid. Topographic attributes were calculated by a digital elevation model with 100m spacing. Finally, multiple linear regression analyses relating soil to topographic attributes were performed and then models were validated by additional sample points (78 of 316. The developed regression models showed significant relationships between surface soil properties and topographic attributes such as elevation, slope, aspect, wetness index, stream power index and sediment transport index. The mean errors and root mean square errors in the validation of the models were low and acceptable. The regression equations could explain only 26 to 72 % of the variability measured in the soil attributes in the watershed scale with 100m spacing.

  8. Participation rate of housing cooperation members (Mehr) and Explication effective factors on it in 1388 at Mashhad city

    Mohammadt Mazlome Khorasani; Mohsen Noghani; Bibi Fatemeh Kishbafan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is finding some answers to description of participation rate of housing cooperation members (Mehr) in 1388 at Mashhad city and Explication effective factors on it. Theoretical discussions have been illustrated based on four paradigms socialistic: social facts, social definition, social behavior, and complex paradigm. The research method of this investigation based on a survey with sample volume about 380 persons with the help of Cocran formula from statistical society...

  9. Zitieren – ein Thema für Bibliotheken! Zitierleitfaden, Zitierkurs und mehr an der Universitätsbibliothek der TU München

    Caroline Leiß

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Die Universitätsbibliothek der Technischen Universität München (TUM bietet mit jährlich mehr als 400 Veranstaltungen für rund 8.000 Teilnehmende ein umfangreiches Programm im Bereich Informationskompetenz an. Im Wintersemester 2014/15 wurde das Angebot im Bereich Zitieren und Plagiat-Vermeidung grundlegend erweitert. Die Universitätsbibliothek hat einen Zitierleitfaden erstellt und bietet einen Kurs zum Zitieren sowie eine Sprechstunde für Fragen zur Literaturverwaltung und zum Zitieren an. Der Beitrag schildert Konzeption, Einführung und erste Erfahrungen der Universitätsbibliothek mit ihren neuen Dienstleistungsangeboten. The University Library of the Technical University of Munich (TUM offers a comprehensive training programme for information literacy including more than 400 training events for approximately 8.000 participants per year. In the winter semester of 2014/2015, the library expanded its services in the field of citation and plagiarism. A citation guide was prepared, and the library now offers a special training course and drop-in advisory sessions for reference management and citation assistance. The paper discusses the design, the implementation and the first experiences with these new support services at the University Library.

  10. Integrated Reporting - ein Königsweg? : Warum weniger Berichterstattung möglicherweise mehr sein könnte

    Leibfried, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Das Problem ist bekannt: Unternehmen wenden immer mehr Ressourcen für die Unternehmensberichterstattung auf und deren Umfang nimmt ständig zu. Fragt man die Adressaten, wird meist aber immer noch nicht genug oder nicht das Richtige berichtet. Die 2009 vom britischen Thronfolger Prinz Charles ins Leben gerufene Integrated Reporting-Initiative, die in der Gründung des International Integrated Reporting Council (IIRC) mündete, versucht diesen scheinbar unlösbaren Konflikt zu überwinden. Inte...

  11. Participation rate of housing cooperation members (Mehr and Explication effective factors on it in 1388 at Mashhad city

    Mohammadt Mazlome Khorasani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is finding some answers to description of participation rate of housing cooperation members (Mehr in 1388 at Mashhad city and Explication effective factors on it. Theoretical discussions have been illustrated based on four paradigms socialistic: social facts, social definition, social behavior, and complex paradigm. The research method of this investigation based on a survey with sample volume about 380 persons with the help of Cocran formula from statistical society about 36330 members of housing cooperation (Mehr in Mashhad city. The method of sampling was based on random stratified method. The way of data Collection is information on questionnaires. The analysis of data have been implemented with SPSS application software in the frame of average descriptive statistics, Medium, Standard divergence, Kurosis and Skewness coefficients, hypothesis test with the help of appropriate tests to aim and variable assessment levels and using of regression analysis, finally path analysis. Then we assessed these categories and their independent variables such as: Economical disability and incapability to resources, assessment of financial and political supports of the government, lack of enough time for members, confidence to the managers, assuring to the resultant of the project, traditionalism, thankfulness, respect to the media advertisements, education level, mental preparation, responsibility, acknowledgement, satisfaction toward managers, social base, making in real housing, using mass media, alienation on the rate of cooperation members. In conclusion, member’s acknowledgement, using mass media and respecting to media advertisements and confidence to managers had the major and highest Impact on members cooperation.

  12. Belo Monte's dubious claim to fame; Wasserkraftwerk am Tropf. Mehr Tadel als Lob fuer Brasiliens Belo Monte

    Winter, Lorenz

    2010-11-29

    The mammoth dam construction on the Rio Xingu interferes brutally with the natural environment, but does not add up in financial terms. Without it's massive public subsidies, president Luiz Inacio da Silva's pet project to expand Brazil's energy supply would not stand a chance. (orig.)

  13. Stenting von Koronarlsionen mit mehr als 40 mm Gesamtlnge mit berlappenden Cypher-Stents - Klinische Erfahrungen bis zu 28 Monate

    Wagner R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Das Stenting langstreckiger komplexer Koronarlsionen mit Drug-eluting Stents (DES ist aufgrund der extrem niedrigen Restenoseraten eine zunehmende Herausforderung der interventionellen Kardiologie. Im Gegensatz zum punktuellen Stenting (Spotstenting fokaler hochgradiger Stenosen innerhalb der langstreckigen Lsion mit Bare-metal Stents (BMS scheint heute die komplette Abdeckung der gesamten Lsionslnge mit berlappenden DES die Methode der Wahl. Allerdings geht das Stenting langer Lsionen mit einem hheren prozeduralen Risiko und hheren Restenoseraten einher. Der Operateur ist in der Stentplazierung ("Stent-Delivery" und im optimalen Seitenastmanagement gefordert. Letztlich bleibt gerade beim langen Stenting das nicht gnzlich geklrte Risiko der spten Stentthrombose bestehen. In einer retrospektiven Analyse zeigen wir 33 konsekutive symptomatische Koronarpatienten, die sich im Zeitraum von Jnner 2004 bis April 2006 in unserem Herzkatheterlabor einer PCI unterzogen und bei einer mittleren Lsionslnge von 52,1 mm (41?81 mm mit mehreren berlappenden, Sirolimus-freisetzenden Stents (SES/Cypher-Stents behandelt wurden. Dies war bei allen Patienten technisch gut durchfhrbar und zeigte im Beobachtungszeitraum sehr gute klinische Frh- und Langzeitergebnisse. Mit Ausnahme eines Patienten, der periinterventionell einen akuten Seitenastverschlu aufwies, war bei allen Patienten ein sehr gutes primres Interventionsergebnis zu dokumentieren. Im klinischen Follow-up fand sich bei nur einem Patienten nach sieben Monaten eine diffuse Instent-Restenose am intervenierten Hauptgef, bei weiteren drei Patienten fand sich eine Seitenast-Restenosierung. Kein Patient erlitt ein schwerwiegendes kardiovaskulres Ereignis, bei keinem Patienten war eine akute Revaskularisation notwendig.

  14. FlexCard - more than just an analysis tool; FlexCard - Mehr als nur ein Analysetool

    Kuehnle, J.; Gress, A. [Transferzentrum Mikroelektronik (Germany)

    2004-03-01

    Steadily increasing crosslinking as well as higher demands to new safety relevant systems in the automobile require a reliable and fast data transfer. A solution begins to show with the new FlexRay bus system. The TransferZentrum Mikroelektronik in Goeppingen near Stuttgart with the FlexCard provides a new development tool, which can provide valuable assistance in the development of FlexRay bus systems. (orig.) [German] Die stetig zunehmende Vernetzung sowie hoehere Anforderungen an neue, sicherheitsrelevante Systeme im Automobil erfordern eine zuverlaessige und schnelle Datenuebertragung. Mit dem neuen Bussystem FlexRay zeichnet sich eine Loesung ab. Das Transfer-Zentrum Mikroelektronik aus Goeppingen bei Stuttgart stellt mit der FlexCard ein neues Entwicklungstool bereit, das bei der Entwicklung von FlexRay-Bussystemen wertvolle Hilfe leisten kann. (orig.)

  15. EU ecodesign regulation. More as only a light bulb ban; EU-Oekodesign-Richtlinie. Mehr als ein Gluehbirnenverbot

    Fischer, Corinna [Oeko-Institut e.V., Freiburg (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Within a broader public, the EU Ecodesign Directive (Directive 2009/125/EC) was known and notoriously as a 'light bulb ban'. This resulted in strong emotions. But it has shown an impact in many other areas - usually unnoticed and often for the financial and practical benefits of the consumers. Now, the EU Commission wants to go one step further.

  16. CCSVI - Ein Erfahrungsbericht: Mehr Fragen als Antworten - mit einem Kommentar aus neurologischer Sicht von W. Lang, Wien

    Peloschek P

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obwohl schon seit über 100 Jahren bekannt ist, dass durch nahezu jeden demyelinisierten Herd (Plaque bei Multipler Sklerose (MS ein Blutgefäß läuft, konnte bisher kein kausaler Zusammenhang zwischen einer Erkrankung der zerebralen Venen und MS dargestellt werden. Nach der Beschreibung des Syndroms der chronischen zerebrospinalen venösen Insuffizienz (CCSVI im Jahr 2008 entwickelte sich ein, durch neuen Medien (Google, Facebook, Blogs etc. potenzierter, außergewöhnlich hoher Druck vonseiten zahlreicher Patientengruppen auf Ärzteschaft und Industrie, der hoffnungsgebenden Hypothese einer durch CCSVI bedingten „venösen MS“ nachzugehen. Dieser Bericht soll einen nüchternen Überblick über die fraglich ursächliche Beteiligung der Venen geben, um dem Leser die Möglichkeit zu geben, sich ein eigenes Bild zu machen.

  17. Analysis the opportunities and threats of Mehr Housing in Mashhad Metropolis (A case of Golbahar New Town

    Hadi Ivani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the construction industry has been thriving due to an increase in national and international investment to the extent that it is now the largest in the Middle East region. In order to, the aim of current research is analysis the opportunities and threats of Mehr Housing in Mashhad Metropolis with point on Golbahar New Town housing project. Applied methodology is based on libraries, documents and field study. In the case of library, data were collected by studying books, articles and internet. In continuous it was used of interview and questionnaire for complete the data’s. Results show that 70 percent of the Iranians own homes, with huge amounts of idle money entering the housing market and the annual turnover in the construction industry amounts to 38.4 billion US$

  18. Der Glaube als Erkenntnisquelle

    Andrea Hartwig

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Seit ihrer Kanonisation 1998 und Ernennung zur Mit-Patronin Europas 1999 steht die 1942 in Auschwitz ermordete Phänomenologin Edith Stein, 1922 vom jüdischen zum christlichen Glauben konvertiert und 1933 als Benedicta vom Kreuz in den Kölner Karmel eingetreten, mehr denn je im Blickfeld der Öffentlichkeit. Die Bedeutung ihrer wissenschaftlichen Arbeit u. a. als Assistentin von Edmund Husserl in Freiburg und als Dozentin am Deutschen Institut für wissenschaftliche Pädagogik in Münster, aber auch in privaten Studien wurden im Juli 2000 im Rahmen eines Symposiums des Internationalen Edith Stein Instituts in Würzburg diskutiert. Die Beiträge der vorliegenden Publikation beleuchten breit gefächert Aspekte des Werks und seiner Interpretation mit dem Ziel, die Philosophin neu zu entdecken und die bisherige Forschung zu intensivieren.

  19. Mining systems engineering from Germany - technology and more; Bergbausystemtechnik aus Deutschland - Technik und mehr

    Gessner, D. [SaarTech Gesellschaft fuer Industrie- und Bergbautechnologie mbH, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2001-08-30

    Market changes in the international mining industry require from the German mining sector modification of its appearance on the market with a range of products and services adapted to customer requirements. For this purpose the German companies as system suppliers must appear in closed formation on the growth markets of the future. The range of products and services in demand relate to engineering, technology, organisation, training, operation and marketing. The optimisation of existing collieries and the construction of new ones on the basis of German technology should be regarded as the aim. A successful pilot project for German mining systems engineering was realised in Turkey by SaarTech GmbH as project leader and technically responsible project manager. (orig.) [German] Marktveraenderungen im internationalen Bergbau verlangen von der deutschen Bergbaubranche eine Modifizierung des Marktauftritts mit einem auf Kundenwuensche abgestimmten Liefer- und Leistungsangebot. Dazu muessen auf den Wachstumsmaerkten der Zukunft die deutschen Unternehmen als Systemanbieter in geschlossener Formation auftreten. Der nachgefragte Liefer- und Leistungsumfang tangiert dabei die Segmente Ingenieurleistung, Technik, Organisation, Training, Betrieb und Marketing. Durch intelligente Zusammenfuehrung von deutschem Anwender- und Technologie-Know-how sowie durch die Buendelung der in Bergbauprojekten erforderlichen Wertschoepfungsstufen in Allianzen beziehungsweise Projektgesellschaften koennen die Kernkompetenzen fuer den Kunden nutzbar gemacht werden. Als Ziel ist dabei die Optimierung vorhandener Bergwerke und der Aufbau neuer Bergwerke auf Basis deutscher Technik anzusehen. Ein erfolgreiches Pilotprojekt fuer deutsche Bergbausystemtechnik wurde durch die SaarTech GmbH als Projektfuehrer und technisch verantwortlicher Projektmanager in der Tuerkei realisiert. (orig.)

  20. E-Portfolio-Literaturwerkstatt - Online fr Kinder mit anderen Erstsprachen als Deutsch

    Ursula Mulley

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Der Einsatz des Computers im Unterricht gewinnt gegenwrtig immer mehr an Bedeutung. Das Projekt "E-Portfolio-Literaturwerkstatt Online" mchte einen Beitrag leisten, diese Wichtigkeit zu unterstreichen, indem es einen Bereich aufzeigt, wo Computereinsatz effizient individuelle und differenzierte Mglichkeiten fr SchlerInnen mit anderen Erstsprachen als Deutsch bietet, um in den Unterricht, besonders in der Leistungsdokumentation, integriert zu werden.

  1. Computed tomography guidance. Fluoroscopy and more; CT-Steuerung. Fluoroskopie und mehr

    Paprottka, P.M.; Reiser, M.F.; Trumm, C.G. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Campus Grosshadern, Angiographie und Interventionelle Radiologie, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany); Helmberger, T. [Staedt. Klinikum Muenchen, Klinikum Bogenhausen, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Neuroradiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    Although ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging are competitive imaging modalities for the guidance of needle-based interventions, computed tomography (CT) is the only modality suitable for image-guided interventions in all regions of the body, including the lungs and bone. The ongoing technical development of CT involves accelerated image acquisition, significantly improved spatial resolution, CT scanners with an extended gantry diameter, acceleration of the procedure through joystick control of relevant functions of interventional CT by the interventional radiologist and tube current modulation to protect the hands of the examiner and radiosensitive organs of the patient. CT fluoroscopy can be used as a real-time method (the intervention is monitored under continuous CT fluoroscopy) or as a quick check method (repeated acquisitions of individual CT fluoroscopic images after each change of needle or table position). For the two approaches, multislice CT fluoroscopy (MSCTF) technique with wide detectors is particularly useful because even in the case of needle deviation from the center slice the needle tip is simultaneously visualised in the neighboring slices. With the aid of this technique a precise placement of interventional devices is possible even in angled access routes and in the presence of pronounced respiratory organ movements. As the reduction of CT fluoroscopy time significantly reduces radiation exposure for the patient and staff, the combination of a quick check technique and a low milliampere technique with multislice CT fluoroscopy devices is advantageous. (orig.) [German] Obwohl sonographisch und magnetresonanztomographisch gesteuerte Interventionen ernstzunehmende Konkurrenzverfahren sind, kann die Computertomographie als einzige bildgebende Modalitaet zur Steuerung von Interventionen in allen Koerperregionen (einschliesslich Lunge und Knochen) eingesetzt werden. Die technischen Weiterentwicklungen der Computertomographie beinhalten eine beschleunigte Bildakquisition, eine deutlich verbesserte raeumliche Aufloesung, CT-Scanner mit erweiterter Gantryoeffnung, eine Beschleunigung des Eingriffs durch eine intrainterventionelle Steuerung wesentlicher Funktionen des Interventions-CT ueber eine spezielle Bedieneinheit durch den interventionellen Radiologen selbst sowie die Angular Beam Modulation zur Schonung der Hand des Untersuchers und strahlensensibler Organe des Patienten. Die CT-Fluoroskopie (CTF) kann als Echtzeitverfahren (die Intervention wird unter kontinuierlicher CT-Durchleuchtung ueberwacht) oder als Quick-check-Verfahren (wiederholte Aufnahmen einzelner CT-Durchleuchtungsbilder nach jeder Aenderung der Nadel- oder Tischposition) verwendet werden. Fuer die beiden Vorgehensweisen ist insbesondere die Mehrschicht-CT-Fluoroskopie(MSCTF)-Technik mit breiten Detektoren hilfreich, da auch bei Abweichungen aus der Schicht die Nadelspitze in den gleichzeitig akquirierten Nachbarschichten mit abgebildet wird. Mit dieser Technik ist eine millimetergenaue Nadelplatzierung auch bei angulierten Zugangswegen und ausgepraegten atemabhaengigen Bewegungen der Patientenanatomie moeglich. Da eine Verringerung der CT-Durchleuchtungszeit zu einer deutlich reduzierten Strahlenbelastung fuer den Patient und das Personal fuehrt, ist die Kombination der Quick-check-Technik mit einer Low-Milliampere-Technik an MSCTF-faehigen Geraeten zu empfehlen. (orig.)

  2. Gratis Online Lernen – 100 Empfehlungen und mehr von Lehrenden für Lehrendea

    Angelika Güttl-Strahlhofer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Im Rahmen der Lehrveranstaltungs­reihe "Open Air" lud die Arbeitsgemeinschaft Güttl/Krisper/Röthler im WS 14/15 LehrerInnen zum Besuch des MOOCs "Gratis Online Lernen" der steirischen Plattform iMooX ein. Elf TeilnehmerInnen waren bereit, im Anschluss an die Teilnahme am Kurs ihre Erkenntnisse in ein Gemeinschaftswerk einfließen zu lassen, dessen Entstehung in der digitalen Werkstatt koordiniert wurde (Adobe Connect und Moodle. Aus der Überzeugung heraus, dass das gemeinsame Besuchen eines solchen Online-Kurses nur ein Teil eines Lernerlebnisses sein kann und das gemeinsame Erarbeiten für die Teilnehmerinnen und Teilnehmer ein zusätzlicher Schritt zum Überblicken der schier unendlichen Angebotslandschaft darstellt. Diese diskutierten, entwickelten, verwarfen und evaluierten interessante Lernangebote. Vorbild war sowohl für den Entstehungsprozess als auch für das Ergebnis der Schummelzettel "Urheberrecht und OER". http://www.virtuelle-ph.at/mod/page/view.php?id=32645.

  3. MRI of esophagus. N staging and more...; MRT des Oesophagus. N-Staging und mehr...

    Krupski-Berdien, G. [Krankenhaus Reinbek St.-Adolf- Stift, Abteilung fuer diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie, Reinbek (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    Esophageal disease is common. Fluoroscopy with or without fast cine-sequences is able to depict swallowing dynamics precisely and therefore is used in cases with swallowing disturbance, achalasia or diverticula etc. It is performed in addition to primary endoscopy. There is no evidence based indication for MRI in these settings as it is not to rule out postsurgical fistula and incompetence. Endoscopy and endosonography are gold standard for the depiction as well as staging of esophageal tumors hence differentiation of the esophageal wall layers and detection of suspicious lymph nodes is possible. And from both, biopsies may be taken. New techniques as OCT (optical coherence tomography) can demonstrate in situ carcinoma and therefore helps to decide for limited treatments as mucosectomy. For today multimodular treatment strategies in esophageal carcinoma the T-stage will lead to the treatment decision whereas the nodal-stage will give information about the prognosis. As a matter of fact endoscopy is unable to pass a stenosis esophageal tumor in up to 50% of the cases and will therefore not be able to give precise information on both T- and N-stage resulting in a good indication for MRI. Fetal MRI of the chest is a new topic in which MRI seems to be superior to ultrasonography. (orig.) [German] Erkrankungen des Oesophagus sind haeufig. Die Durchleuchtungsuntersuchung, ggf. mit schnellen Cinesequenzen, vermag exakt die Dynamik des Schluckakts darzustellen und wird regelhaft bei Fragestellungen wie ''Verschlucken'' und ''Globusgefuehl'', Verdacht auf Achalsie etc. sowie bei der Suche nach Divertikeln eingesetzt und ergaenzt die primaere Endoskopie. Die MRT besitzt hier derzeit keinen gesicherten Stellenwert - ebenso wie bei der haeufigsten Indikation zur Oesophagus-Breischluck-Untersuchung in der Klinik, der Frage nach Paravasation und Fistelung nach oesophagogastralen Eingriffen. Die exakten Lokalisation eines Oesophagustumors erfolgt durch die Endoskopie als unangefochtenem Goldstandard, die heute unter Verwendung der Endosonographie nicht nur in der Lage ist, die Wandschichten des Oesophagus darzustellen, sondern auch lokoregionaere Lymphknoten zu detektieren vermag und von beidem, wenn suspekt, auch bioptisches Material gewinnen laesst. Neuere Verfahren wie die OCT (optical coherence tomography) versetzen den Endoskopiker zusaetzlich in die Lage, auch Carcinomata in situ zu erkennen und limitierte Behandlungen wie die Mukosektomie einzusetzen. Bei der heute ueblichen multimodalen Therapie des Oesophaguskarzinoms entscheiden die Lage und das T-Stadium ueber die therapeutische Strategie, das N-Stadium ueber die Prognose. Doch ist der Oesophagus bei der Diagnose ''Oesophaguskarzinom'' in 30-50% der Faelle insbesondere mit dem Endosonographieschallkopf nicht passierbar, sodass hier eine klare Indikation zur MRT besteht. Ein neues Feld stellt die intrauterine Diagnostik des fetalen Thorax und der Oesophagusatresie dar. Hier zeichnet sich eine deutlicher diagnostischer Vorteil gegenueber der Sonographie ab. (orig.)

  4. Adipositastherapie: Nahrung als Intervention

    Wallner SJ

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Die Behandlung der Adipositas bedarf einer umfassenden Therapie, wobei die Nahrung als Intervention nicht mehr ausschließlich auf Kalorienreduktion bezogen werden darf. Die ursprüngliche Bedeutung des Begriffes "Diät" im Sinne einer grundlegend vernünftigen Lebensführung muß neu bewertet und in eine lebendige Form der Gesundheitsvorsorge eingebunden werden. Mit einer differenzierten Diagnose der Adipositas kann mit verschiedenen ernährungstherapeutischen Ansätzen individuell geholfen werden. Die Sinnhaftigkeit von Formuladiäten, Diät- und Lightprodukten bedarf dringend einer fachspezifischen Information. Neben den entsprechenden Nährstoffempfehlungen hat ein Ernährungsprogramm aber auch der Durchführbarkeit und der Compliance der Patienten zu genügen. Damit soll dem "Risikofaktor Diät" entgegengesteuert und dem Hilfeschrei unserer Patienten Folge geleistet werden.

  5. More safety; Mehr Sicherheit

    Meyer, Jens-Peter

    2013-06-06

    Which building authority requirements must be fulfilled for solar systems was not clearly defined for a long time. It is certain now that the solar standards are not enough. Mounting systems are already in a special building authority approval process. [German] Welche bauaufsichtlichen Anforderungen Solaranlagen erfuellen muessen, war lange Zeit nicht klar definiert. Sicher ist nun, dass die Solarnormen nicht ausreichen. Montagesysteme befinden sich schon in einem speziellen bauaufsichtlichen Zulassungsprozess.

  6. ASSESSMENT SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF SOIL ERODIBILITY BY USING OF GEOSTATISTIC AND GIS (Case study MEHR watershed of SABZEVAR

    Ayoubi, S.A

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil erodibility is one of the key factors on some sediment and soil erosion models such as USLE, MUSLE, RUSLE, AUSLE (USLE modified in LS factor and MMF and represents like K factor and is function of particle distribution, organic mater, soil structure and ermeability. Traditional methods do not take spatial variability and estimate precision of variables in to consideration and amount of them are constant across the whole of soil series .This study was performed to assess spatial variability of soil erodibility and its relevant variables at MEHR watershed from Khorasan province, in northern Iran. Interested network was designed by 110 samples like nested- systematic with distance about 50, 100, 250 and 500 meter across the study area by preparing point map at GIS. Sampling points were identified in field by an Global Positioning system. Soil sampling was done at depth of 0-5cm of ground surface and permeability was studied at depth of 5-30 cm. Some soil properties such as particle distribution and organic mater were measured at laboratory. Particle size distribution was determined by Hydrometer method and Organic matter was measured by wet oxidation approach. Then spatial analysis was done. Variography analysis on soil attributes according to soil erodibility, showed that Gaussian, exponential and spherical models were the most models to predict spatial variability of soil parameters. The range of spatial dependencies was changed from 320 to 3200 m. Soil attribute maps prepared by kriging technique using models parameters. Then soil attributes were composed by Wischmeier (1978 formula in Illwis media to calculate K factor. Amount of soil erodibility changed from 0.13 to 0.91 that it's maximum and minimum was identified in east and southwest of studiedarea. Soil spatial variability pattern, is similar to silt pattern due to high effect of silt on soil rodibility, Also that is partially confirmed with geology map, indicated which soil erodibility attribute controlled by parent material. High amount of soil erodibility in southwest area of given study area showed need to more attention for conservation the soil and control erosion.

  7. Was braucht marxistisches Denken heute, um als 'Theorie' existieren zu können? Ein Trilemma kritischen Denkens nach dem Ende der offiziellen Marxismen

    Wolf, Frieder Otto

    2000-01-01

    Mehr als einhundert Jahre hat es gedauert, bis es vorbei ging. Inzwischen kann sich eigentlich niemand mehr darüber hinweg täuschen: Das Zeitalter1 ist vorbei, in der es "offizielle Marxismen" gab und in der diese eine wichtige Rolle spielten. Das heißt aber keineswegs, dass sich damit marxistisches Denken erledigt hätte - ganz im Gegenteil. Denn entgegen den interessierten Legenden, wie sie immer wieder von konservativen und liberalen Intellektuellen verbreitet werden, war dies überwiege...

  8. Qualitt beim E-Learning: Der Lernende als Grundkategorie bei der Qualittssicherung

    Ulf Ehlers

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Qualitt wird ber die zuknftigen Erfolgschancen des E-Learning entscheiden. Das ist das Ergebnis vieler Analysen und Entwicklungen der letzten Zeit. So stellte etwa die KPMG-Studie heraus, dass es beim E-Learning nicht nur auf gute Technologie ankommt, sondern die betriebliche Lernkultur und der Lerner wesentlich mehr als bisher einzubeziehen sind. Dieser Beitrag beschftigt sich damit, was Qualitt beim E-Learning eigentlich ist und welche Konzepte zur Beschreibung und Sicherung von Qualitt bestehen.

  9. Mehr als 1500 Jahre homoerotische Literatur auf der Iberischen Halbinsel A Survey of over 1500 Years of Gay and Lesbian Literature in Spain and Portugal

    Guido Müller

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Mit diesem Buch wird ein kaum bekanntes Kapitel der spanischen und portugiesischen Literaturgeschichte aufgeschlagen. Es macht die sozialen und kulturellen Veränderungen des Lebens von schwulen und lesbischen Menschen auf der iberischen Halbinsel im Spiegel der Literatur und durch lebendige Autor/-innenportraits deutlich. Dabei werden nicht nur die deutlichen positiven Veränderungen der letzten 30 Jahre thematisiert, sondern eine fesselnde historische Perspektive zahlreicher Facetten homoerotischer Literatur bis zurück in die andalusische Literatur des Mittelalters aufgezeigt.This book tackles a rarely known chapter in Spanish and Portuguese history of literature. The articles in the anthology document the social and cultural changes in gay and lesbian life on the Iberian peninsula as portrayed in literature. The articles do not only talk about the positive changes brought about by the queer liberation movement during the last thirty years, but offer a fascinating historical perspective on queer writing and queer life ranging from medieval Andalusian literature to present day fiction.

  10. Mehr als 1500 Jahre homoerotische Literatur auf der Iberischen Halbinsel A Survey of over 1500 Years of Gay and Lesbian Literature in Spain and Portugal

    Guido Müller

    2002-01-01

    Mit diesem Buch wird ein kaum bekanntes Kapitel der spanischen und portugiesischen Literaturgeschichte aufgeschlagen. Es macht die sozialen und kulturellen Veränderungen des Lebens von schwulen und lesbischen Menschen auf der iberischen Halbinsel im Spiegel der Literatur und durch lebendige Autor/-innenportraits deutlich. Dabei werden nicht nur die deutlichen positiven Veränderungen der letzten 30 Jahre thematisiert, sondern eine fesselnde historische Perspektive zahlreicher Facetten homoerot...

  11. Climateneutral 2050. Do residential buildings require more renewable energies as actually expected?; Klimaneutral 2050. Brauchen Wohngebaeude mehr erneuerbare Waerme als bisher erwartet?

    Hengstenberg, Johannes D.; Becker, Benjamin; Widekind, Justus von [co2online gGmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    In 2050, new residential buildings will consume nearly 200 TWh of renewable energies for the heat production. This is more as expected by earlier estimations. This results from a model based on several 100,000 building data from a co2online database. If the energy efficiency of residential buildings is no longer enhanced as planned, then the climate-neutral room heating requires a massive utilization of renewable energies in 2050.

  12. Patrick Ehnis: Vter in Erziehungszeiten. Politische, kulturelle und subjektive Bedingungen fr mehr Engagement in der Familie. Sulzbach im Taunus: Ulrike Helmer Verlag 2009.

    Claudia Zerle

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Patrick Ehnis analysiert die Voraussetzungen fr eine strkere Beteiligung von Vtern an der Kindererziehung. In seiner Beschftigung mit zwei Best-practice-Beispielen rekonstruiert er die subjektiven Orientierungen der Vter, normative Erwartungen in den Betrieben, individuelle und strukturelle Barrieren sowie konkrete Erfahrungen von und mit Vtern in Elternzeit. Dabei behlt er bei der Deutung ein Ziel stets vor Augen: mehr Geschlechtergerechtigkeit. Fr die politische und gesellschaftliche Diskussion um die neuen Vter sowie fr nachfolgende Forschungen, welche die neuesten familienpolitischen Entwicklungen einbeziehen, bilden die Ergebnisse des Bandes eine hchst fruchtbare Grundlage.Patrick Ehnis analyses the necessary conditions to elicit better participation of fathers in child rearing. On the basis of two best-practice examples, he reconstructs the subjective positions of fathers, the normative expectations of businesses or companies, individual and structural barriers, and concrete experiences of and with fathers during parental leave. Throughout the interpretation he keeps one goal in mind: more gender equality. The conclusions of the volume offer a very fruitful basis for political and social discussions about the new father as well as for subsequent studies that take the newest family-political developments into account.

  13. Barbara Paul, Johanna Schaffer: Mehr(wert queer – Queer Added (Value. Visuelle Kultur, Kunst und Gender-Politiken – Visual Culture, Art, and Gender Politics. Bielefeld: transcript Verlag 2009.

    Julia Jäckel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available ‚Mehr Queer‘ lautet die Programmatik der Autor/-innen des Sammelbandes, die sich in ihren Beiträgen mit ästhetischen und politischen Praxen auseinandersetzen, welche die Ordnungsparameter der Binarität und Heterosexualität verunsichern. Der Titel Mehr(wert queer schließt dabei an ökonomische Semantiken an, um die Verwobenheit von symbolischer Kunst und ökonomischen Realitäten in den Blick zu bekommen, aber auch um aktiv an Umdeutungen mitzuwirken. Im Mittelpunkt stehen visuelle Kunst- und Bilderpolitiken, die Normalitätsdiskurse um Sexualität, Geschlecht und Begehren hinterfragen. Die Autor/-innen kommen aus den Kunst- und Kulturwissenschaften, den Medienwissenschaften, der Philosophie, aber auch aus der künstlerischen sowie der kunst- und kulturpolitischen Praxis.“More queer”: this is the program of the authors of this collected volume, who in their essays confront this program with aesthetic and political practice that disrupts the organizational frameworks provided by binary thinking and heterosexuality. The title Mehr(wert queer [Added (value queer] thus picks up on economic semantics in order to bring into focus the entanglement of symbolic art with economic realities, but also to contribute actively to reinterpretation. Central to the study is visual art and image politics, which question normative discourse surrounding sexuality, gender, and desire. The authors come from Art History and Cultural Studies, Media Studies, and Philosophy, but also artistic as well as art and culture political practice.

  14. Topiramat als Phasenprophylaktikum - ein Fallbericht

    Letmaier M

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Topiramat ist ein neues Antiepileptikum mit einem breiten Wirkspektrum. Aktuelle klinische Studien geben Hinweise darauf, da Topiramat stimmungsstabilisierende Eigenschaften besitzt und somit effizient in der Behandlung der bipolaren affektiven Strung sein knnte. Vor dem Hintergrund dieser Studienberichte, behandelten wir eine 41jhrige, erstmals vor 10 Jahren erkrankte Patientin mit der Diagnose einer therapierefraktren, bipolaren affektiven Strung (Rapid-Cycling mit Topiramat. Im Rahmen ihrer Erkrankung wurde die Patientin insgesamt 12mal stationr aufgenommen und meist aufgrund von akuten manischen Episoden behandelt. Dabei kamen seit 1991 folgende Phasenprophylaktika zur Anwendung: Carbamazepin, Valproat und Lamotrigin ? zuletzt nur mit migem Erfolg. Daraufhin wurde zu Beginn einer neuerlichen manischen Episode ambulant eine Therapie mit Topiramat begonnen. Acht Wochen nach Therapiestart kam die Patientin in stationre Behandlung. Der Aufenthalt dauerte weniger als drei Wochen; Topiramat wurde von der Patientin gut vertragen. Infolge eines belastenden Lebensereignisses kam es unter kontinuierlicher Therapie mit Topiramat zu einer Destabilisierung des psychischen Zustandsbildes (manische Symptome. Durch eine ambulante Erhhung der Topiramatdosis bei gleichzeitiger Gabe von Risperidon und Clonazepam konnte jedoch eine neuerliche manische Episode erstmals ambulant behandelt werden. Die Patientin erhlt derzeit 200 mg Topiramat pro Tag und ist seit mehr als 20 Monaten nahezu beschwerdefrei.

  15. Das Handy als "persnliches Medium" - Zur Aneignung des Short Message Service (SMS durch Jugendliche

    Joachim R. Hflich

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Das Handy als "persnliches Medium" - Zur Aneignung des Short Message Service (SMS durch Jugendliche Mit dem Eindringen des mobilen Telefons in den Alltag hat sich, gegen alle Erwartungen, auch eine Form der Nutzung etabliert, die sich nicht mehr allein als Telefonieren ausweisen lsst, selbst wenn sie an telefonischen Nutzungsmodi anknpft: Das Versenden von kurzen Textbotschaften via Handy ber den sogenannten Short Message Service (SMS. Vor diesem Hintergrund wird das Handy als ein persnliches Medium ausgemacht und insbesondere das Versenden von SMS-Botschaften als eine Form der brieflichen Kommunikation verortet. Allerdings zeigt sich in dem zwischen Brief und Telefonat, zwischen Schriftlichkeit und Mndlichkeit angesiedelten Charakter solcher Botschaften auch die Differenz zum klassischen Brief. Einblicke in erste Ergebnisse einer Reihe von Gruppendiskussionen machen dies schon deutlich. Dabei wird schlussendlich angeregt, die Nutzung von Medien der interpersonalen Kommunikation (wie im brigen von Medien berhaupt im Gesamtzusammenhang der kommunikativen Alltagsaktivitten und insbesondere einer umfassenden Mediatisierung des Alltags zu untersuchen.

  16. Review Essay: "Wenn jemand mit irgendetwas jeden Tag verbringt, muss er was lernen – oder er ist ganz neben der Kappe": Die Dialektik von Ethnografie als eine Seinsart

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2003-01-01

    Ethnography: A Way of Seeing richtet sich an Student(inn)en der Anthropologie und an Forscher(innen) anderer Disziplinen mit dem Ziel, ihnen nahezubringen, wie die Ethnographie als Disziplin sich von der Ethnographie als Feldmethode unterscheidet. Obwohl ich bestreite, dass die genannte Leserschaft wirklich diejenige ist, die am meisten mit dem Buch anfangen kann – erfahrene Forscher(innen) werden den Inhalt mehr schätzen können – fand ich das Buch, dessen "Textur" ich in meinem Essay nachvol...

  17. "Immer mehr Studierende und Schüler": Konzepte zur Vermittlung von Informationskompetenz in Bibliotheken für große Gruppen

    Helena Luca

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Die Vermittlung von Informationskompetenz ist in vielen Bibliotheken bereits eine etablierte Kernaufgabe. Entsprechende Veranstaltungen nehmen als Zielgruppen vor allem Studierende und Schüler der Sekundarstufe II in den Blick. Dabei ergeben sich aktuell neue Herausforderungen daraus, dass einerseits beide Gruppen in den letzten Jahren immer größer werden, und andererseits das Thema Informationskompetenz aufgrund bildungspolitischer Entwicklungen wie der Bologna-Reform immer größere Bedeutung erlangt. Als Konsequenz steigt die Zahl der potenziellen und tatsächlichen Teilnehmer an bibliothekarischen Veranstaltungen zur Vermittlung von Informationskompetenz, sodass es auch Bibliotheken heute mit großen Gruppen zu tun haben. Im vorliegenden Artikel werden daher die Fragen behandelt, welche Probleme sich im Einzelnen bei die Vermittlung von Informationskompetenz im Hinblick auf Großgruppen stellen, und welche Konzepte dazu geeignet sind, diese Herausforderungen anzugehen und eine zielgruppenorientierte Vermittlung von Informationskompetenz mit geeigneten Mitteln für große Gruppen anzubieten. Verschiedene Ansätze, die sich bereits an Universitätsbibliotheken in Anwendung befinden, werden dazu hinsichtlich ihrer Eignung für Großgruppen bewertet. Die Autorin hofft damit betroffenen Bibliotheken und Bibliothekaren einige Informationen und Anregungen für die praktische Arbeit geben zu können.

  18. ALS Association

    ... toward a world without ALS! Walk to Defeat ALS® Walk to Defeat ALS® draws people of all ... We need your help. I Will Advocate National ALS Registry The National ALS Registry is a congressionally ...

  19. Thermal construction unit activation with supply air gains significance. Ceilings cooling - supply air heating - more than 50 % energy conservation; Thermische Bauteilaktivierung mit Zuluft gewinnt an Bedeutung. Decke kuehlen - Zuluft erwaermen - mehr als 50% Energie einsparen

    Schmid, Wolfgang

    2009-05-15

    In the year 2001, in Stuttgart (Federal Republic of Germany) the first office building was established which uses a thermal construction unit activation with air as cooling agent. Today, the system ''Concret-cool'' already is installed in more than 40 buildings. Computations show that due to the room heating by means of internally finned ventilation pipes embedded in concrete more than 50 % less energy in comparison to comparable systems can be used. In his Green Building project ''Skyline Tower'' in Munich (Federal Republic of Germany), also star architect Helmut Jahn uses the know-how of the manufacturer of ventilation systems from Stuttgart. As one of the first multi-storied buildings in Munich, ''Skyline Tower'' with its 23 floors was prized with the pre-certificate of the German quality seal ''sustainable building ''in gold.

  20. What do we know more than 2012 on the accident progression in Fukushima? What is the actual state of the plant?; Was wissen wir heute mehr als 2012 ueber den Unfallablauf in Fukushima? Wie ist der heutige Zustand der Anlage?

    Maqua, Michael [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Koeln (Germany)

    2015-06-01

    The contribution includes the official statistics on the accident following the earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011 on the Japanese island Honshu and the nuclear power plant Fukushima Daiichi. The plant was automatically shutdown as consequence of the earthquake. New calculations allow the reconstruction of the accident progress and the meltdown. Estimations of the released radioactivity, esp. the radionuclides I-131 and Cs-137 into the atmosphere and the ocean are summarized. The construction of water cleaning facilities for the contaminated waste water in the leaking tanks, water-tight barriers and the planning for the enclosure for the destroyed reactor buildings are described.

  1. The year of the tiger. In 2010, China produced more solar cells than in the four years before taken together; Das Jahr des Tigers. 2010 wurden mehr Solarzellen produziert als in den vier vorherigen Jahren zusammen

    Hering, Garrett

    2011-04-15

    In 2010, solar cells with a total capacity of 27 gigawatt were produced world-wide, i.e. more than twice as much as in 2009. The world's biggest producer is the Chinese Suntech group. The runner-up, JA Solar, is another Chinese company. In all, the country managed to expand its dominant position; in 2010, China supplied nearly half of all solar cells produced world-wide. Taiwan came in second, Germany had third place, and Japan fourth place.

  2. More planned economy than market economy in the energy policy strategy for 2020 of the European Commission; Mehr Plan- als Marktwirtschaft in der energiepolitischen Strategie 2020 der Europaeischen Kommission

    Haucap, Justus; Coenen, Michael

    2011-04-15

    The Europeanization of energy policies is desirable because the three main objectives of energy policy (climate protection, security of supply and competitiveness) have cross-border impacts. Hence, it is good that the European Union has been granted a competence for energy policy in the article 194 of the Lisbon treaty. In addition, it is good that the European Commission has published its long-term strategy to stabilize expectations which is important for infrastructure investment. It is regrettable though that price signals, competition and market principles only play a minor role for the Commission while rather doubtful objectives such as fostering energy efficiency and promoting renewable dominate the agenda. The Commission's strategy is mainly characterized by bureaucratic dirigisme, intense regulation, state planning and public subsidies. The road to a centrally planned energy industry is being walked down fast.

  3. Culture and Healthcare in Medical Education: Migrants' Health and Beyond [Medizin und ethnisch-kulturelle Vielfalt in der medizinischen Ausbildung: "Migrantenmedizin" und mehr

    Soydan, Nedim

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available [english] One of the main challenges for teaching programs on immigration, ethnic diversity and health is to transform the commonplace notion of “culture” into a helpful tool for medical training and practice. This paper presents the teaching approach of an interdisciplinary course on “migrants’ health” established at the University of Giessen since 2004, which has recently been complemented by a thematically related collaboration with two universities in Latin America (Ecuador, Peru. The overall goal is to translate the abstract philosophy of into medical practice, and to provide students with the insights, attitudes and skills needed for a fruitful use of concepts like “culture”, “ethnicity” and “migration background”. A key feature of the course is the strong commitment to ethnography as an important means for looking under the surface of superficial attributions to culture, and for grasping the interplay of medicine and health with cultural, social, religious, economic and legal aspects in its particular local and/or individual shape. Three elements of the course are presented to illustrate this approach: First, a unit on Islam and Medicine, as important parts of the local immigrant community are Muslims. The second one deals with psychosomatic aspects, because in case of immigrants, complex symptoms and disease representations like somatisation are easily misinterpreted as “cultural”. The third element consists of a unit with specialized social workers form outside the university, who provide direct insights into the living conditions and health problems of local immigrant communities. [german] Eine der zentralen Herausforderungen für Lehrprojekte zum Thema Medizin und ethnisch-kulturelle Vielfalt besteht in der Vermittlung eines angemessenen Konzepts von „Kultur“. Vor allem gilt es, den exklusiven Fokus auf als „fremd“ wahrgenommene Bevölkerungsgruppen und die Gefahr oberflächlicher kulturelle Zuschreibungen zu überwinden. Der vorliegende Beitrag stellt den Ansatz eines interdisziplinären Kurses zur „Migrantenmedizin“ an der Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen vor, der jüngst durch ein Kooperationsprojekt zur Stärkung interkultureller Aspekte in der medizinischen Ausbildung mit zwei lateinamerikanischen Universitäten ergänzt wurde (in Ecuador und Peru. Durch den internationalen Vergleich soll das abstrakte Prinzip „think global and teach local“ für den medizinischen Bereich nutzbar gemacht werden. Gleichzeitig wird die Bedeutung der Ethnographie für eine sinnvolle Verwendung von Begriffen wie „Kultur“, „Ethnizität“ oder „Migrationshintergrund“ auch in der Medizin betont. Als wichtigste Forschungsmethode der Kultur- und Sozialanthropologie vermittelt die Ethnographie differenzierte Einblicke in die jeweils konkrete Ausprägung der komplexen Zusammenhänge zwischen Krankheit, Medizin und „Kultur“ – jenseits von Stereotypien und unter explizitem Einschluss der im Einzelfall relevanten sozialen, religiösen, ökonomischen und rechtlichen, aber auch medizinischen Aspekte. Der Artikel verdeutlicht die Umsetzung dieser Perspektive in der medizinischen Ausbildung exemplarisch anhand von drei Lehreinheiten des Kurses an der JLU Gießen: Ein Modul zum Thema „Islam und Medizin“, eines zu psychosomatischen Aspekten und eine dritte Einheit, in der Sozialarbeiterinnen eines lokalen Migrationsdienstes unmittelbare Einblicke in die reale Lebenswirklichkeit von Migrant/innen vermitteln.

  4. Wie kommt mehr "Familie" in die "Work-Life-Balance"? – Familienorientierung in der medizinischen Aus-, Weiterbildung und Berufstätigkeit [How to add more "Family" to the Work-Life-Balance? – Family Friendliness in Medical Under- and Postgraduate Studies and the Workplace

    De Ridder, Daniela

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available [english] Today universities have to compete for the best brains more than ever before. The issues of reconciliation of work/study and family and the work-life balance have become increasingly important recently in higher education policy development as higher education institutions in the competition for the best minds are already forced to tackle these issues, some of which are still novel to them, as they are faced with demographic change. High dropout rates among students with children, increasing shortages of physicians and high sector emigration and high levels of childlessness among graduates serve as indicators for urgent action towards more family-oriented university and faculty strategies.But how can medical schools, hospitals and (teaching hospitals achieve a family-oriented profile? Which key players, which areas of higher education management are relevant to management and decision-making structures? What exemplary measures for designing family-friendly medical studies and work places offer success?The underrepresentation of women in the next generation of scientists also poses an additional challenge to the development of an innovative higher education policy if it is to be sustainable. Thus strategies promoting the next generation and family orientation are key factors for a future-oriented higher education policy. These factors should therefore be seen as leadership strategies which will introduce measures that will make (redesign the university’s profile. To this end, a holistic approach which will lead to fundamental reforms of higher education structures which are outlined below and illustrated with examples are a prerequisite for successful implementation.[german] Hochschulen stehen mehr denn je im Wettbewerb um kluge Köpfe. Die Themen „Vereinbarkeit von Beruf/Studium und Familie“ und „Work-Life-Balance“ haben daher in der jüngsten hochschulpolitischen Entwicklung an Dynamik und Triebkraft gewonnen: Hochschulen im Wettbewerb um exzellente Köpfe müssen sich schon vor dem Hintergrund des demographischen Wandels diesen für sie zum Teil noch neuen Herausforderungen stellen. Hohe Studienabbruchquoten unter Studierenden mit Kindern, steigender Mediziner(innenmangel und deutliche Abwanderungsraten, hohe Kinderlosigkeit unter Akademiker(innen erscheinen dabei als Indikatoren für einen dringenden Handlungsbedarf hin zu einer familienorientierten Hochschul- und Fakultätsstrategie.Wie aber können medizinische Fakultäten, Kliniken und (Lehr-Krankenhäuser ein familienorientiertes Profil gewinnen? Welche Akteurinnen und Akteure, welche Handlungsfelder des Hochschulmanagements sind für die Leitungs- und Entscheidungsstrukturen relevant? Welche exemplarischen Maßnahmen für eine familiengerechtere Gestaltung des Studien- und Arbeitsortes „Medizin“ könnten Erfolg versprechend sein? Die Unterrepräsentanz von Frauen beim wissenschaftlichen Nachwuchs stellt darüber hinaus eine zusätzliche Herausforderung dar, für die eine innovative Hochschulpolitik weitere Maßnahmen entwickeln sollte, um zukunftsfähig zu sein. Nachwuchsförderungsstrategien und Familienorientierung sind demnach entscheidende Faktoren für eine zukunftsorientierte Hochschulpolitik. Diese Faktoren sollten deshalb als Führungsstrategien begriffen werden, um Maßnahmen einzuleiten, die das Profil der Hochschule dahingehend (umgestalten. Voraussetzung für eine erfolgreiche Implementierung ist dabei ein holistisches Konzept, das zu grundlegenden Reformen der Hochschulstrukturen führt, die im Folgenden skizziert und anhand von Beispielen illustriert werden sollen.

  5. Reizdarmsyndrom: Mehr Augenmerk auf die Psyche

    Moser G

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Die Prävalenz des Reizdarmsyndroms hat sich in den vergangenen Jahren kaum verändert, obwohl es wesentlich stärker in den Fokus ärztlicher Bemühungen gerückt ist. Zu einem wesentlichen Anteil liegt dies an der Komplexität der Erkrankung und ihrem Ursprung an der Schnittstelle zwischen physischem und psychischem Geschehen. Neue Ergebnisse unterstreichen die Bedeutung psychotherapeutischer Ansätze und dabei insbesondere diejenige der bauchzentrierten Hypnose im Gesamtkonzept der stufenweisen Behandlung der Patienten mit Reizdarmsyndrom.

  6. ?????????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? Al La Si

    ?. ?????????

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available ??????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ????????? ??????????????????? ????????? ?????? Al Si, Al La, La Si ?? ????????? Al La Si ?? ??????????????. ???????????, ?? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ??????????????? ??????. ????????, ?? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ? ????????????? ?? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????-????.??????? ?????: ??????? ??????, ????? ??????????????? ????????????, ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ??????????, ???????? ?? ???????? ???????, ???????? ?????? ???????-????.

  7. AL Amyloidosis

    Desport Estelle; Bridoux Frank; Sirac Christophe; Delbes Sébastien; Bender Sébastien; Fernandez Béatrice; Quellard Nathalie; Lacombe Corinne; Goujon Jean-Michel; Lavergne David; Abraham Julie; Touchard Guy; Fermand Jean-Paul; Jaccard Arnaud

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Definition of the disease AL amyloidosis results from extra-cellular deposition of fibril-forming monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig) light chains (LC) (most commonly of lambda isotype) usually secreted by a small plasma cell clone. Most patients have evidence of isolated monoclonal gammopathy or smoldering myeloma, and the occurrence of AL amyloidosis in patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma or other B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders is unusual. The key event in the development o...

  8. Kommunikation als Medium der Fhrung Vier Seiten einer Nachricht und die Kunst des Fragens und des Zuhrens

    Ann-Catrin Fender

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Durch das digitale Wissenszeitalter stehen wissenschaftliche Bibliotheken mehr denn je unter einem hohen Innovationsdruck bei gleichzeitig knapper werdender finanzieller Ausstattung. Die notwendigen weitreichenden Vernderungen fordern gerade die Fhrungsriege der Bibliotheken stark heraus, Chancen zum Fortbestand der Einrichtungen zu erkennen und umzusetzen und Akzeptanz innerhalb der Belegschaft fr die Vernderung zu gewinnen. Deshalb stellt sich aktuell die Frage nach der Bedeutung von Kommunikation als Medium von Fhrung auch in wissenschaftlichen Bibliotheken. Der vorliegende Artikel beschftigt sich mit einigen theoretischen Anstzen der Kommunikation und ihrer Rolle im Fhrungsgeschehen. Dabei wird ein besonderes Augenmerk auf das Kommunikationsquadrat von Friedemann Schulz von Thun und die Kunst des Fragens und des Zuhrens gelegt. Anhand der gesichteten Literatur knnen erste vorstzliche Einstze dieses Mediums in wissenschaftlichen Bibliotheken aufgezeigt werden. Nichtdestotrotz scheint der Hinweis auf die Notwendigkeit der bewussten Auseinandersetzung und Intensivierung der Kommunikations-Bemhungen gerade fr Personen in leitender Funktion noch nicht berflssig.

  9. Der Glaube als Erkenntnisquelle Belief as the source of knowledge

    Andrea Hartwig

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Seit ihrer Kanonisation 1998 und Ernennung zur Mit-Patronin Europas 1999 steht die 1942 in Auschwitz ermordete Phänomenologin Edith Stein, 1922 vom jüdischen zum christlichen Glauben konvertiert und 1933 als Benedicta vom Kreuz in den Kölner Karmel eingetreten, mehr denn je im Blickfeld der Öffentlichkeit. Die Bedeutung ihrer wissenschaftlichen Arbeit u. a. als Assistentin von Edmund Husserl in Freiburg und als Dozentin am Deutschen Institut für wissenschaftliche Pädagogik in Münster, aber auch in privaten Studien wurden im Juli 2000 im Rahmen eines Symposiums des Internationalen Edith Stein Instituts in Würzburg diskutiert. Die Beiträge der vorliegenden Publikation beleuchten breit gefächert Aspekte des Werks und seiner Interpretation mit dem Ziel, die Philosophin neu zu entdecken und die bisherige Forschung zu intensivieren.Since her canonisation and her appointment as Martyr and Co-Patroness of Europe in 1999, Edith Stein has, more than ever, been in the public eye. Murdered in Auschwitz in 1942, the phenomenologist converted from Judaism to Catholicism in 1922 and entered the Carmel of Cologne in 1933 as Teresa Benedicta of the Cross. In July 2000, at a symposium of the International Edith Stein Institute in Wurzburg, the significance of her academic work (among other things as an assistant to Edmund Husserl in Freiburg and as a lecturer at the German Institute for Pedagogy in Munster was discussed. The wide-ranging contributions in this publication highlight aspects of this work and its interpretation with the aim of rediscovering the philosopher and of intensifying research conducted to date.

  10. AL Amyloidosis

    Desport Estelle

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Definition of the disease AL amyloidosis results from extra-cellular deposition of fibril-forming monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig light chains (LC (most commonly of lambda isotype usually secreted by a small plasma cell clone. Most patients have evidence of isolated monoclonal gammopathy or smoldering myeloma, and the occurrence of AL amyloidosis in patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma or other B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders is unusual. The key event in the development of AL amyloidosis is the change in the secondary or tertiary structure of an abnormal monoclonal LC, which results in instable conformation. This conformational change is responsible for abnormal folding of the LC, rich in β leaves, which assemble into monomers that stack together to form amyloid fibrils. Epidemiology AL amyloidosis is the most common type of systemic amyloidois in developed countries with an estimated incidence of 9 cases/million inhabitant/year. The average age of diagnosed patients is 65 years and less than 10% of patients are under 50. Clinical description The clinical presentation is protean, because of the wide number of tissues or organs that may be affected. The most common presenting symptoms are asthenia and dyspnoea, which are poorly specific and may account for delayed diagnosis. Renal manifestations are the most frequent, affecting two thirds of patients at presentation. They are characterized by heavy proteinuria, with nephrotic syndrome and impaired renal function in half of the patients. Heart involvement, which is present at diagnosis in more than 50% of patients, leading to restrictive cardiopathy, is the most serious complication and engages prognosis. Diagnostic methods The diagnosis relies on pathological examination of an involved site showing Congo red-positive amyloid deposits, with typical apple-green birefringence under polarized light, that stain positive with an anti-LC antibody by immunohistochemistry and/or immunofluorescence. Due to the systemic nature of the disease, non-invasive biopsies such as abdominal fat aspiration should be considered before taking biopsies from involved organs, in order to reduce the risk of bleeding complications. Differential diagnosis Systemic AL amyloidosis should be distinguished from other diseases related to deposition of monoclonal LC, and from other forms of systemic amyloidosis. When pathological studies have failed to identify the nature of amyloid deposits, genetic studies should be performed to diagnose hereditary amyloidosis. Management Treatment of AL amyloidosis is based on chemotherapy, aimed at controlling the underlying plasma clone that produces amyloidogenic LC. The hematological response should be carefully checked by serial measurements of serum free LC. The association of an alkylating agent with high-dose dexamethasone has proven to be effective in two thirds of patients and is considered as the current reference treatment. New agents used in the treatment of multiple myeloma are under investigation and appear to increase hematological response rates. Symptomatic measures and supportive care is necessary in patients with organ failure. Noticeably, usual treatments for cardiac failure (i.e. calcium inhibitors, β-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors are inefficient or even dangerous in patients with amyloid heart disease, that should be managed using diuretics. Amiodarone and pace maker implantation should be considered in patients with rhythm or conduction abnormalities. In selected cases, heart and kidney transplantation may be associated with prolonged patient and graft survival. Prognosis Survival in AL amyloidosis depends on the spectrum of organ involvement (amyloid heart disease being the main prognosis factor, the severity of individual organs involved and haematological response to treatment.

