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1

More than just a converter; Mehr als nur ein Umwandler  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Inverter can convert more than alternating current. With the presented new products at the INTERSOLAR in Munich the manufacturers are responding to the increased demands. [German] Wechselrichter koennen mehr als nur Wechselstrom umwandeln. Mit den auf der INTERSOLAR in Muenchen vorgestellten Produktneuheiten reagieren die Hersteller auf die gestiegenen Anforderungen.

Wilming, Wilhelm

2013-08-06

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Verlauf des lokoregionären Prostatakarzinoms unter Diätveränderung und Nahrungsmittelergänzung: Longitudinale Beobachtung über mehr als 3 Jahre  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Einleitung: Auftreten und Verlauf des lokal begrenzten Prostatakarzinoms wird durch Diätveränderungen beeinflußt. Wir haben untersucht, ob durch Veränderung der Diätgewohnheiten und Substitution von Nahrungsergänzungsmittel (Active Surveillance der klinische Verlauf des Karzinoms beeinflußt oder eine radikale Behandlung aufgeschoben oder gar vermieden werden kann. Material und Methode: Wir verfolgten den klinischen Verlauf und die PSA-Werte von 13 Patienten mit einem stanzbioptisch verifizierten organbegrenzten Prostatakarzinom. Allen Patienten mit einem T-Stadium 3 mit einem PSA 10 ng/ml und einem Gleasonscore 7 wurde eine Active Surveillance-Strategie mit zusätzlichen Diätempfehlungen und Nahrungsergänzungsmitteln anstelle einer radikalen Prostatektomie offeriert. Alle Patienten erhielten hierfür täglich als Nahrungsmittelergänzung eine Mischung an Radikalfängern (Karotinoide, Selen, Flavonoide, Vit. A, E und Phytoöstrogene. Alle Patienten wurden routinemäßig einmal pro Jahr mindestens 8-fach biopsiert. PSA-Werte und eine rektale Untersuchung wurde alle drei Monate durchgeführt. Eine radikale Prostatektomie wurde im Falle eines zweimaligen konsekutiven PSA-Anstieges und/oder eines suspekten Tastbefundes und/oder einer Ausdehnung der Anzahl positiver Stanzen bei wiederholten Biopsien durchgeführt. Resultate: Wir überschauen nun median 21 Monate (5?90 einer Active Surveillance-Strategie bei 13 Männern (medianes Alter: 65. Bei 3 Männern führte ein konsekutiver PSA-Anstieg zur Planung einer radikalen Prostatektomie (1 Patient verstarb vor der Operation an einer intrazerebralen Blutung, einer verweigerte den Eingriff. Beim verbliebenen Patienten führten wir 14 Monaten nach Diagnosestellung eine Schnittrand-negative Prostatektomie eines pT2c-Gleason-6-Tumors durch (PSA 0 ng/ml frei nach 11 Monaten Follow-up. Von allen Patienten, die initial maximal bis zu 2 positive Gewebsproben hatten, konnte bei 38 % in den Kontrollbiopsien kein Tumor mehr nachgewiesen werden, bei 46 % blieb die Anzahl der positiven Biopsien gleich. Keiner der Patienten ist bis jetzt klinisch apparent geworden. Konklusion: Eine diätetische Unterstützung (Active Surveillance kann den klinischen Verlauf des organbegrenzten Karzinoms günstig beeinflussen. Diese Therapieoption kann Patienten in Hinblick auf eine Lebensqualitätsorientierte Lebenserwartung auch von mehr als 10 Jahren angeboten werden. Voraussetzung ist ein strenger Follow-up und eine entsprechende Compliance.

Schlarp OM

2006-01-01

3

Mehr Last als Lust – Ein weiterer Sammelband zu „(Frauen-Körper“ More Encumbrance than Enjoyment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dieser Band vereint acht heterogene Aufsätze zu „Lust und Last am eigenen Körper“ von Frauen. Alle Beiträge gehören zum Spektrum psychologischer Reflexion; die Themen reichen dabei von Sport über Kochen und Essen bis Schönheit, die Zugänge von Psychoanalyse über experimentelle Psychologie bis hin zu freier Assoziation auf der Grundlage klinisch-praktischer Arbeit. Ein roter Faden durch die Beiträge ist nicht erkennbar und so wirkt die Vielfalt beliebig. So unterschiedlich die Beiträge sind, so unterschiedlich ist auch ihre Qualität. Leider kommen einige Artikel über die unkritische Zusammenstellung anderer Arbeiten nicht hinaus, die meisten nehmen kaum Bezug auf das inzwischen breite und institutionalisierte Feld der (sozial- und kulturwissenschaftlichen Körperforschung. Doch haben manche Aufsätze interessante empirische Einblicke zu bieten, die zur weiteren Reflexion anregen, und einige wenige Beiträge sind so differenziert, dass sich mit ihnen weiterdenken und -forschen lässt. Insgesamt bereitet die Lektüre des Buches weder ‚Einsteiger/-innen‘ noch ‚Fortgeschrittenen‘ der wissenschaftlichen Beschäftigung mit (Frauen-Körpern Lust, sondern erweist sich – bis auf Ausnahmen, die allerdings auch in ausführlicherer Form anderenorts publiziert wurden – eher als Last. Ärgerlich und alles andere als argumentativ überzeugend ist darüber hinaus das in manchen Texten enthaltene, mehr oder minder explizit artikulierte, ‚Feminismus- bzw. Frauenforschungs-Bashing‘.This volume joins together eight heterogeneous essays by women under the theme “enjoyment and encumbrance of the body.” All of the contributions belong within the spectrum of psychological reflection; the themes range from sports, cooking and eating, and beauty, to the process of psychoanalysis, experimental psychology, and free-association based on clinical practice. The thread throughout the contributions remains indiscernible and thus the multiplicity seems arbitrary. And while the contributions vary, so too their quality. Unfortunately, some of the articles do not go beyond the uncritical compilation of other works and the majority of the essays barely make reference to the broad and long institutionalized field of research on the body in both social and cultural studies. However, some of the essays do offer interesting empirical insights that inspire the reader to reflect further and a select few are so wide-ranging that the reader can utilize the material for continued contemplation and research. Overall, academic scholars of (female bodies, be they “beginners” or more “advanced,” will not enjoy reading the essays in this book, but rather—with few exceptions, which, it fairs mentioning, have already been published elsewhere—find reading an encumbrance. What makes the book even more infuriating and everything but argumentatively convincing is that some of the texts engage in more or less explicitly articulated bashing of feminism and women’s studies.

Paula-Irene Villa

2006-11-01

4

Appearance and reality; Mehr Schein als Wirklichkeit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Condition monitoring has been discussed and tested by the wind power industry since almost three years ago. Experience so far has been shattering, but hopes are still high. The high incidence of damage in wind turbine induced insurance companies to include revision clauses in their insurance contracts, in which complete exchange of powertrain components is specified as a preventive measure. Condition monitoring is views as an alternative to these revision clauses as wind power operators get a better picture of the condition of individual components. [German] Seit fast drei Jahren wird Condition Monitoring in der Windbranche diskutiert und erprobt. Die bisherigen Erfahrungen sind ernuechternd. Aber Besserung scheint in Sicht. Ausgeloest durch die zunehmenden Schaeden bei Windturbinen haben die Versicherungsgesellschaften begonnen, Revisionsklauseln in Versicherungsvertraege einzufuegen. Diese Klauseln fordern den kompletten vorbeugenden Austausch einzelner Komponenten des Triebstrangs nach einem bestimmten Zeitraum - beispielsweise Getriebe und Lager. Eine Moeglichkeit, diese Revisionsklauseln zu umgehen, bieten Zustandsueberwachungssysteme - auch Condition Monitoring Systeme (CMS) genannt. Mit ihnen soll der Betreiber einen besseren Ueberblick ueber den Status quo einzelner Bauteile bekommen. (orig.)

Waldl, H.P. [Overspeed GmbH and Co. KG, Oldenburg (Germany)

2003-10-01

5

Hashimoto-Thyreoiditis: Mehr als nur Schilddrüsenhormonmangel?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Eine Autoimmunthyreoiditis wird häufig mit einer Vielzahl von Beschwerden in Verbindung gebracht. Die Gründe hierfür sind vielgestaltig. Neue Erkenntnisse zum Wirkmechanismus von Schilddrüsenhormonen im zentralen Nervensystem stellen erstmals eine mögliche molekulare Erklärung für individuell unterschiedliche neurokognitive Manifestationen von Schilddrüsenfunktionsstörungen dar und könnten deshalb auch ein unterschiedliches Ansprechen auf eine Schilddrüsenhormonsubstitutionstherapie "trotz Euthyreose" bei Patienten mit Hashimoto- Thyreoiditis und anderen Ursachen einer Hypothyreose erklären.

Führer D

2010-01-01

6

Solar Decathlon at Madrid; Mehr als Plus-Energie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There was no better place than Madrid for the first European Solar Decathlon this year with conditions of high temperatures, intensive insolation and no wind. 17 teams of students of architecture competed for the best solar house 2010. The integration of photovoltaic systems is an important discipline. (orig.)

Grewe, Rosa

2010-07-30

7

Headaches. More than just sinusitis; Kopfschmerzen. Mehr als nur Sinusitis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Headaches are among the commonest somatic complaints seen in clinical practice. The International Headache Society differentiates about 190 types of headaches. This article focuses on the variety of secondary headaches with a radiologically identifiable cause. (orig.)

Knauth, Michael [Universitaetsklinikum Goettingen (Germany). Abt. Neuroradiologie

2011-09-15

8

First clinical experience with a full-size, flat-panel detector for imaging the peripheral skeleton; Erste klinische Erfahrungen mit einem grossformatigen Flaechendetektorsystem bei Aufnahmen des peripheren Skelettsystems. T. 1. Halbierte Patientendosis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: This investigation was intended to show that exposures of the peripheral skeleton system can be done with half of the dose used for conventional screen-film systems with a full-size CsI/a-Si flat panel detector. Material an Methods: 120 exposures of the wrist and 100 exposures of the ankle have been made on a full-size flat panel detector system (43 x 43 cm). The patient dose has been reduced by a factor of two compared to conventional images. Five radiologists evaluated every image as a softcopy and a hardcopy image. For the evaluation, a variation of the visual grading analysis (VGA) without reference images was used. For the determination of the patient entrance dose, measurement of a phantom were performed. Results: A dose reduction of about 50% is possible with the same or even better image quality in routine diagnostics. Only 3% of the ankle and approx. 21% of the wrist exposures required a post-processing. Exposures with implants did not show any artifacts and some of the those achieved better evaluation results compared with exposures without implants. Conclusion: A halving of the patient dose is possible with acceptable results for the image quality. The effect of an improved image processing remains to be evaluated. The patient entrance dose is suitable for an evaluation of a radiographic detector and especially for a dose-referred comparison of digital X-ray units. (orig.) [German] Ziel: dieser Untersuchung war es zu zeigen, dass Aufnahmen des peripheren Skelettsystems mit einem grossformatigen CsJ/a-Si Festkoerperdetektor bei halbierter Exposiitonsdosis gegenueber den Belichtungsparametern der konventionellen Film/Folien-Radiographie moeglich sind. Material und Methoden: Angefertigt wurden 120 Aufnahmen des Handgelenks und 100 Aufnahmen des Sprunggelenks mit einem grossformatigen Flaechendetektorsystem (43 cm x 43 cm). Die Aufnahmedosis wurde im Vergleich zu konventionellen Aufnahmen halbiert. 5 Radiologen bewerteten die Aufnahmen jeweils am Monitor und an der Hardcopy. Zur Datenauswertung diente eine Variante der visual grading analysis (VGA) ohne konventionelle Referenzbilder. Zur Bestimmung der Patienteneintrittsdosis (PED) wurden Phantommessungen durchgefuehrt. Ergebnisse: Eine Dosisreduktion um 50% ist bei gleicher bzw. besserer Bildqualitaet in der Routinediagnostik moeglich. Nur 3% der Sprunggelenks- und ca. 21% der Handgelenksaufnahmen bedurften einer Nachbearbeitung Aufnahmen mit Implantaten zeigten keinerlei Artefakte und im Vergleich zu Aufnahmen ohne Implantate teils bessere Bewertungsergebnisse. Schlussfolgerungen: Eine Halbierung der Expositionsdosis ist mit akzeptablen Bewertungen fuer die Bildqualitaet moeglich, wobei eine Anpassung der Bildverarbeitung zur Ergebnisoptimierung zu evaluieren bleibt. Die PED ist fuer die Bewertung und den dosisbezogenen Vergleich von digitalen Roentgenanlagen geeignet. (orig.)

Reissberg, S.; Hoeschen, C.; Kaestner, A.; Theus, U.; Fiedler, R.; Krause, U.; Doehring, W. [Magdeburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologie

2001-11-01

9

Being in the Internet - more than just being ''cool''? e-business and its strategic importance in the utility and energy services industry; Praesenz im Internet - mehr als eine Imagefrage? Die strategische Bedeutung des e-business fuer die Versorgungs- und Energiewirtschaft  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Internet and related technologies belong into the daily life of supply and energy industry especially in the business to business sector. But the installation of a colourful homepage is not enough if one wants to remain competitive in the deregulated markets. The strategic implementation of e-business not only in relation to customers but also to optimisation of internal processes is a major success factor. The present article sheds light into these aspects and shows which enterprises especially in the USA have made e-business become a reality. (orig.) [German] Das Internet und verwandte Technologien gehoeren auch in der Versorgungs- und Energiewirtschaft laengst zum Alltag, vor allem im Geschaeftskundenbereich. Mit der Einrichtung einer bunten Homepage ist aber es laengst nicht mehr getan, will man in den deregulierten Maerkten wettbewerbsfaehig bleiben. Der strategische Einsatz von e-business zur Verbesserung von Kundenbeziehungen, aber auch zur Optimierung interner Prozesse ist vielmehr ein entscheidender Erfolgsfaktor geworden. Die Verfasser erlaeutern diese Gesichtspunkte und zeigen auf, welche Unternehmen vor allem in den USA bereits e-business zur Realitaet gemacht haben. (orig.)

Greisinger, T.W. [IBM Global Utility and Energy Services Industry, Oak Brook, IL (United States); Moehl, W. [IBM Deutschland, Mainz (Germany). Vertriebsbereich Versorgungsunternehmen

2000-04-03

10

Linnamaastike kaitse on osa arengust / Jukka Jokilehto, Mehr Azar Soheil ; intervjueerinud Liisa Pakosta  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Vestlus soome arhitekti, Nova Gorica ülikooli professori, UNESCO ja ICOMOSi konsultandi Jukka Jokilehto ja tema abikaasa, pärslannast arhitekti Mehr Azar Soheiliga. Ka Tallinna vanalinnast maailmapärandi komitees valmivate linnamaastike kaitseks mõeldud soovituste valguses, linna arengust sadama suunas. Eestikeelsena ilmus J. Jokilehto raamat "Arhitektuuri konserveerimise ajalugu" (Tallinn : Eesti Kunstiakadeemia, 2010)

Jokilehto, Jukka

2010-01-01

11

Use of fuel cells in multi-MW-thermal power plants; Brennstoffzelleneinsatz im Mehr-MW-Heizkraftwerk  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Natural gas fuel cells with phosphoric acid electrolyte today are already used in small series of compact units ranging up to 500 kW electric capacity. They thus represent a successful contribution to decentralised power production through cogeneration. Their use in multi-MW thermal power stations is technically possible and, in view of their low emissions and great efficiency, a very attractive alternative. This technology merits intensive development work in order to acquire through practical experience the know-how for bringing costs down to an acceptable level. Manufacturers and operators will need to prepare themselves for modifications regarding the operation and maintenance of these larger plants. The results of a feasibility study for a 1.5 MW thermal power plant presented in this article could come in useful here. (orig.) [Deutsch] Erdgasbetriebene Brennstoffzellen mit Phosphorsaeure-Elektrolyt werden heute bereits in Kleinserien als kompakte Einheiten mit einer elektrischen Leistung von bis zu 500 kW gebaut und mit Erfolg in der dezentralen Energieerzeugung auf Basis der Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung betrieben. Der Einsatz in Mehr-MW-Heizkraftwerken ist ebenfalls moeglich und sollte unter dem Aspekt einer schadstoffarmen und effizienten Energieerzeugung intensiv weiter verfolgt werden, um ueber die gewonnenen Erfahrungen die angestrebten Kostenziele zu erreichen. Technologiebedingt muessen sich Hersteller und Betreiber auf die veraenderten Anforderungen bezueglich Betrieb und Wartung rechtzeitig einstellen. Die nachfolgend vorgestellten Ergebnisse einer Machbarkeitsstudie fuer ein 1,5-MW-Heizkraftwerk koennen dabei hilfreich sein. (orig.)

Lezuo, A. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Knappstein, H. [Thyssengas GmbH, Duisburg (Germany); Langnickel, U. [Gas-, Elektrizitaets- und Wasserwerke Koeln AG (GEW) (Germany); Nymoen, H. [Ruhrgas AG, Essen (Germany)

1995-09-01

12

Energy efficiency needs more than only one propulsion system; Energieeffizienz braucht mehr als einen Antrieb  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is clear that the issue 'energy efficiency' is not covered with one motor alone. The complexity of this issue also becomes clear on the panel discussion of Central Association of the Electrical Engineering and Electronics Industry (Frankfurt (Main), Federal Republic of Germany) on 'Energy efficiency takes more than one drive'. Several drive specialists discuss on the reasonable and efficient utilization of motors and drives in the industry.

Nolte, Frank

2013-05-01

13

Hydrogen - more than just a mobile application; Wasserstoff - mehr als nur eine mobile Anwendung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The securing of a reliable, economical and environmentally friendly energy supply is one of the greatest challenges of the 21st century. Using the energy concept, the Federal Government formulates guidelines for such an energy supply and describes for the first time the way for the age of renewable energy. It is all about the development and implementation of an overall long-term strategy for the time period up to 2050.

Pitschak, Bernd [Hydrogenics GmbH, Gladbeck (Germany)

2013-03-15

14

Utilization level utilizes more than the effectiveness; Nutzungsgrad nutzt mehr als Wirkungsgrad  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

By virtue of a damage at the turbine gear of the hydroelectric power plant Luisenthal of the Thuringian distant water supply, a new turbine runner had to be provided in order to achieve a better adjustment of the turbine to the new operating details. The maximum efficiency was nearly constant in the redesign of the runner of the Francis turbine. The progress of the efficiency with the hydraulic performance shows a flat optimum resulting in a utilisation level of nearly 14% being relevant for the operator.

Mueller, Martin [Hochschule Ulm (Germany); Treiber, Gerd [TWA Wasserkraft-Anlagenbau GmbH, Ilmtal (Germany); Linz, Hans-Dieter [Thueringer Fernwasserversorgung (TFW), Erfurt (Germany)

2013-02-01

15

A Low Cost Hospital Information System: A Case Study of the Mehr Hospital in Mashhad City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nowadays healthcare organizations globally recognize the importance of applying information technologies to improve the quality of their services and reduce costs. The Hospital Information Systems (HISs are the information systems applied in hospitals in order to provide necessary services for the hospitals. In addition to include all the facilities of the HIS, the implementation cost of the system should be reasonable and cost worthy. In this study we explain different parts of the HIS which has been implemented at the Mehr hospital in the Mashhad city of Iran. The HIS implementation cost is low and economical with the hospital income. Furthermore we investigate the effect of the HIS in different aspects of the hospital. The results indicate that applying HIS in Mehr hospital reduces the hospital cost by reducing the amount of paper consumption, omitting several stages of the hospital procedure doing by staff which concludes thrift. It also improves the quality of services in the hospital by increasing the speed of services.

Negin Karimi Hosseini

2014-02-01

16

Soil Surface Attributes Prediction Using Digital Topographic Model in Mehr Catchment, Sabzevar, Khorasan Province  

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Full Text Available Conventional soil survey methods for soils within the watersheds in Iran require a significant budget with many soil surveyors and much time. Additionally, no accurate and reliable information exists on the spatial variability of superface soil parameters in order to predict the soil loss by different models (RUSLE, PISAC, EUPOSEM, MORGAN. Also information on planning and management activities is lacking. These limitations call for methods of estimating soil properties using minimum sampling derived from important terrain parameters. This study was performed to develop soil-landscape models in three geological units (E2Sc, Ku, Plc, in a part of Mehr- watershed, Sabzevar. Six soil variables selected for this study were topsoil clay, gravel, sand, organic matter content, field capacity and bulk density measured at 316 sites on a regular 100m grid. Topographic attributes were calculated by a digital elevation model with 100m spacing. Finally, multiple linear regression analyses relating soil to topographic attributes were performed and then models were validated by additional sample points (78 of 316. The developed regression models showed significant relationships between surface soil properties and topographic attributes such as elevation, slope, aspect, wetness index, stream power index and sediment transport index. The mean errors and root mean square errors in the validation of the models were low and acceptable. The regression equations could explain only 26 to 72 % of the variability measured in the soil attributes in the watershed scale with 100m spacing.

Sh. Ayobi

2006-07-01

17

Qualitative Evaluation of Land Suitability for Extensive Grazing in Mehr Watershed, Sabzevar, Khorasan Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Overgrazing is the most important agent which causes accelerated soil erosion and land degradation in arid and semi-arid zones of Iran. Appropriate planning and land use in these areas based on land suitability evaluation provide a suitable base for conserving the land and controling desertification. Land evaluation identifies possible alternatives in land use which will more effectively meet national or local needs and assists in assessing the consequences of these alternatives. Extensive grazing refers to the land utilization type in which animals feed in natural pastures. This study was performed to evaluate physical potential of the given watershed for grazing by sheep and goats, and assess the limiting factors for the land utilization type in Mehr watershed, Sabzevar, Khorasan province. Land qualities which were evaluated include accessibility to animals, soil erodibility, moisture availability, rooting conditions, salinity and alkalinity, and drinking water availability for animals. Above mentioned land qualities were assessed by appropriate land characteristics. The requirement of grazing land utilization type was defined in terms of rated land characteristics. Matching of requirements of LUT with the land qualities of each pixel of DEM (prepared in 200×200m by GIS software resulted in a rating for every land characteristics. Some characteristics such as slope, aspect, and distance to drinking water for animals were calculated directly by GIS. Land index for every pixel was calculated by square root method. Finally, qualitative and physical land suitability classes were determined based on land indices and classified to polygons which would be suitable in grazing management. The results were interpreted under two different scenarios. In the first scenario, drinking water for animals was supplied by permanent sources and in the second one, the supplying of water was developed to temporary rivers besides the permanent sources. With the analysis of spatial modeling it was possible to assess the land suitability with higher accuracy. Overall results showed that the given area was not highly suitable for grazing at all. The most limiting factors included moisture availability for plant growth, slope, rock fragment and outcrops and distance to drinking water. Also during the late winter, spring and early summer, when the seasonal rivers were supplying the drinking water, the limitation of given area was decreased.

Sh. Ayoubi

2006-10-01

18

Industrie Design : Gebäudetechnik als Gestaltungsmerkmal ; Seminar WS 00/01  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Die Gebäudetechnik von Industrieobjekten - Spänesilos, Rohrbrücken mit Energie und Produktleitungen, sowie Lagerhaltungstechnologie - prägt den Entwurf, der funktional und kostengünstig angelegt sein soll, viel mehr als bei anderen Gebäudetypen. Das Seminar sollte den gemeinsamen Planungsvorgang und die Entwurfsentscheidungen von ausgewählten Projekten aufschlüsseln und nachvollzeihbar machen, aber gleichzeitig auch die technischen Grundkentnisse zu den komplexen Themen der ...

Trautmann, Jutta

2001-01-01

19

Participation rate of housing cooperation members (Mehr and Explication effective factors on it in 1388 at Mashhad city  

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Full Text Available The aim of this research is finding some answers to description of participation rate of housing cooperation members (Mehr in 1388 at Mashhad city and Explication effective factors on it. Theoretical discussions have been illustrated based on four paradigms socialistic: social facts, social definition, social behavior, and complex paradigm. The research method of this investigation based on a survey with sample volume about 380 persons with the help of Cocran formula from statistical society about 36330 members of housing cooperation (Mehr in Mashhad city. The method of sampling was based on random stratified method. The way of data Collection is information on questionnaires. The analysis of data have been implemented with SPSS application software in the frame of average descriptive statistics, Medium, Standard divergence, Kurosis and Skewness coefficients, hypothesis test with the help of appropriate tests to aim and variable assessment levels and using of regression analysis, finally path analysis. Then we assessed these categories and their independent variables such as: Economical disability and incapability to resources, assessment of financial and political supports of the government, lack of enough time for members, confidence to the managers, assuring to the resultant of the project, traditionalism, thankfulness, respect to the media advertisements, education level, mental preparation, responsibility, acknowledgement, satisfaction toward managers, social base, making in real housing, using mass media, alienation on the rate of cooperation members. In conclusion, member’s acknowledgement, using mass media and respecting to media advertisements and confidence to managers had the major and highest Impact on members cooperation.

Mohammadt Mazlome Khorasani

2012-01-01

20

Belo Monte's dubious claim to fame; Wasserkraftwerk am Tropf. Mehr Tadel als Lob fuer Brasiliens Belo Monte  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mammoth dam construction on the Rio Xingu interferes brutally with the natural environment, but does not add up in financial terms. Without it's massive public subsidies, president Luiz Inacio da Silva's pet project to expand Brazil's energy supply would not stand a chance. (orig.)

Winter, Lorenz

2010-11-29

 
 
 
 
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Heat recovery gain more than doubled. Heat recovery system controller; Rueckwaermezahl mehr als verdoppelt. WRG-Controller  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The hospital at Munich-Bogenhausen, which is a top level hospital with more than 1000 beds, modernised its heat recovery system first installed in the eighties of last century. A modern high-efficiency integrated recirculation system was installed instead. The system has a novel heat recovery controller which not only detects deviations from optimal operation but also identifies the causes. The system supplier, Konvekta AG of St.Gallen, Switzerland, is able to guarantee a heat recovery rate of 87 percent on a long-term basis. The energy cost for preheating of the ambient air was reduced by 78 percent as compared to the original system. (orig.)

Voit, Christian [Kulle und Hofstetter, TGA Consulting, Muenchen (Germany); Niederer, Martin [Konvekta AG, St. Gallen (Switzerland)

2009-03-15

22

Communication technology in process automation - more than a field bus; Kommunikationstechnik in der Prozessautomatisierung - mehr als Feldbus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In recent years, communication technology has come to play an increasingly important role in process automation. For many decades, standardized 4-20 mA electrical signals, which had replaced earlier pneumatic systems, remained the communication basis for nearly all automation technology applications. It was only in the 1990s, along with the sudden, exponential growth of IT, that a wind of change began sweeping through automation technology as well. This has had a profound and lasting impact on system architectures. Terms like HART, OPC and field bus are now familiar automation vocabulary. Networked automation systems have become the norm, and crosssystem communication, horizontal and vertical information integration, and remote access are routine. Reliability and availability. Sustainability and investment protection. These are the basic requirements that every new solution has to fulfill before it can be successfully employed in process plants. What does this mean in concrete terms? The use of modern communication technologies must not bypass the requirements made on previous and existing data transmission technologies. All current requirement profiles for conventional transmission systems must also be satisfied by network-based technologies, from field bus through to wireless. This is particularly important with regard to functional safety, availability, explosion protection, and EMC. More advanced requirements, such as interoperability, IT security or diagnostics must also be met. Over the years, NAMUR has published a series of papers on these topics which can serve as guidelines. The potentials for using modern communication technologies clearly lie in those areas where conventional solutions have proved uneconomic or unsuitable. Rather than simply achieving fault-free system operation, the overriding goal when implementing and further developing communication structures in automation technology should therefore always be to create new, value-adding applications that bring concrete benefits to the user. (orig.)

Schwibach, Martin [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany)

2009-07-01

23

WIFI-Fachakademien im Wandel der Zeit. Rückschau auf mehr als 20 Jahre praxisbetonte Höherqualifizierung im Beruf  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Institute for Economic Promotion (Wirtschaftsförderungsinstitut - WIFI in German) offers in its WIFI professional academies (WIFI-Fachakademien in German) part-time training programmes for various occupational fields to facilitate a professional career. It includes the entrepreneur and trainer examination. This article looks back on 20 years of WIFI professional academies in Austria from an insider's perspective, describing the background, targets and setup of this part-time vocational t...

Marx, Erwin

2014-01-01

24

CCSVI - Ein Erfahrungsbericht: Mehr Fragen als Antworten - mit einem Kommentar aus neurologischer Sicht von W. Lang, Wien  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Obwohl schon seit über 100 Jahren bekannt ist, dass durch nahezu jeden demyelinisierten Herd (Plaque bei Multipler Sklerose (MS ein Blutgefäß läuft, konnte bisher kein kausaler Zusammenhang zwischen einer Erkrankung der zerebralen Venen und MS dargestellt werden. Nach der Beschreibung des Syndroms der chronischen zerebrospinalen venösen Insuffizienz (CCSVI im Jahr 2008 entwickelte sich ein, durch neuen Medien (Google, Facebook, Blogs etc. potenzierter, außergewöhnlich hoher Druck vonseiten zahlreicher Patientengruppen auf Ärzteschaft und Industrie, der hoffnungsgebenden Hypothese einer durch CCSVI bedingten ?venösen MS? nachzugehen. Dieser Bericht soll einen nüchternen Überblick über die fraglich ursächliche Beteiligung der Venen geben, um dem Leser die Möglichkeit zu geben, sich ein eigenes Bild zu machen.

Peloschek P

2011-01-01

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EU ecodesign regulation. More as only a light bulb ban; EU-Oekodesign-Richtlinie. Mehr als ein Gluehbirnenverbot  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within a broader public, the EU Ecodesign Directive (Directive 2009/125/EC) was known and notoriously as a 'light bulb ban'. This resulted in strong emotions. But it has shown an impact in many other areas - usually unnoticed and often for the financial and practical benefits of the consumers. Now, the EU Commission wants to go one step further.

Fischer, Corinna [Oeko-Institut e.V., Freiburg (Germany)

2011-10-15

26

Zum Altersbild als Fremdbild der Leipziger Studierenden der Zahnmedizin im Zeitraum von 2004 bis 2008  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Zum Altersbild als Fremdbild der Leipziger Studierenden der Zahnmedizin im Zeitraum von 2004 bis 2008 Autorin: Daphne Schlegel Poliklinik für Zahnärztliche Prothetik und Werkstoffkunde, Friedrich – Louis – Hesse - Zentrum für Zahn-, Mund- und Kieferheilkunde und Orale Medizin, Universitätsklinikum Leipzig, Nürnberger Straße 57, 04103 Leipzig Einleitung: In den Mittelpunkt der öffentlichen Diskussion tritt immer mehr der zu erwartende demographische Wandel, dass im Jahr 20...

Schlegel, Daphne Marie-christine

2012-01-01

27

kf-Wert-Schätzung nach petrographischer Bohrgutansprache - mehr Eingangsdaten für Grundwassermodelle generieren  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Zur Parametrisierung von Grundwassermodellen werden regelmäßig Erkundungs- und Messstellenbohrungen als ortsbezogene Stützstelle herangezogen. Nur in einem Bruchteil solcher Bohrungen erfolgt eine direkte Ermittlung hydraulischer Parameter, so dass der Durchlässigkeitsbeiwert (kf-Wert) häufig nur für wenige Bohrungen und ausgewählte Schichten vorliegt. Für die Parametrisierung von numerischen Modellen kann daher die Ermittlung von Durch-lässigkeitsverteilungen aus geologischen Be-schreibungen der erbohrten Gesteinsschichten von besonderer Bedeutung sein. Zur Nutzbarmachung der in elektronischen Datenbanken und Bohrarchiven erfassten Informationen wurde ein Algorithmus zur deterministischen Schätzung des kf-Wertes auf Basis petrographischer Bohrgutansprachen entwickelt (FUCHS, 2010). Diese Methode basiert auf der Ableitung der Korngrößenverteilung aus der petrogra-phischen Beschreibung der beim Bohren gewonnenen Lockergesteinsproben und wird beispielhaft für nach dem Symbolschlüssel Geologie dokumentierte Proben vorgestellt. Für diese Korngrößenverteilung werden die beim Sieben oder Schlämmen verwendeten Auswerteverfahren zum Ansatz gebracht. Der aus der Unschärfe der Klassifizierung nach dem Symbolschlüssel Geologie resultierende systematische Fehler des vorgestellten Verfahrens liegt im Mittel bei einem kf-Wert-Faktor von 1,13 (1-SD = 0,16). Ein exemplarischer Vergleich der aus der petrographischen Bohrgutansprache erzeugten kf-Werte mit denjenigen, die aus den Siebanalysen der jeweiligen Proben (185) bestimmt wurden, ergab eine mittlere Abweichung von Faktor 3,0 (SD = 1,97) in quartären, vorwiegend rolligen Locker-gesteinen. Die Auswertung von sieben Bohrungsdaten-banken ( rd. 316.000 Schichtbeschreibungen) des jungpleistozänen Tieflandes Nordost-deutschlands führte trotz regionaler Varianzen und vielfältiger Fehlermöglichkeiten (unterschiedliche Qualität der Probennahmen, Qualifikation der Bearbeiter, etc.) zu vergleichbaren Ergebnissen und bestätigte die Anwendbarkeit des Algorithmus zur Ableitung von kf-Werten auf Basis einer deter-ministischen Methode. Das Verfahren findet Anwendung in der hydrogeologischen Praxis in Form eines Softwaretools sowohl bei der Auswertung einzelner geologischer Schichtbeschreibungen als auch bei der Auswertung kompletter Bohrungsdatenbanken.

Fuchs, Sven

28

Computed tomography guidance. Fluoroscopy and more; CT-Steuerung. Fluoroskopie und mehr  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging are competitive imaging modalities for the guidance of needle-based interventions, computed tomography (CT) is the only modality suitable for image-guided interventions in all regions of the body, including the lungs and bone. The ongoing technical development of CT involves accelerated image acquisition, significantly improved spatial resolution, CT scanners with an extended gantry diameter, acceleration of the procedure through joystick control of relevant functions of interventional CT by the interventional radiologist and tube current modulation to protect the hands of the examiner and radiosensitive organs of the patient. CT fluoroscopy can be used as a real-time method (the intervention is monitored under continuous CT fluoroscopy) or as a quick check method (repeated acquisitions of individual CT fluoroscopic images after each change of needle or table position). For the two approaches, multislice CT fluoroscopy (MSCTF) technique with wide detectors is particularly useful because even in the case of needle deviation from the center slice the needle tip is simultaneously visualised in the neighboring slices. With the aid of this technique a precise placement of interventional devices is possible even in angled access routes and in the presence of pronounced respiratory organ movements. As the reduction of CT fluoroscopy time significantly reduces radiation exposure for the patient and staff, the combination of a quick check technique and a low milliampere technique with multislice CT fluoroscopy devices is advantageous. (orig.) [German] Obwohl sonographisch und magnetresonanztomographisch gesteuerte Interventionen ernstzunehmende Konkurrenzverfahren sind, kann die Computertomographie als einzige bildgebende Modalitaet zur Steuerung von Interventionen in allen Koerperregionen (einschliesslich Lunge und Knochen) eingesetzt werden. Die technischen Weiterentwicklungen der Computertomographie beinhalten eine beschleunigte Bildakquisition, eine deutlich verbesserte raeumliche Aufloesung, CT-Scanner mit erweiterter Gantryoeffnung, eine Beschleunigung des Eingriffs durch eine intrainterventionelle Steuerung wesentlicher Funktionen des Interventions-CT ueber eine spezielle Bedieneinheit durch den interventionellen Radiologen selbst sowie die Angular Beam Modulation zur Schonung der Hand des Untersuchers und strahlensensibler Organe des Patienten. Die CT-Fluoroskopie (CTF) kann als Echtzeitverfahren (die Intervention wird unter kontinuierlicher CT-Durchleuchtung ueberwacht) oder als Quick-check-Verfahren (wiederholte Aufnahmen einzelner CT-Durchleuchtungsbilder nach jeder Aenderung der Nadel- oder Tischposition) verwendet werden. Fuer die beiden Vorgehensweisen ist insbesondere die Mehrschicht-CT-Fluoroskopie(MSCTF)-Technik mit breiten Detektoren hilfreich, da auch bei Abweichungen aus der Schicht die Nadelspitze in den gleichzeitig akquirierten Nachbarschichten mit abgebildet wird. Mit dieser Technik ist eine millimetergenaue Nadelplatzierung auch bei angulierten Zugangswegen und ausgepraegten atemabhaengigen Bewegungen der Patientenanatomie moeglich. Da eine Verringerung der CT-Durchleuchtungszeit zu einer deutlich reduzierten Strahlenbelastung fuer den Patient und das Personal fuehrt, ist die Kombination der Quick-check-Technik mit einer Low-Milliampere-Technik an MSCTF-faehigen Geraeten zu empfehlen. (orig.)

Paprottka, P.M.; Reiser, M.F.; Trumm, C.G. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Campus Grosshadern, Angiographie und Interventionelle Radiologie, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany); Helmberger, T. [Staedt. Klinikum Muenchen, Klinikum Bogenhausen, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Neuroradiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Muenchen (Germany)

2013-11-15

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MRI of esophagus. N staging and more...; MRT des Oesophagus. N-Staging und mehr...  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Esophageal disease is common. Fluoroscopy with or without fast cine-sequences is able to depict swallowing dynamics precisely and therefore is used in cases with swallowing disturbance, achalasia or diverticula etc. It is performed in addition to primary endoscopy. There is no evidence based indication for MRI in these settings as it is not to rule out postsurgical fistula and incompetence. Endoscopy and endosonography are gold standard for the depiction as well as staging of esophageal tumors hence differentiation of the esophageal wall layers and detection of suspicious lymph nodes is possible. And from both, biopsies may be taken. New techniques as OCT (optical coherence tomography) can demonstrate in situ carcinoma and therefore helps to decide for limited treatments as mucosectomy. For today multimodular treatment strategies in esophageal carcinoma the T-stage will lead to the treatment decision whereas the nodal-stage will give information about the prognosis. As a matter of fact endoscopy is unable to pass a stenosis esophageal tumor in up to 50% of the cases and will therefore not be able to give precise information on both T- and N-stage resulting in a good indication for MRI. Fetal MRI of the chest is a new topic in which MRI seems to be superior to ultrasonography. (orig.) [German] Erkrankungen des Oesophagus sind haeufig. Die Durchleuchtungsuntersuchung, ggf. mit schnellen Cinesequenzen, vermag exakt die Dynamik des Schluckakts darzustellen und wird regelhaft bei Fragestellungen wie ''Verschlucken'' und ''Globusgefuehl'', Verdacht auf Achalsie etc. sowie bei der Suche nach Divertikeln eingesetzt und ergaenzt die primaere Endoskopie. Die MRT besitzt hier derzeit keinen gesicherten Stellenwert - ebenso wie bei der haeufigsten Indikation zur Oesophagus-Breischluck-Untersuchung in der Klinik, der Frage nach Paravasation und Fistelung nach oesophagogastralen Eingriffen. Die exakten Lokalisation eines Oesophagustumors erfolgt durch die Endoskopie als unangefochtenem Goldstandard, die heute unter Verwendung der Endosonographie nicht nur in der Lage ist, die Wandschichten des Oesophagus darzustellen, sondern auch lokoregionaere Lymphknoten zu detektieren vermag und von beidem, wenn suspekt, auch bioptisches Material gewinnen laesst. Neuere Verfahren wie die OCT (optical coherence tomography) versetzen den Endoskopiker zusaetzlich in die Lage, auch Carcinomata in situ zu erkennen und limitierte Behandlungen wie die Mukosektomie einzusetzen. Bei der heute ueblichen multimodalen Therapie des Oesophaguskarzinoms entscheiden die Lage und das T-Stadium ueber die therapeutische Strategie, das N-Stadium ueber die Prognose. Doch ist der Oesophagus bei der Diagnose ''Oesophaguskarzinom'' in 30-50% der Faelle insbesondere mit dem Endosonographieschallkopf nicht passierbar, sodass hier eine klare Indikation zur MRT besteht. Ein neues Feld stellt die intrauterine Diagnostik des fetalen Thorax und der Oesophagusatresie dar. Hier zeichnet sich eine deutlicher diagnostischer Vorteil gegenueber der Sonographie ab. (orig.)

Krupski-Berdien, G. [Krankenhaus Reinbek St.-Adolf- Stift, Abteilung fuer diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie, Reinbek (Germany)

2007-02-15

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ASSESSMENT SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF SOIL ERODIBILITY BY USING OF GEOSTATISTIC AND GIS (Case study MEHR watershed of SABZEVAR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Soil erodibility is one of the key factors on some sediment and soil erosion models such as USLE, MUSLE, RUSLE, AUSLE (USLE modified in LS factor and MMF and represents like K factor and is function of particle distribution, organic mater, soil structure and ermeability. Traditional methods do not take spatial variability and estimate precision of variables in to consideration and amount of them are constant across the whole of soil series .This study was performed to assess spatial variability of soil erodibility and its relevant variables at MEHR watershed from Khorasan province, in northern Iran. Interested network was designed by 110 samples like nested- systematic with distance about 50, 100, 250 and 500 meter across the study area by preparing point map at GIS. Sampling points were identified in field by an Global Positioning system. Soil sampling was done at depth of 0-5cm of ground surface and permeability was studied at depth of 5-30 cm. Some soil properties such as particle distribution and organic mater were measured at laboratory. Particle size distribution was determined by Hydrometer method and Organic matter was measured by wet oxidation approach. Then spatial analysis was done. Variography analysis on soil attributes according to soil erodibility, showed that Gaussian, exponential and spherical models were the most models to predict spatial variability of soil parameters. The range of spatial dependencies was changed from 320 to 3200 m. Soil attribute maps prepared by kriging technique using models parameters. Then soil attributes were composed by Wischmeier (1978 formula in Illwis media to calculate K factor. Amount of soil erodibility changed from 0.13 to 0.91 that it's maximum and minimum was identified in east and southwest of studiedarea. Soil spatial variability pattern, is similar to silt pattern due to high effect of silt on soil rodibility, Also that is partially confirmed with geology map, indicated which soil erodibility attribute controlled by parent material. High amount of soil erodibility in southwest area of given study area showed need to more attention for conservation the soil and control erosion.

Ayoubi, S.A

2005-05-01

31

Bringen Komplementärwährungen mehr Nachhaltigkeit? »  

... Um die aufgestellten Hypothesen zu testen, wurde eine Online-Befragung von Personen durchgeführt, die an regionalen Währungssystemen oder Tauschkreisen beteiligt sind, um deren Antworten mit der Durchschnittsbevölkerung zu vergleichen. Werfen Sie einen Blick in das Working Paper. Posted in Integrated Strategies, News, Lebensqualität Cancel Reply Leave a Reply Name Email Website Submit Comment CAPTCHA Code * Notify me of followup comments via e-mail «...Monate - für den Wandel »Lebensqualität Integrierte Strategien Energie und Klima Ressourcennutzung Wirtschaft Globale Verantwortung Konsum und Produktion Kommunikation Deutsch English Highlight SERI Infomail | Archive * required field Email Address * First Name * Last Name * Email Format HTML Text Mobile Close Search In Category(s):ALLAllgemeinesBackground PapersBlogBooks and book chaptersBriefing SheetsCommunicationConference contributionsKonsum und ProduktionEconomyEnergie und KlimaEventsGlobal ResponsibilityGrey literatureHighlightsIntegrated StrategiesJournal articlesMedia contributionsNewsOnline PublicationsOther Working PapersPresentationsProject reportsPublicationsLebensqualitätResource UseSERI Annual ReportsSERI recommendsSERI StudiesSERI warnsThesisUnpublished WorkWorking PapersSearch In ...

32

Better advertising; Mehr Aussenwirkung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fairs and congresses like the PVSEC are central elements of the communication activities of solar enterprises. This was proved in a current enquiry by SONNE WIND WAERME at the Intersolar Europe. The results are presented in this article in summary form.

Intze, Sonja

2011-08-31

33

Lebensgeschichten aus der Fremde. Autobiografien deutschsprachiger emigrierter SchriftstellerInnen als Beispiele literarischer Akkulturation nach 1933  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mit der Massenauswanderung aus Deutschland und Europa zwischen 1933 und 1941 nahmen Flucht- und Lebenswege ihren Ausgang, die in zahlreichen Fällen nie mehr zurück in die verlassene Heimat, sondern vielmehr zu einer neuen persönlichen, gesellschaftlichen und kulturellen Existenz führten. Etliche solcher Lebensgeschichten aus der Fremde werden durch autobiografische Texte bezeugt und tragen als Erinnerungen bis heute zum kulturellen Gedächtnis und zur kollektiven Identität der Nachkriegsgesell...

Robert Krause

2010-12-01

34

Lebensgeschichten aus der Fremde. Autobiografien deutschsprachiger emigrierter SchriftstellerInnen als Beispiele literarischer Akkulturation nach 1933  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mit der Massenauswanderung aus Deutschland und Europa zwischen 1933 und 1941 nahmen Flucht- und Lebenswege ihren Ausgang, die in zahlreichen Fällen nie mehr zurück in die verlassene Heimat, sondern vielmehr zu einer neuen persönlichen, gesellschaftlichen und kulturellen Existenz führten. Etliche solcher Lebensgeschichten aus der Fremde werden durch autobiografische Texte bezeugt und tragen als Erinnerungen bis heute zum kulturellen Gedächtnis und zur kollektiven Identität der Nachkriegs...

Robert Krause

2010-01-01

35

Instandhaltungsmanagement als Gestaltungsfeld Ganzheitlicher Produktionssysteme  

Science.gov (United States)

Sich kontinuierlich verändernde Rahmenbedingungen, wie beispielsweise eine steigende Variantenvielfalt, verkürzte Produktlebenszyklen sowie Kundenforderungen nach höherer Qualität, kürzeren Lieferzeiten und geringeren Kosten, fordern von produzierenden Unternehmen eine stetige Anpassung der Prozesse, der Organisation und der Strukturen. Seit den 90er Jahren versuchen immer mehr deutsche Unternehmen diesen veränderten Anforderungen mit der Einführung eines Ganzheitlichen Produktionssystems (GPS) zu begegnen. Ganzheitliche Produktionssysteme sind dabei in ihren Grundlagen an das Toyota Produktionssystem angelehnt, vereinigen aber auch weitere Methoden zu einem unternehmensspezifischen Regelwerk. Im Rahmen des langfristigen Trends zu unternehmensindividuellen Produktionssystemen wird sowohl in der Industrie als auch in der Forschung intensiv über das Toyota Produktionssystem, Lean Production, Lean Management und Ganzheitliche Produktionssysteme diskutiert, werden Konzepte zu Implementierung und Betrieb erstellt und die Wirtschaftlichkeit untersucht.

Dombrowski, Uwe; Schulze, Sven; Otano, Isabel Crespo

36

Faster growth than in Belgium or Holland. Luxemburg comes late to wind power; Hier passiert mehr als in Belgien oder Holland. Luxemburg hat die Windkraft mit Verspaetung entdeckt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Luxembourg imports about 92 % of its electric power from Belgium or Germany. There are 22 wind turbines whose share is small but is expected to increase. Further, there are industrial cogeneration systems and several hydroelectric power stations, the biggest of which is the Vianden pumped storage power station at the German-Luxembourg border with a total capacity of 1,100 MW. [German] Luxemburg importiert rund 92 Prozent seines Stroms aus Belgien und Deutschland. Der Anteil der vorhandenen 22 Windturbinen ist zwar noch klein, aber er wird weiter steigen. Der Rest kommt aus der industriellen Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung sowie mehreren Wasserkraftwerken, wobei das Pumpspeicher-Kraftwerk Vianden an der deutsch-luxemburgischen Grenze mit einer Leistung von 1.100 Megawatt das mit Abstand groesste ist. (orig.)

Koepke, R.

2000-05-01

37

More than 1600 EPR kits sold worldwide. The success story of a paper model; Weltweit bereits mehr als 1600 EPR verkauft. Die Erfolgsgeschichte eines Papiermodells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ''old'' PWR convoy paper model of Siemens KWU, which experienced a total run of 125 000, was a success story in its own right. When the contract for construction of an EPR in Finland had been signed, Framatome ANP, an Areva and Siemens company, felt that the time had come to document the success of this reactor line by preparing a new kit. The Olkiluoto 3 Nuclear Power Station was to be immortalized in a cardboard kit. Its more than 3 100 parts on 33 DIN A3 and A4 size sheets make this 1:350 scale kit a very sophisticated set even for demanding modelers. However, even less experienced amateurs may use it with good chances of success, as the model may be built in a number of variants: (1) Basic version: a straightforward architectural model of all buildings without internals. With its approx. 220 parts, this version takes roughly 55 hours to complete. (2) Extended version: This is the basic version augmented by more extensive internals, removable roofs and partly removable components. Its approx. 2 150 parts take some 220 hours of construction time. (3) Maximum version: This is similar to version 2, but has many additional details, such as three-dimensional pipes, perforated steel girders, LP turbine rotors with blades, two detailed emergency power diesel sets, Castor connection carriages with a gantry crane, or fully detailed transformers. This version consists of more than 3 100 parts and can be completed in approx. 320 hours. (orig.)

Anon.

2005-07-01

38

Long-term experience with ventilated plates for more than ten years. An overview; Langfristerfahrung mit hinterluefteten Platten ueber mehr als zehn Jahre. Ein Ueberblick  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors of this contribution report on long-term experiences on ventilated plates under consideration of the following aspects: operation of ventilated plates; documentation of the use of ventilated plates since 1999; pointing out of the different operating conditions; documentation of exchange rates by means of the ascertained data. Finally, the possible influence of the exhaust gas conditions or operation conditions, respectively, on the expected service life of the protection of the pipe wall are discussed on the basis of actual operational experiences.

