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1

Verlauf des lokoregionären Prostatakarzinoms unter Diätveränderung und Nahrungsmittelergänzung: Longitudinale Beobachtung über mehr als 3 Jahre  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Einleitung: Auftreten und Verlauf des lokal begrenzten Prostatakarzinoms wird durch Diätveränderungen beeinflußt. Wir haben untersucht, ob durch Veränderung der Diätgewohnheiten und Substitution von Nahrungsergänzungsmittel (Active Surveillance) der klinische Verlauf des Karzinoms beeinflußt oder eine radikale Behandlung aufgeschoben oder gar vermieden werden kann. Material und Methode: Wir verfolgten den klinischen Verlauf und die PSA-Werte von 13 Patienten mit einem stanzbioptisch verifizierten organbegrenzten Prostatakarzinom. Allen Patienten mit einem T-Stadium 3 mit einem PSA 10 ng/ml und einem Gleasonscore 7 wurde eine Active Surveillance-Strategie mit zusätzlichen Diätempfehlungen und Nahrungsergänzungsmitteln anstelle einer radikalen Prostatektomie offeriert. Alle Patienten erhielten hierfür täglich als Nahrungsmittelergänzung eine Mischung an Radikalfängern (Karotinoide, Selen, Flavonoide, Vit. A, E und Phytoöstrogene). Alle Patienten wurden routinemäßig einmal pro Jahr mindestens 8-fach biopsiert. PSA-Werte und eine rektale Untersuchung wurde alle drei Monate durchgeführt. Eine radikale Prostatektomie wurde im Falle eines zweimaligen konsekutiven PSA-Anstieges und/oder eines suspekten Tastbefundes und/oder einer Ausdehnung der Anzahl positiver Stanzen bei wiederholten Biopsien durchgeführt. Resultate: Wir überschauen nun median 21 Monate (5?90) einer Active Surveillance-Strategie bei 13 Männern (medianes Alter: 65). Bei 3 Männern führte ein konsekutiver PSA-Anstieg zur Planung einer radikalen Prostatektomie (1 Patient verstarb vor der Operation an einer intrazerebralen Blutung, einer verweigerte den Eingriff). Beim verbliebenen Patienten führten wir 14 Monaten nach Diagnosestellung eine Schnittrand-negative Prostatektomie eines pT2c-Gleason-6-Tumors durch (PSA 0 ng/ml frei nach 11 Monaten Follow-up). Von allen Patienten, die initial maximal bis zu 2 positive Gewebsproben hatten, konnte bei 38 % in den Kontrollbiopsien kein Tumor mehr nachgewiesen werden, bei 46 % blieb die Anzahl der positiven Biopsien gleich. Keiner der Patienten ist bis jetzt klinisch apparent geworden. Konklusion: Eine diätetische Unterstützung (Active Surveillance) kann den klinischen Verlauf des organbegrenzten Karzinoms günstig beeinflussen. Diese Therapieoption kann Patienten in Hinblick auf eine Lebensqualitätsorientierte Lebenserwartung auch von mehr als 10 Jahren angeboten werden. Voraussetzung ist ein strenger Follow-up und eine entsprechende Compliance.

Schlarp OM; Hübner WA

2006-01-01

2

Mehr Last als Lust – Ein weiterer Sammelband zu „(Frauen-)Körper“ More Encumbrance than Enjoyment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dieser Band vereint acht heterogene Aufsätze zu „Lust und Last am eigenen Körper“ von Frauen. Alle Beiträge gehören zum Spektrum psychologischer Reflexion; die Themen reichen dabei von Sport über Kochen und Essen bis Schönheit, die Zugänge von Psychoanalyse über experimentelle Psychologie bis hin zu freier Assoziation auf der Grundlage klinisch-praktischer Arbeit. Ein roter Faden durch die Beiträge ist nicht erkennbar und so wirkt die Vielfalt beliebig. So unterschiedlich die Beiträge sind, so unterschiedlich ist auch ihre Qualität. Leider kommen einige Artikel über die unkritische Zusammenstellung anderer Arbeiten nicht hinaus, die meisten nehmen kaum Bezug auf das inzwischen breite und institutionalisierte Feld der (sozial- und kulturwissenschaftlichen) Körperforschung. Doch haben manche Aufsätze interessante empirische Einblicke zu bieten, die zur weiteren Reflexion anregen, und einige wenige Beiträge sind so differenziert, dass sich mit ihnen weiterdenken und -forschen lässt. Insgesamt bereitet die Lektüre des Buches weder ‚Einsteiger/-innen‘ noch ‚Fortgeschrittenen‘ der wissenschaftlichen Beschäftigung mit (Frauen-)Körpern Lust, sondern erweist sich – bis auf Ausnahmen, die allerdings auch in ausführlicherer Form anderenorts publiziert wurden – eher als Last. Ärgerlich und alles andere als argumentativ überzeugend ist darüber hinaus das in manchen Texten enthaltene, mehr oder minder explizit artikulierte, ‚Feminismus- bzw. Frauenforschungs-Bashing‘.This volume joins together eight heterogeneous essays by women under the theme “enjoyment and encumbrance of the body.” All of the contributions belong within the spectrum of psychological reflection; the themes range from sports, cooking and eating, and beauty, to the process of psychoanalysis, experimental psychology, and free-association based on clinical practice. The thread throughout the contributions remains indiscernible and thus the multiplicity seems arbitrary. And while the contributions vary, so too their quality. Unfortunately, some of the articles do not go beyond the uncritical compilation of other works and the majority of the essays barely make reference to the broad and long institutionalized field of research on the body in both social and cultural studies. However, some of the essays do offer interesting empirical insights that inspire the reader to reflect further and a select few are so wide-ranging that the reader can utilize the material for continued contemplation and research. Overall, academic scholars of (female) bodies, be they “beginners” or more “advanced,” will not enjoy reading the essays in this book, but rather—with few exceptions, which, it fairs mentioning, have already been published elsewhere—find reading an encumbrance. What makes the book even more infuriating and everything but argumentatively convincing is that some of the texts engage in more or less explicitly articulated bashing of feminism and women’s studies.

Paula-Irene Villa

2006-01-01

3

Costs for heating and hot water more than halved; Kosten fuer Warmwasser und Heizung mehr als halbiert. Eine moderne Solaranlage deckt zwei Drittel des Energiebedarfs fuer die Warmwasserbereitung in einem Ferienhaus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article describes how solar technology provides three-quarters of the water-heating energy requirements of a Swiss chalet in Riederalp. Advances in solar heating technology and the reduction of prices over the past few years are discussed. The installation, which uses vacuum-tube collectors that are integrated into the balustrades of the south-facing balconies of the three-storey chalet with holiday apartments, is briefly described. The partial financial support provided by the local authorities is discussed as is the word-of-mouth propaganda triggered off in this mountain resort which has led to increased interest in the combination of solar energy and traditional heating forms.

Haag, J.

2005-07-01

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Large hydraulic loader with bucket content of more than 20 m{sup 3}; Grosshydraulikbagger mit mehr als 20 m{sup 3} Schaufelinhalt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In recent periods, more and more manufacturers have decided to join the originally very exclusive club of firms offering hydraulic loaders with a bucket or scoop content of more than 20 m{sup 3}. Six manufacturers are now competing in this promising but hotly contested market segment, and this in spite of considerable problems of the international mining and raw materials industry. Two manufacturers are also developing large hydraulic loaders, but are not offering them at present. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zunehmend mehr Hersteller fassen in juengster Zeit den Entschluss, dem anfangs sehr exklusiven Club der Anbieter von Hydraulikbaggern mit mehr als 20 m{sup 3} Schaufel- oder Loeffelinhalt beizutreten. Inzwischen konkurrieren sechs Hersteller auf diesem ebenso vielversprechenden wie heissumkaempften Marktsegment, und das trotz teilweise erheblicher Probleme der internationalen Bergbau- und Rohstoffindustrie. Zwei Hersteller entwickelten zudem ebenso grosse Hydraulikbagger, bieten sie aber gegenwaertig nicht an. (orig.)

Cohrs, H.H.

1995-08-01

5

Modern facade techniques. The casing - more than a designed surface?; Moderne Fassadentechniken. Die Huelle - Mehr als gestaltete Oberflaeche?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Concepts as the presented projects are only developed with increasing knowledge. During each planning phase the results must be compared with the aesthetic, functional and technical targets in order to control, to develop and if necessary correct the current design and thinking process. This way of planning corresponds to the planning of an industrial top product. In these days the requirements of complex thinking in case of the application examples can only be met by the combination of research, information, application, experience and exact aesthetic target during the planning process that finally leads to complex solutions. They do not need to be corrected any more and the use of media and materials has got an undeniable reason. (orig.) [German] Konzepte wie die vorgestellten Projekte entwickeln sich in ihrer Art erst mit dem Anwachsen der Erkenntnisse. Auf jeder Planungsstufe muessen Resultate mit aesthetischer und funktionaltechnischer Zielvorstellung verglichen werden, um den laufenden Entwurf und Denkprozess zu steuern, zu entwickeln und, im Zweifel, korrigieren zu koennen. Eine solche Art zu planen, entspricht dann der eines industriellen Spitzenproduktes. Erst durch die Verbindung durch Forschung, Information, Anwendung, Erfahrung und konkreter aesthetischer Zielvorstellung beim Planungsprozess, wird dem komplexen Denken unserer Zeit bei solchen Anwendungsbeispielen entsprochen und fuehrt dann tatsaechlich zur komplexen Loesung, die keiner Korrektur mehr bedarf und bei der jeder Einsatz von Mitteln und Materialien einen unverzichtbaren Grund hat. (orig.)

Petzinka, K.H. [Petzinka Pink und Partner, Duesseldorf (Germany)

2000-07-01

6

A 1 kW SOFC high-temperature fuel cell. Experience report after over 12000 operating hours; Einsatz einer 1 kW SOFC-Hochtemperatur-Brennstoffzelle. Praxiserfahrungen nach mehr als 12000 Betriebsstunden  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fuel Cell-Systems which have a power of 1 kW, covering the basic power requirements of a family house without having to feed any excess current into the electricity network, are currently being developed to a level suitable for use in practice, solely in the form of SOFC-type high temperature fuel cells, by the Sulzer Hexis AG company from Winterthur. Since 1998, six systems of this type have been in operation in an international field test, in which Thyssengas is also participating, in the course of which they are being subjected to tests under varying conditions. The aim of the test is to be able to continue the development of the aggregate on the basis of the experiences made and the data obtained, until it is at a stage in which it can be put into serial production and marketed. The Thyssengas SOFC field test system has been operating for over 12 000 hours. The following contains a report on the practical experiences gained so far from the test. (orig.) [German] Brennstoffzellen-Systeme, die mit einer elektrischen Leistung von 1 kW die elektrische Grundlast eines Einfamilienhauses abdecken ohne Ueberschussstrom in das Netz einspeisen zu muessen, werden derzeit ausschliesslich als Hochtemperatur-Brennstoffzellen vom Typ SOFC von der Sulzer Hexis AG, Winterthur, zur Praxisreife entwickelt. Sechs Anlagen dieses Typs werden seit 1998 in einem internationalen Feldtest, an dem sich auch die Thyssengas beteiligt, unter unterschiedlichen Rahmenbedingungen erprobt. Ziel der Erprobung ist die Weiterentwicklung der Aggregate auf Basis der gewonnenen Erfahrungen und Daten zur marktreifen Serienanlage. Die SOFC-Feldtestanlage der Thyssengas hat inzwischen mehr als 12 000 Betriebsstunden erreicht. Ueber die bisherigen Praxiserfahrungen wird berichtet. (orig.)

Knappstein, H. [Thyssengas GmbH, Duisburg (Germany). Anwendungstechnischer Service

2001-03-01

7

Tortuosity and calcification of the splenic artery. More than an additional finding; Schlaengelung und Verkalkung der Milzarterie im Roentgenbild. Mehr als ein Nebenbefund  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tortuosity of the splenic artery and calcification of the vessel wall are typical additional findings on plain abdominal x-ray. The combination of both anomalies is common in elderly persons presenting without symptoms of splenic ischemia. Its pathogenesis is thought to be multifactorial. In infancy and childhood, the splenic artery is stretched in its entire course. A growing difference between the length of the vessel and the distance between its origin and the splenic hilum gives rise to tortuosity. The artery's proximal segment is involved more frequently and more severely than the distal one. The tortuous route of the vessel is accentuated by the direction of its major branches, which is roughly perpendicular to the main trajectory. Neither tortuosity nor calcification should be taken to be risk factors for the comparatively common splenic artery aneurysm. Calcific deposits are not confined to the media but are also detected in the intima of the vascular wall. Critical narrowings of the lumen arising on the calcium deposits are not observed. Calcifying atherosclerosis of the splenic artery is comparable to medial sclerosis of the peripheral arteries frequently noticed in diabetics and dialysis patients. Only the less important calcification of the intima may be attributed to mechanisms of the hydrohemodynamic theory of atherosclerosis. The spleen's blood storage capacity may contribute to the characteristic age-dependent alterations of the shape and course of the splenic artery. (orig.) [German] Die Schlaengelung der Milzarterie und Verkalkungen in der Wand des Gefaesses sind ein typischer Nebenbefund bei der Roentgenuntersuchung des Abdomens. Die Kombination wird v. a. bei Senioren beobachtet, ohne dass Symptome einer Mangelperfusion der Milz fassbar sind. Bei der Pathogenese wirken eine Reihe verschiedener Faktoren zusammen. Im Kindesalter verlaeuft die A. lienalis stets gestreckt. Die zunehmende Schlaengelung wird durch die wachsende Differenz zwischen der Laenge des Gefaesses und der Distanz zwischen seinem Ursprung und dem Milzhilus hervorgerufen. Der proximale Abschnitt der Arterie ist haeufiger und staerker betroffen als der distale. Die Tortuositas wird durch die zum Hauptstamm senkrechte Verlaufsrichtung der grossen Aeste gefoerdert. Weder die Schlaengelung noch die Verkalkung sind als Risikoindikatoren fuer das vergleichsweise haeufige Aneurysma der Milzarterie zu werten. Der Wandkalk ist sowohl in der Tunica media wie im Endothel lokalisiert. Haemodynamisch wirksame kalkassoziierte Gefaessstenosen fehlen. Die verkalkende Atheromatose der Milzarterie aehnelt der Mediasklerose der peripheren Arterien vom Typ Moenckeberg und wird bei Diabetikern und Dialysepatienten ueberdurchschnittlich haeufig nachgewiesen. Die hydrohaemodynamische Theorie der Arteriosklerose kann nur fuer die quantitativ weniger bedeutsame Verkalkung der Intima verantwortlich gemacht werden. Die Blutspeicherfunktion der Milz foerdert die charakteristische altersabhaengige Form- und Verlaufsveraenderung der A. lienalis. (orig.)

Golder, W.A. [SELARL Association d' Imagerie Medicale, Troyes (France)

2008-11-15

8

Mehr Mathematik Wagen in der Medizin  

Science.gov (United States)

In diesem Artikel wird an drei Erfolgsmodellen dargestellt, wie das Zusammenwirken von Mathematik und Medizin eine Entwicklung hin zu patientenspezifischen Modellen auf Basis moderner medizinischer Bildgebung angestoßen hat, die in naher Zukunft dynamisch weiter Raum greifen wird. Dabei existiert ein Gleichklang der Interessen von Medizin und Mathematik: Beide Disziplinen wollen die Resultate schnell und zuverlässig. Für die Klinik heißt dies, dass notwendige Rechnungen in möglichst kurzer Zeit, und zwar auf dem PC, ablaufen müssen und dass die Resultate so genau und belastbar sein müssen, dass medizinische Entscheidungen darauf aufbauen können. Für die Mathematik folgt daraus, dass höchste Anforderungen an die Effizienz der verwendeten Algorithmen und die darauf aufbauende Software in Numerik und Visualisierung zu stellen sind. Allerdings ist es noch ein weiter Weg, bis anatomische und medizinisch brauchbare funktionelle Modelle auch nur für die wichtigsten Körperteile und die häufigsten Krankheitsfälle verfügbar sein werden. Führende Universitätskliniken könnten, als Zentren einer interdisziplinären Kooperation von Medizinern, Ingenieuren und Mathematikern, eine Vorreiterrolle dabei übernehmen, mehr Mathematik in der Medizin zu wagen. Dies wäre zweifellos ein wichtiger Schritt in Richtung auf eine individuelle quantitative Medizin, bei dem Deutschland die besten Voraussetzungen hätte, die Rolle des "Schrittmachers“ zu übernehmen.

Deuflhard, Peter; Dössel, Olaf; Louis, Alfred K.; Zachow, Stefan

9

More loosers than winners; Mehr Verlierer als Gewinner  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Great expectations on the wind power market have become a thing of the past. Most producers were faced with declining sales in 2003, even if there were some exceptions. (orig.) [German] Die grossen Wachstumsprognosen fuer Windparks im Inland gehoeren der Vergangenheit an. Die meisten der Projektierer wie Fonds-Anbieter mussten im Jahr 2003 einen starken Absatzrueckgang hinnehmen. Ausnahmen bestaetigen diese Regel. (orig.)

Epp, B.

2004-03-30

10

More than just hot air; Mehr als heisse Luft  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Air-filled collectors so far were used primarily for large buildings. To modify them for single family and multiple dwellings, producer Grammer Solar+Bau and the Fraunhofer ISE Institute invested two years of development work in a new collector design. [German] Luftkollektoren kamen bisher vor allem bei Grossanlagen zum Einsatz. Um auch den Anforderungen der Einfamilienhaeuser und Geschosswohnungen besser gerecht werden zu koennen, haben der Hersteller Grammer Solar+Bau und das Fraunhofer ISE zwei Jahre Entwicklungsarbeit fuer ein neues Kollektordesign investiert. (orig.)

Dotzler, W. [Grammer Solar und Bau GmbH, Amberg (Germany)

2004-01-28

11

More sanitary responsibility, more sanitary possibilities; Mehr Sanitaerverantwortung, mehr sanitaere Moeglichkeiten  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When condensed, the ISH did not produce any technical revolutions, although it did provide an ever larger supply of consequential further detailed developments. System engineering deliberations, combined optimization of optima and minimization of the minimal expenditure, cost reduction, avoidance of damage, greater protection of the environment and clear health awareness are the order of the day. Successful? In this regard, Fritz-Wilhelm Pahl, Chairman of the German Sanitary Industry Association (VDS). ``For 1995, we expect a rise in domestic turnover of five per cent, and for exports an increase of between five and six per cent. In particular, in the coming years, sales in the upper market segment will noticeably increase.`` (orig.) [Deutsch] Auf eine kurze Faustformel komprimiert hat die ISH zwar keine technischen Revolutionen gebracht aber einen immer breiter werdenden Strom von konsequenten Fortentwicklungen im Detail. Systemtechnisches Denken, kombinierte Optimierung der Optima und Minimierung des Minimalaufwandes, Kostensenkung, Schadensvermeidung, mehr Schutz der Umwelt und klares Gesundheitsbewusstsein sind angesagt. Erfolgreich? Dazu Fritz-Wilhelm Pahl, Vorsitzender der Vereinigung deutsche Sanitaerwirtschaft (VDS). ``Fuer 1995 erwarten wir fuer das Inlandgeschaeft eine Umsatzsteigerung von fuenf Prozent, fuer den Export einen Zuwachs von fuenf bis sechs Prozent. Besonders der Umsatz des oberen Marktsegments wird sich in den naechsten Jahren noch spuerbar ausdehnen.`` (orig.)

Laege, F.K.

1995-06-01

12

Being in the Internet - more than just being ''cool''? e-business and its strategic importance in the utility and energy services industry; Praesenz im Internet - mehr als eine Imagefrage? Die strategische Bedeutung des e-business fuer die Versorgungs- und Energiewirtschaft  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Internet and related technologies belong into the daily life of supply and energy industry especially in the business to business sector. But the installation of a colourful homepage is not enough if one wants to remain competitive in the deregulated markets. The strategic implementation of e-business not only in relation to customers but also to optimisation of internal processes is a major success factor. The present article sheds light into these aspects and shows which enterprises especially in the USA have made e-business become a reality. (orig.) [German] Das Internet und verwandte Technologien gehoeren auch in der Versorgungs- und Energiewirtschaft laengst zum Alltag, vor allem im Geschaeftskundenbereich. Mit der Einrichtung einer bunten Homepage ist aber es laengst nicht mehr getan, will man in den deregulierten Maerkten wettbewerbsfaehig bleiben. Der strategische Einsatz von e-business zur Verbesserung von Kundenbeziehungen, aber auch zur Optimierung interner Prozesse ist vielmehr ein entscheidender Erfolgsfaktor geworden. Die Verfasser erlaeutern diese Gesichtspunkte und zeigen auf, welche Unternehmen vor allem in den USA bereits e-business zur Realitaet gemacht haben. (orig.)

Greisinger, T.W. [IBM Global Utility and Energy Services Industry, Oak Brook, IL (United States); Moehl, W. [IBM Deutschland, Mainz (Germany). Vertriebsbereich Versorgungsunternehmen

2000-04-03

13

More Than Just Coding? Evaluating CAQDAS in a Discourse Analysis of News Texts Mehr als Kodieren? Evaluation Computerunterstützter qualitativer Datenanalyse-Software (CAQDAS) für die Diskursanalyse von Nachrichtentexten ¿Algo más que simplemente codificar? Evaluando CAQDAS en un análisis del discurso de textos de noticias  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Computerunterstützte qualitative Datenanalyse-Software (CAQDAS) wird häufig als Werkzeug für qualitative Forschung generell beschrieben, wobei "qualitative Forschung" meist als homogene Kategorie behandelt wird. Nur wenige Studien haben sich mit der Tauglichkeit von CAQDAS für spezifische Methoden b...

MacMillan, Katie

14

Linnamaastike kaitse on osa arengust / Jukka Jokilehto, Mehr Azar Soheil ; intervjueerinud Liisa Pakosta  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Vestlus soome arhitekti, Nova Gorica ülikooli professori, UNESCO ja ICOMOSi konsultandi Jukka Jokilehto ja tema abikaasa, pärslannast arhitekti Mehr Azar Soheiliga. Ka Tallinna vanalinnast maailmapärandi komitees valmivate linnamaastike kaitseks mõeldud soovituste valguses, linna arengust sadama suunas. Eestikeelsena ilmus J. Jokilehto raamat "Arhitektuuri konserveerimise ajalugu" (Tallinn : Eesti Kunstiakadeemia, 2010)

Jokilehto, Jukka

2010-01-01

15

Wood fires are coming back. Fuel pellets are gaining acceptance; Holzfeuer erleben Renaissance. Brennstoff Pellets findet immer mehr Anhaenger  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wood is currently having a renaissance as a domestic fuel. Wood pellets, usually about 8 mm in diameter and 40 mm long and produced from sawmill and wood processing residues by pressing without binders, are gaining general acceptance. According to a market analysis of Solar Promotion GmbH, Pforzheim, about 4,800 pellet-fuelled heating systems with automatic fuel supply and with a total thermal capacity of 35 kW are in operation in Germany, and 2000 new ones were installed in 2000. [German] Holz als Brennstoff erlebt in vielen Heizkellern und Kaminen eine Renaissance. Und zwar nicht in Form von Holzscheiten, sondern als kleine Presslinge, meist mit einem Durchmesser von acht und einer Laenge von bis zu 40 Millimetern. Als Abfallprodukt von Saegewerken und Holz verarbeitenden Betrieben werden die so genannten Pellets unter hohem Druck und ohne Bindemittel wie beispielsweise Leim hergestellt. Und dieser neue Brennstoff findet immer mehr Anhaenger. So sind im vergangenen Jahr nach einer Marktanalyse der Solar Promotion GmbH aus Pforzheim bundesweit rund 4.800 automatisch beschickte Pelletsheizungen mit einer Waermeleistung bis zu 35 Kilowatt gefoerdert worden, im Jahr 2000 lag die Zahl bei 3.000 - ein deutliches Plus also. (orig.)

Koepke, R.

2002-03-01

16

Mehr als Kodieren? Evaluation Computerunterstützter qualitativer Datenanalyse-Software (CAQDAS) für die Diskursanalyse von Nachrichtentexten More Than Just Coding? Evaluating CAQDAS in a Discourse Analysis of News Texts ¿Algo más que simplemente codificar? Evaluando CAQDAS en un análisis del discurso de textos de noticias  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Computerunterstützte qualitative Datenanalyse-Software (CAQDAS) wird häufig als Werkzeug für qualitative Forschung generell beschrieben, wobei "qualitative Forschung" meist als homogene Kategorie behandelt wird. Nur wenige Studien haben sich mit der Tauglichkeit von CAQDAS für spezifische Methoden beschäftigt, und ein noch kleinerer Teil mit der Nutzung von CAQDAS im Feld der Diskursanalyse (DA). In der Regel wird in solchen Studien kurz angemerkt, dass aus CAQDAS technische Begrenzungen für die Diskursanalyse erwachsen, eine hierüber hinausgehende Beschäftigung fehlt jedoch meist. In dem vorliegenden Beitrag soll untersucht werden, ob das geringe Interesse an CAQDAS auf Seiten der Diskursanalytiker(innen) bzw. umgekehrt an Diskursanalyse auf Seiten der CAQDAS-Nutzer(innen) praktische Gründe hat bzw. aus der Unsicherheit über Analyseverfahren (wie DA) erwächst, oder ob es sich um eine methodologische Inkompatibilität handelt. Um diese Frage zu beantworten, wird zum einen die vorliegende Literatur zu CAQDAS und Diskursanalyse gesichtet, zum anderen wird CAQDAS auch einer praktischen Prüfung unterzogen, indem entlang der eigenen Erfahrungen als Diskursanalytiker(innen) einige der bekanntesten Software-Tools an einer Medienanalyse von Nachrichtentexten geprobt werden. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0503257Computer assisted qualitative data ana­lysis software (CAQDAS) is frequently described as a tool that can be used for "qualitative research" in general, with qualitative analysis treated as a "catch-all" homogeneous category. Few studies have detailed its use within specific methods, and even fewer have appraised its value for discourse analysis (DA). While some briefly comment that CAQDAS has technical limitations for discourse analysis, in general, the topic as a whole is given scant attention. Our aim is to investigate whether this limited interest in CAQDAS as a qualitative tool amongst discourse analysts, and in DA as a research method amongst CAQDAS users, is prac­tically based; due to an uncertainty about research methods, including DA; or because of method­ol­ogical incompatibilities. In order to address these questions, this study is based not only on a review of the literature on CAQDAS and on DA, but also on our own experience as discourse analysts put­ting some of the main CAQDAS to the test in a media analysis of news texts. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0503257El análisis cualitativo de datos asistido por computadora (CAQDAS) se describe frecuentemente como una herramienta que puede usarse en general para la "investigación cualitativa", con el análisis cualitativo tratado como una categoría homogénea en la que entra todo. Pocos estudios han detallado su uso en ciertos métodos específicos y menos son los que lo han valorado para el análisis del discurso (AD). Mientras algunos realizan breves comentarios a las limitaciones técnicas de CAQDAS para el análisis del discurso, en general, se presta escasa atención al tema en su conjunto. Nuestro objetivo es investigar si este interés limitado en CAQDAS como herramienta cualitativa para los AD, y en AD como método de investigación entre los usuarios de CAQDAS, está basado en la práctica, se debe a una incertidumbre sobre los métodos de la investigación, incluso en AD, o es debido a incompatibilidades metodológicas. Para orientar estas preguntas, este estudio no sólo se basa en una revisión de la literatura sobre CAQDAS y sobre AD, sino también en nuestra propia experiencia como analistas del discurso que evalúan algunos de los principales CAQDAS para un análisis de los medios de textos de las noticias. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0503257

Katie MacMillan

2005-01-01

17

Mehr als eine politische Lehrstunde : V. Baltische Studenten-Seminar in Darmstadt  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

16.-21. novembrini 2010 toimunud viienda balti üliõpilasseminari keskpunktis oli teemadekompleks demokraatiast Baltimaades. Arutleti ka demokraatiakogemuse üle kahel viimasel sajandil Saksamaal. Jugendherberges alanud seminar jätkus Darmstadtis ja lõppes Saksa-Balti Seltsi 60nda juubeli tähistamisega. Viie päeva temaatika haaras Baltimaade ja Euroopa kultuuri, poliitikat ja ajalugu

2010-01-01

18

Was haben mehr als 5 Jahre erfolgreicher Therapie mit PDE-5-Hemmern bewirkt?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Die erfolgreiche Einführung der Phosphodiesterase-5- (PDE-5-) Hemmung in die medikamentöse Behandlung der erektilen Dysfunktion (ED) stellt in mehrfacher Hinsicht ein einschneidendes Ereignis dar. Fast über Nacht konvertierte die ED-Therapie aus ihrem Schattendasein über die Ausbildung eines eigenständigen Bereichs der Urologie hin zu dem Bild des "Männerarztes". Die Entwicklung und die Auswirkungen, welche mit dieser medikamentösen Substanzklasse ausgelöst wurden, soll im Folgenden unter dem Aspekt der Sexualität von Frau und Mann dargestellt werden.

Braun M; Korda JB; Engelmann U

2008-01-01

19

"Mehr als, bloss Bucher" Die Bibliothek Gellerup. Vom "Buchcontainer" zum Community Centre: Ein Beispiel aus Danemark.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Kapitlet handler om bibliotekets mulige rolle som facilitator af empowermentprocesser og social inklusion i marginaliserede byområder med Community Center Gellerup som eksempel. Bidraget indgår i en antologi baseret på et forskningsseminar på Humboldt-Universitat, Berlin om bibliotekers rolle for interkulturel dialog m.v.

Andersen, John; Frandsen, Martin

2008-01-01

20

Producer-independent service: More than an alternative; Herstellerunabhaengiger Service: Mehr als eine Alternative  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Meanwhile, the producer-independent service is more than an alternative. In order to offer a successful service to the offers, many requirements must be fulfilled. A substantial characteristic is the competence, i.e. the capability of all coworkers in the company to justice to the individual requirements. For this, Deutsche Windtechnik Service GmbH and Co. KG (Ostenfeld, Federal Republic of Germany) has specialized in special types of plants. Further requirements are the organisational structure, the service strategy, the existing service network, the data remote monitoring, warranties and guarantee, documentation and communication.

Behrends, H. [Deutsche Windtechnik Service GmbH und Co. KG, Ostenfeld (Germany)

2008-07-01

 
 
 
 
21

Electromobility. More than just substituting electricity for motor fuels; Elektromobilitaet. Mehr als Strom statt Benzin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

By 2020, one million electric-powered vehicles are to run on German roads. The reasons are simple: Oil reserves are limited, and there seems to be no way to stop the impending global climate change. Electromobility is not just a substitution of electric power for gasoline; there is much more to it than a replacement for the gasoline engine to which consumers are accustomed. (orig.)

Hebling, Christopher [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg (Germany). Abt. Energietechnik

2010-09-15

22

A review on weaknesses and strengths of delivering Mehr housing project in terms of achieving economical goals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Housing is one of the most important sections of development in a country and its economic importance has put it in the center of attention. It can cause rise and depression of habitation by its extended economic aspects. Mehr Housing plan is a state run housing project in most cities started 2007 in Iran to protect and provide cheap housing for poor people and young couples. Mehr housing project by its large scale and wide dimensions can affect the society’s economy. Therefore, to investigate weaknesses and strengths of this project in terms of economic and applying necessary reformation can increase the success probability of this project. For this purpose, this study assess the weaknesses and strengths of Mehr housing of province of Khorram Abad in Iran for achieving economic goals and also presents solutions to better access to these goals. Time scope of the present study is 6 months of 2011 and the second 3 months of 2012. The methodology is applicable in terms of goal and is descriptive survey in terms of nature. In this study, a combined method of interviewing to experts and distributing a questionnaire among the applicants of Mehr housing has been used for data collecting. Among strengths of Khorram Abad in economic section, employment and urban landfill pattern reformation can be implied. In addition, among weaknesses of this project are lack of proper first design and technical justification of the project and use of only 2 shabby fabrics.

Ali Karshenasan; Mahsa Beiranvand

2013-01-01

23

Soil Surface Attributes Prediction Using Digital Topographic Model in Mehr Catchment, Sabzevar, Khorasan Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Conventional soil survey methods for soils within the watersheds in Iran require a significant budget with many soil surveyors and much time. Additionally, no accurate and reliable information exists on the spatial variability of superface soil parameters in order to predict the soil loss by different models (RUSLE, PISAC, EUPOSEM, MORGAN). Also information on planning and management activities is lacking. These limitations call for methods of estimating soil properties using minimum sampling derived from important terrain parameters. This study was performed to develop soil-landscape models in three geological units (E2Sc, Ku, Plc), in a part of Mehr- watershed, Sabzevar. Six soil variables selected for this study were topsoil clay, gravel, sand, organic matter content, field capacity and bulk density measured at 316 sites on a regular 100m grid. Topographic attributes were calculated by a digital elevation model with 100m spacing. Finally, multiple linear regression analyses relating soil to topographic attributes were performed and then models were validated by additional sample points (78 of 316). The developed regression models showed significant relationships between surface soil properties and topographic attributes such as elevation, slope, aspect, wetness index, stream power index and sediment transport index. The mean errors and root mean square errors in the validation of the models were low and acceptable. The regression equations could explain only 26 to 72 % of the variability measured in the soil attributes in the watershed scale with 100m spacing.

Sh. Ayobi; M. H. Alizadeh

2006-01-01

24

Adipositastherapie: Nahrung als Intervention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Die Behandlung der Adipositas bedarf einer umfassenden Therapie, wobei die Nahrung als Intervention nicht mehr ausschließlich auf Kalorienreduktion bezogen werden darf. Die ursprüngliche Bedeutung des Begriffes "Diät" im Sinne einer grundlegend vernünftigen Lebensführung muß neu bewertet und in eine lebendige Form der Gesundheitsvorsorge eingebunden werden. Mit einer differenzierten Diagnose der Adipositas kann mit verschiedenen ernährungstherapeutischen Ansätzen individuell geholfen werden. Die Sinnhaftigkeit von Formuladiäten, Diät- und Lightprodukten bedarf dringend einer fachspezifischen Information. Neben den entsprechenden Nährstoffempfehlungen hat ein Ernährungsprogramm aber auch der Durchführbarkeit und der Compliance der Patienten zu genügen. Damit soll dem "Risikofaktor Diät" entgegengesteuert und dem Hilfeschrei unserer Patienten Folge geleistet werden.

Wallner SJ; Bahadoro B; Krejs GJ; Lahousen T; Steinberger I

2001-01-01

25

Qualitative Evaluation of Land Suitability for Extensive Grazing in Mehr Watershed, Sabzevar, Khorasan Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Overgrazing is the most important agent which causes accelerated soil erosion and land degradation in arid and semi-arid zones of Iran. Appropriate planning and land use in these areas based on land suitability evaluation provide a suitable base for conserving the land and controling desertification. Land evaluation identifies possible alternatives in land use which will more effectively meet national or local needs and assists in assessing the consequences of these alternatives. Extensive grazing refers to the land utilization type in which animals feed in natural pastures. This study was performed to evaluate physical potential of the given watershed for grazing by sheep and goats, and assess the limiting factors for the land utilization type in Mehr watershed, Sabzevar, Khorasan province. Land qualities which were evaluated include accessibility to animals, soil erodibility, moisture availability, rooting conditions, salinity and alkalinity, and drinking water availability for animals. Above mentioned land qualities were assessed by appropriate land characteristics. The requirement of grazing land utilization type was defined in terms of rated land characteristics. Matching of requirements of LUT with the land qualities of each pixel of DEM (prepared in 200×200m by GIS software) resulted in a rating for every land characteristics. Some characteristics such as slope, aspect, and distance to drinking water for animals were calculated directly by GIS. Land index for every pixel was calculated by square root method. Finally, qualitative and physical land suitability classes were determined based on land indices and classified to polygons which would be suitable in grazing management. The results were interpreted under two different scenarios. In the first scenario, drinking water for animals was supplied by permanent sources and in the second one, the supplying of water was developed to temporary rivers besides the permanent sources. With the analysis of spatial modeling it was possible to assess the land suitability with higher accuracy. Overall results showed that the given area was not highly suitable for grazing at all. The most limiting factors included moisture availability for plant growth, slope, rock fragment and outcrops and distance to drinking water. Also during the late winter, spring and early summer, when the seasonal rivers were supplying the drinking water, the limitation of given area was decreased.

Sh. Ayoubi; M. H. Alizadeh

2006-01-01

26

CCSVI - Ein Erfahrungsbericht: Mehr Fragen als Antworten - mit einem Kommentar aus neurologischer Sicht von W. Lang, Wien  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Obwohl schon seit über 100 Jahren bekannt ist, dass durch nahezu jeden demyelinisierten Herd (Plaque) bei Multipler Sklerose (MS) ein Blutgefäß läuft, konnte bisher kein kausaler Zusammenhang zwischen einer Erkrankung der zerebralen Venen und MS dargestellt werden. Nach der Beschreibung des Syndroms der chronischen zerebrospinalen venösen Insuffizienz (CCSVI) im Jahr 2008 entwickelte sich ein, durch neuen Medien (Google, Facebook, Blogs etc.) potenzierter, außergewöhnlich hoher Druck vonseiten zahlreicher Patientengruppen auf Ärzteschaft und Industrie, der hoffnungsgebenden Hypothese einer durch CCSVI bedingten ?venösen MS? nachzugehen. Dieser Bericht soll einen nüchternen Überblick über die fraglich ursächliche Beteiligung der Venen geben, um dem Leser die Möglichkeit zu geben, sich ein eigenes Bild zu machen.

Peloschek P; Grabner G

2011-01-01

27

Benchmarking of distribution network operators - more than just efficiency rating; Benchmarking von Verteilnetzbetreibern - mehr als nur eine Effizienzabschaetzung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Following the enactment of the Incentive Regulation Ordinance the year 2008 will see the introduction of benchmarking of electricity and gas network operators. This confronts network operators with the important question of how their efficiency will be rated. One significant task in this connection will be to identify any special features a company might have that should be considered in the comparative efficiency rating. This article illuminates the application of the benchmarking process giving due consideration to current data on German distribution network operators and describes possible ways of assessing a company's efficiencies in advance and determining company-specific sensitivities.

Elsenbast, W.; Nick, W.; Boche, S. [E-Bridge Consulting GmbH, Bonn (Germany)

2008-01-15

28

Solar heat: More sunshine hours in Ireland than in Paris; Solarwaerme: In Irland scheint mehr Sonne als in Paris  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

While solar collectors were not much of a hit in the Irish market, this is now changing as energy prices surge. There is new interest in solar collectors now, many of which are imported from Germany. (orig.)

Berner, J.

2005-09-29

29

EU ecodesign regulation. More as only a light bulb ban; EU-Oekodesign-Richtlinie. Mehr als ein Gluehbirnenverbot  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within a broader public, the EU Ecodesign Directive (Directive 2009/125/EC) was known and notoriously as a 'light bulb ban'. This resulted in strong emotions. But it has shown an impact in many other areas - usually unnoticed and often for the financial and practical benefits of the consumers. Now, the EU Commission wants to go one step further.

Fischer, Corinna [Oeko-Institut e.V., Freiburg (Germany)

2011-10-15

30

Participation rate of housing cooperation members (Mehr) and Explication effective factors on it in 1388 at Mashhad city  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this research is finding some answers to description of participation rate of housing cooperation members (Mehr) in 1388 at Mashhad city and Explication effective factors on it. Theoretical discussions have been illustrated based on four paradigms socialistic: social facts, social definition, social behavior, and complex paradigm. The research method of this investigation based on a survey with sample volume about 380 persons with the help of Cocran formula from statistical society about 36330 members of housing cooperation (Mehr) in Mashhad city. The method of sampling was based on random stratified method. The way of data Collection is information on questionnaires. The analysis of data have been implemented with SPSS application software in the frame of average descriptive statistics, Medium, Standard divergence, Kurosis and Skewness coefficients, hypothesis test with the help of appropriate tests to aim and variable assessment levels and using of regression analysis, finally path analysis. Then we assessed these categories and their independent variables such as: Economical disability and incapability to resources, assessment of financial and political supports of the government, lack of enough time for members, confidence to the managers, assuring to the resultant of the project, traditionalism, thankfulness, respect to the media advertisements, education level, mental preparation, responsibility, acknowledgement, satisfaction toward managers, social base, making in real housing, using mass media, alienation on the rate of cooperation members. In conclusion, member’s acknowledgement, using mass media and respecting to media advertisements and confidence to managers had the major and highest Impact on members cooperation.

Mohammadt Mazlome Khorasani; Mohsen Noghani; Bibi Fatemeh Kishbafan

2012-01-01

31

No rival for Thomas Alva Edison. Light deflection systems are gaining ground in Germany; (Keine) Konkurrenz fuer Thomas Alva Edison. Lichtleitsysteme gewinnen auch in Deutschland immer mehr Liebhaber  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Increasingly, German builder-owners are getting interested in light deflection systems that ensure daylighting in all parts of buildings. [German] Immer mehr Hausbesitzer interessieren sich fuer Lichtleitsysteme, um auch in die entlegensten Ecken des Gebaeudes noch Tageslicht zu bekommen. (orig.)

Horbelt, A.

2002-02-01

32

Kompetenz und Karriere. Verdoppelte Laufbahnstruktur – halbierte Anerkennung in alternden Institutionen Competence and Career. A Double Career Structure and Reduced Recognition in Aging Institutions Competencia y carrera. Una doble estructura de carrera y el reconocimiento reducido en instituciones viejas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Der Beruf ist ein Aneignungsverhältnis, das sich nur innerhalb von Anerkennungsbeziehungen zwischen Organisation und Arbeit realisiert. Die Organisation inkludiert ihre Mitglieder durch wechselseitigen Tausch von Leistungen, der hier als Anerkennungsbeziehung bezeichnet wird. In wissensbasierten Organisationen "alternder Institutionen" ist die Grundregel der Wechselseitigkeit von Anerkennungsbeziehungen infrage gestellt. Die eingeschränkte Reziprozität der "geschlossenen Chancenstruktur" resultiert aus einer institutionellen Verdoppelung der Laufbahnpolitik unter Erneuerungsdruck, die von einem Wechsel individueller Laufbahnstrategien beantwortet wird. Die Auswirkungen auf die Karriere- und Kompetenzentwicklung sind Gegenstand dieses Beitrages. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0801592The occupation is a relationship of appropriation, which is only realized in relationships of recognition between organization and work. The organization includes its members by a mutual exchange of benefits, which is referred to as a relationship of recognition. The basic rule of the mutuality of relationships of recognition is called into question in knowledge-based organizations of "aging institutions." The limited reciprocity of the "closed opportunity structure" is the result of an institutional reduplication of a career policy under the pressure of innovations. A response to this is a change of individual career strategies. The article focuses on the consequences for the development of careers and competencies. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0801592La ocupación es una relación de apropiación, que se realiza solamente en relaciones de reconocimiento entre organización y trabajo. La organización incluye a sus miembros por un mutuo intercambio de beneficios, la cual es elaborada como una relación de reconocimiento. El papel básico de la mutualidad de relaciones de reconocimiento es puesto en cuestión en las organizaciones basadas en el conocimiento de las "instituciones viejas". La reciprocidad limitada de la "estructura de oportunidad cerrada" es el resultado de una reduplicación institucional de una política de carreras bajo la presión de innovaciones. La respuesta a esto es un cambio de las estrategias de carrera individual. El artículo se enfoca en las consecuencias para el desarrollo de carreras y competencias. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0801592

Sylvia Kade

2008-01-01

33

Coal mining industry systems from Germany - technology and more; Bergbausystemtechnik aus Deutschland - Technik und mehr  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Market changes in international mining demand a modification in market approach from the German mining industry, by way of an offer of service and delivery tailored to customers' wishes. To this end, German companies must take their appearance as systems sellers in the growth markets of the future (financially driven with the requirements of technology) in close formation. The scope of service and delivery thereby demanded affects the fields of engineering, technology, organisation, training, operation and marketing. The core competencies can be made profitable for the customers with intelligent uniting of German user and technical know-how, and with the grouping of stages of value creation, necessary in mining projects, in alliances or joint-venture companies. In addition, the optimisation of existing mines and the establishment of new mines based on German technology is to be regarded as the target. A successful pilot project for German mining system technology has been realised in Turkey by SaarTech acting as project controller and project manager responsible for technical matters. (orig.) [German] Marktveraenderungen im internationalen Bergbau verlangen von der deutschen Bergbaubranche eine Modifizierung des Marktauftritts mit einem auf Kundenwuensche abgestimmten Liefer- und Leistungsangebot. Dazu muessen auf den Wachstumsmaerkten der Zukunft (finanzgetrieben mit Technologiebedarf) die deutschen Unternehmen als Systemanbieter in geschlossener Formation auftreten. Der nachgefragte Liefer- und Leistungsumfang tangiert dabei die Segmente Ingenieurleistung, Technik, Organisation, Training, Betrieb und Marketing. Durch intelligente Zusammenfuehrung von deutschem Anwender- und Technologie-Know-How und durch die Buendelung der in Bergbauprojekten erforderlichen Wertschoepfungsstufen in Allianzen bzw. Projektgesellschaften koennen die Kernkompetenzen fuer den Kunden nutzbar gemacht werden. Als Ziel ist dabei die Optimierung vorhandener Bergwerke und der Aufbau neuer Bergwerke auf Basis deutscher Technik anzusehen. Ein erfolgreiches Pilotprojekt fuer deutsche Bergbausystemtechnik wurde durch die Fa. SaarTech als Projektfuehrer und technisch verantwortlicher Projektmanager in der Tuerkei realisiert. (orig.)

Gessner, D. [SaarTech GmbH, Saarbruecken (Germany)

2001-07-01

34

"Immer mehr Studierende und Schüler": Konzepte zur Vermittlung von Informationskompetenz in Bibliotheken für große Gruppen  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Die Vermittlung von Informationskompetenz ist in vielen Bibliotheken bereits eine etablierte Kernaufgabe. Entsprechende Veranstaltungen nehmen als Zielgruppen vor allem Studierende und Schüler der Sekundarstufe II in den Blick. Dabei ergeben sich aktuell neue Herausforderungen daraus, dass einerseits beide Gruppen in den letzten Jahren immer größer werden, und andererseits das Thema Informationskompetenz aufgrund bildungspolitischer Entwicklungen wie der Bologna-Reform immer größere Bedeutung erlangt. Als Konsequenz steigt die Zahl der potenziellen und tatsächlichen Teilnehmer an bibliothekarischen Veranstaltungen zur Vermittlung von Informationskompetenz, sodass es auch Bibliotheken heute mit großen Gruppen zu tun haben. Im vorliegenden Artikel werden daher die Fragen behandelt, welche Probleme sich im Einzelnen bei die Vermittlung von Informationskompetenz im Hinblick auf Großgruppen stellen, und welche Konzepte dazu geeignet sind, diese Herausforderungen anzugehen und eine zielgruppenorientierte Vermittlung von Informationskompetenz mit geeigneten Mitteln für große Gruppen anzubieten. Verschiedene Ansätze, die sich bereits an Universitätsbibliotheken in Anwendung befinden, werden dazu hinsichtlich ihrer Eignung für Großgruppen bewertet. Die Autorin hofft damit betroffenen Bibliotheken und Bibliothekaren einige Informationen und Anregungen für die praktische Arbeit geben zu können.

Helena Luca

2012-01-01

35

Better advertising; Mehr Aussenwirkung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fairs and congresses like the PVSEC are central elements of the communication activities of solar enterprises. This was proved in a current enquiry by SONNE WIND WAERME at the Intersolar Europe. The results are presented in this article in summary form.

Intze, Sonja

2011-08-31

36

ASSESSMENT SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF SOIL ERODIBILITY BY USING OF GEOSTATISTIC AND GIS (Case study MEHR watershed of SABZEVAR)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Soil erodibility is one of the key factors on some sediment and soil erosion models such as USLE, MUSLE, RUSLE, AUSLE (USLE modified in LS factor) and MMF and represents like K factor and is function of particle distribution, organic mater, soil structure and ermeability. Traditional methods do not take spatial variability and estimate precision of variables in to consideration and amount of them are constant across the whole of soil series .This study was performed to assess spatial variability of soil erodibility and its relevant variables at MEHR watershed from Khorasan province, in northern Iran. Interested network was designed by 110 samples like nested- systematic with distance about 50, 100, 250 and 500 meter across the study area by preparing point map at GIS. Sampling points were identified in field by an Global Positioning system. Soil sampling was done at depth of 0-5cm of ground surface and permeability was studied at depth of 5-30 cm. Some soil properties such as particle distribution and organic mater were measured at laboratory. Particle size distribution was determined by Hydrometer method and Organic matter was measured by wet oxidation approach. Then spatial analysis was done. Variography analysis on soil attributes according to soil erodibility, showed that Gaussian, exponential and spherical models were the most models to predict spatial variability of soil parameters. The range of spatial dependencies was changed from 320 to 3200 m. Soil attribute maps prepared by kriging technique using models parameters. Then soil attributes were composed by Wischmeier (1978) formula in Illwis media to calculate K factor. Amount of soil erodibility changed from 0.13 to 0.91 that it's maximum and minimum was identified in east and southwest of studiedarea. Soil spatial variability pattern, is similar to silt pattern due to high effect of silt on soil rodibility, Also that is partially confirmed with geology map, indicated which soil erodibility attribute controlled by parent material. High amount of soil erodibility in southwest area of given study area showed need to more attention for conservation the soil and control erosion.

Ayoubi, S.A; M. H. Alizadeh

2005-01-01

37

Mehr Verhoer als Gespraech --Eindruecke von der neuen muendlichen Zertifikatspruefung (Cross-Examination Instead of Conversation--Impressions of the New Oral Examination for the Certificate).  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents opinions of persons who took the examination on the oral portion of the revised People's University Certificate, English 1. Suggests changes, such as lengthening the time allowed for the examination and re-introducing reading passages and exercises suitable for students with less practice in communication. (IFS/WGA)

Hellwig, Hilmar

1979-01-01

38

We experience more than we comprehend. Quantum physics and quaesions of life; Wir erleben mehr als wir begreifen. Quantenphysik und Lebensfragen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The quantum physics has been arrived by thinking and experimenting to revolutioning knowledges, which determine our world, also if only few have understood these theories in their real sense. The present book follows the question, whether and how far a consciousness trained by quantum physics can reach more directly to the understanding of questions of life and religious questions than a thinking, which is obliged to classical physics. It deals especially with fundamental existential questions: The theme of personal responsibility, the value of the indivdual existence, the evaluation of the personal I-you relation. Hans Peter Duerr, a personality with guiding qualities, as they are necessary in the new milennium, is the ideal speech partner for the deimension of this theme. The connections of natural sciences and religion, ecology, and sociological change have always driven the Heisenberg successo. How can we speech about that, which science cannot comprehend?. What means self, identity, responsibilit for the quantum physicist? An exciting meeting.

Duerr, H.P.; Oesterreicher, M.

2007-07-01

39

Getting more than contractually guaranteed. Five years energy conservation contracting in the clinic Bremerhaven; Mehr bekommen als vertraglich garantiert. Fuenf Jahre Energiespar-Contracting im Klinikum Bremerhaven  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Most hospitals in Germany virtually throw their money out the window - for heat that could be produced more efficiently, for air that would not be worked up or for coldness which is produced at the wrong place at the wrong time and with low efficiency. Quite different in the Hospital Bremerhaven-Reinkenheide (Bremerhaven, Federal Republic of Germany): In 2004, the hospital administration decided for energetic modernization of building systems based on energy performance contracting with 25% of guaranteed conservation.

Breuer, Juergen [Klinikum Bremerhaven-Reinkenheide (Germany); Habel, Birger; Harneit, Maurice; Kahmann, Lars [Siemens AG, Region Nord (Germany). Building Technologies Div.

2012-04-15

40

????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? AL 1570, ????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????, ??????????? ????????? ? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ???????. ?????????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ? ?????? Al 1570 ? ?????? ??? ????????? ? ??????????? ????????????, ?????????????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????. ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ?? ??????? ????? ? ??????????? ?????-?????, ? ????? ????????????? ????????? ????????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?????

?. ?. ???????????; ?. ?. ???????????; ?. ?. ???????

