WorldWideScience

Sample records for medium sized industries

  1. STRATEGIES FOR SMALL- AND MEDIUM-SIZED COMPANIES IN CHINESE INSURANCE INDUSTRY

    Qian, Xiaochen

    2010-01-01

    With the development of the Chinese economy, insurance industry is becoming one of the most important commercial industries in China. Currently small- and medium-sized (SME) insurance companies gain more and more important status in the insurance market, but the main problem is to find a suitable strategy to develop in a balanced way. It is very important for the SME insurance organizations to identify their core resources and competencies and cultivate their competitiveness and competitive a...

  2. Quality management for Small and Medium size enterprises. An application of SPC in a plastics industry.

    Bozatzis, Christos

    2006-01-01

    Enterprises need to develop an appropriate quality management approach in order to produce conforming products. This project deals with quality concepts and tools which are mainly adopted by small and medium size enterprises. It is widely accepted that Statistical Quality Control (SPC) involves several methods and tools that can be used in order to examine and solve a wide range of quality problems. SPC tools are implemented in a company operating in the Greek plastics industry. The chart...

  3. Accidents in the Food-Manufacturing Small and Medium Sized Malaysian Industries

    Zaliha Hj Hussin; Kamaruzaman Jusoff; Soon Yew Ju; Lai Kuan Kong

    2009-01-01

    This research tried to find out the types and causes of accidents that happen in food-manufacturing factories in small and medium-sized industries (SMIs) in Kedah and the actions taken by the employers following the occurrence of the accidents. Results showed that majority of the respondents had encountered slight injuries. The majority of the accidents were caused by human factors, and employers seldom took serious actions against those involved in workplace accidents. Small cut was identifi...

  4. Finnish medium sized manufacturing companies access to Norwegian petroleum and offshore industry

    Norwegian petroleum and offshore industry is one of the biggest industry clusters in Northern Europe measured by the total turnover. The yearly investment level, approximately 40-50 billion NOK until the end of the century, makes this industry interesting as a potential purchasing market for various products and services. The purpose of the present report is to provide some basic information of the Norwegian petroleum and offshore industry to the Finnish medium sized manufacturing companies interested in entering this market. The objective of this report is to arouse interest in the oil and gas industry and provide up-to-date statistical data of a number of major factors characterizing the industry. In this sense the report serves as a preparatory data source book for persons who want to widen their knowledge of the offshore industry. This report strongly emphasizes practical aspects. Lists and addresses of the major authorities, oil companies and offshore manufacturing companies might help in seeking additional information. They can also be made use of contacting the potential customers. Besides the statistical and practical information, subjects like the history of the Norwegian petroleum industry, specific features of the major oil and gas fields, environmental aspects e.g. are also discussed in this report. This general knowledge might be useful when meeting Norwegian customers

  5. Energy coservation status and needs: medium-sized commercial/industrial firms

    1979-10-01

    The potential for conserving energy by Seattle City Light's commercial/industrial customers is investigated. The results of the study will help SCL and others to provide energy- and money-saving help to their medium-sized business customers. Fifty in-person interviews of firms within the SCL area and 102 mailed questionnaires from customers outside the area in Washington and Oregon were analyzed. Researchers found that many steps requiring little cost have been implemented, but instituting further hard conservation measures such as new machinery, retrofitting, or changes in machine operations are lacking. (MCW)

  6. Documentation of New Promotion Approaches in Small and Medium Sized Businesses of the Textile Industry

    Mehran Rezavani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The most important marketing activity of the owner/manager of SMEs is to concentrate on entrepreneurial promotion methods of their businesses. New and entrepreneurial promotion plays a leading role in progress and development of SMEs. There has been an emerging concentration on the concept of promotion and the role of its elements in progress of SMEs in marketing research. The purpose of this paper is to identify and document promotion methods in small and medium sized businesses of the textile industry, particularly in Iran. In order to identify the concepts and methods of promotion and to present practical results in this context, a quality research has been conducted by interviewing the owners/managers of SMEs.

  7. Documentation of New Promotion Approaches in Small and Medium Sized Businesses of the Textile Industry

    Mehran Rezvani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important marketing activity of the owner/manager of SMEs is to concentrate on entrepreneurial promotion methods of their businesses. New and entrepreneurial promotion plays a leading role in progress and development of SMEs. There has been an emerging concentration on the concept of promotion and the role of its elements in progress of SMEs in marketing research. The purpose of this paper is to identify and document promotion methods in small and medium sized businesses of the textile industry, particularly in Iran. In order to identify the concepts and methods of promotion and to present practical results in this context, a quality research has been conducted by interviewing the owners/managers of SMEs.

  8. Accidents in the Food-Manufacturing Small and Medium Sized Malaysian Industries

    Zaliha Hj Hussin

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This research tried to find out the types and causes of accidents that happen in food-manufacturing factories in small and medium-sized industries (SMIs in Kedah and the actions taken by the employers following the occurrence of the accidents. Results showed that majority of the respondents had encountered slight injuries. The majority of the accidents were caused by human factors, and employers seldom took serious actions against those involved in workplace accidents. Small cut was identified as the commonest type of accident that occurred in the SMIs for the past two years. Findings also indicated that many of the employers were less interested in giving out incentives when their employees complied with all the safety rules and regulations while punishments were less serious for those who do not complied with safety rules and regulations.

  9. Innovation in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in the Malaysian information technology (IT) industry

    The aim of this study is to examine innovative activities in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the Malaysian information technology (IT) industry. This study addresses three research questions: 1. What is the innovation pattern among SMEs in the Malaysian IT industry? 2. How significant is interactive learning between SMEs in the Malaysian IT industry and other agents in the innovation system? and 3. What is the role of the government in promoting innovation among SMEs in the Malaysian IT industry? Two approaches were taken to collect data for this study, that is, mail survey and face-to-face interviews. Based on findings from this study, the SMEs in the Malaysian IT industry were divided into four categories, namely, highly innovative, innovative, inventive, and non innovative. The patterns of knowledge acquisition and interactive learning vary among the different categories of firms, and on the whole, vertical linkages with suppliers were found to be the most significant. Finally, support through the provision of funding was considered to be among the most important roles of the government in promoting innovation in SMEs in the Malaysian IT industry. (author)

  10. Documentation of New Promotion Approaches in Small and Medium Sized Businesses of the Textile Industry

    Mehran Rezavani; Narges Khoramshahi

    2012-01-01

    The most important marketing activity of the owner/manager of SMEs is to concentrate on entrepreneurial promotion methods of their businesses. New and entrepreneurial promotion plays a leading role in progress and development of SMEs. There has been an emerging concentration on the concept of promotion and the role of its elements in progress of SMEs in marketing research. The purpose of this paper is to identify and document promotion methods in small and medium sized businesses of the texti...

  11. Financial and Tax Management in Small and Medium Sized Industrial Enterprises

    Bestvinová, Viera; Homokyová, Mária; Horváthová, Martina

    2012-12-01

    Target of this paper was to evaluate the importance of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in Slovakia and to determine the application of financial and tax management in this type of enterprises. The results of our findings confirm that SMEs have an important role in Slovakia, and also that especially small businesses have little or no experience with the application of financial and tax management. Therefore the paper contains recommendations for financial and tax management of SMEs.

  12. Eco-modernizing small en medium-sized agro-industries in Vietnam

    Pham Hong Nhat

    2007-01-01

    Following ‘Doi Moi’ (Renovation), which started in 1986, the former centrally planned economy in Vietnam is shifting to an economy where production is linked to market demand and consumption. As a result, the nation has been enjoying an unprecedentedly fast economic growth, especially in recent years: 8.4% in 2005 and 8.17% in 2006. The economic renovation also brought an expansion of the private sector, which consists mainly of small- and medium-sized enterprises, SMEs. The reform process ha...

  13. Development strategy of green energy industry for Taipei—A modern medium-sized city

    Taipei, a subtropical modern medium city, is essentially featured with high population density, scarce land, and large traffic flow. Moreover, there are abundant green energy resources reserved in Taipei. If they were fully developed, there would be 13,040 GWh electricity generated per year, resulting in a total of 9.37 million tons of carbon dioxide emissions abatement. The development of the green energy industry in this city not only can bring significant energy-saving and carbon-reducing benefits, but also may create huge derivative business opportunities. For example, the total output values of the solar PV and electric vehicles industries would be as high as 700 billion yuan. In this study, through Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis, we concluded that the top priorities for Taipei for the development of green energy industries are building energy conservation and electrified transportation, specifically, the following four items: electric vehicles, Light-Emitting Diode (LED) lighting, inverter air conditioning, and Energy Service Company (ESCO). Meanwhile, Taipei is a domestic and international key of politics, transportation, technology, commerce, and finance. Taipei is very likely to become an internationalized green energy industrial hub, achieving the “3E” goals of economic prosperousness, environmental protection, and energy security. -- Highlights: •Building energy conservation and electrified transportation are top priorities. •SWOT analysis applied to systematically conclude four green energy industrial items for Taipei. •Specifically, electric vehicles, LED lighting, inverter air conditioning, and ESCO. •13,040 GWh electricity would be generated per year from Taipei's rich renewables. •The derivative business opportunities would exceed 700 billion yuan

  14. Explaining Internationalisation of Small to Medium Sized Enterprises within the Queensland Food and Beverage Industry

    Mitchell Spowart

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of International New Ventures (INVs has increased during the past twenty years. Nevertheless,to date there has been no general consensus within the literature on an explanation as to the rapid internationalisation of some firms. Do they follow a similar process to other firms that internationalise based ona more ‘measured’ incremental sequential process of internationalisation. This paper proposes and tests an innovation diffusion model of the internationalisation of small firm INVs and others by drawing on keyinnovation diffusion models from the literature. The results of this analysis indicate that the synthesised model ofexport adoption is effective in explaining the internationalisation process of INVs and other firms within theQueensland Food and Beverage Industry. Significantly, the features of the original innovation diffusion modelsdeveloped in the consumer behaviour literature, which had limited examination within the internationalisationliterature, were confirmed. This includes the ability of firms, or specifically decision-makers, to skip stagesbased on previous experience.

  15. Purchasing practice in SMEs : Practical Impressions about the Purchasing Activities of Small and Medium sized Enterprises in the Manufacturing Industry

    Kulik, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Small and medium sized companies are important to the European economy and considered as the true backbone of the European economy, being primarily responsi-ble for wealth and economic growth. Further, the purchasing function of small and medium sized companies had become more and more important to firms within the creating of competitive advantages. Additional, former research emphasizes the need of companies to engage in closer relationships in order to survive in nowadays business environm...

  16. Development of a Low NOx Medium sized Industrial Gas Turbine Operating on Hydrogen-Rich Renewable and Opportunity Fuels

    Srinivasan, Ram

    2013-07-31

    This report presents the accomplishments at the completion of the DOE sponsored project (Contract # DE-FC26-09NT05873) undertaken by Solar Turbines Incorporated. The objective of this 54-month project was to develop a low NOx combustion system for a medium sized industrial gas turbine engine operating on Hydrogen-rich renewable and opportunity Fuels. The work in this project was focused on development of a combustion system sized for 15MW Titan 130 gas turbine engine based on design analysis and rig test results. Although detailed engine evaluation of the complete system is required prior to commercial application, those tasks were beyond the scope of this DOE sponsored project. The project tasks were organized in three stages, Stages 2 through 4. In Stage 2 of this project, Solar Turbines Incorporated characterized the low emission capability of current Titan 130 SoLoNOx fuel injector while operating on a matrix of fuel blends with varying Hydrogen concentration. The mapping in this phase was performed on a fuel injector designed for natural gas operation. Favorable test results were obtained in this phase on emissions and operability. However, the resulting fuel supply pressure needed to operate the engine with the lower Wobbe Index opportunity fuels would require additional gas compression, resulting in parasitic load and reduced thermal efficiency. In Stage 3, Solar characterized the pressure loss in the fuel injector and developed modifications to the fuel injection system through detailed network analysis. In this modification, only the fuel delivery flowpath was modified and the air-side of the injector and the premixing passages were not altered. The modified injector was fabricated and tested and verified to produce similar operability and emissions as the Stage 2 results. In parallel, Solar also fabricated a dual fuel capable injector with the same air-side flowpath to improve commercialization potential. This injector was also test verified to produce 15-ppm NOx capability on high Hydrogen fuels. In Stage 4, Solar fabricated a complete set of injectors and a combustor liner to test the system capability in a full-scale atmospheric rig. Extensive high-pressure single injector rig test results show that 15-ppm NOx guarantee is achievable from 50% to 100% Load with fuel blends containing up to 65% Hydrogen. Because of safety limitations in Solar Test Facility, the atmospheric rig tests were limited to methane-based fuel blends. Further work to validate the durability and installed engine capability would require long-term engine field test.

  17. A model of integration between knowledge management and business processes of industrial small and medium-sized enterprises

    Maha Mahmoud Talaat mustafa

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this research is to provide an integrated study on the subject of integration between knowledge management and business processes, to identify the needs for different aspects of necessary knowledge for the development of small and medium-sized enterprises, where young investors seek to develop their knowledge by trying to increase the sources of access to information so that they can comply with the requirements of constant change in the organizations they have, and thus the...

  18. Pressure cooker under pressure: implementation of life cycle strategies and tools in a medium sized industry in Portugal

    Rocha, Cristina; Alexandre, Jorge; Camocho, David; Paulo MARTINS

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns the application of a set of life cycle oriented strategies and tools to a pressure cooker manufactured by a medium size company located in Portugal and targeting the international market. The life cycle assessment (LCA) indicated the major environmental problems of this product, which together with the company strategy of appealing the consumer through a 100% recyclable and more ergonomic product, provided the direction for the product and market development. Besides the L...

  19. THE ALGORITHM IMPLEMENTATION OF THE DIVERSIFICATION STRATEGY IN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES (FOR EXAMPLE, THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY

    Наталья Николаевна Масюк

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Diversification in small businesses in the general sense is an extension of business activities to new areas of business (expanding the range of products, types of services provided, etc.. Application of the strategy of diversification in the small and medium business is justified in cases where the industry does not give us opportunities for further growth or when growth opportunities outside the industry more attractive. To determine whether diversification overdue and justified, the entrepreneur must clearly define the algorithm for their actions.Purpose: To determine the algorithm implementation of the strategy of diversification.Methodology: Desk research.Results: The developed algorithm.Practical implications: Management.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-19

  20. The role of Christian leadership in the workplace in China ----A case study of a medium-sized enterprise in Chinese service industry

    WANG Jing

    2013-01-01

    This article examines religious leadership in workplace. It focuses on the practice of Christian leadership in Chinese business context. It attempts to, firstly, explore why employers adopt Christian leadership and promote Christian values in workplaces, and secondly, investigate employees’ reactions and understanding of the presence of Christian leadership in their organizations. The research is based on a private medium-sized enterprise in Chinese service industry of which the leader adopts...

  1. Decision-Makers behind Effective Crisis Management : An industry comparison of a crisis prepared approach among Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Löwhagen, Renée

    2015-01-01

    Master Thesis within Business Administration Title: Decision-Makers behind Effective Crisis Management: An industry comparison of a crisis prepared approach among Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Author: Renée Löwhagen Tutor: Angelika Löfgren Date: May, 2015 Key words: Crises, Crisis Management, Crisis preparedness, SME, Managerial decision-making Abstract Problem. The world is in an era with technological advancements, shorter business cycles and a growing competition that requires cons...

  2. Using management information systems to determine the client loyalty drivers in small and medium-sized enterprises within the banking industry / Anis Stewart

    Stewart, Anna Isabella

    2013-01-01

    The landscape of banking has changed drastically over the past two decades. Client loyalty is key for banks to stay relevant and deliver sustainable growth. In that context the objective of this research is to identify the main factors that determine client loyalty of small to medium sized businesses to banks and to rank these according to importance. The purpose of the study is using management information systems to determine the client loyalty drivers in SMEs within the banking industry...

  3. Market Entry and Priority of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the Software Industry: An Empirical Analysis of Cultural Distance, Geographical Distance, and Market Size

    Ojala, Arto; Tyrväinen, Pasi

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of cultural distance, geographical distance, and three market size variables to the target country preference of SMEs in the software industry. In addition, we examine the shift of priorities in SMEs’ country selection by analyzing how these factors impact the selection of the first, second, and third target countries. Empirical findings of this study suggest that almost 70% of country choices can be explained by software market size and ge...

  4. A model of integration between knowledge management and business processes of industrial small and medium-sized enterprises

    Maha Mahmoud Talaat mustafa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research is to provide an integrated study on the subject of integration between knowledge management and business processes, to identify the needs for different aspects of necessary knowledge for the development of small and medium-sized enterprises, where young investors seek to develop their knowledge by trying to increase the sources of access to information so that they can comply with the requirements of constant change in the organizations they have, and thus the development of their institutions, where those institutions need knowledge to identify the changes occurring in each sector of production and service, whether local or foreign, which enables them to provide products or services on the level of high quality.They also must service work to develop and employ methods of conducting research targeting product, and management development of systems for promoting good products or services. Capturing knowledge can be through knowledge management by browsing of pages published by various organizations on the Internet and, recognizing everything new in the field of manufacturing or production used by various institutions, and therefore constantly developing products according to the needs of different categories of consumers.

  5. THE INFLUENCE IN ROMANIAN HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY OF SMALL MEDIUM-SIZED FIRMS AND THEIR SPECIFIC MEANS TO IMPROVE PERFORMANCE

    Baltescu Codruta Adina

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available SMEs play an important role in fostering variety, self-fulfillment, and independence in society as well as essentially contributing to social and local integration. Because the tourism sector, especially the hospitality industry, in Europe is dominated by

  6. Consumption and conservation of energy in small and medium-size business, trade, and the service industry; Energieverbrauch und Einsparung in Gewerbe, Handel und Dienstleistung

    Geiger, B. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energiewirtschaft und Kraftwerkstechnik; Gruber, E. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Megele, W. [Forschungsstelle fuer Energiewirtschaft, Muenchen (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    The book presents a wealth of information and topical findings compiled in a database, relating to energy consumption by small and medium-sized business in Germany, describing energy consumption patterns in a crosscut survey of business activities characterized by a great technological variety. Based on results obtained from investigations performed in selected enterprises, a questionnaire has been formulated and distributed to almost 3 000 establishments, collecting information on their energy consumption, their installed energy technology, and their activities and equipment for energy conservation. The book presents entirely new information on energy consumption patterns of small and medium-sized business not considered so far by relevant research activities, and gives detailed information and extrapolated results permitting a comparative analysis of particular branches of business, as e.g. the motor vehicle trade, the baker's trade, agriculture, retail trade, hotels, public administration. The latest available survey on energy consumption patterns of small and the medium-sized industry dates back to 1982, and did not consider energy conservation measures or technology. (orig./CB) [German] Eine Fuelle von Ergebnissen und Erkenntnissen zum Energieverbrauch und zur Aufschluesselung nach Energietraegern und Verwendungszwecken in dem technologisch sehr vielfaeltigen und in der Forschung bisher vernachlaessigten Sektor 'Kleinverbrauch' auf einer aktuellen Datenbasis liegt jetzt mit diesem Buch vor. Dazu wurden, nach vorangegangenen betrieblichen Einzeluntersuchungen, knapp 3.000 Betriebe zum Energieverbrauch, zum Stand der energietechnischen Ausstattung und ihrer Energiesparaktivitaeten befragt. Das Buch stellt die auf den Sektor hochgerechneten Ergebnisse im Branchenvergleich und detailliert fuer die einzelnen Untersuchungsbereiche dar, z.B. fuer Kfz-Gewerbe, Baeckereien, Landwirtschaft, Einzelhandel, Hotels, Oeffentliche Verwaltungen. Daten zu Energieverbrauch und Verwendungszwecken im Kleinverbrauch waren zuvor letztmals 1982 erhoben worden, wobei keine energiesparenden Massnahmen thematisiert wurden. (orig.)

  7. Type Toyota Management Systems (MSTT) of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Mechanical and Electrical Industry

    Kluge, Stefan; Rau, Andreas; Westkämper, Engelbert

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives an overview and considers the most recent aspects of a study, dealing with the topic of Type Toyota Management Systems. In the survey SMEs in mechanical and electrical industry have been asked. On the one hand, a questionnaire for a mass evaluation was used and on the other hand specialists have been interviewed orally for the specific evaluation. The paper shows the methodology of the survey and some of the highlights of the results. Additionally, some approaches to face fut...

  8. Medium-size nuclear plants

    CEA (TECHNICATOME) has developed a range of pressurized water reactors of the type ''CAS compact'' which are adapted to civil ship propulsion, or to electric power production, combined possibly with heat production, up to outputs equivalent to 125 MWe. Nuclear plants equipped with these reactors are suitable to medium-size electric networks. Among the possible realizations, two types of plants are mentioned as examples: 1) Floating electron-nuclear plants; and 2) Combined electric power and desalting plants. The report describes the design characteristics of the different parts of a 125 MWe unit floating electro-nuclear plant: nuclear steam system CAS 3 G, power generating plant, floating platform for the whole plant. The report gives attention to the different possibilities according to site conditions (the plant can be kept floating, in a natural or artificial basin, it can be put aground, ...) and to safety and environment factors. Such unit can be used in places where there is a growing demand in electric power and fresh water. The report describes how the reactor, the power generating plant and multiflash distillation units of an electric power-desalting plant can be combined: choice of the ratio water output/electric power output, thermal cycle combination, choice of the gain ratio, according to economic considerations, and to desired goal of water output. The report analyses also some technical options, such as: choice of the extraction point of steam used as heat supply of the desalting station (bleeding a condensation turbine, or recovering steam at the exhaust of a backpressure turbine), design making the system safe. Lastly, economic considerations are dealt with: combining the production of fresh water and electric power provides usually a much better energy balance and a lower cost for both products. Examples are given of some types of installations which combine medium-size reactors with fresh water stations yielding from 10000 to 120000 m3 per day

  9. Techno-economic evaluation of commercial cogeneration plants for small and medium size companies in the Italian industrial and service sector

    The liberalization of the electricity market and the concern for energy efficiency have resulted in a surge of interest in cogeneration and distributed power generation. In this regard, companies are encouraged to evaluate the opportunity to build their own cogeneration plant. In Italy, the majority of such companies belong to the industrial or service sector; it is small or medium in size and the electric power ranges between 1 ÷ 10 MW. Commercially available gas turbines are the less expensive option for cogeneration. Particular attention has been given to the possibility of combining an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) with gas turbine, to improve the conversion efficiency. Companies have to account for both technical and economical aspects to assess viability of cogeneration. A techno-economic analysis was performed to identify, in the Italian energy market, which users can take advantage of a cogeneration plant aimed to cover at least part of their energy demand. Since electricity and thermal needs change considerably in the same sector, single product categories have been considered in the analysis. Our work shows that in the industrial sector, independent of the product category, cogeneration is a viable option form a techno-economic perspective. - Highlights: ► The best technologies for 1 ÷ 10 MW distributed generation plant are gas turbine and ORC. ► A variety of commercial cogeneration plants is available to meet user needs. ► Cogeneration is a technical and economical advantage for industrial sector companies.

  10. ITALIAN MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES AND THE FOURTH CAPITALISM

    Schilirò, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    The work addresses the issue of Italian medium-sized enterprises of the fourth capitalism. The question is whether this business model is going to last and actually represent a new model for global competition. This contribution examines the features of the model of the medium industrial enterprise. It also investigates the performance of the Italian medium-sized enterprises, comparing with large companies. The analysis of the data, albeit at a descriptive level using data published by Mediob...

  11. Business process modelling in small- to medium-sized enterprises

    Tam, ASM; Chu, LK; Sculli, D

    2001-01-01

    Data flow analysis is used in a novel context for business process modelling. A framework is presented together with its enterprise modelling concepts and the associated modelling tools. The framework was specifically developed for small- to medium-sized industries. The strengths and weaknesses of the general data flow analysis approach are discussed in terms of its suitability for Hong Kong's small- to medium-sized industries. A case example is also presented to illustrate the methodology.