  11. Mehr Nhe durch mehr Partikeln? Zur verwendung der Abtnungspartikeln in persnlichen Briefen / Janika Krk

    Krk, Janika

    2008-01-01

    Partiklite esinemissagedusest isiklikes kirjades ja selle muutumisest 18., 19. ja 20. sajandi vltel ning vimalikest partiklikasutust mjutanud teguritest. levaade ka vrvingupartiklite morfoloogilistest, sntaktilistest ja pragmaatilistest omadustest

  12. High-performance vacuum tubes for more energy efficiency. Building-integrated CPC vacuum tube collectors unite several functions.; Hochleistungs-Vakuumroehren fuer mehr Energieeffizienz. Gebaeudeintegrierte CPC-Vakuumroehren-Kollektoren vereinen mehrere Funktionen

    Theiss, Eric

    2013-10-15

    The performance of solar collectors primarily contributes to increased efficiency and reduced operating costs of solar thermal systems. With the use of building-integrated CPC vacuum tube collectors an extremely high energy yield is achieved on a smaller collector gross area. As a building-integrated system solution the CPC facade provide panels in addition to its use as spandrel panels within the glazed buildings not only an architectural design element, but unite as a multifunctional component for several functions. [German] Die Leistungsfaehigkeit der Solarkollektoren traegt primaer zur Effizienzsteigerung und Reduzierung der Betriebskosten einer Solarthermieanlagen bei. Mit dem Einsatz gebaeudeintegrierter CPC-Vakuumroehrenkollektoren wird auf einer kleineren Kollektorbruttoflaeche ein extrem hoher Energieertrag erreicht. Als gebaeudeintegrierte Systemloesung bieten die CPC-Fassadenkollektoren neben dem Einsatz als Bruestungselemente auch innerhalb der verglasten Gebaeuden nicht nur ein architektonisches Gestaltungselement, sondern vereinen als multifunktionaler Bestandteil noch mehrere Funktionen.

  13. Economical valuation of standing-stability checks on light-poles; Wirtschaftliche Bewertung der Standsicherheitspruefung an Lichtmasten. Pruefungen wirtschaftlicher als Mastaustausch

    Bathe, J.; Feige, S. [Hochschule (FH), Zittau/Goerlitz (Germany); Tempel, S. [Stadtwerke Zittau GmbH, Zittau (Germany)

    2002-03-25

    In order to minimise the possible liability due to negligence, it is necessary for companies that operate road-lights to care for their safety as well. One point of consideration therefore is testing for instability which, due to corrosion, increases specifically with age. This duty can be fulfilled, either by exchanging the poles regularly, or by checking their standing-stability and exchanging only those necessary. In the following article, the question is discussed under which circumstances standing stability tests are more economical than simply exchanging poles regularly. (orig.) [German] Betreiber von Strassenbeleuchtungen muessen fuer die Sicherheit der Anlagen sorgen, um eine Haftung wegen Fahrlaessigkeit auszuschliessen. Ein Aspekt dabei ist die Standsicherheit der Lichtmasten. Dieser Pflicht kann entweder durch einen regelmaessigen Austausch oder durch eine Standsicherheitspruefung aelterer Masten mit bedarfsgerechtem Austausch nicht mehr normgerechter Masten Rechnung getragen werden. Die Verfasser diskutieren, unter welchen Bedingungen Standsicherheitspruefungen wirtschaftlich vorteilhafter als ein regelmaessiger Mastaustausch sind. (orig.)

  14. About ALS: FAQ

    ... the potential side effects? What Is ALS? Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a motor neuron disease, first ... not be swallowing your saliva as automatically (without thinking) as you did prior to ALS. For some ...

  15. Mitochondrial pathobiology in ALS

    Martin, Lee J.

    2011-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the third most common human adult-onset neurodegenerative disease. Some forms of ALS are inherited, and disease-causing genes have been identified. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of neurodegeneration in ALS are unresolved. Genetic, biochemical, and morphological analyses of human ALS as well as cell and animal models of ALS reveal that mitochondria could have roles in this neurodegeneration. The varied functions and properties of mitochondria might render ...

  16. /Cu-Al System

    Kish, Orel; Froumin, Natalya; Aizenshtein, Michael; Frage, Nachum

    2014-05-01

    Wettability and interfacial interaction of the Ta2O5/Cu-Al system were studied. Pure Cu does not wet the Ta2O5 substrate, and improved spreading is achieved when relatively a high fraction of the active element (~40 at.% Al) was added. The Al2O3 and AlTaO4 phases were observed at the Ta2O5/Cu-Al interface. A thermodynamic evaluation allowed us to suggest that the lack of wetting bellow 40 at.% Al is due to the presence of a native oxide, which covers the drop. The conditions of the native oxide decomposition and the formation of the volatile Al2O suboxide strongly depend on the vacuum level during sessile drop experiments and the composition of the Cu-Al alloy. In our case, Al contents greater than 40% provides thermodynamic conditions for the formation of Al2O (as a result of Al reaction with Al2O3) and the drop spreading. It was suggested that the final contact angle in the Ta2O5/Cu-Al system (50) is determined by Ta adsorption on the newly formed alumina interlayer.

  17. What Is ALS?

    ... world without ALS Start an Event Combine your passion and commitment to finding a cure for ALS while achieving ... 1275 K Street NW - Suite 250 - Washington, DC 20005 All content and works posted on this website are owned and copyrighted ...

  18. All About ALS

    ... and Human Services Latest Issue This Issue Features Positive Emotions and Your Health All About ALS Health Capsules ... NIH News in Health, August 2015 search Features Positive Emotions and Your Health All About ALS Wise Choices ...

  19. Genetic Testing for ALS

    ... In Your Community Advocate Get Involved Donate Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (FALS) and Genetic Testing By Deborah Hartzfeld, MS, CGC, Certified Genetic Counselor Familial ALS Most of the time ALS is not inherited. ...

  20. Initial Symptoms of ALS

    ... Chapters Certified Centers and Clinics Support Groups About ALS About Us Our Research In Your Community Advocate ... Diagnosis En español Symptoms The initial symptoms of ALS can be quite varied in different people. One ...

  1. Aussprache als motorische Fertigkeit

    Bonner, Maria

    Authentische Aussprache gilt im Fremdsprachenunterricht als schwer erreichbares Ziel, fremdsprachlicher Akzent wird als nahezu unvermeidbar gesehen. Weder die Hypothese einer kritischen Periode für den Erwerb einer authentischen Aussprache noch das Konzept der Fossilierung im Sprachlernprozess...

  2. Kurokawa's secret. Or: Why you need lemonade to feed more than 10 kW of solar power into the public grid; Kurokawas Geheimnis. Oder: Warum man in Japan Brause braucht, um mehr als zehn Kilowatt Solarstrom ans Netz zu bringen

    Krause, Matthias B.

    2011-05-15

    Japan was among the first countries to think about solar power in gigawatt dimensions, but then the country opted increasingly for nuclear power. Now, after the earthquake and tsunami in March and with the ongoing nuclear catastrophe, there appears to be a renaissance of renewable energy sources and especially photovoltaic conversion. To make it happen, the government must take steps and permit competition in the energy market.

  3. Aqidah al-Tauhid Baina al-Tasawwuf al-Sunni wa al-Tasawwuf al-Falsafi

    Amal Fathullah Zarkasyi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The philosophers and theologians for a long time, have been conducting a series of intense discourse on many issues from the perspective of tasawuf. Of course, in this regard, they use a theoretical basis and practical rationale. This article, describes the discourse above in the two different conversations perspective, between tasawuf Sunni and tasawuf falsafi. Tasawuf sunni group are represented by Al-Ghazali and al-Qushayri, confronted by Ibn Arabi and Ibn Sab’in from tasawuf falsafi group. Through a descriptive exploratory study, the researcher asserts that Al-Ghazali divides tauhid into four, tauhid of hypocrites, Muslims majority, muqarrabin, and siddiqin, all are based on ahl sunnah wa alJama’ah faith. While Al- ushayri, divides it into three; tauhid al-haq li al-haq, tauhid al-haq li al-khalq, and tauhid al-khalq li al-haq, all are based on empirical aspects of Irfani. In his study, the author concludes that tasawuf Sunni, focuses mainly on the issue of al-fana and wihdah al-syuhud in order to reach a peak of makrifah. Meanwhile, taswuf falsafi declares the existence of monoexistence, that is, human beings and God is one, similar to (wihdah al-wujud. Man is united with God expressed usually in the form syatahat. The implication is no taklif for humans.

  4. Kinematografische Propaganda und Zensur in Österreich-Ungarn von 1914–1918 als gescheitertes kybernetisches Modell

    Paul Winkler

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available (Medien-Pädagogik, verstanden als Medienverbund zur programmierten "Unterrichtung" einer breiten Masse wurde bereits vor 1914 erfahren. Zweifelsohne kam es jedoch während dem Ersten Weltkrieg zu einer intensiven Orchestrierung der zur Verfügung stehenden Medien. Die angestrebte Volkserziehung kann dabei als kybernetisches Regelkreismodell betrachtet werden. Als ganz spezielles systemimmanentes Instrument, stellte sich dabei das Kino heraus. Anfangs etwas zögerlich, verstand man es mit Verlauf des Krieges auch in der Donaumonarchie, die Möglichkeiten der bewegten Bilder immer umfassender auszunützen. Das Kino sollte als Regler, dem Publikum Führungsgrößen vor Augen führen und das einzelne Individuum gleichzeitig zu einer Art Selbstregulation auffordern. Vorstellungs- und Wertewelten der Menschen sollten homogenisiert werden und das System in dieser Weise stabilisieren. Offenes Feedback war unerwünscht; Grundstimmungen und Diskurse innerhalb der Bevölkerung blieben jedoch nicht unbemerkt und wurden auf der Leinwand bearbeitet, wobei begründete Befürchtungen, Zweifel und Ängste, zu entkräften versucht wurden. Mit fortschreitender Kriegsdauer taten sich Zensur und Propaganda immer schwerer, ein geschöntes Bild der Situation glaubhaft darzustellen. Schließlich vermochte das Flimmern der Leinwände, die Botschaften des Systems nicht mehr zu vermitteln. Das kybernetische Modell der Volkserziehung über Kamera und Leinwand, welches die Gesellschaft militärisch überprägte, Überlegenheit predigte, Gewalt normalisierte und das kriegsbedingte Sterben humanisierte, musste letztlich scheitern. Der vorliegende Artikel soll einen kurzen Einblick in den Aufbau dieses – letztlich gescheiterten – regulativen Werkes der kinematografischen Propaganda und Zensur in Österreich-Ungarn geben, wobei der Fokus auf der dokumentarischen Berichterstattung vom Krieg liegt, die eine vermeintliche Realität repräsentieren sollte.

  5. Price drop and increasing competition; Sinkende Preise und mehr Wettbewerb

    Berner, Joachim

    2012-01-06

    Competition in the German PV sector is getting harder. German wholesale providers are dropping their prices, strengthening their marketing activities and expanding their range of services. This is the result of an enquiry made by SONNE WIND and WAeRME in November 2011.

  6. 20 percent more yield; 20 Prozent mehr Ertrag

    Anon.

    2013-06-15

    Interview with Tino Weber, director of Schmack Biogas GmbH, about the opportunities and prospects of bioenergy use by new concepts. [German] Interview mit Tino Weber, Geschaeftsfuehrer der Schmack Biogas GmbH, ueber Chancen und Perspektiven der Bioenergie durch neue Nutzungskonzepte.

  7. Mit Mathematik zu Mehr Intelligenz in der Logistik

    Mhring, Rolf H.; Schenk, Michael

    Die Lsung logistischer Probleme ist ein wichtiger Aspekt menschlichen Handelns seit Menschen gemeinsam zielgerichtet ttig wurden. Die Grundlagen dessen, was wir heute Logistik nennen, entstammen dem militrischen Bereich. So basierte z. B. das rmische Imperium in starkem Mae auf militrisch-logistischen Glanzleistungen. Ob damals bereits mathematische berlegungen eine Rolle spielten, wissen wir heute nicht. Jedoch versuchte z. B. Napoleon, der mit den bedeutendsten Mathematikern seiner Zeit befreundet war, den Transport seiner Truppen und die Verbreitung von Informationen zu optimieren und strategisch einzusetzen.1,2

  8. No way around green tariffs; Oekotarife sind nicht mehr wegzudenken

    Briese, Dirk [trend:research GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    Just like green electricity, meanwhile a classic, so too now does newcomer ''green gas'' offer energy suppliers with an appropriate marketing mix far-reaching opportunities for improving their corporate image, securing customer loyalty and increasing turnover. However the only beneficiaries of this trend to date have been green-only suppliers which specialise in this market. Although most traditional suppliers have now added green tariffs to their product portfolio, this has given them little commercial success, since eco-minded consumers often consider green-only suppliers to be more credible. A recent study shows that the market volume of green electricity and green gas tariffs will grow markedly over the next five years. Energy suppliers should therefore turn their attention to the question of how they can best exploit this potential.

  9. More comfort for rooms, less energy; Mehr Raumkomfort, weniger Energie

    Zaehrl, M. [HVAC Products Deutschland, Siemens Building Technologies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    Presented is an intelligent automation system controlling valves of radiators, lighting systems, jalousies and safety components in households. It's a complete system meeting consumers demand and can be programmed by the user in a simple manner. The new RF based house automation system Synco living of Siemens Building technologies connects the different requirements on KNX/EIB-interfaces. The advantage is: All partial components were monitored and operated by a single display. (GL)

  10. Greater safety through lean management?; Mehr Arbeitssicherheit durch Lean Management?

    Bauer, W. [Fraunhofer Inst. fuer Arbeitswirtschaft und Organisation, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1997-08-01

    Undertakings have to adopt very quickly to the new framework and conditions of international competition and the changed limiting conditions of production processes. New management strategies and organizational structures are discussed, and these include slogans such as `lean management`, `business re-engineering` or even `the fractural undertaking`. Departmental thinking is now replaced by orientation towards customers and business processes, which ultimately serve the customer and should satisfy his interests. In conclusion, the contribution of employment protection to the actual business processes is discussed. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Unternehmen muessen sich sehr schnell an die neuen Rahmenbedingungen der internationalen Wettbewerbssituation und die veraenderten Randbedingungen der Produktionsprozesse anpassen. Neue Managementstrategien und Organisationsformen werden diskutiert, Schlagworte dabei sind Lean Management, Business Reengineering oder auch das Fraktale Unternehmen. Das Abteilungsdenken wird jetzt abgeloest durch eine Orientierung an Kunden und an Geschaeftsprozessen, die letztlich dem Kunden diesen und ihn zufriedenstellen sollen. Konsequenterweise wird dabei auch der Beitrag des Arbeitsschutzes zu den eigentlichen Geschaeftsprozessen diskutiert. (orig.)

  11. Underground- and surface technologies for joint flooding of gas caves; Unter- und Uebertagetechnik als Einheit zur Flutung von Gaskavernen

    Raudonus, K.; Miersch, D. [UGS GmbH, Mittenwalde (Germany); Haensler, G. [Verbundnetz Gas AG, Leipzig (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    After 20 years of operation the oldes caves in the Bernburg storage VNG AG had to repair the facilities. This required flooding of the caves from the start. At the same time geomechanical reserves which were reevaluated on the basis of redimensioning could be used by deepening. Flooding and relocation of the displaced gas should not disturb gas storage and brine extraction. As one of the caves was filled with gas for the first time it was possible to use the brine. Flooding and gas filling were coupled. [Deutsch] Nach mehr als 20jaehriger Betriebszeit der aeltesten Kavernen auf dem Speicher Bernburg stand fuer die VNG AG die Aufgabe der Reparatur. Der Umfang der Arbeiten machte von Anfang an das vollstaendige Fluten der Kavernen erforderlich. Gleicheitig ergab sich dabei die Moeglichkeit, seinerzeit verbliebene geomechanische Reserven, die auf Basis einer auf aktuelle Erkenntnisse beruhenden Neudimensionierung bewertet wurden, durch Nachsolung auszuschoepfen. Die Heranfuehrung des Flutmediums und die Umlagerung des verdraengten Gases sollten ohne nachteilige Rueckwirkung auf den Gasspeicher- und Solegewinnungsbetrieb erfolgen. Da zu diesem Zeitpunkt eine Kaverne in der Phase der Gaserstbefuellung stand, konnte die ausgetragene Sole genutzt werden. Flutprozess und Gaserstbefuellung wurden somit im direkt gekoppelten Betrieb durchgefuehrt. (orig./MSK)

  12. Der Demokratie-Index: U?ber die wissenschaftliche Praxis der Normierung von Demokratie als politisches Machtinstrument

    Barbara Stefan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Demokratieindizes sind zentraler Bestandteil von Global Governance Diskurs und politisch-strategischer Steuerungsprozess, der im Namen der kooperativen Bewa?ltigung weltweiter Herausforderungen (aktuell mehr Nachhaltigkeit im Kampf gegen Klimawandel, auch eine neoliberale, finanzialisierte Umgestaltung von Staat und Gesellschaft vorantreibt. Anhand des Beispiels des Kombinierten Index der Demokratie zeigt vorliegender Artikel, wie diese Methode der vergleichenden Politikwissenschaft dazu beitra?gt, ein historisch spezifisches, sozio-politisches Verha?ltnis der sozialen Ungleichheit als erstrebenswerten Normalzustand zu stabilisieren Der Index basiert auf einem bestimmten Imaginary von Demokratie und produziert dessen Inskription, welche den historischen Legitimationsprozess der rechtlichen Festschreibung o?konomischer Ungleichheit durch die Garantie politischer Gleichheitsrechte und kompetitiver Partizipationsmo?glichkeiten ausblendet. Ziel dieser formalisierten, objektiven und (im Fall des KID umfassenden Messung der Demokratiequalita?t ist die Herstellung eines sinnfixierten, wahren Wissensobjekts Demokratie, das mo?glichst unvera?nderbar und mobil seine Bedeutung in verschiedene Kontexte weitertra?gt. Eine derartig normierte Demokratie neutralisiert besitzbu?rgerliche Eigentumsinteressen und verleiht einer post-fordistischen Gouvernementalita?t politische Rationalita?t und Legitimita?t.

  13. Volver al desarrollo

    Jaime Ornelas Delgado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo, categoría empleada para expresar el crecimiento económico, surge durante la "guerra fría" y si bien fue propuesta por teóricos metropolitanos, se asumió en Latinoamérica como parte de los instrumentos disponibles para lograr el crecimiento y alternativa al socialismo. El desarrollo mantuvo su vigencia entre 1945 y 1975, cuando al advenimiento del neoliberalismo fue paulatinamente retirado de la agenda de las preocupaciones nacionales e internacionales. Al iniciarse el siglo xxi, el fracaso del mercado autorregulado trajo de nueva cuenta al debate los problemas del desarrollo, lo que obliga a revisarlo críticamente, tanto como al concepto mismo para mostrar su carácter colonial, si se quiere construir caminos ajenos al neoliberal y superar los problemas que han hecho de Latinoamérica una de las regiones más desiguales del mundo.

  14. Pornographie als Metapher

    Caroline Schubarth

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In diesem Artikel werden unterschiedliche metaphorische Verwendungen des Pornografiebegriffs und deren Implikationen untersucht. Während die Existenz von Pornografie der feministischen Anti-Porno-Bewegung als Erklärung für die anhaltende Diskriminierung von Frauen in westlichen Gesellschaften dient, nutzen rechtskonservative Kräfte den Pornografievorwurf als Rechtfertigung für die Zensur von als deviant empfundenen Identitäten und sexuellen Praktiken.

  15. Pornographie als Metapher

    Caroline Schubarth

    2010-01-01

    In diesem Artikel werden unterschiedliche metaphorische Verwendungen des Pornografiebegriffs und deren Implikationen untersucht. Während die Existenz von Pornografie der feministischen Anti-Porno-Bewegung als Erklärung für die anhaltende Diskriminierung von Frauen in westlichen Gesellschaften dient, nutzen rechtskonservative Kräfte den Pornografievorwurf als Rechtfertigung für die Zensur von als deviant empfundenen Identitäten und sexuellen Praktiken.This article...

  16. Mehr Demokratie und mehr Sozialstaat in Bund und neuen Ländern : Verfassungskonzepte und Verfassungsgebung im deutschen Einigungsprozess

    Freiling, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Der „Verfassungsentwurf der Arbeitsgruppe Neue Verfassung der DDR des Zentralen Runden Tisches der DDR“ vom 4. April 1990 hat die Hoffnung vieler politisch aktiver Bürger und vieler Gruppen in der DDR auf einen demokratischen Aufbruch zum Ausdruck gebracht. In dieser Arbeit werden die Entstehung des Verfassungsentwurfs des Runden Tisches und des darauf aufbauenden Verfassungsentwurfs des Kuratoriums für einen demokratisch verfaßten Bund deutscher Länder vom 16. 6. 1991 und deren Auswirkungen ...

  17. Four-dimensional data assimilation as a method for coupling two meteorological model systems of different scales; Vierdimensionale Datenassimilation als Methode zur Kopplung zweier verschiedenskaliger meteorologischer Modellsysteme

    Wilms-Grabe, W.

    2001-10-01

    A method of coupling two meteorological models of different scales must meet certain requirements: First, even a big difference in resolution between the two models must not produce disturbances in the smaller-scale model. This means that most nesting approaches are unfit for the purpose. The method presented here is not limited to meteorological models. It can be enhanced without much difficulty to dispersion models taking account of chemical atmospheric reactions, as e.g. in the CTM of the EURAD model or in DRAIS as an enhancement of the KAMM version. [German] Das Ziel dieser Arbeit bestand in der Entwicklung eines geeigneten Kopplungsverfahrens zweier verschiedenskaliger meteorologischer Modelle, das in einem Ein-Weg-Nesting dem kleinerskaligen Modell ermoeglicht, sowohl instationaere superskalige Verhaeltnisse als auch modellinterne kleinraeumige Prozesse miteinander zu verbinden. Im Rahmen des Projektes TFS mussten hierbei entscheidende Bedingungen an das Kopplungsverfahren gestellt werden. Allen voran darf vor allem ein auch grosser Unterschied in der Aufloesung der beiden verschiedenskaligen Modelle keine kuenstlichen Stoerungen im kleinerskaligen Modell produzieren. Somit scheiden die sonst ueblichen Nestingansaetze fuer diesen Fall aus. Das Verfahren ist derart konzipiert, dass es sich nicht auf rein meteorologische Modelle beschraenkt. Eine Ausweitung auf Ausbreitungsmodelle unter Beruecksichtigung chemischer Reaktionen in der Atmosphaere, wie sie etwa im CTM des EURAD-Modells oder im DRAIS als Erweiterung der KAMM-Version zur Verfuegung stehen, stellt keinen allzu grossen Schritt mehr dar. (orig.)

  18. Del latn al rumano

    Montes Giraldo Jos Joaqun

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Marius Sala, Del latn al rumano. Versin espaola de Valeria Neagu, Pars, Unin Latina - Bucarest, Univers enciclopedic, 2002. El texto se dirige al lector corriente, no especialista, y por eso el aparato tcnico-bibliogrfico no se presenta en el curso de la exposicin.

  19. Lou Gehrig's Disease (ALS)

    ... Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Lou Gehrig's Disease (ALS) KidsHealth > For Kids > Lou Gehrig's Disease (ALS) Print A A A Text Size What's in ... Gehrig's disease is a disorder that's also called amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (say: ah-my-uh-TRO-fik LA-tuh- ...

  20. Al-Anon/Alateen

    Find an Al-Anon meeting Español | Français 2018 Int'l Convention Home About Group Meetings What If I'm not ready ... a meeting? What can I expect at an Al-Anon meeting? What was my first meeting like? ...

  1. [Environmental factors in ALS].

    Juntas-Morales, Raul; Pageot, Nicolas; Corcia, Philippe; Camu, William

    2014-05-01

    ALS is likely to be a disorder of multifactorial origin. Among all the factors that may increase the risk of ALS, environmental ones are being studied for many years, but in the recent years, several advances have pointed to a new interest in their potential involvement in the disease process, especially for the cyanotoxin BMAA. Food containing BMAA has been found on Guam, a well-known focus of ALS/parkinsonism/dementia and high levels of BMAA have been identified into the brain of these patients. The BMAA cyanotoxin is potentially ubiquitous and have also been found into the food of patients who died from ALS both in Europe and USA. BMAA can be wrongly integrated into the protein structure during mRNA traduction, competing with serine. This may induce abnormal protein folding and a subsequent cell death. Heavy metals, such as lead or mercury may be directly toxic for neuronal cells. Several works have suggested an increased risk of ALS in individuals chronically exposed to these metals. Exposure to pesticides has been suggested to be linked to an increased risk of developing ALS. The mechanism of their toxicity is likely to be mediated by paraoxonases. These proteins are in charge of detoxifying the organism from toxins, and particularly organophosphates. To date, there are insufficient scientific data to suggest that exposure to electromagnetic fields may increase the risk of having ALS. We are particularly missing longitudinal cohorts to demonstrate that risk. PMID:24703731

  2. Factores asociados al bajo peso al nacer

    Georgina J Peraza Roque; Silvia de la C Pérez Delgado; Zoe de los A Figueroa Barreto

    2001-01-01

    El bajo peso al nacer (BPN) ha constituido un enigma en la ciencia a través de los tiempos. Múltiples son las investigaciones realizadas acerca de las causas que lo producen y las consecuencias que provoca. Su importancia no solo radica en lo que significa en la morbilidad y la mortalidad infantil, sino que estos niños tienen habitualmente múltiples problemas posteriores. El Programa para la Reducción del BPN señala que los niños nacidos con un peso inferior a los 2 500 g presentan riesgo de ...

  3. MDA ALS Caregiver's Guide

    ... my right hand will automatically fidget for an Aloe-enriched, bacteria-killing tissue. After your third sneeze, ... living with ALS (or other chronic conditions like cancer or multiple sclerosis) can provide insight to each ...

  4. Selbstkritik als wissenschaftliches Projekt?

    Barbara Scholand

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Wallner kritisiert die aktuelle feministische Darstellung der rund 30jhrigen Geschichte der Mdchenarbeit als Legendenbildung (S. 9: Sie verkrze und verschweige im Interesse einer Selbst-Heroisierung und sei daher ideologisch. Als eine derjenigen, die seit zwanzig Jahren feministische Mdchenarbeit und -politik betreibt, arbeitet die Autorin damit auch ihre eigenen (Nicht-Bezugnahmen kritisch auf. Ihr grundlegendes Interesse ist es, eine aus ihrer Sicht erforderliche Neupositionierung der Mdchenarbeit in der Jugendhilfe im Zeitalter von Gender Mainstreaming zu befrdern.

  5. Kulturmorphologie als Zivilisationskritik

    Peters, Rikke Alberg

    2010-01-01

    Der Untergang des Abendlandes wird oft als dasjenige Werk betrachtet, das am tiefsten die national gefrbte Gegenberstellung von Kultur und Zivilisation in der Zwischenkriegszeit geprgt und propagiert hat. Wie auch bei anderen Autoren der Konservativen Revolution, vor allem bei Thomas Mann und...... Arthur Moeller van den Bruck, tritt der Begriff Kultur bei Spengler als normativer Wertbegriff auf, der im Kontrast zu einer degenerierten und seelenlosen Zivilisation steht....

  6. Der Preis als Kaufbarriere?

    Mueller Loose, Simone

    Die Preispolitik hat eine herausragende Stellung im Marketing. Der Preis eines Produktes ist für Verbraucher ein direkter Kostenfaktor und für Unternehmen die Stellgröße im Mar-ketingmix, die den Umsatz am stärksten beeinflusst (vgl. Nieschlag et al. 2002). Wenn die Akzeptanz und der regelmäßige...... Verzehr gesunder Lebensmittel erhöht werden soll, ist es sowohl für die Verbraucherpolitik als auch für Lebensmittelproduzenten wichtig, den Ein-fluss des Preises auf die Kaufentscheidung zu verstehen. Aus Verbrauchersicht ist der Preis neben dem Geschmack die wichtigste Produkteigen-schaft beim Kauf von...... Lebensmitteln (vgl. Brunsø/Grunert 1998) und stellt eine Kaufbarrie-re für Lebensmittel mit gesundheitsfördernden Eigenschaften dar. Studien in den USA (vgl. Cassady et al. 2007), Frankreich (vgl. Drewnowski et al. 2004; Andrieu et al. 2005) und Deutschland (vgl. Karg et al. 2008) kommen übereinstimmend zu dem...

  7. Fortschritt als Fortschrittsdiskurs

    Rainer Schmid-Zartner

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Zur Erzielung gesellschaftlichen Fortschritts in demokratisch verfassten Gesellschaften soll die Möglichkeit am Fortschrittsdiskurs teilnehmen zu können für alle Mitglieder der Gesellschaft als selbstverständliche Prämisse gelten. Fortschritt wird also als Bewusstseinsbildung dem Fortschritt selbst gegenüber und als Entscheidungs- und Handlungsfähigkeit auf individueller und gesellschaftlicher Ebene definiert. Dies setzt entsprechende Maßnahmen zur Befähigung dazu voraus, die alle Mitglieder der Gesellschaft erfassen. Dabei ist der Bildungsbereich angesprochen, insbesondere der Schulunterricht. Neben dem in der aktuellen blidungspolitischen Debatte forcierten Fokus auf den Aspekt der Kompetenzorientierung, der hier nicht infrage gestellt wird, ist als notwendige Ergänzung ein reflexionsorientierter Schulunterricht in allen Bildungsfächern einzufordern und umzusetzen. Im Weiteren beschreibt der Text den Weg von der Brauchbarkeit zur Bedeutsamkeit von schulischem Wissen durch Relevanzreflexionsprovokationen im Schulunterricht, um Sinn und Bedeutung der vermittelten Bildungsinhalte zu verhandeln. Am Beispiel von Mathematik als Bildungsfach wird der Inhalt von reflexionsorientertem Unterricht verdeutlicht. Darüber hinaus beschreibt der Text eine Reihe von konkreten Fallbeispielen aus der aktuell versuchsweise durchgeführten Unterrichtspraxis in Mathematik.

  8. Coupled growth of Al-Al2Cu eutectics in Al-Cu-Ag alloys

    Coupled eutectic growth of Al and Al2Cu was investigated in univariant Al-Cu-Ag alloys during solidification with planar and cellular morphology. Experiments reveal the dynamic selection of small spacings, below the minimum undercooling spacing and show that distinct morphological features pertain to nearly isotropic or anisotropic Al-Al2Cu interfaces.

  9. Pornographie als Metapher

    Caroline Schubarth

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In diesem Artikel werden unterschiedliche metaphorische Verwendungen des Pornografiebegriffs und deren Implikationen untersucht. Während die Existenz von Pornografie der feministischen Anti-Porno-Bewegung als Erklärung für die anhaltende Diskriminierung von Frauen in westlichen Gesellschaften dient, nutzen rechtskonservative Kräfte den Pornografievorwurf als Rechtfertigung für die Zensur von als deviant empfundenen Identitäten und sexuellen Praktiken.This article examines different metaphorical uses of the term pornography and the resulting implications. While the existence of pornography for the feminist anti-porno movement serves as factor in the continuing discrimination of women in western societies, conservative powers on the right use the allegation of pornography as a justification for censorship of those identities and sexual practices deemed deviant.

  10. ALS superbend magnet system

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is preparing to upgrade the Advanced Light Source (ALS) with three superconducting dipoles (Superbends). In this paper we present the final magnet system design which incorporates R and D test results and addresses the ALS operational concerns of alignment, availability, and economy. The design incorporates conduction-cooled Nb-Ti windings and HTS current leads, epoxy-glass suspension straps, and a Gifford-McMahon cryocooler to supply steady state refrigeration. We also present the current status of fabrication and testing

  11. Del analizando al analista

    Gonzlez Rivera, Pilar

    2010-01-01

    Es un tpico corriente representar al psicoanalista tomando notas, escribiendo lo que el analizando dice. Por su lado, y tal vez atendiendo a este mismo estereotipo, ste a veces tambin lo fantasea as, "escribiendo su historia", como una forma de demostrar su inters en el paciente (lo cual no es incompatible con otro pensamiento: el de que dara lo mismo hablar con una pared ...)

  12. BERKELEY: ALS ring

    Everybody at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Center for Beam Physics is pleased with the rapid progress in commissioning LBL's Advanced Light Source (ALS) electron storage ring, the foundation for this third-generation synchrotron radiation facility. Designed for a maximum current of 400 mA, the ALS storage ring reached 407 mA just 24 days after storing the first beam on 16 March. ALS construction as a US Department of Energy (DOE) national user facility to provide high-brightness vacuum ultra-violet and soft x-ray radiation began in October 1987. One technical requirement marking project completion was to accumulate a 50-mA current in the storage ring. The ALS passed this milestone on 24 March, a week ahead of the official deadline. Once injected, the electron beam decays quasi-exponentially primarily because of interactions with residual gas molecules in the storage-ring vacuum chamber. Eventually, when the pressure in the vacuum chamber with beam decreases toward the expected operating level of 1 nano Torr, it will only be necessary to refill the storage ring at intervals of four to eight hours. At present the vacuum is improving rapidly as surfaces are irradiated (scrubbed) by the synchrotron radiation itself. At 100 mA, beam lifetime was about one hour (9 April)

  13. ALS Project Management Manual

    Krupnick, Jim; Harkins, Joe

    2000-05-01

    This manual has been prepared to help establish a consistent baseline of management practices across all ALS projects. It describes the initial process of planning a project, with a specific focus on the production of a formal project plan. We feel that the primary weakness in ALS project management efforts to date stems from a failure to appreciate the importance of ''up-front'' project planning. In this document, we present a guide (with examples) to preparing the documents necessary to properly plan, monitor, and control a project's activities. While following the manual will certainly not guarantee good project management, failure to address the issues we raise will dramatically reduce the chance of success. Here we define success as meeting the technical goals on schedule and within the prescribed budget.

  14. ALS insertion devices

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), the first US third generation synchrotron radiation source, is currently under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The low-emittance, 1.5 GeV electron storage ring and the insertion devices are specifically designed to produce high brightness beams in the UV to soft X-Ray range. The planned initial complement of insertion devices includes four 4.6 m long undulators, with period lengths of 3.9 cm, 5.0 cm (2) and 8.0 cm, and a 2.9 m long wiggler of 16 cm period length. Undulator design is well advanced and fabrication has begun on the 5.0 cm and 8.0 cm period length undulators. This paper discusses ALS insertion device requirements; general design philosophy; and design of the magnetic structure, support structure/drive systems, control system and vacuum system. 18 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs

  15. Thomas Morley als musiktheoretiker

    Popović Tihomir T.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available (nemački Der Komponist und Musiktheoretiker Thomas Morley hat in seiner Abhandlung "A Plaine and Easie Introduction into Practicall Musicke" (heraus-gegeben 1597 in London die Kompositionslehre seiner Zeit auf verständliche und anschauliche Weise dargestellt. Der vorliegende Beitrag untersucht sowohl den wissenschaftlichen als auch den didaktischen Wert dieses Traktats. Neben der Besprechung der allgemeinen Charakteristika der Abhandlung, wird im Beitrag auch Morleys Behandlung einzelner Themenbereiche untersucht, so u.a. auch die Klauseldisposition und die Frage, ob die Aussagen Morleys darüber als Wende vom modalen hin zum tonalen Denken interpretiert werden können: In diesem Kontext wird eine Antwort auf Martina Rebmanns Kritik an Carl Dahlhaus' Interpretation der Lehre Morleys gegeben.

  16. Factores asociados al bajo peso al nacer

    Georgina J Peraza Roque

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available El bajo peso al nacer (BPN ha constituido un enigma en la ciencia a travs de los tiempos. Mltiples son las investigaciones realizadas acerca de las causas que lo producen y las consecuencias que provoca. Su importancia no solo radica en lo que significa en la morbilidad y la mortalidad infantil, sino que estos nios tienen habitualmente mltiples problemas posteriores. El Programa para la Reduccin del BPN seala que los nios nacidos con un peso inferior a los 2 500 g presentan riesgo de mortalidad 14 veces mayor durante el primer ao de vida, en comparacin con los nios que nacen con un peso normal a trmino. Dentro de los factores de riesgo del BPN se han encontrado con mayor frecuencia en estudios realizados por diferentes autores, los siguientes: el embarazo en la adolescencia, la desnutricin en la madre, el hbito de fumar, la hipertensin arterial durante el embarazo, la sepsis cervicovaginal, la anemia y los embarazos gemelares, entre otros. Es innegable la influencia que el BPN tiene sobre las futuras generaciones, por lo que debe constituir la diana de los esfuerzos que el mdico y la enfermera deben desarrollar en su prevencin, sobre todo en la comunidadLow birth weight has been an enigma for Science through times. A lot of research works have been carried out about its causes and consequences. The importance of LBW not only lies in its meaning for infant mortality and morbidity but also in the many problems that low birth weight children regularly face in the future. The program for the reduction of LBW points out that newborns weighing under 2500g have during his/her first year of life a mortality risk 14 times higher than newborns with a normal weight at term. Among the low birth weight risk factors, a number of studies by various authors have frequently found the following; pregnancy at adolescence; undernourishment in mothers, smoking, blood hypertension during pregnancy, cervix-vaginal sepsis; anemia, twin pregnancies and others. The influence of LBW on the future generations can not be denied, therefore, LBW should be a target for the efforts of physicians and nurses to prevent it within the community

  17. Camino al diseo

    Aguilar Gmez, Miguel ngel

    2000-01-01

    Como resultado de la investigacin DISEO Y MTODO, adelantada por los profesores D.I. Luz Mara Jimnez Narvez y Arq. Miguel ngel Aguilar Gmez, pertenecientes a la Facultad de Ingeniera y Arquitectura de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales; se obtuvieron algunas conclusiones y recomendaciones con respecto al ejercicio de diseo. Este documento tiene como objeto servir de punto de partida a los profesores para la formacin de los alumnos en el rea de Proyectivas (asigna...

  18. Industrial residues as an external carbon source in denitrification; Industrielle Reststoffe als externe Kohlenstoffquelle fuer die Denitrifikation

    Schories, G. [TECON GmbH, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Geissen, S.U.; Vogelpohl, A. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Verfahrenstechnik

    1999-07-01

    Biological waste water treatment requires biologically readily degradable carbon in order to permit elimination of as much nitrogen as possible. Often now this type of carbon is no longer present in waste water in an appropriate quantity, so that external carbon must be added. Apart from industrially fabricated substrates, the use of industrial residues and waste products as well as of partial waste water streams with a high organic pollutant load is lately being considered for cost reasons. But this is not altogether harmless. Those partial streams may contain substances that inhibit denitrification, impose an additional burden on subsequent cleaning stages or may even pass them unmodified, so that they are emitted into the environment and pose an ecological hazard potential. Hence, industrial residual products need to be specifically selected for use as an external carbon source in denitrification. A suitable strategy is described and demonstrated by means of different examples. (orig.) [German] In der biologischen Abwasserbehandlung ist fuer eine weitestgehende Stickstoffelimination oftmals biologisch gut abbaubarer Kohlenstoff im Abwasser nicht (mehr) in ausreichendem Masse vorhanden. Dann ist die Zugabe einer sog. externen Kohlenstoffquelle erforderlich. Neben industriell hergestellten Substraten wird in letzter Zeit aus Kostengruenden vielfach der Einsatz industrieller Rest- und Abfallstoffe sowie organisch hochbelasteter Abwasserteilstroeme erwogen. Dies ist jedoch nicht unproblematisch, da in diesen Stoffstroemen auch Substanzen enthalten sein koennen, die die Denitrifikation hemmen, nachfolgende Reinigungsstufen zusaetzlich belasten oder diese sogar unveraendert passsieren, dadurch in die Umwelt emittiert werden und damit moeglicherweise aus oekologischer Sicht ein Gefahrenpotential darstellen koennen. Es muss also eine besondere Auswahl der Pruefung industrieller Reststoffe im Hinblick auf den Einsatz als externe Kohlenstoffquelle in der Denitrifikation erfolgen. Hierzu wird eine geeignete Strategie vorgestellt und anhand verschiedener Beispiele erlaeutert. (orig.)

  19. Programa salud al colegio

    Acuña Ramos, Clara; Polanco Narváez, Héctor; Villamil Barrera, Luz Alicia; Mena Bejarano, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes. El Plan de Desarrollo Bogotá Positiva:“Para Vivir Mejor”, de la alcaldía distrital de Bogotá, sepropone mejorar la calidad de vida de la población, pormedio del reconocimiento, garantía y restablecimientode derechos como la salud y la educación, se vinculaal proyecto “Salud al Colegio” de la Secretaria deEducación de Bogotá.Objetivo. Diseño y ejecución de estrategias pedagógicasy comunicativas para promover la salud oral en ColegiosDistritales para el fortalecimiento del desarro...

  20. Atencin al paciente crtico

    Parra Vargas Myriam

    1993-08-01

    Full Text Available

    El presente artculo resume la experiencia docente-investigativa sobre la atencin al paciente crtico, desde un enfoque que describe problemas inherentes a los sistemas cardiovasculares, respiratorio y neurolgico, considerados sistemas vitales del ser humano. Se pretende describir una serie de metas, que orientan la intervencin del profesional de enfermera y sustentan la planeacin, ejecucin, control y evaluacin de intervenciones especficas, encaminadas a detectar oportunamente las complicaciones o tratar problemas complejos en el grupo de pacientes crticamente enfermos.

  1. AL Amyloidosis and Agent Orange

    ... Biological, and Radiological Weapons Cold Injury Hearing Impairment Visual Impairment Former Prisoners of War Employee Health Employee ... be eligible to receive VA health care and disability compensation. About AL amyloidosis AL amyloidosis is a ...

  2. Derivados vinculados al seguro.

    De Paz Cobo, Sonia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo la presentación de los derivados financieros como instrumentos de cobertura de los riesgos del seguro, así como de los principales proyectos que se desarrollan a través de los mismos, como por ejemplo los derivados sobre el clima. Hay que tener presente las pérdidas multimillonarias ocasionadas en casos como el de la banca Baring’s, o el de Orange County, por citar algunas, que si bien ciertos autores afirman que están en relación directa con el uso de estos productos, no podemos olvidar que los instrumentos derivados se desarrollaron con el objetivo principal de proteger al usuario de la posible volatilidad del activo subyacente. Ya en la industria aseguradora los derivados vinculados a tal actividad son instrumentos donde el pago se condiciona a la ocurrencia de su suceso de siniestro, o serie de sucesos múltiples que disparen las pérdidas. Tras el repaso efectuado y la descripción que este tipo de instrumentos puede tener en la gestión del riesgo por parte de la industria aseguradora, concluiremos con la exposición de las relaciones con el reaseguro tradicional así como una breve referencia al futuro de este tipo de instrumentos

  3. al desarrollo global

    Nancy Santana Cova

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ante el agotamiento en América Latina del proyecto político-ideológico del Estado como interventor y benefactor, así como su incapacidad para continuar asumiendo autónomamente sus responsabilidades, se dibuja con relativa fuerza en los escenarios emergentes que orientan la transición de contexto latinoamericano al siglo SXXI, un nuevo actor, la Sociedad Civil. La actuación de este nuevo actor, bajo la figura de Movimientos Sociales -pacíficos, urbanos, feministas, populares, ecologistas- se perfila como importante fuerza política que ha asumido tanto la denuncia y la critica al “Sistema” y a los valores compartidos de la modernidad como un reclamo de nuevos espacios de participación en la solución de muchos de los problemas que ha engrandado “la modernización”, entre ellos el deterioro ambiental y el crecimiento de la pobreza. En el caso de los movimientos ambientales se analizará la particularidad de las demandas sociopolíticas que se plantean como una respuesta social a los cambios globales y las implicaciones de trastocamiento de los espacios vitales.

  4. Gliricidia sepium al establecimiento

    J. L. Valle

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se asoció Cenchrus ciliaris (Cc y Gliricidia sepium (Gs para evaluar la producción de biomasa y la composición química de los forrajes en la fase de establecimiento, en el estado de Morelos, México, en condiciones de trópico seco. Se empleó un análisis de varianza con diseño en bloques al azar, en donde T1 fue pasto solo, T2 Cc más Gs con 5,000 plantas ha-1 y el T3 Cs más Gs con 14,285 plantas ha-1. Se midió la producción de forraje individual y asociado con materia seca (t MS/Ha, la altura (A en cm, la proteína cruda (PC%, las fracciones de fibra (FDN% y FDA% y la digestibilidad in vitro de la materia seca (DIVMS%. El T3 tuvo una mejor producción de biomasa (P0.05. La asociación de 14,285 plantas ha-1 de G. sepium con pasto Cenchrus ciliaris mejoró la producción de biomasa y la disponibilidad total de nutrientes por superficie cultivada al establecimiento

  5. Interaction between adsorbed chalcogen and Al atoms on Al(001)

    First-principles, scattering-theory-based calculations for Al-S and Al-Te dimers adsorbed on a rigid Al(001) film show in both cases that the ad-Al and the chalcogen repel each other when forced to reside in neighboring hollows. This result, which stems from the fact that the through-metal effective repulsion is not compensated by a sufficiently attractive direct adatom interaction, indicates the importance of establishing whether there are any laws governing the nature of the interactions between surface additive atoms and various types of surface defects

  6. QUDRAH THALABAH QISM AL-LUGHAH AL-'ARABIYAH 'ALA FAHM AL-QASHR FI AL-AYAT AL-QUR'ANIYAH AL-TARBAWIYAH

    Muhammad Sirojudin Syah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pemahaman mahasiswa PBA UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta tentang kaidah qashr dan penerapannya pada ayat-ayat pendidikan serta mengetahui materi qashr yang perlu dikuatkan. Penelitian ini bersifat deskriptif kuantitatif. Populasi dan sampel dalam penelitian ini adalah seluruh mahasiswa jurusan PBA UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta semester 5 tahun ajaran 2013-2014. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan cara: wawancara, tes, dan dokumentasi. Berdasarkan hasil analisis data, diperoleh hasil penelitian berikut. Kemampuan mahasiswa dalam memahami kaidah qashr dinyatakan baik dengan rata-rata nilai tes 70,69. Kemampuan mahasiswa menerapkan kaidah qashr dalam ayat al-Qurʼan juga dinyatakan baik dengan rata-rata nilai tes 70,44. Mean rata-rata nilai tes adalah 70,56. Berdasarkan hasil tes, materi “qashr al-shifah ‘alâ al-maushûf dan qahsr al-maushûf ‘alâ al-shifah” perlu dikuatkan lagi dalam pembelajaran.

  7. COMENTARIO AL CASO PINOCHET

    Alberto Contreras Clunes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El fallo en el caso Pinochet tiene distintas formas de ser analizado. De partida, desde un punto de vista político, también constitucional, del derecho penal. Sin embargo, nos abocaremos al estudio desde el punto de vista procesal, en especial a lo referido al Debido Proceso. Para ello se analizará los presupuestos, la solución dada por la Excma. Corte Suprema y las consecuencias del mismo. Además, se criticará la solución dada, desde la óptica de las garantías procesales del imputado, contenidas en el nuevo proceso penal y lo dispuesto en la Constitución y la Convención Americana de Derechos Humanos. Finalmente, se argumentará en favor de una interpretación finalista y armónica de la Constitución y los tratados internacionales de derechos humanos.The verdict of the Pinochet Case has different ways of being analyzed: from the political, the constitutional, and the penal law points of view. However, we will approach this study from the legal point of view, especially to that referred to as the Proper Process. To do this, the budgets, the solution given by the Most Excellent Supreme Court, and its consequences will be analyzed. Furthermore, the given solution will be criticized from the point of view of the legal guarantees of the accused contained in the new penal process and what is contained in the Constitution and in the American Convention of Human Rights. In conclusion, we will argue in favor of a final and harmonious interpretation of the Constitution and the international agreement of human rights.

  8. Corrosion behaviour of Al/SiC and Al/Al2O3 nanocomposites

    Tamer Samir Mahmoud

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, the static immersion corrosion behavior of Al/Al2O3 and Al/SiC nanocomposites in 1 M HCl acidic solution was evaluated. The nanocomposites were fabricated using conventional powder metallurgy (P/M route. The effect of nanoparticulates size and volume fraction on the corrosion behavior of nanocomposites was studied. The durations of the corrosion tests ranged from 24 to 120 hours and the temperatures of the solution ranged from ambient to 75 C. The corrosion rates of the nanocomposites were calculated using the weight loss method. The results showed that both Al/SiC and Al/Al2O3 MMNCs have lower corrosion rates than the pure Al matrix. Such behavior was noticed at both ambient and higher temperatures. Generally, the Al/Al2O3 nanocomposites exhibited lower corrosion rates than the Al/SiC nanocomposites. The Al/Al2O3 (60 nm nanocomposites exhibited the highest corrosion resistance among all the investigated nanocomposites. The corrosion rate was found to be reduced by increasing of the exposure time and the volume fraction of the nanoparticulates, while it was found to be increased by increasing of the nanoparticulates size and the solution temperature.

  9. Epitaxial growth of Al/Al2O3 multilayer structures

    In order to obtain Al-Al2O3 quantum effect devices, it is necessary to deposit epitaxially Al on Al2O3 and Al2O3 on Al. We have already obtained an epitaxial Al/Al2O3/Al structures on Si(111). In this paper, we have deposit Al/Al2O3/Al structures on Si(111), and investigated the crystallinity by using RBS. (author)

  10. Fretting wear performances of multilayered PVD TiAlZrN/TiAlN/TiAl on AISI 4140 steel

    Tlili, Brahim; NASRI, Mustapha; F. Ayari; Nouveau, Corinne

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays, most surface treatments are realized through vapor deposition techniques as thin hard coatings to guarantee; high surface hardness, low friction coefficient and improve wear resistance. Several experimental investigations have let to the development of a (TiAlCN/TiAlN/TiAl) and (TiAlZrN/TiAlN/TiAl) coatings in preference to the traditional TiN coating. In the current paper research conducted on fretting wear of a (TiAlCN/TiAlN/TiAl) and a (TiAlZrN/TiAlN/TiAl) multilayer coatings de...

  11. Editorial: Cartas al Editor

    Guillermo Llanos

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En todas las revistas biomédicas del mundo existe una sección habitual denominada como el título de este editorial y que en Colombia Médica la llamamos correspondencia. Este espacio tiene como objetivo fundamental que los lectores escriban a los autores (investigadores comentando los artículos que se han publicado en números anteriores de la revista. Las cartas son, entonces, breves comentarios de desacuerdo o acuerdo (conceptual, metodológico, interpretativo sobre falencias ubicadas por un lector alerta al tema debatido en cualquiera de las secciones como en los artículos originales, editoriales, revisiones, presentación de casos, etc. publicados previamente en la revista. Las cartas deben permitir el intercambio de opiniones y formas de pensar y analizar los problemas planteados entre los autores y los lectores. En ocasiones una serie de cartas motivadas por un artículo original puede ser tan o más interesante como el artículo que generó la correspondencia. Las cartas son también un formato adecuado para comunicar un hecho novedoso de una observación clínica juiciosa no descrita antes. Un ejemplo de ello es la carta de un gineco-obstetra australiano cuando informó a Lancet los primeros efectos adversos informados de la talidomida. Colombia Médica, a pesar de mantener vigente esta sección, no ha sido muy afortunada en establecer una buena cultura del envío de cartas al editor. Pero últimamente han llegado juiciosas observaciones a las cuales se les ha dado prioridad en su publicación. Toda carta que comenta los hallazgos de un artículo es enviada a los autores para su respuesta, porque ello genera el debate académico buscado, y luego se publican, tanto la carta como su respuesta. El Estilo Vancouver recomienda que la carta y su respuesta deban ser breve, no pasar de dos o tres párrafos y contener sólo cuatro o cinco referencias. En lo posible (a menos que sea indispensable no presentar ni cuadros ni gráficos. El título de la carta debe ser informativo, innovativo y obviamente relacionado con el tema a presentar. La carta debe referirse en forma clara y explícita al hecho que la motiva y a partir de ahí seguir un esquema expositivo progresivo. Los párrafos siguientes deben ser la argumentación a favor o en contra, o los comentarios adicionales que se quieren hacer. Luego debe seguir una pequeña discusión de estos aportes y se debe finalizar con una conclusión. Las cartas son finalmente una indicador bibliométrico de la lectura juiciosa de quienes leen la revista. Por ello los editores buscamos y facilitamos el envío de ellas. En Colombia Médica queremos estimular que nos escriban y ojalá nuestros lectores se vuelvan socios muy activos en el proceso de comunicación científica y para ello utilicen nuestra sección de correspondencia.

  12. Malamih al-Ashwat al-'Arabiyyah wa Makharijaha

    Amrah Muhammad Kasim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This writing discusses on al-ashwat al-‘arabiyyah that is known with “phonetic” term. It talks and interprets makharij al-huruf or place for producing sounds and also processing production of sounds by parts of mouth in Arabic language. The problems of sounds and its systems in Arabic language have been conducted by the scholars of al-ashwat al-‘arabiyyah attractively, neatly, and detail and gotten ahead the phonetic western scholars. Part of their analysis results formulate the study about al-ashwat al-sakinah (al-Shamit is known with vocal and consonant sounds in research questions shawait – shawamit. Ibnu Jinni has formulated “harakat”(wowel in Arabic language and dimension of letter  mad and liyn on alif  letter - waw - ya’ (ا و ي, from these letters create  harakat fathah, dammah, and kasrah. Moreover, in this writing also exist the description of hija’i letters and its makhraj that are correct from parts of mouth and the unity of coordinative sounds that produce sounds in morphemes arrangement, in one word that produces meaning. The result of phonological study has divided al-ashwat to be kinds of sound like the pronounced sounds, produced sounds from mouth, and heard sound.

  13. Interfacial reactions and oxidation behavior of Al 2O 3 and Al 2O 3/Al coatings on an orthorhombic Ti 2AlNb alloy

    Li, H. Q.; Wang, Q. M.; Gong, J.; Sun, C.

    2011-02-01

    The uniform and dense Al2O3 and Al2O3/Al coatings were deposited on an orthorhombic Ti2AlNb alloy by filtered arc ion plating. The interfacial reactions of the Al2O3/Ti2AlNb and Al2O3/Al/Ti2AlNb specimens after vacuum annealing at 750 C were studied. In the Al2O3/Ti2AlNb specimens, the Al2O3 coating decomposed significantly due to reaction between the Al2O3 coating and the O-Ti2AlNb substrate. In the Al2O3/Al/Ti2AlNb specimens, a ?-TiAl layer and an Nb-rich zone came into being by interdiffusion between the Al layer and the O-Ti2AlNb substrate. The ?-TiAl layer is chemically compatible with Al2O3, with no decomposition of Al2O3 being detected. No internal oxidation or oxygen and nitrogen dissolution zone was observed in the O-Ti2AlNb alloy. The Al2O3/Al/Ti2AlNb specimens exhibited excellent oxidation resistance at 750 C.