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Patrick Ehnis: Väter in Erziehungszeiten. Politische, kulturelle und subjektive Bedingungen für mehr Engagement in der Familie. Sulzbach im Taunus: Ulrike Helmer Verlag 2009.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Patrick Ehnis analysiert die Voraussetzungen für eine stärkere Beteiligung von Vätern an der Kindererziehung. In seiner Beschäftigung mit zwei Best-practice-Beispielen rekonstruiert er die subjektiven Orientierungen der Väter, normative Erwartungen in den Betrieben, individuelle und strukturelle Barrieren sowie konkrete Erfahrungen von und mit Vätern in Elternzeit. Dabei behält er bei der Deutung ein Ziel stets vor Augen: mehr Geschlechtergerechtigkeit. Für die politische und gesellschaftliche Diskussion um die ‚neuen Väter‘ sowie für nachfolgende Forschungen, welche die neuesten familienpolitischen Entwicklungen einbeziehen, bilden die Ergebnisse des Bandes eine höchst fruchtbare Grundlage.Patrick Ehnis analyses the necessary conditions to elicit better participation of fathers in child rearing. On the basis of two best-practice examples, he reconstructs the subjective positions of fathers, the normative expectations of businesses or companies, individual and structural barriers, and concrete experiences of and with fathers during parental leave. Throughout the interpretation he keeps one goal in mind: more gender equality. The conclusions of the volume offer a very fruitful basis for political and social discussions about the “new father” as well as for subsequent studies that take the newest family-political developments into account.

Claudia Zerle

2010-01-01

42

Hirnleistungsstörungen/Demenzen als Ursache der Inkontinenz - neurologische Aspekte  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inkontinenz ist ein häufiges Problem älterer dementer Patienten und gilt als einer der Hauptgründe für die Pflegeheimeinweisung. Mehr als die Hälfte der Pflegepatienten leidet an kognitiven Störungen, dessen Schweregrad direkt proportional mit dem Ausmaß der Inkontinenz korreliert [1]. Die Koinzidenz von Demenz und Inkontinenz soll nicht dazu verleiten, sofort auf einen neuropathologischen Zusammenhang zu schließen. Deshalb ist es ratsam, inkontinente Demenzpatienten zum Ausschluß neurologischer, urologischer und interner Ursachen begutachten zu lassen. Inkontinenz ist nicht nur eine Bürde für Betroffene und Betreuer, sondern auch mit erhöhter Mortalitätsrate bei älteren Menschen assoziiert [2]. Patienten mit Hirnleistungsstörungen können durch Toilettentraining profitieren, während Biofeedbackmethoden Erfolge bei Patienten mit geringeren kognitiven Einbußen zeigen. Evaluationsstudien könnten Patientengruppen definieren, die von speziellen "maßgeschneiderten" Inkontinenzmanagements optimal profitieren, um die jeweils kosteneffektivste Vorgangsweise für den klinischen Alltag auswählen zu können.

Dal-Bianco P

2004-01-01

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Reactive melt infiltration for production of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiAl{sub 3} composites; Herstellung von Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiAl{sub 3}-Verbundkoerpern durch reaktive Schmelzinfiltration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiAl{sub 3} composites intended for use in components subject to high mechanical stresses were prepared by non-pressurized, reactive melt infiltration. The production process and parameters are explained in full detail, as well as the properties of the resulting composite materials. (orig./MM) [German] Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiAl{sub 3}-Verbundkoerper fuer mechanisch hochbeanspruchte Verschleissbauteile wurden durch reaktive Schmelzinfiltration drucklos hergestellt. Titanoxidvorformen unterschiedlicher Oxidationsstufen wurden mit Aluminiumschmelze bei Temperaturen von 900 C bis 1400 C infiltriert und dabei durch alumothermische Reduktion des TiO{sub x} (x=2, 167, 1.5, 1) in den Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiAl{sub 3}-Verbundwerkstoff umgewandelt. Durch Optimierung des Titanoxid/Aluminium-Verhaeltnisses ueber die gezielte Beeinflussung der Porositaet des TiO{sub x}-Vorkoerpers wurde ein vollstaendig dichter Verbundkoerper erreicht, in dem kein Restmetall mehr vorlag. Durch den Einsatz nichtreaktiver Fuellstoffe (TiC, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) liessen sich die Werkstoffzusammensetzung des Verbundkoerpers, der Durchdringungsgrad der keramischen und intermetallischen Phase und somit die Werkstoffeigenschaften beeinflussen. TiAl{sub 3}-Kristallgroessen zwischen 4 {mu}m und 800 {mu}m konnten durch Veraenderung der Prozessparameter eingestellt werden. Es wurden Biegefestigkeiten >400 Mpa erzielt. (orig.)

Mueller, F.; Schneider, T.; Feldmann, M.; Greil, P. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffwissenschaften

1999-07-01

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Sport und Salutogenese - körperliche Aktivität als Gesundheitsfaktor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wie bleibt der Mensch körperlich und seelisch gesund? Was bedeutet Gesundheit? Gesundheit ist mehr als nur die Abwesenheit von Krankheit. Um den Gesundheitsstatus eines Menschen zu verbessern, sind neben der Vermeidung von klassischen Gesundheitsrisiken weitere interne und externe Ressourcen als individuelle gesundheitliche Schutzfaktoren wichtig. Somit sollte bei Planung und Angebot von Programmen im gesundheitsfördernden und therapeutischen Bereich der einzelne mit seinen internen und externen Anforderungen und Ressourcen berücksichtigt werden. Eine dieser Ressourcen ist die Freizeitaktivität, ihr gesundheitsfördernder Einfluß ist in unterschiedlichen Studien nachgewiesen. Welchen Einfluß körperliche Aktivität auf die physische und die psychische Gesundheit hat, soll im folgenden vermittelt werden. Körperliche Aktivität ist nicht die einzige, aber eine bedeutende und in unserer Gesellschaft nicht genügend genutzte Ressource, die einen wichtigen Beitrag zur Förderung und zum Erhalt der Gesundheit leisten kann. Allerdings ist nur etwa ein Drittel der Bevölkerung im mittleren Lebensalter ausreichend sportlich aktiv, um hierüber einen Gesundheitsvorteil verbuchen zu können. Neben dem gesundheitlichen Aspekt für den einzelnen stellen die steigenden Folgekosten der durch Bewegungsmangel verursachten Erkrankungen auch ein gesundheitspolitisches und ökonomisches Problem dar. Um dem Bewegungsmangel und den damit verbundenen gesundheitsgefährdenden Folgeerscheinungen vorzubeugen, und um körperliche Fitneß als individuelle interne Ressource zu fördern, erscheinen attraktive Bewegungsangebote im Kraft- und Ausdauerbereich zwingend notwendig. Hierfür sollte ein interdisziplinäres Therapeutenteam gemeinsam mit den Teilnehmern ein motivational-emotional passendes Bewegungskonzept entwickeln. Nur so können deren Eigenkompetenz gestärkt und Fähigkeiten entwickelt werden, um Lebensstiländerungen langfristig und selbstverantwortlich beizubehalten.

Landmann U; Kloock B; König D; Berg A

2007-01-01

45

Das Handy als "persönliches Medium" - Zur Aneignung des Short Message Service (SMS) durch Jugendliche  

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Full Text Available Das Handy als "persönliches Medium" - Zur Aneignung des Short Message Service (SMS) durch Jugendliche Mit dem Eindringen des mobilen Telefons in den Alltag hat sich, gegen alle Erwartungen, auch eine Form der Nutzung etabliert, die sich nicht mehr allein als Telefonieren ausweisen lässt, selbst wenn sie an telefonischen Nutzungsmodi anknüpft: Das Versenden von kurzen Textbotschaften via Handy über den sogenannten Short Message Service (SMS). Vor diesem Hintergrund wird das Handy als ein ‚persönliches Medium’ ausgemacht und insbesondere das Versenden von SMS-Botschaften als eine Form der ‚brieflichen Kommunikation’ verortet. Allerdings zeigt sich in dem zwischen Brief und Telefonat, zwischen Schriftlichkeit und Mündlichkeit angesiedelten Charakter solcher Botschaften auch die Differenz zum ‚klassischen’ Brief. Einblicke in erste Ergebnisse einer Reihe von Gruppendiskussionen machen dies schon deutlich. Dabei wird schlussendlich angeregt, die Nutzung von Medien der interpersonalen Kommunikation (wie im übrigen von Medien überhaupt) im Gesamtzusammenhang der kommunikativen Alltagsaktivitäten und insbesondere einer umfassenden ‚Mediatisierung’ des Alltags zu untersuchen.

Joachim R. Höflich

2001-01-01

46

ALS Association  

Science.gov (United States)

... For Researchers For Media For Healthcare Professionals Fight ALS Every Payday Workplace giving supports those battling ALS, ... of veterans. Read More » 2013 Walk to Defeat ALS® Fall Season Begins It's time to put on ...

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m984 Sadiq-ur-Rehman et al. [Sn(CH 3 ) 2 (C 15 H 9 Cl 2 O 2 ) 2 ] DOI: 10.1107/S1600536804014710 Acta Cryst. (2004). E60, m984m986 Acta Crystallographica Section E  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ored as antitumoragents (Gielen et al., 2000). Several investigators havestudied these biologically active organotin species with acoordination number greater than four (Di Stefano et al., 2004;Mehring et al., 1998; Teoh et al., 1999; Carcelli et al., 1995). Thestructural aspects of these biologically active ligands havebeen reviewed by several investigators (Nath et al., 2001;Chandrasekhar et al., 2002). Continuing our interest in thestructural aspects of organotin carboxylates (Parvez, Ali,Bhatti et al., 1999; Parvez, Ali, Mazhar, Bhatti & Choudhary,1999; Parvez, Ali, Mazhar, Bhatti & Khokhar, 1999; Parvez etal., 2000, 2002; Sadiq-ur-Rehman et al., 2004), we now reportthe structure of bis[2,3-bis(4-chlorophenyl)propenoato-O,O ]dimethyltin(IV), (I).The structure of (I) is composed of discrete monomericmolecules (Fig. 1), in which hexacoordinated Sn atoms arebonded to two methyl groups and two 2,3-bis(4-chloro-Received 15 June 2004Accepted 17 June 2004Online

Bonnie On-on Leung; Saqib Ali; Amin Badshah; Masood Parvez; Key Indicators

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Die Rolle des Semantic Web für Bibliotheken: Linked Open Data und mehr: Welche Strategien können hier die Bibliotheken in die Zukunft führen?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Das Semantic Web ist die Vision einer Erweiterung des World Wide Webs, so dass die Daten nicht nur für Menschen leicht verständlich dargestellt werden, sondern auch von Maschinen verwertbar sind. Mit einer entsprechenden Ausgestaltung von Links zwischen einzelnen Webressourcen wäre das Web als riesige, globale Datenbank nutzbar. Darin könnten dann Softwareagenten für uns auch komplexe Fragestellungen und Planungen bearbeiten. In dieser Arbeit soll gezeigt werden, dass jede Bibliothek interessante Daten für das Semantic Web hat und umgekehrt von ihm profitieren kann. Ein Schwerpunkt liegt auf möglichen Anwendungsszenarien mit dem speziellen Fokus beim Bibliothekswesen.

Philipp Zumstein

2012-01-01

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More transparence of grid operation. EDM (Energy Data Management), an analysis tool for grid operators; Im Vorfeld des Regulierers: mehr Transparenz in der Netznutzung. EDM als Analysewerkzeug fuer Netzbetreiber  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The grid use analysis by EIS provides daily and re-evaluable evaluations for internal controlling purposes, as well as analysis data for preventive grid maintenance. Further, EIS can provide a data base for risk assessments, availability analyses, operational safety analysis and grid planning. This software solution does not require costly measuring equipment, which would otherwise be required and would have considerable effects on competitive strength. (orig.) [German] Mit der Netznutzungsanalyse von EIS koennen auch tagesaktuelle und revisionssichere Auswertungen fuer das interne Controlling angefertigt werden. Darueber hinaus stehen Analysedaten z.B. fuer eine praeventive Instandhaltung in den Netzen zur Verfuegung. Zusaetzlich kann EIS aber auch die Datengrundlage fuer Risikobetrachtungen, Verfuegbarkeitsanalysen, die Bestimmung der Betriebssicherheit sowie fuer die Netzplanung liefern. Der Einsatz dieser Softwareloesung erspart die sonst noetige Ausstattung der relevanten Netzkomponenten mit aufwaendigen Messgeraeten - eine Investitionsmassnahme, die unter Wettbewerbsbedingungen kaum noch zu rechtfertigen oder gar in den Kosten darstellbar waere. (orig.)

Wuermli, M. [Visos AG, Fehraltorf (Switzerland)

2005-03-07

50

Integrated LON building management at EWE - a pilot function for the benefit of more than 600 000 customers; Gewerkeuebergreifendes LON-Gebaeudemanagement bei EWE - Pilotfunktion fuer mehr als 600 000 Kunden  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

EWE AG, based in Oldenburg, has one of the highest turnovers of all Germany`s electric utilities. It supplies power and gas to more than 600 000 customers every day. Its catchment area in north-western Lower Saxony comprises urban agglomerations, sparsely populated rural areas and the North Sea Eastern Frisian islands. For some time already, careful energy management has been a concern of EWE. Therefore, it has now extended the range of services it is offering by technical and energy management of buildings on the basis of LONs. EWE`s new district building at Westerstede was also equipped with this technology. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zu Deutschlands umsatzstaerksten Energieversorgern zaehlt die EWE AG, mit Hauptsitz in Oldenburg. Sie beliefert taeglich ueber 600 000 Kunden mit Strom und Gas. Ihr Einzugsbereich im nordwestlichen Niedersachsen umfasst staedtische Ballungszentren, duennbesiedelte laendliche Raeume und die ostfriesischen Nordseeinseln. EWE favorisiert bereits seit geraumer Zeit einen sparsamen Umgang mit Energie. Aus diesem Grund erweiterte man jetzt das Dienstleistungsangebot um den Bereich technisches Gebaeude- und Energiemanagement auf LON-Basis, und fuehrte auch gleich den Neubau der EWE-Bezirksmeisterei in Westerstede mit dieser Technologie aus. (orig.)

Schumacher, M. [Frisch Consulting GmbH, Much (Germany)

1998-10-19

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Der Glaube als Erkenntnisquelle Belief as the source of knowledge  

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Full Text Available Seit ihrer Kanonisation 1998 und Ernennung zur Mit-Patronin Europas 1999 steht die 1942 in Auschwitz ermordete Phänomenologin Edith Stein, 1922 vom jüdischen zum christlichen Glauben konvertiert und 1933 als Benedicta vom Kreuz in den Kölner Karmel eingetreten, mehr denn je im Blickfeld der Öffentlichkeit. Die Bedeutung ihrer wissenschaftlichen Arbeit u. a. als Assistentin von Edmund Husserl in Freiburg und als Dozentin am Deutschen Institut für wissenschaftliche Pädagogik in Münster, aber auch in privaten Studien wurden im Juli 2000 im Rahmen eines Symposiums des Internationalen Edith Stein Instituts in Würzburg diskutiert. Die Beiträge der vorliegenden Publikation beleuchten breit gefächert Aspekte des Werks und seiner Interpretation mit dem Ziel, die Philosophin neu zu entdecken und die bisherige Forschung zu intensivieren.Since her canonisation and her appointment as Martyr and Co-Patroness of Europe in 1999, Edith Stein has, more than ever, been in the public eye. Murdered in Auschwitz in 1942, the phenomenologist converted from Judaism to Catholicism in 1922 and entered the Carmel of Cologne in 1933 as Teresa Benedicta of the Cross. In July 2000, at a symposium of the International Edith Stein Institute in Wurzburg, the significance of her academic work (among other things as an assistant to Edmund Husserl in Freiburg and as a lecturer at the German Institute for Pedagogy in Munster) was discussed. The wide-ranging contributions in this publication highlight aspects of this work and its interpretation with the aim of rediscovering the philosopher and of intensifying research conducted to date.

Andrea Hartwig

2004-01-01

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Culture and Healthcare in Medical Education: Migrants' Health and Beyond [Medizin und ethnisch-kulturelle Vielfalt in der medizinischen Ausbildung: "Migrantenmedizin" und mehr  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available [english] One of the main challenges for teaching programs on immigration, ethnic diversity and health is to transform the commonplace notion of “culture” into a helpful tool for medical training and practice. This paper presents the teaching approach of an interdisciplinary course on “migrants’ health” established at the University of Giessen since 2004, which has recently been complemented by a thematically related collaboration with two universities in Latin America (Ecuador, Peru). The overall goal is to translate the abstract philosophy of into medical practice, and to provide students with the insights, attitudes and skills needed for a fruitful use of concepts like “culture”, “ethnicity” and “migration background”. A key feature of the course is the strong commitment to ethnography as an important means for looking under the surface of superficial attributions to culture, and for grasping the interplay of medicine and health with cultural, social, religious, economic and legal aspects in its particular local and/or individual shape. Three elements of the course are presented to illustrate this approach: First, a unit on Islam and Medicine, as important parts of the local immigrant community are Muslims. The second one deals with psychosomatic aspects, because in case of immigrants, complex symptoms and disease representations like somatisation are easily misinterpreted as “cultural”. The third element consists of a unit with specialized social workers form outside the university, who provide direct insights into the living conditions and health problems of local immigrant communities. [german] Eine der zentralen Herausforderungen für Lehrprojekte zum Thema Medizin und ethnisch-kulturelle Vielfalt besteht in der Vermittlung eines angemessenen Konzepts von „Kultur“. Vor allem gilt es, den exklusiven Fokus auf als „fremd“ wahrgenommene Bevölkerungsgruppen und die Gefahr oberflächlicher kulturelle Zuschreibungen zu überwinden. Der vorliegende Beitrag stellt den Ansatz eines interdisziplinären Kurses zur „Migrantenmedizin“ an der Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen vor, der jüngst durch ein Kooperationsprojekt zur Stärkung interkultureller Aspekte in der medizinischen Ausbildung mit zwei lateinamerikanischen Universitäten ergänzt wurde (in Ecuador und Peru). Durch den internationalen Vergleich soll das abstrakte Prinzip „think global and teach local“ für den medizinischen Bereich nutzbar gemacht werden. Gleichzeitig wird die Bedeutung der Ethnographie für eine sinnvolle Verwendung von Begriffen wie „Kultur“, „Ethnizität“ oder „Migrationshintergrund“ auch in der Medizin betont. Als wichtigste Forschungsmethode der Kultur- und Sozialanthropologie vermittelt die Ethnographie differenzierte Einblicke in die jeweils konkrete Ausprägung der komplexen Zusammenhänge zwischen Krankheit, Medizin und „Kultur“ – jenseits von Stereotypien und unter explizitem Einschluss der im Einzelfall relevanten sozialen, religiösen, ökonomischen und rechtlichen, aber auch medizinischen Aspekte. Der Artikel verdeutlicht die Umsetzung dieser Perspektive in der medizinischen Ausbildung exemplarisch anhand von drei Lehreinheiten des Kurses an der JLU Gießen: Ein Modul zum Thema „Islam und Medizin“, eines zu psychosomatischen Aspekten und eine dritte Einheit, in der Sozialarbeiterinnen eines lokalen Migrationsdienstes unmittelbare Einblicke in die reale Lebenswirklichkeit von Migrant/innen vermitteln.

Knipper, Michael; Akinci, Secil; Soydan, Nedim

2010-01-01

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Phase reaction of diffusion bonded interface between TiAl and SiC  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

SiC was joined to TiAl by diffusion bonding, and microstructural evolution in the interfacial region was investigated in connection with the fracture strength of the joint. The following results were obtained. (1) Three kinds of reaction layers were observed when bonded at 1573 K for 14.4 ks, and the sequence of the phases are TiAl+TiAl{sub 2}, Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3}Cx+TiC and TiC containing higher amount of Al. TiAl{sub 2} layer was newly observed in between the TiAl layer and the mixed zone of Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3}Cx+TiC when bonded for 28.8 ks. (2) These layers grew linearly with the square root of the bonding time, although the growth rate was retarded when bonded for longer time than 28.8 ks at 1573 K and 1593 K. (3) Maximum value of the fracture strength at room temperature was obtained for the joint bonded at 1573 K for 1.8 ks, and the strength decreased monotonously with increasing bonding time. (4) The joint maintained almost the same level of fracture strength as that room temperature even at 973 K. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ti-53at%Al wurde mit SiC bei Temperaturen zwischen 1473 K und 1673 K im Vakuum gefuegt. Dabei bildeten sich in der Reaktionszone Al-haltiges TiC sowie Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3}C{sub x}, in das Koerner eingebettet waren. Die beiden Phasen wuchsen proportional dem Quadrat der Fuegezeit und zeigten schlussendlich keinen signifikanten Zuwachs mehr. Als weitere Folge der Reaktion entstand im TiAl eine an Ti verarmte Zone, die im Anfangsstadium aus zwei Zonen unterschiedlicher Zusammensetzung bestand, im weiteren Verlauf jedoch homogen wurde. (orig.)

Naka, M.; Shibayanagi, T. [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Joining and Welding Research Institute; Miyake, H. [Osaka Univ. (Japan)

1998-12-01

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Explosionsfeste Transportbehälter – mehr Sicherheit für das Transportwesen  

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Full Text Available Weltweit ist eine Zunahme terroristischer Aktivitäten zu verzeichnen, sodass allgemein damit gerechnet werden muss, dass auch das zivile Verkehrs- und Transportwesen ein bevorzugtes Ziel terroristischer Anschläge darstellt. Mehrfach wurden schon Sprengkörper in Transportmittel des öffentlichen und zivilen Personen- aber auch Güterverkehrs eingeschleust, um die Bevölkerung durch materielle Zerstörung und massive Personenschäden einzuschüchtern und zu beängstigen. Daher ist eine Anpassung der sich derzeit im Einsatz befindlichen Transportbehälter an die geänderten Rahmenbedingungen unerlässlich, um auch den Schutz vor Sprengkörpern, die gemeinsam mit dem Handgepäck in Luft-, Land- und Wasserfahrzeuge eingeschleust werden, zu gewährleisten. The worldwide increase of terrorist activities leads to the assumption that the civilian transportation and traffic system, too, is a preferred target of terrorist attacks. Several times, explosive charges have already been smuggled into means of public transport and also of goods traffic to intimidate and frighten the population through material destruction and massive personal damage. This is why it is necessary to adapt the containers currently used to the changed conditions, to guarantee the protection against explosives that are smuggled into aircrafts, surface vehicles and watercraft with the hand luggage.

Dipl.-Kff. Johanna Haag

2007-01-01

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Bonus for innovations; Bonus fuer mehr Innovation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Clever use of biogas production technologies for electric power generation is profitable and will provide reimbursements. However, not all technical options that are feasible have already reached marketing maturity. (orig.)

Bensmann, Martin

2008-09-15

56

Less is more; Weniger bringt mehr  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biogas plant owners who reduce formaldehyde emissions are to get a bonus in addition to reimbursement. While the intention of the regulation is clear, there are still some doubts concerning its wording and technical implementation. (orig.)

Augsten, Eva

2008-12-08

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AL Amyloidosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Definition of the disease AL amyloidosis results from extra-cellular deposition of fibril-forming monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig) light chains (LC) (most commonly of lambda isotype) usually secreted by a small plasma cell clone. Most patients have evidence of isolated monoclonal gammopathy or smoldering myeloma, and the occurrence of AL amyloidosis in patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma or other B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders is unusual. The key event in the development of AL amyloidosis is the change in the secondary or tertiary structure of an abnormal monoclonal LC, which results in instable conformation. This conformational change is responsible for abnormal folding of the LC, rich in ? leaves, which assemble into monomers that stack together to form amyloid fibrils. Epidemiology AL amyloidosis is the most common type of systemic amyloidois in developed countries with an estimated incidence of 9 cases/million inhabitant/year. The average age of diagnosed patients is 65 years and less than 10% of patients are under 50. Clinical description The clinical presentation is protean, because of the wide number of tissues or organs that may be affected. The most common presenting symptoms are asthenia and dyspnoea, which are poorly specific and may account for delayed diagnosis. Renal manifestations are the most frequent, affecting two thirds of patients at presentation. They are characterized by heavy proteinuria, with nephrotic syndrome and impaired renal function in half of the patients. Heart involvement, which is present at diagnosis in more than 50% of patients, leading to restrictive cardiopathy, is the most serious complication and engages prognosis. Diagnostic methods The diagnosis relies on pathological examination of an involved site showing Congo red-positive amyloid deposits, with typical apple-green birefringence under polarized light, that stain positive with an anti-LC antibody by immunohistochemistry and/or immunofluorescence. Due to the systemic nature of the disease, non-invasive biopsies such as abdominal fat aspiration should be considered before taking biopsies from involved organs, in order to reduce the risk of bleeding complications. Differential diagnosis Systemic AL amyloidosis should be distinguished from other diseases related to deposition of monoclonal LC, and from other forms of systemic amyloidosis. When pathological studies have failed to identify the nature of amyloid deposits, genetic studies should be performed to diagnose hereditary amyloidosis. Management Treatment of AL amyloidosis is based on chemotherapy, aimed at controlling the underlying plasma clone that produces amyloidogenic LC. The hematological response should be carefully checked by serial measurements of serum free LC. The association of an alkylating agent with high-dose dexamethasone has proven to be effective in two thirds of patients and is considered as the current reference treatment. New agents used in the treatment of multiple myeloma are under investigation and appear to increase hematological response rates. Symptomatic measures and supportive care is necessary in patients with organ failure. Noticeably, usual treatments for cardiac failure (i.e. calcium inhibitors, ?-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors) are inefficient or even dangerous in patients with amyloid heart disease, that should be managed using diuretics. Amiodarone and pace maker implantation should be considered in patients with rhythm or conduction abnormalities. In selected cases, heart and kidney transplantation may be associated with prolonged patient and graft survival. Prognosis Survival in AL amyloidosis depends on the spectrum of organ involvement (amyloid heart disease being the main prognosis factor), the severity of individual organs involved and haematological response to treatment.

Desport Estelle; Bridoux Frank; Sirac Christophe; Delbes Sébastien; Bender Sébastien; Fernandez Béatrice; Quellard Nathalie; Lacombe Corinne; Goujon Jean-Michel; Lavergne David; Abraham Julie; Touchard Guy; Fermand Jean-Paul; Jaccard Arnaud

2012-01-01

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Wortbildungsangaben als Hilfe für den Zugriff auf andere Datentypen und als Hilfe bei kommunikativen und kognitiven Informationsbedürfnissen  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

"Grundsätzlich können unendlich umfangreiche Mengen" von Daten eingespeist werden, schreiben Ulrike Haß und Ulrich Schmitz in der Einleitung zum Themaheft "Lexikographie im Internet" (Lexicographica 26, 2010). Das ist zwar nicht korrekt, da man zwar enorm große Mengen in einer lexikographischen Datenbank erfassen kann, aber sicher nicht unendlich viele. Schwerwiegender ist jedoch der Denkfehler, der daher rührt, dass die beiden Herausgeber den Unterschied zwischen einer Datenbank und einem Wörterbuch nicht beachten: "Je mehr Informationen angeboten werden, desto schwerer wird es dem Nutzer, genau die zu finden, die er braucht." (Haß/Schmitz 2010, 4). Dies gilt nur dann, wenn auch Internetwörterbücher notwendigerweise polyfunktionale Wörterbücher sein sollen, die alle Daten von der lexikographischen Datenbank zeigen, wie es die meisten Papirwörterbücher tun. Entsprechend gilt, dass Bonusangaben eher unnütz sind ("Sind Wörterbücher ausschließlich dazu da, Fragen zu beantworten? Nein, sie sollten auch zu Fragen anregen, solange sie doch auch in irgendeinem Zusammenhang mit Bildung stehen." (Haß/Schmitz 2010, 10)). Man sollte grundsätzlich trennen zwischen der Datenbank und den daraus erstellten Wörterbüchern. Wenn man monofunktionale Wörterbücher konzipiert, verschwindet das Problem vom Informationstress nicht, kann aber größtenteils vermieden werden. Dieses Problem stellt sich in besonderem Masse zu Wortbildungsangaben, die für einige Informationsbedürfnisse wichtig, für andere irrelevant sind, d.h. in einigen Wörterbüchern nützlich sind, in anderen nicht. Prinzipiell gilt, dass Wortbildungsangaben nicht mitgenommen werden sollen für Rezeptionswörterbücher. Auch für Produktionswörterbücher gilt, dass Angaben von allen möglichen Wortbildungen zum Informationsstress führen, dass man stattdessen eine geringe Anzahl der prototypischen Wortbildungen anführen soll (hierzu mehr im Vortrag). Schließlich können sehr reichhaltige Wortbildungsangaben und auch Wortbildungsregeln in vielen Fällen in einem kognitiven Wörterbuchnützlich sein, d.h. in einem Informationswerkzeug, das möglichst viel Wissen bieten will. Wortbildungsdaten in der Datenbank können auch eine andere Funktion erfüllen, und zwar als Zugriffshilfe auf Daten in anderen Wörterbuchartikeln, wenn eine bestimmte Wortbildung nicht lemmatisiert ist. Die morphologischen theoretischen Überlegungen, die metalexikographischen zu monofunktionalen Informationswerkzeugen, sowie Prinzipien des Zugriffs auf Daten mithilfe von Wortbildungsdaten einer Datenbank werden anhand einer Datenbank vorgestellt, aus der insgesamt sechs Wörterbücher herausgezogen werden.

Bergenholtz, Henning

2013-01-01

59

Mehr Nähe durch mehr Partikeln? Zur verwendung der Abtönungspartikeln in persönlichen Briefen / Janika Kärk  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Partiklite esinemissagedusest isiklikes kirjades ja selle muutumisest 18., 19. ja 20. sajandi vältel ning võimalikest partiklikasutust mõjutanud teguritest. Ülevaade ka värvingupartiklite morfoloogilistest, süntaktilistest ja pragmaatilistest omadustest

Kärk, Janika

2008-01-01

60

Innovative high-performance lead battery as multi-functional storage in electric networks; Innovative Hochleistungs-Bleibatterie als multifunktionaler Speicher in elektrischen Netzen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lead accumulators have been industrially manufactured for more than hundred years. Recently it has been possible to considerably improve the specifications and operational properties as well as the operational safety of these batteries. Today innovative high-performance lead batteries in a high MW capacity range and with high MWh storage capacities are available for the use in electric networks. These batteries have mainly proved themselves in multi-functional practice in the USA and Germany. (orig.) [German] Bleiakkumulatoren werden seit mehr als 100 Jahren industriell gefertigt. Dennoch gelang es in der letzten Zeit die Spezifikationen und Betriebseigenschaften sowie die Betriebssicherheit dieser Batterien - vornehmlich durch den Einsatz von Peripheriegeraeten - nennenswert zu verbessern. Heute stehen innovative Hochleistungs-Bleibatterien im Leistungsbereich von vielen MW und mit Speicherkapazitaeten von vielen MWh fuer den Einsatz in elektrischen Netzen zur Verfuegung. Vornehmlich in USA und Deutschland haben sich diese Batterien im multifunktionalen Einsatz in der Praxis bewaehrt. (orig.)

Brinkmann, J.

1998-07-01

 
 
 
 
61

Verhüllen oder Enthüllen? - Ästhetik als Herausforderung für Sozialwissenschaft und sozialwissenschaftliche Bildungs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gerade in den klassischen Bezugswissenschaften der politischen Bildung haben die Begriffe Ästhetik, ästhetisch und Ästhetisierung seit einigen Jahren Konjunktur. So spricht man in der Soziologie seit fast 20 Jahren wieder von Lebensstilen und beschreibt damit den Sachverhalt, dass gesellschaftliche Gruppen sich nicht mehr ausreichend durch klassische demographische Daten differenzieren lassen, sondern sich durch Konsumstile und Selbstinszenierungen, also durch ästhetisches Verhalten, gruppieren und somit orientieren. Alltagsästhetik ist ein wichtiges Stichwort in diesem Kontext. In der Politikwissenschaft sind es Begriffe wie: Politik als Showgeschäft, Politik als Theater, Politik im Unterhaltungsformat oder Politainment die im Kontext der Debatte über die Ästhetisierung der Politik auftauchen. Plötzlich interessiert man sich verstärkt für Wahlwerbung, für die Konstruktion politischer Wirklichkeit und politische Performanz und damit für die Frage, wie politische oder auch soziale Sachverhalte gesellschaftlich wahrgenommen werden oder wie sie sich vermitteln. Für die politikdidaktische Diskussion müssten solche Auseinandersetzungen eigentlich von zentralem Interesse sein, denn es ist der professionelle Auftrag dieser Disziplin, sich mit der Vermittlung von Politik wissenschaftlich zu beschäftigen, doch bislang tut sich die politische Bildung mit dem Ästhetischen eher schwer. Im Folgenden soll der Versuch unternommen werden das Verhältnis von Ästhetik und politischer Bildung genauer nachzugehen, sowie die Ursachen und Gründen für die Abneigung der politischen Bildung zu identifizieren. Darüber hinaus sollen aber auch die Chancen betrachtet werden, die sich durch das Ästhetische für das Fach ergeben könnten.

Anja Besand

2006-01-01

62

Car sharing, an innovative and intelligent mobility service; Auto auf Abruf als innovative und intelligente Mobilitaetsdienstleistung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

According to a study carried out in cooperation with Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung (RWI) and Institut fuer Automobilwirtschaft (IFA), innovative mobility services have good market chances. Car providers and repair shops could offer a concept of ''per km leasing''. The study estimates more than 7.3 million potential users, with a sales volume of several thousands of million DM. In addition, there would be a positive effect in terms of pollution reduction and integration of transport systems. [German] Nach einer Studie, die in Zusammenarbeit des Rheinisch-Westfaelischen Instituts fuer Wirtschaftsforschung (RWI) und dem Institut fuer Automobilwirtschaft (IFA) entstand, sind mit innovativen Mobilitaetsdienstleistungen beachtliche Marktchancen fuer das Kfz-Gewerbe verbunden. Als 'Fachmaerkte fuer Mobilitaet' koennten Autohaeuser und Werkstaetten neue Ertragsmoeglichkeiten erschliessen. Eine weiterentwickelte Form des Car-Sharing-Modells - naemlich das 'Kilometer-Leasing: Auto auf Abruf' waere hierzu das geeignete Konzept. Die Untersuchungen von RWI und IFA im Rahmen der Dienstleistungsinitiative des Bundesforschungsministeriums (BMBF) zeigen: Es gibt in Deutschland fuer dieses Segment ein Marktpotential von mehr als 7,3 Mio. potentiellen Nutzern - verbunden mit einem Umsatzvolumen von mehreren Milliarden Mark. Vorteilhaft ist in diesem Zusammenhang auch, dass das innovative Kilometer-Leasing-Konzept oekoeffizient waere und zur vielfach geforderten Vernetzung der Verkehrstraeger beitragen wuerde. (orig.)

Diez, W.; Reindl, S. [Fachhochschule Nuertingen (Germany). Inst. fuer Automobilwirtschaft e.V.

1999-11-01

63

Al-unites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In mineralogical correlation the al-unite presents the base potash alumcomposition of which includes instead of potassium or together with its caninclude sodium. In this article authors presented the alkali methods, acidand combine methods of al-unite decomposition

2008-01-01

64

Optimization of single pipe systems with heating cost allocation and flanking ventilating systems in block building of the NBL. Final report. Pt. 1; Optimierung von Einrohrheizungsanlagen mit Heizkostenverteilung sowie flankierenden Raumluftprozessen im industriellen Wohnungsbau der NBL. Schlussbericht. T. 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In East Germany the refurbishment of singe heating systems in block buildings was demanded with new laws. It were missing criterions for the choose of measures for refurbishment. The research has a theoretical and a practical part and is based on the link of simulation. The simulation has been achieved with the help of program `TRNSYS` with a new Type 57 for the heating systems. The simulation allows a coupling of heating systems and building (in this case 164 zones). By the refurbishment the energy consumption is cut down by 50%. The user behavior has a high influence for the heat loss of the building. The research also shows the influence of room location in the building for the heat losses. All analysed systems are suitable for heating cost allocation in vertical single pipe systems. With the electronic double sensor device the highest allocation accuracy is obtained, followed by WRE-triple sensor device, the evaporator and the electronic single sensor device. The share of the fixed-costs is recommended to be at 50%. For the ventilation shows central exhaust air systems in buildings for more than two floors as the best with fesh air provide with supply or air handling units. (orig.) [Deutsch] In den NBL bestand ein Zwang zur Modernisierung von Einrohrheizungen des industriellen Wohnungsbaus. Es fehlten Kriterien zur Bewertung der Massnahmen. Die Untersuchungen erfolgten durch Messungen in einem Gebaeude mit einer Ein- und einer Zweirohrheizung sowie mit Hilfe der Simulation. Die Simulation erfolgt mit dem Programm TRNSYS. Es liegt ein neues Type 57 vor. Das neuentwickelte Type 57 ist universell einsetzbar. Damit ist eine gekoppelte Simulation des gesamten Systems Anlage-Gebaeude moeglich (im Beispiel 164 Zonen). Der Waermeverbrauch wurde durch die Modernisierung halbiert. Als wesentlicher Faktor auf den Waermeverbrauch zeigte sich das Nutzerverhalten. Fuer die Heizkostenverteilung sind alle untersuchten Geraete anwendbar. Bei der Analyse von Heizkostenverteilsystemen in Einrohranlagen erreicht das elektronische Zweifuehlergeraet die hoechste Verteilgenauigkeit, gefolgt vom WRE-Zweifuehlergeraet, dem Verdunster und dem elektronischen Einfuehlergeraet. Es wird fuer den Grundkostenanteil 50% empfohlen. Bei der Lueftung erweisen sich zentrale Abluftanlagen in Gebaeuden mit mehr als zwei Vollgeschossen als vorteilhaft mit Frischluftbereitstellung durch Zuluftelemente oder Lueftungsgeraete. (orig.)

Felsmann, C.; Knabe, G.; Kremonke, A.; Neubert, D.; Perschk, A.; Reichel, D.; Richter, W.

1996-12-01

65

ALS longitudinal kickers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses the coupled-bunch instability and how it applies to the ALS accelerator. The longitudinal ALS kicker is part of the bunch-to-bunch feedback system planned to control coupled-bunch instabilities in the ALS. The mechanical features of the kicker are described, and the analytic tools developed to aid in the design are discussed. A method to predict the performance of the kicker in the accelerator from measurements on a prototype are described.

Voelker, F.

1992-10-01

66

Self-shunted Al/AlOx/Al Josephson junctions  

CERN Multimedia

Self-shunted aluminum Josephson junctions with high-transparency barriers were fabricated using the shadow-evaporation technique and measured at low temperatures, T=25 mK. Due to high junction transparency, the IV-characteristics were found to be of only small hysteresis with retrapping-to-switching current ratio of up to 80%. The observed critical currents were close to the Ambegaokar-Baratoff values (up to 80-100%). Good barrier quality was confirmed by the low subgap leakage currents in the quasiparticle branches, which makes the self-shunted Al junctions promising for application in integrated RSFQ-qubit circuitry.

Lotkhov, S V; Balashov, D V; Khabipov, M I; Buchholz, F I; Zorin, A B

2006-01-01

67

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Inc. www.X-Plain.com nr180103 Last reviewed: 12/16/2008 1 ALS ALS attacks the neurons ... Inc. www.X-Plain.com nr180103 Last reviewed: 12/16/2008 2 This document is a summary ...

68

Inside the ALS  

Science.gov (United States)

"Inside the ALS" is a poster aimed at sharing with students the wonder and excitement of one of the world's brightest sources of light, the Advanced Light Source (ALS). The poster can be used as a classroom resource for a variety of topics, such as light, magnets, electricity, optics, technology, and powers of ten (to list just a few).

2008-08-27

69

Al - BASED CAST COMPOSITES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The economy is very important feature nowadays in themarket. The researches are playing an important role inengineering field to increase the life of machine parts /components and decrease the cost. The compositematerials have the potential to replace widely used steeland aluminium due to their good characteristics withbetter performance. The Al-based composites have foundextensive applications in automobile industries andaerospace industries due to their increased stiffness,strength, thermal conductivity and wear resistanceproperties. A number of particulate phases have beenemployed in the Al-alloy matrix. The cast aluminiumceramicparticulate composites are finding applications inpistons, connecting rods, cylinder liner, engine cylinderblock, electrical contacts etc.The present investigation isbased on study of the effect of particulate phase on theSEM study, micro-hardness, elastic modulus, tensilestrength and the wear behaviour of Al-5 % SiC-7 % Fe,Al-10 % SiC-6 % Fe and Al-15 % SiC-5 % Fe composites.

Rakesh Kumar Yadav; Ashu Yadav

2011-01-01

70

Ventilatory Control in ALS.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal, progressive neurodegenerative disease. ALS selectively causes degeneration in upper and lower (spinal) motor neurons, leading to muscle weakness, paralysis and death by ventilatory failure. Although ventilatory failure is generally the cause of death in ALS, little is known concerning the impact of this disorder on respiratory motor neurons, the consequences of respiratory motor neuron cell death, or the ability of the respiratory control system to "fight back"via mechanisms of compensatory respiratory plasticity. Here we review known effects of ALS on breathing, including possible effects on rhythm generation, respiratory motor neurons, and their target organs: the respiratory muscles. We consider evidence for spontaneous compensatory plasticity, preserving breathing well into disease progression despite dramatic loss of spinal respiratory motor neurons. Finally, we review current and potential therapeutic approaches directed toward preserving the capacity to breathe in ALS patients.

Nichols NL; Van Dyke J; Nashold L; Satriotomo I; Suzuki M; Mitchell GS

2013-05-01

71

Aromatised mineral water and soft spirits coming on. More than ever: user-friendly ice cure machines. Ice cubes and cones, flake ice, shattered ice; Aromatisierte Mineralwasser und Softspirituosen auf dem Vormarsch. Mehr denn je: Servicefreundliche Eiswuerfelbereiter. Wuerfeleis - Kegeleis - Flockeneis - Scherbeneis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Only a few years ago beer and spirits were still the standard drinks for most Germans. Wine is certainly also drunken a lot in west and south Germany but there was nothing like a cool ``Blondes`` (pale beer) together with a ``Kurzer`` (hard liquor) to keep a German man, and even some German women, happy for a while. In Berlin this combination is called a ``Molle`` and a ``Korn`` and in north Germany a beer and a ``Koem``. These times have given way to a radial change in drinking habits brought on by reunification and tourists returning from abroad. Although the warm summer of 1994 pushed beer comsumption up another 3%, the market is altogether on the decline. In fact only 115 million of the 200 million hectoliter brewing capacity were actually utilised in 1994. Decreasing turnover is not the only problem, as yields are also poor. (orig.) [Deutsch] Noch vor wenigen Jahren waren Bier und Schnaps mehr oder minder das Standardgetraenk der meisten Deutschen. In Sued- und Westdeutschland wird zwar viel Wein getrunken, doch ein kuehles ``Blondes`` und dazu ein ``Kurzer`` liess manches Maennerherz und sogar auch manches Frauenherz hoeher schlagen. In Berlin bestellte man erst einmal eine Molle und `nen Korn, in Norddeutschland Bier und Koem. Diese Zeiten sind laengst vorbei, im Zuge der europaeischen Vereinigung und infolge der vielen Auslandsurlaube haben sich die Trinkgewohnheiten heute total veraendert. Der Bierkonsum ist zwar auf Grund des warmen Sommers 1994 noch einmal um 3% gestiegen, dennoch schrumpft der Markt. Die Braukapazitaet liegt bei 200 Millionen Hektoliter, tatsaechlich gebraut wurden 1994 aber nur ca. 115 Millionen Hektoliter. Nicht nur die abnehmende Menge ist das Hauptproblem, sondern die geringe Rendite. (orig.)

Anon.

1995-05-01

72

Underground- and surface technologies for joint flooding of gas caves; Unter- und Uebertagetechnik als Einheit zur Flutung von Gaskavernen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After 20 years of operation the oldes caves in the Bernburg storage VNG AG had to repair the facilities. This required flooding of the caves from the start. At the same time geomechanical reserves which were reevaluated on the basis of redimensioning could be used by deepening. Flooding and relocation of the displaced gas should not disturb gas storage and brine extraction. As one of the caves was filled with gas for the first time it was possible to use the brine. Flooding and gas filling were coupled. [Deutsch] Nach mehr als 20jaehriger Betriebszeit der aeltesten Kavernen auf dem Speicher Bernburg stand fuer die VNG AG die Aufgabe der Reparatur. Der Umfang der Arbeiten machte von Anfang an das vollstaendige Fluten der Kavernen erforderlich. Gleicheitig ergab sich dabei die Moeglichkeit, seinerzeit verbliebene geomechanische Reserven, die auf Basis einer auf aktuelle Erkenntnisse beruhenden Neudimensionierung bewertet wurden, durch Nachsolung auszuschoepfen. Die Heranfuehrung des Flutmediums und die Umlagerung des verdraengten Gases sollten ohne nachteilige Rueckwirkung auf den Gasspeicher- und Solegewinnungsbetrieb erfolgen. Da zu diesem Zeitpunkt eine Kaverne in der Phase der Gaserstbefuellung stand, konnte die ausgetragene Sole genutzt werden. Flutprozess und Gaserstbefuellung wurden somit im direkt gekoppelten Betrieb durchgefuehrt. (orig./MSK)

Raudonus, K.; Miersch, D. [UGS GmbH, Mittenwalde (Germany); Haensler, G. [Verbundnetz Gas AG, Leipzig (Germany)

1998-12-31

73

Malnutrition in ALS  

Science.gov (United States)

... of symptom management. At the University of Vermont, Rup Tandan, M.D. is studying the role of ... Ph.D., for her executive summary of Dr. Rup Tandan’s webinar titled “Nutrition and ALS” presented on ...

74

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... The nerves in the body, such as the arms, legs, chest, abdomen, and pelvis, make up the ... first signs of ALS in their hand or arm. They may find that simple tasks such as ...

75

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... can also provide equipment to keep patients as mobile and comfortable as possible. Doctors can prescribe medications ... help ALS patients keep their independence and remain mobile. When patients can no longer get enough nourishment ...

76

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available X-Plain Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Reference Summary Introduction Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, or ALS, is a serious neurological disease that affects the ability to move. It is also ...

77

Cuidando al adulto y al anciano  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El propósito del artículo es describir, desde el ámbito universitario, la experiencia en la aplicación de la Teoría del Déficit de Autocuidado (TDAC) con la población adulta y anciana. Se explican los procesos y resultados desde la preparación docente, la conformación de la asignatura, hasta el desarrollo de la experiencia práctica en el ámbito hospitalario y de la vida cotidiana. La experiencia muestra la adecuación de la TDAC para abordar el cuidado de esta población y la necesidad de desarrollar otros estudios al respecto.

Alba Lucero López Díaz

2003-01-01

78

Higher energy taxation sure to create different problems for the industry in the western and eastern parts of Germany. Taking total expenses and demand for electricity as a basis for assessing the financial reliefs and additional burdens to be expected; Die west- und ostdeutsche Industrie vor der Stromsteuer. Stromverbrauch und -kosten als Ausgangspunkt kuenftiger Be- und Entlastungen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rising expenses for power no doubt will have considerable effects on the ability of the industry in eastern or western Germany to compete on prices. The electricity bill is the crucial item, as on average, it consumes more than half of the total expenses for power supplies. The contribution here presents a differentiated assessment of the effects of market deregulation together with the planned rise in energy taxes, taking into account the specific current situations of the industry. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Zweifellos beeinflusst die Entwicklung der Energiepreise die (preisliche) Wettbewerbsfaehigkeit der Industrie. Massgebend sind die Stromkosten, die durchschnittlich mehr als die Haelfte der gesamten Energiekosten ausmachen. Fuer Ost- und Westdeutschland werden sich aus der Liberalisierung und der Stromsteuer differenzierte Wirkungen ergeben. Dem liegt insbesondere eine unterschiedliche Ausgangssituation zugrunde. (orig.)

Weisheimer, M. [Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung Halle (IWH) (Germany)

1999-01-01

79

Four-dimensional data assimilation as a method for coupling two meteorological model systems of different scales; Vierdimensionale Datenassimilation als Methode zur Kopplung zweier verschiedenskaliger meteorologischer Modellsysteme  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method of coupling two meteorological models of different scales must meet certain requirements: First, even a big difference in resolution between the two models must not produce disturbances in the smaller-scale model. This means that most nesting approaches are unfit for the purpose. The method presented here is not limited to meteorological models. It can be enhanced without much difficulty to dispersion models taking account of chemical atmospheric reactions, as e.g. in the CTM of the EURAD model or in DRAIS as an enhancement of the KAMM version. [German] Das Ziel dieser Arbeit bestand in der Entwicklung eines geeigneten Kopplungsverfahrens zweier verschiedenskaliger meteorologischer Modelle, das in einem Ein-Weg-Nesting dem kleinerskaligen Modell ermoeglicht, sowohl instationaere superskalige Verhaeltnisse als auch modellinterne kleinraeumige Prozesse miteinander zu verbinden. Im Rahmen des Projektes TFS mussten hierbei entscheidende Bedingungen an das Kopplungsverfahren gestellt werden. Allen voran darf vor allem ein auch grosser Unterschied in der Aufloesung der beiden verschiedenskaligen Modelle keine kuenstlichen Stoerungen im kleinerskaligen Modell produzieren. Somit scheiden die sonst ueblichen Nestingansaetze fuer diesen Fall aus. Das Verfahren ist derart konzipiert, dass es sich nicht auf rein meteorologische Modelle beschraenkt. Eine Ausweitung auf Ausbreitungsmodelle unter Beruecksichtigung chemischer Reaktionen in der Atmosphaere, wie sie etwa im CTM des EURAD-Modells oder im DRAIS als Erweiterung der KAMM-Version zur Verfuegung stehen, stellt keinen allzu grossen Schritt mehr dar. (orig.)

Wilms-Grabe, W.

2001-10-01

80

Photoelectron spectroscopy of the aluminum hydride anions: AlH2-, AlH3-, Al2H6-, Al3H9-, and Al4H12-  

Science.gov (United States)

We report measurements of the negative ion photoelectron spectra of the simple aluminum hydride anions: AlH2-, AlH3-, Al2H6-, Al3H9-, and Al4H12-. From these spectra, we measured the vertical detachment energies of the anions, and we estimated the electron affinities of their neutral counterparts. Our results for AlH2-, AlH3-, and Al2H6- were also compared with previous predictions by theory.

Zhang, Xinxing; Wang, Haopeng; Collins, Evan; Lim, Alane; Ganteför, Gerd; Kiran, Boggavarapu; Schnöckel, Hansgeorg; Eichhorn, Bryan; Bowen, Kit

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
81

Statins: Do They Cause ALS?  

Science.gov (United States)

... personal, noncommercial use only. Statins: Do they cause ALS? By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: http://www. ... address Sign up Question Statins: Do they cause ALS? Do statins cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)? Answer ...

82

Pornographie als Metapher  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In diesem Artikel werden unterschiedliche metaphorische Verwendungen des Pornografiebegriffs und deren Implikationen untersucht. Während die Existenz von Pornografie der feministischen Anti-Porno-Bewegung als Erklärung für die anhaltende Diskriminierung von Frauen in westlichen Gesellschaften dient, nutzen rechtskonservative Kräfte den Pornografievorwurf als Rechtfertigung für die Zensur von als deviant empfundenen Identitäten und sexuellen Praktiken.This article examines different metaphorical uses of the term pornography and the resulting implications. While the existence of pornography for the feminist anti-porno movement serves as factor in the continuing discrimination of women in western societies, conservative powers on the right use the allegation of pornography as a justification for censorship of those identities and sexual practices deemed deviant.

Caroline Schubarth

2010-01-01

83

ALS superbend magnet system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is preparing to upgrade the Advanced Light Source (ALS) with three superconducting dipoles (Superbends). In this paper we present the final magnet system design which incorporates R and D test results and addresses the ALS operational concerns of alignment, availability, and economy. The design incorporates conduction-cooled Nb-Ti windings and HTS current leads, epoxy-glass suspension straps, and a Gifford-McMahon cryocooler to supply steady state refrigeration. We also present the current status of fabrication and testing.

2000-01-01

84

ALS superbend magnet system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is preparing to upgrade the Advanced Light Source (ALS) with three superconducting dipoles (Superbends). In this paper we present the final magnet system design which incorporates R&D test results and addresses the ALS operational concerns of alignment, availability, and economy. The design incorporates conduction-cooled Nb-Ti windings and HTS current leads, epoxy-glass suspension straps, and a Gifford-McMahon cryocooler to supply steady state refrigeration. We also present the current status of fabrication and testing.