  12. Products, practices and processes: exploring the innovation potential for low-carbon housing refurbishment among small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the UK construction industry

    Scenario-based studies agree that the technical potential for CO2 emissions reduction from the housing stock is large. This paper explores how a market might be developed for the refurbishment activities assumed in these scenarios, taking the existing market for repair, maintenance and improvement (RMI) as its starting point. Interviews with 16 small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the construction industry reveal the interdependence of products, practices and processes in housing renovation activities. Conservative practice as well as innovation can be understood as the outcome of multi-lateral influences on firms from other firms, clients, the material buildings and products in their working lives, and from regulations and regulators. Contractors' openness to innovation is contingent on an informal approach to risk assessment, taking account of cost, time efficiency, client demands, and installer confidence in the reliability of the resulting work. The implications of the research are discussed in relation to the need for new practices and processes on refurbishment projects, raising questions for future research on key questions of quality assurance, performance over time, the application of standards, and vocational training. -- Highlights: •Repair, maintenance and improvement works are triggers for low-carbon refurbishment. •Millions of property owners and small firms make for fragmented decision-making. •Actor-Network Theory is used to frame decision-making processes for refurbishment. •Small builders can be innovative if clients allow time and money for experimentation. •Energy policy for existing homes needs to engage with the construction sector

  13. Developing Business Models in the Video Game Industry : An evaluation to strategic choices made by small and medium-sized development studios

    Zijlstra, Peter; Visser, Christiaan

    2012-01-01

    Digitalization has given rise to new opportunities for small and medium-sized video game development studios. No longer bound by physical products and creative restrains, the de-veloper has been empowered with independency. This qualitative study is aimed to under-stand how a development studio develops their business model and how underlying strate-gy is formulated. Additionally we evaluate the degree of innovativeness of the business model in terms of radical and incremental innovation acco...

  14. Holonic Business Process Modeling in Small to Medium Sized Enterprises

    Nur Budi Mulyono

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Holonic modeling analysis which is the application of system thinking in design, manage, and improvement, is used in a novel context for business process modeling. An approach and techniques of holon and holarchies is presented specifically for small and medium sized enterprise process modeling development. The fitness of the approach is compared with well known reductionist or task breakdown approach. The strength and weaknesses of the holonic modeling is discussed with illustrating case example in term of its suitability for an Indonesia’s small and medium sized industry. The novel ideas in this paper have great impact on the way analyst should perceive business process. Future research is applying the approach in supply chain context.Key words: Business process, holonic modeling, operations management, small to medium sized enterprise

  15. AN INVESTIGATION INTO MEDIUM-SIZED MULTINATIONAL ENTERPRISES

    Daniele Schilirò

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an investigation of medium-sized Italian industrial enterprises that have become multinational companies. It concetrates on the set of medium and medium-large enterprises who seem to grow more in foreign markets, either through exports or through foreign direct investment. The work also offers a descriptive empirical picture of the performance of medium-sized Italian multinationals, which is compared with the performance of large corporations. From this analysis, which is based on several data sources, it is possible to outline a profile regarding the medium-size italian multinational enterprises; the aim is to understand the complex strategy towards internationalization of these companies, where the dimension of production is important and, therefore, innovation has a key role. Also the commercial dimension is crucial, because it leads to point to the direct supervision of foreign markets and to look very carefully at the customers, offering them a wide range of services. Finally, the paper highlights some critical issues that the medium sized multinational enterprises have to face for competing: namely, the stagnant productivity, the high taxation, the insufficient institutional support for internationalization, the bureaucracy and its high costs, the lack of skilled human capital available in the labor market due to inadequate policy training.

  16. Evaluating Strategic Alliances in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Cem Canel; Stacy Mitchell

    2013-01-01

    The ability of firms to carry out operational strategies such as differentiation, cost leadership or focused strategies can depend on their ability to integrate technological advances relevant to their industry. Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SME), in particular, have many reasons to use strategic alliances as a way to counteract the market power and financial resources possessed by many large firms. This research intends to offer guidance to SMEs through the development of a hybrid mode...

  17. Medium Size Pharmaceutical Firms in Italy: Strategies, Performance and Prospects

    Spandonaro Federico

    2007-01-01

    In the pharmaceutical industry, large-scale research and innovation have been broadly recognized as the major drivers of performance. While this paradigm is still valid, owing to the need to increase firms dimension in order to cope with the high risks related with innovation processes, it would seem that is no longer the only feasible strategy. Empirical research point to a poor corporate performance after mergers and acquisitions. Even in Italy small and medium- size firms prove to be more ...

  18. Perspective on small and medium size reactors

    There has been renewed interests in the United States in small and medium size nuclear power plants (600 MWe or less). The reasons for this include: (1) there is a large uncertainty in load growth projections. Small to medium size nuclear power plants may be better suited to meet uncertain load growth projections. (2) It has been argued that a large economy of scale exists because of the nature of nuclear power installations. A recent examination of the French program shows that no economy of scale exists between the 900 MWe and 1300 MWe plants. Others have suggested that it is possible to reduce the economy of scale so it is not a prohibitive factor. (3) In the past in the United States, it has been customary for several smaller utilities to share the output of a large nuclear plant to take advantage of the perceived economy of scale. Difficulties have been encountered by some of these enterprises. (4) An examination of capacity factors for the United States shows that plants of smaller output appear to operate more reliably and economically than larger plants

  19. Medium-size power plants. Economic options

    In this paper the authors describe a method for economic evaluation of a nuclear power plant project such as advocated by the IAEA but modified through the introduction of various parameters that may affect the evaluation, i.e. the weighted evaluation rate, the annual increase in the cost of fuel, and the discount rate. The method is applied to barge-based medium-size reactors (125 MW(e)). The authors calculate the investment cost, together with the costs of administration, operation and maintenance; use is made of current assumptions regarding the price of fuel for the case of a reference nuclear plant and an oil-fired plant of the same power and in the same programme. In this way the authors derive the discounted cost of the nuclear programme and concurrent conventional programme on the basis of the following assumptions: a weighted inflation rate varying between 0 and 6% per year; an annual increase in real fuel prices ranging from 0 to 3%; and a real discount rate, equal to the real interest rate, varying between 4 and 7% per year and corresponding to nominal discount rates of up to 13.4%. The conclusion reached is that, given the real interest rates actually prevailing on the financial market, a weighted inflation rate foreseen by the majority of experts, and a rise in real fuel prices of the order of 1% per year, the medium-size nuclear power plant is more economical than a conventional plant of the same output. (author)

  20. Insights about Integrated Marketing Communication in Small-and-Medium-sized Italian Enterprises

    Annamaria Esposito

    2013-01-01

    The paper investigates if and how integrated marketing communication (IMC) has been implemented by Italian small-and-medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Three case studies about small and-medium Italian enterprises analysis are carried out: three small and-medium enterprises in different industries through interviews and document analysis. The article highlights the fact that small-and-medium-sized Italian enterprises implement marketing communication using a flexible approach. The most widespre...

  1. Study on the Service Quality Evaluation and Improvement for Medium and Small Sized Hotels

    Fan Chen

    2009-01-01

    The tourism industry is in the important state in the national economy, and the hotel industry is the important part of the tourism industry, and the medium and small sized hotels occupy certain market share because of the numerous quantity. Because the service qualities of medium and small sized hotels are different, so the service quality of the hotel is the nuclear content of hotel management. At present, the supply exceeds the demand in the global hotel market, and the competitions among ...

  2. Industrial Assessment Centers: A program of direct assistance for small and medium-size manufacturers. Quarterly progres report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

    NONE

    1998-06-17

    During the quarter ending March 31, 1998, the IACs in the Western Region issued assessment reports to 16 clients for the 1996-97 program period. The attached summary shows the aggregate numbers of industrial assessments performed by, reports received from, critiques completed and returned to, and implementation reports completed by each of the Western Region IACs under the 1995-96 program period through the quarter ending March 31, 1998. Table 2 shows the numbers of industrial assessments performed by, reports received from, critiques completed and returned to, and implementation reports completed by each of the Western Region IACs under the 1996-97 program period.

  3. PME-PMI : quel accès à l'information ? Small- and Medium-Sized Firms and Industries: What Access to Information?

    Debackere M. C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le contact quotidien avec les PME-PMI nous amène à penser que des intermédiaires expérimentés sont indispensables pour permettre à ces sociétés d'accéder aux nouveaux outils documentaires. Daily contact with small and middle size enterprises makes us think that skilful intermediaries are necessary to help these companies in accessing to the new information tools.

  4. PME-PMI : quel accès à l'information ? Small- and Medium-Sized Firms and Industries: What Access to Information?

    Debackere M. C.; Roussel M.

    2006-01-01

    Le contact quotidien avec les PME-PMI nous amène à penser que des intermédiaires expérimentés sont indispensables pour permettre à ces sociétés d'accéder aux nouveaux outils documentaires. Daily contact with small and middle size enterprises makes us think that skilful intermediaries are necessary to help these companies in accessing to the new information tools.

  5. Small and medium sized reactors: Status and prospects. Proceedings

    During the early years of nuclear power deployment, the plants entering service were dominated by what are now considered small (less than 300 MW(e)) and medium (300 to 700 MW(e)) reactors. In the late 1970s, the balance shifted to larger size plants to serve the requirements of industrialized countries. However, since the early 1990s, the increased interest of developing countries in nuclear power, mainly in Asia, has resulted in intensified efforts in development of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). Also, in industrialized countries, electricity market deregulation is calling for power generation flexibility that SMRs may offer. Apart from electricity generation, SMRs are of particular interest for non-electrical applications of nuclear energy, such as desalination of seawater and district heating. In recognition of the current global interest in small and medium sized reactors this seminar was convened to provide a forum for the exchange of information by experts and policy makers from industrialized and developing countries on the technical, economic, environmental, and social aspects of SMR development and implementation in the 21st century, and to make this information available to all interested IAEA Member States. Keynote addresses also provided information on global energy demand and supply and international trends impacting the development and introduction of SMRs. Two hundred forty seven attendees from 39 countries and 5 international organizations participated in the seminar. The majority of the participants were from developing countries. The seminar not only provided valuable up to date information on SMRs, it also highlighted the importance of continued international co-operation in the development and application of nuclear power for peaceful uses throughout the world

  6. From medium-sized to megawatt turbines...

    Dongen, W. van [NedWind bv, Rhenen (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    One of the world`s first 500 kW turbines was installed in 1989 in the Netherlands. This forerunner of the current NedWind 500 kW range also represents the earliest predesign of the NedWind megawatt turbine. After the first 500 kW turbines with steel rotor blades and rotor diameter of 34 m, several design modifications followed, e.g. the rotor diameter was increased to 35 m and a tip brake was added. Later polyester blades were introduced and the rotor diameter was increased with 5 in. The drive train was also redesigned. Improvements on the 500 kW turbine concept has resulted in decreased cost, whereas annual energy output has increased to approx. 1.3 million kWh. Wind energy can substantially contribute to electricity supply. Maximum output in kiloWatthours is the target. Further improvement of the existing technology and implementation of flexible components may well prove to be a way to increase energy output, not only in medium or large sized wind turbines. 7 figs.

  7. Status and prospects for small and medium sized reactors

    Member States have evinced interest in the continued development of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) as an energy source for the future. Support for this programme was recently reaffirmed at the IAEA 1997 General Conference. Although the generation of electricity is the predominant focus of existing SMRs, there is increasing interest in using these plants for desalination, district heating and high temperature industrial process heat applications. Here is a review of SMR development within selected Member States, an overview of the IAEA's SMR programme and a discussion of selected SMR designs with emphasis on safety attributes. (author)

  8. The role of small and medium-sized reactors

    The second half of the twentieth century has seen nuclear power evolve from the research and development environment to an industry that supplies 17% of the world's electricity. The past decade, however, has seen stagnation in nuclear power plant construction in the Western industrialized world, slow nuclear power growth in Eastern Europe and expansion only in East Asia. But the turn of the century is potentially a turning-point for nuclear power because of: increasing world energy consumption, with nuclear power's contribution to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, nuclear fuel resources sustainability, and improvements in operation of current nuclear power plants; advanced reactor designs that will improve economics and availability, and further enhance safety; and continued strengthening of the nuclear power safeguards system. This paper looks at the role that small and medium-sized reactors can play in an increasingly competitive global energy market, particularly with regard to maintaining a sustainable mix of energy sources. (author)

  9. Small and medium size nuclear reactors

    The purpose of this appendix is to provide up-to-date technical information relevant to the deployment of small and medium reactors (SMRs). It summarizes the status of SMRs and discusses areas of relevance to their utilization, including seawater desalination; and in particular their simplicity, their flexibility for a variety of applications and the use of passive safety features as fundamental to most of these designs. In response to important commercial developments, the energy range of small and medium reactors is now taken as being up to around 700 MW(e). Detailed information on SMR designs can be found in the IAEA report on The Design and Development Status of Small and Medium Reactor Systems 1995. 5 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  10. Market Potential Estimation of a Small and Medium Size Reactor

    Technically, nuclear reactors which produce energy in the form of heat can supply energy products other than electricity, including district heat, process heat, potable water etc. Currently non-civil uses of nuclear energy are very limited civil applications except for a military nuclear powered ship and an energy usage in isolated areas. However, the future global environment and an energy resources scarcity could promote a significant usage of non-electrical applications on an industrial scale. Considering these situations, this report analyzed the following: (1) Worldwide non-electrical application of a small and medium sized nuclear reactor - survey the situation of the current technical applications, - survey the global market potential estimation for various applications (2) Technical cooperation potential in several countries - identify necessary conditions for nuclear cooperation, - select candidate countries: Morocco, UAE, Indonesia, Chile and Vietnam, - survey the energy and water situation, - survey the legal and international regime infrastructure

  11. Marketing analysis of medium sized wind turbines. Marktanalyse van de middelgrote windturbinesector

    Starreveld, Y.; Tuinhof, D.

    1984-01-01

    All marketing aspects of medium sized wind turbines are discussed (supply and demand, forecasts, energy prices, depreciation, market structure, production, etc.). Without export wind turbine industry has insufficient possibilities for The Netherlands. The government can support the wind turbine industry by giving enough orders, granting subsidies and tax concessions, and by promoting the export. (A.V.)

  12. A MODEL FOR SUPPORTING CONSISTENT COST MANAGEMENT IN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES: APPLICATION IN A CHEMICAL INDUSTRY COMPANY MODELO PARA APOIO A GESTÃO CONSISTENTE DE CUSTOS EM PEQUENAS E MÉDIAS EMPRESAS: APLICAÇÃO NUMA EMPRESA DO SETOR QUÍMICO

    Miguel Juan Bacic

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a structured model for improving production processes in small to medium-size industrial companies. Application of the model enables acting upon a set of cost generating causes, leading in a consistent manner to cost reductions. The model is based on the principles of management through total quality and considers the fundamental aspects that make it possible to eliminate waste, reduce defect costs and improve processes, thus enabling increased efficiency and reduction of variability. The model proposed is based on the set of variable principles pointed to by authors who deal with quality as key elements in management. The fulcrum of the system consists of control of the “6m” in Ishikawa’a causeeffect diagram (raw material, machinery, labor, methods, environment and mediations, supported by the action of a set of auxiliary tools and concepts. With the objective of testing the results of the model in practice, an application of it was made in a company from the chemical sector. The work describes the main aspects of the application and shows results obtained along the years from 1996 to 2005. Analysis of results shows significant obtainment of gains in productivity, diminished variability and maintenance of positive results over time. Keywords: Cost reduction. Model for improvement. Process management. Chemical industry. O artigo apresenta um modelo estruturado para melhoria dos processos produtivos de empresas industriais de portes pequeno e médio. A aplicação do modelo possibilita atuar sobre um conjunto de causas geradoras de custos, conduzindo, de forma consistente, a reduções de custo. O modelo é baseado nos princípios da gestão pela qualidade total e considera os aspectos fundamentais que possibilitam eliminar desperdícios, reduzir custos de falhas e melhorar os processos, possibilitando, assim, aumento de eficiência e diminuição da variabilidade. O modelo proposto baseia-se no conjunto das principais variáveis apontadas pelos autores de qualidade, como elementos-chave na gestão. O fulcro do sistema consiste no controle dos “6M” do diagrama causa-efeito de Ishikawa (matéria-prima, maquinário, mão-de-obra, métodos, meio-ambiente e medições, apoiado pela ação de um conjunto de ferramentas e conceitos auxiliares. Com o objetivo de testar na prática os resultados do modelo, foi realizada a aplicação numa empresa do setor químico. O trabalho descreve os aspectos principais dessa aplicação e mostra os resultados obtidos ao longo dos anos 1996-2005. A análise dos resultados mostra significativa obtenção de ganhos de produtividade, diminuição de variabilidade e manutenção dos resultados positivos ao longo do tempo. Palavras-chave: Redução de custos. Modelo de melhoria. Gestão de processos. Indústria química.

  13. Development of medium sized ABWRs (ABWR-600, ABWR-900)

    Hitachi has been developing medium sized ABWRs as a power source that features flexibility to meet various market needs, such as minimizing capital risks, providing a timely return on capital investments, etc. Basic design concepts of the medium sized ABWRs are 1) using the current ABWR design which has accumulated favorable construction and operation histories as a starting point; 2) utilizing standard BWR fuels which have been fabricated by proven technology; 3) achieving a rationalized design by suitably utilizing key components developed for large sized reactors. Development of the medium sized ABWRs has proceeded in a systematic, stepwise manner. The first step was to design an output scale for the 600 MWe class reactor (ABWR-600) which is appropriate for a distributed power supply. The next step was to develop an uprating concept to extend this output scale to the 900 MWe class reactor (ABWR-900) based on the rationalized technology of the ABWR-600 for further cost savings. (author)

  14. Development of medium sized ABWR (ABWR-600, ABWR-900)

    Hitachi has been developing the Medium sized ABWR as a power source that features flexibility to various market needs, such as minimized capital risks, timely return on a capital investment, etc. Basic design policy of the Medium sized ABWR is 1) to be based on ABWR design with superior experiences in construction and operation, 2) to utilize standard BWR fuel adopting proven technology, 3) to achieve rationalized design by suitably utilizing the key components developed for large sized reactor. Development of the Medium sized ABWR has been working to proceed step by step. The first step was to design an output scale of the 600 MWe class (ABWR-600), which is appropriate for a distributed power-supply. The next step we start developing of the up-rated to an output scale of the 900 MWe class (ABWR-900) based on ABWR-600 rationalized technology for further cost saving. (author)

  15. The impact of size on small and medium-sized enterprise public sector tendering

    Flynn, Anthony; McKevitt, David; Davis, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between firm size and public sector tendering. The findings show that size, measured by employee number, significantly influences small and medium sized enterprises’ (SMEs) tendering resources, behaviour and success; as such, micro-enterprises are resource-disadvantaged, tender less often and have lower success rates compared to small and medium-sized firms. These findings indicate that SMEs are heterogeneous tenderers, and point to the need for more ...

  16. An Overview of Foodpreneur Awareness among Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SME) of Halal Certification

    Norngainy Mohd Tawil; Shamshubaridah Ramlee; Jauhari Jaafar; Firdaus Mohd Saat

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to measure the awareness of Halal Certification among the Medium-Sized Enterprises (SME) especially those who are involved in the food industry. The study reveals that the awareness toward Halal Certification among Small-Medium Enterprise (SME) is at low level. But that raises a question mark when the study also indicates that the perceptions of the Muslim entrepreneur on halal food are very good.

  17. An Overview of Foodpreneur Awareness among Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SME of Halal Certification

    Norngainy Mohd Tawil

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to measure the awareness of Halal Certification among the Medium-Sized Enterprises (SME especially those who are involved in the food industry. The study reveals that the awareness toward Halal Certification among Small-Medium Enterprise (SME is at low level. But that raises a question mark when the study also indicates that the perceptions of the Muslim entrepreneur on halal food are very good.

  18. Fracture mechanics characterisation of medium-size adhesive joint specimens

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Jacobsen, T.K.

    2004-01-01

    Medium-size specimens (<2 m in length), consisting of two glass-fibre beams bonded together by an adhesive layer were tested in four point bending to determine their load carrying capacity. Specimens having different thickness were tested. Except for onespecimen, the cracking occurred as cracking...... observed. The measured applied moment at steady-state crack growth was compared with predictions based on independent mixed mode fracture resistancemeasurements made on small laboratory specimens. The predicted and measured strength values of the medium-size specimens were found to be in good agreement...

  19. Modelling credit risk of small and medium sized enterprises using transactional, accounting and market variables

    Ma, Yigui

    2012-01-01

    This thesis comprehensively explores the credit risk of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) using transactional characteristics, financial variables and market information. It contributes SMEs credit risk modelling by exploring a range of soft features, such as management capability, industrial sectors, entity type, etc. It is the first study of investigating the concept of management capability through quantitative transactional information. Firstly, models are propos...

  20. The economics of medium-sized reactors in deregulated markets

    The prospects for the deployment of small and medium reactors in deregulated markets is crucially dependent on demonstrating that such reactors are economically competitive with alternative power sources. Other factors, such as safety, reliability, waste arisings, environmental impact etc are also important to get right, but unless the economics are competitive, private investment is unlikely to be available for any reactor system. This paper examines the economics of the Westinghouse AP-600, which is the only medium-sized evolutionary PWR in the world today which has achieved regulatory approval. The paper presents an economic analysis of an AP-600 which shows that medium-sized systems can be economic in a competitive market and identifies the economic barriers that need to be overcome for their deployment to become a reality. The paper shows how sensitive the overall generating cost can be to the perceived financial risk, which helps to highlight where attention most needs to be focused. (author)

  1. Promoting Learning in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises.

    Hughes, Maria; Gray, Sue

    1998-01-01

    In 1996, small and medium-sized enterprises constituted 99% of all businesses in the United Kingdom in all but the electricity, gas, and water supply sector, providing 46% of nongovernment employment. SMEs' concern with day-to-day demands leaves them with limited time and resources to consider their training needs. Although providing support and…

  2. Decay heat removal system in a medium size HTGR

    The present study investigates the operation of the decay heat removal system (DHR) during loss of flow (LOF) accident in which the primary flow is reduced to zero at full power operation of medium size high temperature gas reactor (HTGR). (author)

  3. Sales strategy in small and medium-sized food companies

    Nielsen, Renate; Stacey, Julia; Andersen, Lone Merete Schreiber

    2002-01-01

    All managing teams know that they have to deal with the company's strategy in handling the market. But how do they do it and on the basis of which beleifs and interpretations? A nearly completed PhD project has examined the way in which three small and medium-sized food companies define their...

  4. Unions in small and medium-sized enterprises

    Holten, Ann-Louise; Crouch, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Trade unions are commonly weak in small- and medium-sized enterprises, which constitute a majority of European firms and are often family-owned. We investigate the influence of family ownership on employee membership, perceptions and experience with unions in Danish and Italian firms in the textile...

  5. Small- and Medium-Size Enterprise Financing in Eastern Europe

    Klapper, Leora F.; Sarria-Allende, Virginia; Sulla, Victor

    2002-01-01

    There is currently a large interest in understanding firms' access to finance, particularly in the financing of small- and medium-size enterprises (SMEs). But the financing patterns of SMEs across countries is not well understood. For example, little is known about the relative importance of equity, debt, and inter-firm financing for SMEs across countries. The authors use the Amadeus datab...

  6. Workplace Health Promotion within Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Moore, Ann; Parahoo, Kader; Fleming, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore managers' understanding of workplace health promotion (WHP) and experiences of WHP activity within small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in a Health and Social Care Trust area of Northern Ireland. The paper aims to focus on engagement with activities within the context of prevention of…

  7. Strategic Financial Management in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Zongsheng Liu

    2010-01-01

    Along with the development of social economy and the progress of science and technology, Chinese enterprises are being in a stage filled with opportunities and dangers. This paper introduces the connotation and significance of strategic financial management, elaborates the problems in the financial strategies conducted by small and medium-sized enterprises together with the causes and proposes some countermeasures finally.