Moeller, Manfred [Juenger+Graeter GmbH, Schwetzingen (Germany). Sparte Umwelt; Horn, Markus [Juenger+Graeter GmbH, Schwetzingen (Germany)

2013-03-01

39

We experience more than we comprehend. Quantum physics and quaesions of life; Wir erleben mehr als wir begreifen. Quantenphysik und Lebensfragen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The quantum physics has been arrived by thinking and experimenting to revolutioning knowledges, which determine our world, also if only few have understood these theories in their real sense. The present book follows the question, whether and how far a consciousness trained by quantum physics can reach more directly to the understanding of questions of life and religious questions than a thinking, which is obliged to classical physics. It deals especially with fundamental existential questions: The theme of personal responsibility, the value of the indivdual existence, the evaluation of the personal I-you relation. Hans Peter Duerr, a personality with guiding qualities, as they are necessary in the new milennium, is the ideal speech partner for the deimension of this theme. The connections of natural sciences and religion, ecology, and sociological change have always driven the Heisenberg successo. How can we speech about that, which science cannot comprehend?. What means self, identity, responsibilit for the quantum physicist? An exciting meeting.

Duerr, H.P.; Oesterreicher, M.

2007-07-01

40

„Vertrauen ist besser, weil Kontrolle nutzt nix!“ – Safer Internet Aktionsmonat 2011 Mehr als 200 Schulen machen mit: Projekte und Ideen aus österreichischen Schulen  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Am 8. Februar 2011 fand bereits zum achten Mal der Europäische Safer Internet Day statt. In diesem Jahr waren die österreichischen Aktivitäten rund um den Safer Internet Day erstmals nicht nur auf einen einzelnen Tag konzentriert, sondern verteilt auf einen ganzen Monat. Unter dem EU-weiten Motto „It's more than a game, it's your life!“ hatten Saferinternet.at und das Bundesministerium für Unterricht, Kunst und Kultur eingeladen, eigene Projekte zu starten und vorzustellen.

Barbara Buchegger

2011-03-01

 
 
 
 
41

Couragierter agieren und reagieren - Ein Plädoyer fu?r mehr Zivilgesellschaft im Kampf gegen den Rechtsextremismus aus bayrischer Perspektive  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Als Antwort auf das Attentat gegen den Passauer Polizeipräsidenten Alois Mannichl am 13.12. 2008, bei dem ein rechtsextremistischer Hintergrund vermutet wurde, aber bis heute nicht geklärt werden konnte, verabschiedete der Bayerische Ministerrat am 12. Januar 2009 das Bayerische Handlungskonzept gegen Rechtsextremismus.

Franz Gervasoni

2014-03-01

42

Patrick Ehnis: Väter in Erziehungszeiten. Politische, kulturelle und subjektive Bedingungen für mehr Engagement in der Familie. Sulzbach im Taunus: Ulrike Helmer Verlag 2009.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Patrick Ehnis analysiert die Voraussetzungen für eine stärkere Beteiligung von Vätern an der Kindererziehung. In seiner Beschäftigung mit zwei Best-practice-Beispielen rekonstruiert er die subjektiven Orientierungen der Väter, normative Erwartungen in den Betrieben, individuelle und strukturelle Barrieren sowie konkrete Erfahrungen von und mit Vätern in Elternzeit. Dabei behält er bei der Deutung ein Ziel stets vor Augen: mehr Geschlechtergerechtigkeit. Für die politische und gesellschaftliche Diskussion um die ‚neuen Väter‘ sowie für nachfolgende Forschungen, welche die neuesten familienpolitischen Entwicklungen einbeziehen, bilden die Ergebnisse des Bandes eine höchst fruchtbare Grundlage.Patrick Ehnis analyses the necessary conditions to elicit better participation of fathers in child rearing. On the basis of two best-practice examples, he reconstructs the subjective positions of fathers, the normative expectations of businesses or companies, individual and structural barriers, and concrete experiences of and with fathers during parental leave. Throughout the interpretation he keeps one goal in mind: more gender equality. The conclusions of the volume offer a very fruitful basis for political and social discussions about the “new father” as well as for subsequent studies that take the newest family-political developments into account.

Claudia Zerle

2010-07-01

43

Wie kommt mehr "Familie" in die "Work-Life-Balance"? – Familienorientierung in der medizinischen Aus-, Weiterbildung und Berufstätigkeit [How to add more "Family" to the Work-Life-Balance? – Family Friendliness in Medical Under- and Postgraduate Studies and the Workplace  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available [english] Today universities have to compete for the best brains more than ever before. The issues of reconciliation of work/study and family and the work-life balance have become increasingly important recently in higher education policy development as higher education institutions in the competition for the best minds are already forced to tackle these issues, some of which are still novel to them, as they are faced with demographic change. High dropout rates among students with children, increasing shortages of physicians and high sector emigration and high levels of childlessness among graduates serve as indicators for urgent action towards more family-oriented university and faculty strategies.But how can medical schools, hospitals and (teaching hospitals achieve a family-oriented profile? Which key players, which areas of higher education management are relevant to management and decision-making structures? What exemplary measures for designing family-friendly medical studies and work places offer success?The underrepresentation of women in the next generation of scientists also poses an additional challenge to the development of an innovative higher education policy if it is to be sustainable. Thus strategies promoting the next generation and family orientation are key factors for a future-oriented higher education policy. These factors should therefore be seen as leadership strategies which will introduce measures that will make (redesign the university’s profile. To this end, a holistic approach which will lead to fundamental reforms of higher education structures which are outlined below and illustrated with examples are a prerequisite for successful implementation.[german] Hochschulen stehen mehr denn je im Wettbewerb um kluge Köpfe. Die Themen „Vereinbarkeit von Beruf/Studium und Familie“ und „Work-Life-Balance“ haben daher in der jüngsten hochschulpolitischen Entwicklung an Dynamik und Triebkraft gewonnen: Hochschulen im Wettbewerb um exzellente Köpfe müssen sich schon vor dem Hintergrund des demographischen Wandels diesen für sie zum Teil noch neuen Herausforderungen stellen. Hohe Studienabbruchquoten unter Studierenden mit Kindern, steigender Mediziner(innenmangel und deutliche Abwanderungsraten, hohe Kinderlosigkeit unter Akademiker(innen erscheinen dabei als Indikatoren für einen dringenden Handlungsbedarf hin zu einer familienorientierten Hochschul- und Fakultätsstrategie.Wie aber können medizinische Fakultäten, Kliniken und (Lehr-Krankenhäuser ein familienorientiertes Profil gewinnen? Welche Akteurinnen und Akteure, welche Handlungsfelder des Hochschulmanagements sind für die Leitungs- und Entscheidungsstrukturen relevant? Welche exemplarischen Maßnahmen für eine familiengerechtere Gestaltung des Studien- und Arbeitsortes „Medizin“ könnten Erfolg versprechend sein? Die Unterrepräsentanz von Frauen beim wissenschaftlichen Nachwuchs stellt darüber hinaus eine zusätzliche Herausforderung dar, für die eine innovative Hochschulpolitik weitere Maßnahmen entwickeln sollte, um zukunftsfähig zu sein. Nachwuchsförderungsstrategien und Familienorientierung sind demnach entscheidende Faktoren für eine zukunftsorientierte Hochschulpolitik. Diese Faktoren sollten deshalb als Führungsstrategien begriffen werden, um Maßnahmen einzuleiten, die das Profil der Hochschule dahingehend (umgestalten. Voraussetzung für eine erfolgreiche Implementierung ist dabei ein holistisches Konzept, das zu grundlegenden Reformen der Hochschulstrukturen führt, die im Folgenden skizziert und anhand von Beispielen illustriert werden sollen.

De Ridder, Daniela

2012-04-01

44

Topiramat als Phasenprophylaktikum - ein Fallbericht  

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Full Text Available Topiramat ist ein neues Antiepileptikum mit einem breiten Wirkspektrum. Aktuelle klinische Studien geben Hinweise darauf, daß Topiramat stimmungsstabilisierende Eigenschaften besitzt und somit effizient in der Behandlung der bipolaren affektiven Störung sein könnte. Vor dem Hintergrund dieser Studienberichte, behandelten wir eine 41jährige, erstmals vor 10 Jahren erkrankte Patientin mit der Diagnose einer therapierefraktären, bipolaren affektiven Störung (Rapid-Cycling mit Topiramat. Im Rahmen ihrer Erkrankung wurde die Patientin insgesamt 12mal stationär aufgenommen und meist aufgrund von akuten manischen Episoden behandelt. Dabei kamen seit 1991 folgende Phasenprophylaktika zur Anwendung: Carbamazepin, Valproat und Lamotrigin ? zuletzt nur mit mäßigem Erfolg. Daraufhin wurde zu Beginn einer neuerlichen manischen Episode ambulant eine Therapie mit Topiramat begonnen. Acht Wochen nach Therapiestart kam die Patientin in stationäre Behandlung. Der Aufenthalt dauerte weniger als drei Wochen; Topiramat wurde von der Patientin gut vertragen. Infolge eines belastenden Lebensereignisses kam es unter kontinuierlicher Therapie mit Topiramat zu einer Destabilisierung des psychischen Zustandsbildes (manische Symptome. Durch eine ambulante Erhöhung der Topiramatdosis bei gleichzeitiger Gabe von Risperidon und Clonazepam konnte jedoch eine neuerliche manische Episode erstmals ambulant behandelt werden. Die Patientin erhält derzeit 200 mg Topiramat pro Tag und ist seit mehr als 20 Monaten nahezu beschwerdefrei.

Letmaier M

2001-01-01

45

Reactive melt infiltration for production of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiAl{sub 3} composites; Herstellung von Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiAl{sub 3}-Verbundkoerpern durch reaktive Schmelzinfiltration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiAl{sub 3} composites intended for use in components subject to high mechanical stresses were prepared by non-pressurized, reactive melt infiltration. The production process and parameters are explained in full detail, as well as the properties of the resulting composite materials. (orig./MM) [German] Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiAl{sub 3}-Verbundkoerper fuer mechanisch hochbeanspruchte Verschleissbauteile wurden durch reaktive Schmelzinfiltration drucklos hergestellt. Titanoxidvorformen unterschiedlicher Oxidationsstufen wurden mit Aluminiumschmelze bei Temperaturen von 900 C bis 1400 C infiltriert und dabei durch alumothermische Reduktion des TiO{sub x} (x=2, 167, 1.5, 1) in den Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiAl{sub 3}-Verbundwerkstoff umgewandelt. Durch Optimierung des Titanoxid/Aluminium-Verhaeltnisses ueber die gezielte Beeinflussung der Porositaet des TiO{sub x}-Vorkoerpers wurde ein vollstaendig dichter Verbundkoerper erreicht, in dem kein Restmetall mehr vorlag. Durch den Einsatz nichtreaktiver Fuellstoffe (TiC, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) liessen sich die Werkstoffzusammensetzung des Verbundkoerpers, der Durchdringungsgrad der keramischen und intermetallischen Phase und somit die Werkstoffeigenschaften beeinflussen. TiAl{sub 3}-Kristallgroessen zwischen 4 {mu}m und 800 {mu}m konnten durch Veraenderung der Prozessparameter eingestellt werden. Es wurden Biegefestigkeiten >400 Mpa erzielt. (orig.)

Mueller, F.; Schneider, T.; Feldmann, M.; Greil, P. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffwissenschaften

1999-07-01

46

Culture and Healthcare in Medical Education: Migrants' Health and Beyond [Medizin und ethnisch-kulturelle Vielfalt in der medizinischen Ausbildung: "Migrantenmedizin" und mehr  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available [english] One of the main challenges for teaching programs on immigration, ethnic diversity and health is to transform the commonplace notion of “culture” into a helpful tool for medical training and practice. This paper presents the teaching approach of an interdisciplinary course on “migrants’ health” established at the University of Giessen since 2004, which has recently been complemented by a thematically related collaboration with two universities in Latin America (Ecuador, Peru. The overall goal is to translate the abstract philosophy of into medical practice, and to provide students with the insights, attitudes and skills needed for a fruitful use of concepts like “culture”, “ethnicity” and “migration background”. A key feature of the course is the strong commitment to ethnography as an important means for looking under the surface of superficial attributions to culture, and for grasping the interplay of medicine and health with cultural, social, religious, economic and legal aspects in its particular local and/or individual shape. Three elements of the course are presented to illustrate this approach: First, a unit on Islam and Medicine, as important parts of the local immigrant community are Muslims. The second one deals with psychosomatic aspects, because in case of immigrants, complex symptoms and disease representations like somatisation are easily misinterpreted as “cultural”. The third element consists of a unit with specialized social workers form outside the university, who provide direct insights into the living conditions and health problems of local immigrant communities. [german] Eine der zentralen Herausforderungen für Lehrprojekte zum Thema Medizin und ethnisch-kulturelle Vielfalt besteht in der Vermittlung eines angemessenen Konzepts von „Kultur“. Vor allem gilt es, den exklusiven Fokus auf als „fremd“ wahrgenommene Bevölkerungsgruppen und die Gefahr oberflächlicher kulturelle Zuschreibungen zu überwinden. Der vorliegende Beitrag stellt den Ansatz eines interdisziplinären Kurses zur „Migrantenmedizin“ an der Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen vor, der jüngst durch ein Kooperationsprojekt zur Stärkung interkultureller Aspekte in der medizinischen Ausbildung mit zwei lateinamerikanischen Universitäten ergänzt wurde (in Ecuador und Peru. Durch den internationalen Vergleich soll das abstrakte Prinzip „think global and teach local“ für den medizinischen Bereich nutzbar gemacht werden. Gleichzeitig wird die Bedeutung der Ethnographie für eine sinnvolle Verwendung von Begriffen wie „Kultur“, „Ethnizität“ oder „Migrationshintergrund“ auch in der Medizin betont. Als wichtigste Forschungsmethode der Kultur- und Sozialanthropologie vermittelt die Ethnographie differenzierte Einblicke in die jeweils konkrete Ausprägung der komplexen Zusammenhänge zwischen Krankheit, Medizin und „Kultur“ – jenseits von Stereotypien und unter explizitem Einschluss der im Einzelfall relevanten sozialen, religiösen, ökonomischen und rechtlichen, aber auch medizinischen Aspekte. Der Artikel verdeutlicht die Umsetzung dieser Perspektive in der medizinischen Ausbildung exemplarisch anhand von drei Lehreinheiten des Kurses an der JLU Gießen: Ein Modul zum Thema „Islam und Medizin“, eines zu psychosomatischen Aspekten und eine dritte Einheit, in der Sozialarbeiterinnen eines lokalen Migrationsdienstes unmittelbare Einblicke in die reale Lebenswirklichkeit von Migrant/innen vermitteln.

Soydan, Nedim

2010-05-01

47

Dienstleistungen für mehr Lebensqualität: Trends, Gestaltungsfelder, Beschäftigungsperspektiven  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bei der Suche nach aussichtsreichen Wirtschaftsbranchen werden insbesondere die Bereiche Soziales, Gesundheit, Sport, Freizeit und auch Kultur genannt. Diese Wirtschaftsfelder gehörten bereits in den letzten Jahren zu den wichtigsten Trägern des Strukturwandels. Eine Gemeinsamkeit der genannten Zukunftsbranchen ist, dass Produkte und Dienstleistungen produziert werden, die darauf zielen, die Lebensqualität der Menschen deutlich zu verbessern. Insbesondere der Wandel bei den soziodemographi...

Beyer, Lothar; Brandel, Rolf; Esch, Karin; Hilbert, Josef; Langer, Dirk; Micheel, Brigitte; Middendorf, Anja Sophia

2003-01-01

48

Der (Mehr-)Wert der Wissenschaftskommunikation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In research on scientific communication there are above all theory?less and formal technical/ natural scientific models of scientific communication. These are juxtaposed to social?scientific, power?sensitive models (Elias, Bourdieu, Merton). The (surplus) value of scientific communication can be variously understood: either as inherent surplus values in the sense of potential effects of stimulation, synergy, critique, quality control; or as symbolic surplus value in the sense of symboli...

Fro?hlich, Gerhard

1994-01-01

49

Explosionsfeste Transportbehälter – mehr Sicherheit für das Transportwesen  

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Full Text Available Weltweit ist eine Zunahme terroristischer Aktivitäten zu verzeichnen, sodass allgemein damit gerechnet werden muss, dass auch das zivile Verkehrs- und Transportwesen ein bevorzugtes Ziel terroristischer Anschläge darstellt. Mehrfach wurden schon Sprengkörper in Transportmittel des öffentlichen und zivilen Personen- aber auch Güterverkehrs eingeschleust, um die Bevölkerung durch materielle Zerstörung und massive Personenschäden einzuschüchtern und zu beängstigen. Daher ist eine Anpassung der sich derzeit im Einsatz befindlichen Transportbehälter an die geänderten Rahmenbedingungen unerlässlich, um auch den Schutz vor Sprengkörpern, die gemeinsam mit dem Handgepäck in Luft-, Land- und Wasserfahrzeuge eingeschleust werden, zu gewährleisten. The worldwide increase of terrorist activities leads to the assumption that the civilian transportation and traffic system, too, is a preferred target of terrorist attacks. Several times, explosive charges have already been smuggled into means of public transport and also of goods traffic to intimidate and frighten the population through material destruction and massive personal damage. This is why it is necessary to adapt the containers currently used to the changed conditions, to guarantee the protection against explosives that are smuggled into aircrafts, surface vehicles and watercraft with the hand luggage.

Dipl.-Kff. Johanna Haag

2007-04-01

50

ALS Association  

Science.gov (United States)

... and nationwide advocacy while also empowering people with Lou Gehrig's Disease and their families to live fuller lives ... owned and copyrighted by The ALS Association. ©2014 Lou Gehrig® used with permission of the Rip Van Winkle ...

51

Initial Symptoms of ALS  

Science.gov (United States)

Home About ALS About Us Our Research In Your Community Advocate Help fight ALS Donate About ALS What is ALS? Facts You Should Know Who does ALS affect? Diagnosing ALS Symptoms Forms of ALS Genetic ...

52

Mehr Nähe durch mehr Partikeln? Zur verwendung der Abtönungspartikeln in persönlichen Briefen / Janika Kärk  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Partiklite esinemissagedusest isiklikes kirjades ja selle muutumisest 18., 19. ja 20. sajandi vältel ning võimalikest partiklikasutust mõjutanud teguritest. Ülevaade ka värvingupartiklite morfoloogilistest, süntaktilistest ja pragmaatilistest omadustest

Kärk, Janika

2008-01-01

53

Kritische Mangelperfusion als wichtigster pathophysiologischer Faktor für die Behandlung des ischämischen Insults  

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Full Text Available Die Verminderung der Blutversorgung von Arterien des Gehirns als Ursache des Schlaganfalls führt zu plötzlich eintretenden funktionellen Ausfällen, bei längerem Bestehen zu irreversiblen neurologischen und morphologischen Defekten. Für das funktionell gestörte, aber morphologisch noch intakte Gewebe - die Penumbra - besteht die Möglichkeit der Erholung, wenn die Durchblutung innerhalb einer kurzen Zeitspanne - dem therapeutischen Fenster - wieder auf ein ausreichendes Niveau angehoben wird. Die Identifikation von irreversibel geschädigtem ischämischem Gewebe und dessen Differenzierung von der nur funktionell gestörten Penumbra ist für die Einleitung erfolgversprechender therapeutischer Maßnahmen von entscheidender Bedeutung. Dies kann durch funktionelle bildgebende Verfahren erfolgen, wobei der Positronenemissionstomographie (PET zur Quantifizierung von Durchblutung und Energiestoffwechsel und zur Darstellung der Benzodiazepinrezeptoren als Marker der neuronalen Integrität eine besondere wissenschaftliche Bedeutung zukommt. Damit konnten in den ersten Stunden nach Insult mehr als 50 % des endgültigen Infarkts dem bereits irreversibel geschädigten Gewebe und 20 % der Penumbra zugeordnet werden. Nur ein relativ kleiner Anteil - etwa 12 % des endgültigen Infarkts - betraf Gewebe, das in den ersten Stunden ausreichend perfundiert war. Der raschen Reperfusion kommt somit in der Therapie des Schlaganfalls die größte Bedeutung zu, während Maßnahmen, die mit biochemischen, molekularen oder entzündlichen Noxen interferieren sollen, bisher klinisch nicht erfolgreich waren. Die Effizienz der Reperfusionstherapie durch systemische Thrombolyse wurde in kontrollierten Studien unter Beweis gestellt; auch die breitere Anwendung in der klinischen Routinebehandlung ist bei Berücksichtigung der Ein- und Ausschlußkriterien ohne vergrößertes Risiko möglich, wobei die Erfolgsraten mit den Studienergebnissen vergleichbar sind.

Heiss W-D

2002-01-01

54

AL Amyloidosis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Definition of the disease AL amyloidosis results from extra-cellular deposition of fibril-forming monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig light chains (LC (most commonly of lambda isotype usually secreted by a small plasma cell clone. Most patients have evidence of isolated monoclonal gammopathy or smoldering myeloma, and the occurrence of AL amyloidosis in patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma or other B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders is unusual. The key event in the development of AL amyloidosis is the change in the secondary or tertiary structure of an abnormal monoclonal LC, which results in instable conformation. This conformational change is responsible for abnormal folding of the LC, rich in ? leaves, which assemble into monomers that stack together to form amyloid fibrils. Epidemiology AL amyloidosis is the most common type of systemic amyloidois in developed countries with an estimated incidence of 9 cases/million inhabitant/year. The average age of diagnosed patients is 65 years and less than 10% of patients are under 50. Clinical description The clinical presentation is protean, because of the wide number of tissues or organs that may be affected. The most common presenting symptoms are asthenia and dyspnoea, which are poorly specific and may account for delayed diagnosis. Renal manifestations are the most frequent, affecting two thirds of patients at presentation. They are characterized by heavy proteinuria, with nephrotic syndrome and impaired renal function in half of the patients. Heart involvement, which is present at diagnosis in more than 50% of patients, leading to restrictive cardiopathy, is the most serious complication and engages prognosis. Diagnostic methods The diagnosis relies on pathological examination of an involved site showing Congo red-positive amyloid deposits, with typical apple-green birefringence under polarized light, that stain positive with an anti-LC antibody by immunohistochemistry and/or immunofluorescence. Due to the systemic nature of the disease, non-invasive biopsies such as abdominal fat aspiration should be considered before taking biopsies from involved organs, in order to reduce the risk of bleeding complications. Differential diagnosis Systemic AL amyloidosis should be distinguished from other diseases related to deposition of monoclonal LC, and from other forms of systemic amyloidosis. When pathological studies have failed to identify the nature of amyloid deposits, genetic studies should be performed to diagnose hereditary amyloidosis. Management Treatment of AL amyloidosis is based on chemotherapy, aimed at controlling the underlying plasma clone that produces amyloidogenic LC. The hematological response should be carefully checked by serial measurements of serum free LC. The association of an alkylating agent with high-dose dexamethasone has proven to be effective in two thirds of patients and is considered as the current reference treatment. New agents used in the treatment of multiple myeloma are under investigation and appear to increase hematological response rates. Symptomatic measures and supportive care is necessary in patients with organ failure. Noticeably, usual treatments for cardiac failure (i.e. calcium inhibitors, ?-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors are inefficient or even dangerous in patients with amyloid heart disease, that should be managed using diuretics. Amiodarone and pace maker implantation should be considered in patients with rhythm or conduction abnormalities. In selected cases, heart and kidney transplantation may be associated with prolonged patient and graft survival. Prognosis Survival in AL amyloidosis depends on the spectrum of organ involvement (amyloid heart disease being the main prognosis factor, the severity of individual organs involved and haematological response to treatment.

Desport Estelle

2012-08-01

55

High-performance vacuum tubes for more energy efficiency. Building-integrated CPC vacuum tube collectors unite several functions.; Hochleistungs-Vakuumroehren fuer mehr Energieeffizienz. Gebaeudeintegrierte CPC-Vakuumroehren-Kollektoren vereinen mehrere Funktionen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The performance of solar collectors primarily contributes to increased efficiency and reduced operating costs of solar thermal systems. With the use of building-integrated CPC vacuum tube collectors an extremely high energy yield is achieved on a smaller collector gross area. As a building-integrated system solution the CPC facade provide panels in addition to its use as spandrel panels within the glazed buildings not only an architectural design element, but unite as a multifunctional component for several functions. [German] Die Leistungsfaehigkeit der Solarkollektoren traegt primaer zur Effizienzsteigerung und Reduzierung der Betriebskosten einer Solarthermieanlagen bei. Mit dem Einsatz gebaeudeintegrierter CPC-Vakuumroehrenkollektoren wird auf einer kleineren Kollektorbruttoflaeche ein extrem hoher Energieertrag erreicht. Als gebaeudeintegrierte Systemloesung bieten die CPC-Fassadenkollektoren neben dem Einsatz als Bruestungselemente auch innerhalb der verglasten Gebaeuden nicht nur ein architektonisches Gestaltungselement, sondern vereinen als multifunktionaler Bestandteil noch mehrere Funktionen.

Theiss, Eric

2013-10-15

56

The transjugular portosystemic stent shunt (TIPSS) as an intervention in clinical complication of portal hypertension; Der transjugulaere portosystemische Stentshunt (TIPSS) als Intervention bei klinischen Komplikationen der portalen Hypertonie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Most frequent complications in patients with liver cirrhosis are due to portal hypertension. Beside ascites circumvent vessles formate with vasodilatation. Due to counterregulation a secondary hyperaldosteronism develops with release of vasocontrictive agents. If conservative and endoscopic methods fail, indication for building a portosystemic shunt is given. The TIPSS procedure is less invasive than the surgical method of Warren-Shunt, so the radiological intervention has replaced surgery. Reducing the portal pressure by the shunt, the clinical complications change for the better. Still problems are defined as hepatic encephalopathy and right ventricular heart failure. Regular follow up investigations have to be performed to detect complications in the shunt. Using regular clinical and radiological check up TIPSS is of clinical benefit with good long term results. (orig.) [German] Die haeufigsten Komplikationen bei Patienten mit einer Leberzirrhose lassen sich auf das Vorliegen einer portalen Hypertension zurueckfuehren. Neben einer Aszitesbildung kommt es zur Vasodilatation mit Ausbildung portaler Umgehungskreislaeufe, gegenregulatorisch zu einem sekundaeren Hyperaldosteronismus und Ausschuettung vasokonstriktiver Substanzen. Sind mittels konservativer und endoskopischer Methoden die Komplikationen nicht mehr zu beherrschen, ist die Indikation zur Shuntanlage gegeben. Wegen der geringeren Invasivitaet einer TIPSS-Anlage gegenueber der operativen Methode eines Warren-Shunts hat sich die interventionell radiologische Methodik in den letzten Jahren immer mehr durchgesetzt. Durch den mittels Shuntanlage reduzierten Pfortaderdruck kommt es zu einer deutlichen klinischen Besserung der unterschiedlichen Komplikationen. Als klinisch problematische Symptome bei der Shuntanlage sind die hepatische Enzephalopathie und eine Zunahme der Rechtsherzbelastung zu werten. Um Komplikationen im Bereich des Shunts frueh zu erkennen, muss dieser engmaschig kontrolliert werden. Unter enger klinischer und radiologischer Kontrolle ist die Anlage eines intrahepatischen portosystemischen Shunts jedoch auch als laengerfristig effektive Methode zu werten, mit einer deutlichen Verbesserung der klinischen Symptomatik. (orig.)

Thalhammer, A.; Jacobi, V.; Schwarz, W.; Balzer, J.; Abolmaali, N.; Vogl, T.J. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Zentrum der Radiologie

2001-10-01

57

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Science.gov (United States)

... the trial has moved ALS research forward. Synonym(s): Lou Gehrig's Disease Condensed from Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Fact ... Sclerosis (ALS)? Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), sometimes called Lou Gehrig's disease or classical motor neuron disease, is a ...

58

Stigmatisierung als biografische Herausforderung professionellen Handelns in der Gleichstellungsarbeit  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"Die Implementierung der Position der Gleichstellungsbeauftragten in öffentlichen Institutionen ist in der Regel gelungen. Funktionsträgerinnen auf diesen Posten gehören dabei mittlerweile nicht mehr zwingend einer gesellschaftspolitischen Bewegung an bzw. grenzen sich teilweise explizit von der Frauenrechtsbewegung ab. Darüber hinaus haben sich, beispielsweise durch die Etablierung von Vernetzungsstrukturen, Professionalisierungsprozesse vollzogen. Dennoch haftet der Funktion der Frauen-...

Kassebaum, Silke

2014-01-01

59

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... ALS. MRIs and CAT scans help rule out diseases other than ALS that could be causing symptoms. Treatment There is no cure for ALS. However, the Food and Drug Administration, or the FDA, has approved ...

60

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... ALS affects only one leg at first. Patients notice that they are awkward when they walk or ... that they stumble more often. Some ALS patients notice the first signs of ALS in their hand ...

 
 
 
 
61

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Most ALS patients do not have a family history of it, nor do family members have an ... diagnoses ALS after reviewing a very detailed medical history and doing a physical examination. ALS is usually ...

62

Kurokawa's secret. Or: Why you need lemonade to feed more than 10 kW of solar power into the public grid; Kurokawas Geheimnis. Oder: Warum man in Japan Brause braucht, um mehr als zehn Kilowatt Solarstrom ans Netz zu bringen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Japan was among the first countries to think about solar power in gigawatt dimensions, but then the country opted increasingly for nuclear power. Now, after the earthquake and tsunami in March and with the ongoing nuclear catastrophe, there appears to be a renaissance of renewable energy sources and especially photovoltaic conversion. To make it happen, the government must take steps and permit competition in the energy market.

Krause, Matthias B.

2011-05-15

63

HIT-Sanyo: Revolutionary technology, what is the truth and what a hoax? New technology from Japan tested in Germany; ''Sanyo-HIT: Revolutionaere Technik oder mehr Schein als Sein?''. Neue Technik aus Japan in Deutschland erprobt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The new modules from Japanese manufacturer Sanyo with the HIT-Technology are supposed to have the worlds best efficiency. In addition the manufacturer claims that by the HIT-Technology the modules supply more energy output compared to conventional crystalline solar modules. This article tries to prove these statements by outdoor investigation. Measurements of one grid connected system, which contains Sanyo, Kyocera and Ersol modules, show that Sanyo modules have at least 7% more energy output than the other modules. DC-measurements at Sanyo and BP modules even prove that due to the low temperature coefficient the Sanyo modules cope better with high cell temperatures compared to the BP ones. In addition the inspection sheets given by Sanyo seem to contain lower power data than determined in field measurements which may be caused by the different spectral consistence of the test light in Japan. The data collected during the second half of 2003 reveals that systems with Sanyo modules can provide 7% and more plus of energy output than systems with other well-known modules. Nevertheless it will be interesting to gather long time data of plants with Sanyo modules in order to achieve a statement of how the energy output evolves during the period of at least one year. (orig.)

Rust, T. [Atmosphaere GmbH, Laatzen (Germany); Kohake, D. [Fachhochschule Gelsenkirchen (Germany). Fachbereich Elektrotechnik; Rossner, M. [Fachhochschule Coburg (Germany). Fachbereich Elektrotechnik und Informatik

2004-07-01

64

No way around green tariffs; Oekotarife sind nicht mehr wegzudenken  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Just like green electricity, meanwhile a classic, so too now does newcomer ''green gas'' offer energy suppliers with an appropriate marketing mix far-reaching opportunities for improving their corporate image, securing customer loyalty and increasing turnover. However the only beneficiaries of this trend to date have been green-only suppliers which specialise in this market. Although most traditional suppliers have now added green tariffs to their product portfolio, this has given them little commercial success, since eco-minded consumers often consider green-only suppliers to be more credible. A recent study shows that the market volume of green electricity and green gas tariffs will grow markedly over the next five years. Energy suppliers should therefore turn their attention to the question of how they can best exploit this potential.

Briese, Dirk [trend:research GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

2011-05-15

65

/Cu-Al System  

Science.gov (United States)

Wettability and interfacial interaction of the Ta2O5/Cu-Al system were studied. Pure Cu does not wet the Ta2O5 substrate, and improved spreading is achieved when relatively a high fraction of the active element (~40 at.% Al) was added. The Al2O3 and AlTaO4 phases were observed at the Ta2O5/Cu-Al interface. A thermodynamic evaluation allowed us to suggest that the lack of wetting bellow 40 at.% Al is due to the presence of a native oxide, which covers the drop. The conditions of the native oxide decomposition and the formation of the volatile Al2O suboxide strongly depend on the vacuum level during sessile drop experiments and the composition of the Cu-Al alloy. In our case, Al contents greater than 40% provides thermodynamic conditions for the formation of Al2O (as a result of Al reaction with Al2O3) and the drop spreading. It was suggested that the final contact angle in the Ta2O5/Cu-Al system (50°) is determined by Ta adsorption on the newly formed alumina interlayer.

Kish, Orel; Froumin, Natalya; Aizenshtein, Michael; Frage, Nachum

2014-05-01

66

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... ALS patients cannot breathe without support from a machine. Most people with ALS experience major respiratory problems ... mouth. When breathing muscles become weak, a breathing machine may be used at night to help the ...

67

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Lateral Sclerosis, or ALS, is a serious neurological disease that affects the ability to move. It is also called Lou Gehrig’s disease. Thousands of people have ALS. Thousands more are ...

68

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

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Full Text Available ... believe that ALS is caused when the body’s immune system attacks the neurons because it has mistaken them for foreign cells. Diagnosis A neurologist usually diagnoses ALS after reviewing ...

69

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

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Full Text Available ... motor neurons, the disease does not impair personality, intelligence, or memory. ALS does not affect the ability ... and home care specialists help with the medical, emotional, and financial challenges of coping with ALS, especially ...

70

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

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Full Text Available ... affected by the destroyed motor neurons gradually weaken, waste away, and twitch. Early symptoms of ALS affect ... There is no cure for ALS. However, the Food and Drug Administration, or the FDA, has approved ...

71

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... understand ALS and its treatment options. Anatomy Brain Peripheral Nerves Spinal Cord The brain and spinal cord are ... ALS called riluzole. Scientists believe that riluzole reduces damage to motor neurons. It also prolongs life by ...

72

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Most ALS patients do not have a family history of it, nor do family members have an increased risk for developing ALS. About 5-10% of all ALS cases seem to be genetic. Researchers have been able to identify the gene ...

73

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Introduction Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, or ALS, is a serious neurological disease that affects the ability to ... com nr180104 Last reviewed: 03/20/2013 1 ALS ALS attacks the neurons that control muscles, the ...

74

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... body. When muscles in the diaphragm and chest wall no longer work, ALS patients cannot breathe without support from a machine. Most people with ALS experience major respiratory problems within 3- 5 years of the first symptoms. Since ALS only affects motor neurons, the ...

75

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... X-Plain.com nr180104 Last reviewed: 03/20/2013 1 ALS ALS attacks the neurons that control ... X-Plain.com nr180104 Last reviewed: 03/20/2013 2 In some cases, ALS affects only one ...

76

Four-dimensional data assimilation as a method for coupling two meteorological model systems of different scales; Vierdimensionale Datenassimilation als Methode zur Kopplung zweier verschiedenskaliger meteorologischer Modellsysteme  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method of coupling two meteorological models of different scales must meet certain requirements: First, even a big difference in resolution between the two models must not produce disturbances in the smaller-scale model. This means that most nesting approaches are unfit for the purpose. The method presented here is not limited to meteorological models. It can be enhanced without much difficulty to dispersion models taking account of chemical atmospheric reactions, as e.g. in the CTM of the EURAD model or in DRAIS as an enhancement of the KAMM version. [German] Das Ziel dieser Arbeit bestand in der Entwicklung eines geeigneten Kopplungsverfahrens zweier verschiedenskaliger meteorologischer Modelle, das in einem Ein-Weg-Nesting dem kleinerskaligen Modell ermoeglicht, sowohl instationaere superskalige Verhaeltnisse als auch modellinterne kleinraeumige Prozesse miteinander zu verbinden. Im Rahmen des Projektes TFS mussten hierbei entscheidende Bedingungen an das Kopplungsverfahren gestellt werden. Allen voran darf vor allem ein auch grosser Unterschied in der Aufloesung der beiden verschiedenskaligen Modelle keine kuenstlichen Stoerungen im kleinerskaligen Modell produzieren. Somit scheiden die sonst ueblichen Nestingansaetze fuer diesen Fall aus. Das Verfahren ist derart konzipiert, dass es sich nicht auf rein meteorologische Modelle beschraenkt. Eine Ausweitung auf Ausbreitungsmodelle unter Beruecksichtigung chemischer Reaktionen in der Atmosphaere, wie sie etwa im CTM des EURAD-Modells oder im DRAIS als Erweiterung der KAMM-Version zur Verfuegung stehen, stellt keinen allzu grossen Schritt mehr dar. (orig.)

Wilms-Grabe, W.

2001-10-01

77

Geschichtsbewusstsein als psychologischer Begriff  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Es wird die Ansicht vertreten, dass es sich beim Geschichtsbewusstsein um einen im Kern psychologischen Begriff handelt. Zunächst wird auf die Polyvalenz des Begriffs "Geschichte" hingewiesen. Sie ist sowohl als ein symbolisch erzeugtes Konstrukt als auch als praktische Vollzugsform menschlicher Existenz zu verstehen. Eine Psychologie des Geschichtsbewusstseins darf also nicht allein auf historische Zeitkonstruktionen in einem engen Sinne des Wortes abstellen. Bei der näheren begrifflichen ...

Ko?lbl, Carlos; Straub, Ju?rgen

2003-01-01

78

ALS - The cost cutter  

Science.gov (United States)

The Advanced Launch System (ALS) development program will avail itself of existing technologies in the short term in order to produce an interim 'core' vehicle that may be operational by 1993; the full, booster-incorporating system objective will then be achieved in 1998. This programmatic 'decoupling' of booster and core vehicle development efforts will separate their funding peaks. The ALS program will cut costs by colocating manufacturing and launch facilities, using Al-Li alloys in booster primary structures, and aggressively applying 'paperless' CIM. The ALS launch vehicle configuration will be primarily determined by both payload requirements and flight frequency.

Colucci, Frank

1987-10-01

79

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... ethnic backgrounds. It mostly affects people between the ages of 40 and 60 years old. Men are more likely to get ALS than women. This reference summary will help you understand ALS and its treatment options. Anatomy Brain Peripheral Nerves Spinal Cord The brain and spinal ...

80

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... be another disease, such as spinal cord tumors, multiple sclerosis, or nerve compression. As the symptoms of ALS ... reviewed: 03/20/2013 4 ... voluntary muscles. There are no cures for ALS. However, research and new forms of ...

 
 
 
 
81

Inside the ALS  

Science.gov (United States)

"Inside the ALS" is a poster aimed at sharing with students the wonder and excitement of one of the world's brightest sources of light, the Advanced Light Source (ALS). The poster can be used as a classroom resource for a variety of topics, such as light, magnets, electricity, optics, technology, and powers of ten (to list just a few).

2008-08-27

82

[Environmental factors in ALS].  

Science.gov (United States)

ALS is likely to be a disorder of multifactorial origin. Among all the factors that may increase the risk of ALS, environmental ones are being studied for many years, but in the recent years, several advances have pointed to a new interest in their potential involvement in the disease process, especially for the cyanotoxin BMAA. Food containing BMAA has been found on Guam, a well-known focus of ALS/parkinsonism/dementia and high levels of BMAA have been identified into the brain of these patients. The BMAA cyanotoxin is potentially ubiquitous and have also been found into the food of patients who died from ALS both in Europe and USA. BMAA can be wrongly integrated into the protein structure during mRNA traduction, competing with serine. This may induce abnormal protein folding and a subsequent cell death. Heavy metals, such as lead or mercury may be directly toxic for neuronal cells. Several works have suggested an increased risk of ALS in individuals chronically exposed to these metals. Exposure to pesticides has been suggested to be linked to an increased risk of developing ALS. The mechanism of their toxicity is likely to be mediated by paraoxonases. These proteins are in charge of detoxifying the organism from toxins, and particularly organophosphates. To date, there are insufficient scientific data to suggest that exposure to electromagnetic fields may increase the risk of having ALS. We are particularly missing longitudinal cohorts to demonstrate that risk. PMID:24703731

Juntas-Morales, Raul; Pageot, Nicolas; Corcia, Philippe; Camu, William

2014-05-01

83

Können die Parameter Dauerkatheter-Liegezeit, postoperatives Miktionsvolumen und Prostatagewicht als Parameter zur Vorhersage der Kontinenzwahrscheinlichkeit nach endoskopischer, extraperitonealer radikaler Prostatektomie dienen?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Die Kontinenzergebnisse nach den verschiedenen Verfahren der radikalen Prostatektomie zeigen bei entsprechender Erfahrung der Operateure keine Unterschiede und erreichen je nach Definition Raten bis zu 90 %. Es sollen deshalb unabhängige Parameter auf ihre Wertigkeit zur Abschätzung der Kontinenzwahrscheinlichkeit nach EERPE untersucht werden, um die Kontinenzraten verfahrensunabhängig optimieren zu können. Zur Erfassung der Kontinenzraten wird den Patienten jeweils 3, 6 und 12 Monate nach EERPE ein in der eigenen Abteilung entwickelter Fragebogen zugesandt. Das postoperative Miktionsvolumen wird mittels Uroflowmetrie ermittelt. Der Einfluss der zu untersuchenden Parameter wurde in Abhängigkeit der Ergebnisse der Fragebögen nach den entsprechenden Zeitintervallen analysiert. So zeigte sich, dass Patienten, welche 12 Monate nach radikaler Prostatektomie max. 1 Vorlage pro Tag benötigten, eine mittlere Dauerkatheter-Liegezeit von 10,2 Tagen hatten. Männer, die nach demselben Zeitraum 3 Vorlagen über 24 h benötigten, wurden im Mittel 19,5 Tage dauerhaft abgeleitet. Das mittlere Miktionsvolumen in der postoperativen Uroflowmetrie zeigte zu keinem Zeitpunkt einen signifikanten Unterschied zwischen den verschiedenen Gruppen. Ein höheres Prostatagewicht zeigte einen negativen Einfluss auf die Kontinenzergebnisse 3 Monate nach der Operation. Sechs und 12 Monate nach der EERPE ließen sich keine Auswirkungen des Organgewichtes auf das Kontinenzergebnis mehr darstellen. Als Konsequenz ergibt sich deshalb die Forderung nach einer Vermeidung verlängerter Katheter-Liegezeiten. Dies kann bereits intraoperativ durch eine sorgfältige Naht der vesiko-urethralen Anastomose erreicht werden. Voraussetzung dafür ist die sichere Beherrschung des angewandten Operationsverfahrens.

Sehovic M

2010-01-01

84

Cuidando al adulto y al anciano  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El propósito del artículo es describir, desde el ámbito universitario, la experiencia en la aplicación de la Teoría del Déficit de Autocuidado (TDAC con la población adulta y anciana. Se explican los procesos y resultados desde la preparación docente, la conformación de la asignatura, hasta el desarrollo de la experiencia práctica en el ámbito hospitalario y de la vida cotidiana. La experiencia muestra la adecuación de la TDAC para abordar el cuidado de esta población y la necesidad de desarrollar otros estudios al respecto.

Alba Lucero L\\u00F3pez D\\u00EDaz

2003-01-01

85

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... for ALS relieve symptoms and improve the patient’s quality of life. To provide these other treatments, health care professionals team up, including doctors, pharmacists, therapists, ...

86

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

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Full Text Available ... nerves in the body, such as the arms, legs, chest, abdomen, and pelvis, make up the peripheral ... 2 In some cases, ALS affects only one leg at first. Patients notice that they are awkward ...

87

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... machine is called a respirator. Social workers, hospice nurses, and home care specialists help with the medical, emotional, and financial challenges of coping with ALS, especially ...

88

Genetic Testing for ALS  

Science.gov (United States)

... guarantee a person will develop symptoms of ALS. Genetic Counseling If there is more than one person with ... genetic testing based on your concerns and values. Genetic counseling does not always lead to genetic testing. For ...

89

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... brain. They communicate with each other by sending electric signals through wires called axons. Neurons that control ... easier to diagnose. ALS can be diagnosed using electric tests on the muscles and nerves. These tests ...

90

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... affects motor neurons, the disease does not impair personality, intelligence, or memory. ALS does not affect the ... care professionals team up, including doctors, pharmacists, therapists, social workers, and home care specialists. This document is ...

91

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... system. The brain is similar to a very complex computer that processes input from our senses and ... Plain.com nr180104 Last reviewed: 03/20/2013 2 In some cases, ALS affects only one leg ...

92

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... genetic. Researchers have been able to identify the gene related to some cases of familial ALS and ... design an individual plan of medical and physical therapies. They can also provide equipment to keep patients ...

93

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... prescribe medications to reduce • fatigue • muscle cramps • excess saliva • phlegm Drugs are available to help ALS patients ... Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a very serious neurological disease that affects the body's ability to control voluntary ...

94

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... affects motor neurons, the disease does not impair personality, intelligence, or memory. ALS does not affect the ... be another disease, such as spinal cord tumors, multiple sclerosis, or nerve compression. As the symptoms of ...

95

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Introduction Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, or ALS, is a serious neurological disease that affects the ability to move. It is also called Lou Gehrig’s disease. Thousands of ...

96

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

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Full Text Available ... There is no cure for ALS. However, the Food and Drug Administration, or the FDA, has approved ... risk of pneumonia that could result from inhaling food and drinks into the lungs. A feeding tube ...

97

About ALS: FAQ  

Science.gov (United States)

... experts in physical therapy, speech, occupational therapy, nursing, psychology, social work, nutrition and other fields, the ALS ... for Health Care Rights, a Los Angeles-based consumer advocacy group, " Whenever you have doubts about your ...

98

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

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Full Text Available ... can also provide equipment to keep patients as mobile and comfortable as possible. Doctors can prescribe medications ... help ALS patients keep their independence and remain mobile. When patients can no longer get enough nourishment ...

99

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

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Full Text Available ... cure for ALS. However, the Food and Drug Administration, or the FDA, has approved the first drug ... care professionals team up, including doctors, pharmacists, therapists, social workers, and home care specialists. This document is ...

100

MDA ALS Caregiver's Guide  

Science.gov (United States)

... information is invaluable for caregivers as well. Everyday Life covers: equipment for daily living, saving energy, home modification, equipment for mobility, speech and respiratory issues, transfers and exercise. In the MDA ALS Caregiver’s Guide , the approach ...

 
 
 
 
101

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

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Full Text Available ... and home care specialists help with the medical, emotional, and financial challenges of coping with ALS, especially ... for your specific condition. ©1995-2013, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.X-Plain.com nr180104 Last ...

102

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

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Full Text Available ... the disease does not impair personality, intelligence, or memory. ALS does not affect the ability to see, ... and NCV, for ElectroMyoGram and Nerve Conduction Velocity. Studies of spinal fluid obtained by performing a spinal ...

103

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... 2013 3 Working with patients, healthcare teams can design an individual plan of medical and physical therapies. ... neurological disease that affects the body's ability to control voluntary muscles. There are no cures for ALS. ...

104

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

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Full Text Available ... motor neurons, the disease does not impair personality, intelligence, or memory. ALS does not affect the ability ... be another disease, such as spinal cord tumors, multiple sclerosis, or nerve compression. As the symptoms of ...

105

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

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Full Text Available ... in the body, such as the arms, legs, chest, abdomen, and pelvis, make up the peripheral nervous ... and body. When muscles in the diaphragm and chest wall no longer work, ALS patients cannot breathe ...

106

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

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Full Text Available ... your specific condition. ©1995-2013, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.X-Plain.com ... are no cures for ALS. However, research and new forms of treatment are being developed. ...

107

Al-rich region of Al?Pt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: •The constitution of Al?Pt above 65 at.% Al is specified. •The previously reported Al4Pt, Al21Pt8 and Al2Pt phases are confirmed. •A new stable orthorhombic phase was revealed at ?75–76 at.% Al and 801–915 °C. -- Abstract: The constitution of the Al-rich part of the Al?Pt alloy system is revised. Apart from the previously reported equilibrium Al4Pt, Al21Pt8 and Al2Pt phases, a complex intermetallic was revealed at 75-76 at.% Al between 801 and 915 °C. Its structure determined by electron diffraction is orthorhombic (Bmmb, a = 1.983, b = 1.636 and c = 1.422 nm)

108

Pornographie als Metapher  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In diesem Artikel werden unterschiedliche metaphorische Verwendungen des Pornografiebegriffs und deren Implikationen untersucht. Während die Existenz von Pornografie der feministischen Anti-Porno-Bewegung als Erklärung für die anhaltende Diskriminierung von Frauen in westlichen Gesellschaften dient, nutzen rechtskonservative Kräfte den Pornografievorwurf als Rechtfertigung für die Zensur von als deviant empfundenen Identitäten und sexuellen Praktiken.This article examines different metaphorical uses of the term pornography and the resulting implications. While the existence of pornography for the feminist anti-porno movement serves as factor in the continuing discrimination of women in western societies, conservative powers on the right use the allegation of pornography as a justification for censorship of those identities and sexual practices deemed deviant.

Caroline Schubarth

2010-03-01

109

ALS superbend magnet performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been engaged in the design, construction and testing of four superconducting dipoles (Superbends) that are installed in three arcs of the Advanced Light Source (ALS), with the fourth magnet as a spare. This represents a major upgrade to the ALS providing an enhanced flux and brightness at photon energies above 10 keV. In preparation for installation, an extensive set of tests and measurements have been conducted to characterize the magnetic and cryogenic performance of the Superbends and to fiducialize them for accurate placement in the ALS storage ring. The magnets are currently installed, and the storage ring is undergoing final commissioning. This paper will present the results of magnetic and cryogenic testing.

Marks, Steve; Zbasnik, John; Byrne, Warren; Calais, Dennis; Chin, Michael; DeMarco, Richard; Fahmie, Michael; Geyer, Alan; Krupnick, Jim; Ottens, Fred; Paterson, James A.; Pipersky, Paul; Robin, David S.; Schlueter, RossD.; Steier, Christoph; Wandesforde, Alan

2001-12-10

110

Rapidly solidified NiAl and FeAl  

Science.gov (United States)

Melt spinning was used to produce rapidly solidified ribbons of the B2 intermetallics NiAl and FeAl. Both Fe-40Al and Fe-45Al possessed some bend ductility in the as spun condition. The bend ductility of Fe-40Al, Fe-45Al, and equiatomic NiAl increased with subsequent heat treatment. Heat treatment at approximately 0.85 T (sub m) resulted in significant grain growth in equiatomic FeAl and in all the NiAl compositions. Low bend ductility in both FeAl and NiAl generally coincided with intergranular failure, while increased bend ductility was characterized by increasing amounts of transgranular clevage fracture.