Zbasnik, J.; Wang, S.T.; Chen, J.Y.; DeVries, G.J.; DeMarco, R.; Fahmie, M.; Geyer, A.; Green, M.A.; Harkins, J.; Henderson, T.; Hinkson, J.; Hoyer, E.H.; Krupnick, J.; Marks, S.; Ottens, F.; Paterson, J.A.; Pipersky, P.; Portmann, G.; Robin, D.A.; Schlueter, R.D.; Steier, C.; Taylor, C.E.; Wahrer, R.

2000-09-15

85

Price drop and increasing competition; Sinkende Preise und mehr Wettbewerb  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Competition in the German PV sector is getting harder. German wholesale providers are dropping their prices, strengthening their marketing activities and expanding their range of services. This is the result of an enquiry made by SONNE WIND and WAeRME in November 2011.

Berner, Joachim

2012-01-06

86

Mit Mathematik zu Mehr Intelligenz in der Logistik  

Science.gov (United States)

Die Lösung logistischer Probleme ist ein wichtiger Aspekt menschlichen Handelns seit Menschen gemeinsam zielgerichtet tätig wurden. Die Grundlagen dessen, was wir heute Logistik nennen, entstammen dem militärischen Bereich. So basierte z. B. das römische Imperium in starkem Maße auf militärisch-logistischen Glanzleistungen. Ob damals bereits mathematische Überlegungen eine Rolle spielten, wissen wir heute nicht. Jedoch versuchte z. B. Napoleon, der mit den bedeutendsten Mathematikern seiner Zeit befreundet war, den Transport seiner Truppen und die Verbreitung von Informationen zu optimieren und strategisch einzusetzen.1,2

Möhring, Rolf H.; Schenk, Michael

87

More electronics for solar modules; Mehr Elektronik ans Modul  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Producers of connecting boxes are now integrating electronic circuits that have been discussed by experts for several years. On the one hand, they want to replace the bypass diodes and prolong the service life of the boxes, on the other hand the modules will get new functionalities.

Gifford, Jonathan; Ali-Oettinger, Shamsiah

2011-07-01

88

No longer of importance?; Nicht mehr so wichtig?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the first half of 2007, the number of new installations reached the average of the last years with 665.15 megawatt. More than half of this was constructed by Enercon. The other producers are withdrawing from Germany.

Franken, M.

2007-08-15

89

More comfort for rooms, less energy; Mehr Raumkomfort, weniger Energie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Presented is an intelligent automation system controlling valves of radiators, lighting systems, jalousies and safety components in households. It's a complete system meeting consumers demand and can be programmed by the user in a simple manner. The new RF based house automation system Synco living of Siemens Building technologies connects the different requirements on KNX/EIB-interfaces. The advantage is: All partial components were monitored and operated by a single display. (GL)

Zaehrl, M. [HVAC Products Deutschland, Siemens Building Technologies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

2007-05-15

90

More raw materials for biofuels; Mehr Stoff fuer Biokraft  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

By 2020, ten percent of all motor fuels should be derived from renewable energy sources, according to the intention of the German government. Development activities currently aim at producing a more gasoline-like biofuel. This will require modifications of the fuel to meet more rigid emission standards. (orig.)

Gaul, Thomas

2010-11-15

91

No way around green tariffs; Oekotarife sind nicht mehr wegzudenken  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Just like green electricity, meanwhile a classic, so too now does newcomer ''green gas'' offer energy suppliers with an appropriate marketing mix far-reaching opportunities for improving their corporate image, securing customer loyalty and increasing turnover. However the only beneficiaries of this trend to date have been green-only suppliers which specialise in this market. Although most traditional suppliers have now added green tariffs to their product portfolio, this has given them little commercial success, since eco-minded consumers often consider green-only suppliers to be more credible. A recent study shows that the market volume of green electricity and green gas tariffs will grow markedly over the next five years. Energy suppliers should therefore turn their attention to the question of how they can best exploit this potential.

Briese, Dirk [trend:research GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

2011-05-15

92

Creep Behavior of Al-Rich Fe-Al Intermetallics.  

Science.gov (United States)

The compression creep behavior of two dual-phase intermetallic alloys (FeAl2-Fe2Al5 and FeAl3-Fe2Al5) was investigated over the temperature range 600-1000 deg C. A normal primary creep stage, stress exponent between 4 and 5, and normal creep transient aft...

Y. L. Jeng E. J. Lavernia R. M. Hayes J. Wolfenstine

1995-01-01

93

Al/Al-oxide nanophase composites: Hardness and NMR Results  

Science.gov (United States)

Hardness and high temperature 27-Al NMR measurements of Al/Al-oxide nanophase composites produced by consolidation of nanoscale Al particles which have been passivated by exposure to air are reported. The Al/Al-oxide nanophase composite material produced has a low density, is electrically conducting and has a hardness much larger than that of metallic Al. High temperature NMR measurements show that the Al metal melts at the same temperature in all the samples, including a large-grained Al metal sample, independent of grain size and without a change in shape of the sample. The results here confirm previous thermal measurements which show that the Al metal melts without grain growth in these materials. On the other hand, the temperature for the onset of rapid atomic diffusion, as estimated from NMR line widths, shows a significant sample dependence. Heated samples exhibit a further factor of five increase in hardness and yet remain electrically conducting.

Suits, B. H.; Apte, P.

1998-03-01

94

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available X-Plain Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Reference Summary Introduction Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, or ALS, is a serious neurological disease ... a summary of what appears on screen in X-Plain™ . It is for informational purposes and is not ...

95

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... approved the first drug treatment for ALS called riluzole. Scientists believe that riluzole reduces damage to motor neurons. It also prolongs ... months, mostly in patients who have trouble swallowing. Riluzole does not reverse the damage already done to ...

96

Comentarios al Salto Social  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 1. El Plan considera que la política social es un componente central de la estrategia macroeconómica. A diferencia de la administración Gaviria, lo social ha dejado de ser un asunto marginal, es consustancial al desarrollo y, por tanto, se le confiere una dimensión cualitativamente diferente.

Facultad de Ciencias Económicas

1995-01-01

97

Nucleosynthesis of 26Al  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A burst of interest has followed the discovery in the galactic plane of the 1.8 MeV gamma line attached to the decay of 26Al. We discuss the relative merits of supernovae, novae, massive and supermassive mass-losing stars as potential sources of this expressive isotope

1986-07-02

98

Interdiffusion in SiC-AlN and AlN-Al{sub 2}OC systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

AlN, Al{sub 2}OC, and the 2H form of SiC are isostructural. Both SiC-AlN and AlN-Al{sub 2}OC form homogeneous solid solutions above 2000 and 1950 C, respectively. The kinetics of phase separation in the two systems, however, are quite different. Interdiffusion in both SiC-AlN and AlN-Al{sub 2}OC systems was examined in the solid-solution regime in an attempt to elucidate differences in the kinetics of phase separation that occur in the two systems when annealed at lower temperatures. Diffusion couples of (SiC){sub 0.3}(AlN){sub 0.7}/(SiC){sub 0.7}(AlN){sub 0.3} and (AlN){sub 0.7}(Al{sub 2}OC){sub 0.3}/(AlN){sub 0.3}(Al{sub 2}OC){sub 0.7} were fabricated by hot pressing and were annealed at high temperatures by encapsulating them in sealed SiC crucibles to suppress loss due to evaporation. Interdiffusion coefficients in (SiC){sub 0.3}-(AlN){sub 0.7}/(SiC){sub 0.7}(AlN){sub 0.3} diffusion couples were measured at 2,373, 2473, and 2573 K, and the corresponding activation energy was determined to be 632 kJ/mol. (AlN){sub 0.7}(Al{sub 2}OC){sub 0.3}/(AlN){sub 0.3}(Al{sub 2}OC){sub 0.7} samples were annealed at 2273 K. The interdiffusion coefficient measured in the AlN-Al{sub 2}OC system was much larger than that in the SiC-AlN system.

Tian, Q.; Virkar, A.V. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1996-08-01

99

Electroforming of continuous Al-AlN granular films  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Continuous Al-AlN granular films (Al granules embedded in the AlN matrix) were proposed to serve as surface conduction-electron emission emitters. The electroforming process and the electron emission characteristics of the continuous Al-AlN granular films were investigated. The electroforming mechanism of the Al-AlN granular film emitter could be attributed to the fact that the Al granules were evaporated from the Al-AlN granular films. The voltage control negative resistance (VCNR) properties of the Al-AlN granular films could be repeated with periodic changes of the device voltage during electroforming. After electroforming, the nano-fissures with a width of 60-250 nm on the surface of Al-AlN granular films were obtained. A stable electron emission current of 2.79 {mu}A for a line array with 18 electron emitters could be reproducibly observed at a device voltage of 13 V and anode voltage of 2.5 kV.

Liang, H.F. [Key Laboratory of Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Key Laboratory of Optical Measurement and Thin Film of Shanxi Province, Xi' an Technological University, Xi' an 710032 (China)], E-mail: hfliang2004@yahoo.com.cn; Meng, L.G.; Liu, C.L. [Key Laboratory of Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

2008-12-30

100

Nuclear power and the general public: Will more safety bring more acceptance?; Kernenergie und oeffentliche Meinung: Mehr Sicherheit - mehr Akzeptanz?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper discusses five questions: (1) Why is it so difficult to reach a consensus about energy policy? (2) What are the opinions of the population about energy policy issues? (3) What is the substance of communication, and how does communication proceed? (4) What are the communication strategies of the major parties involved good for? Do they contribute to overcoming dissent, or do they rather induce dissent? (5) What can be done, and what should be done to improve communication? (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wird fuenf Fragen nachgegangen: (1) Was macht es eigentlich so schwer, einen energiepolitischen Konsens zu erreichen? (2) Wie sieht die Meinung der Bevoelkerung zu energiepolitischen Fragen aus? (3) Was wird kommuniziert und wie wird kommuniziert? (4) Wie sind die Kommunikationsstrategien der wichtigsten Akteure zu bewerten? Tragen sie bei, Dissense zu ueberwinden oder erzeugen sie solche? (5) Was kann und was sollte man kommunikativ tun? (orig./UA)

Wiedemann, P.M.

1995-12-31

 
 
 
 
101

ALS Project Management Manual  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This manual has been prepared to help establish a consistent baseline of management practices across all ALS projects. It describes the initial process of planning a project, with a specific focus on the production of a formal project plan. We feel that the primary weakness in ALS project management efforts to date stems from a failure to appreciate the importance of ''up-front'' project planning. In this document, we present a guide (with examples) to preparing the documents necessary to properly plan, monitor, and control a project's activities. While following the manual will certainly not guarantee good project management, failure to address the issues we raise will dramatically reduce the chance of success. Here we define success as meeting the technical goals on schedule and within the prescribed budget.

Krupnick, Jim; Harkins, Joe

2000-05-01

102

Thomas Morley als musiktheoretiker  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available (nema?ki) Der Komponist und Musiktheoretiker Thomas Morley hat in seiner Abhandlung "A Plaine and Easie Introduction into Practicall Musicke" (heraus-gegeben 1597 in London) die Kompositionslehre seiner Zeit auf verständliche und anschauliche Weise dargestellt. Der vorliegende Beitrag untersucht sowohl den wissenschaftlichen als auch den didaktischen Wert dieses Traktats. Neben der Besprechung der allgemeinen Charakteristika der Abhandlung, wird im Beitrag auch Morleys Behandlung einzelner Themenbereiche untersucht, so u.a. auch die Klauseldisposition und die Frage, ob die Aussagen Morleys darüber als Wende vom modalen hin zum tonalen Denken interpretiert werden können: In diesem Kontext wird eine Antwort auf Martina Rebmanns Kritik an Carl Dahlhaus' Interpretation der Lehre Morleys gegeben.

Popovi? Tihomir T.

2005-01-01

103

Carta al editor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently, Valencia et al., published a very interesting article called «Lipid profile in a group of patients with Turner’s syndrome at Clínica Universitaria Bolivariana in the city of Medellín between 2000 and 2009". An article which evaluated lipid levels in patients withTurner syndrome in a Colombian clinic, the study associated results of lipid profile with karyotype and other risk factors for coronary heart disease.

Harry Pachajoa

2012-01-01

104

Al-Adwiyah Al-Qalbiyah: introduction and commentary.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Avicenna was a great scientist and philosopher of the 10th century A.D. He wrote about 456 books in various fields of learning. Al-Adwiyah Al-Qalbiyah is perhaps the most important work of Avicenna after Al-Qanun fil Tibb or canon of medicine. Like Al-Qanun, it was also very popular in Europe and was translated into Latin. It has also been translated in Turkish, Uzbbek, and later on in Persian and Urdu.

Azmi KA; Hussain S

1994-07-01

105

Photoelectron spectroscopy of the aluminum hydride anions: AlH2(-), AlH3(-), Al2H6(-), Al3H9(-), and Al4H12(-).  

Science.gov (United States)

We report measurements of the negative ion photoelectron spectra of the simple aluminum hydride anions: AlH2(-), AlH3(-), Al2H6(-), Al3H9(-), and Al4H12(-). From these spectra, we measured the vertical detachment energies of the anions, and we estimated the electron affinities of their neutral counterparts. Our results for AlH2(-), AlH3(-), and Al2H6(-) were also compared with previous predictions by theory. PMID:23556719

Zhang, Xinxing; Wang, Haopeng; Collins, Evan; Lim, Alane; Ganteför, Gerd; Kiran, Boggavarapu; Schnöckel, Hansgeorg; Eichhorn, Bryan; Bowen, Kit

2013-03-28

106

Reactive phase formation at AlN-Ti and AlN-TiAl interfaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ti specimens with embedded AlN particles, as well as AlN-Ti and AlN-TiAl diffusion couples were annealed at 900 to 1100 C for up to 40 h. The microstructure and phase composition of the reacted interfaces were characterized using electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) in scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In AlN-TiAl diffusion couples, a ternary Ti{sub 2}AlN compound was formed at the interface. A more complex AlN-TiN+Ti{sub 3}AlN-Ti{sub 3}Al-(Ti){sub Al}-Ti reaction zone was observed at the AlN-Ti interface. The morphology of the two-phase (TiN+Ti{sub 3}AlN) layer changed with time so that the ternary nitride dominated after longer exposures. The kinetics of the reaction zone growth was two-stage, with a significant decrease of the growth rate at the second stage. Such behavior is believed to be caused by the changing morphology of the (TiN+Ti{sub 3}AlN) layer accompanied by decreasing diffusivity of the components. (orig.)

Paransky, Y.; Gotman, I.; Gutmanas, E.Y. [Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel). Dept. of Materials Engineering

2000-01-31

107

The new generation of BMW 4-cylinder engines (NG-4). A challenge for materials management; Die neue BMW Vierzylinder-Motorengeneration (NG-4) als materialwirtschaftliche Herausforderung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On 8 February 2001, BMW's new plant at Hams Hall in England, one of the most modern engine plants in the world, was officially opened. BMW is currently producing around 350 high-tech engines there per day. By the end of the year, production will have risen to 600 units per day. By the time the plant reaches its full capacity of over 400,000 units per year, around 1500 workers will be employed there. This successful project is the culmination of years of detailed work carried out in the engineering, sales and materials management fields. (orig.) [German] Am 8. Februar 2001 wurde das neue BMW Werk Hams Hall in England, eines der modernsten Motorenwerke der Welt, offiziell eingeweiht. Heute produziert BMW dort taeglich rund 350 High-Tech-Vierzylindermotoren. Bis Ende des Jahres wird die Produktion auf ueber 600 Einheiten pro Tag ansteigen. Wenn die volle Kapazitaet von mehr als 400.000 Einheiten pro Jahr erreicht ist, werden rund 1500 Mitarbeiter im Werk beschaeftigt sein. Dem ging eine jahrelange technische, kaufmaennische und materialwirtschaftliche Detailarbeit voraus. (orig.)

Bergmann, D.; Prinz, G. [BMW Group (Germany)

2001-08-01

108

Können die Parameter Dauerkatheter-Liegezeit, postoperatives Miktionsvolumen und Prostatagewicht als Parameter zur Vorhersage der Kontinenzwahrscheinlichkeit nach endoskopischer, extraperitonealer radikaler Prostatektomie dienen?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Die Kontinenzergebnisse nach den verschiedenen Verfahren der radikalen Prostatektomie zeigen bei entsprechender Erfahrung der Operateure keine Unterschiede und erreichen je nach Definition Raten bis zu 90 %. Es sollen deshalb unabhängige Parameter auf ihre Wertigkeit zur Abschätzung der Kontinenzwahrscheinlichkeit nach EERPE untersucht werden, um die Kontinenzraten verfahrensunabhängig optimieren zu können. Zur Erfassung der Kontinenzraten wird den Patienten jeweils 3, 6 und 12 Monate nach EERPE ein in der eigenen Abteilung entwickelter Fragebogen zugesandt. Das postoperative Miktionsvolumen wird mittels Uroflowmetrie ermittelt. Der Einfluss der zu untersuchenden Parameter wurde in Abhängigkeit der Ergebnisse der Fragebögen nach den entsprechenden Zeitintervallen analysiert. So zeigte sich, dass Patienten, welche 12 Monate nach radikaler Prostatektomie max. 1 Vorlage pro Tag benötigten, eine mittlere Dauerkatheter-Liegezeit von 10,2 Tagen hatten. Männer, die nach demselben Zeitraum 3 Vorlagen über 24 h benötigten, wurden im Mittel 19,5 Tage dauerhaft abgeleitet. Das mittlere Miktionsvolumen in der postoperativen Uroflowmetrie zeigte zu keinem Zeitpunkt einen signifikanten Unterschied zwischen den verschiedenen Gruppen. Ein höheres Prostatagewicht zeigte einen negativen Einfluss auf die Kontinenzergebnisse 3 Monate nach der Operation. Sechs und 12 Monate nach der EERPE ließen sich keine Auswirkungen des Organgewichtes auf das Kontinenzergebnis mehr darstellen. Als Konsequenz ergibt sich deshalb die Forderung nach einer Vermeidung verlängerter Katheter-Liegezeiten. Dies kann bereits intraoperativ durch eine sorgfältige Naht der vesiko-urethralen Anastomose erreicht werden. Voraussetzung dafür ist die sichere Beherrschung des angewandten Operationsverfahrens.

Sehovic M; Sankowski N; Lermer J; Weiser R

2010-01-01

109

Plasmonen als Lichttransporter: Nanooptik  

Science.gov (United States)

Metallische Nanopartikel, Nanodrähte oder Filme können Licht in Oberflächen-Plasmonen einfangen. Dieses Phänomen spielt sich im optischen Nahfeld und im Subwellenlängenbereich ab. Dabei entsteht ein hybrider, optoelektronischer Anregungszustand aus Licht und oszillierenden Leitungselektronen. Metallische Nanopartikel können zum Beispiel als Hilfsantennen die Fluoreszenz von Biomolekülen erheblich verstärken. Das ist für Fluoreszenzsensoren interessant. Experimente zeigen, dass metallische Nanodrähte in Oberflächen-Plasmonen Licht transportieren können. Auf zweidimensionalen, strukturierten Metallfilmen wurden Bauelemente bis hin zum Interferometer für Plasmonen erfolgreich demonstriert. Das junge Feld der Plasmonik könnte wichtige Beiträge zu einer zukünftigen Nanooptik liefern.

Aussenegg, Franz; Ditlbacher, Harald

2006-09-01

110

COMENTARIO AL CASO PINOCHET  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El fallo en el caso Pinochet tiene distintas formas de ser analizado. De partida, desde un punto de vista político, también constitucional, del derecho penal. Sin embargo, nos abocaremos al estudio desde el punto de vista procesal, en especial a lo referido al Debido Proceso. Para ello se analizará los presupuestos, la solución dada por la Excma. Corte Suprema y las consecuencias del mismo. Además, se criticará la solución dada, desde la óptica de las garantías procesales del imputado, contenidas en el nuevo proceso penal y lo dispuesto en la Constitución y la Convención Americana de Derechos Humanos. Finalmente, se argumentará en favor de una interpretación finalista y armónica de la Constitución y los tratados internacionales de derechos humanos.The verdict of the Pinochet Case has different ways of being analyzed: from the political, the constitutional, and the penal law points of view. However, we will approach this study from the legal point of view, especially to that referred to as the Proper Process. To do this, the budgets, the solution given by the Most Excellent Supreme Court, and its consequences will be analyzed. Furthermore, the given solution will be criticized from the point of view of the legal guarantees of the accused contained in the new penal process and what is contained in the Constitution and in the American Convention of Human Rights. In conclusion, we will argue in favor of a final and harmonious interpretation of the Constitution and the international agreement of human rights.

Alberto Contreras Clunes

2002-01-01

111

Editorial: Cartas al Editor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En todas las revistas biomédicas del mundo existe una sección habitual denominada como el título de este editorial y que en Colombia Médica la llamamos correspondencia. Este espacio tiene como objetivo fundamental que los lectores escriban a los autores (investigadores) comentando los artículos que se han publicado en números anteriores de la revista. Las cartas son, entonces, breves comentarios de desacuerdo o acuerdo (conceptual, metodológico, interpretativo) sobre falencias ubicadas por un lector alerta al tema debatido en cualquiera de las secciones como en los artículos originales, editoriales, revisiones, presentación de casos, etc.) publicados previamente en la revista. Las cartas deben permitir el intercambio de opiniones y formas de pensar y analizar los problemas planteados entre los autores y los lectores. En ocasiones una serie de cartas motivadas por un artículo original puede ser tan o más interesante como el artículo que generó la correspondencia. Las cartas son también un formato adecuado para comunicar un hecho novedoso de una observación clínica juiciosa no descrita antes. Un ejemplo de ello es la carta de un gineco-obstetra australiano cuando informó a Lancet los primeros efectos adversos informados de la talidomida. Colombia Médica, a pesar de mantener vigente esta sección, no ha sido muy afortunada en establecer una buena cultura del envío de cartas al editor. Pero últimamente han llegado juiciosas observaciones a las cuales se les ha dado prioridad en su publicación. Toda carta que comenta los hallazgos de un artículo es enviada a los autores para su respuesta, porque ello genera el debate académico buscado, y luego se publican, tanto la carta como su respuesta. El Estilo Vancouver recomienda que la carta y su respuesta deban ser breve, no pasar de dos o tres párrafos y contener sólo cuatro o cinco referencias. En lo posible (a menos que sea indispensable) no presentar ni cuadros ni gráficos. El título de la carta debe ser informativo, innovativo y obviamente relacionado con el tema a presentar. La carta debe referirse en forma clara y explícita al hecho que la motiva y a partir de ahí seguir un esquema expositivo progresivo. Los párrafos siguientes deben ser la argumentación a favor o en contra, o los comentarios adicionales que se quieren hacer. Luego debe seguir una pequeña discusión de estos aportes y se debe finalizar con una conclusión. Las cartas son finalmente una indicador bibliométrico de la lectura juiciosa de quienes leen la revista. Por ello los editores buscamos y facilitamos el envío de ellas. En Colombia Médica queremos estimular que nos escriban y ojalá nuestros lectores se vuelvan socios muy activos en el proceso de comunicación científica y para ello utilicen nuestra sección de correspondencia.

Guillermo Llanos

2006-01-01

112

Fabrication of hybrid Al-(Al{sub 3}Ti+Al{sub 3}Ni) FGMs by centrifugal method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Al based FGMs, reinforced by a hybrid of Al{sub 3}Ti platelets and Al{sub 3}Ni granular particles, were fabricated by the centrifugal method. The microstructures of hybrid Al-(Al{sub 3}Ti+Al{sub 3}Ni) FGMs were observed with an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope. Based on the experimental results, the advantages of hybrid Al-(Al{sub 3}Ti+Al{sub 3}Ni) FGMs were discussed. (orig.) 7 refs.

Nakamura, T.; Kato, Y.; Watanabe, Y. [Shinshu Univ., Ueda (Japan). Dept. of Functional Machinery and Mech.

1999-10-01

113

Corrosion behaviour of Al/SiC and Al/Al2O3 nanocomposites  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english In the present investigation, the static immersion corrosion behavior of Al/Al2O3 and Al/SiC nanocomposites in 1 M HCl acidic solution was evaluated. The nanocomposites were fabricated using conventional powder metallurgy (P/M) route. The effect of nanoparticulates size and volume fraction on the corrosion behavior of nanocomposites was studied. The durations of the corrosion tests ranged from 24 to 120 hours and the temperatures of the solution ranged from ambient to 75 (more) ºC. The corrosion rates of the nanocomposites were calculated using the weight loss method. The results showed that both Al/SiC and Al/Al2O3 MMNCs have lower corrosion rates than the pure Al matrix. Such behavior was noticed at both ambient and higher temperatures. Generally, the Al/Al2O3 nanocomposites exhibited lower corrosion rates than the Al/SiC nanocomposites. The Al/Al2O3 (60 nm) nanocomposites exhibited the highest corrosion resistance among all the investigated nanocomposites. The corrosion rate was found to be reduced by increasing of the exposure time and the volume fraction of the nanoparticulates, while it was found to be increased by increasing of the nanoparticulates size and the solution temperature.

Mahmoud, Tamer Samir; El-Kady, El-Sayed Yousef; Al-Shihiri, Ayed Saad Merzen

2012-12-01

114

Corrosion behaviour of Al/SiC and Al/Al2O3 nanocomposites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present investigation, the static immersion corrosion behavior of Al/Al2O3 and Al/SiC nanocomposites in 1 M HCl acidic solution was evaluated. The nanocomposites were fabricated using conventional powder metallurgy (P/M) route. The effect of nanoparticulates size and volume fraction on the corrosion behavior of nanocomposites was studied. The durations of the corrosion tests ranged from 24 to 120 hours and the temperatures of the solution ranged from ambient to 75 ºC. The corrosion rates of the nanocomposites were calculated using the weight loss method. The results showed that both Al/SiC and Al/Al2O3 MMNCs have lower corrosion rates than the pure Al matrix. Such behavior was noticed at both ambient and higher temperatures. Generally, the Al/Al2O3 nanocomposites exhibited lower corrosion rates than the Al/SiC nanocomposites. The Al/Al2O3 (60 nm) nanocomposites exhibited the highest corrosion resistance among all the investigated nanocomposites. The corrosion rate was found to be reduced by increasing of the exposure time and the volume fraction of the nanoparticulates, while it was found to be increased by increasing of the nanoparticulates size and the solution temperature.

Tamer Samir Mahmoud; El-Sayed Yousef El-Kady; Ayed Saad Merzen Al-Shihiri

2012-01-01

115

Bogart et al. Respond.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We appreciate the opportunity to respond to Nathan's insightful questions and to elucidate several aspects of our research. Nathan asks about the implications of grouping together all discrimination sources. As she notes, Greene et al. suggest that discrimination source plays a role in health outcomes, with peer discrimination more highly related to mental health than adult discrimination.(1) However, the Healthy Passages fifth-grade survey did not ask separate questions about discrimination by adults and discrimination by peers. Measuring and analyzing the distinct effects of different discrimination sources on health disparities in this age group would be an important contribution to the field. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print September 12, 2013: e1. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301570).

Bogart LM; Elliott MN; Kanouse DE; Klein DJ; Davies SL; Cuccaro PM; Banspach SW; Peskin MF; Schuster MA

2013-09-01

116

ALS Performance Summary - Update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) experiments play an important role in corroborating the improved physics codes that underlie LLNL's Stockpile Stewardship mission. Conducting these experiments, whether on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) or another national facility such as Omega, will require not only improvement in the diagnostics for measuring the experiment, but also detailed knowledge of the as-built target components and assemblies themselves. To assist in this effort, a defined set of well-known reference standards designed to represent a range of HEDP targets have been built and are being used to quantify the performance of different characterization techniques [Hibbard, et al. 2004]. Without the critical step of using reference standards for qualifying characterization tools there can be no verification of either commercial or internally-developed characterization techniques and thus an uncertainty in the input to the physics code models would exist.

Waters, A M; Brown, W D; Martz, Jr., H E

2004-09-30

117

Epitaxial growth of Al/Al2O3 multilayer structures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to obtain Al-Al2O3 quantum effect devices, it is necessary to deposit epitaxially Al on Al2O3 and Al2O3 on Al. We have already obtained an epitaxial Al/Al2O3/Al structures on Si(111). In this paper, we have deposit Al/Al2O3/Al structures on Si(111), and investigated the crystallinity by using RBS. (author)

1994-01-01

118

Del duelo al deseo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cuando Freud se refiere al duelo de la muerte del padre se ocupa de su expresión sintomática, diferencial, según la estructura clínica en juego: el reproche obsesivo y la identificación con el rasgo del síntoma paterno. Pero, más allá del síntoma histérico, la identificación revela una relación estrecha con el duelo, cuyo requisito es la constitución del objeto en cuanto perdido. La lectura lacaniana de Hamlet muestra a condición de qué el padre alcanza para el hijo el estatuto de objeto de duelo, al igual que sus efectos sobre la recomposición del deseo. Résumé Lorsque Freud parle du deuil de la mort du père, il s’occupe de son expression symptomatique, différentiel selon la structure clinique concernée: le reproche de l’obsessionnel et l’identification au trait du symptôme paternel. Mais, au-delà du symptôme hystérique, l’identification révèle un rapport étroit au deuil, dont l’exigence en est la constitution de l’objet en tant que perdu. La lecture lacanienne d’Hamlet montre quelle est la condition à remplir pour que le père ait pour son fils le statut d’objet du deuil et ses effets sur la recomposition du désir. Abstract When Freud refers to mourning the death of the father, he deals with its symptomatic, differential expression, according to the clinical structure in question: obsessive reproach and identification with the trace of the paternal symptom. But beyond the hysterical symptom, identification reveals a close link to mourning, whose requirement is the constitution of the object as lost. The Lacanian reading of Hamlet shows the condition that must be met for the father to acquire the status of object of mourning for the son, as well as its effects on the recomposition of desire.

De Castro Korgi Sylvia

2011-01-01

119

Doppelthydrophile Blockcopolymere als Mineralisationstemplate  

Science.gov (United States)

Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der Synthese und den Eigenschaften von doppelthydrophilen Blockcopolymeren und ihrer Anwendung in einem biomimetischen Mineralisationsprozeß von Calciumcarbonat und Bariumsulfat. Doppelthydrophile Blockcopolymere bestehen aus einem hydrophilen Block, der nicht mit Mineralien wechselwirkt und einem zweiten Polyelektrolyt-Block, der stark mit Mineraloberflächen wechselwirkt. Diese Blockcopolymere wurden durch ringöffnende Polymerisation von N-carboxyanhydriden (NCA's) und a-methoxy-?-amino[poly(ethylene glycol)] PEG-NH2 als Initiator hergestellt. Die hergestellten Blockcopolymere wurden als effektive Wachstumsmodifikatoren für die Kristallisation von Calciumcarbonat und Bariumsulfat Mineralien eingesetzt. Die so erhaltenen Mineralpartikel (Kugeln, Hantel, eiförmige Partikel) wurden durch Lichtmikroskopie in Lösung, SEM und TEM charakterisiert. Röntgenweitwinkelstreuung (WAXS) wurde verwendet, um die Modifikation von Calciumcarbonat zu ermitteln und die Größe der Calciumcarbonat- und Bariumsulfat-Nanopartikel zu ermitteln. This work describes the synthesis and characterization of double hydrophilic block copolymers and their use in a biomimetic mineralization process of Calcium Carbonate and Barium Sulfate. Double hydrophilic block copolymers consist of a hydrophilic block that does not interact with minerals and another hydrophilic polyelectrolyte block that strongly interacts with mineral surfaces. These polymers were synthesised via ring opening polymerisation of N-carboxyanhydride (NCA), and the first hydrophilic block a-methoxy-?-amino[poly(ethylene glycol)] PEG-NH2 was used as an initiator. The prepared block copolymers were used as effective crystal growth modifiers to control the crystallization of Calcium Carbonate and Barium Sulfate minerals. The resulting mineral particles (spheres, dumbbells, egg-like particles) were characterised by light microscopy in solution, by SEM, and by TEM. X-Ray scattering measurements (WAXS) were used to prove the modification of Calcium Carbonate particles and to calculate the size of Calcium Carbonate and Barium Sulfate nanoparticles.

Kasparova, Pavla

2002-07-01

120

Detecting frontotemporal dysfunction in ALS: utility of the ALS Cognitive Behavioral Screen (ALS-CBS).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Up to half of patients with ALS develop cognitive impairment during the course of the illness. Despite this, there is no simple tool for screening patients in the clinical setting. This study examines the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the ALS Cognitive Behavioral Screen (ALS-CBS). We administered the measure to 112 ALS patients, including 31 who also underwent comprehensive neuropsychological testing. Screen results were validated by determining the accuracy against the full battery. Optimal cut-off scores for predicting the correct diagnosis were determined, and mean scores were compared between patients, controls and different diagnostic groups. The results demonstrated that mean cognitive scores differed between ALS and normal controls (p < 0.0001). The cognitive section differentiated ALS-FTD from other ALS patients with 100% accuracy. Cognitively normal ALS patients could be distinguished from those with any cognitive deficit with 71% specificity and 85% sensitivity. A separate behavioral score was significantly lower in the ALS cohort compared to controls (p < 0.0001) and predicted ALS-FTD with 80% sensitivity and 88% specificity. In conclusion, the ALS-CBS can aid in detecting cognitive and behavioral impairment in a clinical setting, although it does not replace formal diagnostic assessment. Further validation with larger sample sizes will clarify its clinical utility.

Woolley SC; York MK; Moore DH; Strutt AM; Murphy J; Schulz PE; Katz JS

2010-05-01

 
 
 
 
121

26Al: measurement and applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

26Al, like 10Be is produced by cosmic rays in the atmosphere, but its production rate is low and the crustal abundance of 27Al is high, resulting in 26Al: 27Al ratios rarely exceeding 10-14. Both isotopes are also produced in surficial rocks by cosmic rays; in quartz (by the 26Al: 27Al ratio resulting from this in situ production can be as high as 3 x 10-11. In extraterrestrial matter, where the production rates are several hundred times greater, samples containing a few percent of 27Al have 26Al: 27Al ratios of 10-11 or larger. We describe an experimental arrangement for measuring 26Al:27Al ratios as low as 10-15. The size requirements for samples are approximately a factor of 100000 smaller than those of decay counting, and measurement times are less than an hour, compared with weeks or months. We discuss several applications of the technique to the measurement of terrestrial as well as extraterrestrial samples. In particular, we discuss several applications of the technique to the measurement of terrestrial as well as extraterrestrial samples. In particular, we discuss the very high 26Al: 10Be ratios that are found in the outer few millimetres of extraterrestrial bodies, resulting from low-energy protons emitted by solar flares, and the diagnostic value of these ratios in determining the size of objects in space. Finally, the manner in which the variable 26Al: 10Be ratio that results from in situ production in objects on the Earth's surface can be used to measure rates of weathering and exposure histories, is discussed. (author).

1987-01-01

122

Industrial residues as an external carbon source in denitrification; Industrielle Reststoffe als externe Kohlenstoffquelle fuer die Denitrifikation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biological waste water treatment requires biologically readily degradable carbon in order to permit elimination of as much nitrogen as possible. Often now this type of carbon is no longer present in waste water in an appropriate quantity, so that external carbon must be added. Apart from industrially fabricated substrates, the use of industrial residues and waste products as well as of partial waste water streams with a high organic pollutant load is lately being considered for cost reasons. But this is not altogether harmless. Those partial streams may contain substances that inhibit denitrification, impose an additional burden on subsequent cleaning stages or may even pass them unmodified, so that they are emitted into the environment and pose an ecological hazard potential. Hence, industrial residual products need to be specifically selected for use as an external carbon source in denitrification. A suitable strategy is described and demonstrated by means of different examples. (orig.) [German] In der biologischen Abwasserbehandlung ist fuer eine weitestgehende Stickstoffelimination oftmals biologisch gut abbaubarer Kohlenstoff im Abwasser nicht (mehr) in ausreichendem Masse vorhanden. Dann ist die Zugabe einer sog. externen Kohlenstoffquelle erforderlich. Neben industriell hergestellten Substraten wird in letzter Zeit aus Kostengruenden vielfach der Einsatz industrieller Rest- und Abfallstoffe sowie organisch hochbelasteter Abwasserteilstroeme erwogen. Dies ist jedoch nicht unproblematisch, da in diesen Stoffstroemen auch Substanzen enthalten sein koennen, die die Denitrifikation hemmen, nachfolgende Reinigungsstufen zusaetzlich belasten oder diese sogar unveraendert passsieren, dadurch in die Umwelt emittiert werden und damit moeglicherweise aus oekologischer Sicht ein Gefahrenpotential darstellen koennen. Es muss also eine besondere Auswahl der Pruefung industrieller Reststoffe im Hinblick auf den Einsatz als externe Kohlenstoffquelle in der Denitrifikation erfolgen. Hierzu wird eine geeignete Strategie vorgestellt und anhand verschiedener Beispiele erlaeutert. (orig.)

Schories, G. [TECON GmbH, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Geissen, S.U.; Vogelpohl, A. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Verfahrenstechnik

1999-07-01

123

Understanding ALS: new therapeutic approaches.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease associated with motor neuron degeneration, muscle atrophy and paralysis. Although numerous pathological mechanisms have been elucidated, ALS remains an invariably fatal disease in the absence of any effective therapy. The heterogeneity of the disease and the failure to develop satisfactory therapeutic protocols reinforce the view that ALS is a multi-factorial and multi-systemic disease. Thus, a better understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms and study of the potential pathological relationship between the various cellular processes is required to ensure efficacious therapy. The pathogenic mechanisms associated with ALS are reviewed, and the strengths and limitations of some new therapeutic approaches are discussed.

Musarò A

2013-09-01

124

Macroglossia - not always AL amyloidosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AL amyloidosis and transthyretin (ATTR) amyloidosis are the most frequent forms of systemic amyloidosis diagnosed in the United States. Macroglossia is considered to be a pathognomonic feature of AL amyloidosis. We report on two cases of systemic amyloidosis with macroglossia that defied routine clinical diagnosis, in which the deposits were typed as ATTR in one case and AL in the other using immunoelectron microscopy. These cases highlight: (1) the difficulty of typing amyloidosis on clinical criteria alone; (2) the utility of immunoelectron microscopy and (3) that macroglossia, while occurring much more frequently in AL, can also accompany ATTR amyloidosis.

Cowan AJ; Skinner M; Berk JL; Sloan JM; O'hara C; Seldin DC; Sanchorawala V

2011-06-01

125

Undulators at the ALS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's (LBL) Advanced Light Source (ALS), three 4.6 m long undulators have been completed, tested and installed. A fourth is under construction. The completed undulators include two 5.0 cm period length, 89 period devices (U5.0s) which achieve a 0.85 T effective field at a 14 mm minimum gap and a 8.0 cm period length, 55 period device (U8.0) that reaches a 1.2 T effective field at a 14 mm minimum gap. The undulator under construction is a 10.0 cm period length, 43 period device (U10.0) that is designed to achieve 0.98 T at a 23 mm gap. Undulator magnetic gap variation (rms) is within 25 microns over the periodic structure length. Reproducibility of the adjustable magnetic gap has been measured to be within +/- 5 microns. Gap adjusting range is from 14 mm to 210 mm, which can be scanned in one minute. The 5.1 m long vacuum chambers are flat in the vertical direction to within 0.74 mm and straight in the horizontal direction to within 0.08 mm over the 4.6 m magnetic structure sections. Vacuum chamber base pressures after UHV beam conditioning are. in the mid 10-11 Torr range and storage ring operating pressures with full current are in the low 10-10 Torr range. Measurements show that the uncorrelated magnetic field errors are 0.23%, and 0.20% for the two U5.Os and the U8.0 respectively and that the field integrals are small over the 1 cm by 6 cm beam aperture. Device description, fabrication, and measurements are presented.

1994-01-01

126

The cathodic dissolution of Al, Al2Cu, and Al alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cathodic dissolution of aluminum has been investigated for 99.99% Al, synthetic Al2Cu, and three Al-Cu-Mg alloys: AA2024, AA7050, and AA2214 offering a range of over two orders of magnitude in hydrogen reduction activity. Atomic emission spectroelectrochemistry (AESEC) was used to directly measure the dissolution rate of the alloy components as a function of the cathodic current during potential sweep and potential step experiments. It was found that for all samples, regardless of the cathodic current density, the stoichiometric ratio of OH produced to Al dissolved varied between 1.4 and 1.8. This value is interpreted in terms of a simple model in which hydroxide generation, Al(OH)3 formation/dissolution, and Al(OH)4- diffusion are kinetically coupled together. The selective dissolution of Mg and Cu is also measured and discussed.

2011-01-15

127

Novel hysteresis effects in Nb/AlOx/Al/AlOx/Nb tunnel junctions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Measurements on current-biased Nb/AlOx/Al/AlOx/Nb double tunnel junction devices with very thin central Al layers show a novel double hysteretic structure in the subgap region. Similar junction structures have previously exhibited very large nonequilibrium effects; the effects reported here appear close to and above the equilibrium critical temperature of Al. A model is presented in which the hysteresis is shown to arise from a transition from finite to zero voltage across one barrier on increasing current, due to the nucleation of an inhomogeneous state in the ultrathin central Al layer in which normal and superconducting states coexist. This reverse switching effect is shown to arise from the self-shunting effect of low-gap regions. Predictions of this model are shown to agree with the experimental data

1991-02-15

128

Particle distribution and orientation in Al-Al3Zr and Al-Al3Ti FGMs produced by the centrifugal method  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Al-Al3Zr and Al-Al3Ti functionally graded materials (FGMs) were produced by a centrifugal method from Al-5wt% Zr and Al-5wt% Ti alloys, respectively. Applied centrifugal forces were 30, 60 and 120G (units of gravity). Microstructural characterization was performed to evaluate the intermetallic parti...

Sequeira, P. D.; Watanabe, Y.; Rocha, L. A.

129

Engineers as energy managers; Der Ingenieur als Energiemanager  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper briefly reviews the change to be observed in European energy industry in the wake of liberalisation of the electricity and gas markets, from technology-centered markets to business management strategies increasingly focusing on administrative vehicles and marketing strategies. This change is explained with the example of the emerging energy trade which is building up financial markets and energy exchanges in addition to the physical energy markets. The energy whole-sale and retail trade in the competitive markets has to develop competitive marketing strategies. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Die Liberalisierung der Strom- und Gasmaerkte in Europa hat einen Wandel zur Folge von einem bisher stark technikorientierten Markt zu einer Branche in der zunehmend betriebswirtschaftliche Instrumente an Bedeutung gewinnen. Am staerksten wird sich dies im Energiehandel darstellen, wo nicht mehr nur die physische Lieferung von Energie eine Rolle spielt, sondern Boersengeschaefte mit stark spekulativem Charakter hinzukommen werden. Finanzmarktexperten werden zukuenftig den Stromhandel und das Brokergeschaeft entscheident mitgestalten. Aehnlich massgebliche Veraenderungen werden sich auch im Strom- und Gasvertrieb zeigen. Der Absatz von Energie wird in Zukunft nicht mehr nur durch ein Verwalten der Endkunden, wie dies in den Monopolzeiten oft der Fall war, oder durch defensive Konkurrenz-Abwehr-Strategien moeglich sein. In einem Wettbewerbsmarkt will der Kunde umworben werden. (orig./RHM)

Scherbeck, U.

1998-12-31

130

El miedo al rey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La peur du roi. Sources et premières réflexions à propos d’une émotion aristocratique dans la Castille du XIVe siècleFace à un roi qui à présent pousse les effets de son ire jusqu’au meurtre pour faire le vide autour de lui et imposer sa différence souveraine, ses parents et les riches hommes, soit les principaux visés par cette politique de l’arbitraire qui enfreint les règles du jeu autant qu’elle contribue à les redéfinir, disent la peur (metus) qu’ils ressentent, qu’ils utilisent aussi afin de donner à leur stratégie de pouvoir un fondement légitime. Et l’expression de cette émotion politique, qui tend à se muer en un stéréotype d’un discours aristocratique d’opposition, surtout présente dans les chroniques, mises ici en relation ici avec d’autres sources, notamment des correspondances, marque profondément l’histoire des relations souvent conflictuelles au sein de cette compagnie en définitive très étroite pendant un siècle, de la fin du XIIIe siècle à la fin du XIVe siècle. Cet article se propose d’ébaucher une première réflexion sur le sujet et d’en présenter les principales sources.El miedo al rey. Fuentes y primeras reflexiones acerca de una emoción aristocrática en la Castilla del siglo XIVFrente a un rey que ahora lleva hasta la muerte los efectos de su ira para hacer el vacío entorno a su persona e imponer su soberana, sus parientes y ricos hombres, o sea los principales afectados por esta política de la arbitrariedad que rompe las reglas del juego a la vez que contribuye a redefinirlas, dicen el miedo (metus) que sienten, que utilizan también para darle a su estrategia de poder un fundamento legítimo. Y la expresión de esta emoción política, que tiende a convertirse en un estereotipo de un discurso aristocrático de oposición, sobre todo presente en la crónicas, aquí puestas en relación con otras fuentes, en particular cartas, marca profundamente la historia de las relaciones a menudo conflictivas dentro de esta compañia finalemente muy estrecha durante un siglo, de finales del XIII a finales del XIV. En este artículo, me propongo esbozar una primera reflexión sobre el tema y presentar sus principales fuentes.

François FORONDA

2007-01-01

131

Analysis of Venkaiah et al.'s AES Design  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes impossible differential (ID) attacks on an AES variant designed by Venkaiah et al.. They claim that their cipher has improved resistance to ID attacks due to a new MixColumns matrix with a branch number 4, which is smaller than that of the original AES. We argue against this statement. The contributions of this paper include ID distinguishers for Venkaiah et al.'s cipher, and a discussion of the susceptibility of such variants to impossible differential and other modern cryptanalytic techniques.

Jorge Nakahara

2009-01-01

132

Phonological Analysis in Al-sahifa Al-Sajj?diyya ( F? Al-iste?de Supplication)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Implication, taken from the root “implicate”, means directing; like the implication of smoke for fire. The denotative meaning of implication is: forming a meaning in mind by imagining the word. Word visualizetion in the human’s mind is done through different means such as: structure of the word, role of the word in the clause, use of the dictionary, style and manner of pronouncing a word, and phonemes in a word. The present study tries to analyze” F? Al-iste?de Supplication “from Al-sahifa Al-Sajj?diyya based on the trends of phonology. Also, it tries to show the role of phonemes, having been used in Al-sahifa Al-Sajj?diyya, in communicating the message to the reader. In this article, the fact that the interrelatedness of form and content is obviously seen in all the supplications of Al-sahifa Al-Sajj?diyya is unraveled. The most important finding of this research is that all the phonemes employed in Al-sahifa are used as they are appropriate to the context. When Im?m Sajj?d is talking about God’s mercy, he uses soft and delicate sounds but when he is talking about heavenly retribution, he uses harsh and bitter sounds in a manner that one cannot replace one with another. The sounds have such an effect on the text that we can appreciate their meanings by merely listening to them.

Afarin Zare; Leila Dianat

2012-01-01

133

Frequently Asked Questions about ALS and the ALS Registry  

Science.gov (United States)

... latest version of Google Chrome, Safari, or Mozilla Firefox installed on your computer. Back to Top Can ... web browsers like Google Chrome, Safari, or Mozilla Firefox. Back to Top Can I take National ALS ...

134

Emotions as a site-related factor. The attitudes of the population towards energy policy and environmental protection; Emotionen als Standortfaktor. Die Einstellungen der Bevoelkerung zu Energiepolitik und Umweltschutz  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For years, debate has been raging on the future competitiveness of Germany. The discussions focus on wages and incidental wage costs, working hours, the education and training system, technological changes, flexibilization and the fight against red tape as well as social consensus. But one site-related factor hardly crops up in public discussion and in economic-science textbook and expertises, although it quite essentially influences competitiveness, now even more than formerly: the mentality of the population. It includes priorities held by society, target concepts such as the openness of the population towards innovation and its attitude towards technology and technical progress as well as the way in which discussions are conducted in society and decisions taken, especially also people`s inclination to rationality or irrationality, and proneness to emotions or ideological thinking. (orig.) [Deutsch] Seit Jahren wird ueber die Zukunft des Standortes Deutschland diskutiert und gestritten. Im Mittelpunkt der Diskussion stehen Loehne und Lohnnebenkosten, Arbeitszeiten, das Bildungs- und Ausbildungssystem, technologische Veraenderungen, Flexibilisierung und Entbuerokratisierung und der soziale Frieden. Ein Standortfaktor kommt dagegen in der oeffentlichen Diskussion wie auch in den wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Lehrbuechern und Expertisen kaum vor, obwohl er die Standortqualitaet ganz wesentlich beeinflusst, heute noch mehr als frueher: Die Mentalitaet der Bevoelkerung. Dazu gehoeren die gesellschaftlichen Prioritaeten und Zielvorstellungen wie die Innovationsoffenheit der Bevoelkerung, ihre Einstellung zu Technik und technischem Fortschritt wie die Art, gesellschaftliche Diskussionen zu fuehren und Entscheidungen zu treffen, besonders auch die Neigung zu Rationalitaet und Irrationalitaet, die Anfaelligkeit fuer Emotionen und Ideologisierung. (orig.)

Koecher, R. [Inst. fuer Demoskopie, Allensbach (Germany)

1997-06-01

135

Understanding ALS: new therapeutic approaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease associated with motor neuron degeneration, muscle atrophy and paralysis. Although numerous pathological mechanisms have been elucidated, ALS remains an invariably fatal disease in the absence of any effective therapy. The heterogeneity of the disease and the failure to develop satisfactory therapeutic protocols reinforce the view that ALS is a multi-factorial and multi-systemic disease. Thus, a better understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms and study of the potential pathological relationship between the various cellular processes is required to ensure efficacious therapy. The pathogenic mechanisms associated with ALS are reviewed, and the strengths and limitations of some new therapeutic approaches are discussed. PMID:23217177

Musarò, Antonio

2013-01-03

136

Schizophrenia as a disconnection syndrome. Studies with functional magnetic resonance imaging and structural equation modeling; Schizophrenie als Diskonnektionssyndrom. Studien mit funktioneller Magnetresonanztomographie und Strukturgleichungsmodellen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aside from characteristic psychopathological symptoms, cognitive deficits are a core feature of schizophrenia. These deficits can only be addressed within the context of widespread functional interactions among different brain areas. To examine these interactions, structural equation modeling (SEM) was used for the analysis of fMRI datasets. In a series of studies, both in antipsychotic-treated and drug-free schizophrenic patients, a pattern of enhanced thalamocortical functional connectivity could be observed as an indicator for possible disruptions of frontostriatal thalamocortical circuitry. Moreover, drug-free patients and those receiving typical antipsychotic drugs were characterized by reduced interhemispheric corticocortical connectivity. This difference relative to normal controls was less in patients under atypical antipsychotic drugs. The results could be interpreted as a beneficial effect of atypical antipsychotic drugs on information processing in schizophrenic patients. The present findings are consistent with the model of schizophrenia as a disconnection syndrome and earlier concepts of ''cognitive dysmetria'' in schizophrenia. (orig.) [German] Neben der charakteristischen psychopathologischen Symptomatik stellen kognitive Defizite ein zentrales Merkmal der Schizophrenie dar. Diese Defizite koennen nur im Kontext miteinander interagierender Hirnareale verstanden werden. Zur Untersuchung dieser funktionellen Wechselbeziehungen wurden Strukturgleichungsmodelle (''structural equation modeling'', SEM) zur Auswertung von fMRT-Datensaetzen verwendet. In einer Untersuchungsreihe bei schizophrenen Patienten ergab sich sowohl bei antipsychotisch behandelten als auch bei unbehandelten Patienten ein Muster gesteigerter thalamokortikaler funktioneller Konnektivitaet als Hinweis auf eine moegliche Stoerung fronto-striato-thalamo-kortikaler Regelkreise. Unbehandelte Patienten und Patienten unter typischen Antipsychotika zeichneten sich zudem durch eine reduzierte interhemisphaerische kortikokortikale Konnektivitaet aus. Dieser Unterschied zu den Gesunden war bei den Patienten unter atypischen Antipsychotika nicht mehr in dieser Auspraegung zu beobachten, was als Ausdruck einer moeglichen positiven Beeinflussung der Informationsverarbeitung bei Patienten unter Atypika interpretiert werden koennte. Die erhaltenen Ergebnisse sind konsistent mit dem Modell der Schizophrenie als einem Diskonnektionssyndrom und frueheren Konzeptionen einer ''kognitiven Dysmetrie'' als Grundlage kognitiver Defizite bei dieser Erkrankung. (orig.)