  14. PENSAR AL SUR

    Juan Obarrio

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Este articulo explora la cuestion de la definicion y territorialidad del Sur Global, evocando categorias que en el pasado han definido el espacio del "tercer mundo" o "mundo en desarrollo", y como estas han dado paso a una nueva conceptualizacion a partir de los debates sobre globalizacion. Se postula al Sur como una forma de vida, y como un espacio de historias paralelas de poder, capital y subjetivacion.A partir de esta discusion, se plantea de que manera en el presente el Sur Global es un espacio de produccion innovador de teorizacion sobre lo social, que genera sus propias disciplinas y marcos epistemologicos.Palabras Claves: Sur Global , globalizacion, epistemologia Abstract:This article explored the definition and territorial scope of teh Global South, evoking past categories that have defined the space of the "Third world" or teh "developing world", and how they have paved the way to new conceptualiziations, since the beginning of the debate on globalization. The essays posits the South as a form of life and as a space of parallel histories of power, capital and subjectivation.Departing from this discussion, the essay poses the question about the way in which currently the Global Southconstitutes an innovative space of theorization of the social,qhich generates its own disciplines and epistemological frameworks. Keywords: Global South, globalization, epistemology

  15. al sector industrial espaol

    Pilar Vargas Montoya

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La relacin entre intangibles tecnolgicos y resultados ha sido ampliamente estudiada. Sin embargo, son pocos los trabajos que han tratado de analizar si la forma en que se produce la acumulacin de dichos recursos modifica sustancialmente el efecto que previsiblemente la inversin en intangibles tecnolgicos tiene sobre los resultados empresariales. En este sentido, los argumentos tericos utilizados nos llevan a considerar que la utilizacin de uno u otro mtodo de desarrollo (interno, externo o mixto afecta de forma distinta al stock de activos tecnolgicos de la empresa y, como consecuencia, a los resultados alcanzados por sta. Las hiptesis resultantes del planteamiento terico son contrastadas mediante un panel de empresas manufactureras espaolas. Los resultados obtenidos permiten observar cmo la acumulacin de activos intangibles tecnolgicos es un factor relevante a la hora de explicar los resultados empresariales. Asimismo, se comprueba cmo el mtodo de desarrollo utilizado para acceder a dichos activos influye en la intensidad con la que el gasto en I+D acta sobre los resultados empresariales.

  16. Al versus Si competition in FeSiAl alloys

    In FeSiAl alloys, when Si substitutes for Al, important changes take place in the magnetism as well as in the structural properties. Alloys in the two composition series Fe75Al25-xSix (x=0, 7.5, 12.5, 17.5, 25) and Fe70Al30-xSix (x=0, 9, 15, 21, 30) were prepared by induction melting; afterwards they were crushed and then annealed in order to recover the DO3 stable phase. The deformed FeAl samples show larger lattice parameters than the ordered ones; however, this difference (Δa) decreases when Si substitutes for Al until it becomes zero (i.e. until the ordered samples and the deformed ones have the same lattice parameters). This trend is the same for both sample series and does not depend on the Fe content of the alloy. However, the magnetization has a different behaviour depending on the Fe content. For deformed Fe75Al25-xSix alloys the saturation magnetization decreases with increasing Si content while for Fe70Al30-xSix deformed alloys the saturation magnetization has a plateau in which the saturation magnetization values do not vary

  17. The cathodic dissolution of Al, Al{sub 2}Cu, and Al alloys

    Ogle, K., E-mail: kevin-ogle@chimie-paristech.f [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, ParisTech, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Serdechnova, M.; Mokaddem, M.; Volovitch, P. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, ParisTech, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France)

    2011-01-15

    The cathodic dissolution of aluminum has been investigated for 99.99% Al, synthetic Al{sub 2}Cu, and three Al-Cu-Mg alloys: AA2024, AA7050, and AA2214 offering a range of over two orders of magnitude in hydrogen reduction activity. Atomic emission spectroelectrochemistry (AESEC) was used to directly measure the dissolution rate of the alloy components as a function of the cathodic current during potential sweep and potential step experiments. It was found that for all samples, regardless of the cathodic current density, the stoichiometric ratio of OH produced to Al dissolved varied between 1.4 and 1.8. This value is interpreted in terms of a simple model in which hydroxide generation, Al(OH){sub 3} formation/dissolution, and Al(OH){sub 4}{sup -} diffusion are kinetically coupled together. The selective dissolution of Mg and Cu is also measured and discussed.

  18. The cathodic dissolution of Al, Al2Cu, and Al alloys

    The cathodic dissolution of aluminum has been investigated for 99.99% Al, synthetic Al2Cu, and three Al-Cu-Mg alloys: AA2024, AA7050, and AA2214 offering a range of over two orders of magnitude in hydrogen reduction activity. Atomic emission spectroelectrochemistry (AESEC) was used to directly measure the dissolution rate of the alloy components as a function of the cathodic current during potential sweep and potential step experiments. It was found that for all samples, regardless of the cathodic current density, the stoichiometric ratio of OH produced to Al dissolved varied between 1.4 and 1.8. This value is interpreted in terms of a simple model in which hydroxide generation, Al(OH)3 formation/dissolution, and Al(OH)4- diffusion are kinetically coupled together. The selective dissolution of Mg and Cu is also measured and discussed.

  19. Schizophrenia as a disconnection syndrome. Studies with functional magnetic resonance imaging and structural equation modeling; Schizophrenie als Diskonnektionssyndrom. Studien mit funktioneller Magnetresonanztomographie und Strukturgleichungsmodellen

    Schloesser, R. [Universitaet Jena, Psychiatrische Klinik (Germany); Universitaet Jena, Psychiatrische Klinik, Jena (Germany); Wagner, G.; Koehler, S.; Sauer, H. [Universitaet Jena, Psychiatrische Klinik (Germany)

    2005-02-01

    Aside from characteristic psychopathological symptoms, cognitive deficits are a core feature of schizophrenia. These deficits can only be addressed within the context of widespread functional interactions among different brain areas. To examine these interactions, structural equation modeling (SEM) was used for the analysis of fMRI datasets. In a series of studies, both in antipsychotic-treated and drug-free schizophrenic patients, a pattern of enhanced thalamocortical functional connectivity could be observed as an indicator for possible disruptions of frontostriatal thalamocortical circuitry. Moreover, drug-free patients and those receiving typical antipsychotic drugs were characterized by reduced interhemispheric corticocortical connectivity. This difference relative to normal controls was less in patients under atypical antipsychotic drugs. The results could be interpreted as a beneficial effect of atypical antipsychotic drugs on information processing in schizophrenic patients. The present findings are consistent with the model of schizophrenia as a disconnection syndrome and earlier concepts of ''cognitive dysmetria'' in schizophrenia. (orig.) [German] Neben der charakteristischen psychopathologischen Symptomatik stellen kognitive Defizite ein zentrales Merkmal der Schizophrenie dar. Diese Defizite koennen nur im Kontext miteinander interagierender Hirnareale verstanden werden. Zur Untersuchung dieser funktionellen Wechselbeziehungen wurden Strukturgleichungsmodelle (''structural equation modeling'', SEM) zur Auswertung von fMRT-Datensaetzen verwendet. In einer Untersuchungsreihe bei schizophrenen Patienten ergab sich sowohl bei antipsychotisch behandelten als auch bei unbehandelten Patienten ein Muster gesteigerter thalamokortikaler funktioneller Konnektivitaet als Hinweis auf eine moegliche Stoerung fronto-striato-thalamo-kortikaler Regelkreise. Unbehandelte Patienten und Patienten unter typischen Antipsychotika zeichneten sich zudem durch eine reduzierte interhemisphaerische kortikokortikale Konnektivitaet aus. Dieser Unterschied zu den Gesunden war bei den Patienten unter atypischen Antipsychotika nicht mehr in dieser Auspraegung zu beobachten, was als Ausdruck einer moeglichen positiven Beeinflussung der Informationsverarbeitung bei Patienten unter Atypika interpretiert werden koennte. Die erhaltenen Ergebnisse sind konsistent mit dem Modell der Schizophrenie als einem Diskonnektionssyndrom und frueheren Konzeptionen einer ''kognitiven Dysmetrie'' als Grundlage kognitiver Defizite bei dieser Erkrankung. (orig.)

  20. Silver segregation to \\theta' (Al2Cu)-Al interfaces in Al-Cu-Ag alloys

    Rosalie, Julian M.; Bourgeois, Laure

    2012-01-01

    \\theta' (Al2Cu) precipitates in Al-Cu-Ag alloys were examined using high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM). The precipitates nucleated on dislocation loops on which assemblies of {\\gamma}' (AlAg2) precipitates were present. These dislocation loops were enriched in silver prior to \\theta' precipitation. Coherent, planar interfaces between the aluminium matrix and \\theta' precipitates were decorated by a layer of silver of two atomic layers in thick...

  1. Growth and Optical Properties of Al rich AlN/AlGaN Quantum Wells

    Tahtamouni, T. M. Al; Nepal, N.; Nakarmi, M. L.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.

    2006-03-01

    Al rich AlGaN alloys are promising materials for the applications in the optoelectronic devices such as deep ultraviolet (UV) emitters and detectors in the spectral range down to 200 nm. AlGaN based UV emitters (?bio-chemical agent detection and medical research/ health care. To realize deep UV emission (?0.65) on AlN/sapphire templates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Deep UV photoluminescence (PL) was employed to study the optical properties of the QWs. Well width (Al composition) dependence was studied by varying the QW thickness (Al composition) with fixed x 0.65 (well width at 3 nm). Optical properties of these QWs such as the effects of alloy fluctuation, temperature, strain and piezoelectric field, carrier and exciton localizations on the quantum efficiency have been studied. Carrier and exciton dynamics were probed. Implications of our findings on the applications of Al rich AlN/AlGaN QWs for UV emitters and detectors will also be discussed.

  2. "Mediman" – Smartphone als Plattform zum Lernen? ["Mediman" – The smartphone as a learning platform?

    Boeder, Niklas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available [english] Mobile devices with a connection to the internet – smartphones – are seen all over the place since the popular introduction of the Apple iPhone. Similar products existed but no company managed to combine simplicity and functionality so seamlesly. Their market share increases constantly and web sites get optimised for the small display sizes (often referred to as „responsive webdesign“ otherwise the usability lacks. Students seem to like smartphones aswell and a good question is if and to what extend those devices can play a role in e-learning.„Mediman“, an adaptation of the common game Hangman has been developed for smartphones. Test users asked to complete an online questionnaire. So far, only few e-learning applications for smartphones seem to exist. This is reflected in the low usage frequency. Especially the fact that most of the test users wear a smartphone with them all the time makes it an ideal learning plattform. Short learning sessions were rated more important than continuous text. The majority of the 11 test users rated Mediman as well developed. The foremost question whether a smartphone e-learning application is feasible must be answered positive – acceptance in the test user group was shown. E-learning applications on smartphones will be an important topic in the future as market shares increase constantly. Further studies are required due to the small number of partitipants in our survey. [german] Mobile Endgeräte mit Internetzugang (Smartphones sind seit Apples revolutionärer iPhone-Markteinführung nicht mehr aus dem Alltag wegzudenken und erfreuen sich ausgesprochener Beliebtheit. Ihr Marktanteil wächst stetig und Webseitenbetreiber kommen nicht umher, ihre Webseiten an die neuen kleinen Displaygrößen und Bedienungstechniken anzupassen – häufig als „Responsive Webdesign“ beschrieben. Anwendungen, die nicht für die Anzeige auf kleinen Bildschirmen optimiert sind, schränken den Bedienkomfort ein. Auch bei Studierenden sind Smartphones sehr verbreitet und so stellt sich die Frage, ob sie nicht auch als Plattform für Lernanwendungen dienen können.„Mediman“, eine Portierung des klassischen Spielprinzips von Galgenmännchen, wurde für Smartphones entwickelt. Testbenutzer wurden dann gebeten, einen Onlinefragebogen auszufüllen. Zur Zeit scheinen nur wenige Lernanwendungen für Smartphones zu existieren, was sich in der eingeschränkten Benutzungshäufigkeit widerspiegelt. Vor allem die Tatsache, dass Smartphone-Besitzer ihre Geräte meist bei sich tragen, wird als ideale Voraussetzung gesehen, die Geräte für Lernanwendungen einzusetzen. Hier scheint vor allem das Lernen in kurzen Sitzungen von Interesse. Mediman wurde von der Mehrzahl der 11 Testbenutzer als gut umgesetzte Beispielanwendung bewertet. Die zentrale Frage der Umsetzbarkeit einer Smartphone-Lernanwendung wurde damit erreicht – die notwendige Akzeptanz scheint vorhanden.Für die Zukunft ist mit einer zunehmenden Verbreitung von Smartphones zu rechnen, sodass Lernanwendungen und –szenarien für Endgeräte mit kleinen Bildschirmen optimiert werden sollten. Aufgrund der geringen Fallzahl in der Onlineumfrage sollten weitere Untersuchungen angeschlossen werden.

  3. Epistemologi Sufi : Perspektif Al-Hakim Al-Tirmidzi

    Ainul Abidin Shah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract : This article deals with some epistemological terms and theoretical postulates in the thought of a well known sufi  from the 9th century AD., Abu `Abdu’lLah Muhammad b. `Ali al-Hakim al-Tirmidzi, in order to describe the path (sulūk of a sufi towards the Ultimate Reality. In his own style thought about the sufis, placing an emphasis upon the strong relations between the walāyah (sufi  sainthood and the ma`rifa (sufi knowledge in the one side, and between the two a philosophy of Sufi Ethics. So, it is nothing out of the ordinary to fi nd his ethical inclinations as a dominant feature in every aspect of his epistemological thoughts. In addition, sufi epistemology in the perspective of philosophers focuses on enforcing the inner positive potents of the Self more so than to eliminate “the satanic influences” to the heart, because – in al-Tirmidzi’s argument is that the former would greatly improve the immunity of the self, and encourage it to tread consistently on the right path as well.Keywords :  Dhawq, eros, heart, exoteric, esoteric, al-Haqq, al-`Adl, al-Shidq Abstrak : Artikel ini membahas istilah-istilah epistemologi dan beberapa postulat dari seorang sufi terkenal abad ke-9, Abu `Abdu’lLahMuh ammad b.`Ali al-Hakim al-Tirmidzi, dalam upaya menggambarkan perjalanan suluk seorang sufi menuju Realitas Mutlak. Dalam gaya pemikirannya tentang sufi, kita menemukan bahwa figur ini cenderung  menekankan hubungan-hubungan yang kuat antara wal āyah (kewalian sufi dan ma‘rifa (pengetahuan sufi di satu sisi, dan antara keduanya dengan filsafat moral sufi.  Jadi, tidak aneh jika kita menemukan kecenderungan - kecenderungan etis yang dominan dalam setiap aspek  pemikiran epistemologinya. Dan epistemologi sufi dalam perspektif para filsuf lebih menekankan potensi inner Diri yang positif daripada menghapuskan “cara-cara syaitan” dalam hati, karena - menurut pendapat al-Tirmidzi – ia akan meningkatkan kekebalan diri, dan juga mendorongnya untuk tetap berada di jalan yang lurus.Kata kunci : Dzawq, eros, hati, eksoteris, esoteris, al-Haqq, al-`Adl, al-Shidq

  4. El miedo al rey

    François FORONDA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La peur du roi. Sources et premières réflexions à propos d’une émotion aristocratique dans la Castille du XIVe siècleFace à un roi qui à présent pousse les effets de son ire jusqu’au meurtre pour faire le vide autour de lui et imposer sa différence souveraine, ses parents et les riches hommes, soit les principaux visés par cette politique de l’arbitraire qui enfreint les règles du jeu autant qu’elle contribue à les redéfinir, disent la peur (metus qu’ils ressentent, qu’ils utilisent aussi afin de donner à leur stratégie de pouvoir un fondement légitime. Et l’expression de cette émotion politique, qui tend à se muer en un stéréotype d’un discours aristocratique d’opposition, surtout présente dans les chroniques, mises ici en relation ici avec d’autres sources, notamment des correspondances, marque profondément l’histoire des relations souvent conflictuelles au sein de cette compagnie en définitive très étroite pendant un siècle, de la fin du XIIIe siècle à la fin du XIVe siècle. Cet article se propose d’ébaucher une première réflexion sur le sujet et d’en présenter les principales sources.El miedo al rey. Fuentes y primeras reflexiones acerca de una emoción aristocrática en la Castilla del siglo XIVFrente a un rey que ahora lleva hasta la muerte los efectos de su ira para hacer el vacío entorno a su persona e imponer su soberana, sus parientes y ricos hombres, o sea los principales afectados por esta política de la arbitrariedad que rompe las reglas del juego a la vez que contribuye a redefinirlas, dicen el miedo (metus que sienten, que utilizan también para darle a su estrategia de poder un fundamento legítimo. Y la expresión de esta emoción política, que tiende a convertirse en un estereotipo de un discurso aristocrático de oposición, sobre todo presente en la crónicas, aquí puestas en relación con otras fuentes, en particular cartas, marca profundamente la historia de las relaciones a menudo conflictivas dentro de esta compañia finalemente muy estrecha durante un siglo, de finales del XIII a finales del XIV. En este artículo, me propongo esbozar una primera reflexión sobre el tema y presentar sus principales fuentes.

  5. Frequently Asked Questions about ALS and the ALS Registry

    ... one of a group of conditions known as motor neuron diseases (MNDs). ALS affects nerve cells for muscles of ... it is a good tool to track other motor neuron diseases (e.g., PLS). Back to Top Can someone ...

  6. On the cathodic dissolution of Al and Al alloys

    Highlights: • The cathodic dissolution of pure Al and AA6061 aluminum alloy is measured. • Cathodic dissolution of Al occurs with a stoichiometry of 4.62 ± 0.22 OH−/Al3+ over several orders of magnitude of cathodic current. • Cathodic dissolution of SiO2 observed at high cathodic current. • Mg2+ species precipitated on the surface perhaps in the form of MgSiO3. • Aln[Fem,Mn1−m]Si phases serve as local cathodes forming “trenches” around the intermetallic particles. - Abstract: The cathodic dissolution of aluminum and aluminum alloys is a potentially important but poorly understood phenomenon. In this work, the dissolution of pure Al and AA6061 aluminum alloy under cathodic polarizations was investigated. The dissolution rates of the base metal and minor alloying elements were measured in real time using atomic emission spectroelectrochemistry. These data were used to verify the stoichiometry of 4.62 ± 0.22 hydroxides per dissolved Al ion for pure Al. It was found that at high cathodic currents, the cathodic dissolution of SiO2 was observed while Mg2+ species precipitated on the surface perhaps in the form of MgSiO3. These precipitated solid phases did not alter the OH/Al stoichiometry. The Aln[Fem,Mn1−m]Si phases appear to serve as local cathodes accelerating Al dissolution leading to the formation of “trenches” around the intermetallic particles

  7. El pensamiento frente al arte

    Bergmann, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Es un hecho histórico de gran importancia el que el hombre haya creado arte antes de haberse dedicado a la filosofía. Al mencionar esto no pienso en las pinturas pre-históricas que se encuentran en las cuevas de España y en el Sur de Francia, sino ante todo, en el arte egipcio y mesopotámico.  En Egipto y Mesopotamia --y Mesopotamia parece ser la región más importante -no nació sino que se creó al hombre humano, al hombre como ser arquitectónico.

  8. In memory of Al Cameron

    Cowan, John; Truran, James W.

    Al Cameron, who died recently (October 3, 2005) at 80, was one of the giants in astrophysics. His insights were profound and his interests were wide-ranging. Originally trained as a nuclear physicist, he made major contributions in a number of fields, including nuclear reactions in stars, nucleosynthesis, the abundances of the elements in the Solar System, and the origin of the Solar System and the Moon. In 1957, Cameron and, independently, Burbidge, Burbidge, Fowler and Hoyle, wrote seminal papers on nuclear astrophysics. Most of our current ideas concerning ele- ment formation in stars have followed from those two pioneering and historical works. Al also made many contributions in the field of Solar System physics. Particularly noteworthy in this regard was Cameron's work on the formation of the Moon. Al was also a good friend and mentor of young people. Al Cameron will be missed by many in the community both for his scientific contributions and for his friendship.

  9. Kurzwortbildungen als Merkmal der Deutschenrechtssprache

    Ljubica Kordić

    2013-01-01

    In deutscher Rechtssprache kommen häufig die Nominalkomposita vor, die auf eineim Vergleich mit der Gemeinsprache ungewöhnliche Weise gebildet werden. Diese Wortbildungsform wird in deutschen Grammatiken unterschiedlich bestimmt: als Reduktion, Kurzwortbildung, Kontraktion bzw. Klammerform. Dieser Wortbildungstypkann mit dem Kompositum Mietblock illustriert werden, das durch Verkürzung aus Miet(wohnungs)block entstanden ist. Im Kroatischen, wo Komposition als Wortbildungstyp relativ schwach v...

  10. Response to Brosch et al.

    Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Lerin, Carles; Kaminska, Dorota; Venesmaa, Sari; Itkonen, Paula; Boes, Tanner; Floss, Thomas; Schroeder, Joshua; Dearie, Farrell; Crunkhorn, Sarah; Burak, Furkan; Jimenez-Chillaron, Josep C.; Kuulasmaa, Tiina; Miettinen, Pekka; Park, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    We would like to respond to Brosch et al. regarding our manuscript “Expression of the Splicing Factor Gene SFRS10 Is Reduced in Human Obesity and Contributes to Enhanced Lipogenesis” (Pihlajamäki et al., 2011b). Brosch performed RT-PCR in liver samples from 13 lean and 34 obese individuals, finding no differences in SFRS10 or LPIN1 expression. We wish to address points raised by Brosch, including experimental strategy and analysis of human SFRS10 expression.

  11. Psychoanalyse als Theorie autopoeitischer Systeme

    Wasser, Harald

    1995-01-01

    Der Artikel vertritt die These, daß es möglich ist, die Freudsche Psychoanalyse als systemtheoretische Psychologie zu rekonstruieren. Im Vordergrund steht dabei der Versuch, psychische Systeme als codierte, in Teilsysteme differenzierte Systeme zu verstehen. Die Freudsche Unterscheidung bewußt/unbewußt ist allerdings nur dann kompatibel mit dieser Theorie der Codierung, wenn man sich von der Vorstellung trennt, psychische Systeme seien über den Operationsmodus "Bewußtsein" geschlossen.

  12. Die Bedeutung der postprandialen Hyperglykmie als kardiovaskulrer Risikofaktor

    Hoppichler F

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Im Hinblick auf das hohe mikro- und makrovaskulre Risiko von Typ-2-Diabetikern fordern Experten immer vehementer eine mglichst frhzeitige Diagnose und Therapie. Neben den prognostisch wichtigen Zielwerten fr den Nchternblutzucker und fr das HbA1c rckt dabei die Vermeidung postprandialer Blutzuckerspitzen immer mehr ins Zentrum therapeutischer Bestrebungen. Der HbA1c-Wert wird nicht nur durch die Nchtern-, sondern auch durch die postprandialen Blutzuckerspitzen mitbestimmt. Eine Reduktion des HbA1c-Wertes vermindert die diabetische Sptkomplikationsrate, wie die UKPDS darstellen konnte. Im folgenden werden die Epidemiologie und die Therapie der postprandialen Hyperglykmie mit Schwerpunkt auf die Behandlung des Diabetes mellitus Typ 2 dargestellt.

  13. The hydrogen economy. When there is no more oil. The creation of the worldwide energy web and the redistribution of power on earth; Die H{sub 2}-Revolution. Wenn es kein Oel mehr gibt. Mit neuer Energie fuer eine gerechte Weltwirtschaft

    Rifkin, J.

    2002-07-01

    The author explains that the next great economic era will be powered by hydrogen. Drawing on a variety of well-balanced research studies, his premise is that the world must switch from a fossil-fuel economy to a hydrogen based economy. This must happen soon for three reasons: the imminent peak of global oil production, the increased concentration of remaining oil reserves in the Middle East one of the most politically and socially unstable regions of the world and the steady heating up of the world atmosphere from fossil-fuel dependency. This revolution will make energy available to each country, not just the wealthiest nations, and would be the first democratic energy regime in history. [German] Das Zeitalter der fossilen Brennstoffe (Kohlenwasserstoffzeitalter) ist an einem kritischen Punkt angelangt. In dem Buch von Jeremy Rifkin beweisen nach einem kurzen Abriss der Energiegeschichte akribisch angefuehrte umfangreiche Statistiken, dass das Erdoel und Erdgas spaetestens 2010 spuerbar knapp sein wird. Die wenigen verbliebenen Erdoelreserven liegen ausserdem ueberwiegend in politisch instabilen Gebieten. Bei steigender Oelknappheit treiben die alternativ verwendeten anderen fossilen Energiequellen die globale Erwaermung voran und gefaehrden das Oekosystem der Erde. Jeremy Rifkin sieht den einzigen Ausweg in einer neuen, auf Wasserstoff basierenden Weltwirtschaft. Die ''Dekarbonisierung'' der Energie, die unvermeidlich zur Wasserstoffzukunft fuehren wird, ist abzusehen. Wasserstoff wird eine basisdemokratische, nachhaltige Energie- und Brennstoffquelle der Zukunft, unabhaengig von Oelimporten. Brennstoffzellen auf Wasserstoffbasis koennen den Energiebedarf der gesamten Menschheit ueber einen sehr langen Zeitraum decken. Die realisierung einer neuen dezentralen Form der Energienutzung und demokratischen Energiekontrolle durch Millionen von Verbrauchern (lokalen Kleinstkraftwerken mit Brennstoffzellen), angeschlossen an ein weltweites Wasserstoffenergienetz, um damit Energie untereinander tauschen zu koennen und mit Ueberschuessen handeln zu koennen, wird eine demokratische Reglobalisierung von unten bedeuten. Die Zeit der wenigen grossen Energiekonzerne wird von einer Epoche vieler kleiner, unabhaengiger Versorger abgeloest. Oekonomische, soziale und und oekologische Netzwerke werden entstehen als Teil eines gesamtweltlichen Organismus und ein neues Sicherheits- und Unabhaengigkeitsgefuehl aller Buerger hervorrufen. Die eindeutigen Vorteile von Wasserstoff bestehen darin, dass Wasserstoff ueberall existiert, unbegrenzt verfuegbar ist und keine schaedlichen Kohlendioxidemissionen produziert. Diese Energie wird auch erschwinglich fuer Laender, die heute keinen Zugang zu Energie und Wohlstand haben. Ja gerade die Entwicklungslaender koennten den ersten Schritt in die nachhaltige Wasserstoffnutzung machen mit Sonnenenergie als Katalysator. Die ersten Brennstoffzellen auf Waserstoff-Basis werden bereits vielseitig eingesetzt, jedoch ist die Wasserstofferzeugung immer noch teuer und der meiste Wasserstoff wird aus Erdgas und anderen fossilen Brennstoffen gewonnen. In absehbarer Zeit koennte Wasserstoff mit erneuerbaren Energien produziert und billiger werden. Selbst in den Vorstandsetagen fuehrender Energieunternehmen sowie bei politischen Entscheidungstraegern erfreut sich Jules Vernes Vision von einer Zukunft im Zeichen des Wasserstoffs grosser Aufmerksamkeit und sie bemuehen sich auch schon jetzt um.

  14. Characteristics of Nb/Al-AlOx-Al/Nb Josephson junction Fabricated using Facing Target Sputtering

    Nb and Al films in the Nb/Al-AlOx-Al/Nb junction structure have been deposited using facing target sputtering applied with DC power. In this sputtering system, the γ electrons generated in the plasma are retained and reciprocated between a pair of targets and those hardly do damage to the junction interface during the deposition. An SiO2 film has been also deposited using the same sputtering applied with RF power. An anodization process is used for the fabrication process. Fabricated junctions have indicated the I-V characteristics with small sug-gap leakage current (0.11 pA/μm2 at 0.49 K). We think it is effective for both the facing target sputtering technique and the anodization process to obtain the junction with small sub-gap leakage current

  15. Mohrrbenpolitik: Zielvereinbarungen zwischen reflexivem Management und fortgeschrittener Erbsenzhlung

    Moldaschl, Manfred

    2007-01-01

    Zielvereinbarungen finden - der Literaturlage zufolge - rasch zunehmende Verbreitung. Das mag damit erklrt werden, da sie als Universalwerkzeug betrieblicher Gestaltung dienen knnen, sich gar zu einem machtvollen Mittel strategischen Managements entwickeln lassen. Einen Quantensprung zu mehr Leistung verspricht etwa Bhner (2000), mehr Motivation durch Transparenz, bessere Fhrung durch Controlling, und hhere Leistung durch Fairness. Abgesehen von der blichen Unkenntnis der Physik, d...

  16. Emergence and development of spiritual-religious groups in the Peoples Republic of China after 1978

    Kupfer, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    Charismatische Anfhrer, geheime Netzwerke und eschantologische Lehren - spirituell-religise Gruppierungen finden seit 1978 in der Volksrepublik mehr und mehr Anhnger. Die chinesische Regierung verfolgt sie als "hretische Lehren". Diese Studie vergleicht die Entstehung und Entwicklung christlich-inspirierter und Qigong-basierter Gruppen. Dazu analysiert sie ihre ideellen, organisatorischen und aktions-orientierten Ressourcen. Anschlieend werden die Interaktionen zwischen den G...

  17. Differences in US-German Time-Allocation: Why Do Americans Work Longer Hours than Germans?

    Schettkat, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    "Nach allgemeiner Auffassung arbeiten Amerikaner lnger pro Jahr als Deutsche oder andere Europer. Wenn jedoch die Arbeit im Haushalt einbezogen wird, ist die Gesamtarbeitszeit auf beiden Seiten des Atlantiks fast gleich. Amerikaner leisten mehr Arbeitsstunden in bezahlter Arbeit, Deutsche investieren mehr Arbeitsstunden in Hausarbeit. Dieser Beitrag untersucht, ob diese unterschiedliche Arbeitszeitverteilung durch unterschiedliche Anreizstrukturen erklrt werden kann, das heit Steuerzwnge...

  18. Mehr Nähe durch mehr Partikeln? Zur verwendung der Abtönungspartikeln in persönlichen Briefen / Janika Kärk

    Kärk, Janika

    2008-01-01

    Partiklite esinemissagedusest isiklikes kirjades ja selle muutumisest 18., 19. ja 20. sajandi vältel ning võimalikest partiklikasutust mõjutanud teguritest. Ülevaade ka värvingupartiklite morfoloogilistest, süntaktilistest ja pragmaatilistest omadustest

  19. A united refinement technology for commercial pure Al by Al-10Ti and Al-Ti-C master alloys

    Because flake-like TiAl3 particles in Al-Ti-C master alloys prepared in a melt reaction method dissolve slowly when they are added into Al melt at 720 deg. C, Ti atoms cannot be released rapidly to play the assistant role of grain refinement, leading to a poor refinement efficiency of Al-Ti-C master alloys. A united refinement technology by Al-10Ti and Al-Ti-C master alloys was put forward in this paper. The rational combination of fine blocky TiAl3 particles in Al-10Ti and TiC particles in Al-Ti-C can improve the nucleation rate of α-Al. It not only improves the grain refinement efficiency of Al-Ti-C master alloys, but also reduces the consumption

  20. A united refinement technology for commercial pure Al by Al-10Ti and Al-Ti-C master alloys

    Ma Xiaoguang [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Liu Xiangfa [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)], E-mail: xfliu@sdu.edu.cn; Ding Haimin [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2009-03-05

    Because flake-like TiAl{sub 3} particles in Al-Ti-C master alloys prepared in a melt reaction method dissolve slowly when they are added into Al melt at 720 deg. C, Ti atoms cannot be released rapidly to play the assistant role of grain refinement, leading to a poor refinement efficiency of Al-Ti-C master alloys. A united refinement technology by Al-10Ti and Al-Ti-C master alloys was put forward in this paper. The rational combination of fine blocky TiAl{sub 3} particles in Al-10Ti and TiC particles in Al-Ti-C can improve the nucleation rate of {alpha}-Al. It not only improves the grain refinement efficiency of Al-Ti-C master alloys, but also reduces the consumption.

  1. Conjuntivitis alérgica

    Alejandro Tello Hernández

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available La conjuntivitis alérgica es una de las causas más comunesde consulta externa en oftalmología y tiene una muy altarelación con las reacciones alérgicas sistémicas. Lafisiopatología de las reacciones de hipersensibilidad noshace entender los cuadros clínicos característicos de estapatología y sus diferentes grados de severidad. Eldiagnostico diferencial es amplio, sin embargo hay clavesdiagnosticas que nos orientan rápidamente al diagnosticocorrecto. El tratamiento se enfoca en las medidasfarmacológicas y no farmacológicas, utilizándolas enconjunto para disminuir la recurrencia del cuadro y prevenirsecuelas visuales.

  2. Modeling of the ALS linac

    The ALS injector linac is used for the Beam Test Facility (BTF) and the Damping Experiments when it is available in between the ALS filings. These experiments usually require higher quality beams and a better characterization than is normally required for ALS operations. This paper focuses on the beam emittance, energy tilt, and especially the longitudinal variation of the beam parameters. For instance, the authors want to avoid longitudinal variations at the low beta section of the BTF. On the other hand, a large energy tilt is required for post-acceleration compression of the bunch using an alpha magnet. The PARMELA code was modified to calculate and display longitudinal variations of the emittance ellipse. Using the Microsoft Development Studio under Windows NT environment the code can handle a much larger number of particles than was previously possible

  3. Preparation and Properties of Hot-pressed Al2O3/Al-steel Mesh-Al Laminated Composites

    BAI Ming-Min, LI Wei-Xin, LI Yan-Hui, ZHAO Wei, RAO Ping-Gen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Al2O3/Al-steel mesh-Al laminated composites with sandwich Al-steel mesh-Al layer as interlayer, which was consisted of two Al foils and one steel mesh, were prepared by vacuum hot pressing at 580? and 1.5 MPa. The results indicate that the interface of Al2O3/Al is bonded tightly and no reaction is observed. Intermetallic compound (IMC is detected in Al/steel interface which improves the connection conditions between the steel and Al. The laminated composites have much higher fracture toughness, work-of-fracture than that of the Al2O3 monolith, as well as having a close strength to Al2O3. Crack blunting and arresting, crack bridging, interface debonding, and ductile deformation of sandwich Al-steel mesh-Al layer are the main reasons for improving the toughness and work-of-fracture of laminated composites. Low-velocity impact results suggest that the Al2O3/Al-steel mesh-Al laminated composites have good impact resistance.

  4. Production of Al nanocomposite reinforced by Fe-Al intermetallic, Al4C3 and nano-Al2O3 particles using wet milling in toluene

    Highlights: ? Production of Al nanocomposite reinforced by Fe-Al intermetallic, Al4C3 and nano-Al2O3 particles using wet milling in toluene. ? Production of Al4C3 particles from mechanochemical reaction of Al with PCA. ? Effect of second phase particles on sintering. - Abstract: Al matrix nanocomposites were produced by wet milling of Al and nano-alumina powders in a toluene media. X-ray diffraction patterns, inductively coupled plasma, carbon measurement analysis and scanning electron microscopy show that impurities introduced by decomposition of toluene and abrasion of balls and vials are uniformly dispersed in the Al matrix as Al4C3 and Fe-Al intermetallic particles. Though producing homogenous nanocomposites, these second phase particles seem to have a retarding effect on densification of nanocomposite powders.

  5. Generation and evolution of nanoscale AlP and Al13Fe4 particles in Al-Fe-P system

    Highlights: • Diffusion and gradual solid reactions between Al and FexP phases in Al-Fe-P alloy were investigated. • Nanoscale AlP clusters are in-situ generated and evolve during the whole process. • This novel Al-Fe-P alloy has an excellent low-temperature refining performance on hypereutectic Al-Si alloy. - Abstract: In this paper, the gradual solid reactions between Al and FexP phases in Al-Fe-P alloy were investigated. The results show that the whole reaction process undergoes four main stages: the diffusion of Al atom, the generation of (Al, Fe, P) intermediate compound, the precipitation of nano AlP and Al13Fe4 clusters and their growth to submicron particles. The microstructure of Fe-P particles evolves from the “egg-type”, the “sponge-type” to the “sesame-cake” structure. AlP and Al13Fe4 nano phases have in-situ generated and evolved during the whole process. The gradual reaction mechanism has been discussed. Furthermore, a novel Al-Fe-P alloy which contains (Al, Fe, P) intermediate compounds and nano AlP particles has been synthesized and its low-temperature refining performance on A390 alloy has also been investigated

  6. Identification of Candida albicans ALS2 and ALS4 and Localization of Als Proteins to the Fungal Cell Surface

    Hoyer, L L; Payne, T. L.; Hecht, J E

    1998-01-01

    Additional genes in the growing ALS family of Candida albicans were isolated by PCR screening of a genomic fosmid library with primers designed from the consensus tandem-repeat sequence of ALS1. This procedure yielded fosmids encoding ALS2 and ALS4. ALS2 and ALS4 conformed to the three-domain structure of ALS genes, which consists of a central domain of tandemly repeated copies of a 108-bp motif, an upstream domain of highly conserved sequences, and a domain of divergent sequences 3? of the t...

  7. VENEZUELA: OTRA ALTERNATIVA AL NEOLIBERALISMO

    Huber Fernández González

    2008-01-01

    con las fuerzas que se oponen al cambio y que aún no han sido derrotadas totalmente. Estas fuerzas, aunque están desprestigiadas política y socialmente, cuentan con poder económico, financiero, militar, con los medios de comunicación a su favor y con el apoyo incondicional de los Estados Unidos.

  8. Dynamic Modeling of ALS Systems

    Jones, Harry

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of dynamic modeling and simulation of Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems is to help design them. Static steady state systems analysis provides basic information and is necessary to guide dynamic modeling, but static analysis is not sufficient to design and compare systems. ALS systems must respond to external input variations and internal off-nominal behavior. Buffer sizing, resupply scheduling, failure response, and control system design are aspects of dynamic system design. We develop two dynamic mass flow models and use them in simulations to evaluate systems issues, optimize designs, and make system design trades. One model is of nitrogen leakage in the space station, the other is of a waste processor failure in a regenerative life support system. Most systems analyses are concerned with optimizing the cost/benefit of a system at its nominal steady-state operating point. ALS analysis must go beyond the static steady state to include dynamic system design. All life support systems exhibit behavior that varies over time. ALS systems must respond to equipment operating cycles, repair schedules, and occasional off-nominal behavior or malfunctions. Biological components, such as bioreactors, composters, and food plant growth chambers, usually have operating cycles or other complex time behavior. Buffer sizes, material stocks, and resupply rates determine dynamic system behavior and directly affect system mass and cost. Dynamic simulation is needed to avoid the extremes of costly over-design of buffers and material reserves or system failure due to insufficient buffers and lack of stored material.

  9. Eine wasserdurchlssige Dampfbremse als Hygrodiode

    Sagelsdorff, Ralph; Rode, Carsten

    Hohe Feuchtigkeit unde freies Wasser in Baukonstruktionen knne zu Bauphysikalischen Problemen und Schden fhren. Vor allem whrend der Bauphase eingebrachchtes oder durch Risse eindringendes Wasser, das bei ungnstigen Konstruktionen nur schlecht austrocknet, wird in der Winterperiode durch...... Diffusionsprozesse noch erhht. Eine wasserdurchlssige Dampfbremse als Hygrodiode erlaubt die sichere kapillare Rckfhrung des Wassers zur Raumseite, wo es verdunsten kann....

  10. Cathodic electrochemiluminescence at double barrier Al/Al2O3/Al/Al2O3 tunnel emission electrodes

    Double insulating barrier tunnel emission electrodes were fabricated by adding a new pure aluminum layer upon oxidized aluminum electrodes by vacuum evaporation and thermally oxidizing the new aluminum layer in air at room temperature. Resulting Al/Al2O3/Al/Al2O3 electrodes allow the use of various aluminum alloys in the electrode body necessary for hardness or shaping ability of the electrode while obtaining the luminescence properties of pure aluminum oxide. During electrical excitation of luminescent labels by cathodic hot electron injection into aqueous electrolyte solution, the background noise is mainly based on high-field-induced solid-state electroluminescence and F-center luminescence of the outer aluminum oxide film. The more defect states and/or impurity centers the outer oxide film contains, the higher is the background emission intensity. The present electrode fabrication method provides a considerable improvement in signal-to-noise ratio for time-resolved electrochemiluminescence (TR-ECL) measurements when the original native oxide film of the electrode body contains luminescence centers displaying long-lived luminescence. The excellent performance of the present electrodes is demonstrated by extremely low-level detection of Tb(III) chelates, luminol, Pt(II) coproporphyrin and Tb(III) labels in an immunometric immunoassay by time-resolved electrochemiluminescence

  11. Der Nutzer als besserer Fachreferent?

    Robert Scheuble

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Am 9. Juli 2014 veranstaltete der VDB-Regionalverband Sdwest in Kooperation mit der Deutschen Nationalbibliothek in Frankfurt am Main eine Fortbildungsveranstaltung zum Thema Der Nutzer als besserer Fachreferent?, die sich mit Formen von und Erfahrungen mit nutzergesteuerter Erwerbung (PDA in wissenschaftlichen Bibliotheken beschftigte.

  12. Al Zubarah - eine vergessene Legende

    Kinzel, Moritz

    Jahre später auf einem Sechstel der ursprünglichen Siedlungsfläche wiedererrichtet und dann im ausgehenden 19. Jahrhundert / beginnenden 20. Jahrhundert endgültig aufgeben. Die Stadt lebt als Legende im Bewusstsein der katarischen Bevölkerung, doch der Name wird heute nicht mit der Stadtanlage sondern...

  13. Personalidad y tolerancia al dolor

    JESÚS M.ª CARRILLO

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se examina la relación de algunas variables de personalidad -EPQ-A (Eysenck y Eysenck, 1975, NEO-PI (McCrae y Costa, 1988 y STA -personalidad esquizotípica- y STB -personalidad límite-, de Claridge y Broks (1984, con la tolerancia al dolor experimental inducido mediante agua fría (cold pressor test, según el procedimiento de Staats, Heckmat y Staats (1998 en una muestra filtrada mediante un cuestionario sobre dolor crónico, dolores de cabeza, de espalda, artritis, síndrome de Raynaud, y personas bajo medicación. La tolerancia al dolor experimental se evaluó mediante el Umbral del dolor (tiempo en segundos desde la introducción de la mano en el agua hasta el primer informe de dolor, Mantenimiento del dolor (duración en segundos de la inmersión de la mano desde la aparición del umbral hasta su retirada y Tolerancia al dolor (duración total en segundos de la inmersión de la mano desde su introducción hasta su retirada. Un análisis correlacional, factorial y de regresión por pasos mostraron un efecto cruzado entre medidas de ansiedad (tolerancia negativa al dolor y psicoticismo, siendo psicoticismo junto con control emocional predictores de tolerancia positiva al dolor. En cuanto a psicoticismo, parece que son sus elementos de naturaleza paranoide y de "dureza" los que afectan a una percepción atenuada del dolor.

  14. 75 FR 62858 - United States, et al.

    2010-10-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division United States, et al. v. American Express Company, et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and... of America, et al. v. American Express Company, et al., Civil Action No. CV-10-4496. On October...

  15. 76 FR 38700 - United States, et al.

    2011-07-01

    ... published in the Federal Register on October 13, 2010 (75 FR 62858); and (3) published summaries of the... Antitrust Division United States, et al. v. American Express Company, et al.; Public Comments and Response... Final Judgment in United States, et al. v. American Express Company, et al., Civil Action No....

  16. The temperature dependence of elasticity modulus for TiAl and Ni3Al basic alloy components for turbine rotor blade. ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ??????????????? TiAl ? Ni3Al ???????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??????.

    ?. ?. ????????

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Possibility of theoretical determination of elastic characteristics for intermetallides on the example of TiAl and Ni3Al on the base of electrostatic nature of elasticity is demonstrated. Elaborated method is able for using for computing modeling of mono- and polycrystal materials under conditions of experimental data absence. ????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ???? ?? ?????? ?????????????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????????? ?? ??????? TiAl ? Ni3Al. ????????????? ????? ????? ???????????? ??? ????????????? ????????????? ????- ? ??????????????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ????????????????? ??????.

  17. Large rectification magnetoresistance in nonmagnetic Al/Ge/Al heterojunctions

    Kun Zhang; Huan-huan Li; Peter Grünberg; Qiang Li; Sheng-tao Ye; Yu-feng Tian; Shi-shen Yan; Zhao-jun Lin; Shi-shou Kang; Yan-xue Chen; Guo-lei Liu; Liang-mo Mei

    2015-01-01

    Magnetoresistance and rectification are two fundamental physical properties of heterojunctions and respectively have wide applications in spintronics devices. Being different from the well known various magnetoresistance effects, here we report a brand new large magnetoresistance that can be regarded as rectification magnetoresistance: the application of a pure small sinusoidal alternating-current to the nonmagnetic Al/Ge Schottky heterojunctions can generate a significant direct-current volt...

  18. Electrowinning Al from Al2S3 in Molten Salt :

    Xiao, Y.; Van der Plas, D.W.; Bohte, J.; Lans, S.C.; Van Sandwijk, A.; Reuter, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate an alternative process for the production of primary aluminum via a sulfide intermediate, the electrochemical behavior of Al2S3 in molten salt has been studied on a laboratory scale. The effects of electrolyte composition, temperature, and cell design on the cell performance have been investigated. Temperature and cryolite addition have positive effects on the current density. Increasing the anode-to-cathode surface area (closer to unity) and shortening the interelectr...

  19. Zur ethischen Imagination: Gesprche als Praxis und Komitees als Gatekeeper

    Redwood, Sabi; Todres, Les

    2006-01-01

    Das Gesprch, aus dem Auszge im Folgenden wiedergegeben werden, entstand im Rahmen der Vorbereitung fr eine erziehungswissenschaftliche Doktorarbeit zu ethischen Entscheidungsprozessen in der qualitativen Forschung in Gesundheitssettings. Wir hoffen, dass Leser und Leserinnen, die unsere Bedenken gegenber der Art und Weise teilen, wie qualitative Studien in diesem Feld begutachtet werden, zu dem hier erffneten Gesprch beitragen, so dass wir als Gemeinschaft von Forscherinnen und Forscher...

  20. Thermal conductance of a pressed Al-Al contact

    Wanner, M.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal conductance of a screw-fastened joint between two blocks of Al-alloys has been measured. An AlMg4.5Mn-block, the end of which is cooled by liquid helium, constitutes the upper part of the sample and the contact is formed at the face surface of a cylindrical extension of that block onto which a cylinder, made of AlMgSi1, is pressed by means of a copper-nickel screw. Pressing of the contact was carried out at room temperature by applying a defined torque, M, to the fastening screw. Three samples of the same shape but with differently treated surfaces of contact (machined flat, electro-chemically polished, with gold plated contacts) were studied. The results showed that the machined flat surfaces yield the best contact and that the contact conductance (measured in the range 4.2 K to 1.8 K) of all samples increased with increasing torque. In addition to thermal measurements, a study of the electrical conductance would be very interesting to determine the different contributions of phonon and electron heat conduction by means of the Wiedemann-Franz law. The work is useful for the GIRL (German Infra-Red Laboratory) space experiment.

  1. Effect of interface geometry on electron tunnelling in Al/Al2O3/Al junctions

    Koberidze, M.; Feshchenko, A. V.; Puska, M. J.; Nieminen, R. M.; Pekola, J. P.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate how different interface geometries of an Al/Al2O3 junction, a common component of modern tunnel devices, affect electron transport through the tunnel barrier. We study six distinct Al/Al2O3 interfaces which differ in stacking sequences of the metal and the oxide surface atoms and the oxide termination. To construct model potential barrier profiles for each examined geometry, we rely on first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) calculations for the barrier heights and the shapes of the interface regions as well as on experimental data for the barrier widths. We show that even tiny variations in the atomic arrangement at the interface cause significant changes in the tunnel barrier parameters and, consequently, in electron transport properties. Especially, we find that variations in the crucial barrier heights and widths can be as large as 2 eV and 5 Å, respectively. Finally, to gain information about the average properties of the measured junction, we fit the conductance calculated within the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation to the experimental data and interpret the fit parameters with the help of the DFT results.

  2. Al-Hadith Text Classifier

    Mohammed Naji Al-Kabi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explore the implementation of a text classification method to classify the prophet Mohammed (PBUH hadiths (sayings using Sahih Al-Bukhari classification. The sayings explain the Holy Qur`an, which considered by Muslims to be the direct word of Allah. Present method adopts TF/IDF (Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency which is used usually for text search. TF/IDF was used for term weighting, in which document weights for the selected terms are computed, to classify non-vocalized sayings, after their terms (keywords have been transformed to the corresponding canonical form (i.e., roots, to one of eight Books (classes, according to Al-Bukhari classification. A term would have a higher weight if it were a good descriptor for a particular book, i.e., it appears frequently in the book but is infrequent in the entire corpus.

  3. Type idéal

    Paugam, Serge

    2014-01-01

    L’usage de types idéaux constitue pour Max Weber une démarche sociologique fondamentale. Le type idéal est pour lui un moyen de comprendre le sens que les individus donnent à leurs expériences vécues, ce qui conduit à mettre ces dernières en relation avec l’organisation de la société à un moment historique de son évolution. Définir un type idéal ne signifie pas repérer sa forme majoritaire d’un point de vue statistique, mais discerner à partir des formes historiques des sociétés contemporaine...

  4. Lernhabitus als Grundlage lebenslanger Lernprozesse

    Herzberg, Heidrun

    2005-01-01

    'In diesem Artikel wird die These vertreten, dass das Habitus-Konzept von Bourdieu, wenn es bei der Analyse von lebenslangen (biographischen) Lern- und Bildungsprozessen angewandt wird, einer biographietheoretischen Reformulierung bedarf. Vor diesem Hintergrund wird das eigene Konzept des biographischen Lernhabitus vorgestellt. Als Ergebnis einer Zwei-Generationen-Studie im Rostocker Werftarbeitermilieu können zwei deutlich voneinander zu entscheidende Lernhabitusmuster präsentiert werden. In...

  5. Blut ist dicker als Wasser

    Susanne Benhr-Laqueur

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Der Band basiert auf Beitrgen des an der Humboldt-Universitt zu Berlin angesiedelten Forschungsprojektes Verwandtschaft als Reprsentation sozialer Ordnung und sozialer Praxis: Kulturen der Zusammengehrigkeit im Kontext sozialer und reproduktionsmedizinischer Transformationsprozesse. In dreizehn Artikeln wird anhand der Lnder Deutschland, Trkei und Grobritannien der Frage nachgegangen: Wie macht man Verwandtschaft? Angesichts des unaufhaltsamen Voranschreitens der Reproduktionsmedizin ist die Lektre dieses Bandes vorbehaltlos zu empfehlen.

  6. Net als in de film

    Visser, D.J.G.; Vrendenbarg, C.J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Een MOOC is een relatief nieuw fenomeen dat is overgewaaid uit de Verenigde Staten. De MOOC mania ontstond daar zon twee jaar geleden aan Stanford University, toen hoogleraren Thurn en Norvig de gratis online cursus getiteld An Introduction to Artificial Intelligence aankondigden op YouTube. Een maand na de aankondiging hadden zich meer dan 120.000 genteresseerden aangemeld. De cursus werd uiteindelijk door ruim 160.000 deelnemers gevolgd, waarvan 23.000 het examen haalden. Al snel volg...

  7. Utilitarismus als Methode der Ethik

    Daniels, Malte Cornelius

    2011-01-01

    In diesem Buch schlage ich eine radikal neuartige Sicht auf den Utilitarismus vor. Meine Hauptthese ist, dass der Utilitarismus selbst keine vollständige normative Theorie ist, aus der sich per se Handlungsbewertungen ableiten ließen, sondern normativ untersättigt und neutral ist. Sein normativer Gehalt ist vollständig abhängig von angenommenen Nutzenfunktionen. Jede konsistente Menge von moralischen Regeln (Moralsystem) kann, wie ich im Anhang beweise, als ein Spezialfall des Utilitarismus i...

  8. Vormundschaftsrecht als Grundlage politischer Herrschaft

    Arne Duncker

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In ihrer beachtlichen und sehr gewissenhaft dokumentierten Arbeit über vormundschaftliche Regentschaften im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert beschreibt Pauline Puppel unter ausführlichem Bezug auf zeitgenössische Literatur und Archivalien sowohl die allgemeine Rechtslage im damaligen Reich als auch die Anwendungsfälle in Hessen, wo zwischen 1500 und 1700 insgesamt viermal eine Landgräfin als Vormünderin des Fürsten zur Regentin ihres Landes wurde. Dies steht exemplarisch für eine bereits in der Frühen Neuzeit mögliche und nicht einmal ganz seltene Form politischer Frauenherrschaft, die bisher oft nicht hinreichend gewürdigt wurde. Puppels Untersuchung ist in zwei Hauptteile gegliedert. Der erste Teil (Das juristische Regelwerk“, S. 34-143 behandelt die zeitgenössischen Rahmenbedingungen der durch Frauen ausgeübten Vormundschaft und Regentschaft. Der zweite Abschnitt („Die Landgräfinnen von Hessen als Regentinnen“, S. 144-307 befasst sich mit der Ausfüllung dieser Regeln durch konkrete Fallbeispiele in Gestalt von Leben und Regentschaft der regierenden Landgräfinnen von Hessen.

  9. The effect of Si in Al-alloy on electromigration performance in Al filled vias

    Kageyama, Makiko; Hashimoto, Keiichi; Onoda, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    Electromigration performance of vias filled with Al-Si-Cu alloys on Ti glue layers was investigated in comparison with W-stud vias. In Al-Si-Cu filled vias, voids were formed at only a few locations in the test structure, while voids were formed at every via in W-stud via chains. It is supposed that Al moves through the Al-Si-Cu via during electromigration in spite of the existence of a glue layer at the via bottom. This phenomenon was observed only in the vias filled with Al-Si-Cu alloy. Al movement was prohibited in Al-Cu filled vias. In Al-Si-Cu filled vias, an Al-Ti-Si alloy was formed at the via bottom while Al3Ti was formed at Al-Cu filled vias. Al is speculated to move through this Al-Ti-Si alloy during electromigration.

  10. De los derechos humanos al derecho al aborto

    Zúñiga Fajuri, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Ninguna otra persona, en ninguna situación, es obligada a realizar el acto supererogatorio que se exige a la mujer embarazada. Aun cuando una adecuada aplicación de la teoría general de los derechos humanos permite reconocer el derecho al aborto durante los dos primeros trimestres del embarazo sobre la base de que los derechos sólo pueden restringirse por mor de los propios derechos. En esa línea, se intenta responder a quienes sostienen que el problema del aborto no puede resolverse pues no ...

  11. Armaflex in Burj al Arab; Armaflex im Burj al Arab

    Steiner, B.

    2003-07-01

    This article describes the Burj al Arab in Dubai, the unique seven-star high-rise hotel. The construction of the hotel, that is built on 250 piles driven into the sand of an artificial island in the Persian Gulf, is described. In particular, various special materials used in the building are described, as are the luxurious fittings and furnishings of the hotel. The cooling and air-conditioning installations that are necessary as a result of the desert climate of Dubai are described and the use of 'Armaflex' elastomer insulating material for the insulation of refrigeration machines and cold-water piping is discussed.