Gaydosh, D. J.; Crimp, M. A.

1985-01-01

111

CO2 als escorxadors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

L’atordiment previ dels animals en escorxadors abans del sacrifici no només és una realitat legislativa, és també una voluntat general d’aconseguir rebaixar el patiment o l’estrès de l’animal. En el cas de l’espècie porcina, l’exposició al diòxid de carboni (CO2 ) és un dels mètodes més utilitzats donat que presenta una sèrie de beneficis en comparació amb l’atordiment elèctric, com ara la possibilitat de poder realitzar-ho en grups, no haver de subjectar al porc o...

Velarde, Antonio

2009-01-01

112

ALS superbend magnet system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is preparing to upgrade the Advanced Light Source (ALS) with three superconducting dipoles (Superbends). In this paper we present the final magnet system design which incorporates R&D test results and addresses the ALS operational concerns of alignment, availability, and economy. The design incorporates conduction-cooled Nb-Ti windings and HTS current leads, epoxy-glass suspension straps, and a Gifford-McMahon cryocooler to supply steady state refrigeration. We also present the current status of fabrication and testing.

Zbasnik, J.; Wang, S.T.; Chen, J.Y.; DeVries, G.J.; DeMarco, R.; Fahmie, M.; Geyer, A.; Green, M.A.; Harkins, J.; Henderson, T.; Hinkson, J.; Hoyer, E.H.; Krupnick, J.; Marks, S.; Ottens, F.; Paterson, J.A.; Pipersky, P.; Portmann, G.; Robin, D.A.; Schlueter, R.D.; Steier, C.; Taylor, C.E.; Wahrer, R.

2000-09-15

113

ALS superbend magnet system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is preparing to upgrade the Advanced Light Source (ALS) with three superconducting dipoles (Superbends). In this paper we present the final magnet system design which incorporates R and D test results and addresses the ALS operational concerns of alignment, availability, and economy. The design incorporates conduction-cooled Nb-Ti windings and HTS current leads, epoxy-glass suspension straps, and a Gifford-McMahon cryocooler to supply steady state refrigeration. We also present the current status of fabrication and testing

114

Al Qaeda Training Manual  

Science.gov (United States)

The first resource is a US Department of Justice release of portions of an English translation of the Al Qaeda training manual located by police in Manchester, England during a search of an Al Qaeda member's home. The manual was found in a computer file described as "the military series" related to the "Declaration of Jihad." The cover and excerpts from the 12 chapters can be viewed as a .pdf file. Content of the text includes religious commentary, organizational tactics, guidelines for member selection, techniques for spying, and security measures. The DOJ does not provide the entire document because it does not want to encourage terrorism.

2001-01-01

115

Industrial residues as an external carbon source in denitrification; Industrielle Reststoffe als externe Kohlenstoffquelle fuer die Denitrifikation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biological waste water treatment requires biologically readily degradable carbon in order to permit elimination of as much nitrogen as possible. Often now this type of carbon is no longer present in waste water in an appropriate quantity, so that external carbon must be added. Apart from industrially fabricated substrates, the use of industrial residues and waste products as well as of partial waste water streams with a high organic pollutant load is lately being considered for cost reasons. But this is not altogether harmless. Those partial streams may contain substances that inhibit denitrification, impose an additional burden on subsequent cleaning stages or may even pass them unmodified, so that they are emitted into the environment and pose an ecological hazard potential. Hence, industrial residual products need to be specifically selected for use as an external carbon source in denitrification. A suitable strategy is described and demonstrated by means of different examples. (orig.) [German] In der biologischen Abwasserbehandlung ist fuer eine weitestgehende Stickstoffelimination oftmals biologisch gut abbaubarer Kohlenstoff im Abwasser nicht (mehr) in ausreichendem Masse vorhanden. Dann ist die Zugabe einer sog. externen Kohlenstoffquelle erforderlich. Neben industriell hergestellten Substraten wird in letzter Zeit aus Kostengruenden vielfach der Einsatz industrieller Rest- und Abfallstoffe sowie organisch hochbelasteter Abwasserteilstroeme erwogen. Dies ist jedoch nicht unproblematisch, da in diesen Stoffstroemen auch Substanzen enthalten sein koennen, die die Denitrifikation hemmen, nachfolgende Reinigungsstufen zusaetzlich belasten oder diese sogar unveraendert passsieren, dadurch in die Umwelt emittiert werden und damit moeglicherweise aus oekologischer Sicht ein Gefahrenpotential darstellen koennen. Es muss also eine besondere Auswahl der Pruefung industrieller Reststoffe im Hinblick auf den Einsatz als externe Kohlenstoffquelle in der Denitrifikation erfolgen. Hierzu wird eine geeignete Strategie vorgestellt und anhand verschiedener Beispiele erlaeutert. (orig.)

Schories, G. [TECON GmbH, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Geissen, S.U.; Vogelpohl, A. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Verfahrenstechnik

1999-07-01

116

Comentarios al Salto Social  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 1. El Plan considera que la política social es un componente central de la estrategia macroeconómica. A diferencia de la administración Gaviria, lo social ha dejado de ser un asunto marginal, es consustancial al desarrollo y, por tanto, se le confiere una dimensión cualitativamente diferente.

Facultad de Ciencias Económicas

1995-06-01

117

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... to diagnose. ALS can be diagnosed using electric tests on the muscles and nerves. These tests are called EMG and NCV, for ElectroMyoGram and ... of life. To provide these other treatments, health care professionals team up, including doctors, pharmacists, therapists, social ...

118

Lou Gehrig's Disease (ALS)  

Science.gov (United States)

What Is Lou Gehrig's Disease? Lou Gehrig's disease is a disorder that's also called amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (say: ah-my-uh-TRO- ... deal with the challenges they face. Living With Lou Gehrig's Disease According to the ALS Association, about half ...

119

ALS renewal moves forward  

Science.gov (United States)

As the result of an extensive long-term planning process involving all its stakeholders—management, staff, and users—the ALS has seen its future and is aggressively moving ahead to implement its vision for keeping the facility at the cutting edge for the next 2-3 decades. The evolving strategic plan now in place aims to renew the ALS so it can address a new generation of fundamental questions about size dependent and dimensional-confinement phenomena at the nanoscale; correlation and complexity in physical, biological, and environmental systems; and temporal evolution, assembly, dynamics and ultrafast phenomena. The renewal spans three areas: (1) increased staffing at beamlines to support the growing user community and safety professionals to keep an increasingly complex facility hazard free; (2) implementing advances in accelerator, insertion device, beamline, and detector technology that will make it possible for ALS users to address emerging grand scientific and technological challenges with incisive world-class tools; and (3) construction of a user support building and guest housing that will increase the safety and user friendliness of the ALS by providing users office, meeting, experiment staging, and laboratory space for their work and on-site accommodations at reasonable rates.

Falcone, R. W.; Feinberg, B.; Hussain, Z.; Kirz, J.; Krebs, G. F.; Padmore, H. A.; Robin, D. S.; Robinson, A. L.

2007-11-01

120

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... you understand ALS and its treatment options. Anatomy Brain Peripheral Nerves Spinal Cord The brain and spinal cord are called the central nervous ... pelvis, make up the peripheral nervous system. The brain is similar to a very complex computer that ...

 
 
 
 
121

Bâb al–Yaman  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bâb al–Yaman, porte méridionale de la ville de Sanaa, est devenue, un siècle après sa reconstruction, à la fois le symbole d’une identité urbaine héritée et l’emblème de la vitalité politique et culturelle du Yémen. C’est l’analyse de la persistance et de la symbolisation d’une forme urbaine archétypale qui est ici proposée à travers une triple lecture : celle des perceptions des citadins qui recentrent la porte dans les pratiques spatiales, celle, interprétative, des représentations iconographiques de Bâb al–Yaman qui s’inscrivent dans un processus de valorisation des richesses patrimoniales et culturelles du pays, et, enfin, celle des discours de quelques acteurs institutionnels qui font de la porte un objet de revendications.One century after its reconstruction, the southern gate of Sana’a, Bâb al–Yaman, has become not only the symbol of an ancient urban identity but also the emblem of Yemen’s political and cultural vitality. This article analyses the persistence and the symbolization of such an archetypal urban form through three levels of interpretations: first, the city dwellers’ perceptions, which replace the gate in spatial practices; then the iconographic representations of Bâb al–Yaman, which are in line with the process of promotion of Yemen’s patrimonial and cultural treasures; and last but not least, the discourse analysis of some institutional actors, who have turned the gate into an object of claim.

Roman Stadnicki

2006-10-01

122

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... axons. Neurons that control our muscles are called motor neurons. The axons of motor neurons cause our muscles to contract, which helps ... ALS attacks the neurons that control muscles, the motor neurons. Messages from motor neurons in the brain ...

123

Factores asociados al bajo peso al nacer  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El bajo peso al nacer (BPN) ha constituido un enigma en la ciencia a través de los tiempos. Múltiples son las investigaciones realizadas acerca de las causas que lo producen y las consecuencias que provoca. Su importancia no solo radica en lo que significa en la morbilidad y la mortalidad infantil, [...] sino que estos niños tienen habitualmente múltiples problemas posteriores. El Programa para la Reducción del BPN señala que los niños nacidos con un peso inferior a los 2 500 g presentan riesgo de mortalidad 14 veces mayor durante el primer año de vida, en comparación con los niños que nacen con un peso normal a término. Dentro de los factores de riesgo del BPN se han encontrado con mayor frecuencia en estudios realizados por diferentes autores, los siguientes: el embarazo en la adolescencia, la desnutrición en la madre, el hábito de fumar, la hipertensión arterial durante el embarazo, la sepsis cervicovaginal, la anemia y los embarazos gemelares, entre otros. Es innegable la influencia que el BPN tiene sobre las futuras generaciones, por lo que debe constituir la diana de los esfuerzos que el médico y la enfermera deben desarrollar en su prevención, sobre todo en la comunidad Abstract in english Low birth weight has been an enigma for Science through times. A lot of research works have been carried out about its causes and consequences. The importance of LBW not only lies in its meaning for infant mortality and morbidity but also in the many problems that low birth weight children regularly [...] face in the future. The program for the reduction of LBW points out that newborns weighing under 2500g have during his/her first year of life a mortality risk 14 times higher than newborns with a normal weight at term. Among the low birth weight risk factors, a number of studies by various authors have frequently found the following; pregnancy at adolescence; undernourishment in mothers, smoking, blood hypertension during pregnancy, cervix-vaginal sepsis; anemia, twin pregnancies and others. The influence of LBW on the future generations can not be denied, therefore, LBW should be a target for the efforts of physicians and nurses to prevent it within the community

Georgina J, Peraza Roque; Silvia de la C, Pérez Delgado; Zoe de los A, Figueroa Barreto.

124

ALS insertion devices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Advanced Light Source (ALS), the first US third generation synchrotron radiation source, is currently under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The low-emittance, 1.5 GeV electron storage ring and the insertion devices are specifically designed to produce high brightness beams in the UV to soft X-Ray range. The planned initial complement of insertion devices includes four 4.6 m long undulators, with period lengths of 3.9 cm, 5.0 cm (2) and 8.0 cm, and a 2.9 m long wiggler of 16 cm period length. Undulator design is well advanced and fabrication has begun on the 5.0 cm and 8.0 cm period length undulators. This paper discusses ALS insertion device requirements; general design philosophy; and design of the magnetic structure, support structure/drive systems, control system and vacuum system. 18 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs

125

Aproximación al mito  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se propone entender ?mito? como ?narración verdadera?, aceptada como tal por quien ?vive? el mito, por quien lo ?siente? como verdadero. Su función es entregar un fondo al hombre, un conjunto de puntos de referencia que le permiten guiar su vida, entender la realidad y comprenderse a sí mismo en ella. Los mitos arcaicos narran una historia religiosa; pero no todos los mitos son religiosos. Los mitos cambian en el tiempo. En diversos momentos de la historia hay mitos dominantes. Articular mitos otorga poder. Cuando desaparecen los ?grandes mitos? su lugar es ocupado por otros de tono menor, que ?a falta de otra cosa? igual guían al individuo. Hoy, en nuestra nación carecemos de mitos que involucren a la totalidad, tenemos sólo los mitos de la globalización: la democracia y el mercado. Conviene reconocer los mitos, y a la vez, reconocer también que parte de nuestro juicio se afinca en aquellos mitos que nos sustentan.

Patricio Oyaneder Jara

2003-01-01

126

ALS Project Management Manual  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This manual has been prepared to help establish a consistent baseline of management practices across all ALS projects. It describes the initial process of planning a project, with a specific focus on the production of a formal project plan. We feel that the primary weakness in ALS project management efforts to date stems from a failure to appreciate the importance of ''up-front'' project planning. In this document, we present a guide (with examples) to preparing the documents necessary to properly plan, monitor, and control a project's activities. While following the manual will certainly not guarantee good project management, failure to address the issues we raise will dramatically reduce the chance of success. Here we define success as meeting the technical goals on schedule and within the prescribed budget.

Krupnick, Jim; Harkins, Joe

2000-05-01

127

Thomas Morley als musiktheoretiker  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available (nema?ki Der Komponist und Musiktheoretiker Thomas Morley hat in seiner Abhandlung "A Plaine and Easie Introduction into Practicall Musicke" (heraus-gegeben 1597 in London die Kompositionslehre seiner Zeit auf verständliche und anschauliche Weise dargestellt. Der vorliegende Beitrag untersucht sowohl den wissenschaftlichen als auch den didaktischen Wert dieses Traktats. Neben der Besprechung der allgemeinen Charakteristika der Abhandlung, wird im Beitrag auch Morleys Behandlung einzelner Themenbereiche untersucht, so u.a. auch die Klauseldisposition und die Frage, ob die Aussagen Morleys darüber als Wende vom modalen hin zum tonalen Denken interpretiert werden können: In diesem Kontext wird eine Antwort auf Martina Rebmanns Kritik an Carl Dahlhaus' Interpretation der Lehre Morleys gegeben.

Popovi? Tihomir T.

2005-01-01

128

Handboek luzerne als voedergewas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Het handboek "Luzerne als voedergewas" is bedoeld om de kennis en ervaringen met luzerne op een overzichtelijke manier samen te brengen. Met name op het regionaal proefbedrijf Cranendonck is in de jaren 1990-1996 aan de teelt en het voeren van luzerne in melk- en jongveerantsoenen veel aandacht geschonken. De aanleiding hiervoor was het mogelijk afkondigen van een (beperkt) beregeningsverbod. Uit oogpunt van opbrengst zou dit vooral op de drogere zandgronden de teelt van gras ten zeerste bemo...

Boxem, Tj; Meijer, R. G. M.; Philipsen, A. P.; Schans, D.; Schreuder, R.; Walbeek, M.

1999-01-01

129

Das Fremde als Leere  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In dem Artikel werden Überlegungen über räumliche Leere auf den sozialen Prozess der Annäherung an Fremdes übertragen. Leere ist gesellschaftlich nicht geduldet. Leerer Raum wird möglichst dicht gefüllt, leere Zeit möglichst effektiv genutzt. Überträgt man die Metapher der Leere auf einen Menschen, so darf auch dieser nicht 'leer' bleiben. Der Mensch darf nicht undefiniert - denn dadurch unkontrollierbar - bleiben. Im dominanten Diskurs wird derjenige, der als 'fremd' bezeichnet wir...

Schophaus, Malte; Helling, Svenja

2001-01-01

130

Del duelo al deseo  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cuando Freud se refiere al duelo de la muerte del padre se ocupa de su expresión sintomática, diferencial, según la estructura clínica en juego: el reproche obsesivo y la identificación con el rasgo del síntoma paterno. Pero, más allá del síntoma histérico, la identificación revela una relación estrecha con el duelo, cuyo requisito es la constitución del objeto en cuanto perdido. La lectura lacaniana de Hamlet muestra a ...

De Castro Korgi Sylvia

2011-01-01

131

Waldorfpädagogik als Erziehungskunst  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Die Notwendigkeit einer Besinnung auf den „Menschen im Lehrer“ wird durch aktuelle Untersuchungen angeregt. Durch die ganzheitliche Förderung von Selbständigkeit, Streben nach Erkenntnis und Durchgeistigung des tätigen Daseins ist die Waldorfpädagogik funktional als eine künstlerische Aktion eingestuft (Bildungsprozesse statt Bildungsökonomie. Sie stellt den Menschen in den Mittelpunkt des pädagogischen Geschehens und befragt die Möglichkeit der objektiven (unverzerrten und zugleich künstlerisch intuitiven Durchschaubarkeit von Lernvorgängen.

Walter Hutter

2012-07-01

132

Das Fähnchentestat als neue Prüfungsform im Fach Anatomie an der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München [Tag test as a particular kind of examination in the dissection course  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available [english] Background: In view of the continuously increasing number of beginners of medical students at the Ludwig-Maximilians-University (LMU, the traditional kind of the practically oral tests on the cadaver for the assessment in tests of anatomy has become no longer reliably and practically realisable. Material and Methods: As an alternative was an exam-course established, where the students have to pass in turn different stations with preparations and to work on relating tasks. We investigated the practicability, reliability and the students' acceptance of this form of testing. Results: In 7 parallel prepaired exam-courses, 930 students can be testet within 155 minutes with time and effort of 2 academic teachers and 32 student co-workers. The results show an adequate selectivity high reliability and apropriate difficulty. Results of a written evaluation of 442 students (49% show a high acceptance of this kind of testing. Summary: This kind of test represents an alternative, which has to be taken seriously, to the traditional form of anatomical tests. [german] Hintergrund: Angesichts der stetig steigenden Zahl (WS 06/07 n=930 an Studienanfängern der Medizin in München ist im Fach Anatomie die traditionelle Prüfungsform der praktischen, mündlichen Prüfung am Präparat für die Bewertung in den Testaten nicht mehr zuverlässig und praktikabel durchführbar. Material & Methoden: Als Alternative wurde ein Prüfungsparcours etabliert, in dem die Studierenden der Reihe nach unterschiedliche Stationen mit ausgelegten Präparaten durchlaufen und entsprechende Aufgaben bearbeiten. Wir untersuchten die Praktikabilität, Zuverlässigkeit und studentische Akzeptanz des Prüfungsformates. Ergebnisse: Durch sieben parallel aufgebaute Prüfungsparcours können 930 Studierende in 155 Minuten mit einem Betreuungsaufwand von zwei akademischen und 32 studentischen Mitarbeitern geprüft werden. Die Ergebnisse zeigen eine adäquate Trennschärfe, hohe Zuverlässigkeit und angemessene Schwierigkeit der Prüfung. Ergebnisse einer schriftlichen Evaluation von 442 Studierenden (49% sprechen für eine hohe Akzeptanz des Prüfungsformates. Schlussfolgerung: Wir halten diese Form der Prüfung als ernst zu nehmende Alternative zur bisher in den anatomischen Testaten traditionellen Form der mündlichen Prüfung am Präparat.

Adamczyk, Christopher

2007-08-01

133

Mercaptursäure und Nukleosidaddukt im Harn als Biomarker in 1-Hydroxymethylpyren-exponierten Ratten  

Science.gov (United States)

1-Methylpyren (MP) ist hepatokanzerogen in neugeborenen männlichen Mäusen. Durch Hydroxylierung an der benzylischen Stelle und anschließende Sulfonierung wird MP zu DNA-reaktivem 1-Sulfooxymethylpyren (SMP) aktiviert. In der Ratte führt die Exposition des benzylischen Alkohols, 1-Hydroxymethylpyren (HMP), zur DNA-Adduktbildung in verschiedenen Geweben. Eventuelle Konsequenz der Toxifizierung ist die Ausscheidung entsprechender Mercaptursäure und Nukleosidaddukt im Harn, welche aufgrund ihrer Herkunft als Biomarker eignen könnten. In dieser Arbeit wird die Ausscheidung der Mercaptursäure und des N2-Desoxyguanosinadduktes in HMP-exponierten Ratten untersucht. Nach der Applikation von HMP bzw. MP wurden weniger als 1 % der Dosis als MPMA über Urin und Faeces ausgeschieden (0 - 48 h). Die Ausscheidung erfolgt hauptsächlich in den ersten 24 h nach der Applikation. MPdG konnte weder in Urin noch in Faeces der HMP-behandelten Tieren identifiziert werden. Nach direkter SMP-Applikation wurde MPdG nur in sehr geringe Menge (weniger als 0,9 ppm in 12 h) im Urin gefunden. Aufgrund der geringen Menge eignet sich MPdG nicht als Biomarker. MPMA dagegen, lässt sich analytisch gut erfassen. Es sollte daher untersucht werden, ob MPMA die Toxifizierung des HMP wiederspiegelt. Die Voraussetzung dafür ist die Kenntnisse über das Metabolismusmuster von HMP. Es wurde daher umfassende Untersuchungen zum Metabolismus des HMP durchgeführt. Die Ergebnisse zeigten, dass mehr als 80 % der Metaboiten in ihrer oxidierten Form (PCS, deren Glucuronsäure-Konjugate sowie phenolische Sulfatester der PCS) ausgeschieden wurden. Demnach spielt die Oxidation des HMP zu PCS eine sehr wichtige Rolle bei der Detoxifizierung und Ausscheidung von HMP. Ferne konnte nachgewiesen werden, dass die Enzyme Alkohol- und Aldehyd-Dehydrogenase an der Oxidation von HMP beteiligt waren. Die Inhibitoren Disulfiram und Ethanol der o. g. Enzyme wurde daher zur Modulation der Detoxifizierung in vivo eingesetzt. Die Veränderungen in der Toxifizierung von HMP zu SMP wurden durch die SMP-Konzentration im Plasma, die DNA-Addukthäufigkeit und die MPMA-Ausscheidung erfasst. Die Vorbehandlung von Disulfiram und Ethanol führte zu tendentielle Erhöhung der SMP-Konzentration im Plasma, DNA-Addukthäufigkeit in der Leber und die MPMA-Ausscheidung. Bemerkenswert ist jedoch, dass bereits eine Dosis von 0,2 g Ethanol/kg Körpermasse bereits zu statistisch signifikanten Erhöhungen der MPMA-Ausscheidung bei weiblichen Ratten. 1-Methylpyrene is hepatocarcinogenic in rodents. It is metabolized primarily to 1-hydroxymethylpyrene (HMP) by various cDNA-expressed rat and human cytochromes P450. HMP is activated to a highly reactive sulfuric acid ester, 1-sulfooxymethylpyrene (SMP), by sulphotransferases. In the rat, this activation pathway leads to the formation of DNA adducts in various tissues. Possible consequences of the toxification could be the excretion of the corresponding mercapturic acid and nucleosidadduct in urine and feces. Because of their origin, these substances should reflex the toxification process may be used as biomarkers. We investigate the excretion of 1-methylpyrenyl-mercapturic acid (MPMA) and the excretion of N2-(1-methylpyrenyl)-desoxyguanosin (MPdG) in urine and feces of HMP-treated rats. These studies showed that only a minor portion ( 30 %). Minor metabolites were phenolic sulpho conjugates of HMP (< 5 %). The glucuronic acid conjugate of HMP was found in very s

Ma, Lan

2002-01-01

134

Optical gain characteristics in Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum wells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The optical gain characteristics of Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum wells (QWs) were assessed by the variable stripe length method at room temperature. An Al{sub 0.79}Ga{sub 0.21}N/AlN QW with a well width of 5?nm had a large optical gain of 140?cm{sup ?1}. Increasing the excitation length induced a redshift due to the gain consumption and the consequent saturation of the amplified spontaneous emission. Moreover, a change in the dominant gain polarization with Al composition, which was attributed to switching of the valence band ordering of strained AlGaN/AlN QWs at Al compositions of ?0.8, was experimentally demonstrated.

Oto, Takao; Banal, Ryan G.; Funato, Mitsuru; Kawakami, Yoichi, E-mail: kawakami@kuee.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

2014-05-05

135

al trasplante de órganos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El trasplante de órganos es una alternativa terapéutica para aquellos pacientes que tienen problemas graves en el funcionamiento de un órgano vital: corazón, hígado, pulmón, etc. Dada la relevancia de este tema, en el presente estudio teórico analizamos los principales problemas psicológicos asociados al trasplante de órganos. Concretamente, hemos tenido en cuenta los siguientes apartados: 1 Repercusiones psicológicas del trasplante de órganos en los pacientes: delirium, trastornos sexuales, trastornos del estado de ánimo, trastornos de ansiedad, fantasías sobre el donante, insatisfacción con la imagen corporal y otros trastornos; 2 variables psicosociales que influyen en las repercusiones psicológicas asociadas al trasplante de órganos: apoyo familiar, trastornos psicológicos en los familiares, hospitalización, expectativas pre y post-trasplante, estrategias de afrontamiento, duración de la enfermedad, etiología del trasplante, procedencia del órgano implantado y otras variables; 3 fases psicológicas en los trasplantados renales, hepáticos y cardíacos en función de diferentes periodos temporales de comparación; 4 calidad de vida en los trasplantados y variables que la predicen: adherencia terapéutica, hospitalización, apoyo familiar, expectativas hacia el trasplante y etiología del trasplante; y 5 repercusiones psicológicas del trasplante de órganos en los familiares, teniendo en cuenta la influencia que ejerce el apoyo social sobre la salud mental de estos familiares.

Mar\\u00EDa \\u00C1ngeles P\\u00E9rez San Gregorio

2005-01-01

136

Modeling neuronal vulnerability in ALS.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using computational models of motor neuron ion fluxes, firing properties, and energy requirements, Le Masson et al. (2014) reveal how local imbalances in energy homeostasis may self-amplify and contribute to neurodegeneration in ALS. PMID:25144872

Roselli, Francesco; Caroni, Pico

2014-08-20

137

Anerkennungserfahrungen als Motivation zu Lebenslangem Lernen : Einflüsse von Lehrern, Eltern und Peers auf die Lernmotivation Jugendlicher  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"Das ganze Leben lang die Bereitschaft, die Fähigkeit und die Gelegenheiten zum Lernen nicht zu verlieren wird immer mehr zentrale Voraussetzung einer guten gesellschaftlichen Platzierung sowie zur Erlangung von Einkommens- und Lebenschancen. Der vorliegende Aufsatz fragt nach Prädiktoren der Lernmotivation von Schüler/innen der Klassen neun und zehn verschiedener Schulformen. Auf der Grundlage einer Repräsentativerhebung in einem Bundesland werden Effekte von Schul-, Lehrer- und Peer- Er...

Drucks, Stephan; Osipov, Igor; Quenzel, Gudrun

2010-01-01

138

Heat pumps, a factor in enhancing customer loyalty; Waermepumpen als Erfolgsfaktor bei der Kundenbindung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heat pump sales in Switzerland soared n the past year. This favourable market development is a great chance for the electric power industry in many respects. [German] Die Waermepumpen-Verkaeufe haben im vergangenen Jahr einen erneuten Sprung nach oben gemacht. Immer mehr Schweizer ersetzen ihre alten Feuerungsanlagen durch umweltfreundliche Waermepumpen-Heizungen. Diese erfreuliche Marktentwicklung ist fuer die Elektrizitaetswirtschaft in verschiedener Hinsicht eine grosse Chance. (orig.)

Beyeler, F. [MKR Consulting AG, Bern (Switzerland)

1999-12-03

139

APROXIMACIÓN AL CONSTITUCIONALISMO POPULAR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available RESUMOEn el presente trabajo se expondrán las principales líneas de pensamiento de la corriente de pensamiento iusconstitucional norteamericana conocida como Popular Constitutionalism. Al interior de la cual se realiza un frontal cuestionamiento de las bases democráticas que presuntamente detentan las lecturas del constitucionalismo soportadas en la desconfianza hacia la intervención de pueblo como instancia de decisión política concreta. Palavras- chave: Constitución, Pueblo, Tribunal Constitucional, Control de Constitucionalidad. APPROACH TO POPULAR CONSTITUTIONALISM ABSTRACT In this paper we will present the main lines of thought school of thought known as American iusconstitucional Popular Constitutionalism. Inside the front which makes a questioning of the alleged hold democratic foundations of constitutionalism readings supported the suspicion of the involvement of people, as an actual politic decision. Key-words: Constitution, People, Constitutional Court, Judicial Review. SUMÁRIO1. Introducción 2. Los Orígenes: La clausura del universo político. 3. La Objeción Contramayoritaria. 4. En qué se reconoce el Constitucionalismo Popular? 5. Tipología del Constitucionalismo Popular.

Daniel Eduardo Florez Muñoz

2012-04-01

140

ALS Performance Summary - Update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) experiments play an important role in corroborating the improved physics codes that underlie LLNL's Stockpile Stewardship mission. Conducting these experiments, whether on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) or another national facility such as Omega, will require not only improvement in the diagnostics for measuring the experiment, but also detailed knowledge of the as-built target components and assemblies themselves. To assist in this effort, a defined set of well-known reference standards designed to represent a range of HEDP targets have been built and are being used to quantify the performance of different characterization techniques [Hibbard, et al. 2004]. Without the critical step of using reference standards for qualifying characterization tools there can be no verification of either commercial or internally-developed characterization techniques and thus an uncertainty in the input to the physics code models would exist.

Waters, A M; Brown, W D; Martz, Jr., H E

2004-09-30

 
 
 
 
141

Religionspädagogik als Fachdidaktik  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ENGLISH: One chapter of the Austrian National Education Report 2012 explicitly discusses the role of special subject didactics in educational contexts. The considerations of the present paper are due to the fact, that the report is not concerned with religious didactics. Within the academic dialogue between theological disciplines, religious education (as an academic discipline is often connoted with the narrow understanding as “the theory of religious education in schools”. From the perspectives of other specific subject didactics and educational policy it does not seem to be evident, that religious education as an academic discipline also performs tasks of religious didactics. The present paper discusses examples of divergent views on this topic and identifies challenges for subject didactics in general. Finally, it formulates desiderata for the further development of religious didactics based on the analysis of its status quo. DEUTSCH: Im nationalen Bildungsbericht des österreichischen BIFIE des Jahres 2012 gibt es ein eigenes Kapitel über die Rolle der Fachdidaktiken. In diesem Text kommt die Fachdidaktik Religion nicht vor. Diese Wahrnehmung ist der Ausgangspunkt für die Überlegungen dieses Beitrages: Religionspädagogik wird im Gespräch zwischen den theologischen Fächern oft – verkürzt – als Theorie des Religionsunterrichtes, und damit als Fachdidaktik des Unterrichtsfaches Religion wahrgenommen. Anders verhält es sich offenbar aus einer Außenperspektive: Von Seiten anderer Fachdidaktiken oder auch von Seiten der Bildungspolitik ist es nicht von vorneherein evident, dass Religionspädagogik auch die Aufgabe einer Fachdidaktik Religion wahrnimmt. Dieser Beitrag nennt Beispiele für diese divergierenden Sichtweisen, geht Herausforderungen an Fachdidaktik insgesamt nach und formuliert auf der Grundlage einer Analyse des IST-Standes der Fachdidaktik Religion Desiderate für deren Weiterentwicklung.

Andrea Lehner-Hartmann

2014-07-01

142

Corrosion behaviour of Al/SiC and Al/Al2O3 nanocomposites  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In the present investigation, the static immersion corrosion behavior of Al/Al2O3 and Al/SiC nanocomposites in 1 M HCl acidic solution was evaluated. The nanocomposites were fabricated using conventional powder metallurgy (P/M) route. The effect of nanoparticulates size and volume fraction on the co [...] rrosion behavior of nanocomposites was studied. The durations of the corrosion tests ranged from 24 to 120 hours and the temperatures of the solution ranged from ambient to 75 ºC. The corrosion rates of the nanocomposites were calculated using the weight loss method. The results showed that both Al/SiC and Al/Al2O3 MMNCs have lower corrosion rates than the pure Al matrix. Such behavior was noticed at both ambient and higher temperatures. Generally, the Al/Al2O3 nanocomposites exhibited lower corrosion rates than the Al/SiC nanocomposites. The Al/Al2O3 (60 nm) nanocomposites exhibited the highest corrosion resistance among all the investigated nanocomposites. The corrosion rate was found to be reduced by increasing of the exposure time and the volume fraction of the nanoparticulates, while it was found to be increased by increasing of the nanoparticulates size and the solution temperature.

Tamer Samir, Mahmoud; El-Sayed Yousef, El-Kady; Ayed Saad Merzen, Al-Shihiri.

143

Corrosion behaviour of Al/SiC and Al/Al2O3 nanocomposites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present investigation, the static immersion corrosion behavior of Al/Al2O3 and Al/SiC nanocomposites in 1 M HCl acidic solution was evaluated. The nanocomposites were fabricated using conventional powder metallurgy (P/M route. The effect of nanoparticulates size and volume fraction on the corrosion behavior of nanocomposites was studied. The durations of the corrosion tests ranged from 24 to 120 hours and the temperatures of the solution ranged from ambient to 75 ºC. The corrosion rates of the nanocomposites were calculated using the weight loss method. The results showed that both Al/SiC and Al/Al2O3 MMNCs have lower corrosion rates than the pure Al matrix. Such behavior was noticed at both ambient and higher temperatures. Generally, the Al/Al2O3 nanocomposites exhibited lower corrosion rates than the Al/SiC nanocomposites. The Al/Al2O3 (60 nm nanocomposites exhibited the highest corrosion resistance among all the investigated nanocomposites. The corrosion rate was found to be reduced by increasing of the exposure time and the volume fraction of the nanoparticulates, while it was found to be increased by increasing of the nanoparticulates size and the solution temperature.

Tamer Samir Mahmoud

2012-12-01

144

The thermal stability of Al-USiAl dispersion fuels and Al-U alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Al-U alloys showed no dimensional or phase changes after being heated at 4000C for as long as 93 days. These alloys are thermally stable because the fuel phase (UAl4) is thermodynamically stable with aluminum. Thus the irradiation behavior of the Al-37 wt%U alloy should be as good as that of Al-21 wt%U or Al-28 wt%U alloys at the same burnup of 235U atoms. After 30 days at 2000C, Al-USiAl dispersion fuels showed no significant dimensional or metallurgical changes. However, between 250 and 4000C, USiAl particles did react with the aluminum matrix to form UAl3 or UAl4 and cause fuel swelling. The amount of reaction and fuel swelling increased with increases in temperature and time. The aluminum appears to diffuse into the USiAl particles along unstable pathways such as grain boundaries or subparticle boundaries to form the new Al-U compounds. The in-reactor behavior of Al-USiAl dispersion fuels is expected to be satisfactory under normal operation since fuel temperatures will generally be less than or equal to2000C and external restraint will be greater than in these tests

145

Beta decays of 25Na, 25Al and 29Al  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioactivities 25Na, 25Al, and 29Al were produced in the 23Na(t,p)25Na, 24Mg(d,n)25Al, and 27Al(t,p)29Al reactions using a 3.5 MV Van de Graaff. ?-radiations were measured by means of a target-transfer system and a Ge(Li) detector with or without Compton suppression. Decay schemes derived for 25Na and 29Al are in general agreement with earlier results, but with improved accuracy of branching ratios and much sharper limits on the intensities of certain unobserved ?- and ?-ray transitions. Precision measurements of the energies of principal ?-rays gave results in keV for the listed decaying bodies as follows: 25Na - 1611.716(11); 25Al - 1611.708(11); and 29Al - 1273.361(9). The energy determinations of the 25Mg 1612 keV ?-transition measured in the decay of 25Na and 25Al differ by 8 +- 9 eV. (orig.)

146

"Mediman" – Smartphone als Plattform zum Lernen? ["Mediman" – The smartphone as a learning platform?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available [english] Mobile devices with a connection to the internet – smartphones – are seen all over the place since the popular introduction of the Apple iPhone. Similar products existed but no company managed to combine simplicity and functionality so seamlesly. Their market share increases constantly and web sites get optimised for the small display sizes (often referred to as „responsive webdesign“ otherwise the usability lacks. Students seem to like smartphones aswell and a good question is if and to what extend those devices can play a role in e-learning.„Mediman“, an adaptation of the common game Hangman has been developed for smartphones. Test users asked to complete an online questionnaire. So far, only few e-learning applications for smartphones seem to exist. This is reflected in the low usage frequency. Especially the fact that most of the test users wear a smartphone with them all the time makes it an ideal learning plattform. Short learning sessions were rated more important than continuous text. The majority of the 11 test users rated Mediman as well developed. The foremost question whether a smartphone e-learning application is feasible must be answered positive – acceptance in the test user group was shown. E-learning applications on smartphones will be an important topic in the future as market shares increase constantly. Further studies are required due to the small number of partitipants in our survey. [german] Mobile Endgeräte mit Internetzugang (Smartphones sind seit Apples revolutionärer iPhone-Markteinführung nicht mehr aus dem Alltag wegzudenken und erfreuen sich ausgesprochener Beliebtheit. Ihr Marktanteil wächst stetig und Webseitenbetreiber kommen nicht umher, ihre Webseiten an die neuen kleinen Displaygrößen und Bedienungstechniken anzupassen – häufig als „Responsive Webdesign“ beschrieben. Anwendungen, die nicht für die Anzeige auf kleinen Bildschirmen optimiert sind, schränken den Bedienkomfort ein. Auch bei Studierenden sind Smartphones sehr verbreitet und so stellt sich die Frage, ob sie nicht auch als Plattform für Lernanwendungen dienen können.„Mediman“, eine Portierung des klassischen Spielprinzips von Galgenmännchen, wurde für Smartphones entwickelt. Testbenutzer wurden dann gebeten, einen Onlinefragebogen auszufüllen. Zur Zeit scheinen nur wenige Lernanwendungen für Smartphones zu existieren, was sich in der eingeschränkten Benutzungshäufigkeit widerspiegelt. Vor allem die Tatsache, dass Smartphone-Besitzer ihre Geräte meist bei sich tragen, wird als ideale Voraussetzung gesehen, die Geräte für Lernanwendungen einzusetzen. Hier scheint vor allem das Lernen in kurzen Sitzungen von Interesse. Mediman wurde von der Mehrzahl der 11 Testbenutzer als gut umgesetzte Beispielanwendung bewertet. Die zentrale Frage der Umsetzbarkeit einer Smartphone-Lernanwendung wurde damit erreicht – die notwendige Akzeptanz scheint vorhanden.Für die Zukunft ist mit einer zunehmenden Verbreitung von Smartphones zu rechnen, sodass Lernanwendungen und –szenarien für Endgeräte mit kleinen Bildschirmen optimiert werden sollten. Aufgrund der geringen Fallzahl in der Onlineumfrage sollten weitere Untersuchungen angeschlossen werden.

Boeder, Niklas

2013-02-01

147

EL CÁNTARO AL AGUA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este artículo es una respuesta a las objeciones que plantean Ignacio Ávila y Leonardo Cárdenas contra mi defensa de la metafísica esencialista. Se insiste en que el esencialismo puede ser compatible con la relatividad conceptual, y en que dicha metafísica puede hacer frente a la objeción según la cu [...] al debe irrespetar la máxima de que dos expresiones coextensivas son intercambiables salva veritate. Contra las observaciones de Cárdenas, se muestra que el esencialismo puede hacer uso, sin problemas, de ejemplos que apelan a los hechos institucionales, y que la idea de que sólo puede haber modalidades de dicto constituye una petición de principio si se la utiliza como argumento contra el esencialismo. Abstract in english This paper replies to independent objections by Ignacio Ávila and Leonardo Cárdenas against my defense of an essentialist metaphysics. I argue, again, that essentialism may be compatible with conceptual relativity, and that such metaphysics can face the objection according to which it is forced to b [...] e disrespectful of the dictum that two coextensive statements are interchangeable salva veritate. Against Cárdenas' views, I show that essentialism may use, without trouble, examples that appeal to institutional facts, and that the idea that there can be only de dicto modalities is question begging if it is used as an argument against essentialism.

Pablo R, Arango.

148

PENSAR AL SUR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Resumen:Este articulo explora la cuestion de la definicion y territorialidad del Sur Global, evocando categorias que en el pasado han definido el espacio del "tercer mundo" o "mundo en desarrollo", y como estas han dado paso a una nueva conceptualizacion a partir de los debates sobre globalizacion. Se postula al Sur como una forma de vida, y como un espacio de historias paralelas de poder, capital y subjetivacion.A partir de esta discusion, se plantea de que manera en el presente el Sur Global es un espacio de produccion innovador de teorizacion sobre lo social, que genera sus propias disciplinas y marcos epistemologicos.Palabras Claves: Sur Global , globalizacion, epistemologia Abstract:This article explored the definition and territorial scope of teh Global South, evoking past categories that have defined the space of the "Third world" or teh "developing world", and how they have paved the way to new conceptualiziations, since the beginning of the debate on globalization. The essays posits the South as a form of life and as a space of parallel histories of power, capital and subjectivation.Departing from this discussion, the essay poses the question about the way in which currently the Global Southconstitutes an innovative space of theorization of the social,qhich generates its own disciplines and epistemological frameworks. Keywords: Global South, globalization, epistemology

Juan Obarrio

2013-07-01

149

Undulators at the ALS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's (LBL) Advanced Light Source (ALS), three 4.6 m long undulators have been completed, tested and installed. A fourth is under construction. The completed undulators include two 5.0 cm period length, 89 period devices (U5.0s) which achieve a 0.85 T effective field at a 14 mm minimum gap and a 8.0 cm period length, 55 period device (U8.0) that reaches a 1.2 T effective field at a 14 mm minimum gap. The undulator under construction is a 10.0 cm period length, 43 period device (U10.0) that is designed to achieve 0.98 T at a 23 mm gap. Undulator magnetic gap variation (rms) is within 25 microns over the periodic structure length. Reproducibility of the adjustable magnetic gap has been measured to be within +/- 5 microns. Gap adjusting range is from 14 mm to 210 mm, which can be scanned in one minute. The 5.1 m long vacuum chambers are flat in the vertical direction to within 0.74 mm and straight in the horizontal direction to within 0.08 mm over the 4.6 m magnetic structure sections. Vacuum chamber base pressures after UHV beam conditioning are. in the mid 10-11 Torr range and storage ring operating pressures with full current are in the low 10-10 Torr range. Measurements show that the uncorrelated magnetic field errors are 0.23%, and 0.20% for the two U5.Os and the U8.0 respectively and that the field integrals are small over the 1 cm by 6 cm beam aperture. Device description, fabrication, and measurements are presented

150

Ursachen und Techniken der Reoperation nach Stentless-Prothesen : Langzeit-Analyse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Seit 20 Jahren werden ungestentete biologische Aortenklappenprothesen in der Therapie von Aortenvitien eingesetzt. Im MediClin Herzzentrum Lahr wird seit 15 Jahren die Medtronic Freestyle Klappe als ungestentete Bioklappe implantiert. Trotz sich mehr und mehr herauskristallisierender hervorragender Langzeitergebnisse kommt es unvermeidlich zu notwendigen Reoperationen. Viele Operateure befürchten immer noch, dass diese im Vergleich zu Reoperationen gestenteter Bioklappen schwieriger und ...

Richter, Michael Hubert

2012-01-01

151

Crowd Innovation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Die öffentliche Verwaltung ist im Wandel: Das „selbstreferenzielle System“ öffentliche Verwaltung ist längst kein statisches Gebilde mehr. Die Verwaltung, die sich nur an selbst definierten Massstäben ausrichtet und vorgibt was gute Qualität ihrer Leistungen bedeutet, muss sich immer mehr an Massstäben Dritter messen lassen. Öffentliche Verwaltungen und öffentliche Betriebe haben die Dynamik der Umwelt aufgenommen und sind gefordert, sich ihr anzupassen. Al...

Kuno Schedler; Alexandra Collm

2011-01-01

152

Der schwere Abschied von "Vater Staat" : zur Überwindung der institutionellen Trägheit des deutschen Wohlfahrtsstaates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

'Wenn die Rede von der Stärkung der Zivilgesellschaft und einen 'aktivierenden Staat' mehr als symbolische Politik sein soll, wird sie sich immer mehr daran messen lassen müssen, ob sie es mit einem beteiligungsfreundlichen Politikstil wirklich ernst meint und politische Streitfragen einer wirklich öffentlichen Auseinandersetzung und Erörterung zuführt und damit dem ausschließlichen Zugriff partikularistischer Lobbypolitik unterbindet. Rolf G. Heinze skizziert verschiedene Formen des B?...

Heinze, Rolf G.

2003-01-01

153

Consumerization: Herausforderungen für das betriebliche Informationsmanagement durch iPhone und Co  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Smartphones und mobile Applikationen, die ursprünglich für den Konsumentenmarkt entwickelt wurden, werden mehr und mehr auch im Unternehmen von den Mitarbeitern genutzt. Dieser als Consumerization bezeichnete Trend erzeugt Herausforderungen für das Informationsmanagement, die es zu bewältigen gilt. Anhand einer durchgeführten Fallstudie werden die Auswirkungen der Nutzung von iPhone und Co. für das Informationsmanagement untersucht. Basierend auf den Analyseergebnissen werden 14 Hypothe...

Frank Weiß; Jan Marco Leimeister

2013-01-01

154

External walls made of solar air heaters; Fassade aus Luftkollektoren. Gebaeudeintegration eines Solarluftsystems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To an increasing extent, solar collectors tend to be integrated into external walls or roofs or even serve as external walls themselves. The contribution discusses their economic aspects. [Deutsch] Solarsysteme koennen und sollen mehr sein als funktionale Module oder Elemente zur Energiegewinnung. Sie finden zwar in Mitteleuropa mehr und mehr Verbreitung, gelten aber weiterhin oft als unwirtschaftlich. Solarsysteme repraesentieren das oekologische Wirken und Gewissen des Bauherren und dienen dem Architekten als Gestaltungselement. Dieses Gestaltungselement tritt um so mehr in den Vordergrund, je mehr ein Solarsystem in die Gebaeudehuelle integriert wird oder diese gar ersetzt. Solardaecher und Solarfassaden sind somit die Schlagwoerter der Zukunft. Denn `Kleider machen Leute` und `Fassaden machen Investoren`. Doch lohnt eine solche Investition auch ueber immaterielle Werte hinaus? Im folgenden einige Erlaeuterungen am Beispiel einer Luftkollektorfassade. (orig.)

Schroepf, S. [Grammer Solar-Luft-Technik AG, Amberg (Germany)

1998-10-01

155

Al versus Si competition in FeSiAl alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In FeSiAl alloys, when Si substitutes for Al, important changes take place in the magnetism as well as in the structural properties. Alloys in the two composition series Fe75Al25-xSix (x=0, 7.5, 12.5, 17.5, 25) and Fe70Al30-xSix (x=0, 9, 15, 21, 30) were prepared by induction melting; afterwards they were crushed and then annealed in order to recover the DO3 stable phase. The deformed FeAl samples show larger lattice parameters than the ordered ones; however, this difference (?a) decreases when Si substitutes for Al until it becomes zero (i.e. until the ordered samples and the deformed ones have the same lattice parameters). This trend is the same for both sample series and does not depend on the Fe content of the alloy. However, the magnetization has a different behaviour depending on the Fe content. For deformed Fe75Al25-xSix alloys the saturation magnetization decreases with increasing Si content while for Fe70Al30-xSix deformed alloys the saturation magnetization has a plateau in which the saturation magnetization values do not vary

156

High Density Sliding at Ta/Al and Al/Al Interfaces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present 3D-nonequilibrium molecular dynamics results for the velocity dependence of the frictional force at smooth sliding interfaces for Ta and Al single crystals. For Ta/Al we consider Al(100)/Ta(100) and Al(111)/Ta(110) interfaces sliding along [001] and [11(bar sign)0]fcc /[001]bcc respectively. These are compared with Al(111)/Al(100) interfaces at the same loads, corresponding to a pressure of 15 GPa. Both interfacial pairs show similar behavior in the velocity dependence of the frictional force: a low velocity regime with an increasing frictional force followed by a strain induced transformation regime at velocities above approximately 1/10 the transverse sound speed, followed by a fluidized interface at high velocities. For both interfacial pairs, the high velocity dependence of the frictional force exhibits power law behavior, Ft ? v-? with ?=3/4. We discuss the structural changes that influence dissipation in each of these regimes

157

AlN/Fe/AlN nanostructures for magnetooptic magnetometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

AlN/Fe/AlN/Cu nanostructures with ultrathin Fe grown by sputtering on Si substrates are evaluated as probes for magnetooptical (MO) mapping of weak currents. They are considered for a laser wavelength of ??=?410?nm (3.02?eV) and operate at oblique light incidence angles, ?(0), to enable detection of both in-plane and out-of-plane magnetization. Their performance is evaluated in terms of MO reflected wave electric field amplitudes. The maximal MO amplitudes in AlN/Fe/AlN/Cu are achieved by a proper choice of layer thicknesses. The nanostructures were characterized by MO polar Kerr effect at ?(0)???5° and longitudinal Kerr effect spectra (?(0)?=?45°) at photon energies between 1 and 5?eV. The nominal profiles were refined using a model-based analysis of the spectra. Closed form analytical expressions are provided, which are useful in the search for maximal MO amplitudes

158

Synthesis, processing and characterization of NiAl-AlN-Al(2)O(3) composites  

Science.gov (United States)

A hybrid composite based on nickel aluminide (NiAl) was developed, which contains both aluminum nitride (AlN) dispersoids and short alumina (Alsb2Osb3) fibers, with the strategy being the combination of the two different strengthening mechanisms, one microscopic and the other macroscopic, to provide a synergistic improvement in the mechanical properties. The AlN dispersion strengthened NiAl was synthesized by mechanical alloying of nickel and aluminum elemental powders in a nitrogen atmosphere and the alumina fibers were added during consolidation. The microstructure of the NiAl-(AlN)sb{Dispersion}-(Alsb2Osb3)sb{Fiber} composites showed a fine grain sized, near-stoichiometric NiAl matrix, submicron size AlN particles and randomly oriented Alsb2Osb3 fibers dispersed homogeneously in the matrix. The thermal residual stresses in the composites were measured at room temperature as well as at high temperatures using neutron diffraction and Rietveld refinement. The residual stresses in the as-processed composites were tensile in the NiAl matrix and compressive in the AlN and Alsb2Osb3 reinforcements. Upon heating these stresses relaxed at temperatures that are lower than the processing temperature due to the creep in the matrix. A simple finite element analysis was used to estimate the residual stress in the composites and showed reasonable agreement with the experimental results. The compressive strength of these composites was characterized both at 300K and 1300K and showed a significant strengthening compared with the base material at both temperatures. The relationship between the microstructure, residual stress and the mechanical properties was studied and the strengthening mechanisms were identified.