Schloesser, R. [Universitaet Jena, Psychiatrische Klinik (Germany); Universitaet Jena, Psychiatrische Klinik, Jena (Germany); Wagner, G.; Koehler, S.; Sauer, H. [Universitaet Jena, Psychiatrische Klinik (Germany)

2005-02-01

137

De la contingencia al destino  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Not available.La modernidad no ha podido dar respuesta al problema de la contingencia histórica, El texto muestra, por medio de metáforas, que el abandono necesario de esta cuestión no significa que estemos abocados al relativismo respecto a la contingencia existencial. La contingencia existencial, individual, sigue presente en la vida de todo individuo. Se sostiene que podemos dar un destino a nuestras vidas, y ésta es la tarea principal del filósofo.

Heller, Agnes

1991-01-01

138

Coulomb dissociation of 23Al  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The reaction 23Al(?,p)22Mg was observed to determine the 5/2+ ? 1/2+ transition probability of 23Al using Coulomb dissociation. The experiment was performed at the RIKEN RIPS facility. The particle identification of the heavy reaction products was performed by the ?E-E method using the silicon telescope, while for the light reaction products, such as proton, by the TOF-?E method using the scintillator hodoscope. (R.P.)

2001-01-01

139

Polythermal sections and liquidus surface in Al-AlLi-SrAl2Li2-SrAl2 system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some polythermal sections and liquidus surface projection of the Al-Li-Sr system are plotted through the roentgenophase and differential-thermal analytical methods. The binary, ternary and also three- (p1) and four-phase (P1) peritectic equilibria are established in the system area studied. The melting temperature of the SrAl2Li2 new ternary compound and invariant equilibria coordinates are determined

1998-01-01

140

"Mediman" – Smartphone als Plattform zum Lernen? ["Mediman" – The smartphone as a learning platform?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available [english] Mobile devices with a connection to the internet – smartphones – are seen all over the place since the popular introduction of the Apple iPhone. Similar products existed but no company managed to combine simplicity and functionality so seamlesly. Their market share increases constantly and web sites get optimised for the small display sizes (often referred to as „responsive webdesign“) otherwise the usability lacks. Students seem to like smartphones aswell and a good question is if and to what extend those devices can play a role in e-learning.„Mediman“, an adaptation of the common game Hangman has been developed for smartphones. Test users asked to complete an online questionnaire. So far, only few e-learning applications for smartphones seem to exist. This is reflected in the low usage frequency. Especially the fact that most of the test users wear a smartphone with them all the time makes it an ideal learning plattform. Short learning sessions were rated more important than continuous text. The majority of the 11 test users rated Mediman as well developed. The foremost question whether a smartphone e-learning application is feasible must be answered positive – acceptance in the test user group was shown. E-learning applications on smartphones will be an important topic in the future as market shares increase constantly. Further studies are required due to the small number of partitipants in our survey. [german] Mobile Endgeräte mit Internetzugang (Smartphones) sind seit Apples revolutionärer iPhone-Markteinführung nicht mehr aus dem Alltag wegzudenken und erfreuen sich ausgesprochener Beliebtheit. Ihr Marktanteil wächst stetig und Webseitenbetreiber kommen nicht umher, ihre Webseiten an die neuen kleinen Displaygrößen und Bedienungstechniken anzupassen – häufig als „Responsive Webdesign“ beschrieben. Anwendungen, die nicht für die Anzeige auf kleinen Bildschirmen optimiert sind, schränken den Bedienkomfort ein. Auch bei Studierenden sind Smartphones sehr verbreitet und so stellt sich die Frage, ob sie nicht auch als Plattform für Lernanwendungen dienen können.„Mediman“, eine Portierung des klassischen Spielprinzips von Galgenmännchen, wurde für Smartphones entwickelt. Testbenutzer wurden dann gebeten, einen Onlinefragebogen auszufüllen. Zur Zeit scheinen nur wenige Lernanwendungen für Smartphones zu existieren, was sich in der eingeschränkten Benutzungshäufigkeit widerspiegelt. Vor allem die Tatsache, dass Smartphone-Besitzer ihre Geräte meist bei sich tragen, wird als ideale Voraussetzung gesehen, die Geräte für Lernanwendungen einzusetzen. Hier scheint vor allem das Lernen in kurzen Sitzungen von Interesse. Mediman wurde von der Mehrzahl der 11 Testbenutzer als gut umgesetzte Beispielanwendung bewertet. Die zentrale Frage der Umsetzbarkeit einer Smartphone-Lernanwendung wurde damit erreicht – die notwendige Akzeptanz scheint vorhanden.Für die Zukunft ist mit einer zunehmenden Verbreitung von Smartphones zu rechnen, sodass Lernanwendungen und –szenarien für Endgeräte mit kleinen Bildschirmen optimiert werden sollten. Aufgrund der geringen Fallzahl in der Onlineumfrage sollten weitere Untersuchungen angeschlossen werden.

Boeder, Niklas

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Radiation detection with Nb/Al-AlOx/Al/Nb superconducting tunnel junctions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Superconductor radiation detectors have the possibility of 20-30 times better energy resolution than that of a high resolution Si detector. We fabricated Nb/Al-AlOx/Al/Nb superconducting tunnel junctions with low leakage current. X rays were detected with large area junctions of 178x178 ?m2. High energy resolution of 160 eV for 5.9 keV was obtained. We also fabricated series connected junctions which covers a rather large area of 4x4 mm2. ? particles injected into the rear substrate were detected using nonthermal phonons induced by the radiations in the substrate. (author).

1992-01-01

142

Corrosion Behavior of Al-Al3Ni and Al-Al2Cu Functionally Graded Materials Fabricated by a Centrifugal Method  

Science.gov (United States)

Intermetallic compounds, such as Al3Ni and Al2Cu, are effective for enhancing the mechanical properties of an alloy. Al-Al3Ni and Al-Al2Cu functionally graded materials (FGMs) might be attractive materials for advanced materials. Al-Al3Ni and Al-Al2Cu FGMs were fabricated by a centrifugal method; the centrifugal method is an extremely effective method for fabricating FGMs. Al-Al3Ni and Al-Al2Cu FGMs that had a graded distribution of intermetallic compounds could be produced by this in-situ centrifugal method. Particle size, particle shape and the distribution of intermetallic compounds were controlled by varying the content of the alloy element (Ni, Cu) in the master alloy, the cooling rate in casting and the gravity number. The casting mechanism is explained in terms of the microstructures of the Al-Al3Ni and Al-Al2Cu FGMs fabricated by this method. The corrosion behavior of the FGMs was investigated by electrochemical analysis. Polarization curves of the FGMs in a borate solution were measured by a potentiodynamic method. The presence of Al2Cu exerted a larger effect on the corrosion behavior of the FGMs than Al3Ni. Analysis of the polarization curve parameters was effective for evaluating the corrosion resistance of the FGMs.

Noda, Kazuhiko; Miyahara, Keita; Watanabe, Yoshimi

2008-02-01

143

Heat pumps, a factor in enhancing customer loyalty; Waermepumpen als Erfolgsfaktor bei der Kundenbindung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heat pump sales in Switzerland soared n the past year. This favourable market development is a great chance for the electric power industry in many respects. [German] Die Waermepumpen-Verkaeufe haben im vergangenen Jahr einen erneuten Sprung nach oben gemacht. Immer mehr Schweizer ersetzen ihre alten Feuerungsanlagen durch umweltfreundliche Waermepumpen-Heizungen. Diese erfreuliche Marktentwicklung ist fuer die Elektrizitaetswirtschaft in verschiedener Hinsicht eine grosse Chance. (orig.)

Beyeler, F. [MKR Consulting AG, Bern (Switzerland)

1999-12-03

144

Bound and resonant surface states at the (110) surfaces of AlSb, AlAs, and AlP  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The dispersion curves E(k-bar) have been calculated for bound and resonant (110) surface states of AlSb, AlAs, and AlP. AlSb is predicted to have no surface states within the bulk fundamental band gap, but AlAs and AlP are predicted to have surface state band minima which are very near the conduction band edge, and could lie either within the gap or immediately above the edge.

Beres, R.P.; Allen, R.E.; Buisson, J.P.; Bowen, M.A.; Blackwell, G.F.; Hjalmarson, H.P.; Dow, J.D.

1982-07-01

145

Bound and resonant surface states at the (110) surfaces of AlSb, AlAs, and AlP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dispersion curves E(k-bar) have been calculated for bound and resonant (110) surface states of AlSb, AlAs, and AlP. AlSb is predicted to have no surface states within the bulk fundamental band gap, but AlAs and AlP are predicted to have surface state band minima which are very near the conduction band edge, and could lie either within the gap or immediately above the edge

1982-01-01

146

Overdamped Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb Josephson junctions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We report the fabrication and characterization of overdamped Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb superconductor-insulator-superconductor Josephson junction whose fabrication process derives from that of the well-known hysteretic junctions. These junctions are an intermediate state between the superconductor-normal metal-superconductor and the superconductor-insulator-superconductor Josephson junctions. Stable and reproducible nonhysteretic current-voltage characteristics are obtained with a proper choice of the fabrication parameters. We have measured critical current densities JC from 103 up to 2x104 A/cm2, with characteristic voltages from 80 to nearly 450 ?V. The junctions are stable against time and repeated thermal cycling

2005-01-24

147

In Situ Fabrication of AlN Coating by Reactive Plasma Spraying of Al/AlN Powder  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reactive plasma spraying is a promising technology for the in situ formation of aluminum nitride (AlN) coatings. Recently, it became possible to fabricate cubic-AlN-(c-AlN) based coatings through reactive plasma spraying of Al powder in an ambient atmosphere. However, it was difficult to fabricate a coating with high AlN content and suitable thickness due to the coalescence of the Al particles. In this study, the influence of using AlN additive (h-AlN) to increase the AlN content of the coating and improve the reaction process was investigated. The simple mixing of Al and AlN powders was not suitable for fabricating AlN coatings through reactive plasma spraying. However, it was possible to prepare a homogenously mixed, agglomerated and dispersed Al/AlN mixture (which enabled in-flight interaction between the powder and the surrounding plasma) by wet-mixing in a planetary mill. Increasing the AlN content in the mixture prevented coalescence and increased the nitride content gradually. Using 30 to 40 wt% AlN was sufficient to fabricate a thick (more than 200 µm) AlN coating with high hardness (approximately 1000 Hv). The AlN additive prevented the coalescence of Al metal and enhanced post-deposition nitriding through N2 plasma irradiation by allowing the nitriding species in the plasma to impinge on a larger Al surface area. Using AlN as a feedstock additive was found to be a suitable method for fabricating AlN coatings by reactive plasma spraying. Moreover, the fabricated coatings consist of hexagonal (h-AlN), c-AlN (rock-salt and zinc-blend phases) and certain oxides: aluminum oxynitride (Al5O6N), cubic sphalerite Al23O27N5 (ALON) and Al2O3. The zinc-blend c-AlN and ALON phases were attributed to the transformation of the h-AlN feedstock during the reactive plasma spraying. Thus, the zinc-blend c-AlN and ALON phases were not included in the feedstock and were not formed through nitriding of the Al.

Mohammed Shahien; Motohiro Yamada; Toshiaki Yasui; Masahiro Fukumoto

2011-01-01

148

FTD and ALS: genetic ties that bind.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Curiously, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), seemingly disparate neurodegenerative disorders, can be inherited together. Two groups (DeJesus-Hernandez et al. and Renton et al.) show that the long sought after ALS/FTD mutation on chromosomal region 9p is a hexanucleotide expansion in C90RF72. These studies, plus a study on X-linked ALS/FTD, provide molecular starting points for identifying pathways that link ALS and FTD pathogenesis.

Orr HT

2011-10-01

149

A united refinement technology for commercial pure Al by Al-10Ti and Al-Ti-C master alloys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Because flake-like TiAl{sub 3} particles in Al-Ti-C master alloys prepared in a melt reaction method dissolve slowly when they are added into Al melt at 720 deg. C, Ti atoms cannot be released rapidly to play the assistant role of grain refinement, leading to a poor refinement efficiency of Al-Ti-C master alloys. A united refinement technology by Al-10Ti and Al-Ti-C master alloys was put forward in this paper. The rational combination of fine blocky TiAl{sub 3} particles in Al-10Ti and TiC particles in Al-Ti-C can improve the nucleation rate of {alpha}-Al. It not only improves the grain refinement efficiency of Al-Ti-C master alloys, but also reduces the consumption.

Ma Xiaoguang [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Liu Xiangfa [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)], E-mail: xfliu@sdu.edu.cn; Ding Haimin [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)

2009-03-05

150

Electrical resistivity and thermopower of REAl sub 2 compounds in the temperature range 4. 2-1000 K. [Y-Al; La-Al; Lu-Al; Ce-Al; Pr-Al; Nd-Al; Sm-Al; Gd-Al; Tb-Al; Dy-Al; Ho-Al; Er-Al; Tm-Al  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The temperature dependence of the thermopower and the electrical resistivity in the temperature range up to 1000 K for all the REAl{sub 2} compounds except for EuAl{sub 2} and YbAl{sub 2} is presented. Both transport phenomena are nonlinear in their temperature variation above room temperature, which is referred to the influence of the electronic band structure. A model calculation is presented which allows to explain the nonlinearity in thermopower and resistivity, furthermore the variation of the thermopower throughout the REAl{sub 2} can satisfactorily be explained in the framework of this model. The spin-disorder scattering contribution to the resistivity is discussed. To avoid the influence of a wrong sample geometry on the experimental resistivity results, a method has been introduced and is described. (orig.).

Burkov, A.T.; Vedernikov, M. (A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Inst., Academy of Sciences of USSR, St. Petersburg (Russia)); Gratz, E. (Inst. for Experimental Physics, Technical Univ. Vienna, Vienna (Austria))

1992-04-01

151

Modeling of the ALS linac  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ALS injector linac is used for the Beam Test Facility (BTF) and the Damping Experiments when it is available in between the ALS filings. These experiments usually require higher quality beams and a better characterization than is normally required for ALS operations. This paper focuses on the beam emittance, energy tilt, and especially the longitudinal variation of the beam parameters. For instance, the authors want to avoid longitudinal variations at the low beta section of the BTF. On the other hand, a large energy tilt is required for post-acceleration compression of the bunch using an alpha magnet. The PARMELA code was modified to calculate and display longitudinal variations of the emittance ellipse. Using the Microsoft Development Studio under Windows NT environment the code can handle a much larger number of particles than was previously possible.

Kim, C.H. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Advanced Light Source Center

1996-08-01

152

Electrowinning Al from Al2S3 in Molten Salt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to investigate an alternative process for the production of primary aluminum via a sulfide intermediate, the electrochemical behavior of Al2S3 in molten salt has been studied on a laboratory scale. The effects of electrolyte composition, temperature, and cell design on the cell performance ...

Xiao, Y.; Van der Plas, D.W.; Bohte, J.; Lans, S.C.; Van Sandwijk, A.; Reuter, M.A.

153

Baumard et al.'s moral markets lack market dynamics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Market models are indeed indispensable to understanding the evolution of cooperation and its emotional substrates. Unfortunately, Baumard et al. eschew market thinking in stressing the supposed invariance of moral/cooperative behavior across circumstances. To the contrary, humans display contingent morality/cooperation, and these shifts are best accounted for by market models of partner choice for mutually beneficial collaboration.

Fessler DM; Holbrook C

2013-02-01

154

Muqtada al-Sadr: How to Demilitarize al-Sadr.  

Science.gov (United States)

Muqtada al-Sadr has been one of the most influential individuals in Iraq since the U.S. invasion in March 2003. His Mahdi Army has actively confronted coalition forces and engaged in ethnic cleansing that has resulted in the displacement of thousands of I...

M. E. Hollinger

2009-01-01

155

Powder Metallurgy Processing of Dual Phase Al Rich Fe-Al Intermetallics.  

Science.gov (United States)

A powder metallurgy technique was used to fabricate two different dual-phase Al-rich Fe-Al intermetallics, namely, FeAl2-Fe2Al5 and FeAl3-Fe2Al5. Powders were first produced by inert gas atomization, and then subsequently consolidated by hot pressing at 1...

Y. L. Jeng R. Hayes J. Wolfenstine E. J. Lavernia

1995-01-01

156

The ?-decay of 22Al  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In an experiment performed at the LISE3 facility of GANIL, we studied the decay of 22Al produced by the fragmentation of a 36Ar primary beam. A ?-decay half-life of T1/2=91.1±0.5 ms was measured. The ?-delayed one- and two-proton emission as well as ?-? and ?-delayed ?-decays were measured and allowed us to establish a partial decay scheme for this nucleus. New levels were determined in the daughter nucleus 22Mg. The comparison with model calculations strongly favours a spin-parity of I?=4+ for the ground state of 22Al. (orig.)

2006-01-01

157

Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Al/Al-Mg/Al composite sheet metals  

Science.gov (United States)

Two different types of aluminum alloys of AA1050 and AA5182 were used to manufacture Al/Al-Mg/Al composite sheet metals by roll bonding technology at room temperature. The composite sheet metals were annealed at 400 °C and carried out uniaxial tension tests to investigate mechanical properties. Macroscopic mechanical properties are strongly dependent on the volume (or thickness) fraction of two component layers. Microstructure and texture evolution were also investigated during roll bonding process. The AA1050 sheets located in the outer layer mainly consist of shear texture components and the AA5182 sheet located in the center layer consists of plane strain texture components. With differential speeds of the top and bottom rolls, roll bonding was also carried out. Elongation along the RD and TD was improved at a speed difference of approximately 10%-20%.

Cho, Jaehyung; Kim, Su-Hyeon; Kim, Hyoung-Wook; Lim, Cha-Yong; Kim, Eun-Young; Choi, Shi-Hoon

2011-08-01

158

Contracting in the power supply sector; Contracting als Energiedienstleistung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

`Contracting` has become a fashionale term. In practice, it may be hard to distinguish between `Contracting`, `Leasing`, `Bank loan` and `Outsourcing`. In the classic manner of power supply, the consumer of energy himself converts primary energy into useful energy in plants constructed with his own investments. In contracting, in contrast, it is not the consumer of useful energy who invests in the plants but a so-called contractor. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der schwer zu uebersetzende englische Begriff `Contracting` ist zu einem Modewort gekommen. Die Abgrenzung von `Contracting` gegenueber `Leasing`, `Bankdarlehen` oder `Outsourcing` ist oft schwierig. Bei der klassischen Energieversorgung besorgt der Energieverbraucher die Umwandlung der Primaerenergie in den von ihm selber investierten Anlagen in die benoetigte Nutzenergie. Im Gegensatz dazu investiert beim Contracting nicht mehr der Nutzenergieverbraucher in die fuer die Energieumwandlung benoetigten Anlagen, sondern ein sogenannter Contractor. (orig.)

Waelchli, T. [Elektra Birseck Muenchenstein (EBM) (Germany)

1997-02-07

159

Electrodisintegration of /sup 27/Al  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Charged-particle yields from electrodisintegration of /sup 27/Al by 100-MeV electrons have been measured. Differential cross sections have been obtained for production of protons, deuterons, tritons, and alpha particles at angles 20, 55, 90, and 110/sup 0/. The alpha yield is comparable with the proton yield. (AIP)

Khvastunov, V.M.; Afanas' ev, N.G.; Vladimirov, Y.V.; Savitskii, G.A.; Borzhkovskii, V.F.; Vlasov, V.G.; Zalyubovskii, I.I.; Stervoedov, N.G.; Frolov, A.N.

1980-07-01

160

Al-Hadith Text Classifier  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study explore the implementation of a text classification method to classify the prophet Mohammed (PBUH) hadiths (sayings) using Sahih Al-Bukhari classification. The sayings explain the Holy Qur`an, which considered by Muslims to be the direct word of Allah. Present method adopts TF/IDF (Term F...

Mohammed Naji Al-Kabi; Ghassan Kanaan; Riyad Al-Shalabi; Saja I. Al- Sinjilawi; Ronza S. Al- Mustafa

 
 
 
 
161

Eine wasserdurchlässige Dampfbremse als Hygrodiode  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hohe Feuchtigkeit unde freies Wasser in Baukonstruktionen könne zu Bauphysikalischen Problemen und Schäden führen. Vor allem während der Bauphase eingebrachchtes oder durch Risse eindringendes Wasser, das bei ungünstigen Konstruktionen nur schlecht austrocknet, wird in der Winterperiode durch Diffusionsprozesse noch erhöht. Eine wasserdurchlässige Dampfbremse als Hygrodiode erlaubt die sichere kapillare Rückführung des Wassers zur Raumseite, wo es verdunsten kann.

Sagelsdorff, Ralph; Rode, Carsten

1997-01-01

162

Comment on Yuan et al  

CERN Document Server

The work of Yuan et al. (Phys. Rev. C 60 (1999) 045203) is being represented as definitive regarding the non-existence of a particular nonstrange, isoscalar, spin three dibaryon which has been proposed. We comment on this paper and its relation to our work and that of others.

Wang, F; Wang, Fan

2000-01-01

163

DOSIS AL FETO EN RADIODIAGNOSTICO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se discute los efectos de la irradiación al feto y sus consecuencias, según dosis recibida, considerando la eventual suspensión de embarazo por esta causaIrradiation and its effects over fetus are discussed. Also the eventuality of termination of gestation from this cause is considered

Mauricio Vergara E.

2005-01-01

164

First principles calculation of ac conductance for Al-BDT-Al and Al-Cn-Al systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We perform first-principles calculation to investigate the dynamic conductance of atomic wires of the benzenedithiol (BDT) as well as carbon chains with different length in contact with two Al(100) electrodes (Al-Cn-Al). Our calculation is based on the combination of the non-equilibrium Green's function and the density functional theory. For ac conductance, there are two theories that ensures the current conservation: (1). the global formula which is a phenomenological theory that partitions the total displacement current into each leads so that the current is conserved.(2). the local formula which is a microscopic theory that includes Coulomb interaction explicitly so that the current is conserved automatically. In this work, we use the local formula to calculate the dynamic conductance, especially the emittance. We give a detailed comparison and analysis for the results obtained from two theories. Our numerical results show that the global formula overestimates the emittance by two orders of magnitude. We also obtain an inequality showing that the emittance from global formula is greater than that from local formula for real atomic structures. For Al-Cn-Al structures, the oscillatory behavior as the number of carbon chain N varies from even to odd remains unchanged when local formula is used. However, the prediction of local formula gives rise to opposite response when N is odd (inductive-like) as compared with that of global formula. Therefore, one should use the local formula for an accurate description of ac transport in nanoscale structures. In addition, the ‘size effect’ of the ac emittance is analyzed and can be understood by the kinetic inductance. Since numerical calculation using the global formula can be performed in orbital space while the local formula can only be used in real space, our numerical results indicate that the calculation using the local formula is extremely computational demanding.

Jia-Ning Zhuang; Lei Zhang; Jian Wang

2011-01-01

165

Material Review: Alumina (Al2O3)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Alumina (Al2O3( or Aluminum Oxide is the only oxide formed by the metal aluminum and occurs in nature as the minerals corundum (Al2O3); diaspore (Al2O3·H 2O(; gibbsite (Al2O3·3H2O); and most commonly as bauxite, which is an impure form of gibbsite. The prec...

Karen Davis (MSc)

166

The temperature dependence of elasticity modulus for TiAl and Ni3Al – basic alloy components for turbine rotor blade. ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ??????????????? TiAl ? Ni3Al – ???????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??????.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Possibility of theoretical determination of elastic characteristics for intermetallides on the example of TiAl and Ni3Al on the base of electrostatic nature of elasticity is demonstrated. Elaborated method is able for using for computing modeling of mono- and polycrystal materials under conditions of experimental data absence. ????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ???? ?? ?????? ?????????????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????????? ?? ??????? TiAl ? Ni3Al. ????????????? ????? ????? ???????????? ??? ????????????? ????????????? ????- ? ??????????????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ????????????????? ??????.

?. ?. ????????; ?. ?. ??????

2013-01-01

167

Investigation of diffusion between Al and Al-Li alloy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The interdiffusion between core and cladding was investigated. Core material is Al-Li alloy and cladding material is Al-Mg-Cu-Si alloy. The diffusion couple have coextruded and solution-heat-treated (520 deg C, 2h). It has been experimentally proved that the formation and growth of the diffusion layer forming in the side of the core and cladding depend upon the conditions of solution-heat-treatment, parameters of extrusion process and surface situations of the core billet and the cladding billet. The diffusion depth of Li in the cladding measured by ion probe and mass spectrogragh is 0.16 mm and 0.25 mm, respectively. The diffusion coefficient of Li in the cladding is 1.6 x 10-9 cm2/s

1988-01-01

168

What happened to Sayf al-Rijal?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sayf al-Rijal is the least known Sheikh al-Islam, the highest religious appointee in the court of Aceh Dar al-Salam, in the seventeenth century. Yet, he replaced the renowned Sheikh Nur al-Din in 1643 and in turn was succeeded by another famous ulama Abd al- Ra’uf al-Sinkili in 1661. As of date, there is very little information on al-Rijal and his writings after he won the struggle against al-Raniri and was appointed as the Sheikh al-Islam by Sultanah SafiatuddinSyah in 1643. So, what happened to Sayf al-Rijal after his appointment? This article provides an explanation and throws some light on this mysterious figure.

Sher Banu A.L. Khan

2012-01-01

169

Synthesis of NiAl, CoAl intermetallics and NiAl-Nb and CoAl-Co composites from elemental powders via solid state reactions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

NiAl, CoAl intermetallics and NiAl-Nb, CoAl-Co composites were synthesized in solid state from elemental powders. Blends of ultrafine powders were high pressure consolidated to full density. This was followed by heat treatments, resulting in multistage solid state reactive diffusion. The phase composition and microstructure of obtained materials were investigated employing X-ray diffraction, SEM/EDX and TEM. The sequence of reactions in consolidated powder blends was determined, the kinetics of formation of different phases was measured. For Ni-Al-Nb blends, formation of only Ni-Al intermetallic phases including NiAl was detected in temperature range 425 C--550 C. Followed heat treatment at higher temperatures resulted information of NiAl-Nb composite. Phase stability of NiAl-Nb and CoAl-Co composites was investigated in temperature range 800 C--1,100 C.

Farber, L.; Gutmanas, E.Y. [Technion, Haifa (Israel). Dept. of Materials Engineering; Gotman, I.; Koczak, M.J. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Engineering

1995-08-01

170

Neutron spectroscopy of ?-AlH3  

Science.gov (United States)

The density of vibrational states, G(E), for ?-AlH3 is measured by inelastic neutron scattering. The obtained spectrum noticeably differs from that of ?-AlH3, because ?-AlH3 has a structure built of corner-sharing AlH6 octahedra, while the ?-AlH3 is composed of both corner- and edge-sharing AlH6 octahedra. The first acoustic phonon peak in the G(E) of ?-AlH3 appears at a lower energy and the band of translational modes extends to higher energies (55 vs. 42 meV) than in the spectrum of ?-AlH3. The bands of Al-H bending modes are observed at about the same energies of 60--140 meV in ?-AlH3 and ?-AlH3, only the structures of the bands are different. The Al-H stretching modes in the ?-phase show eight peaks in the range 145 to 265 meV, while in the ?-phase they exhibits only two peaks at 200 and 235 meV. The G(E) spectrum of ?-AlH3 is in good agreement with recent simulations [Y. Wang et al., Phys. Rev. B 77 (2008) 014101], which took into account the existence of a unique double-bridge bond between certain Al and H atoms.

Kolesnikov, Alexander; Graetz, Jason; Jensen, Craig; Langley, Walker; Antonov, Vladimir

2009-03-01

171

Dos Crónicas Magrebíes Medievales: Al-?ajira Al-Saniyya y el Rawd al-Qirtas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Resumen: En la presente comunicación pretendo exponer mis conclusiones referentes a un pequeño estudio comparativo entre dos de las más tempranas crónicas magrebíes que arrojan información sobre la tribu de los Ban? Mar÷n y su llegada al trono magrebí en el siglo XIII. Gracias estas características comunes, permiten una visión más completa de una época que, sin duda, es la más desconocida del periodo benimerín, sus inicios. Las similitudes e influencia entre ambas son tales que existen diferentes teorías acerca de una posibleautoría común. Tras realizar el estudio y posterior análisis de dichas obras, se puede extraer que existen diferencias sustanciales a nivel estructural y estilístico que dificultan la posible identificación absoluta del autor de la ?ajira al-Saniyya con el autor de RawÅ al-QirÐ?s. Abstract: In the present communication I intend to expose my conclusions on asmall comparative study between two of the earliest Maghreb chronicles throwing information about the North African tribe of Banu Mar÷n arrival to the throne in the thirteenth century Maghreb. With these common features, allowing a more complete picture of anera, which is undoubtedly the least known of the merinid period, their beginning. The similarities and influences between them are such that there are different theories about a possiblecommon authorship. After concluding the study and subsequent analysis of these works, can be extracted that there are substantial differences on a structural and stylistic level that hinder the possible absolute identification of author of the Dhakh÷ra al-Saniyyawith the author of RawÅ al-QirÐ?s.

Lidia Fernández Fonfría

2010-01-01

172

Al-Hadith Text Classifier  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study explore the implementation of a text classification method to classify the prophet Mohammed (PBUH) hadiths (sayings) using Sahih Al-Bukhari classification. The sayings explain the Holy Qur`an, which considered by Muslims to be the direct word of Allah. Present method adopts TF/IDF (Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency) which is used usually for text search. TF/IDF was used for term weighting, in which document weights for the selected terms are computed, to classify non-vocalized sayings, after their terms (keywords have been transformed to the corresponding canonical form (i.e., roots), to one of eight Books (classes), according to Al-Bukhari classification. A term would have a higher weight if it were a good descriptor for a particular book, i.e., it appears frequently in the book but is infrequent in the entire corpus.

Mohammed Naji Al-Kabi; Ghassan Kanaan; Riyad Al-Shalabi; Saja I. Al- Sinjilawi; Ronza S. Al- Mustafa

2005-01-01

173

AlN nanoparticle-reinforced nanocrystalline Al matrix composites: Fabrication and mechanical properties  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] To improve the specific strength and stiffness of Al-based composites, AlN/Al nanoparticles were in-situ synthesized by arc plasma evaporation of Al in nitrogen atmosphere and consolidated by hot-pressing to fabricate AlN nanoparticle-reinforced nanocrystalline Al composites (0-39 vol.% AlN). Microstructure characterization shows that AlN nanoparticles homogeneously distribute in the matrix of Al nanocrystalline, which forms atomically bonded interfaces of AlN/Al. The hardness and the elastic modulus of the nanocomposite have been improved dramatically, up to 3.48 GPa and 142 GPa, respectively. Such improvement is believed to result from the grain refinement strengthening and the interface strengthening (load transfer) between the Al matrix and AlN nanoparticles

2009-04-15

174

The effect of Si in Al-alloy on electromigration performance in Al filled vias  

Science.gov (United States)

Electromigration performance of vias filled with Al-Si-Cu alloys on Ti glue layers was investigated in comparison with W-stud vias. In Al-Si-Cu filled vias, voids were formed at only a few locations in the test structure, while voids were formed at every via in W-stud via chains. It is supposed that Al moves through the Al-Si-Cu via during electromigration in spite of the existence of a glue layer at the via bottom. This phenomenon was observed only in the vias filled with Al-Si-Cu alloy. Al movement was prohibited in Al-Cu filled vias. In Al-Si-Cu filled vias, an Al-Ti-Si alloy was formed at the via bottom while Al3Ti was formed at Al-Cu filled vias. Al is speculated to move through this Al-Ti-Si alloy during electromigration.

Kageyama, Makiko; Hashimoto, Keiichi; Onoda, Hiroshi

1998-01-01

175

«Palabras al viento». Bitácora virtual  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Breve descripción de la bitácora virtual «Palabras al viento» (www.palviento.blogspot.com>), un intento de contribuir a la corrección del lenguaje español mediante ejemplos de su uso en medicina y escritos de temas diversos en los que se pretende mantener un estilo que se rige por las normas del buen uso del idioma. Se incluyen temas literarios, históricos, semánticos y otros. La página cuenta también con unas breves descripciones de fuentes bibliográficas de temas sobre puntuación, gramática, etimología y redacción en español, así como con vínculos a diccionarios o a sitios que pueden resultar prácticos para quienes muestran interés por el idioma español, además de vínculos cruzados con otras páginas del mismo autor. --------------------------------------- The Blog «Palabras al viento». Brief description of the blog «Palabras al viento» (www.palviento.blogspot.com>), an attempt to contribute to the correct use of the Spanish language through examples of its use in medicine and texts of various subjects in which the intention is to maintain a style dictated by the rules of proper language usage. Included are literary, historical, semantic and other entries. The blog has also several brief descriptions of bibliographic sources of themes about punctuation, grammar, etymology and style in Spanish, and some links to dictionaries or sites that may be practical for those interested in the Spanish language, plus crossed links to other pages by the same author.

Aníbal J. Morillo

2010-01-01

176

First-principles calculations on Al/AlB2 interfaces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The AlB2 (1 1 1) surfaces and Al (1 1 1)/AlB2 (0 0 0 1) interface were studied by first-principles calculations to clarify the heterogeneous nucleation potential of ?-Al grains on AlB2 particles in purity aluminium and hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys. It is demonstrated that the AlB2 (0 0 0 1) surface models with more than nine atomic layers exhibit bulk-like interior, wherein the interlayer relaxations localized within the top three layers are well converged. The outmost layer of AlB2 free surface having a preference of metal atom termination is evidenced by surface energy calculations. With Al atoms continuing the natural stacking sequence of bulk AlB2, Al-Al metallic bonds are formed across interface during the combination of Al atoms with Al-terminated AlB2 surface. The calculated interfacial energy of the Al/AlB2 interface is much larger than that between the ?-Al and aluminium melts, elucidating the poor nucleation potency of ?-Al grains on AlB2 particles from thermodynamic considerations.

2011-06-15

177

Nanoindentation Study of Al356-Al2O3 Nanocomposite Prepared by Ball Milling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study ball milling of Al356 and Al2O3 powder mixture was carried out in order to produce Al356-Al2O3 nano-composite containing 20 vol.% Al2O3. The structural evolution and morphological changes of powder particles during ball milling were studied by X-ray diffractometery and scanning electro...

Y. Mazaheri; F. Karimzadeh; M. H. Enayati

178

Dehydrogenation of benzene on liquid Al100(+).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The reactions of benzene on Al100(+) have been investigated as a function of cluster temperature (300-1100 K) and relative kinetic energy (1-14 eV) by low-energy ion-beam methods and mass spectrometry. Benzene chemisorbs on both solid and liquid aluminum clusters to generate Al100C6D6(+). A series of Al(100-n)(+) (n = 1, 2, 3, ...) products was also observed. As the cluster temperature was raised above the melting temperature of Al100(+), the Al100C6D6(+) product dehydrogenates to form Al100C6D4(+), Al100C6D2(+), and Al100C6(+). The degree of dehydrogenation was measured as a function of temperature. Very little Al100C6D2(+) was observed, suggesting that the losses of the second and third D2 molecules are coordinated.

Leslie KL; Jarrold MF

2013-03-01

179

More house, more sun, more money. Glasshouses in do-it-yourself construction or to be bought and constructed at low cost. Mehr Haus, mehr Sonne, mehr Geld. Solarhaus-Anbau problemlos selbermachen oder kostenguenstig machen lassen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors propose to enlarge the living area by reconstructing the house terrace into a glasshouse. Their manual describes how to do this in do-it-yourself construction. The reader is given an outline of the function of solar architecture, the planning of a glasshouse annex, and a file of design worksheets and other construction aids.

Oleiko, B.J.; Preuss, A.

1983-01-01

180

Armaflex in Burj al Arab; Armaflex im Burj al Arab  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article describes the Burj al Arab in Dubai, the unique seven-star high-rise hotel. The construction of the hotel, that is built on 250 piles driven into the sand of an artificial island in the Persian Gulf, is described. In particular, various special materials used in the building are described, as are the luxurious fittings and furnishings of the hotel. The cooling and air-conditioning installations that are necessary as a result of the desert climate of Dubai are described and the use of 'Armaflex' elastomer insulating material for the insulation of refrigeration machines and cold-water piping is discussed.

Steiner, B.

2003-07-01

 
 
 
 
181

Synthesis of AlN/Al Polycrystals along with Al Nanoparticles Using Thermal Plasma Route  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper for the first time reports the (200) oriented growth of hexagonal Aluminum nitride crystals during synthesis of aluminum nanoparticles in dc transferred arc thermal plasma reactor by gas phase condensation in nitrogen plasma. The structural and morphological study of as synthesized AlN crystal and aluminium nanoparticles was done by using the x-ray diffraction method, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy.

2011-07-15

182

Processing and characterization of Ni{sub 3}Al-AlN composites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An attempt has been made to fabricate Ni{sub 3}Al-AlN composites by nitriding Ni{sub 3}Al. By electromagnetically levitating and melting Ni{sub 3}Al in nitrogen atmosphere, Ni{sub 3}Al reacted with nitrogen and Ni{sub 3}Al matrix composites, reinforced with AlN particulates, were fabricated. A microstructure with AlN particles homogeneously distributed in Ni{sub 3}Al matrix was obtained by controlling the melting time. The morphology of AlN phase produced by this method could be needle or particle-like. Microhardness of Ni{sub 3}Al composite was raised by 50% with AlN reinforcement.

Yang, L.; Xiao, Z.L.; McLellan, R.B. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-08-01

183

Interfacial microstructure of Ti3AlC2 and Al2O3 oxide scale  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The microstructural characteristics of the Ti3AlC2/Al2O3 interface have been investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The orientation relationships (ORs) between the Ti3AlC2 and the Al2O3 oxide scale are shown to be(0001)Ti3AlC2-bar (0001)Al2O3and[112-bar 0]Ti3AlC2-bar [1-bar 21-bar 0]Al2O3(OR-1);(0001)Ti3AlC2-bar (0001)Al2O3and[112-bar 0]Ti3AlC2-bar [11-bar 00]Al2O3(OR-2).A high-resolution TEM image of the interface is presented and two interfacial models are proposed based on the observed orientation relationships.

1100-01-00

184

Investigation of Wear Anisotropy in a Severely Deformed Al-Al3Ti Composite  

Science.gov (United States)

In the current investigation, Al-Al3Ti composite was processed by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP). ECAP was carried out using routes A and BC up to eight passes of deformation. It was observed that increasing the number of ECAP passes causes fragmentation of Al3Ti platelet particles and decreases their sizes compared to their original sizes in the undeformed Al-Al3Ti specimens. Moreover, the microstructure of route A-ECAPed Al-Al3Ti composite samples showed a strong alignment of the fragmented Al3Ti particles parallel to the pressing axis. On the other hand, ECAPed Al-Al3Ti alloy specimens by route BC have a relatively homogeneous distribution of Al3Ti particles. Because of the platelet Al3Ti particle fragmentation by ECAP, all the ECAPed specimens showed small anisotropy in their wear property in spite of this observed anisotropic microstructure induced by route A-ECAP.

El-Hadad, Shimaa; Sato, Hisashi; Watanabe, Yoshimi

2012-09-01

185

Review Essay: Gesellschaft als dialektischer Prozess – Victor Turner zwischen Ndembu und Bob Dylan Review Essay: Society as a Dialectical Process—Victor Turner in Between Ndembu and Bob Dylan Ensayo: La sociedad como un proceso dialéctico. Victor Turner entre Ndembu y Bob Dylan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Das Ritual. Struktur und Anti-Struktur untersucht der 1983 verstorbene Anthropologe Victor Witter TURNER Rituale der Ndembu im heutigen Sambia. Dabei entwickelt er das inzwischen berühmt gewordene Konzept der Communitas, die er als absolute menschliche Beziehung ansieht, die keiner geordneten Struktur mehr bedarf. Die Analyse dieser sozialen Anti-Struktur ist dabei gleichermaßen spannend wie interessant. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs020218In The Ritual Process: Structure and Anti-Structure the anthropologist Victor Witter TURNER who died in 1983 examines rituals of the Ndembu in Zambia. Here he develops his concept of Communitas, which in the meantime has become famous. He characterizes it as an absolute inter-human relation beyond any form of structure. The analysis of this social anti-structure is as exciting as it is interesting. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs020218En El Proceso Ritual: Estructura y Anti-Estructura el antropólogo Victor Witter TURNER, quien murió en 1983, examina los rituales de los Ndembu en Zambia. Aquí desarrolla su concepto de Comunitas el cual se ha hecho famoso. Lo caracteriza como una relación interhumana absoluta que está más allá de cualquier forma de estructura. El análisis de esta anti-estructura social es excitante e interesante. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs020218

Volker Barth

2002-01-01

186

Jongerenwerk als werkplaats voor professionalisering  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Partnership approach as alternate professionalization strategy for youth work In the Netherlands, there is a growing debate on the need for the professionalization of youth work practice. There is a consensus on the necessity and relevance of professionalization. Opinions differ however on the appropriate pathways towards professionalization. Classic professionalization strategies, with a focus on the gathering of scientific experimental evidence, often do not match with the complex and flexible nature of youth work practice. To gain insight in alternative strategies, providers of youth work and study programs in Amsterdam joined forces and set up Youth Spot, a research and practice centre for youth work. This article describes how the centre, youth work organizations, education and researchers cooperate in the professionalization of youth work. On the one hand this article provides insight in youth work’s own professionalism and, on the other hand, it offers experiences with an alternate professionalization strategy. Jongerenwerk als werkplaats voor professionalisering Dit artikel beschrijft hoe opleidingen, welzijnsorganisaties en onderzoekers samenwerken in de professionalisering van het jongerenwerk tegen de achtergrond van het debat over professionalisering van de sociaal agogische beroepen. Het probleem met klassieke professionaliseringstrategieën, met wetenschappelijke experimentele kennis als norm, is dat zij niet altijd goed aansluiten bij de complexiteit en flexibiliteit van de uitvoeringspraktijk. Vraag is: wat dan wel? In Amsterdam richten opleidingen en werkveld in 2008 Youth Spot op, het onderzoek- en praktijkcentrum voor jongerenwerk, met als doel om gezamenlijk te werken aan de profilering, professionalisering en praktijkontwikkeling van het jongerenwerk. Dit artikel belicht de aanleiding voor het ontstaan van Youth Spot, de structuur van de samenwerking, de ervaringen met de wijze van samen werken en de meerwaarde voor de professionalisering van het grootstedelijk jongerenwerk. Daarmee biedt dit artikel enerzijds een kijkje in de keuken van het (groot)stedelijke jongerenwerk en anderzijds biedt zij inzicht in ervaringen met alternatieve professionalisering strategieën.

Judith Metz

2012-01-01

187

The structure of 27Al  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gamma decay modes and spin assignments of levels in 27Al have been investigated by proton-?-ray angular correlation measurements in the 24Mg(?,p?) reaction at 14.2, 15 and 15.6 MeV bombarding energy and by ?-ray angular distribution measurements on the Ep = 1820, 2114 2293 and 2574 keV resonances of the 26Mg(p,?) reaction. Unique spin assignments were obtained as follows: I = 3/2 for the 5827 KeV state, I = 5/2 for the 6115, 6465, 6765, 7577, 7721, 8097, 8136, 8324 keV states, I = 7/2 for the 5433, 6533, 7413, 8037, 8442, 8586 keV states, I = 9/2 for the 5418, 6512, 6713, 7997 keV states, I = 11/2 for the 5500, 6948, 7400, 8396 keV states. The level scheme and electromagnetic properties of levels are compared with the results of shell model calculations which use the complete configuration space of the 0d5/2-1s1/2-0d3/2 shell and the unified s-d shell Hamiltonian. The agreement is good to excellent and extends into the region of high level density above 7 MeV excitation energy. The total B(M1?) below 8.5 MeV excitation energy is evaluated, using published resonance fluorescence and (e,e') data, and quenching relative to the free-nucleon predictions is reexamined. Evidence in favour of a prolate ground state deformation of 27Al and implications of this work for the astrophysically interesting 26Al(p,?) reaction are discussed. (orig.)

1988-01-01

188

Online-Beratung als Präventionsmaßnahme.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In diesem Artikel werden die Erfahrungen, Ergebnisse und Perspektiven des Modellprojektes „BKK Lebenshilfe Online“ dargestellt, das sich aufgrund der besonderen Kooperation unterschiedlicher Akteure in Deutschland als bundesweit einmalig auszeichnet. So wurde durch den Bundesverband der Betriebkrankenkassen (BKK BV) zusammen mit dem Projekt beranet.de und der Beteiligung von 36 Beratungsstellen und Selbsthilfeorganisationen ein verbandsübergreifendes Onlineratungsangebot zur gesundheitlichen Prävention geschaffen, das mittlerweile auf den Webseiten von rund 60 Betriebskrankenkassen ausgewiesen wird. Ziel ist es, Ratsuchenden einen anonymen und niedrigschwelligen Zugang zu individueller Beratung und gesundheitsrelevanten Informationen zu ermöglichen, um damit eine Lücke in der gesundheitlichen Versorgung zu schließen und zu einer Vermei-dung von psychosomatischen Erkrankungen beizutragen.

Petra Risau

2005-01-01

189

The ALS Gun Electronics system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ALS Gun Electronics system has been designed to accommodate gun with a custom made socket and high speed electronics circuit which is capable of producing single and multiple electron bunches with time jitters measured at better than 50 PS. The system generates the gated RF signal at ground level before sending it up to the 120 KV-biased gun deck via a fiber optic cable. The current pulse width as a function of grid bias, using an Eimac 8847A planar triode simulating an electron gun, was measured to show the relationship between the two parameters

1993-01-01

190

External walls made of solar air heaters; Fassade aus Luftkollektoren. Gebaeudeintegration eines Solarluftsystems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To an increasing extent, solar collectors tend to be integrated into external walls or roofs or even serve as external walls themselves. The contribution discusses their economic aspects. [Deutsch] Solarsysteme koennen und sollen mehr sein als funktionale Module oder Elemente zur Energiegewinnung. Sie finden zwar in Mitteleuropa mehr und mehr Verbreitung, gelten aber weiterhin oft als unwirtschaftlich. Solarsysteme repraesentieren das oekologische Wirken und Gewissen des Bauherren und dienen dem Architekten als Gestaltungselement. Dieses Gestaltungselement tritt um so mehr in den Vordergrund, je mehr ein Solarsystem in die Gebaeudehuelle integriert wird oder diese gar ersetzt. Solardaecher und Solarfassaden sind somit die Schlagwoerter der Zukunft. Denn `Kleider machen Leute` und `Fassaden machen Investoren`. Doch lohnt eine solche Investition auch ueber immaterielle Werte hinaus? Im folgenden einige Erlaeuterungen am Beispiel einer Luftkollektorfassade. (orig.)

Schroepf, S. [Grammer Solar-Luft-Technik AG, Amberg (Germany)

1998-10-01

191

Grabpflege: Mit Mutter auf dem Friedhof Grave Tending: With Mom at the Cemetery Visitas a los sepulcros: con mamá al cementerio  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Diese autoethnographische Erzählung beschäftigt sich mit dem Prozess der Grabpflege für Familienangehörige: In der Vergangenheit hatte die Autorin eher widerstrebend ihre Mutter bei deren Besuchen an Familiengräbern begleitet. Als die Mutter dies nicht mehr selbst tun konnte, kümmerte die Autorin sich um die Blumenarrangements auf den Gräbern. Erst durch diese Tätigkeit begann sie, sich mit der Bedeutung des Friedhofbesuches zu beschäftigen, sie fühlte (ihre Verbundenheit und) die erlittenen Verluste, und sie befasste sich mit den Bräuchen, die sie sich für ihren eigenen Tod wünschte. Als ihre Mutter starb, übernahm die nächste Frauengeneration – die Autorin, ihre Schwester, ihre Schwägerin – die Grabpflege, verbunden durch ihre Liebe und ihren Respekt für ihre (Schwieger-) Mutter, durch ihre Familiengefühle und durch ihre familiäre Verantwortung. Mit dieser Erzählung soll die Bedeutung familiärer Todesrituale und deren Weitergabe über Generationen nachvollziehbar werden. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0302285This autoethnographic story shows the process of tending the graves of family members. In the past, the author reluctantly accompanied her mother on her visits to the family cemetery. Once there, she took on the role of distant observer as her mother took care of the family cemetery plots. When her mother becomes disabled, the author begins to arrange the flowers on the graves. Doing so leads her to examine the meaning of visiting the cemetery, feel and connect with her losses, and consider the customs she wants to be part of her own death. When her mother dies, the next generation of women in the family—the author, her sister, and sister-in-law—take on the role of tending the graves, connected in their love and respect for their mother and their feelings of family and family responsibility. This story examines the meanings of family rituals around death and how they are passed from generation to generation. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0302285Este relato auto-etnográfico se refiere al proceso de las visitas al cementerio de familiares: en el pasado la autora acompañaba más bien de mala gana a su madre a sus visitas al cementerio. Una vez allí, ella tomaba el papel de observadora distante mientras su madre atendía las tumbas. Cuando la madre ya no pudo más llevarlo a cabo por ella misma, la autora comenzó a ocuparse del arreglo de las flores en el cementerio. A partir de esta actividad ella inició el examen del significado de las visitas al cementerio, ella sentía (su implicación y) sus pérdidas y se ocupó de los detalles de las costumbres que ella desearía para su propia muerte. Cuando su madre murió, la generación de mujeres que seguía (la autora, su hermana y su cuñada) se hicieron cargo de los cuidados funerarios, unidos al amor y al respeto por su madre, por el sentimiento familiar y por su responsabilidad familiar. Con este relato se examina el significado de rituales familiares ante la muerte y como se transmite de generación a generación. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0302285

Carolyn Ellis

2003-01-01

192

The determination of irradiation and so-called terrestrial ageing of rock meteorites based on the cosmogenic resulting radionuclides 53Mn and 26Al  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The contents of cosmogenic occuring 53Mn was determined by neutron activation in over 90 samples of 75 individual rock meteorites. The distinct depth effect of the 53Mn production rate in rock meteorites could be measured by a depth profile at LL6 chondrite St. Severin (falling weight 271 kg). The experimental results confirm the present model concepts. By comparing with the spallogenic 22Ne/21Ne and 3He/21Ne ratios applicable as depth indicators, one could derive linear relationships suitable for correcting 53Mn. They enable the determination of the average 53Mn production rate from the saturation activities of long-term irradiated meteorites. Using this method it was possible to calculate the irradiation age of 40 rock meteorites. As 26Al is formed with a similar effective cross-section to 53Mn, the production rate ratio 53Mn: 26Al was also taken to derive the depth-independent irradiation ages. A method to determine the depth-independent terrestrial ageing of meteriorites has been developed based on the same isotope ratio, the effective field of application is between 0.10 to 2x106 a. Furthermore, an attempt was made to draw up the dependence of noble gas contents of 53Mn resp. 53Mn/26Al irradiation age for the new determination of the 3He, 21Ne and 38Ar production rates by means of a linear regression analysis. (orig./RB)[de] An mehr als 90 Proben von 75 individuellen Steinmeteoriten wurden die Gehalte des kosmogen entstandenen 53Mn ueber die Neutronenaktivierung bestimmt. Der ausgepraegte Tiefeneffekt der 53Mn-Produktionsrate in Steinmeteoriten konnte an Hand eines Tiefenprofils am LL6-Chondrit St. Severin (Fallgewicht 271 kg) gemessen werden. Die experimentellen Ergebnisse bestaetigen die vorliegenden Modellvorstellungen. Durch Vergleich mit den als Tiefenindikatoren anwendbaren spallogenen 22Ne/21Ne- und 3He/21Ne-Verhaeltnissen konnten lineare Beziehungen, die zur Tiefenkorrektur des 53Mn geeignet sind, abgeleitet werden. Sie erlauben die Ermittlung der mittleren 53Mn-Produktionsrate aus den Saettigungsaktivitaeten von langzeitbestrahlten Meteoriten. Auf diese Weise konnten fuer 40 Steinmeteoriten die Bestrahlungsalter berechnet werden. Da auch 26Al mit aehnlichem Wirkungsquerschnitt wie das 53Mn gebildet wird, wurde auch das Produktionsratenverhaeltnis 53Mn: 26Al zur Ableitung von tiefen unabhaengigen Bestrahlungsaltern herangezogen. Auf der Grundlage des gleichen Isotopenverhaeltnisses wurde ueberdies ein Verfahren zur Bestimmung von tiefenunabhaengigen terrestrischen Altern von Meteoriten entwickelt mit einem effektiven Anwendungsbereich zwischen 0,10 bis 2 x 106 a. Weiterhin wurde versucht, die Abhaengigkeit der Edelgas-Gehalte vom 53Mn- resp. 53Mn/26Al- Bestrahlungsalter zur Neubestimmung der 3He-, 21Ne- und 38Ar- Produktionsraten an Hand einer linearen Regressionsanalyse heranzuziehen. (orig./RB)

1979-01-01

193

Dissolved Al distribution, particulate Al fluxes and coupling to atmospheric Al and dust deposition in the Arabian Sea  

Science.gov (United States)

Concentrations of dissolved aluminium (Al) were measured in the Arabian Sea during three different seasons. Atmospheric Al concentrations and particulate Al fluxes at 100 m depth were measured during the northeast monsoon. Particulate Al fluxes in the deep Arabian Sea were determined from a 16 months sediment trap mooring. Surface water Al concentrations were higher in the more oligotrophic southern Arabian Sea (10 15 nM) than in the north-western Arabian Sea (3 9 nM). Seasonal variability was observed in the central and northern Arabian Sea with elevated concentrations during spring/summer. Mixed-layer residence times of 0.4 4 years for dissolved Al estimated with respect to both atmospheric input and particle flux exports indicate rapid removal from surface layers. Scavenging removal exerts major control on Al cycling. There are indications of a sediment source for dissolved Al. Atmospheric Al concentration during the northeast monsoon were 10 30 nmol m-3 and up to 81 nmol m-3 during dust pulses. The Al content in aerosol particles was variable with an average of 950 ?mol g-1 (or 2.6% by weight), which is about threefold lower than in average continental crust (8.04%). Using available aerosol Al concentrations combined with satellite data, the annual atmospheric deposition rate of Al is estimated to ˜16000 ?mol m-2 yr-1. Depending on the Al content in aerosol material (2.6 8.04%), this converts to a dust deposition rate of 5.4 16.7 g m-2 yr-1 that agrees with sediment trap results and sediment accumulation data. A simple model based on dissolved Al concentrations in surface waters is used to estimate dust deposition rates. We demonstrate that a relatively short residence time of ?3 yr and an aerosol Al content of only 2.6% provide improved constraints under steady-state conditions. The strong seasonality in particulate Al flux in the deep central Arabian Sea was dominated by the southwest monsoon sedimentation signal; about 46% of the annual Al flux is provided within only ca. 212 months. The estimated total atmospheric Al input and the observed deep-water flux of particulate Al of about 14000 ?mol m-2 yr-1 agree closely. This suggests that the atmosphere is the major Al source to the Arabian Sea.