  12. The Structure and Main Issues of “al-Tasdid” of Husam al-Din al-Syghnaqi

    Daniyar B. Shalkarov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of the theological maturidia in the Central Asia was developed by the majority of outstanding scientists in the Turkic area and was known from generation to generation with manuscripts. One of these famous scientists was Abu al-Mu‘in al-Nasafi. In Central Asia, in the branch of the Islamic kalam theology there were the works “Tabsira al-Adilla”, “Bahr al-Kalam”, “al-Tamheed li qawa‘id al-Tawheed”, which considered the issues of maturidia theological study. In the XIV century the great scientist from Syghanaq Husam al-din al-Syghnaqi made a detailed research of the work “al-Tamheed li qawa‘id al-Tawheed” of Abu al-Mu‘in al-Nasafi and wrote the work “al-Tasdeed fi sharh al-Tamheed” by giving a full explanation of all questions relating to the issue. This article considers the content and the kept versions in the World libraries and the importance of this work for today. There is a different information about the original version of the manuscript. The first, the manuscript is by Amca Zade Huseyn 309 number, written by Husam al-din al-Syghnaqi personally and kept in the turkic library. This information is written in the work “Syghanaq Sanlagi/ The star of the Syghanaq” of Shamshaddin Kerim, the second manuscript is kept in the Egypt Arabic Republic, in the library “Dar al-Kutub Misrya”. It is written in this manuscript, that the manuscript was published in 1125 according hizhra calendar. Therefore the article gives an explanation of the main maturidia kalam principles, which cover five chapters of the work. 

  13. Magnetic behaviour of RCuAl compounds

    We studied structural and magnetic properties of the RCuAl (R=rare earth) intermetallic compounds by means of X-ray diffraction, susceptibility, magnetization and specific heat measurements. Magnetic ordering at low temperatures was observed in most of these materials. Results provide indications of ferromagnetic coupling in the heavy rare-earth compounds (R=Gd-Er), while PrCuAl and NdCuAl show antiferromagnetic behaviour. Additional magnetic phase transition in the ordered state was found in GdCuAl and DyCuAl. A metamagnetic transition was observed in DyCuAl. (orig.)

  14. The Eminent Turkish Logician al-Abhari and "al-Risalah fî al-Kavâid al-Mantıqiyyah"

    el-EBHERÎ, Esîrüddîn Mufaddal b. Ömer es-Semerkandî

    2014-01-01

    Athar al-Din al-Abhari is an important figure whose works had been textbooks in the Ottoman schools for centuries al-Abhari who wrote so many books in such areas as philosophy, mathematics, astronomy and logic is especially known for his books Hidayat al-Hikmat and İsaghuji He took logic into account in all of his works of philosophy. He also wrote some books and treatises specially concerning logical problems. Here, we are going to present the Turkish translation of his al-Risâlah fi al-Kava...

  15. Density functional theory study of Al{sub 23}, Al{sub 26} and Al{sub 92} clusters

    Goldberg, A; Halls, M D; Kung, P; Liang, J-J [Materials Science Division, Accelrys Inc., 10188 Telesis Ct., San Diego, CA 92121 (United States)], E-mail: agoldberg@accelrys.com

    2009-06-28

    In this paper we present results of the structural, energetic and electronic properties of Al{sub n} (n = 23, 26, 92) clusters calculated using density functional theory (DFT). Our main focus is the highly symmetric and energetically stable hollow Al{sub 92} cluster. This cluster appears as a natural extension of the smaller clusters, Al{sub 23} and Al{sub 26}, that manifest similar structural motifs of pentagonal and hexagonal pyramids. The Al{sub 92} cluster maintains I{sub h} symmetry and its central framework is similar to the structure of the well-known C{sub 60} fullerene and the recently reported B{sub 80} cluster. It has an additional Al atom below each hexagon centre and another one above each pentagon plane. To the best of our knowledge Al{sub 92} is the largest Al hollow cluster studied so far.

  16. Reply to Pachai et al.

    Harrison, William J; Bex, Peter J

    2016-05-01

    Peripheral vision is fundamentally limited by the spacing between objects. When asked to report a target's identity, observers make erroneous reports that sometimes match the identity of a nearby distractor and sometimes match a combination of target and distractor features. The classification of these errors has previously been used to support competing 'substitution' [1] or 'averaging' [2] models of the phenomenon known as 'visual crowding'. We recently proposed a single model in which both classes of error occur because observers make their reports by sampling from a biologically-plausible population of weighted responses within a region of space around the target [3]. It is critical to note that there is no probabilistic substitution or averaging process in our model; instead, we argue that neither substitution nor averaging occur, but that these are misclassifications of the distribution of reports that emerge when a population response distribution is sampled. This is a fundamentally different way of thinking about crowding, and on this basis we claim to have provided a mechanism unifying categorically distinct perceptual errors. Our goal was not to model all crowding phenomena, such as the release from crowding when target and flanks differ in color or depth [4]. Pachai et al.[5] have suggested that our model is not unifying because it inaccurately predicts perceptual performance for a particular stimulus. Although we agree that our model does not predict their data, this specific demonstration overlooks the critical aspect of the model: perceptual reports are drawn from a weighted population code. We show that Pachai et al.'s [5] own data actually provide evidence for the population code we have described [3], and we suggest a biologically-plausible analysis of their stimuli that provides a computational basis for their 'grouping' account of crowding. PMID:27166690

  17. Kurzwortbildungen als Merkmal der Deutschenrechtssprache

    Ljubica Kordić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In deutscher Rechtssprache kommen häufig die Nominalkomposita vor, die auf eineim Vergleich mit der Gemeinsprache ungewöhnliche Weise gebildet werden. Diese Wortbildungsform wird in deutschen Grammatiken unterschiedlich bestimmt: als Reduktion, Kurzwortbildung, Kontraktion bzw. Klammerform. Dieser Wortbildungstypkann mit dem Kompositum Mietblock illustriert werden, das durch Verkürzung aus Miet(wohnungsblock entstanden ist. Im Kroatischen, wo Komposition als Wortbildungstyp relativ schwach vertreten ist, ist die Bildung solcher Komposita theoretisch nur angedeutet. Da die Komposita dieses Bildungstyps in deutschen Rechtstexten stark vertreten sind, ist das Ziel dieses Beitrags, auf ihre Gebräuchlichkeit als ein für deutsche Rechtstexte charakteristisches Merkmal hinzuweisen. In der Einleitung befasstsich die Autorin mit der Begriffsbestimmung, der theoretischen Determinierung undder Abgrenzung dieser Kompositionsart von anderen Sonderfällen. Den Hauptteil der Arbeit bildet die Untersuchung der Kurzwortbildungen (Klammerformen, Reduktionen, Verschmelzungen, die dem geltenden deutschen Strafgesetzbuch von 2009 entnommensind, und ihrer kroatischen Entsprechungen. Der Beitrag hat die Aufgabe, auf Grund der gesammelten Belege die Häufigkeit und die Bildungsmuster der Komposita dieses Typs in deutscher Rechtssprache zu bestimmen und durch semantische Transformationsmuster ihren Informationswert in Bezug auf die Konstituenten festzustellen, aus denen sie gebildet wurden. Es wird auch untersucht, welche Bildungstypen ihrekroatischen Äquivalente aufweisen und ob es irgendwelche Unterschiede in ihrem informativen Wert gibt. Die Autorin bedient sich der Methode der Datensammlung, der qualitativen semantischen Analyse der Belege nach den Transformationsmodellen von Fleischer und Barz und der Synthese der Resultate. Die Resultate dieser Untersuchung sollten einen Beitrag zur Erforschung der der Rechtslinguistik im allgemeinen leisten, inbesondere im Bereich der Lexikologie und Wortbildung.

  18. Jongerenwerk als werkplaats voor professionalisering

    Judith Metz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Partnership approach as alternate professionalization strategy for youth work In the Netherlands, there is a growing debate on the need for the professionalization of youth work practice. There is a consensus on the necessity and relevance of professionalization. Opinions differ however on the appropriate pathways towards professionalization. Classic professionalization strategies, with a focus on the gathering of scientific experimental evidence, often do not match with the complex and flexible nature of youth work practice. To gain insight in alternative strategies, providers of youth work and study programs in Amsterdam joined forces and set up Youth Spot, a research and practice centre for youth work. This article describes how the centre, youth work organizations, education and researchers cooperate in the professionalization of youth work. On the one hand this article provides insight in youth works own professionalism and, on the other hand, it offers experiences with an alternate professionalization strategy. Jongerenwerk als werkplaats voor professionalisering Dit artikel beschrijft hoe opleidingen, welzijnsorganisaties en onderzoekers samenwerken in de professionalisering van het jongerenwerk tegen de achtergrond van het debat over professionalisering van de sociaal agogische beroepen. Het probleem met klassieke professionaliseringstrategien, met wetenschappelijke experimentele kennis als norm, is dat zij niet altijd goed aansluiten bij de complexiteit en flexibiliteit van de uitvoeringspraktijk. Vraag is: wat dan wel? In Amsterdam richten opleidingen en werkveld in 2008 Youth Spot op, het onderzoek- en praktijkcentrum voor jongerenwerk, met als doel om gezamenlijk te werken aan de profilering, professionalisering en praktijkontwikkeling van het jongerenwerk. Dit artikel belicht de aanleiding voor het ontstaan van Youth Spot, de structuur van de samenwerking, de ervaringen met de wijze van samen werken en de meerwaarde voor de professionalisering van het grootstedelijk jongerenwerk. Daarmee biedt dit artikel enerzijds een kijkje in de keuken van het (grootstedelijke jongerenwerk en anderzijds biedt zij inzicht in ervaringen met alternatieve professionalisering strategien.

  19. The ALS Gun Electronics system

    The ALS Gun Electronics system has been designed to accommodate gun with a custom made socket and high speed electronics circuit which is capable of producing single and multiple electron bunches with time jitters measured at better than 50 PS. The system generates the gated RF signal at ground level before sending it up to the 120 KV-biased gun deck via a fiber optic cable. The current pulse width as a function of grid bias, using an Eimac 8847A planar triode simulating an electron gun, was measured to show the relationship between the two parameters

  20. The ALS project: lessons learned

    Monckton, Simon; Collier, Jack; Giesbrecht, Jared; Broten, Greg; MacKay, David; Erickson, David; Verret, Sean; Digney, Bruce

    2006-05-01

    In support of Canadian Forces transformation, Defence R&D Canada (DRDC) has established an ongoing program to develop machine intelligence for semi-autonomous vehicles and systems. Focussing on mine clearance and remote scouting for over a decade, DRDC Suffield has developed numerous UGVs controlled remotely over point-to-point radio links. Though this strategy removes personnel from potential danger, DRDC recognized that human factors and communications bandwidth limit teleoperation and that only networked, autonomous unmanned systems can conserve these valuable resources. This paper describes the outcome of the first autonomy project, Autonomous Land Systems (ALS), designed to demonstrate basic autonomous multivehicle land capabilities.

  1. Aproximaciones cientificas al mestizo mexicano

    Carlos Lopez-Beltran

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La categora colonial del mestizo fue un recurso ideolgico, formador de la identidad nacional en la posrevolucin mexicana. El eje indio-mestizo sirvi para organizar las interacciones tnicas y las polticas del estado. Mdicos y antroplogos reforzaron esta taxonoma dual en estudios de poblaciones humanas, produciendo con marcadores biomdicos y descripciones diferenciadas del indio y del mestizo. Las descripciones genmicas han contribuido tanto a la construccin de una nocin cientificista del mestizo arraigada en porcentajes de ancestra india, europea y africana, como al surgimiento de dos objetos tecnocientficos que llamamos el mestizo molecular y el mestizo bioinformtico. Aqu describimos las interacciones entre las encarnaciones ideolgicas y cientficas del mestizo.

  2. Al-Hadith Text Classifier

    Mohammed Naji Al-Kabi; Ghassan Kanaan; Riyad Al-Shalabi; Saja I. Al- Sinjilawi; Ronza S. Al- Mustafa

    2005-01-01

    This study explore the implementation of a text classification method to classify the prophet Mohammed (PBUH) hadiths (sayings) using Sahih Al-Bukhari classification. The sayings explain the Holy Qur`an, which considered by Muslims to be the direct word of Allah. Present method adopts TF/IDF (Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency) which is used usually for text search. TF/IDF was used for term weighting, in which document weights for the selected terms are computed, to classify non-vocali...

  3. The ALS gun electronics system

    The ALS Gun Electronics system has been designed to accommodate the gun with a custom made socket and a high speed electronics circuit which is capable of producing single and multiple electron bunches with time jitters measured at better than 50 PS. The system generates the gated RF signal at ground level before sending it up to the 120 KV-biased gun deck via a fiber optic cable. The current pulse width as a function of grid bias, using an Eimac 8847A planar triode simulating an electron gun, was measured to show the relationship between the two parameters

  4. Synthesis of AlON and MgAlON Ceramics and Their Chemical Corrosion Resistance

    Wang, Xidong

    2001-01-01

    In view of the excellent mechanical, chemical and opticalproperties, AlON (Aluminum oxynitride) as well as MgAlON(Magnesium Aluminum oxynitride) have drawn the attention ofmaterials scientists in past decades. In this thesis,thermodynamic properties, synthesis and corrosion resistance tooxygen and slag of AlON and MgAlON ceramics have beeninvestigated. Gibbs energy of AlON and MgAlON with different compositionsand temperatures were estimatedby using thermodynamicquasi-parabola rule. Phase sta...

  5. Mercaptursäure und Nukleosidaddukt im Harn als Biomarker in 1-Hydroxymethylpyren-exponierten Ratten

    Ma, Lan

    2002-01-01

    1-Methylpyren (MP) ist hepatokanzerogen in neugeborenen männlichen Mäusen. Durch Hydroxylierung an der benzylischen Stelle und anschließende Sulfonierung wird MP zu DNA-reaktivem 1-Sulfooxymethylpyren (SMP) aktiviert. In der Ratte führt die Exposition des benzylischen Alkohols, 1-Hydroxymethylpyren (HMP), zur DNA-Adduktbildung in verschiedenen Geweben. Eventuelle Konsequenz der Toxifizierung ist die Ausscheidung entsprechender Mercaptursäure und Nukleosidaddukt im Harn, welche aufgrund ihrer Herkunft als Biomarker eignen könnten. In dieser Arbeit wird die Ausscheidung der Mercaptursäure und des N2-Desoxyguanosinadduktes in HMP-exponierten Ratten untersucht. Nach der Applikation von HMP bzw. MP wurden weniger als 1 % der Dosis als MPMA über Urin und Faeces ausgeschieden (0 - 48 h). Die Ausscheidung erfolgt hauptsächlich in den ersten 24 h nach der Applikation. MPdG konnte weder in Urin noch in Faeces der HMP-behandelten Tieren identifiziert werden. Nach direkter SMP-Applikation wurde MPdG nur in sehr geringe Menge (weniger als 0,9 ppm in 12 h) im Urin gefunden. Aufgrund der geringen Menge eignet sich MPdG nicht als Biomarker. MPMA dagegen, lässt sich analytisch gut erfassen. Es sollte daher untersucht werden, ob MPMA die Toxifizierung des HMP wiederspiegelt. Die Voraussetzung dafür ist die Kenntnisse über das Metabolismusmuster von HMP. Es wurde daher umfassende Untersuchungen zum Metabolismus des HMP durchgeführt. Die Ergebnisse zeigten, dass mehr als 80 % der Metaboiten in ihrer oxidierten Form (PCS, deren Glucuronsäure-Konjugate sowie phenolische Sulfatester der PCS) ausgeschieden wurden. Demnach spielt die Oxidation des HMP zu PCS eine sehr wichtige Rolle bei der Detoxifizierung und Ausscheidung von HMP. Ferne konnte nachgewiesen werden, dass die Enzyme Alkohol- und Aldehyd-Dehydrogenase an der Oxidation von HMP beteiligt waren. Die Inhibitoren Disulfiram und Ethanol der o. g. Enzyme wurde daher zur Modulation der Detoxifizierung in vivo eingesetzt. Die Veränderungen in der Toxifizierung von HMP zu SMP wurden durch die SMP-Konzentration im Plasma, die DNA-Addukthäufigkeit und die MPMA-Ausscheidung erfasst. Die Vorbehandlung von Disulfiram und Ethanol führte zu tendentielle Erhöhung der SMP-Konzentration im Plasma, DNA-Addukthäufigkeit in der Leber und die MPMA-Ausscheidung. Bemerkenswert ist jedoch, dass bereits eine Dosis von 0,2 g Ethanol/kg Körpermasse bereits zu statistisch signifikanten Erhöhungen der MPMA-Ausscheidung bei weiblichen Ratten. 1-Methylpyrene is hepatocarcinogenic in rodents. It is metabolized primarily to 1-hydroxymethylpyrene (HMP) by various cDNA-expressed rat and human cytochromes P450. HMP is activated to a highly reactive sulfuric acid ester, 1-sulfooxymethylpyrene (SMP), by sulphotransferases. In the rat, this activation pathway leads to the formation of DNA adducts in various tissues. Possible consequences of the toxification could be the excretion of the corresponding mercapturic acid and nucleosidadduct in urine and feces. Because of their origin, these substances should reflex the toxification process may be used as biomarkers. We investigate the excretion of 1-methylpyrenyl-mercapturic acid (MPMA) and the excretion of N2-(1-methylpyrenyl)-desoxyguanosin (MPdG) in urine and feces of HMP-treated rats. These studies showed that only a minor portion (acid. MPdG could not be identified in urine and feces of HMP-treated rats. Treating rats with the active spieces sulfooxymethylpyrene, 0.9 ppm of the dose was found excreted within 12 h. I now investigated the alternative metabolic pathways of HMP. More than 50 % of the dose (administered intraperitoneally) was excreted as free 1-pyrenyl carboxylic acid and its glucuronic acid conjugate primarily in the urine. Other major urinary metabolites were phenolic sulpho conjugates of ring-oxidized 1-pyrenyl carboxylic acid (> 30 %). Minor metabolites were phenolic sulpho conjugates of HMP (acid conjugate of HMP was found in very small amounts. In total, > 80 % of the metabolites excreted were oxidized at the exocyclic carbon. This side-chain oxidation, probably catalyzed by alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases, appears to represent a detoxification pathway. Indeed, administration of ethanol shortly before the administration of HMP to rats increased the levels of SMP detected in blood, of DNA adducts formed in tissues and of mercapturic acid excreted. These effects were observed even at very low dose levels of ethanol (0.2 g per kg body weight). Similar effects were shown after administration of Disulfiram, an inhibitor of aldehyde dehydrogenase.

  6. Betaalde arbeid als verdringer van vrijwilligerswerk? Overbelasting als mogelijke verklaring

    Angela Kok-Van Meer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Do paid work activities displace volunteering? A potential explanation from role overload theoryRecent changes in Dutch society might lead to a shortage of volunteers. On the one hand, the demand for volunteers is increasing: in the social welfare domain because of governmental austerity policies and in other domains such as sports because of the higher supervision intensity of activities. On the other hand, the supply of volunteers is likely to decrease as more and more women and older workers are active in the labor market, which reduces the time that is available for volunteering. Role overload theory would suggest that the increasing labor participation rate of certain categories of workers goes along with a decline of participation in voluntary work. The secondary data analysis shows that various role loads (work, care for children living at home are associated with differences in participation in voluntary work. However, while a higher number of contractual work hours and hours spent on work-related training are negatively associated with volunteer work, care for children living at home is positively associated with volunteering. These results provide only limited support for role overload theory.Betaalde arbeid als verdringer van vrijwilligerswerk? Overbelasting als mogelijke verklaringDe afgelopen jaren hebben zich enkele maatschappelijke veranderingen voorgedaan, die wellicht tot schaarste op de Nederlandse vrijwilligersmarkt zouden kunnen leiden. Enerzijds neemt de vraag naar vrijwilligers toe doordat subsidieregelingen versoberen (bijvoorbeeld in zorg en welzijn en de begeleidingsintensiteit in bepaalde organisaties stijgt (bijvoorbeeld in sport. Anderzijds neemt het aanbod van vrijwilligers af doordat vrouwen en ouderen meer en langer op de arbeidsmarkt actief zijn, waardoor minder tijd beschikbaar is voor vrijwilligerswerk. In dit artikel wordt aan de hand van de role overload theorie nagegaan of het al dan niet deelnemen aan vrijwilligerswerk van diverse categorieën werknemers samenhangt met de belasting door betaalde arbeid. Uit de secundaire data-analyse blijkt dat verschillen in belasting samenhangen met verschillen in deelname aan vrijwilligerswerk. Terwijl hogere arbeidsbelasting negatief samenhangt met het verrichten van vrijwilligerswerk, hangt zorg voor kinderen thuis positief samen met vrijwilligerswerk. Hierdoor is de steun voor de role overload theorie beperkt.

  7. Benefits for Military Veterans with ALS

    ... Chapters Certified Centers and Clinics Support Groups About ALS About Us Our Research In Your Community Advocate ... Veterans Resources for Military Veterans, Families & Survivors The ALS Association is working everyday to support people with ...

  8. Analisis Salasilah Tarekat Shaykh Shams al-Din al-Sumatra’i

    ROHAIMI RASTAM; MOHD SYUKRI YEOH ABDULLAH; YUSRI MOHAMAD RAMLI

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the spiritual chain (silsilah tariqah) of Shaykh Shams al-Din al-Sumatra’i (alt. al-Sumatrani), Qadi al-Malik al-‘Adil (Prime Minister and Mufti) of Aceh during the reign of Sultan Iskandar Muda in 1607 to 1627. The study is primarily based on his manuscript of Mir’at al-Muhaqqiqin as well as Shaykh Abdul Haqq Muhaddith Dahlawi’s Zad al-Muttaqin. By mapping the lineage of all data available, this study features al-Sumatra’is spiritual chain that consist of Qadiriyyah, Sh...

  9. Suicidio por salto al vaco

    Braulio Ernesto P. Linares

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available La tendencia al suicidio se asocia con problemas de soledad, abandono sicolgico en la infancia, drogadiccin, enfermedades graves, etc. Y en pacientes psiquitricos es ms comn tras ser dados de alta. En Argentina los suicidios aumentaron en 25% de 1990 a 1992, y el 78 % de las vctimas fueron de sexo masculino. La proporcin por salto al vaco aument , especialmente en reas urbanas. En 40 casos argentinos hubo introduccin basal del fmur (25%, fractura del calcneo en 17%, fracturas de pelvis o cuello del fmur en 7% y estallido heptico en 20%.Suicidal tendencies are associated with loneliness, lack of psychological attention during childhood, drug addiction, serious illness, etc., In psyciatric patients, it is more frequent shortly after they are dismissed from the hospital. In Argentina, the suicide rate increased by 25% from 1990 to 1992, and 78% of the victims are males. The proportion that jumped to death increased, particularly inurban areas. In 40 Argentinian cases there was a basalpenetration of the femur (25%, fracture of the calcaneus bone (17%, fracture of pelvis o femur cervix (7% and explosion of the liver (20%.

  10. Suicidio por salto al vaco

    Braulio Ernesto, P. Linares; Flix Antonio, Bikic.

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available La tendencia al suicidio se asocia con problemas de soledad, abandono sicolgico en la infancia, drogadiccin, enfermedades graves, etc. Y en pacientes psiquitricos es ms comn tras ser dados de alta. En Argentina los suicidios aumentaron en 25% de 1990 a 1992, y el 78 % de las vctimas fueron de [...] sexo masculino. La proporcin por salto al vaco aument , especialmente en reas urbanas. En 40 casos argentinos hubo introduccin basal del fmur (25%), fractura del calcneo en 17%, fracturas de pelvis o cuello del fmur en 7% y estallido heptico en 20%. Abstract in english Suicidal tendencies are associated with loneliness, lack of psychological attention during childhood, drug addiction, serious illness, etc., In psyciatric patients, it is more frequent shortly after they are dismissed from the hospital. In Argentina, the suicide rate increased by 25% from 1990 to 19 [...] 92, and 78% of the victims are males. The proportion that jumped to death increased, particularly inurban areas. In 40 Argentinian cases there was a basalpenetration of the femur (25%), fracture of the calcaneus bone (17%), fracture of pelvis o femur cervix (7%) and explosion of the liver (20%).

  11. Rethinking ALS: the FUS about TDP-43

    Lagier-Tourenne, Clotilde; Cleveland, Don W.

    2009-01-01

    Mutation in TDP-43, a DNA/RNA binding protein, causes an inherited form of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Combination of its mislocalization in most incidences of sporadic ALS (as well as other neurodegenerative disorders) with discovery of ALS-causing mutations in FUS/TLS, another DNA/RNA binding protein, has initiated a paradigm shift in understanding ALS pathogenesis. TDP-43 and FUS/TLS have striking structural and functional similarities, implicating alterations in RNA processing as...

  12. Photoelectrical, photophysical and photocatalytic properties of Al based MOFs: MIL-53(Al) and MIL-53-NH2(Al)

    An, Yang; Li, Huiliang; Liu, Yuanyuan; Huang, Baibiao; Sun, Qilong; Dai, Ying; Qin, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xiaoyang

    2016-01-01

    Two Al based MOFs (MIL-53(Al) and MIL-53-NH2 (Al)) were synthesized, and their photoelectrical, photophysical and photocatalytic properties towards oxygen evolution from water were investigated. Different from the ligand to metal charge transfer process previously reported, we proposes a new photocatalytic mechanism based on electron tunneling according to the results of theoretical calculation, steady state and time resolved fluorescence spectra. The organic linkers absorb photons, giving rise to electrons and holes. Then, the photogenerated electrons tunnel through the AlO6-octahedra, which not only inhibit the recombination of photogenerated charge carriers, but also is a key factor to the photocatalytic activity of Al based MOFs.

  13. Bipolar characteristics of AlGaN/AlN/GaN/AlGaN double heterojunction structure with AlGaN as buffer layer

    Peng, Enchao, E-mail: ecpeng@semi.ac.cn [Key Lab of Semiconductor Materials Science, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Wang, Xiaoliang [Key Lab of Semiconductor Materials Science, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); ISCAS-XJTU Joint Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Informatics, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Xiao, Hongling; Wang, Cuimei; Yin, Haibo; Chen, Hong; Feng, Chun; Jiang, Lijuan [Key Lab of Semiconductor Materials Science, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Hou, Xun [ISCAS-XJTU Joint Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Informatics, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Wang, Zhanguo [Key Lab of Semiconductor Materials Science, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2013-11-05

    Highlights: •2DEG and 2DHG coexist in the AlGaN/AlN/GaN/AlGaN DH-structure. •The sheet densities of 2DEG and 2DHG vary with buffer Al content and GaN thickness. •The conditions for the disappearance of 2DHG are discussed. •Increasing buffer Al content provides better electron confinement. •Dislocation scattering is reduced in the DH-structure. -- Abstract: This is a theoretical study of AlGaN/AlN/GaN/AlGaN double heterojunction (DH) structure with AlGaN as buffer layer. Our calculation shows that as the buffer Al content increases, though two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) sheet density decreases, the channel back-barrier caused by polarization-induced electric field in GaN provides better electron confinement. And under certain conditions the DH-structure shows bipolar characteristics, with an additional two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) formed at GaN/AlGaN interface. The influence of the buffer Al content and GaN channel thickness on the 2DEG and 2DHG sheet densities are investigated, and the conditions for the disappearance of 2DHG are discussed. Also, the mobility inhibited by dislocation scattering is enhanced in DH-structure due to the enhancement of screening effect of the 2DEG.

  14. The fabrication of 26Al targets

    Targets with up to 1.4x101626Al atoms have been fabricated. The artificial production of the 26Al nuclei via the reaction 26Mg(p, n)26Al was carried out at the cyclotrons in Juelich and Muenchen. The experimental procedures in the fabrication of these targets as well as some test measurements are described. (orig.)

  15. Thermoluminescence properties of AlN ceramics

    Trinkler, L.; Christensen, P.; Agersnap Larsen, N.; Berzina, B.

    The paper describes thermoluminescence (TL) properties of AlN:Y2O3 ceramics irradiated with ionising radiation. A high TL sensitivity of AlN:Y2O3 ceramics to radiation encouraged a study of the AlN ceramics for application as a dosimetric material. The paper presents experimental data on: glow...

  16. Cyclic oxidation resistance of a reaction milled NiAl-AlN composite

    Lowell, Carl E.; Barrett, Charles A.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1990-01-01

    Based upon recent mechanical property tests a NiAl-AlN composite produced by cryomilling has very attractive high temperature strength. This paper focuses on the oxidation resistance of the NiAl-AlN composite at 1473 and 1573 K as compared to that of Ni-47Al-0.15Zr, one of the most oxidation resistant intermetallics. The results of cyclic oxidation tests show that the NiAl-AlN composite has excellent properties although not quite as good as those of Ni-47Al-0.15Zr. The onset of failure of the NiAl-AlN was unique in that it was not accompanied by a change in scale composition from alumina to less protective oxides. Failure in the composite appears to be related to the entrapment of AlN particles within the alumina scale.

  17. Das Informatik-Forum Stuttgart - mehr Dialog zwischen Theorie und Anwendung notwendig

    Hieber, Ludwig

    Mit der Gründung des Informatik- Forum Stuttgart wird seit 1996 eine Plattform angeboten, die den Dialog zwischen der universitären Forschung, der Informatikausbildung und der IT-Wirtschaft in der Region Stuttgart intensivieren soll. In der Informatik hat sich eine Lücke zwischen Theorie und Anwendung entwickelt. Es ist nicht erkennbar, dass diese Lücke kleiner wird, eher das Gegenteil zeichnet sich ab. Verglichen mit anderen Branchen besteht die Gefahr, dass Anwender wesentlich später von Erkenntnissen aus der Forschung profitieren. Der entstandene Interaktionsstau zwischen Theorie und Anwendung der Informatik sollte abgebaut werden. An einigen Beispielen wird aufgezeigt, wo das besonders wichtig erscheint.

  18. Risked a lot and won a lot more; Viel gewagt, mehr gewonnen

    Thomas, Torsten

    2013-07-05

    What do 7,300 inhabitants with a 90 hectare great ammunition depot of the Bundeswehr? They build a bioenergy park. This courageous decision not only attracts hordes of visitors to Saerbeck, it also provides for regular incomes. [German] Was fangen 7.300 Einwohner mit einem 90 ha grossen Munitionsdepot der Bundeswehr an? Sie bauen einen Bioenergiepark. Die mutige Entscheidung lockt nicht nur Heerscharen von Besuchern nach Saerbeck, sie sorgt auch fuer regelmaessige Einnahmen.

  19. Das Human Factors Projekt im Wilhelminenspital - mehr Sicherheit in der Medizin

    Lass H

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available "Aus Fehlern lernt man" ? jedoch nur dann, wenn dieses Thema auch offen angesprochen wird. Um die Patientensicherheit an der Gynkologisch- Geburtshilflichen Abteilung des Wilhelminenspitals zu optimieren, kommen seit nunmehr zwei Jahren Methoden der Human-Factors-Forschung zur Anwendung. Diese Sicherheitsinstrumente werden in der Luftfahrt bereits seit Jahrzehnten erfolgreich angewandt und sind zum Teil sogar gesetzlich vorgeschrieben. Zentrales Anliegen ist hierbei die genaue Analyse der sicherheitsrelevanten Ablufe und somit ein kritisches Hinterfragen der tglichen Routine. Denn bevor ein Mensch einen Fehler begehen kann, mu er zuerst die passenden Voraussetzungen dafr vorfinden: im System. Der Einsatz von Analysegruppen und Checklisten bietet in diesem Zusammenhang die Mglichkeit, zum einen die Genese von Fehlern exakt zu berprfen und zum anderen mit Hilfe eines klaren Leitfadens Unsicherheiten bereits im Vorfeld zu reduzieren. Hchstleistungen in der Medizin sind nur dann mglich, wenn hochqualifizierte Menschen unter ebenso qualitativ hochwertigen Bedingungen zusammenarbeiten knnen. Effiziente und wertschtzende Kommunikation im Team bildet die Grundlage fr eine solche Zusammenarbeit. Und genau hier setzt der Human-Factors-Gedanke an: In einer Arbeitsumwelt, die von enormer Verantwortung, Stress und Leistungsdruck geprgt ist, mu der wichtigste Sicherheitsfaktor gestrkt und gesichert werden: der Mensch.

  20. Unternehmensgründungen: Mehr innovative Startups durch einen Kulturwandel für Entrepreneurship?

    Röhl, Klaus-Heiner

    2016-01-01

    Europa hinkt im Vergleich zu den Vereinigten Staaten oder Israel bei der Zahl erfolgreicher Startups hinterher. Innovationsstarke Gründungen, die innerhalb weniger Jahre zu globalen Konzernen wie Google oder Amazon heranwachsen, finden nicht hier statt. In vielen Staaten und Regionen Europas gibt es eine hartnäckige Wachstumsschwäche mit hoher Arbeitslosigkeit, zu deren Überwindung auch ein Gründungsboom zur Umsetzung neuer kreativer Ideen beitragen könnte. Selbst in Deutschland, das eine gut...

  1. Energy conservation potentials of up to 35% and more; Einsparpotenziale von 35 % und mehr

    Heimberg, Thorsten; Knetsch, Joerg; Martin, Lars; Wagner, Steffen [Rittal GmbH und Co. KG, Herborn (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    The automobile industry sets standards in many areas such as in the topic energy efficiency. Thus, the innovation alliance 'Green Carbody Technologies' aims to realizes a car body manufacturing with 50% lower energy consumption. One of the subprojects within the research project concerned itself with an energy efficient air conditioning of switch control boxes. The company Rittal GmbH and Co. KG (Herborn, Federal Republic of Germany) is involved in this subproject. First results of this subproject are described now.

  2. Der Licht-Turbo - mehr Tempo für Datennetze

    Thévenaz, Luc; Schneider, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Licht breitet sich mit rund 300 000 Kilometer pro Sekunde aus – aber nur im Vakuum. Forscher können dieses Tempo mittlerweile fast beliebig reduzieren und in speziellen Materalien sogar Lichtpulse speichern. Doch ihre Fantasie reicht noch weiter: Neue optische Technologien könnten den weltweiten Datenverkehr deutlich beschleunigen.

  3. Fire-detection systems: Microprocessors for increased safety. Brandmeldesysteme: Mehr Sicherheit durch Mikroprozessoren

    Anderhub, W. (Zettler AG, Naefels (Switzerland))

    1990-06-01

    With the help of microprocessor engineering a fire detection system has been developed which does not have the disadvantage of false alarm occurring with conventional fire detectors. A microcomputer placed in the central office controls four transmission lines with up to 32 sensors. These do not give an alarm signal any more but a signal which is analogous to the fire parameter, the measured value. The measured value depends on the environmental conditions such as atmospheric humidity, temperature, atmospheric pressure, and aerosole content of the air at the location of the sensor. Thus also fire fighting systems can be centrally controlled (shutting of fire doors, opening of smoke vents, automatic control of extinguishing systems, disconnection of the machines in the area at risk). (BWI).

  4. DE LA BIOPOLTICA AL CAMPO

    Mauro Benente

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se realiza una breve aproximacin a los conceptos de biopoltica y tanatopoltica. Para ello se trabajar, principalmente, con las obras de Michel Foucault, Roberto Esposito y Giorgio Agamben, intentando relevar tanto coincidencias como disidencias en la reflexin que los autores hacen sobre la temtica. Luego de realizar una aproximacin conceptual a la biopoltica, se mostrar que mientras para Foucault y para Espsito el surgimiento del fenmeno se da con la modernidad, para Agamben su origen es correlativo al origen mismo de la soberana. Finalmente, y tras mostrar la coincidencia de la biopoltica con la tanatopoltica para lo cual se profundizar en algunas reflexiones aportadas por Roberto Esposito- se abordar la problemtica de los campos tal como lo hace Giorgio Agamben.

  5. Entscheidung als Häresie

    Jaanus Sooväli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Man könnte sagen, dass Aristoteles so etwas wie eine traditionelle und dominierende Auffassung der Entscheidung in der westlichen Philosophie gründet. Das Ziel dieses Aufsatzes ist es, diese Auffassung von Aristoteles zu entwerfen, einige ihrer wichtigsten Probleme anzusprechen, und sie damit zu kontrastieren, was ich Jacques Derridas häretische „Konzeptualisierung“ der Entscheidung nennen würde. Es wird gezeigt, dass diese häretische Thematisierung von Derrida nicht nur und einfach mit dem traditionellen aristotelischen Begriff bricht, sondern vielmehr auch zu Recht einige seiner wichtigsten Züge auf solcher Weise schärft, dass von diesem radikalisierten Standpunkt die Behandlung von Aristoteles als die Annullierung der Entscheidung zum Vorschein kommt. Es wird zudem impliziert, wie Derridas häretische Auffassung die Erneuerung der Ethik und Politik mit sich bringt.

  6. Reactive Plasma Spraying of Fine Al2O3/AlN Feedstock Powder

    Shahien, Mohammed; Yamada, Motohiro; Yasui, Toshiaki; Fukumoto, Masahiro

    2013-12-01

    Reactive plasma spraying (RPS) is a promising technology for in situ formation of aluminum nitride (AlN) coatings. Recently, AlN-based coatings were fabricated by RPS of alumina (Al2O3) powder in N2/H2 thermal plasma. This study investigated the feasibility of RPS of a fine Al2O3/AlN mixture and the influence of the plasma gases (N2, H2) on the nitriding conversion, and coating microstructure and properties. Thick AlN/Al2O3 coatings with high nitride content were successfully fabricated. The coatings consist of h-AlN, c-AlN, Al5O6N, γ-Al2O3, and a small amount of α-Al2O3. Use of fine particles enhanced the nitriding conversion and the melting tendency by increasing the surface area. Furthermore, the AlN additive improved the AlN content in the coatings. Increasing the N2 gas flow rate improved the nitride content and complete crystal growth to the h-AlN phase, and enhanced the coating thickness. On the other hand, though the H2 gas is required for plasma nitriding of the Al2O3 particles, increasing its flow rate decreased the nitride content and the coating thickness. Remarkable influence of the plasma gases on the coating composition, microstructure, and properties was observed during RPS of the fine particles.

  7. Eutectic microstructures of Al-ThA13 and Al-UA14 alloys

    This paper deals on the microstructures of systems Al-ThAl3 and Al-UAL4, which are composed by a non faceted phase (aluminium) and an intermetallic phase (ThAl3 or UAL4) which is normally faceted phase. (C.M.)

  8. Beam-foil study of Al IV and Al V between 1100 and 1900 A

    Beam-foil spectra of aluminium have been recorded between 1100 and 1900 A using ion energies from 0.3 to 1.5 MeV. Most of the observed lines are due to Al IV and Al V. First lifetime measurements have been made for 9 and 8 levels in Al IV and Al V, respectively. (Auth.)

  9. Economic Philosophy of al-Mawardi: Economic Behavior in Adab al-Dunya wa-al-Din and al-Ahkam al-Sulthaniyah

    JAELANI, Aan

    2016-01-01

    Economic behavior in the study of Islamic economics is the basis for the government to portray political ethics and ethical economic functions of individuals in functioning as a member of society. Secular ethics and religious ethics, according to al-Mawardi, as the code of conduct in conducting economic practices by the government and every member of society to uphold the principle of mashlahah (goodness). By the middle or moderate principles, both ethical underpinning for anyone in private a...

  10. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis as an adverse drug reaction of gadolinium-based contrast media for magnetic resonance imaging; Nephrogene systemische Fibrose als unerwuenschte Arzneimittelwirkung gadoliniumhaltiger Kontrastmittel fuer die Magnetresonanztomographie

    Giersig, C. [Bundesinstitut fuer Arzneimittel und Medizinprodukte (Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices), Bonn (Germany)

    2007-09-15

    Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) was first described as nephrogenic fibrosing dermopathy (NFD), a disease occurring exclusively in patients with severe renal insufficiency. Recently NSF was recognised to be a very rare adverse drug reaction (ADR) of gadolinium-based contrast media for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Over 200 million applications of gadolinium-based contrast agents have been performed worldwide, including about 80 million of Magnevist {sup registered} and 33 million of Omniscan {sup registered}. Cases of NSF have been reported so far only for Omniscan {sup registered} (180 including 77 from the EU), for Magnevist {sup registered} (78 including 9 from the EU, 4 of which were also exposed to Omniscan {sup registered}) and for OptiMARK registered [7], which is not authorised in the EU. Because of this risk an EU-wide contraindication was ordered for patients with severe renal failure for the use of Omniscan {sup registered} (gadodiamid), which is one of eight gadolinium-based substances authorised in Germany and the EU and which has the highest risk potential, and just recently also for Magnevist {sup registered} (gadopentetate-dimeglumine). Whether similar measures will be implemented for other gadolinium-based substances, for which no cases of NSF have been reported, but a risk potential may exist, is still under discussion. (orig.) [German] Die nephrogene systemische Fibrose (NSF), urspruenglich als nephrogene fibrosierende Dermopathie (NFD) beschrieben und bislang fast ausschliesslich bei Patienten mit schwerer Niereninsuffizienz festgestellt, erwies sich kuerzlich als eine sehr seltene unerwuenschte Arzneimittelwirkung (UAW) gadoliniumhaltiger Kontrastmittel fuer die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT). Insgesamt wurden mehr als 200 Mio. Behandlungen mit gadoliniumhaltigen Kontrastmitteln durchgefuehrt, davon ca. 80 Mio. mit Magnevist {sup registered} und ca. 33 Mio. mit Omniscan {sup registered} [5]. Faelle einer NSF wurden bislang nur zu Omniscan {sup registered} (180, davon 77 aus der EU), zu Magnevist {sup registered} (78, davon 9 Faelle aus der EU inklusive 4 Faelle mit zusaetzlicher Omniscan registered -Applikation) sowie zu OptiMARK {sup registered} [7], das in der EU nicht zugelassen ist, gemeldet. Aufgrund dieses Risikos wurde fuer Omniscan {sup registered} (Gadodiamid), eins der 8 in Deutschland und der EU verfuegbaren Wirkstoffe mit dem hoechsten Risikopotenzial, und zuletzt auch fuer Magnevist {sup registered} (Gadopentetat-Dimeglumine), eine Einschraenkung der Anwendung (Kontraindikation) bei Patienten mit terminaler Niereninsuffizienz EU-weit angeordnet. Ob aehnliche Massnahmen fuer weitere Wirkstoffe ergriffen werden, bei denen dieses Risikopotenzial bislang nicht nachgewiesen wurde, jedoch moeglich erscheint, ist noch nicht endgueltig geklaert. (orig.)

  11. Influences of Al particles on the microstructure and property of electrodeposited Ni-Al composite coatings

    Cai, Fei; Jiang, Chuanhai

    2014-02-01

    Ni-Al composite coatings with different contents of Al microparticles were prepared from a conventional Watt bath. The influences of Al particle loadings in the bath on the surface morphology, composition, texture, grain size, microstrain, residual stress and anti-corrosion of the Ni-Al composite coating were investigated. The friction coefficients of the coatings at 200 °C were also evaluated by a pin-on-disctribometer. The results showed that the surface morphology of the coatings changed from pyramid + colonied structure to colonied structure with increasing Al particle loadings. The (2 0 0) preferred orientation for pure Ni coating evolved to random orientation with increasing Al particle loadings. The grain size obtained the minimum value of 72.28 nm at Al particle loading of 100 g/L and the microstrain of the coating increased with increasing the Al particle loadings. The incorporation of Al particles decreased the residual stress of the electro-deposited coating and all the coatings deposited at different Al particle loadings possessed low residual stress. As the Al particle loading increased, the anti-corrosion of the Ni-Al coatings increased owing to the combined effect of increasing Al content in the coatings and the texture evolution from (2 0 0) plane to (1 1 1) plane. The wear result suggested that the increasing Al particle content did not improve the wear performance of the Ni-Al composite coatings.

  12. Epitaxial growth of Al films on sapphire substrates

    In order to obtain epitaxial Al-Al2O3 multi-layer devices, it is necessary to deposit epitaxially Al on Al2O3 and Al2O3 on Al. We have already obtained an epitaxial Al2O3 film on Al/Si (111). In this paper, we have grown Al films on sapphire (0001) substrates, and investigated the crystallinity by using RBS, RHEED, and X-ray diffraction measurements. (author)

  13. Vom Gewohnheitstier zur reflektierten Nutzung – Ein Diskussionsanstoß über Betriebssysteme und Programmnutzung nachzudenken

    Christian Berger

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Das Nutzungsverhalten bei digitalen Medien entspringt mehr der Gewohnheit als dem vorhandenen Angebot. Ein kleiner Einblick in die Philosophie und Möglichkeiten der Nutzung von Freier Software.

  14. Produktion von Screencasts mit Screencast-O-Matic

    Felix Studencki

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wenn Bilder manchmal mehr als 1000 Worte sagen, wie schaut es dann mit Videos aus? Eine Beschreibung der praktischen Nutzung eines Online Tools fr Screenrecording (Bildschirmaufnahme und Webpublikation (Youtube zur einfachen Erstellung audiovisueller Unterrichtsmaterialien.

  15. Risikobasiertes Supply-Chain-Management

    Wieland, Andreas; Schinz, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Das Management erlebt seit einigen Jahren dahingehend einen Paradigmenwechsel, dass nicht mehr Unternehmen als einzelne autonome Einheiten im Wettbewerb zueinander stehen, sondern die Supply Chains, in denen diese Unternehmen eingebunden sind. Ursachen hierfür sind beispielsweise die Auslagerung ...

  16. Der intermittierende Selbstkatheterismus - "safety first": Eine bersicht ber Produkte und deren Anwendungsmglichkeiten

    Schersach P

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Der intermittierende Selbstkatheterismus (ISK ist seit mehr als 15 Jahren die fhrende und international anerkannte konservative Therapieform der Neurogenen Blasenfunktionsstrung (NBS. Bei Betroffenen mit erworbener Querschnittlhmung entleeren ca. 70 % ihre Blase durch den intermittierenden Selbstkatheterismus.

  17. Al-Si/Al2O3 in situ composite prepared by displacement reaction of CuO/Al system

    Zhang Jing

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Al2O3 particle-reinforced ZL109 composite was prepared by in situ reaction between CuO and Al. The microstructure was observed by means of OM, SEM and TEM. The Al2O3 particles in sub-micron sizes distribute uniformly in the matrix, and the Cu displaced from the in situ reaction forms net-like alloy phases with other alloy elements. The hardness and the tensile strength of the composites at room temperature have a slight increase as compared to that of the matrix. However, the tensile strength at 350 ℃ has reached 90.23 MPa, or 16.92 MPa higher than that of the matrix. The mechanism of the reaction in the CuO/Al system was studied by using of differential scanning calorimetry(DSC and thermodynamic calculation. The reaction between CuO and Al involves two steps. First, CuO reacts with Al to form Cu2O and Al2O3 at the melting temperature of the matrix alloy, and second, Cu2O reacts with Al to form Cu and Al2O3 at a higher temperature. At ZL109 casting temperature of 750–780 ℃, the second step can also take place because of the effect of exothermic reaction of the first step.

  18. interna y al dilogo transcultural

    Silvia Monroy lvarez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Inspirado en los conceptos de An-Naim (1995 del discurso interno y el dilogo transcultural, este artculo est focalizado en el anlisis de dos herramientas que usan los practicantes de derecho y los usuarios del Consultorio Jurdico Rural de Fredonia (Antioquia durante su interaccin y que, de ser estimuladas adecuadamente, pueden derivar no solo en procesos pedaggicos de refl exin sobre presupuestos fundamentales en materia de derechos, sino que tambin pueden llegar a constituirse en estrategias que permitan la actualizacin de las expectativas de los propios sujetos frente a su cultura. Para el caso de los practicantes, se explora en el trnsito entre dos lenguajes, uno eminentemente jurdico y otro coloquial, donde se da un acercamiento al lenguaje y valores de los consultantes. Ya en lo que atae a los usuarios del Consultorio Jurdico, el anlisis se construye en torno a la red local de consejos, pieza clave a partir de la cual se articulan ideas y valores de los actores sobre su entorno, pero donde el hilo conductor es la intencin de resolver un confl icto por la va jurdica.

  19. Na3Al(AsO42

    Noura Fakhar Bourguiba

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the title compound trisodium aluminium bis(arsenate, Na3Al(AsO42, is built up from AlO4 and AsO4 corner-sharing tetrahedra, forming an undulating two-dimensional framework parallel to (100. The layers are constituted of large Al6As6O36 rings made up from six AlO4 and AsO4 tetrahedra in which two sodium cations are situated, the third sodium cation being located in the interlayer space. The structural relationships between the title compound and Na3Fe(PO42, NaAlCo(PO42 and Al5Co3(PO48 are discussed.

  20. Growth and Stress-induced Transformation of Zinc blende AlN Layers in Al-AlN-TiN Multilayers

    Li, Nan; Yadav, Satyesh K.; Wang, Jian; Liu, Xiang-Yang; Misra, Amit

    2015-12-01

    AlN nanolayers in sputter deposited {111}Al/AlN/TiN multilayers exhibit the metastable zinc-blende-structure (z-AlN). Based on density function theory calculations, the growth of the z-AlN is ascribed to the kinetically and energetically favored nitridation of the deposited aluminium layer. In situ nanoindentation of the as-deposited {111}Al/AlN/TiN multilayers in a high-resolution transmission electron microscope revealed the z-AlN to wurzite AlN phase transformation through collective glide of Shockley partial dislocations on every two {111} planes of the z-AlN.

  1. Juan Goytisolo en al aule de ELE

    Zubia Fernandez, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Al integrar en el aula de ELE artculos periodsticos sobre un determinado escritor como una prctica de expresin oral y escrita, se aproxima al alumno principiante de ELE al universo literario del autor escogido con el propsito de entrelazar la enseanza de la lengua y la de la(s) literatura(s) en lengua espaola. Con este enfoque se estimula la capacidad lectora del alumno en la lengua meta ya que los textos periodsticos constituyen modelos ejemplares para este propsito d...

  2. Fabrication of /sup 26/Al targets

    Buchmann, L.; Baumeister, H.; Rolfs, C.

    1984-06-01

    Targets with up to 1.4x10/sup 16/ /sup 26/Al atoms have been fabricated. The artificial production of the /sup 26/Al nuclei via the reaction /sup 26/Mg(p, n)/sup 26/Al was carried out at the cyclotrons in Juelich and Muenchen. The experimental procedures in the fabrication of these targets as well as some test measurements are described.

  3. CALCULUL CINETOSTATIC AL MECANISMELOR PLANETARE CILINDRICE

    P?un ANTONESCU; Ovidiu ANTONESCU

    2012-01-01

    n lucrare se prezint? o metod? analitic? pentru calculul cinetostatic al mecanismului planetarmonomobil cu dou? ro?i din?ate centrale. Se consider? mai nti cazul general al schemelor cinematice cu dou?ro?i din?ate solidare tip satelit, n dou? variante practice (multiplicator ?i reductor de tura?ie). Este men?ionatcazul particular al mecanismelor planetare cu o singur? roat? satelit cu angrenare dubl? (exterioar? ?iinterioar?). Pe baza modelului de analiz? cinetostatic? a mecanismului plan...

  4. Effect of Al incorporation on the AlGaN growth by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    The effect of Al incorporation on the AlGaN growth by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition is investigated. With the increase of trimethylalluminum (TMAl) flux, the crystal quality becomes worse, and the epilayer surface becomes rougher. An interesting phenomenon is that the growth rate of AlGaN decrease with increasing TMAl flux, which is opposite to the AlN growth rate dependence on the TMAl flux. All these effects are attributed to the different properties of Al atoms due to the higher bond strength of Al-N compared with Ga-N, which lead to lower surface mobility and stronger competitive ability of Al atoms during the growth. The enhancement of the surface mobility of Al is especially important for improving the quality of AlGaN

  5. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti2AlC-reinforced TiAl composites

    Ti2AlC/TiAl composites were successfully in-situ synthesized by reaction hot pressing using Ti, Al, TiC and CNTs as starting materials. The results indicate that the as-sintered composites mainly consist of Ti2AlC and TiAl phases. The mechanical properties of the 23 wt.% Ti2AlC/TiAl composite exhibit the highest values, with a flexural strength and fracture toughness of 652.5 ± 76.8 MPa and 6.6 ± 0.5 MPa m1/2, respectively. The complex structure coupled with dispersed Ti2AlC micro-particulates is responsible for the enhancement in the strength. Toughening of the composite is mainly attributed to crack deflection, crack bridging, crack branching and pull-out of the Ti2AlC particles, as well as transgranular cracking.

  6. High pressure studies of UFe5Al7 and UFe7Al5 actinide compounds

    The ternary inter-metallic compounds, UFe5Al7 and UFe7Al5, crystallize in a tetragonal ThMn12 type structure. In the as-cast samples a residual phase of FeAl (∼2%wt) was identified in the grain boundaries. The amount of the residual cubic phase of FeAl was determined by Rietveld analysis and reduced by the annealing process. UFe5Al7 and UFe7Al5 maintain the tetragonal symmetry as a function of pressure, while FeAl keeps the cubic structure as was determined by the Rietveld analysis. The volume-pressure curve calculated from the X-ray analysis gives V/V0=0.87 for UFe5Al7 at 26.0 GPa and 0.89 at 24.6 GPa for UFe7Al5. (author)

  7. Chemical mixing at "Al on Fe" and "Fe on Al" interfaces

    Süle, P.; Kaptás, D.; Bujdosó, L.; Horváth, Z. E.; Nakanishi, A.; Balogh, J.

    2015-10-01

    The chemical mixing at the "Al on Fe" and "Fe on Al" interfaces was studied by molecular dynamics simulations of the layer growth and by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The concentration distribution along the layer growth direction was calculated for different crystallographic orientations, and atomically sharp "Al on Fe" interfaces were found when Al grows over (001) and (110) oriented Fe layers. The Al/Fe(111) interface is also narrow as compared to the intermixing found at the "Fe on Al" interfaces for any orientation. Conversion electron Mössbauer measurements of trilayers—Al/57Fe/Al and Al/57Fe/Ag grown simultaneously over Si(111) substrate by vacuum evaporation—support the results of the molecular dynamics calculations.

  8. Growth of CdTe: Al films

    CdTe: AI films were grown by the close space vapor transport technique combined with free evaporation (CSVT-FE). The Aluminum (Al) evaporation was made by two kinds of sources: one made of graphite and the other of tantalum. The films were deposited on glass substrates. The Al source temperature was varied maintaining the CdTe source temperature fixed as well as the substrate temperature. The films were characterized by x-ray energy dispersive analysis (EDAX), x-ray diffraction and optical transmission. The results showed for the films grown with the graphite source for Al evaporation, the Al did not incorporate in the CdTe matrix, at least to the level of EDAX sensitivity; they maintained the same crystal structure and band gap. For the samples grown with the tantalum source, we were able to incorporate the Al. The x-ray diffraction patterns show that the films have a crystal structure that depends on Al concentration. They were cubic up to 2.16 at. % Al concentration; for 19.65 at. % we found a mixed phase; for Al concentration higher than 21 at. % the films were amorphous. For samples with cubic structure it was found that the lattice parameter decreases and the band gap increases with Al concentration. (Author)

  9. The impact of ?ad?th perception on disputes between ahl al-Sunnah and al-Sh?ah al-Im?miyyah al-Ithn? Ashariyyah

    Serdar Demirel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the main reasons for the controversies among legal schools in Islam revolves around the methodology of distinguishing authentic a??d?th from those of rejected ones and applying the acceptable a??d?th to different cases. This article studies ?ad?th perception in the light of this methodology to reveal the nature of disputes between ahl al-Sunnah and al-Sh?'ah al-Im?miyyah al-Ithn? 'Ashariyyah which is the biggest madhhab (school among other madh?hib apart from the ahl al-Sunnah. The disagreements among the madhhab of the ahl al-Sunnah are confined to al-fur?' (applications related to secondary issues, whereas the disputes between the Sunni and the Sh?'ah schools are based on both al-u??l (principles and al-fur?'. The main ground for this difference is their perception of ?ad?th. If this fact is overlooked, the differences between the two schools cannot be grasped appropriately.