  8. Strategic Financial Management in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Zongsheng Liu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the development of social economy and the progress of science and technology, Chinese enterprises are being in a stage filled with opportunities and dangers. This paper introduces the connotation and significance of strategic financial management, elaborates the problems in the financial strategies conducted by small and medium-sized enterprises together with the causes and proposes some countermeasures finally.

  9. Experience Reference from the Financial Support Practices for Japan’s Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Zhaozhen Fan

    2009-01-01

    The government-dominant financial system in Japan has exerted significant effects on the reconstruction of economy, the realization of industrial policy goals, and the construction of independent industrial and national economic system after the war. In Japan, the government takes much count of support for small and medium-sized enterprise financing. It establishes a small and medium-sized enterprise financial system that takes non-governmental units as principal parts and government as assis...

  10. Entry in a Psychically Distant Market: Finnish Small and Medium-sized Software Firms in Japan

    Ojala, Arto

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the market entry and entry mode choice of eight small and medium-sized Finnish software firms in the Japanese market. The findings in this study reveal that, despite of the psychic distance between Finland and Japan, most of the firms entered Japan at a very early stage of their internationalization process by using direct entry modes. This was mainly due to the market size, sophisticated industry structure, and requirements for intensive cooperation with ...

  11. Online Marketing in Small and Medium sized companies

    Mehra, Vikram

    2009-01-01

    Online marketing plays a significant role in business and the World Wide Web has proven to become a platform for success for many enterprises and industries. The advantages that comes with the use of the internet platform for the marketing goods and services makes it imperative for Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) to adopt, in order to stay competitive in the fast changing global market. The main objective of this study is to explore the dynamics of the Internet in connection with (SMEs). ...

  12. Bank Size and Small- and Medium-sized Enterprise (SME) Lending: Evidence from China

    Shen, Yan; Shen, Minggao; Xu, Zhong; Bai, Ying

    2009-01-01

    Using panel data collected in 2005, we evaluate how bank size, discretion over credit, incentive schemes, competition, and the institutional environment affect lending to small- and medium-sized enterprises in China. We deal with the endogeneity problem using instrumental variables, and a reduced-form approach is also applied to allow for weak instruments in estimation. We find that total bank asset is an insignificant factor for banks’ decision on small- and medium-enterprise (SME) lending, ...

  13. Industrial nutrient medium use for yeast selenium preparation

    GINA MARINESCU; ANTONETA GABRIELA STOICESCU; LILIANA TEODOROF

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the preparation of selenium yeast from spent brewer’s yeast by using industrial nutrient medium (malt wort and sparge water). The chemical treatment of the yeast biomass was done with sodium-selenite solution. The preparation of selenium – enriched Saccharomyces uvarum in different conditions of temperature, time, yeast biomass proportion and sodium-selenite concentration of the medium was analysed. Using a culture mediumsupplemented with 30–180 ?g/ ml sodium-selenite resul...

  14. Development of ESCO as a tool for realising energy efficiency in small and medium sized industry; ESCO = Energy Service Company; Udvikling af ESCO som vaerktoej til realisering af energieffektivisering i smaa og mellemstore erhvervsvirksomheder

    Jensen, Ove Folmer (DS Haandvaerk og Industri, Odense (Denmark))

    2011-07-01

    The project carried out an advisory process in 10 different SME (small and medium-sized enterprises). The process was based on energy management and employee involvement in energy conservation activities, which has led to a wide variety of projects in companies that have focused on the initiation and solution of diverse energy-saving activities. Results of the project consist of a series of case studies that describe the processes that have been implemented in the company. The selected cases demonstrate the diversity of businesses, their energy saving potential and need for funding. It also describes and assesses the various financing possibilities, a model for qualitative advising in SMEs and a module for the training of the people involved - including installers, craftsmen and advisor. (LN)

  15. Entrepreneurial Orientation vs. Innovativeness of Small and Medium Size Enterprises

    Joanna Ejdys

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the role of entrepreneurial orientation (entrepreneurship orientation) in innovation level among Small and Medium Size Enterprises (SMEs). A questionnaire survey was conducted among 137 firms in the Podlaskie Region. Three hypotheses related to entrepreneurial orientation and innovativeness level were examined by Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The relation between two constructs of entrepreneurial orientation and innovativeness, that is proactiveness and risk t...

  16. Sales Forecasting in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Haataja, Timo

    2016-01-01

    This thesis examined the use of sales forecasting in the small and medium-sized enterprises (SME), which provide software services and applications to their business customers. Sales forecasting is important, because it directs planning and decision making in the companies. However, SMEs may not have proper tools and resources assigned to sales forecasting. The theoretical framework of the thesis focused on two essential components; sales forecasting processes in SMEs and forecasting tool...

  17. Holonic Business Process Modeling in Small to Medium Sized Enterprises

    Nur Budi Mulyono; Tezar Yuliansyah Saputra; Nur Arief Rahmatsyah

    2012-01-01

    Holonic modeling analysis which is the application of system thinking in design, manage, and improvement, is used in a novel context for business process modeling. An approach and techniques of holon and holarchies is presented specifically for small and medium sized enterprise process modeling development. The fitness of the approach is compared with well known reductionist or task breakdown approach. The strength and weaknesses of the holonic modeling is discussed with illustrating case exa...

  18. IAEA activities for innovative small and medium sized reactors (SMRS)

    The renewed interest in many Member States in the development and application of Small and Medium Sized Reactors (SMRs) is reflected in the increased activities of the IAEA's Nuclear Power Technology Development Section (NPTDS) for this trend. The paper gives an overview, summarizes intermediate results, and presents major findings of the NPTDS activities for innovative SMRs, including the preparation of new Status Report on Innovative SMR Designs and Coordinated Research Project for the Development of Small Reactors without On-Site Refuelling. (authors)

  19. Utilizing Content Marketing in Small and Medium-Sized Organizations

    Parviainen, Ville

    2014-01-01

    The major objective of this study is to find out how and to what extent online content is currently utilized for marketing purposes among small and medium-sized organizations in Finland. Additionally, positive and negative future prospects concerning this type of content marketing were explored. The study is mainly qualitative by nature. The empirical part of this thesis was carried out between July 2013 and March 2014 and it consists of five semi-structured interviews with five professio...

  20. Unions in small and medium-sized enterprises

    Holten, Ann-Louise; Crouch, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Trade unions are commonly weak in small- and medium-sized enterprises, which constitute a majority of European firms and are often family-owned. We investigate the influence of family ownership on employee membership, perceptions and experience with unions in Danish and Italian firms in the textile...... and clothing sector. Family ownership reduces union membership; and within family firms, the number of family members employed is negatively associated with unionization rates and employee perceptions of unions....

  1. Female Leadership Motivation in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Lillbacka, Marjo

    2010-01-01

    Leaders need to know what motivates their employees and how they can get their employees work their best. Women leaders are said to encourage and support their employees, which is essential for leadership motivation. Motivated employees improve enterprises’ overall business performance and results. The research is based on leadership, motivation and self-motivation in small and medium-sized enterprises in Ostrobothnia. The research problem is to find out how female leaders motivate their empl...

  2. Language strategies in Finnish small and medium-sized enterprises

    Talja, Katriina

    2011-01-01

    Objectives of the Study Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) have scarcely been researched from the point of view of language strategy. The objective of the study is to identify language strategies of Finnish SMEs doing business abroad and to analyze these strategies. The objectives were met through a survey directed at Finnish SMEs and face-to-face interviews with five case companies. Summary Languages are increasing important in the globalizing world, yet few companies ha...

  3. Internationalization strategy and performance of small and medium sized enterprises

    Sleuwaegen,Leo; Onkelinx, Jonas

    2010-01-01

    Focusing on the timing and geographical scope of import and export activities of Belgian small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs), the paper analyzes the importance, structural features and performance implications of firms that recently started to export following the geographical configuration of their international trade operations and their year of establishment. The analysis allows us to separate firms that started to export in the period 1998-2005 into four distinct groups: born intern...

  4. The causal effect of board size in the performance of small and medium-sized firms

    Bennedsen, Morten; Kongsted, Hans Christian; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    Empirical studies of large publicly traded firms have shown a robust negative relationship between board size and firm performance. The evidence on small and medium-sized firms is less clear; we show that existing work has been incomplete in analyzing the causal relationship due to weak identific......Empirical studies of large publicly traded firms have shown a robust negative relationship between board size and firm performance. The evidence on small and medium-sized firms is less clear; we show that existing work has been incomplete in analyzing the causal relationship due to weak...... identification strategies. Using a rich data set of almost 7000 closely held corporations we provide a causal analysis of board size effects on firm performance: We use a novel instrument given by the number of children of the chief executive officer (CEO) of the firms. First, we find a strong positive...... correlation between family size and board size and show this correlation to be driven by firms where the CEO's relatives serve on the board. Second, we find empirical evidence of a small adverse board size effect driven by the minority of small and medium-sized firms that are characterized by having...

  5. Medium-sized water reactors for undeveloped regions

    In the new century the growth of population and an increasing of energy demands together with the difficulties of fossil fuel supply are expected. It is important to find optimal ways in solving such problems without the climate warming. The nuclear power having many advantages in comparison with fossil fuel technologies could play the great role in near future. The Medium-Sized Nuclear Reactors for production of electricity, heat and fresh water are considered as a main direction of nuclear power applications in the developing world It is important to discuss the requirements to such nuclear plants for using in the Countries with Small and Medium Electricity Grids. Particularly, cost-benefit analysis of construction NPP has to include assessment of all type risks and effectiveness of plant. In the paper an attention is paid on Water Reactors designed on the basis of navy technology. Such compact PWR built on special mills and placed on special floating vessel could be used in undeveloped regions. Total plant can be transported to any point of World Ocean and return back to mill for repair or decommissioning after exhaustion of lifetime. It is expected that such reactors with innovative design approach, provision of high safety and proper economic efficiency, based on leasing procedures, could be very attractive for medium-sized and developing countries.(author)

  6. Analysis of energy-efficiency investment decisions by small and medium-sized manufacturers

    Woodruff, M.G.; Roop, J.M.; Seely, H.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Muller, M.R. [Rutgers--the State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Jones, T.W. [Alliance to Save Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Dowd, J. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This report highlights the results of a comprehensive analysis of investment decisions regarding energy-efficiency measures at small and medium-sized manufacturing plants. The analysis is based on the experiences of companies participating in the DOE Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) program. The IAC program is a network of university-based centers that provides energy and waste assessments to small and medium-sized manufacturing plants. The purposes of this report are to do the following: (1) Examine what the data collected reveal about patterns of implementation of recommended energy- efficiency measures, (2) Evaluate how various factors, such as the type of industry, the characteristics of the manufacturing plants, or the cost of the measures, appear to effect implementation rates, (3) Examine reasons why recommended energy-saving measures are accepted or rejected.

  7. Imperfect information and labor market bias against small and medium-sized enterprises: a Korean case

    Park, Soonae; Kim, Byung-Yeon; Jang, Wonchang; Nam, Kyung-min

    2014-01-01

    We examine the labor market’s bias against small and medium-sized enterprises focusing on the Seoul Digital Industrial Complex case. We adopt Heckman’s approach to control selection bias, and use primary data from questionnaire surveys conducted at both firm and employee levels. We find that conventional firm-specific factors, such as wages, fringe benefits, and weekly work hours, primarily explain the labor market bias, but imperfect information is also positively associated with the bias. F...

  8. Beyond the Product – Enabling design services in small and medium sized enterprises

    Eneberg, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    While the design industry is moving into new domains, it seems that potential customers do not always understand how the designer can contribute beyond the aesthetically appealing product. The overall purpose of this thesis is to expand our understanding of design as an enabling service in the context of small and medium sized enterprises. Enabling design services have the potential to result in organizational learning and change. The co-creation of new knowledge and competencies can in turn ...

  9. Foreign Markets Entry Mode Decision for Italian Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Fabio Musso; Barbara Francioni

    2011-01-01

    Using a resource-based view model, this paper examines the main factors influencing Small and Medium-SizedEnterprise (SME) international entry mode selection. In addition, a possible relationship between firmsbelonging to industrial districts and the entry mode choice has been verified. Data for the analysis of this studywere collected interviewing 221 owners/managers of SMEs in Italy. Results showed that entry mode decisionsare mainly influenced by firm specific factors. Furthermore, the stu...

  10. A medium sized telescope prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    The CTA (Cherenkov Telescope Array) is a proposed next generation instrument to observe very high energy (VHE) gamma-rays at ground level. The array will consist of 3 sizes of telescope covering a wide photon energy range: small (4m diameter) telescopes sensitive to the highest energy photons, medium sized telescopes (12 m) operating in the mid energy range, and a small number of large telescopes (24 m) with high sensitivity to low energy photons. Current Cherenkov Telescope experiments consist of up to 5 telescopes; CTA will be made up of an order of magnitude more, which will greatly enhance the number of photons that can be detected as well as increasing the number of views of each cascade, bringing significantly improved angular resolution and background suppression. The observatory is currently in the planning and development phase. A prototype CTA medium sized telescope (MST) is being built in Adlershof (Berlin). This talk focuses on plans for CTA and the design and construction of the MST prototype, as well as its operation, instrumentation and early measurement results.

  11. Enterprise architecture for small and medium-sized enterprises

    Bernaert, Maxime

    2012-01-01

    Enterprise architecture (EA) is used as a holistic approach to keep things aligned in a company. Some emphasize the use of EA to align IT with the business, others see it broader and use it to also keep the processes aligned with the strategy. Although a lot of research is being done on EA, still hardly anything is known about its use in the context of a small and medium sized enterprise (SME). Because of some specific characteristics of SMEs, it is interesting to look how EA can be applied i...

  12. Transient analysis in medium size HTGR power plant

    In this work we use then DSNP software, to study the reactivity transient in HTGR medium size power plant, initiated by a sudden rise in core reactivity followed by a scram action as a result of temperature growth. The decay heat in the core is removed from the primary loop in the steam generator. The simulation shows that during the transient the peak core gas temperature is 857 degrees C and the peak fuel temperature is 1026 degrees C, which indicate that the fuel coating integrity is not in danger. (authors) 7 refs, 12 figs

  13. Status and Prospects for Small and Medium Sized Reactors

    There is considerable interest by Member States in the continued development of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) as a significant energy sources for the future. The support for this programme within the IAEA was recently reaffirmed at the 1997 General Conference. Although the generation of electricity has been predominant focus of existing SMRs, there is increasing interest in using these plants for other applications such as desalination, district heating and hydrogen production from the reforming of methane. Addressed herein is a review of ongoing SMR development activities within selected Member States, an overview of the Agency's SMR programme and a discussion of selected SMR designs with emphasis on their safety attributes. (author)

  14. Internationalization of small and medium-sized enterprises

    Zoran Paunovi?

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Highly developed countries, which are similar to Croatia by size and population, highlight the importance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs as holders of export activities and key factors in raising the competitiveness of the entire economy. In this paper authors research the concept of internationalization of SMEs. Analyzing the influence of decision makers on the process of internationalization and showing its advantages and disadvantages for the respective company and country, this research introduces the most common models on the basis of which this process is implemented in practice. A case study of a small export company from Croatia illustrates the process of internationalization to the U.S. market and provides useful information to the companies which are planning to enter new markets.

  15. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION STEPS FOR INDIAN SMALL & MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Apurva Anand

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents review of literature on Knowledge management (KM in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs. It focuses on the strategy, implementation, technological and performance measurement &benchmarking issues regarding KM in Indian SMEs. KM is a practical tool for any organization. So KM does not remain just a theory now but it paves the way to formulating an understanding of KM and its role within SMEs. KM has gained importance in the today’s global knowledge economy. It is important not only for big firms, but for small and medium size enterprises (SMEs also. Indian SMEs sector is also one of the fastest growing sectors of Indian economy. So it is very important for SMEs to know what their knowledge assets are,and how to manage and make best use of these assets to get maximum return, since without proper KM approaches, SMEs are likely to have more to lose than larger enterprises. This paper tries to identify the steps regarding implementation of KM in Indian SMEs for improving competitiveness of SMEs in globalised market.

  16. CANDU 6 - the highly successful medium sized reactor

    The CANDU 6 Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor system, featuring horizontal fuel channels and heavy water moderator continues to evolve, supported by AECL's strong commitment to comprehensive R and D programs. The initial CANDU 6 design started in the 1970's. The first plants went into service in 1983, and the latest version of the plant is under construction in China. With each plant the technology has evolved giving the dual advantages of proveness and modern technology. CANDU 6 delivers important advantages of the CANDU system with benefit to small and medium-sized grids. This technology has been successfully adopted by, and localized to varying extents in, each of the CANDU 6 markets. For example, all CANDU owners obtain their fuel from domestic suppliers. Progressive CANDU development continues at AECL to enhance this medium size product CANDU 6. There are three key CANDU development strategic thrusts: improved economics, fuel cycle flexibility, and enhanced safety. The CANDU 6 product is also enhanced by incorporating improvements and advanced features that will be arising from our CANDU Technology R and D programs in areas such as heavy water and tritium, control and instrumentation, fuel and fuel cycles, systems and equipment and safety and constructability. (author)

  17. Panorama 2007: Medium-Term Prospects for the Gas Industry

    In the nineties, natural gas was the fastest growing energy source in the world energy mix. However, recent developments on the energy scene, particularly in terms of prices, have strongly impacted the growth of the various energies to the detriment of natural gas. Beyond this inter-energy competition, which could intensify, medium-term prospects for the gas industry evolve in an environment beset with uncertainties. (author)

  18. Small and medium industries or the parable of lilliput

    Zerda, Álvaro; Rincón, Nicolás

    2010-01-01

    With the changing model of production in recent years, small and medium industries (SMI) and microenterprises are the object of greater analysis in the economic literature, and governments are paying more attention to them in their development strategies. However, neoliberal positions have been used to explain their success, and the study ofthe SMI is turned into an argument in favor of the free market.This article seeks to define the terms of analysis. It emphasizes the heterogeneity of thos...

  19. Can small and medium sized reactors be competitive?

    Cost is an important attribute for the future development of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). This paper addresses the target costs necessary for SMRs to be competitive in the markets of the 21st century and ways and means that designers are considering to meet these targets. It briefly reviews the impacts on nuclear energy competitiveness of economic globalisation, market deregulation, privatisation of the power sector and policy measures aiming at sustainable development and highlights new challenges and opportunities that are created for nuclear power plants as a result of the changing policy making framework in the electricity sector. Recognising the importance of capital cost (60% or more of nuclear electricity generation cost) the paper elaborates on technical (e.g. simplified design and factory building) and managerial (e.g. series order) measures aiming at capital cost reduction. The impacts of deregulation of the electricity market and privatisation of the sector on the competitiveness of SMRs are addressed. The paper stresses the importance of internalisation of social and environmental costs and sustainable development objectives for the competitiveness of nuclear energy and in particular of SMRs that are adapted to decentralised electricity supply and co-generation. Finally, it presents some findings and conclusions, drawn from the NEA analyses, on the prospects for enhancing the economics of small and medium reactors and their potential contribution to sustainable energy mixes. (author)

  20. Variability management challenges in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs

    Tuomas Ihme

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Variability has become important means to provide customer specific products fast to the market. This paper presents findings from a literature study and questionnaire designed to find out the current variability management practices, challenges and needs in small and medium sized companies (SMEs. The literature study was carried out first, and based on its findings questionnaire study was designed and carried out. Transparency of variability and design decisions between R and D and business and customer interfaces and transparency of variability and design decisions within R and D were the most important and challenging variability areas in the studied organisations. The most frequently used architecture design issue was the use of known architectural styles and patterns to handle variability. The findings of the most challenging and important variability management topics, as well as the important improvement goals can be used to direct future research, and efforts to support companies in variability management.

  1. Medium-size high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    Peinado, C. O.; Koutz, S. L.

    1980-08-01

    This report summarizes high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) experience for the 40 MW(e) Peach Bottom Nuclear Generating Station of Philadelphia Electric Company and the 330 MW(e) Fort St. Vrain Nuclear Generating Station of the Public Service Company of Colorado. Both reactors are graphite moderated and helium cooled, operating at about 760 C and using the uranium/thorium fuel cycle. The plants have demonstrated the inherent safety characteristics, the low activation of components, and the high efficiency associated with the HTGR concept. This experience was translated into the conceptual design of a medium sized 1170 MW(t) HTGR for generation of 450MW of electric power. The concept incorporates inherent HTGR safety characteristics and engineered safety features.

  2. Medium-size high-temperature gas-cooled reactor

    This report summarizes high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) experience for the 40-MW(e) Peach Bottom Nuclear Generating Station of Philadelphia Electric Company and the 330-MW(e) Fort St. Vrain Nuclear Generating Station of the Public Service Company of Colorado. Both reactors are graphite moderated and helium cooled, operating at approx. 7600C (14000F) and using the uranium/thorium fuel cycle. The plants have demonstrated the inherent safety characteristics, the low activation of components, and the high efficiency associated with the HTGR concept. This experience has been translated into the conceptual design of a medium-sized 1170-MW(t) HTGR for generation of 450 MW of electric power. The concept incorporates inherent HTGR safety characteristics [a multiply redundant prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV), a graphite core, and an inert single-phase coolant] and engineered safety features

  3. Direct television broadcasting with a medium-size satellite

    Pfund, E. T.

    The low-risk, high reliability DBS design approach that led to the world's first DBS delivery-in-orbit type contact is described relative to the unique TWTA, redundancy, and battery technology used on the medium-size HS 376 spacecraft. The general DBS technical and commercial problems that have been encountered worldwide to date are summarized. DBS coverage of Great Britain, Japan, Saudi Arabia, Switzerland, Thailand, and the U.S. is considered, as is the community broadcasting satellite service to Australia's remote outback via Aussat's existing HS 376 satellite system. Edge-of-coverage EIRP from 47 to 59 dBW is identified, and the varying 7-to-15 year lifetimes resulting from different booster capabilities that have been observed are noted. Antenna patterns are provided for each application discussed.

  4. Beyond design depressurization accident in a medium sized HTGR

    The potential for the release of fission products during a beyond design accident in a medium size HTGR (HTGR-500) was investigated. The dynamic simulator for nuclear power plants (DSNP) modular code was employed in the simulation of a depressurization accident coupled with the failure of forced circulation in the decay heat removal systems. For such an extreme accident the maximal localized fuel temperature reaches 3050 degC, and within 100 hours from the beginning of the accident, 3.4% of the Cs137 inventory will be released from the fuel elements to the primary circuit, and 4.6*10-2% are estimated to be released to the environment. Fission products being swept from the primary circuit by the CO and helium released from the graphite matrix, prove to be an important factor. Although a severe accident scenario was assumed, the comparative consequence analysis point at a lower risk than the analogous light water reactor severe accident. (author)

  5. Stereotactic radiation therapy by medium fraction size for lung tumor

    Stereotactic radiation therapy by medium fraction size (SRTm) was applied for lung tumor, we investigated to effectiveness and CT image change by treatment. Thirteen patients with lung tumor were treated with SRTm between September, 2003 and June, 2004. Nine cases were consisted as primary lung cancer, and 4 as metastatic lung cancers. Total 13 lesions were treated in 13 cases. Tumor diameter ranged from 1 cm to 4 cm, and the median was 2 cm. Body Fix was applied for patient's immobilization. The treatment planning was performed with CT simulator, X-ray simulator, and ECLIPSE. Fraction dose was escalated from 4 Gy to 7 Gy, of which contents were as follows 4 Gy/f x 10 f (one) 4 Gy/fx 12 f (one), 4 Gy/fx 15 f (one), 5 Gy/fx 10 f (3) 5 Gy/f x 12 f (3), 6 Gy x 10 f (3), and 7 Gy/f x 10 f (one). Total dose by LQ model were estimated as 56-119 in BEDacute (α/β=10), and 120-315 in BEDlate (α/β=3). V20 ranged from 2.52-10.24% (average 5.84). In the initial response, 8 lesions were achieved as CR, 2 as PR and 3 as SD. Among 13 lesions, no lesion had re-growth. Radiation-induced pulmonary complications greater than National Cancer Institute (NCI)-CTC criteria Grade 2 was noted one only. In change of CT image, slight increase in opacity was noted 3 cases within 3 month after treatment. Pachy consolidation was noted 10 cases between 3 month and 12 month after treatment. Stereotactic radiation therapy by medium fraction size for lung tumor was considered as effective and safety. (author)

  6. Surveillance of medium-size dams; Surveillance des barrages de taille moyenne

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    French hydro-power buildings belong to the government and are retroceded by the licence holder when the granting delay comes to an end. Experience has shown that less care is given by licence holders to the maintenance of medium-size dams that to big dams. For this reason, the French Ministry of Industry decided to harmonize and standardize the surveillance practices of medium-size dams. A circular was signed on May 23, 1997 which concerns the 10 to 20 m height dams with water reservoir volumes lower than the H{sup 2} x V{sup 0.5} criterion which is an evaluation of the potential risk of the dam. The surveillance modalities concern: the construction, the licence holder file, the first filling up, the operation, and the periodical safety inspections. (J.S.)