Schüßler, Uwe; Balzer, Wolfgang; Deeken, Aloys

2005-07-01

194

Polythermal sections of Al-Ba-La system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Methods of physical and chemical analyses were applied for investigation of polythermal sections of Al-Ba-La system. It was found out that LaAl4-BaAl4, LaAl2-BaAl4 and LaAl2-Ba sections are quasi-binary, and LaAl3-BaAl4 and LaAl2-BaAl2 ones - polythermal.

1986-01-01

195

The fabrication of 26Al targets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Targets with up to 1.4x1016 26Al atoms have been fabricated. The artificial production of the 26Al nuclei via the reaction 26Mg(p, n)26Al was carried out at the cyclotrons in Juelich and Muenchen. The experimental procedures in the fabrication of these targets as well as some test measurements are described. (orig.)

1984-01-01

196

Preparation of {sup 26}Al AMS standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Absolute AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) measurements require reliable standards for calibration. Highly concentrated {sup 26}Al was obtained from NBS (National Bureau of Standards). The {sup 26}Al, SRM 4229, was sequentially diluted with natural Al and {sup 26}Al AMS standards were prepared. These {sup 26}Al AMS standards are widely used as primary standards at major AMS laboratories. A substantial amount of {sup 26}Al AMS standards with {sup 26}Al/Al ratios of 7.444 x 10{sup -11}, 3.096 x 10{sup -11}, 1.065 x 10{sup -11}, 4.694 x 10{sup -12}, 1.818 x 10{sup -12} and 4.99 x 10{sup -13} are now available for the AMS community. Solutions having {sup 26}Al/Al ratios between 10{sup -12} and 10{sup -10} were measured by several AMS laboratories; excellent linearity was obtained within the range of 5 x 10{sup -13}-1 x 10{sup -10} {sup 26}Al/Al.

Nishiizumi, Kunihiko E-mail: kuni@ssl.berkeley.edu

2004-08-01

197

Nonstoichiometry of Al-Zr intermetallic phases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nonstoichiometry of metastable cubic {beta}{prime} and equilibrium tetragonal {beta} Al-Zr intermetallic phases of the nominal composition Al{sub 3}Zr in Al-rich alloys has been extensively studied. It is proposed that the ``dark contrast`` of {beta}{prime} core in {beta}{prime}/{sigma}{prime} complex precipitates, in Al-Li-Zr based alloys, is caused by incorporation of Al and Li atoms into the {beta}{prime} phase on Zr sublattice sites, forming nonstoichiometric Al-Zr intermetallic phases, rather than by Li partitioning only. {beta}{prime} particles contain very small amounts of Zr, approximately 5 at.%, much less than the stoichiometric 25 at.% in the Al{sub 3}Zr metastable phase. These particles are, according to simulation of high resolution images, of the Al{sub 3}(Al{sub 0.4}Li{sub 0.4}Zr{sub 0.2}) type. Nonstoichiometric particles of average composition Al{sub 4}Zr and Al{sub 6}Zr are observed also in the binary Al-Zr alloy, even after annealing for several hours at 600{degree}C.

Radmilovic, V.; Thomas, G.

1994-06-01

198

The effects of boron in TiAl/Ti3Al  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The authors discuss the TiAl/Ti3Al interfacial misfit dislocations structures investigated by TEM in Ti-45Al alloy and Ti-45Al/TiB2 composite. For TiAl with c/a = 1.02, only a single set of misfit dislocation arrays are crystallographically possible; these were observed in Ti-45Al alloy. However, the observation of three sets of misfit dislocation arrays in the Ti-45Al/TiB2 composite suggests that the occupation of octahedral sites in the TiAl structure by excess boron was responsible for a decrease in the c/a ratio leading to an increased fcc character of the TiAl at the TiAl/Ti3Al interface

1989-01-01

199

Phases and phase relations in the partial system TiAl sub 3 -TiAl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The section TiAl{sub 3}-TiAl above 1000deg C of the system titanium-aluminium is reinvestigated by X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis and metallography. Seven intermetallic phases are observed: TiAl{sub 3}, h-Ti{sub 2}Al{sub 5}, h-Ti{sub 5}Al{sub 11}, r-TiAl{sub 2}, h-TiAl{sub 2}, h-Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub 1+x} and TiAl. Their stability regions with regard to temperature and composition as well as their crystal structures are identified. From these data several conclusions on the other phases reported in the literature to exist in the TiAl{sub 3}-TiAl partial system can be drawn. (orig.).

Schuster, J.C. (Vienna Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie); Ipser, H. (Vienna Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie)

1990-06-01

200

The effects of boron in TiAl/Ti/sub 3/Al  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors discuss the TiAl/Ti/sub 3/Al interfacial misfit dislocations structures investigated by TEM in Ti-45Al alloy and Ti-45Al/TiB/sub 2/ composite. For TiAl with c/a = 1.02, only a single set of misfit dislocation arrays are crystallographically possible; these were observed in Ti-45Al alloy. However, the observation of three sets of misfit dislocation arrays in the Ti-45Al/TiB/sub 2/ composite suggests that the occupation of octahedral sites in the TiAl structure by excess boron was responsible for a decrease in the c/a ratio leading to an increased fcc character of the TiAl at the TiAl/Ti/sub 3/Al interface.

Feng, C.R.; Michel, D.J.; Crowe, C.R. (Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (USA). Material Science and Technology Div.)

1989-10-01

 
 
 
 
201

Ge-Al and Sn-Al alloys capillary properties in contact with aluminum nitride  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experimental isotherms are presented for (1) wettability of AlN ceramics by Ge-Al and Sn-Al alloys, (2) surface tension and density of Ge-Al and Sn-Al alloys in the whole concentration range. Complex consideration of capillary characteristics of the melts under study is performed taking into account data available on thermodynamic activities of the melt components. The contact angle isotherms pass the minimum point for both systems. The contact angle value drops with Al addition more sharply for the Sn-Al system than for the Ge-Al alloys. This is in qualitative agreement with the higher thermodynamic activity of the components of the Sn-Al alloys. Sn decreases Al surface tension more than Ge. The reason for this is not only lower surface tension of Sn as compared to Ge, but also the higher thermodynamic activity of Sn in the Al melt.

2002-12-03

202

More power, less poison. More competitors for nickel/cadmium batteries; Mehr Saft, weniger Gift. Immer mehr Konkurrenz fuer den Nickel-Cadmium-Akku  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article first presents possible alternatives to the nickel/cadmium battery, e. nickel/metal hydride batteries, lithium ion batteries (Japan), and rechargeable alkali/manganese cells. Environmental problems (recycling) are gone into, and a forecast for the battery market is attempted. (MM) [Deutsch] In diesem Artikel werden die moeglichen Alternativen zu den Nickel/Cadmium-Batterien aufgezeigt. Dies sind die Nickel/Metallhydrid-Batterie, der Lithium-Ionen-Akku (Japan) sowie wiederaufladbare Alkali-Mangan-Zellen. Es werden die Umweltprobleme angesprochen, die mit diesen Batterien verbunden sind (Recycling). Des weiteren wird versucht, eine Prognose fuer diesen Batteriemarkt abzugeben. (MM)

Lemme, H.

1995-08-22

203

Geothermal energy from the lower turf edge downwards: geothermal probes, energy piles, reasonal thermal energy storages, room cooling, pit water utilisation, heat pumps, solar collectors and more; Geothermie ab Unterkante Grasnarbe: Erdwaermesonden, Energiepfaehle, Saisonale Waermespeicher, Raumkuehlung, Grubenwassernutzung, Waermepumpen, Solarkollektoren und mehr  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

`Surface geothermal energy` refers to the utilisation of thermal energy stored in the natural underground anywhere the surface a 400 m depth. The technical utilisation of surface geothermal energy originated in the USA where in autumn 1945 the first ever ground coupled heat pump went into operation (Crandall, 1946). Thermal energy was drawn from the ground via pipes running through trenches and used for heating a residential building. After an initial phase of growth in North America in the Fifties the market for ground coupled heat pumps stagnated during the period of low energy prices, then to revive again in the oil crisis of 1973. At this point the technology found its way across the Atlantic to Europe. Here heat pump technology was soon extended to the construction of underground heat and cold storages. Meanwhile surface geothermal energy is recovered not only via horizontal pipes but also through geothermal probes, groundwater-wells, pipe coils, and `energy piles`, amongst other equipment. (orig./HW) [Deutsch] Die Energienutzung im natuerlichen Untergrund von der Oberflaeche bis in etwa 400 m Tiefe wird als `Oberflaechennahe Geothermie` bezeichnet. Die erste technische Anwendung der oberflaechennahen Geothermie ist aus den USA bekannt, wo im Herbst 1945 die erste erdgekoppelte Waermepumpe in Betrieb ging (CRANDALL, 1946). Ueber in Graeben verlegte Rohre wurde dem Erdreich Waerme entzogen und zur Beheizung eines Wohnhauses eingesetzt. Nach einer ersten Verbreitung von erdgekoppelten Waermepumpen in den 50er Jahren in Nordamerika kam wegen der niedrigen Energiepreise eine Phase der Stagnation, bis mit der Oelkrise 1973 das Interesse erneut erwachte. Nunmehr fand die Technik auch ihren Weg ueber den Atlantik nach Europa, wo neben der Waermepumpe inzwischen auch die Technik der Waerme- und Kaeltespeicher im Untergrund entwickelt wurde. Zu den horizontalen Rohren sind mittlerweile Erdwaermesonden, Grundwasserbrunnen, Spiralrohre, `Energiepfaehle` u.a. zur Erschliessung der oberflaechennahen Geothermie hinzugekommen. (orig./HW)

Sanner, B. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften

1996-10-01

204

Oxidation induced softening in Al nanowires  

Science.gov (United States)

The mechanical properties of metallic nanowires depend dramatically on the atmospheric conditions. Molecular-dynamics simulations with ReaxFF were conducted to study tensile elastic deformation of oxidized Al nanowires. The thin amorphous oxide shell formed around Al nanowires had a very low Young's modulus of 26 GPa, due to its low density and low Al-O coordination. Consequently, for diameters less than 100 nm, the composite Young's modulus of oxide-covered Al nanowires showed a size dependence implying that in this case ``smaller is softer.'' The model developed also explained the discrepancies in the reported modulus values of nanometer-scale Al thin films.

Sen, Fatih G.; Qi, Yue; van Duin, Adri C. T.; Alpas, Ahmet T.

2013-02-01

205

Polythermal cutting of Al-Si-YAl2 system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Given the out come of the research of the Al-Si-YAl2 system with studies of polythermal cutting. It was found out that the most cutting of Al-YSi2Al2, Al-YSiAl2, Al-Y5SiAl14, YSiAl2-YSi2Al2, Y5SiAl14-YSiAl2 and Y5SiAl14-YAl2, Si-YSiAl2 has the nature of quasibinary eutectics

2008-01-01

206

The mechanical property of squeeze casting AlN/Al composite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Porous AlN preform was formed by sintering in N{sub 2} at 1600 C for 1 h. The molten pure Al was infiltrated into the preform to make AlN/Al composite with different compositions by squeeze casting. The AlN composition in AlN/Al composite increased from 51.2 to 70.0% when the pressing pressures of AlN preforms increased form 10 to 60 MPa, respectively. The hardness of the composite increased from 93 to 145 H{sub v}, the fracture strength increased from 328 to 490 MPa, and the compressive strength increased from 210 to 340 MPa for the corresponding composites. The fracture modes in AlN/Al composites included (a) ductile neck fracture in Al, (b) brittle intergranular fracture between smaller AlN grains, (c) brittle transgranular fracture within larger AlN grains. The fracture toughness of the squeeze casting AlN/Al composites was between 14.5 and 15.7 MPa*m{sup 1/2}. No obvious trend between the fracture toughness and the composition of the composite has been observed. However, the ductility of the composite decreased with the increase of AlN content. (orig.)

Lii Dingfwu [Chinese Naval Academy, Kaohsiung (Taiwan). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Huang Jowlay; Chang Shaoting [National Cheng-Kung Univ. (Taiwan). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

2002-07-01

207

Eutectic microstructures of Al-ThA13 and Al-UA14 alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper deals on the microstructures of systems Al-ThAl3 and Al-UAL4, which are composed by a non faceted phase (aluminium) and an intermetallic phase (ThAl3 or UAL4) which is normally faceted phase. (C.M.).

1990-01-01

208

Nucleation and Precipitation Strengthening in Dilute Al-Ti and Al-Zr Alloys  

Science.gov (United States)

Two conventionally solidified Al-0.2Ti alloys (with 0.18 and 0.22 at. pct Ti) exhibit no hardening after aging up to 3200 hours at 375 °C or 425 °C. This is due to the absence of Al3Ti precipitation, as confirmed by electron microscopy and electrical conductivity measurements. By contrast, an Al-0.2Zr alloy (with 0.19 at. pct Zr) displays strong age hardening at both temperatures due to precipitation of Al3Zr (L12) within Zr-enriched dendritic regions. This discrepancy between the two alloys is explained within the context of the equilibrium phase diagrams: (1) the disparity in solid and liquid solubilities of Ti in ?-Al is much greater than that of Zr in ?-Al; and (2) the relatively small liquid solubility of Ti in ?-Al limits the amount of solute retained in solid solution during solidification, while the comparatively high solid solubility reduces the supersaturation effecting precipitation during post-solidification aging. The lattice parameter mismatch of Al3Ti (L12) with ?-Al is also larger than that of Al3Zr (L12), further hindering nucleation of Al3Ti. Classical nucleation theory indicates that the minimum solute supersaturation required to overcome the elastic strain energy of Al3Ti nuclei cannot be obtained during conventional solidification of Al-Ti alloys (unlike for Al-Zr alloys), thus explaining the absence of Al3Ti precipitation and the presence of Al3Zr precipitation.

Knipling, Keith E.; Dunand, David C.; Seidman, David N.

2007-10-01

209

Orientation of Al3Ti platelets in Al-Al3Ti functionally graded material manufactured by centrifugal method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Al-Al3Ti functionally graded materials (FGMs) were manufactured by the centrifugal method with a commercial ingot of Al-5 mass% Ti master alloy. The alloy was melted at a liquid/solid coexisting temperature, at which Al3Ti remains as a solid, and then it was cast into a thick-walled ring. It was found that the Al-Al3Ti functionally graded material can be successfully fabricated by the centrifugal method. It was also found that the volume fraction of the Al3Ti can be increased by repetition of the centrifugal method. Since the shape of Al3Ti particles in a commercial alloy ingot is that of a platelet, the Al3Ti particles are arranged with their platelet planes nearly perpendicular to the radial direction. The orientation effects become stronger when the G number becomes larger. Although the final centrifugal casting was conducted under a very large centrifugal force for the specimen cast three times, the orientation effects were weaker than those in the specimen cast one time. From these observations, it is concluded that the origin of orientation of Al3Ti platelets can be attributed to the angular velocity gradient of the melt along the radial direction produced by the difference in the viscosity. (orig.).

1997-01-01

210

A surface-potential-based model for AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMT  

Science.gov (United States)

A new surface-potential-based model for AlGaN/AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) is proposed in this paper. Since the high polarization effects caused by AlN interlayer favorably influence the two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) and scattering mechanisms, we first add spontaneous and piezoelectric charge terms to the source equation of surface-potential, and a mobility model for AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMT is rewritten. Compared with TCAD simulations, the DC characteristics of AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMT are faithfully reproduced by the new model.

Jie, Wang; Lingling, Sun; Jun, Liu; Mingzhu, Zhou

2013-09-01

211

Transmission electron microscopy studies on the effect of strain on Al and Al-1% Sc alloy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The strain-hardening behavior of Al-1 wt.% Sc alloy was studied and compared with that of Al. Al showed a linear hardening, whereas the Al-1 wt.% Sc alloy showed two-stage behavior for the same equivalent true strain up to 2.0. Transmission electron microscopy studies revealed that dislocation pile-up and dynamic recovery control the hardening behavior in Al, whereas the effective pinning by fine Al3Sc precipitates and dynamic recrystallization at large strain are responsible for the two-stage behavior in Al-1 wt.% Sc alloy.

2007-01-01

212

Transmission electron microscopy studies on the effect of strain on Al and Al-1% Sc alloy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The strain-hardening behavior of Al-1 wt.% Sc alloy was studied and compared with that of Al. Al showed a linear hardening, whereas the Al-1 wt.% Sc alloy showed two-stage behavior for the same equivalent true strain up to 2.0. Transmission electron microscopy studies revealed that dislocation pile-up and dynamic recovery control the hardening behavior in Al, whereas the effective pinning by fine Al{sub 3}Sc precipitates and dynamic recrystallization at large strain are responsible for the two-stage behavior in Al-1 wt.% Sc alloy.

Rajinikanth, V. [National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur 831 007 (India); Jindal, Vikas [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Punjab Engineering College, Chandigarh 160 012 (India); Akkimardi, V.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Basaveshwar Engineering College, Bagalkot 587 102 (India); Ghosh, Mainak [National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur 831 007 (India); Venkateswarlu, K. [National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur 831 007 (India)], E-mail: karodi2002@yahoo.co.in

2007-09-15

213

Heats of formation of (U,Mo)Al3 and U(Al,Si)3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The heats of formation of (U,Mo)Al3 intermetallic compounds were obtained by measuring the reaction heats of U-Mo/Al dispersion samples by differential scanning calorimetry. Based on literature data for the reaction heats of U3Si/Al and U3Si2/Al dispersion samples, the heats of formation of U(Al,Si)3 as a function of the Si content were calculated. The heat of formation of (U,Mo)Al3 becomes less negative as the Mo content increases. Conversely, the heat of formation of U(Al,Si)3 becomes more negative with increasing Si content.

2006-11-15

214

Mechanochemically synthesized Fe{sub 3}Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fe{sub 3}Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite powder was successfully synthesized by mechanochemical route starting from Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al powder mixture. The resulting nanocomposite powder was consolidated at 1400 deg. C for 1 h. The phase transformation and microstructural characterization during mechanochemical reaction and sintering were investigated by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that during ball milling the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al combustion reaction directly produces the Fe{sub 3}Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite. The consolidated Fe{sub 3}Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} part had an ultrafine uniform structure without 'core-rim' feature consisting of an interconnected network of Fe{sub 3}Al and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases.

Khodaei, M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Enayati, M.H. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: ena78@cc.iut.ac.ir; Karimzadeh, F. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2009-01-07

215

Nanoindentation hardness, texture and microstructure of ?-Al2O3 and ?-Al2O3 coatings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nanoidentation responses of Al2O3 coatings obtained using chemical vapour deposition on cemented carbides were studied and related to the Al2O3 modification and microstructure. Five different Al2O3 layers were studied: (i) ?-Al2O3, (ii) ?-Al2O3, obtained through the ? ? ? phase transformation, (iii) as-grown ?-Al2O3 with (101-bar 2) texture, (iv) as-grown ?-Al2O3 with (101-bar 4) texture and (v) as-grown ?-Al2O3 with (0001) texture. All the Al2O3 coatings were deposited to a thickness of at least 6 ?m onto identical WC - 6 wt.% Co cemented carbide substrates. Nanoindentation was performed on taper-section specimens. The microstructure, phase and texture were elucidated by using transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Nanoindentation responses of the as-grown, textured ?-Al2O3 coatings were compared with ?-Al2O3 and ?-Al2O3 formed as a result of the ? ? ? phase transformation. The as-grown, textured ?-Al2O3 layers exhibited clearly a higher hardness and Young's modulus than the ?-Al2O3 and the ?-Al2O3 layers formed as a result of the phase transformation. Only slight differences in hardness and modulus could be detected between the (101-bar 2), (101-bar 4) and (0001) textured ?-Al2O3 films. Among these the (101-bar 2) textured ?-Al2O3 coating exhibited the lowest hardness and modulus. Opposite to earlier reports, the present investigation clearly showed that ?-Al2O3 exhibited both the lowest hardness and Young's modulus as compared with the other studied coatings. It is emphasised that the earlier nanoindentation investigations that were intended to deal with ?-Al2O3 were in fact performed on transformed ?-Al2O3.

2008-07-31

216

Epitaxial growth of Al films on sapphire substrates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In order to obtain epitaxial Al-Al2O3 multi-layer devices, it is necessary to deposit epitaxially Al on Al2O3 and Al2O3 on Al. We have already obtained an epitaxial Al2O3 film on Al/Si (111). In this paper, we have grown Al films on sapphire (0001) substrates, and investigated the crystallinity by using RBS, RHEED, and X-ray diffraction measurements. (author)

1993-01-01

217

Thermal expansion of Al-U and Al-U-Zr alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The thermal expansion of Al-10.3U, Al-16.2U, Al-22U, Al-8.1U-1Zr, Al-16.2U-1Zr, Al-22U-2Zr, Al-30U-2Zr and Al-46U-3Zr alloys (all compositions are in wt%) were measured from room temperature to 550 C using a high temperature dilatometer. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) was found to increase with temperature for Al-8.1U-1Zr and Al-10.3U alloys while for higher uranium containing ternary alloys namely Al-30U-2Zr and Al-46U-3Zr the CTE decreased with temperature. The CTE of Al-U and Al-U-Zr alloys generally decreased with increase in uranium content. The differences in the thermal expansion behaviour of these binary and ternary alloys have been attributed to their microstructures and the amount of UAl3, UAl4 and Al in these alloys. (orig.)

1995-10-01

218

Casting fabrication of in situ Al3Ti-Al composites and their wear behaviors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Al3Ti intermetallic reinforced pure Al, Al-13Si and Al-17Cu matrix composites were prepared by casting method. Their microstructures and dry sliding wear behaviors at room temperature and 100? were particularly investigated. The results indicated that the Al3Ti phases in these composites were all in fl aky form. But the aspect ratio of the Al3Ti platelets decreased with the increase of Ti content in the pure Al, Al-Cu and Al-Si matrix composites, in order of effectiveness. The effect of Si on the Al3Ti morphology seemed to be greater than that of Cu. The distributions of the Al3Ti platelets were different in the different matrix composites, leading to different grain refi ning effects. Except for the sub-wear regime of adhesive wear, the plastic deformation induced wear was a dominant wear mechanism for all of the composites at room temperature and 100?. Increasing the testing temperature, decreasing the Al3Ti content or the hardness of materials could enhance these two wear mechanisms, and thus increase the wear rate. The Al-Cu matrix composite had the best wear resistance, while the pure Al matrix composite showed the worst for the same Ti content. These differences or changes were attributed to the differences in materials’ hardness or the strengthening effects of the Al3Ti platelets.

Chen Tijun; Li Jian; Hao Yuan

2009-01-01

219

Novel TARDBP mutations in Nordic ALS patients  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative syndrome primarily affecting the upper and lower motor neurons. A characteristic neuropathological finding in ALS patients is neuronal inclusions positive for TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43). Subsequently, mutations in the gene encoding TDP-43, TARDBP, proved to be involved in the development of ALS. We thus sequenced TARDBP in 177 Nordic ALS patients and found two previously reported (p.A90V and p.S379P) and two novel (p.G357R and p.R361T) missense variations in three familial ALS patients. The p.A90V and p.G357R variations were detected in the same patient and p.R361T was present in a family with both ALS and frontotemporal dementia-ALS. None of the missense variations were present in 200 neurologically healthy controls. However, p.A90V has also been reported in healthy individuals by others. Thus, the data suggest that these variations are rare and p.G357R, p.R361T and p.S379P are likely pathogenic but further functional characterization is needed to prove their pathogenicity. The mutation frequency in TARDBP in Nordic ALS patients was 1.7%. The ALS cohort was highly selected for a positive family history suggesting that mutations in TARDBP generally are a rare cause of ALS in Nordic countries.

Chiang, Huei-Hsin; Andersen, Peter M

2012-01-01

220

/sup 26/Al: measurement and applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

/sup 26/Al, like /sup 10/Be is produced by cosmic rays in the atmosphere, but its production rate is low and the crustal abundance of /sup 27/Al is high, resulting in /sup 26/Al: /sup 27/Al ratios rarely exceeding 10/sup -14/. Both isotopes are also produced in surficial rocks by cosmic rays; in quartz (by the /sup 26/Al: /sup 27/Al ratio resulting from this in situ production can be as high as 3 x 10/sup -11/. In extraterrestrial matter, where the production rates are several hundred times greater, samples containing a few percent of /sup 27/Al have /sup 26/Al: /sup 27/Al ratios of 10/sup -11/ or larger. We describe an experimental arrangement for measuring /sup 26/Al:/sup 27/Al ratios as low as 10/sup -15/. The size requirements for samples are approximately a factor of 100000 smaller than those of decay counting, and measurement times are less than an hour, compared with weeks or months. We discuss several applications of the technique to the measurement of terrestrial as well as extraterrestrial samples. In particular, we discuss several applications of the technique to the measurement of terrestrial as well as extraterrestrial samples. In particular, we discuss the very high /sup 26/Al: /sup 10/Be ratios that are found in the outer few millimetres of extraterrestrial bodies, resulting from low-energy protons emitted by solar flares, and the diagnostic value of these ratios in determining the size of objects in space. Finally, the manner in which the variable /sup 26/Al: /sup 10/Be ratio that results from in situ production in objects on the Earth's surface can be used to measure rates of weathering and exposure histories, is discussed.

Middleton, R.; Klein, J.

1987-08-25

 
 
 
 
221

Respuesta inmune adaptativa al rotavirus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El rotavirus (RV) es un importante patógeno humano y el estudio de la respuesta inmune específica de éste en humanos, es un buen modelo para caracterizar la respuesta inmune de la mucosa intestinal (1). Nuestros estudios han tenido como objetivo la caracterización fenotípica y funcional de las células T y B específicas de RV con énfasis importante en la expresión de marcadores de migración intestinal. Estas células son estudiadas en muestras de sangre periférica de niños y adultos recientemente infectados con RV. Los análisis se hicieron por citometría de flujo y ELISPOT. Estudio de células T: los adultos sanos presentan bajas frecuencias circulantes tanto de LT CD4+, como de LT CD8+ específicos de RV que secretan INF_ . Significativamente mayores porcentajes de éstas células se detectaron en adultos sintomáticos infectados por RV. Sin embargo, las frecuencias de LT específicos de RV en todos los grupos de estudio fueron muy bajas comparadas con las observadas para otros patógenos. Sorprendentemente, en niños sintomáticos infectados por RV se detectaron bajas frecuencias de LT CD8+ circulantes específicos de RV secretando INF-g y muy pocos o ningún LT CD4+ secretando INF-g o LT CD4+ y CD8+ al secretar IL-13 o IL4 (2,3). Esto sugiere que el RV es un inductor relativamente pobre de células T de memoria secretando estas citoquinas. Los LT circulantes CD4+ , INF-g.+ específicos de RV presentes en adultos sanos, expresan en su mayoría el receptor de migración intestinal a4b7(3). Estudio de las células B (3,4): las células vírgenes circulantes CD19+, IgD+ y de memoria CD19+, IgDespecíficas de RV se identifican por citometría de flujo por la coexpresión de marcadores de superficie y de Ig de membrana específica del virus, con la ayuda de un antígeno viral acoplado a la proteína de fluorescencia verde (GFP). Las CSA se caracterizan funcionalmente por ELISPOT y fenotípicamente por citometría de flujo. Durante la fase aguda de infección en niños, los LB IgD- circulantes específicos de RV son predominantemente células grandes CD38alto, CD27alto, CD138+/-, CCR6-, a4b7 +, CCR9+, CCR10+, CLA-, L-Selectina int/- y sIgM+, sIgG-, sIgA+/ - Este fenotipo muy probablemente corresponde a CSA y plasmablastos con capacidad de migrar al intestino. Durante la convalescencia, el fenotipo cambia a células pequeñas y grandes CD38int/-, CD27int/-, CCR6+, a4b7+/-, CCR9+/- y CCR10-, muy probablemente representando células de memoria, algunas con capacidad de migrar al intestino y otras con capacidad de permanecer en la circulación general.   REFERENCIAS 1. FRANCO, M. A. and H. B. GREENBERG (2002). Rotaviruses. In Clinical virology. D. D. Richman, F. G. Hayden and R. J. Whitley (Ed.), pp. 743-762. Washington DC, ASM Press. 2. JAIMES, M. C., O. L. ROJAS, A. M. GONZALEZ, I. CAJIAO, A. CHARPILIENNE, P. POTHIER, E. KHOLI, H. B. GREENBERG, M. A. FRANCO AND J. ANGEL. Frequencies of virus specific cd4+ and cd8+ t lymphocytes secreting interferon gamma after acute natural rotavirus infection in children and adults. J Virology 2002; 76: 4741–4749. 3. ROJAS, O. L., A. M. GONZÁLEZ, R. GONZÁLEZ, I. PÉREZSCHAEL, H. B. GREENBERG, M. A. FRANCO AND J. ANGEL. Human rotavirus specific t cells: Quantification by elispot and expression of homing receptors on cd4+ t cells. Virology 2003; 314: 671–679. 4. GONZALEZ, A. M., M. C. JAIMES, I. CAJIAO, O. L. ROJAS, J. COHEN, P. POTHIER, E. KOHLI, E. C. BUTCHER, H. B. GREENBERG, J. ANGEL AND M. A. FRANCO. Rotavirusspecific B cells induced by recent infection in adults and children predominantly express the intestinal homing receptor alpha4beta7. Virology 2003; 305: 93-105.

Juanita Angel; Manuel A. Franco

2004-01-01

222

Insostenibilidad: aproximación al conflicto socioecológico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La preocupación por el impacto humano sobre el entorno está documentada desde la Antigüedad. Situaciones de insostenibilidad han conducido en varios momentos de la historia a retrocesos en las condiciones de vida de la población. Si bien el impacto ambiental de las culturas preindustriales se encontraba restringido fundamentalmente al ámbito local, con la revolución industrial las consecuencias de la presión sobre el medio ambiente crecieron exponencialmente, sobre (more) pasando la localidad para alcanzar dimensiones globales. La búsqueda de un estadio o un desarrollo que sea sostenible implica la necesidad de comprender el conflicto socio-ecológico en su perspectiva histórica. Observamos que sus dimensiones básicas están presentes desde la etapa eotécnica hasta nuestros días. En el centro del debate se encuentra la necesidad de comprender la génesis de la ideología del progreso y del dominio de la naturaleza. La sostenibilidad es, en definitiva, una búsqueda compleja que implica una corrección de las causas de la insostenibilidad. La sensibilidad al riesgo y a la crisis de insostenibilidad se ha incrementado de forma considerable, en un momento en que se observa una cierta pérdida de legitimidad de la política representativa. La participación es, hoy más que nunca, uno de los imperativos de la búsqueda de la sostenibilidad. Abstract in english The concern about the human impact on the environment is documented since ancient times. Situations of unsustainability led at various times in history to setbacks in the living conditions of the population. While the environmental impact of preindustrial cultures was limited primarily to local level, with the industrial revolution the consequences of the pressure on the environment grew exponentially, surpassing the locality to achieve global dimensions. The search for a (more) sustainable stadium or development leads to the need to understand the socio-ecological conflict in its historical perspective. We note that their basic dimensions are present from the eotechnic phase until today. At the center of the debate is the need to understand the genesis of the ideology of progress and the domain of nature. Environmental conflicts in preindustrial cultures are often linked to agricultural production, waste from the activities of some guilds, sanitation problems in cities and energy demand. Sustainability is a complex search that involves a correction of the causes of unsustainability. Sensitivity to risk and to the unsustainability crisis has increased considerably, and a loss of legitimacy of representative politics is perceived. Participation is, more than ever, one of the imperatives of the search for sustainability.

Lobera, Josep

2008-12-01

223

The ALS-FTD-Q: a new screening tool for behavioral disturbances in ALS.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The assessment of behavioral disturbances in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is important because of the overlap with the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (ALS-bvFTD). Motor symptoms and dysarthria are not taken into account in currently used behavioral questionnaires. We examined the clinimetric properties of a new behavioral questionnaire for patients with ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis-Frontotemporal Dementia-Questionnaire [ALS-FTD-Q]). METHODS: In addition to other clinimetric properties, we examined reliability, clinical validity, and construct validity of the ALS-FTD-Q, using data from patients with ALS (n = 103), ALS-bvFTD (n = 10), bvFTD (n = 25), muscle disease control subjects (n = 39), and control subjects (n = 31). Construct validity of the ALS-FTD-Q was assessed using the Frontal Systems Behavior scale (FrSBe), Frontal Behavioral Inventory (FBI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised, Frontal Assessment Battery, Mini-Mental State Examination, and a fluency index. In addition, the point prevalence of behavioral disturbances according to the ALS-FTD-Q was compared with those obtained with the FrSBe and FBI. RESULTS: The internal consistency of the ALS-FTD-Q was good (Cronbach ? = 0.92). The ALS-FTD-Q showed construct validity because it correlated highly with other behavioral measures (r = 0.80 and 0.79), moderately with measures of frontal functions and global cognitive functioning (r = 0.37; r = 0.32), and poorly with anxiety/depression and motor impairment (r = 0.18 for both). The ALS-FTD-Q discriminated between patients with ALS-bvFTD, patients with ALS, and control subjects. The point prevalence of behavioral disturbances in patients with ALS measured with the ALS-FTD-Q was lower than that for the FrSBe and FBI. CONCLUSION: The ALS-FTD-Q is a feasible and clinimetrically validated instrument for the screening of behavioral disturbances in ALS.

Raaphorst J; Beeldman E; Schmand B; Berkhout J; Linssen WH; van den Berg LH; Pijnenburg YA; Grupstra HF; Weikamp JG; Schelhaas HJ; Papma JM; van Swieten JC; de Visser M; de Haan RJ

2012-09-01

224

Toxicity of Al to Desulfovibrio desulfuricans  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The toxicity of Al to Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20 was assessed over a period of eight weeks in a modified lactate-C medium buffered at four initial pHs (5.0, 6.5, 7.2, and 8.3) and treated with five levels of added Al (none, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 10 mM). At pH 5, cell populations decreased significantly and any effect of Al was negligible compared to that of pH. At higher pH, no direct impact of Al was seen at concentrations of soluble Al below 5x10-5 M. Soluble Al concentrations exceeded this level in the pH-6.5 and pH-7.2 treatments having total-Al concentrations= 1 mM and caused substantial and proportional decreases in cell populations. In contrast to the small size and vibrio morphology seen in most treatments, substantial numbers of large spirilloidal bacteria were seen in the pH-8.3 treatments, and their incidence was correlated with greater total-Al concentrations. This effect was believed to be a result of Mg deprivation stemming from adsorption/coprecipitation of Mg with Al hydroxy-sulfate gels rather than a direct response to high total-Al levels. Calculations of soluble-Al speciation suggested the presence of the Al13O4(OH)24(H2O)127+''tridecamer'' cation in the pH-6.5 and pH-7.2 treatments showing direct Al toxicity. Analysis of inoculated and control samples from the pH-6.5 and pH-8.3 10-mM Al treatments by 27Al nuclear-magnetic-resonance spectroscopy yielded broad 4800-Hz resonances at 58 ppm, near the 63-ppm resonance expected for the tridecamer cation. These resonances were independent of sample filtration through 25,000 MWCO membranes and attributed to self-assembled colloidal clusters of hydrophobic tridecamer species that had been neutralized by sorption of lactate and sulfate anions. Although indirect effects of Al addition were believed to have caused the lower cell populations observed in the pH-8.3 treatments, the NMR data suggest that direct effects of Al toxicity stemming from tridecamer colloids cannot be excluded.

Amonette, James E.; Russell, Colleen K.; Carosino, Katie A.; Robinson, Nicole L.; Ho, Jennifer T.

2003-07-02

225

Hypothetical AlF3 crystal structures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Applying a structure prediction computer programme (GRINSP=Geometrically Restrained INorganic Structure Prediction), the occurrence of 6-connected 3D networks was investigated, through AlF6 octahedra exclusive corner sharing. The five known AlF3 varieties were reproduced (?-, ?-, ?-, ?- and ?-AlF3) and seven hypothetical models were predicted. Among these still to be synthesized AlF3 phases, one can recognize two known structure types (TlCa2Ta5O15, Ba4CoTa10O30) and some easy to imagine intergrowths; however, a few others are completely unexpected, though simple. A comparison of the ab initio total energies of all the structures is provided, leading to the conclusion that the virtual models could well be viable. - Graphical abstract: Hypothetical AlF3 structure with a dense packing of corner-sharing AlF6 octahedra packed in tetrahedral blocks.

2006-01-01

226

Reply to Vance et al.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In our report of a family with a motor and sensory polyneuropathy that was linked to chromosome 3q, we classified this neuropathy as a form of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy II (HMSN II, also known as {open_quotes}CMT2{close_quotes}). Doubts have been raised by Vance et al. as to whether this neuropathy should be classified as hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy I (HSAN I) instead of HMSN II. While it is reasonable to raise such doubts, we believe that the neuropathy is best designated as HMSN II for the reasons described below. The group of disorders described as HSAN are characterized by primary or predominant involvement of sensory and autonomic neurons that fail to develop or that undergo atrophy and degeneration. These disorders were extensively reviewed by Dyck and Ohta, who initially described them as the hereditary sensory neuropathies (HSN). It was Dyck who subsequently suggested that these disorders be designated HSAN rather than HSN, because of the presence of autonomic involvement. 8 refs.

Woon-Chee Yee; Elliott, J.L; Kwon, J.M.; Goodfellow, P. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

1996-07-01

227

Electron channelling enhanced microanalysis on Ni-Al-Mn and Al-Mn-Si  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Atom location by channelling enhanced microanalysis (ALCHEMI) was performed for Ni-Al-Mn compounds and Al-Mn-Si quasicrystals. For Ni75Al25-xMnx (x=5,9) with the L12-type structure, an occupation fraction of Mn atoms at the Ni site was quantitatively determined using planar channelling conditions. The occupation fraction increases with the Mn concentration or by quenching the compound from high temperature. In quasicrystals of Al74Mn20Si6 and Al68Mn20Ru8Si4, axial channelling conditions were used to locate Si and Ru, respectively. It was shown that Si atoms occupy the Al site in Al74Mn20Si6 whereas Ru atoms occupy the site different from that of Al in Al68Mn20Ru8Si4. (author)

1990-01-01

228

Synthesis and characterization of TiAl/?-Al2O3 nanocomposite by mechanical alloying  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] TiAl/?-Al2O3 nanocomposite was synthesized by mechanical alloying of the Al and TiO2 powder mixture. The powder particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that the mechanochemical reaction between Al and TiO2 gradually took place through intermediate stages during milling, resulted in the formation of disordered fcc-TiAl and Al2O3 phases. The in situ processing involved two steps in which diffusion of Ti into Al is prominent. Annealing of milled product led to transition of metastable fcc-TiAl into equilibrium ?-TiAl. The crystallite size of phases in produced nanocomposite powder estimated to be about 50 nm.

2009-06-10

229

Das vaskuläre Endothel als Zielorgan körperlicher Aktivität  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Die endotheliale Dysfunktion wurde bereits als ein wichtiger Prädiktor zukünftiger kardiovaskulärer Ereignisse identifiziert und geht makroskopischen Gefäßveränderungen zeitlich voraus. Auch physiologische Alterungsprozesse scheinen die Endothelfunktion mit einzubeziehen. Regelmäßige körperliche Aktivität als Teil einer multifaktoriellen Intervention verbessert die Symptomatik von Patienten mit verschiedenen kardiovaskulären Erkrankungen als Folge einer Zunahme der myokardialen Perfusion. Die folgende Übersichtsarbeit erläutert potenzielle Mechanismen, die diese trainingsvermittelte Reduktion der Mortalität in der Sekundärprävention bewirken könnten. Die Korrektur der Endotheldysfunktion als Folge molekularer Adaptionen wird in diesem Zusammenhang ebenso diskutiert wie die Aktivierung von adulten Vorläuferzellen, die das Potenzial besitzen, im Rahmen der Vaskulogenese zur Bildung funktionell kompetenter Gefäße beizutragen bzw. Schäden am Endothelzellverband zu regenerieren.

Sandri M; Mangner N; Adams V; Schuler G; Gielen St.

2009-01-01

230

HOW DID AL-SUYUTI ABRIDGE IBN TAYMIYYA’S NASIHAT AHL AL-IMAN FI AL-RADD ‘ALA MANTIQ AL-YUNAN?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Al-Radd ‘ala ’l-Mantiqiyyin (an alternative title for Nasihat Ahl al-Iman) is a work composed by Ibn Taymiyya to demolish each principle of logic as well as to unravel the depravity of their foundation. Probably due to Ibn Taymiyya’s being genius, when he destroys those principles, he could not avoid himself to discuss digressively irrelevant topics dealing with theological as well as metaphysical issues. In a number of passages in al-Radd, he could not even hinder himself to make a good deal of repetitions. Therefore, al-Radd ‘ala’l-Mantiqiyyin is complex and difficult to use. The coherence of arguments that Ibn Taymiyya formulated is not solid and comprehensive. His criticism of logic is not penetrating as well. On the basis of my analysis of al-Suyuti’s method of abridgement of Ibn Taymiyya’s al-Radd, I argue that al-Suyuti succeeded in rendering Ibn Taymiyya’s sequence of ideas superior to that found in the original work of the latter. The result of this study confirms Hallaq’s argument that the overall result of al-Suyuti’s abridgement of Ibn Taymiyya’s al-Radd is ‘a more effective critique of logic than that originally formulated by Ibn Taymiyya

Mufti Ali

2008-01-01

231

Superbend era begins swiftly at the ALS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The successful installation and commissioning of high-field superconducting bend magnets (superbends) in three curved sectors of ALS storage ring was the first time the magnet lattice of an operating synchrotron light source has been retrofitted in this fundamental way. As a result, the ALS now offers an expanded spectral range well into the hard x-ray region without compromising either the number of undulators or their high brightness in the soft x-ray region for which the ALS design was originally optimized. In sum, when the superbend-enhanced ALS started up for user operations in October 2001, it marked the beginning of a new era in its history.

Robinson, Art; Tamura, Lori

2001-11-29

232

Al2Ti precipitation in Al64Fe8Ti28 alloy  

Science.gov (United States)

Precipitates of Al2Ti with three different stacking sequences have been observed in Fe-modified Ll2-type ordered Al3Ti specimens. Two of the stacking sequences have been observed previously. The third type of Al2Ti, Al2TiIII, is identified in this study using conventional and highresolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Al2Ti precipitates form as plates along {100} planes and compression tests performed at liquid N temperature show microcracks occurring along those {100} planes. The Al2Ti phase is believed to be responsible for the low cleavage strength that is observed.

Yang, T. Y.; Goo, E.

1994-04-01

233

Formation of AlFeSi phase in AlSi12 alloy with Ce addition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The influence of cerium addition on the solidification sequence and microstructure constituents of the Al-Si alloys with 12,6 mass % Si was examined. The solidification was analyzed by a simple thermal analysis. The microstructures were examined with conventional light and scanning electron microscopy. Ternary AlSiCe phase was formed in the Al-Si alloys with added cerium during the solidification process. AlSiCe and ?-AlFeSi phases solidified together in the region that solidified the last. Cerium addition influenced on the morphology of the ?-AlFeSi phase solidification.

S. Kores; M. Von?ina; B. Kosec; J. Medved

2012-01-01

234

Interfacial strength of Al/Al and Al/Zr/Du-10wt%Mo subject to different loading modes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Compact tension (CT) experiments were conducted with fixtures that allowed mode-I (tensile opening mode), mode-Il (shearing mode), and mixed-mode loading to measure the interfacial strength between HIP-clad Al and Al, and Al and Zr/DU-10wt%Mo. Specimens were made with the same HIP process used for making thin composite foils, but instead used 25 mm thick Al-6061 cladding that allowed specimens to be gripped without adhesives. Three configurations of specimens were tested: (1) Al/Al specimens with a pre-crack along the seam; (2) specimens containing both a Zr/DU-10wt%Mo layer and an Al/Al seam along part of the interface; and (3) specimens containing only a Zr/DU-10wt%Mo layer at the interface, but with a pre notch along part of the interface. Digital image correlation (DIC) was used to measure full-field deformations during the test. The results show that mode-I loaded interfaces exhibit the weakest strength and the widest scatter. The strength increases when more shearing component is introduced

235

Fabrication of Al-Al3Ti/Ti3Al Functionally Graded Materials under a Centrifugal Force  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fabrication of Al-Al3Ti functionally graded materials (FGMs) under the centrifugal force has recently attracted some attention. The controlled compositional gradient of the fabricated FGMs, the low cost of the process, and the good mold filling, are the main advantages of the centrifugal method (CM)...

Shimaa El-Hadad; Hisashi Sato; Eri Miura-Fujiwara; Yoshimi Watanabe

236

Price cut for special tariff customers as of 1996. Competitive handicap of West German electricity producers reduced by almost half; Strompreissenkung fuer Sonderabnehmer ab 1996. Wettbewerbsnachteil westdeutscher Stromerzeuger nahezu halbiert  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For some time now international electricity price surveys have show that electricity consumers in Germany must bear a greater price burden than in almost any other industrialised country. This especially puts German industrail sectors facing international competition at a disadvantage since they are hard put to it to defend their market positions, both at home and abroad, against competitors from countries with more favourable manufacturing conditions. The electricity price handicap against France is particularly severe. The price difference has been quantified and commented on regarding its main causes in publications of the utility industry covering the period from 1986 and 1994. The reform of the German hard coal subsidues due for 1996 and changes in the cost structure of west German power supply companies will abate the costs of electricity production and must lead to electricity price cuts. The present article estimates the potential for electricity price reductions in the old Laender from 1996 on. (orig.) [Deutsch] Internationale Strompreisvergleiche zeigen seit langem, dass Stromverbraucher in Deutschland gegenueber fast allen anderen Industrienationen hoehere Strompreise verkraften muessen. Vor allem die im internationalen Wettbewerb stehende Industrie erleidet hierdurch Standortnachteile, die es ihr erschweren, sich gegen Konkurrenz aus Laendern mit kostenguenstigeren Produktionsbedingungen auf dem in- und auslaendischen Markt zu behaupten. Besonders gravierend ist der Strompreisnachteil gegenueber Frankreich. Der Preisabstand wurde in Veroeffentlichungen aus der Versorgungswirtschaft fuer die Jahre 1986 und 1994 unter Angabe der wesentlichen Ursachen fuer den Nachteil quantifiziert. Die ab Januar 1996 geaenderte Subventionierung der deutschen Steinkohle und Aenderungen der Kostenstruktur der westdeutschen Stromerzeuger fuehren zu Entlastungen bei der Elektrizitaetserzeugung und muessen zu Strompreissenkungen fuehren. Das Strompreissenkungspotential ab 1996 fuer die alten Bundeslaender wird im folgenden abgeschaetzt. (orig.)

Hoernig, A.; Joksch, M.; Kron, H.; Maier, K.H.; Moritz, A.; Schueppstuhl, E.L.; Strohschein, H.

1995-11-01

237

High quality Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb Josephson junctions : technological development and macroscopic quantum experiments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Diese Arbeit beschreibt die Entwicklung einer Technologie für die Herstellung hochqualitativer sub-µm Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb-Josephson-Kontakte. Mit den dadurch entstandenen Bauteilen wurden verschiedene experimentell zuvor noch nicht beobachtete makroskopische Quanteneffekte nachgewiesen. Weiterhin wurden N...

Kaiser, Christoph

238

Bonding in CoAl and NiAl metal alloys using multipole and MEM techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The precise electron density distribution and bonding in metal alloys CoAl and NiAl is characterized using MEM (maximum entropy method) and multipole method. Reported X-ray single crystal data have been utilized for this purpose. Clear evidence of the metal bonding between the constituent atoms in these two systems has been obtained. The mid-bond electron densities in these systems are found to be 0.358 and 0.251 e/A3, respectively for CoAl and NiAl in the MEM analysis. The two-dimensional maps and one-dimensional electron density profiles have been constructed and analyzed. The thermal vibration of the individual atoms Co, Ni and Al has also been studied and reported. The contraction of atoms in CoAl and expansion of Ni and contraction of Al atom in NiAl is found from the multipole analysis, in line with the MEM electron density distribution.

2007-04-04

239

Cross-sectional TEM observation of Nb/AlOx-Al/Nb junction structures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on a study of microstructure of Nb/AlOx---Al/Nb Josephson junctions by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) which yielded much information regarding the unction barrier region. Both thick Nb and several-nm Al form polycrystalline films with columnar structures. Nb is oriented to the (110) plane, and Al is (111). The 200-nm lower Nb has a wavy surface with ?5 nm smoothness, but its surface is planarized by several-nm Al deposited on it. Thus AlOx with a smoothness under 1 nm can be formed on Al. The upper Nb has a good crystalline structure even just above the AlOx barrier.

1991-01-01

240

Sensing behavior of Al-rich AlN nanotube toward hydrogen cyanide.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to explore a sensor for detection of toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) molecules, interaction of pristine and defected Al-rich aluminum nitride nanotubes (AlNNT) with a HCN molecule has been investigated using density functional theory calculations in terms of energetic, geometric, and electronic properties. It has been found that unlike the pristine AlNNT, the Al-rich AlNNT can effectively interact with the HCN molecule so that its conductivity changes upon the exposure to this molecule. The adsorption energies of HCN on the pristine and defected AlNNTs have been calculated to be in the range of -0.16 to -0.62 eV and -1.75 to -2.21 eV, respectively. We believe that creating Al-rich defects may be a good strategy for improving the sensitivity of these tubes toward HCN molecules, which cannot be trapped and detected by the pristine AlNNT.