Choo, Hahn

159

The powerline technology has been developed to market maturity (energy supply companies as 'dark cable' communication service and access providers). A member of Ascom Powerline Communications AG explains the system; Das Powerline-System ist marktreif (EVU als 'Dark-Cable-Anbieter' und 'Access-Provider'). Powerline aus der Sicht des Entwicklungsunternehmens  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Combining communication processes and power transmission on one means of transport, - a fascinating idea, and not at all far-fetched but rather simple, actually. The article explains the basic ideas underlying the development of the powerline communication technology and the first commercially available service offered by Ascom Powerline Communications AG. (orig./CB) [German] Kommunikationssignale und Strom in einen Transportweg zusammenzufassen - eine faszinierende wie nahe liegende Idee. So nahe liegend wie die naechste Steckdose. Im Outdoor-Bereich wird in der jeweiligen Ortsnetzstation beides auf das Stromnetz gekoppelt. Von dort aus gelangt der 'Daten-Strom' dann ueber das Niederspannungsnetz zum Endverbraucher (Letzte Meile). Innerhalb des Hauses, im Indoor-Bereich, sind lediglich Adapter noetig, um Strom und Kommunikation wieder voneinander zu trennen und ihren individuellen Anwendungen zuzufuehren. Die Notwendigkeit einer separaten Telefon- oder Datenverkabelung entfaellt, da die Steckdose nun weit mehr ist als ein Elektrizitaetsanschluss: Sie wird zu einer leistungsfaehigen Kommunikationsschnittstelle - sei es zur Ueberbrueckung der 'Letzten Meile' fuer den Highspeed-Internet-Zugang oder zur Vernetzung innerhalb des Hauses. Die Vorteile fuer private Nutzer wie fuer Unternehmen sind enorm. (orig.)

Martinez, D. [Ascom Powerline Communications AG, Bern (Switzerland)

2001-03-12

160

AlN synthesis on AlN/SiC template using Li-Al-N solvent  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We investigated the possibility of AlN synthesis using Li-Al-N solvent. In this work, Li-Al-N solvent was obtained by heating a mixture composed of Al and Li{sub 3}N. First, we studied the relationship between Al/Li{sub 3}N composition of the initial mixture and shape of obtained crystal. The results showed that polyhedral crystals instead of needle-like crystals were obtained under an Al-rich condition, i.e., 4/3<Al/Li{sub 3}N<4/1. Next, we performed AlN synthesis on an AlN/SiC template under an Al-rich condition. The results suggested that a large AlN single-phase region was formed by using the template. The possibility of growth of bulk AlN using Li-Al-N solvent was shown by the present investigations. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

Kangawa, Yoshihiro [RIAM, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Kakimoto, Koichi [RIAM, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

2010-06-15

 
 
 
 
161

Georg Simmel als postmoderner Theoretiker?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In diesem Beitrag werden die Verhältnisse Georg Simmels Werke zu jenem als "postmodernes" etikettierten Gedeankengebäude untersucht. Die Schwierigkeiten dieser Analyse bestehen gleich am Anfang darin, was unter postmodern verstanden werden soll. Die Antwort wird mit Hilfe Zygmunt Bauman gegeben, der als sog. Vertreter der Postmoderne herausgearbeitet hat was der Kern des "Postmodernen" ist. Diese Vorarbeit führt zum zentralen Punkt dieser Arbeit, der Konvergenz von Simmels moralphilosophis...

Kron, Thomas

2000-01-01

162

De la contingencia al destino  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Not available.

La modernidad no ha podido dar respuesta al problema de la contingencia histórica, El texto muestra, por medio de metáforas, que el abandono necesario de esta cuestión no significa que estemos abocados al relativismo respecto a la contingencia existencial. La contingencia existencial, individual, sigue presente en la vida de todo individuo. Se sostiene que podemos dar un destino a nuestras vidas, y ésta es la tarea principal del filósofo.

Heller, Agnes

1991-10-01

163

Radiation detection with Nb/Al-AlOx/Al/Nb superconducting tunnel junctions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Superconductor radiation detectors have the possibility of 20-30 times better energy resolution than that of a high resolution Si detector. We fabricated Nb/Al-AlOx/Al/Nb superconducting tunnel junctions with low leakage current. X rays were detected with large area junctions of 178x178 ?m2. High energy resolution of 160 eV for 5.9 keV was obtained. We also fabricated series connected junctions which covers a rather large area of 4x4 mm2. ? particles injected into the rear substrate were detected using nonthermal phonons induced by the radiations in the substrate. (author)

164

Gefahr aus dem Netz - Der Internet-Chatroom als neuer Tatort für Bullying und sexuelle Viktimisierung von Kindern und Jugendlichen  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Die Phänomene ?Bullying? und ?sexuelle Viktimisierung? sind nicht mehr auf das physische Umfeld begrenzt. Formen verbaler Gewalt, sozialer Manipulation und sexueller Aggression spielen auch in Internet- Chatrooms eine bedeutende Rolle. Mehrere Fragenkomplexe standen im Mittelpunkt der vorliegenden Studie: 1. Welche Formen von Bullying und sexueller Aggression treten in Internet-Chatrooms auf? 2. Wer wird in Internet-Chatrooms zu Tätern und zu Opfern von Bullying? Wer wird zu Opfern ...

Katzer, Catarina

2007-01-01

165

The alloys of Al-Co, Al-Ni and Al-Re systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this chapter authors made conclusion that at developing of aluminium alloys, for exploitation as alloy additions which make second phase, it's better to use elements which make aluminide of Me Al>3 mixture

166

Personalidad y tolerancia al dolor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se examina la relación de algunas variables de personalidad -EPQ-A (Eysenck y Eysenck, 1975, NEO-PI (McCrae y Costa, 1988 y STA -personalidad esquizotípica- y STB -personalidad límite-, de Claridge y Broks (1984, con la tolerancia al dolor experimental inducido mediante agua fría (cold pressor test, según el procedimiento de Staats, Heckmat y Staats (1998 en una muestra filtrada mediante un cuestionario sobre dolor crónico, dolores de cabeza, de espalda, artritis, síndrome de Raynaud, y personas bajo medicación. La tolerancia al dolor experimental se evaluó mediante el Umbral del dolor (tiempo en segundos desde la introducción de la mano en el agua hasta el primer informe de dolor, Mantenimiento del dolor (duración en segundos de la inmersión de la mano desde la aparición del umbral hasta su retirada y Tolerancia al dolor (duración total en segundos de la inmersión de la mano desde su introducción hasta su retirada. Un análisis correlacional, factorial y de regresión por pasos mostraron un efecto cruzado entre medidas de ansiedad (tolerancia negativa al dolor y psicoticismo, siendo psicoticismo junto con control emocional predictores de tolerancia positiva al dolor. En cuanto a psicoticismo, parece que son sus elementos de naturaleza paranoide y de "dureza" los que afectan a una percepción atenuada del dolor.

JES\\u00DAS M.\\u00AA CARRILLO

2005-01-01

167

Neuroproteomics: an insight into ALS.  

Science.gov (United States)

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease of unknown aetiology. Diagnosis is made through physical examination, electrophysiological findings, and by excluding other conditions. There is not a single biomarker that concludes the diagnosis. The aim of this study was to investigate differentially expressed proteins in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of ALS patients compared to control subjects, with the purpose to identify a panel of possible biomarkers for the disease. The differentially expressed spots/proteins were submitted to two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis and recognized with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. Parkin-like and many iron and zinc binding were some of the proteins found in ALS CSF. Parkin is a ligase involved in ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and mutations in the parkin gene are the most common cause of recessive familial Parkinson's disease. Iron and zinc are involved with many important metabolic processes and are related to neurodegenerative disease. Common features of ALS comprise failure of the ubiquitin-proteasome system and increased levels of metal ions in the brain. Therefore, the identification of these proteins can be a significant step in ALS research. These and other identified proteins are discussed in this study. PMID:23146297

Mendonça, D M F; Pizzati, L; Mostacada, K; de S Martins, S C; Higashi, R; Ayres Sá, L; Moura Neto, V; Chimelli, L; Martinez, A M B

2012-12-01

168

Everyday Life with ALS: A Practical Guide  

Science.gov (United States)

... in this one. Back to top Resources MDA ALS Division The Muscular Dystrophy Association, one of the ... 572-1717. Back to top General Resources About ALS In addition, consult the MDA ALS Caregiver’s Guide, ...

169

Modeling of the ALS linac  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ALS injector linac is used for the Beam Test Facility (BTF) and the Damping Experiments when it is available in between the ALS filings. These experiments usually require higher quality beams and a better characterization than is normally required for ALS operations. This paper focuses on the beam emittance, energy tilt, and especially the longitudinal variation of the beam parameters. For instance, the authors want to avoid longitudinal variations at the low beta section of the BTF. On the other hand, a large energy tilt is required for post-acceleration compression of the bunch using an alpha magnet. The PARMELA code was modified to calculate and display longitudinal variations of the emittance ellipse. Using the Microsoft Development Studio under Windows NT environment the code can handle a much larger number of particles than was previously possible

170

AlN/Fe/AlN nanostructures for magnetooptic magnetometry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

AlN/Fe/AlN/Cu nanostructures with ultrathin Fe grown by sputtering on Si substrates are evaluated as probes for magnetooptical (MO) mapping of weak currents. They are considered for a laser wavelength of ??=?410?nm (3.02?eV) and operate at oblique light incidence angles, ?{sup (0)}, to enable detection of both in-plane and out-of-plane magnetization. Their performance is evaluated in terms of MO reflected wave electric field amplitudes. The maximal MO amplitudes in AlN/Fe/AlN/Cu are achieved by a proper choice of layer thicknesses. The nanostructures were characterized by MO polar Kerr effect at ?{sup (0)}???5° and longitudinal Kerr effect spectra (?{sup (0)}?=?45°) at photon energies between 1 and 5?eV. The nominal profiles were refined using a model-based analysis of the spectra. Closed form analytical expressions are provided, which are useful in the search for maximal MO amplitudes.

Lišková-Jakubisová, E., E-mail: liskova@karlov.mff.cuni.cz; Viš?ovský, Š. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Ke Karlovu 5, 12116 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Široký, P.; Hrabovský, D.; Pištora, J. [Nanotechnology Center, Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 70833 Ostrava Poruba (Czech Republic); Harward, I.; Celinski, Z. [Center for Magnetism and Magnetic Nanostructures, University of Colorado at Colorado Springs, 1420 Austin Bluffs Pkwy., Colorado Springs, Colorado 80918 (United States)

2014-05-07

171

eLearning als Herausforderung für KMU  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In mehreren Untersuchungen wurde festgestellt, dass kleine und mittlere Unternehmen (KMU) netzbasierten Lernformen wie eLearning nach wie vor zurückhaltend gegenüber stehen. Dies gilt sowohl in der Rolle als Nachfragende als auch als Anbieter von netzbasierter Weiterbildung. Es werden verschiedene Studien zum Thema vorgestellt und mögliche Perspektiven für KMU sowohl in der Rolle als Nachfrager als auch als Anbieter von eLearning aufgezeigt.

Thomas, L.

2004-01-01

172

The ?-decay of 22Al  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an experiment performed at the LISE3 facility of GANIL, we studied the decay of 22Al produced by the fragmentation of a 36Ar primary beam. A ?-decay half-life of T1/2=91.1±0.5 ms was measured. The ?-delayed one- and two-proton emission as well as ?-? and ?-delayed ?-decays were measured and allowed us to establish a partial decay scheme for this nucleus. New levels were determined in the daughter nucleus 22Mg. The comparison with model calculations strongly favours a spin-parity of I?=4+ for the ground state of 22Al. (orig.)

173

Triple A syndrome mimicking ALS.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a 22-year-old female who presented with distal muscular atrophy and weakness in all limbs for two years. Reflexes were symmetrically brisk and electrodiagnostic studies were consistent with upper and lower motor neuron involvement. A diagnosis of juvenile ALS was considered. However, surgery for achalasia in childhood and identification of alacrima and adrenal insufficiency suggested Triple A syndrome accompanied by neurological symptoms. Sequencing of the AAAS gene identified compound heterozygous mutations confirming the clinical diagnosis and demonstrating that Triple A syndrome can mimic juvenile ALS. PMID:18615337

Strauss, Maria; Koehler, Katrin; Krumbholz, Manuela; Huebner, Angela; Zierz, Stephan; Deschauer, Marcus

2008-10-01

174

Dynamic Modeling of ALS Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of dynamic modeling and simulation of Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems is to help design them. Static steady state systems analysis provides basic information and is necessary to guide dynamic modeling, but static analysis is not sufficient to design and compare systems. ALS systems must respond to external input variations and internal off-nominal behavior. Buffer sizing, resupply scheduling, failure response, and control system design are aspects of dynamic system design. We develop two dynamic mass flow models and use them in simulations to evaluate systems issues, optimize designs, and make system design trades. One model is of nitrogen leakage in the space station, the other is of a waste processor failure in a regenerative life support system. Most systems analyses are concerned with optimizing the cost/benefit of a system at its nominal steady-state operating point. ALS analysis must go beyond the static steady state to include dynamic system design. All life support systems exhibit behavior that varies over time. ALS systems must respond to equipment operating cycles, repair schedules, and occasional off-nominal behavior or malfunctions. Biological components, such as bioreactors, composters, and food plant growth chambers, usually have operating cycles or other complex time behavior. Buffer sizes, material stocks, and resupply rates determine dynamic system behavior and directly affect system mass and cost. Dynamic simulation is needed to avoid the extremes of costly over-design of buffers and material reserves or system failure due to insufficient buffers and lack of stored material.

Jones, Harry

2002-01-01

175

Breve apología al transporte paralelo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En este artículo se hace un reconocimiento a una de las herramientas poderosas de que dispone la geometría diferencial de variedades, que es el transporte paralelo, pues sin ella sería muy difícil entender la derivada de campos vectoriales, la teoría de geodésica, la curvatura, conceptos que están bien definidos debido al transporte paralelo.

Edgar Alirio Valencia

2012-01-01

176

Breve apología al transporte paralelo  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

En este artículo se hace un reconocimiento a una de las herramientas poderosas de que dispone la geometría diferencial de variedades, que es el transporte paralelo, pues sin ella sería muy difícil entender la derivada de campos vectoriales, la teoría de geodésica, la curvatura, conceptos que están bien definidos debido al transporte paralelo.

Carlos Arturo Escudero; Yuri Alexander Poveda; Edgar Alirio Valencia

2012-01-01

177

VENEZUELA: OTRA ALTERNATIVA AL NEOLIBERALISMO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

con las fuerzas que se oponen al cambio y que aún no han sido derrotadas totalmente. Estas fuerzas, aunque están desprestigiadas política y socialmente, cuentan con poder económico, financiero, militar, con los medios de comunicación a su favor y con el apoyo incondicional de los Estados Unidos.

Huber Fern\\u00E1ndez Gonz\\u00E1lez

2008-01-01

178

First principles calculation of ac conductance for Al-BDT-Al and Al-Cn-Al systems  

Science.gov (United States)

We perform first-principles calculation to investigate the dynamic conductance of atomic wires of the benzenedithiol (BDT) as well as carbon chains with different length in contact with two Al(100) electrodes (Al-Cn-Al). Our calculation is based on the combination of the non-equilibrium Green's function and the density functional theory. For ac conductance, there are two theories that ensures the current conservation: (1). the global formula which is a phenomenological theory that partitions the total displacement current into each leads so that the current is conserved.(2). the local formula which is a microscopic theory that includes Coulomb interaction explicitly so that the current is conserved automatically. In this work, we use the local formula to calculate the dynamic conductance, especially the emittance. We give a detailed comparison and analysis for the results obtained from two theories. Our numerical results show that the global formula overestimates the emittance by two orders of magnitude. We also obtain an inequality showing that the emittance from global formula is greater than that from local formula for real atomic structures. For Al-Cn-Al structures, the oscillatory behavior as the number of carbon chain N varies from even to odd remains unchanged when local formula is used. However, the prediction of local formula gives rise to opposite response when N is odd (inductive-like) as compared with that of global formula. Therefore, one should use the local formula for an accurate description of ac transport in nanoscale structures. In addition, the `size effect' of the ac emittance is analyzed and can be understood by the kinetic inductance. Since numerical calculation using the global formula can be performed in orbital space while the local formula can only be used in real space, our numerical results indicate that the calculation using the local formula is extremely computational demanding.

Zhuang, Jia-Ning; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Jian

2011-12-01

179

First principles calculation of ac conductance for Al-BDT-Al and Al-Cn-Al systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We perform first-principles calculation to investigate the dynamic conductance of atomic wires of the benzenedithiol (BDT as well as carbon chains with different length in contact with two Al(100 electrodes (Al-Cn-Al. Our calculation is based on the combination of the non-equilibrium Green's function and the density functional theory. For ac conductance, there are two theories that ensures the current conservation: (1. the global formula which is a phenomenological theory that partitions the total displacement current into each leads so that the current is conserved.(2. the local formula which is a microscopic theory that includes Coulomb interaction explicitly so that the current is conserved automatically. In this work, we use the local formula to calculate the dynamic conductance, especially the emittance. We give a detailed comparison and analysis for the results obtained from two theories. Our numerical results show that the global formula overestimates the emittance by two orders of magnitude. We also obtain an inequality showing that the emittance from global formula is greater than that from local formula for real atomic structures. For Al-Cn-Al structures, the oscillatory behavior as the number of carbon chain N varies from even to odd remains unchanged when local formula is used. However, the prediction of local formula gives rise to opposite response when N is odd (inductive-like as compared with that of global formula. Therefore, one should use the local formula for an accurate description of ac transport in nanoscale structures. In addition, the ‘size effect’ of the ac emittance is analyzed and can be understood by the kinetic inductance. Since numerical calculation using the global formula can be performed in orbital space while the local formula can only be used in real space, our numerical results indicate that the calculation using the local formula is extremely computational demanding.

Jia-Ning Zhuang

2011-12-01

180

Cannabinoide endogen per al tractament al·lèrgic  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Un dels cannabinoides més coneguts és el tetrahidrocannabinol, ingredient psicoactiu del cànnabis. No obstant aixó, últimament la indústria farmacèutica s'ha interessat en altres cannabinoides menys coneguts, que tenen propietats analgèsiques i antiinflamatòries úniques. En aquest marc se situa aquesta recerca. S'ha estudiat la capacitat d'un cannabinoide endogen, la palmitoiletanolamida (PEA), per inhibir la resposta al·lèrgica dels mastòcits, cèl·lules dels teixits dels mamí...

Puigdemont, Anna

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

The temperature dependence of elasticity modulus for TiAl and Ni3Al – basic alloy components for turbine rotor blade. ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ??????????????? TiAl ? Ni3Al – ???????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??????.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Possibility of theoretical determination of elastic characteristics for intermetallides on the example of TiAl and Ni3Al on the base of electrostatic nature of elasticity is demonstrated. Elaborated method is able for using for computing modeling of mono- and polycrystal materials under conditions of experimental data absence. ????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ???? ?? ?????? ?????????????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????????? ?? ??????? TiAl ? Ni3Al. ????????????? ????? ????? ???????????? ??? ????????????? ????????????? ????- ? ??????????????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ????????????????? ??????.

?. ?. ????????

2013-01-01

182

Diffusion AlSi-MeCrAlY coatings obtained on intermetallic ?-TiAl phase  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: The development of new protective coatings for TiAl intermetallics was conducted. The MeCrAlYAlSi slurry was used with different amount of aluminium-silicon powder in the binder.Design/methodology/approach: The slurry consisting of aluminium and silicon powder with the addition of MeCrAlY powder were used during the procedure. The inorganic solution made from chromic and phosphoric acid was applied as a binder. The preliminary research of microstructure of obtained coatings was conducted.Findings: The obtained coating consisting of 3 or 4 zones (depending on chemical composition of the slurry was obtained during the annealing process (950°C/4h.Research limitations/implications: The research results revealed the possibility of obtaining coatings with complex phase and chemical composition.Practical implications: Many problems connected with sedimentation of heavier MeCrAlY powder were observed.Originality/value: The copletele new technologies was described in article

M. Góral

2012-12-01

183

Al-Hadith Text Classifier  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study explore the implementation of a text classification method to classify the prophet Mohammed (PBUH hadiths (sayings using Sahih Al-Bukhari classification. The sayings explain the Holy Qur`an, which considered by Muslims to be the direct word of Allah. Present method adopts TF/IDF (Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency which is used usually for text search. TF/IDF was used for term weighting, in which document weights for the selected terms are computed, to classify non-vocalized sayings, after their terms (keywords have been transformed to the corresponding canonical form (i.e., roots, to one of eight Books (classes, according to Al-Bukhari classification. A term would have a higher weight if it were a good descriptor for a particular book, i.e., it appears frequently in the book but is infrequent in the entire corpus.

Mohammed Naji Al-Kabi

2005-01-01

184

Het Rijksmuseum als historisch museum  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Het vorig jaar heropende Rijksmuseum afficheert zich expressis verbis alsMuseum van Nederland. Het pretendeert ‘kunst, geschiedenis en mensente verbinden’ en doet dat aan de hand van voorwerpen die het museumsinds zijn oprichting verzamelt. Nadat enkele redactieleden van dit blad denieuwe presentatie hadden aanschouwd, speciaal met het oog op de manierwaarop kunst en geschiedenis in samenhang worden gepresenteerd, kwambij de redactie de behoefte op om h...

Catrien Santing

2014-01-01

185

Die Metamorphosen als intertextuelles Prinzip  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Die Metamorphosen als intertextuelles Prinzip 1. Antike Intertextualität im Spannungsfeld von aemulatio und imitatio Ein antikes Werk steht in nahezu keinem Fall für sich, sondern ist immer die Antwort auf einen Vorgängertext in variierender, fortführender, antithetischer etc. Manier. Dies macht sich nicht nur in der begrenzten Stoffwahl merkbar, die meistenteils aus dem mythischen und heroischen Bereich schöpft und sich für Modernisierung und Aktualisierung auf Stil, Ideolekt u...

Reber, Ursula

2002-01-01

186

Risked a lot and won a lot more; Viel gewagt, mehr gewonnen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

What do 7,300 inhabitants with a 90 hectare great ammunition depot of the Bundeswehr? They build a bioenergy park. This courageous decision not only attracts hordes of visitors to Saerbeck, it also provides for regular incomes. [German] Was fangen 7.300 Einwohner mit einem 90 ha grossen Munitionsdepot der Bundeswehr an? Sie bauen einen Bioenergiepark. Die mutige Entscheidung lockt nicht nur Heerscharen von Besuchern nach Saerbeck, sie sorgt auch fuer regelmaessige Einnahmen.

Thomas, Torsten

2013-07-05

187

„wäre er nicht mehr Staat“: Schelling and Rosenzweig on the state and beyond the state  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The surprising thing about “Das älteste Systemprogramm des deutschen Idealismus. Ein handshriftliher Fund,” one of Rosenzweig’s best supported and most carefully detailed texts, is that he almost completely ignores one of the most stunning and mysterious fragments of this brief, two-page manuscript that he discovers in 1914 at the Prussian State Library in Berlin. Not only that: while discussing and justifying in detail every part of this manuscript, attempting to prove that just because it is in Hegel’s handwriting, does not necessarily mean that Hegel is its author, Rosenzweig completely sidelines the famous, completely anarchistic, and radical fragment about the state. My question then is, why does Rosenzweig leave out any argument about Schelling’s understanding of the state? Or more precisely, how have Schelling’s positions on the state been incorporated and transformed in Rosenzweig’s texts? How does Rosenzweig use these fragments? Why does he nowhere thematize Schelling’s thoughts on the state, or what in eine revolutionäre Staatslehre Rosenzweig calls Schelling’s revolutionary teachings on the matter?

Bojani? Petar

2012-01-01

188

Greater efficiency for man and machine; Mehr Effizienz fuer Mensch und Maschine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With its new family of shunting locomotives, Vossloh Locomotives sets new standards in technology, safeguarding of investment and consultancy. Alongside three diesel-hydraulic models, the standard portfolio now also includes two diesel-electric models with power output of up to 1,800 kilowatts. The latter models have been designed such that Vossloh will be able to supply spare parts at short notice over a service life of up to 30 years. All locomotives are based on a modular architecture that can be adapted to individual and country-specific requirements depending on the application. In addition, Vossloh has developed innovative tools for the new loco family that enable operators to analyse their locomotives' fuel consumption and optimise it according to their use. (orig.)

Ramcke, Bernd; Hildebrandt, Tim [Vossloh Locomotives GmbH, Kiel (Germany)

2010-09-15

189

Tierwohl in Biolandbau-Regelungen und Richtlinien – Analyse und Vorschlag für mehr tierbezogene Hilfsmittel/Indikatoren  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Based on the analysis of animal welfare legislation and private organic and non-organic standards in the EU funded project EconWelfare, areas for improvement of animal welfare in organic farming regulations and standards were identified. A more outcome-oriented approach to improve animal welfare for cattle with a checklist for inspectors and farmers was tested and evaluated in Switzerland. Proposals are made how to improve animal welfare on organic farms in standard setting and with a volunta...

Schmid, Otto; Knutti, Stefan

2013-01-01

190

Publikationsmanagement an Hochschulen. Wie erreiche ich mehr durch weniger? Das Projekt PUMA an der Universität Kassel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Publication Management within Universities - How can I get more with less? (Translation of the title). Universities and scientific publishing belong together. In universities the support of publication management gets increasing relevance. The different interests are complex. Authors need comfortable working environments, the presiding committees of the universities need more information about research and libraries provide infrastructure with repositories. New trends in library will depend l...

Steenweg, Helge

2012-01-01

191

Energy turnaround. A need for realism rather than actionism; Energiewende. Mehr Realismus statt Aktionismus ist gefragt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Where is the energy turnaround heading? Given the prospect of blackouts, especially during the cold season, more and more consumers have legitimate concerns about the security and affordability of the energy supply. The energy turnaround will only become the lighthouse project it has been envisioned as if the political leadership thinks of it not only in ecological but also in economic terms. Being the environmentally friendly, reliable energy resource it is, natural gas could play a decisive supporting role on the way into the ''green era''.

Kamphues, Stephan [Open Grid Europe GmbH, Essen (Germany)

2013-01-15

192

More comfort, less energy: a contradiction?; Mehr Komfort, weniger Energie: Ein Widerspruch?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Does an air conditioning system that causes human beings to perspire or freeze and results in high costs belong on the scrap heap? The answer is no, because with a tailor-made solution it can be renovated at a reasonable cost and save energy at the same time. (orig.) [Deutsch] Gehoert eine Klimaanlage, welche die Menschen schwitzen oder frieren laesst und zudem hohe Energiekosten verursacht, auf den Schrottplatz? Nein, denn mit einer massgeschneiderten Loesung laesst sie sich kostenguenstig und energiesparend sanieren. (orig.)

Sprecher, P. [Sulzer Infra AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Hoffmann, W.M. [Sulzer Infra AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

1995-12-31

193

EQR-Implementierung und Lernergebnisorientierung - ein Weg in Richtung mehr Durchlässigkeit?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Die Einführung eines Europäischen Qualifikationsrahmens (EQR) ist eines der Strategischen Ziele der Europäischen Union mit dem allgemeinen Anspruch der Förderung von lebenslangem Lernen und Mobilität. Was kann überhaupt die Aufgabe von Berufsbildungsforschung im Rahmen der EQR-Umsetzung sein? Im Kontext des europäischen Integrationsprozesses untersucht Berufsbildungsforschung Ziele und Wirkungen europäischer Berufsbildungsreformen. Das Forschungsinteresse einer solcherart ausgerichtet...

Blings, Jessica

2012-01-01

194

More effectivity in the gas supply through network codes; Mehr Effektivitaet bei der Gasversorgung durch Netzkodizes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Already in the year 2003, the European Commission has regulated the complete opening of the market by means of the regulation 2003/55/EG in order to develop the European Single Market positively. Practically, in Germany industrial customers can freely choose their gas suppliers since 1st July, 2004, while private customers can choose their gas suppliers since 1st July, 2007. The regulation 2003/55/EG is valid for the gas market inclusive natural gas, liquefied natural gas (LNG), biogas, gas from biomass and any other types of gas which can be transported through the natural gas distribution system.

Kremer, Andreas [EVB Energy Solutions GmbH, Velbert (Germany). EVB Akademie

2013-02-15

195

Das Informatik-Forum Stuttgart - mehr Dialog zwischen Theorie und Anwendung notwendig  

Science.gov (United States)

Mit der Gründung des Informatik- Forum Stuttgart wird seit 1996 eine Plattform angeboten, die den Dialog zwischen der universitären Forschung, der Informatikausbildung und der IT-Wirtschaft in der Region Stuttgart intensivieren soll. In der Informatik hat sich eine Lücke zwischen Theorie und Anwendung entwickelt. Es ist nicht erkennbar, dass diese Lücke kleiner wird, eher das Gegenteil zeichnet sich ab. Verglichen mit anderen Branchen besteht die Gefahr, dass Anwender wesentlich später von Erkenntnissen aus der Forschung profitieren. Der entstandene Interaktionsstau zwischen Theorie und Anwendung der Informatik sollte abgebaut werden. An einigen Beispielen wird aufgezeigt, wo das besonders wichtig erscheint.

Hieber, Ludwig

196

Open Source, Open Access, Open Review, Open Data. Initiativen zu mehr Offenheit in der digitalen Welt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article discusses the principles of openess, open access and open availability of information based on the examples of open access to scientific information, open government data, open geographical data and open source software.

Herb, Ulrich

2011-01-01

197

X-ray can do more; ''Roentgen'' kann noch mehr  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiography is not the only technology for characterising components and materials. Other methods which make use of X-ray radiation to characterise materials include X-ray fluorescence analysis (RFA) and, a technique still neglected to date, X-ray diffractometry (XRD) including small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and X-ray reflectometry (XRR, GISAXS). This paper presents the capabilities, limits and application areas of these other X-ray techniques, which add to the range of nondestructive material characterisation methods beside classical radiography. Material analyses of brass materials are used as examples.

Spiess, Lothar [Technische Univ. Ilmenau (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstofftechnik; Teichert, Gerd [Technische Univ. Ilmenau (Germany). MFPA Weimar Pruefzentrum Schicht- und Materialeigenschaften

2013-07-01

198

Nucleants of Eutectic Silicon in Al-Si Hypoeutectic Alloys: ?-(Al, Fe, Si) or AlP Phase  

Science.gov (United States)

A thermodynamic description of the Al-Si-P-Fe quaternary system focused on Al-(Si)-rich alloys is developed. The solidification sequence in typical Al-7Si cast alloys is derived using thermodynamic calculations of the phase diagrams and solidification simulation under Scheil and constrained Scheil conditions. The previously claimed nucleation of eutectic silicon by ?-(Al,Fe,Si) particles is not possible because under all conditions, ?-(Al,Fe,Si) precipitates after (Si) in pertinent alloys. Variation of P in the ppm range is crucial because it changes the solidification sequence of AlP and (Si).

Liang, Song-Mao; Schmid-Fetzer, Rainer

2014-11-01

199

Comparison of one and two-neutron transfer near the Coulomb barrier for the 27Al(18O, 16O)29Al, 27Al(18O, 17O)28Al and 27Al(13C, 12C)28Al reactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Total reaction cross sections for the transfer reactions 27Al(18O, 16O)29Al, 27Al(18O, 17O)28Al and 27Al(13C, 12C)28Al are reported for center-of-mass energies between 13 and 20 MeV for 18O projectiles and between 11 and 17.5 MeV for 13C projectiles. The reaction products, 29Al, and 28Al, beta decay to 29Si and 28Si, respectively, and the subsequent ? decays of 29Si and 28Si were measured. Due to the relatively long beta decay half lives, data were taken in a beam-off mode, resulting in very clean spectra. Total cross sections were calculated and compared with a theoretical model for barrier penetration proposed by C.Y. Wong. Differences between 18O induced one and two-neutron total transfer reaction cross sections are discussed. (orig.)

200

Vom Gewohnheitstier zur reflektierten Nutzung – Ein Diskussionsanstoß über Betriebssysteme und Programmnutzung nachzudenken  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Das Nutzungsverhalten bei digitalen Medien entspringt mehr der Gewohnheit als dem vorhandenen Angebot. Ein kleiner Einblick in die Philosophie und Möglichkeiten der Nutzung von Freier Software.

Christian Berger

2010-06-01

 
 
 
 
201

Männer und das männliche Rollenbild  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Der Beitrag von Christian Wiesner diskutiert angesichts der Geschlechterfrage die Spezifika in der schulischen Bubensozialisation. Er fasst damit mehr als 10 Jahre Erfahrung in der Männer-, Familien- und Jugendberatung zusammen.

Christian Wiesner

2013-09-01

202

Ein anachronistisches Urheberrecht schafft Rechtsunsicherheit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Das österreichische Urheberrecht muss an EU-Vorgaben angepasst werden. Daraus wurde nun ein veritabler Streit, da sich herausstellte, dass hier mehr als optische Korrekturen erforderlich wären. Ein kleiner Einblick in den aktuellen Diskurs.

Christian Berger

2013-03-01

203

Produktion von Screencasts mit Screencast-O-Matic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wenn Bilder manchmal mehr als 1000 Worte sagen, wie schaut es dann mit Videos aus? Eine Beschreibung der praktischen Nutzung eines Online Tools für Screenrecording (Bildschirmaufnahme und Webpublikation (Youtube zur einfachen Erstellung audiovisueller Unterrichtsmaterialien.

Felix Studencki

2013-09-01

204

Armaflex in Burj al Arab; Armaflex im Burj al Arab  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article describes the Burj al Arab in Dubai, the unique seven-star high-rise hotel. The construction of the hotel, that is built on 250 piles driven into the sand of an artificial island in the Persian Gulf, is described. In particular, various special materials used in the building are described, as are the luxurious fittings and furnishings of the hotel. The cooling and air-conditioning installations that are necessary as a result of the desert climate of Dubai are described and the use of 'Armaflex' elastomer insulating material for the insulation of refrigeration machines and cold-water piping is discussed.

Steiner, B.

2003-07-01

205

AlN nanoparticle-reinforced nanocrystalline Al matrix composites: Fabrication and mechanical properties  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To improve the specific strength and stiffness of Al-based composites, AlN/Al nanoparticles were in-situ synthesized by arc plasma evaporation of Al in nitrogen atmosphere and consolidated by hot-pressing to fabricate AlN nanoparticle-reinforced nanocrystalline Al composites (0-39 vol.% AlN). Microstructure characterization shows that AlN nanoparticles homogeneously distribute in the matrix of Al nanocrystalline, which forms atomically bonded interfaces of AlN/Al. The hardness and the elastic modulus of the nanocomposite have been improved dramatically, up to 3.48 GPa and 142 GPa, respectively. Such improvement is believed to result from the grain refinement strengthening and the interface strengthening (load transfer) between the Al matrix and AlN nanoparticles

206

AlN nanoparticle-reinforced nanocrystalline Al matrix composites: Fabrication and mechanical properties  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To improve the specific strength and stiffness of Al-based composites, AlN/Al nanoparticles were in-situ synthesized by arc plasma evaporation of Al in nitrogen atmosphere and consolidated by hot-pressing to fabricate AlN nanoparticle-reinforced nanocrystalline Al composites (0-39 vol.% AlN). Microstructure characterization shows that AlN nanoparticles homogeneously distribute in the matrix of Al nanocrystalline, which forms atomically bonded interfaces of AlN/Al. The hardness and the elastic modulus of the nanocomposite have been improved dramatically, up to 3.48 GPa and 142 GPa, respectively. Such improvement is believed to result from the grain refinement strengthening and the interface strengthening (load transfer) between the Al matrix and AlN nanoparticles.

Liu, Y.Q. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Cong, H.T. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)], E-mail: htcong@imr.ac.cn; Wang, W. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Sun, C.H. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Functional Nanomaterials, Centre for Computational Molecular Science, Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, AIBN Building 75, University of Queensland, Qld 4072, Brisbane (Australia); Cheng, H.M. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

2009-04-15

207

"PULS." – ein Blog als Online-Magazin für Medizinstudierendeder Goethe-Universität Frankfurt ["PULS." – a Blog-based Online-Magazine for Students of Medicine of the Goethe University Frankfurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available [english] In the context of nationwide protests 2009 also students of the faculty of medicine/dentistry at Goethe-University in Frankfurt demanded more transparency and communication. To satisfy these demands, a web 2.0-tool offered an innovative solution: A blog-based online-magazine for students and other faculty-members.The online-magazine „PULS.“ is realized with the share-ware blog-software (wordpress version 3.1.3 and is conceived and written by an online-journalist. „PULS.“ is available from .The articles are generated from own investigations and from ideas of different groups of the faculty– deanship, students and lecturers. A user-analysis is conducted with the open-source software Piwik and considers the data security. Additionally, every year an anonymous online-user-survey (Survey Monkey is conducted.“PULS.” is continuously online since 14.02.2010 and has published 806 articles (state: 27.11.2012 and has about 2400 readers monthly. The content focuses on the needs of Frankfurt medical students. The close cooperation with different groups of the faculty - deanship, students and lecturers - furthermore guarantees themes relevant to the academic faculty. “PULS.” flanks complex projects and decisions with background-information and communicates them understandable.The user-evaluation shows a growing number of readers and a high acceptance for the online-magazine, its themes and its style. The web 2.0-tool “Blog” and the web-specific language comply with media habits of the main target group, the students of the faculty medicine/dentistry.Thus, “PULS.” has proven as a suitable and strategic instrument. It pushes towards a higher transparency, more communication and a stronger identification of the students with their faculty.[german] Im Herbst 2009 forderten Studierende im Rahmen landesweiter Proteste auch am Fachbereich Medizin/Zahnmedizin der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt mehr Transparenz und Kommunikation zu Angelegenheiten ihres Studiums. Einen innovativen Lösungsansatz, um diesen Forderungen nachzukommen, bietet eines der Web 2.0 Werkzeuge: ein auf einer Blog-Software basierendes Online-Magazin für Studierende und andere Mitglieder des Fachbereichs.Das öffentlich zugängliche Online-Magazin „PULS. ( wird mit einer freien Blog-Software (wordpress Version 3.1.3. realisiert und von einer Online-Redakteurin konzipiert und geschrieben. Die Beiträge entstehen nach eigenen Recherchen sowie aus Anregungen und Gesprächen mit verschiedenen Personengruppen des Fachbereichs. Die datenschutzkonforme Auswertung der Zugriffe erfolgt über eine open-source Webanalyse-Software (Piwik. Zus?tzlich werden jährlich mit dem Online-Umfrage-Tool Survey Monkey die Nutzer anonym befragt.„PULS.“ ist seit dem 14.02.2010 ununterbrochen online und hat seitdem 806 Beiträge (Stand: 27.11.2012 publiziert und wird von ca. 2400 Besuchern monatlich gelesen. Das Themenspektrum ist zentriert auf die Anliegen der Frankfurter Medizin- und Zahnmedizinstudierenden. Die enge Zusammenarbeit mit verschiedenen Gruppierungen des Fachbereichs – Dekanat, Studierende und Lehrende – garantiert darüber hinaus ein fachbereichs-relevantes Themenspektrum. Das Online-Magazin begleitet komplexe Projekte und Entscheidungen mit Hintergrundinformationen und kommuniziert sie verständlich. Eine jährliche Nutzer-Evaluierung zeigt eine wachsende Leserzahl und eine sehr hohe Zustimmung für das Online-Magazin, seine Inhalte und seinen Stil. Das Web 2.0-Medium „Blog“ und seine web-typische Sprache entsprechen dem Medienverhalten der Zielgruppe, d.h. den Studierenden des Fachbereichs Medizin. „PULS.“ hat sich als ein geeignetes und strategisches Instrument erwiesen, um größere Transparenz, mehr Kommunikation und letztendlich eine stärkere Identifikation der Studierenden mit ihrem Fachbereich voranzutreiben.

Nürnberger, Frank

2013-02-01

208

First-principles calculations on Al/AlB2 interfaces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The AlB2 (1 1 1) surfaces and Al (1 1 1)/AlB2 (0 0 0 1) interface were studied by first-principles calculations to clarify the heterogeneous nucleation potential of ?-Al grains on AlB2 particles in purity aluminium and hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys. It is demonstrated that the AlB2 (0 0 0 1) surface models with more than nine atomic layers exhibit bulk-like interior, wherein the interlayer relaxations localized within the top three layers are well converged. The outmost layer of AlB2 free surface having a preference of metal atom termination is evidenced by surface energy calculations. With Al atoms continuing the natural stacking sequence of bulk AlB2, Al-Al metallic bonds are formed across interface during the combination of Al atoms with Al-terminated AlB2 surface. The calculated interfacial energy of the Al/AlB2 interface is much larger than that between the ?-Al and aluminium melts, elucidating the poor nucleation potency of ?-Al grains on AlB2 particles from thermodynamic considerations.

209

Alergia al semen / Semen allergy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La alergia al semen comprende una variedad de síntomas tanto locales como sistémicos causados por reacciones de hipersensibilidad inmediata y caracterizados por títulos elevados de IgE. El objetivo de este estudio es describir el caso de una paciente con alergia al semen: mujer de 21 años de edad qu [...] e presenta ardor y sensación de quemazón en el área genital luego de tener contacto con el semen de su pareja. El análisis seminal del compañero sexual no presenta ningún tipo de alteración. Los síntomas desaparecen con el uso de condón o con la práctica del coito interrumpido. La alergia al semen es una alteración, que si bien es poco frecuente, puede afectar los deseos de concepción de las mujeres que la presentan, es un fenómeno poco estudiado por lo que se requieren más reportes para su caracterización. Abstract in english Semen allergy includes several local and systemic symptoms caused by immediate hypersensitivity reactions and it is characterized by high levels of IgE. The objective of this study was to describe the case of a patient with semen allergy. A 21 year-old woman experienced itching and burning sensation [...] in the genital area after contact with the semen of her sexual partner. Semen analysis was normal. Symptoms disappear with the use of condom or the practice of coitus interruptus. Semen allergy is a condition, although rare, can affect the desire of conceiving in women who suffers it. It is a briefly studied phenomenon which requires more reports for proper characterization.

Laura, Franco Cuadros; Jenniffer, Puerta Suárez; Ángela, Cadavid Jaramillo; Walter, Cardona Maya.

2013-12-01

210

Alergia al semen / Semen allergy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La alergia al semen comprende una variedad de síntomas tanto locales como sistémicos causados por reacciones de hipersensibilidad inmediata y caracterizados por títulos elevados de IgE. El objetivo de este estudio es describir el caso de una paciente con alergia al semen: mujer de 21 años de edad qu [...] e presenta ardor y sensación de quemazón en el área genital luego de tener contacto con el semen de su pareja. El análisis seminal del compañero sexual no presenta ningún tipo de alteración. Los síntomas desaparecen con el uso de condón o con la práctica del coito interrumpido. La alergia al semen es una alteración, que si bien es poco frecuente, puede afectar los deseos de concepción de las mujeres que la presentan, es un fenómeno poco estudiado por lo que se requieren más reportes para su caracterización. Abstract in english Semen allergy includes several local and systemic symptoms caused by immediate hypersensitivity reactions and it is characterized by high levels of IgE. The objective of this study was to describe the case of a patient with semen allergy. A 21 year-old woman experienced itching and burning sensation [...] in the genital area after contact with the semen of her sexual partner. Semen analysis was normal. Symptoms disappear with the use of condom or the practice of coitus interruptus. Semen allergy is a condition, although rare, can affect the desire of conceiving in women who suffers it. It is a briefly studied phenomenon which requires more reports for proper characterization.

Laura, Franco Cuadros; Jenniffer, Puerta Suárez; Ángela, Cadavid Jaramillo; Walter, Cardona Maya.

211

Jongerenwerk als werkplaats voor professionalisering  

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Full Text Available Partnership approach as alternate professionalization strategy for youth work In the Netherlands, there is a growing debate on the need for the professionalization of youth work practice. There is a consensus on the necessity and relevance of professionalization. Opinions differ however on the appropriate pathways towards professionalization. Classic professionalization strategies, with a focus on the gathering of scientific experimental evidence, often do not match with the complex and flexible nature of youth work practice. To gain insight in alternative strategies, providers of youth work and study programs in Amsterdam joined forces and set up Youth Spot, a research and practice centre for youth work. This article describes how the centre, youth work organizations, education and researchers cooperate in the professionalization of youth work. On the one hand this article provides insight in youth work’s own professionalism and, on the other hand, it offers experiences with an alternate professionalization strategy. Jongerenwerk als werkplaats voor professionalisering Dit artikel beschrijft hoe opleidingen, welzijnsorganisaties en onderzoekers samenwerken in de professionalisering van het jongerenwerk tegen de achtergrond van het debat over professionalisering van de sociaal agogische beroepen. Het probleem met klassieke professionaliseringstrategieën, met wetenschappelijke experimentele kennis als norm, is dat zij niet altijd goed aansluiten bij de complexiteit en flexibiliteit van de uitvoeringspraktijk. Vraag is: wat dan wel? In Amsterdam richten opleidingen en werkveld in 2008 Youth Spot op, het onderzoek- en praktijkcentrum voor jongerenwerk, met als doel om gezamenlijk te werken aan de profilering, professionalisering en praktijkontwikkeling van het jongerenwerk. Dit artikel belicht de aanleiding voor het ontstaan van Youth Spot, de structuur van de samenwerking, de ervaringen met de wijze van samen werken en de meerwaarde voor de professionalisering van het grootstedelijk jongerenwerk. Daarmee biedt dit artikel enerzijds een kijkje in de keuken van het (grootstedelijke jongerenwerk en anderzijds biedt zij inzicht in ervaringen met alternatieve professionalisering strategieën.

Judith Metz

2012-03-01

212

Bioética frente al paciente moribundo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo y transversal en el Servicio de Cuidados Intermedios del Hospital Clinicoquirúrgico "Dr. Ambrosio Grillo Portuondo" de Santiago de Cuba, con el objetivo de analizar la aplicación de la bioética frente al paciente moribundo. El universo estuvo constitu [...] ido por 42 fallecidos en el segundo semestre de 1996. Las principales causas de muerte fueron las neumopatías inflamatorias y los accidentes vasculares encefálicos, con predominio de los varones mayores de 60 años; la mayoría de los enfermos al fallecer tenía pérdida de la conciencia, no siempre afectada por enfermedad; en uno de ellos por indicación facultativa al estar acoplado a ventiladores artificiales. La participación de la enfermera y la relación activopasiva, que es la fundamental en relación con el cumplimiento de los principios bioéticos, resultó positiva en todos los casos. Se actuó con beneficencia y justicia al respetar la autonomía del moribundo, donde el consentimiento informado desempeñó un papel importante, sin llegar a la práctica de la eutanasia en ninguna de sus variantes, ya que este proceder en nuestra sociedad implicaría un delito de homicidio. Abstract in english A descriptive, retrospective and cross-sectional study was conducted at the Service of Intermediate Care of the "Dr. Ambrosio Grillo Portuondo" Clinical and Surgical Hospital, in Santiago de Cuba, aimed at analyzing the application of bioethics in the dying patient. The universe was composed of 42 p [...] ersons that died in the second semester of l996. The main causes of death were the inflammatory lung diseases and the cerebrovascular accidents, with predominance of males over 60. On dying, most of the patients had lost conciousness, which was not always affected by the disease. One of them was coupled to artifical ventilators by facultative indication. The participation of the nurse and the active-passive relation , that is the fundamental in connection with the fulfillment of the bioethical principles, was positive in all cases. The moribund?s autonomy was respected and the reported consent played an important role. Euthanasia was not applied in any of its variants, since this procedure in our society will be considered as a homicide.

Laides, Luna Vázquez; Mariela, Valiente Duany; José Miguel, Goderich Lalán.

213

Bioética frente al paciente moribundo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo y transversal en el Servicio de Cuidados Intermedios del Hospital Clinicoquirúrgico "Dr. Ambrosio Grillo Portuondo" de Santiago de Cuba, con el objetivo de analizar la aplicación de la bioética frente al paciente moribundo. El universo estuvo constituido por 42 fallecidos en el segundo semestre de 1996. Las principales causas de muerte fueron las neumopatías inflamatorias y los accidentes vasculares encefálicos, con predominio de los varones mayores de 60 años; la mayoría de los enfermos al fallecer tenía pérdida de la conciencia, no siempre afectada por enfermedad; en uno de ellos por indicación facultativa al estar acoplado a ventiladores artificiales. La participación de la enfermera y la relación activopasiva, que es la fundamental en relación con el cumplimiento de los principios bioéticos, resultó positiva en todos los casos. Se actuó con beneficencia y justicia al respetar la autonomía del moribundo, donde el consentimiento informado desempeñó un papel importante, sin llegar a la práctica de la eutanasia en ninguna de sus variantes, ya que este proceder en nuestra sociedad implicaría un delito de homicidio.A descriptive, retrospective and cross-sectional study was conducted at the Service of Intermediate Care of the "Dr. Ambrosio Grillo Portuondo" Clinical and Surgical Hospital, in Santiago de Cuba, aimed at analyzing the application of bioethics in the dying patient. The universe was composed of 42 persons that died in the second semester of l996. The main causes of death were the inflammatory lung diseases and the cerebrovascular accidents, with predominance of males over 60. On dying, most of the patients had lost conciousness, which was not always affected by the disease. One of them was coupled to artifical ventilators by facultative indication. The participation of the nurse and the active-passive relation , that is the fundamental in connection with the fulfillment of the bioethical principles, was positive in all cases. The moribund?s autonomy was respected and the reported consent played an important role. Euthanasia was not applied in any of its variants, since this procedure in our society will be considered as a homicide.