  7. BTX measurements in a medium-sized European city

    Pilidis, Georgios A.; Karakitsios, Spyros P.; Kassomenos, Pavlos A.

    The BTX levels are significantly high compared to the EU directive for benzene in European cities with population around or higher one million. Since there are hundreds of towns in Europe with smaller population, it is important to know the levels of aromatics in these areas. This work presents the results of a benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) measurement campaign that took place in Ioannina, a medium-sized Greek city. As a result of traffic situation and the local meteorological conditions, pollution levels in Ioannina are unusually high, at least for a city of that size. BTX levels were measured using passive samplers placed at several points around the city, as well as across a selected street canyon using both passive and active samplers, combined with simultaneous measurements of traffic flow and wind speed. The measurement procedure was repeated in an exact manner for all four seasons and the results suggest that benzene levels, at all sampling points, exceed the limit set by EU Directive 2000/69. Benzene levels appear correlated to traffic density, while benzene/toluene/xylene ratios present a seasonal variation linked to meteorological conditions.

  8. Design, Testing, and Realisation of a Medium Size Aerostat Envelope

    A. Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The design, testing and realisation aspects during the development of a medium size aerostat envelope in the present work. The payload capacity of this aerostat is 300 kg at 1 km above mean sea level. The aerostat envelope is the aerodynamically shaped fabric enclosure part of the aerostat which generally uses helium for lifting useful payloads to a specified height. The envelope volume estimation technique is discussed which provides the basis for sizing. The design, material selection, testing and realisation aspects of this aerostat envelope are also discussed. The empirical formulas and finite element analysis are used to estimate the aerodynamic, structural and other design related parameters of the aerostat. Equilibrium studies are then explained for balancing forces and moments in static conditions. The tether profile estimation technique is discussed to estimate blow by distance and tether length. A comparison of estimated and measured performance parameters during trials has also been discussed.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 66, No. 2, March 2016, pp.93-99, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.66.9291

  9. Challenges and Considerations for Innovative Small and Medium Sized Reactors

    There is an ongoing interest in Member States in the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). In the near term, most new NPPs are likely to be evolutionary water cooled reactor designs building on proven systems while incorporating technological advances and often the economics of scale, resulting from the reactor outputs of up to 1600 MW(e). For a longer term, the focus is on innovative designs aiming to provide increased benefits in the areas of safety and security, non-proliferation, waste management, resource utilization and economy, as well as to offer a variety of energy products and flexibility in design, siting and fuel cycle options. Many innovative designs are reactors within the SMR range, having an equivalent electric power less than 700 MW(e) or even less than 300 MW(e). It is important that small or medium sized reactor does not necessarily mean small or medium sized nuclear power plant. The majority of innovative SMR concepts and designs provide for power station configurations with several units at a site or for NPP configurations with 2 or more reactor modules. In most cases, the units or modules could be added incrementally. Innovative SMRs are in many cases intended for markets different from those in which large nuclear power plants operate, i.e., markets that value more distributed electrical supplies, a better match between supply increments and investment capability or demand growth, more flexible siting or greater product variety. SMRs cannot compete with larger capacity plants on an economy of scale basis. However, they could be competitive via employing alternative design strategies, taking advantage of smaller reactor size resulting in a less complex design and operation and maintenance or in an increased overall energy conversion efficiency, and by relying on alternative deployment strategies, taking advantage of multiple unit factors and learning curve, and shorter construction schedule and 'exact' unit timing factors. Because many innovative SMRs are not water cooled, licensing approaches focussed on current light water reactors may need adjustments toward a technology-neutral approach. And most of the innovative SMR concepts rely broadly on passive safety systems, the reliability of which needs to be proven to enable risk-informed qualification and licensing. In addition, many potential applications of SMRs, such as district heat, potable water or hydrogen production, may require them to be located close to customers or a chemical plant. Based on the outputs of IAEA activities for innovative SMRs, it is possible to identify common approaches that could help the potential vendors to meet the expectations of many users and the international community. The paper will provide details on such considerations, with a link to various subject areas and categories of stake holders.(author)

  10. The design of a compact integral medium size PWR

    Highlights: ► We model the IRIS reactor in RELAP5 and VIPRE codes. ► We use Printed Circuit Heat Exchangers and internally and externally cooled fuel pins in IRIS. ► We increase the IRIS power by 50% and demonstrate adequate safety performance. ► We show significant potential gain in economics for any integral PWR reactor design. - Abstract: Integral reactors have been proposed in recent years as a means to eliminate loss of coolant events, and reduce the number of large vessels of a nuclear power plant. In this paper the focus on how to further increase the power that can be derived from a given vessel volume. The example is applied to the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS), a medium size, light water reactor rated at 1000 MWt. The IRIS is an integral design containing all pumps and steam generators along with a traditional PWR core inside the reactor vessel. IRIS was designed with 8 Once-Through Helically Coiled Steam Generators (OTHSG), located above the core, in an annular region between the riser and the pressure vessel wall. This work examines ideas to increase its power output in the same vessel size while maintaining or improving the safety margins. The combination of Printed Circuit Heat Exchangers (PCHE) and Internally and EXternally cooled Annular Fuel (IXAF) is proposed to implement such improvement in otherwise the reference IRIS design. Safety implications of such steam generator and fuel design changes for the same reactor size are examined, under both steady state and transients, using the RELAP5 and VIPRE codes. It is found that the IRIS reactor power can be increased by 50% by using the PCHE and IXAF. The proposed design is found to be less expensive per unit electric power produced, these improvements and analyses can be applied to any integral reactor design.

  11. Insights about Integrated Marketing Communication in Small-and-Medium-sized Italian Enterprises

    Annamaria Esposito

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates if and how integrated marketing communication (IMC has been implemented by Italian small-and-medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. Three case studies about small and-medium Italian enterprises analysis are carried out: three small and-medium enterprises in different industries through interviews and document analysis. The article highlights the fact that small-and-medium-sized Italian enterprises implement marketing communication using a flexible approach. The most widespread communication purpose is to activate dialogues and new connections with their stakeholders and the most used communication tools are participation in fairs, sponsorships and events, but the very emerging tool is online communication: digital and social media. Despite the small number of cases included, the paper is to be considered as a starting point for a further quantitative investigation on this topic. The research shows that SMEs managers tend to adapt IMC in order to grasp opportunities on the market, rather than planning and communicating the values related to the product in an integrated way. This point ought to be taken into account to start an exchange of practices between managers and professionals in the marketing communication field..

  12. Powertrain System Design of Medium-sized Hybrid Electric Tractor

    Xie Bin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The environment issue has been more and more serious than ever before along with the increasing numbers of tractors. Different from pure electric tractors, medium-sized tractor more widely adopt hybrid power driver according to the machine structure and operation characteristics. The Hybrid Electric Tractor (HET is capable of enabling the diesel works in an optimal area by controlling the output torque of engine and electronic motor to achieve fuel economy and emission reduction. Designing the parallel hybrid tractor transmission system and control method are put forward in a 66kW off-road tractor based on the plowing operation cycle condition. The overall power should meet the maximum power of the plowing operation with the power balance equation. The control strategies are established by road transport modes and field operating modes, respectively. A logic fuzzy control system to Degree of Hybridization (DOH on account of the output torque and State of Charge (SOC is introduced. Aiming at the fuel economy parameter, the optimization design shows that the hybrid tractor can improve 19.2% of fuel economy between SOC 0.4~0.7 compared with the traditional tractor.

  13. Salary Management System for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    Hao, Zhang; Guangli, Xu; Yuhuan, Zhang; Yilong, Lei

    Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in the process of wage entry, calculation, the total number are needed to be done manually in the past, the data volume is quite large, processing speed is low, and it is easy to make error, which is resulting in low efficiency. The main purpose of writing this paper is to present the basis of salary management system, establish a scientific database, the computer payroll system, using the computer instead of a lot of past manual work in order to reduce duplication of staff labor, it will improve working efficiency.This system combines the actual needs of SMEs, through in-depth study and practice of the C/S mode, PowerBuilder10.0 development tools, databases and SQL language, Completed a payroll system needs analysis, database design, application design and development work. Wages, departments, units and personnel database file are included in this system, and have data management, department management, personnel management and other functions, through the control and management of the database query, add, delete, modify, and other functions can be realized. This system is reasonable design, a more complete function, stable operation has been tested to meet the basic needs of the work.

  14. Small and Medium Sized Reactors: Driving Forces and Technology Development

    There will be growing demands for energy in the coming decades. One aspect of particular importance is that prospects for nuclear energy will to a considerable extent be influenced by developing countries. Since population growth will occur primarily in developing countries nuclear energy cannot play a significant global role without being a viable option in these countries. Since new power plants to be built will have to be compatible with regional electricity grids, this may result in a greater focus on plants in the small and medium range, defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to produce up to 700 Megawatt of electrical power. This paper first examines the driving forces that could influence the development of nuclear energy in general and of Small and Medium Sized Reactors (SMRs) in particular in the next decades and identifies key factors in that process. Concerns over climate change may to a certain extent influence the discussion on future energy options. Other factors of equal importance for the future of nuclear are a continued emphasis on maintaining high safety standards, the implementation of acceptable solutions for spent fuel and radioactive waste disposal and a globally accepted non-proliferation regime, factors that may in turn have an impact on public acceptance. Economic competitiveness of nuclear energy is an additional important factor, and without being commercially viable, no energy source can in the long run represent a major and stable component in a competitive energy sector. The introduction of SMRs in developing countries poses additional challenges, such as investment limitations. Technology development plays an important role in keeping the nuclear option open for countries wishing to use nuclear reactors to meet their energy needs, and advances in reactor design will be important to enable a significant nuclear component in developing countries. This paper considers the contribution that nuclear science and technology can make towards meeting those needs and discusses the role of the IAEA in the nuclear technology area. The activities of the IAEA encompass the broad areas of nuclear technology, safety and safeguards, together with outreach activities which seek to provide information to decision makers, civil society and the public. (authors)

  15. Small and medium size companies competiveness in Croatian regional framework

    Fröhlich, Zlatan

    2013-01-01

    Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) represent an important part of the Croatian economy. In 2011 SMEs achieved a share of 50.2% of gross domestic product (GDP), 65.5% of employment and 42% of Croatian exports. In the paper will be elaborated importance of the small and medium enterprise sector in Croatia as well as presented institutional and legislative framework for the small and medium enterprise sector in Croatia and describe distribution of competences for making policy decisions related...

  16. Theoretical Investigation of Trust in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

    Valentinas Navickas; Ilona Ska?kauskien?; Aida Navikait?

    2014-01-01

    The hectic pace of competition pushes the sector of small and medium enterprise to adopt sophisticated marketing ideas. In this context, customers are becoming more and more selective. However, expansion possibilities are burdened by the great variety of limitations. The current study paper aims to investigate the academic perception of trust which is treated as competitive advantage for small and medium enterprises. The object of the article is trust in small and medium enterprises. It has t...

  17. Understanding the production and consumption of design expertise by small medium-sized firms :some evidence from Norway

    Rusten, Grete; John R. Bryson

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the ways in which industrial design services are organised, produced, and consumed by Norwegian small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). This includes exploring the geographies of this performance in terms of how consumers and producers of design expertise organize their activities. The paper also identifies different ways in which client firms utilize industrial design to develop or retain competitive advantage. The paper combines empirical data with the development of ...

  18. Approaches to Assess Competitiveness of Small and Medium Sized Reactors

    There is continuing interest in Member States concerning the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs), i.e., reactors with the equivalent electric power of less than 700 MW. Currently, developed SMRs are in most cases intended for markets different than those in which large nuclear power plants operate. Such markets have essentially different investment requirements, siting flexibility, grid connections and infrastructure restrictions. Therefore, economic factors affecting the competitiveness or competition of SMRs in such markets would also be different from those observed in established markets for electricity production. For example, investment capability may be limited, which would favour capacity addition in smaller increments; grids may be small or weak, which would favour capacities exactly matching the demand; infrastructure and human resource may be insufficient, which would favour less complex operation and maintenance requirements; and non-electrical energy products, such as potable water, may be in demand, which would favour reasonably close plant location to the customer. In practice it is futile to compare a single SMR needs to a single larger capacity plant on an economy of scale basis because SMRs are suitable for those locations that might not be appropriate for larger plants. However, a series of SMRs could be considered comparable to fewer larger plants to achieve the same overall power station capacity. In this case, SMRs have a potential to be competitive by employing alternative design strategies, taking advantage of smaller reactor size, offering a less complex design and operation and maintenance, relying on deployment-in-series approaches, taking an advantage of the accelerated learning, multiple unit factors and shorter construction duration. Reflecting on developments in member states, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is finalizing the preparation of a report highlighting the economics and investment related factors affecting SMR competitiveness, as well as the tools available to assess these factors. In parallel with this, IAEA is conducting a series of case studies on SMR competitive deployment and application, making use of these tools and fostering their further development. The case studies that would highlight comparative benefits and disadvantages of SMRs versus larger reactors for different deployment strategies and application conditions, will be finalized in the end of 2009, and their final results are not yet available Therefore, the present paper summarizes the major outputs of the report titled 'Approaches to Assess Competitiveness of SMRs' and discusses approaches that need to be taken into account in the assessment rather than the results of their application. However, several illustrations of the application of such approaches are provided. (author)

  19. Medium-term perspectives of the natural gas industry

    During the 1990's, natural gas was the energy source with the fastest rate of growth in the world energy balance. Nevertheless, recent evolutions of the energy context, in particular in terms of prices, have had a rather strong impact on the progress of the different energy sources penalizing gas a little. Beyond this competition between energies, which may increase, the medium-term perspectives of natural gas development is in keeping with an environment full of uncertainties. This article presents: the world supply and demand prospects for 2010-2015 (impact of high gas prices on other energy sources, occurrence of production constraints, political decisions of producing countries and world gas industry balance), trends on main markets (North America, Europe, Asia-Oceania), and international trade. (J.S.)

  20. Analysis of near optimum design for small and medium size nuclear power plants

    Market surveys in recent years have shown that a significant market would exist among the developing nations of the world for nuclear power plants that would be classified as small to medium sized, provided that these small plants could produce electricity at a unit price comparable to that of equivalent sized fossil fired plants. Nuclear plants in the range of 100 MWe to 500 MWe would fit more effectively into the relatively smaller grids of most developing nations than would the 900 MWe to 1300 MWe units now being constructed in the large industrial nations. Worldwide re-evaluation of the worth of fossil fuels has prompted a re-examination of the competitive position of small to medium sized nuclear generating units compared to comparable fossil fired units, especially in the context of units specifically optimized for the size range of interest, rather than of designs that are simply scaled down versions of the currently available larger units. Since the absolute cost of electricity is more sensitive to external factors such as cost of money, national inflation rate and time required for licensing and construction than to details of design or perhaps even to choice of fuels, and since the cost of electricity generated in small to medium sized fossil fired units is periodically compared to that of scaled down versions of conventional large nuclear units, the point of view taken here is one of comparing the relative generating costs of smaller nuclear units of optimum design with the corresponding costs of scaled down versions of current large nuclear generating units

  1. The Management And Exchange of Knowledge AndInnovation in Environments of Collaborating Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

    OSANNA; N.M. DURAKBASA; L. CRISAN; Bauer, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    The importance of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) is today far beyond any discussion in countries all over the world - in European countries as well as in Asia and in USA, in Africa as well as in Latin America. To meet market demands in present and future global industrial world, manufacturing enterprises of any kind and any size must be flexible and agile enough to respond quickly to product demand changes. With support of artificial intelligence and modern information technology i...

  2. Foreign Markets Entry Mode Decision for Italian Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Fabio Musso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a resource-based view model, this paper examines the main factors influencing Small and Medium-SizedEnterprise (SME international entry mode selection. In addition, a possible relationship between firmsbelonging to industrial districts and the entry mode choice has been verified. Data for the analysis of this studywere collected interviewing 221 owners/managers of SMEs in Italy. Results showed that entry mode decisionsare mainly influenced by firm specific factors. Furthermore, the study does not support the hypothesis of aconnection between the firm’s belonging to an industrial district and firms’ behavior in entry mode selection.This study has made it possible to detect by a resource-based perspective the main factors influencing the choiceof entry modes.

  3. Theoretical Investigation of Trust in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

    Valentinas Navickas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The hectic pace of competition pushes the sector of small and medium enterprise to adopt sophisticated marketing ideas. In this context, customers are becoming more and more selective. However, expansion possibilities are burdened by the great variety of limitations. The current study paper aims to investigate the academic perception of trust which is treated as competitive advantage for small and medium enterprises. The object of the article is trust in small and medium enterprises. It has three objectives: to analyse small and medium enterprise characteristics through the academic perspective; to consider trust from the theoretical point of view; and to present the models that centre their attention on the trust as a construct that enhances customer satisfaction. Regarding the novelty of the current study, it brings a novel approach on a great variety of collected understandings of trust and puts an important foundation for future theory and practice investigations.

  4. Size-exclusion chromatography in Biotech Industry

    SV Patil; Patil RY; Barge VU

    2014-01-01

    Chromatography, although primarily a separation technique, is most employed in chemical analysis in biotech plant is SEC which is very powerful technique for protein purification, polymer characterization etc. As the principal advantage of SEC is its gentle non-interaction with the sample, enabling high preservation of biological activity, so SEC has lot of importance in biotech industry. In this review the basic theory, principle & applications of SEC in biotech industry are included.

  5. The Creation of Small and Medium-Sized Sport Enterprises and the Environmental Factors Affecting It

    Seyed Morteza Azimzadeh; Brenda Pitts; Arash Sarvari MirAzizi

    2013-01-01

    Small and medium-sized enterprises are very basic solutions for the development of a country; therefore, it is important to understand the factors involved in their creation. Hence, this study sought to examine the relationship between environmental factors and creation of Small and medium-sized sport enterprises. The research population was small and medium-sized sport enterprises (1500 companies); their owners / managers were selected as the research sample (n = 258) by simple random sampli...

  6. Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Target System's Design of Key Performance Assess

    Zhihui Sun

    2009-01-01

    The article from the situation that the present small and medium-sized enterprises' performance assess is unable to obtain the anticipated effect to embark, through analyzing the questions which consist in the small and medium-sized enterprises' performance assess targets design, and combining with the small and medium-sized enterprises' actual situation to design a set of target system of key performance assess. In this system which carries on the omni-directional analysis to the target syst...

  7. Use of sales and operations planning in small and medium-sized enterprises

    Michał Adamczak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing competitiveness in the market, customer expectations related to the shortening of the deadlines and the reduction of prices of products and services force companies to improve the efficiency of internal processes. The integration of planning process is one of possible ways to achieve this aim. The integration of planning processes by the use of SOP model (Sales and Operations Planning is a method to implement this idea. The study allowed to identify ways to implement the process of sales and operations planning in small and medium-sized enterprises. Material and methods: The study was conducted in companies from different industries. The research method was in-depth interviews conducted with managers of companies or persons occupying management positions in the organizational process of implementing sales and operations planning. Results: During the survey, 10 companies were asked about the use of sales and operations planning, its elements and organizational aspects of its development, by the company. Conclusions: The use of sales and operations plan is closely dependent on the size of the company and its localization in the supply chain. Small enterprises are not interested in the integration of the planning process due to the small scale of operations and the centralization of decision-making process. Medium-sized enterprises, due to the increased complexity of the processes of planning, see the benefits of their integration in the SOP model.

  8. Consórcio de exportação como alternativa de pequenas e médias empresas: um estudo de caso na cadeia têxtil The export consortium as a best initial alternative for small and medium sized industries: a case study in clothing

    Gustavo Barbieri Lima

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo central deste estudo é evidenciar a grande importância e utilidade da formação de consórcios de exportação - que é a união de indústrias do mesmo segmento ou complementares para a exportação de seus produtos em conjunto - para empresas brasileiras de pequeno e médio porte, em detrimento da adoção da exportação indireta ou direta como modo de entrada no mercado internacional. Realizou-se, para isso, a revisão bibliográfica sobre Estratégias ou Modos de Entrada em Mercados Internacionais e Consórcios de Exportação (MALHOTRA, 2001. Utilizou-se o método de estudo de caso (YIN, 2001 para analisar a Associação Brasileira do Vestuário (ABRAVEST, entidade que vem se destacando na formação e consolidação de consórcios de exportação na indústria do setor vestuário, com ênfase nos seguintes tópicos: desenvolvimento do programa, compromissos setoriais e metas de exportação, aplicação dos recursos e consórcios em atividade. Como resultado, foi possível verificar que, entre as três opções analisadas no artigo (exportação direta, exportação indireta e consórcios de exportação, a terceira opção foi aceita como a melhor ou mais viável para a internacionalização de empresas de pequeno porte.The importance and value of an export consortium was investigated as a means for small and medium sized Brazilian industries to orchestrate export efforts instead of adopting indirect or direct export to enter foreign markets. An export consortium is an association of industries in the same or complementary segments for the purpose of export. Bibliography was reviewed for initial export strategies including a case study of the Brazilian Clothing Association. The consortia of this exemplary Association have emphasized program development, sector agreements, export objectives and resource application integrated with local activities. An export consortium was found to be the best and most viable alternative for initial export by small and medium sized Brazilian clothing industries in this case, when compared to indirect or direct export.

  9. Innovation and Innovativeness in Medium-Low Tech/Low-Tech Industries – Wood Industry

    Andreja Pirc Barčić

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In today’s modern business world, development of innovations and innovation activities is considered as a key driver of business success of an individual entity, specific industry sector, as well as the overall economy of a country. However, industries of low and/or medium-low technology, where wood industry belongs, are extremely important and they represent by far the largest part of the manufacturing sector in OECD countries. They show an excellent stability and employ a high share of the population. Wood industry, especially furniture industry, is a successful export-oriented European industry. Innovative companies and innovation as a result of innovativeness can be attached to a number of internal and external company factors. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to clarify the connection between concepts of innovation and innovativeness of certain internal and external company factors that have/could have an impact on company innovativeness and innovation development, and that have been established and researched in studies of a large number of scientists / authors.

  10. SECURITY CONCERNS IN MEDIUM SIZE ENTERPRISE CLOUD COMPUTING

    SHAIK.SAIDHBIMCA , IBRAHIM GASHAW

    2013-01-01

    Cloud computing in an small size enterprise infrastructure bring significant security concerns. Successful implementation of cloud computing in a small size enterprise requires proper planning and understanding of emerging risks, threats, vulnerabilities, and possible countermeasures. We believe small size enterprise should analyze the company/organization security risks, threats, and available countermeasures before adopting this technology. In this paper, we have discussed security risks an...