Beheshtian J; Peyghan AA; Bagheri Z

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
241

Studies on SiC(p) reinforced Al-Al sub 3 Ni eutectic matrix composites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An investigation on processing of Al-5.69wt% Ni eutectic with SiC particulate composites is reported. The intermetallic composites are prepared by elemental powder metallurgy route and sintered at two different temperatures, i.e., 600 degree C and 620 degree C. Results show that the metal matrix was Al-Al sub 3 Ni eutectic. The phase analysis by XRD identified the presence of Al sub 3 Ni and Al as dominant phases together with silicon and Al sub 4 C sub 3 phase as minor phases. The Al sub 4 C sub 3 and Si phases are formed during sintering due to SiC-Al interface reaction. SEM micrographs also reveal the formation of microvoid surrounding the SiC particle

1996-01-01

242

Half-life of /sup 26/Al  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have measured the half-life of /sup 26/Al because data on /sup 21/Ne production rates in meteorites has indicated that the half-life may have been too low by 30--40 %. We produced /sup 24/Al using the /sup 26/Mg(p,n)/sup 26/Al reaction on thick natural Mg, the yield being calculated from cross section data. The activity of two such samples was measured with a Ge(Li) detector and the calculated half-life is t/sub 1/2/ = (7.8 +- 0.5) x 10/sup 5/ years, in agreement with the accepted half-life of /sup 26/Al:t/sub 1/2/ = (7.16 +- 0.32) x 10/sup 5/ years. Therefore, another explanation must be found for the anomalous /sup 21/Ne production rate based on /sup 26/Al ages in meteorites.

Thomas, J.H.; Rau, R.L.; Skelton, R.T.; Kavanagh, R.W.

1984-07-01

243

The wobbler mouse, an ALS animal model.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This review article is focused on the research progress made utilizing the wobbler mouse as animal model for human motor neuron diseases, especially the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The wobbler mouse develops progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons and shows striking similarities to ALS. The cellular effects of the wobbler mutation, cellular transport defects, neurofilament aggregation, neuronal hyperexcitability and neuroinflammation closely resemble human ALS. Now, 57 years after the first report on the wobbler mouse we summarize the progress made in understanding the disease mechanism and testing various therapeutic approaches and discuss the relevance of these advances for human ALS. The identification of the causative mutation linking the wobbler mutation to a vesicle transport factor and the research focussed on the cellular basis and the therapeutic treatment of the wobbler motor neuron degeneration has shed new light on the molecular pathology of the disease and might contribute to the understanding the complexity of ALS.

Moser JM; Bigini P; Schmitt-John T

2013-06-01

244

Al-Akhawayni's description of pulmonary circulation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Since antiquity, heart function and the mechanism of blood circulation within the human body have been the focus of attention of scientists from different parts of the world. Over the passage of time, the theories and works of these scientists have resulted in the achievement of today's knowledge of circulation. The medieval Persian scholar, Al-Akhawayni Bukhari (?-983AD), is among the physicians who investigated both the anatomy and the physiology of the human body. Al-Akhawayni describes the mechanism of pulmonary circulation in his only extant book, "Hidayat al-Muta`llemin fi al-Tibb" (A Scholar's Guide to Medicine) with which he made a contribution to the development of knowledge regarding this mechanism in the medicine of the Islamic world. In this paper, Al-Akhawayni's viewpoints on anatomy and the function of the heart, its related vessels, and also pulmonary circulation will be briefly discussed.

Yarmohammadi H; Dalfardi B; Rezaian J; Ghanizadeh A

2013-10-01

245

Production of high-purity 26Al  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

26Al is a positron emitting radioisotope of aluminium and has a half-life of 7.16x105y. In addition to annihilation ?-rays of 511 keV, there are three high energy ?-rays 1129 (2.4%), 1809 (99.73%) and 2938 (0.27%) keV. 26Al is the only radioisotope of aluminium available for radiochemical applications, the half-lives of the other aluminium isotopes are seconds and minutes. The usage of 26Al is very important in the investigations of the metabolism of Al in human body (for example in Alzheimer disease studies) or as a tracer in radiochemical studies. But 26Al is such a long-lived isotope that the task of producing it in tangible amounts is a very difficult one. (author). 2 refs

1996-01-01

246

The wobbler mouse, an ALS animal model  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This review article is focused on the research progress made utilizing the wobbler mouse as animal model for human motor neuron diseases, especially the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The wobbler mouse develops progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons and shows striking similarities to ALS. The cellular effects of the wobbler mutation, cellular transport defects, neurofilament aggregation, neuronal hyperexcitability and neuroinflammation closely resemble human ALS. Now, 57 years after the first report on the wobbler mouse we summarize the progress made in understanding the disease mechanism and testing various therapeutic approaches and discuss the relevance of these advances for human ALS. The identification of the causative mutation linking the wobbler mutation to a vesicle transport factor and the research focussed on the cellular basis and the therapeutic treatment of the wobbler motor neuron degeneration has shed new light on the molecular pathology of the disease and might contribute to the understanding the complexity of ALS

Moser, Jakob Maximilian; Bigini, Paolo

2013-01-01

247

Contribution of Al{sub 3}Sc to recrystallization resistance in wrought Al-Sc alloys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Developing a clear understanding of recrystallization performance attributed to Al{sub 3}Sc dispersoids in wrought Al alloys begins with the examination of basic Al-Sc binary alloys. Understanding fundamental metallurgy of the Al-Sc binary system allows proper integration of scandium with existing wrought aluminum alloys. Recrystallization, dispersoid size during annealing, and grain structure characterization of both wrought and annealed alloys are examined. (orig.)

Riddle, Y.W.; Sanders, T.H. Jr. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering

2000-07-01

248

Crystallization of Al-Mg-Ce and Al-Mg-Ni-Ce amorphous alloys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The crystallization behaviors of Al{sub 82}Mg{sub 10}Ce{sub 8}, Al{sub 84}Mg{sub 10}Ce{sub 6}, Al{sub 82}Mg{sub 6}Ni{sub 4}Ce{sub 8}, Al{sub 84}Mg{sub 7}Ni{sub 3}Ce{sub 6} and Al{sub 84}Mg{sub 8}Ni{sub 2}Ce{sub 6} amorphous alloys have been studied by different scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction. Al{sub 82}Mg{sub 10}Ce{sub 8} and Al{sub 84}Mg{sub 10}Ce{sub 6} amorphous alloys are characteristic of an interesting crystallization behavior. A non-equilibrium phase Al{sub 92}Ce{sub 8} precipitates in the first stage crystallization as primary phase. In the subsequent crystallization stage, Al{sub 92}Ce{sub 8} phase decomposes into fcc-Al and Al{sub 4}Ce phases, at the same time, Al{sub 12}Mg{sub 17} phase precipitates. Strikingly, a small Ni addition can promote the primary crystallization of fcc-Al, as example obtained in Al{sub 82}Mg{sub 6}Ni{sub 4}Ce{sub 8}, Al{sub 84}Mg{sub 7}Ni{sub 3}Ce{sub 6} and Al{sub 84}Mg{sub 8}Ni{sub 2}Ce{sub 6} amorphous alloys. This interesting crystallization mechanism can be well interpreted in terms of the heat of mixing.

Wang, S.H. [Key Lab of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, South Campus of Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)]. E-mail: shenghaiw111174@sohu.com; Bian, X.F. [Key Lab of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, South Campus of Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)]. E-mail: xfbian@sdu.edu.cn

2007-08-30

249

Density and atomic volume in liquid Al-Fe and Al-Ni binary alloys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The density of liquid Al-Fe and Al-Ni binary alloys have been determined over a wide temperature range by a noncontact technique combining electromagnetic levitation and optical dilatometry. The temperature and composition dependences of the density are analysed. A negative excess volume correlates with the negative enthalpy of mixing, compound forming ability and chemical short-range ordering in liquid Al-Fe and Al-Ni alloys. (orig.)

Plevachuk, Yu. [Ivan Franko National Univ., Lviv (Ukraine). Dept. of Metal Physics; Egry, I.; Brillo, J.; Holland-Moritz, D. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, Koeln (Germany). Inst. fuer Raumsimulation; Kaban, I. [Chemnitz Univ. of Technolgy (Germany). Inst. of Physics

2007-02-15

250

Properties of Sintered Al Substituted NdFeB Magnets  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of partial substitution of Fe by Al (Al, Al2O3) on the magnetic properties and the corrosion resistance of the sintered NdFeB magnet has been investigated. With the increasing amount of Al, the anisotropy field and the saturation magnetization decrease, but the coercivity increases up to 4 at.% Al and further alloying of Al leads to a decrease of the coercivity. Different substances like Al (metallic Al or Al2O3) modify the microstructure to different increase in the coercivity and especially to changes in the remanence. Alloying Al via metallic Al decreases the remanence, whereas via Al2O3) up to 4 at.%0 Al increases it. The Al additions inhibit atmospheric corrosion of the magnet. We have found that Al2O3 in sintered NdFeB magnet substantially improves the coercivity and the corrosion resistance with the improved remanence.

Szymura, S.; Bala, H.; Rabinovich, Yu. M.; Wiechu?a, J.

251

Identification of potential CSF biomarkers in ALS.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The clinical diagnosis of ALS is based entirely on clinical features. Identification of biomarkers for ALS would be important for diagnosis and might also provide clues to pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: To determine if there is a specific protein profile in the CSF that distinguishes patients with ALS from those with purely motor peripheral neuropathy (PN) and healthy control subjects. METHODS: CSF obtained from patients with ALS, disease controls (patients with other neurologic disorders), and normal controls were analyzed using the surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry proteomics technique. Biomarker sensitivity and specificity was calculated with receiver operating characteristic curve methodology. ALS biomarkers were purified and sequence identified by mass spectrometry-directed peptide sequencing. RESULTS: In initial proteomic discovery studies, three protein species (4.8-, 6.7-, and 13.4-kDa) that were significantly lower in concentration in the CSF from patients with ALS (n = 36) than in normal controls (n = 21) were identified. A combination of three protein species (the "three-protein" model) correctly identified patients with ALS with 95% accuracy, 91% sensitivity, and 97% specificity from the controls. Independent validation studies using separate cohorts of ALS (n = 13), healthy control (n = 25), and PN (n = 7) subjects confirmed the ability of the three CSF protein species to separate patients with ALS from other diseases. Protein sequence analysis identified the 13.4-kDa protein species as cystatin C and the 4.8-kDa protein species as a peptic fragment of the neurosecretory protein VGF. CONCLUSION: Additional application of a "three-protein" biomarker model to current diagnostic criteria may provide an objective biomarker pattern to help identify patients with ALS.

Pasinetti GM; Ungar LH; Lange DJ; Yemul S; Deng H; Yuan X; Brown RH; Cudkowicz ME; Newhall K; Peskind E; Marcus S; Ho L

2006-04-01

252

The Gendering of «Death» in Kit?b al-‘Iqd al-Far?d  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article studies a subsection of the adab compilation of Ibn ‘Abd Rabbih’s, al-‘Iqd al-far?d, namely “The Book of Lamentations, Condolences, and Elegies”. The article analyzes al-‘Iqd’s ideological function, specifically, the way gender is...

El Cheikh, Nadia Maria

253

Comparison of Al samples from electrolysis production and elemental Al from colloids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sediments of specific composition and content of precipitates were found as a consequence of increased concentration of sulphate at the Quaternary groundwater. Precipitates with elemental Al0 and fibres of alloy of Si0, Fe0 and Al0 (max size of Al0 spots cca 300x100 microns) from colloids of Al2O3.nH2O from borewells at Podluží were identified by RTG analyses and SEM in more then 20 analyses. Structure of colloids of Al2O3.nH2O was verified by 27Al MAS NMR from several VIS borewells:A comparison of chemical composition of Al samples produced by electrolysis at Slovalco Ltd. Co. and of elemental Al0 revealed some parallel in composition and their appearance. Samples ŽIAR1 and ŽIAR3 have similar chemical composition of Al with Al from VIS 15 but they differ in appearance. The rest of group (samples ŽIAR 2, ŽIAR 4, ŽIAR 5) differs from VIS 15 in composition and appearance of basic Al matter and specific alloys of Al, Si, and Fe.

Libuše ?ur?ová

2005-01-01

254

The structure and mechanical properties of Fe3Al-30 vol.% Al2O3 nanocomposite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fe3Al-30 vol.% Al2O3 nanocomposite powder was fabricated via two routes. The first route involved the ball milling of Fe2O3-Al-Fe powder mixtures to produce in situ Al2O3 nanoparticles in Fe3Al matrix via mechanochemical reaction of Fe2O3 and Al. In the second route, Fe3Al-Al2O3 nanocomposite was prepared by ex situ addition of Al2O3 nanopowder to Fe-Al powder mixture followed by ball milling. The prepared powders were subsequently consolidated using cold pressing and sintering. The phase analysis, morphology and microstructure of samples were studied by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. Mechanical properties of consolidated powders were determined using hardness test and flexural strength measurements using three-point flexure test at room temperature. The results showed that the Fe3Al-Al2O3 produced via the first route had a significantly improved microstructure and mechanical characteristics in comparison with material obtained via the second route as well as some other techniques.

2009-11-20

255

The annealing behaviour of hydrogen implanted into Al metal and Al-Si alloy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present experiment, we have investigated how defects and elements as additive play a role as trap site by observing the annealing behaviour of hydrogen implanted into Al and Al-Si alloy. It was found that hydrogen is trapped as molecules in grain boundaries of Si in Al. (author)

1994-01-01

256

Nanostructured Ni3Al layers and Ni3Al/Ni multilayers obtained by magnetron sputtering  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ni3Al layers and Ni3Al/Ni multilayers have been produced by magnetron sputtering. The samples hardness has been measured by nanoindentation. We noticed an increase in hardness of the nanostructured Ni3Al compared to the bulk polycrystalline material. (author) 1 fig., 1 refs.

1996-01-01

257

Some aspects of anelastic and microplastic creep of pure Al and two Al-alloys  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Anelastic creep of pure Al, commercial Al-Cu and a binary Al-Cu alloy has been measured at room temperature by means of a high resolution laser interferometer. The irreversible component of the deformation was also quantified from measurements of the anelastic creep recovery. The dependence of the d...

Sgobba, S.; KÜnzi, H.-U.; Ilschner, B.

258

MONTE CARLO STUDY OF THE PRECIPITATION KINETICS OF Al3Zr IN Al-Zr  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Zr precipitates in Al to form the phase Al3Zr. For a low supersaturation in Zr of the fcc solid solution, it has been observed that during the precipitation first steps the Al3Zr precipitates have the metastable L12 structure and that they transform themselves to the stable DO23 structure for long e...

Clouet, Emmanuel; Nastar, Maylise

259

The system Nb-Al with emphasis on the low temperature superconductor Nb3Al  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liquid alloys of the system Nb-Al with Al contents up to 27.5 at.% were rapidly quenched. At calculated cooling rates of about 105 Ks-1 a metastable extension of the Nb solid solution field up to 27 at.% Al was achieved. At temperatures between 600 and 700 C the retransformation of the metastable state with Al contents between 18.5 and 27 at.% results in single phase Nb3Al. At temperature below 700 C no formation of the Nb2Al equilibrium phase was observed in samples with Al contents between 21.5 and 27.5 at.%. The hardness of the quenched samples with Al contents between 18.5 and 27 at.% containing only metastable Nb88 is less than 50% that of the stable state (Nb3Al or Nb3Al + Nb2Al). In order to produce ductile powders out of the metastable material was milled completely to an average grain size of about 80 ?m within 1 minute independent of the aluminium concentration. The milled hydrides were degassed quantitatively for between 7 and 9 h at 400 C and a starting pressure of 3 x 10-5 Pa. The annealing required for the combined hydriding and dehydriding of the powders do not result in a premature retransformation of the metastable Nb88 into stable Nb3Al.

1994-01-01

260

Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis as an adverse drug reaction of gadolinium-based contrast media for magnetic resonance imaging; Nephrogene systemische Fibrose als unerwuenschte Arzneimittelwirkung gadoliniumhaltiger Kontrastmittel fuer die Magnetresonanztomographie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) was first described as nephrogenic fibrosing dermopathy (NFD), a disease occurring exclusively in patients with severe renal insufficiency. Recently NSF was recognised to be a very rare adverse drug reaction (ADR) of gadolinium-based contrast media for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Over 200 million applications of gadolinium-based contrast agents have been performed worldwide, including about 80 million of Magnevist {sup registered} and 33 million of Omniscan {sup registered}. Cases of NSF have been reported so far only for Omniscan {sup registered} (180 including 77 from the EU), for Magnevist {sup registered} (78 including 9 from the EU, 4 of which were also exposed to Omniscan {sup registered}) and for OptiMARK registered [7], which is not authorised in the EU. Because of this risk an EU-wide contraindication was ordered for patients with severe renal failure for the use of Omniscan {sup registered} (gadodiamid), which is one of eight gadolinium-based substances authorised in Germany and the EU and which has the highest risk potential, and just recently also for Magnevist {sup registered} (gadopentetate-dimeglumine). Whether similar measures will be implemented for other gadolinium-based substances, for which no cases of NSF have been reported, but a risk potential may exist, is still under discussion. (orig.) [German] Die nephrogene systemische Fibrose (NSF), urspruenglich als nephrogene fibrosierende Dermopathie (NFD) beschrieben und bislang fast ausschliesslich bei Patienten mit schwerer Niereninsuffizienz festgestellt, erwies sich kuerzlich als eine sehr seltene unerwuenschte Arzneimittelwirkung (UAW) gadoliniumhaltiger Kontrastmittel fuer die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT). Insgesamt wurden mehr als 200 Mio. Behandlungen mit gadoliniumhaltigen Kontrastmitteln durchgefuehrt, davon ca. 80 Mio. mit Magnevist {sup registered} und ca. 33 Mio. mit Omniscan {sup registered} [5]. Faelle einer NSF wurden bislang nur zu Omniscan {sup registered} (180, davon 77 aus der EU), zu Magnevist {sup registered} (78, davon 9 Faelle aus der EU inklusive 4 Faelle mit zusaetzlicher Omniscan registered -Applikation) sowie zu OptiMARK {sup registered} [7], das in der EU nicht zugelassen ist, gemeldet. Aufgrund dieses Risikos wurde fuer Omniscan {sup registered} (Gadodiamid), eins der 8 in Deutschland und der EU verfuegbaren Wirkstoffe mit dem hoechsten Risikopotenzial, und zuletzt auch fuer Magnevist {sup registered} (Gadopentetat-Dimeglumine), eine Einschraenkung der Anwendung (Kontraindikation) bei Patienten mit terminaler Niereninsuffizienz EU-weit angeordnet. Ob aehnliche Massnahmen fuer weitere Wirkstoffe ergriffen werden, bei denen dieses Risikopotenzial bislang nicht nachgewiesen wurde, jedoch moeglich erscheint, ist noch nicht endgueltig geklaert. (orig.)

Giersig, C. [Bundesinstitut fuer Arzneimittel und Medizinprodukte (Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices), Bonn (Germany)

2007-09-15

 
 
 
 
261

Thermodynamic analysis of alloys Ti-Al, Ti-V, Al-V and Ti-Al-V  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thermodynamic analysis of three binary Ti-based alloys: Ti-Al, Ti-V, and Al-V, as well as ternary alloy Ti-Al-V, is shown in this paper. Thermodynamic analysis involved thermodynamic determination of activities, coefficient of activities, partial and integral values for enthalpies and Gibbs energies of mixing and excess energies at four different temperatures: 2000, 2073, 2200 and 2273 K, as well as calculated phase diagrams for the investigated binary and ternary systems. The FactSage is used for all thermodynamic calculations.

Kostov, Ana [Copper Institute Bor, Zeleni bulevar 35, 19210 Bor (Serbia)], E-mail: anakostov@ibb-bor.co.yu; Zivkovic, Dragana [University of Belgrade, Technical Faculty Bor, VJ 12, 19210 Bor (Serbia)], E-mail: dzivkovic@tf.bor.ac.yu

2008-07-28

262

Thermodynamic analysis of alloys Ti-Al, Ti-V, Al-V and Ti-Al-V  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Thermodynamic analysis of three binary Ti-based alloys: Ti-Al, Ti-V, and Al-V, as well as ternary alloy Ti-Al-V, is shown in this paper. Thermodynamic analysis involved thermodynamic determination of activities, coefficient of activities, partial and integral values for enthalpies and Gibbs energies of mixing and excess energies at four different temperatures: 2000, 2073, 2200 and 2273 K, as well as calculated phase diagrams for the investigated binary and ternary systems. The FactSage is used for all thermodynamic calculations

2008-07-28

263

"PULS." – ein Blog als Online-Magazin für Medizinstudierendeder Goethe-Universität Frankfurt ["PULS." – a Blog-based Online-Magazine for Students of Medicine of the Goethe University Frankfurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available [english] In the context of nationwide protests 2009 also students of the faculty of medicine/dentistry at Goethe-University in Frankfurt demanded more transparency and communication. To satisfy these demands, a web 2.0-tool offered an innovative solution: A blog-based online-magazine for students and other faculty-members.The online-magazine „PULS.“ is realized with the share-ware blog-software (wordpress version 3.1.3) and is conceived and written by an online-journalist. „PULS.“ is available from .The articles are generated from own investigations and from ideas of different groups of the faculty– deanship, students and lecturers. A user-analysis is conducted with the open-source software Piwik and considers the data security. Additionally, every year an anonymous online-user-survey (Survey Monkey) is conducted.“PULS.” is continuously online since 14.02.2010 and has published 806 articles (state: 27.11.2012) and has about 2400 readers monthly. The content focuses on the needs of Frankfurt medical students. The close cooperation with different groups of the faculty - deanship, students and lecturers - furthermore guarantees themes relevant to the academic faculty. “PULS.” flanks complex projects and decisions with background-information and communicates them understandable.The user-evaluation shows a growing number of readers and a high acceptance for the online-magazine, its themes and its style. The web 2.0-tool “Blog” and the web-specific language comply with media habits of the main target group, the students of the faculty medicine/dentistry.Thus, “PULS.” has proven as a suitable and strategic instrument. It pushes towards a higher transparency, more communication and a stronger identification of the students with their faculty.[german] Im Herbst 2009 forderten Studierende im Rahmen landesweiter Proteste auch am Fachbereich Medizin/Zahnmedizin der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt mehr Transparenz und Kommunikation zu Angelegenheiten ihres Studiums. Einen innovativen Lösungsansatz, um diesen Forderungen nachzukommen, bietet eines der Web 2.0 Werkzeuge: ein auf einer Blog-Software basierendes Online-Magazin für Studierende und andere Mitglieder des Fachbereichs.Das öffentlich zugängliche Online-Magazin „PULS.“ () wird mit einer freien Blog-Software (wordpress Version 3.1.3.) realisiert und von einer Online-Redakteurin konzipiert und geschrieben. Die Beiträge entstehen nach eigenen Recherchen sowie aus Anregungen und Gesprächen mit verschiedenen Personengruppen des Fachbereichs. Die datenschutzkonforme Auswertung der Zugriffe erfolgt über eine open-source Webanalyse-Software (Piwik). Zusätzlich werden jährlich mit dem Online-Umfrage-Tool Survey Monkey die Nutzer anonym befragt.„PULS.“ ist seit dem 14.02.2010 ununterbrochen online und hat seitdem 806 Beiträge (Stand: 27.11.2012) publiziert und wird von ca. 2400 Besuchern monatlich gelesen. Das Themenspektrum ist zentriert auf die Anliegen der Frankfurter Medizin- und Zahnmedizinstudierenden. Die enge Zusammenarbeit mit verschiedenen Gruppierungen des Fachbereichs – Dekanat, Studierende und Lehrende – garantiert darüber hinaus ein fachbereichs-relevantes Themenspektrum. Das Online-Magazin begleitet komplexe Projekte und Entscheidungen mit Hintergrundinformationen und kommuniziert sie verständlich. Eine jährliche Nutzer-Evaluierung zeigt eine wachsende Leserzahl und eine sehr hohe Zustimmung für das Online-Magazin, seine Inhalte und seinen Stil. Das Web 2.0-Medium „Blog“ und seine web-typische Sprache entsprechen dem Medienverhalten der Zielgruppe, d.h. den Studierenden des Fachbereichs Medizin. „PULS.“ hat sich als ein geeignetes und strategisches Instrument erwiesen, um größere Transparenz, mehr Kommunikation und letztendlich eine stärkere Identifikation der Studierenden mit ihrem Fachbereich voranzutreiben.

Wurche, Bettina; Klauer, Gertrud; Nürnberger, Frank

2013-01-01

264

Natural bond orbital, nuclear magnetic resonance analysis and hybrid-density functional theory study of ?-aromaticity in Al?F?, Al?Cl?, Al?Br? and Al?I?.  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural bond orbital (NBO), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis and hybrid-density functional theory based method (B3LYP/Def2-TZVPP) were used to investigate the correlation between the nucleus-independent chemical shifts [NICS, as an aromaticity criterion], ? Al(1)-X2(b) ? ?*Al(3)-X?(b) electron delocalizations and the dissociation energies of Al?F?, Al?Cl?, Al?Br? and Al?I? to 2AlX? (X?=?F, Cl, Br, I). The results obtained showed that the dissociation energies of Al?F?, Al?Cl?, Al?Br? and Al?I? decrease from Al?F? to Al?I?. Like aromatic molecules, these compounds have relatively significant negative NICSiso(0) values. Clearly, based on magnetic criteria, they exhibit aromatic character and make it possible to consider them as ?-delocalized aromatic species, such as Möbius ?-aromatic species. The ?-aromatic character which is demonstrated by their NICSiso(0) values decreases from Al?F? to Al?I?. The NICSiso values are dominated by the in-plane ??? (i.e., ?yy, the plane containing halogen atoms bridged) chemical shift components. The increase of the NICSiso values explains significantly the decrease of the corresponding dissociation energies of Al?F?, Al?Cl?, Al?Br? and Al?I?. Importantly, the NBO results suggest that in these compounds the dissociation energies are controlled by the stabilization energies associated with ? Al(1)-X2(b) ??*Al(3)-X4(b) electron delocalizations. The decrease of the stabilization energies associated with ? Al(1)-X?(b) ??*Al(3)-X4(b) electron delocalizations is in accordance with the variation of the calculated NICSiso values. The correlations between the dissociation energies of Al?F?, Al?Cl?, Al?Br? and Al?I?, ? Al(1)-X?(b) ??*Al(3)-X4(b) electron delocalizations, natural atomic orbitals (NAOs) and NICSiso values have been investigated. PMID:23455929

Nori-Shargh, Davood; Yahyaei, Hooriye; Mousavi, Seiedeh Negar; Maasoomi, Akram; Kayi, Hakan

2013-03-02

265

Natural bond orbital, nuclear magnetic resonance analysis and hybrid-density functional theory study of ?-aromaticity in Al?F?, Al?Cl?, Al?Br? and Al?I?.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Natural bond orbital (NBO), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis and hybrid-density functional theory based method (B3LYP/Def2-TZVPP) were used to investigate the correlation between the nucleus-independent chemical shifts [NICS, as an aromaticity criterion], ? Al(1)-X2(b) ? ?*Al(3)-X?(b) electron delocalizations and the dissociation energies of Al?F?, Al?Cl?, Al?Br? and Al?I? to 2AlX? (X?=?F, Cl, Br, I). The results obtained showed that the dissociation energies of Al?F?, Al?Cl?, Al?Br? and Al?I? decrease from Al?F? to Al?I?. Like aromatic molecules, these compounds have relatively significant negative NICSiso(0) values. Clearly, based on magnetic criteria, they exhibit aromatic character and make it possible to consider them as ?-delocalized aromatic species, such as Möbius ?-aromatic species. The ?-aromatic character which is demonstrated by their NICSiso(0) values decreases from Al?F? to Al?I?. The NICSiso values are dominated by the in-plane ??? (i.e., ?yy, the plane containing halogen atoms bridged) chemical shift components. The increase of the NICSiso values explains significantly the decrease of the corresponding dissociation energies of Al?F?, Al?Cl?, Al?Br? and Al?I?. Importantly, the NBO results suggest that in these compounds the dissociation energies are controlled by the stabilization energies associated with ? Al(1)-X2(b) ??*Al(3)-X4(b) electron delocalizations. The decrease of the stabilization energies associated with ? Al(1)-X?(b) ??*Al(3)-X4(b) electron delocalizations is in accordance with the variation of the calculated NICSiso values. The correlations between the dissociation energies of Al?F?, Al?Cl?, Al?Br? and Al?I?, ? Al(1)-X?(b) ??*Al(3)-X4(b) electron delocalizations, natural atomic orbitals (NAOs) and NICSiso values have been investigated.

Nori-Shargh D; Yahyaei H; Mousavi SN; Maasoomi A; Kayi H

2013-06-01

266

An enhancement on Shi et al.'s multiparty quantum secret sharing protocol  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, Shi et al. proposed a multiparty quantum secret sharing (QSS) using Bell states and Bell measurements. In their protocol, for sharing two classical bits, all parties have to possess two photons after entanglement swapping. This paper proposes an enhancement of Shi et al.'s protocol. Based on the idea that all parties (except dealer) possess two photons to share two classical bits, the qubit efficiency has further improved by removing the photons the dealer has to hold in Shi et al.'s protocol. Moreover, an insider attack is also prevented in the proposed scheme.

Lin, Jason; Hwang, Tzonelih

2011-03-01

267

Phase stability and microstructure of Al-Ti-Fe near Al3Ti  

Science.gov (United States)

The phase stability and microstructure of Al-Ti-Fe near Al3Ti at 800 °C are studied by using high resolution electron microscopy and backscattered electron imaging. One of the most significant changes resulting from the addition of small amounts of iron in this system is to convert tetragonal Al3Ti or Al2Ti into cubic Ll2 structures. In addition, the added iron can change the stacking structure of Al2Ti and the domain size of the long-period one-dimensional antiphase domain structures. A partial ternary phase diagram in this region is also determined.

Yang, T. Y.; Goo, Edward

1995-05-01

268

Inhibited Al diffusion and growth roughening on Ga-coated Al (100)  

CERN Document Server

Ab initio calculations indicate that the ground state for Ga adsorption on Al (100) is on-surface with local unit coverage. On Ga-coated Al (100), the bridge diffusion barrier for Al is large, but the Al$\\rightarrow$Ga {\\it exchange barrier is zero}: the ensuing incorporation of randomly deposited Al's into the Ga overlayer realizes a percolation network, efficiently recoated by Ga atoms. Based on calculated energetics, we predict rough surface growth at all temperatures; modeling the growth by a random deposition model with partial relaxation, we find a power-law divergent roughness $w\\sim t^{\\,0.07\\pm0.02}$.

Fiorentini, V; Opps, S B; Fiorentini, Vincenzo; Fois, Donatella; Oppo, Sabrina

1996-01-01

269

AlN substrates and epitaxy results  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aluminum nitride (AlN) is a true bulk-grown native substrate for III-nitrides. The crystals are grown by seeded physical vapor transport (PVT) using AlN seeds. AlN has high thermal conductivity (comparable to, and perhaps higher than SiC), high bulk resistivity (>1x10{sup 11} Ohm cm), high bulk-breakdown field (7-8 MV/cm), the highest surface acoustic wave (SAW) velocity and since it has the smallest lattice constant of the III-nitrides all AlInGaN compositions grown on AlN are in compression, thus making it easier to grow crack-free epitaxy. Additionally, AlN is transparent down to nearly 200 nm, making it attractive for deep UV LED structures. AlN has excellent cleavage planes making it suitable for edge-emitting lasers and low cost manufacturing. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

Helava, Heikki; Ramm, Mark [Helava Systems Inc., 181 E Industry Ct, Ste B, Deer Park, NY 11729 (United States); Chemekova, Tat' jana; Avdeev, Oleg; Mokhov, Eugeny; Nagalyuk, Sergey; Makarov, Yuri [Nitride Crystals Ltd., 27 Engels Ave, 194256 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

2010-07-15

270

Alanes formation on the Al(111) surface  

Science.gov (United States)

Alane clusters (AlxHy) are believed to be the ubiquitous intermediates in hydrogen storage reactions for a wide variety of alanates (LiAlH4, NaAlH4) currently considered for hydrogen storage. The formation and behavior of alanes at surfaces appear to control and limit the efficiency of hydrogen storage. In particular, hydrogen adsorption on the Al(111) surface leads to the coexistence of several adsorbed species, the concentration of which is affected by the step density, the surface coverage and the temperature. We combine density functional theory (DFT) and surface infra-red (IR) absorption spectroscopy to uncover the mechanisms for alane formation on Al(111) surfaces. At low coverage, DFT predicts a two-fold bridge site adsorption for atomic hydrogen, consistent with previous Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy measurements. At higher coverage, the formation of small chemisorbed AlH3 occurs at the step edges. With increasing coverage AlH3 is extracted from the step edge and becomes highly mobile on the terraces in a weakly bound state. This mobility is the key factor leading to the growth of larger alanes through AlH3 oligomerization. For these large alanes, previous Thermal Programmed Desorption studies are discussed and compared to the thermal stability observed in IR.

Rangan, Sylvie; Veyan, Jean-Francois; Chabal, Yves J.; Chaudhuri, Santanu; Muckerman, James T.

2008-03-01

271

„Das Internet“ als Effekt diskursiver Bedeutungskämpfe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Der Artikel zeigt, wie politische Kontroversen am Thema Internet ausgehandelt werden und wie das Internet dabei erst interpretativ hergestellt wird. Hierzu werden zunächst technik­soziologische Sichtweisen auf Technik als Bedeutungsträgerin vorgestellt. Anschließend wird unter Bezugnahme auf die Diskursforschung und die Soziale Bewegungsforschung eine Per­spektive auf Technik entwickelt, die politische Diskurse über Technik als Kämpfe um Deu­tungsmacht und damit als Versuche, (potenzielle) AnhängerInnen und UnterstützerInnen zu mobilisieren, versteht. Anhand dieses theoretischen Konzepts werden dann Ergebnisse einer Inhaltsanalyse von gewerkschaftlichen Diskursen über das Internet vorgestellt. Dabei lassen sich vier Deutungsmuster unterscheiden. Es zeigt sich, dass am Internet interne und nach au­ßen gerichtete Debatten der Gewerkschaften um Reformbedarf, Imageprobleme, Mitglieder-, Macht- und Kontrollverluste geführt werden, in denen das Internet – jeweils passend – sozial konstruiert wird. Die als dominant und gültig anerkannten Bedeutungen des Internet sind demnach als Ergebnisse kollektiver interpretativer Aushandlungsprozesse und damit als Aus­druck der bestehenden Verteilung von Deutungsmacht zu betrachten – und nicht als Aussagen über materielle Eigenschaften des Internet.

Tanja Carstensen

2006-01-01

272

Development of tough ?-SiAlON  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The development of tough ?-SiAlON with elongated grains in the last five years is summarized. This progress has been guided by the improved understanding of phase relations and nucleation/growth kinetics in SiAlON ceramics. Although most ?-SiAlON compositions can be processed to contain some elongated grains, their microstructure, fracture toughness and R-curve behavior vary greatly. Such variability is due to the different phase stability of ?-SiAlONs and the varying physical chemistry of the competing phases, including the transient/residual liquid. For this reason, microstructure control of ?-SiAlON must pay close attention to the composition, starting powder and heating schedule. Seeding with single crystals of an appropriate ?-SiAlON composition provides an attractive alternative that simplifies the task of microstructure control, since such seeds are thermodynamically stable and they completely dominate the nucleation statistics. Tough and hard ?-SiAlON ceramics containing Ca, Y, Nd, and Yb stabilizers have been obtained using this method, some with toughness exceeding 10 MPam1/2. The ability of maintaining a uniform microstructure of highly elongated grains is the key to high toughness material. (orig.)

2003-01-01

273

Synthesis of composite AlN-AlON-Al2O3 powders and ceramics prepared by high-pressure sintering  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The process of carbothermal reduction of Al2O3 in a nitrogen flow at temperatures of 1450 and 1600ºC has been studied. It was established that the powder synthesized at 1450ºC is a mixture of Al2O3 and AlN particles and that the powders synthesized at 1600ºC are mixtures of AlN, AlON, and Al2O3. ...

Vlasova M.; Kakazey N.; Rosales I.; Krushinskaya L.; Bykov A.; Tomila T.; Voitsehovskaya E.; Vinokurov V.

274

Al6H18: a baby crystal of ?-AlH3.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Using global-minima search methods based on the density functional theory calculations of (AlH(3))(n) (n = 1-8) clusters, we show that the growth pattern of alanes for n ? 4 is dominated by structures containing hexa-coordinated Al atoms. This is in contrast to the earlier studies where either linear or ring structures of AlH(3) were predicted to be the preferred structures in which the Al atoms can have a maximum of five-fold coordination. Our calculations also reveal that the Al(6)H(18) cluster, with its hexa-coordination of the Al atoms, resembles the unit-cell of ?-AlH(3), thus Al(6)H(18) is designated as the "baby crystal." The fragmentation energies of the (AlH(3))(n) (n = 2-8) along with the dimerization energies for even n clusters indicate an enhanced stability of the Al(6)H(18) cluster. Both covalent (hybridization) and ionic (charge) contribution to the bonding are the driving factors in stabilizing the isomers containing hexa-coordinated Al atoms.

Kiran B; Kandalam AK; Xu J; Ding YH; Sierka M; Bowen KH; Schnöckel H

2012-10-01

275

Al6H18: A baby crystal of ?-AlH3  

Science.gov (United States)

Using global-minima search methods based on the density functional theory calculations of (AlH3)n (n = 1-8) clusters, we show that the growth pattern of alanes for n >= 4 is dominated by structures containing hexa-coordinated Al atoms. This is in contrast to the earlier studies where either linear or ring structures of AlH3 were predicted to be the preferred structures in which the Al atoms can have a maximum of five-fold coordination. Our calculations also reveal that the Al6H18 cluster, with its hexa-coordination of the Al atoms, resembles the unit-cell of ?-AlH3, thus Al6H18 is designated as the ``baby crystal.'' The fragmentation energies of the (AlH3)n (n = 2-8) along with the dimerization energies for even n clusters indicate an enhanced stability of the Al6H18 cluster. Both covalent (hybridization) and ionic (charge) contribution to the bonding are the driving factors in stabilizing the isomers containing hexa-coordinated Al atoms.

Kiran, B.; Kandalam, Anil K.; Xu, Jing; Ding, Y. H.; Sierka, M.; Bowen, K. H.; Schnöckel, H.

2012-10-01

276

Effect of Al3Ti intermetallic compound on electromigration lifetime of Al alloy interconnections  

Science.gov (United States)

The dependence of the electromigration (EM) lifetime and the cross-sectional structure of interconnections after EM tests on linewidths was investigated in multi-level and single-level Al alloy interconnections consisting of a top-TiN/Ti/Al-0.5%Cu/TiN/Ti-bottom stack. In this study, an almost uniform Al3Ti intermetallic compound layer was formed by a well-known reaction between the Ti and Al. We found the following anomalous behavior: the mean time to failure (MTF) of EM in the multi-level interconnections with tungsten diffusion barriers decreased by increasing the linewidth. We also found that in the multi-level interconnections after EM tests, independent of linewidths, a local Al thickening formed near the anode end of the line and voids formed near the cathode end. On the other hand, in the single-level interconnections with bonding pads, the MTF of EM increased by increasing the linewidth and, after EM tests, a local Al thickening formed near the anode end even though no voids were observed near the cathode end. This directly opposed EM lifetime dependency on linewidth found in the multi-level and single-level interconnections and the observed Al thickening correlate closely with the fast diffusitivity of Al atoms at the interface between the Al3Ti and Al and/or between the Al3Ti and TiN.

Kouno, T.; Hosaka, M.; Niwa, H.; Yamada, M.

1998-07-01

277

Nanoindentation Study of Al356-Al2O3 Nanocomposite Prepared by Ball Milling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study ball milling of Al356 and Al2O3 powder mixture was carried out in order to produce Al356-Al2O3 nano-composite containing 20 vol.% Al2O3. The structural evolution and morphological changes of powder particles during ball milling were studied by X-ray diffractometery and scanning electron microscopy analysis. As a result of ball milling Al2O3 particles were uniformly dispersed in Al356 matrix. Furthermore the crystallite size of the Al356 decreased to 25 nm after ball milling for 10 h. Morphological studies of powder particles indicated that the powder particle size continuously decreases with increasing milling time. Hardness and elastic modulus values of powder particles were measured by nanoindentation method. It was found that the hardness and elastic modulus of Al356-20 vol.% Al2O3 nanocomposite were about 216 Hv and 86 GPa, respectively which is higher than 75 Hv and 74 GPa for as-received Al356.

Y. Mazaheri; F. Karimzadeh; M. H. Enayati

2010-01-01

278

Solar-blind ultraviolet AlInN/AlGaN distributed Bragg reflectors  

Science.gov (United States)

A 13.5-pair Al0.98In0.02N/Al0.77Ga0.23N distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) was grown by molecular beam epitaxy on an AlN template substrate. The DBR exhibited a peak reflectivity of 83.9% at 246 nm within the deep solar-blind ultraviolet region and a stopband width of 18 nm. The average refractive index contrast for the DBR was 9.25% at 246 nm, which is relatively high compared with that of a traditional Al(Ga)N/(Al)GaN DBR. Simulated results indicated that a 25.5-pair Al0.98In0.02N/Al0.77Ga0.23N DBR will provide a reflectivity higher than 99% and a 19 nm wide stopband with a center wavelength of 246 nm.

Zhang, Lili; Dong, Kexiu; Chen, Dunjun; Liu, Yanli; Xue, Junjun; Lu, Hai; Zhang, Rong; Zheng, Youdou

2013-06-01

279

High quality AlGaN grown on ELO AlN/sapphire templates  

Science.gov (United States)

The defect structure and the homogeneity of 1-3 µm thick AlxGa1-xN layers grown on epitaxially laterally overgrown (ELO) AlN on patterned AlN/sapphire templates have been investigated in dependence on the miscut direction of the c-plane sapphire substrates, the etching depth into the sapphire and the Al concentration. It was found that shallowly etched AlN/sapphire templates with a 0.25° miscut toward the a-plane provide a smooth surface of ELO AlN and therefore a good Al homogeneity in the overgrown Al0.8Ga0.2N layer. The threading dislocation density in these layers is as low as 5×108 cm-2.

Zeimer, U.; Kueller, V.; Knauer, A.; Mogilatenko, A.; Weyers, M.; Kneissl, M.

2013-08-01

280

Al-matrix composite materials reinforced by Al-Cu-Fe particles  

Science.gov (United States)

Al-matrix material composites were produced using hot isostatic pressing technique, starting with pure Al and icosahedral (i) Al-Cu-Fe powders. Depending on the processing temperature, the final reinforcement particles are either still of the initial i-phase or transformed into the tetragonal ?-Al00.70Cu0.20Fe0.10 crystalline phase. Compression tests performed in the temperature range 293K - 823K on the two types of composite, i.e. Al/i and Al/?, indicate that the flow stress of both composites is strongly temperature dependent and exhibit distinct regimes with increasing temperature. Differences exist between the two composites, in particul ar in yield stress values. In the low temperatureregime (T 570K both composites exhibit similar yield stress values. The results are interpreted in terms of load transfer contribution between the matrix and the reinforcement particles and elementary dislocation mechanisms in the Al matrix.

Bonneville, J.; Laplanche, G.; Joulain, A.; Gauthier-Brunet, V.; Dubois, S.

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
281

The effect of an oxide dispersion on the critical Al content in Fe-Al alloys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oxide-dispersed iron aluminides with Al contents ranging from 10 to 28 at.% were oxidized in air at temperatures between 600 and 1300 C in order to determine the critical Al content necessary to form a protective, external alumina scale. A Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dispersion, performed similarly to an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dispersion, indicated little effect of Y on the critical Al content. Compared to ingot-processed iron aluminides, the addition of an oxide dispersion reduced the critical Al content at 900 C. This reduction is attributed to the finer grain size in the oxide-dispersed Fe-Al.

Pint, B.A.; Leibowitz, J.; DeVan, J.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1999-02-01

282

Some aspects of anelastic and microplastic creep of pure Al and two Al-alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Anelastic creep of pure Al, commercial Al-Cu and a binary Al-Cu alloy has been measured at room temperature by means of a high resolution laser interferometer. The irreversible component of the deformation was also quantified from measurements of the anelastic creep recovery. The dependence of the deformation-time curves on thermal treatment and cold work is analyzed. The mechanisms responsible for the room temperature anelastic creep are discussed. Materials loaded below their elastic limit can present either a pure anelastic behavior (commercial Al-Cu) or additional viscoelastic creep (pure Al, high purity Al-Cu). For commercial Al-Cu, the presence of an irreversible deformation appears to be mainly related to the state of the surface. A viscoelastic after effect has been measured for this alloy after a Cu-electroplating treatment. As a typical result for room temperature creep, the irreversible deformation depends logarithmically on load time. (orig.)

1993-01-01

283

High-performance nonvolatile Al/AlOx/CdTe:Sb nanowire memory device  

Science.gov (United States)

Here we demonstrate a room temperature processed nonvolatile memory device based on an Al/AlOx/CdTe:Sb nanowire (NW) heterojunction. Electrical analysis shows an echelon hysteresis composed of a high-resistance state (HRS) and a low-resistance state (LRS), which can allow it to write and erase data from the device. The conductance ratio is as high as 106, with a retention time of 3 × 104 s. Moreover, the SET voltages ranged from +6 to +8 V, whilst the RESET voltage ?0 V. In addition, flexible memory nano-devices on PET substrate with comparable switching performance at bending condition were fabricated. XPS analysis of the Al/AlOx/CdTe:Sb NW heterojunction after controlled Ar+ bombardment reveals that this memory behavior is associated with the presence of ultra-thin AlOx film. This Al/AlOx/CdTe:Sb NW heterojunction will open up opportunities for new memory devices with different configurations.

Xie, Chao; Nie, Biao; Zhu, Long; Zeng, Long-Hui; Yu, Yong-Qiang; Wang, Xian-He; Fang, Qun-Ling; Luo, Lin-Bao; Wu, Yu-Cheng

2013-09-01

284

Some aspects of anelastic and microplastic creep of pure Al and two Al-alloys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Anelastic creep of pure Al, commercial Al-Cu and a binary Al-Cu alloy has been measured at room temperature by means of a high resolution laser interferometer. The irreversible component of the deformation was also quantified from measurements of the anelastic creep recovery. The dependence of the deformation-time curves on thermal treatment and cold work is analyzed. The mechanisms responsible for the room temperature anelastic creep are discussed. Materials loaded below their elastic limit can present either a pure anelastic behavior (commercial Al-Cu) or additional viscoelastic creep (pure Al, high purity Al-Cu). For commercial Al-Cu, the presence of an irreversible deformation appears to be mainly related to the state of the surface. A viscoelastic after effect has been measured for this alloy after a Cu-electroplating treatment. As a typical result for room temperature creep, the irreversible deformation depends logarithmically on load time. (orig.).

Sgobba, S. (Lab. de Metallurgie Mecanique, Dept. des Materiaux, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland)); Kuenzi, H.U. (Lab. de Metallurgie Mecanique, Dept. des Materiaux, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland)); Ilschner, B. (Lab. de Metallurgie Mecanique, Dept. des Materiaux, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland))

1993-11-01

285

Ni{sub 3}Al aluminide alloys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper provides a brief review of the recent progress in research and development of Ni{sub 3}Al and its alloys. Emphasis has been placed on understanding low ductility and brittle fracture of Ni{sub 3}Al alloys at ambient and elevated temperatures. Recent studies have resulted in identifying both intrinsic and extrinsic factors governing the fracture behavior of Ni{sub 3}Al alloys. Parallel efforts on alloy design using physical metallurgy principles have led to properties for structural use. Industrial interest in these alloys is high, and examples of industrial involvement in processing and utilization of these alloys are briefly mentioned.

Liu, C.T.

1993-10-01

286

Study of Al-Be-Sm phase diagram in the Al-Be-SmBe13-SmAl2 area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Methods of X-ray diffraction, differential thermal and microscopical analyses are applied to build pseudobinary polythermal sections and the projection of liquidus surface of Al-Be-Sm state diagram in the field of Al-BeSmB13-SmAl2. A melting point of ternary intermetallic compound Al57Be23Sm20 (D5) is determined and constitutes 1370 deg C[ru] ???????????????, ???????????????-??????????? ? ?????????????????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????????? ??????? ? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ????????? Al-Be-Sm ? ??????? Al-BeSmB13-SmAl2. ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????????????? ?????????? Al57Be23Sm20 (D5), ??????? ?????????? 1370 ???? ?

2004-01-01

287

The effects of LT AlN buffer thickness on the optical properties of AlGaN grown by MOCVD and Al composition inhomogeneity analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have investigated the growth of AlGaN epilayers on a sapphire substrate by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition using various low-temperature (LT) AlN buffer thicknesses. Combined scanning electron microscopy and cathodoluminescence investigations reveal the correlation between the surface morphology and optical properties of AlGaN films in a microscopic scale. It is found that the suitable thickness of the LT AlN buffer for high quality AlGaN growth is around 20 nm. The Al compositional inhomogeneity of the AlGaN epilayer is attributed to the low lateral mobility of Al adatoms on the growing surface.

2007-02-21

288

Electromagnetic enhancement of wetting in the Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al-graphite systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of a pulsed electromagnetic field on wetting in the Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al-graphite systems has been investigated in this study. In the sessile drop test the applied electromagnetic field can cause strong circulating surface flow and oscillation of the aluminum droplet. At temperatures above 800{degree}C the oxide film breaks up and fragments can be seen to move over the surface of the droplet under the action of the induced electromagnetic stirring. A rapid decrease of contact angle was observed to occur when surface oscillation occurred. The rate of decrease of the contact angle has been found to be related to the intensity of the oscillation induced by the field. The amplitude of the resonant oscillation is a function of the pulse frequency and amplitude. The treatment temperature and oxygen partial pressure can also influence the strength of oscillation and therefore the rate of decrease of the contact angle. The measured data provide an insight into the influence of the electromagnetic field on wetting. Within 15 minutes the use of the field can reduce the contact angle by 25{degree} and 22{degree} respectively for the Al-graphite and the Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} systems at 800{degree}C.

Bunyan, P.J.; Huo, S.H. [Univ. of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia). Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

1993-12-31

289

Magnetic properties of FeAl2 and Fe2Al5  

Science.gov (United States)

We have investigated magnetic properties of the FeAl2 and Fe2Al5 intermetallic compounds. By measuring the zero-field-cooled and field-cooled static (dc) magnetic susceptibilities in low and high magnetic fields, the frequency-dependent (ac) susceptibility, the magnetization versus the magnetic field, and the thermoremanent magnetization time decay, we found that the magnetic structures of FeAl2 and Fe2Al5 are richer than those published so far in the literature. FeAl2 undergoes complex two-step magnetic ordering. At T ? 32 K, a magnetic phase transition (not yet specified) takes place in which a small fraction of the Fe spins participate, whereas at Tf2 ? 12 K, the majority spin fraction undergoes a spin-freezing transition to a spin glass phase. Fe2Al5 undergoes a transition to a spin glass phase at the spin freezing temperature Tf ? 3 K, which was not reported previously. The spin glass phase in Fe2Al5 is “soft” and fragile with respect to the external magnetic field and can only be observed in low magnetic fields below ˜100 Oe. The origins of the spin glass ordering in the FeAl2 and Fe2Al5 phases are randomness and frustration that are present on the Fe sublattices of both compounds. In FeAl2, the Fe spins are positioned randomly on the three mixed-occupation Al/Fe sites of the unit cell, whereas in Fe2Al5, partial occupation of the Fe-neighboring Al2 and Al3 atomic sites imposes different degrees of Fe moment screening by the electron cloud, resulting in a random distribution of the magnetic moment sizes. Geometric frustration because of positioning of the antiferromagnetically coupled Fe spins on triangles is present in both compounds as well.

Jagli?i?, Z.; Vrtnik, S.; Feuerbacher, M.; Dolinšek, J.