  10. Genetics of Familial and Sporadic ALS

    2016-03-21

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS); Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis With Frontotemporal Dementia; Lou Gehrig's Disease; Motor Neuron Disease; Primary Lateral Sclerosis

  11. Relevance of 2,4 dienoyl-CoA-reductase of Leishmania mexicana and L. major for virulence

    Paape, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Bestandteil dieser Arbeit waren zwei Proteomanalysen des Parasiten Leishmania mexicana. In der ersten wurde das Proteom von aus ihrem intrazellulären Habitat aufgereinigten Amastigoten, mit dem Proteom von Promastigoten, der extrazellulären Lebensform, verglichen. Der Fokus der zweiten Proteomanalyse war die Identifizierung von bei Amatigoten sezernierten Proteinen. Insgesamt wurden mehr als 1800 Proteine identifiziert, von denen mehr als 740 zuvor noch nicht detektiert worden waren. Diese...

  12. Nichtinvasive periphere Gefdiagnostik ? derzeitiger Stand der MR- und CT-Angiographie in der Diagnostik der peripheren arteriellen Verschlukrankheit

    Cejna M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Derzeit stellen die CT-Angiographie (CTA und die MR-Angiographie (MRA in der Gefstatuserhebung zur Therapie der PAVK eine veritable Alternative zur Duplex-Ultraschalluntersuchung dar. CTA und MRA erreichen jeweils Sensitivitten und Spezifitten von mehr als 90 % in der Detektion hmodynamisch relevanter Stenosen und von mehr als 50 % in groen Studien und Metaanalysen. Offen ist die Evaluation aller Verfahren in Hinblick auf Kosteneffektivitt und Effizienz in der Erstellung von Behandlungsplnen zur endovaskulren oder chirurgischen Therapie der PAVK.

  13. Verhüllen oder Enthüllen? - Ästhetik als Herausforderung für Sozialwissenschaft und sozialwissenschaftliche Bildungs

    Anja Besand

    2006-01-01

    Gerade in den klassischen Bezugswissenschaften der politischen Bildung haben die Begriffe Ästhetik, ästhetisch und Ästhetisierung seit einigen Jahren Konjunktur. So spricht man in der Soziologie seit fast 20 Jahren wieder von Lebensstilen und beschreibt damit den Sachverhalt, dass gesellschaftliche Gruppen sich nicht mehr ausreichend durch klassische demographische Daten differenzieren lassen, sondern sich durch Konsumstile und Selbstinszenierungen, also durch ästhetisches Verhalten, gruppier...

  14. Respuesta inmune adaptativa al rotavirus

    Manuel A. Franco

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available

    El rotavirus (RV es un importante patgeno humano y el estudio de la respuesta inmune especfica de ste en humanos, es un buen modelo para caracterizar la respuesta inmune de la mucosa intestinal (1. Nuestros estudios han tenido como objetivo la caracterizacin fenotpica y funcional de las clulas T y B especficas de RV con nfasis importante en la expresin de marcadores de migracin intestinal. Estas clulas son estudiadas en muestras de sangre perifrica de nios y adultos recientemente infectados con RV. Los anlisis se hicieron por citometra de flujo y ELISPOT. Estudio de clulas T: los adultos sanos presentan bajas frecuencias circulantes tanto de LT CD4+, como de LT CD8+ especficos de RV que secretan INF_ .

    Significativamente mayores porcentajes de stas clulas se detectaron en adultos sintomticos infectados por RV. Sin embargo, las frecuencias de LT especficos de RV en todos los grupos de estudio fueron muy bajas comparadas con las observadas para otros patgenos.

    Sorprendentemente, en nios sintomticos infectados por RV se detectaron bajas frecuencias de LT CD8+ circulantes especficos de RV secretando INF-g y muy pocos o ningn LT CD4+ secretando INF-g o LT CD4+ y CD8+ al secretar IL-13 o IL4 (2,3. Esto sugiere que el RV es un inductor relativamente pobre de clulas T de memoria secretando estas citoquinas. Los LT circulantes CD4+ , INF-g.+ especficos de RV presentes en adultos sanos, expresan en su mayora el receptor de migracin intestinal a4b7(3.

    Estudio de las clulas B (3,4: las clulas vrgenes circulantes CD19+, IgD+ y de memoria CD19+, IgDespecficas de RV se identifican por citometra de flujo por la coexpresin de marcadores de superficie y de Ig de membrana especfica del virus, con la ayuda de un antgeno viral acoplado a la protena de fluorescencia verde (GFP. Las CSA se caracterizan funcionalmente por ELISPOT y fenotpicamente por citometra de flujo. Durante la fase aguda de infeccin en nios, los LB IgD- circulantes especficos de RV son predominantemente clulas grandes CD38alto, CD27alto, CD138+/-, CCR6-, a4b7 +, CCR9+, CCR10+, CLA-, L-Selectina int/- y sIgM+, sIgG-, sIgA+/ - Este fenotipo muy probablemente corresponde a CSA y plasmablastos con capacidad de migrar al intestino.

    Durante la convalescencia, el fenotipo cambia a clulas pequeas y grandes CD38int/-, CD27int/-, CCR6+, a4b7+/-, CCR9+/- y CCR10-, muy probablemente representando clulas de memoria, algunas con capacidad de migrar al intestino y otras con capacidad de permanecer en la circulaci

  15. Observations of Al segregation around dislocations in AlGaN

    Transmission electron microscopy has been used to observe Al segregation around the threading dislocations in Al0.1Ga0.9N and Al0.3Ga0.7N grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on 6H--SiC. Dislocation lines were found to have up to 70% more Al concentration than those regions free of dislocations in the matrix. The Al-depleted regions around the dislocations are shown to be within a few nanometers from the dislocation lines. The results also show that more Al segregate to edge dislocations than to screw ones. Copyright 2001 American Institute of Physics

  16. Strengthening of Al and Al-Mg alloy wires by melt inoculation with Al/MgB2 nanocomposite

    Florin-Algarn, David; Marrero, Ral; Padilla, Alexandra; Surez, Oscar Marcelo

    2015-12-01

    This study hinges on the feasibility of strengthening Al and Al-Mg wires by adding Al nanocomposite pellets containing MgB2 nanoparticles into the melt upon fabrication. These MgB2 nanoparticles were obtained by fragmentation using a high-energy ball mill, and were, afterward, mechanically alloyed with pure aluminum. The resulting MgB2/Al nanocomposite pellets were sintered at 260C to be subsequently added into molten aluminum and an Al-Mg alloy melt. Cold rolling intercalated with stepwise annealing allowed the fabrication of 1 mm diameter wires with a final area reduction of 96%. Mechanical and physical properties of the treated wire specimens were compared to those of similarly processed pure aluminum wire. The ultimate tensile strength of the treated wires increased approximately double fold with respect to untreated wires at the expense of some loss in electrical conductivity.

  17. Evaluation of Methods of Soldering AlSi and AlSi-SiC Particle Composite Al Foams

    Nowacki, Jerzy; Moraniec, Kacper

    2015-01-01

    The cellular structure and unique properties of aluminum foams are the reason of their numerous applications and interests in respect of their joining. The paper includes the characterization of the essence of properties and application of aluminum and aluminum composite foams, the limitations, and possibilities of their soldering. The aim of the research is the consideration of methods of soldering AlSi foams and AlSi-SiC composite foams, and the joint structure. EDS and XRD investigations of the AlSi-SiC composite foams' joints were done. The possibility of soldering AlSi9 foams and AlSi9-SiC composite foams using S-Bond 220 solder was confirmed, and higher tensile strength of the joint than the parent material was also ascertained

  18. Kritik al-Ghazali terhadap Kekekalan Alam

    Sahidi Mustafa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the creation of universe offered by Neo-Platonism philosopher such as al-Kindi, al-Farabi, and Ibnu Sina are philosophical concept existed and came as an early moment of development of Islamic philosophy interrelated to God, ultimately about his Existence and Characteristics. One of the topics is how God created the universe. According to al-Farabi and Ibnu Sina, God created this universe by way of emanation in order to prevent Himself from the new attitudes. Consequently, universe has eternal feature (qadim as God as well, in the case of everything overflowed from qadim is also qadim. Al-Ghazali refuted this theory because it contradicted with al Qur’an’s thought which clearly explained that God created the entire universe. The universe should not qadim and it means that God existed in the first, and then created universe later as we know today. On the contrary, in the view of Muslim philosopher, the universe should be qadim because God created it from all eternity. For them, it is impossible that God existed by Himself without any creation before. God, according to them is impossible to be changed, so that is impossible as well if God changed from did not create yet before and then creates. Al-Ghazali persistently opposed the concept of eternity. Al Ghazali saw if this universe is qadim so it is impossible that universe created by God. The concept of qadim will led to the conclusion that universe born by itself, it was not created by God. This critique has been written by al-Ghazali in Tahafut al-Falasifah. This paper will present the concept of eternity which was discussed by al-Farabi and Ibn Sina and al Ghazali’s critique toward it as well.

  19. Composition and precipitation inhomogeneities in melt-spun Al-Cu and Al-Zn ribbons

    Non-uniform distributions of solute content in the supersaturated ? Al matrix and inhomogeneous precipitation of metastable/stable phases have been studied in rapidly solidified Al-Cu and Al-Zn ribbons. Double peaked X-ray diffraction lines from the ? Al matrix were observed in three as-quenched Al-Cu alloys and one annealed Al-Zn alloy. For as-quenched Al-Cu ribbons, variations in composition, microstructure and precipitate density across the ribbons results from local differences in coolingrates. These differences originate from recalescence during the solidification. The double peaked diffraction lines for these alloys corresponds to two compositions of the ? Al phase with less copper solute in the topside than in the wheelside of the ribbons. Subsequently, annealing of the samples leads to inhomogeneous precipitation of the metastable ?' phase across the whole thickness of the ribbons. Such inhomogeneities do not appear in as-quenched Al-Zn alloys which are quenched into a single ? Al phase. Splitting of the diffraction lines in the annealed ribbons arises from differences in the composition of two different ? Al matrix phases. The ? Al phase between the R phase lamellae has low zinc content, while the ? Al phase where high densities of G.P. zones are retained has higher zinc concentration. (orig.)

  20. Band edge modulation and interband optical transition in AlN:MgAl-ON nanotubes

    AlN nanotubes (NTs) have many novel characteristics and great potential applications in electronic and optoelectronic nanodevices. However, little is known about the influence of MgAl-ON co-doping effects on their optical properties. Here, we focus on investigating the electronic structures, clarify the interband optical transition mechanism and give a clear atomic picture for the important electron/hole localization centre in AlN:MgAl-ON NTs using the GGA-1/2 method. We find that the MgAl doping efficiency can be improved effectively due to ON doping in AlN NTs. The MgAl and ON form MgAl-ON defect complex easily along the AlN NT axis (C-axis). The MgAl-ON defect complex can result in a remarkable charge transfer around it and modify the valence band maximum and conduction band minimum significantly. Meanwhile, the MgAl-ON defect complex also forms the important exciton localization centre and effectively enhances the interband radiative recombination rate. Moreover, the light emission/absorption sensitively depends on its polarization. The parallel polarized light (E∥C) is much stronger than the perpendicular one (E⊥C). The MgAl-ON co-doping thus paves a new way for improving the performance of electronic and optoelectronic nanodevices based on AlN NTs. (papers)

  1. Al-Farabi dan Filsafat Kenabian

    Qosim Nursheha Dzulhadi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Artikel ini mengulas pemikiran al-Farabi tentang konsep kenabian dalam Islam. Masalah berawal dari adanya pemikiran yang menolak konsep kenabian pada umumnya dan kenabian Nabi Muhammad SAW khususnya. Sebagaimana yang dilontarkan oleh Muhammad Ahmad ibn al-Ruwandi. Ia mengatakan bahwa nabi sebenarnya tidak diperlukan manusia karena Tuhan telah mengaruniakan akal kepada manusia tanpa terkecuali. Dengan akal ini, manusia dapat mengetahui Tuhan beserta segala nikmat Nya dan dapat pula mengetahui perbuatan baik dan buruk, menerima suruhan dan larangan-Nya. Dengan demikian, nabi dengan segala fungsinya tidak diperlukan lagi. Bahkan, kitab suci pun tidak berguna untuk dibaca. Lebih berguna membaca buku filsafat Epicurus, Plato, Aristoteles, dan buku astronomi, logika, serta obat-obatan. Hal ini tentunya bertolak belakang dengan yang diajarkan dalam Islam. Beriman kepada nabi nabi merupakan hal inti dalam ajaran agama ini. Atas dasar itu al-Farabi bereaksi keras. Baginya, pandangan Ibn al-Ruwandi di atas tidak dapat dibenarkan, khususnya dari sisi akidah Islam. Sebagai al-Mu‘allim al-Tsani (Guru Kedua, karena prestasinya dalam menjelaskan dan mengulas-ulang filsafat Aristoteles, al-Farabi mengkritik secara sistematik pandangan menyimpang al-Ruwandi di atas.

  2. Novel TARDBP mutations in Nordic ALS patients

    Chiang, Huei-Hsin; Andersen, Peter M; Tysnes, Ole-Bjrn; Gredal, Ole; Christensen, Peter B; Graff, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative syndrome primarily affecting the upper and lower motor neurons. A characteristic neuropathological finding in ALS patients is neuronal inclusions positive for TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43). Subsequently, mutations in the gene encoding...

  3. Diana Al-Hadid: Identity and Heritage

    Jungerberg, Tom; Smith, Anna; Borsh, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    Diana Al-Hadid's sculptures reflect the many locations, cultures, histories, and mythologies that have shaped her as an artist. In large-scale works which have the appearance of architectural ruins, Al-Hadid employs imagery drawn from many diverse interests including science and technology, history, and literature. She also incorporates images and

  4. Comments to zkaya et al. (2006)

    Larsen, Christian

    We review the paper of zkaya et al. (2006). Though the mathematical derivations seem technically correct, we have some reservations about their numerical results.......We review the paper of zkaya et al. (2006). Though the mathematical derivations seem technically correct, we have some reservations about their numerical results....

  5. Diana Al-Hadid: Identity and Heritage

    Jungerberg, Tom; Smith, Anna; Borsh, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    Diana Al-Hadid's sculptures reflect the many locations, cultures, histories, and mythologies that have shaped her as an artist. In large-scale works which have the appearance of architectural ruins, Al-Hadid employs imagery drawn from many diverse interests including science and technology, history, and literature. She also incorporates images and…

  6. Thermodynamical properties of Al2Te3

    The temperature (300-450 K) and concentrative dependence of EMF for the alloys of Al-Tesystems have been investigated. There have been calculated the Gibbs energy, enthalpies, entropies, absolute entropy values, atomization energies of Al2Te3 at 298 k

  7. Interaction in Cu/Al and Pt/Cu/Al thin films: Competing oxygen effects and preferential reaction between Pt and CuAl alloy

    Chang, Chin-An

    1984-02-01

    The effects of oxygen on the interactions of the Cu-Al thin-film system are studied using both Cu/Al and Pt/Cu/Al structures. For the Cu/Al structure, oxygen-enhanced outdiffusion of Al and accumulation of Al on the Cu surface are observed. Using the Pt/Cu/Al structure, however, no surface accumulation of Al on Pt is observed; instead, the observed interdiffusion and alloy formation between Cu and Al are both suppressed by oxygen. At increasing temperatures, Al preferentially outdiffuses from the CuAl alloy to form a Pt Al alloy with the top Pt layer. This last process is also suppressed by oxygen, similar to the binary Pt/Al system reported previously. The mechanisms for the competing interactions and ambient effects observed are discussed.

  8. Electric quadrupole moments of neutron-rich nuclei {sup 32}Al and {sup 31}Al

    Kameda, D., E-mail: kameda@ribf.riken.jp; Ueno, H. [RIKEN Nishina Center (Japan); Asahi, K.; Nagae, D.; Takemura, M.; Shimada, K. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Physics (Japan); Yoshimi, A.; Nagatomo, T.; Sugimoto, T. [RIKEN Nishina Center (Japan); Uchida, M.; Arai, T.; Takase, K.; Suda, S.; Inoue, T. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Physics (Japan); Murata, J.; Kawamura, H. [Rikkyo University, Department of Physics (Japan); Watanabe, H. [Australian National University, Department of Nuclear Physics (Australia); Kobayashi, Y.; Ishihara, M. [RIKEN Nishina Center (Japan)

    2007-11-15

    The electric quadrupole moments for the ground states of {sup 32}Al and {sup 31}Al have been measured by the {beta} ray-detected nuclear quadrupole resonance method. Spin-polarized {sup 32}Al and {sup 31}Al nuclei were obtained from the fragmentation of {sup 40}Ar projectiles at E/A = 95 MeV/nucleon, and were implanted in a single crystal {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} stopper. The measured Q moment of {sup 32}Al, |Q({sup 32}Al)| = 24(2) mb, is in good agreement with a conventional shell-model calculation with a full sd model space and empirical effective charges, while that of {sup 31}Al is considerably smaller than the sd calculations.

  9. Contact hardening of Al interlayer in laminated Mg/Al composites during compressive and tensile loading

    Gurevich, L.; Pronichev, D.; Trunov, M.

    2016-02-01

    The study presents result of the FEM simulation of Mg alloy/Al/Ti alloy composite under tensile and compression loads. The simulation revealed the strength of Al interlayer at its various thickness values.

  10. Studies on SiC(p) reinforced Al-Al sub 3 Ni eutectic matrix composites

    An investigation on processing of Al-5.69wt% Ni eutectic with SiC particulate composites is reported. The intermetallic composites are prepared by elemental powder metallurgy route and sintered at two different temperatures, i.e., 600 degree C and 620 degree C. Results show that the metal matrix was Al-Al sub 3 Ni eutectic. The phase analysis by XRD identified the presence of Al sub 3 Ni and Al as dominant phases together with silicon and Al sub 4 C sub 3 phase as minor phases. The Al sub 4 C sub 3 and Si phases are formed during sintering due to SiC-Al interface reaction. SEM micrographs also reveal the formation of microvoid surrounding the SiC particle

  11. The theory of the moon in the al-Zij al-Kamil fi-l-taalim of Ibn al-Ha'im

    Puig i Tàrrech, Roser

    2000-01-01

    Al the beginning of Ihe thirteenth cenrury (60tH I 1204-1205) Abli Muhammad Abd al-Haqq al-Ghafiqi al-lshbiIi known as Ibn al-Ha'im composed his work entitled al-Zi] al-Kamil fi-l-Taalim in honour of the Caliph Abu Abd Allah Muhammad al-Nasir (who reigned from 1199- 1213). All we know of lbn al-Ha'im's live is that he came from Seville and that he appears to have worked in North Africa.

  12. Al compositional inhomogeneity of AlGaN epilayer with a high Al composition grown by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition

    The Al compositional distribution of AlGaN is investigated by cathodoluminescence (CL). Monochromatic CL images and CL spectra reveal a lateral Al compositional inhomogeneity, which corresponds to surface hexagonal patterns. Cross-sectional CL images show a relatively uniform Al compositional distribution in the growth direction, indicating columnar growth mode of AlGaN films. In addition, a thin AlGaN layer with lower Al composition is grown on top of the buffer AlN layer near the bottom of the AlGaN epilayer because of the larger lateral mobility of Ga adatoms on the growth surface and their accumulation at the grain boundaries

  13. NiAl alloys for structural uses

    Koss, D. A.

    1991-01-01

    Alloys based on the intermetallic compound NiAl are of technological interest as high temperature structural alloys. These alloys possess a relatively low density, high melting temperature, good thermal conductivity, and (usually) good oxidation resistance. However, NiAl and NiAl-base alloys suffer from poor fracture resistance at low temperatures as well as inadequate creep strength at elevated temperatures. This research program explored macroalloying additions to NiAl-base alloys in order to identify possible alloying and processing routes which promote both low temperature fracture toughness and high temperature strength. Initial results from the study examined the additions of Fe, Co, and Hf on the microstructure, deformation, and fracture resistance of NiAl-based alloys. Of significance were the observations that the presence of the gamma-prime phase, based on Ni3Al, could enhance the fracture resistance if the gamma-prime were present as a continuous grain boundary film or 'necklace'; and the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy was ductile in ribbon form despite a microstructure consisting solely of the B2 beta phase based on NiAl. The ductility inherent in the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy was explored further in subsequent studies. Those results confirm the presence of ductility in the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy after rapid cooling from 750 - 1000 C. However exposure at 550 C caused embrittlement; this was associated with an age-hardening reaction caused by the formation of Fe-rich precipitates. In contrast, to the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy, exploratory research indicated that compositions in the range of Ni-35Al-12Fe retain the ordered B2 structure of NiAl, are ductile, and do not age-harden or embrittle after thermal exposure. Thus, our recent efforts have focused on the behavior of the Ni-35Al-12Fe alloy. A second parallel effort initiated in this program was to use an alternate processing technique, mechanical alloying, to improve the properties of NiAl-alloys. Mechanical alloying in the conventional sense requires ductile powder particles which, through a cold welding and fracture process, can be dispersion strengthened by submicron-sized oxide particles. Using both the Ni-35Al-Fe alloys to contain approx. 1 v/o Y2O3. Preliminary results indicate that mechanically alloyed and extruded NiAl-Fe + Y2O3 alloys when heat treated to a grain-coarsened condition, exhibit improved creep resistance at 1000 C when compared to NiAl; oxidation resistance comparable to NiAl; and fracture toughness values a factor of three better than NiAl. As a result of the research initiated on this NASA program, a subsequent project with support from Inco Alloys International is underway.

  14. Cyclic deformation response of ultrafine pure Al

    The cyclic deformation response of ultrafine pure Al produced by cryo-rolling was investigated using low-cycle fatigue and electron microscopy. The ultrafine pure Al was cyclically deformed under a fully reversed total strain control (R = -1) corresponding to a plastic strain amplitude range of 8 x 10-4 and 1.4 x 10-2. It was found that cryo-rolled pure Al is very susceptible to cyclic softening, resulting in a much lower fatigue life compared with the coarse-grained counterpart. Shear banding and associated grain coarsening were the most prominent microstructural features of the cyclically deformed cryo-rolled pure Al. Furthermore, annealing led to a slight decrease in the cyclic softening rate, giving a slight increase in the fatigue life of cryo-rolled Al.

  15. Production of high-purity 26Al

    26Al is a positron emitting radioisotope of aluminium and has a half-life of 7.16x105y. In addition to annihilation ?-rays of 511 keV, there are three high energy ?-rays 1129 (2.4%), 1809 (99.73%) and 2938 (0.27%) keV. 26Al is the only radioisotope of aluminium available for radiochemical applications, the half-lives of the other aluminium isotopes are seconds and minutes. The usage of 26Al is very important in the investigations of the metabolism of Al in human body (for example in Alzheimer disease studies) or as a tracer in radiochemical studies. But 26Al is such a long-lived isotope that the task of producing it in tangible amounts is a very difficult one. (author). 2 refs

  16. Dynamic recrystallization in TiAl and Ti3Al intermetallic compounds

    The mechanical behaviour and microstructure evolution during hot deformation were investigated in TiAl and Ti3Al intermetallic compounds. The features of development of dynamic recrystallization in the both titanium aluminides were established. It is shown that we can use the dynamic recrystallization to obtain the micro- ( anti d?1 ?m) and submicrocrystalline ( anti d?0,1 ?m) structures in the TiAl and Ti3Al intermetallic compounds. (orig.)

  17. Magnetic behaviour of PrCuAl and NdCuAl

    We present results of a specific heat and magnetization study of PrCuAl and NdCuAl. PrCuAl orders antiferromagnetically below TN = 7.9 K. The magnetic behaviour of NdCuAl is more complex. Our experiments reveal the ordering temperature of 18 K and indications of magnetic ordering characterized by a coexistence of ferro- and antiferromagnetic components of Nd moments. (orig.)

  18. Trivalent Chromium Conversion Coatings on Al and Al-Cu Alloys

    Qi, Jiantao

    2015-01-01

    Trivalent chromium conversion coatings formed on Al and Al-Cu alloys has been investigated using high-resolution, analytical electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, ion beam analysis, glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical noise analysis. These coatings on the electropolished Al and sputtering-deposed Al consist of a chromium- and zirconiu...

  19. Corrosion Studies of 2195 Al-Li Alloy and 2219 Al Alloy with Differing Surface Treatments

    Danford, M. D.; Mendrek, M. J.

    1998-01-01

    Corrosion studies of 2195 Al-Li and 2219 Al alloys have been conducted using the scanning reference electrode technique (SRET) and the polarization resistance (PR) technique. The SRET was used to study corrosion mechanisms, while corrosion rate measurements were studied with the PR technique. Plates of Al203 blasted, soda blasted and conversion coated 2219 Al were coated with Deft primer and the corrosion rates studied with the EIS technique. Results from all of these studies are presented.

  20. Oxidation kinetics of Zn 5 Al and Zn 55 Al alloys alloyed by neodymium

    Present article is devoted to oxidation kinetics of Zn 5 Al and Zn 55 Al alloys alloyed by neodymium. The results of researches of oxidation kinetics of Zn 5 Al and Zn 55 Al alloys alloyed by neodymium are considered. It was shown that neodymium additives in the range of 0.005-0.5 % mass significantly reduce the oxid ability of initial alloys. (author)

  1. Assessment of the al corner of the ternary Al-Fe-Si system

    Eleno, Luiz; Vezelý, Josef; Sundman, Bo; Cieslar, Miroslav; Lacaze, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    The present work provides a review of the information available on the Al-rich corner of the Al-Fe-Si system as well as a CALPHAD type assessment making use of the COST 507 database as a starting point. The description of the intermetallic compounds has been modified to account for substitution of Al and Si in the ternary Al-Fe-Si system and to take new experimental information into account.

  2. AL(0) in municipal waste incinerator ash

    Stipp, S. L.; Ronsbo, J. G.; Zunic, T. B.; Christensen, T. H.

    2003-04-01

    Disposal of municipal waste is a challenge to society. Waste volume is substantially decreased by incineration but residual ash usually contains a number of toxic components which must be immobilised to insure environmental protection. One element, chromium, is mobile and toxic in its oxidised state as Cr(VI) but it can be reduced to Cr(III) and immobilised. Reduction can be promoted by ash treatment with Fe(0) or Fe(II), but recent evidence shows that at least some Cr(VI) is reduced spontaneously in the ash. Aspects of ash behaviour suggest metallic aluminium as the reducing agent, but no direct evidence of Al(0) has been found until now. We examined filter ash from an energy-producing, municipal-waste incinerator (Vest-forbrænding) near Copenhagen. X-ray diffraction (XRD) identified expected salts of Na, K and Ca such as halite, sylvite, calcite, anhydrite and gypsum as well as quartz, feldspar and some hematite. Wave-dispersive electron microprobe produced elemen-tal maps of the ash; Al-rich areas were analysed quantitatively by comparison with standards. We identified metallic Al particles, averaging 50 to 100 micrometers in di-ameter, often with a fractured, glassy border of aluminum oxide. The particles were porous, explaining fast Cr(VI) reduction and they contained thin exsolution lamellae of Al-alloys of Pb and Cu or Mn, Fe and Ag, which provide clues of the Al(0) origin in the waste. Sometimes Al(0) occurred inside glassy globes of Al2O3. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) proved that surface Al concentrations on ash particles were below detection, confirming reactivity of the Al(0) bulk. The persistence of reduced Al through the highly oxidising combustion procedure comes as a surprise and is a benefit in the immobilisation of Cr(VI) from municipal-waste incineration residues.

  3. The annealing behaviour of hydrogen implanted into Al metal and Al-Si alloy

    In the present experiment, we have investigated how defects and elements as additive play a role as trap site by observing the annealing behaviour of hydrogen implanted into Al and Al-Si alloy. It was found that hydrogen is trapped as molecules in grain boundaries of Si in Al. (author)

  4. SAP-like ultrafine-grained Al composites dispersion strengthened with nanometric AlN

    This paper reports the development of novel Sinter-Aluminum-Pulver (SAP)-like Al–AlN nanocomposites via replacing the native Al2O3 thin films on fine Al powder with a large volume fraction of in situ formed nanometric AlN dispersoids. Fine gas-atomized Al powder (d50=1.3 µm) compacts were first partially nitrided at 590 °C in flowing nitrogen, controlled by a small addition of Sn (0.3–0.4 wt%), and subsequently consolidated by hot direct extrusion. The resulting Al–AlN composites consisted of submicrometric Al grains reinforced with nanometric AlN dispersoids together with some nanometric Al2O3 dispersoids. An Al–13 vol% AlN nanocomposite fabricated this way achieved exceptional ultimate tensile strength of 227 MPa, yield strength of 195 MPa and Young's modulus of 66 GPa at 300 °C, superior to typical SAP materials and coarse grained Al–AlN composites. In addition, the Al–13 vol% AlN nanocomposite exhibited good thermal stability up to 500 °C. The strengthening mechanism is discussed

  5. The use of Simmons' equation to quantify the insulating barrier parameters in Al/AlOx/Al tunnel junctions

    We have analyzed the electron transport processes in Al/AlOx/Al junctions. The samples were produced by glow-discharge-assisted oxidation of the bottom electrode. The nonlinear I-V curves of 17 samples were measured at room temperature, being very well fitted using the Simmons' equation with the insulating barrier thickness, barrier height, and the junction area as free parameters. An exponential growth of the area normalized electrical resistance with thickness is obtained, using just values from I-V curve simulations. The effective tunneling area corresponding to the 'hot spots' can be quantified and is five orders of magnitude smaller than the physical area in the studied samples

  6. The use of Simmons' equation to quantify the insulating barrier parameters in Al/AlOx/Al tunnel junctions

    Dorneles, L. S.; Schaefer, D. M.; Carara, M.; Schelp, L. F.

    2003-04-01

    We have analyzed the electron transport processes in Al/AlOx/Al junctions. The samples were produced by glow-discharge-assisted oxidation of the bottom electrode. The nonlinear I-V curves of 17 samples were measured at room temperature, being very well fitted using the Simmons' equation with the insulating barrier thickness, barrier height, and the junction area as free parameters. An exponential growth of the area normalized electrical resistance with thickness is obtained, using just values from I-V curve simulations. The effective tunneling area corresponding to the "hot spots" can be quantified and is five orders of magnitude smaller than the physical area in the studied samples.

  7. Formation of Ta-Al intermetallics by combustion synthesis involving Al-based thermite reactions

    Thermite-based combustion synthesis was conducted to investigate in situ formation of tantalum aluminides (Ta2Al, TaAl, TaAl2, and TaAl3) and Al2O3 from the powder compacts of Al and Ta2O5 under a molar ratio ranging from Al/Ta2O5 = 13/3 to 28/3. Effects of the sample stoichiometry on the combustion behavior and degree of phase conversion were studied. Experimental evidence showed that upon ignition, the synthesis reaction proceeded in a self-sustaining manner featuring a planar combustion front or two localized reaction zones traveling spirally. The combustion front temperature varies between 1135 and 1460 oC. In agreement with composition dependence of the reaction exothermicity, the reaction front velocity in the axial direction increased from 5.8 to 7.2 mm/s with molar ratio of Al/Ta2O5 from 13/3 to 16/3, beyond which the flame velocity decreased substantially. The slowest reaction front with an axial velocity of 1.15 mm/s was observed in the sample of Al/Ta2O5 = 28/3. Based upon the XRD analysis, in situ formation of the composites composed of Al2O3 and tantalum aluminides was confirmed. For the samples with Al contents of Al/Ta2O5 = 13/3-18/3, an increase in the Al/Ta2O5 ratio improved the production of tantalum aluminides and caused the change in the dominant aluminide phase from Ta2Al, TaAl, to TaAl2. Due to lack of adequate reaction time, the phase conversion was not stoichiometrically achieved in the samples of Al/Ta2O5 = 13/3-18/3. However, it was found that the slower reaction front provided longer reaction time to complete the phase conversion almost stoichiometrically in the samples of Al/Ta2O5 = 22/3-28/3, which yielded the Al-rich phases TaAl2 and/or TaAl3 in the final products.

  8. Formation of Ta-Al intermetallics by combustion synthesis involving Al-based thermite reactions

    Yeh, C.L., E-mail: clyeh@fcu.edu.t [Department of Aerospace and Systems Engineering, Feng Chia University, 100 Wenhwa Road, Seatwen, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China); Wang, H.J. [Department of Aerospace and Systems Engineering, Feng Chia University, 100 Wenhwa Road, Seatwen, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China)

    2010-02-18

    Thermite-based combustion synthesis was conducted to investigate in situ formation of tantalum aluminides (Ta{sub 2}Al, TaAl, TaAl{sub 2}, and TaAl{sub 3}) and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} from the powder compacts of Al and Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} under a molar ratio ranging from Al/Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} = 13/3 to 28/3. Effects of the sample stoichiometry on the combustion behavior and degree of phase conversion were studied. Experimental evidence showed that upon ignition, the synthesis reaction proceeded in a self-sustaining manner featuring a planar combustion front or two localized reaction zones traveling spirally. The combustion front temperature varies between 1135 and 1460 {sup o}C. In agreement with composition dependence of the reaction exothermicity, the reaction front velocity in the axial direction increased from 5.8 to 7.2 mm/s with molar ratio of Al/Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} from 13/3 to 16/3, beyond which the flame velocity decreased substantially. The slowest reaction front with an axial velocity of 1.15 mm/s was observed in the sample of Al/Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} = 28/3. Based upon the XRD analysis, in situ formation of the composites composed of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and tantalum aluminides was confirmed. For the samples with Al contents of Al/Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} = 13/3-18/3, an increase in the Al/Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} ratio improved the production of tantalum aluminides and caused the change in the dominant aluminide phase from Ta{sub 2}Al, TaAl, to TaAl{sub 2}. Due to lack of adequate reaction time, the phase conversion was not stoichiometrically achieved in the samples of Al/Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} = 13/3-18/3. However, it was found that the slower reaction front provided longer reaction time to complete the phase conversion almost stoichiometrically in the samples of Al/Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} = 22/3-28/3, which yielded the Al-rich phases TaAl{sub 2} and/or TaAl{sub 3} in the final products.

  9. Agricultural power generation; Die Landwirtschaft als Energieerzeuger

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Within the KTBL meeting between 4th and 5th May, 2009, in Osnabrueck (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Evaluation of renewable energy sources (Sebastian Wulf et al.); (2) The future of bio fuels (Norbert Schmitz); (3) Supply of biomass for BtL fuels (Ludwig Leible et al.); (4) Combined heat and power generation with biomass (Juergen Karl); (5) Site-specific sustainable production of energy plants (Armin Vetter et al.); (6) Biomass logistics (Juergen Hahn et al.); (7) Process and costs of the production of wood fuel at agricultural areas (Volkard Scholz et al.); (8) Miscanthus: Cultivation, economic efficiency and properties as a fuel (Klaus Mastel); (9) Costs of supplying energy plants (Henning Eckel et al.); (10) Residuals as a substrate for bio gas plants (Susanne Klages et al.); (11) Innovations at the development of energy plants - view of a breeding company (Andreas von Felde et al.); (12) Processing of solid biomass - ravelling, drying and pelletizing (Stephan Sternowsky et al.); (13) Technology, operational experiences and yields of photovoltaic plants in southern Germany (Gottfried Gronbach); (14) Solar thermal plants in the agriculture - Technology and economic efficiency (Albert Esper); (15) Quality is worth-wile - Design and realization of biomass power plants (Gilbert Krapf); (16) When repays a near-by district heating grids in municipalities itself? (Helmut Doehler); (17) Agriculture in municipal power management and material stream management (Frank Wagener et al.); (18) Energetic utilization of stalk materials (Thomas Hering); (19) Modern wood firing - State of the art and tendencies of development (Peter Turowski et al.); (20) Gasification of biomass in combined heat and power cogeneration plants - state of the knowledge, efforts for the practice (Andrej Stanev); (21) Production of rapeseed oil fuel in decentral oil mills (Edgar Remmele); (22) Plant oil as a fuel in agricultural machines (Hardwin Traulsen); (23) Experiences in the utilization of rapeseed oil in the Austrian 35-tractors-program (Josef Breinesberger); (24) The remuneration regulation of EEG2009 for biogas plants (Helmut Loibl); (25) Technical further developments in the construction of biogas plants (Waldemar Gruber); (26) Economical efficiency of biogas plants in the natural gas grid (Christian Boese); (27) Concepts for heat utilization for biogas plants (Anke Nierbaum et al.); (28) Biomethane as a fuel for vehicles - practical experiences from Europe (Michael Beil et al.).

  10. Das Internet als Effekt diskursiver Bedeutungskmpfe

    Tanja Carstensen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Der Artikel zeigt, wie politische Kontroversen am Thema Internet ausgehandelt werden und wie das Internet dabei erst interpretativ hergestellt wird. Hierzu werden zunchst techniksoziologische Sichtweisen auf Technik als Bedeutungstrgerin vorgestellt. Anschlieend wird unter Bezugnahme auf die Diskursforschung und die Soziale Bewegungsforschung eine Perspektive auf Technik entwickelt, die politische Diskurse ber Technik als Kmpfe um Deutungsmacht und damit als Versuche, (potenzielle AnhngerInnen und UntersttzerInnen zu mobilisieren, versteht. Anhand dieses theoretischen Konzepts werden dann Ergebnisse einer Inhaltsanalyse von gewerkschaftlichen Diskursen ber das Internet vorgestellt. Dabei lassen sich vier Deutungsmuster unterscheiden. Es zeigt sich, dass am Internet interne und nach auen gerichtete Debatten der Gewerkschaften um Reformbedarf, Imageprobleme, Mitglieder-, Macht- und Kontrollverluste gefhrt werden, in denen das Internet jeweils passend sozial konstruiert wird. Die als dominant und gltig anerkannten Bedeutungen des Internet sind demnach als Ergebnisse kollektiver interpretativer Aushandlungsprozesse und damit als Ausdruck der bestehenden Verteilung von Deutungsmacht zu betrachten und nicht als Aussagen ber materielle Eigenschaften des Internet.

  11. Study on Mg/Al Weld Seam Based on Zn–Mg–Al Ternary Alloy

    Liming Liu; Fei Liu; Meili Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Based on the idea of alloying welding seams, a series of Zn–xAl filler metals was calculated and designed for joining Mg/Al dissimilar metals by gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding. An infrared thermography system was used to measure the temperature of the welding pool during the welding process to investigate the solidification process. It was found that the mechanical properties of the welded joints were improved with the increasing of the Al content in the Zn–xAl filler metals, and when Zn–30Al...

  12. On nanoscale Al precipitates forming in eutectic Si particles in Al-Si-Mg cast alloys

    Nanoscale Al precipitates with satellite-like outgrowths have been observed in eutectic Si particles in Al-Si-Mg alloys. Investigation by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy indicates that the outgrowth is a void in the aluminium. The void interface plane in the Al crystal is {1 1 1} and is parallel with {0 0 1} Si. It is very likely that the outgrowth is related to the precipitation of Al in the Si particles and to the stability of the Al precipitates.

  13. Single-crystal27 Al NMR study of corundum ?-Al2O3

    27Al NMR chemical shielding, quadrupolar coupling, and dipolar coupling interactions for corundum (?-Al2O3) are determined from the single-crystal 27Al NMR spectra according to the rotation about three orthogonal axis. 27Al NMR parameters obtained in this work with high accuracy are as follows: ?iso =7.4(4) ppm, QCC=2.30(4) MHz, ?=0.08(3), and R=2.0(3) kHz. This work appears to be the first NMR measurement of an aluminum-aluminum dipolar coupling interaction in ?-Al2O3 crystals

  14. Electronic transport in the heavy fermion superconductors UPd 2 Al 3 and UNi 2 Al 3

    Foerster, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This work addresses the electronical properties of the superconductors UPd2Al3 and UNi2Al3 on the basis of thin film experiments. These isotructural compounds are ideal candiates to study the interplay of magnetism and superconductivity due to the differences of their magnetically ordered states, as well as the experimental evidence for a magnetic pairing mechanism in UPd2Al3. Epitaxial thin film samples of UPd2Al3 and UNi2Al3 were prepared using UHV Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE). For UPd2...

  15. Analysis and chemometry of heavy metal concentrations in the Saale, Ilm and Unstrut as a basis for assessing the pollutant level and the prospects for success of sanitation measures. Final report; Analyse und chemometrische Bewertung von Schwermetallgehalten der Saale, Ilm und Unstrut als Bestandsaufnahme und zur Abschaetzung der Auswirkungen von Sanierungsmassnahmen. Abschlussbericht

    Einax, J.W.; Truckenbrodt, D.; Kampe, O.

    1997-09-01

    Since the mid-1980`s, heavy metal characterisation was carried out on sediments of selected sections of the river Saale and methodical work was done on the analysis of flowing water at the Friedrich Schiller University at Jena. However, there was no comprehensive and current information about the state of contamination along the whole course of the river before. The most important aim was therefore the first and current stocktaking of this extent of contamination of the water, sediment and suspended matter of the Saale. The basis of these considerations was formed by about 15,000 determined features in water samples and more than 1,000 examinations of suspended matter and 4,600 examinations of sediment. In the characterisation of contamination of flowing watercourses, it was generally usual to evaluate the change of individual features according to geographic or time aspects. The application of methods of multi-variate statistics makes it possible to identify anthropogenic and geogenic sources and to discover latent connections. A comprehensive evaluation of the actual contamination situation is possible in this way. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Seit Mitte der achtziger Jahre werden an der Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena Schwermetallcharakterisierungen an Sedimenten ausgewaehlter Flussabschnitte der Saale sowie methodische Arbeiten zur Fliessgewaesseranalytik durchgefuehrt. Umfassende und aktuelle Informationen ueber den Belastungszustand entlang des gesamten Flussablaufes gab es jedoch bisher nicht. Wichtigstes Ziel war deshalb eine in diesem Umfang erstmalige und aktuelle Bestandsaufnahme zur Belastung von Wasser, Sediment und Schwebstoffe der Saale. Die Grundlage dieser Betrachtungen bilden ca. 15.000 bestimmte Merkmale in Wasserproben und mehr als 1.000 Schwebstoff- und 4.600 Sedimentuntersuchungen. Bei der Belastungscharakterisierung von Fliessgewaessern ist es derzeit allgemein ueblich, die Aenderung einzelner Merkmale nach geographischen oder zeitlichen Aspekten zu bewerten. Die Anwendung von Methoden der multivariaten Statistik ermoeglicht die Identifizierung anthropogener und geogener Quellen und die Aufdeckung latenter Zusammenhaenge. Damit ist eine umfassende Bewertung der tatsaechlichen Belastungssituation moeglich. (orig./SR)

  16. Comparative study on interface and bulk charges in AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor heterostructures with Al2O3, AlN, and Al2O3/AlN laminated dielectrics

    Zhu, Jie-Jie; Ma, Xiao-Hua; Chen, Wei-Wei; Hou, Bin; Xie, Yong; Hao, Yue

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, the interface and bulk charges in AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) heterostructures with AlN, Al2O3, and Al2O3/AlN laminated dielectrics were studied. In situ plasma pretreatment resulted negligible interface trap states and voltage hysteresis. The fixed charge density at Al2O3/AlN (or Al2O3/barrier) interface was estimated to be 1.66 × 1013 cm-2 by using flat-band voltage shift, and the oxide bulk charge concentration was 2.86 × 1017 cm-3. The interface charge density at other interfaces were at the order of 1011 cm-2. Simulation results using the above charge density/concentration indicated that Al2O3/AlN interface fixed charges dominated the dielectric-related voltage shift in AlGaN/GaN MIS heterostructures, which caused a large voltage shift of -3 V with 10 nm Al2O3 thickness, while the flat-band voltage variety resulting from other types of charges was within 0.1 V.

  17. MICROSTRUCTURE OF CVD - Al2O3

    Chatfield, C; Lindstrm, J.; Sjstrand, M.

    1989-01-01

    The reaction mechanisms of CVD-Al2O3 are briefly reviewed. Two independent reaction paths exist, one of which is rate limited by a volume reaction and the second one by a surface reaction. Al2O3 crystallizes in several different phases. The ?-structure is the stable phase at normal deposition temperature (950-1050C). The metastable ?-phase is the second most commonly occurring phase. It is shown that ? - and ? - Al2O3 nucleate on pure TiC (111) facets with well defined lattice orientation-re...

  18. TAFSIR SEMANTIK TERHADAP SURAT AL-KAFIRUN

    Imam Muslimin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The problems about the reading of al-Quran is always interesting to be discussed, in which the use of Arabic includes sound or nash is acrucial factor to understand the implicit meaning of the Arabic-written texts. Al-Quran discusses problem based on the societys culture. Al-Kafirun discusses not only about the normative theology but more about sociological contexts in which it tends to show transparency, fight against fanaticism and regionalism. And all of the will bring to the first process of the making of the text meaning to the situational context that creates them.

  19. The wobbler mouse, an ALS animal model

    Moser, Jakob Maximilian; Bigini, Paolo; Schmitt-John, Thomas

    disease mechanism and testing various therapeutic approaches and discuss the relevance of these advances for human ALS. The identification of the causative mutation linking the wobbler mutation to a vesicle transport factor and the research focussed on the cellular basis and the therapeutic treatment of...... similarities to ALS. The cellular effects of the wobbler mutation, cellular transport defects, neurofilament aggregation, neuronal hyperexcitability and neuroinflammation closely resemble human ALS. Now, 57 years after the first report on the wobbler mouse we summarize the progress made in understanding the...

  20. Ni{sub 3}Al aluminide alloys

    Liu, C.T.

    1993-10-01

    This paper provides a brief review of the recent progress in research and development of Ni{sub 3}Al and its alloys. Emphasis has been placed on understanding low ductility and brittle fracture of Ni{sub 3}Al alloys at ambient and elevated temperatures. Recent studies have resulted in identifying both intrinsic and extrinsic factors governing the fracture behavior of Ni{sub 3}Al alloys. Parallel efforts on alloy design using physical metallurgy principles have led to properties for structural use. Industrial interest in these alloys is high, and examples of industrial involvement in processing and utilization of these alloys are briefly mentioned.

  1. Electrical investigations of AlGaN/AlN structures for LEDs on Si(111)

    Witte, H.; Rohrbeck, A.; Guenther, K.M.; Saengkaew, P.; Blaesing, J.; Dadgar, A.; Krost, A. [Department of Semiconductor Epitaxy, Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Magdeburg, 39106 Magdeburg (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    The carrier transport in AlGaN light emission diode (LED) structures on Si-substrates including an AlN multilayer (ML) buffer for reduction of defects was investigated using I-V-characteristics and admittance spectroscopy. Additionally, AlN on Si ML and AlN/AlGaN:Si on Si structures were grown and analyzed separately. The AlN-ML/AlGaN:Si heterojunction, and the pn-junction including the AlGaN/GaN multi quantum well (MQW)-structure were identified. As the main space charge regions (SCRs) controlling the carrier transport through the ultraviolet-light emission diode (UV-LED) structure the Si-substrate/AlN-ML heterojunctions pointed out. The I-V-characteristic of the LED structure is described by the series resistance of the AlN-ML and a parallel resistance with respect to the pn-junction. Interface defect states and/or deep defects impact the series resistance. The carrier transport through the LED structure is controlled by a tunnel process described by a Fowler-Nordheim (FN)-emission mainly through the AlN-ML buffer forming the series resistance. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Characterization of different-Al-content AlGaN/GaN heterostructures on sapphire

    Ding, Guojian; Guo, Liwei; Xing, Zhigang; Chen, Yao; Xu, Peiqiang; Jia, Haiqiang; Zhou, Junming; Chen, Hong

    2010-01-01

    Al x Ga1- x N/GaN high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) structures with Al composition ranging from x = 0.13 to 0.36 are grown on sapphire substrates by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (LP-MOCVD). The effects of Al content on crystal quality, surface morphology, optical and electrical characteristics of the AlGaN/GaN heterostructures have been analyzed. Although high Al-content (36%) heterostructure exhibits a distinguished photoluminescence peak related to recombination between the two-dimensional electron gas and photoexcited holes (2DEG-h), its crystal quality and rough surface morphology are poor. 2DEG mobility increases with the Al content up to 26% and then it apparently decreases for high Al-content (36%) AlGaN/GaN heterostructure. The increase of sheet carrier density with the increase of Al content has been observed. A high mobility at room temperature of 2105 cm2/V s with a sheet carrier density of n s = 1.10 1013 cm-2, for a 26% Al-content AlGaN/GaN heterostructure has been obtained, which is approaching state-of-the-art for HEMT grown on SiC. Sheet resistance as low as 274 ?/? has also been achieved.

  3. Tracing Al Shabaab’s Decision to Cooperate with Al Qaeda in Somalia (2008

    Adlini Ilma Ghaisany Sjah

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available 'Al Shabaab, a Somali insurgent with predominantly nationalistic causes (alongside transnational [global Jihad] and Islamic goals made the choice to fight on behalf of Al Qaeda in 2008. The decision to do so contrasted with Al Shabaab’s previous behaviour of actively denying cooperation and distancing itself from Al Qaeda. This study aims to uncover factors that contributed to Al Shabaab’s decision through the use of process-tracing. The results show that Al Shabaab’s declaration of cooperation with Al Qaeda in August 2008 was brought about by a series of events that traced back to four factors: public reactions to the implementation of a Salafi ideology, the shift to a radical leadership, Al Shabaab’s inability to maintain stability in areas under its control and its increasing attacks by Al Shabaab on the Somali public. Al Shabaab pursued cooperation with Al Qaeda after realizing that their nationalistic preference was no longer achievable in the near future.' ' '

  4. Reactivity of aluminum cluster anions with ammonia: Selective etching of Al11- and Al12-

    Reactivity of aluminum cluster anions toward ammonia was studied via mass spectrometry. Highly selective etching of Al11- and Al12- was observed at low concentrations of ammonia. However, at sufficiently high concentrations of ammonia, all other sizes of aluminum cluster anions, except for Al13-, were also observed to deplete. The disappearance of Al11- and Al12- was accompanied by concurrent production of Al11NH3- and Al12NH3- species, respectively. Theoretical simulations of the photoelectron spectrum of Al11NH3- showed conclusively that its ammonia moiety is chemisorbed without dissociation, although in the case of Al12NH3-, dissociation of the ammonia moiety could not be excluded. Moreover, since differences in calculated Aln-+NH3 (n=9-12) reaction energies were not able to explain the observed selective etching of Al11- and Al12-, we concluded that thermodynamics plays only a minor role in determining the observed reactivity pattern, and that kinetics is the more influential factor. In particular, the conversion from the physisorbed Aln-(NH3) to chemisorbed AlnNH3- species is proposed as the likely rate-limiting step.

  5. Magnetic properties and crystal structure of HoNiAl and UNiAl hydrides

    The effect of hydrogenation on the magnetic properties and crystal structure of 4f and 5f intermetallics was studied on HoNiAlH2.0, UNiAlH2.3 and UNiAlD2.1. The incorporation of hydrogen into HoNiAl leads to a decrease of the magnetic ordering temperature from 13 to 6 K, while it increases from 19 K to values in the range 90-100 K in the UNiAl-H system. The crystal lattices of all compounds are anisotropically expanded. Moreover, the crystal symmetry is lowered to orthorhombic in HoNiAlH2.0, but remains hexagonal for UNiAlH(D)x. Three different deuterium positions were found for both compounds. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  6. Multipliers from Sobolev space $H^\\al_p$ into $H^{-\\al}_p$

    Neiman-Zade, M I

    2003-01-01

    A function $q(x)$ is said to be a multiplier from the Sobolev space $H^\\al_p(R^n)$ into $H^{-\\al}_p(R^n)$ if the operator $Lf(x)=q(x)f(x)$ is a bounded operator from the first space into the second one. Let $M^\\al_p$ the the space of such multipliers. In this paper we give the description of the spaces $M^\\al_p$ provided the condition $\\al>min(n/p,n/p')$. In the case $\\al\\le min(n/p,n/p')$ we obtain some embedding theorems for Sobolev spaces with negative smoothness indices into $M^\\al_p$.

  7. Some aspects of anelastic and microplastic creep of pure Al and two Al-alloys

    Anelastic creep of pure Al, commercial Al-Cu and a binary Al-Cu alloy has been measured at room temperature by means of a high resolution laser interferometer. The irreversible component of the deformation was also quantified from measurements of the anelastic creep recovery. The dependence of the deformation-time curves on thermal treatment and cold work is analyzed. The mechanisms responsible for the room temperature anelastic creep are discussed. Materials loaded below their elastic limit can present either a pure anelastic behavior (commercial Al-Cu) or additional viscoelastic creep (pure Al, high purity Al-Cu). For commercial Al-Cu, the presence of an irreversible deformation appears to be mainly related to the state of the surface. A viscoelastic after effect has been measured for this alloy after a Cu-electroplating treatment. As a typical result for room temperature creep, the irreversible deformation depends logarithmically on load time. (orig.)

  8. Some aspects of anelastic and microplastic creep of pure Al and two Al-alloys

    Sgobba, S. (Lab. de Metallurgie Mecanique, Dept. des Materiaux, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland)); Kuenzi, H.U. (Lab. de Metallurgie Mecanique, Dept. des Materiaux, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland)); Ilschner, B. (Lab. de Metallurgie Mecanique, Dept. des Materiaux, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland))

    1993-11-01

    Anelastic creep of pure Al, commercial Al-Cu and a binary Al-Cu alloy has been measured at room temperature by means of a high resolution laser interferometer. The irreversible component of the deformation was also quantified from measurements of the anelastic creep recovery. The dependence of the deformation-time curves on thermal treatment and cold work is analyzed. The mechanisms responsible for the room temperature anelastic creep are discussed. Materials loaded below their elastic limit can present either a pure anelastic behavior (commercial Al-Cu) or additional viscoelastic creep (pure Al, high purity Al-Cu). For commercial Al-Cu, the presence of an irreversible deformation appears to be mainly related to the state of the surface. A viscoelastic after effect has been measured for this alloy after a Cu-electroplating treatment. As a typical result for room temperature creep, the irreversible deformation depends logarithmically on load time. (orig.).