  11. Approaches to assess competitiveness of small and medium sized reactors

    There is continuing interest in Member States concerning the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs), i.e., reactors with the equivalent electric power of less than 700 MW. Currently, developed SMRs are in most cases intended for markets different than those in which large nuclear power plants operate. Such markets have essentially different investment requirements, siting flexibility, grid connections and infrastructure restrictions. Therefore, economic factors affecting the competitiveness or competition of SMRs in such markets would also be different from those observed in established markets for electricity production. For example, investment capability may be limited, which would favour capacity addition in smaller increments; grids may be small or weak, which would favour capacities exactly matching the demand; infrastructure and human resource may be insufficient, which would favour less complex operation and maintenance requirements; and non-electrical energy products, such as potable water, may be in demand, which would favour reasonably close plant location to the customer. In practice it is futile to compare a single SMR needs to a single larger capacity plant on an economy of scale basis because SMRs are suitable for those locations that might not be appropriate for larger plants. However, a series of SMRs could be considered comparable to fewer larger plants to achieve the same overall power station capacity. In this case, SMRs have a potential to be competitive by employing alternative design strategies, taking advantage of smaller reactor size, offering a less complex design and operation and maintenance, relying on deployment-in-series approaches, taking an advantage of the accelerated learning, multiple unit factors and shorter construction duration. Reflecting on developments in member states, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is finalizing the preparation of a report highlighting the economics and investment related factors affecting SMR competitiveness, as well as the tools available to assess these factors. Adequate comparative assessment of SMR competitiveness is a complex task that may require considering time dependent expenditure and generation profiles and interest rates to determine adequate values of levelized unit energy cost (LUEC) for deployment scenarios with several consequently built plants of different types and capacities. As private capital may play an important role in financing of the new plants, investment and revenue models need to be employed to determine time-dependent characteristics, such as investments and revenues. Uncertainty analysis needs to be incorporated to add a degree of fidelity to the overall assessment. A variety of methods and tools required to conduct comparative economic assessments would been described in this paper. Many of these tools already exist in member states or are available from international organizations. In addition to this, the IAEA coordinated the development of an open model for the analysis of SMR economic and investment opportunities, which targets bringing together all currently available state-of-the-art models for generation costs, revenues, financial costs, and external factors and risks, while 'keeping the door open' for any new approach or development once it becomes available. The open model is being developed for a specific task of comparing the deployments of SMRs versus larger reactors in liberalized energy markets. LUEC will be an important figure of merit in this model; however, provisions would be made to ensure that LEUC is calculated taking into account time-dependent expenditure and production profiles and changing interest rates. In addition models to calculate investment profiles and revenues will be included. Finally, an approach to take into account other factors potentially affecting the competitiveness of SMRs, such as energy supply security, proliferation-resistance, political posture, etc. will be developed. In parallel with the development of such model, IAEA is conducting a series of case studies to identify options for SMR competitive deployment and relative benefits and disadvantages of smaller and larger reactors in different deployment strategies and application conditions. It can be seen that, when compared to a deployment of a single large reactor of the same capacity, staggered build of SMRs may minimize negative cash flow (capital-at-risk) but also may delay full site power availability to the grid and lower the net present value of the project by shifting cash inflows onward

  12. SECURITY CONCERNS IN MEDIUM SIZE ENTERPRISE CLOUD COMPUTING

    SHAIK.SAIDHBIMCA , IBRAHIM GASHAW

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing in an small size enterprise infrastructure bring significant security concerns. Successful implementation of cloud computing in a small size enterprise requires proper planning and understanding of emerging risks, threats, vulnerabilities, and possible countermeasures. We believe small size enterprise should analyze the company/organization security risks, threats, and available countermeasures before adopting this technology. In this paper, we have discussed security risks and concerns in cloud computing and enlightened steps that a small size enterprise can take to reduce security risks and protect their resources. We have also explained cloud computing strengths/benefits, weaknesses, and applicable areas in information risk management

  13. Managers' Understanding of Workplace Health Promotion within Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: A Phenomenological Study

    Moore, Ann; Parahoo, Kader; Fleming, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed at exploring managers' understanding of workplace health promotion and experiences of workplace health promotion activity within small and medium-sized enterprises. Design: A Heideggerian interpretive phenomenological methodology was adopted. Setting: This study was undertaken with small and medium-sized enterprise…

  14. Managers' Understanding of Workplace Health Promotion within Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: A Phenomenological Study

    Moore, Ann; Parahoo, Kader; Fleming, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed at exploring managers' understanding of workplace health promotion and experiences of workplace health promotion activity within small and medium-sized enterprises. Design: A Heideggerian interpretive phenomenological methodology was adopted. Setting: This study was undertaken with small and medium-sized enterprise…

  15. Design and implementation of web server soft load balancing in small and medium-sized enterprise

    Yan, Liu

    2011-12-01

    With the expansion of business scale, small and medium-sized enterprises began to use information platform to improve their management and competition ability, the server becomes the core factor which restricts the enterprise's infomationization construction. This paper puts forward a suitable design scheme for small and medium-sized enterprise web server soft load balancing, and proved it effective through experiment.

  16. [Application of health questionnaires for health management in small- and medium-sized enterprises].

    Kishida, K; Saito, M; Hasegawa, T; Aoki, S; Suzuki, S

    1986-01-01

    Two kinds of health questionnaires, the Todai Health Index (THI) and Cumulative Fatigue Index (CFI), were applied as a screening device for health management of workers belonging to small-medium sized enterprises. A total of 495 workers composed of 452 male workers of a glass-bottle manufacturing factory and 43 male workers of a soft-drink bottling factory were the subjects of the present study. It was found that the two kinds of health questionnaires were different from each other and have their own characteristics. Twelve scales of THI were grouped into two, the first consisting of ten scales (SUSY, RESP, EYSK, MOUT, DIGE, IMPU, MENT, DEPR, NERV, and LIFE) and the second consisting of two scales (AGGR and LISC). Nine categories of CFI were grouped into one by using principal factor analysis. It was confirmed that the twelve scale scores of THI obtained at small-medium sized factories differed from those scale scores of a reference group investigated at a large-sized enterprise. It is on the basis of the scales of aggressiveness and lies and also of the scale of mental unstability which characterizes workers, locality, job (clerical or field work), and size of industry (large or small sized) that the difference could be evaluated. Urban life characterized by a life style of staying up late at night and waking up late in the morning has been reflected on the scale of life irregularity. Irregularity of life induced by transformation of working schedule, such as two or three shifts of work and overtime, was also reflected on this scale. Two scales of THI test, i.e., many subjective symptoms and digestive organ complaints, seemed to be the representative scales indicating a close relation between work load and health level. The discriminant score for diagnosis of psychosomatic diseases is considered to be one of the most useful assessments of the individual's health condition. As mentioned above, THI is recommended as a convenient assessment method for health management of workers and for screening individuals or groups requiring health management from the total respondents belonging to small-medium sized enterprises where health administrators or professionals for health services are not available. A combined use of THI and CFI is more effective in evaluating health status of field workers than the independent use of one of these two tests, because the causal relationship between work load and health status cannot be satisfactorily observed, only through THI. PMID:3712831

  17. Knowledge Production in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

    Van der Meer, Han

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to Hisham B. Ghassib's (2010) article entitled "Where Does Creativity Fit into a Productivist Industrial Model of Knowledge Production?" When the author tries to characterise Ghassib's (2010) world, three words come into mind: University, Scientific Knowledge, and Marx. The author's world on the other…

  18. Future Perspectives for Small and Medium Sized Reactors in India. Annex V

    Innovative small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) have several features that are expected to affect their future development and deployment in India. These include the: - Potential for simpler designs and reduced demands for human intervention, resulting in fewer potentially unsafe actions; - Potential for construction close to population centres, due to enhanced safety; - Potential of using the capability and capacity of local industries to enable their participation in the design and construction of such reactors, and high adaptability to the standardization and modular construction approach; - Potential to achieve low upfront capital costs. Future SMR concepts, employing increased use of passive safety features and capable of producing both electricity and high temperature process heat, may find application in specific regions of the country to supply both electricity and process heat, through distributed deployment. The following sections describe future SMR design concepts meeting the above mentioned objectives, and highlight their projected economic competitiveness

  19. Glass formability in medium-sized molecular systems/pharmaceuticals. I. Thermodynamics vs. kinetics.

    Tu, Wenkang; Li, Xiangqian; Chen, Zeming; Liu, Ying Dan; Labardi, Massimiliano; Capaccioli, Simone; Paluch, M; Wang, Li-Min

    2016-05-01

    Scrutinizing critical thermodynamic and kinetic factors for glass formation and the glass stability of materials would benefit the screening of the glass formers for the industry of glassy materials. The present work aims at elucidating the factors that contribute to the glass formation by investigating medium-sized molecules of pharmaceuticals. Glass transition related thermodynamics and kinetics are performed on the pharmaceuticals using calorimetric, dielectric, and viscosity measurements. The characteristic thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of glass transition are found to reproduce the relations established for small-molecule glass formers. The systematic comparison of the thermodynamic and kinetic contributions to glass formation reveals that the melting-point viscosity is the crucial quantity for the glass formation. Of more interest is the finding of a rough correlation between the melting-point viscosity and the entropy of fusion normalized by the number of beads of the pharmaceuticals, suggesting the thermodynamics can partly manifest its contribution to glass formation via kinetics. PMID:27155640

  20. Examples from P2 and energy assessments at small to medium size manufacturers

    Using engineering student-faculty teams, the U.S. Department of energy sponsored industrial assessment center (IAC) at the university of louisville does free pollution prevention and energy assessments at small to medium size manufacturers (SIC 20-39) in kentucky and indiana. Each client plant must meet three of the following four criteria: Annual energy bills less than $1, 750, 000 and more than $50, 00. Gross annual sales of less than $75 million. Less than 500 employees. Lack a dedicated energy/waste engineer. Lack of in-house staff to perform these analyses. The program criteria and assessment procedures are briefly described and summaries of assessment at a sheet fed offset (lithographic) printing plant and 2 denim jeans pre washing plants are presented. 4 figs., 8 tabs

  1. Culture and capital structure in small and medium sized firms

    Brian Lucey; Colm KEarney; Ciaran MacAnBhaird

    2012-01-01

    Employing 90,000 firm-level observations from 13 countries over a seven year period, and controlling for an extensive set of firm-level characteristics, industry effects and country-level institutional variables, we provide a conceptual framework and empirical analysis of how culture influences capital structure in SMEs. We document hitherto unreported effects. Uncertainty avoidance and individuality are negatively related with long-term debt, highlighting SME owners desire to avoid heightene...

  2. The Role of Higher Education in the Effective Delivery of Multimedia Management Training to Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    James Carr

    1999-01-01

    The UK government's University for Industry (UfI) initiative heralds an era for change in further and higher education. It is part of the government's policies on lifelong learning and the problem of many small and medium -sized enterprises (SMEs) that carry out limited training is of particular importance. One proposed solution is to develop multimedia management courseware in the higher and further education sectors which can then be transferred to SMEs in order to meet their training needs...

  3. Dressed for Success : A study of Success Factors For Small and Medium-sized Manufacturing Enterprises in Sweden

    Lingegård, Sofia; Sandström, Emma

    2008-01-01

    The business climate of today, with increasing globalization, has resulted in structural changes in the commercial and industrial sectors. As a result, many large companies have moved their production abroad. Therefore the smaller companies have become increasingly important for growth and employment nationally. Small businesses are a significant contributor to the well-being of nations and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play an important role for Sweden, both in terms of economic ...

  4. Small-to medium-sized manufacturers in supply chains : Development of effective customer relationships and growth

    Valsamakis, Vassilios P.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis details a study into the role of Small- to Medium- sized Manufacturers (SMMs) in supply chains and how this may affect SMMs' growth potential. The study draws upon a variety of research streams including Supply Chain Management, Industrial Marketing, and the literature on factors that affect firm growth. The objectives of the study are to: identify relationship management activities employed by SMMs and investigate the links between relationship management activi...

  5. Flexible Business Process Integration for Clusters of Small-Medium Sized Enterprises in Heterogenous Environment

    Bo Jiang; Yun Ling

    2009-01-01

    Industry clusters-groups of geographically proximate enterprises in the same industry are a striking feature of the geography of economic activity and greatly impact the overall economic development. However, most of them are low-cost-based clusters that are composed of small-medium enterprises which needs social electronic services and flexible business process integration. In this paper, we present an on-demand information service platform for small-medium enterprise clusters and propose lo...

  6. Small and medium sized reactors with special emphasis on non-power applications

    The paper examines the possible role of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) for world energy supply based on recent studies by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), the IAEA, the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD and papers presented at a seminar on SMRs held in New Delhi, in August 191. It notes that nuclear power appears to be receiving more favourable consideration as the environmental effects of fossil fuels and renewable energy sources become more evident, and that SMRs are generating particular interest, especially in the USA, because of their passive safety features and reduced financial risk. Although larger reactors will be preferred for electricity generation in most developed countries, unless SMRs are cheaper or offer other benefits, they could be used where electricity demand is too small for large reactors. Small and medium sized reactors could have a more general role in supplying district heating or process heat as they provide a better match to the energy required. However, there are many obstacles to their use at present, including public opposition, cheap gas, small system size, low load factors, lack of finance and competition from independent boilers. Current prospects for SMRs in district heating systems are poor, but the obstacles appear less serious for process heat applications, including desalination, and these could therefore offer early opportunities for SMRs to demonstrate their safety and reliability. Industrial sites also have more consistent demands for heat and electricity which would allow the reactors to operate more efficiently in a co-generation mode. It is concluded that the prospects for SMRs are reasonably good in the longer term. However, it is essential that one or two prototype reactors be built as soon as possible to provide experience and confirm their claimed benefits. This likely to need international co-operation and finance, which will require the selection of the most suitable national designs for further development. (author). 23 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs

  7. Safety Analysis for Medium/Small Size Integral Reactor: Evaluation of Safety Characteristics for Small and Medium Integral Reactor

    Kim, Hho jung; Seul, K.W.; Ahn, S.K.; Bang, Y.S.; Park, D.G.; Kim, B.K.; Kim, W.S.; Lee, J.H.; Kim, W.K.; Shim, T.M.; Choi, H.S.; Ahn, H.J.; Jung, D.W.; Kim, G.I.; Park, Y.M.; Lee, Y.J. [Korea Inst. of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The Small and medium integral reactor is developed to be utilized for non-electric areas such as district heating and steam production for desalination and other industrial purposes, and then these applications may typically imply a closeness between the reactor and the user. It requires the reactor to be designed with the adoption of special functional and inherent safety features to ensure and promote a high level of safety and reliability, in comparison with the existing nuclear power plants. The objective of the present study is to establish the bases for the development of regulatory requirements and technical guides to address the special safety characteristics of the small and medium integral reactor. In addition, the study aims to identify and to propose resolutions to the possible safety concerns in the design of the small and medium integral reactor. 34 refs., 20 tabs. (author)

  8. The Superbubble Size Distribution in the Interstellar Medium of Galaxies

    Oey, M S

    1997-01-01

    We use the standard, adiabatic shell evolution to predict the size distribution N(R) for populations of OB superbubbles in a uniform ISM. We derive N(R) for simple cases of superbubble creation rate and mechanical luminosity function (MLF). For R R_e it is dominated by growing objects. We also briefly investigate N(R) resulting from momentum-conserving shell evolution. We predict a peak in N(R) corresponding to individual SNRs. To estimate the MLF, we also examine evolutionary effects on the HII region luminosity function (HII LF), finding that for nebular luminosity fading as a power law in time, there is a minimum observed slope for the HII LFs. Comparison with the largely complete HI hole catalog for the SMC shows surprising agreement in the predicted and observed slope of N(R), suggesting that no other fundamental process is needed to explain the size distribution of shells in the SMC. Further comparison with largely incomplete HI data for M31, M33, and Holmberg II is also encouraging. We present expressi...

  9. Enhanced Bio-Ethanol Production from Industrial Potato Waste by Statistical Medium Optimization

    Gulten Izmirlioglu; Ali Demirci

    2015-01-01

    Industrial wastes are of great interest as a substrate in production of value-added products to reduce cost, while managing the waste economically and environmentally. Bio-ethanol production from industrial wastes has gained attention because of its abundance, availability, and rich carbon and nitrogen content. In this study, industrial potato waste was used as a carbon source and a medium was optimized for ethanol production by using statistical designs. The effect of various medium componen...

  10. Structure and growth pattern of medium-size silicon clusters

    Full text: The fundamental importance of understanding the evolution of properties of atomic clusters with increasing size and the potential use of atomic clusters as building blocks of new materials have stimulated many experimental and theoretical studies, particularly on silicon clusters Sin. For n ≤ 7 the ground state geometries of silicon clusters are firmly established, while for 8 ≤ n ≤ 20 there are experimental data on ionic mobility and spectroscopic energies of silicon clusters that indirectly support the ground state geometries predicted by first-principles calculations. However, there are still a great variety of unexplored isomers of clusters in the range 8 ≤ n ≤ 20 that may also be consistent with the experimental data, and the experimental results themselves may be also subject to correction. An intriguing finding from the first-principles calcitonins is that the lowest energy geometries or n≥11 differ greatly between clusters that differ in size by only one atom, although they mostly involve tricapped trigonal prism (TTP) units. There is no fundamental explanation for this, beyond the obvious necessity for surface atoms to minimize the number of dangling bonds. This is generally accompanied by over coordination of interior atoms of clusters, compared to bulk silicon, leading to an increase in the number of bonds and their simultaneous wreaking. The actual growth pattern of clusters by sequential addition of silicon atoms will not necessarily include only the lowest energy isomers, because high barriers over requirements for large atomic displacements may prevent rearrangement of each lowest energy isomer to the lowest-energy isomer of the next larger size. Thus, from a slightly more practical point of view, regular (smooth) growth patterns of silicon clusters are of interest. However, systematic research on silicon clusters showing such smooth growth patterns for a wide range of cluster sizes has not previously been presented in the literature. This work presents one such sequence of cluster structures explored using the self-consistent non-conventional tight-binding method (NTBM) (Z.M. Khakimov. Com put. Mater. Sci. 3, 95 (1994)) and recently developed molecular dynamics simulation algorithm (Z. M. Khakimov, Comput. Phys. Comm. 147, 731 (2002)). The results obtained by NTBM are in excellent agreement with available experimental data and accurate first-principles calculation results for small silicon clusters. Certain deviations between the latter and our results, especially for larger clusters, show not only possible ways of improvement of NTBM parameterization, but also the necessity of careful examination of the first-principles calculations for silicon clusters, because such calculations have mostly been done using optimization of cluster geometries at lower levels of theory, followed by single point energy calculations with a higher level of theory. Overestimation or underestimation of bond distances (that can be eliminated only by balanced accounting for basis sets and correlations effects) and, in particular, inconsistent ratios of shortest and longest bond distances (this may be also caused by missing of true global minimum because of particular search strategy) may in principle lead to different growth patterns of clusters. This work was supported in part by CRDF (Grant No ZC1-2519-TA-03) and the Science and Technology Center of Uzbekistan (Grant No F-2.1.18)

  11. The Management And Exchange of Knowledge AndInnovation in Environments of Collaborating Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

    OSANNA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs is today far beyond any discussion in countries all over the world - in European countries as well as in Asia and in USA, in Africa as well as in Latin America. To meet market demands in present and future global industrial world, manufacturing enterprises of any kind and any size must be flexible and agile enough to respond quickly to product demand changes. With support of artificial intelligence and modern information technology it is possible to realise modern cost-effective customer-driven design and manufacturing taking into account the importance and basic role of quality management and metrology. This will be especially possible on the basis of the innovative concept and model for modern enterprises the so-called "Multi-Functions Integrated Factory - MFIF" that makes possible an agile and optimal industrial production in any kind of industry and especially in up-to-date SMEs.

  12. Business Benefits from Enterprise Systems Implementation in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    Sanjay Mathrani

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The market for enterprise systems (ESs continues to grow as business becomes increasingly global and competitive. Increasingly, the market focus for ES vendors is on small businesses. The purpose of this study is to provide a unique ES vendor/consultant perspective on (a the business benefits small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs expect from their ES investment and (b to examine current practices of ES implementation in SMEs through a conceptual framework that considers the organisational, process and strategic context of the implementation. This study does so with interview data collected from ES vendors, ES consultants and IT research firms, who are the key players in the New Zealand ES industry. A distinctive contribution of this research is the vendor/consultant perspective as the unit of analysis, rather than the SME perspective commonly used in similar research. The vendor/consultant perspective offers a comprehensive viewpoint that extends across numerous SMEs in a variety of industries. Findings from interviews with these professionals indicate that although many ES implementations are several years old now, SMEs have only recently started tracking benefits through analytical processes in expectation to realise business value from their ES investment. The results also identify how ES implementation practices are adapting to be more suitable to the SME sector, an important market for ES vendors given the saturation of the large enterprise market for ES implementation.

  13. Particle size distribution of iron nanomaterials in biological medium by SR-SAXS method

    A better understanding of biological effects of nanomaterials in organisms requests knowledge of the physicochemical properties of nanomaterials in biological systems. Affected by high concentration salts and proteins in biological medium, nanoparticles are much easy to agglomerate,hence the difficulties in characterizing size distribution of the nanomaterials in biological medium.In this work, synchrotron radiation small angle X-ray scattering(SR-SAXS) was used to determine size distributions of Fe, Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 nanoparticles of various concentrations in PBS and DMEM culture medium. The results show that size distributions of the nanomaterials could perfectly analyzed by SR-SAXS. The SR-SAXS data were not affected by the particle content and types of the dispersion medium.It is concluded that SR-SAXS can be used for size measurement of nanomaterials in unstable dispersion systems. (authors)

  14. Contribution of small and medium sized enterprises in development of agribusiness of Serbian Republic

    Popović Blaženka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic development of Serbian republic is more and more connected with development of small and medium sized enterprises, which represent one of the main bases of Serbian economy. The economic potential of agriculture imposes the need of analyzing the condition in area of small and medium sized entrepreneurship which should be the carrier of future development of agribusiness. By ranging and grouping of Serbian republic municipalities (by discrimination and cluster analysis according to level of development of small and medium sized entrepreneurship in agriculture, the clear view is got in current state of regional development of this agricultural sector as the possibilities of future development. By development of small and medium sized enterprises in agriculture it is possible to achieve strategic goals of Serbian republic agro development and for realization of these goals it is necessary to ensure the stable economic ambient, appropriate pre conditions as measures of support which will be stimulating for development of agribusiness.

  15. EXTERNAL FORCES DRIVING CHANGE IN THE ROMANIAN SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Roiban Roxana Nadina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Change is a constant in everyday life confronting organizations to continuously adapt their strategy, structure, processes, and culture in order to survive and stay competitive on the market. Implementing organizational change is one of the most important skills required for managers and in the meantime the most difficult one. The forces driving change within an organization, that can be either external or internal, are those that propel a company forward towards change and in order to identify the need for change and make the proper changes, managers have to develop a tool that allows them to analyze how does the environment influence their business activities. A vision for change will clarify the directions in which the organization needs to move, starting from its current state and taking in consideration the existing opportunities and threats from the environment that allow to move to a future desired state. The purpose of this paper is to identify the concern for change in the Romanian small and medium sized enterprises by presenting and explaining the past and present influences of the main external forces that have determined the need for change in the last 3-5 years and to make recommendations about future possible changes that have to be performed by managers for a better harmonization with the environment. The research method used for this study is the interview on a sample that contains some of the most relevant SME’s from the western side of Romania, from different industries. We analyzed the main external forces that had an impact on the small and medium sized enterprises and how were they generating the need for organizational change, in order to see which present and future changes are required.

  16. Auditor Independence: Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Knowledge of Auditor Independence Regulations

    Petersson, Camilla; Dagman, Andréa

    2012-01-01

    The large accounting scandals in the early 21st century had large impact on the future discussion regarding the importance of auditor independence. This led to stricter auditor independence rules in Sweden as well as internationally. Small and medium-sized enterprises frequently hire their auditor for consulting services. A long and close audit-client relationship is common for small and medium sized enterprises. This is considered to be a threat towards the auditor independence. The purpose ...

  17. Small and medium sized mammals as predators of ticks (Ixodoidea) in South Africa.

    Kok, O B; Petney, T N

    1993-10-01

    A total of 1,640 stomach contents from 56 South African species of small and medium sized mammals were examined for ticks. Only six ticks were found in three specimens of the caracal Felis caracal. Although identification of the tick species was not possible owing to fragmentation and partial digestion, the genus Haemaphysalis was represented in four of these cases. We conclude that predation by small and medium sized mammals on ticks is uncommon in South Africa. PMID:7628224

  18. The role of promotional strategies for small and medium- sized entreprises in sustainable marketing

    Ioana Cecilia Popescu; Diana Maria Vrânceanu; Mihai Ioan Roșca

    2012-01-01

    In Romania, small and medium-sized enterprises manifest a certain interest in marketing activities, resulted in the existence of a specific marketing structure in half of them, as attests a survey done on a sample of 140 organizations. This research, focused on understanding the promotional strategies and tactics used by Romanian small and medium-sized enterprises, concluded that communication is oriented predominantly to quantitative objectives, not designed according to sustainable marketin...