2011-06-01

290

Analysis of mechanical properties of nanocrystalline Al+?-Al2O3 composites using molecular dynamics simulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this article, mechanical properties of nanocrystalline Al+?-Al2O3 composites are investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. The configurations of matrix and volume fraction of ?-Al2O3 may affect the mechanical properties of the particle reinforced metal-matrix composites and are taken into account. The potentials for the Al+?-Al2O3 system developed by Xin Lai et al. are adopted to depict the interactions between Al and ?-Al2O3. Monocrystal Al and Bicrystal Al based ?-Al2O3 particle reinforced nanocomposites are modelled respectively. Results show that: (1) volume fraction of the particles has no explicit effects on the elastic modulus and ultimate strength in both monocrystal Al and bicrystal Al based matrix nanocomposites, (2) disappearance of valley in the stress-strain curve of bicrystal Al results from existence of dislocation in matrix of various orientations.

2013-03-28

291

Solutions for modular structure more energy efficiency; Baukasten-Loesungen fuer mehr Energieeffizienz  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Presented is a customer oriented tool of electric motors with energy optimized solutions, and applicated in production fields like food-and beverage industry. It's a mechatronic drive system Movigear which unifies motor, gear and electronics in one device. (GL)

Huebner, I.

2008-06-15

292

Improving traffic safety by global chassis control; Mehr Verkehrssicherheit durch Global Chassis Control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Late in 1999 Continental AG decided to aim for a general and persistent improvement of traffic safety by introducing the Reduced Stopping Distance project. Bundling the company know-how regarding tire, brake and chassis this project was setting the course for Global Chassis Control. In December 2000, after less than a year of development the first stage on the way to Reduced Stopping Distance had been achieved. Continental AG technology demonstrator vehicles had been equipped with conceptual tires, electro-hydraulic brakes (EHB) and controlled air-spring chassis. They proved breaking distances of about and less than 30 meters to be possible when performing standstill braking from 100 km/h. (orig.) [German] Ende 1999 setzte sich die Continental AG mit dem Projekt 'Verkuerzter Anhalteweg' zum Ziel, die Verkehrssicherheit allgemein nachhaltig zu verbessern. Durch eine Vernetzung des Konzern-Know-hows in Sachen Reifen, Bremse und Fahrwerk wurden mit diesem Projekt auch die Weichen in Richtung Global Chassis Control gestellt. Im Dezember 2000, nach knapp einem Jahr der Entwicklung, war die erste Etappe auf dem Weg zum verkuerzten Anhalteweg bewaeltigt: Mit Konzeptreifen, elektrohydraulischer Bremse (EHB) und geregeltem Luftfeder-Fahrwerk ausgeruestete Technologietraeger der Continental AG realisierten aus 100 km/h Bremswege von 30 Metern und weniger. (orig.)

Huinink, H. [Continental Gummi-Werke AG, Hannover (Germany); Rieth, P.E. [Continental Teves, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

2001-04-01

293

Greater data clarity in cathodic corrosion protection; Mehr Datentransparenz im Kathodischen Korrosionsschutz  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the past, piping systems for (gas) distribution and (gas) transmission systems have in many cases been documented in different planning documents. Either hand-written records or diverse cathodic anti-corrosion system programs (monitoring measurements, remote monitoring, intensive IFO measurements, etc.) have been used for documentation of monitoring data (read-off and measured data, etc.) from cathodic corrosion-protection systems. These heterogeneous structures in documentation resulted, inter alia, in a high level of data storage redundancy. The use of a geo-information system with a specialized interface shell for (gas) piping and linking to a documentation system for cathodic corrosion protection (such as WinKKS, for example) provides a remedy here. All data is centrally administered and is also available on a mobile basis (off-line operation using a laptop). The use of these central documentation systems permits comprehensive evaluation covering all diverse series of measurements without any significant additional working-time input. (orig.) [German] Leitungen von (Gas-)Transportsystemen wurden in der Vergangenheit in vielen Faellen in unterschiedlichen Planunterlagen dokumentiert. Fuer die Dokumentation der Ueberwachungsdaten (Ablese- und Messdaten usw.) aus dem Kathodischen Korrosionsschutz wurden entweder handschriftliche Protokolle oder unterschiedliche KKS-Programme (Ueberwachungsmessung, Fernueberwachung, Intensiv-IFO-Messung usw.) verwendet. Diese heterogenen Strukturen der Dokumentation fuehrten unter anderem zu einer hohen Redundanz bei der Datenarchivierung. Der Einsatz eines Geo-Informations-Systems mit einer Fachschale (Gas-)Leitung und die Anbindung an ein Dokumentationssystem fuer den kathodischen Korrosionsschutz (wie z.B. WinKKS) schafft hier Abhilfe. Alle Daten werden zentral verwaltet und stehen auch im Aussendiensteinsatz (Offlinebetrieb mit einem Laptop) zur Verfuegung. Durch den Einsatz dieser zentralen Dokumentationssysteme ist eine umfassende Auswertung unter der Einbeziehung aller unterschiedlicher Messreihen ohne nennenswerte zusaetzliche Aufwendungen an Arbeitszeit moeglich. (orig.)

Ostroznik, K. [Ruhrgas AG, Essen (Germany). Kompetenzcenter Korrosionsschutz

2001-07-01

294

More natural gas for better climate protection?; Mehr Erdgas fuer den Klimaschutz?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is undisputed that power supply must change over to CO2-free options in the long run. However, until then it may be useful to have a look at fossil energy sources themselves. It is still important to search for a coherent European gas utilisation strategy which will make it possible to fully exploit the chances of natural gas. A current study investigates this problem. The focus is on whether or not enhanced use of natural gas may help to achieve the CO2 reduction goals of the EU and what steps European energy policy ought to take to promote it. (orig.)

Hobohm, Jens [Prognos AG, Berlin (Germany). Energiewirtschaft

2009-05-15

295

Energy turnaround. A need for realism rather than actionism; Energiewende. Mehr Realismus statt Aktionismus ist gefragt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Where is the energy turnaround heading? Given the prospect of blackouts, especially during the cold season, more and more consumers have legitimate concerns about the security and affordability of the energy supply. The energy turnaround will only become the lighthouse project it has been envisioned as if the political leadership thinks of it not only in ecological but also in economic terms. Being the environmentally friendly, reliable energy resource it is, natural gas could play a decisive supporting role on the way into the ''green era''.

Kamphues, Stephan [Open Grid Europe GmbH, Essen (Germany)

2013-01-15

296

Das Human Factors Projekt im Wilhelminenspital - mehr Sicherheit in der Medizin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "Aus Fehlern lernt man" ? jedoch nur dann, wenn dieses Thema auch offen angesprochen wird. Um die Patientensicherheit an der Gynäkologisch- Geburtshilflichen Abteilung des Wilhelminenspitals zu optimieren, kommen seit nunmehr zwei Jahren Methoden der Human-Factors-Forschung zur Anwendung. Diese Sicherheitsinstrumente werden in der Luftfahrt bereits seit Jahrzehnten erfolgreich angewandt und sind zum Teil sogar gesetzlich vorgeschrieben. Zentrales Anliegen ist hierbei die genaue Analyse der sicherheitsrelevanten Abläufe und somit ein kritisches Hinterfragen der täglichen Routine. Denn bevor ein Mensch einen Fehler begehen kann, muß er zuerst die passenden Voraussetzungen dafür vorfinden: im System. Der Einsatz von Analysegruppen und Checklisten bietet in diesem Zusammenhang die Möglichkeit, zum einen die Genese von Fehlern exakt zu überprüfen und zum anderen mit Hilfe eines klaren Leitfadens Unsicherheiten bereits im Vorfeld zu reduzieren. Höchstleistungen in der Medizin sind nur dann möglich, wenn hochqualifizierte Menschen unter ebenso qualitativ hochwertigen Bedingungen zusammenarbeiten können. Effiziente und wertschätzende Kommunikation im Team bildet die Grundlage für eine solche Zusammenarbeit. Und genau hier setzt der Human-Factors-Gedanke an: In einer Arbeitsumwelt, die von enormer Verantwortung, Stress und Leistungsdruck geprägt ist, muß der wichtigste Sicherheitsfaktor gestärkt und gesichert werden: der Mensch.

Lass H; Ujcik A; Brunbauer M; Salzer H

2006-01-01

297

Airborne aerial power line inspection; Luftgestuetzte Inspektion von Freileitungssystemen. Helikopter fuer Inspektionen heute nicht mehr wegzudenken  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Germany is proud: in 2007 the energy customers had to accept only 19 min of power cut on average. One reason for this is the good maintenance of the aerial power lines. It is not possible to achieve this without the use of helicopters. To make this method more effective Pergam-Suisse used the existing knowledge and experience from the airborne gas leak detection to realize a concept for power line inspection: A 4-axis stabilized gimbal, equipped with a measuring high resolution thermal imaging camera, a visual camera and a GPS module for mounting on several types of helicopters. (orig.)

Horn, B.A. [NDT Application, Pergam-Suisse AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

2008-11-03

298

More biogas with electronics; Anaerobic sewage treatment. Mehr Biogas durch Elektronik; Anaerobe Abwasserreinigung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The great advantage of anaerobic sewage treatment, i.e. the smaller volume of excess sludge, may be utilized more fully in the future. Computer-controlled systems are much faster in reaching their maximum degradation capacity. (orig.)

Voss, H. (Lehrstuhl fuer Biotechnologie, Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany)); Brock, S. (Lehrstuhl fuer Biotechnologie, Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany))

1992-01-01

299

Activation of alkynes by an ?-diimine-stabilized Al-Al-bonded compound: insertion into the Al-Al bond or cycloaddition to AlN2C2 rings.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The reaction of dialumane, [L(2-)(THF)Al(II)-Al(II)(THF)L(2-)] (1, L = [(2,6-iPr2C6H3)NC(Me)]2), with the less reactive diphenylacetylene affords a new insertion product [L(2-)(THF)Al(III)(PhC=CPh)(2-)Al(III)(THF)L(2-)] (2). Reaction of 1 with phenylacetylene (or 4-ethynyltoluene), however, proceeds through cycloaddition of alkynes to the AlN2C2 rings to produce bis(bicyclic) products (3a and 3b).

Zhao Y; Liu Y; Lei Y; Wu B; Yang XJ

2013-05-01

300

Higher order elastic constants of the shape memory alloys Cu-Al-Ni, Cu-Al-Zn, Cu-Al-Be and Cu-Al-Pd  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Theoretical and experimental investigations are being carried out on Cu based alloys due to their technologically important shape memory properties and pseudo-elasticity, which are intimately associated with the Martensitic transformation. In this paper we have determined the complete sets of third-order elastic constants of Cu-Al-Ni, Cu-Al-Zn, Cu-Al-Be and Cu-Al-Pd. A combination of deformation theory and finite strain elasticity theory has been employed to arrive at the expressions for the strain energy density of the lattice based on the Keating's approach. This is compared with the strain-dependent lattice energy from continuum model approximation to obtain the expressions for elastic constants. (author)

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Access to Iplex for Patients with ALS  

Science.gov (United States)

... Drug Safety Information. -. Access to Iplex for Patients with ALS. July 27, 2009. Insmed Inc, today announced that, effective ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/resourcesforyou/healthprofessionals

302

Half life of /sup 26/Al  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The half-life of /sup 26/Al has been redetermined because of suggestions of an error in the accepted value based on its use in calculating /sup 21/Ne production rates from cosmic rays in meteorites. Two solutions of /sup 26/Al were analyzed for the specific radioactivity and mass spectrometric determination of the /sup 26/Al concentration. The half-life obtained for /sup 26/Al was 7.05 x 10/sup 5/ years +- 3.7% at the two sigma level. This is identical to the accepted value of 7.16 x 10/sup 5/ years and indicates that problems with the /sup 21/Ne production rate is not due to an erroneous half-life.

Norris, T.L.; Gancarz, A.J.; Rokop, D.J.; Thomas, K.W.

1983-01-01

303

Androgendefizit als Ursache der Osteoporose beim Mann  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Die Osteoporose als ein systemischer Verlust des Knochenmineralgehaltes mit erhöhter Frakturinzidenz wurde überwiegend beim Östrogendefizit in der Postmenopause bei Frauen untersucht. Sowohl das Auftreten von Wirbelkörper- und Schenkelhalsfrakturen als auch die damit verbundene Exzessmortalität ist bei Frauen und Männern nachgewiesenermaßen unterschiedlich. Ein der Menopause der Frau entsprechendes Syndrom mit Verlust des Serumtestosterons, ADAM ("androgen deficiency syndrome of the aging male"), konnte bisher nicht schlüssig nachgewiesen werden. Die Substitution männlicher Hormone im Alter hat positive Effekte auf den Knochenstoffwechsel des Mannes, allerdings kann vorerst auf Grund der bisherigen Datenlage eine Hormonersatztherapie alleine zur Frakturprävention nicht allgemein empfohlen werden. Eine Vielzahl weiterer Risikofaktoren, z. B. Glukokortikoidtherapie, Alkoholkonsum, hyperthyreote Schilddrüsenfunktion, Magenoperation, Plasmozytom, sind als Ursache einer sekundären Osteoporose ebenfalls auszuschließen. Durch eine antiandrogene Therapie bei Patienten mit Prostatakarzinom ist ein erhöhtes Frakturrisiko vorprogrammiert. Die Therapie mit Bisphosphonaten, peroral oder intravenös, gilt als Standard für eine effektive Therapie auch bei der männlichen Osteoporose, eine adäquate Vitamin-D-Versorgung vorausgesetzt.

Kudlacek S

2008-01-01

304

12. Annual ALS Users' Association Meeting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Science took the front seat as 219 Advanced Light Source (ALS) users and staff gathered on Monday and Tuesday, October 18 and 19 for the twelfth annual users' meeting. The bulk of the meeting was dedicated to reports on science at the ALS. Packed into two busy days were 31 invited oral presentations and 80 submitted poster presentations, as well as time to visit 24 vendor booths. The oral sessions were dedicated to environmental science, chemical dynamics, biosciences, magnetic materials, and atomic and molecular science. In addition, there was an ALS highlights session that emphasized new results and a session comprising highlights from the young scientists who will carry the ALS into the future.

1999-12-17

305

12th Annual ALS Users' Association Meeting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Science took the front seat as 219 Advanced Light Source (ALS) users and staff gathered on Monday and Tuesday, October 18 and 19 for the twelfth annual users' meeting. The bulk of the meeting was dedicated to reports on science at the ALS. Packed into two busy days were 31 invited oral presentations and 80 submitted poster presentations, as well as time to visit 24 vendor booths. The oral sessions were dedicated to environmental science, chemical dynamics, biosciences, magnetic materials, and atomic and molecular science. In addition, there was an ALS highlights session that emphasized new results and a session comprising highlights from the young scientists who will carry the ALS into the future.

1999-12-17

306

Cd ion implantation in AlN  

Science.gov (United States)

AlN thin films were implanted with cadmium, to fluences of 1 × 1013 and 8 × 1014 at/cm2. The implanted samples were annealed at 950 °C under flowing nitrogen. Although implantation damage in AlN is known to be extremely stable the crystal could be fully recovered at low fluences. At high fluences the implantation damage was only partially removed. Implantation defects cause an expansion of the c-lattice parameter. For the high fluence sample the lattice site location of the ions was studied by Rutherford Backscattering/Channelling Spectrometry. Cd ions are found to be incorporated in substitutional Al sites in the crystal and no significant diffusion is seen upon thermal annealing. The observed high solubility limit and site stability are prerequisite for using Cd as p-type dopant in AlN.

Miranda, S. M. C.; Franco, N.; Alves, E.; Lorenz, K.

2012-10-01

307

Serum and CSF immunological findings in ALS.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Serum and CSF immunological findings were analysed in 37 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). ALS patients had significantly higher mean values of serum IgG and complement component C4 and significantly lower mean value of total haemolytic titre of complement (THC) compared with normal controls. Incidence of immune complexes (ICs) was significantly higher in sera of ALS patients than in normal controls. There was no significant difference regarding mean serum levels of IgM, IgA, and complement components C3 and Factor B between patients and controls. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage was found in 46% of patients. Intrathecal IgG synthesis was detected in six patients (16%). These results support the hypothesis of immune system involvement in ALS.

Apostolski S; Nikoli? J; Bugarski-Prokopljevi? C; Mileti? V; Pavlovi? S; Filipovi? S

1991-02-01

308

Serum and CSF immunological findings in ALS.  

Science.gov (United States)

Serum and CSF immunological findings were analysed in 37 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). ALS patients had significantly higher mean values of serum IgG and complement component C4 and significantly lower mean value of total haemolytic titre of complement (THC) compared with normal controls. Incidence of immune complexes (ICs) was significantly higher in sera of ALS patients than in normal controls. There was no significant difference regarding mean serum levels of IgM, IgA, and complement components C3 and Factor B between patients and controls. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage was found in 46% of patients. Intrathecal IgG synthesis was detected in six patients (16%). These results support the hypothesis of immune system involvement in ALS. PMID:2017904

Apostolski, S; Nikoli?, J; Bugarski-Prokopljevi?, C; Mileti?, V; Pavlovi?, S; Filipovi?, S

1991-02-01

309

Specific numerical processing impairment in ALS patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study investigated for the first time numerical processing in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. Twenty-four non-demented patients affected by probable or definite ALS and 27 healthy controls underwent cognitive assessment. Numerical abilities (Number Comprehension, Number Transcoding, Arithmetic Fact retrieval, Calculation Skills and Arithmetic Principles) and neuropsychological functions were evaluated in accordance with Strong's consensus criteria. Clear group differences between the patients and controls were found in Multiplication Facts (Tables), Multiplication Approximation, and Multiplication Principles. These deficits were not statistically related to impairments of more general cognitive functioning. In conclusion, specific, previously unreported arithmetical deficits have been found in ALS patients. This particular impairment pattern could be indicative of damage to the cortico-subcortical circuits involved in some specific aspects of multiplication. Our findings could contribute to further delineate the profile of cognitive impairment in ALS.

Palmieri A; Sorarù G; D'Ascenzo C; Balestreri S; Arcara G; Ermani M; Pegoraro E; Semenza C

2013-01-01

310

Reply to comments of Wu et al  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The comments of Wu, Kalend, Zwicker, and Sternick on the electron beam energy using the TG-21 protocol are answered. The authors are in general agreement with Wu et al. They also discuss other protocols and present experimental data

1984-01-01

311

Reply to comments of Wu et al  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The comments of Wu, Kalend, Zwicker, and Sternick on the electron beam energy using the TG-21 protocol are answered. The authors are in general agreement with Wu et al. They also discuss other protocols and present experimental data.

Schulz, R.J.; Meli, J.A.

1984-11-01

312

Recoil implantation of Al into disordered silicon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Depth profiles of the acceptor concentration is disordered silicon are studied after recoil implantation of Al. The silicon samples are disordered by multiple ion implantation of He ions in the energy range from 30 to 150 keV. Recoil implantation is carried out in the Al/Si(p) system using 100 keV Ar ions. The profiles are compared with those obtained by direct implantation. (author)

1986-03-16

313

Performance of the ALS injection system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors started commissioning the Advanced Light Source (ALS) storage ring on January 11, 1993. The stored beam reached 60 mA on March 24, 1993 and 407 mA on April 9, 1993. The fast pace of storage ring commissioning can be attributed partially to the robust injection system. In this paper they describe the operating characteristics of the ALS injection system.

1993-01-01

314

Veränderte Genexpression als Grundlage für vaskuläres Remodeling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gefäßwandumbau oder "vascular remodeling" ist definiert als Änderung im Gefäßkaliber, oft ohne Veränderung der Gesamtgewebsmasse. Die Verfügbarkeit des intravaskulären Ultraschalls hat dazu geführt, Gefäßremodeling als dynamischen Prozeß zu beobachten. Zelltod, Zellwachstum, Zellmigration und Produktion oder Abbau extrazellulärer Matrix sind durch die Expression von Genen in der Gefäßwand gesteuert. Anhand von Analysen solcher Genexpressionsmuster in verschiedenen Gefäßgebieten wird die Signifikanz des Forschungskonzepts "Genexpression in der Gefäßwand" an Beispielen illustriert.

Lang I; Bonderman D; Czerny M; Gharehbaghi-Schnell E; Glogar HD; Grimm M; Hassan A; Ignatescu M; Korschineck I; Maurer G; Rezaie-Majd S; Rosenhek R

2000-01-01

315

Performance of the ALS injection system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors started commissioning the Advanced Light Source (ALS) storage ring on January 11, 1993. The stored beam reached 60 mA on March 24, 1993 and 407 mA on April 9, 1993. The fast pace of storage ring commissioning can be attributed partially to the robust injection system. In this paper they describe the operating characteristics of the ALS injection system.

Kim, C.H.

1993-05-01

316

Analysis of al-2 mutations in Neurospora.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The orange pigmentation of the fungus Neurospora crassa is due to the accumulation of the xanthophyll neurosporaxanthin and precursor carotenoids. Two key reactions in the synthesis of these pigments, the formation of phytoene from geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate and the introduction of ? cycles in desaturated carotenoid products, are catalyzed by two domains of a bifunctional protein, encoded by the gene al-2. We have determined the sequence of nine al-2 mutant alleles and analyzed the carotenoid content in the corresponding strains. One of the mutants is reddish and it is mutated in the cyclase domain of the protein, and the remaining eight mutants are albino and harbor different mutations on the phytoene synthase (PS) domain. Some of the mutations are expected to produce truncated polypeptides. A strain lacking most of the PS domain contained trace amounts of a carotenoid-like pigment, tentatively identified as the squalene desaturation product diapolycopene. In support, trace amounts of this compound were also found in a knock-out mutant for gene al-2, but not in that for gene al-1, coding for the carotene desaturase. The cyclase activity of the AL-2 enzyme from two albino mutants was investigated by heterologous expression in an appropriately engineered E. coli strain. One of the AL-2 enzymes, predictably with only 20% of the PS domain, showed full cyclase activity, suggesting functional independence of both domains. However, the second mutant showed no cyclase activity, indicating that some alterations in the phytoene synthase segment affect the cyclase domain. Expression experiments showed a diminished photoinduction of al-2 transcripts in the al-2 mutants compared to the wild type strain, suggesting a synergic effect between reduced expression and impaired enzymatic activities in the generation of their albino phenotypes.

Díaz-Sánchez V; Estrada AF; Trautmann D; Limón MC; Al-Babili S; Avalos J

2011-01-01

317

Toxicity of Al to Desulfovibrio desulfuricans  

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The toxicity of Al to Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20 was assessed over a period of 8 weeks in a modified lactate C medium buffered at four initial pHs (5.0, 6.5, 7.2, and 8.3) and treated with five levels of added Al (0, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 10 mM). At pH 5, cell population densities decreased signi...

Amonette, J. E.; Russell, C. K.; Carosino, K. A.; Robinson, N. L.; Ho, J. T.

318

New Al-based amorphous alloys with high mechanical strength in the Al-Ni-M and Al-Co-M (M=Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) systems. [AlNiMn; AlNiFe; AlNiCo; AlCoMn; AlCaFe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It has been found that new amorphous alloys with high strength and good bending ductility are formed in the Al-Ni-M[sub 1] (M[sub 1]=Mn, Fe, Co) and Al-Co-M[sub 2] (M[sub 2]=Mn, Fe) systems by the melt spinning technique. The composition ranges in which the amorphous single phase and the coexistent amorphous and Al phases form extends from 87 to 94 at.% Al. The highest values of tensile fracture strength [sigma][sub f] and Vickers hardness H[sub v] for the amorphous single phase are 1070 MPa and 320 respectively for Al-Ni-Co alloys. As the cooling rate decreases, the structure changes to mixed Al and amorphous phases, and [sigma][sub f] and H[sub v] increase to 1270 MPa and 360 respectively without detriment to ductility in the mixed state where the volume fraction of Al phase is about 20%. The highest [sigma][sub f] value in the mixed state was 1340 MPa for the Al-Co-Fe system. These high [sigma][sub f] values are presumably due to the high strength of Al particles resulting from the absence of internal defects as well as of the effective barrier of the Al particles against shear deformation of the amorphous matrix. ((orig.))

Horio, Yuma (Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980 (Japan)); Inoue, Akihisa (Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980 (Japan)); Masumoto, Tsuyoshi (Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980 (Japan))

1994-05-01

319

Formation of Al3Ti/Mg composite by powder metallurgy of Mg Al Ti system  

Science.gov (United States)

An in situ titanium trialuminide (Al3Ti)-particle-reinforced magnesium matrix composite has been successfully fabricated by the powder metallurgy of a Mg-Al-Ti system. The reaction processes and formation mechanism for synthesizing the composite were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), x-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Al3Ti particles are found to be synthesized in situ in the Mg alloy matrix. During the reaction sintering of the Mg-Al-Ti system, Al3Ti particles are formed through the reaction of liquid Al with as-dissolved Ti around the Ti particles. The formed intermetallic particles accumulate at the original sites of the Ti particles. As sintering time increases, the accumulated intermetallic particles disperse and reach a relatively homogeneous distribution in the matrix. It is found that the reaction process of the Mg-Al-Ti system is almost the same as that of the Al-Ti system. Mg also acts as a catalytic agent and a diluent in the reactions and shifts the reactions of Al and Ti to lower temperatures. An additional amount of Al is required for eliminating residual Ti and solid-solution strengthening of the Mg matrix.

Yang, Zi R.; Wang, Shu Qi; Cui, Xiang H.; Zhao, Yu T.; Gao, Ming J.; Wei, Min X.

2008-07-01

320

Heterogeneous nucleation of solid Al from the melt by Al3Ti : Molecular dynamics simulations  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been known experimentally for some time that Al3Ti is a powerful nucleant for the solidification of aluminum from the melt; however, a full microscopic understanding is still lacking. To develop this understanding, we have performed molecular dynamics simulations of the nucleation and early stages of growth using published embedded atom method potentials for Al-Ti, but modified by us to stabilize the D022 structure. We discover that Al3Ti can indeed be very effective in promoting the growth of solid Al but the manner in which growth takes place depends sensitively on the surface on which the Al nucleates. In particular, complete growth of solid Al from the liquid on the (001) and (110) surfaces of Al3Ti occurs at a lower temperature than on the (112) surface. This anisotropy agrees with observations in previous experiments [Greer , Acta Mater. 48, 2823 (2000)10.1016/S1359-6454(00)00094-X]. We explain this observation in terms of interfacial energies. On the preferential (111) surface of Al the solid-liquid interfacial energy is highest while the solid-vacuum energy is lowest. Our simulations also show that the extent of ordering taking place in liquid Al close to the Al3Ti substrate above the melting point correlates well with the effectiveness of the substrate as a nucleant below the melting temperature: this could provide a computationally efficient scheme to identify good nucleants.

Wang, Junsheng; Horsfield, Andrew; Lee, Peter D.; Brommer, Peter

2010-10-01

 
 
 
 
321

Brain FDG-PET changes in ALS and ALS-FTD.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: FDG-PET in ALS most typically demonstrates a primary (and sometimes also supplementary) motor cortex hypometabolism, often associated with more diffuse cortical hypometabolism involving mostly the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the medial and lateral premotor cortices, and the bilateral insular cortex involvement. In ALS-FTD, extensive temporal hypometabolism is seen in addition to severe diffuse frontal hypometabolism. METHODS: This study analyses FDG-PET findings in 6 ALS patients and 4 ALS-FTD patients. RESULTS: In addition to earlier described areas of hypometabolism in ALS, we found also reduced FDG-PET metabolism in the medial frontal cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex, and the anterior temporal lobe in our ALS patients. The anterolateral area was the best preserved part of the frontal lobe in ALS patients. In ALS-FTD, frontal and temporal hypometabolism was severe (and parietal hypometabolism was often also present) with relatively preserved perirolandic metabolism. CONCLUSION: In ALS, more diffuse frontal and temporal FDG-PET hypometabolism was seen than earlier reported, with the anterolateral area as the best preserved part of the frontal lobe. In ALS-FTD, relatively preserved perirolandic metabolism was seen, associated with severe frontal and temporal hypometabolism.

Renard D; Collombier L; Castelnovo G; Fourcade G; Kotzki PO; LaBauge P

2011-12-01

322

Magnetism in Fe4Al13 and related FeAl intermetallics  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the results of an experimental study of FeAl alloys, including Fe4Al13, FeAl2 and Fe2Al5. By using NMR, dc magnetic susceptibility, and specific heat, we found that Fe4Al13 and Fe2Al5 are non-magnetic with some dilute magnetic moments, while FeAl2 can be characterized as a concentrated local moment system. Fe4Al13 is a decagonal quasicrystal approximant with 102 atoms in its unit cell. The ^27Al NMR spin-lattice relaxation indicates a very narrow pseudogap in the electronic density of states [g(E)] in the vicinity of the Fermi energy. The observations could be fit assuming a parabolic variation of g(E), consistent with observations in other quasicrystals and approximants. NMR lineshape measurements also agree with this analysis, and show that the system is dilute-magnetic, in strong contrast to the FeAl2 ordered intermetallic. We use specific heat to analyze the dilute moment density. This work was supported by the Robert A. Welch Foundation, Grant No. A-1526, by the National Science Foundation (DMR-0103455), and by Texas A&M University through the Telecommunications and Informatics Task Force.

Chi, Ji; Li, Yang; Gou, Weiping; Goruganti, V.; Rathnayaka, K. D. D.; Ross, Joseph H., Jr.

2006-03-01

323

Vibrational properties of CaAlH5 and ?-AlH3 with different AlH6 networks studied by inelastic neutron scattering.  

Science.gov (United States)

We performed a combined study using inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and first-principles calculations of the vibrational properties of CaAlH(5) and ?-AlH(3) with different AlH(6) networks, a zigzag one-dimensional AlH(6) network for CaAlH(5), and a three-dimensional AlH(6) network for ?-AlH(3). Both materials showed qualitatively similar INS spectra, in which CaAlH(5)/?-AlH(3) was mainly divided into three regions: (i) the translational modes (318/316 cm(-1)), (ii) the librational modes of the octahedral AlH(6) units (external molecular motion) in the lower frequency range and H-Al-H bond-bending modes (intra molecular motion) at a higher frequency (420-1157/513-1038 cm(-1)), and (iii) the Al-H bond-stretching modes (1238-1750/1486-1942 cm(-1)). In region ii, the appearance of both librational and bond-bending modes was determined by the networked nature of the octahedral AlH(6) units. In addition, the librational modes of AlH(6) on ?-AlH(3) exhibit higher frequencies than CaAlH(5) due to the tighter bonding between the octahedral AlH(6) units. With regard to average frequencies for the Al-H, ?(S), bond-stretching modes, and average Al-H bond distances on the aluminum-based hydrides including CaAlH(5) and ?-AlH(3), ?(S) showed lower frequencies that correlate with lengthening of the Al-H bond distances. PMID:21790131

Sato, Toyoto; Ramirez-Cuesta, A J; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Orimo, Shin-ichi; Yamada, Kazuyoshi

2011-07-26

324

Vibrational properties of CaAlH5 and ?-AlH3 with different AlH6 networks studied by inelastic neutron scattering.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We performed a combined study using inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and first-principles calculations of the vibrational properties of CaAlH(5) and ?-AlH(3) with different AlH(6) networks, a zigzag one-dimensional AlH(6) network for CaAlH(5), and a three-dimensional AlH(6) network for ?-AlH(3). Both materials showed qualitatively similar INS spectra, in which CaAlH(5)/?-AlH(3) was mainly divided into three regions: (i) the translational modes (318/316 cm(-1)), (ii) the librational modes of the octahedral AlH(6) units (external molecular motion) in the lower frequency range and H-Al-H bond-bending modes (intra molecular motion) at a higher frequency (420-1157/513-1038 cm(-1)), and (iii) the Al-H bond-stretching modes (1238-1750/1486-1942 cm(-1)). In region ii, the appearance of both librational and bond-bending modes was determined by the networked nature of the octahedral AlH(6) units. In addition, the librational modes of AlH(6) on ?-AlH(3) exhibit higher frequencies than CaAlH(5) due to the tighter bonding between the octahedral AlH(6) units. With regard to average frequencies for the Al-H, ?(S), bond-stretching modes, and average Al-H bond distances on the aluminum-based hydrides including CaAlH(5) and ?-AlH(3), ?(S) showed lower frequencies that correlate with lengthening of the Al-H bond distances.

Sato T; Ramirez-Cuesta AJ; Ikeda K; Orimo S; Yamada K

2011-09-01

325

Unusual Properties of Al_2H_6  

Science.gov (United States)

Ab initio calculations based on density functional theory and generalized gradient approximation reveal the structure of Al_2H6 to be that of di-borane (B_2H_6) even though the chemistry of Al and B clusters are different. With an electron affinity of 0.44 eV and ionization potential of 10.14 eV, Al_2H6 bears the signature of a "magic" cluster. Unlike magic clusters in metallic systems, Al_2H6 is born out of the coalescence of two AlH3 which are also "magic" by themselves as dictated by their low electron affinity (0.28 eV) and high ionization potential (11.43 eV). The most striking property of Al_2H_6, however, is that its vertical electron detachment energy is about 2 eV higher than its adiabatic electron affinity signifying vast changes between the geometries of the anion and the neutral cluster. These predictions are verified experimentally by photodetachment spectroscopy.

Ganteför, G.; Burkart, S.; Seifert, G.; Rao, B. K.; Jena, P.

2000-03-01

326

Degradasi Lapisan Aluminida pada Paduan Intermetalik ?2-Ti3Al / ?-TiAl Akibat Oksidasi Siklik  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two-phase inter-metallic alloy ?2-Ti3Al/?-TiAl is developed to operated at high temperature in oxidative environment. However its oxidation rate can not be tolerated due to formation of TiO2 which is not protective. If the alloy is used in gas turbine that often have thermal cycle, it will cause cracking and flaking oxide crust. Coating is correct solution to improve properties of this alloy so that it can be used at high temperature. By enriching the material surface with significant amount of Al element there will be a formation of Al2O3 protective oxide. The method applied to get formation of Al2O3 is the pack cementation. This study discusses of characteristic coating and oxide crust formation at two-phase inter-metallic alloy of ?2-Ti3Al/?-TiAl from pack aluminizing process Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia; Paduan intermetalik dua fasa ?2-Ti3Al/?-TiAl dikembangkan untuk operasi temperature tinggi dalam lingkungan oksidatif. Namun laju oksidasinya tidak dapat ditolelir karena akan teroksidasi membentuk kerak oksida TiO2 yang tidak protektif. Pada Mesin turbin gas yang seringkali mengalami siklus thermal, dapat mengakibatkan peretakan (cracking) dan pengelupasan (spalling) kerak oksida. Coating merupakan solusi yang tepat agar paduan ini dapat digunakan pada temperature tinggi. Dengan memperkaya permukaan benda kerja dengan unsur Al sehingga material mampu membentuk kerak oksida protektif Al2O3 saat teroksidasi. Metoda pelapisan temperature tinggi yang sering diterapkan untuk keperluan ini adalah pack cementation. Studi ini membahas sebagian dari hasil pengujian oksidasi siklik. Khususnya pembahasan karakteristik coating dan kerak oksida yang terbentuk pada paduan intermetalik dua fasa ?2-Ti3Al/?-TiAl hasil pack aluminizing. Kata kunci: Coating, cyclic oxidation, pack aluminizing.

Toto Saputra; Adi Ganda Putra

2008-01-01

327

Oxidation of Ni-Rich Ni-Al Intermetallics.  

Science.gov (United States)

The oxidation of Ni-Al intermetallic alloys in the beta-NiAl phase field and in the two phase beta-NiAl/gamma'-Ni3Al phase field has been studied between 1000 and 1400 C. The stoichiometric beta-NiAl alloy doped with Zr was superior to other alloy composi...

J. Doychak J. L. Smialek C. A. Barrett

1988-01-01

328

Biozonation and biostratigraphic limits of the Tarbur formation around Shiraz (SW of Iran)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mehr als 3000m der karbonatischen Tarbur Formation wurden in der Umgebung der Stadt Schiras durch sieben stratigraphische Profile untersucht. Zur Alters bestimmung mittels Foraminiferen der Tarbur Formation wurden davon 900 Dünnschliffe bearbeitet. Die Biozonen dieser stratigraphischen Profile basie...

Afghah, Massih

329

Spatially and temporally scaled inverse hydraulic modelling, multi tracer transport modelling and interaction with geochemical processes at a highly transient bank filtration site  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Seit mehr als 100 Jahren wird Oberflächenwasser mit verschiedenen Verfahren versickert, wobei sich dessen Qualität stark verbessert. Sie finden zunehmend weltweit Anwendung, um eine zuverlässige Versorgung mit sauberem Trinkwasser zu gewährleisten. Solche Verfahren erfordern nur einen geringen tec...

Wiese, Bernd Ulrich

330

Der intermittierende Selbstkatheterismus - "safety first": Eine Übersicht über Produkte und deren Anwendungsmöglichkeiten  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Der intermittierende Selbstkatheterismus (ISK) ist seit mehr als 15 Jahren die führende und international anerkannte konservative Therapieform der Neurogenen Blasenfunktionsstörung (NBS). Bei Betroffenen mit erworbener Querschnittlähmung entleeren ca. 70 % ihre Blase durch den intermittierenden Selbstkatheterismus.

Schersach P

2004-01-01

331

Ein anachronistisches Urheberrecht schafft Rechtsunsicherheit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Das österreichische Urheberrecht muss an EU-Vorgaben angepasst werden. Daraus wurde nun ein veritabler Streit, da sich herausstellte, dass hier mehr als optische Korrekturen erforderlich wären. Ein kleiner Einblick in den aktuellen Diskurs.

Christian Berger

2013-01-01

332

Review: Janet Heaton (2004). Reworking Qualitative Data Review: Janet Heaton (2004). Reworking Qualitative Data Reseña: Janet Heaton (2004). Reworking Qualitative Data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Seit mehr als einem Vierteljahrhundert nutzen Forschende quantitative Daten systematisch für Sekundäranalysen. Viele Daten sind breit zugänglich und es wird zur Sekundärnutzung solcher Datensätze für neue Fragestellungen ermutigt. Zwischenzeitlich ist diese Praxis auch auf qualitative Datensätze aus...

Lichtman, Marilyn

333

Thermophysical properties of ?Al2O3, MgAl2O4 and AlN at low tempertures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A possibility for producing energy in future might be the nuclear fusion. The process of nuclear fusion is characterized by melting nuclei of hydrogen atoms (deuterium and tritium) which yield to the production of helium atom nuclei. For this process extremely high temperatures of the deuterium-tritium-gas plasma are necessary. The additional heating of the plasma by microwaves requires materials with low diaelectric losses and high thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity can be increased by cooling the windows which lead to the plasma chambre. Experimental investigations with the aim to check the influence of liquid nitrogen (T=70 K) on the cooling of the windows were performed in the temperature region 70 K2O3, MgAl2O4 and AlN were measured. The thermal conductivity can be calculated using the equation ?=?cp? ?=thermal conductivity ?=thermal diffusivity cp=specific heat (at constant pressure) ?=density. Furthermore a theoretical method to calculate the thermal conductivity at low temperatures is presented; this is done by using a model modification of heat transport in electric insulators. As result the influence of intrinsic parameters (crystal structurey) and extrinsic parameters (point defects, dislocations, boundary areas) upon thermal conductivity of ?-Al2O3, MgAl2O4 and AlN are achieved. (orig.).

1995-01-01

334

Fabrication of Al-Al3Ti/Ti3Al Functionally Graded Materials under a Centrifugal Force  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fabrication of Al-Al3Ti functionally graded materials (FGMs) under the centrifugal force has recently attracted some attention. The controlled compositional gradient of the fabricated FGMs, the low cost of the process, and the good mold filling, are the main advantages of the centrifugal method (CM). Using the conventional CM techniques such as the centrifugal solid-particle method and centrifugal in-situ method, FGMs rings with gradually distributed properties could be achieved. As a more practical choice, the centrifugal mixed-powder method (CMPM) was recently proposed to obtain FGMs containing nano-particles selectively dispersed in the outer surface of the fabricated parts. However, if a control of the particles morphology, compound formulas or sizes, is desired, another CM technique is favored. As a development of CMPM, our novel reaction centrifugal mixed-powder method (RCMPM) has been presented. Using RCMPM, Al?Al3Ti/Ti3Al FGMs with good surface properties and temperature controlled compositional gradient could be achieved. In this short review, this novel method will be discussed in detail and the effect of RCMPM processing temperature on the reinforcement particles morphology, size and distribution through the fabricated samples, will be reviewed.

Shimaa El-Hadad; Hisashi Sato; Eri Miura-Fujiwara; Yoshimi Watanabe

2010-01-01

335

Antiferromagnetic order in TbFe2Al10 and DyFe2Al10  

Science.gov (United States)

The magnetic properties of the orthorhombic aluminides TbFe2Al10, DyFe2Al10 and HoFe2Al10 have been investigated by neutron powder diffraction. Below the Néel temperatures TN =16.5(5) and TN=7.5(5)K the terbium and dysprosium moments show incommensurate magnetic order with the wave vectors /k=(0, 0.7977, 0) and /k=(0, 0.7836, 0), respectively. TbFe2Al10 shows a square wave modulated magnetic ordering of the terbium sublattice with a moment direction parallel to the /a-axis. In DyFe2Al10 the dysprosium moments rotate within the /ac-plane forming a helical magnetic structure. For HoFe2Al10 no magnetic order could be observed down to 1.5K.

Reehuis, M.; Fehrmann, B.; Wolff, M. W.; Jeitschko, W.; Hofmann, M.

2000-03-01

336

Alpha and beta stabilizer character of Al in Zr-Nb-Al alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The T?/?+? of Zr5Nb and Zr5Nb2Al (weight %) were determined in order to observe the alpha-stabilizer character of Al in ternary Zr-Nb-Al alloys. Techniques employed were change of resistivity with temperature in dynamic experiences, and metallography of samples quenched to room temperature after isothermal annealings. The T?/?+? of the ternary resulted 17 ± 8 deg C higher than that of the binary alloy. In addition, taking into account the results of previous investigations of the transformation of beta on quenching Zr-Nb-Al alloys from the beta field to room temperature, it is concluded that the beta-stabilizer character of Nb is stronger than the alpha-stabilizer character of Al in these Zr alloys, and that the Al can have important influence on the mechanical properties by the appearance of TRIP effect. (Author)

1987-01-01

337

Mechanical properties of Ni{sub 3}Al and FeAl: Recent developments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent developments in the understanding of the ductility and fracture behavior of Ni{sub 3}Al and FeAl are reviewed. Both intrinsic factors (e.g., alloy stoichiometry), and extrinsic factors (e.g., environment) have been shown to affect their mechanical properties. Of all the recent developments, perhaps the most significant is the realization that Ni{sub 3}Al and FeAl are intrinsically ductile (at least on the Al-deficient side of stoichiometry); their brittleness when tested in ambient air is due mainly to environmental embrittlement. Another intriguing discovery is that boron embrittles Ni{sub 3}Al in gaseous hydrogen (until recently, B was though to have only beneficial, or at most neutral, effects). The authors review these and other recent discoveries and discuss, wherever possible, the underlying physical mechanisms giving rise to the observed mechanical behavior.

George, E.P.; Liu, C.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

1997-08-01

338

60Co gamma radiation effect on AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMT devices  

Science.gov (United States)

The testing techniques and experimental methods of the 60Co gamma irradiation effect on AlGaN/AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) are established. The degradation of the electrical properties of the device under the actual radiation environment are analyzed theoretically, and studies of the total dose effects of gamma radiation on AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMTs at three different radiation bias conditions are carried out. The degradation patterns of the main parameters of the AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMTs at different doses are then investigated, and the device parameters that were sensitive to the gamma radiation induced damage and the total dose level induced device damage are obtained.

Wang, Yan-Ping; Luo, Yin-Hong; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Ke-Ying; Guo, Hong-Xia; Guo, Xiao-Qiang; Wang, Yuan-Ming

2013-05-01

339

Crystal structures of isotypic aluminides CeRuAl and CeRhAl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The crystal structures of the compounds CeRuAl and CeRhAl were studied by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Both compounds crystallize in the orthorhombic LaNiAl type with space group Pnma (No. 62) and are related to the structure types of hexagonal ZrNiAl and orthorhombic TiNiSi. Parameters for CeRuAl and CeRhAl are: a = 7.2057(2) A, b = 4.0589(1) A, c = 15.8728(5) A; RF = 0.023; a = 7.107(2) A, b = 4.2237(10) A, c = 15.965(3) A; RF 0.032, respectively.

2008-04-24

340

[Al species distribution of organic silicate aluminum hybrid flocculants by Al-ferron complexation timed spectrophotometric method].  

Science.gov (United States)

New types of organic silicate aluminum hybrid flocculants were prepared by employing Tetraethylorthosilicat (TEOS), Diethoxydimethylsilane (DEDMS), gamma-Aminopropylmethyldiethoxysilane (APDES) as silicon source. The Al species distribution in these new products was investigated by Al-Ferron complexation timed spectrophotometric method. The results show that silicon source, basicity (B) and Si/Al molar ratio have effect on the Al species distribution. Among them, basicity has greater effect, three sets of products have similar characteristics. The content of Al(a) declines with the rise of B value, while the contents of Al(b) and Al(c) increase. Al(c) is the dominant Al species in the products with TEOS as silicon source. DEDMS has little contribution to the distribution of Al species. In the products with APDES as silicon source, Al(c) is the dominant Al species while the content increases with the rise of Si/Al molar ratio. PMID:19068635

Peng, Jian-xiong; Xue, An; Zhao, Hua-zhang; Du, Lian-ying

2008-09-01

 
 
 
 
341

A note on Wang et al's attack on Zhang et al's multiparty quantum secret sharing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently, Wang et al (2008 Phys. Lett. A 373 65) proposed an attack on Zhang et al's (2007 Opt. Commun. 269 418) multiparty quantum secret sharing scheme, in which the first and the last agent are reported to be able to cooperatively eavesdrop on all the secret messages without being detected. In this paper, we show that in Wang et al's attack, on average no more than half the secret messages can be eavesdropped. (paper)

2012-01-01

342

A note on Wang et al's attack on Zhang et al's multiparty quantum secret sharing  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, Wang et al (2008 Phys. Lett. A 373 65) proposed an attack on Zhang et al's (2007 Opt. Commun. 269 418) multiparty quantum secret sharing scheme, in which the first and the last agent are reported to be able to cooperatively eavesdrop on all the secret messages without being detected. In this paper, we show that in Wang et al's attack, on average no more than half the secret messages can be eavesdropped.

Gao, Gan

2012-08-01

343

Effect of the interface in laminated composites of Al-1100 and Al-2024  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laminated composites consisting of alternating layers of Al-1100 and Al-2024 were produced by hot rolling, with 45% Al-2024 volume fraction. These composites were subjected to cyclic thermal treatment (various numbers of cycles) and to isothermal treatment (various numbers of cycles) and to isothermal treatment (at peak temperature and for times equivalent to those of the thermal cycles. Microhardness, tensile and fatigue crack arrester modes) were studied in the initial state and after treatments. (E.G.)

1983-01-01

344

Anodic Oxidation of Aluminum by Electron Tunneling through Al/Cadmium-Stearate/Al Structure  

Science.gov (United States)

The conduction of the monolayer Langmuir-Blodgett(LB) film consisting of Cadmium-Stearate(CdSt) may be explained by an electron tunneling process. The tunneling current through the Al/CdSt/Al sample showed a great decrease with time when a constant voltage was applied in air. Such a phenomenon seems to result from the growth of an Al2O3 layer by the anodic oxidation of the aluminum electrode enhanced by the electron tunneling.

Okazaki, Choichiro; Kuniyoshi, Shigekazu; Kudo, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Kuniaki

1989-11-01

345

Fabrication, phase transformation studies, and characterization of SiC-AlN-Al2OC ceramics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Principal focus was on phase transformation, microstructure development, and elevated temperature creep, with some effort on room- temperature mechanical properties of selected materials. Fabrication was largely hot pressing, although many of the compositions can be densified by pressureless sintering; hot pressing was to ensure full attainment of density with fine microstructure. Most of the work was on SiC-AlN and AlN-Al2OC pseudobinaries

1994-01-01

346

Magnetic properties of the heavy fermion antiferromagnets YbNiAl and YbPtAl  

CERN Multimedia

Measurements of electrical resistivity and Hall effect as a function of magnetic field on the Heavy Fermion Systems YbNiAl and YbPtAl are presented. Both compounds order antiferro magnetically and show metamagnetic behavior in a magnetic field. Scaling behavior of the magnetoresistance above TN suggests that the paramagnetic regime for YbNiAl can be described in terms of a single ion Kondo effect. stripping the files : uudecode gunzip tar -xvf

Diehl, J; Klimm, S; Horn, S; Tegel, U; Geibel, C; Steglich, F; Davideit, H; Klimm, S; Horn, S; Tegel, U; Geibel, C; Steglich, F

1994-01-01

347

Molecular dynamic investigation of atomic distribution in molten Al-Al{sub 2}Cu eutectic alloy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Structure of Al{sub 0.83}Cu{sub 0.17} eutectic alloy has been studied in liquid state by means of X-ray diffraction and molecular dynamic methods. The total and partial structure factors are analyzed. These functions were used in order to calculate pair correlation functions and partial correlation functions, whose analysis allowed us to conclude that Al{sub 2}Cu-like atomic groups are distributed in Al-matrix.

Mudry, S; Shtablavyi, I [Physics of Metals Department, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Kyrylo and Mephodii Str. 8, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Rybicki, J, E-mail: sihor@ukr.ne [Faculty of Technical Physics and Applied Mathematics, Technical University of Gdansk, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)

2011-04-01

348

Molecular dynamic investigation of atomic distribution in molten Al-Al2Cu eutectic alloy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Structure of Al0.83Cu0.17 eutectic alloy has been studied in liquid state by means of X-ray diffraction and molecular dynamic methods. The total and partial structure factors are analyzed. These functions were used in order to calculate pair correlation functions and partial correlation functions, whose analysis allowed us to conclude that Al2Cu-like atomic groups are distributed in Al-matrix.

2011-04-01

349

Comment on Wu et al.'s Server-aided Verification Signature Schemes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In ProvSec 2008, Wu et al. constructed two server-aided verification signature (SAV-Sigma) schemes based on BLS signature. In this paper, we provide a new definition of the security of SAV-Sigma against collusion and adaptive chosen message attacks. We founded that Wu et al.'s first scheme is secure, while their second scheme is insecure based on our definition.

Zhiwei Wang; Licheng Wang; Yixian Yang; Zhengming Hu

2010-01-01

350

Short-period superlattices of AlN/Al0.08Ga0.92N grown on AlN substrates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] High-quality short-period superlattices of AlN/Al0.08Ga0.92N have been grown by gas-source molecular-beam epitaxy with ammonia on Al face of AlN (0001) substrates. A significant reduction was achieved in the dislocation density, down to 3x108 cm-2. Complete removal of residual Al2O3 surface oxide is needed in order to obtain low dislocation density in homoepitaxy on AlN. We show that the presence of Al2O3 islands with the surface coverage as low as 0.2% results in increased dislocation density

2004-11-08

351

Oxidability of certain cast and sintered alloys on the base of TiAl, NiAl and Ni3Al intermetallides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] TiAl, NiAl, Ni3Al produced by the methods of power metallurgy and casting are studied for heat-resistance and strength. It is stated that the heat-resistance and strength of TiAl produced by the powder metallurgy method is lower than those of the cast one. The heat-resistance of the powdered Ni3Al is similar to the heat-resistance of the cast one at 1000 deg C, but its strength is higher. Yttrium microalloying of TiAl as well as molybdenum alloying of Ni3Al appreciably decreases the oxidation rate of intermetallides mentioned above

1987-01-01

352

Ternary invariant point at 374°C in the three phase region AlSb-Al-Zn inside the Al-Sb-Zn ternary system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Al-Sb-Zn ternary system was investigated in the three phase region Al-AlSb-Zn, using differential thermal analysis (DTA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS). The position and temperature of the invariant eutectic L ? AlSb + ?-Al + ? - Zn point inside Al-AlSb-Zn region was experimentally determined. To confirm the obtained results X-ray powder diffraction analysis or XRD was also done. All results were compared to the calculated isopleth phase diagrams using Thermo-Calc software (TCW 5). All calculations were done using the SSOL4 data base.

Klan?nik G.; Medved J.