  9. In situ (Al3Zr + Al2O3np)/2024Al metal matrix composite with novel reinforcement distributions fabricated by reaction hot pressing

    Highlights: (Al3Zr + Al2O3np)/2024Al MMC with a novel network distribution was tailored. Al3Zr and Al2O3np were in situ synthesized at 740 C using the 2024AlZrO2 system. The effect of sintering parameters on Al3Zr morphology was investigated. Influence of Al3Zr morphology on tensile properties of the composite was studied. -- Abstract: In situ hybrid (Al3Zr + Al2O3np)/2024Al metal matrix composites with unique controlled reinforcement distributions were fabricated using low energy ball milling and reactive hot pressing. The reaction system between 2024Al and ZrO2 was studied using differential thermal analysis (DTA). In situ formed aluminium oxide (Al2O3) and zirconium tri-aluminide (Al3Zr) with varying morphology and sizes were produced under different fabricating conditions. Al3Zr with varying morphologies such as particle, plate and flakes were observed. With a total 10 vol.% of reinforcements, the composite containing a three-dimensional network of closely spaced in situ synthesized Al3Zr and Al2O3 particles had a YS of 175 MPa and a UTS of 261 MPa, effectively strengthening the 2024Al matrix. The effect of different sintering conditions on the microstructure and tensile properties of the composite was systematically investigated

  10. The effects of LT AlN buffer thickness on the optical properties of AlGaN grown by MOCVD and Al composition inhomogeneity analysis

    We have investigated the growth of AlGaN epilayers on a sapphire substrate by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition using various low-temperature (LT) AlN buffer thicknesses. Combined scanning electron microscopy and cathodoluminescence investigations reveal the correlation between the surface morphology and optical properties of AlGaN films in a microscopic scale. It is found that the suitable thickness of the LT AlN buffer for high quality AlGaN growth is around 20 nm. The Al compositional inhomogeneity of the AlGaN epilayer is attributed to the low lateral mobility of Al adatoms on the growing surface

  11. Interdiffusion in Diffusion Couples: U-Mo v. Al and Al-Si

    Interdiffusion and microstructural development in the U-Mo-Al system was examined using solid-to-solid diffusion couples consisting of U-7wt.%Mo, U-10wt.%Mo and U-12wt.%Mo vs. pure Al, annealed at 600 deg C for 24 hours. The influence of Si alloying addition (up to 5 wt.%) in Al on the interdiffusion microstructural development was also examined using solid-to-solid diffusion couples consisting of U-7wt.%Mo, U-10wt.%Mo and U-12wt.%Mo vs. pure Al, Al-2wt.%Si, and Al-5wt.%Si annealed at 550 deg C up to 20 hours. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) were employed to examine the development of a very fine multiphase intermetallic layer. In ternary U-Mo-Al diffusion couples annealed at 600 deg C for 24 hours, interdiffusion microstructure varied of finely dispersed UAl3, UAl4, U6Mo4Al43, and UMo2Al20 phases while the average composition throughout the interdiffusion zone remained constant at approximately 80 at.% Al. Interdiffusion microstructure observed by SEM/TEM analyses and diffusion paths drawn from concentration profiles determined by EPMA appear to deviate from the assumption of 'local thermodynamic equilibrium,' and suggest that interdiffusion occurs via supersaturated UAl4 followed by equilibrium transformation into UAl3, U6Mo4Al43, UAl4 and UMo2Al20 phases. Similar observation was made for U-Mo vs. Al diffusion couples annealed at 550 deg C. The addition of Si (up to 5 wt.%) in Al significantly reduced the thickness of the intermetallic layer by changing the constituent phases of the interdiffusion zone developed in U-Mo vs. Al-Si diffusion couples. Specifically, the formation of (U,Mo)(Al,Si)3 with relatively large solubility for Mo and Si, along with UMo2Al20 phases was observed along with disappearance of U6Mo4Al43 and UAl4 phases. Simplified understanding based on U-Al, U-Si, and Mo-Si binary phase diagrams is discussed in the light of the beneficial effect of Si alloying addition.

  12. Higher order elastic constants of the shape memory alloys Cu-Al-Ni, Cu-Al-Zn, Cu-Al-Be and Cu-Al-Pd

    Theoretical and experimental investigations are being carried out on Cu based alloys due to their technologically important shape memory properties and pseudo-elasticity, which are intimately associated with the Martensitic transformation. In this paper we have determined the complete sets of third-order elastic constants of Cu-Al-Ni, Cu-Al-Zn, Cu-Al-Be and Cu-Al-Pd. A combination of deformation theory and finite strain elasticity theory has been employed to arrive at the expressions for the strain energy density of the lattice based on the Keating's approach. This is compared with the strain-dependent lattice energy from continuum model approximation to obtain the expressions for elastic constants. (author)

  13. Calcium platinum aluminium, CaPtAl

    Charles Fon Abi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary X-ray study of CaPtAl has been reported previously by Hulliger [J. Alloys Compd (1993, 196, 225–228] based on X-ray powder diffraction data without structure refinement. With the present single-crystal X-ray study, we confirm the assignment of the TiNiSi type for CaPtAl, in a fully ordered inverse structure. All three atoms of the asymmetric unit have .m. site symmetry. The structure features a ∞3[AlPt] open framework with a fourfold coordination of Pt by Al atoms and vice versa. The Ca atoms are located in the large channels of the structure.

  14. Thermal Conductivity of Al-Salt Composites

    Li, Peng; Zhang, Mei; Wang, Lijun; Seetharaman, Seshadri

    2015-11-01

    With a view to examine the possibility of estimating the content of entrapped metallic aluminium in the salt cake from aluminium remelting, the thermal diffusivity of reference composites of KCl-NaCl-Al was measured as a function of aluminium metal content at room temperature. The thermal conductivity of the reference composites was found to increase with the metallic Al content. The lumped parameter model approach was carried out to discuss the influence of different geometry arrangements of each phase, viz. air, salts and metallic aluminium on the thermal conductivity. Application of the present results to industrial samples indicates that factors such as the interfacial condition of metallic Al particles have to be considered in order to estimate the amount of entrapped Al in the salt cake.

  15. On Dobbert et al, 'Cultural Transmission...'

    Gearing, Frederick

    1984-01-01

    Criticizes Dobbert et al's model of cultural transmission (presented in earlier article) as being a species of social physics. Suggests improvements to the model, notably that observation and analysis at the emic level be taken into account. (RDN)

  16. [Nordosteuropa als Geschichtsregion] / Hans-Jrgen Bmelburg

    Bmelburg, Hans-Jrgen

    2009-01-01

    Nordosteuropa als Geschichtsregion. Beitrge des III. Internationalen Symposiums zur deutschen Kultur und Geschichte im europischen Nordosten vom 20.-22. September 2001 in Tallinn. Lbeck : Verlag Schmidt-Rmhild 2006. (Verffentlihungen der Aue-Stiftung. 17)

  17. ALS: Recent Developments from Genetics Studies.

    Therrien, Martine; Dion, Patrick A; Rouleau, Guy A

    2016-06-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal disorder that is characterized by a progressive degeneration of the upper and lower motor neurons. Most cases appear to be sporadic, but 5-10 % of cases have a family history of the disease. High-throughput DNA sequencing and related genomic capture tools are methodological advances which have rapidly contributed to an acceleration in the discovery of genetic risk factors for both familial and sporadic ALS. It is interesting to note that as the number of ALS genes grows, many of the proteins they encode are in shared intracellular processes. This review will summarize some of the recent advances and gene discovery made in ALS. PMID:27113253

  18. PEMBARUAN MASLA╩AH DALAM MAQĀ╤ID AL- SHARĪ‘AH: TELAAH HUMANISTIS TENTANG AL-KULLIYYĀT AL-KHAMSAH

    Zaenuddin Mansyur

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:   In order to answer a variety of issues faced by human being in the current era, such as human rights abuses, social disintegration, and terrorism, the renewal of Islamic law in the level of theoretical and practical aspects is very urgent. This paper aims to examine one of the Islamic legal reform efforts, namely to build a more technical understanding of the concept of ma╣la╪ah contained in the maqā╣īd sharī‘ah, called the al-kulliyat al-khamsah. Therefore, the concept of ma╣la╪ah in ╪if╬ al-dīn is technically defined as al-╪urriyah al-i‘tiqād (freedom of religion and schools; in ╪if╬ al-nafs as al-karamat al-insān (human being breeding; in ╪if╬ al-nasl as ╪if╬ al-usrah (wholeness and harmony of the family; in ╪if╬ al-māl as al-ta╨ammun al-insān (social solidarity , and in ╪if╬ al-‘aql as al-╪uqūq as al-tarbiyāt (increasing human resources quality.Abstrak: Demi menjawab aneka persoalan zaman yang dihadapi manusia era sekarang, seperti penyelewengan terhadap HAM, disintegrasi sosial, dan terorisme, maka pembaharuan hukum Islam dalam tataran teoretis dan praktis urgen dilakukan. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji salah satu upaya pembaruan hukum Islam, yaitu membangun pemahaman yang lebih teknis terhadap konsep ma╣la╪ah yang terkandung dalam maqā╣īd sharī‘ah, yang disebut dengan al-kulliyāt al-khamsah. Oleh karena itu, konsep ma╣la╪ah dalam ╪if╬u al-dīn secara teknis dimaknai sebagai ╪urriyah al-i‘tiqād (kebebasan untuk beragama dan beraliran; dalam ╪if╬u al-nafs sebagai al-karāmāt al-insān (pemuliaan kemanusiaan; dalam ╪if╬u al-nasl sebagai ╪if╬u al-usrah (keutuhan dan keharmonisan keluarga; dalam ╪if╬u al-māl sebagai al-ta╨ammun al-insān (solidaritas sosial; dan dalam ╪if╬u al-‘aql sebagai al-╪uqūq al-tarbiyāt (peningkatan sumber daya manusia.

  19. In Situ Fabrication of AlN Coating by Reactive Plasma Spraying of Al/AlN Powder

    Mohammed Shahien

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Reactive plasma spraying is a promising technology for the in situ formation of aluminum nitride (AlN coatings. Recently, it became possible to fabricate cubic-AlN-(c-AlN based coatings through reactive plasma spraying of Al powder in an ambient atmosphere. However, it was difficult to fabricate a coating with high AlN content and suitable thickness due to the coalescence of the Al particles. In this study, the influence of using AlN additive (h-AlN to increase the AlN content of the coating and improve the reaction process was investigated. The simple mixing of Al and AlN powders was not suitable for fabricating AlN coatings through reactive plasma spraying. However, it was possible to prepare a homogenously mixed, agglomerated and dispersed Al/AlN mixture (which enabled in-flight interaction between the powder and the surrounding plasma by wet-mixing in a planetary mill. Increasing the AlN content in the mixture prevented coalescence and increased the nitride content gradually. Using 30 to 40 wt% AlN was sufficient to fabricate a thick (more than 200 µm AlN coating with high hardness (approximately 1000 Hv. The AlN additive prevented the coalescence of Al metal and enhanced post-deposition nitriding through N2 plasma irradiation by allowing the nitriding species in the plasma to impinge on a larger Al surface area. Using AlN as a feedstock additive was found to be a suitable method for fabricating AlN coatings by reactive plasma spraying. Moreover, the fabricated coatings consist of hexagonal (h-AlN, c-AlN (rock-salt and zinc-blend phases and certain oxides: aluminum oxynitride (Al5O6N, cubic sphalerite Al23O27N5 (ALON and Al2O3. The zinc-blend c-AlN and ALON phases were attributed to the transformation of the h-AlN feedstock during the reactive plasma spraying. Thus, the zinc-blend c-AlN and ALON phases were not included in the feedstock and were not formed through nitriding of the Al.

  20. High Temperature Intermetallic Compounds Ni3Al

    Kursa, M.; Hypesk, L.; Drpala, J.; Krnk, T.; Losertov, M.

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes the preparation of Ni3Al intermetallic compounds, and investigations of their structures in the as-cast, remelted, and annealed states. The materials were produced by three techniques : in a high frequency vacuum furnace, by zonal remelting in an electron beam furnace, and by remelting with unidirectional solidification. Those melted in an h. f. vacuum furnace and poured into graphite moulds had well developed dendritic structures, a Ni3Al (?) phase, with interdendritic sp...

  1. Electric quadrupole moment of {sup 31}Al

    Nagae, D. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)], E-mail: nagae.daisuke@jaea.go.jp; Ueno, H.; Kameda, D. [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Takemura, M.; Asahi, K.; Takase, K. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Yoshimi, A.; Sugimoto, T. [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Shimada, K. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Nagatomo, T. [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Uchida, M.; Arai, T.; Inoue, T.; Kagami, S.; Hatakeyama, N. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Murata, J.; Kawamura, H.; Narita, K. [Department of Physics, Rikkyo University, 3-34-1 Nishi-ikebukuro, Toshima, Tokyo 171-8501 (Japan)

    2008-10-15

    The electric quadrupole moment Q for the ground state of {sup 31}Al (I{sup {pi}} = 5/2{sup +}) was measured by means of the {beta} ray-detected nuclear quadrupole resonance. A spin-polarized radioactive beam of {sup 31}Al was produced in the projectile-fragmentation reaction of a {sup 40}Ar beam on a {sup 93}Nb target. For the Q moment measurement, we developed a new radio-frequency application system to induce the spin reversal.

  2. Hans Freudenthal als docent en collega

    Verhulst, Ferdinand; Verhoef, Nellie

    2010-01-01

    Hans Freudenthal heeft een belangrijke invloed gehad op de ontwikkeling van het basiswiskundeonderwijs. Niet minder belangrijk was zijn activiteit als docent en onderzoeker gedurende tientallen jaren op het Mathematisch Instituut van de Universiteit Utrecht. Hoe waren toen zijn ideeën over onderwijs, hoe was hij als collega en hoe waren zijn colleges? Nellie Verhoef en Ferdinand Verhulst interviewden voormalige collega’s en studenten van Freudenthal.

  3. Performance of the ALS injection system

    The authors started commissioning the Advanced Light Source (ALS) storage ring on January 11, 1993. The stored beam reached 60 mA on March 24, 1993 and 407 mA on April 9, 1993. The fast pace of storage ring commissioning can be attributed partially to the robust injection system. In this paper they describe the operating characteristics of the ALS injection system

  4. PRECIPITATION PROCESS OF Al-Sc ALLOYS

    Sano, N.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hono, K.; Jo, H; Hirano, K.; Pickering, H.; Sakurai, T

    1987-01-01

    Precipitation process in an Al-0.25 wt.%Sc alloy aged at 573 K has been investigated by resistivity and hardness measurements, transmission electron microscopy, and atom-probe field ion microscopy. It was found that the equilibrium Al3Sc phase particles precipitate homogeneously from the begining. The particles coarsen following the Lifschitz-Wagner rule after the completion of the nucleation-and-growth stage. Although the precipitation process seemed to be simple, the composition of the prec...

  5. Physical properties of Al-R melts

    In this work, we present experimental data of physical properties (viscosity, surface tension, magnetic susceptibility and electroresistivity) studies for Al-R (R = Ce, Pr, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Yb and Y) alloys and first intermetallic compounds from aluminum side, Al11R3 (Al3R). All properties were measured during heating up to 2000 K and the following cooling down under helium atmosphere. The main results are: (1) the electronic characteristics of the objects are in good correlation with R positions in the periodic table, but rather lower than for pure elements. The conclusion is that through all investigated temperature range, the rare-earth elements have partly covalent but not only metallic states; (2) all the melts remain strongly microheterogeneous even at high overheatings above liquidus. The existence of associations with Al2R type is highly probable here. Some destruction of these associations takes place with increasing temperature above melting point at the composition of Al2R compound. However, the transformation into true solution state is somewhere above 1900 K. To check the idea, the thermodynamic modeling of the melts was performed. It was shown that associates with Al2R type are stable up to 2000 K

  6. Modeling of precipitation in Al alloys

    Asta, M.; Foiles, S.M.; Wolfer, W.G. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    Objective was the development of a computational model of precipitation from a supersaturated alloy solid solution. The model is based on the formalism of chemical-reaction-rate theory combined with classical descriptions of precipitate thermodynamic properties and a mean-field treatment of diffusion-limited growht and coarsening. For the case of precipitation of Al{sub 3}Sc in supersaturated Al-Sc alloys, it is demonstrated how the model can be used to calculate number densities and size distributions of precipitates as a function of aging time and temperature, including effects of continuous cooling and thermally generated point defects. Application of the model to a specific alloy system requires knowledge of diffusion data, point defect energetics, and thermodynamic properties for bulk phases and interphase interfaces. For interfaces and point defects, thermodynamic data can be difficult to measure and reliable values of defect free energies are often unavailable. For this reason, part of the efforts were devoted to applying semiempirical and first-principles atomistic techniques to the calculation of interfacial and point-defect thermodynamic properties. This report discusses applications for interphase interfaces in the Al-Ag, Al-Sc, and Al-Li alloy systems. We also describe atomistic work aimed at understanding the energetics of vacancy clusters in Al. These clusters serve as sinks for isolated vacancies during aging and their growth can lead to more complex defects, such as dislocation loops, that act as heterogeneous nucleation sites.

  7. Heterogeneous nucleation of solid Al from the melt by Al 3 Ti : Molecular dynamics simulations

    Wang, Junsheng

    2010-10-27

    It has been known experimentally for some time that Al3 Ti is a powerful nucleant for the solidification of aluminum from the melt; however, a full microscopic understanding is still lacking. To develop this understanding, we have performed molecular dynamics simulations of the nucleation and early stages of growth using published embedded atom method potentials for Al-Ti, but modified by us to stabilize the D 022 structure. We discover that Al3 Ti can indeed be very effective in promoting the growth of solid Al but the manner in which growth takes place depends sensitively on the surface on which the Al nucleates. In particular, complete growth of solid Al from the liquid on the (001) and (110) surfaces of Al3 Ti occurs at a lower temperature than on the (112) surface. This anisotropy agrees with observations in previous experiments. We explain this observation in terms of interfacial energies. On the preferential (111) surface of Al the solid-liquid interfacial energy is highest while the solid-vacuum energy is lowest. Our simulations also show that the extent of ordering taking place in liquid Al close to the Al 3 Ti substrate above the melting point correlates well with the effectiveness of the substrate as a nucleant below the melting temperature: this could provide a computationally efficient scheme to identify good nucleants. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

  8. On the constitution of the high-Al region of the Al-Cr alloy system

    The compositional range of the Al-Cr alloy system above 75 at.% Al was investigated by powder X-ray diffractometry, differential thermal analysis, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. A hexagonal phase isostructural to μ-Al4Mn (a ∼ 2.00 nm, c ∼ 2.47 nm) was found to be formed in a compositional range from about 78.7 to 81.3 at.% Al. A higher-Al Al11Cr2 phase was associated with the C-centered monoclinic (pseudo-orthorhombic) structure with a ∼ 1.76 nm, b ∼ 3.05 nm, c ∼ 1.76 nm and β ∼ 90 deg. reported earlier. No orthorhombic structure with a ∼ 3.46 nm, b ∼ 2.00 nm, c ∼ 1.24 nm related in the literature to either Al45Cr7, Al11Cr2 or Al4Cr was revealed at all. The peritectic temperature of the Al11Cr2 phase formation was found to be ∼865 deg. C and the stability of this phase was confirmed down to 600 deg, C

  9. Next-generation sequencing of 28 ALS-related genes in a Japanese ALS cohort.

    Nakamura, Ryoichi; Sone, Jun; Atsuta, Naoki; Tohnai, Genki; Watanabe, Hazuki; Yokoi, Daichi; Nakatochi, Masahiro; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Ito, Mizuki; Senda, Jo; Katsuno, Masahisa; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Li, Yuanzhe; Izumi, Yuishin; Morita, Mitsuya; Taniguchi, Akira; Kano, Osamu; Oda, Masaya; Kuwabara, Satoshi; Abe, Koji; Aiba, Ikuko; Okamoto, Koichi; Mizoguchi, Kouichi; Hasegawa, Kazuko; Aoki, Masashi; Hattori, Nobutaka; Tsuji, Shoji; Nakashima, Kenji; Kaji, Ryuji; Sobue, Gen

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the frequency and contribution of variants of the 28 known amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-related genes in Japanese ALS patients. We designed a multiplex, polymerase chain reaction-based primer panel to amplify the coding regions of the 28 ALS-related genes and sequenced DNA samples from 257 Japanese ALS patients using an Ion Torrent PGM sequencer. We also performed exome sequencing and identified variants of the 28 genes in an additional 251 ALS patients using an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. We identified the known ALS pathogenic variants and predicted the functional properties of novel nonsynonymous variants in silico. These variants were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Known pathogenic variants were identified in 19 (48.7%) of the 39 familial ALS patients and 14 (3.0%) of the 469 sporadic ALS patients. Thirty-two sporadic ALS patients (6.8%) harbored 1 or 2 novel nonsynonymous variants of ALS-related genes that might be deleterious. This study reports the first extensive genetic screening of Japanese ALS patients. These findings are useful for developing genetic screening and counseling strategies for such patients. PMID:26742954

  10. Phase relationships in the Al-rich region of the Al-Cu-Er system

    Zhang Ligang, E-mail: Ligang.Zhang@vtc.tu-freiberg.de [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Lushan Street 105, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Freiberg University of Mining and Technology, Centre for Innovation Competence Virtuhcon, Fuchsmuehlenweg 9, D-09596 Freiberg (Germany); Science Center for Phase Diagram and Materials Design and Manufacture, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Masset, Patrick J. [Freiberg University of Mining and Technology, Centre for Innovation Competence Virtuhcon, Fuchsmuehlenweg 9, D-09596 Freiberg (Germany); Cao Fuyong [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Lushan Street 105, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Meng Fangui [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410004 (China); Liu Libin, E-mail: PDC@mail.csu.edu.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Lushan Street 105, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Science Center for Phase Diagram and Materials Design and Manufacture, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Jin Zhanpeng [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Lushan Street 105, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Science Center for Phase Diagram and Materials Design and Manufacture, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2011-03-03

    Research highlights: > One ternary phase {tau}{sub 1}-Al{sub 8}Cu{sub 4}Er in Al-rich region with a composition of 59.4-60.4 at.% Al, 32.2-33.8 at.% Cu, and 6.4-7.7 at.% Er is observed in both as-cast and annealed alloys. At 673 K, the binary Al{sub 3}Er phase dissolves about 3.51 at.% Cu. > The calculated solidification paths (based on the CALPHAD method) of as-cast alloys are in agreement with the experimental results. > It can be found that the resultant thermodynamic database can be applied to case studies of as-cast alloys, showing that the literature thermodynamic description of the Al-Cu-Er system is reliable as a working basis for computer-assisted alloy design. - Abstract: The Al-rich region of the ternary Al-Cu-Er system is investigated using the method of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Phase equilibria in the Al-rich region of the Al-Cu-Er system at 673 K have been obtained, and the microstructures of as-cast alloys in the Al-rich region are also investigated. One ternary phase {tau}{sub 1}-Al{sub 8}Cu{sub 4}Er with a composition of 59.4-60.4 at.% Al, 32.2-33.8 at.% Cu, and 6.4-7.7 at.% Er is observed in both as-cast and annealed alloys. At 673 K, the binary Al{sub 3}Er phase dissolves about 3.51 at.% Cu. The calculated solidification paths (based on the CALPHAD method) of as-cast alloys are in agreement with the experimental results.

  11. Phase relationships in the Al-rich region of the Al-Cu-Er system

    Research highlights: ? One ternary phase ?1-Al8Cu4Er in Al-rich region with a composition of 59.4-60.4 at.% Al, 32.2-33.8 at.% Cu, and 6.4-7.7 at.% Er is observed in both as-cast and annealed alloys. At 673 K, the binary Al3Er phase dissolves about 3.51 at.% Cu. ? The calculated solidification paths (based on the CALPHAD method) of as-cast alloys are in agreement with the experimental results. ? It can be found that the resultant thermodynamic database can be applied to case studies of as-cast alloys, showing that the literature thermodynamic description of the Al-Cu-Er system is reliable as a working basis for computer-assisted alloy design. - Abstract: The Al-rich region of the ternary Al-Cu-Er system is investigated using the method of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Phase equilibria in the Al-rich region of the Al-Cu-Er system at 673 K have been obtained, and the microstructures of as-cast alloys in the Al-rich region are also investigated. One ternary phase ?1-Al8Cu4Er with a composition of 59.4-60.4 at.% Al, 32.2-33.8 at.% Cu, and 6.4-7.7 at.% Er is observed in both as-cast and annealed alloys. At 673 K, the binary Al3Er phase dissolves about 3.51 at.% Cu. The calculated solidification paths (based on the CALPHAD method) of as-cast alloys are in agreement with the experimental results.

  12. Forged HITEMAL: Al-based MMCs strengthened with nanometric thick Al2O3 skeleton

    Bulk Al–Al2O3 metal matrix composites (MMCs) named HITEMAL (high temperature aluminum) were fabricated in situ by forging compaction of five different types of gas-atomized commercial purity Al powders with a mean particle size in the range of 1–9 µm. As-forged HITEMAL consisted of (sub)micrometric Al grains (matrix) decorated with nanometric thick amorphous Al2O3 (a-Al2O3) skeleton. Low-angle grain boundaries (LAGBs) free of Al2O3 were located in the Al grain interior. The Al grain size and the portion of LAGBs increased with the increase in the relative powder surface area. As-forged HITEMAL shows excellent thermal stability up to 400 °C for 24 h. Annealing at temperatures ≥450 °C led to crystallization and morphological transformation from a-Al2O3 skeleton to nanometric γ-Al2O3 particles. Owing to the pinning effect of Al2O3 phase, no Al grain growth took place during annealing up to 500 °C. HITEMAL showed attractive mechanical properties especially when tested at 300 °C (yield strength up to 220 MPa, Young's modulus up to 58 GPa). Despite the presence of a nearly continuous a-Al2O3 skeleton along adjacent Al grains, forged HITEMAL materials had reasonable room temperature elongation of 7–26%. HITEMAL's elongation decreased as the Al grain size decreased and with increased testing temperature. The loss in elongation (uniform and total) was attributed to the inhomogeneous flow, which occurred due to high densities of high angle grain boundaries (dislocation sinks) and small content of LAGBs. The strength of HITEMAL stemmed from grain boundary mediated strengthening mechanisms. The results showed a positive deviation from the Hall–Petch plot, which is typical behavior of ultrafine-grained metals. Transformation of a-Al2O3 skeleton to γ-Al2O3 particles led to deterioration of the HITEMAL strength and Young's modulus

  13. Prinsip Pendidikan Karakter Dalam Islam: Studi Komparasi Pemikiran Al-Ghazali dan Burhanuddin Al-Zarnuji

    Agus Setiawan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of character education that is done by the Indonesian government recently has been provoked by al-Ghazali and Burhanuddin al-Zarnuji long ago. It was proven by some written thoughts of al-Ghazali and Burhanuddin al-Zarnuji. They were very famous scientists in their era and widely known as educational experts who produced some phenomenal thoughts many people use today. Al-Ghazali and Burhanuddin al-Zarnuji lived in the era of Bani Abbasiyah monarchy, but Both of them lived in different era. Al-Ghazali was born first, then Burhanuddin al-Zarnuji. They had different mazhab, al-Ghazali went to the traditional principle of mazhab Syafi’I and Burhanuddin al-Zarnuji went to the modern principle of mazhab Hanafi. The differences, of course, would create a different thought. Still, they might have a similar principle of Islamic character education. The thoughts of character education of al-Ghazali have been poured in the “Ayyuha Walad” focusing to the students’ character building characterized by religiously obedient, skillful of general and religious knowledge, socially helpful, affectionate, generous, good citizen, and coloring the society. Some applicable thoughts of character education of Ayyuha al-Walad of al-Gazhali to the contemporary education are: the balance of the happiness purposes of the recent life and the life after death, qana’ah and tawakal, affectionate, caring other, patience, honesty, philanthropy, social works, generosity, democratic, peace makers, and patriotic. Those characters are also directed in the Islamic character education nowdays. So that, the thoughts of al-Ghazali positively and responsively are absorbed by the Indonesian government to build the national character widely implementing in the national curriculum based on the local wisdom and the Islamic values. In the end, the students are able to live happily based on the Islamic rules by implementing the good behavior. Similar to the al-Ghazali’s thought, Burhanuddin al-Zarnuji, in “Ta’lim al-Muta’alim”, wrote some important principles of character building consists of the physical and inner values in education.

  14. Optical microcavities and enhanced electroluminescence from electroformed Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes

    Electroluminescence (EL) and electron emission into vacuum (EM) occur when a non-destructive dielectric breakdown of Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes, electroforming, results in the development of a filamentary region in which current-voltage (I-V) characteristics exhibit voltage-controlled negative resistance. The temperature dependence of I-V curves, EM, and, particularly, EL of Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes with anodic Al2O3 thicknesses between 12?nm and 30?nm, has been studied. Two filters, a long-pass (LP) filter with transmission of photons with energies less than 3.0?eV and a short-pass (SP) filter with photon transmission between 3.0 and 4.0?eV, have been used to characterize EL. The voltage threshold for EL with the LP filter, VLP, is ?1.5?V. VLP is nearly independent of Al2O3 thickness and of temperature and is 0.30.6?V less than the threshold voltage for EL for the SP filter, VSP. EL intensity is primarily between 1.8 and 3.0?eV when the bias voltage, VS ? 7?V. EL in the thinnest diodes is enhanced compared to EL in thicker diodes. For increasing VS, for diodes with the smallest Al2O3 thicknesses, there is a maximum EL intensity, LMX, at a voltage, VLMX, followed by a decrease to a plateau. LMX and EL intensity at 4.0?V in the plateau region depend exponentially on Al2O3 thickness. The ratio of LMX at 295?K for a diode with 12?nm of Al2O3 to LMX for a diode with 25?nm of Al2O3 is ?140. The ratio of EL intensity with the LP filter to EL intensity with the SP filter, LP/SP, varies between ?3 and ?35; it depends on Al2O3 thickness and VS. Enhanced EL is attributed to the increase of the spontaneous emission rate of a dipole in a non-resonant optical microcavity. EL photons interact with the Ag and Al films to create surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at the metal-Al2O3 interfaces. SPPs generate large electromagnetic fields in the filamentary region of the electroformed Al-Al2O3-Ag diode, which then acts as an optical microcavity. A model is proposed for electronic processes in electroformed Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes

  15. Disordered crystal structure of 20H-AlON, Al10O3N8

    The disordered crystal structure of 20H-AlON (Al10O3N8) was determined by combined use of X-ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The title compound is hexagonal with space group P63/mmc (Z=2) and the unit-cell dimensions are a=0.307082(5) nm, c=5.29447(8) nm and V=0.432376(12) nm3. The structural model showed the positional disordering of three of the six Al sites in the unit cell. The reliability indices calculated from the Rietveld method were Rwp=6.97%, S (=Rwp/Re)=1.68, Rp=5.45%, RB=5.13% and RF=4.56%. We interpreted the disordered structure of 20H-AlON as a statistical average of six different types of ordered structural configurations, which are composed of an octahedral [Al(O, N)6] layer and tetrahedral [Al(O, N)4] layers. We demonstrated the high correlations between the hexagonal unit-cell dimensions and the octahedral layer concentrations for AlON and SiAlON polytypoids. - Graphical abstract: Variations of a and c/(nO+nT) with nO/(nO+nT). The a and c are the hexagonal unit-cell dimensions of AlON, SiAlON and AlN. The nO and nT are, respectively, the numbers of octahedral and tetrahedral layers in the unit cells. The unit-cell dimensions in literature are plotted in black plus for AlON and black cross for SiAlON. The unit-cell dimensions of AlN are a=0.3110 nm and c=0.4980 nm. - Highlights: • Crystal structure of Al10O3N8 is determined by laboratory X-ray powder diffraction. • The atom arrangements are represented by the split-atom model. • Six types of ordered atom arrangements are derived from the disordered structure. • Hexagonal unit-cell dimensions changed systematically for AlON and SiAlON compounds

  16. Thermal Properties in the MgAl2O4-Al2O3 System

    Wilkerson, Dr. Kelley R. [Missouri University of Science and Technology; Smith, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Compositional effects on the thermal diffusivity in the MgAl2O4-Al2O3 system were studied. The lowest thermal diffusivity, 0.0258 +/-5% cm/s, was measured between 79.8 and 83.9 wt% Al2O3 quenched from various temperatures between 1500 and 1700C. All of the chemistries in this range extend past the solvus, but still form a singe super-saturated spinel solid solution, regardless of quenching tempeature. A super-saturated metastable solid solution region was observed at 1500, 1600, and 1700C extending to 83.9, 85.2, and 87.1 wt% Al2O3, respectively. Beyond 83.9% Al2O3 a significant increase in thermal diffusivity, 11.7%, was observed and its attributed to precipiation of Al2O3 through spinodal decomposition.

  17. Fabrication, structure and consolidation of NiAl-Al2O3 mechanically alloyed nanocomposite powders

    Reactive milling of NiO + Al powder mixture resulted in the formation of NiAl-Al2O3 nanocomposite powders, with a crystallite size of about 20 nm. The Hall-Williamson analysis revealed that NiAl showed an orientation dependent crystallite size after short processing time and orientation dependent internal strain after long milling time. Both anisotropies were removed by heating the powders in the differential scanning calorimetry. Calorimetric studies showed one exothermic effect attributed to the reduction reaction of NiO and endothermic one associated with melting of Al. Two methods were applied for powders compaction: resistance sintering and pulse electric discharge. In both cases the densities of abut 90% of the theoretical value were achieved. A significant increase in average NiAl crystallites size in compacted samples was observed, up to several hundreds of nanometers.(author)

  18. Alpha and beta stabilizer character of Al in Zr-Nb-Al alloys

    The Tβ/α+β of Zr5Nb and Zr5Nb2Al (weight %) were determined in order to observe the alpha-stabilizer character of Al in ternary Zr-Nb-Al alloys. Techniques employed were change of resistivity with temperature in dynamic experiences, and metallography of samples quenched to room temperature after isothermal annealings. The Tβ/α+β of the ternary resulted 17 ± 8 deg C higher than that of the binary alloy. In addition, taking into account the results of previous investigations of the transformation of beta on quenching Zr-Nb-Al alloys from the beta field to room temperature, it is concluded that the beta-stabilizer character of Nb is stronger than the alpha-stabilizer character of Al in these Zr alloys, and that the Al can have important influence on the mechanical properties by the appearance of TRIP effect. (Author)

  19. Magnetic structure study of ErCuAl and ErNiAl

    Polycrystalline samples of ErCuAl and ErNiAl have been studied by powder neutron diffraction and, in the case of ErCuAl, by specific heat and AC-susceptibility measurements. ErCuAl orders ferromagnetically with Er magnetic moments aligned along the c-axis below Tc=6.8 K. In the case of ErNiAl, magnetic ordering below TN=5.4 K and indications of an additional phase transition at 4.2 K have been observed. The magnetic structure of ErNiAl is described by the propagation vector (1/2,0,1/2). The magnetic moments lie in the basal plane at 1.8 K. (orig.)

  20. Effects of Al(III and Nano-Al13 Species on Malate Dehydrogenase Activity

    Rong Fu Chen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different aluminum species on malate dehydrogenase (MDH activity were investigated by monitoring amperometric i-t curves for the oxidation of NADH at low overpotential using a functionalized multi-wall nanotube (MWNT modified glass carbon electrode (GCE. The results showed that Al(III and Al13 can activate the enzymatic activity of MDH, and the activation reaches maximum levels as the Al(III and Al13 concentration increase. Our study also found that the effects of Al(III and Al13 on the activity of MDH depended on the pH value and aluminum speciation. Electrochemical and circular dichroism spectra methods were applied to study the effects of nano-sized aluminum compounds on biomolecules.

  1. Microscopic Properties of Long-Period Ordering in Al-Rich TiAl Alloys

    Hata, S.; Nakano, T.; Kuwano, N.; Itakura, M.; Matsumura, S.; Umakoshi, Y.

    2008-07-01

    The ordering mechanism of long-period superstructures (LPSs) in Al-rich TiAl alloys has been investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The LPSs are classified in terms of arrangements of base clusters with different shapes and compositions formed in Ti-rich (002) layers of L10-TiAl matrix: square Ti4Al, fat rhombus Ti3Al, and lean rhombus Ti2Al type clusters. The HRTEM observations revealed that antiphase boundaries of long-range-ordered LPS domains and short-range-ordered microdomains are constructed by various space-filling arrangements of the base clusters. Such a microscopic property characterized by the base clusters and their arrangements is markedly analogous to that of the {left< {{text{1,1/2,0}}} rightrangle } * special-point ordering alloys such as Ni-Mo.

  2. 60Co gamma radiation effect on AlGaN//AlN/GaN HEMT devices

    The testing techniques and experimental methods of the 60Co gamma irradiation effect on AlGaN/AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) are established. The degradation of the electrical properties of the device under the actual radiation environment are analyzed theoretically, and studies of the total dose effects of gamma radiation on AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMTs at three different radiation bias conditions are carried out. The degradation patterns of the main parameters of the AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMTs at different doses are then investigated, and the device parameters that were sensitive to the gamma radiation induced damage and the total dose level induced device damage are obtained. (authors)

  3. Al-based precipitate evolution during high temperature annealing of Al implanted in Si

    Al-based precipitate evolution for 80 keV Al ions implanted in Si has been investigated. Precipitates are formed during high temperature annealings of 1 x 1015/cm2 implanted samples. They are located at two depths where Al concentration peaks are detected. Al atoms are gettered into the extended defects present in the crystal and/or precipitate when their concentration is higher than the solid solubility value at the annealing temperature. Increasing annealing time, precipitates dissolve out and only a small fraction of atoms diffuses into the sample, meanwhile the greater part evaporates from the sample. At 1 x 1013/cm2 dose Al concentration is below the solid solubility limit. The secondary defects are not detected and the dopant profile does not display anomalous peaks. Moreover, all the implanted Al is electrically active and remains in the sample during the first instant of annealing. At higher annealing times it diffuses out of the sample reducing the residual dose

  4. Scattering induced by Al segregation in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    The effect of Al segregation near dislocations on the mobility of two-dimensional electron gas in AlGaN/GaN heterostructure-based high-electron-mobility transistors was investigated. Exponentially varied composition fluctuation was effective in describing Al segregation near dislocations when calculating scattering behavior. Mobility, which was limited by Al segregation surrounding dislocation lines, was calculated to be in the order of 103 cm2/Vs to 106 cm2/Vs. Results indicated that the mobility in AlGaN/GaN heterojunction was enhanced upon the reduction of dislocation density at low temperature. This study contributes to generating higher electron mobility in AlGaN/GaN heterojunctions

  5. Generation and evolution of nanoscale AlP and Al{sub 13}Fe{sub 4} particles in Al-Fe-P system

    Qiao, Huan; Gao, Tong; Zhu, Xiangzhen; Wu, Yuying; Qian, Zhao; Liu, Xiangfa, E-mail: xfliu@sdu.edu.cn

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Diffusion and gradual solid reactions between Al and Fe{sub x}P phases in Al-Fe-P alloy were investigated. • Nanoscale AlP clusters are in-situ generated and evolve during the whole process. • This novel Al-Fe-P alloy has an excellent low-temperature refining performance on hypereutectic Al-Si alloy. - Abstract: In this paper, the gradual solid reactions between Al and Fe{sub x}P phases in Al-Fe-P alloy were investigated. The results show that the whole reaction process undergoes four main stages: the diffusion of Al atom, the generation of (Al, Fe, P) intermediate compound, the precipitation of nano AlP and Al{sub 13}Fe{sub 4} clusters and their growth to submicron particles. The microstructure of Fe-P particles evolves from the “egg-type”, the “sponge-type” to the “sesame-cake” structure. AlP and Al{sub 13}Fe{sub 4} nano phases have in-situ generated and evolved during the whole process. The gradual reaction mechanism has been discussed. Furthermore, a novel Al-Fe-P alloy which contains (Al, Fe, P) intermediate compounds and nano AlP particles has been synthesized and its low-temperature refining performance on A390 alloy has also been investigated.

  6. Molecular dynamic investigation of atomic distribution in molten Al-Al2Cu eutectic alloy

    Structure of Al0.83Cu0.17 eutectic alloy has been studied in liquid state by means of X-ray diffraction and molecular dynamic methods. The total and partial structure factors are analyzed. These functions were used in order to calculate pair correlation functions and partial correlation functions, whose analysis allowed us to conclude that Al2Cu-like atomic groups are distributed in Al-matrix.

  7. A note on Wang et al's attack on Zhang et al's multiparty quantum secret sharing

    Recently, Wang et al (2008 Phys. Lett. A 373 65) proposed an attack on Zhang et al's (2007 Opt. Commun. 269 418) multiparty quantum secret sharing scheme, in which the first and the last agent are reported to be able to cooperatively eavesdrop on all the secret messages without being detected. In this paper, we show that in Wang et al's attack, on average no more than half the secret messages can be eavesdropped. (paper)

  8. Another Security Improvement over the Lin et al.'s E-voting Scheme

    Asaar, Maryam Rajabzadeh; Mohajeri, Javad; Salmasizadeh, Mahmoud

    In 2003, Lin et al. have proposed an electronic voting scheme which can be utilized in large-scale elections, and claimed it detects double voting. But in this paper, by presenting an attack, we show that voters can successfully vote more than once without being detected. Hence, we propose a new modified scheme based on the Lin et al.'s scheme with the same efficiency to solve this weakness and analyze its security.

  9. Effect of the interface in laminated composites of Al-1100 and Al-2024

    Laminated composites consisting of alternating layers of Al-1100 and Al-2024 were produced by hot rolling, with 45% Al-2024 volume fraction. These composites were subjected to cyclic thermal treatment (various numbers of cycles) and to isothermal treatment (various numbers of cycles) and to isothermal treatment (at peak temperature and for times equivalent to those of the thermal cycles. Microhardness, tensile and fatigue crack arrester modes) were studied in the initial state and after treatments. (E.G.)

  10. Al-Fe intermetallic compounds induced by 57Fe implanted in Al foil

    57Fe implantation and Al post implantation into aluminum foils have been performed at the low energy of 27 keV. The CEM spectra show the formation of intermetallic compounds FeAl6 and Fe2Al5 as a result of the ion bombardment. The annealing behaviour of the phases has been studied. The results are discussed in connection with the enhanced diffusion by energetic ion bombardment

  11. Some aspects of anelastic and microplastic creep of pure Al and two Al-alloys

    Sgobba, S.; KÜnzi, H.-U.; Ilschner, B.

    1993-01-01

    Anelastic creep of pure Al, commercial Al-Cu and a binary Al-Cu alloy has been measured at room temperature by means of a high resolution laser interferometer. The irreversible component of the deformation was also quantified from measurements of the anelastic creep recovery. The dependence of the deformation-time curves on thermal treatment and cold work is analyzed. The mechanisms responsible for the room temperature anelastic creep are discussed. Materials loaded below their elastic limit ...

  12. Two-Phase (TiAl+TiCrAl) Coating Alloys for Titanium Aluminides

    Brady, Michael P. (Inventor); Smialek, James L. (Inventor); Brindley, William J. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A coating for protecting titanium aluminide alloys, including the TiAl gamma + Ti3Al (alpha(sub 2)) class, from oxidative attack and interstitial embrittlement at temperatures up to at least 1000 C. is disclosed. This protective coating consists essentially of titanium, aluminum. and chromium in the following approximate atomic ratio: Ti(41.5-34.5)Al(49-53)Cr(9.5-12.5)

  13. DISTRIBUTION OF Al IN Nd-Fe-Al-B PERMANENT MAGNETS

    Hauet, A.; Lemarchand, D.; Labulle, B.; Teillet, J.; Vigier, P.

    1988-01-01

    57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and electron microprobe analysis are used to determine the Al-distribution in the Nd-Fe-Al-B alloys ; Mössbauer spectroscopy gives the Al distribution between the J2 and K2 sites of Nd2Fe14B-like-phase ; microprobe analysis gives the composition of both matrix and minor phases and their evolution with sintering.

  14. Quantum chemical study of the reactions of Al, AlO and AlOH with H2O2

    Sharipov, Alexander S.; Starik, Alexander M.

    2016-02-01

    Quantum chemical calculations with the use of hybrid density functional with perturbative second-order correlation and dispersion correction are carried out to study the reactions of Al, AlO and AlOH with the H2O2 molecule. The values of energy barriers are estimated by means of extrapolation to the basis set limit. The energetically favorable reaction pathways have been revealed during the examination of the potential energy surfaces. Complex character of the processes under study has been established. It has been found that the initial stages of the considered processes are barrierless. Appropriate rate constants for principal channels of the reactions under study have been estimated by using capture model and canonical variational theory. The Arrhenius approximations for these channels have been proposed for the temperature range T = 300-4000 K.

  15. Current-Transport Mechanisms in the AlInN/AlN/GaN single-channel and AlInN/AlN/GaN/AlN/GaN double-channel heterostructures

    Arslan, Engin, E-mail: engina@bilkent.edu.tr [Nanotechnology Research Center, Department of Physics, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, Bilkent, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Turan, Sevil; Gkden, Sibel; Teke, Ali [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Letters, Bal?kesir University, a??? Kamps, 10145 Bal?kesir (Turkey); zbay, Ekmel [Nanotechnology Research Center, Department of Physics, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, Bilkent, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2013-12-02

    Current-transport mechanisms were investigated in Schottky contacts on AlInN/AlN/GaN single channel (SC) and AlInN/AlN/GaN/AlN/GaN double channel (DC) heterostructures. A simple model was adapted to the current-transport mechanisms in DC heterostructure. In this model, two Schottky diodes are in series: one is a metalsemiconductor barrier layer (AIInN) Schottky diode and the other is an equivalent Schottky diode, which is due to the heterojunction between the AlN and GaN layer. Capacitancevoltage studies show the formation of a two-dimensional electron gas at the AlN/GaN interface in the SC and the first AlN/GaN interface from the substrate direction in the DC. In order to determine the current mechanisms for SC and DC heterostructures, we fit the analytical expressions given for the tunneling current to the experimental currentvoltage data over a wide range of applied biases as well as at different temperatures. We observed a weak temperature dependence of the saturation current and a fairly small dependence on the temperature of the tunneling parameters in this temperature range. At both a low and medium forward-bias voltage values for Schottky contacts on AlInN/AlN/GaN/AlN/GaN DC and AlInN/AlN/GaN SC heterostructures, the data are consistent with electron tunneling to deep levels in the vicinity of mixed/screw dislocations in the temperature range of 80420 K. - Highlights: Current mechanisms were investigated on single and double channel heterostructures. A model was adapted to the current mechanisms in double channel heterostructures. We observed a weak temperature dependence of the saturation current. And a small dependence of the tunneling parameters in this temperature range.

  16. A novel TiAl3/Al2O3 composite coating on ?-TiAl alloy and evaluating the oxidation performance

    Wang, Jiqiang; Kong, Lingyan; Li, Tiefan; Xiong, Tianying

    2016-01-01

    A novel TiAl3/Al2O3 composite coating was prepared on ?-TiAl alloy. The process included two steps: (1) TiAl3/Al2O3 composite powders were prepared by high energy ball milling of pure Al and nano-TiO2 powders, followed by a heat-treatment; (2) the as-prepared composite powders were deposited on ?-TiAl substrate by cold spray. The cyclic oxidation was conducted at 900 C to test the performance of the composite coating. The results showed that the composite coating had good crack resistance and effectively decreased the oxidation rate of the substrate.

  17. Synthesis of core-shell AlOOH hollow nanospheres by reacting Al nanoparticles with water.

    Lozhkomoev, A S; Glazkova, E A; Bakina, O V; Lerner, M I; Gotman, I; Gutmanas, E Y; Kazantsev, S O; Psakhie, S G

    2016-05-20

    A novel route for the synthesis of boehmite nanospheres with a hollow core and the shell composed of highly crumpled AlOOH nanosheets by oxidizing Al nanopowder in pure water under mild processing conditions is described. The stepwise events of Al transformation into boehmite are followed by monitoring the pH in the reaction medium. A mechanism of formation of hollow AlOOH nanospheres with a well-defined shape and crystallinity is proposed which includes the hydration of the Al oxide passivation layer, local corrosion of metallic Al accompanied by hydrogen evolution, the rupture of the protective layer, the dissolution of Al from the particle interior and the deposition of AlOOH nanosheets on the outer surface. In contrast to previously reported methods of boehmite nanoparticle synthesis, the proposed method is simple, and environmentally friendly and allows the generation of hydrogen gas as a by-product. Due to their high surface area and high, slit-shaped nanoporosity, the synthesized AlOOH nanostructures hold promise for the development of more effective catalysts, adsorbents, vaccines and drug carriers. PMID:27053603

  18. Growth of CdTe: Al films; Crecimiento de peliculas de CdTe: Al

    Gonzalez A, M.; Zapata T, M. [CICATA-IPN, 89600 Altamira, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Melendez L, M. [CINVESTAV-IPN, A.P. 14-740, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Pena, J.L. [CINVESTAV-IPN, A.P. 73 Cordemex, 97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    CdTe: AI films were grown by the close space vapor transport technique combined with free evaporation (CSVT-FE). The Aluminum (Al) evaporation was made by two kinds of sources: one made of graphite and the other of tantalum. The films were deposited on glass substrates. The Al source temperature was varied maintaining the CdTe source temperature fixed as well as the substrate temperature. The films were characterized by x-ray energy dispersive analysis (EDAX), x-ray diffraction and optical transmission. The results showed for the films grown with the graphite source for Al evaporation, the Al did not incorporate in the CdTe matrix, at least to the level of EDAX sensitivity; they maintained the same crystal structure and band gap. For the samples grown with the tantalum source, we were able to incorporate the Al. The x-ray diffraction patterns show that the films have a crystal structure that depends on Al concentration. They were cubic up to 2.16 at. % Al concentration; for 19.65 at. % we found a mixed phase; for Al concentration higher than 21 at. % the films were amorphous. For samples with cubic structure it was found that the lattice parameter decreases and the band gap increases with Al concentration. (Author)

  19. Synthesis of core–shell AlOOH hollow nanospheres by reacting Al nanoparticles with water

    Lozhkomoev, A. S.; Glazkova, E. A.; Bakina, O. V.; Lerner, M. I.; Gotman, I.; Gutmanas, E. Y.; Kazantsev, S. O.; Psakhie, S. G.

    2016-05-01

    A novel route for the synthesis of boehmite nanospheres with a hollow core and the shell composed of highly crumpled AlOOH nanosheets by oxidizing Al nanopowder in pure water under mild processing conditions is described. The stepwise events of Al transformation into boehmite are followed by monitoring the pH in the reaction medium. A mechanism of formation of hollow AlOOH nanospheres with a well-defined shape and crystallinity is proposed which includes the hydration of the Al oxide passivation layer, local corrosion of metallic Al accompanied by hydrogen evolution, the rupture of the protective layer, the dissolution of Al from the particle interior and the deposition of AlOOH nanosheets on the outer surface. In contrast to previously reported methods of boehmite nanoparticle synthesis, the proposed method is simple, and environmentally friendly and allows the generation of hydrogen gas as a by-product. Due to their high surface area and high, slit-shaped nanoporosity, the synthesized AlOOH nanostructures hold promise for the development of more effective catalysts, adsorbents, vaccines and drug carriers.

  20. Study on Mg/Al Weld Seam Based on Zn–Mg–Al Ternary Alloy

    Liming Liu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the idea of alloying welding seams, a series of Zn–xAl filler metals was calculated and designed for joining Mg/Al dissimilar metals by gas tungsten arc (GTA welding. An infrared thermography system was used to measure the temperature of the welding pool during the welding process to investigate the solidification process. It was found that the mechanical properties of the welded joints were improved with the increasing of the Al content in the Zn–xAl filler metals, and when Zn–30Al was used as the filler metal, the ultimate tensile strength could reach a maximum of 120 MPa. The reason for the average tensile strength of the joint increasing was that the weak zone of the joint using Zn–30Al filler metal was generated primarily by α-Al instead of MgZn2. When Zn–40Al was used as the filler metal, a new transition zone, about 20 μm-wide, appeared in the edge of the fusion zone near the Mg base metal. Due to the transition zones consisting of MgZn2- and Al-based solid solution, the mechanical property of the joints was deteriorated.

  1. CASTABILITY OF Al-Li-Mg AND Al-Li-Cu-Mg ALLOYS

    Tong, C.; YAO, L; Nieh, C.; Chang, C.; Hsu, S.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to study the casting characteristics of various Al-Li alloys, which include fluidity and strengths of the alloys and their interaction with cast molds. Materials investigated are Al-Li-Mg and Al-Li-Cu-Mg alloys with Li content of 2.5 wt%. The results show that sand molds with resin binders are good for Al-Li casting. Ceramic coatings can further reduce the metal-mold interactions. However, the permeability is also reduced by coating. The fluidity of Li-bea...

  2. Tetragonal phase in Al-rich region of U-Fe-Al system

    Meshi, L. [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Zenou, V. [Nuclear Research Center-Negev, P.O. Box 9001, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Ezersky, V. [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Munitz, A. [Nuclear Research Center-Negev, P.O. Box 9001, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Talianker, M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)]. E-mail: mital@bgumail.bgu.ac.il

    2005-10-27

    A new ternary aluminide U{sub 2}FeAl{sub 20} with the approximate composition Al-4.2at% Fe-8.5at% U was observed in the Al-rich corner of the U-Al-Fe system. Transmission electron microscopy and electron microdiffraction technique were used for characterization of the structure of this phase. It has a tetragonal unit cell with the parameters a=12.4A and c=10.3A and can be described by the space group I4-bar 2m.

  3. Tetragonal phase in Al-rich region of U-Fe-Al system

    A new ternary aluminide U2FeAl20 with the approximate composition Al-4.2at% Fe-8.5at% U was observed in the Al-rich corner of the U-Al-Fe system. Transmission electron microscopy and electron microdiffraction technique were used for characterization of the structure of this phase. It has a tetragonal unit cell with the parameters a=12.4A and c=10.3A and can be described by the space group I4-bar 2m

  4. In situ observation of crack propagation in lamellar Ti/Al/Ti3Al structure

    An interesting aspect of TiAl based alloys is their low ductility and poor toughness at ambient temperatures. Recent studies have shown that a two phase microstructure in these alloys consisting of a primary TiAl phase and lamellar TiAl/Ti3Al structure can significantly improve their room-temperature ductility, which is primarily due to the presence of the lamellar structure. This paper reports the results of transmission electron microscope in-situ observations on crack propagation in the lamellar structure

  5. Studien zur enantioselektiven Synthese des marinen Makrolactons (–)-Dictyostatin

    Röhm, Hartmut

    2010-01-01

    Heute handelt es sich bei mehr als der Hälfte aller zugelassenen Arzneimittel um Naturstoffe, Naturstoffderivate oder Naturstoffanaloga. Die Suche nach neuen Leitstrukturen beschränkt sich nicht mehr nur auf terrestrische Pflanzen und Mikroorganismen, sondern vermehrt auf marine Organismen. Dabei sind vor allem fest am Meeresboden verwachsene Schwämme und Korallen sehr interessant, da sie sich nur durch Anpassung ihres Metabolitprofiles, das heißt die Biosynthese geeigneter Toxine, vor Feinde...

  6. Determinants of Music Preference

    Schfer, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Musik begleitet uns seit vielen Jahrtausenden und ist ein Teil der menschlichen Entwicklungsgeschichte. Mehr ber den Ursprung und die Bedeutung von Musik zu wissen bedeutet mehr ber uns selbst zu wissen. Die meisten Menschen mgen Musik und fr viele ist es eine der wichtigsten Freizeitbeschftigungen in ihrem Leben. Doch unterschiedliche Menschen mgen unterschiedliche Musik, und die Bindung an Musik kann stark oder schwach sein. Dieses als Musikprferenz bezeichnete Phnome...

  7. Risk management products for the German gas market; Risikomanagement-Produkte fuer den deutschen Gasmarkt

    Schlueter, N. [D-Gas b.v., London (United Kingdom)

    2003-09-01

    Also in Germany risk management products are establishing more and more as regular elements in decision making during supply and demand. A strong reason to offer an appropriate transaction platform for German speaking suppliers. (GL) [German] Auch in Deutschland etablieren sich Risikomanagement-Produkte mehr und mehr als regulaerer Bestandteil in den Entscheidungsprozessen bei der Beschaffungs- bzw. Absatzoptimierung. Grund genug, eine entsprechende Informations- und Transaktionsplattform fuer den deutschsprachigen Raum anzubieten. (orig.)

  8. Consumerization: Herausforderungen für das betriebliche Informationsmanagement durch iPhone und Co

    Weiß, Frank; Leimeister, Jan Marco

    2013-01-01

    Smartphones und mobile Applikationen, die ursprünglich für den Konsumentenmarkt entwickelt wurden, werden mehr und mehr auch im Unternehmen von den Mitarbeitern genutzt. Dieser als Consumerization bezeichnete Trend erzeugt Herausforderungen für das Informationsmanagement, die es zu bewältigen gilt. Anhand einer durchgeführten Fallstudie werden die Auswirkungen der Nutzung von iPhone und Co. für das Informationsmanagement untersucht. Basierend auf den Analyseergebnissen werden 14 Hypothesen er...