Laides Luna Vázquez

2000-08-01

214

The ALS project: lessons learned  

Science.gov (United States)

In support of Canadian Forces transformation, Defence R&D Canada (DRDC) has established an ongoing program to develop machine intelligence for semi-autonomous vehicles and systems. Focussing on mine clearance and remote scouting for over a decade, DRDC Suffield has developed numerous UGVs controlled remotely over point-to-point radio links. Though this strategy removes personnel from potential danger, DRDC recognized that human factors and communications bandwidth limit teleoperation and that only networked, autonomous unmanned systems can conserve these valuable resources. This paper describes the outcome of the first autonomy project, Autonomous Land Systems (ALS), designed to demonstrate basic autonomous multivehicle land capabilities.

Monckton, Simon; Collier, Jack; Giesbrecht, Jared; Broten, Greg; MacKay, David; Erickson, David; Verret, Sean; Digney, Bruce

2006-05-01

215

Investigation of Wear Anisotropy in a Severely Deformed Al-Al3Ti Composite  

Science.gov (United States)

In the current investigation, Al-Al3Ti composite was processed by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP). ECAP was carried out using routes A and BC up to eight passes of deformation. It was observed that increasing the number of ECAP passes causes fragmentation of Al3Ti platelet particles and decreases their sizes compared to their original sizes in the undeformed Al-Al3Ti specimens. Moreover, the microstructure of route A-ECAPed Al-Al3Ti composite samples showed a strong alignment of the fragmented Al3Ti particles parallel to the pressing axis. On the other hand, ECAPed Al-Al3Ti alloy specimens by route BC have a relatively homogeneous distribution of Al3Ti particles. Because of the platelet Al3Ti particle fragmentation by ECAP, all the ECAPed specimens showed small anisotropy in their wear property in spite of this observed anisotropic microstructure induced by route A-ECAP.

El-Hadad, Shimaa; Sato, Hisashi; Watanabe, Yoshimi

2012-09-01

216

Betaalde arbeid als verdringer van vrijwilligerswerk? Overbelasting als mogelijke verklaring  

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Full Text Available Do paid work activities displace volunteering? A potential explanation from role overload theoryRecent changes in Dutch society might lead to a shortage of volunteers. On the one hand, the demand for volunteers is increasing: in the social welfare domain because of governmental austerity policies and in other domains such as sports because of the higher supervision intensity of activities. On the other hand, the supply of volunteers is likely to decrease as more and more women and older workers are active in the labor market, which reduces the time that is available for volunteering. Role overload theory would suggest that the increasing labor participation rate of certain categories of workers goes along with a decline of participation in voluntary work. The secondary data analysis shows that various role loads (work, care for children living at home are associated with differences in participation in voluntary work. However, while a higher number of contractual work hours and hours spent on work-related training are negatively associated with volunteer work, care for children living at home is positively associated with volunteering. These results provide only limited support for role overload theory.Betaalde arbeid als verdringer van vrijwilligerswerk? Overbelasting als mogelijke verklaringDe afgelopen jaren hebben zich enkele maatschappelijke veranderingen voorgedaan, die wellicht tot schaarste op de Nederlandse vrijwilligersmarkt zouden kunnen leiden. Enerzijds neemt de vraag naar vrijwilligers toe doordat subsidieregelingen versoberen (bijvoorbeeld in zorg en welzijn en de begeleidingsintensiteit in bepaalde organisaties stijgt (bijvoorbeeld in sport. Anderzijds neemt het aanbod van vrijwilligers af doordat vrouwen en ouderen meer en langer op de arbeidsmarkt actief zijn, waardoor minder tijd beschikbaar is voor vrijwilligerswerk. In dit artikel wordt aan de hand van de role overload theorie nagegaan of het al dan niet deelnemen aan vrijwilligerswerk van diverse categorieën werknemers samenhangt met de belasting door betaalde arbeid. Uit de secundaire data-analyse blijkt dat verschillen in belasting samenhangen met verschillen in deelname aan vrijwilligerswerk. Terwijl hogere arbeidsbelasting negatief samenhangt met het verrichten van vrijwilligerswerk, hangt zorg voor kinderen thuis positief samen met vrijwilligerswerk. Hierdoor is de steun voor de role overload theorie beperkt.

Angela Kok-Van Meer

2014-06-01

217

Suicidio por salto al vacío  

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Full Text Available La tendencia al suicidio se asocia con problemas de soledad, abandono sicológico en la infancia, drogadicción, enfermedades graves, etc. Y en pacientes psiquiátricos es más común tras ser dados de alta. En Argentina los suicidios aumentaron en 25% de 1990 a 1992, y el 78 % de las víctimas fueron de sexo masculino. La proporción por salto al vacío aumentó , especialmente en áreas urbanas. En 40 casos argentinos hubo introducción basal del fémur (25%, fractura del calcáneo en 17%, fracturas de pelvis o cuello del fémur en 7% y estallido hepático en 20%.Suicidal tendencies are associated with loneliness, lack of psychological attention during childhood, drug addiction, serious illness, etc., In psyciatric patients, it is more frequent shortly after they are dismissed from the hospital. In Argentina, the suicide rate increased by 25% from 1990 to 1992, and 78% of the victims are males. The proportion that jumped to death increased, particularly inurban areas. In 40 Argentinian cases there was a basalpenetration of the femur (25%, fracture of the calcaneus bone (17%, fracture of pelvis o femur cervix (7% and explosion of the liver (20%.

Braulio Ernesto P. Linares

1995-05-01

218

Suicidio por salto al vacío  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La tendencia al suicidio se asocia con problemas de soledad, abandono sicológico en la infancia, drogadicción, enfermedades graves, etc. Y en pacientes psiquiátricos es más común tras ser dados de alta. En Argentina los suicidios aumentaron en 25% de 1990 a 1992, y el 78 % de las víctimas fueron de [...] sexo masculino. La proporción por salto al vacío aumentó , especialmente en áreas urbanas. En 40 casos argentinos hubo introducción basal del fémur (25%), fractura del calcáneo en 17%, fracturas de pelvis o cuello del fémur en 7% y estallido hepático en 20%. Abstract in english Suicidal tendencies are associated with loneliness, lack of psychological attention during childhood, drug addiction, serious illness, etc., In psyciatric patients, it is more frequent shortly after they are dismissed from the hospital. In Argentina, the suicide rate increased by 25% from 1990 to 19 [...] 92, and 78% of the victims are males. The proportion that jumped to death increased, particularly inurban areas. In 40 Argentinian cases there was a basalpenetration of the femur (25%), fracture of the calcaneus bone (17%), fracture of pelvis o femur cervix (7%) and explosion of the liver (20%).

Braulio Ernesto, P. Linares; Félix Antonio, Bikic.

219

An XPS study of Al 2Au and AlAu 4 intermetallic oxidation  

Science.gov (United States)

Samples of Al 2Au and AlAu 4 were examined using XPS after controlled oxidation in air. AlAu 4 showed a strong tendency to oxidize compared to Al 2Au. The binding energies (b.e.) of Au 4f and Al 2p XPS emissions were determined for both intermetallics. Heavy oxidation of AlAu 4 resulted in a unique Au 4f emission near the surface which was attributed to Au dissolved in aluminum oxide.

Xu, C.; Sritharan, T.; Mhaisalkar, S. G.; Srinivasan, M.; Zhang, S.

2007-05-01

220

Ab initio molecular dynamics of Al irradiation-induced processes during Al2O3 growth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Al bombardment induced structural changes in ?-Al2O3 (R-3c) and ?-Al2O3 (Fd-3m) were studied using ab initio molecular dynamics. Diffusion and irradiation damage occur for both polymorphs in the kinetic energy range from 3.5 to 40 eV. However, for ?-Al2O3(001) subplantation of impinging Al causes significantly larger irradiation damage and hence larger mobility as compared to ?-Al2O3. Consequently, fast diffusion along ?-Al2O3(001) gives rise to preferential ?-Al2O3(0001) growth, which is consistent with published structure evolution experiments.

 
 
 
 
221

Formation of Ta-Al intermetallics by combustion synthesis involving Al-based thermite reactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

antalum aluminides and caused the change in the dominant aluminide phase from Ta2Al, TaAl, to TaAl2. Due to lack of adequate reaction time, the phase conversion was not stoichiometrically achieved in the samples of Al/Ta2O5 = 13/3-18/3. However, it was found that the slower reaction front provided longer reaction time to complete the phase conversion almost stoichiometrically in the samples of Al/Ta2O5 = 22/3-28/3, which yielded the Al-rich phases TaAl2 and/or TaAl3 in the final products.

222

U-Al alloy charge makeup equation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The (sup 235)U content in fuel tubes (g(sup 235)U/ft) is directly proportional to the (sup 235)U concentration (g(sup 235)U/cc) in the U-Al core alloy. In order to prepare enriched uranium metal, aluminum, and U-Al scrap for U-Al production melts, the ove...

F. C. Rhode

1988-01-01

223

The effects of boron in TiAl/Ti3Al  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors discuss the TiAl/Ti3Al interfacial misfit dislocations structures investigated by TEM in Ti-45Al alloy and Ti-45Al/TiB2 composite. For TiAl with c/a = 1.02, only a single set of misfit dislocation arrays are crystallographically possible; these were observed in Ti-45Al alloy. However, the observation of three sets of misfit dislocation arrays in the Ti-45Al/TiB2 composite suggests that the occupation of octahedral sites in the TiAl structure by excess boron was responsible for a decrease in the c/a ratio leading to an increased fcc character of the TiAl at the TiAl/Ti3Al interface

224

Biodigestor: una aproximación al diseño  

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Full Text Available EI estudio y evaluación de los Sistemas de Biogas forma parte de la Electiva Técnica "Sistemas Alternativos de Energía", ofrecida por la Facultad de Ingeniería. EI presente artículo es un producto de dicho curso e intenta ser informativo, estando centra do en el proceso del diseño preliminar. Las ecuaciones han sido extraídas de diversas fuentes y se pretende dar las pautas de evaluación técnica de cualquier Biodigestor, sin tocar los problemas prácticos y de experiencia que de ello se deriva. Agradezco la colaboración prestada por los estudiantes Guillermo Garcés y Pedro A. Cuervo y en especial al Ingeniero Arturo Martínez R. por su participación en la parte correspondiente a Biogas en el curso mencionado.

Julio Mario Rodríguez Devis

2011-11-01

225

ALS · TTL IC data book  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book is one of semiconductor device data manual series. It introduces advanced Low-power Schottky 74ALS series, which consists the guide of application, introduction, standard, measurement method and property, warranty system and reliability, note for use and outside view. It follows the DATA SHEFT which includes Quadruple 2-Input positive NAND gate, Dual J-K positive Edge-Triggered Flip-Flop with Set and Reset, Synchronous preset table up/down decode counter with Mode control, HEX bus driver with 3-state output, fuse-programmable Identity comparator, 16-Bit parallel Error Detection and correction circuit, Octal Bus Transceiver AND Register and Dual 4-Bit D-type Edge-Triggered Flip-Flop.

226

DOLOR LUMBAR RELACIONADO AL EMBARAZO  

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Full Text Available El dolor lumbar ha sido considerado la complicación más frecuente del embarazo, a pesar de ello, su etiopatogenia aún es controvertida. La prevalencia en nuestro medio es desconocida, y el tratamiento se basa para muchos médicos solo en el reposo, medida que no tiene sustento en la literatura. En esta revisión, nos centramos en la historia clínica, terminología, mecanismos fisiológicos teóricamente implicados, factores de riesgo, prevalencia y proponemos un enfoque de tratamiento del dolor lumbar asociado al embarazoThe low back pain has been considered the most frequent complication of pregnancy, despite this fact, etiology and pathophysiology is unclear at present time. The prevalence in our country is unknown, and the treatment is based on in rest-periods for the most physicians, instead literature rationality. In our research, based in the literature, we focus in the history, terminology, theoretical physiological mechanism, risk factors, prevalence and we propose pathways for treatment of pregnancy-related low back pain

Milan Munjin L

2007-01-01

227

teoría de respuesta al ítem  

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Full Text Available En el estudio del funcionamiento diferencial del ítem (DIF - differential item functioning la medición de su tamaño proporciona información relevante. Entre las medidas del DIF más utilizadas se encuentra el logaritmo de la razón común de las posibilidades de Mantel-Haenszel (Mantel-Haenszel Log Odds Ratio, MH-LOR. En el trabajo que se informa se analiza la similitud de los resultados al aplicar MH-LOR y una medida obtenida en el marco de la teoría de respuesta al ítem (TRI, a la que se denomina LOR-TRI, sobre datos reales y sobre datos simulados sin DIF. Los datos reales corresponden a una prueba de 20 ítem de razonamiento verbal, respondida por egresados del ciclo medio de enseñanza y por alumnos universitarios. Cada ítem presenta un par de palabras - base entre las cuales existe algún tipo de relación y cuatro opciones de pares de palabras entre las que se debe elegir aquel cuya relación sea la más cercana a la del par base. Para los datos simulados se consideraron las respuestas a un test de 20 ítem generadas según el modelo logístico de tres parámetros. Los grupos fueron elegidos de una población normal estándar con tamaño mues tral 1,000 y se efectuaron 100 repeticiones. Tan to para los datos reales como para los simulados el modelo logístico adecuado es el de tres parámetros, sin embargo se observó que el ajuste del modelo de Rasch condujo a resultados de LOR-TRI, similares a MH-LOR. Para los respectivos errores estándar se observó la misma particularidad en cuanto a la similitud, siendo ésta aún más destacada.

Mar\\u00EDa Ester Aguerri

2007-01-01

228

Organic bi-stable device fabricated with a sandwich structure of Al / AIDCN / Al nano-crystals surrounded by amorphous Al2O3 / AIDCN / Al  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An organic bi-stable device (OBD) was developed and exhibited non-volatile memory characteristics with a current conduction bi-stability of ? 1 x 102 and a threshold voltage of 2.8 V for the writing state. The OBD was fabricated with the following structure: aluminum (Al) layer / conductive organic layer / Al nano-crystals surrounded by amorphous Al2O3 / conductive organic layer / Al layer, where the organic material was 2-amino-4, 5-imidazoledicarbonitrile (AIDCN). The Al nano-crystals surrounded by the amorphous Al2O3 were several nanometers in size, with a density of ?1 x 1011/cm2. The OBD could only achieve current conduction bi-stability with an Al evaporation rate of less than 0.3 A/s.

229

Reactive Plasma Spraying of Fine Al2O3/AlN Feedstock Powder  

Science.gov (United States)

Reactive plasma spraying (RPS) is a promising technology for in situ formation of aluminum nitride (AlN) coatings. Recently, AlN-based coatings were fabricated by RPS of alumina (Al2O3) powder in N2/H2 thermal plasma. This study investigated the feasibility of RPS of a fine Al2O3/AlN mixture and the influence of the plasma gases (N2, H2) on the nitriding conversion, and coating microstructure and properties. Thick AlN/Al2O3 coatings with high nitride content were successfully fabricated. The coatings consist of h-AlN, c-AlN, Al5O6N, ?-Al2O3, and a small amount of ?-Al2O3. Use of fine particles enhanced the nitriding conversion and the melting tendency by increasing the surface area. Furthermore, the AlN additive improved the AlN content in the coatings. Increasing the N2 gas flow rate improved the nitride content and complete crystal growth to the h-AlN phase, and enhanced the coating thickness. On the other hand, though the H2 gas is required for plasma nitriding of the Al2O3 particles, increasing its flow rate decreased the nitride content and the coating thickness. Remarkable influence of the plasma gases on the coating composition, microstructure, and properties was observed during RPS of the fine particles.

Shahien, Mohammed; Yamada, Motohiro; Yasui, Toshiaki; Fukumoto, Masahiro

2013-12-01

230

Eutectic microstructures of Al-ThA13 and Al-UA14 alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper deals on the microstructures of systems Al-ThAl3 and Al-UAL4, which are composed by a non faceted phase (aluminium) and an intermetallic phase (ThAl3 or UAL4) which is normally faceted phase. (C.M.)

231

A surface-potential-based model for AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new surface-potential-based model for AlGaN/AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) is proposed in this paper. Since the high polarization effects caused by AlN interlayer favorably influence the two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) and scattering mechanisms, we first add spontaneous and piezoelectric charge terms to the source equation of surface-potential, and a mobility model for AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMT is rewritten. Compared with TCAD simulations, the DC characteristics of AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMT are faithfully reproduced by the new model. (semiconductor devices)

232

Precipitation of (Al,Si)3Sc in an Al-Sc-Si alloy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three-dimensional atom probe has been applied to investigate the solubility of Si in Al3Sc in an Al-0.16Sc-0.05Si alloy. It was found that L12-structured Si-containing Al3Sc precipitates formed after the alloy was aged at 300 oC. Results of first-principles calculation indicated that Si atoms tend to substitute Al sites in Al3Sc, and thus the precipitates can be represented as (Al,Si)3Sc. The (Al,Si)3Sc was found to have a dramatic precipitation-strengthening effect in the cast alloy.

233

Measurements of tunneling barrier thicknesses for Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb tunnel junctions  

Science.gov (United States)

The tunnel barrier thicknesses of Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb tunnel junctions were measured using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray Reflection (XRR). By investigating the barrier thickness dependence of current density Jc, the barrier height for Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb junctions was calculated. Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb junctions with different Jc were fabricated by controlling the O2 exposure in Al oxidation. The junctions show good tunneling properties with subgap leakage factor Vm larger than 30 mV in the range of Jc from tens of A/cm2 to several kA/cm2. TEM images showed clear interface and indicated the AlOx thicknesses ranging from 0.8 nm to 1.9 nm, and the average barrier height was estimated to be 0.17 eV for Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb tunnel junctions.

Kang, Xinjie; Ying, Liliang; Wang, Hai; Zhang, Guofeng; Peng, Wei; Kong, Xiangyan; Xie, Xiaoming; Wang, Zhen

2014-08-01

234

Insostenibilidad: aproximación al conflicto socioecológico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La preocupación por el impacto humano sobre el entorno está documentada desde la Antigüedad. Situaciones de insostenibilidad han conducido en varios momentos de la historia a retrocesos en las condiciones de vida de la población. Si bien el impacto ambiental de las culturas preindustriales se encont [...] raba restringido fundamentalmente al ámbito local, con la revolución industrial las consecuencias de la presión sobre el medio ambiente crecieron exponencialmente, sobrepasando la localidad para alcanzar dimensiones globales. La búsqueda de un estadio o un desarrollo que sea sostenible implica la necesidad de comprender el conflicto socio-ecológico en su perspectiva histórica. Observamos que sus dimensiones básicas están presentes desde la etapa eotécnica hasta nuestros días. En el centro del debate se encuentra la necesidad de comprender la génesis de la ideología del progreso y del dominio de la naturaleza. La sostenibilidad es, en definitiva, una búsqueda compleja que implica una corrección de las causas de la insostenibilidad. La sensibilidad al riesgo y a la crisis de insostenibilidad se ha incrementado de forma considerable, en un momento en que se observa una cierta pérdida de legitimidad de la política representativa. La participación es, hoy más que nunca, uno de los imperativos de la búsqueda de la sostenibilidad. Abstract in english The concern about the human impact on the environment is documented since ancient times. Situations of unsustainability led at various times in history to setbacks in the living conditions of the population. While the environmental impact of preindustrial cultures was limited primarily to local leve [...] l, with the industrial revolution the consequences of the pressure on the environment grew exponentially, surpassing the locality to achieve global dimensions. The search for a sustainable stadium or development leads to the need to understand the socio-ecological conflict in its historical perspective. We note that their basic dimensions are present from the eotechnic phase until today. At the center of the debate is the need to understand the genesis of the ideology of progress and the domain of nature. Environmental conflicts in preindustrial cultures are often linked to agricultural production, waste from the activities of some guilds, sanitation problems in cities and energy demand. Sustainability is a complex search that involves a correction of the causes of unsustainability. Sensitivity to risk and to the unsustainability crisis has increased considerably, and a loss of legitimacy of representative politics is perceived. Participation is, more than ever, one of the imperatives of the search for sustainability.

Josep, Lobera.

235

Atom probe analysis of AlN interlayers in AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Atom probe tomography was used to characterize AlN interlayers in AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructures grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE), NH3-based molecular beam epitaxy (NH3-MBE), and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The PAMBE-grown AlN interlayer had the highest purity, with nearly 100% of group-III sites occupied by Al. The group-III site concentrations of Al for interlayers grown by NH3-MBE and MOCVD were ?85% and ?47%, respectively. Hall measurements were performed to determine the two-dimensional electron gas mobility and sheet concentration. Sheet concentrations were ?25%–45% higher with molecular beam epitaxy than with MOCVD, and these results matched well with atom probe data.

236

Atom probe analysis of AlN interlayers in AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Atom probe tomography was used to characterize AlN interlayers in AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructures grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE), NH{sub 3}-based molecular beam epitaxy (NH{sub 3}-MBE), and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The PAMBE-grown AlN interlayer had the highest purity, with nearly 100% of group-III sites occupied by Al. The group-III site concentrations of Al for interlayers grown by NH{sub 3}-MBE and MOCVD were {approx}85% and {approx}47%, respectively. Hall measurements were performed to determine the two-dimensional electron gas mobility and sheet concentration. Sheet concentrations were {approx}25%-45% higher with molecular beam epitaxy than with MOCVD, and these results matched well with atom probe data.

Mazumder, Baishakhi; Kaun, Stephen W.; Speck, James S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Lu, Jing; Keller, Stacia; Mishra, Umesh K. [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

2013-03-18

237

X-ray detectors with Ta/Al/Al{sub x}O{sub y}/Al hetero tunnel junctions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We fabricate X-ray detectors based upon superconducting Ta/Al/Al{sub x}O{sub y}/Al hetero tunnel junctions. Device characteristics are significantly influenced by the fact that the gap energies on the two sides of the tunnel barrier are not equal. We present experimental data showing the dependence of signal height and polarity on bias voltage in heterojunctions. The best energy resolution obtained in a single Ta/Al/Al{sub x}O{sub y}/Al heterojunction is 60 eV at 1.487 keV. We also report the observation of correlated signals from two separate tunnel junctions attached to one common Ta absorber strip. (orig.).

Gutsche, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Hettl, P. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Jochum, J. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Kemmather, B. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Kraus, H. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department

1996-02-11

238

Analysis and chemometry of heavy metal concentrations in the Saale, Ilm and Unstrut as a basis for assessing the pollutant level and the prospects for success of sanitation measures. Final report; Analyse und chemometrische Bewertung von Schwermetallgehalten der Saale, Ilm und Unstrut als Bestandsaufnahme und zur Abschaetzung der Auswirkungen von Sanierungsmassnahmen. Abschlussbericht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since the mid-1980`s, heavy metal characterisation was carried out on sediments of selected sections of the river Saale and methodical work was done on the analysis of flowing water at the Friedrich Schiller University at Jena. However, there was no comprehensive and current information about the state of contamination along the whole course of the river before. The most important aim was therefore the first and current stocktaking of this extent of contamination of the water, sediment and suspended matter of the Saale. The basis of these considerations was formed by about 15,000 determined features in water samples and more than 1,000 examinations of suspended matter and 4,600 examinations of sediment. In the characterisation of contamination of flowing watercourses, it was generally usual to evaluate the change of individual features according to geographic or time aspects. The application of methods of multi-variate statistics makes it possible to identify anthropogenic and geogenic sources and to discover latent connections. A comprehensive evaluation of the actual contamination situation is possible in this way. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Seit Mitte der achtziger Jahre werden an der Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena Schwermetallcharakterisierungen an Sedimenten ausgewaehlter Flussabschnitte der Saale sowie methodische Arbeiten zur Fliessgewaesseranalytik durchgefuehrt. Umfassende und aktuelle Informationen ueber den Belastungszustand entlang des gesamten Flussablaufes gab es jedoch bisher nicht. Wichtigstes Ziel war deshalb eine in diesem Umfang erstmalige und aktuelle Bestandsaufnahme zur Belastung von Wasser, Sediment und Schwebstoffe der Saale. Die Grundlage dieser Betrachtungen bilden ca. 15.000 bestimmte Merkmale in Wasserproben und mehr als 1.000 Schwebstoff- und 4.600 Sedimentuntersuchungen. Bei der Belastungscharakterisierung von Fliessgewaessern ist es derzeit allgemein ueblich, die Aenderung einzelner Merkmale nach geographischen oder zeitlichen Aspekten zu bewerten. Die Anwendung von Methoden der multivariaten Statistik ermoeglicht die Identifizierung anthropogener und geogener Quellen und die Aufdeckung latenter Zusammenhaenge. Damit ist eine umfassende Bewertung der tatsaechlichen Belastungssituation moeglich. (orig./SR)

Einax, J.W.; Truckenbrodt, D.; Kampe, O.

1997-09-01

239

26Al production in explosive carbon burning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nucleosynthesis associated with explosive carbon burning is reexamined, with the aim of providing a realistic prediction of the abundance of 26Al formed under such conditions. The sensitivities of the 26Al/27Al production ratio to variations in the temperature, the initial composition, and the degree of neutron competition from heavy nuclei are explored. Ratios of 26Al/27Al in the range 4 x 10-4 to 2 x 10-3 are found to result for the range of conditions considered. For a primordial solar-system ratio 26Al/27Alapprox. =6 x 10-5 (Lee, Papanastassiou, and Wasserburg), these production ratios imply that primitive solar matter was influenced by a nucleosynthesis event which could not have occurred more than a few million years prior to condensation

240

CALCULUL CINETOSTATIC AL MECANISMELOR PLANETARE CILINDRICE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

În lucrare se prezint? o metod? analitic? pentru calculul cinetostatic al mecanismului planetarmonomobil cu dou? ro?i din?ate centrale. Se consider? mai întâi cazul general al schemelor cinematice cu dou?ro?i din?ate solidare tip satelit, în dou? variante practice (multiplicator ?i reductor de tura?ie). Este men?ionatcazul particular al mecanismelor planetare cu o singur? roat? satelit cu angrenare dubl? (exterioar? ?iinterioar?). Pe baza modelului de analiz? cinetost...

Antonescu, Pa?un; Antonescu, Ovidiu

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Synthesis and characterization of TiAl/?-Al2O3 nanocomposite by mechanical alloying  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

TiAl/?-Al2O3 nanocomposite was synthesized by mechanical alloying of the Al and TiO2 powder mixture. The powder particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that the mechanochemical reaction between Al and TiO2 gradually took place through intermediate stages during milling, resulted in the formation of disordered fcc-TiAl and Al2O3 phases. The in situ processing involved two steps in which diffusion of Ti into Al is prominent. Annealing of milled product led to transition of metastable fcc-TiAl into equilibrium ?-TiAl. The crystallite size of phases in produced nanocomposite powder estimated to be about 50 nm.

242

Influence of modifier on base Al and Si on structure and elongation Al-7%Si alloy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A homogenous modifier with Al and Si obtained by the rapid solidification at a cooling rate equal to v=200 K/s was applied to the modification of the Al-7%Si alloy. The different modifiers were obtained by means of the Al-Si alloys. The components Al, Al-7%Si and Al-12%Si were put into crucible containing the liquid Al-7%Si alloy and kept for one minute to obtain a new homogenous alloy which after break-up was homogenous modifier. Both, effect of cooling rate applied to obtain modifier and weight in weight modifier concentration in the melt on structure and elongations of Al-7%Si alloy are determined. A structural, and elongations resulting from the Al-7%Si alloy treatment by modifiers are studied in details.

T. Lipi?ski

2008-08-01

243

Respuesta inmune adaptativa al rotavirus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

El rotavirus (RV es un importante patógeno humano y el estudio de la respuesta inmune específica de éste en humanos, es un buen modelo para caracterizar la respuesta inmune de la mucosa intestinal (1. Nuestros estudios han tenido como objetivo la caracterización fenotípica y funcional de las células T y B específicas de RV con énfasis importante en la expresión de marcadores de migración intestinal. Estas células son estudiadas en muestras de sangre periférica de niños y adultos recientemente infectados con RV. Los análisis se hicieron por citometría de flujo y ELISPOT. Estudio de células T: los adultos sanos presentan bajas frecuencias circulantes tanto de LT CD4+, como de LT CD8+ específicos de RV que secretan INF_ .

Significativamente mayores porcentajes de éstas células se detectaron en adultos sintomáticos infectados por RV. Sin embargo, las frecuencias de LT específicos de RV en todos los grupos de estudio fueron muy bajas comparadas con las observadas para otros patógenos.

Sorprendentemente, en niños sintomáticos infectados por RV se detectaron bajas frecuencias de LT CD8+ circulantes específicos de RV secretando INF-g y muy pocos o ningún LT CD4+ secretando INF-g o LT CD4+ y CD8+ al secretar IL-13 o IL4 (2,3. Esto sugiere que el RV es un inductor relativamente pobre de células T de memoria secretando estas citoquinas. Los LT circulantes CD4+ , INF-g.+ específicos de RV presentes en adultos sanos, expresan en su mayoría el receptor de migración intestinal a4b7(3.

Estudio de las células B (3,4: las células vírgenes circulantes CD19+, IgD+ y de memoria CD19+, IgDespecíficas de RV se identifican por citometría de flujo por la coexpresión de marcadores de superficie y de Ig de membrana específica del virus, con la ayuda de un antígeno viral acoplado a la proteína de fluorescencia verde (GFP. Las CSA se caracterizan funcionalmente por ELISPOT y fenotípicamente por citometría de flujo. Durante la fase aguda de infección en niños, los LB IgD- circulantes específicos de RV son predominantemente células grandes CD38alto, CD27alto, CD138+/-, CCR6-, a4b7 +, CCR9+, CCR10+, CLA-, L-Selectina int/- y sIgM+, sIgG-, sIgA+/ - Este fenotipo muy probablemente corresponde a CSA y plasmablastos con capacidad de migrar al intestino.

Durante la convalescencia, el fenotipo cambia a células pequeñas y grandes CD38int/-, CD27int/-, CCR6+, a4b7+/-, CCR9+/- y CCR10-, muy probablemente representando células de memoria, algunas con capacidad de migrar al intestino y otras con capacidad de permanecer en la circulaci

Manuel A. Franco

2004-03-01

244

Growth and characterization of AlGaN/AlN/GaN/AlGaN double heterojunction structures with AlGaN as buffer layers  

Science.gov (United States)

High electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) structures with GaN, Al0.025Ga0.975N and Al0.04Ga0.96N high resistivity (HR) buffers were grown on sapphire by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The structural and electrical properties of these three samples were investigated and compared. By increasing Al composition of AlGaN buffer, full width at half maximum (FWHM) values of (0002) and (10-12) x-ray rocking curves for buffer increase, indicating higher threading dislocation density. Room temperature noncontact Hall measurements were performed, and the measured 2DEG mobility was 1828 cm2/V s for GaN buffer, 1728 cm2/V s for Al0.025Ga0.975N buffer, and 1649 cm2/V s for Al0.04Ga0.96N buffer, respectively. Combining the theoretical calculation with the experiments, it was demonstrated that the decrease of mobility was attributed to higher dislocation density in sample with higher Al composition of AlGaN buffer. Devices were fabricated and it was found that the double heterojunction (DH) HEMT with Al0.025Ga0.975N buffer could effectively reduce the buffer leakage current.

Peng, Enchao; Wang, Xiaoliang; Xiao, Hongling; Wang, Cuimei; Yin, Haibo; Chen, Hong; Feng, Chun; Jiang, Lijuan; Hou, Xun; Wang, Zhanguo

2013-11-01

245

?-Phase Formation in Ni-Al Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

First-principles full-potential linear muffin-tin orbital method (FPLMTO) were performed for ?-type structural phase transformation for B2 (b.c.c.) NiAl and Ni_2Al alloys. In contrast to the NiAl system but in agreement with experiments, the results of our calculation showed that the Ni_2Al system is unstable with respect to this kind of transformation. To better understand the origin of stability and instability in each system, we also used a pair potential for modeling the interactions between the atoms. Calculated lattice parameters for the structures are in excellent agreement with the experimental data.

Albers, R. C.; Sanati, M.; Pinski, F. J.

1998-03-01

246

Optical properties of ?'-CoAl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The optical absorptance of ?'-CoAl in the 0.1--2.5-eV region was measured and analyzed by the Kramers-Kronig method. The optical conductivity shows interband features beginning below 0.1 eV, with several structures below 2 eV. These structures agree with those calculated from the energy bands of Moruzzi, Williams, and Gelatt. The experimentally observed systematics in CoAl and NiAl confirm our previous interpretation of the spectra of ?'-NiAl, and disagree with other experimental and theoretical attempts to understand the optical properties of these compounds

247

HOW DID AL-SUYUTI ABRIDGE IBN TAYMIYYA’S NASIHAT AHL AL-IMAN FI AL-RADD ‘ALA MANTIQ AL-YUNAN?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Al-Radd ‘ala ’l-Mantiqiyyin (an alternative title for Nasihat Ahl al-Iman is a work composed by Ibn Taymiyya to demolish each principle of logic as well as to unravel the depravity of their foundation. Probably due to Ibn Taymiyya’s being genius, when he destroys those principles, he could not avoid himself to discuss digressively irrelevant topics dealing with theological as well as metaphysical issues. In a number of passages in al-Radd, he could not even hinder himself to make a good deal of repetitions. Therefore, al-Radd ‘ala’l-Mantiqiyyin is complex and difficult to use. The coherence of arguments that Ibn Taymiyya formulated is not solid and comprehensive. His criticism of logic is not penetrating as well. On the basis of my analysis of al-Suyuti’s method of abridgement of Ibn Taymiyya’s al-Radd, I argue that al-Suyuti succeeded in rendering Ibn Taymiyya’s sequence of ideas superior to that found in the original work of the latter. The result of this study confirms Hallaq’s argument that the overall result of al-Suyuti’s abridgement of Ibn Taymiyya’s al-Radd is ‘a more effective critique of logic than that originally formulated by Ibn Taymiyya

Mufti Ali

2008-08-01

248

Interfacial Phenomena in Al/Al, Al/Cu, and Cu/Cu Joints Soldered Using an Al-Zn Alloy with Ag or Cu Additions  

Science.gov (United States)

The studies of soldered joints were carried out in systems: Al/solder/Al, Al/solder/Cu, Cu/solder/Cu, where the solder was (Al-Zn)EUT, (Al-Zn)EUT with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 at.% of Ag and (Al-Zn)EUT with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 at.% of Cu addition. Brazing was performed at 500 °C for 3 min. The EDS analysis indicated that the composition of the layers starting from the Cu pad was CuZn, Cu5Zn8, and CuZn4, respectively. Wetting tests were performed at 500 °C for 3, 8, 15, and 30 min, respectively. Thickness of the layers and their kinetics of growth were measured based on the SEM micrographs. The formation of interlayers was not observed from the side of Al pads. On the contrary, dissolution of the Al substrate and migration of Al-rich particles into the bulk of the solder were observed.

Pstru?, Janusz; Gancarz, Tomasz

2014-05-01

249

Metallographic investigation of Al-Si-Mg and Al-Si-Cu alloys. Metallographische Untersuchung von Al-Si-Mg- und Al-Si-Cu-Legierungen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of the present work is to investigate the microstructure of Al-Si-Mg and Al-Si-Cu alloys by optical microscopy in order to define the metallographic characteristics of the intermetallic compounds. It is established that all the alloying elements in the investigated Al-Si-Mg and Al-Si-Cu alloys form intermetallic compounds. The most active are the elements Fe, Si and Cu. The knowledge of the typical effects of every alloying element on the type, stoichiometry and configuration of the intermetallic compounds makes possible to predict the microstructure of an alloy very precisely from the chemical composition. (orig.).

Kovacheva, R. (Inst. for Metal Science and Technology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria))

1993-02-01

250

Interfacial strength of Al/Al and Al/Zr/Du-10wt%Mo subject to different loading modes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Compact tension (CT) experiments were conducted with fixtures that allowed mode-I (tensile opening mode), mode-Il (shearing mode), and mixed-mode loading to measure the interfacial strength between HIP-clad Al and Al, and Al and Zr/DU-10wt%Mo. Specimens were made with the same HIP process used for making thin composite foils, but instead used 25 mm thick Al-6061 cladding that allowed specimens to be gripped without adhesives. Three configurations of specimens were tested: (1) Al/Al specimens with a pre-crack along the seam; (2) specimens containing both a Zr/DU-10wt%Mo layer and an Al/Al seam along part of the interface; and (3) specimens containing only a Zr/DU-10wt%Mo layer at the interface, but with a pre notch along part of the interface. Digital image correlation (DIC) was used to measure full-field deformations during the test. The results show that mode-I loaded interfaces exhibit the weakest strength and the widest scatter. The strength increases when more shearing component is introduced

251

Formation of AlFeSi phase in AlSi12 alloy with Ce addition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The influence of cerium addition on the solidification sequence and microstructure constituents of the Al-Si alloys with 12,6 mass % Si was examined. The solidification was analyzed by a simple thermal analysis. The microstructures were examined with conventional light and scanning electron microscopy. Ternary AlSiCe phase was formed in the Al-Si alloys with added cerium during the solidification process. AlSiCe and ?-AlFeSi phases solidified together in the region that solidified the last. Cerium addition influenced on the morphology of the ?-AlFeSi phase solidification.

S. Kores

2012-04-01

252

Hyperfine fields at Ce in GdAl2 and DyAl2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The local fields at 140Ce in the cubic intermetallic compounds GdAl2 and DyAl2 have been measured with the DPAC method. At our lowest temperatures we obtain Beff(30 K)=54(2) T for GdAl2 and Beff(12.5 K)=27(1) T for DyAl2 which are considerably lower than the hyperfine field of the free Ce3+ ion (183 T). The (Ce)GdAl2 field is quantitatively explained by a cubic crystal field splitting of 4f states but for DyAl2 additional effects are discussed. (orig.)

253

Hyperfine fields at Ce in GdAl2 and DyAl2  

Science.gov (United States)

The local fields at140Ce in the cubic intermetallic compounds GdAl2 and DyAl2 have been measured with the DPAC method. At our lowest temperatures we obtain B eff (30K)=54(2) T for GdAl2 and B eff(12.5K)=27(1) T for DyAl2 which are considerably lower than the hyperfine field of the free Ce3+ ion (183 T). The (Ce)GdAl2 field is quantitatively explained by a cubic crystal field splitting of 4f states but for DyAl2 additional effects are discussed.

Wäckelgård, E.; Karlsson, E.; Lindgren, B.; Mayer, A.; Hrynkiewicz, Z.

1989-06-01

254

Processing and mechanical properties of directionally solidified NiAl/NiAlTa alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Promising creep strengths were found for a directionally solidified NiAl-NiAlTa alloy when compared to other NiAl based intermetallics. The directionally solidified alloy had an off-eutectic composition that resulted in microstructures consisting of NiAl dendrites surrounded by aligned eutectic regions. The room temperature toughness of the two phase alloy was similar to that of polycrystalline NiAl even with the presence of the brittle Laves phase NiAlTa. Alloying additions that may improve the room temperature toughness by producing multiphase alloys are discussed

255

Thermal expansion of gehlenite, Ca2Al[AlSiO7], and the related aluminates LnCaAl[Al2O7] with Ln = Tb, Sm  

Science.gov (United States)

The thermal expansion of gehlenite, Ca2Al[AlSiO7], (up to T=830 K), TbCaAl[Al2O7] (up to T=1100 K) and SmCaAl[Al2O7] (up to T=1024 K) has been determined. All compounds are of the melilite structure type with space group P{bar{4}}21m. Thermal expansion data were obtained from in situ X-ray powder diffraction experiments in-house and at HASYLAB at the Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron (DESY) in Hamburg (Germany). The thermal expansion coefficients for gehlenite were found to be: ?1=7.2(4)×10-6×K-1+3.6(7)×10-9? T×K-2 and ?3=15.0(1)×10-6×K-1. For TbCaAl[Al2O7] the respective values are: ?1=7.0(2)×10-6×K-1+2.0(2)×10-9? T×K-2 and ?3=8.5(2)×10-6×K-1+2.0(3)×10-9? T×K-2, and the thermal expansion coefficients for SmCaAl[Al2O7] are: ?1=6.9(2)×10-6×K-1+1.7(2)×10-9? T×K-2 and ?3=9.344(5)×10-6×K-1. The expansion mechanisms of the three compounds are explained in terms of structural trends obtained from Rietveld refinements of the crystal structures of the compounds against the powder diffraction patterns. No structural phase transitions have been observed. While gehlenite behaves like a ‘proper’ layer structure, the aluminates show increased framework structure behavior. This is most probably explained by stronger coulombic interactions between the tetrahedral conformation and the layer-bridging cations due to the coupled substitution (Ca2++Si4+) ( Ln 3++Al3+) in the melilite-type structure.

Peters, L.; Knorr, K.; Knapp, M.; Depmeier, W.

2005-12-01

256

Quantitatively probing the Al distribution in zeolites.  

Science.gov (United States)

The degree of substitution of Si(4+) by Al(3+) in the oxygen-terminated tetrahedra (Al T-sites) of zeolites determines the concentration of ion-exchange and Brønsted acid sites. Because the location of the tetrahedra and the associated subtle variations in bond angles influence the acid strength, quantitative information about Al T-sites in the framework is critical to rationalize catalytic properties and to design new catalysts. A quantitative analysis is reported that uses a combination of extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis and (27)Al MAS NMR spectroscopy supported by DFT-based molecular dynamics simulations. To discriminate individual Al atoms, sets of ab initio EXAFS spectra for various T-sites are generated from DFT-based molecular dynamics simulations, allowing quantitative treatment of the EXAFS single- and multiple-photoelectron scattering processes out to 3-4 atom shells surrounding the Al absorption center. It is observed that identical zeolite types show dramatically different Al distributions. A preference of Al for T-sites that are part of one or more 4-member rings in the framework over those T-sites that are part of only 5- and 6-member rings in an HBEA150 zeolite has been determined using this analysis. PMID:24815517

Vjunov, Aleksei; Fulton, John L; Huthwelker, Thomas; Pin, Sonia; Mei, Donghai; Schenter, Gregory K; Govind, Niranjan; Camaioni, Donald M; Hu, Jian Zhi; Lercher, Johannes A

2014-06-11

257

Durability Assessment of TiAl Alloys  

Science.gov (United States)

The durability of TiAl is a prime concern for the implementation of TiAl into aerospace engines. Two durability issues, the effect of high temperature exposure on mechanical properties and impact resistance, have been investigated and the results are summarized in this paper. Exposure to elevated temperatures has been shown to be detrimental to the room temperature ductility of gamma alloys with the most likely mechanisms being the ingress of interstitials from the surface. Fluorine ion implantation has been shown to improve the oxidation resistance of gamma alloys, and ideally it could also improve the environmental embrittlement of high Nb content TiAl alloys. The effect of F ion implantation on the surface oxidation and embrittlement of a third generation, high Nb content TiAl alloy (Ti-45Al-5Nb-B-C) were investigated. Additionally, the ballistic impact resistance of a variety of gamma alloys, including Ti-48Al-2Cr- 2Nb, Ti-47Al-2Cr-2Nb, ABB-2, ABB-23, NCG359E, 95A and Ti-45Al-5Nb-B-C was accessed. Differences in the ballistic impact properties of the various alloys will be discussed, particularly with respect to their manufacturing process, microstructure, and tensile properties.

Draper, Susan L.; Lerch, Bradley A.

2008-01-01

258

Psychoanalyse als "weltliche Seelsorge" (Freud) : Themenschwerpunkt: Lebenskunst  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Die Bestimmung der Psychoanalyse als "weltliche Seelsorge" stammt aus einem Brief Freuds an Pfister. In der abendländischen Tradition kann diese Bestimmung nur als Paradoxie verstanden werden, von der einige Dimensionen hier entfaltet werden. Im Zentrum steht die Forderung, den Begriff einer individuellen Autonomie abzuschaffen und zu ersetzen durch den der Souveränität: der Fähigkeit, die eigenen Abhängigkeit anzuerkennen, statt sie im Namen einer Autonomieforderung bekä...

Buchholz, Michael B.

2003-01-01

259

Quantitatively Probing the Al Distribution in Zeolites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The degree of substitution of Si4+ by Al3+ in the oxygen-terminated tetrahedra (Al T-sites) of zeolites determines the concentration of ion-exchange and Brønsted acid sites. As the location of the tetrahedra and the associated subtle variations in bond angles influence the acid strength, quantitative information about Al T-sites in the framework is critical to rationalize catalytic properties and to design new catalysts. A quantitative analysis is reported that uses a combination of extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis and 27Al MAS NMR spectroscopy supported by DFT-based molecular dynamics simulations. To discriminate individual Al atoms, sets of ab initio EXAFS spectra for various T-sites are generated from DFT-based molecular dynamics simulations allowing quantitative treatment of the EXAFS single- and multiple-photoelectron scattering processes out to 3-4 atom shells surrounding the Al absorption center. It is observed that identical zeolite types show dramatically different Al-distributions. A preference of Al for T-sites that are part of one or more 4-member rings in the framework over those T-sites that are part of only 5- and 6-member rings in the HBEA150 sample has been determined from a combination of these methods. This work was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences.

Vjunov, Aleksei; Fulton, John L.; Huthwelker, Thomas; Pin, Sonia; Mei, Donghai; Schenter, Gregory K.; Govind, Niranjan; Camaioni, Donald M.; Hu, Jian Z.; Lercher, Johannes A.

2014-06-11

260

The temperature dependence of elasticity modulus for TiAl and Ni3Al – basic alloy components for turbine rotor blade. ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ??????????????? TiAl ? Ni3Al – ???????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??????.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Possibility of theoretical determination of elastic characteristics for intermetallides on the example of TiAl and Ni3Al on the base of electrostatic nature of elasticity is demonstrated. Elaborated method is able for using for computing modeling of mono- and poly...

????????, ?. ?.; ??????, ?. ?.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

The wobbler mouse, an ALS animal model.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review article is focused on the research progress made utilizing the wobbler mouse as animal model for human motor neuron diseases, especially the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The wobbler mouse develops progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons and shows striking similarities to ALS. The cellular effects of the wobbler mutation, cellular transport defects, neurofilament aggregation, neuronal hyperexcitability and neuroinflammation closely resemble human ALS. Now, 57 years after the first report on the wobbler mouse we summarize the progress made in understanding the disease mechanism and testing various therapeutic approaches and discuss the relevance of these advances for human ALS. The identification of the causative mutation linking the wobbler mutation to a vesicle transport factor and the research focussed on the cellular basis and the therapeutic treatment of the wobbler motor neuron degeneration has shed new light on the molecular pathology of the disease and might contribute to the understanding the complexity of ALS. PMID:23539154

Moser, Jakob Maximilian; Bigini, Paolo; Schmitt-John, Thomas

2013-06-01

262

Production of high-purity 26Al  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

26Al is a positron emitting radioisotope of aluminium and has a half-life of 7.16x105y. In addition to annihilation ?-rays of 511 keV, there are three high energy ?-rays 1129 (2.4%), 1809 (99.73%) and 2938 (0.27%) keV. 26Al is the only radioisotope of aluminium available for radiochemical applications, the half-lives of the other aluminium isotopes are seconds and minutes. The usage of 26Al is very important in the investigations of the metabolism of Al in human body (for example in Alzheimer disease studies) or as a tracer in radiochemical studies. But 26Al is such a long-lived isotope that the task of producing it in tangible amounts is a very difficult one. (author). 2 refs

263

The wobbler mouse, an ALS animal model  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This review article is focused on the research progress made utilizing the wobbler mouse as animal model for human motor neuron diseases, especially the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The wobbler mouse develops progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons and shows striking similarities to ALS. The cellular effects of the wobbler mutation, cellular transport defects, neurofilament aggregation, neuronal hyperexcitability and neuroinflammation closely resemble human ALS. Now, 57 years after the first report on the wobbler mouse we summarize the progress made in understanding the disease mechanism and testing various therapeutic approaches and discuss the relevance of these advances for human ALS. The identification of the causative mutation linking the wobbler mutation to a vesicle transport factor and the research focussed on the cellular basis and the therapeutic treatment of the wobbler motor neuron degeneration has shed new light on the molecular pathology of the disease and might contribute to the understanding the complexity of ALS

Moser, Jakob Maximilian; Bigini, Paolo

2013-01-01

264

Die sexualerhaltende Chirurgie als Herausforderung an die operative Gynäkologie und Onkologie  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Die sexualitätserhaltende Chirurgie ist wie die Sexualität selbst in den zurückliegenden Jahrzehnten von einem Tabuthema zu einem in der Öffentlichkeit diskutierten Lebensbereich geworden. Wie so häufig in der Medizin richtete sich das Interesse von Ärzten und Industrie in erster Linie auf Therapieoptionen für betroffene Männer. Erst seit wenigen Jahren gerät die ? komplexere ? weibliche Sexualfunktion in den Fokus der operativ tätigen Gynäkologen. Dabei geht es nicht mehr nur um anatomische Strukturen, sondern auch um funktionelle Aspekte wie die Lubrikation und Orgasmusfähigkeit. Die nervenschonende Radikaloperation ist in unterschiedlichem Ausmaß, abhängig vom Stadium der Erkrankung, möglich und zu fordern. Neben der entsprechenden Operationstechnik sind eine adäquate Sexualanamnese, eine entsprechende Aufklärung und postoperative Begleittherapien wichtige Voraussetzungen für ein möglichst unbeeinträchtigtes Sexualleben der betroffenen Frauen.