  19. Transformational and transactional leadership: does it work in small to medium-sized enterprises?

    Mesu, J.K.

    2013-01-01

    Using a sample of 755 employees who rated 121 supervisors within 50 Dutch small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), this dissertation intends to fill in some of the existing gaps in the literature. Firstly, by investigating whether the impact of transformational and transactional leadership extends from large to small and medium-sized companies. Secondly, by studying potential mediating and moderating effects to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms by which transformational and tr...

  20. Customer Relationship Management system for small and medium-sized enterprise

    Liang CAO

    2008-01-01

    This bachelor work provides a case study of small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) to analyze the general proposal criteria for customer relationship management (CRM) software selection. The selected software can help small and medium-sized enterprise to solve the marketing issues which are connected with customers to enhance customer satisfaction and loyalty to realize customer retention, customer acquisition and market share expanding.

  1. Financial Management Challenges In Small And Medium-Sized Enterprises: A Strategic Management Approach

    Hande Karadag

    2015-01-01

    Abstract :Due to their significant role in creation of new jobs, rise in GDP, entrepreneurship and innovation, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are recognized as the the drivers of socio-economic growth, both in developed and developing economies. In Turkey, 99.9 % of all enterprises fall into SME category. Therefore, the significance of SMEs for Turkish economy and society is much higher in Turkey, compared to other emerging and developed countries. Small and medium-sized companies ...

  2. Employee satisfaction and work motivation in Chinese small and medium sized enterprises

    JIANG, XUEYING; Zhang, Yuxin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to study how to improve employees’ satisfaction and work motivation in Chinese small and medium-sized enterprises. In addition, our task was to analyse in Chinese small and medium-sized private enterprises, find out how well motivation can help promote employee performance, what factors actually trigger high performance and help managers to manage their staffs effectively. In the theory part of the study the main issue was to know more about the concepts of e...

  3. THE EVOLUTION OF FINANCIAL STANDARDS FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM- SIZED ENTITIES

    Gordana IVANKOVIČ; Jerman, Mateja

    2011-01-01

    According to the growing need for more comparable accounting standards, the beginnings of International Financial Reporting Standards for small and medium sized entities (IFRS for SMEs) can be found in the year 2004. IFRS for SMEs represents for the first time an accounting standard for small and medium-sized companies that can be used globally. The paper aims to examine the historical development of IFRS, the principal institutions linked to their adoption and th...

  4. IS IT NECESSARY TO REGULATE FINANCIAL REPORTING OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTITIES?

    MICHAL JEŠŠ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the analysis of the position of small and medium-sized entities in the Slovak Republic and with the international regulation of small and medium-sized entities’ financial reporting. It provides the business demography of economic subjects by size class category by number of employees and follows by an average number of employed persons by size classes of enterprises in persons. Due to the fact that the number of these entities represents a significant role, the regulation of their financial reporting becomes a material fact. The International Accounting Standards Board issued the International Financial Reporting Standard for Small and Medium-sized Entities (IFRS® for SMEs to achieve the international comparability of accounting and reporting information. The paper covers as well as the perspectives of the IFRS® for SMEs implementation within the European Union.

  5. Bridging the energy gap through small and medium sized nuclear reactors in India

    India is the only country in the world which is employing small sized nuclear reactors for its nuclear power programme. It has now embarked on a programme of augmenting the contribution of the nuclear power by way of employing both medium and small sized nuclear reactors in the next 15 years. This paper discusses the Indian experience and its efforts for industrial mobilisation for rapidly constructing 235/500 MWe nuclear reactor units in a period of about 8 to 9 years. The current energy situation in India and this context the near term role of nuclear power for supplementing the existing sources of commercial energy have been evaluated. Nuclear power has reached such a stage of maturity whereby it has now become a commercially viable source of electricity and it could be utilised on large scale to bridge the energy gap. At present six reactor units of 210/235 MWe capacity are in operation and eight more are in different stages of construction. While we are continuing with the construction of 235 MWe units, a programme of being pursued to construct 550 MWe capacity reactor units from midnineties onwards. This has become possible with the strengthening of regional electricity grids and simultaneous efforts undertaken for augmentation of fuel supply, heavy water production and industrial infrastructure. For a developing country like India, implementation of a sizable nuclear power programme has posed certain special challenges as major inputs are required to be made available with indigeneous efforts. This paper discusses such challenges and presents the ways and means adopted to surmount them. Other developing countries with conditions comparable to those in India could benefit from Indian experience in this regard. This paper also proposes India's willingness to cooperate with other countries for exchange of information and assistance in terms of technical knowhow. (author)

  6. The Structure and Suggestions to Solve Problems of Small and Middle-Sized Forest Products Industry Establishments in Trabzon

    CINDIK, Hicabi

    1998-01-01

    As a results of rapid increase in population, forests which are an integral part of natural balance, have been dramatically decreasing. Thus problems associated with forestry, are in the rise. In this regard, the supply and demand conflicts and problems in small and middle-sized establishments in the forest product industry are two major issues which require close attention. The principal objective of this study is to examine the status of small and medium sized forest product industry in ...

  7. Virtual Commissioning of Small to Medium Scale Industry Using the Concepts of Digital Manufacturing

    Akash.M.R; Dr. B. R. Narendra Babu

    2015-01-01

    Small scale industries produce certain products depending on the type of industry they have established. If these small scale industries decide to become medium scale certain changes have to be incorporated in plant layout to meet certain requirements. Certain changes include change in layout design, introducing new machines and equipments in the industry in order to produce new component .To implement these changes in the company we have to get information regarding the new compo...

  8. The role of small and medium size reactors in the future US nuclear market

    This paper addresses the various aspects of siting and sizing new generating facilities in the USA. Environmental and licensing issues are discussed. The economic considerations and assumptions for new plants are presented. Also, the electric transmission and distribution system characteristics and constraints are described with the potential role for several small and medium size designs summarized. (authors)

  9. Assessment of metal exposure, ecological status and required water quality monitoring strategies in small- to medium-size temperate rivers.

    Marijić, Vlatka Filipović; Perić, Mirela Sertić; Kepčija, Renata Matoničkin; Dragun, Zrinka; Kovarik, Ivana; Gulin, Vesna; Erk, Marijana

    2016-03-20

    The present study was undertaken to obtain a better understanding of the seasonal variability of total dissolved metal/metalloid levels and physicochemical parameters within small- to medium-size freshwater ecosystems in temperate climate region. The research was conducted in four seasons in the Sutla River, medium-size polluted, and the Črnomerec Stream, small-size unpolluted watercourse in Croatia. In the Sutla River, characterized by the rural/industrial catchment, physicochemical parameters and total dissolved metal concentrations of 21 trace and 4 macro elements were analysed downstream of the point source of pollution, the glass production facility, indicating for the first time their variability across four seasons. Based on dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solids, nutrient concentrations, conductivity and total chemical oxygen demand, quality status of the Sutla River was good, but moderate to poor during summer, what was additionally confirmed by the highest levels of the most of 25 measured metals/metalloids in summer. Comparison with the reference small-size watercourse, the Črnomerec Stream, indicated significant anthropogenic impact on the Sutla River, most evident for Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb and Tl levels (3-70-fold higher in the Sutla River across all seasons). Generally, presented results indicated significant decrease of the water quality in the anthropogenically impacted small- to medium-size watercourses in summer, regarding physicochemical water parameters and total dissolved metal/metalloid concentrations, and pointed to significant seasonality of these parameters. Confirmed seasonality of river ecological status indicates that seasonal assessment represents a prerequisite for proper classification of the water quality in small- to medium-size temperate rivers. PMID:26745644

  10. International seminar on status and prospects for small and medium sized reactors. Book of extended synopses

    Small and medium sized reactors have been defined by IAEA in accordance with their net electrical power rating, or thermal equivalent power rating for reactors producing process heat. Within the global energy supply and demand the role of nuclear power, and specifically the role of small and medium sizes reactors, is reviewed. Some new design prospects of dual purpose power plants, namely for heat production and desalination, are presented. Some proposal for new concepts of small size power reactors are described. A special concern is devoted to economic and energy policy issues as well as to safety and non-proliferation matters

  11. Medium-Term Industrial Labor Demand Forecast for Hungary

    Earle, John Sutherland; Telegdy, Álmos

    2011-01-01

    This study forecasts the Hungarian labor demand for 10 broad economic sectors for 2015. Using aggregate data for the period of 1992-2010 and a structural macroeconomic model, we find that the relative importance of agriculture and industry is likely to fall in total employment while the share of construction, trade and financial intermediation will increase.

  12. THE FINANCIAL LIQUIDITY OF THE FOOD INDUSTRY ENTERPRISES IN POLAND IN THE SYSTEM SIZE OF ENTERPRISES

    Anna Bieniasz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the diversification of financial liquidity of food industry enterprises in Poland in 2009-2011 and indicates the main factors shaping liquidity. The study used unpublished data of Central Statistical Office, allowing for the analysis of liquidity in the system classes the food industry and the system enterprise size (small, medium, large. The analyses show, that the food industry in Poland in 2009-2011, regardless of their size and adopted ratios, have the ability to regulate the current liabilities, but kept at a low level. Analysis of the factors influencing liquidity showed, that the primary importance was turnover ratio of current liabilities, as well as ratio of financing of income through equity.

  13. Dinamismo de mercado en la pequeña y mediana industria de Colombia: el caso SuperBrix / Dynamisme de Marché dans la Petite et Moyenne Industrie de Colombie: Le cas de SuperBrix / Market Dynamism in Small and Medium-Sized Colombian Industry: The Case of SuperBrix / Dinamismo de mercado na pequena e mediana indústria da Colômbia: o caso SuperBrix

    Camilo, Mejía Reátiga; David, Juliao Esparragoza.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Em março de 2010 o engenheiro Mariano Ghisays, presidente executivo da Superbrix, não somente questionava-se se abranger o mercado asiático era uma opção viável, também se a mesma emergia numa cojuntura apropriada da economia e a capacidade tecnológica da sua empresa, que até aquele momento tinha si [...] do impossível de copiar. A oportunidade de entrar em países como a China, a Coreia, a Índia, a Malásia e a Cingapura já tinha sido levado em conta pela diretoria alguns anos atrás; contudo a decisão foi adiada a fim de consolidar o mercado americano, o que fora atingido depois de várias tentativas de entrada, logo depois de apurar a sua estratégia de mergulho no mesmo. Mariano se perguntava, então: de que maneira uma mediana empresa do Caribe colombiano, capitalizando a sua experiência de entrada em vários mercados internacionais, poderia com êxito atingir esses países asiáticos, onde os preços, concorrência e probabilidade de cópia dos seus produtos representavam um risco enorme para a companhia? Abstract in spanish En marzo de 2010 el ingeniero Mariano Ghisays, presidente ejecutivo de SuperBrix, no sólo se preguntaba si llegar al mercado asiático era una opción viable, sino también si ésta emergía en una coyuntura apropiada de la economía y capacidad tecnológica de su empresa, la cual, hasta el momento, no hab [...] ía podido ser copiada. La oportunidad de ingresar a países como China, Corea, India, Malasia y Singapur había sido tenida en cuenta por las directivas algunos años atrás, pero fue pospuesta con el fin de consolidar el mercado americano, lo cual se consiguió después de varios intentos de entrada, luego de afinar su estrategia de inmersión al mismo. Mariano se preguntaba, entonces, ¿de qué manera una mediana empresa del Caribe colombiano, capitalizando su experiencia de entrada en varios mercados internacionales, podría lograr con éxito llegar a estos países asiáticos, en donde los precios, competencia y probabilidad de copia de sus productos representaban un enorme riesgo para la compañía? Abstract in english In March of 2010, engineer Mariano Ghisays, executive president of Superbrix, thought not only about whether entering the Asian market was a viable option but also if it were to happen under a favorable economic situation and with his company's technological capacity, which at that time, no one had [...] been able to copy. The opportunity to enter countries such as China, Korea, India, Malaysia and Singapore had been in the sights of the company's directors for years, but was postponed while they consolidated the American market. This was achieved after various attempts at entry, while also fine-tuning their immersion strategy. Marciano then thought about how a medium-sized company from the Colombian Caribbean region, capitalizing on its experience after already having entered various international markets, successfully reach these Asian countries, where prices, competition and the probability of their products being copied posed an enormous risk for the company?

  14. The triple helix frame for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises for innovation and development of offshore wind energy

    Brink, Tove; Madsen, Svend Ole

    2016-01-01

    This research reveals how small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) can enable innovation and contribute to a reduction in the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in offshore wind farms. The research provides findings from a longitudinal qualitative study of 10 SMEs for the understanding of the impact...... show that SMEs need access to market and industry stakeholders to understand, learn and select among business innovation opportunities. Universities, governmental bodies and industries can create a knowledge space for organisational reciprocal learning between SMEs and larger enterprises to enable......-term support of industry knowledge spaces for offshore wind energy. Governmental bodies would actively enhance political growth strategies regulating competition and collaboration. Universities can contribute actively towards knowledge creation and dissemination. All three helices could benefit from this...

  15. Fostering Linkages between Transnational Corporations and Small to Medium-Sized Enterprises in Brazil

    Delane Botelho

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available When large Transnational Corporations (TNCs enter a host country, consequent development of local Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs is expected. The public sector may play an important role by fostering Business Linkages (BL, by which TNCs establish purchasing relationships with local SMEs. This article was motivated by growing attention in literature to the interaction between economic development and the ability of companies to absorb and disseminate competences. Its purpose is to understand the role of public policy programs that promote BLs for development by: (a analyzing actions and programs developed by public and private institutions to foster BL in Brazil; (b discovering the participants‟ benefits from such actions and programs; and (c identifying opportunities for public sector promotion of BL. The research design was a multiple case study which analyzed Supplier Development Projects in five Brazilian states. Results indicate that public policies may complement overall development as well as industrial policy, which is related to capacity building, stimulating technology transfer, and, more broadly, promoting a business friendly environment able to attract investment for development, calling for a regional and sub-regional approach for a country the size of Brazil.

  16. Role of Relationship Marketing in Small and Medium-Sized Entreprises

    Ružica Butigan; Ivana Mahnić

    2011-01-01

    Along with marketing, small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are commonly associated in literature with relationship marketing which results in marketing networks. This paper examines the specific characteristics that differentiate large companies from small and medium-sized enterprises, and the reasons that prevent SMEs from engaging in traditional marketing within the scope of marketing mix. The paper also shows that the key characteristic which distinguishes small from large companies is a pr...

  17. The Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Performance Evaluation Model Based on DEA and AHP Method

    Qiong Sun

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, DEA model and AHP model combined with a new method to evaluate the performance of the small and medium enterprises. In this paper, mainly introduced the analytic hierarchy process?AHP?and data envelopment analysis ( DEA , based on the existing on the small and medium-sized enterprise performance evaluation methods are analyzed, finally, through empirical analysis that the method of DEA based on AHP and has good applicability and feasibility. 

  18. Motives behind Strategic Alliance Formation among Medium-Sized Manufacturing Firms in Tanzania

    Kafigi Jeje

    2014-01-01

    Research on strategic alliance motives has attracted a great attention as firms strive to become market leaders. One critical area is to assess the contribution of these motives to strategic alliance formation. Most studies on alliance motives concentrate on international strategic alliances that involve large or multinational corporations from developed economies. Little research has been done on Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), particularly Medium-Sized Enterprises (MEs) from the manufa...

  19. Evaluation of innovation activities of small and medium-sized businesses in Slovak Republic

    Silvia Kostiviarova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the presented paper is to contribute to the discussion on innovation activities of small and medium-sized businesses of the Slovak Republic and the European Union. It is based on the results of research carried out by the National Agency for the Development of Small and Medium Enterprises (NADSME, where the focus was on the innovation capacity of small and medium firms in Slovakia. And it was complemented by the results of an analysis of firms’ innovation activities in the Banská Bystrica region carried out within the project “Regional Innovation Strategy of the Banska Bystrica Region”.

  20. UNICS - An Unified Instrument Control System for Small/Medium Sized Astronomical Observatories

    Srivastava, Mudit K; Burse, Mahesh P; Chordia, Pravin A; Chillal, Kalpesh S; Mestry, Vilas B; Das, Hillol K; Kohok, Abhay A

    2009-01-01

    Although the astronomy community is witnessing an era of large telescopes, smaller and medium sized telescopes still maintain their utility being larger in numbers. In order to obtain better scientific outputs it is necessary to incorporate modern and advanced technologies to the back-end instruments and to their interfaces with the telescopes through various control processes. However often tight financial constraints on the smaller and medium size observatories limit the scope and utility of these systems. Most of the time for every new development on the telescope the back-end control systems are required to be built from scratch leading to high costs and efforts. Therefore a simple, low cost control system for small and medium size observatory needs to be developed to minimize the cost and efforts while going for the expansion of the observatory. Here we report on the development of a modern, multipurpose instrument control system UNICS (Unified Instrument Control System) to integrate the controls of vari...

  1. Voluntary disclosing cash flow statement in non-listed medium sized companies

    Schøler, Finn

    2012-01-01

    ! Since there has been some debate between IASB and the EU Commission whether the cash flow statement should be a mandatory part of the annual reporting for non-listed medium-sized companies, we found it interesting to directly ask these voluntary disclosing companies as to their motivation. For this......In Denmark, like some other EU Member States, medium-sized companies are requested to present a cash flow statement, but there are exemption rules similar to those for subgroups’ exemption to their presentation of consolidated financial statements. In a sample consisting of the paper versions of...... annual reports from 385 Danish non-listed medium-sized companies who were disclosing a cash flow statement as part of their annual report, we found that in a few cases, the companies were exempted to presentation of consolidated financial statements, but disclosing the cash flow statement voluntarily...

  2. A Medium Sized Schwarzschild-Couder Cherenkov Telescope Mechanical Design Proposed for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Byrum, K; Benbow, W; Cameron, R; Criswell, S; Errando, M; Guarino, V; Kaaret, P; Kieda, D; Mukherjee, R; Naumann, D; Nieto, D; Northrop, R; Okumura, A; Roache, E; Rousselle, J; Schlenstedt, S; Sternberger, R; Vassiliev, V; Wakely, S; Zhao, H

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is an international next-generation ground-based gamma-ray observatory. CTA will be implemented as southern and northern hemisphere arrays of tens of small, medium and large-sized imaging Cherenkov telescopes with the goal of improving the sensitivity over the current-generation experiments by an order of magnitude. CTA will provide energy coverage from ~20 GeV to more than 300 TeV. The Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) medium size (9.5m) telescopes will feature a novel aplanatic two-mirror optical design capable of accommodating a wide field-of-view with significantly improved angular resolution as compared to the traditional Davies-Cotton optical design. A full-scale prototype SC medium size telescope structure has been designed and will be constructed at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in southern Arizona during the fall of 2015. concentrate on the novel features of the design.

  3. Development of Accounting and Financial Reporting For Small and Medium-Sized Businesses in Accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards

    G. S. Klychova; E. N. Fakhretdinova; A. S. Klychova; N. V. Antonova

    2015-01-01

    This publication considers accounting procedures and financial data reporting by small and medium sizebusinesses in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). It studies different IFRSinfluence zones in small and medium size businesses. The present study offers the following information: adefinition for “small and medium sized business”; a model of financial accounting and reporting proceduralguidelines for Russian small and medium sized businesses; approaches to crea...

  4. An integrated approach for developing a technology strategy framework for small- to medium-sized furniture manufacturers to improve competitiveness

    Lourens, A.S.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Low-technology firms, such as those found within the furniture manufacturing industry, have no framework or methodology to guide them successfully to acquire and integrate technology that enables them to operate more competitively. The aim of this article is to illustrate the development of a technology strategy framework for small- to medium-sized furniture manufacturers to assist them to improve their competitiveness. More specifically, this article presents an integrated technology strategy framework that enables management to integrate their business strategy with their technology requirements successfully, thus improving competitiveness.

  5. Success factors of entrepreneurial small and medium sized enterprises in the Gnosjö municipality

    Eriksson, Johan; Li, Muyu

    2012-01-01

    Date of final Seminar: June 8th, 2012 Title: Success factors of entrepreneurial small and medium sized enterprises in Gnosjö municipality Authors:    Johan Eriksson and Muyu Li Group Number: 2898 Supervisor: Michaël Le Duc Examiner: Ole Liljefors Research Question: What important factors affect the success of entrepreneurial SMEs in the Gnosjö municipality? Background: With the economic crisis and recession, the world has begun to take notice of SMEs (small and medium sized enterprises). With...

  6. Layout design studies for medium-sized telescopes within the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Hassan, T.; Humensky, B.; Nieto, D; Wood, M; Consortium., for the CTA

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is an international project for a next-generation ground-based gamma-ray observatory. CTA, conceived as an array of tens of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, comprising small, medium and large-size telescopes, is aiming to improve on the sensitivity of current-generation experiments by an order of magnitude and provide energy coverage from 20 GeV to more than 300 TeV. In this study we explore how the medium-sized telescopes layout design and composi...

  7. Design features to achieve defence-in-depth in small and medium sized reactors

    Broader incorporation of inherent and passive safety design features has become a 'trademark' of many advanced reactor concepts, including several evolutionary designs and nearly all innovative small and medium sized design concepts. Ensuring adequate defence-in-depth is important for reactors of smaller output because many of them are being designed to allow more proximity to the user, specifically, when non-electrical energy products are targeted. Based on the activities recently performed by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the paper provides a summary description of the design features used to achieve defence in depth in the innovative concepts of small and medium sized reactors with fast neutron spectrum. (author)

  8. Motivation of Knowledge Workers in Chinese Small and Medium-sized High-tech Enterprises

    Du, Huanyu

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with the problem of how to motivate the knowledge workers in high technology small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in China. After the introduction of Small and Medium-sized High-technology Enterprises in China, the theory of motivation, and the theory of knowledge workers, the main aim of the research is to find out present situations and existing problems in knowledge workers’ motivation in Chinese high-tech SMEs. Additionally, there is the aim to figure out the main m...

  9. China’s Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise Grass-Roots Staff Liquidity Study

    CHI Wanrui; Chi, Ying; MENG Yong

    2013-01-01

    China’s small and medium-sized enterprises have become an important force of social employment with a rapid growth in recent years, which made an important contribution to China’s economic and social development. At the same time, small and medium-sized enterprises have exposed the limits of growth in the process of their development. In view of human resources management, most business owners see employees as the tools of the accumulation of wealth, and they usually pay little attention to e...

  10. Design features to achieve defence-in-depth in small and medium sized reactors

    Broader incorporation of inherent and passive safety design features has become a 'trademark' of many advanced reactor concepts, including several evolutionary designs and nearly all innovative small and medium sized design concepts. Ensuring adequate defence-in-depth is important for reactors of smaller output because many of them are being designed to allow more proximity to the user, specifically, when non-electrical energy products are targeted. Based on the activities recently performed by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the paper provides a summary description of the design features used to achieve defence in depth in the eleven representative concepts of small and medium sized reactors. (author)

  11. “THE ROLE OF MICRO, SMALL AND MEDIUM SCALE INDUSTRIES IN DEVELOPMENT OF AURANGABAD”

    Gajanan Dagaduba Chaudhari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Micro, Small and medium scale industries play a key role in the economic development of Aurangabad as well as country. Small and large scale industries are two legs of industriali- zation process of a country. Small scale industries have been given an important place in the development of Aurangabad since beginning. Economic development of Aurangabad depends primarily on its Small and medium scale industries. It may be regarded as powerful tool for economic develop- ment of a predomi- nantly agricultural country like India. The Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs contribute about 7-8 per cent of India’s GDP, 45 per cent of the manufacturing out put and 40 per cent of the exports

  12. Developing a Methodology Based on Action Learning to Facilitate the Adoption of ICT in Small and Medium-sized Companies in Costa Rica

    Nunez, Heilyn Camacho

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to understand and explore better strategies to support the Small and Medium-sized companies sector in Costa Rica in the ICT adoption process. A strategy has been proposed which focuses on learning process and the interaction of university, industry and government (Triple...