  9. Inflation in China ist zunehmend hausgemacht

    Christian Dreger; Yanqun Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Die Inflation ist derzeit das beherrschende makroökonomische Problem in China. Seit einigen Monaten werden Preissteigerungsraten von mehr als sechs Prozent verzeichnet. Restriktive wirtschaftspolitische Maßnahmen sind bisher weitgehend wirkungslos geblieben. Die Regierung hat inzwischen eingeräumt, dass sie ihr Inflationsziel von vier Prozent in diesem Jahr wohl nicht mehr erreichen wird. Der Preisschub trifft vor allem arme Familien, die inzwischen bis zur Hälfte ihres Einkommens für Nahrung...

  10. Cd ion implantation in AlN

    Highlights: ► Cd ion implanted in AlN thin films. ► XRD shows damage produced during implantation. ► Annealing recovers damage in low fluence sample. ► RBS/C measurements show that Cd occupies substitutional sites. ► Cd can be a good candidate for p-type doping. - Abstract: AlN thin films were implanted with cadmium, to fluences of 1 × 1013 and 8 × 1014 at/cm2. The implanted samples were annealed at 950 °C under flowing nitrogen. Although implantation damage in AlN is known to be extremely stable the crystal could be fully recovered at low fluences. At high fluences the implantation damage was only partially removed. Implantation defects cause an expansion of the c-lattice parameter. For the high fluence sample the lattice site location of the ions was studied by Rutherford Backscattering/Channelling Spectrometry. Cd ions are found to be incorporated in substitutional Al sites in the crystal and no significant diffusion is seen upon thermal annealing. The observed high solubility limit and site stability are prerequisite for using Cd as p-type dopant in AlN.

  11. Survey and alignment at the ALS

    This paper describes survey and alignment at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Advanced Light Source (ALS) accelerators from 1993 to 1995. The ALS is a 1.0 - 1.9 GeV electron accelerator producing extremely bright synchrotron light in the UV and soft-X-ray wavelengths. At the ALS, electrons are accelerated in a LINAC to 50 MeV, injected into a booster ring for further acceleration and finally injected into the storage ring. This is shown schematically in Figure 1. The storage ring, some 200 m in circumference, has been run with electron currents above 400 mA with lifetimes as high as 24 hours. The ALS is a third generation light source and requires for efficient storage ring operation, magnets aligned to within 150 mm of their ideal position. To accomplish this a network of monuments was established and their positions measured with respect to one another. The data was reduced using GEONET'' and STAR*NET'' software. Using the monuments as reference points, magnet positions were measured and alignment confirmed using the Kem Electronic Coordinate Determination System (ECDS''). A number of other papers dealing with survey and alignment (S ampersand A) at the ALS have been written that may further elucidate some details of the methods and systems described in this paper

  12. Bush lubas al-Zarqawi jrglase kinni pda / Aadu Hiietamm

    Hiietamm, Aadu, 1954-

    2006-01-01

    USA president George W. Bush teatas, et tapetud terrorivrgustiku al Qaeda Iraagi haru liidri Abu Musab al-Zarqawi jrglaseks nimetatud Abu Hamsa al-Muhajir on kuulutatud enim tagaotsitavaks terroristiks

  13. Deletion of ALS5, ALS6 or ALS7 increases adhesion of Candida albicans to human vascular endothelial and buccal epithelial cells

    Zhao, Xiaomin; OH, SOON-HWAN; Hoyer, Lois L.

    2007-01-01

    C. albicans yeast forms deleted for ALS5, ALS6 or ALS7 are more adherent than a relevant control strain to human vascular endothelial cell monolayers and buccal epithelial cells. In the buccal and vaginal reconstituted human epithelium (RHE) disease models, however, mutant and control strains caused a similar degree of tissue destruction. Deletion of ALS5 or ALS6 significantly slowed growth of the mutant strain; this phenotype was not affected by addition of excess uridine to the culture medi...

  14. MOSQUE ARCHITECTURE AS A SUSTAINABLE BUILDING IN URBAN (Case Study: Al Markas Al Islamic Mosque Makassar

    Imriyanti Imriyanti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mosque Architecture is a part of Islamic architecture. Mosque should be fused with elements of nature because its function as a place to pray to God who created the universe. Al Markas Al Islamic Makassar mosque is used as a center of Islamic aspirations of the people and the government to accommodate all the activities of moslems in Makassar. Through this function, the provision of Al Markas Al Islamic mosque began from the desire of Islamic societies in Makassar, which wants the Islamic center to be equipped with facilities and infrastructure as well as architectural, monumental buildings and structures that can be last for hundreds of years (continuous, blend with the environment, and also can be used by the public. Having regard to the function of a mosque especially at the Al Markas Al Islamic Makassar mosque, then the problem that arise is how the Al Markas Al Islamic mosque can be survived/sustainable in order to function as a place of worship and as a center of Islam. This research is a descriptive qualitative research that is trying to generate data in the form of systematic and accurate picture of the object of study. The sustaiprophetlity of Al Markas AL Islamic mosque can be known through the concept of Islam in accordance with the view of Islam as well as the sustaiprophetlity of the buildings that seen in the spatial pattern of the mosque, appearance, natural lighting, natural ventilation, and user behavior of the mosque. Keywords: mosque architecture, sustaiprophetlity, view of Islam Abstrak Arsitektur masjid merupakan bagian dari arsitektur Islam. Bangunan masjid sebaiknya dapat menyatu dengan unsur alam karena masjid difungsikan sebagai wadah dalam bersujud/sembahyang kepada Allah SWT yang menciptakan alam semesta ini. Masjid Al Markas Al Islamic Makassar merupakan kompleks kegiatan Islam yang digunakan sebagai pusat aspirasi masyarakat dan pemerintahan yang dapat menampung seluruh kegiatan umat Islam di Makassar. Melalui fungsi inilah maka pengadaan masjid Al Markas Al-Islamic bermula dari keinginan masyarakat Islam di kota Makassar, yang mana menginginkan pusat kegiatan Islam yang dilengkapi dengan sarana dan prasarana juga bangunannya monumental yang secara arsitektur dan struktur bisa bertahan sampai ratusan tahun (berkelanjutan, dan menyatu dengan lingkungannya serta dapat digunakan oleh masyarakat luas. Dengan memperhatikan fungsi masjid terutama pada masjid Al Markas Al Islamic Makassar maka permasalahan yang muncul adalah bagaimanakah arsitektur masjid Al Markas Al Islamic dapat bertahan/berkelanjutan agar dapat difungsikan sebagai tempat beribadah dan sebagai pusat kegiatan Islam. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif yang bersifar kualitatif yaitu penelitian yang berusaha menghasilkan data berupa gambaran yang sistematis dan akurat dari objek kajian. Keberlanjutan masjid Al Markas Al Islamic dapat diketahui melalui penyatuan konsep masjid Al Markas Al Islamic sesuai dengan pandangan Islam serta keberlanjutan dilihat pada bangunan yakni pola tata ruang masjid, penampilan, pencahayaan dan penghawaan alami serta perilaku pemakai masjid. Kata Kunci : Arsitektur masjid, keberlanjutan, pandangan Islam

  15. Comments on optimization of the boron content in FeAl (40 at.% Al) alloys

    In a recent paper, Webb, Juliet and Lefort indicated, based on tensile tests of two boron-doped FeAl alloys and one undoped FeAl alloy, that they had determined the optimum concentration of boron for good ductility to be 48 appm (12 wppm) in Fe-40Al (compositions given in atomic percent throughout). It is the author's view that this is not the case for the following reasons: (1) The Fe-40Al alloys studied by Webb et al. contained 42:4, (heat number-sign 1), 45.7 (heat number-sign 2) and 39.7 (heat number-sign 3) atomic percent Al. (2) The maximum solubility of an element may depend on the presence of other elements. (3) Other workers, notably Liu and George have obtained greater elongations in Fe-40Al in air (4.3%) than the 2.5% obtained by Webb et al. with a greater boron concentration (300 wppm as opposed to 12 wppm). Similarly, Crimp et al. found little difference in the tensile behavior of slow-cooled Fe-40Al with boron levels in the range 500 to 2000 wppm, with a ductility at 3% elongation that was comparable to the highest obtained by Webb et al. (4) Boron in FeAl presumably partitions between the lattice and the grain boundaries. (5) The grain size in the boron-free alloys studied by Webb et al. was larger at 54 ?m than in the boron-doped alloys (37 ?m and 27 ?m for the alloys containing 12 and 80 wppm B, respectively). (6) When tensile tests are performed on FeAl in air, the ductility is reduced due to water vapor. To some extent boron may ameliorate this environmental effect. Thus, differences in ductility in air are not necessarily due to intrinsic behavior but may be due to a reduced environmental effect in boron-doped alloys. (7) Webb et al. conducted their tensile tests at a strain rate of 3 x 10-2s-1

  16. Hydrogenation properties of Mg-Al alloys

    Andreasen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the properties of Mg-Al alloys in relation to hydrogen storage are reviewed. The main topics of this paper are materials preparation, hydrogen capacity, thermodynamics of hydride formation, and the kinetics of hydride formation and decomposition. Hydrogenation of Mg-Al leads to...... disproportionation with the formation of magnesium hydride and metallic aluminum as the final product. Experimental evidence renders this process reversible. It is observed that the enthalpy of hydride formation of magnesium is lowered upon alloying with Al due to a slightly endothermic disproportionation reaction....... Further, it is found that the kinetics of hydrogenation, as well dehydrogenation, may be significantly improved by alloying compared to pure Mg. The expense of these improvements of the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation properties is a lower gravimetric hydrogen density in the hydrogenated product, (C) 2008...

  17. Al- Khwarizmi and axiomatic foundation of algebra

    This paper intends to investigate the axiomatic foundations of algebra, as they were presented in the book of algebra of al-Khwarizmi (9 th century), and as they were developed in many subsequent Arabic works. The paper gives also a description of algebra evolution towards a discipline independent ofgeometry and arithmetic: the two disciplines whosemarriage had led to its birth.By an in depth reading of some details in the text of al Khwarizmi , we concluded that this mathematician intended to lay down the axiomatic foundations of that new discipline. His resort to arithmetical and geometrical means was a way of making his theory more accessible. He used them to justify the axioms: those that were not explicitly introduced per se, and those that were remained implicit. The paper also relies on some unedited writingsof al-Khwarizmi's successors, which could shedlight on the ways they used to consolidate the foundations of algebra and improve its methods. (author)

  18. Calcium: the Darth Vader of ALS.

    Appel, S H; Beers, D; Siklos, L; Engelhardt, J I; Mosier, D R

    2001-03-01

    Motor neuron dysfunction and loss in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have been attributed to several different mechanisms, including increased intracellular calcium, glutamate excitotoxicity, oxidative stress and free radical damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, and neurofilament aggregation and dysfunction of transport mechanisms. These alterations are not mutually exclusive, and increased calcium could be a common denominator. Furthermore, the selective vulnerability of spinal motor neurons and the relative sparing of eye motor neurons represent striking features of both sporadic and familial ALS. Here we review the evidence that calcium homeostasis is altered in ALS, and that low levels of the calcium binding proteins parvalbumin and calbindin-D28K contribute to selective vulnerability by decreasing the ability of motor neurons to handle an increased calcium load, with cell injury and death as the consequence. PMID:11465925

  19. Boron strengthening in FeAl

    Baker, I.; Li, X.; Xiao, H.; Klein, O.; Nelson, C. [Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH (United States). Thayer School of Engineering; Carleton, R.L.; George, E.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

    1998-11-01

    The effect of boron on the strength of B2-structured FeAl is considered as a function of composition, grain size and temperature. Boron does not affect the concentrations of antisite atoms or vacancies present, with the former increasing and the latter decreasing with increasing deviation from the stoichiometric composition. When vacancies are absent, the strength increase per at. % B per unit lattice strain, {Delta}{sigma}/({Delta}c x {epsilon}) increases with increasing aluminum concentration, but when vacancies are present (>45 at. % Al), {Delta}{sigma}/({Delta}c x {epsilon}) decreases again. Boron increases grain size strengthening in FeAl. B strengthening is roughly independent of temperature up to the yield strength peak but above the point, when diffusion-assisted deformation occurs, boron strengthening increases dramatically.

  20. Analyse de Viaje al pasado: los aztecas

    Denis Lucchinacci

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available 1. Présentation du logiciel Viaje al pasado: los aztecas (el perfecto simple y el imperfecto en la narración y la descripción a été conçu par Annie Desnoyers, linguiste à l'université de Montréal et Matilde Asencio, enseignante au Cégep du Vieux Montréal (Collège d'enseignement général et professionnel [], pour un public d'étudiants d'Espagnol Langue Étrangère (ELE. Disponible en deux versions - en ligne et sous forme de cédérom -, il s'agit d'un exerciseur destiné à la pratique du passé e...

  1. Sistemas auditivos anclados al hueso: perspectiva actual

    Karin Mayt Durn Morales

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La tecnologa de los sistemas auditivos anclados al hueso se adopt a partir de la investigacin dental en implantes de titanio y su proceso de osteointegracin. Inicialmente, los sistemas auditivos anclados al hueso se introdujeron para reemplazar los dispositivos de vibracin sea, para pacientes incapaces de usar auxiliares auditivos de conduccin area (pacientes con cavidades de mastoidectoma, otorrea recurrente, atresia aural congnita. La aplicacin ms reciente es como mtodo de transmisin transcraneal de la seal en casos de hipoacusia sensorineural unilateral, como neurinoma del acstico, hipoacu- sia sbita, enfermedad de Mnire y otros. En este artculo se revisan la historia de los sistemas auditivos anclados al hueso, su tecnologa, sus indicaciones, la ciruga para su colocacin, las complicaciones y resultados.

  2. Study of corrosion inhibition of coupled Al2Cu–Al and Al3Fe–Al by cerium cinnamate using scanning vibrating electrode technique and scanning ion-selective electrode technique

    Highlights: • The corrosion inhibition of coupled Al2Cu–Al and Al3Fe–Al by cerium cinnamate was studied. • SVET and SIET were used to study the distribution of current densities and pH. • The corrosion inhibition mechanisms were analyzed. - Abstract: The galvanic corrosion of the coupled Al2Cu and Al as well as Al3Fe and Al in 0.005 M NaCl in and without the presence of cerium cinnamate was studied. Scanning vibrating electrode technique and scanning ion-selective electrode technique were used to measure the distribution of current densities and pH. The results indicate that cerium cinnamate played inhibiting effect on the coupling corrosion of Al2Cu–Al and Al3Fe–Al. For Al2Cu–Al, the inhibition was mainly influenced by the production of cerium oxide/hydroxide on Al2Cu surface. However, for Al3Fe–Al, the inhibition was mainly influenced by the adsorbed cerium cinnamate on the Al3Fe surface

  3. Kritik Terhadap Pemikiran Tasawuf Al-Raniri

    Syaifan Nur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract : Al-Raniri is often positioned by some scholars as “superior” figure, which is contrasted to Hamzah Fansuri and Syamsuddin Sumaterani, and that is why they predicate him as one of pioneer of Islamic reformer in Malay- Indonesian archipelago. Anti-wujūdiyyah Sufism campaign by al-Raniri quite successful to some extent to amputate the rate of development of philosophical Sufism was brought by Fansuri and Sumaterani in the one hand, and strike off the nature of moral Sufism in the other, redeemed by bloodshed. This article discussed the “superiority” of al-Raniri’s thought of Sufism, viewed from a broader spectrum, either in relation to problems of faith or theology and politics surrounding the circumstance of his time.Keywords : Philosophical tasawuf, neo-sufism, panteism, tajalli, God’s attributeAbstrak : Al-Raniri oleh banyak kalangan seringkali diposisikan sebagai tokoh “superior” yang diperlawankan dengan Hamzah Fansuri dan Syamsuddin Sumaterani, dan itu sebabnya para ahli memberinya predikat sebagai seorang pelopor pembaru (mujaddid Islam di Nusantara. Anti tasawuf wujūdiyyah yang dikampanyekan oleh al-Raniri cukup berhasil mengamputasi laju perkembangan tasawuf falsafi yang dibawa oleh Fansuri dan Sumaterani di satu sisi, dan melancarkan laju corak tasawuf akhlaki di sisi lain, yang ditebus dengan cara pertumpahan darah. Tulisan ini mendiskusikan “superioritas” pemikiran tasawuf al-Raniri tersebut, dilihat dari spektrum yang lebih luas, baik menyangkut persoalan keyakinan atau teologi maupun politik yang mengitari situasi zamannya.Kata kunci : Tasawuf falsafi , neo-sufisme, panteisme, tajalli, sifat Tuhan

  4. Total energy, equation of state and bulk modulus of AlP, AlAs and AlSb semiconductors

    A R Jivani; H J Trivedi; P J Gajjar; A R Jani

    2005-01-01

    Recently proposed model potential which combines both linear and quadratic types of interactions is employed for the investigation of some properties like the total energy, equation of state and bulk modulus of AlP, AlAs and AlSb semiconductor compounds using higher-order perturbation theory. The model potential parameter is determined using zero pressure condition. The ratio of the covalent bonding term E cov to the second-order term 2 is 6.77% to 11.85% which shows that contribution from higher order terms are important for zinc-blende-type crystals. The calculated numerical results of the total energy, energy band gap at Jones-zone face and bulk modulus of these compounds are in good agreement with the experimental data and found much better than other such theoretical findings. We have also studied pressure–volume relations of these compounds. The present study is carried out using six different screening functions along with latest screening function proposed by Sarkar et al. It is found from the present study that effect of exchange and correlation is clearly distinguishable.

  5. Diffusion AlSi-MeCrAlY coatings obtained on intermetallic γ-TiAl phase

    M. Góral

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The development of new protective coatings for TiAl intermetallics was conducted. The MeCrAlYAlSi slurry was used with different amount of aluminium-silicon powder in the binder.Design/methodology/approach: The slurry consisting of aluminium and silicon powder with the addition of MeCrAlY powder were used during the procedure. The inorganic solution made from chromic and phosphoric acid was applied as a binder. The preliminary research of microstructure of obtained coatings was conducted.Findings: The obtained coating consisting of 3 or 4 zones (depending on chemical composition of the slurry was obtained during the annealing process (950°C/4h.Research limitations/implications: The research results revealed the possibility of obtaining coatings with complex phase and chemical composition.Practical implications: Many problems connected with sedimentation of heavier MeCrAlY powder were observed.Originality/value: The copletele new technologies was described in article

  6. MgAl2O4–-Al2O3 solid solution interaction: mathematical framework and phase separation of -Al2O3 at high temperature

    Soumen Pal; A K Bandyopadhyay; S Mukherjee; B N Samaddar; P G Pal

    2011-07-01

    Although existence of MgAl2O4–-Al2O3 solid solution has been reported in the past, the detailed interactions have not been explored completely. For the first time, we report here a mathematical framework for the detailed solid solution interactions of -Al2O3 in MgAl2O4 (spinel). To investigate the solid solubility of -Al2O3 in MgAl2O4, Mg–Al spinel (MgO–Al2O3; = 1, 1.5, 3, 4.5 and an arbitrary high value 30) precursors have been heat treated at 1000°C. Presence of only non-stoichiometric MgAl2O4 phase up to = 4.5 at 1000°C indicates that alumina (as -Al2O3) present beyond stoichiometry gets completely accommodated in MgAl2O4 in the form of solid solution. → alumina phase transformation and its subsequent separation from MgAl2O4 has been observed in the Mg–Al spinel powders ( > 1) when the 1000°C heat treated materials are calcined at 1200°C. In the mathematical framework, unit cell of MgAl2O4 (Mg8Al16O32) has been considered for the solid solution interactions (substitution of Mg2+ ions by Al3+ ions) with -Al2O3. It is suggested that combination of unit cells of MgAl2O4 takes part in the interactions when > 5 (MgO–Al2O3).

  7. Das Lesen als Sprachttigkeit und Ihre Grundzge

    Giedr? Knizikevi?i?t?

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Im Artikel wird das Lesensproblem an der technischen Hochschule behandelt. Aufgrund der methodi-schen Untersuchungen und der Arbeitserfahrung versuchen die Autoren das Lesenswesen als die Art der Sprachttigkeit, seine Bestandteile und die Arbeitsmethodik zu analysieren. An der technischen Hochschule schenkt man dem Hauptobjekt des Lesens - dem Text besondere Aufmerksamkeit. Es wird die Struktur der Texte vom Standpunkt der Grammatik und des Textinhalts aus beschrieben. Im Beitrag werden die Formen und Methoden des Lesens als Mittel bei der Vorbereitung der Hauptarten des Lesens (Informations-, Studiums- und bersichtslesen betrachtet.

  8. Al-Yawahir Al-Saniyya Fi Sarh-Al-Yarrumiyya, de Al-Ta c Alibi (s.VII-XIV)

    Bellachehab, Ahmed

    1994-01-01

    Edición critica, realizada sobre varios manuscritos, de una interesante fuente gramatical magrebi, del siglo VIII de la hégira XIV de nuestra era. Estudio sobre el autor, at-ta alibi, típico gramático tardío del norte de África, y estudio sobre su producción escrita, en general y en concreto sobre este al-yawahir al-saniyya que es un interesante comentario de la celebre yarrumiyya, comentario hasta hoy inédito que representa un hito en la tradición de estudios gramaticales del occidente islám...

  9. Structure analysis of Al cast alloy

    L. A. Dobrza?ski; M. Krupi?ski; B. Krupi?ska

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The developed design methodologies both the material and technological ones will make it possible to improve shortly the quality of materials from the light alloys in the technological process, and the automatic process flow correction will make the production cost reduction possible, and - first of all - to reduce the amount of the waste products.Design/methodology/approach: Castings were analysed in the paper of car engine blocks and heads from the Al-Si-Cu alloys of the AC-AlSi7Cu...

  10. Frauen als Akteurinnen whrend des Nationalsozialismus

    Natalia Gerodetti

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Das vorliegende Buch stellt die wichtigen Fragen nach der Beteiligung von Frsorgerinnnen (Sozialarbeiterinnen am System der ffentlichen Frsorge whrend des Dritten Reiches. Betrachtet werden die Anforderungen an frsorgerische Aktivitten whrend des Nationalsozialismus im Spannungsfeld von Auslese und Ausmerze. Esther Lehnert kann zeigen, dass die von der Wissenschaft und der interessierten ffentlichkeit bislang kaum wahrgenommene Arbeit der Frsorgerinnen einen wichtigen Ort der Umsetzung und Bildung der Kategorie minderwertig darstellte. Sie prsentiert Frsorge nicht als unpolitisches Helfen, sondern in ihrer Schlsselfunktion fr die nationalsozialistische Diskriminierungs- und Ausmerzpolitik. Lehnerts Studie basiert explizit auf Forschungspositionen, in denen Frauen nicht ausschlielich als Opfer des Nationalsozialismus gesehen und polare Opfer-Tter Stukturen aufgebrochen werden.

  11. ANLISIS ESTRUCTURAL PROSPECTIVO APLICADO AL SISTEMA LOGSTICO

    DIANA PAOLA BALLESTEROS RIVEROS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La intencin de este trabajo es compartir con los lectores una forma de hacer anlisis estructural prospectivo al sistema logstico. Para ello, se hace un breve recorrido histrico de este mtodo de escenarios, conociendo los aportes de Godet y Duperrin, luego se presenta una breve descripcin del mtodo con sus objetivos y fases, la identificacin de variables en el sistema logstico del sector de las confecciones en Pereira, localizacin de las relaciones en la matriz de anlisis estructural, la bsqueda de las variables clave, planos de motricidad y al final se exponen para reflexin algunas conclusiones.

  12. Aspectos biopsicosociales asociados al embarazo adolescente

    Regina Cogollo Jiménez

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: El embarazo en la adolescencia, es un evento inesperado, sorpresivo. Este artículo establece la importancia de identificar los aspectos biopsicosociales asociados al embarazo adolescente en las embarazadas asistentes al programa de Control Prenatal de una Empresa Social del Estado de nivel 1 en Montería en 2009, para comprender las actitudes y los comportamientos asociados a esta etapa tan temprana. Materiales y Métodos: Es un estudio descriptivo, cuantitativo, de corte transver...

  13. Periodistas: el acceso al mercado laboral

    Francisco Javier Caro González; Gloria Jiménez Marin

    2006-01-01

    El presente estudio analiza la situación profesional de los Licenciados en Periodismo en España. Para ello esta investigación sigue la lógica del proceso de acceso al mercado laboral, es decir, se estudia, en primer lugar, la oferta de egresados y las demandas del sector; a continuación, se analiza la forma en la que un titulado en la Licenciatura de Periodismo accede al mercado laboral y el tiempo que tarda en hacerlo; y por último, se examinan los medios de comunicación en lo...

  14. The ALS Storage Ring RF System

    The ALS Storage Ring RF System is characterized by the use of the following features: (1) High power loading of two single cell cavities. (2) The use of a tubular ceramic input window employing aperture coupling. (3) The use of waveguide filters and matchers designed for HOM absorption. (4) A comprehensive HOM monitoring system. (5) The use of waveguide water-wedge loads for the magic tee and circulator loads. The results of cavity measurements and high power tests are reported together with the performance of the system during the commissioning and operation phases of the ALS project. Plans for future window development are discussed

  15. Niedermolekulare Verbindungen aus Spinnen als chemische Sensoren

    Olsen, Christian Adam; Kristensen, Anders S.; Strmgaard, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    Spinnen sind fr viele kosysteme wichtig, und als Hauptfeinde von Insekten verfgen sie ber eine Flle von niedermolekularen Naturstoffen mit faszinierenden biologischen Wirkungen. Die Isolierung und die biologische Charakterisierung dieser Verbindungen sind wohlbekannt, aber erst krzlich wurden...... sie als Leitstrukturen fr die Entwicklung, Synthese und biologische Untersuchung synthetischer Analoga verwendet. Weit weniger erforscht sind hingegen Verbindungen, die der Kommunikation von Spinnen dienen. Vor kurzem wurden jedoch auf dem Gebiet der Pheromone und Allomone aus Spinnen neue...... Erkenntnisse erhalten, die wir hier zusammenfassen und mit frheren Ergebnissen in Zusammenhang bringen. Abschlieend geben wir einen Ausblick auf knftige Untersuchungen an dieser Art von Verbindungen....

  16. Metamagnetism in Ce(Ga,Al)2

    K G Suresh; S Radha; A K Nigam

    2002-05-01

    Effect of Al substitution on the magnetic properties of Ce(Ga1-Al)2 ( = 0, 0.1 and 0.5) system has been studied. The magnetic state of CeGa2 is found to be FM with a C of 8 K, whereas the compounds with =0.1 and 0.5 are AFM and possess N of about 9 K. These two compounds undergo metamagnetic transition and the critical fields are about 1.2 T and 0.5 T, respectively at 2 K. These variations are explained on the basis of helical spin structure in these compounds.

  17. Melting, Processing, and Properties of Disordered Fe-Al and Fe-Al-C Based Alloys

    Satya Prasad, V. V.; Khaple, Shivkumar; Baligidad, R. G.

    2014-09-01

    This article presents a part of the research work conducted in our laboratory to develop lightweight steels based on Fe-Al alloys containing 7 wt.% and 9 wt.% aluminum for construction of advanced lightweight ground transportation systems, such as automotive vehicles and heavy-haul truck, and for civil engineering construction, such as bridges, tunnels, and buildings. The melting and casting of sound, porosity-free ingots of Fe-Al-based alloys was accomplished by a newly developed cost-effective technique. The technique consists of using a special flux cover and proprietary charging schedule during air induction melting. These alloys were also produced using a vacuum induction melting (VIM) process for comparison purposes. The effect of aluminum (7 wt.% and 9 wt.%) on melting, processing, and properties of disordered solid solution Fe-Al alloys has been studied in detail. Fe-7 wt.% Al alloy could be produced using air induction melting with a flux cover with the properties comparable to the alloy produced through the VIM route. This material could be further processed through hot and cold working to produce sheets and thin foils. The cold-rolled and annealed sheet exhibited excellent room-temperature ductility. The role of carbon in Fe-7 wt.% Al alloys has also been examined. The results indicate that Fe-Al and Fe-Al-C alloys containing about 7 wt.% Al are potential lightweight steels.

  18. Diffusion bonding of gamma-TiAl using modified Ti/Al nanolayers

    Duarte, L.I., E-mail: liliana.duarte@empa.ch [EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Joining and Interface Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Viana, F. [CEMUC, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Porto, R. Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Ramos, A.S.; Vieira, M.T. [CEMUC, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Coimbra, R. Luis Reis Santos, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal); Leinenbach, C. [EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Joining and Interface Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Klotz, U.E. [FEM, Research Institute Precious Metals and Metals Chemistry, D-73525 Schwaebisch Gmuend (Germany); Vieira, M.F. [CEMUC, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Porto, R. Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)

    2012-09-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ti/Al multilayers are promising interlayers for getting joins between titanium aluminides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer When Ti/Al multilayers are doped with Ag or Cu it is observed a higher reactivity of the multilayers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A doped Ti/Al multilayer decreases the temperature of the process and the quality of the bonding increases. - Abstract: Solid state diffusion bonding has been successfully employed to join {gamma}-TiAl alloys. Processed in vacuum, at high temperature and pressure, the thin interfaces and the lack of structural discontinuity across the interface are the main advantage of this joining technique. An interlayer made of alternated Ti and Al nanometric layers that increases the diffusivity at the joint interface, was used in order to assist the bonding process of {gamma}-TiAl alloys. The use of Ti/Al interlayer has efficiently reduced the joining temperature. Sound joints have been achieved at a temperature of 900 Degree-Sign C under a pressure of 50 MPa in vacuum. In the present work Cu was added as third element to the Ti/Al multilayers and its effect improved the bonding quality. The interface microstructure was studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy.

  19. InAlGaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells: line widths, transition energies and segregation

    Jensen, Jacob Riis; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Langbein, Wolfgang

    We investigate the optical properties of InAlCaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells pseudomorphically grown on GaAs using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The transition energies, measured with photoluminescence (PL), are modelled solving the Schrodinger equation, and taking into account segregation in the group...

  20. Optical investigation on the valence band structure of AlGaN with low Al content

    Meisch, Tobias; Neuschl, Benjamin; Thonke, Klaus [Institut of Quantum Matter, Ulm University, 89069 Ulm (Germany); Lipski, Frank; Forghani, Kamran; Scholz, Ferdinand [Institut of Optoelectronics, Ulm University, 89069 Ulm (Germany); Feneberg, Martin [Institut fuer Experimentelle Physik, Abt. Materialphysik, Otto-von-Guericke-Universitaet Magdeburg, Universitaetsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    For the binary semiconductors GaN and AlN, the crystal field splitting determining the valence band structure changes from {approx}+20 meV (GaN) to {approx}-200 meV (AlN), whereas the spin orbit splitting should remain constant at {approx} 20 meV. Therefore, for unstrained AlGaN ternary layers an interchange of the character of the topmost valence band from {gamma}{sub 9} to {gamma}{sub 7} is theoretically expected for an Al content in the range of 5-10%, manifesting itself mainly in a change of polarization of optical transitions. Strain in epitaxial layers alters the situation and shifts this crossing point. Literature reports experimental values ranging from 20% to 75% Al for the crossover. We present results of temperature dependent photoluminescence and reflectivity experiments on AlGaN layers with Al content ranging from 0 to 30%, and find different contributions from free and bound excitons. The Al content and strain were determined from multiple HRXRD reflections, and entered in a 6 x 6 k.p model calculation. We discuss our experimental spectra on the basis of this calculation.

  1. An Alternative Perspective on von Winterfeldt et al.'s (1997) Test of Consequence Monotonicity

    Ho, Moon-Ho R.; Regenwetter, Michel; Niederee, Reinhard; Heyer, Dieter

    2005-01-01

    D. von Winterfeldt, N.-K. Chung, R. D. Luce, and Y. Cho (see record 1997-03378-008) provided several tests for consequence monotonicity of choice or judgment, using certainty equivalents of gambles. The authors reaxiomatized consequence monotonicity in a probabilistic framework and reanalyzed von Winterfeldt et al.'s main experiment via a…

  2. Magnetic properties of TbAl 2 and ErAl 2

    Leson, A.; Schelp, W.; Drewes, W.; Purwins, H.-G.

    1986-02-01

    Magnetization measurements parallel and perpendicular to the applied field are reported for single crystals of TbAl 2 and ErAl 2. In addition the low temperature specific heat for different magnetic fields has been determined. The results are interpreted using a cubic crystalline field and a molecular field approximation for the exchange interaction.

  3. Adhesion of metal carbide/nitride interfaces: Al/TiC and Al/TiN

    Liu, L. M.; Wang, S. Q.; Ye, H. Q.

    2003-12-01

    We employ density functional theory to investigate and compare Al/TiC and Al/TiN interfaces by electronic structures, relaxed atomic geometries and adhesions. The results show that the preferred bonding site is the interfacial Al atoms above the ceramic's metalloid atoms for both systems. The calculated adhesion energies are quantitatively in agreement with other calculated and experimental results of Al on the carbide and nitride. A detailed comparison of the adhesion energies and relaxed structures shows weaker bonding and less relaxation in the Al/nitride case, which is correlated with the lower surface energy of the ceramic. We have thoroughly characterized the electronic structure and determined that the polar covalent Al3sp-C(N)2s bonds constitute the primary interfacial bonding interaction. The larger overlapping bonding states at the Al/TiC interface reveal the reason why it exhibits relatively larger adhesion energy. Cleavage may take place preferentially at the interface, especially for the Al/TiN, which is in agreement with experimental results.

  4. Adhesion of metal-carbide/nitride interfaces: Al/TiC and Al/TiN

    We employ density functional theory to investigate and compare Al/TiC and Al/TiN interfaces by electronic structures, relaxed atomic geometries and adhesions. The results show that the preferred bonding site is the interfacial Al atoms above the ceramic's metalloid atoms for both systems. The calculated adhesion energies are quantitatively in agreement with other calculated and experimental results of Al on the carbide and nitride. A detailed comparison of the adhesion energies and relaxed structures shows weaker bonding and less relaxation in the Al/nitride case, which is correlated with the lower surface energy of the ceramic. We have thoroughly characterized the electronic structure and determined that the polar covalent Al3sp-C(N)2s bonds constitute the primary interfacial bonding interaction. The larger overlapping bonding states at the Al/TiC interface reveal the reason why it exhibits relatively larger adhesion energy. Cleavage may take place preferentially at the interface, especially for the Al/TiN, which is in agreement with experimental results

  5. Resistance switching of thin AlO{sub x} and Cu-doped-AlO{sub x} films

    Wu, Ya-Ting; Jou, Shyankay, E-mail: sjou@mail.ntust.edu.tw; Yang, Ping-Jung

    2013-10-01

    Thin copper-doped aluminum oxide (Cu-doped-AlO{sub x}) and AlO{sub x} films of about 5 nm thick were generated by oxidizing the surfaces of Al and Al-5 wt.% Cu (Al-Cu) films in an oxygen plasma. According to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses, these two oxide films were found to be deficient in oxygen and had gradient concentrations of Al and O. The oxide films were employed as resistor layers sandwiched between an Al top electrode and an Al or Al-Cu bottom electrode to form resistive memory devices. The devices demonstrated unipolar resistance switching between high resistance state and low resistance state (LRS), and their resistance ratios measured at + 0.2 V were around 10{sup 5}. Furthermore, their currentvoltage characteristics showed ohmic conduction with the resistance increasing with temperature, in LRS. Conductive filaments were thought to form inside the AlO{sub x} film and the Cu-doped AlO{sub x} film, causing resistive switching. The resistive memory device using the AlO{sub x} film had unstable switching behaviors during cyclic testing, whereas the device using the Cu-doped AlO{sub x} film demonstrated stable resistance switching during 100 cycles of testing. The presence of the Cu ingredient in the AlO{sub x} film is likely to facilitate the formation and rupture of conductive filaments and induced stable resistance switching. - Highlights: AlO{sub x} layers are formed by plasma oxidation for resistance memory device (RRAM). Al/AlO{sub x}/Al and Al/AlO{sub x}-CuO{sub x}/Al-Cu exhibit unipolar resistance switching. Cu doping assists formation of the filaments of mixed Al and Cu in AlO{sub x}. Cu doping improves endurance and retention of the AlO{sub x}-based RRAM.

  6. In situ microscopy of rapidly heated nano-Al and nano-Al/WO3 thermites

    Sullivan, Kyle T.; Chiou, Wen-An; Fiore, Richard; Zachariah, Michael R.

    2010-09-01

    The initiation and reaction mechanism of nano-Al and nano-Al thermites in rapid heating environments is investigated in this work. A semiconductor-based grid/stage was used, capable of in situ heating of a sample from room temperature to 1473 K, and at a rate of 106 K/s, inside an electron microscope. Nano-Al was rapidly heated in a transmission electron microscope, and before and after images indicate that the aluminum migrates through the shell, consistent with a diffusion-based mechanism. A nano-Al/WO3 composite was then heated in a scanning electron microscope. The results indicate that a reactive sintering mechanism is occurring for the nano-Al/WO3 thermite, as the products are found to be in surface contact and significantly deformed after the heating pulse.

  7. An impedance study of complex Al/Cu-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} electrode

    Denisova, J; Katkevics, J; Viksna, A [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Latvia, Kr. Valdemara Str. 48, Riga, LV-1013 (Latvia); Erts, D, E-mail: arturs.viksna@lu.lv [Institute of Chemical Physics, University of Latvia, Kronvalda blvd. 4, Riga, LV-1586 (Latvia)

    2011-06-23

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to investigate different Cu deposition regimes on Al surface obtained by internal electrolysis and to characterize properties of fabricated electrodes. EIS experimental data confirmed that Cu deposition by internal electrolysis is realized and the complex electrode system is obtained. The main difficulty in preparation of Al/Cu electrodes is to prevent aluminium oxidation before and during electrochemical deposition of Cu particles. In this work NaCl, CH{sub 3}COONa, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, mono- and diammonium citrate electrolytes were examined to determine their suitability for impedance measurements. Al/Cu-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} electrode composition was approved by equivalent circuit analysis, optical and scanning electron microscope methods. The most optimal Cu deposition mode using internal electrolysis was determined. The obtained results are promising for future electrochemical fabrication of nanostructures directly on Al surfaces by internal electrolysis.

  8. Nucleation and growth of the ?'(AlAg2) precipitate in Al-Ag(-Cu) alloys

    Precipitation of the ?'(AlAg2) phase was investigated in Al-Ag(-Cu) alloys using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy. Precipitation commenced with segregation of Ag to stacking faults, followed by thickening in steps corresponding to single unit cell height ledges. In conjunction with gradual segregation of Ag and Al into ordered layers, this yielded ?' phase platelets with a thickness of either 2 or 3 x the AlAg2c-lattice parameter. Plates with a thickness of 2c(AlAg2) could not achieve self-accommodation of the shape strain for transformation. Further thickening of the precipitates was slow, despite considerable Ag segregation around the precipitates. Growth by the addition of single unit cell height ledges is expected to lead to an additional shear strain energy barrier to ledge nucleation and this may contribute to a process of nucleation-limited growth.

  9. An impedance study of complex Al/Cu-Al2O3 electrode

    Denisova, J.; Katkevics, J.; Erts, D.; Viksna, A.

    2011-06-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to investigate different Cu deposition regimes on Al surface obtained by internal electrolysis and to characterize properties of fabricated electrodes. EIS experimental data confirmed that Cu deposition by internal electrolysis is realized and the complex electrode system is obtained. The main difficulty in preparation of Al/Cu electrodes is to prevent aluminium oxidation before and during electrochemical deposition of Cu particles. In this work NaCl, CH3COONa, K2SO4, mono- and diammonium citrate electrolytes were examined to determine their suitability for impedance measurements. Al/Cu-Al2O3 electrode composition was approved by equivalent circuit analysis, optical and scanning electron microscope methods. The most optimal Cu deposition mode using internal electrolysis was determined. The obtained results are promising for future electrochemical fabrication of nanostructures directly on Al surfaces by internal electrolysis.

  10. The anodic and cathodic dissolution of Al and Al-Cu-Mg alloy

    Atomic emission spectroelectrochemistry (AESEC) was used to monitor the release of Al from 99.99% aluminum (1199 alloy) and Al, Mg, and Cu from 2024 Al alloy in 30 g/l NaCl electrolyte as a function of pH. The cathodic dissolution of Al was demonstrated and attributed to an increase in the pH at the interface due to the water reduction reaction. The dissolution of Mg was also observed but was a more complex function of current probably depending on the interfacial pH and the Al dissolution rate. The detachment of copper-rich particles was observed as very rapid spectroscopic emission transients (peak width < 10 ms).

  11. Different magnetic behaviour of the Kondo compounds Al3Ce and Al11Ce3

    Neutron diffraction experiments on the Al3Ce and Al11Ce3 compounds have been performed on the multidetector of the I.L.L. high flux reactor. No magnetic structure has been detected on the Al3Ce compound down to 20 mK. This confirms the non magnetic ground state of Al3Ce. For Al11Ce3, two magnetic structures have been observed: a ferromagnetic one at 4.2 K and an antiferromagnetic one at 2 K. The antiferromagnetic structure, which corresponds to a propagation vector (0,0,1/3), implies a strong reduction of the magnetic moment of determined sites; this reflects the Kondo character of the compounds

  12. The anodic and cathodic dissolution of Al and Al-Cu-Mg alloy

    Mokaddem, M.; Volovitch, P. [Laboratoire de physicochimie des surfaces, UMR7045, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, ParisTech, 11, rue Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Rechou, F.; Oltra, R. [Institut CARNOT de Bourgogne, Electrochimie Interfaciale-Corrosion, UMR5209, Universite de Bourgogne, Dijon (France); Ogle, K., E-mail: kevin-ogle@enscp.f [Laboratoire de physicochimie des surfaces, UMR7045, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, ParisTech, 11, rue Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France)

    2010-04-15

    Atomic emission spectroelectrochemistry (AESEC) was used to monitor the release of Al from 99.99% aluminum (1199 alloy) and Al, Mg, and Cu from 2024 Al alloy in 30 g/l NaCl electrolyte as a function of pH. The cathodic dissolution of Al was demonstrated and attributed to an increase in the pH at the interface due to the water reduction reaction. The dissolution of Mg was also observed but was a more complex function of current probably depending on the interfacial pH and the Al dissolution rate. The detachment of copper-rich particles was observed as very rapid spectroscopic emission transients (peak width < 10 ms).

  13. Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ adherence on CoCrAl alloys

    Kingsley, L.M.

    1980-04-01

    Adherence of protective oxides on NiCrAl and CoCrAl superalloys has been promoted by a dispersion of a highly oxygen reactive element or its oxide being produced within the protection system. Two aspects of this subject are investigated here: the use of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ as both the dispersion and protective oxide; and the production of an HfO/sub 2/ dispersion while simultaneously aluminizing the alloy. It was found that an Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ dispersion will act to promote the adherence of an external scale of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ to a degree comparable to previously tested dispersions and an HfO/sub 2/ dispersion comparable to that produced by a Rhines pack treatment is produced during aluminization.

  14. Structural and local electrical properties of AlInN/AlN/GaN heterostructures

    Minj, A.; Cavalcoli, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Cavallini, A., E-mail: anna.cavallini@unibo.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2012-08-01

    GaN layers and Al{sub 1-x}In{sub x}N/AlN/GaN heterostructures have been studied by scanning probe microscopy methods. Threading dislocations (TDs), originating from the GaN (0 0 0 1) layer grown on sapphire, have been investigated. Using Current-Atomic Force Microscopy (C-AFM) TDs have been found to be highly conductive in both GaN and AlInN, while using semi-contact AFM (phase-imaging mode) indium segregation has been traced at TDs in AlInN/AlN/GaN heterostructures. It has been assessed that In segregation is responsible for high conductivity at dislocations in the examined heterostructures.

  15. An impedance study of complex Al/Cu-Al2O3 electrode

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to investigate different Cu deposition regimes on Al surface obtained by internal electrolysis and to characterize properties of fabricated electrodes. EIS experimental data confirmed that Cu deposition by internal electrolysis is realized and the complex electrode system is obtained. The main difficulty in preparation of Al/Cu electrodes is to prevent aluminium oxidation before and during electrochemical deposition of Cu particles. In this work NaCl, CH3COONa, K2SO4, mono- and diammonium citrate electrolytes were examined to determine their suitability for impedance measurements. Al/Cu-Al2O3 electrode composition was approved by equivalent circuit analysis, optical and scanning electron microscope methods. The most optimal Cu deposition mode using internal electrolysis was determined. The obtained results are promising for future electrochemical fabrication of nanostructures directly on Al surfaces by internal electrolysis.

  16. Al2O3 adherence on CoCrAl alloys

    Adherence of protective oxides on NiCrAl and CoCrAl superalloys has been promoted by a dispersion of a highly oxygen reactive element or its oxide being produced within the protection system. Two aspects of this subject are investigated here: the use of Al2O3 as both the dispersion and protective oxide; and the production of an HfO2 dispersion while simultaneously aluminizing the alloy. It was found that an Al2O3 dispersion will act to promote the adherence of an external scale of Al2O3 to a degree comparable to previously tested dispersions and an HfO2 dispersion comparable to that produced by a Rhines pack treatment is produced during aluminization

  17. Tensile deformation behavior of a sub-micrometer Al2O3/6061Al composite

    A 0.3 μm Al2O3/6061Al composite with 33% volume fraction of Al2O3 was fabricated by the patented squeeze-casting technology. The tensile properties were studied, and the dynamic tensile deformation behavior was investigated by an in situ TEM tensile technique. The as-cast composite exhibits excellent tensile properties with a fracture strength of 504 MPa, and the strength increases to 579 MPa after a T6 treatment. The high strength is mainly attributed to the dispersion strengthening effect of the finer sub-micrometer Al2O3 particles. Dynamic transmission electron microscopy indicates that micro-cracks initiate and propagate mainly in the matrix. The Al2O3 particles can hinder the growth and deflect the cracks, but the resistance of the particles to crack propagation is small. The propagation stage is accordingly short, leading to the fracture of the composite

  18. In situ microscopy of rapidly heated nano-Al and nano-Al/WO3 thermites

    The initiation and reaction mechanism of nano-Al and nano-Al thermites in rapid heating environments is investigated in this work. A semiconductor-based grid/stage was used, capable of in situ heating of a sample from room temperature to 1473 K, and at a rate of 106 K/s, inside an electron microscope. Nano-Al was rapidly heated in a transmission electron microscope, and before and after images indicate that the aluminum migrates through the shell, consistent with a diffusion-based mechanism. A nano-Al/WO3 composite was then heated in a scanning electron microscope. The results indicate that a reactive sintering mechanism is occurring for the nano-Al/WO3 thermite, as the products are found to be in surface contact and significantly deformed after the heating pulse.

  19. Ultra thin Al2O3 films grown on Ni3Al(1 0 0)

    The oxidation of the Ni3Al(1 0 0) surface at 1100 K with 2000 l was investigated by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Oxidation at 1100 K, leads to the formation of a well ordered, ultra thin Al2O3 film on top of Ni3Al(1 0 0). The oxide grows with the (1 1 1) plane of the γ'-Al2O3 parallel to the surface plane of the substrate. The observed LEED pattern of the Al2O3 film is explained by a hexagonal structure in two domains which are perpendicularly oriented with respect to each other. The lattice constant of the hexagonal structure amounts to ∼3 A. In addition, two hexagonal superstructures with a lattice constant of 17.5 and 54 A were found on the oxide surface

  20. FABRICATION OF Al/Al2O3 FGM ROTATING DISC

    A. B. Sanuddin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a method of fabricating a disc made of Al/Al2O3 functionally graded materials (FGM, using a powder metallurgy manufacturing process. The aim is to develop a processing method for a rotating disc made of FGM, by stacking the slurry, layer by layer in a radial direction. A three-layer functionally graded material of Al/Al2O3 is fabricated with compositions of 10, 20, 30 vol.% Al2O3. The ceramic composition increases from the discs inner (centre to the outer. The combination of these materials can offer the ability to withstand high temperature conditions whilst maintaining strength in extreme environments.

  1. Alloy inhomogeneity and carrier localization in AlGaN sections and AlGaN/AlN nanodisks in nanowires with 240-350 nm emission

    Himwas, C.; den Hertog, M.; Dang, Le Si; Monroy, E.; Songmuang, R.

    2014-12-01

    We present structural and optical studies of AlGaN sections and AlGaN/AlN nanodisks (NDs) in nanowires grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The Al-Ga intermixing at Al(Ga)N/GaN interfaces and the chemical inhomogeneity in AlGaN NDs evidenced by scanning transmission electron microscopy are attributed to the strain relaxation process. This interpretation is supported by the three-dimensional strain distribution calculated by minimizing the elastic energy in the structure. The alloy inhomogeneity increases with the Al content, leading to enhanced carrier localization signatures in the luminescence characteristics, i.e., red shift of the emission, s-shaped temperature dependence, and linewidth broadening. Despite these effects, the emission energy of AlGaN/AlN NDs can be tuned in the 240-350 nm range with internal quantum efficiencies around 30%.

  2. Effects of the AlN Interlayer on the Distribution and Mobility of Two-Dimensional Electron Gas in AlGaN/AlN/GaN Heterojunctions

    Weiguo Hu,; Bei Ma,; Dabing Li,; Reina Miyagawa,; Hideto Miyake,; Kazumasa Hiramatsu,

    2010-03-01

    Al0.25Ga0.75N/AlN/GaN heterojunctions with AlN interlayers of various thicknesses were grown on c-plane sapphire by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). We have revealed that the AlN interlayer hardly affects morphologies and crystal qualities; however, it prominently enhances the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) mobility. The optimum thickness of the AlN interlayer is 1 nm, and the corresponding room temperature Hall mobility and the sheet carrier density are 1700 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 1.27 1013 cm-2, respectively. Self-consistent calculation results indicates that with increasing AlN thickness, i) the conduction-band discontinuity between AlGaN and GaN linearly increases; ii) the percentage of the total carriers in the AlGaN layer exponentially decreases, and content in the AlN layer exponentially increases.

  3. Liquidus temperatures of Na3AlF6-AlF3-CaF2-KF-LiF-Al2O3 melts

    Peng J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperatures for the primary crystallization of Na3AlF6-AlF3-CaF2-KF-LiF-Al2O3 system adopted in aluminum electrolysis process were determined by thermal analysis. An empirical equation was derived to describe the liquidus temperatures for the primary crystallization of this multicomponent electrolyte system: t/℃=1011 + 0.7w(AlF3 - 0.232w(AlF32 - 7.65w(Al2O3 + 0.523w(Al2O32 - 8.96w(LiF + 0.043w(LiF2 - 3.32w(KF - 0.12w(KF2 - 3.28w(CaF2 +0.037w(CaF22 + 0.091w(AlF3w(LiF + 0.074w(AlF3w(KF + 0.084w(AlF3w(CaF2 - 0.27w(Al2O3w(LiF, where w(AlF3 denotes the mass fraction of excess aluminum fluoride with respect to cryolite. While w(Al2O3 ranges from 2% to 4%, w(LiF, w(KF and w(CaF2 from 0 to 7%, and the molar ratio of NaF/AlF3 from 2.2 to 3.

  4. Formation of gamma'-Ni3Al via the Peritectoid Reaction: gamma plus beta (+Al2O3) equals gamma'(+Al2O3)

    Copland, Evan

    2008-01-01

    The activities of Al and Ni were measured using multi-cell Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry (multi-cell KEMS), over the composition range 8 - 32 at.%Al and temperature range T = 1400 - 1750 K in the Ni-Al-O system. These measurements establish that equilibrium solidification of gamma'-Ni3Al-containing alloys occurs by the eutectic reaction, L (+ Al2O3) = gamma + beta (+ Al2O3), at 1640 plus or minus 1 K and a liquid composition of 24.8 plus or minus 0.2 at.%Al (at an unknown oxygen content). The {gamma + beta + Al2O3} phase field is stable over the temperature range 1633 - 1640 K, and gamma'-Ni3Al forms via the peritectiod, gamma + beta (+ Al2O3) = gamma'(+ Al2O3), at 1633 plus or minus 1 K. This behavior is inconsistent with the current Ni-Al phase diagram and a new diagram is proposed. This new Ni-Al phase diagram explains a number of unusual steady state solidification structures reported previously and provides a much simpler reaction scheme in the vicinity of the gamma'-Ni3Al phase field.

  5. Formation of gamma(sup prime)-Ni3Al via the Peritectoid Reaction: gamma + beta (+ Al2O3)=gamma(sup prime)(+ Al2O3)

    Copeland, Evan

    2008-01-01

    The activities of Al and Ni were measured using multi-cell Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry (multi-cell KEMS), over the composition range 8-32 at.%Al and temperature range T=1400-1750 K in the Ni-Al-O system. These measurements establish that equilibrium solidification of gamma(sup prime)-Ni3Al-containing alloys occurs by the eutectic reaction, L (+ Al2O3)=gamma + Beta(+ Al2O3), at 1640 +/- 1 K and a liquid composition of 24.8 +/- 0.2 at.%al (at an unknown oxygen content). The {gamma + Beta (+Al2O3} phase field is stable over the temperature range 1633-1640 K, and gamma(sup prime)-Ni3Al forms via the peritectoid, gamma + Beta (+ Al2O3)=gamma(sup prime) (+ Al2O3), at 1633 +/- 1 K. This behavior is consistent with the current Ni-Al phase diagram and a new diagram is proposed. This new Ni-Al phase diagram explains a number of unusual steady-state solidification structures reported previously and provides a much simpler reaction scheme in the vicinity of the gamma(sup prime)-Ni2Al phase field.

  6. Microstructural defects modeling in the Al-Mo system

    In this work we have utilized computer simulation techniques to study microstructural defects, such as point defects and interfaces, in the Al-Mo alloy. Such alloy is taken as a model to study the Al(fcc)/U-Mo(bcc) interface. The EAM interatomic potential used has been fitted to the formation energy and lattice constant of the AlMo3 intermetallic. Formation of vacancies for both components Al and Mo and anti-sites, AlMo and MoAl, as well as vacancy migration was studied in this structure. We found that the lowest energy defect complex that preserves stoichiometry is the antisite pair AlMo+MoAl, in correspondence with other intermetallics of the same structure. Our results also suggest that the structure of the Al(fcc)/Mo(bcc) interface is unstable, while that of the Al(fcc)/Al5Mo interface is stable, as observed experimentally. (author)

  7. Production of Al nanocomposite reinforced by Fe-Al intermetallic, Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} and nano-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles using wet milling in toluene

    Razavi-Tousi, S.S., E-mail: ser105@mail.usask.ca [Islamic Azad University, Shahrood Branch, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yazdani-Rad, R. [Materials and Energy Research Center, P.O. Box 31787/316, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Manafi, S.A. [Islamic Azad University, Shahrood Branch, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-06-02

    Highlights: > Production of Al nanocomposite reinforced by Fe-Al intermetallic, Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} and nano-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles using wet milling in toluene. > Production of Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} particles from mechanochemical reaction of Al with PCA. > Effect of second phase particles on sintering. - Abstract: Al matrix nanocomposites were produced by wet milling of Al and nano-alumina powders in a toluene media. X-ray diffraction patterns, inductively coupled plasma, carbon measurement analysis and scanning electron microscopy show that impurities introduced by decomposition of toluene and abrasion of balls and vials are uniformly dispersed in the Al matrix as Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} and Fe-Al intermetallic particles. Though producing homogenous nanocomposites, these second phase particles seem to have a retarding effect on densification of nanocomposite powders.