2011-01-01

353

Solid state reaction of Al and Zr in Al/Zr multilayers: A calorimetry study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The exothermic, solid state reaction of Al and Zr has been studied in thick Al/Zr multilayers using Differential Scanning Calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The multilayer samples were magnetron sputter deposited into highly textured alternate layers of Al and Zr with nominal composition Al{sub 3}Zr. The samples used in this study were 47{mu}m thick with a 427{Angstrom} period. When samples were isochronally scanned from 25 to 725C, a large exotherm at {approximately}350C was followed by one or two smaller exotherms at {approximately}650C. The first exotherm is dominated by a diffusion based reaction of Al and Zr that produces two phases in isochronal scans: amorphous Al-Zr and cubic Al{sub 3}Zr, and two additional phases in isothermal anneals: Al{sub 2}Zr and tetragonal Al{sub 3}Zr. The exothermic heat from this multi-phase reaction is measured using isochronal scans and isothermal anneals, and the heat flow is analyzed using a 1-D diffusion based model. An average activation energy and a diffusion constant are determined. In the isothermal scans, the total exothermic heat increases linearly with {radical}time, and layer thicknesses vary linearly with heat.

Blobaum, K.J.; Weihs, T.P.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Wall, M.A.

1995-04-14

354

Comments on the Security Flaw of Hwang et al.'s Blind Signature Scheme  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 2003, Hwang et al. proposed a new blind signature based on the RSA cryptosystem by employing Extended Euclidean algorithm. They claimed that the proposed scheme was untraceable and it could meet all requirements of a blind signature. In 2004, Chang and Chang indicated that the signer in Hwang et al.' scheme could trace the blind signature applicant in some cases. However, the authors find that Chang and Chang's attack is invalid and Hwang et al.'s scheme is still untraceable in this paper.

Fang-Ping Chiang; Yi-Mien Lin; Ya-Fen Chang

2008-01-01

355

Microsample testing of single crystalline Ti-52 at% Al and Ti-55.5 at% Al  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dislocation activity in two-phase commercial TiAl alloys occurs most readily in the {gamma}-TiAl phase, and measurements of the CRSS of single crystalline {gamma}-TiAl provides a solid foundation for understanding the mechanical performance of these alloys. Single crystals of {gamma}-TiAl with greater than 54.5 at% Al have been grown using the optical float zone crystal growing technique, but single crystals with lower Al content, closer to that of commercial alloys, have not. In the present study, polycrystalline ingots of Ti-52 at% Al have been heat treated to form very large grains, and microsample tensile specimens, which have a nominal gage cross-section of 250{micro}m x 300{micro}m, a gage length of 250{micro}m and an overall length of 3 mm, have been machined from within single grains. Microsample high-temperature stress-strain curves for Ti-55.5 at% Al single crystals oriented along the [001] and [010] are presented. Tensile test results for Ti-52 at% Al tested at 1,073K along the[{bar 2}37], [{bar 1}73] and [{bar 3}44] orientations will also be discussed.

Zupan, M.; Dimiduk, D.M.; Hemker, K.J.

1999-07-01

356

Electron channelling enhanced microanalysis on Ni-Al-Mn and Al-Mn-Si  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Atom location by channelling enhanced microanalysis (ALCHEMI) was performed for Ni-Al-Mn compounds and Al-Mn-Si quasicrystals. For Ni{sub 75}Al{sub 25-x}Mn{sub x} (x=5,9) with the L1{sub 2}-type structure, an occupation fraction of Mn atoms at the Ni site was quantitatively determined using planar channelling conditions. The occupation fraction increases with the Mn concentration or by quenching the compound from high temperature. In quasicrystals of Al{sub 74}Mn{sub 20}Si{sub 6} and Al{sub 68}Mn{sub 20}Ru{sub 8}Si{sub 4}, axial channelling conditions were used to locate Si and Ru, respectively. It was shown that Si atoms occupy the Al site in Al{sub 74}Mn{sub 20}Si{sub 6} whereas Ru atoms occupy the site different from that of Al in Al{sub 68}Mn{sub 20}Ru{sub 8}Si{sub 4}. (author).

Shindo, Daisuke; Hiraga, Kenji; Takasugi, Takayuki; Tsai, An-Pang

1990-07-01

357

Control of AlN buffer/sapphire substrate interface for AlN growth  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The growth condition of AlN buffer layer has been studied in order to fabricate a high-quality AlN layer on a sapphire substrate. The growth of high-quality AlN is extremely difficult due to the weak surface migration of Al adatoms. Therefore we have focused on the AlN buffer layer, and examined the growth condition while controlling the thickness and growth temperature. The crystalline quality of the AlN layer grown on an AlN buffer layer at a growth temperature of 1250 C was improved, and the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) value of the X-ray rocking curve (XRC) obtained for (0002) and (10-10) diffractions were 138 and 464 arcsec, respectively. Moreover, AlO{sub x}N{sub 1-x} was formed when the AlN buffer layer was grown at a high temperature (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

Miyagawa, Reina; Yang, Shibo; Miyake, Hideto; Hiramatsu, Kazumasa [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Mie University, 1577 Kurimamachiya, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan)

2011-07-15

358

Permittivity modulation study of multiferroic AlN/NiFe/AlN films  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports the dielectric properties of AlN/NiFe/AlN multiferroelectric films that were fabricated by the reactive sputtering system. The permittivity that was relative to thickness and number of NiFe layers was observed from 40 Hz to 30 MHz. In this investigation, we found that the dielectric constant of the AlN/NiFe/AlN/ multilayered film was up to 60 for a nano-scale NiFe interlayer. The data indicated that the dielectric constant of the AlN/NiFe/AlN was strongly dependent on the number of the NiFe layers but weak to their thickness. The dielectric tuniability of AlN/NiFe/AlN was also observed by in this study. The results concluded the dielectric-electric variation of AlN films that are modulated by the NiFe ferromagnetic layers. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

Hung, D.S. [Department of Information and Tele. Engineering, Ming Chuan University, Taipei 111 (China); Yao, Y.D. [Department of Materials Engineering, Tatung University, Taipei 104 (China); Wu, K.T.; Hsu, J.C.; Chen, Y.C.; Ding, Y. [Department of Physics, Fu Jen University, Taipei 242 (China)

2007-12-15

359

Radiative cooling of Al-4 and Al-5 in a cryogenic environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We have investigated the radiative cooling of initially hot Al-4 and Al-5 cluster anions during storage in a cryogenic ion beam trap at an ambient temperature of -4 suggest that the vibrational cooling slows down considerably once the ion reaches approximately room temperature. This suggests the participation of transitions from recently found low-lying electronic states of the anion in the cooling process, prior to reaching approximately room temperature. The experimental results for Al-5 suggest slightly slower radiative cooling than for Al-4. (paper)

2012-01-01

360

Effect of Crystalline State of Anodized Porous Al2O3/Al as Supports by Hydration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The porous alumina as a plate catalytic support was prepared by anodization. Effects of hydration condition on the property of alumina supports were studied. The samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, BET and etc. to illustrate the Al2O3/Al forming mechanism. The results show that the best hydration temperature is 80¡?at which the amorphous alumina can be transformed into AlOOH, and become ?-Al2O3 after 500¡?alcination. Meanwhile, the monoliths catalytic carriers have a superior stability for crystalline structures in the steam atmosphere at high temperature.

ZHANG Qi, JIANG Zhong-Rui, SUN Dong-Mei, HAN Da-Ying, ZHU Zi-Bin

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Double mechanical alloying of Al-5wt. %Fe-4wt. %Mn. [Al-Fe-Mn  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mechanical alloying process has been applied to a blend of Al, Fe and Mn powders, in order to produce an Al alloy stabilized by inert dispersions and strengthened by a high volume fraction of intermetallics. The microstructure obtained after a first grinding operation consists of unreacted Fe and Mn particles embedded in a fine grained Al matrix. Intermetallics are formed during heat treatment of the milled powders and are refined in a subsequent mechanical alloying stage. During heat treatment of the powders a metastable Al[sub 6]Fe intermetallic phase is formed. This phase is stabilized by Mn replacing part of the Fe which results in an Al[sub 6](Fe,Mn) intermetallic. In the alloy studied in detail (Al-5wt.%Fe-4wt.%Mn), the intermetallic has the composition Al[sub 12]FeMn. Some Al[sub 6]Mn also forms around large Mn particles, slowing down diffusion of Mn towards the Al[sub 6]Fe particles. Mechanical properties are evaluated and the E modulus is shown to be a function of the volume fraction of intermetallics.

Le Brun, P.; Froyen, L.; Delaey, L. (Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Katholieke Univ. Leuven (Belgium))

1992-09-01

362

Theoretical and Experimental Study of Relaxations in Al3Ti and Al3Zr Ordered Phases  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present investigation was to elucidate the role of structural relaxations in determining the relative stability of L12, D022, and D023 structures in Al3Ti and Al3Zr. This task was accomplished by a unique combination of total-energy electronic structure calculations and (for Al3Zr) high resolution neutron diffraction with Reitveld refinement. Calculated and measured atomic displacements are in excellent agreement. Local relaxation is found to be responsible for the stability of the D023 structure in Al3Zr, in agreement with experimental evidence.

Amador, C.; Hoyt, J. J.; Chakoumakos, B. C.; de Fontaine, D.

1995-06-01

363

Marker barrier effect in diffusion species study of Ni/Al and W/Al reactions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the marker barrier effect in the thermally induced thin film reactions of W/(Ni marker)/Al and Ni/(W marker)/Al structures. The nickel marker did not have a barrier effect in the W/Al reaction, but the tungsten marker did in the Ni/Al reaction. The occurrence of the marker barrier effect is decided by the reaction starting temperatures of aluminum with tungsten and nickel. (orig.).

Wang, S.Q.; Mayer, J.W. (Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States))

1992-01-30

364

Deformation microstructures of ?-TiAl in the Ti-46Al-2V alloy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The intermetallic compound ?-TiAl (L10) is potentially useful for elevated temperature structural applications. It has significant strength and reasonable ductility at high temperatures, but its applications are seriously affected by poor room temperature ductility. The deformation mechanisms of ?-TiAl have been the topics of several papers in recent years. The effect of V addition on the deformation microstructures of ?-TiAl in the two-phase (?2 + ?) Ti-46Al-2V (at.%) alloy at various temperature is reported in this paper

1995-01-15

365

(Al,Ga)N overgrowth over AlN ridges oriented in [1120] and [1100] direction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Epitaxial lateral overgrowth of 1.5 {mu}m wide AlN ridges with 1.5 {mu}m spacing with AlGaN or AlN was investigated by electron microscopy and cathodoluminescence. Overgrowth of [1100] oriented stripes leads to relatively smooth c-plane AlGaN surfaces while on [1120] oriented stripes strongly facetted surfaces evolve. The growth on the different facets leads to strong compositional fluctuations. These fluctuations can be prevented by the growth of binary AlN over the ridges instead of AlGaN. Only the [1100] oriented ridges formed smooth surfaces, suitable for subsequent deposition of AlGaN with homogeneous composition. The lateral epitaxial overgrowth leads to a remarkable reduction in threading dislocation density as shown by TEM and X-ray diffraction. The critical thickness of AlN before cracking was significantly increased in comparison to unpatterned growth. The resulting AlN template is a promising ultraviolet transparent template for LED. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

Kueller, V.; Knauer, A.; Zeimer, U.; Rodriguez, H.; Weyers, M. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Mogilatenko, A. [Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet-Berlin, Newtonstr. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Kneissl, M. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

2011-07-15

366

Al-matrix composite materials reinforced by Al-Cu-Fe particles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Al-matrix material composites were produced using hot isostatic pressing technique, starting with pure Al and icosahedral (i) Al-Cu-Fe powders. Depending on the processing temperature, the final reinforcement particles are either still of the initial i-phase or transformed into the tetragonal {omega}-Al0{sub 0.70}Cu{sub 0.20}Fe{sub 0.10} crystalline phase. Compression tests performed in the temperature range 293K - 823K on the two types of composite, i.e. Al/i and Al/{omega}, indicate that the flow stress of both composites is strongly temperature dependent and exhibit distinct regimes with increasing temperature. Differences exist between the two composites, in particular in yield stress values. In the low temperature regime (T {<=} 570K), the yield stress of the Al/{omega} composite is nearly 75% higher than that of the Al/i composite, while for T > 570K both composites exhibit similar yield stress values. The results are interpreted in terms of load transfer contribution between the matrix and the reinforcement particles and elementary dislocation mechanisms in the Al matrix.

Bonneville, J; Laplanche, G; Joulain, A; Gauthier-Brunet, V; Dubois, S, E-mail: joel.bonneville@univ-poitiers.f [Universite de Poitiers, PHYMAT, CNRS-UMR 6630, SP2MI, F-86962 Chasseneuil (France)

2010-07-01

367

Lifetime of nonequilibrium carriers in high-Al-content AlGaN epilayers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

AlGaN epilayers with different aluminum molar fractions have been comparatively studied by photoluminescence (PL) and light-induced transient grating (LITG) techniques. The carrier diffusion length determined by LITG is shown to be close to the average distance between two first-neighbor dislocations, which was roughly estimated by using the dislocation density obtained by etch pit technique. For epilayers containing the same amount of Al, the carrier lifetime and PL intensity are inversely proportional to the density of the dislocations, which limit the carrier lifetime by serving as nonradiative recombination centers. For AlGaN epilayers with similar lifetimes but with different Al contents, the PL intensity decreases with increasing Al fraction, which is explained by the Al content dependence of the radiative recombination rate. It is demonstrated that introduction of AlN/AlGaN superlattices on sapphire substrates by using Migration Enhanced Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MEMOCVD trademark) enables growth of AlGaN with an increased nonequilibrium carrier lifetime and enhanced photoluminescence intensity. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

Mickevicius, J.; Shur, M.S. [Department of ECE and CIE, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Aleksiejunas, R. [Department of ECE and CIE, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Semiconductor Physics Department and Institute of Materials Science and Applied Research, Vilnius University (Lithuania); Tamulaitis, G. [Semiconductor Physics Department and Institute of Materials Science and Applied Research, Vilnius University (Lithuania); Qhalid Fareed, R.S.; Zhang, J.P.; Gaska, R. [Sensor Electronic Technology, Inc., 1195 Atlas Road, Columbia, SC 29209 (United States); Khan, M.A. [Department of EE, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

2005-01-01

368

Bush lubas al-Zarqawi järglase kinni püüda / Aadu Hiietamm  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

USA president George W. Bush teatas, et tapetud terrorivõrgustiku al Qaeda Iraagi haru liidri Abu Musab al-Zarqawi järglaseks nimetatud Abu Hamsa al-Muhajir on kuulutatud enim tagaotsitavaks terroristiks

Hiietamm, Aadu, 1954-

2006-01-01

369

Nichtinvasive periphere Gefäßdiagnostik ? derzeitiger Stand der MR- und CT-Angiographie in der Diagnostik der peripheren arteriellen Verschlußkrankheit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Derzeit stellen die CT-Angiographie (CTA) und die MR-Angiographie (MRA) in der Gefäßstatuserhebung zur Therapie der PAVK eine veritable Alternative zur Duplex-Ultraschalluntersuchung dar. CTA und MRA erreichen jeweils Sensitivitäten und Spezifitäten von mehr als 90 % in der Detektion hämodynamisch relevanter Stenosen und von mehr als 50 % in großen Studien und Metaanalysen. Offen ist die Evaluation aller Verfahren in Hinblick auf Kosteneffektivität und Effizienz in der Erstellung von Behandlungsplänen zur endovaskulären oder chirurgischen Therapie der PAVK.

Cejna M

2005-01-01

370

Survey and alignment at the ALS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes survey and alignment at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory`s Advanced Light Source (ALS) accelerators from 1993 to 1995. The ALS is a 1.0 - 1.9 GeV electron accelerator producing extremely bright synchrotron light in the UV and soft-X-ray wavelengths. At the ALS, electrons are accelerated in a LINAC to 50 MeV, injected into a booster ring for further acceleration and finally injected into the storage ring. This is shown schematically in Figure 1. The storage ring, some 200 m in circumference, has been run with electron currents above 400 mA with lifetimes as high as 24 hours. The ALS is a third generation light source and requires for efficient storage ring operation, magnets aligned to within 150 mm of their ideal position. To accomplish this a network of monuments was established and their positions measured with respect to one another. The data was reduced using GEONET`` and STAR*NET`` software. Using the monuments as reference points, magnet positions were measured and alignment confirmed using the Kem Electronic Coordinate Determination System (ECDS``). A number of other papers dealing with survey and alignment (S&A) at the ALS have been written that may further elucidate some details of the methods and systems described in this paper.

Krebs, G.F.; Lauritzen, T.; Thur, W.

1995-11-01

371

Survey and alignment at the ALS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper describes survey and alignment at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Advanced Light Source (ALS) accelerators from 1993 to 1995. The ALS is a 1.0 - 1.9 GeV electron accelerator producing extremely bright synchrotron light in the UV and soft-X-ray wavelengths. At the ALS, electrons are accelerated in a LINAC to 50 MeV, injected into a booster ring for further acceleration and finally injected into the storage ring. This is shown schematically in Figure 1. The storage ring, some 200 m in circumference, has been run with electron currents above 400 mA with lifetimes as high as 24 hours. The ALS is a third generation light source and requires for efficient storage ring operation, magnets aligned to within 150 mm of their ideal position. To accomplish this a network of monuments was established and their positions measured with respect to one another. The data was reduced using GEONET'' and STAR*NET'' software. Using the monuments as reference points, magnet positions were measured and alignment confirmed using the Kem Electronic Coordinate Determination System (ECDS''). A number of other papers dealing with survey and alignment (S ampersand A) at the ALS have been written that may further elucidate some details of the methods and systems described in this paper

1995-01-01

372

Cd ion implantation in AlN  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Cd ion implanted in AlN thin films. ? XRD shows damage produced during implantation. ? Annealing recovers damage in low fluence sample. ? RBS/C measurements show that Cd occupies substitutional sites. ? Cd can be a good candidate for p-type doping. - Abstract: AlN thin films were implanted with cadmium, to fluences of 1 × 1013 and 8 × 1014 at/cm2. The implanted samples were annealed at 950 °C under flowing nitrogen. Although implantation damage in AlN is known to be extremely stable the crystal could be fully recovered at low fluences. At high fluences the implantation damage was only partially removed. Implantation defects cause an expansion of the c-lattice parameter. For the high fluence sample the lattice site location of the ions was studied by Rutherford Backscattering/Channelling Spectrometry. Cd ions are found to be incorporated in substitutional Al sites in the crystal and no significant diffusion is seen upon thermal annealing. The observed high solubility limit and site stability are prerequisite for using Cd as p-type dopant in AlN.

2012-10-15

373

Regulation of Tomato golden mosaic virus AL2 and AL3 gene expression by a conserved upstream open reading frame.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A translational regulatory mechanism for Tomato golden mosaic virus (TGMV) complementary-sense gene expression has been characterized. TGMV transcribes two mRNAs, AL-1935 and AL-1629 transcripts, both of which contain the AL2 and AL3 open reading frames. However, AL2 is only expressed from AL-1629 whereas AL3 is expressed from both. Three AUG translation initiation codons are located upstream of both the AL2 and AL3 coding regions, within the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of the AL-1935 transcript. Translation can initiate at the first AUG, specifying the C-terminal 122 amino acids of the AL1 protein (cAL1). Initiation of translation at this AUG is inhibitory for the downstream expression of both AL2 and AL3. This is most likely due to the terminator codon of cAL1 being positioned after the AUG initiation codon for the AL2 ORF. The mechanism by which AL3 is expressed from AL-1935 is currently unknown but a gap between the cAL1 termination codon and the start of AL3 suggests that it may involve reinitiation and/or internal initiation. In contrast, expression of AL3 from AL-1629 most likely occurs via leaky ribosome scanning since the AL3 initiation codon occurs before the terminator codon of AL2. Mutation of the AUG encoding cAL1 in the curtovirus, Spinach curly top virus, leads to increased infectivity as measured by a shorter latent period. Together this suggests that geminiviruses use a post-translational regulatory mechanism to regulate the synthesis of viral proteins important for replication and suppression of host defenses.

Shung CY; Sunter G

2009-01-01

374

Regulation of Tomato golden mosaic virus AL2 and AL3 gene expression by a conserved upstream open reading frame.  

Science.gov (United States)

A translational regulatory mechanism for Tomato golden mosaic virus (TGMV) complementary-sense gene expression has been characterized. TGMV transcribes two mRNAs, AL-1935 and AL-1629 transcripts, both of which contain the AL2 and AL3 open reading frames. However, AL2 is only expressed from AL-1629 whereas AL3 is expressed from both. Three AUG translation initiation codons are located upstream of both the AL2 and AL3 coding regions, within the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of the AL-1935 transcript. Translation can initiate at the first AUG, specifying the C-terminal 122 amino acids of the AL1 protein (cAL1). Initiation of translation at this AUG is inhibitory for the downstream expression of both AL2 and AL3. This is most likely due to the terminator codon of cAL1 being positioned after the AUG initiation codon for the AL2 ORF. The mechanism by which AL3 is expressed from AL-1935 is currently unknown but a gap between the cAL1 termination codon and the start of AL3 suggests that it may involve reinitiation and/or internal initiation. In contrast, expression of AL3 from AL-1629 most likely occurs via leaky ribosome scanning since the AL3 initiation codon occurs before the terminator codon of AL2. Mutation of the AUG encoding cAL1 in the curtovirus, Spinach curly top virus, leads to increased infectivity as measured by a shorter latent period. Together this suggests that geminiviruses use a post-translational regulatory mechanism to regulate the synthesis of viral proteins important for replication and suppression of host defenses. PMID:19012941

Shung, Chia-Yi; Sunter, Garry

2008-11-14

375

Comments on optimization of the boron content in FeAl (40 at.% Al) alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In a recent paper, Webb, Juliet and Lefort indicated, based on tensile tests of two boron-doped FeAl alloys and one undoped FeAl alloy, that they had determined the optimum concentration of boron for good ductility to be 48 appm (12 wppm) in Fe-40Al (compositions given in atomic percent throughout). It is the author's view that this is not the case for the following reasons: (1) The Fe-40Al alloys studied by Webb et al. contained 42:4, (heat number-sign 1), 45.7 (heat number-sign 2) and 39.7 (heat number-sign 3) atomic percent Al. (2) The maximum solubility of an element may depend on the presence of other elements. (3) Other workers, notably Liu and George have obtained greater elongations in Fe-40Al in air (4.3%) than the 2.5% obtained by Webb et al. with a greater boron concentration (300 wppm as opposed to 12 wppm). Similarly, Crimp et al. found little difference in the tensile behavior of slow-cooled Fe-40Al with boron levels in the range 500 to 2000 wppm, with a ductility at 3% elongation that was comparable to the highest obtained by Webb et al. (4) Boron in FeAl presumably partitions between the lattice and the grain boundaries. (5) The grain size in the boron-free alloys studied by Webb et al. was larger at 54 ?m than in the boron-doped alloys (37 ?m and 27 ?m for the alloys containing 12 and 80 wppm B, respectively). (6) When tensile tests are performed on FeAl in air, the ductility is reduced due to water vapor. To some extent boron may ameliorate this environmental effect. Thus, differences in ductility in air are not necessarily due to intrinsic behavior but may be due to a reduced environmental effect in boron-doped alloys. (7) Webb et al. conducted their tensile tests at a strain rate of 3 x 10-2s-1

1993-01-01

376

Experimental analysis of the intermediary phases AlB2,AlB12 and TiB2 in the Al-B and Al-Ti-B systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The phases AlB2,AlB12 and TiB2 were studied in Al-rich Al-B and Al-Ti-B alloys produced by several different sample fabrication methods. The samples were examined using light optical microscopy (LOM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis (EDS) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The results indicate that only a limited solubility of Al in TiB2 and Ti in AlB2 exists, hence a continuous compound (Al,Ti)B2 is not stable. (orig.)

1999-02-01

377

Ba15Al13.4Ga14.5, a disordered structure derived from Sr5Al9  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The structure of the title compound may be derived from the ordered Sr5Al9 structure by redistribution of the Ga and Al atoms. In Ba15Al13.4Ga14.5, the Al1 site is occupied by a mixture of 63% Al and 37% Ga and the Al2 site is totally filled by Ga. Only 69% of the Al3 site is occupied by Al, the remaining 31% being replaced by pairs of Ga atoms in a new partially filled position. The structure has features, characteristic of the Sr5Al9 and the ternary Rb4Au7Sn2 types, which are related to the Laves phases, and can be described as an intergrowth of MgZn2 and Ba3Al5 slabs (69%) as found in Sr5Al9, and Rb2Au3Sn2 and Ba3Al5 slabs (31%). (orig.)

1992-11-15

378

Hydrogenation properties of Mg-Al alloys  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper the properties of Mg-Al alloys in relation to hydrogen storage are reviewed. The main topics of this paper are materials preparation, hydrogen capacity, thermodynamics of hydride formation, and the kinetics of hydride formation and decomposition. Hydrogenation of Mg-Al leads to disproportionation with the formation of magnesium hydride and metallic aluminum as the final product. Experimental evidence renders this process reversible. It is observed that the enthalpy of hydride formation of magnesium is lowered upon alloying with Al due to a slightly endothermic disproportionation reaction. Further, it is found that the kinetics of hydrogenation, as well dehydrogenation, may be significantly improved by alloying compared to pure Mg. The expense of these improvements of the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation properties is a lower gravimetric hydrogen density in the hydrogenated product, (C) 2008 International Association for Hydrogen Energy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Andreasen, Anders

2008-01-01

379

CORAK PEMIKIRAN TASAWUF AL-GHAZALI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article discusses the mysticism thought of a prominent sufi master, al-Ghazali. It argues that his thoughts is influenced by Sunni theological orientation by giving an emphasis on Islamic orthodoxy. Therefore, to study his mysticism, it is important not only to discuss his background, but also his orientation. These two are of significant topics of discussion of the article. Artikel ini mendiskusikan pemikiran tasawuf al-Ghazali. Penulis berargumen bahwa pemikirannya sangat dipengaruhi oleh teologi Sunni, karena itu menekankan pada aspek ortodoksi. Menjelaskan pemikiran tasawufnya, oleh karena itu, harus memperhatikan tidak saja latar kehidupannya, namun juga latar teologinya. Keduanya menjadi topik inti dalam artikel ini. Kata Kunci: al-Ghazali, tasawuf, Ahl as-Sunnah

Hasnani Siri

2011-01-01

380

Aquaporin-4 overexpression in rat ALS model.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Onset of motoneuron death characterizing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is closely linked to modified astrocytic and glial environments. Here, we show that in the spinal cord from transgenic rat overexpressing mutated human SOD1, aquaporin-4 mRNA and protein are specifically overexpressed in the gray matter at end stage of disease. Immunohistochemistry and double immunofluorescence allowed to detect, in the spinal cord gray matter of the ALS rat, increased aquaporin-4 surrounding both vessel and motoneuron perikarya. The use of pre-embedding immunohistochemistry at electron microscopic level confirmed such localization associated with swollen astrocytic processes surrounding the vessels. The AQP4 immunohistochemical labeling surrounding several motoneuron perikarya was only seen in ALS rats. Identification of this AQP4-positive cellular type remains unclear.

Nicaise C; Soyfoo MS; Authelet M; De Decker R; Bataveljic D; Delporte C; Pochet R

2009-02-01

 
 
 
 
381

Boron strengthening in FeAl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of boron on the strength of B2-structured FeAl is considered as a function of composition, grain size and temperature. Boron does not affect the concentrations of antisite atoms or vacancies present, with the former increasing and the latter decreasing with increasing deviation from the stoichiometric composition. When vacancies are absent, the strength increase per at. % B per unit lattice strain, {Delta}{sigma}/({Delta}c x {epsilon}) increases with increasing aluminum concentration, but when vacancies are present (>45 at. % Al), {Delta}{sigma}/({Delta}c x {epsilon}) decreases again. Boron increases grain size strengthening in FeAl. B strengthening is roughly independent of temperature up to the yield strength peak but above the point, when diffusion-assisted deformation occurs, boron strengthening increases dramatically.

Baker, I.; Li, X.; Xiao, H.; Klein, O.; Nelson, C. [Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH (United States). Thayer School of Engineering; Carleton, R.L.; George, E.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

1998-11-01

382

Análisis de la crítica social al marketing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cada vez un mayor número de analistas y críticos sociales asocian el marketing con el consumo exagerado, y afirman que las empresas a menudo planifican la obsolescencia de sus productos con el ánimo de que los compradores adquieran nuevas versiones que incorporan muy pocas mejoras funcionales. Pero, además, aseveran que la publicidad agrega demasiados costos al precio de los productos y que la ganancia bruta de los fabricantes es exagerada. Las críticas se extienden al señalamiento de abusos en el poder político de algunos grupos de industrias y a la discriminación de distritos habitados por familias de bajos ingresos. Al compás de las respuestas de los mercadólogos, los consumidores se organizan y cobra relevancia el concepto de que el marketing debe ser socialmente responsable y que los compradores potenciales pueden educar sus deseos más superfluos y caprichosos.

Raymond Prada Daza

2002-01-01

383

Mechanically alloyed Al-Li powders  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mechanically alloyed powders with the composition Al0.7Li0.3 are synthesized. Materials milled for different times are studied using electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and thermal analysis. A solid solution of Li in Al (?-phase) is formed with as much as 10 at.% of dissolved Li. The LiAl intermetallic ?-phase is readily produced by mechanical alloying but disappears after extended milling times. The final product of milling for 102 h consists of an X-ray amorphous phase. Mechanically alloyed powders heated in inert environment exhibit several weak exothermic reactions between 420 and 700 K, and two endothermic reactions, around 810 and 870 K. All the observed relaxation processes become less pronounced and eventually become undetectable as the milling time increases and an amorphous material is produced.

2007-04-25

384

[Al-Biruni--a universal scientist  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Al-Biruni's was of Persian descent. He was born in Horesmiya and had studied mathematics, history and medicine. Acquiring knowledge from these sciences, he wrote an outstanding work on chronology of several nations and devoted it to Ziyarit ruler Kabus. He made a chronological overview of calendars from many nations, including Persians, Greeks, Egyptians, Jews, Melkitian and Nestorian Christians, Sabeyaans as well as the old Arabs. Data presented in the work, according to the later authors, were taken from very reliable sources. He was contemporary of Ibn-Sina, and thanks to their friendship, they have discussed very much miscellaneous topics. He belonged to the group of scholars, taken by Gaznevian Soultan Mahmud to a long journey to India. Afterwards Al-Biruni wrote and published detailed work "Description of India"--a work on cultural history of India. Due to excellent abilities of Al-Biruni as a philosopher and scholar, there are still significant and reliable notes about buddhistic philosophy, structure of castes and Brahmans' life style. In this Al-Biruni's masterpiece, there are many comparative analysis of Suffism and certain Indian philosophical methods. Al-Biruni's most important work is "Pharmacopoeia"--"Kitab al-saydala", which brilliantly describes all medicaments. This work has been published in many languages. He also wrote few works on astronomy and astrology. In those works he has explained some astrological events through scientific approach in a such peculiar way that nobody has ever explained before. He was also interested in sciences like geology, mineralology, geography, mathematics, psychology and many others.

Kujundzi? E; Masi? I

1999-01-01

385

Comic als künstlerische Ausdrucksform, als Zeitvertreib oder als Bildungsanlass? - Das erste Comics-Festival im Institut français d'Autriche  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Das erste Comics-Festival im Institut français d'Autriche.Eva Horvatic berichtet eingehend über das erste Comic Festival des Insitut français de Vienne und zeigt auf, dass Comics in Frankreich als ernst zu nehmende Medien behandelt werden, die auch die französische Kultur in sich aufnehmen und vermitteln. Darüber hinaus zeigt sie die bildungstheoretische Relevanz von Comics.

Eva Horvatic

2013-01-01

386

Phase constituents and microstructure of laser cladding Al2O3/Ti3Al reinforced ceramic layer on titanium alloy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Research highlights: ? In this study, Fe3Al has been chosen as cladding powder due to its excellent properties of wear resistance and high strength, etc. ? Laser cladding of Fe3Al + TiB2/Al2O3 pre-placed alloy powder on Ti-6Al-4V alloy substrate can form the Ti3Al/Fe3Al + TiB2/Al2O3 ceramic layer, which can increase wear resistance of substrate. ? In cladding process, Al2O3 can react with TiB2 leading to formation of Ti3Al and B. ? This principle can be used to improve the Fe3Al + TiB2 laser-cladded coating. - Abstract: Laser cladding of the Fe3Al + TiB2/Al2O3 pre-placed alloy powder on Ti-6Al-4V alloy can form the Ti3Al/Fe3Al + TiB2/Al2O3 ceramic layer, which can greatly increase wear resistance of titanium alloy. In this study, the Ti3Al/Fe3Al + TiB2/Al2O3 ceramic layer has been researched by means of electron probe, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and micro-analyzer. In cladding process, Al2O3 can react with TiB2 leading to formation of amount of Ti3Al and B. This principle can be used to improve the Fe3Al + TiB2 laser cladded coating, it was found that with addition of Al2O3, the microstructure performance and micro-hardness of the coating was obviously improved due to the action of the Al-Ti-B system and hard phases.

2011-04-07

387

Effect of Crystalline State of Anodized Porous Al2O3/Al as Supports by Hydration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The porous alumina as a plate catalytic support was prepared by anodization. Effects of hydration condition on the property of alumina supports were studied. The samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, BET and etc. to illustrate the Al2O3/Al forming mechanism. The results sho...

ZHANG Qi, JIANG Zhong-Rui, SUN Dong-Mei, HAN Da-Ying, ZHU Zi-Bin

388

Characterization of the Al3Ti phase in Al-Ti alloys  

Science.gov (United States)

The crystallographic microstructure properties of Al-Ti alloys rapidly solidified by a vacuum melting process were investigated by XRD, SEM, optical observations and DSC analysis. It was found that the microstructures are polycrystalline fine-grained (typically 10—20 µm) of intermetallics in equilibrium with the solid solution Fcc ?-Al(Ti) matrix.

Boulkhessaim, Salim; Souilah, Yamina; Bedboudi, Hayette; Bourbia, Amel; Draissia, Mohamed

2013-04-01

389

Combustion Synthesis Reactions in Cold-Rolled Ni/Al and Ti/Al Multilayers  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, a cold rolling method was developed to fabricate Ni/Al and Ti/Al multilayer foils, and the combustion synthesis reactions in the cold-rolled foils were investigated. Combustion synthesis reactions were initiated by heating one end of the cold-rolled foil in a flame for several seconds. The Ni/Al foils went through three reaction stages. The first reaction stage was a displacement of reaction zone with Al3Ni as the reaction product. During the second stage, the part of the foil in the flame underwent thermal explosion. In the last stage, the heat released by thermal explosion triggered a self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) reaction across the foil that resulted in the formation of AlNi. In contrast, the Ti/Al foils experienced only two reaction stages. First, a displacement of the reaction zone propagated across the foil with formation of Al3Ti at the Ti/Al interface. Then a thermal explosion reaction occurred in the part of foil that was heated in the flame, resulting in many different phases in the reacted foil.

Qiu, Xiaotun; Liu, Ranran; Guo, Shengmin; Graeter, Jesse Harris; Kecskes, Laszlo; Wang, Jiaping

2009-07-01

390

Bonding in CoAl and NiAl metal alloys using multipole and MEM techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The precise electron density distribution and bonding in metal alloys CoAl and NiAl is characterized using MEM (maximum entropy method) and multipole method. Reported X-ray single crystal data have been utilized for this purpose. Clear evidence of the metal bonding between the constituent atoms in these two systems has been obtained. The mid-bond electron densities in these systems are found to be 0.358 and 0.251 e/A{sup 3}, respectively for CoAl and NiAl in the MEM analysis. The two-dimensional maps and one-dimensional electron density profiles have been constructed and analyzed. The thermal vibration of the individual atoms Co, Ni and Al has also been studied and reported. The contraction of atoms in CoAl and expansion of Ni and contraction of Al atom in NiAl is found from the multipole analysis, in line with the MEM electron density distribution.

Saravanan, R. [Department of Physics, The Madura College, Madurai 625 011, Tamil Nadu (India)]. E-mail: saragow@dataone.in; Rani, M. Prema [Department of Physics, The Madura College, Madurai 625 011, Tamil Nadu (India)

2007-04-04

391

Sensing behavior of Al-rich AlN nanotube toward hydrogen cyanide.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to explore a sensor for detection of toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) molecules, interaction of pristine and defected Al-rich aluminum nitride nanotubes (AlNNT) with a HCN molecule has been investigated using density functional theory calculations in terms of energetic, geometric, and electronic properties. It has been found that unlike the pristine AlNNT, the Al-rich AlNNT can effectively interact with the HCN molecule so that its conductivity changes upon the exposure to this molecule. The adsorption energies of HCN on the pristine and defected AlNNTs have been calculated to be in the range of -0.16 to -0.62 eV and -1.75 to -2.21 eV, respectively. We believe that creating Al-rich defects may be a good strategy for improving the sensitivity of these tubes toward HCN molecules, which cannot be trapped and detected by the pristine AlNNT. PMID:23354475

Beheshtian, Javad; Peyghan, Ali Ahmadi; Bagheri, Zargham

2013-01-26

392

Diffusion bonding of gamma-TiAl using modified Ti/Al nanolayers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Highlights: ? Ti/Al multilayers are promising interlayers for getting joins between titanium aluminides. ? When Ti/Al multilayers are doped with Ag or Cu it is observed a higher reactivity of the multilayers. ? A doped Ti/Al multilayer decreases the temperature of the process and the quality of the bonding increases. - Abstract: Solid state diffusion bonding has been successfully employed to join ?-TiAl alloys. Processed in vacuum, at high temperature and pressure, the thin interfaces and the lack of structural discontinuity across the interface are the main advantage of this joining technique. An interlayer made of alternated Ti and Al nanometric layers that increases the diffusivity at the joint interface, was used in order to assist the bonding process of ?-TiAl alloys. The use of Ti/Al interlayer has efficiently reduced the joining temperature. Sound joints have been achieved at a temperature of 900 °C under a pressure of 50 MPa in vacuum. In the present work Cu was added as third element to the Ti/Al multilayers and its effect improved the bonding quality. The interface microstructure was studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy.

2012-09-25

393

Room Temperature Radiolytic Synthesized Cu@CuAlO2-Al2O3 Nanoparticles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Colloidal Cu@CuAlO2-Al2O3 bimetallic nanoparticles were prepared by a gamma irradiation method in an aqueous system in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and isopropanol respectively as a colloidal stabilizer and scavenger of hydrogen and hydroxyl radicals. The gamma irradiation was carried...

Alam Abedini; Elias Saion; Farhad Larki; Azmi Zakaria; Monir Noroozi; Nayereh Soltani

394

Fabrication and Mechanical Properties of Ni3 Al--Al2 O3 Composites.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study is to develop a metal-matrix composite based on the intermetallic alloy Ni3 Al reinforced with Al2 O3 fibers, with improved high-temperature strength and lower density compared to the matrix material. This paper summarizes resu...

C. G. McKamey G. L. Povirk J. A. Horton T. N. Tiegs E. K. Ohriner

1988-01-01

395

DYNAMIC FRACTURE RESISTANCE OF Al2O3 AND SiCw /Al2O3  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A bar impact test was developed to study the dynamic fracture responses of precracked ceramic bars, Al2O3 and 15/29% volume SiCw/Al2O3. Laser interferometric displacement gage data was used together with dynamic finite element analysis to determine the instantaneous crack length and the dynamic stre...

Deobald, L.; Kobayashi, A.

396

Structure of icosahedral Al-Cu-Li  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is found by x-ray-absorption fine-structure measurements that the Cu sites in the stable icosahedral phase (T2 phase) and the R phase of Al-Cu-Li alloys are nearly identical. We infer that the structural unit in the T2 phase is a truncated icosahedron composed of 105 atoms. We speculate that the T2 phase and icosahedral Al-Mn-Si have the same structure except for a different structural unit. This is supported by recent x-ray diffraction measurements of both diffraction-peak positions and widths of the T2 phase.

Ma, Y.; Stern, E.A.; Gayle, F.W.

1987-05-11

397

Integración estocástica con respecto al movimiento browniano  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En este artículo damos algunos elementos básicos que se utilizan al estudiar las propiedades y las aplicaciones de la integral estocástica con respecto al movimiento browniano cuando esta integral estocástica se considera en los sentidos de Itô, Skorohod y hacia adelante (definida por Russo y Vallois [32]). La idea principal es brindar una presentación para que el lector comience a entender las herramientas del cálculo estocástico basado en estas integrales, así como sus aplicaciones. También, para cada interpretación de integral estocástica, mencionamos algunos resultados de existencia y unicidad para ecuaciones diferenciales estocásticas gobernadas por el movimiento browniano.

Jorge A. León

2006-01-01

398

The ALS Storage Ring RF System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ALS Storage Ring RF System is characterized by the use of the following features: (1) High power loading of two single cell cavities. (2) The use of a tubular ceramic input window employing aperture coupling. (3) The use of waveguide filters and matchers designed for HOM absorption. (4) A comprehensive HOM monitoring system. (5) The use of waveguide water-wedge loads for the magic tee and circulator loads. The results of cavity measurements and high power tests are reported together with the performance of the system during the commissioning and operation phases of the ALS project. Plans for future window development are discussed.

Taylor, B.; Lo, C.C.; Baptiste, K.; Guigli, J.; Julian, J.

1993-05-01

399

The ALS Storage Ring RF System  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ALS Storage Ring RF System is characterized by the use of the following features: (1) High power loading of two single cell cavities. (2) The use of a tubular ceramic input window employing aperture coupling. (3) The use of waveguide filters and matchers designed for HOM absorption. (4) A comprehensive HOM monitoring system. (5) The use of waveguide water-wedge loads for the magic tee and circulator loads. The results of cavity measurements and high power tests are reported together with the performance of the system during the commissioning and operation phases of the ALS project. Plans for future window development are discussed

1993-01-01

400

Analysis and chemometry of heavy metal concentrations in the Saale, Ilm and Unstrut as a basis for assessing the pollutant level and the prospects for success of sanitation measures. Final report; Analyse und chemometrische Bewertung von Schwermetallgehalten der Saale, Ilm und Unstrut als Bestandsaufnahme und zur Abschaetzung der Auswirkungen von Sanierungsmassnahmen. Abschlussbericht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since the mid-1980`s, heavy metal characterisation was carried out on sediments of selected sections of the river Saale and methodical work was done on the analysis of flowing water at the Friedrich Schiller University at Jena. However, there was no comprehensive and current information about the state of contamination along the whole course of the river before. The most important aim was therefore the first and current stocktaking of this extent of contamination of the water, sediment and suspended matter of the Saale. The basis of these considerations was formed by about 15,000 determined features in water samples and more than 1,000 examinations of suspended matter and 4,600 examinations of sediment. In the characterisation of contamination of flowing watercourses, it was generally usual to evaluate the change of individual features according to geographic or time aspects. The application of methods of multi-variate statistics makes it possible to identify anthropogenic and geogenic sources and to discover latent connections. A comprehensive evaluation of the actual contamination situation is possible in this way. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Seit Mitte der achtziger Jahre werden an der Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena Schwermetallcharakterisierungen an Sedimenten ausgewaehlter Flussabschnitte der Saale sowie methodische Arbeiten zur Fliessgewaesseranalytik durchgefuehrt. Umfassende und aktuelle Informationen ueber den Belastungszustand entlang des gesamten Flussablaufes gab es jedoch bisher nicht. Wichtigstes Ziel war deshalb eine in diesem Umfang erstmalige und aktuelle Bestandsaufnahme zur Belastung von Wasser, Sediment und Schwebstoffe der Saale. Die Grundlage dieser Betrachtungen bilden ca. 15.000 bestimmte Merkmale in Wasserproben und mehr als 1.000 Schwebstoff- und 4.600 Sedimentuntersuchungen. Bei der Belastungscharakterisierung von Fliessgewaessern ist es derzeit allgemein ueblich, die Aenderung einzelner Merkmale nach geographischen oder zeitlichen Aspekten zu bewerten. Die Anwendung von Methoden der multivariaten Statistik ermoeglicht die Identifizierung anthropogener und geogener Quellen und die Aufdeckung latenter Zusammenhaenge. Damit ist eine umfassende Bewertung der tatsaechlichen Belastungssituation moeglich. (orig./SR)

Einax, J.W.; Truckenbrodt, D.; Kampe, O.

1997-09-01

 
 
 
 
401

Surface phonon polariton characteristics of In(0.04)Al(0.06)Ga(0.90)N/AlN/Al(2)O(3) heterostructure.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Surface phonon polariton (SPP) characteristics of In(0.04)Al(0.06)Ga(0.90)N/AlN/Al(2)O(3) heterostructure are investigated by means of p-polarized infrared (IR) attenuated total reflection spectroscopy. Two absorption dips corresponding to In(0.04)Al(0.06)Ga(0.90)N SPP modes are observed. In addition, two prominent dips and one relatively weak and broad dip corresponding to the Al(2)O(3) SPP mode, In(0.04)Al(0.06)Ga(0.90)N/Al(2)O(3) interface mode, and Al(2)O(3) bulk polariton mode, respectively, are clearly seen. No surface mode feature originating from the AlN layer is observed because it is too thin. Overall, the observations are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

Ng SS; Lee SC; Bakhori SK; Hassan Z; Abu Hassan H; Yakovlev VA; Novikova NN; Vinogradov EA

2010-05-01

402

Surface phonon polariton characteristics of In(0.04)Al(0.06)Ga(0.90)N/AlN/Al(2)O(3) heterostructure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Surface phonon polariton (SPP) characteristics of In(0.04)Al(0.06)Ga(0.90)N/AlN/Al(2)O(3) heterostructure are investigated by means of p-polarized infrared (IR) attenuated total reflection spectroscopy. Two absorption dips corresponding to In(0.04)Al(0.06)Ga(0.90)N SPP modes are observed. In addition, two prominent dips and one relatively weak and broad dip corresponding to the Al(2)O(3) SPP mode, In(0.04)Al(0.06)Ga(0.90)N/Al(2)O(3) interface mode, and Al(2)O(3) bulk polariton mode, respectively, are clearly seen. No surface mode feature originating from the AlN layer is observed because it is too thin. Overall, the observations are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. PMID:20588890

Ng, S S; Lee, S C; Bakhori, S K Mohd; Hassan, Z; Abu Hassan, H; Yakovlev, V A; Novikova, N N; Vinogradov, E A

2010-05-10

403

Hardness property and wear resistance of Al2O3(sub P)/Zn-Al composite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The hardness values and the wear resistance of Al2O3{sub P}/ Zn-Al composite prepared by means of rheological casting technology, are investigated. The results show that the addition of Al2O3{sub P} increases the hardness values of the matrix at both room and high temperature and improves the wear resistance of the material. The hardness values and the wear resistance of the composite rise with the increase of the particle volume fraction, or with the decrease of the particle size. The raising of the test temperature results in a rapid descending of the hardness values. However, the addition of Al2O3{sub P} improves the property of high temperature resistance of Zn-Al alloys significantly. The effect of quenching, tempering or cycling heat treatment on the hardness values of the composite is also studied.

Tao, J.; Cui, Y.; Xiao, J.; Feng, J.; Zhou, X.; Li, S.

1995-12-01

404

Microstructure and nanoindentation hardness of Al/Al{sub 3}Sc multilayers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the present paper, we discuss the fabrication, characterization and mechanical properties of a unique multilayer system constructed of aluminum and scandium. Thin film deposition techniques have been used to create high-quality polycrystalline multilayered films consisting of inherently soft Al layers (6-100 nm thick) separated by thin (0.5-5 nm) layers of Al{sub 3}Sc. We use X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and in situ wafer curvature to characterize the microstructure and intermixing of the Al/Al{sub 3}Sc multilayer films produced by sputter deposition for this work. The accompanying hardness results show that layering with nanoscale coherent Al{sub 3}Sc layers increases the hardness by between 200 and 500% over that of a pure aluminum film.

Phillips, M.A.; Clemens, B.M.; Nix, W.D

2003-06-27

405

Production of 26Al by spallation of Fe, Si, Al nuclei  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cross sections for 7Be, 10Be and 26Al formation in Al, Si and Fe targets bombarded with 0.6 and 24GeV protons have been measured by using highly selective chemical separation and low level background counters. Results for 26Al at 0.6GeV are in mb: 17.9 + or - 2.7 in Al, 12.5 + or - 2.5 in Si and 0.45 + or - 0.14 in Fe; at 24GeV 2.6 + or - 0.5mb in Fe. Results for 10Be are not valid on account of experimental difficulties. It is deduced from these values of aluminium in cosmic ray propagation that 26Al is not yet cosmic ray chronometer

1977-01-01

406

Al2O3 adherence on CoCrAl alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Adherence of protective oxides on NiCrAl and CoCrAl superalloys has been promoted by a dispersion of a highly oxygen reactive element or its oxide being produced within the protection system. Two aspects of this subject are investigated here: the use of Al2O3 as both the dispersion and protective oxide; and the production of an HfO2 dispersion while simultaneously aluminizing the alloy. It was found that an Al2O3 dispersion will act to promote the adherence of an external scale of Al2O3 to a degree comparable to previously tested dispersions and an HfO2 dispersion comparable to that produced by a Rhines pack treatment is produced during aluminization

1980-01-01

407

Oxidation behavior of TiAl/TiAl-SiC gradient coatings on gamma titanium aluminides  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gradient TiAl/TiAl+SiC coatings on the gamma titanium aluminide were fabricated by using electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) technique, and the oxidation resistance behavior was investigated. The coating surface was in the structure containing mainly TiAl and SiC identified by the X-ray diffractometer. The oxidation resistance depends on the ratio of the surfacial content of SiC to TiAl. Only 1.03 mg/cm{sup 2} weight gain was recorded after isothermal oxidation at 1173 K in air for 200 h, and no spallation was recognized after cyclic oxidation at 1173 K in air for 100 h for the coating with the ratio of approximately 8:3 TiAl/SiC. The contribution of SiC to the improvement of the oxidation resistance can be considered as the formation of amorphous SiO{sub 2}. (orig.)

Gong, S.; Xu, H.; Yu, Q.; Zhou, C. [Univ. of Aeronaut. and Astronaut., Beijing (China). Dept. of Mater. Sci. and Eng.

2000-08-01

408

Bonding characters of Al-containing bulk metallic glasses studied by {sup 27}Al NMR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report very small {sup 27}Al metallic shifts in a series of Cu-Zr-Al bulk metallic glasses. This observation and the Korringa type of spin-lattice relaxation behavior suggest that s-character wavefunctions weakly participate in bonding and opens the possibility of enhanced covalency (pd hybridization) with increasing Al concentration, in good agreement with elastic constants and hardness measurements. Moreover, ab initio calculations show that this bonding character originates from the strong Al 3p band and Zr 4d band hybridization since their atomic energy levels are closer to each other while the Al 3s band is localized far below the Fermi level. This study might provide a chemical view for understanding flow and fracture mechanisms of these bulk glass-forming alloys.

Xi, X K; Sandor, M T; Wang, H J; Wu, Y [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); Wang, J Q; Wang, W H [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

2011-03-23

409

Bonding characters of Al-containing bulk metallic glasses studied by 27Al NMR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report very small 27Al metallic shifts in a series of Cu-Zr-Al bulk metallic glasses. This observation and the Korringa type of spin-lattice relaxation behavior suggest that s-character wavefunctions weakly participate in bonding and opens the possibility of enhanced covalency (pd hybridization) with increasing Al concentration, in good agreement with elastic constants and hardness measurements. Moreover, ab initio calculations show that this bonding character originates from the strong Al 3p band and Zr 4d band hybridization since their atomic energy levels are closer to each other while the Al 3s band is localized far below the Fermi level. This study might provide a chemical view for understanding flow and fracture mechanisms of these bulk glass-forming alloys.

2011-03-23

410

Different magnetic behaviour of the Kondo compounds Al3Ce and Al11Ce3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neutron diffraction experiments on the Al3Ce and Al11Ce3 compounds have been performed on the multidetector of the I.L.L. high flux reactor. No magnetic structure has been detected on the Al3Ce compound down to 20 mK. This confirms the non magnetic ground state of Al3Ce. For Al11Ce3, two magnetic structures have been observed: a ferromagnetic one at 4.2 K and an antiferromagnetic one at 2 K. The antiferromagnetic structure, which corresponds to a propagation vector (0,0,1/3), implies a strong reduction of the magnetic moment of determined sites; this reflects the Kondo character of the compounds

1979-08-31