  13. Energy efficiency in the US economy technical report four: Analysis of energy-efficiency investment decisions by small and medium-sized manufacturers

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This report highlights the results of a comprehensive analysis of investment decisions regarding energy-efficiency measures at small and medium-sized manufacturing plants. The analysis is based primarily on the experiences of companies participating in the US Department of Energy`s Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) program.

  14. Bank Lending to Small and Medium Sized Business: Evidence from Russia

    Oleg Gennadievich Korolev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Access of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs to external financing sources is defined in many respects by the tendencies of bank system development in different countries as well as by the possibilities and interest of commercial banks to make loans to creditworthy small- and medium-sized borrowers. In the present paper, we suggest that even in post-crisis conditions, this is small- and medium-sized Russian banks, rather than large banking institutions, that tend to issue loans to small and medium-sized enterprises. Analysis of the data available from the Russian banks gives evidence that with the growth of the bank size and with widening of the scope of the bank’s activity, bank’s lending to legal entities, in particular, to SMEs and to individual entrepreneurs, tends to become more intense. At the same time, the share of lending to SMEs and individual entrepreneurs in the legal entities loan portfolio tends to decrease.

  15. Medium Sized High Tech International Acquisitions: A Longitudinal Perspective (1990-2011)

    Olivier Meier; Jean-Yves Saulquin; Guillaume Schier

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the various forms and strategical options that are found and employed when merging companies of any size with medium-sized technological companies, with a view to understanding what outcomes are involved. This research paper is based on a sample consisting of 5 738 mergers and acquisitions transactions in the high-tech sector, particularly those involving innovative companies with technological interests. The aim of this research is to show how these strategic manoeuvres...

  16. MANAGEMENT OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES

    JAN ŠTĚPÁNEK

    2013-01-01

    The ability to measure and manage economic efficiency in small and medium-sized enterprises is highly valued competitive advantage. Economic efficiency reveals the absolute size of indicators of efficient usage of resources employed, efficiency and effectiveness of business processes, products and services. While measuring and managing economic efficiency, it is necessary to reflect the influence of internal and external business environment and take into account the diversity of assessment o...

  17. Business Continuity Planning Resources for Small- and Medium-Sized Businesses

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Lesperance, Ann M.

    2010-05-14

    This document/memo summarizes existing resources and guidance on business continuity planning for small- to medium-sized businesses. DTRA will share this information with large commercial businesses who identified the need to help their suppliers and other key collaborators prepare business continuity plans in order to speed recovery from a wide-area bioterrorism incident.

  18. Expectations, Realities, and Perceptions of Subject Specialist Librarians' Duties in Medium-Sized Academic Libraries

    McAbee, Sonja L.; Graham, John-Bauer

    2005-01-01

    This study surveys 138 librarians in 21 medium-sized academic libraries to identify time on tasks and value of tasks to address problems between the expectations of library administrators and the perceptions of librarians to their job descriptions. The results validate that the administration's expectations are within the norm.

  19. Key Influencing Factors behind Moodle Adoption in Irish Small to Medium Sized Higher Education Colleges

    Walker, David; Livadas, Lelia; Miles, Gail

    2011-01-01

    This research investigated Irish Small to Medium Sized Educational Institutions (SMSEs) involved in Higher Education (HE) that adopted Moodle, the OSS (Open Source Software) course management system (CMS). As Moodle has only been adopted in the Irish HE sector in the last 5-7 years, this research crucially studied the attitudes of the SMSEs that…

  20. HRM implications for network collaboration of small and medium sized companies

    Kesting, Peter; Müller, Sabine; Jørgensen, Frances; Ulhøi, John Parm

    Collaboration in innovation networks is particularly important for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) to remain competitive in a rapidly changing environment. Collaboration may however be particularly challenging for SMEs, due to their size and their inherent shortage of resources. In this paper...

  1. Supporting the E-Business Readiness of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Approaches and Metrics.

    Jutla, Dawn; Bodorik, Peter; Dhaliwal, Jasbir

    2002-01-01

    Presents a conceptual model for governments in creating a climate that facilitates the national adoption of e-business. Focuses on the needs of small and medium-sized enterprises, suggests measures to assess how a country is performing in providing a positive e-business climate, and provides examples from Canada, The Netherlands, Norway, and…

  2. EVALUATION OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Edyta Kulej-Dudek

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the study which analysed knowledge management in small and medium-sized enterprises in the Czêstochowa powiat. A Model of Stages in Employee Knowledge Growth was developed as an evaluation tool. The activities and behaviours of employees concerning management of knowledge resources were also characterized in the context of current knowledge-based processes.

  3. Expanding Partnerships for Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Needed: The Right Kind of Support.

    Hlava, Marjorie M. K.

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on the support available for small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Outlines characteristics of SMEs and types of help available to SMEs from governments and big business. Identifies two problems related to contacts in the real world and the bureaucracy surrounding minority set-asides. Discusses the kinds of assistance entrepreneurs…

  4. Radio-frequency heating of a medium sized tokamak at lower hybrid resonance

    A study of the transport properties of the LHR heated plasma is conducted in a medium sized tokamak. Duchs' code is used to calculate the relevant transport quantities with and without the lower hybrid resonant heating. Through the power deposition profiles with different RF frequencies the best frequency is arrived for the bulk heating of the tokamak. (L.C.)

  5. The effect of unfair dismissal laws on small and medium sized businesses

    Harding, Don

    2002-01-01

    Evidence from a survey of 1800 small and medium sized businesses is assembled to provide estimates of the effect on employment of unfair dismissal laws. The report also provides a discussion of the evidence on the welfare effects of unfair dismissal laws.

  6. Toward a Singleton Undergraduate Computer Graphics Course in Small and Medium-Sized Colleges

    Shesh, Amit

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the evolution of a single undergraduate computer graphics course over five semesters, driven by a primary question: if one could offer only one undergraduate course in graphics, what would it include? This constraint is relevant to many small and medium-sized colleges that lack resources, adequate expertise, and enrollment…

  7. Financial Sector Policy Note : Financing Small and Medium-Sized Businesses in Burkina Faso

    Soubeiga, Sidiki; Strauss, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    As in other Sub-Saharan African countries, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) represent the vast majority of firms operating in the private sector in Burkina Faso. Private sector-led growth is a major element of Burkina Faso's poverty reduction strategy, la strategie de croissance accelere et le developpement durable. Unfortunately, many characteristics of Burkina Faso's business en...

  8. ENTREPRENEURIAL BEHAVIOUR ANALYSIS IN THE INTERNATIONALISATION PROCESS OF GLOBAL BORDER TYPE SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Feder Em#337;ke-Szidónia

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In the European and global framework, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in order to survive the intense competition must expand, meaning that internationalisation has to be an inevitable stage in their strategic evolution at a certain moment in ti

  9. The Tool Coverage of Software Process Improvement Frameworks for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

    Ye?ildoruk, Filiz Çelik; Bozlu, Banu; Demirörs, Onur

    Software Process Improvement (SPI) awareness is increasing among Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs). Conventional SPI frameworks are not appealing for SMEs since they are complex and costly. There are a number of frameworks, which address the problems of SMEs for SPI. This paper presents a comparative study of the most frequently referenced SPI frameworks established for SMEs from a SPI Tool coverage perspective.

  10. Learning in Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Time for a Reappraisal?

    Forrester, Keith; Payne, John; Ross, Cilla

    2004-01-01

    This article follows Engestrom (2001) in suggesting a new approach to learning in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) based on the social and cultural realities of the workplace. The article briefly reviews the theoretical status and practical standing of work on lifelong learning in SMEs, and suggests that Engestrom's work may help us to…

  11. Supporting the E-Business Readiness of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Approaches and Metrics.

    Jutla, Dawn; Bodorik, Peter; Dhaliwal, Jasbir

    2002-01-01

    Presents a conceptual model for governments in creating a climate that facilitates the national adoption of e-business. Focuses on the needs of small and medium-sized enterprises, suggests measures to assess how a country is performing in providing a positive e-business climate, and provides examples from Canada, The Netherlands, Norway, and…

  12. Successful E-Learning in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Paulsen, Morten Flate

    2009-01-01

    So far, e-learning has primarily been used when there are many learners involved. The up-front investments related to e-learning are relatively high, and may be perceived as prohibitive for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Some e-learning is, however, getting less expensive, and some e-learning models are more suited for small-scale…

  13. An Agile Methodology for Implementing Service-Oriented Architecture in Small and Medium Sized Organizations

    Laidlaw, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of Lean/Agile principles, using action research to develop and deploy new technology for Small and Medium sized enterprises. The research case was conducted at the Lapeer County Sheriff's Department and involves the initial deployment of a Service Oriented Architecture to alleviate the data…

  14. Personnel role by implementing anti-crisis programs in small and medium-size enterprises

    Pak Andrey Borisovitch

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available To recover from crisis, small and medium-size enterprises have to develop anti-crisis plans and programs and to monitor the implementation process. The implementation efficiency is provided by the personnel which needs appraisal, motivation and development.

  15. Based on the AHP Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise Supply Chain Supplier Evaluation Research

    Xianwu Hu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we establish the evaluation index system based on the AHP small and medium-sized enterprise and then use AHP decide the weight of each evaluation index. Moreover, we use Linear Weighting Method to study supplier performance from perspective of quantitative research and give the measurement process. The empirical research, to validate the method is scientific and feasible.

  16. Treatment of medium-sized juxtapapillary melanoma with external Co-60 photon therapy

    Twenty-six patients with medium-sized juxtapapillary choroidal melanomas were irradiated using D-shaped Co-60 beams. The overall 5-year actuarial survival was 86% with a trend towards better 5-year local control with 70 vs. 60 Gy (100 vs. 75%). Of patients with pre-treatment ≥20/200 visual acuity, 37% had functional vision at 5 years

  17. Continuing Education for Managers from Small and Medium Sized German Companies.

    Fub, Jorg

    1995-01-01

    An international trade school in southern Germany, which is a highly export-oriented environment, has established a vocational and professional continuing education program for personnel of small- and medium-size companies. Offerings include a graduate course in international marketing, seminars for export companies, distance education in…

  18. Colombia : Bank Financing to Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Colombia

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    Small-and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) represent an important part of the Colombian economy, although they are not well documented in official statistics. In particular, there does not exist sufficient periodic data as to their characteristics, evolution, or overall contribution to the economy - in most cases, SMEs tend to be bundled together with micro enterprises in official statistic...

  19. Current information technology needs of small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors

    Wipple, C.; Vosti, E.

    1997-11-01

    This report documents recent efforts of the American Textile Partnership (AMTEX) Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Project to address needs that are characterized of small to medium sized apparel manufactures and contractors. Background on the AMTEX/DAMA project and objectives for this specific efforts are discussed.

  20. MANUFACTURING AND CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT PERFORMANCE LEVEL IN PLANTS OF MEXICO; A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS AMONG LARGE AND MEDIUM SIZE PLANTS

    Carlos Monge

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A random and statistically significant sample of 40 medium (12 and large (28 manufacturing plants of Apodaca, Mexico were surveyed using a structured and validated questionnaire to investigate the level of implementation of lean manufacturing, sustainable manufacturing, continuous improvement and operational efficiency and environmental responsibility in them, it is important to mention it was found that performance in the mentioned philosophies, on the two categories of plants is low, however large plants show a better performance than medium plants. In both cases, it is worrying that in the highly industrialized municipality of Apodaca,  Mexico are not decisively adopting the philosophies mentioned, as this compromises in a global world, in the medium and long term the viability of the plants, particularly the medium size plants. Finally this article shows the results of the answers to the items of questionnaire for the plants managers, and this can be useful to the management of the plants to identify and to define specific improvement actions towards priority areas.

  1. THE STRATEGIC RELEVANCE OF TECHNOLOGY-RELATED VARIABLES TO THE COMPETITIVENESS OF SMALL - TO MEDIUM-SIZED FURNITURE MANUFACTURERS

    Lourens, A. S.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available SMMEs can make a critical and positive economic contribution to South Africa, and small- to medium-sized furniture manufacturers (SM/FMs have the potential to contribute to economic growth, job creation, and GDP. However, the furniture industry has not stayed abreast of technological advances. To survive in an environment of increasing competition and imports, competitive strategies must be devised. One such strategy is for technology adoption and implementation that can provide solutions for the furniture industry to improve speed, quality, variety, flexibility, and productivity, resulting in improved competitiveness. However, the adoption of technology means that its acquisition and application must be managed strategically, as the use of technology involves far more than simply taking it into account during the business-plan

  2. Regulation of Small and Medium-Sized Business Development in Russia: Problems and Solutions

    Lyudmila Yuryevna Bogachkova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors prove that despite the active state policy carried out since the second half of the 2000s and aimed at supporting small and medium-sized business in the Russian Federation, the current level of development of this economic sector is insufficient. The present paper characterizes the modern structure of small and medium-sized business. The authors show that the main problems hindering its growth are conditioned by low market demand, large tax deductions, numerous administrative barriers, lack of funding and state support. On the basis of the official data of Russian Federal State Statistics Service on theresults of annual surveys of entrepreneurs, the authors revealed the factors that prevented innovation situation in the country have stable negative impact on MSB, while the impact of such factors as imperfect legal and regulatory framework, investment risks, low profitability and inadequate state of technological infrastructure is relatively nonsignificant. The authors describe systemwide and resource measures of state regulation of small and medium-sized business. The system-wide measures include preferential access to production facilities and equipment, special tax regimes, administrative control. The measures of resource support to entrepreneurs consist in subsidizing the lease payments and interest rates on loans for the modernization of production; grant support, the establishment of microfinance organizations and guarantee funds, the development of business support infrastructure. The authors describe the forms of these measures implementation in 2013 and the main directions of improving the state regulation of small and medium-sized business, including the reduction of tax burden and facilitation of taxation procedures, the reduction of administrative barriers and ensuring access of small and medium-sized enterprises to government orders and technological infrastructure.

  3. Design features to achieve defence in depth in small and medium sized reactors

    There is a continued interest among Member States in the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). In the very near term, most new nuclear power plants (NPPs) are likely to be evolutionary water cooled reactor designs building on proven systems while incorporating technological advances and often economies of scale, resulting in outputs of up to 1600 MW(e) from the reactor. For the longer term, the focus is on innovative designs to provide increased benefits in the areas of safety and security, nonproliferation, waste management, resource utilization and economics, as well as to offer a variety of energy products and flexibility in design, siting and fuel cycle options. Many innovative designs are implemented in reactors within the small to medium size range having equivalent electric power of less than 700 MW(e) or even less than 300 MW(e). Incorporation of inherent and passive safety design features has become a 'trademark' of many advanced reactor concepts, including several evolutionary designs and nearly all innovative SMR design concepts. Ensuring adequate defence in depth is important for reactors with smaller output because many of them are being designed to allow greater proximity to the user, specifically when non-electrical energy products are targeted. The IAEA provides a forum for the exchange of information by experts and policy makers from industrialized and developing countries on the technical, economic, environmental, and social aspects of SMR development and implementation. It makes this information available to all interested Member States by producing status reports and other publications focusing on advances in SMR design and technology development. The objective of this report is to assist developers of SMRs in Member States in defining consistent defence in depth approaches regarding the elimination of accident initiators/prevention of accident consequences through design and incorporation of inherent and passive safety features and passive systems into safety design concepts of such reactors. Another objective is to assist potential users in Member States in their evaluation of the overall technical potential of SMRs with inherent and passive safety design features, including possible implications in areas other than safety. This report is intended for different categories of stakeholders, including designers and potential users of innovative SMRs, as well as officers in ministries or atomic energy commissions in Member States responsible for implementing nuclear power development programmes or evaluating nuclear power deployment options in the near, medium, and longer term. The main sections of this report present state of the art advances in defence in depth approaches based on the incorporation of inherent and passive safety features into the design concepts of pressurized water reactors, pressurized light water cooled heavy water moderated reactors, high temperature gas cooled reactors, liquid metal cooled fast reactors, and non-conventional designs within the SMR range. They also highlight benefits and negative impacts in areas other than safety arising from the incorporation of such features. The annexes provide descriptions of the design features of 11 representative SMR concepts used to achieve defence in depth and patterned along a common format reflecting the definitions and recommendations of the IAEA safety standards. The annexes were prepared by designers of the corresponding SMRs

  4. IMPACT OF NEW INDUSTRIAL POLICY ON MICRO, SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES (MSMES IN INDIA

    C. BharathaJyothi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Indian small scale industries play an imperative role in the economic expansion of the country and have vast approaching for employment generation. The Increasing small scale sector also results in decentralized industrial development, better distribution of wealth and investment and entrepreunial talent. The Government has initiated several policies for the growth and development of small scale industries. The ministry of Agro and Land Rural industries and Ministry of SSI have been merged into a single, Ministry namely, Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs.

  5. THE SUCCESS FACTORS OF FOOD SMALL MEDIUM ENTREPRENEURS UNDER THE ONE DISTRICT ONE INDUSTRY PROGRAMME: A CASE ON FOOD MANUFACTURING ENTREPRENEURS IN MELAKA

    Othman Aman; Md Nor Hayati Tahir; Izaidin Abdul Majid; Nor Azah Abdul Aziz; Filda Rahmiati

    2011-01-01

    The nurturing of Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SMEs) has been given a high priority in Malaysia and has been the backbone of economic growth. One of the Malaysia government initiatives to coordinate and monitor the development of small medium enterprises is the One District One Industry (ODOI) Programme. The ODOI Programme is a strategic approach that can improve the wellbeing of rural population in Malaysia. This research attempts to study the internal and external performance indicato...

  6. Raising medium-sized livestock and hepatitis risk: A national study in Indonesia

    Maria Holly Herawati

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Latar belakang: Sanitasi lingkungan, termasuk kandang pemeliharaan ternak sedang, berpengaruh terhadap penyebaran penyakit hepatitis A dan E. Tujuan penelitian ini menilai lokasi kandang pemeliharaan ternak sedang berkaitan dengan risiko gejala hepatitis di beberapa propinsi dengan prevalensi hepatitis tinggi di Indonesia. Metode: Data berasal dari sebagian hasil Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas tahun 2007 di Indonesia. Untuk penilaian ini, data yang dipakai berasal dari 12 propinsi dengan prevalensi tinggi (0,6% hepatitis di Indonesia, dan dipilih hanya subjek yang tidak memelihara ternak serta hanya yang memelihara ternak sedang. Subjek hepatitis adalah responden yang pada saat wawancara mengatakan pernah mempunyai gejala hepatitis atau pernah di diagnosis menderita hepatitis oleh dokter atau paramedik dalam kurun waktu 12 bulan terakhir. Hasil: Dari 141.291 subjek, 1.257 (0,8% menderita hepatitis. Pada umumnya yang memelihara ternak sedang berisiko 86% lebih banyak terkena hepatitis dibandingkan dengan yang tidak memelihara  ternak [rasio odds suaian (ORa=1,86; 95% interval kepercayaan (CI=1,61-2,09]. Risiko tertinggi (2 kali lipat terkena hepatitis terjadi di antara subjek yang mengandangkan ternak sedang di dalam rumah (ORa=1,98; 95% CI=1,47-2,66, sedangkan risiko terkecil (38% lebih besar terkena hepatitis terjadi di antara yang mengandangkan ternak sedangnya di luar luar rumah dibandingkan dengan tidak memelihara ternak sedang (ORa=1,38; 95% CI=1,14-1,67 dibandingkan dengan tidak memelihara ternak. Kesimpulan: Kandang di luar rumah untuk meliharaan ternak sedang yang paling kecil menyebabkan risiko hepatitis. (Health Science Indones 2011;2:14-20   Abstract Background: Environmental sanitation, among others raising medium-sized livestock, affect the spread of hepatitis A and E. This paper presents an assessment of relation between place of raising medium-sized livestock and risk of hepatitis in high prevalence endemic hepatitis provinces in Indonesia. Methods: This paper used a part data of the Basic Health Survey (Riskesdas 2007 in 33 provinces in Indonesia. For this assessment samples consisted of those who had as well as did not have medium-sized livestock in twelve provinces with Hepatitis prevalence above national average. Hepatitis subject was those who ever diagnosed hepatitis by health workers (physician or paramedic or ever had symptoms of hepatitis in the last 12 months. Results: Of 141,291subjectts, 1,257 (0.8% subjects ever had hepatitis. In general, subjects who had raising medium-sized livestock had 83% more hepatitis risk compared to who did not have raising medium-sized livestock [adjusted odds ratio (ORa= 1.83; 95% confidence interval (CI= 1.61-2.09]. The highest risk (almost 2-fold to be hepatitis occurred among who had corral inside the house for raising medium-sized livestock (ORa=1.98; 95% CI=1.47-2.66, and the least risk (38% more risk to be hepatitis occurred among who had corral outside the house for raising medium-sized livestock (ORa=1.38; 95% CI=1.14-1.67 compared with who did not have raising medium-sized livestock. Conclusion: The least risk to be hepatitis occurred among who had corral outside the house among whom raising medium-sized livestock. (Health Science Indones 2011;2:14-20

  7. Gestão do desenvolvimento de produto em empresas de pequeno e médio porte do setor de máquinas e implementos agrícolas do Estado de SP Product development process management in small and medium-sized Brazilian companies in the agricultural machinery and implement industry sector

    José Carlos de Toledo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Para que as empresas nacionais do setor de máquinas e implementos agrícolas consigam sobreviver e ampliar sua participação nesse mercado em crescimento, do interesse econômico de companhias multinacionais e no qual essas detêm expressiva participação, elas necessitam melhorar a capacitação para desenvolver novos produtos e assim atender as novas demandas quanto a requisitos e homologação dessa produção. As empresas nacionais do setor apresentam um perfil predominante de empresas familiares, de pequeno e médio porte, e pouco se conhece sobre a realidade da gestão do Processo de Desenvolvimento de Produto (PDP nessas organizações. Este trabalho caracteriza e analisa os perfis e a maturidade da gestão do PDP em empresas de pequeno e médio porte de capital nacional do segmento de máquinas e implementos agrícolas do Estado de São Paulo. Foi realizada uma pesquisa de levantamento (survey em 40 empresas. Para a análise dos dados utilizou-se a técnica de análise multivariada de clusters. As empresas da amostra apresentam uma estrutura heterogênea com relação à gestão do PDP. Foram identificados três grupos de empresas, com diferentes perfis de maturidade do PDP: Grupo I (20% da amostra, Grupo II (50% da amostra e Grupo III (30% da amostra. Evidenciam-se diferenças na gestão do PDP principalmente entre os Grupos I (com menor nível de maturidade do PDP e III (com nível de maturidade relativamente mais elevado. Apesar das diferenças na gestão do PDP entre os grupos, comparando-se a prática com o referencial teórico (as boas práticas sobre gestão do PDP, os 3 grupos se encontram no nível geral básico, ou inicial, de maturidade do PDP. A análise e identificação do nível de maturidade em que as empresas se encontram podem auxiliar no direcionamento do processo de melhoria do PDP e na elaboração de políticas públicas que incentivem o desenvolvimento e inovação de produto nas empresas nacionais do setorThe product development process (PDP, if well-structured and managed, can become a business process that directly influences the companies' competitiveness increase. The PDP in Brazilian SMEs in the agricultural machinery and implement industry Sector (AMI is little known since most publications on product development focuses on the reality of large and multinational companies, which have a quite different structure from SMEs. The purpose of this paper is to characterize and analyze the management maturity profiles of the product development process in small and medium sized Brazilian companies in the agricultural machinery and implement industry sector located in the state of São Paulo. Therefore, the addressed actions of PDP improvements in those companies can be undertaken. A survey research was conducted in 40 companies. An in loco interview was applied to the respective individual in-charge of PDP by means of a structured questionnaire. For the data analysis, descriptive statistics and the multivariate cluster analysis techniques were used. The findings indicated that the SMEs in AMIs of the state of Sao Paulo present a heterogeneous structure with respect to PDP management. Three groups of companies were identified in the sample with different maturity PDP profiles: Group I (20% of companies in the sample, Group II (50% of the sample, and Group III (30% of the sample. Differences in the management of PDP were observed, especially among companies of Group I (smallest level of PDP maturity and Group III (highest level of PDP maturity. However, despite the differences in PDP management presented in the groups of companies, according to the literature on PDP management, all groups are in the basic (initial maturity level of PDP. The identification of the maturity level, in which these companies are, can help the determination of activities that link the internal actions to improve the PDP of these companies and the proposal of specific public policies that encourage the improvement of product development for domestic companies in this industry sector.