  8. TiAl-Nb melt interaction with AlN refractory crucibles

    The paper considers contamination of cast TiAl-based alloy, related microstructure evolution and chemical contact interaction when using refractory aluminium nitride crucibles/moulds as an alternative to the traditional Al2O3-, ZrO2- and Y2O3-based oxide ceramics. A series of melting tests has been performed in resistive SiC electro-furnace with Ti-46Al-8Nb (at%) alloy in 99.99% purity AlN boat crucibles with fixed melt superheating times 5, 12 and 25 min at 1670 deg. C and consequent quenching with high-purity Ar gas flow. As-cast samples were examined by X-ray diffractometry, SEM, SIMS, EDX, EBSD and vacuum fusion analysis of O, N, C and S interstitials content with respect to the initial material. The key features of TiAl-Nb melt interaction with AlN ceramics are revealed. As a result of slow thermal dissociation AlN ? Al + N, and the reaction of nascent nitrogen with the melt, a solid continuous TiN-based reaction layer is formed up to 6.4 ?m in thickness, together with an enriched Al liquid film between it and the crucible wall. It causes perfect wetting of crucible with the melt and easy removal of the solidified sample. The partial suitability of AlN crucible is restricted by 12 min of the melt superheating from the point of view of invariable (?2 + ?)-microstructure and reasonable contamination of the as-cast samples.

  9. Al-Cu approximants in the Al3Cu4 alloy

    The Al3Cu4 composition, with an e/a ratio of 1.86 being close to ternary Al-Cu-TM (transition metal) quasicrystals, has been chosen for the search of Al-Cu approximants. Phase structures and compositions were studied using TEM, X-ray diffraction and EPMA techniques. Two new phases were found: face-centered orthorhombic oF-Al43.2Cu56.8 (a = 0.8166, b = 1.4149, c = 0.9995 nm) and body-centered orthorhombic oI-Al41.3Cu58.7 (oI, a = 0.4083, b = 0.7074, c = 0.9995 nm). Their e/a ratios are the same as that of the Al-Cu-Fe icosahedral quasicrystal. Their space groups are probably oF-Fmm2 and oI-Imm2. Both are B2 vacancy-containing superstructures; unit cell compositions can be expressed approximately as oF-Al36Cu46-12 and oI-Al8Cu12?4 (?: vacancies). They both exist in twinning variants of the types 120 /[001] and 180 /[310]. Such twinning modes indicate that these orthorhombic phases are the decomposition products of a high-temperature parent phase ?2-Al2Cu3, the atomic structure of which contains pentagonal atomic arrangements. Therefore the oF, oI, and ?2 phases are all B2-based approximants corresponding to the Al-Cu-TM quasicrystals. (orig.)

  10. Wear characteristics of Al-AlN composites produced in-situ by nitrogenation

    Pradhan, S.; Jena, S. K.; Patnaik, S. C.; Swain, P. K.; Majhi, J.

    2015-02-01

    In the present scenario most of the parts used in automobile and aerospace industries are made of composites. Aluminium metal has a very high strength to weight ratio. Al-AlN metal matrix composites have excellent mechanical properties like good wear resistance, high hardness and high strength to weight ratio which are obtained from low density of aluminium and high hardness and wear resistance of AlN. Therefore, use of Al-AlN MMC leads to advantages in automobile industries as it reduces fuel consumption and gives better structural strength. The composites can be produced ex-situ by introducing AlN as reinforcement into the metal matrix and in- situ by nitrogenation process. In the present process Al-AlN composites were fabricated by treating molten aluminium with a mixture of CaO and NH4Cl and held at temperature range at 750-930°C and then cast into a metal mould. Addition of CaO to NH4Cl is found to have a more pronounced effect as a nitrogenation agent in comparison with NH4Cl in the molten aluminium in the temperature range of 700- 1000°C. Castings of aluminium and Al-AlN composites were prepared by mixing different ratios of aluminium and NH4Cl, at different casting temperatures and holding time. Wear resistance and hardness of the samples were determined, and microstructure studies were carried out. The composite formed using higher amount of NH4Cl had higher hardness and wear resistance.

  11. The modulation structure induced changes in mechanical properties of TiAlN/Al2O3 multilayers

    TiAlN/Al2O3 multilayers which had different separate layer thickness of TiAlN or Al2O3 were synthesized by sputtering Ti3Al and Al2O3 targets with N2 and Ar gases. The influence of modulation periods and modulation ratios on structure and properties of TiAlN/Al2O3 multilayers was investigated using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, surface profiler, and nanoindenter. Compared to TiAlN layer with only (2 0 0) preferred orientation, TiAlN/Al2O3 multilayers were crystallized with orientations in the TiAlN (1 1 1), TiAlN (2 2 2) and AlN (1 0 0). Besides, weak Al2O3 (0 2 2) orientation is observed, when modulation period is 8.9 nm. The maximum hardness about 36.6 GPa was obtained at modulation period of 10.4 nm and modulation ratio of 10:1. The hardness and the toughness of TiAlN/Al2O3 multilayers increase as individual TiAlN layer thickness increases

  12. The constitution of alloys in the Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system

    The constitution of alloys and the liquidus surface in the Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system were determined by the examination of controlled heated and cooled specimens, as well as heat-treated specimens by means of optical and scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. The Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system comprises five regions of primary crystallisation (αAl, βSi, Al3Sm, Al2Si2Sm and AlSiSm) with following characteristic invariant reaction sequences: ternary eutectic reaction L → αAl + βSi + Al2Si2Sm, and two liquidus transition reactions, i. e., L + Al3Sm → αAl + AlSiSm, and L + AlSiSm → αAl + Al2Si2Sm. Along with the position of ternary eutectic and both interstitial points in the Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system, the temperatures for each reaction were determined. (orig.)

  13. Effect of stress on the Al composition evolution in AlGaN grown using metal organic vapor phase epitaxy

    He, Chenguang; Qin, Zhixin; Xu, Fujun; Zhang, Lisheng; Wang, Jiaming; Hou, Mengjun; Zhang, Shan; Wang, Xinqiang; Ge, Weikun; Shen, Bo

    2016-05-01

    Two series of AlGaN samples with different stresses were designed to investigate the effect of stress on the Al composition. X-ray diffraction reciprocal space mapping (XRD RSM) demonstrated that the AlGaN epilayers with different stresses have large Al composition differences despite the same growth conditions. The largest Al composition difference reached up to 21.3%, which was also confirmed using secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). This result is attributed to a large stress discrepancy in the AlGaN epilayers. Finally, the dependences of the solid-phase Al composition on the gas-phase Al composition under different stresses were systematically analyzed.

  14. High temperature intermetallic compounds Ni3Al

    The paper describes the preparation of Ni3Al intermetallic compounds, and investigations of their structures in the as-cast, remelted, and annealed states. The materials were produced by three techniques : in a high frequency vacuum furnace, by zonal remelting in an electron beam furnace, and by remelting with unidirectional solidification. Those melted in an h. f. vacuum furnace and poured into graphite moulds had well developed dendritic structures, a Ni3Al (?') phase, with interdendritic spaces formed by Ni5Al3 + ?'. Many specimens contained shrinkage cavities. Unidirectional solidification allowed casting defects to be eliminated and the grain size to be controlled in dependence on the solidification rate. Rates from 650 to 60 mm per hour were tried to examine their effects on the grain size, homogeneity, and structure. The authors further investigated the influence of B and Zr additions on the solidification process and formation of the structure of Ni3Al. Annealing, in an argon atmosphere at 1100 C for various durations, was tried out for homogenizing the as-cast structures. (orig.)

  15. Al-Ghazali on Moral Education

    Alavi, Hamid Reza

    2007-01-01

    Al-Ghazali (1058-1111 CE) is probably the most influential scholar, philosopher, theologian, legal expert, religious reformer and mystic in the history of Islam. Although he wrote extensively about education, and particularly about moral education, this writing is scattered through a number of different works and has received less scholarly…

  16. Irradiation of Al-Mg-Si alloys

    Dilute Al-Mg-Si alloys have been irradiated to 2,5x1020n/cm2 at pile temperature. No voids were found in any of the alloys whose composition varied about the stoichiometric value of two Mg to one Si atom

  17. High performance Al alloy by cryogenic milling

    Hard and temperature stable particulates are known to be a key factor to improve the performance of Al materials at elevated temperature. This poster describes the manufacturing of an aluminium material which is dispersion strengthened by small ceramic particulates. Mechanical and corrosion properties as well as microstructure are reported. Creep and ductility at elevated temperature are discussed. (orig.)

  18. Management of respiratory symptoms in ALS.

    Hardiman, Orla

    2012-02-01

    Respiratory insufficiency is a frequent feature of ALS and is present in almost all cases at some stage of the illness. It is the commonest cause of death in ALS. FVC is used as important endpoint in many clinical trials, and in decision-making events for patients with ALS, although there are limitations to its predictive utility. There are multiple causes of respiratory muscle failure, all of which act to produce a progressive decline in pulmonary function. Diaphragmatic fatigue and weakness, coupled with respiratory muscle weakness, lead to reduced lung compliance and atelectasis. Increased secretions increase the risk of aspiration pneumonia, which further compromises respiratory function. Bulbar dysfunction can lead to nutritional deficiency, which in turn increases the fatigue of respiratory muscles. Early recognition of respiratory decline and symptomatic intervention, including non-invasive ventilation can significantly enhance both quality of life and life expectancy in ALS. Patients with respiratory failure should be advised to consider an advance directive to avoid emergency mechanical ventilation.

  19. The Science of al-Biruni

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Al-Biruni (973-1048) was one of the greatest scientists of all times. He was an astronomer, mathematician and philosopher, and studied physics and natural sciences. In this paper, we will discuss some of his experimental methods and some instruments he used.

  20. CALCULUL CINETOSTATIC AL MECANISMELOR PLANETARE CILINDRICE

    Păun ANTONESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available În lucrare se prezintă o metodă analitică pentru calculul cinetostatic al mecanismului planetarmonomobil cu două roţi dinţate centrale. Se consideră mai întâi cazul general al schemelor cinematice cu douăroţi dinţate solidare tip satelit, în două variante practice (multiplicator şi reductor de turaţie. Este menţionatcazul particular al mecanismelor planetare cu o singură roată satelit cu angrenare dublă (exterioară şiinterioară. Pe baza modelului de analiză cinetostatică a mecanismului planetar monomobil cu două roţi dinţatecentrale, în finalul lucrării se abordează o problemă practică de calcul cinetostatic al unui mecanism planetarcilindric simplu folosit la capul de frezat pentru prelucrarea roţilor dinţate cilindrice cu dinţi curbi înhipocicloidă.

  1. Management of respiratory symptoms in ALS.

    Hardiman, Orla

    2011-03-01

    Respiratory insufficiency is a frequent feature of ALS and is present in almost all cases at some stage of the illness. It is the commonest cause of death in ALS. FVC is used as important endpoint in many clinical trials, and in decision-making events for patients with ALS, although there are limitations to its predictive utility. There are multiple causes of respiratory muscle failure, all of which act to produce a progressive decline in pulmonary function. Diaphragmatic fatigue and weakness, coupled with respiratory muscle weakness, lead to reduced lung compliance and atelectasis. Increased secretions increase the risk of aspiration pneumonia, which further compromises respiratory function. Bulbar dysfunction can lead to nutritional deficiency, which in turn increases the fatigue of respiratory muscles. Early recognition of respiratory decline and symptomatic intervention, including non-invasive ventilation can significantly enhance both quality of life and life expectancy in ALS. Patients with respiratory failure should be advised to consider an advance directive to avoid emergency mechanical ventilation.

  2. La visita mdica al hogar Home visit

    Jos Daz Novs

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Se hace un breve resumen de la historia de la visita mdica al hogar en Cuba, y se seala su evolucin en las diferentes formas organizativas de la atencin primaria en la etapa revolucionaria. Se enumeran las ventajas de las visitas mdicas al hogar, su necesidad como componente fundamental e insustituible de la atencin a los pacientes, y como complemento necesario del trabajo en el consultorio. Se exponen los motivos de la visita al hogar: enfermedades agudas, procesos crnicos, discapacidades, evaluar el entorno familiar e higinico-epidemiolgico del paciente, los ingresos domiciliarios, las altas hospitalarias precoces, y los pacientes con enfermedades terminales o con afecciones dispensarizadas, entre otros Se presenta un grupo de orientaciones para el desarrollo exitoso de la visita mdica al hogarA summary of the history of home visit in Cuba is made, stressing its evolution in the different organizative ways of primary care in the revolutionary stage. The advantages of home visits, their need as a fundamental and irreplaceable component of the patients' care and a necessary complement of the work in the office are given. The reasons of the visits are explained: acute diseases, chronic processes, disabilities, evaluation of the family and hygienic-epidemiological setting of the patient, home admissions, early hospital discharges, and patients with end-stage diseases, or with categorized diseases, among others. Some instructions for the success of home visit are exposed.

  3. RESPUESTA HIPERTENSIVA AL ESFUERZO EN PACIENTES PREHIPERTENSOS

    Tomás Noel Santana Téllez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo para conocer la respuesta hipertensiva al esfuerzo en pacientes prehipertensos atendidos en consulta externa de medicina interna de hospital "Manuel Ascunce Domenech" de Camagüey durante el año 2005. El universo ascendió a 40 pacientes, a los cuales se les aplicó una encuesta con variables según criterios bibliográficos: grupos de edades, factores de riesgo y respuesta hipertensiva al esfuerzo. Los datos se procesaron mediante el programa estadístico Microstat. El grupo de edad que predominó fue el de 35-52 años con el 45.7 %; los factores de riesgo que con mayor frecuencia se presentaron fueron el hábito de fumar y el antecedente patológico familiar de enfermedad cardiovascular prematura; la respuesta presora ligera al esfuerzo fue la más frecuente con el 59.37 % y se presentó en más de la mitad de los pacientes prehipertensos. Se observó que la respuesta hipertensiva al esfuerzo se asoció de manera significativa a factores de riesgo.

  4. Precipitation peak in Al-Mg-Si

    The internal friction spectrum of commercial Al-Mg-Si alloys in poly- and macro-crystals is analyzed on the basis of three componets, and the model for the P2 effects (situated at 460K for 1 Hz) is developed. (Author)

  5. Joint SSRTNet/ALS-MES Workshop report

    This joint workshop brought together experimentalists and theorists interested in synchrotron radiation and highlighted subjects relevant to molecular environmental science (MES). The strong mutual interest between the participants resulted in joint sessions on the first day, followed by more specialized parallel sessions on the second day. Held in conjunction with the Advanced Light Source (ALS) Users' Association Annual Meeting at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab), the Synchrotron Radiation Research Theory Network (SRRTNet) workshop was co-organized by Michel Van Hove (Berkeley Lab and University of California, Davis) and Andrew Canning (Berkeley Lab), while David Shuh (Berkeley Lab) organized the ALS-MES workshop. SRRTNet is a global network that promotes the interaction of theory and experiment (http://www.cse.clrc.ac.uk/Activity/SRRTnet). The ALS-MES project is constructing Beamline 11.0.2.1-2, a new soft x-ray beamline for MES investigations at photon energies from 75 eV to 2 keV, to provide photons for wet spectroscopy end stations and an upgraded scanning transmission x-ray microscope (STXM). The ALS-MES beamline and end stations will be available for users in the late fall of 2002

  6. Cathodic electrochemiluminescence at double barrier Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} tunnel emission electrodes

    Hakansson, Markus [Laboratory of Analytical and Inorganic Chemistry, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 6100, FIN-02015 HUT (Finland); Jiang, Qinghong [Laboratory of Analytical and Inorganic Chemistry, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 6100, FIN-02015 HUT (Finland); Suomi, Johanna [Laboratory of Analytical and Inorganic Chemistry, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 6100, FIN-02015 HUT (Finland); Loikas, Kari [Workshop, Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, FIN-20014 (Finland); Nauma, Mauri [Workshop, Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, FIN-20014 (Finland); Ala-Kleme, Timo [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, FIN-20014 (Finland); Kankare, Jouko [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, FIN-20014 (Finland); Juhala, Pentti [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, FIN-20014 (Finland); Eskola, Jarkko U. [Labmaster Oy, P.O. Box 71, FIN-20521 Turku (Finland); Kulmala, Sakari [Laboratory of Analytical and Inorganic Chemistry, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 6100, FIN-02015 HUT (Finland)

    2006-01-25

    Double insulating barrier tunnel emission electrodes were fabricated by adding a new pure aluminum layer upon oxidized aluminum electrodes by vacuum evaporation and thermally oxidizing the new aluminum layer in air at room temperature. Resulting Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} electrodes allow the use of various aluminum alloys in the electrode body necessary for hardness or shaping ability of the electrode while obtaining the luminescence properties of pure aluminum oxide. During electrical excitation of luminescent labels by cathodic hot electron injection into aqueous electrolyte solution, the background noise is mainly based on high-field-induced solid-state electroluminescence and F-center luminescence of the outer aluminum oxide film. The more defect states and/or impurity centers the outer oxide film contains, the higher is the background emission intensity. The present electrode fabrication method provides a considerable improvement in signal-to-noise ratio for time-resolved electrochemiluminescence (TR-ECL) measurements when the original native oxide film of the electrode body contains luminescence centers displaying long-lived luminescence. The excellent performance of the present electrodes is demonstrated by extremely low-level detection of Tb(III) chelates, luminol, Pt(II) coproporphyrin and Tb(III) labels in an immunometric immunoassay by time-resolved electrochemiluminescence.

  7. 78 FR 4967 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00046

    2013-01-23

    ... ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00046 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of ALABAMA dated 01/10... INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409...

  8. Casting of particulate Al-base composites

    Moustafa, S.F. [CMRDI, Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-03-01

    A molten Al-4 wt.% Cu as well as a Al-13 wt.% Si alloy have been mixed mechanically with particulate of SiC, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, or graphite. After the completion of mixing, each mixture was poured into a permanent mould to solidify. To overcome the problem of non-wettability that exists between the investigated particulate and the molten aluminum alloys the particulate was chemically treated by impregnation in a solution containing Na{sup +} ions. The loading of SiC or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particulate in the produced composites can be as high as 40 wt.%, and for graphite particles it can be 20 wt.%. The mixing time required to introduce and distribute the investigated particles into the molten matrix was as low as five minutes to recluce chemical reactions at the interfaces between them. Processing details and parameters controlling this technique are described. Metallographic examinations as well as tensile tests were carried out to characterize the microstructure, the distribution of the particles and the strength of these composites. The results display that the composites made by this technique have good microstructure and tensile properties. (orig.)

  9. Thermoluminescence of LaAlO3

    In this paper the thermoluminescent properties of doped lanthanum aluminate (LaAlO3) with dysprosium ion (Dy) were studied. The thermoluminescence characteristics in the samples were obtained using an ultraviolet radiation of 220 nm. The LaAlO3:Dy samples were prepared by the modified Pechini method (Spray Dryer). The structural and morphological characterization was obtained by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (Sem) techniques respectively. The size particle composing the agglomerate was determined by Sem, agglomerated particles composed size of 2?m were observed. The thermoluminescence response of LaAlO3:Dy was compared with that obtained with the undoped sample. Thermoluminescence brightness curves of LaAlO3:Dy showed a peak centered at 185 grades C. Sensitivity of doped sample was greater, about 100 times compared with the undoped sample. Thermoluminescence response in function of the wavelength showed a maximum at 220 nm. Also the fading in thermoluminescence response was studied. (Author)

  10. Reactor irradiation effects on Al 1100

    Commercially available pure aluminum such as Al 1100 has been practically employed as the structural material for water-cooled reactors and as the canning material for MTR-type fuel elements, because properties of the aluminum, such as small cross section for neutron absorption, good corrosion resistance against coolant water, toughness even after long term exposure in a neutron field, and short life-times of the radioactive nuclei produced by nuclear reactions. Recently, high neutron flux reactors have been developed, and the core materials are required to have better resistance against higher neutron fluence than 1022 n/cm2. Many investigations have been done for Al 1100 and other aluminum alloys. In this study, tensile strength and microstructure have been examined with the Al 1100 specimens cut from the side plates of the reflectors used in the core of the KUR (Kyoto University Reactor). Both tensile strength and elongation increased after the irradiation of up to 1021 fast n/cm2, which were caused by irradiation-induced defects and by the microstructure change due to dislocation rearrangement during the irradiation. The swelling due to heavy irradiation (6.6 x 1020 f.n./cm2) has arisen from void formation and transmutation product Si. The Al-Mg-Si alloys containing small G.P. zones showed better resistance to void swelling. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  11. 77 FR 60003 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00044

    2012-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00044 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  12. 75 FR 26813 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00029

    2010-05-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00029 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Alabama...

  13. 77 FR 7227 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00040

    2012-02-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00040 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Alabama...

  14. 75 FR 474 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00026

    2010-01-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00026 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  15. 76 FR 27141 - Alabama Disaster # AL-00036

    2011-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00036 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Alabama...

  16. 76 FR 62481 - Incapital LLC, et al.

    2011-10-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Incapital LLC, et al.; Notice of Application September 30, 2011. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission''). ACTION: Notice of application for an order under section 12(d)(1)(J) of...

  17. 75 FR 1420 - Alabama Disaster # AL-00025

    2010-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00025 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Alabama dated...

  18. 78 FR 22361 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00049

    2013-04-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00049 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Alabama dated...

  19. 78 FR 26100 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00050

    2013-05-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00050 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Alabama dated...

  20. 76 FR 29810 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00037

    2011-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00037 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  1. 75 FR 26814 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00031

    2010-05-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00031 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  2. Genetics of ALS in Italian families.

    Gellera, C

    2001-03-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting motor neurons. The majority of the patients are sporadic cases (SALS), while 10-15% of patients has a family history of ALS (familial ALS or FALS). Mutations in the gene coding for cytoplasmic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) have been identified in 20% of FALS. We found SOD1-gene mutations in 7 of 36 unrelated FALS and in 3 of 48 SALS patients. Four FALS patients carried previously described mutations, the A4V (2 cases), the L84F mutations (1 case), and the G93D (1 case), while three FALS patients carried new missense mutations: the G12R mutation, the F45C mutation and the V47F mutation, respectively. Two SALS patients carried previously reported mutations: the homozygous D90A and the heterozygous I113T mutation, respectively. In addition, in one SALS patient we identified an apparently non-pathogenic SOD1 variant: the A95T mutation. Our study contributes to expand the number of ALS-associated SOD1 gene mutations. PMID:11465924

  3. 75 FR 3895 - Yale University, et al.;

    2010-01-25

    ... International Trade Administration Yale University, et al.; Notice of Consolidated Decision on Applications for... Number: 09-064. Applicant: Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8284. Instrument: Electron Microscope... notice at 74 FR 67851, December 21, 2009. Docket Number: 09-065. Applicant: U.S. Department of...

  4. Grain boundary compositon in NiAl

    The high temperature strength and oxidation resistance of many transition metal aluminides makes these intermetallic materials attractive for high temperature applications. However, these aluminides are generally brittle at low temperatures and this restricts their technological applications. However, these aluminides are generally brittle at low temperatures and this restricts their technological applications. It has been demonstrated that the addition of more than 200 ppm of boron to the L12-ordered Ni3Al changes the fracture behavior from intergranular to transgranular and increases the ductility. The B2-ordered NiAl nickel aluminide is particularly attractive because of its low density and high melting temperature. This aluminide also fractures intergranularly at room temperature. However, no improvement in ductility is observed with similar boron additions even though the intergranular fracture is suppressed and there is a significant increase in the yield strength. In this paper, the results of an atom probe field ion microscopy investigation of the compositions of the grain boundaries in undoped and boron-doped NiAl are presented. The suitability of the atom probe field ion microscopy technique for the characterization of boundaries has clearly been demonstrated in many previous investigations including the characterization of boron segregation to grain boundaries and other planar features in Ni3Al

  5. Synthesis of Ti-Al porous perform

    K. Naplocha

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Article describes production method of intermetallic porous perform for reinforcing of composite materials. Usefulness of the high temperature self-propagating synthesis (SHS, with appropriate modification, to produce perform for production of composite was evaluated.Design/methodology/approach: Mixture of aluminum and titanium powder was cold isostatically pressed (CIPed and produced cylindrical pill was ignited in microwave field. Obtained structure usually have open porosity what enables for pressure infiltration with molten metal. The investigations of the structure of preforms on the scanning electron microscope (SEM were made.Findings: The produced performs in most cases reveal open porosity, uniform morphology and are suitable for infiltration process. After reaction Al-Ti compounds form partly globular structure with microhardness much higher than substratesResearch limitations/implications: In the actual stages of this work proposed method can be used for manufacturing of porous performs, which mainly contain Al3Ti. During reaction, mixture compacts with the molar ratio of Al/Ti=1 were transformed into inhomogeneous structure.Practical implications: Obtained perform can be widely used as the reinforcement to produce hybrid composite materials by the infiltration method. Aluminum casting alloys can be locally reinforced to improve hardness and resistance to oxidization at high temperature.Originality/value: Article is valuable for persons engaged in production of casting composite materials reinforced with porous perform. Proposed method allows to incorporate hard structures from Al-Ti compounds into aluminum casting.

  6. Effect of elevated Al and pH on the growth and root morphology of Al-tolerant and Al-sensitive wheat seedlings in an acid soil

    Md. Toufiq Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    Aluminium ion (Al3+) toxicity and hydrogen ion (H+) activity are the major constraints for plant growth in acid soil. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of pH and Al on the growth response and changes in root morphology of Al-tolerant (ET8) and Al-sensitive (ES8) wheat seedlings. Different levels of AlCl3 and CaCO3 were added to the soils to manipulate soil pH and extractable Al. The results showed that the bulk soil pH remained constant at pH 4.1 with further applications of A...

  7. Wallada Bint al Mustakfi entre dos culturas

    shreen Mahmoud Al Refai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La princesa cordobesa Wallada Bint al Mustakfi bil-lah, hija del califa al Mustakfi Muhammad Ibn Abdel Rahman Ibn Obaidil-lah Ibn Al Nasir lidin Al-lah era una poetisa estimable, a quien los grandes poetas no podían superar. Era una mujer única, guapa y decente. Mantenía una relación sentimental con el  poeta y visir Ibn Zaydún. Dicha pasión, narrada por los poemas escritos por ambos amantes, se terminó por la separación debida a los celos, también de ambos;  al poeta le gustó la voz de una esclava de la princesa. Eso dio rabia a la última. Movido también por los celos, Ibn Zaydún dedicó una epístola satírica al visir Ibn Abdús, que estaba enamorado de Wallada. Tal hecho también irritó a la princesa. A pesar de tener amantes y admiradores, Wallada murió sin casarse al  día 2 de safar de 480 (o 484 de la Híjira pasando los ochenta años Me han llamado la atención el carácter tan culto, independiente y liberal de aquella mujer, su relación amorosa con Ibn Zaydún que no acabó felizmente y los muchos años que vivió sin casasre. Parece que la vida de la princesa hispano-musulmana llamó también la atención de muchos escritores árabes y españoles. Prueba de ello son varias obras literarias escritas en árabe y en español sobre Wallada e Ibn Zaydún. Por consiguiente, me resulta muy interesante realizar un estudio comparativo sobre este tema averiguando si, o no, la diferencia de culturas influiría en las opiniones  de los autores sobre la vida sentimental de aquella poetisa cordobesa.

  8. ELECTROLYSIS OF SWINE MANURE EFFLUENTS USING THREE DIFFERENT ELECTRODES Fe-Fe, Al-Al AND Fe-Al

    S. Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Swine effluent with high organic strength need to be treated to make it suitable for applying to crop/pasture fields, or discharging to any waterways. Electrocoagulation is a relatively simpler and cheaper technique over biological and chemical treatment methods currently used to treat high-strength industrial and municipal wastewater. The performance of an electrocoagulation system mainly depends on the pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC of the medium, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD loading rates and catalytic activity of the electrodes used. In this research, a study was conducted to compare the pollutant removal efficiencies of three electrodes (Fe-Fe, Al-Al and Fe-Al with three electric current levels (500, 1000 and 2000 mA while treating swine manure effluents. The electrochemical cell consisted of two parallel rectangular plates (90×25×1.5 mm of Iron (Fe-Fe, Aluminum (Al-Al and Iron-Aluminum (Fe-Al, later on described as hybrid electrodes; immersed in a beaker with 550 mL swine effluents and powered by a Direct Current (DC supply. All studies were conducted in batches at room temperature. In general, removal efficiencies were increased with increasing current densities and electrolysis times for electrodes evaluated. Aluminum electrodes outperformed iron and hybrid (iron-aluminum electrodes in removing Total Phosphorus (TP at all current density levels tested. Overall, use of hybrid electrodes resulted in better COD removal. For the same treatment times (1200 s at higher current density (21 mA cm-2, hybrid electrodes removed about 100% COD, which are about 1.9 and 1.3 times higher than those of aluminum and iron electrodes, respectively. Iron electrodes showed the highest removal efficiency (85% for Total Organic Carbon (TOC at 21 mA cm-2 current density and 1200 s treatment time. Overall, lower Specific Electrical Energy Consumptions (SEECs per kg of Pollutants (TP, COD and TOC were estimated for the aluminum electrodes than the other electrodes combination.

  9. Medien als Lernform und die Trimediale Redaktion

    Wolf Hilzensauer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Der vorliegende Artikel beschreibt ein Konzept für eine handlungsorientierte Medienpädagogik im Bildungsbereich. Im Mittelpunkt steht dabei die SO!-Campusredaktion, die als Methode für expansives Lernen die Möglichkeit bietet, unabhängig von Thema oder Medium die Verantwortung für den Lernprozess in die Hände der Lernenden zu legen. Der Dokumentation von Reflexion über den Lernprozess wird dabei eine besondere Bedeutung zugesprochen. Gleichzeitig werden unterschiedliche mediale Gestaltungsmöglichkeiten (Audio/Radio, Video/Fernsehen und Zeitung – sowohl als Print- als auch als Onlinemedium vorgestellt, die durch das Konzept BYOD – bring your own device – auch einfach und niederschwellig im Bildungskontext umsetzbar sind. Dadurch ergeben sich innovative Möglichkeiten, einen Lernprozess sichtbar zu machen und gleichzeitig eine Grundlage für eine alternative Leistungsbeurteilung anzubieten. Die SO!-Campusredaktion wird derzeit an der Pädagogischen Hochschule Salzburg in Kooperation mit dem Communitysender FS1 und der Radiofabrik entwickelt und erprobt. Community Medien nehmen als MedienpartnerInnen eine bedeutende Stellung ein: Durch ihren offenen Zugang zu Know How und Equipment sowie durch die Möglichkeit, Medienproduktionen über die verfügbaren Distibutionskanäle (Radiofrequenz oder Sendeplatz einer breiten Bevölkerung zugänglich zu machen, gewinnt die Medienpädagogik einen wichtigen Mehrwert in ihrer schulischen und außerschulischen Arbeit. (Dieser Artikel knüpft an den Artikel "BYOD, Smartphonefilme und webbasierte Videoschnittprogramme" der Medienimpulse, Ausgabe 2/2014, an.

  10. Investigation Of Water Assisted Phase Transformation Process From AlPO4-5 to AlPO4-tridymite

    Xu, Suochang; Zhao, Zhenchao; Hu, Mary Y.; Han, Xiuwen; Hu, Jian Z.; Bao, Xinhe

    2016-03-15

    Water assisted phase transformation process from crystalized AlPO4-5 to AlPO4-tridymite was studied by the combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and in situ multinuclear MAS NMR. It is found that water first activates the residue amorphous aluminophosphate in crystalized AlPO4-5 sample through hydrolysis and condensation reactions. Then the activated aluminophosphate species reassemble into AlPO4-tridymite crystalline. Meanwhile, AlPO4-5 transforms into orthorhombic phase during heating process. With further crystallization of AlPO4-tridymite, the amorphous phase is gradually consumed, and mass transportation between AlPO4-5 and AlPO4-tridymite is established through gradually amorphization of AlPO4-5. Finally, most of the AlPO4-5 transforms into the thermodynamically stable dense phase AlPO4-tridymite.

  11. Al p conduction states in quasi-crystalline Al-Cu-Fe alloy and related compounds

    We have examined in details the Al p conduction states as well as the Al 3p valence distributions in quasi-crystalline Al62Cu25.5Fe12.5, rhombohedral approximant R-Al62.5Cu26.5Fe11 and tetragonal ?-Al7Cu2Fe phase. A significant issue is that, in a wide energy range beyond the Fermi level, there is a noticeable decrease of the density of the Al p conduction states in the quasi-crystalline material. Conversely, the conduction Al p band is very much different in metallic aluminium, whereas the situation is found intermediate in the ?- and R-compounds. We point out that a major difference between the icosahedral quasi-crystalline alloy and its rhombohedral approximant is shown by the conduction electronic distributions in contrast with many other properties which, as is well known, present no significant difference. Such a behaviour may be ascribed in part to the progressive disappearance of the crystalline periodic order. Our result is the first experimental evidence in favour of theoretical predictions made elsewhere that the electronic band structure of approximant phase and merely of quasi-crystals consists in a succession of numerous spikes and gaps. (orig.)

  12. Dissolution of hydrogen and deuterium in titanium, Ti94Al6 and Ti3Al

    The solubility of hydrogen and deuterium in ?-, ?,?- and ?-titanium , Ti94Al6 and in ?2-Ti3Al has been volumetrically measured in the ranges of temperature 623-1323 K and hydrogen concentration (atomic ratio) 0.001-0.25. The equilibrium hydrogen pressure at a given temperature and hydrogen concentration has been found to increase greatly as the aluminium content increases. This is explicable on the assumption that aluminium atoms block some of the sites available to hydrogen atoms. In contrast, the heat of solution of hydrogen only slightly increases with the aluminium content and in ?-titanium, ?-Ti94Al6 and ?2-Ti3Al, the ratio of the deuterium pressure to the hydrogen pressure at identical hydrogen and deuterium concentrations is almost independent of the aluminium content. A possible cause of the small dependence of the measured heat and ratio on the aluminium content is discussed and occupation of the tetrahedral site by hydrogen atoms is suggested for ?-titanium, ?-T94Al6 and ?2-Ti3Al. The origin of the sloping plateaus observed in the pressure-composition isotherms for ?,?-Ti94Al6 is also briefly discussed. (Author)

  13. Some TEM observations of Al2O3 scales formed on NiCrAl alloys

    Smialek, J.; Gibala, R.

    1979-01-01

    The microstructural development of Al2O3 scales on NiCrAl alloys has been examined by transmission electron microscopy. Voids have been observed within grains in scales formed on a pure NiCrAl alloy. Both voids and oxide grains grew measurably with oxidation time at 1100 C. The size and amount of porosity decreased towards the oxide-metal growth interface. It was postulated that the voids resulted from an excess number of oxygen vacancies near the oxide-metal interface. Short-circuit diffusion paths were discussed in reference to current growth stress models for oxide scales. Transient oxidations of pure, Y-doped, and Zr-doped NiCrAl was also examined. Oriented alpha-(Al,Cr)2O3 and Ni(Al,Cr)2O4 scales often coexisted in layered structures on all three alloys. Close-packed oxygen planes and directions in the corundum and spinel layers were parallel. The close relationships between oxide layers provided a gradual transition from initial transient scales to steady state Al2O3 growth.

  14. Neutronic comparison of the nuclear fuels U3Si2/Al and U-Mo/Al

    The search for materials that allow the fabrication of nuclear fuels with higher uranium densities comes from the mid 50s. Today, a high density and low enriched nuclear fuel based on γ-UMo alloys is the most promising fuel to replace the U3Si2/Al dispersion fuel used worldwide in research and material test reactors. Alloys of uranium-molybdenum are prepared with 6 to 10% Mo addition and can be manufactured as dispersion or monolithic fuels. The aim of this paper is to compare the infinite multiplication factor (K∞), obtained through neutronic calculation with the code Scale 6, for aluminum coated plates reflected in all directions containing U3Si2/Al and U-Mo/Al dispersion fuels. The U3Si2/Al dispersion fuel used in the calculation has an uranium density of 4 gU/cm3 and the U-Mo-Al dispersion fuels have densities ranging from 4 to 7.52 gU/cm3 and 7 and 10% Mo addition. The results show that the K∞ calculated for U-Mo/Al fuels is lower than that for U3Si2/Al fuel and increases between the uranium densities of 4 and 5 gU/cm3 and decreases for higher uranium densities. (author)

  15. Hydride formation in mechanically alloyed Al-Zr and Al-Fe-Zr

    The present work deals with the formation of hydride during MA of Al alloys with addition of Zr. The effect of hydride formation on the degassing as well as on the mechanical properties are also investigated. It is well known that Zr is able to bind considerable quantities of hydrogen by forming hydrides. Depending on the concentration of hydrogen, the composition of Zr-hydrides varies from ZrH to ZrH2. The reaction of hydrogen with Zr has been extensively studied because of its technical importance in the nuclear industry. It is believed that the formation of hydride is the main reason causing embrittlement in Zr and Zr-alloys. Very few studies report the formation of hydrides in Zr-containing Al alloys. Zr in Al alloys can be used either as a grain refiner or as a second phase in the form of aluminide, Al3Zr to strengthen Al alloys. Recently, it was reported that the hydrogen gas in powder metallurgical prepared Al alloys can be fixed in the form of hydrides by additions of some hydride-forming elements. As a result, a degassing treatment is no more needed and the fatigue strength can be improved at the same time. Details on the identification of those hydrides in Al alloys are not yet available

  16. A high degree of enhancement of strength of sputter deposited Al/Al2O3 multilayers upon post annealing

    We report here an order of magnitude enhancement of strength of sputter deposited Al/Al2O3 multilayers after annealing. The increase in strength is shown to be mostly associated with the precipitation of extremely fine ?-Al2O3, 510 nm in diameter, in Al layers. This provides a new method of achieving high strength in Al/Al2O3 multilayers that cannot be explained by the Koehler effect or modified HallPetch, which will lead to the growth and development of new generation of Al/Al2O3 multilayers. We also examine the fracture behavior of the post annealed Al/Al2O3 multilayered composites with TEM and density functional theory (DFT) simulations. DFT showed that the multilayers are not likely to delaminate at the Al/Al2O3 interface, consistent with the experimental observations. The simulations are also used to determine elastic constants for the ?-Al2O3 phase and to calculate a driving force for O transport from the ?-Al2O3 to the Al layers. The formation of these precipitates is consistent with DFT calculations, which predict an energetic driving force for the dissolution of O atoms from the ?-Al2O3 layers into the Al layers

  17. Non-volatile Al2O3 Memory using Nanoscale Al-rich Al2O3 Thin Film as a Charge Storage Layer

    Nakata, Shunji; Saito, Kunio; Shimada, Masaru

    2006-04-01

    This article describes the fabrication process and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of a new non-volatile Al2O3 memory with nanoscale thin film deposited by electron-cyclotron-resonance sputtering. Al-rich Al2O3 shows characteristics somewhere between Al and Al2O3 in the refractive index and wet etching rate. C-V characteristics of Al-rich Al2O3 memory show a large hysteresis window due to the Al-rich structure, while there is no hysteresis window in the case of stoichiometric Al2O3. This memory is expected to stay non-volatile for several years or more because the capacitance value after writing and erasing operation remained almost unchanged after 4 h at T=85 C. Also, another new memory structure comprising SiO2/Al2O3 and the Al-rich Al2O3 structure is proposed, which features increased mobility due to the reduction of electron scattering at the Si/Al2O3 interface.

  18. Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Neutron Irradiated Cold-worked Al-1050 and Al-6063 Alloys

    The impact of neutron irradiation on the internal microstructure, mechanical properties and fracture morphology of cold-worked Al-1050 and Al-6063 alloys was studied, using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and tensile measurements. Specimens consisting of 50 mm long and 6 mm wide gauge sections, were punched out from Al-1050 and Al-6063 23% cold-worked tubes. They were exposed to prolonged neutron irradiation of up to 4.5x1025 and 8x1025 thermal neutrons/m2 (E -3 s-1. In general, the uniform and total elongation, the yield stress, and the ultimate tensile strength increase as functions of fluence. However, for Al-1050 a decrease in the ultimate tensile strength and yield stress was observed up to a fluence of 1x1025 thermal neutrons/m2 which then increase with thermal neutrons fluence. Metallographic examination and fractography for Al-6063 revealed a decrease in the local area reduction of the final fracture necking. This reduction is accompanied by a morphology transition from ductile transgranular shear rupture to a combination of transgranular shear with intergranular dimpled rupture. The intergranular rupture area increases with fluence. In contrast, for Al-1050, fracture morphology remains ductile transgranular shear rupture and the final local area reduction remains almost constant No voids could be observed in either alloy up to the maximum fluence. The dislocation density of cold-worked Al was found to decrease with the thermal neutron fluence. Prolonged annealing of unirradiated cold-worked Al-6063 at 52 degree led to similar results. Thus, it appears that, under our irradiation conditions, whereby the temperature encompassing the samples increases the exposure to this thermal field is the major factor influencing the mechanical properties and microstructure of aluminum alloys

  19. Announcement: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Awareness Month - May 2016.

    2016-01-01

    May is Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Awareness Month. ALS, also known as Lou Gehrig's disease, is a progressive, fatal, neurodegenerative disorder of upper and lower motor neurons. The cause of ALS is not known, and no cure exists. Persons with ALS usually die within 2-5 years of diagnosis. PMID:27123890

  20. Structure of oxides prepared by decomposition of layered double Mg–Al and Ni–Al hydroxides

    Abstracts: Thermal decomposition of Mg–Al and Ni–Al layered double hydroxides LDH at temperatures lower than 800 °C leads to the formation of oxides with different structures. Mg–Al oxide has a very defective structure and consists of octahedral layers as in periclase MgO and mixed octahedral–tetrahedral layers as in spinel MgAl2O4. Mixed Ni–Al oxide has a sandwich-like structure, consisting of a core with Al-doped NiO-like structure and some surface layers with spinel NiAl2O4 structure epitaxial connected with the core. Suggested models were verified by simulation of X-ray diffraction patterns using DIFFaX code, as well as HRTEM, IR-, UV-spectroscopies, and XPS. - Graphical abstract: In the Mg–Al layered double hydroxide Al3+ ions migrate into interlayers during decomposition. The Mg–Al oxide represents sequence of octahedral and octahedral–tetrahedral spinel layers with vacancies. The Ni–Al oxide has a sandwich-like structure with NiO-like core and surface spinel layers as a result of migration of Al3+ ions on the surface. The models explain the presence and absence of “memory effect” for the Mg–Al and Ni–Al oxides, respectively. - Highlights: • We study products of Mg(Ni)–Al LDH decomposition by calcination at 500(400)–800 °C. • In Mg–Al/Ni–Al LDH Al ions migrate into interlayers/on the surface during decomposition. • Mg–Al oxide represents sequence of periclase- and spinel-like layers with vacancies. • Ni–Al oxide has a sandwich-like structure with NiO-like core and surface spinel layers. • The models explain the presence/absence of “memory effect” for Mg–Al/Ni–Al oxides

  1. AlSb precipitate evolution during Sb implantation in Al: experiment and theory

    Precipitate evolution during ion implantation has been studied in the model system Sb-implanted Al. Transmission electron microscopy was used to determine the size distribution of AlSb crystallites as a function of fluence, flux, and sample temperature. There was a dramatic increase in average size, accompanied by a decrease in number density, for increasing fluence, for decreasing flux, and for increasing temperature. A new theoretical model for the evolution of the precipitate size distribution has been developed which incorporates both thermal processes and implantation effects. Numerical solutions for the AlSb system using physically realistic parameters agree qualitatively with the experimentally observed evolutions

  2. Structure of Ti-50%Nb-8%Al and Ti-65%Nb-8%Al-2%Cu alloys

    Methods of transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis have been applied to study structure and phase composition in Ti-50%Nb-8%Al and Ti-65%Nb-8%Al-2%Cu alloys. It is shown that at constant Al concentration the ordering in quenched ?-matrix and B2-structure decomposition on annealing proceed more actively in the alloy with 50%Nb. Decomposition of quenched $?+B2)-structure happens with ordered phase precipitation according to the mechanism of nucleation and grain growth with particle shape varying from equiaxial to laminated one. Low cold reduction (2%) of quenched alloy promotes formation of homogeneous structure morphology on subsequent annealing. 6 refs., 6 figs

  3. Ordering process of Fe28Al and Fe28Al5Cr alloys

    L. Pająk; Kansy, J.; A. Hanc; G. Dercz; Jabłońska, M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The comparison of ordering process in Fe28Al and Fe28Al5Cr alloys annealed for 8, 16 and 48 hours at 1000°C was performed. The composition of studied alloys is closed to one of Fe3Al phase.Design/methodology/approach: The studied alloys were melted in induction furnace under vacuum. Next the alloys were gravitatively casted into cylindrical graphite moulds. The alloy samples were annealed at 1000°C for 8, 16 and 48 hours. The ordering process was analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Mössba...

  4. 5083 type Al-Mg and 6082 type Al-Mg-Si alloys for ship building

    Burcu Ertuğ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine transport is increasing its use of aluminium by capitalizing on its two leading qualities: lightness and corrosion resistance. The most popular aluminium alloys for use in corrosive environmentssuch as seawater are the 5xxx and 6xxx series alloys, which demonstrate adequate strength and excellent corrosion resistance. The traditional and the most often used Al-alloys in shipbuilding are 5083 type Al-Mg alloy for plates, and 6082 type Al-Mg-Si alloy for extrusions. These alloys were found to be reliable in marine service as well as during manufacturing.

  5. The Influence of al-Makkī on al-Ghazālī

    Wan Mohd Azam

    1998-01-01

    This article focuses on the influence that Abū Tālib al-Makkī had on the thoughts of al Ghazālī, and particularly on his writings on mysticism. This is explained in terms of the traditions of Muslim scholars who have usually unhesitatingly drawn upon the ideas of other Muslim scholars, as well as from sources outside Islam to expound and explain the teachings of Islam. Al-Ghazālī who has written extensively on Islamic law, philosophy, logic, kalām, ethics and mysticism, has delved deeply into...

  6. A 25-year replication of Katz et al.'s (1988) metaphor norms.

    Campbell, Spencer J; Raney, Gary E

    2016-03-01

    Research in metaphor processing has made extensive use of the normed metaphor database created by Katz, Paivio, Marschark, & Clark (Metaphor and Symbolic Activity, 3, 191-214, 1988). Because of the plasticity of figurative language, we conducted a renorming of selected metaphors from the database on a new student population. Correlations between Katz et al.'s and the present data showed that the pattern of responses has remained highly consistent across time and populations. The consistency of the normative ratings allows us to be confident in future research that will use the Katz et al. collection. PMID:25772671

  7. Structure of 26Al studied by one - nucleon transfer reaction 27Al(d,t

    Srivastava Vishal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The excited states of 26Al have been produced and studied using 27Al(d,t reaction with 25 MeV deuteron as projectile. Optical model potential parameters were extracted from the measured elastic scattering angular distribution. Zero range distorted wave Born approximation analysis for the ground and 0.223 MeV states of 26Al have been done. The spectroscopic factors calculated for these states are found to be in good agreement with the previously reported values.

  8. A model of Fe3+-Kaolinite, Al3+-Goethite, Al3+-Hematite equilibria in laterites

    Trolard, F.; Tardy, Yves

    1989-01-01

    Cet article propose un modèle thermodynamique, basé sur un équilibre idéal solide-solution, pour le système Fe2O3-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O prenant en compte les activités de l'eau et de la silice. Le modèle permet de calculer la quantité des phases présentes, les pourcentages de substitution en Al et Fe pour la geothite, l'hématite, la Kaolinite ainsi que la stabilité des phases sous différentes conditions.

  9. Quantitative x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of Al/AlOx bilayers

    Batlle Gelabert, Xavier; Hattink, Bart Jan; Labarta, Amlcar; kerman, Johan J.; Escudero, Roberto; Schuller, Ivan K.

    2002-01-01

    An x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of Nb/Al wedge bilayers, oxidized by both plasma and natural oxidation, is reported. The main goal is to show that the oxidation statei.e., O:(oxidize)Al ratio, structure and thickness of the surface oxide layer, as well as the thickness of the metallic Al leftover, as functions of the oxidation procedure, can be quantitatively evaluated from the XPS spectra. This is relevant to the detailed characterization of the insulating barriers in (m...

  10. Ferromagnetic ordering in NpAl2: Magnetic susceptibility and 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance

    Martel, L.; Griveau, J.-C.; Eloirdi, R.; Selfslag, C.; Colineau, E.; Caciuffo, R.

    2015-08-01

    We report on the magnetic properties of the neptunium based ferromagnetic compound NpAl2. We used magnetization measurements and 27Al NMR spectroscopy to access magnetic features related to the paramagnetic and ordered states (TC=56 K). While very precise DC SQUID magnetization measurements confirm ferromagnetic ordering, they show a relatively small hysteresis loop at 5 K reduced with a coercive field HCo~3000 Oe. The variable offset cumulative spectra (VOCS) acquired in the paramagnetic state show a high sensitivity of the 27Al nuclei spectral parameters (Knight shifts and line broadening) to the ferromagnetic ordering, even at room temperature.

  11. Zinc ion adsorption on montmorillonite-Al hydroxide polymer systems

    Janssen, R.P.T.; Bruggenwert, M.G.M.; Riemsdijk, W.H., van

    2003-01-01

    ClayAl hydroxide polymers (CAlHO) can bind heavy metals effectively and may play an important role in the adsorption behaviour and metal binding capacity of soils. We studied the dependence of Al loading and pH on the adsorption of Zn on Na-saturated montmorilloniteAl hydroxide polymer systems. The available binding sites on Al hydroxide polymers (AlHO) had a very strong affinity for Zn ions. Zinc binding on the clay surface became important when the binding sites on the AlHO were nearly al...

  12. Combustion synthesis of Zr-Al intermetallic compounds

    The combustion syntheses of all the intermetallic compounds in the Zr-Al binary system have been investigated. Analyses of the reaction products show that for compositions of the reacting mixture richer than 60 at.% in Al the products always contain a mixture of ZrAl3, ZrAl2 and Zr2Al3 in different proportions. Zr-rich samples always produce a mixture of Zr5Al3, Zr3Al2, ZrAl2 and Zr2Al3. DTA investigations have shown that the exothermic process responsible for the front propagation is represented, for all starting compositions, by the reaction of molten aluminum with solid zirconium to form ZrAl3. When fine powdered reactants are used, solid-state interaction also contributes to the reaction ignition. (orig.)

  13. Properties of porous FeAlO/FeAl ceramic matrix composite influenced by mechanical activation of FeAl powder

    V Usoltsev; S Tikhov; A Salanov; V Sadykov; G Golubkova; O Lomovskii

    2013-12-01

    Porous ceramic matrix composites FeAlO/FeAl with incorporated metal inclusions (cermets) were synthesized by pressureless method, which includes hydrothermal treatment of mechanically alloyed FeAl powder followed by calcination. Their main structural, textural and mechanical features are described. Variation of FeAl powder alloying time results in non-monotonous changes of the porosity and mechanical strength. Details of the cermet microstructure and its relation to the mechanical properties are discussed.

  14. Microstructure of laser melted Al18B4O33w/2024Al composite

    The microstructure of a laser treated Al18B4O33w/2024Al composite has been investigated using transmission electron microscope (TEM), low-angle (glancing angle) X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Various surface microstructures were observed in the laser treated composite. The Al18B4O33 whisker on the surface of the composite was decomposed during laser surface melting, various decomposition products were studied in the laser treated composite. Eutectic phases and the precipitation in the matrix of the composite with laser-treated were observed. The main phases detected in the molten zone were aluminum and decomposition products Al2O3. The effect of laser treatment on the hardness of the composite was also examined. A surface hardness of 400 Hv was noted

  15. Recrystallization of FeAl and Ni3Al with and without boron

    Since the brittleness of many strongly ordered intermetallic compounds at low temperature makes imparting sufficient strain for recrystallization difficult, there have been few reports of their recrystallization kinetics. The present paper reports a short study of the recrystallization kinetics of both polycrystalline Ni3Al and FeAl with and without boron, both of which have limited ductility at room temperature in the unalloyed polycrystalline state. In the present research, because of the difficulty of imparting sufficient deformation for recrystallization to both FeAl and boron-free Ni3Al, a hardness indentation method was used to study recrystallization. The idea is to introduce indentation and then determine the temperature at which recrystallization was initiated around the indentation after one hour. In this way, the effect of alloy stoichiometry and of boron on the recrystallization kinetics can be qualitatively assessed

  16. 'Videokunst on tsine asi,' rgib kunstnik Al Paldrock / Al Paldrok ; interv. Tiiu Leis

    Paldrok, Al, 1969-

    1998-01-01

    Intervjuu Prnu filmipevade (2.-4. apr.) he peakorraldaja, Helsingis Kuvataide akadeemias video- ja keskkonnakunsti ppinud Al Paldrokiga filmipevadest (kus esitatakse nii video-, reklaam- kui dokumentaalfilme), eesti filmist ja videokunstist, rhmitusest 'Vedelik'

  17. Observable Proxies For 26 Al Enhancement

    We consider the cospatial production of elements in supernova explosions to find observationally detectable proxies for enhancement of 26Al in supernova ejecta and stellar systems. Using four progenitors we explore a range of 1D explosions at different energies and an asymmetric 3D explosion. We find that the most reliable indicator of the presence of 26Al in unmixed ejecta is a very low S/Si ratio (∼ 0.05). Production of N in O/S/Si-rich regions is also indicative. The biologically important element P is produced at its highest abundance in the same regions. Proxies should be detectable in supernova ejecta with high spatial resolution multi wavelength observations, but the small absolute abundance of material injected into a proto-planetary disk makes detection unlikely in existing or forming stellar/planetary systems.

  18. Countering Al-Qaedas Single Narrative

    Philipp Holtmann

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available What form should a counter-narrative to al-Qaedas single narrative take? Its claim Islam is under attack successfully integrates multiple Muslim grievances into one meta-narrative. It has found credibility beyond an extremist fringe of Muslim societies and has been far more successful and attractive than any counter narrative that has been devised so far by Western counter-terrorist strategists. The question if al-Qaedas meta-narrative merely creates an external scapegoat for problems that are to a great extent internal to Arab and Muslim societies should be the subject of an intensive, if not heated discussion within the counter-narrative debate.

  19. Al Maschke and heavy ion fusion

    It is fitting that this symposium be dedicated to the memory of Al Maschke. His recognition of the implication of the very high dE/dx of high energy heavy ions in matter was the first connection made between the mature accelerator technology of high energy physics and inertial confinement fusion of DT. Moreover, he contributed many significant ideas to the development of the field. Especially important was the Maschke power transport limit, elucidated in the first workshop. Its implications are discussed. Al's attention then shifted to the front end of the accelerator system and his contributions include application of the Gabor lens, origination of the Meqalac system, resonance crossing and the concept of momentum-rich beams for fusion applications. These contributions are described together with some personal comments and some recollections of the early evolution of heavy ion fusion as background. While some early events are mentioned, this paper is not meant to be an exhaustive history. (orig.)

  20. Interdiffusion in ? phase Cu-Al alloys

    Romig, A. D., Jr.

    1983-06-01

    The diffusion behavior of ? phase Cu-Al has been studied at 800, 850, and 950 C using the experimental approach and analysis scheme of Kirkendall and Darken. Diffusion couples were made using the window frame technique and concentration profiles were determined by electron probe microanalysis. The chemical diffusion coefficient, D was found to be D=0.65 exp(-42200/RT) cm2/s. The diffusivity was observed to be independent of composition over the range 11-13 wt. % Al. The self-diffusion coefficients DCu and DAl were determined to be DAl =0.13 exp(-38900/RT) cm2/s and DCu =2.2 exp(-43400/RT) cm2/s. All activation energies are in calories/mole.