Bassim S

2009-01-01

265

Al compositional inhomogeneity of AlGaN epilayer with a high Al composition grown by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Al compositional distribution of AlGaN is investigated by cathodoluminescence (CL). Monochromatic CL images and CL spectra reveal a lateral Al compositional inhomogeneity, which corresponds to surface hexagonal patterns. Cross-sectional CL images show a relatively uniform Al compositional distribution in the growth direction, indicating columnar growth mode of AlGaN films. In addition, a thin AlGaN layer with lower Al composition is grown on top of the buffer AlN layer near the bottom of the AlGaN epilayer because of the larger lateral mobility of Ga adatoms on the growth surface and their accumulation at the grain boundaries

266

Optimization of carbon nanotube synthesis from porous anodic Al–Fe–Al templates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A parametric study of carbon nanotube (CNT) synthesis from catalytically active porous anodic Al–Fe–Al multilayer templates was conducted with respect to pore aspect ratio, Fe layer thickness, CNT synthesis temperature, and pre-anodization thermal annealing. Performance metrics included CNT catalytic activity and the pore wall integrity at the Al–Fe–Al interface. The observed CNT density was a strong function of pore diameter, synthesis temperature and pre-anodization annealing of the...

Maschmann, Matthew; Franklin, Aaron D.; Sands, Timothy D.; Fisher, Timothy

2007-01-01

267

Crystallization of Al-Mg-Ce and Al-Mg-Ni-Ce amorphous alloys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The crystallization behaviors of Al{sub 82}Mg{sub 10}Ce{sub 8}, Al{sub 84}Mg{sub 10}Ce{sub 6}, Al{sub 82}Mg{sub 6}Ni{sub 4}Ce{sub 8}, Al{sub 84}Mg{sub 7}Ni{sub 3}Ce{sub 6} and Al{sub 84}Mg{sub 8}Ni{sub 2}Ce{sub 6} amorphous alloys have been studied by different scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction. Al{sub 82}Mg{sub 10}Ce{sub 8} and Al{sub 84}Mg{sub 10}Ce{sub 6} amorphous alloys are characteristic of an interesting crystallization behavior. A non-equilibrium phase Al{sub 92}Ce{sub 8} precipitates in the first stage crystallization as primary phase. In the subsequent crystallization stage, Al{sub 92}Ce{sub 8} phase decomposes into fcc-Al and Al{sub 4}Ce phases, at the same time, Al{sub 12}Mg{sub 17} phase precipitates. Strikingly, a small Ni addition can promote the primary crystallization of fcc-Al, as example obtained in Al{sub 82}Mg{sub 6}Ni{sub 4}Ce{sub 8}, Al{sub 84}Mg{sub 7}Ni{sub 3}Ce{sub 6} and Al{sub 84}Mg{sub 8}Ni{sub 2}Ce{sub 6} amorphous alloys. This interesting crystallization mechanism can be well interpreted in terms of the heat of mixing.

Wang, S.H. [Key Lab of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, South Campus of Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)]. E-mail: shenghaiw111174@sohu.com; Bian, X.F. [Key Lab of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, South Campus of Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)]. E-mail: xfbian@sdu.edu.cn

2007-08-30

268

High temperature creep behaviour of Al-rich Ti-Al alloys  

Science.gov (United States)

Compared to Ti-rich ?-TiAl-based alloys Al-rich Ti-Al alloys offer an additional reduction of in density and a better oxidation resistance which are both due to the increased Al content. Polycrystalline material was manufactured by centrifugal casting. Microstructural characterization was carried out employing light-optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and XRD analyses. The high temperature creep of two binary alloys, namely Al60Ti40 and Al62Ti38 was comparatively assessed with compression tests at constant true stress in a temperature range between 1173 and 1323 K in air. The alloys were tested in the cast condition (containing various amounts of the metastable phases Al5Ti3 and h-Al2Ti) and after annealing at 1223 K for 200 h which produced (thermodynamically stable) lamellar ?-TiAl + r-Al2Ti microstructures. In general, already the as-cast alloys exhibit a reasonable creep resistance at 1173 K. Compared with Al60Ti40, both, the as-cast and the annealed Al62Ti38 alloy exhibit better creep resistance up to 1323 K which can be rationalized by the reduced lamella spacing. The assessment of creep tests conducted at identical stress levels and varying temperatures yielded apparent activation energies for creep of Q = 430 kJ/mol for the annealed Al60Ti40 alloy and of Q = 383 kJ/mol for the annealed Al62Ti38 material. The latter coincides well with that of Al diffusion in ?-TiAl, whereas the former can be rationalized by the instability of the microstructure containing metastable phases.

Sturm, D.; Heilmaier, M.; Saage, H.; Aguilar, J.; Schmitz, G. J.; Drevermann, A.; Palm, M.; Stein, F.; Engberding, N.; Kelm, K.; Irsen, S.

2010-07-01

269

Observation of precipitation of the intermetallic phase Mg17Al12 in Mg-Al alloys by 25Mg and 27Al NMR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The strength of the lightweight Mg(Al) alloys with Al concentration less than 10 wt% is due to controlled precipitation of the intermetallic phase Mg17Al12. This phase and its solid solution host have been characterized by 25Mg and 27Al NMR in terms of Knight shifts and nuclear quadrupole interactions for the distinguishable Mg and Al sites

270

Thermodynamic analysis of alloys Ti-Al, Ti-V, Al-V and Ti-Al-V  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thermodynamic analysis of three binary Ti-based alloys: Ti-Al, Ti-V, and Al-V, as well as ternary alloy Ti-Al-V, is shown in this paper. Thermodynamic analysis involved thermodynamic determination of activities, coefficient of activities, partial and integral values for enthalpies and Gibbs energies of mixing and excess energies at four different temperatures: 2000, 2073, 2200 and 2273 K, as well as calculated phase diagrams for the investigated binary and ternary systems. The FactSage is used for all thermodynamic calculations

271

Thermodynamic analysis of alloys Ti-Al, Ti-V, Al-V and Ti-Al-V  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thermodynamic analysis of three binary Ti-based alloys: Ti-Al, Ti-V, and Al-V, as well as ternary alloy Ti-Al-V, is shown in this paper. Thermodynamic analysis involved thermodynamic determination of activities, coefficient of activities, partial and integral values for enthalpies and Gibbs energies of mixing and excess energies at four different temperatures: 2000, 2073, 2200 and 2273 K, as well as calculated phase diagrams for the investigated binary and ternary systems. The FactSage is used for all thermodynamic calculations.

Kostov, Ana [Copper Institute Bor, Zeleni bulevar 35, 19210 Bor (Serbia)], E-mail: anakostov@ibb-bor.co.yu; Zivkovic, Dragana [University of Belgrade, Technical Faculty Bor, VJ 12, 19210 Bor (Serbia)], E-mail: dzivkovic@tf.bor.ac.yu

2008-07-28

272

Thermodynamic calculations in alloys Ti-Al, Ti-Fe, Al-Fe and Ti-Al-Fe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thermodynamic calculations of three binary Ti-based alloys: Ti-Al, Ti-Fe, and Al-Fe, as well as ternary alloy Ti-Al-Fe, is shown in this paper. Thermodynamic calculations involved thermodynamic determination of activities, coefficient of activities, partial and integral values for enthalpies and Gibbs energies of mixing and excess energies at different temperatures: 1873K, 2000K and 2073K, as well as calculated phase diagrams for the investigated binary and ternary systems. The FactSage is used for all thermodynamic calculations.

Kostov Ana

2008-01-01

273

Comparison of Al samples from electrolysis production and elemental Al from colloids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sediments of specific composition and content of precipitates were found as a consequence of increased concentration of sulphate at the Quaternary groundwater. Precipitates with elemental Al0 and fibres of alloy of Si0, Fe0 and Al0 (max size of Al0 spots cca 300x100 microns from colloids of Al2O3.nH2O from borewells at Podluží were identified by RTG analyses and SEM in more then 20 analyses. Structure of colloids of Al2O3.nH2O was verified by 27Al MAS NMR from several VIS borewells:A comparison of chemical composition of Al samples produced by electrolysis at Slovalco Ltd. Co. and of elemental Al0 revealed some parallel in composition and their appearance. Samples ŽIAR1 and ŽIAR3 have similar chemical composition of Al with Al from VIS 15 but they differ in appearance. The rest of group (samples ŽIAR 2, ŽIAR 4, ŽIAR 5 differs from VIS 15 in composition and appearance of basic Al matter and specific alloys of Al, Si, and Fe.

Libuše ?ur?ová

2005-11-01

274

?-Al2O3 thin film formation via oxidation of ?-NiAl(1 1 0)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

?-NiAl(1 1 0) was oxidized in air for 1-2 h in the temperature range of 650-950 deg. C. The structure and morphology of the oxide films were characterized using a cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) method. Only a thin film of aluminum oxide, ?-Al2O3, was formed. The epitaxial relationship between NiAl and ?-Al2O3 as well as the surface roughness depends on the oxidation temperature. The Nishiyama-Wassermann (NW) orientation relation (OR) between ?-NiAl and ?-Al2O3 was noted at an oxidation temperature of 850 deg. C while the Kurdjumov-Sachs (KS) OR was observed at 650 deg. C. The changes in the epitaxial relationship between the ?-Al2O3 film and the NiAl substrate were caused by lattice mismatch-induced strain energy during oxide growth. It was also noted that short time oxidation at T = 750 deg. C created ?' phase precipitates between the NiAl substrate and the ?-Al2O3 film, while oxidation at the higher temperature of 950 deg. C resulted in textured polycrystalline ?-Al2O3 films. The smoothest single crystal epitaxial ?-Al2O3 film formed at an oxidation temperature of 850 deg. C in air.

275

The Enhancement of Zhou et al.'s Quantum Secret Sharing Protocol  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, Zhou et al. proposed a quantum secret sharing (QSS) protocol, which provides only 25% qubit efficiency after the processes of the random sampling discussion and the secret derivation. This work proposes an enhancement of Zhou et al.'s protocol. With the technique of the Bell measurement, the improved QSS protocol has 50% qubit efficiency.

Chen, Jia-Hao; Lee, Kuo-Chang; Hwang, Tzonelih

276

Agricultural power generation; Die Landwirtschaft als Energieerzeuger  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the KTBL meeting between 4th and 5th May, 2009, in Osnabrueck (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Evaluation of renewable energy sources (Sebastian Wulf et al.); (2) The future of bio fuels (Norbert Schmitz); (3) Supply of biomass for BtL fuels (Ludwig Leible et al.); (4) Combined heat and power generation with biomass (Juergen Karl); (5) Site-specific sustainable production of energy plants (Armin Vetter et al.); (6) Biomass logistics (Juergen Hahn et al.); (7) Process and costs of the production of wood fuel at agricultural areas (Volkard Scholz et al.); (8) Miscanthus: Cultivation, economic efficiency and properties as a fuel (Klaus Mastel); (9) Costs of supplying energy plants (Henning Eckel et al.); (10) Residuals as a substrate for bio gas plants (Susanne Klages et al.); (11) Innovations at the development of energy plants - view of a breeding company (Andreas von Felde et al.); (12) Processing of solid biomass - ravelling, drying and pelletizing (Stephan Sternowsky et al.); (13) Technology, operational experiences and yields of photovoltaic plants in southern Germany (Gottfried Gronbach); (14) Solar thermal plants in the agriculture - Technology and economic efficiency (Albert Esper); (15) Quality is worth-wile - Design and realization of biomass power plants (Gilbert Krapf); (16) When repays a near-by district heating grids in municipalities itself? (Helmut Doehler); (17) Agriculture in municipal power management and material stream management (Frank Wagener et al.); (18) Energetic utilization of stalk materials (Thomas Hering); (19) Modern wood firing - State of the art and tendencies of development (Peter Turowski et al.); (20) Gasification of biomass in combined heat and power cogeneration plants - state of the knowledge, efforts for the practice (Andrej Stanev); (21) Production of rapeseed oil fuel in decentral oil mills (Edgar Remmele); (22) Plant oil as a fuel in agricultural machines (Hardwin Traulsen); (23) Experiences in the utilization of rapeseed oil in the Austrian 35-tractors-program (Josef Breinesberger); (24) The remuneration regulation of EEG2009 for biogas plants (Helmut Loibl); (25) Technical further developments in the construction of biogas plants (Waldemar Gruber); (26) Economical efficiency of biogas plants in the natural gas grid (Christian Boese); (27) Concepts for heat utilization for biogas plants (Anke Nierbaum et al.); (28) Biomethane as a fuel for vehicles - practical experiences from Europe (Michael Beil et al.).

NONE

2009-07-01

277

Formation of Ta-Al intermetallics by combustion synthesis involving Al-based thermite reactions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thermite-based combustion synthesis was conducted to investigate in situ formation of tantalum aluminides (Ta{sub 2}Al, TaAl, TaAl{sub 2}, and TaAl{sub 3}) and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} from the powder compacts of Al and Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} under a molar ratio ranging from Al/Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} = 13/3 to 28/3. Effects of the sample stoichiometry on the combustion behavior and degree of phase conversion were studied. Experimental evidence showed that upon ignition, the synthesis reaction proceeded in a self-sustaining manner featuring a planar combustion front or two localized reaction zones traveling spirally. The combustion front temperature varies between 1135 and 1460 {sup o}C. In agreement with composition dependence of the reaction exothermicity, the reaction front velocity in the axial direction increased from 5.8 to 7.2 mm/s with molar ratio of Al/Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} from 13/3 to 16/3, beyond which the flame velocity decreased substantially. The slowest reaction front with an axial velocity of 1.15 mm/s was observed in the sample of Al/Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} = 28/3. Based upon the XRD analysis, in situ formation of the composites composed of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and tantalum aluminides was confirmed. For the samples with Al contents of Al/Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} = 13/3-18/3, an increase in the Al/Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} ratio improved the production of tantalum aluminides and caused the change in the dominant aluminide phase from Ta{sub 2}Al, TaAl, to TaAl{sub 2}. Due to lack of adequate reaction time, the phase conversion was not stoichiometrically achieved in the samples of Al/Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} = 13/3-18/3. However, it was found that the slower reaction front provided longer reaction time to complete the phase conversion almost stoichiometrically in the samples of Al/Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} = 22/3-28/3, which yielded the Al-rich phases TaAl{sub 2} and/or TaAl{sub 3} in the final products.

Yeh, C.L., E-mail: clyeh@fcu.edu.t [Department of Aerospace and Systems Engineering, Feng Chia University, 100 Wenhwa Road, Seatwen, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China); Wang, H.J. [Department of Aerospace and Systems Engineering, Feng Chia University, 100 Wenhwa Road, Seatwen, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China)

2010-02-18

278

„Das Internet“ als Effekt diskursiver Bedeutungskämpfe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Der Artikel zeigt, wie politische Kontroversen am Thema Internet ausgehandelt werden und wie das Internet dabei erst interpretativ hergestellt wird. Hierzu werden zunächst technik­soziologische Sichtweisen auf Technik als Bedeutungsträgerin vorgestellt. Anschließend wird unter Bezugnahme auf die Diskursforschung und die Soziale Bewegungsforschung eine Per­spektive auf Technik entwickelt, die politische Diskurse über Technik als Kämpfe um Deu­tungsmacht und damit als Versuche, (potenzielle AnhängerInnen und UnterstützerInnen zu mobilisieren, versteht. Anhand dieses theoretischen Konzepts werden dann Ergebnisse einer Inhaltsanalyse von gewerkschaftlichen Diskursen über das Internet vorgestellt. Dabei lassen sich vier Deutungsmuster unterscheiden. Es zeigt sich, dass am Internet interne und nach au­ßen gerichtete Debatten der Gewerkschaften um Reformbedarf, Imageprobleme, Mitglieder-, Macht- und Kontrollverluste geführt werden, in denen das Internet – jeweils passend – sozial konstruiert wird. Die als dominant und gültig anerkannten Bedeutungen des Internet sind demnach als Ergebnisse kollektiver interpretativer Aushandlungsprozesse und damit als Aus­druck der bestehenden Verteilung von Deutungsmacht zu betrachten – und nicht als Aussagen über materielle Eigenschaften des Internet.

Tanja Carstensen

2006-01-01

279

Point defects in FeAl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Point defects in annealed B2-phase FeAl samples in the range 47-53 at.% Fe were studied using 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy. Spectra were analyzed using local environment models according to which point defects in atomic shells close to probe atoms induce shifts in the nuclear monopole interaction. For well-annealed samples, better results were obtained assuming only the presence of FeAl anti site and VFe vacancy defects, and not of AlFe antisite defects. Monopole interactions of 57Fe probes on the Fe and Al sublattices having no defects in the first two shells were about +0.27 and -0.03 mm s-1, respectively,with respect to Fe in ?-Fe metal. The shifts induced by FeAl and VFe defects in the first shells of Fe probes on the Fe and Al sublattices were -0.15 and -0.24 mm s-1, respectively, and, in the second shells, +0.06 and 0.011 mm s-1. In addition to structural defects needed to accommodate deviations from stoichiometry, annealed samples were found to contain several percents of FeAl and VFe defects due to lattice disorder, with greater disorder in Fe-deficient alloys

280

Interfacial reactions in Al/Ni multilayers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In thin-film multilayers, the reactions at the interfaces can proceed quite differently from those in bulk samples because of the short diffusion distances involved. In the present work Al/Ni multilayers have been made by DC magnetron sputtering. The initial Ni and Al layers have strong (111) texture. The reactions taking place have been studied in relation to the layer thickness and film structure (grain size and texture). Also multilayers have been made with alloy layers Al/Ni(Al). Typically, differential scanning calorimetry shows a sequence of reactions on heating. X-ray diffraction, including texture goniometry, has been used to identify the compounds produced. In common with earlier work, it is found that Al{sub 3}Ni is the first phase to form, but the present results differ from those reported previously in that the Al{sub 3}Ni{sub 2} phase is not formed in the course of phase evolution. The difference from the earlier results is attributed to the sharper texture in the films in the present work. Thus it is concluded that for Al/Ni multilayers, reaction sequences can be affected by crystallographic orientation, as well as other factors. (orig.) 13 refs.

Takahashi, F.; Greer, A.L. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Science

1998-08-01

 
 
 
 
281

Plasma nitriding of Al 99.5  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aluminium nitride (AlN) is a very interesting ceramic because of its combination of properties such as high thermal stability, high hardness and an unusual combination of high thermal and low electrical conductivity. But it is very difficulty to obtain an AlN layer on the aluminium substrates by thermochemical nitriding process. Since a thin film of aluminium oxide existing on the surface of every aluminium substrate prevents the nitrogen atoms from diffusing into the aluminium lattice. However, it is possible to sputter the oxide film away from the aluminium surface in a glow discharge with the use of plasma nitriding technique and to allow the formation of AlN layer on the aluminium bulk. In the present work specimen of aluminium Al 99.5 has been plasma nitrided in a modified plasma nitriding unit, in which a diffusion pump was used to obtain an especially low partial pressure of oxygen in the vauum chamber. The sputter-cleaning prior to the nitriding was conducted with the variation of the applied voltage and the sputtering time. The plasma nitriding after sputtering was carried out in a glow discharge of pure nitrogen. The metallurgical properties of the AlN-Al-composites were characterized in detail. The results show that shiny black AlN layers with thickness up to a few micrometers have been created on the surface of aluminium and so the enhancement of wear and corrosion resistances of the substrate can be obtained. (orig.)

282

EXAFS study of quasicrystalline Al-Mn  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Certain rapidly quenched alloys exhibit icosahedral or quasicrystalline phases. These materials show an unusual 5-fold symmetry axis in the TEM Bragg diffraction pattern. Such symmetry axes can never appear in a truly periodic crystal, and thus the term quasicrystal. It is thought that these materials consist of distorted icosahedra packed together with angular correlation lengths at least as large at the electron beam spot, namely, 1-10 ?m. The local structure of these materials, however, is not known. To determine the local atomic order, the authors studied the quasicrystalline phase of Al-Mn which occurs over a small range of composition around Al/sub 0.86/Mn/sub 0.14/. Two compositions were investigated, namely, Al/sub 0.85/Mn/sub 0.15/ and Al/sub 0.88/Mn/sub 0.12/. The EXAFS results were compared with those on two crystalline structural standards, namely, Al6Mn and 0.4 at.% Mn in Al. The first compound has an orthorhombic structure in which the Mn has 10 Al neighbors at four different distances. Its composition is similar to that of the quasicrystalline phase. The authors find that the local structure of the quasicrystalline phase is quite close to that of the crystalline phase

283

Hot-electron drift velocity in AlGaN/AlN/AlGaN/GaN camelback channel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nanosecond pulses were employed to study hot-electron transport in a nominally undoped Al0.33Ga0.67N/AlN/{Al0.1Ga0.9N/GaN} heterostructure where the mobile electrons are spread in a composite {Al0.1Ga0.9/GaN} dual channel exhibiting a camelback electron density profile at high electric fields. The highest velocity of ?1.6× 107 cm s?1 was obtained at electric field of 160 kV cm?1 in the channel with the electron density of 0.8 × 1013?cm?2 owing to its proximity to the LO-phonon–plasmon resonance. (fast track communication)

284

The influence of Al content on the Zener relaxation of Fe-Al alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of Al content on the Zener relaxation peak of annealed Fe-Al alloys has been investigated using a computer-controlled automatic inverted torsion pendulum through the method of free decay and forced vibration. It has been shown that alloys with medium Al contents show strong relaxation while lower or higher Al contents lead to relatively weak Zener relaxation peaks. The Zener relaxation in Fe-Al alloys originates from the next-nearest-neighbour atom pairs and their interaction rather than the nearest-neighbour atom pairs. The latter may not produce Zener relaxation because of the ordered structure, which suppresses Zener relaxation

285

A new discontinuously reinforced aluminum MMC: Al+AlB{sub 2} flakes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Development of a novel metal matrix composite based on the Al-B alloy system has been undertaken. Preparation of this discontinuously reinforced material is based on the precipitation of high aspect ratio AlB{sub 2} from an Al-B alloy. This paper describes a number of efforts forced on preparing high volume fractions (> 30 v%) of AlB{sub 2} in aluminum. New insights into the behavior of the Al-B alloys system allowed this effort to be successful.

HALL,AARON C.; ECONOMY,J.

2000-06-08

286

Formation of AlFeSi phase in AlSi12 alloy with Ce addition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The influence of cerium addition on the solidification sequence and microstructure constituents of the Al-Si alloys with 12,6 mass % Si was examined. The solidification was analyzed by a simple thermal analysis. The microstructures were examined with conventional light and scanning electron microscopy. Ternary AlSiCe phase was formed in the Al-Si alloys with added cerium during the solidification process. AlSiCe and ?-AlFeSi phases solidified together in the region that solidified the last. ...

Kores, S.; Vonc?ina, M.; Kosec, B.; Medved, J.

2012-01-01

287

On nanoscale Al precipitates forming in eutectic Si particles in Al-Si-Mg cast alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nanoscale Al precipitates with satellite-like outgrowths have been observed in eutectic Si particles in Al-Si-Mg alloys. Investigation by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy indicates that the outgrowth is a void in the aluminium. The void interface plane in the Al crystal is {1 1 1} and is parallel with {0 0 1} Si. It is very likely that the outgrowth is related to the precipitation of Al in the Si particles and to the stability of the Al precipitates.

288

An enhancement on Shi et al.'s multiparty quantum secret sharing protocol  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, Shi et al. proposed a multiparty quantum secret sharing (QSS) using Bell states and Bell measurements. In their protocol, for sharing two classical bits, all parties have to possess two photons after entanglement swapping. This paper proposes an enhancement of Shi et al.'s protocol. Based on the idea that all parties (except dealer) possess two photons to share two classical bits, the qubit efficiency has further improved by removing the photons the dealer has to hold in Shi et al.'s protocol. Moreover, an insider attack is also prevented in the proposed scheme.

Lin, Jason; Hwang, Tzonelih

2011-03-01

289

Localization, diffusion and trapping of positive muons in Al and dilute AlMn and AlLi compounds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In pure Al the absence of damping in the ?SR signal shows that the muon is delocalized down to 100 mK. Muon localization in this material can be induced either by small amounts of substitutional impurities such as Mn, Mg, Ag, Li, etc. or by lattice defects originating e.g. from electron irradiation or thermal treatment. The aim of this work was a systematic investigation of the muon localization-delocalization phenomena taking place in Al. (orig./TW)

290

Photoionization electronic spectroscopy of AlOH  

Science.gov (United States)

An electronic spectrum is observed for AlOH formed in a laser vaporization pulsed molecular beam source. The spectrum is detected near 250 nm by resonant two-photon ionization spectroscopy. Two electronic states are observed, spaced by only 1674 cm -1. Vibrational progressions are observed in both states corresponding to the excited state Al?OH stretching mode (?' e = 825 cm -1) and the Al?O?H bending mode (?' e = 654 cm -1). The spectrum is consistent with a quasi-linear ground state and a more strongly bent excited state, as predicted by theory.

Pilgrim, J. S.; Robbins, D. L.; Duncan, M. A.

1993-01-01

291

Thermal diffusion in Ni/Al multilayer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two Ni/Al multilayers deposited by ion beam sputtering of nominal design [Ni(200A)/Al(100A)] Multiplication-Sign 5 and [Ni(50A)/Al(227A)] Multiplication-Sign 5 on Si substrates were annealed at 200 Degree-Sign C. As-deposited and annealed samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray reflectometry (XRR). The effort was to study the path of alloying in the above two multilayers of same elements but of opposite stoichiometric ratio. We find distinct differences in alloying of these samples.

Swain, M.; Bhattacharya, D.; Singh, S.; Basu, S. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai 400085 (India); Gupta, M. [UGC-DAE-Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452017 (India)

2013-02-05

292

Ni{sub 3}Al aluminide alloys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper provides a brief review of the recent progress in research and development of Ni{sub 3}Al and its alloys. Emphasis has been placed on understanding low ductility and brittle fracture of Ni{sub 3}Al alloys at ambient and elevated temperatures. Recent studies have resulted in identifying both intrinsic and extrinsic factors governing the fracture behavior of Ni{sub 3}Al alloys. Parallel efforts on alloy design using physical metallurgy principles have led to properties for structural use. Industrial interest in these alloys is high, and examples of industrial involvement in processing and utilization of these alloys are briefly mentioned.

Liu, C.T.

1993-10-01

293

Short range order in Al-Fe-Nb, Al-Fe-Ce and Al-Ni-Ce metallic glasses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Short range order of amorphous samples with Al{sub 90}Fe{sub 7}Nb{sub 3}, Al{sub 90}Fe{sub 5}Ce{sub 5} and Al{sub 90}Ni{sub 5}Ce{sub 5} nominal composition (in at.%) was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) at room temperature (RT). The total structure factors S{sub Tot}(Q) and the reduced atomic distribution function G(r) were derived from the diffracted intensity I{sub M}(Q). All the S{sub Tot}(Q) factors are composed by an initial prepeak followed by a main peak and a second peak with two components. Though the general aspect of the different samples is similar they present slight differences in details that are discussed as a function of the composition and compared with available data in the literature. While in the Al-(Fe, Ni)-Ce alloys two distinct components were observed for the first peak of the G(r) function, a unique broad peak was observed in the Nb containing alloy. The pair correlation function, g(r), for Al{sub 90}Fe{sub 10} at 200 K have been calculated with molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) and it is in good agreement with the experimental results obtained from Al{sub 90}Fe{sub 7}Nb{sub 3} showing that size effects can be neglected in this sample.

Saporiti, F., E-mail: fsapori@fi.uba.a [Grupo de Materiales Avanzados, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos, Aires, Paseo Colon 850 (C1063ACV) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Boudard, M. [LMGP, MINATEC Batiment INPG, UMR 5628 CNRS-INPG, 3 parvis Louis, Neel, BP 257, 38016 Grenoble France (France); SIMAP-ENSEEG, UMR 5614 CNRS-INPG-UJF, BP75, 38402 St Martin d' Heres (France); Audebert, F. [Grupo de Materiales Avanzados, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos, Aires, Paseo Colon 850 (C1063ACV) Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2010-04-16

294

High quality AlGaN grown on ELO AlN/sapphire templates  

Science.gov (United States)

The defect structure and the homogeneity of 1-3 µm thick AlxGa1-xN layers grown on epitaxially laterally overgrown (ELO) AlN on patterned AlN/sapphire templates have been investigated in dependence on the miscut direction of the c-plane sapphire substrates, the etching depth into the sapphire and the Al concentration. It was found that shallowly etched AlN/sapphire templates with a 0.25° miscut toward the a-plane provide a smooth surface of ELO AlN and therefore a good Al homogeneity in the overgrown Al0.8Ga0.2N layer. The threading dislocation density in these layers is as low as 5×108 cm-2.

Zeimer, U.; Kueller, V.; Knauer, A.; Mogilatenko, A.; Weyers, M.; Kneissl, M.

2013-08-01

295

Wetting of polycrystalline SiC by molten Al and Al-Si alloys  

Science.gov (United States)

The wetting of ?-SiC by molten Al and Al-Si alloys was investigated using a dispensed sessile drop method in a high vacuum. In the Al-SiC system, representative wetting stages were identified. The liquid spreading was initially controlled by the deoxidation of the SiC surface and then by the formation of Al4C3 at the interface. The intrinsic contact angle for molten Al on the polycrystalline ?-SiC surface was suggested to be lower than 90? provided that the oxide films covering the Al and SiC surfaces were removed, i.e., the system is partial wetting in nature. An increase in the Si concentration in liquid Al weakened the interfacial reaction but improved the final wettability. The role of the Si addition on the wetting was presumably attributed to its segregation at the interface and the formation of strong chemical bonds with the SiC surface.

Cong, Xiao-Shuang; Shen, Ping; Wang, Yi; Jiang, Qichuan

2014-10-01

296

Some aspects of anelastic and microplastic creep of pure Al and two Al-alloys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Anelastic creep of pure Al, commercial Al-Cu and a binary Al-Cu alloy has been measured at room temperature by means of a high resolution laser interferometer. The irreversible component of the deformation was also quantified from measurements of the anelastic creep recovery. The dependence of the deformation-time curves on thermal treatment and cold work is analyzed. The mechanisms responsible for the room temperature anelastic creep are discussed. Materials loaded below their elastic limit can present either a pure anelastic behavior (commercial Al-Cu) or additional viscoelastic creep (pure Al, high purity Al-Cu). For commercial Al-Cu, the presence of an irreversible deformation appears to be mainly related to the state of the surface. A viscoelastic after effect has been measured for this alloy after a Cu-electroplating treatment. As a typical result for room temperature creep, the irreversible deformation depends logarithmically on load time. (orig.).

Sgobba, S. (Lab. de Metallurgie Mecanique, Dept. des Materiaux, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland)); Kuenzi, H.U. (Lab. de Metallurgie Mecanique, Dept. des Materiaux, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland)); Ilschner, B. (Lab. de Metallurgie Mecanique, Dept. des Materiaux, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland))

1993-11-01

297

Notch effects on tensile behavior of Ni3Al and Ni3Al + B  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors describe tensile tests carried out at room temperature on double-notched specimens of Ni3Al and Ni3Al containing boron to observe the effect of boron on the notched specimen tensile behavior of Ni3Al. The results indicate that a predominantly intergranular fracture can be induced in the presence of a high constraint (notch), even in boron-doped Ni3Al, although a finite elongation and transgranular tearing-type fracture near the notch root were also observed. Fracture initiation was observed to occur in a brittle intergranular fashion in regions ahead of the notch root in notched specimens of both Ni3Al and Ni3Al microalloyed with boron. An increase in the intergranular fracture stress of Ni3Al due to boron was noted from the semiquantitative analysis (based on existing finite element models) of the notched tensile specimen data

298

RSS Newsfeed - Fraunhofer IZM  

... Um diese Frage dreht sich die Arbeit von Bundesdruckerei, Infineon Technologies AG und Fraunhofer IZM im aktuellen Förderprojekt „Sichere und langlebige eID-Anwendungen für die Mensch-Technik-Kooperation“ (SeManTiK). mehr Info Babybody schützt vor plötzlichem Kindstod Atmungssensoren in Babybodies könnten künftig vor dem plötzlichen Kindstod schützen. Grundlage ist eine dehnbare Leiterplatte, die sich dreidimensional der Körperform anpasst und mit üblichen industriellen Prozessen fertigen lässt. mehr Info 4 ... mehr Info Mit Hausmitteln gegen Demenz Mensch-Technik-Interaktion scheitert bei älteren Menschen meist an komplexen Strukturen, die ihnen das Leben eher erschweren als erleichtern. Dennoch verfügen alte, häufig alleinstehende Menschen über eine mediale Grundausstattung, die entsprechend verknüpft für ein selbstbestimmtes Leben überaus hilfreich sein kann. mehr Info Kleiner, smarter, zuverlässiger - das Fraunhofer IZM auf der COMPAMED 2012 Egal ob Medizintechnik, Diagnostik oder ...

299

Correlation between creep behavior in Al-based solid solution alloys and powder metallurgy Al alloys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The creep characteristics of Al-based solid solution alloys and powder metallurgy (PM) Al alloys are reviewed. Consideration of available information shows that the creep behavior of PM Al alloys is different from that of Al-based solid solution alloys with regard to the stress dependence of creep rate as inferred from the value of the stress exponent, n, and the temperature dependence of creep rate as measured by the value of the activation energy, Q. For example, according to well-documented experimental evidence, the activation energies for creep in Al-based solid solution alloys, whether they behave as class I (alloy class, n=3) or class II (metal class, n=5), are close to that for self-diffusion in Al. By contrast, the apparent activation energies for creep in PM Al alloys are not only much higher than those reported for Al-based solid solution alloys but also variable. It is suggested that the aforementioned differences arise from the presence of a threshold stress for creep in PM Al alloys; that the origin of such a threshold stress is related to the interaction between moving dislocations and oxides particles which are present as a result of processing these alloys by powder metallurgy and that by incorporating the threshold stress and its temperature dependence in the analysis, the true creep characteristics of PM Al alloys become similar to those of Al-based solid solution alloys. The consistency between this suggestion and experimental trends for two PM Al alloys, PM 6061 Al and PM 2124 Al, is examined. (orig.) 60 refs.

Mohamed, F.A. [California Univ., Irvine, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1998-05-01

300

Sterol Biosynthesis Inhibition by Paclobutrazol Induces Greater Aluminum (Al Sensitivity in Al-Tolerant Rice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Al tolerance is one of the main growth and yield limiting factor in world and mechanism for Al-tolerance or Al-sensitivity yet to be clarified. We previously reported Japonica rice (Oryza sariva L. cultivar Rikuu-20 as Al-sensitive, whereas a closely related cultivar that is a descendant of Rikuu-20, Rikuu-132, was Al tolerant. The objective of the present study was to clarify the role of plasma membrane lipid layer for Al tolerance in rice. The previously stated two cultivars were compared to determine mechanisms underlying variations in Al tolerance. The sensitive cultivar Rikuu-20 showed increased permeability of the Plasma Membrane (PM and greater Al uptake within 24 h of Al treatment. Lipid composition of the PM differed between these cultivars was considered to be the primary account for the difference in Al tolerance. The tolerant cultivar Rikuu-132 showed a less PM permeabilization and Al accumulation which was drastically decreased in presence of paclobutrazol, a sterol metabolism inhibitor which reduces ?5-sterols and accumulates abnormal sterols by inhibiting obtusifoliol-14?-demethylase. The tolerant cultivar Rikuu-132 had lower phospholipids than that of sensitive cultivar Rikuu-20, suggesting that the PM of Rikuu-132 is less negatively charged and less permeabilized than that of Rikuu-20. We used inhibitor of ?5-sterol synthesis to alter the ratio of phospholipids to ?5-sterols in both cultivars. These inhibitors reduced Al tolerance in Rikuu-132 whereas Al tolerance of Rikuu-20 was unchanged suggesting that PM lipid composition greatly regulating Al tolerance in rice.

K. Tawaraya

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Evolution of ConAl clusters and chemisorption of hydrogen on ConAl clusters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The growth behavior of ConAl (n = 1–15) and the chemisorptions of hydrogen on the ground state geometries have been studied using the density functional theory (DFT) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The growth pattern for ConAl is Al-substituted Con+1 clusters, and it keeps the similar frameworks of the most stable Con+1 clusters except for n = 2, 3, and 6. The Al atom substitutes the surface atom of the Con+1 clusters for n ? 13. Starting from n = 14, the Al atom completely falls into the center of the Co-frame. The dissociation energy, the second-order energy differences, and the HOMO–LUMO gaps indicate that the magic numbers of the calculated ConAl clusters are 7, 9, and 13, corresponding to the high symmetrical structures. To my knowledge, this is the first time that a systematic study of chemisorption of hydrogen on cobalt aluminum clusters. The twofold bridge site is identified to be the most favorable chemisorptions site for one hydrogen adsorption on ConAl (n = 1–6, 8, 10), and two hydrogen adsorption on ConAl (n = 1–7), while threefold hollow site is preferred for one hydrogen adsorption on ConAl (n = 7, 9, 11–15) and two hydrogen adsorption on ConAl (n = 8–10, 12–15) clusters. The ground state structure of two hydrogen adsorption on Co11Al is exceptional. In general, the binding energy of both H and 2H o energy of both H and 2H of ConAl (n = 1–12) is found to increase with the cluster size. And the result shows that large binding energies of the hydrogen atoms and large fragmentation energies for Co11AlH and Co12AlH make these species behaving like magic clusters.

302

Retention of different OH-AL-species on natural bentonite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Natural bentonite of different layer charge were treated with three OH-Al solutions OH/Al=2 molar ratio and AT=p.02 M containing various Al species. The Al added to bentonites were in the range: 100 to 1000 meq/100 g of bentonite (OH-Al-bentonites). The presence of Al species: monomers, rapid (Al13) and slow reacting polymers, in solution before and after the reaction with smectites and total Al adsorbed were determined by the kinetics of Al-Ferron reaction color development. The OHAl-bentonites were calcined up to 500 deg C/1h (Al-PILCs). The solids were characterized by XRD and TGA-DTA. High d(001) spacing of the OH-Al-bentonites (around 2.05 nm) and of the Al-PILCs (around 1.90 nm) were obtained. The different OH-AL-species retained on the smectite modified the structural characteristics of the Al-PILCs. (author)

303

The effects of LT AlN buffer thickness on the optical properties of AlGaN grown by MOCVD and Al composition inhomogeneity analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have investigated the growth of AlGaN epilayers on a sapphire substrate by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition using various low-temperature (LT) AlN buffer thicknesses. Combined scanning electron microscopy and cathodoluminescence investigations reveal the correlation between the surface morphology and optical properties of AlGaN films in a microscopic scale. It is found that the suitable thickness of the LT AlN buffer for high quality AlGaN growth is around 20 nm. The Al compositional inhomogeneity of the AlGaN epilayer is attributed to the low lateral mobility of Al adatoms on the growing surface

304

In situ (Al3Zr + Al2O3np)/2024Al metal matrix composite with novel reinforcement distributions fabricated by reaction hot pressing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: •(Al3Zr + Al2O3np)/2024Al MMC with a novel network distribution was tailored. •Al3Zr and Al2O3np were in situ synthesized at 740 °C using the 2024Al–ZrO2 system. •The effect of sintering parameters on Al3Zr morphology was investigated. •Influence of Al3Zr morphology on tensile properties of the composite was studied. -- Abstract: In situ hybrid (Al3Zr + Al2O3np)/2024Al metal matrix composites with unique controlled reinforcement distributions were fabricated using low energy ball milling and reactive hot pressing. The reaction system between 2024Al and ZrO2 was studied using differential thermal analysis (DTA). In situ formed aluminium oxide (Al2O3) and zirconium tri-aluminide (Al3Zr) with varying morphology and sizes were produced under different fabricating conditions. Al3Zr with varying morphologies such as particle, plate and flakes were observed. With a total 10 vol.% of reinforcements, the composite containing a three-dimensional network of closely spaced in situ synthesized Al3Zr and Al2O3 particles had a YS of 175 MPa and a UTS of 261 MPa, effectively strengthening the 2024Al matrix. The effect of different sintering conditions on the microstructure and tensile properties of the composite wa

305

Calcium platinum aluminium, CaPtAl  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A preliminary X-ray study of CaPtAl has been reported previously by Hulliger [J. Alloys Compd (1993, 196, 225–228] based on X-ray powder diffraction data without structure refinement. With the present single-crystal X-ray study, we confirm the assignment of the TiNiSi type for CaPtAl, in a fully ordered inverse structure. All three atoms of the asymmetric unit have .m. site symmetry. The structure features a ?3[AlPt] open framework with a fourfold coordination of Pt by Al atoms and vice versa. The Ca atoms are located in the large channels of the structure.

Charles Fon Abi

2011-10-01

306

CALCULUL CINETOSTATIC AL MECANISMELOR PLANETARE CILINDRICE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available În lucrare se prezint? o metod? analitic? pentru calculul cinetostatic al mecanismului planetarmonomobil cu dou? ro?i din?ate centrale. Se consider? mai întâi cazul general al schemelor cinematice cu dou?ro?i din?ate solidare tip satelit, în dou? variante practice (multiplicator ?i reductor de tura?ie. Este men?ionatcazul particular al mecanismelor planetare cu o singur? roat? satelit cu angrenare dubl? (exterioar? ?iinterioar?. Pe baza modelului de analiz? cinetostatic? a mecanismului planetar monomobil cu dou? ro?i din?atecentrale, în finalul lucr?rii se abordeaz? o problem? practic? de calcul cinetostatic al unui mecanism planetarcilindric simplu folosit la capul de frezat pentru prelucrarea ro?ilor din?ate cilindrice cu din?i curbi înhipocicloid?.

P?un ANTONESCU

2012-05-01

307

Interdiffusion in ? phase Cu--Al alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The diffusion behavior of ? phase Cu--Al has been studied at 800, 850, and 950 0C using the experimental approach and analysis scheme of Kirkendall and Darken. Diffusion couples were made using the window frame technique and concentration profiles were determined by electron probe microanalysis. The chemical diffusion coefficient, D was found to be D = 0.65 exp(-42200/RT) cm2/s. The diffusivity was observed to be independent of composition over the range 11--13 wt. % Al. The self-diffusion coefficients D/sub Cu/ and D/sub Al/ were determined to be D/sub Al/ = 0.13 exp(-38900/RT) cm2/s and D/sub Cu/ = 2.2 exp(-43400/RT) cm2/s. All activation energies are in calories/mole

308

ALS and Oxidative Stress: The Neurovascular Scenario  

Science.gov (United States)

Oxidative stress and angiogenic factors have been placed as the prime focus of scientific investigations after an establishment of link between vascular endothelial growth factor promoter (VEGF), hypoxia, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathogenesis. Deletion of the hypoxia-response element in the vascular endothelial growth factor promoter and mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) which are characterised by atrophy and muscle weakness resulted in phenotype resembling human ALS in mice. This results in lower motor neurodegeneration thus establishing an important link between motor neuron degeneration, vasculature, and angiogenic molecules. In this review, we have presented human, animal, and in vitro studies which suggest that molecules like VEGF have a therapeutic, diagnostic, and prognostic potential in ALS. Involvement of vascular growth factors and hypoxia response elements also highlights the converging role of oxidative stress and neurovascular network for understanding and treatment of various neurodegenerative disorders like ALS. PMID:24367722

Thakur, Keshav; Gupta, Pawan Kumar

2013-01-01

309

Substitutional alloy of Ce and Al.  

Science.gov (United States)

The formation of substitutional alloys has been restricted to elements with similar atomic radii and electronegativity. Using high-pressure at 298 K, we synthesized a face-centered cubic disordered alloy of highly dissimilar elements (large Ce and small Al atoms) by compressing the Ce(3)Al intermetallic compound >15 GPa or the Ce(3)Al metallic glass >25 GPa. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction, Ce L(3)-edge absorption spectroscopy, and ab initio calculations revealed that the pressure-induced Kondo volume collapse and 4f electron delocalization of Ce reduced the differences between Ce and Al and brought them within the Hume-Rothery (HR) limit for substitutional alloying. The alloy remained after complete release of pressure, which was also accompanied by the transformation of Ce back to its ambient 4f electron localized state and reversal of the Kondo volume collapse, resulting in a non-HR alloy at ambient conditions. PMID:19188608

Zeng, Qiao-Shi; Ding, Yang; Mao, Wendy L; Luo, Wei; Blomqvist, Andreas; Ahuja, Rajeev; Yang, Wenge; Shu, Jinfu; Sinogeikin, Stas V; Meng, Yue; Brewe, Dale L; Jiang, Jian-Zhong; Mao, Ho-Kwang

2009-02-24

310

Response to comment by Cuk et al  

CERN Document Server

In a recent study of the optical conductivity of the Bi-2212 high temperature superconductor, Hwang, et al. have confirmed the mass-renormalization changes observed in ARPES but find that such changes are no longer observed in the highly overdoped regime. In a comment on this study, Cuk, et al. challenge this conclusion and present ARPES evidence for a kink in the superconducting state in the highly overdoped regime. We show, however that two doping dependent properties in the data of Cuk et al., the frequencies of the superconducting gap and the Van Hove singularity, suggest a Tc that is higher than the 58 K quoted, and that their sample is not as highly overdoped as claimed. As a result, these data can not refute the claim of Hwang et al. that the kink is absent in the highly overdoped region.

Valla, T; Gu, G; Hwang, J; Timusk, T; Gu, Genda

2004-01-01

311

Are RENiAl hydrides metallic?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to hydrogenation, the crystal structure of GdNiAl distorts from hexagonal to orthorhombic. The magnetic ordering temperature decreases dramatically and the magnetic entropy of this phase transition is in good agreement with theory. LuNiAl does not change its structure type, but it was found that the electronic contribution to specific heat decreases dramatically. None of the two phases loses its metallic character. (orig.)

312

Analysis of al-2 mutations in Neurospora.  

Science.gov (United States)

The orange pigmentation of the fungus Neurospora crassa is due to the accumulation of the xanthophyll neurosporaxanthin and precursor carotenoids. Two key reactions in the synthesis of these pigments, the formation of phytoene from geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate and the introduction of ? cycles in desaturated carotenoid products, are catalyzed by two domains of a bifunctional protein, encoded by the gene al-2. We have determined the sequence of nine al-2 mutant alleles and analyzed the carotenoid content in the corresponding strains. One of the mutants is reddish and it is mutated in the cyclase domain of the protein, and the remaining eight mutants are albino and harbor different mutations on the phytoene synthase (PS) domain. Some of the mutations are expected to produce truncated polypeptides. A strain lacking most of the PS domain contained trace amounts of a carotenoid-like pigment, tentatively identified as the squalene desaturation product diapolycopene. In support, trace amounts of this compound were also found in a knock-out mutant for gene al-2, but not in that for gene al-1, coding for the carotene desaturase. The cyclase activity of the AL-2 enzyme from two albino mutants was investigated by heterologous expression in an appropriately engineered E. coli strain. One of the AL-2 enzymes, predictably with only 20% of the PS domain, showed full cyclase activity, suggesting functional independence of both domains. However, the second mutant showed no cyclase activity, indicating that some alterations in the phytoene synthase segment affect the cyclase domain. Expression experiments showed a diminished photoinduction of al-2 transcripts in the al-2 mutants compared to the wild type strain, suggesting a synergic effect between reduced expression and impaired enzymatic activities in the generation of their albino phenotypes. PMID:21818281

Díaz-Sánchez, Violeta; Estrada, Alejandro F; Trautmann, Danika; Limón, M Carmen; Al-Babili, Salim; Avalos, Javier

2011-01-01

313

Analysis of al-2 Mutations in Neurospora  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The orange pigmentation of the fungus Neurospora crassa is due to the accumulation of the xanthophyll neurosporaxanthin and precursor carotenoids. Two key reactions in the synthesis of these pigments, the formation of phytoene from geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate and the introduction of ? cycles in desaturated carotenoid products, are catalyzed by two domains of a bifunctional protein, encoded by the gene al-2. We have determined the sequence of nine al-2 mutant alleles and analyzed the caroten...

Di?az-sa?nchez, Violeta; Estrada, Alejandro F.; Trautmann, Danika; Limo?n, M. Carmen; Al-babili, Salim; Avalos, Javier

2011-01-01

314

17th Annual ALS Users' Association Meeting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It's not exactly Russian roulette, but scheduling October events outdoors is not risk-free, even in usually sunny California. An overflow crowd of more than 400 registered users, ALS staff, and vendors enjoyed a full indoor program featuring science highlights and workshops spread over two and a half days from October 18 to October 20. However, a major storm, heralding the onset of the San Francisco Bay Area rainy season, posed a few weather challenges for the events on the ALS patio

315

Are RENiAl hydrides metallic?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Due to hydrogenation, the crystal structure of GdNiAl distorts from hexagonal to orthorhombic. The magnetic ordering temperature decreases dramatically and the magnetic entropy of this phase transition is in good agreement with theory. LuNiAl does not change its structure type, but it was found that the electronic contribution to specific heat decreases dramatically. None of the two phases loses its metallic character. (orig.)

Eichinger, Karl; Havela, Ladislav; Prokleska, Jan; Stelmakhovych, Olha; Danis, Stanislav [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic); Santava, Eva [Inst. of Physics ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic); Miliyanchuk, Khrystyna [Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry, Ivan Franko National Univ. of Lviv (Ukraine)

2009-09-15

316

INFORGER: información sobre medicamentos al paciente geriátrico  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

El objetivo principal del proyecto es facilitar la adquisición de conocimientos sobre la importancia que tiene proporcionar una información de calidad al paciente en general y en geriatría en particular. Este aspecto tiene una considerable importancia dado el aumento de la población geriátrica que potencialmente puede ser paciente y tiene necesidad de utilización de medicamentos. Está dirigido al uso racional y seguro de los medicamentos con las indudables ventajas que todo ello supone.

Marin?o Herna?ndez, Eduardo L.; Ferna?ndez Lastra, Cecilia; Modamio Charles, Pilar; Sebarroja Banu?s, Joan; Braza Reyes, Antonio J.; Tobaruela Marti?nez, Gonzalo; Criville? Montero, Antoni

2008-01-01

317

Veränderte Genexpression als Grundlage für vaskuläres Remodeling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gefäßwandumbau oder "vascular remodeling" ist definiert als Änderung im Gefäßkaliber, oft ohne Veränderung der Gesamtgewebsmasse. Die Verfügbarkeit des intravaskulären Ultraschalls hat dazu geführt, Gefäßremodeling als dynamischen Prozeß zu beobachten. Zelltod, Zellwachstum, Zellmigration und Produktion oder Abbau extrazellulärer Matrix sind durch die Expression von Genen in der Gefäßwand gesteuert. Anhand von Analysen solcher Genexpressionsmuster in verschiedenen Gefäßgebieten wird die Signifikanz des Forschungskonzepts "Genexpression in der Gefäßwand" an Beispielen illustriert.

Lang I

2000-01-01

318

Semiconducting Al transition-metal quasicrystals  

Science.gov (United States)

We report on a class of icosahedral aluminum transition-metal (Al-TM) alloys with true semiconducting behavior. Our description of the structure of these icosahedral quasicrystals is based on the six-dimensional Katz-Gratias-Boudard (KGB) model of the face-centered-icosahedral (fci) quasicrystal and its rational approximants. The shell structure of the atomic surfaces in perpendicular space defines the chemical order of aluminum and transition-metal (TM) atoms leading to semiconducting transport properties. In transition-metal aluminides the hybridization between the Al(s,p) and transition-metal d orbitals is responsible for the formation of a semiconducting gap in the electronic spectrum. We have analyzed the electronic charge distribution and observed an enhanced charge density along the Al-TM bonds that is characteristic of covalent bonding. The existence of an energy gap in the electronic spectrum at or in the vicinity of the Fermi level is explicitly demonstrated for several low-order approximants in the hierarchy of Fibonacci approximants which converges to the icosahedral quasicrystals of the fci class, to which also the i-AlPdRe belongs. We predict existence of truly semiconducting quasicrystalline 1/1-approximants. Our results also lead to the prediction of the existence of new semiconducting quasicrystals with specified Al-TM compositions. The possibility of the existence of a semiconducting band gap suggests an explanation for the anomalously high resistivity of the icosahedral AlPdRe quasicrystals. We demonstrate that substitutional defects violating the ideal Al-TM ordering predicted by the KGB model lead to the formation of localized states in the band gap. A real sample of i-AlPdRe thus seems to be a semiconductor with a band gap filled by the localized states.

Kraj?í, M.; Hafner, J.

2003-10-01

319

Physical properties of Al-R melts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, we present experimental data of physical properties (viscosity, surface tension, magnetic susceptibility and electroresistivity) studies for Al-R (R = Ce, Pr, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Yb and Y) alloys and first intermetallic compounds from aluminum side, Al11R3 (Al3R). All properties were measured during heating up to 2000 K and the following cooling down under helium atmosphere. The main results are: (1) the electronic characteristics of the objects are in good correlation with R positions in the periodic table, but rather lower than for pure elements. The conclusion is that through all investigated temperature range, the rare-earth elements have partly covalent but not only metallic states; (2) all the melts remain strongly microheterogeneous even at high overheatings above liquidus. The existence of associations with Al2R type is highly probable here. Some destruction of these associations takes place with increasing temperature above melting point at the composition of Al2R compound. However, the transformation into true solution state is somewhere above 1900 K. To check the idea, the thermodynamic modeling of the melts was performed. It was shown that associates with Al2R type are stable up to 2000 K

320

Modeling of precipitation in Al alloys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objective was the development of a computational model of precipitation from a supersaturated alloy solid solution. The model is based on the formalism of chemical-reaction-rate theory combined with classical descriptions of precipitate thermodynamic properties and a mean-field treatment of diffusion-limited growht and coarsening. For the case of precipitation of Al{sub 3}Sc in supersaturated Al-Sc alloys, it is demonstrated how the model can be used to calculate number densities and size distributions of precipitates as a function of aging time and temperature, including effects of continuous cooling and thermally generated point defects. Application of the model to a specific alloy system requires knowledge of diffusion data, point defect energetics, and thermodynamic properties for bulk phases and interphase interfaces. For interfaces and point defects, thermodynamic data can be difficult to measure and reliable values of defect free energies are often unavailable. For this reason, part of the efforts were devoted to applying semiempirical and first-principles atomistic techniques to the calculation of interfacial and point-defect thermodynamic properties. This report discusses applications for interphase interfaces in the Al-Ag, Al-Sc, and Al-Li alloy systems. We also describe atomistic work aimed at understanding the energetics of vacancy clusters in Al. These clusters serve as sinks for isolated vacancies during aging and their growth can lead to more complex defects, such as dislocation loops, that act as heterogeneous nucleation sites.

Asta, M.; Foiles, S.M.; Wolfer, W.G. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)] [and others

1996-10-01

 
 
 
 
321

Heterogeneous nucleation of solid Al from the melt by Al3Ti : Molecular dynamics simulations  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been known experimentally for some time that Al3Ti is a powerful nucleant for the solidification of aluminum from the melt; however, a full microscopic understanding is still lacking. To develop this understanding, we have performed molecular dynamics simulations of the nucleation and early stages of growth using published embedded atom method potentials for Al-Ti, but modified by us to stabilize the D022 structure. We discover that Al3Ti can indeed be very effective in promoting the growth of solid Al but the manner in which growth takes place depends sensitively on the surface on which the Al nucleates. In particular, complete growth of solid Al from the liquid on the (001) and (110) surfaces of Al3Ti occurs at a lower temperature than on the (112) surface. This anisotropy agrees with observations in previous experiments [Greer , Acta Mater. 48, 2823 (2000)10.1016/S1359-6454(00)00094-X]. We explain this observation in terms of interfacial energies. On the preferential (111) surface of Al the solid-liquid interfacial energy is highest while the solid-vacuum energy is lowest. Our simulations also show that the extent of ordering taking place in liquid Al close to the Al3Ti substrate above the melting point correlates well with the effectiveness of the substrate as a nucleant below the melting temperature: this could provide a computationally efficient scheme to identify good nucleants.

Wang, Junsheng; Horsfield, Andrew; Lee, Peter D.; Brommer, Peter

2010-10-01

322

Corrosion behavior of solid solution (Ti,Al)N as a function of Al concentration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work, a series of (Ti, Al) N coatings with different Al contents were deposited on 304 stainless steel substrates by Hollow Cathode Discharge (HCD) method. The coatings were grown on 304 stainless steel substrates at 400 C. The coatings were characterized using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and microhardness test. The XRD confirmed the transition from TiN phase to (Ti, Al) N phase and then to AlN phase with increasing Al concentration in the solid solution. It was found that with increasing Al concentration the hardness of the coatings initially increased up to a maximum value of about 30 GPa at around 32 at.% of Al and then the coating hardness decreased rapidly with further increase of Al content (Al > 32 at.%). The potentiodynamic polarization analysis was carried out in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solutions to study the corrosion resistance of the coatings. From the corrosion test it can be inferred that the amount of Al atoms in the coatings plays an important role for reducing the corrosion. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

Larijani, M.M.; Seyedi, H. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, P. O. Box 31485-498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Manouchehrian, M. [Department of Physics, Science Faculty, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yari, M. [Engineering Department Materials, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-08-15

323

Thermodynamics and surface properties of liquid Al-Ga and Al-Ge alloys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The surface properties of Al-Ga and Al-Ge liquid alloys have been theoretically investigated at a temperature of 1100 K and 1220 K respectively. For the Al-Ga system, the quasi chemical model for regular alloy and a model for phase segregating alloy systems were applied, while for the Al-Ge system the quasi chemical model for regular and compound forming binary alloys were applied. In the case of Al-Ga, the models for the regular alloys and that for the phase segregating alloys produced the same value of order energy and same values of thermodynamic and surface properties, while for the Al-Ge system, the model for the regular alloy reproduced better the thermodynamic properties of the alloy. The model for the compound forming systems showed a qualitative trend with the measured values of the thermodynamic properties of the Al-Ge alloy and suggests the presence of a weak complex of the form Al{sub 2}Ge{sub 3}. The surface concentrations for the alloys show that Ga manifests some level of surface segregation in Al-Ga liquid alloy while the surface concentration of Ge in Al-Ge liquid alloy showed a near Roultian behavior below 0.8 atomic fraction of Ge. (orig.)

Anusionwu, B.C. [Abdus Salam Int. Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Federal University of Technology, Department of Physics, Owerri (Nigeria); Adebayo, G.A. [Abdus Salam Int. Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); University of Agriculture, Department of Physics, Abeokuta (Nigeria); Madu, C.A. [Federal University of Technology, Department of Physics, Owerri (Nigeria)

2009-11-15

324

Al/sub 3/Li precipitate modification in an Al-Li-Zr alloy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An Al-2.34Li-1.07Zr (weight percent) alloy was produced using rapid solidification processing in an attempt to modify the ?' (Al/sub 3/Li) precipitate found in the Al-Li binary system to a complex Al/sub 3/(Li,Zr) phase. Such a modification is expected to increase fracture toughness and ductility by decreasing shear localization, which is a major drawback in Al-Li alloys. A novel microstructure is presented in which a zirconium-rich phase present as fine spheres or discontinuously precipitated rods (with diameters of 6 to 20 nm) is subsequently enveloped by ?' during aging at 1900C. Electron diffraction effects, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis in scanning transmission electron microscopy, and preliminary electron energy loss spectroscopy results indicate that the precipitate phase stable at 5000C is Al/sub 3/(Li/sub x/,Zr/sub 1-x/), where x appears to be 0.45 to 0.8. This is in contrast to the Al-Li and AL-Zr binary systems, in which the equilibrium phases at 5000C for these solute levels are aluminum solid solution and Al/sub 3/Zr in an aluminum matrix, respectively. The alloy shows longitudinal strength-ductility combinations which are significantly better than those of a low-zirconium control alloy and which compare quite favorably with those of other Al-Li alloys

325

AuAl2 and PtAl2 as potential plasmonic materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: •The electronic structure dielectric functions of PtAl2, AuAl2 and intermediate alloys were calculated. •The experimental reflectivity and EELS for PtAl2 showed good agreement with the theoretical spectra. •The yellow color of PtAl2 is associated with a bulk plasmon at 3 eV. •These materials are good candidates for applications in plasmonics. -- Abstract: The dielectric functions of PtAl2, AuAl2 and hypothetical intermediate alloys of the two in the form of AuxPt1?xAl2 were calculated from first principles using density functional theory (DFT) and the random phase approximation (RPA). From these, the reflectivity, electron energy-loss spectra (EELS) and small sphere extinction spectra are predicted. The experimental reflectivity and EELS were measured for PtAl2 and showed good agreement with the theoretical spectra. The yellow color of PtAl2 is associated with a bulk plasmon at 3 eV. We predict that the optical properties of hypothetical intermediate alloys would show a smooth evolution with composition. The details of this change can be understood by examination of the underlying density of states (DOS). The predicted small sphere extinction spectra and quality factors show a strong surface plasmon resonance for these materials, with PtAl2 having the optimum performance. The results indicate that these materials are good candidates for applications in plasmonics

326

Improving arc joining of Al to steel and Al to stainless steel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Al alloy was joined to galvanized steel with assistance of ultrasonic vibration. ? Ultrasonic vibration during GTAW increased the joint strength by 27%. ? Al alloy was joined to stainless steel with Zn-15Al flux-cored filler wire. ? Postweld heat treatment doubled or even tripled the joint strength. ? Weld solidification microstructure was explained based on ternary phase diagrams. - Abstract: Gas-tungsten arc welding (GTAW) with controlled heat input could avoid the formation of massive brittle Al–Fe intermetallics during solidification in dissimilar-metal joining of aluminum to steel. In the first part of the present study an Al–Mg alloy was joined to galvanized steel by GTAW with an Al–Si filler metal. The weld solidification microstructure was explained based on the Al–Mg–Si phase diagram. Ultrasonic vibration during GTAW increased the joint strength by 27%. Grain refinement, decreased Fe–Al intermetallics, and increased microhardness in both the heat-affected zone and the weld were observed, thus explaining the improved joint strength. In the second part, an Al–Mg alloy was joined to 304 stainless steel using a Zn-15Al filler metal with a noncorrosive flux core. The weld solidification microstructure was explained based on the Al–Zn–Mg phase diagram. Postweld heat treatment (PWHT) at 280 °C for 30 min doubled or even tripled the joint strength depending on the Al-sheet thickness. Dissolution of coarse Zn-rich particles at the weld/steel interface was observed after PWHT, thus eliminating these weak particles from the interface. The formation of Zn-rich particles near the interface and their dissolution by PWHT were explained based on the Al–Fe–Zn phase diagram.

327

Improving arc joining of Al to steel and Al to stainless steel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al alloy was joined to galvanized steel with assistance of ultrasonic vibration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ultrasonic vibration during GTAW increased the joint strength by 27%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al alloy was joined to stainless steel with Zn-15Al flux-cored filler wire. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Postweld heat treatment doubled or even tripled the joint strength. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Weld solidification microstructure was explained based on ternary phase diagrams. - Abstract: Gas-tungsten arc welding (GTAW) with controlled heat input could avoid the formation of massive brittle Al-Fe intermetallics during solidification in dissimilar-metal joining of aluminum to steel. In the first part of the present study an Al-Mg alloy was joined to galvanized steel by GTAW with an Al-Si filler metal. The weld solidification microstructure was explained based on the Al-Mg-Si phase diagram. Ultrasonic vibration during GTAW increased the joint strength by 27%. Grain refinement, decreased Fe-Al intermetallics, and increased microhardness in both the heat-affected zone and the weld were observed, thus explaining the improved joint strength. In the second part, an Al-Mg alloy was joined to 304 stainless steel using a Zn-15Al filler metal with a noncorrosive flux core. The weld solidification microstructure was explained based on the Al-Zn-Mg phase diagram. Postweld heat treatment (PWHT) at 280 Degree-Sign C for 30 min doubled or even tripled the joint strength depending on the Al-sheet thickness. Dissolution of coarse Zn-rich particles at the weld/steel interface was observed after PWHT, thus eliminating these weak particles from the interface. The formation of Zn-rich particles near the interface and their dissolution by PWHT were explained based on the Al-Fe-Zn phase diagram.

Dong Honggang, E-mail: donghg@dlut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116085 (China); Yang Liqun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116085 (China); Dong Chuang [Key Lab of Materials Modification, Dalian University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Dalian 116085 (China); Kou Sindo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Wisconsin, 1509 University Ave, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

2012-02-01

328

Degradasi Lapisan Aluminida pada Paduan Intermetalik ?2-Ti3Al / ?-TiAl Akibat Oksidasi Siklik  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two-phase inter-metallic alloy ?2-Ti3Al/?-TiAl is developed to operated at high temperature in oxidative environment. However its oxidation rate can not be tolerated due to formation of TiO2 which is not protective. If the alloy is used in gas turbine that often have thermal cycle, it will cause cracking and flaking oxide crust. Coating is correct solution to improve properties of this alloy so that it can be used at high temperature. By enriching the material surface with significant amount of Al element there will be a formation of Al2O3 protective oxide. The method applied to get formation of Al2O3 is the pack cementation. This study discusses of characteristic coating and oxide crust formation at two-phase inter-metallic alloy of ?2-Ti3Al/?-TiAl from pack aluminizing process Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia; Paduan intermetalik dua fasa ?2-Ti3Al/?-TiAl dikembangkan untuk operasi temperature tinggi dalam lingkungan oksidatif. Namun laju oksidasinya tidak dapat ditolelir karena akan teroksidasi membentuk kerak oksida TiO2 yang tidak protektif. Pada Mesin turbin gas yang seringkali mengalami siklus thermal, dapat mengakibatkan peretakan (cracking dan pengelupasan (spalling kerak oksida. Coating merupakan solusi yang tepat agar paduan ini dapat digunakan pada temperature tinggi. Dengan memperkaya permukaan benda kerja dengan unsur Al sehingga material mampu membentuk kerak oksida protektif Al2O3 saat teroksidasi. Metoda pelapisan temperature tinggi yang sering diterapkan untuk keperluan ini adalah pack cementation. Studi ini membahas sebagian dari hasil pengujian oksidasi siklik. Khususnya pembahasan karakteristik coating dan kerak oksida yang terbentuk pada paduan intermetalik dua fasa ?2-Ti3Al/?-TiAl hasil pack aluminizing. Kata kunci: Coating, cyclic oxidation, pack aluminizing.

Toto Saputra

2008-01-01

329

Phase relationships in the Al-rich region of the Al-Cu-Er system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research highlights: > One ternary phase {tau}{sub 1}-Al{sub 8}Cu{sub 4}Er in Al-rich region with a composition of 59.4-60.4 at.% Al, 32.2-33.8 at.% Cu, and 6.4-7.7 at.% Er is observed in both as-cast and annealed alloys. At 673 K, the binary Al{sub 3}Er phase dissolves about 3.51 at.% Cu. > The calculated solidification paths (based on the CALPHAD method) of as-cast alloys are in agreement with the experimental results. > It can be found that the resultant thermodynamic database can be applied to case studies of as-cast alloys, showing that the literature thermodynamic description of the Al-Cu-Er system is reliable as a working basis for computer-assisted alloy design. - Abstract: The Al-rich region of the ternary Al-Cu-Er system is investigated using the method of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Phase equilibria in the Al-rich region of the Al-Cu-Er system at 673 K have been obtained, and the microstructures of as-cast alloys in the Al-rich region are also investigated. One ternary phase {tau}{sub 1}-Al{sub 8}Cu{sub 4}Er with a composition of 59.4-60.4 at.% Al, 32.2-33.8 at.% Cu, and 6.4-7.7 at.% Er is observed in both as-cast and annealed alloys. At 673 K, the binary Al{sub 3}Er phase dissolves about 3.51 at.% Cu. The calculated solidification paths (based on the CALPHAD method) of as-cast alloys are in agreement with the experimental results.

Zhang Ligang, E-mail: Ligang.Zhang@vtc.tu-freiberg.de [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Lushan Street 105, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Freiberg University of Mining and Technology, Centre for Innovation Competence Virtuhcon, Fuchsmuehlenweg 9, D-09596 Freiberg (Germany); Science Center for Phase Diagram and Materials Design and Manufacture, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Masset, Patrick J. [Freiberg University of Mining and Technology, Centre for Innovation Competence Virtuhcon, Fuchsmuehlenweg 9, D-09596 Freiberg (Germany); Cao Fuyong [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Lushan Street 105, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Meng Fangui [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410004 (China); Liu Libin, E-mail: PDC@mail.csu.edu.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Lushan Street 105, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Science Center for Phase Diagram and Materials Design and Manufacture, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Jin Zhanpeng [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Lushan Street 105, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Science Center for Phase Diagram and Materials Design and Manufacture, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

2011-03-03

330

Phase relationships in the Al-rich region of the Al-Cu-Er system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research highlights: ? One ternary phase ?1-Al8Cu4Er in Al-rich region with a composition of 59.4-60.4 at.% Al, 32.2-33.8 at.% Cu, and 6.4-7.7 at.% Er is observed in both as-cast and annealed alloys. At 673 K, the binary Al3Er phase dissolves about 3.51 at.% Cu. ? The calculated solidification paths (based on the CALPHAD method) of as-cast alloys are in agreement with the experimental results. ? It can be found that the resultant thermodynamic database can be applied to case studies of as-cast alloys, showing that the literature thermodynamic description of the Al-Cu-Er system is reliable as a working basis for computer-assisted alloy design. - Abstract: The Al-rich region of the ternary Al-Cu-Er system is investigated using the method of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Phase equilibria in the Al-rich region of the Al-Cu-Er system at 673 K have been obtained, and the microstructures of as-cast alloys in the Al-rich region are also investigated. One ternary phase ?1-Al8Cu4Er with a composition of 59.4-60.4 at.% Al, 32.2-33.8 at.% Cu, and 6.4-7.7 at.% Er is observed in both as-cast and annealed alloys. At 673 K, the binary Al3Er phase dissolves about 3.51 at.% Cu. The calculated solidification paths (based on the CALPHAD method) of as-cast alloys are in agreement with the experimental results. results.

331

Optical microcavities and enhanced electroluminescence from electroformed Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electroluminescence (EL) and electron emission into vacuum (EM) occur when a non-destructive dielectric breakdown of Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes, electroforming, results in the development of a filamentary region in which current-voltage (I-V) characteristics exhibit voltage-controlled negative resistance. The temperature dependence of I-V curves, EM, and, particularly, EL of Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes with anodic Al2O3 thicknesses between 12?nm and 30?nm, has been studied. Two filters, a long-pass (LP) filter with transmission of photons with energies less than 3.0?eV and a short-pass (SP) filter with photon transmission between 3.0 and 4.0?eV, have been used to characterize EL. The voltage threshold for EL with the LP filter, VLP, is ?1.5?V. VLP is nearly independent of Al2O3 thickness and of temperature and is 0.3–0.6?V less than the threshold voltage for EL for the SP filter, VSP. EL intensity is primarily between 1.8 and 3.0?eV when the bias voltage, VS ? 7?V. EL in the thinnest diodes is enhanced compared to EL in thicker diodes. For increasing VS, for diodes with the smallest Al2O3 thicknesses, there is a maximum EL intensity, LMX, at a voltage, VLMX, followed by a decrease to a plateau. LMX and EL intensity at 4.0?V in the plateau region depend exponentially on Al2O3 thickness. The ratio of LMX at 295?K for a diode with 12?nm of Al2O3 to LMX for a diode with 25?nm of Al2O3 is ?140. The ratio of EL intensity with the LP filter to EL intensity with the SP filter, LP/SP, varies between ?3 and ?35; it depends on Al2O3 thickness and VS. Enhanced EL is attributed to the increase of the spontaneous emission rate of a dipole in a non-resonant optical microcavity. EL photons interact with the Ag and Al films to create surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at the metal-Al2O3 interfaces. SPPs generate large electromagnetic fields in the filamentary region of the electroformed Al-Al2O3-Ag diode, which then acts as an optical microcavity. A model is proposed for electronic processes in electroformed Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes

332

Optical microcavities and enhanced electroluminescence from electroformed Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes  

Science.gov (United States)

Electroluminescence (EL) and electron emission into vacuum (EM) occur when a non-destructive dielectric breakdown of Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes, electroforming, results in the development of a filamentary region in which current-voltage (I-V) characteristics exhibit voltage-controlled negative resistance. The temperature dependence of I-V curves, EM, and, particularly, EL of Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes with anodic Al2O3 thicknesses between 12 nm and 30 nm, has been studied. Two filters, a long-pass (LP) filter with transmission of photons with energies less than 3.0 eV and a short-pass (SP) filter with photon transmission between 3.0 and 4.0 eV, have been used to characterize EL. The voltage threshold for EL with the LP filter, VLP, is ˜1.5 V. VLP is nearly independent of Al2O3 thickness and of temperature and is 0.3-0.6 V less than the threshold voltage for EL for the SP filter, VSP. EL intensity is primarily between 1.8 and 3.0 eV when the bias voltage, VS ? 7 V. EL in the thinnest diodes is enhanced compared to EL in thicker diodes. For increasing VS, for diodes with the smallest Al2O3 thicknesses, there is a maximum EL intensity, LMX, at a voltage, VLMX, followed by a decrease to a plateau. LMX and EL intensity at 4.0 V in the plateau region depend exponentially on Al2O3 thickness. The ratio of LMX at 295 K for a diode with 12 nm of Al2O3 to LMX for a diode with 25 nm of Al2O3 is ˜140. The ratio of EL intensity with the LP filter to EL intensity with the SP filter, LP/SP, varies between ˜3 and ˜35; it depends on Al2O3 thickness and VS. Enhanced EL is attributed to the increase of the spontaneous emission rate of a dipole in a non-resonant optical microcavity. EL photons interact with the Ag and Al films to create surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at the metal-Al2O3 interfaces. SPPs generate large electromagnetic fields in the filamentary region of the electroformed Al-Al2O3-Ag diode, which then acts as an optical microcavity. A model is proposed for electronic processes in electroformed Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes.

Hickmott, T. W.

2013-12-01

333

Thermal Properties in the MgAl2O4-Al2O3 System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Compositional effects on the thermal diffusivity in the MgAl2O4-Al2O3 system were studied. The lowest thermal diffusivity, 0.0258 +/-5% cm/s, was measured between 79.8 and 83.9 wt% Al2O3 quenched from various temperatures between 1500 and 1700C. All of the chemistries in this range extend past the solvus, but still form a singe super-saturated spinel solid solution, regardless of quenching tempeature. A super-saturated metastable solid solution region was observed at 1500, 1600, and 1700C extending to 83.9, 85.2, and 87.1 wt% Al2O3, respectively. Beyond 83.9% Al2O3 a significant increase in thermal diffusivity, 11.7%, was observed and its attributed to precipiation of Al2O3 through spinodal decomposition.

Wilkerson, Dr. Kelley R. [Missouri University of Science and Technology; Smith, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL

2013-01-01

334

?-phase formation in NiAl and Ni2Al alloys  

Science.gov (United States)

The phase stability of bcc-like NiAl and Ni2Al with respect to phase transformations into the ? phase is examined by first-principles, full-potential, linear muffin-tin orbital method (FPLMTO), band-structure calculations. In agreement with experiment we find that bcc-like NiAl is stable, whereas Ni2Al is unstable. We have also performed some calculations in slightly disordered phases, and find that the disordering tends to inhibit the transformation. This supports the suggestion that a combined displacive/ordering transformation mechanism is involved in the phase transformations of the Ni2Al system. Calculated lattice parameters and the degree of internal shuffling of atoms for the ordered Ni2Al phase were found to be in excellent agreement with the experiment

Sanati, M.; Albers, R. C.; Pinski, F. J.

2001-06-01

335

Nanocrack-induced leakage current in AlInN/AlN/GaN  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Here we report on the study of nano-crack formation in Al1?xInxN/AlN/GaN heterostructures, on its association with composition fluctuation and on its local electrical properties. It is shown here that indium segregation at nano-cracks and threading dislocations originating from the non-pseudomorphic AlN interlayer could be the cause of the high reverse-bias gate leakage current of Ni/Au Schottky contacts on Al1?xInxN/AlN/GaN heterostructures and significantly affects the contact rectifying behavior. Segregation of indium around crack tips in Al1?xInxN acting as conductive paths was assessed with conductive atomic force microscopy.

336

TEM studies of oxidized NiAl and Ni3Al cross sections  

Science.gov (United States)

Cross sections of oxide scale/(Ni-Al) intermetallics were prepared by a new method and studied using primarily TEM. The cross sections were prepared by encasing an oxidized metal specimen sandwich in a low-melting-temperature zinc alloy. Observations of oxidized zirconium-doped beta-NiAl cross sections revealed crystallographic voids beneath an adherent Al2O3 scale. The oxide-metal interface was incoherent, but a high dislocation density in the metal near the interface suggested that a large tensile stress was induced by the attached oxide scale. A duplex Al2O3-NiAl2O4 scale formed on zirconium-doped and zirconium/boron-doped gamma-prime-Ni3Al alloys. Additional results are presented involving oxidation mechanisms and oxide-metal interface structures.

Doychak, J.; Ruhle, M.

1989-01-01

337

Models for frozen-free-split phenomena in e- -irradiated Al and Al-Fe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Samples of pure Al and Al containing 400 atppm Fe have been irradiated with electrons at 4.2 K and annealed at subsequently higher temperatures. During the annealing program in pure Al, the growth and decay of two pairs of mechanical relaxation peaks was observed, and in Al-Fe of one pair. The members of each pair grow and decay in a parallel fashion. They are explained as being due to the stress induced occupation of two different sets of elastic energy levels via two different relaxation modes by the reorientation of the same defect. For the pairs in pure Al and for the pair observed in Al-Fe atomistic models are given based on computer simulation studies

338

Alpha and beta stabilizer character of Al in Zr-Nb-Al alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The T?/?+? of Zr5Nb and Zr5Nb2Al (weight %) were determined in order to observe the alpha-stabilizer character of Al in ternary Zr-Nb-Al alloys. Techniques employed were change of resistivity with temperature in dynamic experiences, and metallography of samples quenched to room temperature after isothermal annealings. The T?/?+? of the ternary resulted 17 ± 8 deg C higher than that of the binary alloy. In addition, taking into account the results of previous investigations of the transformation of beta on quenching Zr-Nb-Al alloys from the beta field to room temperature, it is concluded that the beta-stabilizer character of Nb is stronger than the alpha-stabilizer character of Al in these Zr alloys, and that the Al can have important influence on the mechanical properties by the appearance of TRIP effect. (Author)

339

Process Capability Analysis of Vacuum Moulding for Development of Al-Al2O3 MMC  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the present study is to investigate process capability of vacuum moulding (VM) for development of Al-Al2O3 metal matrix composite (MMC). Starting from the identification of component, prototypes were prepared (with three different input parameters namely: vacuum pressure; component volume and sand grit size to give output in form of dimensional accuracy). Measurements on the coordinate measuring machine helped in calculating the dimensional tolerances of the Al-Al2O3 MMC prepared. Some important mechanical properties were also compared to verify the suitability of the components. Final components produced are acceptable as per ISO standard UNI EN 20286-I (1995). The results of study suggest that VM process lies in ±4.5 sigma (?) limit as regard to dimensional accuracy of Al-Al2O3 MMC is concerned. This process ensures rapid production of pre-series technological prototypes and proof of concept at less production cost and time.

Singh, R.

2013-01-01

340

27Al NMR studies of NpPd5Al2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present 27Al NMR studies for a single crystal of the Np-based superconductor NpPd5Al2(Tc=4.9K). We have observed a five-line 27Al NMR spectrum with a center line and four satellite lines separated by first-order nuclear quadrupole splittings. The Knight shift clearly drops below Tc. The temperature dependence of the 27Al nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate shows no coherence peak below Tc, indicating that NpPd5Al2 is an unconventional superconductor with an anisotropic gap. The analysis of the present NMR data provides evidence for strong-coupling d-wave superconductivity in NpPd5Al2.

 
 
 
 
341

{sup 27}Al NMR studies of NpPd{sub 5}Al{sub 2}  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present {sup 27}Al NMR studies for a single crystal of the Np-based superconductor NpPd{sub 5}Al{sub 2}(T{sub c}=4.9K). We have observed a five-line {sup 27}Al NMR spectrum with a center line and four satellite lines separated by first-order nuclear quadrupole splittings. The Knight shift clearly drops below T{sub c}. The temperature dependence of the {sup 27}Al nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate shows no coherence peak below T{sub c}, indicating that NpPd{sub 5}Al{sub 2} is an unconventional superconductor with an anisotropic gap. The analysis of the present NMR data provides evidence for strong-coupling d-wave superconductivity in NpPd{sub 5}Al{sub 2}.

Chudo, H., E-mail: chudo.hiroyuki@jaea.go.j [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Sakai, H.; Tokunaga, Y.; Kambe, S. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Aoki, D.; Homma, Y.; Shiokawa, Y. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Haga, Y.; Ikeda, S.; Matsuda, T.D. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Onuki, Y. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Yasuoka, H. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

2009-10-15

342

Structure and mechanical properties of Al-12%Si alloy with fast cooling Al-12%Si  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A homogenous modifier obtained by the rapid solidification at a cooling rate equal to v=300 K/s was applied to the modification of the Al-12%Si alloy. The different modifiers were obtained by means of the Al-Si alloys. The components Al-12%Si were put into crucible containing the liquid Al-12%Si alloy and kept for one minute to obtain a new homogenous alloy which after break-up was homogenous modifier. Both, effect of cooling rate applied to obtain modifier and weight in weight modifier concentration in the melt on structure, tensile strength, elongations and hardness of Al-12%Si alloy are determined. A structural, physical and mechanical properties resulting from the Al-12%Si alloy treatment by modifiers are studied in details.

T. Lipi?ski

2008-08-01

343

Analog resistive switching behavior of Al/Nb2O5/Al device  

Science.gov (United States)

Resistive switching effects in metal–insulator–metal (MIM) structures are strongly influenced by the electrode materials. In this work a platinum-free symmetric Al/Nb2O5/Al device is compared to a device with platinum bottom electrode. For the device with the platinum bottom electrode, filamentary based resistive switching with good data retention was observed up to 125 °C. For the Al/Nb2O5/Al device, an area dependent pure electronic based resistive switching was observed. Electron trapping at the bottom electrode interface is responsible for the observed analog switching behavior which makes an Al/Nb2O5/Al device suitable for neuromorphic applications.

Mähne, H.; Wylezich, H.; Hanzig, F.; Slesazeck, S.; Rafaja, D.; Mikolajick, T.

2014-10-01

344

TEM characterization of oxidized AlGaAs/AlAs nonlinear optical waveguides  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The internal interfaces of multilayer Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As/AlAs nonlinear optical waveguides are investigated by high-angle annular-dark-field and energy-filtered scanning transmission electron microscopy, before and after partial wet oxidation of AlAs layers. Via a simple phenomenological model, the corresponding roughness parameters allow prediction of the scattering-induced waveguide optical losses, which are in reasonable agreement with the experimental value of 0.5 cm{sup -1}. We also find that Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As layers adjacent to oxidized AlAs tend to be oxidized through the interfaces, even for low Al fraction, with typical oxidation depths of 9 nm for x = 0.7 and 2 nm for x = 0.

Guillotel, E; Langlois, C; Ghiglieno, F; Leo, G; Ricolleau, C, E-mail: cyril.langlois@univ-paris-diderot.f [Laboratoire Materiaux et Phenomenes Quantiques, CNRS-UMR 7162 Universite Paris Diderot - Paris 7 Case courrier 7021, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

2010-09-29

345

Effects of Al(III and Nano-Al13 Species on Malate Dehydrogenase Activity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of different aluminum species on malate dehydrogenase (MDH activity were investigated by monitoring amperometric i-t curves for the oxidation of NADH at low overpotential using a functionalized multi-wall nanotube (MWNT modified glass carbon electrode (GCE. The results showed that Al(III and Al13 can activate the enzymatic activity of MDH, and the activation reaches maximum levels as the Al(III and Al13 concentration increase. Our study also found that the effects of Al(III and Al13 on the activity of MDH depended on the pH value and aluminum speciation. Electrochemical and circular dichroism spectra methods were applied to study the effects of nano-sized aluminum compounds on biomolecules.

Rong Fu Chen

2011-05-01

346

Microscopic Properties of Long-Period Ordering in Al-Rich TiAl Alloys  

Science.gov (United States)

The ordering mechanism of long-period superstructures (LPSs) in Al-rich TiAl alloys has been investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The LPSs are classified in terms of arrangements of base clusters with different shapes and compositions formed in Ti-rich (002) layers of L10-TiAl matrix: square Ti4Al, fat rhombus Ti3Al, and lean rhombus Ti2Al type clusters. The HRTEM observations revealed that antiphase boundaries of long-range-ordered LPS domains and short-range-ordered microdomains are constructed by various space-filling arrangements of the base clusters. Such a microscopic property characterized by the base clusters and their arrangements is markedly analogous to that of the {left< {{text{1,1/2,0}}} rightrangle } * special-point ordering alloys such as Ni-Mo.

Hata, S.; Nakano, T.; Kuwano, N.; Itakura, M.; Matsumura, S.; Umakoshi, Y.

2008-07-01

347

Hyperfine interaction of 25Al in ?-Al2O3 and its quadrupole moment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electric quadrupole (Q) moment of short-lived nucleus 25Al (I? = 5/2+, T1/2 = 7.18 s) has been measured for the first time, by means of the ?-NQR technique. The spin polarization of 25Al was produced in heavy ion collisions and was kept in a ?-Al2O3 single crystal for as long as 2 s and the quadrupole coupling frequency was obtained as vertical bar eqQ / h(25Al in Al2O3) vertical bar = (4.05 ±0.30) MHz. From the result, the Q moment was determined as |Q(25Al)| = (240 ±20) mb. The present Q moment is larger by 30% than the shell model value of 184 mb, calculated by OXBASH code, which may show additional deformation of the nucleus.

348

Fabrication and Evaluation of Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices with Nb/Al AlOx Al/Nb Edge Junctions  

Science.gov (United States)

We have fabricated superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) with an inductance of 140 pH by using sub- µm Nb/Al AlO x Al/Nb edge junctions. The small capacitance of the junction resulted in the very large voltage swing of 210 µV and gradient dV/ d? of 940 µV/?0. Consequently, the very low flux noise of 0.61 µ?0/ Hz0.5 corresponding to the energy sensitivity ? of 8.6h at the white noise level was obtained by using a conventional flux-locked loop configuration. The low-frequency noise was also very low, 2.7 µ?0/ Hz0.5 corresponding to ?= 170 h at 1 Hz. We could obtain very low flux noise for the SQUID which had the practical inductance using only a conventional readout circuit.

Mizutani, Naoki; Yamasaki, Shuichi; Takada, Youichi; Adachi, Akira; Uehara, Gen; Kado, Hisashi

1994-05-01

349

Effect of the interface in laminated composites of Al-1100 and Al-2024  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laminated composites consisting of alternating layers of Al-1100 and Al-2024 were produced by hot rolling, with 45% Al-2024 volume fraction. These composites were subjected to cyclic thermal treatment (various numbers of cycles) and to isothermal treatment (various numbers of cycles) and to isothermal treatment (at peak temperature and for times equivalent to those of the thermal cycles. Microhardness, tensile and fatigue crack arrester modes) were studied in the initial state and after treatments. (E.G.)

350

Some aspects of anelastic and microplastic creep of pure Al and two Al-alloys  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Anelastic creep of pure Al, commercial Al-Cu and a binary Al-Cu alloy has been measured at room temperature by means of a high resolution laser interferometer. The irreversible component of the deformation was also quantified from measurements of the anelastic creep recovery. The dependence of the deformation-time curves on thermal treatment and cold work is analyzed. The mechanisms responsible for the room temperature anelastic creep are discussed. Materials loaded below their elastic limit ...

Sgobba, S.; Ku?nzi, H. -u; Ilschner, B.

1993-01-01

351

Fabrication, phase transformation studies, and characterization of SiC-AlN-Al2OC ceramics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Principal focus was on phase transformation, microstructure development, and elevated temperature creep, with some effort on room- temperature mechanical properties of selected materials. Fabrication was largely hot pressing, although many of the compositions can be densified by pressureless sintering; hot pressing was to ensure full attainment of density with fine microstructure. Most of the work was on SiC-AlN and AlN-Al2OC pseudobinaries

352

Two-Phase (TiAl+TiCrAl) Coating Alloys for Titanium Aluminides  

Science.gov (United States)

A coating for protecting titanium aluminide alloys, including the TiAl gamma + Ti3Al (alpha(sub 2)) class, from oxidative attack and interstitial embrittlement at temperatures up to at least 1000 C. is disclosed. This protective coating consists essentially of titanium, aluminum. and chromium in the following approximate atomic ratio: Ti(41.5-34.5)Al(49-53)Cr(9.5-12.5)

Brady, Michael P. (Inventor); Smialek, James L. (Inventor); Brindley, William J. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

353

A note on Wang et al's attack on Zhang et al's multiparty quantum secret sharing  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, Wang et al (2008 Phys. Lett. A 373 65) proposed an attack on Zhang et al's (2007 Opt. Commun. 269 418) multiparty quantum secret sharing scheme, in which the first and the last agent are reported to be able to cooperatively eavesdrop on all the secret messages without being detected. In this paper, we show that in Wang et al's attack, on average no more than half the secret messages can be eavesdropped.

Gao, Gan

2012-08-01

354

TEM characterization of oxidized AlGaAs/AlAs nonlinear optical waveguides  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The internal interfaces of multilayer Al x Ga 1-x As/AlAs nonlinear optical waveguides are investigated by high-angle annular-dark-field and energy-filtered scanning transmission electron microscopy, before and after partial wet oxidation of AlAs layers. Via a simple phenomenological model, the corresponding roughness parameters allow predicting the scattering-induced waveguide optical losses, which are in reasonable agreement with the experimental value of 0.5 cm -1. We also find...

2010-01-01

355

A note on Wang et al's attack on Zhang et al's multiparty quantum secret sharing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently, Wang et al (2008 Phys. Lett. A 373 65) proposed an attack on Zhang et al's (2007 Opt. Commun. 269 418) multiparty quantum secret sharing scheme, in which the first and the last agent are reported to be able to cooperatively eavesdrop on all the secret messages without being detected. In this paper, we show that in Wang et al's attack, on average no more than half the secret messages can be eavesdropped. (paper)

356

The PtAl? and PtAl2? anions: Theoretical and photoelectron spectroscopic characterization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report a joint photoelectron spectroscopic and theoretical study of the PtAl? and PtAl2? anions. The ground state structures and electronic configurations of these species were identified to be C?v, 1?+ for PtAl?, and C2v, 2B1 for PtAl2?. Structured anion photoelectron spectra of these clusters were recorded and interpreted using ab initio calculations. Good agreement between theory and experiment was found. All experimental features were successfully assigned to one-electron transitions from the ground state of the anions to the ground or excited states of the corresponding neutral species

357

UNDERSTANDING THE MULTIDIMENSIONAL ISLAMIC FAITH THROUGH ‘ABD AL-GHANI AL-NABULUSI’S MYSTICAL PHILOSOPHY  

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Full Text Available This paper tries to present a new perspective on Islamic faith and Muslim identity to Muslim minorities who are challenged in practicing or following Islamic law in non-Islamic countries or non-Muslims in the contemporary world. It will uncover the multidimensional perspective of the concept of faith based on sin (dhanb and repentance (tawbah through the mystical philosophy of a Syrian scholar, Abd al-Ghani al-Nabulusi (d. 1143/1741 of the 18th century Ottoman Damascus who contributed to the field of Sufism particularly based on Ibn ‘Arabi’s thought of wahdat al-wujud (oneness of being and insan kamil (the perfect man. Nabulusi believes that anyone who lived during the inexistence of prophet’s revelation, inhabited an isolated place cut off from information about Islam, or lived in dar al-harb and did not make a hijra to dar al-islam could not be regarded as sinful in their deeds. However, faith in Allah is essential and infidelity is not forgiven regardless whether or not they live in dar al-islam or dar al-harb. Further, Nabulusi insists that true faith can be achieved by understanding the sin of existence; the ignorance of the difference of existence between Allah and men.  [Artikel ini menjelaskan identitas keberagamaan umat Islam minoritas yang dituntut untuk menerapkan syariat, namun harus hidup di negara non-muslim, dengan mendiskusikan perspektif multidimensional terhadap konsep dosa dan tobat seperti dikembangkan oleh Abd al-Ghan? al-Nabulus? (1143/1741, seorang sufi pemikir Syria, khususnya  wahdat al-wuj?d dan insan kamil, yang hidup di masa kesultanan Usmani di Damaskus. Nabulus? berkeyakinan bahwa siapa saja yang hidup sebelum turunnya wahyu di masa Nabi, hidup di daerah terpencil yang tidak mengenal Islam, atau hidup di dar al-harb dan tidak hijrah ke dar al-islam, tidaklah dibebani dosa atas perbuatannya. Namun demikian, iman kepada Allah amatlah penting dan kekufuran tidaklah dimaafkan, baik seseorang tersebut hidup di dar al-islam ataupun dar al-harb. Nabulus? beranggapan bahwa iman yang hakiki bisa dicapai dengan memahami dosa eksistensial, yaitu kegagalan dalam memahami perbedaan antara Allah dan manusia.] Keywords: Ibn ‘Arab?, wahdat al-wuj?d, dar al-harb

Naoki Yamamoto

2013-12-01

358

The PtAl- and PtAl2- anions: Theoretical and photoelectron spectroscopic characterization  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a joint photoelectron spectroscopic and theoretical study of the PtAl- and PtAl2- anions. The ground state structures and electronic configurations of these species were identified to be C?v, 1?+ for PtAl-, and C2v, 2B1 for PtAl2-. Structured anion photoelectron spectra of these clusters were recorded and interpreted using ab initio calculations. Good agreement between theory and experiment was found. All experimental features were successfully assigned to one-electron transitions from the ground state of the anions to the ground or excited states of the corresponding neutral species.

Zhang, Xinxing; Ganteför, Gerd; Bowen, Kit H.; Alexandrova, Anastassia N.

2014-04-01

359

Elastic and piezoelectric properties of AlN and LiAlO2 single crystals.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have successfully grown high-quality AlN piezoelectric single crystal using the sublimation technique. Transparent crack-free boules of approximately 15 mm in diameter and 25 mm in length along the [0001] direction were obtained, with coloring from amber to dark brown depending on growth temperature. Full sets of material parameters of grown AlN and commercially available LiAlO(2) bulk crystals were measured at room temperature. Temperature coefficients of the material parameters of LiAlO(2) were also obtained in a temperature range from -70 to +50 degrees C. PMID:20378443

Sotnikov, Andrey; Schmidt, Hagen; Weihnacht, Manfred; Smirnova, Elena; Chemekova, Tatiana; Makarov, Yuri

2010-04-01

360

(Al,Ga)N overgrowth over AlN ridges oriented in [1120] and [1100] direction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Epitaxial lateral overgrowth of 1.5 {mu}m wide AlN ridges with 1.5 {mu}m spacing with AlGaN or AlN was investigated by electron microscopy and cathodoluminescence. Overgrowth of [1100] oriented stripes leads to relatively smooth c-plane AlGaN surfaces while on [1120] oriented stripes strongly facetted surfaces evolve. The growth on the different facets leads to strong compositional fluctuations. These fluctuations can be prevented by the growth of binary AlN over the ridges instead of AlGaN. Only the [1100] oriented ridges formed smooth surfaces, suitable for subsequent deposition of AlGaN with homogeneous composition. The lateral epitaxial overgrowth leads to a remarkable reduction in threading dislocation density as shown by TEM and X-ray diffraction. The critical thickness of AlN before cracking was significantly increased in comparison to unpatterned growth. The resulting AlN template is a promising ultraviolet transparent template for LED. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

Kueller, V.; Knauer, A.; Zeimer, U.; Rodriguez, H.; Weyers, M. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Mogilatenko, A. [Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet-Berlin, Newtonstr. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Kneissl, M. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

2011-07-15

 
 
 
 
361

In situ observation of crack propagation in lamellar Ti/Al/Ti3Al structure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An interesting aspect of TiAl based alloys is their low ductility and poor toughness at ambient temperatures. Recent studies have shown that a two phase microstructure in these alloys consisting of a primary TiAl phase and lamellar TiAl/Ti3Al structure can significantly improve their room-temperature ductility, which is primarily due to the presence of the lamellar structure. This paper reports the results of transmission electron microscope in-situ observations on crack propagation in the lamellar structure

362

Deformation microstructures of ?-TiAl in the Ti-46Al-2V alloy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The intermetallic compound ?-TiAl (L10) is potentially useful for elevated temperature structural applications. It has significant strength and reasonable ductility at high temperatures, but its applications are seriously affected by poor room temperature ductility. The deformation mechanisms of ?-TiAl have been the topics of several papers in recent years. The effect of V addition on the deformation microstructures of ?-TiAl in the two-phase (?2 + ?) Ti-46Al-2V (at.%) alloy at various temperature is reported in this paper

363

HYDROGEN ADSORPTION ON ?-TiAl (001) AND Ni/TiAl (001) SURFACES  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we present first principles calculations of the energetic, electronic and magnetic properties of the variant termination of TiAl (001) and Ni/TiAl (001) surfaces with and without hydrogen atoms. The calculations have been performed within the density functional theory using full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method. The generalized gradient approximation (GGA) is utilized as the exchange-correlation energy. The octahedral site is the stable absorption site of H atom in the ?-TiAl system. This absorption reduces the cohesive energy of ?-TiAl system due to increase in the lattice constant. The surface energy for both TiAl (001) terminations is calculated. The stable adsorption site of H atoms on the variant termination of TiAl (001) surface is performed. The adsorption energy of hydrogen on Ti is more energetic than that on Al. The adsorption of H atom on both terminations of H/Ni/TiAl (001) is more preferable at the bridge site. The adsorption energies are enhanced on Ni atom due to the contraction between d-Ni bands and TiAl substrate band.

Mubarak, A. A. Karim; Alelaimi, Mahmoud

2014-04-01

364

Study on Mg/Al Weld Seam Based on Zn–Mg–Al Ternary Alloy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on the idea of alloying welding seams, a series of Zn–xAl filler metals was calculated and designed for joining Mg/Al dissimilar metals by gas tungsten arc (GTA welding. An infrared thermography system was used to measure the temperature of the welding pool during the welding process to investigate the solidification process. It was found that the mechanical properties of the welded joints were improved with the increasing of the Al content in the Zn–xAl filler metals, and when Zn–30Al was used as the filler metal, the ultimate tensile strength could reach a maximum of 120 MPa. The reason for the average tensile strength of the joint increasing was that the weak zone of the joint using Zn–30Al filler metal was generated primarily by ?-Al instead of MgZn2. When Zn–40Al was used as the filler metal, a new transition zone, about 20 ?m-wide, appeared in the edge of the fusion zone near the Mg base metal. Due to the transition zones consisting of MgZn2- and Al-based solid solution, the mechanical property of the joints was deteriorated.

Liming Liu

2014-02-01

365

The Dissociation Energies of AlH2 and AlAr  

Science.gov (United States)

The D(sub 0) values for AlH2 and AlAr are computed using the coupled cluster approach in conjunction with large basis sets. Basis set superposition and spin-orbit effects are accounted for as they are sizeable due to the small binding energy. The computed dissociation energy for AlAr is 101 /cm , which is 83% of the experimental value (122.4/ cm). Our best estimate for the H2 binding energy in AlH2 is 40 +/- 28 /cm.

Ricca, Alessandra; Partridge, Harry; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Visscher, Luuk; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

1995-01-01

366

Kit?b al-Tu?fah al-R?gib?n wa al-Radd ‘al? ‘Aq?dah al-Wuj?d?yah bi F?limb?nj fi al-Qarn al-Th?min ‘Ashar al-M?l?d?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article tries to discuss one of religion waorks written by al-Palimbani, Tuhfah al-Ragibin, presented the discussion of the author's response towards wujudiyyah, a text that widely spread in Palembang at the time. In line with al-Raniri in Aceh, al-Palimbani divided wujudiyyah's doctrine into two categories: wujudiyyah mulhid and wujudiyyah muwahhid.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v11i3.597

Nyimas Umi Kalsum

2004-12-01

367

Beta decays of /sup 25/Na, /sup 25/Al and /sup 29/Al  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The radioactivities /sup 25/Na, /sup 25/Al, and /sup 29/Al were produced in the /sup 23/Na(t,p)/sup 25/Na, /sup 24/Mg(d,n)/sup 25/Al, and /sup 27/Al(t,p)/sup 29/Al reactions using a 3.5 MV Van de Graaff. ..gamma..-radiations were measured by means of a target-transfer system and a Ge(Li) detector with or without Compton suppression. Decay schemes derived for /sup 25/Na and /sup 29/Al are in general agreement with earlier results, but with improved accuracy of branching ratios and much sharper limits on the intensities of certain unobserved ..beta..- and ..gamma..-ray transitions. Precision measurements of the energies of principal ..gamma..-rays gave results in keV for the listed decaying bodies as follows: /sup 25/Na - 1611.716(11); /sup 25/Al - 1611.708(11); and /sup 29/Al - 1273.361(9). The energy determinations of the /sup 25/Mg 1612 keV ..gamma..-transition measured in the decay of /sup 25/Na and /sup 25/Al differ by 8 +- 9 eV.

Alburger, D.E.; Warburton, E.K. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))

1982-09-13

368

-CaO Slags by Al in Fe-Al(-Si) Melts  

Science.gov (United States)

Kinetic models considering mass transport in, (i) metal phase only and (ii) both metal and slag phases (mixed control or two-phase mass transfer) were developed for the reduction of SiO2 in a SiO2-Al2O3-CaO slag by Al in an Al-Fe melt. The models were validated with experiments of the reaction with Fe-Al melt and SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-MgOsat slags at 1873 K (1600 °C). The models predict that the rate of reaction is slower in the mixed control model because of the added resistance of slag phase mass transport. The mixed control becomes applicable when the slag contains low amounts of SiO2. In this case, when the initial Al content in the metal increases, the normalized rate of reaction decreases. The increased Al content in the metal retards the reaction due to the limited SiO2 provided to the reaction interface in the mixed control model. Sensitivity analyses were done using the models for the ratios of mass transfer coefficients of Si to Al, and Al2O3 to Si, along with slag density, which did not impose a significant effect.

Park, Jiwon; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Fruehan, Richard J.

2014-08-01

369

Effect of Crystalline State of Anodized Porous Al2O3/Al as Supports by Hydration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The porous alumina as a plate catalytic support was prepared by anodization. Effects of hydration condition on the property of alumina supports were studied. The samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, BET and etc. to illustrate the Al2O3/Al forming mechanism. The results show that the best hydration temperature is 80¡?at which the amorphous alumina can be transformed into AlOOH, and become ?-Al2O3 after 500¡?alcination. Meanwhile, the monoliths catalytic carriers have a superior stability for crystalline structures in the steam atmosphere at high temperature.

ZHANG Qi, JIANG Zhong-Rui, SUN Dong-Mei, HAN Da-Ying, ZHU Zi-Bin

2012-07-01

370

Experimental studies on the ignition of single Ni/Al, Fe/Al, and Ti particles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The work presented here focuses on the ignition of single Ni- and Fe-coated Al particles in pure CO2 and Ar atmospheres and Ti particles in O2/N2 and O2/Ar environments. The importance of studying Ni- and Fe-coated Al particles is related to their potential use in propulsion and materials synthesis applications. Meanwhile, Ti combustion may be utilized to eliminate hazardous chemical and biological air pollutants. ^ Ni- and Fe-coated Al particles. The use of Ni- or Fe-coated Al particles (1...

Andrzejak, Timothy Al

2007-01-01

371

Oxidability of certain cast and sintered alloys on the base of TiAl, NiAl and Ni3Al intermetallides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

TiAl, NiAl, Ni3Al produced by the methods of power metallurgy and casting are studied for heat-resistance and strength. It is stated that the heat-resistance and strength of TiAl produced by the powder metallurgy method is lower than those of the cast one. The heat-resistance of the powdered Ni3Al is similar to the heat-resistance of the cast one at 1000 deg C, but its strength is higher. Yttrium microalloying of TiAl as well as molybdenum alloying of Ni3Al appreciably decreases the oxidation rate of intermetallides mentioned above

372

Ternary invariant point at 374°C in the three phase region AlSb-Al-Zn inside the Al-Sb-Zn ternary system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Al-Sb-Zn ternary system was investigated in the three phase region Al-AlSb-Zn, using differential thermal analysis (DTA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS. The position and temperature of the invariant eutectic L ? AlSb + ?-Al + ? - Zn point inside Al-AlSb-Zn region was experimentally determined. To confirm the obtained results X-ray powder diffraction analysis or XRD was also done. All results were compared to the calculated isopleth phase diagrams using Thermo-Calc software (TCW 5. All calculations were done using the SSOL4 data base.

Klan?nik G.

2011-01-01

373

Al(26) Studies with INTEGRAL's Spectrometer SPI  

CERN Document Server

Al(26) radioactivity traces recent nucleosynthesis throughout the Galaxy, and is known to be produced in massive stars and novae. The map from its decay gamma-ray line suggests massive stars to dominate, but high-resolution line spectroscopy is expected to supplement imaging of Al(26) source regions and thus to help decide about the Al(26) injection process and interstellar environment, hence about the specific massive-star subgroup and phase which produces interstellar Al(26). The INTEGRAL Spectrometer SPI has observed Galactic Al(26) radioactivity in its 1809 keV gamma-ray line during its first inner-Galaxy survey. Instrumental background lines make analysis difficult; yet, a clear signal from the inner Galaxy agrees with expectations. In particular, SPI has constrained the line width to exclude previously-reported line broadenings corresponding to velocities >500 km/s. The signal-to-background ratio of percent implies that detector response and background modeling need to be fine-tuned to eventually enable...

Diehl, R; Lichti, G G; Schönfelder, V; Strong, A W; Von Kienlin, A; Knödlseder, J; Jean, P; Lonjou, V; Weidenspointner, G; Roques, J P; Vedrenne, G; Schanne, S; Mowlavi, N; Winkler, C; Wunderer, C B

2004-01-01

374

26Al in the inner Galaxy  

CERN Document Server

We performed a spectroscopic study of the 1809 keV gamma-ray line from 26Al decay in the Galaxy using the SPI imaging spectrometer with its high-resolution Ge detector camera on the INTEGRAL observatory. We analyzed observations of the first two mission years, fitting spectra from all 7130 telescope pointings in narrow energy bins to models of instrumental background and the 26Al sky. Instrumental background is estimated from independent tracers of cosmic-ray activation. The shape of the 26Al signal is compared to the instrumental response to extract the width of the celestial line. We detect the 26Al line at \\~16sigma significance. The line is broadened only slightly, if at all; we constrain the width to be below 2.8 keV (FWHM, 2 sigma). The average Doppler velocities of 26Al at the time of its decay in the interstellar medium (decay time~1.04 My) therefore are probably around 100 km/s, in agreement with expectations from Galactic rotation and interstellar turbulence. The flux and spatial distribution of the...

Diehl, R; Kretschmer, K; Strong, A W; Wang, W; Jean, P; Lichti, G G; Knödlseder, J; Roques, J P; Schanne, S; Schönfelder, V; Kienlin, A; Weidenspointner, G; Winkler, C; Wunderer, C

2006-01-01

375

Sintering Behavior and Mechanical Properties of NiAl, Al2O3, and NiAl-Al2O3 Composites  

Science.gov (United States)

It is commonly known that the properties of sintered materials are strongly related to technological conditions of the densification process. This paper shows the sintering behavior of a NiAl-Al2O3 composite, and its individual components sintered separately. Each kind of material was processed via the powder metallurgy route (hot pressing). The progress of sintering at different stages of the process was tested. Changes in the microstructure were examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Metal-ceramics interface was clean and no additional phases were detected. Correlation between the microstructure, density, and mechanical properties of the sintered materials was analyzed. The values of elastic constants of NiAl/Al2O3 were close to intermetallic ones due to the volume content of the NiAl phase particularly at low densities, where small alumina particles had no impact on the composite's stiffness. The influence of the external pressure of 30 MPa seemed crucial for obtaining satisfactory stiffness for three kinds of the studied materials which were characterized by a high dense microstructure with a low number of isolated spherical pores.

Chmielewski, M.; Nosewicz, S.; Pietrzak, K.; Rojek, J.; Strojny-N?dza, A.; Mackiewicz, S.; Dutkiewicz, J.

2014-08-01

376

Deletion of ALS5, ALS6 or ALS7 increases adhesion of Candida albicans to human vascular endothelial and buccal epithelial cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

C. albicans yeast forms deleted for ALS5, ALS6 or ALS7 are more adherent than a relevant control strain to human vascular endothelial cell monolayers and buccal epithelial cells. In the buccal and vaginal reconstituted human epithelium (RHE) disease models, however, mutant and control strains caused a similar degree of tissue destruction. Deletion of ALS5 or ALS6 significantly slowed growth of the mutant strain; this phenotype was not affected by addition of excess uridine to the culture medi...

Zhao, Xiaomin; Oh, Soon-hwan; Hoyer, Lois L.

2007-01-01

377

Bush lubas al-Zarqawi järglase kinni püüda / Aadu Hiietamm  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

USA president George W. Bush teatas, et tapetud terrorivõrgustiku al Qaeda Iraagi haru liidri Abu Musab al-Zarqawi järglaseks nimetatud Abu Hamsa al-Muhajir on kuulutatud enim tagaotsitavaks terroristiks

Hiietamm, Aadu, 1954-

2006-01-01

378

Early Solar Nebula Condensates with Canonical, Not Supracanonical, Initial 26Al/27Al Ratios  

Science.gov (United States)

The short-lived radionuclide 26Al existed throughout the solar nebula 4.57 Ga ago, and the initial abundance ratio (26Al/27Al)0, as inferred from magnesium isotopic compositions of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in chondritic meteorites, has become a benchmark for understanding early solar system chronology. Internal mineral isochrons in most CAIs measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) give (26Al/27Al)0 ~ (4-5) × 10-5, called "canonical." Some recent high-precision analyses of (1) bulk CAIs measured by multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS), (2) individual CAI minerals and their mixtures measured by laser-ablation MC-ICPMS, and (3) internal isochrons measured by multicollector (MC)-SIMS indicated a somewhat higher "supracanonical" (26Al/27Al)0 ranging from (5.85 ± 0.05) × 10-5 to >7 × 10-5. These measurements were done on coarse-grained Type B and Type A CAIs that probably formed by recrystallization and/or melting of fine-grained condensate precursors. Thus the supracanonical ratios might record an earlier event, the actual nebular condensation of the CAI precursors. We tested this idea by performing in situ high-precision magnesium isotope measurements of individual minerals in a fine-grained CAI whose structures and volatility-fractionated trace element abundances mark it as a primary solar nebula condensate. Such CAIs are ideal candidates for the fine-grained precursors to the coarse-grained CAIs, and thus should best preserve a supracanonical ratio. Yet, our measured internal isochron yields (26Al/27Al)0 = (5.27 ± 0.17) × 10-5. Thus our data do not support the existence of supracanonical (26Al/27Al)0 = (5.85-7) × 10-5. There may not have been a significant time interval between condensation of the CAI precursors and their subsequent melting into coarse-grained CAIs.

MacPherson, G. J.; Bullock, E. S.; Janney, P. E.; Kita, N. T.; Ushikubo, T.; Davis, A. M.; Wadhwa, M.; Krot, A. N.

2010-03-01

379

Hydrogenation properties of Mg-Al alloys  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper the properties of Mg-Al alloys in relation to hydrogen storage are reviewed. The main topics of this paper are materials preparation, hydrogen capacity, thermodynamics of hydride formation, and the kinetics of hydride formation and decomposition. Hydrogenation of Mg-Al leads to disproportionation with the formation of magnesium hydride and metallic aluminum as the final product. Experimental evidence renders this process reversible. It is observed that the enthalpy of hydride formation of magnesium is lowered upon alloying with Al due to a slightly endothermic disproportionation reaction. Further, it is found that the kinetics of hydrogenation, as well dehydrogenation, may be significantly improved by alloying compared to pure Mg. The expense of these improvements of the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation properties is a lower gravimetric hydrogen density in the hydrogenated product, (C) 2008 International Association for Hydrogen Energy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Andreasen, Anders

2008-01-01

380

Synthesis of intercalated Al-hydroxy-montmorillonite  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Montmorillonita procedente de Durango, México, de composición (Si3.88Al0.12(Al1.41Mg0.59O10(OH2(Ca0.07Mg0.11Na0.28K0.06, área superficial 42.07 m2g-1, espaciamiento d001 12.50 Å, y volumen de poro 0.002 cm3g-1, fue intercalada con el oligómero de Al. La arcilla modificada desarrolló un área superficial de 287.86 m2g-1, volumen de poro 0.103 cm3g-1, y espaciamiento d001 18.70 Å. Se deshidrata a 70 °C reduciendo el espaciamiento d001 a 17.29 Å; su deshidroxilación se inicia a 150 °C y a 300 °C perdió 1.92 % en peso, modificando d001 a 17.34 Å.

M. de Lourdes Ch\\u00E1vez-Garc\\u00EDa

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

The mechanical properties of FeAl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Only in the last few years has progress been made in obtaining reproducible mechanical properties data for FeAl. Two sets of observations are the foundation of this progress. The first is that the large vacancy concentrations that exist in FeAl at high temperature are easily retained at low temperature and that these strongly affect the low-temperature mechanical properties. The second is that RT ductility is adversely affected by water vapor. Purpose of this paper is not to present a comprehensive overview of the mechanical properties of FeAl but rather to highlight our understanding of key phenomena and to show how an understanding of the factors which control the yield strength and fracture behavior has followed the discovery of the above two effects. 87 refs, 9 figs.

Baker, I. [Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH (United States); George, E.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1996-12-31

382

Sistemas auditivos anclados al hueso: perspectiva actual  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La tecnología de los sistemas auditivos anclados al hueso se adoptó a partir de la investigación dental en implantes de titanio y su proceso de osteointegración. Inicialmente, los sistemas auditivos anclados al hueso se introdujeron para reemplazar los dispositivos de vibración ósea, para pacientes incapaces de usar auxiliares auditivos de conducción aérea (pacientes con cavidades de mastoidectomía, otorrea recurrente, atresia aural congénita. La aplicación más reciente es como método de transmisión transcraneal de la señal en casos de hipoacusia sensorineural unilateral, como neurinoma del acústico, hipoacu- sia súbita, enfermedad de Ménière y otros. En este artículo se revisan la historia de los sistemas auditivos anclados al hueso, su tecnología, sus indicaciones, la cirugía para su colocación, las complicaciones y resultados.

Karin Mayt\\u00E9 Dur\\u00E1n Morales

2013-01-01

383

La inmigración japonesa al Valle del Cauca  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Una de las inmigraciones menos estudiadas en Colombia es aquella de los japoneses que llegaron durante la década de 1920 al suroccidente colombiano, en un principio al Cauca, y posteriormente al Valle del Cauca. El propósito de este texto es explicar, a través de la legislación colombiana y japonesa, la evolución de las migraciones dirigidas que llegaron a Colombia, en especial, se señalará por qué el Japón la auspició. Además, el autor buscará exponer cómo progresó, paulatinamente, la colonia de El Jagual en Corinto Cauca, y a partir de ello, mostrar la rápida adaptación de sus colonos a la sociedad receptora. Finalmente, se señalará cuáles fueron los significativos legados que los migrantes japoneses, y sus diferentes tipos de actividades, dejaron en la sociedad vallecaucana y colombiana en general.

Juliana Andrea Jara

2011-08-01

384

Grain refining performance for Al and Al-Si alloy casts by addition of equal-channel angular pressed Al-5 mass% Ti alloy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper investigated the microstructural evolution and the grain refining performance of an Al-5 mass% Ti alloy that was fabricated by the equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) method. The microstructures were observed by a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Platelet-shaped Al3Ti particles cracked severely with repetitive ECAP passes, and the mean size of the Al3Ti particles decreased from 70 to 3.2 ?m after 15 ECAP passes. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed an Al-Ti supersaturated solid solution was formed during the ECAP process. Moreover, when the ECAPed Al-Ti alloy with the Al-Ti supersaturated solid solution was added to pure Al and Al-Si eutectic alloy melts, a better grain refining effect was obtained compared to that of the same alloy without the ECAP. It is considered that the fine Al3Ti particles and the Al3Ti precipitates from the supersaturated solid solution probably contribute to the grain refinement. The pure Al and Al-12.6 mass% Si alloy that was refined by the ECAPed Al-5 mass% Ti refiner had a high Vickers microhardness and good wear resistance. It is suggested that the ECAPed Al-5 mass% Ti alloy could become an effective refiner in commercial Al cast production

385

[Al-Biruni--a universal scientist].  

Science.gov (United States)

Al-Biruni's was of Persian descent. He was born in Horesmiya and had studied mathematics, history and medicine. Acquiring knowledge from these sciences, he wrote an outstanding work on chronology of several nations and devoted it to Ziyarit ruler Kabus. He made a chronological overview of calendars from many nations, including Persians, Greeks, Egyptians, Jews, Melkitian and Nestorian Christians, Sabeyaans as well as the old Arabs. Data presented in the work, according to the later authors, were taken from very reliable sources. He was contemporary of Ibn-Sina, and thanks to their friendship, they have discussed very much miscellaneous topics. He belonged to the group of scholars, taken by Gaznevian Soultan Mahmud to a long journey to India. Afterwards Al-Biruni wrote and published detailed work "Description of India"--a work on cultural history of India. Due to excellent abilities of Al-Biruni as a philosopher and scholar, there are still significant and reliable notes about buddhistic philosophy, structure of castes and Brahmans' life style. In this Al-Biruni's masterpiece, there are many comparative analysis of Suffism and certain Indian philosophical methods. Al-Biruni's most important work is "Pharmacopoeia"--"Kitab al-saydala", which brilliantly describes all medicaments. This work has been published in many languages. He also wrote few works on astronomy and astrology. In those works he has explained some astrological events through scientific approach in a such peculiar way that nobody has ever explained before. He was also interested in sciences like geology, mineralology, geography, mathematics, psychology and many others. PMID:10386051

Kujundzi?, E; Masi?, I

1999-01-01

386

The beta-decay of 22Al  

CERN Document Server

In an experiment performed at the LISE3 facility of GANIL, we studied the decay of 22Al produced by the fragmentation of a 36Ar primary beam. A beta-decay half-life of 91.1 +- 0.5 ms was measured. The beta-delayed one- and two-proton emission as well as beta-alpha and beta-delayed gamma decays were measured and allowed us to establish a partial decay scheme for this nucleus. New levels were determined in the daughter nucleus 22Mg. The comparison with model calculations strongly favours a spin-parity of 4+ for the ground state of 22Al.

Achouri, N L; Lewitowicz, M; Blank, B; Äystö, J; Canchel, G; Czajkowski, S; Dendooven, P; Emsallem, A; Giovinazzo, J; Guillet, N; Jokinen, A; Laird, A M; Longour, C; Peräjärvi, K; Smirnova, N; Stanoiu, M; Thomas, J C

2006-01-01

387

Grain boundary precipitation in Magnox AL80  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Grain boundary precipitates in Magnox AL80 (Mg-0.8% Al) formed after certain heat treatments have been identified as magnesium hydride, MgH2. The solvus temperature for the precipitates was found to be in the range of 300 to 3500C. Ageing at 2500C resulted in overall precipitate growth accompanied by the formation of some grain boundary cavities. Cavities were also formed when hydride precipitates were reheated to higher temperatures. The solvus temperature and the behaviour of the precipitates during ageing at 2500C and subsequent heating to higher temperatures are discussed in terms of the magnesium-hydrogen system. (author)

388

Arte, derecho y derecho al arte  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El artículo defiende que existe un derecho subjetivo al arte fundamentado en la autonomía del arte, que lo diferencia de otras formas expresivas; en la capacidad de apropiación subjetiva del arte exclusivamente por parte de los seres humanos; en las posibilidades del arte para la construcción de formas de expresión varias; y en el potencial uso del arte en políticas públicas propias de los sistemas democráticos, que ayudaría al derecho a la paz y a la reconciliación, así como formas alternativas de reparación y rehabilitación en sociedad. La exclusividad de la relación del hombre con el arte fundamentaría su objetivación y, por ello, lo convertiría en un derecho jurídicamente exigible.

Rubén Martínez Dalmau

2014-07-01

389

Structure analysis of Al cast alloy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose: The developed design methodologies both the material and technological ones will make it possible to improve shortly the quality of materials from the light alloys in the technological process, and the automatic process flow correction will make the production cost reduction possible, and - first of all - to reduce the amount of the waste products.Design/methodology/approach: Castings were analysed in the paper of car engine blocks and heads from the Al-Si-Cu alloys of the AC-AlSi7Cu...

Dobrzan?ski, L. A.; Krupin?ski, M.; Krupin?ska, B.

2008-01-01

390

Magnetic Properties of NdAl2  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The magnetic properties of NdAl2 are calculated using a Hamiltonian including crystal-field and isotropic exchange interaction terms. A two-dimensional mean-field theory is evaluated to calculate single-crystal magnetization curves. It is shown that the magnetic properties can be understood using the crystal-field parameters derived from the magnetic exciton spectrum measured by Houmann et al. by means of inelastic neutron scattering. The combined lambda -Schottky anomaly in the heat capacity is explained. No additional parameters are introduced.

Bak, P.

1974-01-01

391

Integración estocástica con respecto al movimiento browniano  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En este artículo damos algunos elementos básicos que se utilizan al estudiar las propiedades y las aplicaciones de la integral estocástica con respecto al movimiento browniano cuando esta integral estocástica se considera en los sentidos de Itô, Skorohod y hacia adelante (definida por Russo y Vallois [32]. La idea principal es brindar una presentación para que el lector comience a entender las herramientas del cálculo estocástico basado en estas integrales, así como sus aplicaciones. También, para cada interpretación de integral estocástica, mencionamos algunos resultados de existencia y unicidad para ecuaciones diferenciales estocásticas gobernadas por el movimiento browniano.

Jorge A. Le\\u00F3n

2006-01-01

392

Quasicrystal structure determination - Al-Cu-Li  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new method for the determination of the phases of the density waves of a quasiperiodic crystal is presented. The phases, which are not available from a diffraction experiment, can be calculated by fitting certain rational approximants of the quasicrystal to the related real crystals of known structures. Given the phases of the quasicrystal density waves, it is possible to reconstruct corresponding hypercrystal density of scatterers, locate the atomic hypersurfaces, and determine the quasicrystal structure. The results of this new method are reported for icosahedral Al6CuLi3 quasicrystal using the known structure of the related cubic Al5CuLi3. (author). 31 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

393

Mechanical properties and deformation behavior of Al/Al7075, two-phase material  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the present study, mechanical properties and deformation behavior of Al/Al7075, two-phase material were investigated. The two-phase materials were fabricated by mixing commercially pure Al powder with Al7075 chips and consolidating the mixture through hot extrusion process at 500 {sup o}C. Mechanical properties and deformation behavior of the fabricated samples were evaluated using tensile and compression tests. A scanning electron microscope was used to study the fracture surface of the samples including different amount of Al powder, after they were fractured in tensile test. The results of the tensile and compression tests showed that with decreasing the amount of Al powder, the strength increases and ductility decreases. Calculation of work hardening exponent (n) indicated that deformation behavior does not follow a regular trend. In a way that the n value was approved to be variable and a strong function of strain and Al powder wt% of the sample. The results of the fractography studies indicate that the type of fracture happened changes from completely ductile to nearly brittle by decreasing the wt% of Al powder from 90% to 40%.

Sherafat, Z. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Paydar, M.H., E-mail: paaydar@shirazu.ac.i [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, R.; Sohrabi, S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2010-07-16

394

Mechanical properties and deformation behavior of Al/Al7075, two-phase material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present study, mechanical properties and deformation behavior of Al/Al7075, two-phase material were investigated. The two-phase materials were fabricated by mixing commercially pure Al powder with Al7075 chips and consolidating the mixture through hot extrusion process at 500 oC. Mechanical properties and deformation behavior of the fabricated samples were evaluated using tensile and compression tests. A scanning electron microscope was used to study the fracture surface of the samples including different amount of Al powder, after they were fractured in tensile test. The results of the tensile and compression tests showed that with decreasing the amount of Al powder, the strength increases and ductility decreases. Calculation of work hardening exponent (n) indicated that deformation behavior does not follow a regular trend. In a way that the n value was approved to be variable and a strong function of strain and Al powder wt% of the sample. The results of the fractography studies indicate that the type of fracture happened changes from completely ductile to nearly brittle by decreasing the wt% of Al powder from 90% to 40%.

395

^27Al-NMR Study of the Spinel Compound CoAl2O4  

Science.gov (United States)

CoAl2O4, a geometrically frustrated magnet, is believed to be located in the vicinity of a quantum melting point of the AFM ordered state. In CoAl2O4, magnetic frustration originates from Co^2+(S = 3/2) spins on the tetrahedral A-site via non-magnetic Al ions occupying the octahedral B-site. To study the magnetic properties of CoAl2O4 from a microscopic point of view, we have carried out ^27Al-NMR measurements using a well-characterized powder sample of CoAl2O4. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility ? shows a broad peak around 15 K and does not show any difference in zero-field-cooled and field-cooled measurements. ^27Al-NMR spectra at 9.3 MHz (H = 0.84 T) show seven peaks characterized by quadrupolar splitting with ?Q= 0.55 MHz at temperatures above 10 K. Below 10 K, the spectrum broadens suddenly. We also observe a peak of 1/T1 of ^27Al at 10 K. These NMR results clearly indicate magnetic ordering at 10 K, although ? does not exhibit any signature of long-range magnetic ordering.

Roy, Beas; Pandey, Abhishek; Johnston, David C.; Furukawa, Yuji

2013-03-01

396

Diffusion bonding of gamma-TiAl using modified Ti/Al nanolayers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ti/Al multilayers are promising interlayers for getting joins between titanium aluminides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer When Ti/Al multilayers are doped with Ag or Cu it is observed a higher reactivity of the multilayers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A doped Ti/Al multilayer decreases the temperature of the process and the quality of the bonding increases. - Abstract: Solid state diffusion bonding has been successfully employed to join {gamma}-TiAl alloys. Processed in vacuum, at high temperature and pressure, the thin interfaces and the lack of structural discontinuity across the interface are the main advantage of this joining technique. An interlayer made of alternated Ti and Al nanometric layers that increases the diffusivity at the joint interface, was used in order to assist the bonding process of {gamma}-TiAl alloys. The use of Ti/Al interlayer has efficiently reduced the joining temperature. Sound joints have been achieved at a temperature of 900 Degree-Sign C under a pressure of 50 MPa in vacuum. In the present work Cu was added as third element to the Ti/Al multilayers and its effect improved the bonding quality. The interface microstructure was studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy.

Duarte, L.I., E-mail: liliana.duarte@empa.ch [EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Joining and Interface Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Viana, F. [CEMUC, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Porto, R. Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Ramos, A.S.; Vieira, M.T. [CEMUC, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Coimbra, R. Luis Reis Santos, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal); Leinenbach, C. [EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Joining and Interface Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Klotz, U.E. [FEM, Research Institute Precious Metals and Metals Chemistry, D-73525 Schwaebisch Gmuend (Germany); Vieira, M.F. [CEMUC, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Porto, R. Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)

2012-09-25

397

Combustion Synthesis Reactions in Cold-Rolled Ni/Al and Ti/Al Multilayers  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, a cold rolling method was developed to fabricate Ni/Al and Ti/Al multilayer foils, and the combustion synthesis reactions in the cold-rolled foils were investigated. Combustion synthesis reactions were initiated by heating one end of the cold-rolled foil in a flame for several seconds. The Ni/Al foils went through three reaction stages. The first reaction stage was a displacement of reaction zone with Al3Ni as the reaction product. During the second stage, the part of the foil in the flame underwent thermal explosion. In the last stage, the heat released by thermal explosion triggered a self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) reaction across the foil that resulted in the formation of AlNi. In contrast, the Ti/Al foils experienced only two reaction stages. First, a displacement of the reaction zone propagated across the foil with formation of Al3Ti at the Ti/Al interface. Then a thermal explosion reaction occurred in the part of foil that was heated in the flame, resulting in many different phases in the reacted foil.

Qiu, Xiaotun; Liu, Ranran; Guo, Shengmin; Graeter, Jesse Harris; Kecskes, Laszlo; Wang, Jiaping

2009-07-01

398

Melting, Processing, and Properties of Disordered Fe-Al and Fe-Al-C Based Alloys  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents a part of the research work conducted in our laboratory to develop lightweight steels based on Fe-Al alloys containing 7 wt.% and 9 wt.% aluminum for construction of advanced lightweight ground transportation systems, such as automotive vehicles and heavy-haul truck, and for civil engineering construction, such as bridges, tunnels, and buildings. The melting and casting of sound, porosity-free ingots of Fe-Al-based alloys was accomplished by a newly developed cost-effective technique. The technique consists of using a special flux cover and proprietary charging schedule during air induction melting. These alloys were also produced using a vacuum induction melting (VIM) process for comparison purposes. The effect of aluminum (7 wt.% and 9 wt.%) on melting, processing, and properties of disordered solid solution Fe-Al alloys has been studied in detail. Fe-7 wt.% Al alloy could be produced using air induction melting with a flux cover with the properties comparable to the alloy produced through the VIM route. This material could be further processed through hot and cold working to produce sheets and thin foils. The cold-rolled and annealed sheet exhibited excellent room-temperature ductility. The role of carbon in Fe-7 wt.% Al alloys has also been examined. The results indicate that Fe-Al and Fe-Al-C alloys containing about 7 wt.% Al are potential lightweight steels.

Satya Prasad, V. V.; Khaple, Shivkumar; Baligidad, R. G.

2014-09-01

399

On the ion irradiation stability of Al/Ti versus AlN/TiN multilayers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparative study of the structural changes induced in Al/Ti and AlN/TiN multilayers by argon ion irradiation is presented. The layers were deposited on Si substrates, by ion sputtering in case of pure metals, and reactive ion sputtering in case of metal-nitrides, to a total thickness of ?270 nm. The multilayered structures consisted of 10 alternative ?27 nm layers of each component. For ion irradiation, we used 200 keV Ar+ ions having a projected range around mid-depth of the multilayered structures. Implantations were performed at room temperature, to the fluences from 5 x 1015 to 4 x 1016 ions/cm2. Structural characterization included Rutherford backscattering analysis and transmission electron microscopy. The obtained results demonstrate that AlN/TiN multilayered system exhibits a much higher irradiation stability compared to the Al/Ti system. In Al/Ti multilayers, we observe a progressed intermixing with increasing the ion fluence, the behavior being closer to the ballistic than to the thermal spike model. In AlN/TiN system, no interface mixing was registered for any of the applied irradiation fluencies. Different behavior compared to Al/Ti system is assigned to immiscibility of AlN and TiN

400

Study on Al-induced crystallization of Al/a-Si:H bilayer thin film  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Al/a-Si:H bilayer thin films were deposited on glass substrate by thermal evaporation and plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor-deposition in a specially designed one-chamber deposition apparatus. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to study the morphology, crystallization and the shift of Si2p binding energy, respectively. The crystalline silicon was formed at a low temperature of approximately 250 deg. C in the Al/a-Si:H bilayer thin film. The intermixed layer of (Al)-(a-Si:H) plays an important role in the crystallization of silicon. The content of crystalline Si, which is related to a dome-like microstructure, increases with increasing thickness of the intermixed layer formed due to the high diffusion rate of Al atoms at high temperature or larger amounts of Al diffused into a-Si:H layer with the increase in thickness of the Al sublayer. The Si2p binding energy of c-Si is approximately 99.23 eV while a-Si:H energy shifts from approximately 98.66 to 98.87 eV in the Al/a-Si:H bilayer thin films with different thickness of the Al sublayer

 
 
 
 
401

Melting, Processing, and Properties of Disordered Fe-Al and Fe-Al-C Based Alloys  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents a part of the research work conducted in our laboratory to develop lightweight steels based on Fe-Al alloys containing 7 wt.% and 9 wt.% aluminum for construction of advanced lightweight ground transportation systems, such as automotive vehicles and heavy-haul truck, and for civil engineering construction, such as bridges, tunnels, and buildings. The melting and casting of sound, porosity-free ingots of Fe-Al-based alloys was accomplished by a newly developed cost-effective technique. The technique consists of using a special flux cover and proprietary charging schedule during air induction melting. These alloys were also produced using a vacuum induction melting (VIM) process for comparison purposes. The effect of aluminum (7 wt.% and 9 wt.%) on melting, processing, and properties of disordered solid solution Fe-Al alloys has been studied in detail. Fe-7 wt.% Al alloy could be produced using air induction melting with a flux cover with the properties comparable to the alloy produced through the VIM route. This material could be further processed through hot and cold working to produce sheets and thin foils. The cold-rolled and annealed sheet exhibited excellent room-temperature ductility. The role of carbon in Fe-7 wt.% Al alloys has also been examined. The results indicate that Fe-Al and Fe-Al-C alloys containing about 7 wt.% Al are potential lightweight steels.

Satya Prasad, V. V.; Khaple, Shivkumar; Baligidad, R. G.

2014-07-01

402

Structural and local electrical properties of AlInN/AlN/GaN heterostructures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

GaN layers and Al1-xInxN/AlN/GaN heterostructures have been studied by scanning probe microscopy methods. Threading dislocations (TDs), originating from the GaN (0 0 0 1) layer grown on sapphire, have been investigated. Using Current-Atomic Force Microscopy (C-AFM) TDs have been found to be highly conductive in both GaN and AlInN, while using semi-contact AFM (phase-imaging mode) indium segregation has been traced at TDs in AlInN/AlN/GaN heterostructures. It has been assessed that In segregation is responsible for high conductivity at dislocations in the examined heterostructures.

403

Structural and local electrical properties of AlInN/AlN/GaN heterostructures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

GaN layers and Al{sub 1-x}In{sub x}N/AlN/GaN heterostructures have been studied by scanning probe microscopy methods. Threading dislocations (TDs), originating from the GaN (0 0 0 1) layer grown on sapphire, have been investigated. Using Current-Atomic Force Microscopy (C-AFM) TDs have been found to be highly conductive in both GaN and AlInN, while using semi-contact AFM (phase-imaging mode) indium segregation has been traced at TDs in AlInN/AlN/GaN heterostructures. It has been assessed that In segregation is responsible for high conductivity at dislocations in the examined heterostructures.

Minj, A.; Cavalcoli, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Cavallini, A., E-mail: anna.cavallini@unibo.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy)

2012-08-01

404

26Al+ p elastic and inelastic scattering reactions and galactic abundances of 26Al  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Galactic 26Al is the first radioactive nucleus to be positively identified by -ray astronomy with detection of the 1.809 MeV ray associated with its decay. This nucleus is destroyed in astrophysical environments in the 26Al(p, )27Si and inelastic 26Al+p scattering reactions where properties of 27Si levels determine reaction rates. To investigate these properties, elastic and inelastic 26Al+p scattering reactions were measured between Ec.m. = 0.5 1.5 MeV at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). A candidate for a new resonance in the 26Al(p, )27Si reaction was identified. Upper limits were also set on the strengths of postulated resonances and on the cross section of the inelastic reaction, but there is little effect on current reaction rate calculations.

Pittman, S. T. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Bardayan, Daniel W [ORNL; Chae, K. Y. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Chipps, K. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden; Jones, K. L. [Rutgers University; Kozub, R. L. [Tennessee Technological University; Matei, Catalin [Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU); Matos, M. [Louisiana State University; Moazen, Brian [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Nesaraja, Caroline D [ORNL; O' Malley, Patrick [Rutgers University; Pain, Steven D [ORNL; Parker, P.D. [Yale University; Peters, W. A. [Rutgers University; ShrinerJr., J. F. [Tennessee Technological University; Smith, Michael Scott [ORNL

2012-01-01

405

In situ microscopy of rapidly heated nano-Al and nano-Al/WO3 thermites  

Science.gov (United States)

The initiation and reaction mechanism of nano-Al and nano-Al thermites in rapid heating environments is investigated in this work. A semiconductor-based grid/stage was used, capable of in situ heating of a sample from room temperature to 1473 K, and at a rate of 106 K/s, inside an electron microscope. Nano-Al was rapidly heated in a transmission electron microscope, and before and after images indicate that the aluminum migrates through the shell, consistent with a diffusion-based mechanism. A nano-Al/WO3 composite was then heated in a scanning electron microscope. The results indicate that a reactive sintering mechanism is occurring for the nano-Al/WO3 thermite, as the products are found to be in surface contact and significantly deformed after the heating pulse.

Sullivan, Kyle T.; Chiou, Wen-An; Fiore, Richard; Zachariah, Michael R.

2010-09-01

406

Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ adherence on CoCrAl alloys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Adherence of protective oxides on NiCrAl and CoCrAl superalloys has been promoted by a dispersion of a highly oxygen reactive element or its oxide being produced within the protection system. Two aspects of this subject are investigated here: the use of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ as both the dispersion and protective oxide; and the production of an HfO/sub 2/ dispersion while simultaneously aluminizing the alloy. It was found that an Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ dispersion will act to promote the adherence of an external scale of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ to a degree comparable to previously tested dispersions and an HfO/sub 2/ dispersion comparable to that produced by a Rhines pack treatment is produced during aluminization.

Kingsley, L.M.

1980-04-01

407

Production of 26Al by spallation of Fe, Si, Al nuclei  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cross sections for 7Be, 10Be and 26Al formation in Al, Si and Fe targets bombarded with 0.6 and 24GeV protons have been measured by using highly selective chemical separation and low level background counters. Results for 26Al at 0.6GeV are in mb: 17.9 + or - 2.7 in Al, 12.5 + or - 2.5 in Si and 0.45 + or - 0.14 in Fe; at 24GeV 2.6 + or - 0.5mb in Fe. Results for 10Be are not valid on account of experimental difficulties. It is deduced from these values of aluminium in cosmic ray propagation that 26Al is not yet cosmic ray chronometer

408

Beta decay of 24Al and 24Al/sup m/  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ?+ decays of 24Al and 24Al/sup m/ have been studied with a Ge(Li) detector. Ten ?+ branches including weak transitions to 24Mg levels at 10576, 10824, 11017 and 11318 keV were observed. The super-allowed ?+ decay of 24Al/sup m/ and two additional branches from 24Al/sup m/ were also detected. The resulting log ft values and GT matrix elements are compared to shell model calculations by Brown, Chung and Wildenthal, which are quite successful in accounting for the data. From ? decay and M1 transition strengths it is concluded that the analog of the 24Al/sup m/ ground state is split between two closely spaced 1+ levels in 24Mg. An isospin violating matrix element of a 50 keV is inferred

409

Characteristics of vertically stacked Nb/Al/AlN/Nb Josephson junctions  

Science.gov (United States)

Vertically stacked Josephson junctions have been fabricated with Nb/Al/AlN as a base unit. The reactively sputtered AlN layer is deposited much more quickly than the lengthy thermal oxidation of Al. AlN is therefore a favorable candidate for stacked junctions consisting of many layers. Lift-off patterning the junctions avoids the problem of anodizing or etching through many layers. The superconducting layer thickness is chosen to be small with respect to the London penetration depth to allow coupling of the magnetic field in the adjacent insulating layers. Current versus voltage characteristics of these devices will be presented. In addition, critical current as a function of applied magnetic field will be presented.

Maglic, S. R.; Thomas, C. D.; Song, S. N.; Ulmer, M. P.; Ketterson, J. B.

1996-03-01

410

1400 and 1500 K Compressive Creep Properties of an NiAl/AlN Composite  

Science.gov (United States)

Compressive creep properties of an NiAl/AlN(p) composite produced by a reaction milling process were investigated at 1400 and 1500 K and at slow strain rates, to investigate the relative strength of this composite at high temperatures, and to determine if the consolidation technique affects the 1400 K creep properties. Results indicate that the stress exponent of the NiAl/AlN(p) composite was similar to that for unreinforced NiAl. However, the activation energy for the composite was found to be more than twice that measured in the unreinforced matrix. Oxidation did not affect the composite at 1400 K, but a significant attack was observed in a sample subjected to fast deformation at 1500 K.

Whittenberger, J. D.; Arzt, Eduard; Luton, Michael J.

1992-01-01

411

Microstructure and nanoindentation hardness of Al/Al3Sc multilayers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present paper, we discuss the fabrication, characterization and mechanical properties of a unique multilayer system constructed of aluminum and scandium. Thin film deposition techniques have been used to create high-quality polycrystalline multilayered films consisting of inherently soft Al layers (6-100 nm thick) separated by thin (0.5-5 nm) layers of Al3Sc. We use X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and in situ wafer curvature to characterize the microstructure and intermixing of the Al/Al3Sc multilayer films produced by sputter deposition for this work. The accompanying hardness results show that layering with nanoscale coherent Al3Sc layers increases the hardness by between 200 and 500% over that of a pure aluminum film

412

Different magnetic behaviour of the Kondo compounds Al3Ce and Al11Ce3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neutron diffraction experiments on the Al3Ce and Al11Ce3 compounds have been performed on the multidetector of the ILL high flux reactor. No magnetic structure has been detected on the Al3Ce compound down to 20 m K. This confirms the non-magnetic ground state of Al3Ce. For Al11Ce3, two magnetic structures have been observed: a ferromagnetic one at 4.2 K and an antiferromagnetic one at 2 K. The antiferromagnetic structure, which corresponds to a propagation vector (0, 0, 1/3), implies a strong reduction of the magnetic moment of determined sites; this reflects the Kondo character of the compounds. (orig.)

413

Phase reaction and sintering behavior in the pseudoternary system AlN-Y2O3-Al2O3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

free specimens, although Y2O3 trapped Al2O3 to produce YAG. This differed from the AlN-Al2O3 phase diagram proposed by McCauley et al. The grain morphologies depended on the presence of the above phases. The grains based on AlN and ?-AlON were granular, and those based on 27R, 20H, and 16H polytypoids were platelike

414

TiAl-Nb melt interaction with AlN refractory crucibles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper considers contamination of cast TiAl-based alloy, related microstructure evolution and chemical contact interaction when using refractory aluminium nitride crucibles/moulds as an alternative to the traditional Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-, ZrO{sub 2}- and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based oxide ceramics. A series of melting tests has been performed in resistive SiC electro-furnace with Ti-46Al-8Nb (at%) alloy in 99.99% purity AlN boat crucibles with fixed melt superheating times 5, 12 and 25 min at 1670 deg. C and consequent quenching with high-purity Ar gas flow. As-cast samples were examined by X-ray diffractometry, SEM, SIMS, EDX, EBSD and vacuum fusion analysis of O, N, C and S interstitials content with respect to the initial material. The key features of TiAl-Nb melt interaction with AlN ceramics are revealed. As a result of slow thermal dissociation AlN {yields} Al + N, and the reaction of nascent nitrogen with the melt, a solid continuous TiN-based reaction layer is formed up to 6.4 {mu}m in thickness, together with an enriched Al liquid film between it and the crucible wall. It causes perfect wetting of crucible with the melt and easy removal of the solidified sample. The partial suitability of AlN crucible is restricted by 12 min of the melt superheating from the point of view of invariable ({alpha}{sub 2} + {gamma})-microstructure and reasonable contamination of the as-cast samples.

Kartavykh, A.V., E-mail: karta@girmet.ru [Institute of Chemical Problems for Microelectronics (IChPM), B. Tolmachevsky per. 5, 119017 Moscow (Russian Federation); Tcherdyntsev, V.V. [Moscow State Institute of Steel and Alloys (Technological University), Leninsky pr. 4, 119049 Moscow (Russian Federation); Zollinger, J. [ACCESS e.V., Intzestrasse 5, 52072 Aachen (Germany)

2009-07-15

415

Retention of chromium by modified Al-Bentonite Retenção de cromo por Al-bentonita modificada  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Retention of chromium (III from a tanning wastewater by modified Al-bentonites was studied. One bentonite from San Juan province, Argentina, was used. Al-bentonite was prepared by contact of bentonite with hydrolyzed OH-Al solutions (0.10 M in Al for 24 hours. The modified Al-bentonites were obtained by: a treatment with 0.5 M sodium chloride; b with 0.5 M sodium chloride adjusted at pH 8; and c treatment with an hexametaphosphate solution after sodium addition. Then, the samples were dried at 100 °C and heated at 500 °C. The chromium (III retention by samples was carried out in batch system putting in contact the material with a 2000 ppm Cr tannery waste at different times. The retained chromium was characterized by analyzing the supernatant using UV-visible spectroscopy. The different chromium retention was correlated with structural characteristics of the solids.Foi estudada a retenção de cromo (III de águas residuais por meio de Al-bentonitas modificadas. Foi usada uma bentonita da província de San Juan, Argentina. As bentonitas-Al forma preparadas colocando-as em contato com soluções (0,10 M Al hydrolizadas de OH-Al durante 24 horas. As bentonitas-Al modidicadas foram obtidas por meio de: a tratamento com cloreto de sódio 0,5 M; b com cloreto de sódio 0,5 M sodium com pH ajustado para 8; e c tratamento com uma solução de hexametafosfato após a adição de sódio. As amostras foram então secas a 100 °C e aquecidas a 500 °C. A retenção do cromo (III pelas amostras foi feita em lotes colocando o material em contato em diferentes tempos com um resíduo contendo 2000 ppm de cromo. O cromo retido foi caracterizado por meio de análise do sobrenadante usando espectroscopia UV-visível. As diferentes retenções de cromo foram correlacionadas com características estruturais dos sólidos.

C. Volzone

2002-09-01

416

AuAl{sub 2} and PtAl{sub 2} as potential plasmonic materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: •The electronic structure dielectric functions of PtAl{sub 2}, AuAl{sub 2} and intermediate alloys were calculated. •The experimental reflectivity and EELS for PtAl{sub 2} showed good agreement with the theoretical spectra. •The yellow color of PtAl{sub 2} is associated with a bulk plasmon at 3 eV. •These materials are good candidates for applications in plasmonics. -- Abstract: The dielectric functions of PtAl{sub 2}, AuAl{sub 2} and hypothetical intermediate alloys of the two in the form of Au{sub x}Pt{sub 1?x}Al{sub 2} were calculated from first principles using density functional theory (DFT) and the random phase approximation (RPA). From these, the reflectivity, electron energy-loss spectra (EELS) and small sphere extinction spectra are predicted. The experimental reflectivity and EELS were measured for PtAl{sub 2} and showed good agreement with the theoretical spectra. The yellow color of PtAl{sub 2} is associated with a bulk plasmon at 3 eV. We predict that the optical properties of hypothetical intermediate alloys would show a smooth evolution with composition. The details of this change can be understood by examination of the underlying density of states (DOS). The predicted small sphere extinction spectra and quality factors show a strong surface plasmon resonance for these materials, with PtAl{sub 2} having the optimum performance. The results indicate that these materials are good candidates for applications in plasmonics.

Keast, V.J., E-mail: vicki.keast@newcastle.edu.au [School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Zwan, B. [School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Supansomboon, S.; Cortie, M.B. [Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Technology, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Persson, P.O.Å. [Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden)

2013-11-15

417

Al-Cu approximants in the Al3Cu4 alloy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Al3Cu4 composition, with an e/a ratio of 1.86 being close to ternary Al-Cu-TM (transition metal) quasicrystals, has been chosen for the search of Al-Cu approximants. Phase structures and compositions were studied using TEM, X-ray diffraction and EPMA techniques. Two new phases were found: face-centered orthorhombic oF-Al43.2Cu56.8 (a = 0.8166, b = 1.4149, c = 0.9995 nm) and body-centered orthorhombic oI-Al41.3Cu58.7 (oI, a = 0.4083, b = 0.7074, c = 0.9995 nm). Their e/a ratios are the same as that of the Al-Cu-Fe icosahedral quasicrystal. Their space groups are probably oF-Fmm2 and oI-Imm2. Both are B2 vacancy-containing superstructures; unit cell compositions can be expressed approximately as oF-Al36Cu46-12 and oI-Al8Cu12?4 (?: vacancies). They both exist in twinning variants of the types 120 /[001] and 180 /[310]. Such twinning modes indicate that these orthorhombic phases are the decomposition products of a high-temperature parent phase ?2-Al2Cu3, the atomic structure of which contains pentagonal atomic arrangements. Therefore the oF, oI, and ?2 phases are all B2-based approximants corresponding to the Al-Cu-TM quasicrystals. (orig.)

418

High temperature intermetallic compounds Ni3Al  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper describes the preparation of Ni3Al intermetallic compounds, and investigations of their structures in the as-cast, remelted, and annealed states. The materials were produced by three techniques : in a high frequency vacuum furnace, by zonal remelting in an electron beam furnace, and by remelting with unidirectional solidification. Those melted in an h. f. vacuum furnace and poured into graphite moulds had well developed dendritic structures, a Ni3Al (?') phase, with interdendritic spaces formed by Ni5Al3 + ?'. Many specimens contained shrinkage cavities. Unidirectional solidification allowed casting defects to be eliminated and the grain size to be controlled in dependence on the solidification rate. Rates from 650 to 60 mm per hour were tried to examine their effects on the grain size, homogeneity, and structure. The authors further investigated the influence of B and Zr additions on the solidification process and formation of the structure of Ni3Al. Annealing, in an argon atmosphere at 1100 C for various durations, was tried out for homogenizing the as-cast structures. (orig.)

419

Neumann system and hyperelliptic al functions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article shows that the Neumann dynamical system is described well in terms of the Weierstrass hyperelliptic al functions. The descriptions are very primitive; their proofs are provided only by residual computations but don't require any theta functions.

Shigeki Matsutani

2008-04-01

420

Management of respiratory symptoms in ALS.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Respiratory insufficiency is a frequent feature of ALS and is present in almost all cases at some stage of the illness. It is the commonest cause of death in ALS. FVC is used as important endpoint in many clinical trials, and in decision-making events for patients with ALS, although there are limitations to its predictive utility. There are multiple causes of respiratory muscle failure, all of which act to produce a progressive decline in pulmonary function. Diaphragmatic fatigue and weakness, coupled with respiratory muscle weakness, lead to reduced lung compliance and atelectasis. Increased secretions increase the risk of aspiration pneumonia, which further compromises respiratory function. Bulbar dysfunction can lead to nutritional deficiency, which in turn increases the fatigue of respiratory muscles. Early recognition of respiratory decline and symptomatic intervention, including non-invasive ventilation can significantly enhance both quality of life and life expectancy in ALS. Patients with respiratory failure should be advised to consider an advance directive to avoid emergency mechanical ventilation.