  8. Small- and Medium-Sized Commercial Building Monitoring and Controls Needs: A Scoping Study

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Underhill, Ronald M.; Goddard, James K.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Piette, M. A.; Granderson, J.; Brown, Rich E.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; Kuruganti, T.

    2012-10-31

    Buildings consume over 40% of the total energy consumption in the U.S. A significant portion of the energy consumed in buildings is wasted because of the lack of controls or the inability to use existing building automation systems (BASs) properly. Much of the waste occurs because of our inability to manage and controls buildings efficiently. Over 90% of the buildings are either small-size (<5,000 sf) or medium-size (between 5,000 sf and 50,000 sf); these buildings currently do not use BASs to monitor and control their building systems from a central location. According to Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), about 10% of the buildings in the U.S. use BASs or central controls to manage their building system operations. Buildings that use BASs are typically large (>100,000 sf). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) were asked by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP) to identify monitoring and control needs for small- and medium-sized commercial buildings and recommend possible solutions. This study documents the needs and solutions for small- and medium-sized buildings.

  9. THE KEY DETERMINANTS OF AND BARRIERS TO INTERNET ADOPTION IN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED HOTELS

    Jennifer Kim Lian Chan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents qualitative empirical evidence that addresses why internet usage/adoption is low and how it can be improved in small and medium-sized hotels in Malaysia. It explores the key barriers to and influencing factors of internet adoption in a sample of 25 Malaysian small and medium-sized hotels based on a theoretical framework of the organisational innovation and resource-based view theories. Key barriers to internet usage include owner/operator characteristics, cost and investment, firm size and internet access. Operator/user’s assessment of perceived resource readiness, perceived potential utility and perceived performance seem to be the key influencing factors. The proposed holistic internet adoption framework also serves as a novel tool and a useful guide for individuals and ICT policymakers for improving and implementing e-commerce/internet. This paper adds to the internet adoption and decision literature and advances the theoretical and practical understanding of internet usage in small and medium-sized hotels, but requires further validation in other countries.

  10. Size and shape of industrial Pd catalyst particles using size-selected clusters as mass standards

    Pearmain, D.; Park, S. J.; Wang, Z. W.; Abdela, A.; Palmer, R. E.; Li, Z. Y.

    2013-04-01

    The complexity of the morphology of industrial catalysts presents a significant challenge to rapid screening techniques. Here, we propose a strategy in determining three-dimensional shape of industrial catalyst particles using a combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) as a quantitative probe and size-selected clusters as mass standards. We show that through STEM image intensity analysis, this approach allows us to evaluate the number of atoms within each particle and thus gain insight into the overall 3D morphology of the catalyst particles. It is found that the industrial Pd catalysts on carbon blacks have hemispherical shape, in contrast to the spherical shape of Pd clusters formed in the gas phase and soft-landed on supports.

  11. The role of independent intermediaries. The case of small and medium-sized exporters

    Madsen, Tage Koed; Moen, Øystein; Hammervold, Randi

    2012-01-01

    The article examines how small and medium-sized exporters collaborate with intermediaries in foreign markets by studying the level of control, i.e. the delegation of decisions rights and task solution. It goes one step further than previous research, since it examines degrees of control and...... participation rather than just discrete types of intermediary modes (agents, importers, dealers, etc.). Associations with performance as well as the role of product and distributor characteristics are analyzed. Empirical data based on a sample of product-market ventures in 227 small and medium-sized Norwegian...... export firms are analysed by a structural equation modelling approach. The article provides empirical evidence that managers keep control of decision making to an extent that may have a negative impact on export performance. The empirical study indicates that firms should participate more in task...

  12. The Importance Of Angel Investors In Financing The Growth Of Small And Medium Sized Enterprises

    Veland Ramadani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Angel investors are very important for small and medium sized enterprises because they provide more than money. They are hands-on investors and contribute their skills, expertise, knowledge and contacts in the businesses they invest in. They are wealthy persons with great business experience. They are willing to invest and offer their wealth and knowledge to owners of small and medium sized enterprises and to entrepreneurs to start or develop their businesses. One of the attributes of angel investors is that they like to remain anonymus. Due to this attribute, a lot of ideas can not be accomplished. To eliminate this, many countries establish angel investor syndicates (groups and networks. These syndicates (groups and networks facilitate the process of matching entrepreneurs and angel investors.

  13. Attractive and climate-friendly medium-sized cities; Attraktive og klimavennlige mellomstore byer

    Tennoey, Aud

    2012-07-01

    Ministry of the Environment (MD) wanted an overview of current knowledge of climate-friendly and attractive urban development in medium-sized cities (10 - 50 000 inhabitants). This report presents and discusses knowledge between major cities' situation and challenges of land use and transport development to reduce car traffic and greenhouse gas emissions and on urban development for more attractive cities. A main conclusion is that there are major gaps in knowledge and opportunities for improvement. If those covered will be far better opportunities for planners, local authorities and others may be able to contribute to more climate-friendly and attractive medium-sized cities.The report is part of the project Comprehensive information pack for the status of knowledge from research on urban development. The project has also prepared a report entitled Planning for attractive urban environment. The reports are intended to complement each other and should be seen in context.(eb)

  14. Services Supporting Knowledge Maturing in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Maier, Ronald

    The hype around Web 2.0 has again sparked tremendous interest in IT-supported knowledge management and technology-enhanced learning in organizations. Although there has been abundant evidence of how to benefit from Web 2.0 technologies, information on how to go about deploying these in small and medium-sized enterprises in a coordinated manner are scarce. Based on the findings of an empirical study and an ethnographically informed study on knowledge maturing, this paper suggests a set of knowledge services to support a series of knowledge actions chained with the help of the knowledge maturing model. This set of services can be used by small and medium-sized enterprises for analyzing IT tools and systems which currently support their employees’ knowledge maturing activities, to foster knowledge cooperation with customers, suppliers and partners in their business environment and to find gaps which can be filled particularly by consuming services over the Web.

  15. A Social Media Marketing Plan for a Medium-sized Consumer Goods Company

    Okolie, Emeka

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a social media marketing plan for the case com-pany to integrate it into its existing marketing communications. The case company of this study is a medium-sized consumer goods producing company that advertises its brand and products using traditional methods of advertising (radio, television, flyers and event promotion). At the moment, these methods seem to be lacking in efficiency and effective-ness caused by the saturation of marketing information w...

  16. Definitions of Guidelines for Introducing an Integrated Management System to Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

    Fassoula, Evagelia D.

    1999-01-01

    To survive and achieve to develop their activities in an increasingly competitive environment, small and medium sized enterprises have to increase their competitiveness and, progressively, reduce their operational cost. It is therefore the objective of this research project to develop a flexible and unique management system for these enterprises to use to integrate all management systems or activities related to quality, safety and environmental issues and continuously improve ...

  17. The Republic of Korea's small and medium size enterprises and their support systems

    Linsu Kim; NUGENT, Jeffrey B.

    1994-01-01

    The authors evaluate the effectiveness of private and collective technical, marketing, and financial support systems for the Republic of Korea's small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) and entrepreneurs. Their report draws on a survey of 122 SMEs that make woven textiles (42 firms), auto parts (20 firms), electronic parts (20 firms), and factory-automation products (40 firms). Although Korea has a dense network of public technology-support institutions, Korean SMEs tend to turn to private so...

  18. The ownership-performance puzzle: agency issues in small and medium-sized family firms

    Steijvers, Tensie; Voordeckers, Wim; Vandemaele, Sigrid

    2007-01-01

    1. The purpose / topic of the research During the last decade, the discussion about the relationship between ownership structure and performance has seen important evolutions on a theoretical as well as empirical level. Especially family ownership in public firms drew the attention of researchers. In this paper, we explore the relationship between family ownership and financial performance for small and medium-sized private family firms and extend the results by recent studies of Anderson...

  19. Geographies of Place Branding : Researching through small and medium sized cities

    Andersson, Ida

    2015-01-01

    Place branding is commonly conceptualized with a focus on big cities, such as London, New York and Singapore, building from concepts and models from mainstream branding theory. In contrast to such conceptualizations, this thesis focuses on place branding in small and medium-sized cities. The present thesis aims to study place branding from a geographical perspective. It starts with debates theoretical and empirical understandings of place branding; what it is and how it is affecting the place...

  20. Performance Measurements for Social Enterprises : With focus on Small and Medium sized Social Enterprises

    van Rijn, Micha; Jansen, David

    2015-01-01

    As the field of Social Enterprises has strongly grown over two decades, the importance of Social Enterprises for the society has also grown and still developing, more and more to a third economic segment between the private and public economy. Within this study we explain how “Small and Medium sized Social Enterprises” (SMSEs) can face the increasing pressure to measure and demonstrate their impact to society and their stakeholders. We especially address the limitations in skill and resource ...

  1. Proposing a Framework of Truly Innovative Small and Medium Sized Organisations (RIKON Group)

    Walsh, Margaret; Harrington, Dr. Denis; Lynch, Dr. Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Leveraging prior relevant research conducted in the innovation, organisational, strategy, marketing, consumer, and psychology literatures over the past 48 years; this paper adopts a multidisciplinary approach for proposing a conceptual framework of firm-level innovativeness for developing truly innovative small and medium sized organisations, with particular emphasis on implementation. The focus of this paper is not purely about developing a conceptual framework of a theoretical or descriptiv...

  2. On Key Points of Financial Cost Management in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Xingwu Yu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Chinese small and medium-sized enterprises (SME, accounting for 99.3% of all Chinese corporations, createenormous economic fortune and employment opportunity. However, most of SMEs are lack of capital, withsimple equipments and improper management, so they are incapable to withstand risks and easy to be involvedin difficulty. Therefore, we should properly guide SMEs to enhance financing, investment management and themanagement of other value chain activities, which will contribute to their survival, development, strength, andincreasing improvement of market competitiveness.

  3. Perceived impediments to export involvement among small and medium sized firms : non-exporters perspective

    Mercy Mpinganjira

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of this paper is to examine perceived impediments to export involvement among non-exporting small and medium sized firms (SME's) in Malawi. The study also examines levels of interest in exporting among the firms. Problem investigated: Many countries have programs aimed at promoting export involvement among SME's. Despite this, most SME's continue to ignore exporting as a viable business strategy. Information on perceived impediments to export involvement especi...

  4. Characteristics of management accounting in small and medium-sized enterprises. Case: Rantalinna Oy

    Wiedemann, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) are more prone to failures than large organisations. Together with the dynamic times and complexity of business environment, management accounting as a decision support system that serves the management becomes increasingly important. The purpose of this study was to examine what management accounting in SMEs looks like. A goal was to analyse whether SMEs actually use management accounting and to which extent they apply it. The information for the ...

  5. Impact of Female Leadership on Employee engagement in German small and medium-sized Family Companies

    Rittinger, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    Due to the demographic change, German small and medium-sized family companies lack skilled employees. As a high level of employee engagement (EE) can help retaining skilled employees, engaging leaders are needed. The aim of this thesis was to analyse, if women are able to have a positive impact on employee engagement due to their leadership style. Qualitative theoretic information was gathered from academic literature. Latest professional journals and studies were used to give an insight ...

  6. The Adoption of Management Accounting Practices in Malaysian Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Kamilah Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence on the adoption of a broad range of management accounting practices in Malaysian small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the manufacturing sector. Data collected from a postal survey of 160 accountant managers are used to facilitate the study. The results indicate that the traditional MAPs such as conventional budgeting, traditional costing and financial performance measures are widely used by the respondents. The results also show that a significan...

  7. Succession planning for small and medium-sized family advertising agencies in Cyprus

    Flourentzou, Evangelia

    2014-01-01

    Leadership succession is not a single measure, but rather a complex process (Sharma et al., 2001) that is necessary to ensure continuity of effective managerial control and engagement in a business entity (Charan et al., 2001). Thus, the aim of this work-based project involves addressing and examining the question of succession planning in family-owned and managed small and medium-size Cypriot advertising agencies, as well as developing a feasible model of leadership succession for such agenc...

  8. Creativity, creations and innovations in the management of small and medium-sized business

    Usheva M.

    2015-01-01

    Creativity is a process of development and expression of new ideas interwoven in the company mission and vision to lead not only to financial success but also to real loyalty and involvement of the employees with the company problems and achievements. The main objective of this paper is through the research among contemporary managers and entrepreneurs, representatives of small and medium-sized business in the region of Blagoevgrad to prove that creativity skills are deployed in each person, ...

  9. Improved Cost Management at Small and Medium Sized Road Transport Companies: Case Hungary

    Bokor, Zoltan; Markovits-Somogyi, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Small and medium sized road freight transport companies located in Hungary are facing strong competition on the logistics market. An advanced cost management system supporting decisions on capacity allocations or pricing may be a competitive advantage for them and indirectly for the whole economy as well. Still, they generally apply simple, traditional cost calculation regimes, potentially sufficient in case of a homogeneous service portfolio. Nevertheless, road haulage companies with heterog...

  10. Accounting and Financial Reporting Guidelines for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEGA) – Level 3 guidance

    Eberle, Reto; et al

    2008-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Working Group of Experts on International Standards of Accounting and Reporting (ISAR) issued the publication Accounting and Financial Reporting Guidelines for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEGA) – Level 3 Guidance after deliberations during its seventeenth and eighteenth sessions. At its twenty-third session, ISAR requested the UNCTAD secretariat to reconvene a consultative group to, inter alia, update the SMEGA Level 3 Guidance. Accordingly, a consultative group...

  11. CRITICAL FACTORS IN OUTSOURCING OF ACCOUNTING FUNCTIONS IN MALAYSIAN SMALL MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES (SMEs)

    Magiswary Dorasamy; Maran Marimuthu; Jayamalathi Jayabalan; Murali Raman; Maniam Kaliannan

    2010-01-01

    The challenges that business face in sustaining competitive advantage in the corporate world have become a major concern. Businesses are adopting cutting-edge technologies and best practices to cope with rapid, global changes. Various business functions are being reengineered for this purpose. Accounting functions play an important role in helping businesses to maintain competitive advantage. However, some small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) face problems handling fundamental accounting...

  12. Information support for the internationalization of small and medium-size enterprises in North Karelia region

    Vorobyeva, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to analyze how small and medium-size enterprises receive support from service organizations in the North Karelia Region to expand their businesses abroad. The theoretical section of the thesis provides the main aspects of internationalization theory. It explains the relevant findings of the Uppsala model of internationalization and presents four stages in companies’ internationalization. It provides an overview of national and regional service organizations that p...

  13. Incidence of Guerrilla Marketing Practices in Small and Medium Sized Turkish Exporters

    Gokhan Caliskan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Guerrilla Marketing is a marketing tactic designed to attract prospects’ attention and to obtain competitive advantage by utilizing low cost or no cost marketing activities. Its popularity has been increasing as markets become increasingly competitive. Small or Medium sized Turkish exporters may benefit from deploying guerrilla marketing practices in the exporting process. In this article, the implementation level of guerrilla marketing practices among different types of exporters is analyzed.

  14. Incidence of Guerrilla Marketing Practices in Small and Medium Sized Turkish Exporters

    Gokhan Caliskan

    2012-01-01

    Guerrilla Marketing is a marketing tactic designed to attract prospects’ attention and to obtain competitive advantage by utilizing low cost or no cost marketing activities. Its popularity has been increasing as markets become increasingly competitive. Small or Medium sized Turkish exporters may benefit from deploying guerrilla marketing practices in the exporting process. In this article, the implementation level of guerrilla marketing practices among different types of export...

  15. The Construction of Human Resource Management System in Small and Medium-sized Private Enterprises

    Jieyun Zhang; Juhong Gong

    2009-01-01

    The small and medium-sized private enterprises (SMEs) play an increasingly important role in creating output value and providing new employment opportunities, but there are a lot of problems with human resources in SMEs, such as poor quality of business owners, lack of strategic planning on human resources, etc. It’s necessary, therefore, for SMEs to strengthen the setup of human resource management system. This paper puts forward some implementation details according to "human resource evalu...

  16. Analysis of quality management requirements for product design in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)

    Fang, Wen-Hsin

    1997-01-01

    The use of a quality management approach in the product design/development process is to control and monitor the design activities to improve the consistency of design, and further help to produce quality products that meet the customer needs. This is of particular importance to the small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) due to their natural constraints. The aim of this study has been firstly to examine relationship between the ISO ...

  17. A software process improvement solution for small and medium-size enterprises

    Calvo-Manzano Villalon, Jose Antonio; Cuevas Agustin, Gonzalo; San Feliu Gilabert, Tomas; Serrano Rico, Ariel Edgar; García Pacheco, Iván

    2006-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to outline the main structure of an alternative software process improvement method for small- and medium-size enterprises. This method is based on the action package concept, which helps to institutionalize the effective practices with affordable implementation costs. This paper also presents the results and lessons learned when this method was applied to three enterprises in the requirements engineering domain.

  18. Model of Thai Small and Medium Sized Enterprises’ Organizational Capabilities: Review and Verification

    Apicha Boonpattarakan

    2012-01-01

    In today’s competitive environment, small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) must focus on strengthening their organizational capabilities, considered to be a vital ingredient for building firms’ competitiveness. A number of factors may be deemed to be the drivers of organizational capabilities. Thus, this study was aimed at investigating and discussing those dimensions and their elements associated with organizational capabilities. The review of the literature indicates that the fundamental...

  19. Development of software tool support for enterprise architecture in small and medium-sized enterprises

    Dumeez, Joost; Bernaert, Maxime; Poels, Geert

    2013-01-01

    Throughout recent years a lot of research has been done to develop enterprise architecture (EA) approaches for large and complex enterprises. Consequently, an array of tools has been developed for these large enterprises to aid in EA management. However, traditional small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), which are very important for economy, have to a great extent been neglected. Recently research has been done towards a new EA approach for SMEs. The approach is called CHOOSE. As tool sup...

  20. Factors Influencing CRM Technological Initiatives Among Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Singapore

    Chia, Peng Kiat

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to address the low adoption rate of customer relationship management (CRM) technology among small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Singapore. Such an understanding will be useful for SMEs' managers, IT consultants, vendors and government agencies in drawing guidelines on how to encourage and motivate widespread adoption of CRM technology to empower Singapore's SMEs to compete in the global business environment. The study examines the effect of eight indep...

  1. Employee Motivation Problems and Countermeasures in Chinese Small and Medium Sized Private Enterprises

    Tong, Jia

    2013-01-01

    As business competition among enterprises sharply increases, many small and medium-sized Chinese private enterprises which were thought to have great prospects were pushed out of the market. One reason of their failure is that lacking of scientific employee motivation system restricts the development of the business. Employee motivation, as an important business method, has become more and more important in the enterprises modern management system. An effective employee motivation system can ...

  2. THE PREMISES OF STRATEGIC MARKETING PLANNING IMPLEMENTATION WITHIN SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Popescu Andrei; Ionescu Florin Tudor; Curmei Catalin Valeriu

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of the present paper is to identify the framework and the necessary conditions for the small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) to be able to adopt the strategic marketing planning. Also, the paper aims to underline the importance of the strategic marketing planning and the manner in which the SMEs can adopt, implement and operationalize the strategic marketing planning instruments, whose correct understanding and usage ensure the capacity to generate competitive advantage, ...

  3. Impact of virtualization process on the competitiveness of small and medium sized firms

    Najda-Janoszka, Marta

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the impact of virtualization process on competitiveness of small and medium sized firms. The developed methodology for measuring the level of organizational virtualness has been effectively applied to a wide range of businesses, both large and the smallest companies representing traditional and high-technology sectors. Through statistical analysis it has been confirmed that virtualization process has a positive ...

  4. Implementation considerations of IPsec VPN for small and medium-sized companies

    Hossain, A.S.M. MIR

    2015-01-01

    Security threats threaten online networks. The threats are targeting enterprise networks, personal networks or other networks by accessing or altering important data. Secure-less networks give authorization of access to data in a network. Network administrators need strong network security for preventing unauthorized access, misuse or modification, of the network’s accessible resources. Mostly small or medium-sized enterprises use a firewall, antivirus and anti-spam software for network ...

  5. Construction of Soft Power of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    LI, HONGYU; Meiyue LIU; Jiayi ZHAO

    2012-01-01

    Enterprise soft strength is a part of core competitiveness of the enterprise, so this paper takes small and mediumsized enterprises as research object to introduces the meanings and characteristics of enterprise soft power, and it puts forward the main contents of soft power of small and medium-sized enterprises and the problems which are existing in the process of construct enterprise soft power, and then the author gives the countermeasures to improve the soft power of small and me...

  6. Adaptability of the internal business environment of small and medium-sized enterprises in Slovakia

    Misunova Hudakova, Ivana; Misun, Juraj

    2014-01-01

    Companies that are exposed to an uncertain changing business environment must be able to adapt and change in order to achieve some compliance with the subject of business carried out and the objectives with the ambient conditions. Also these conditions can be a source of threats for small and medium-sized enterprises. In this context, we emphasize the adaptability of the enterprise. It is the active joining of resolving the conflict between the business entity and its environment. Signs of th...

  7. Overview of RRC KI proposals for nuclear energy systems with small and medium sized reactors

    The paper gives an overview of the proposals from Russian Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute' (RRC KI) for the development of nuclear energy systems that would couple nuclear power plants with small and medium sized reactors to service enterprises. The problems and R and D needs associated with such systems are analyzed. A conclusion is made that institutional changes in the organization of nuclear power production are needed to make such systems viable. (author)

  8. Based on the AHP Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise Supply Chain Supplier Evaluation Research

    Xianwu Hu

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we have a research of the small and medium-sized enterprise supply chain supplier based on the AHP. For supply chain management issues in the supplier evaluation establishes the evaluation index system and then uses AHP decide the weight of each evaluation index. Moreover, it uses Linear Weighting Method to study supplier performance from perspective of quantitative research and gives the measurement process. In our empirical research, the applied method is scientific and feasi...

  9. Greening Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Evaluating Environmental Policy in Vietnam

    Van Khoa, Le

    2006-01-01

    Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) contribute considerably to the economic and social development of bothViet Namand Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC). But at the same time this sector causes severe environmental problems. Up till now, no systematic review and assessment has been carried out on the City's environmental pollution control programmes towards SMEs. Given that, the research applied the concepts of Political Modernization and developed a suitable environmental policy evaluation method...

  10. New Balancing Equipment for Mass Production of Small and Medium-Sized Electrical Machines

    Argeseanu, Alin; Ritchie, Ewen; Leban, Krisztina Monika

    The level of vibration and noise is an important feature. It is good practice to explain the significance of the indicators of the quality of electrical machines. The mass production of small and medium-sized electrical machines demands speed (short typical measurement time), reliability of...... measurement, easy use and low cost. This paper proposes a new low cost equipment able to provide required performances....

  11. The relationship between culture, leadership, strategic planning and performance in small and medium sized enterprises.

    O'Regan, Nicholas

    2000-01-01

    The importance of manufacturing Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) to the economy is well documented. Most research on SMEs focuses on efficiency-related measures. The literature suggests that a significant amount of efficiency based initiatives have been directed at SMEs and that the time is now opportune to consider a more strategic approach. The literature survey indicates a dearth of empirical research on strategic planning in SMEs. In addition, the literature implies that strategi...

  12. Process improvement and organisational learning: evidence from engineering-oriented small and medium-sized enterprises

    Matthews, Rupert Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Process improvement has been identified as a central topic of operations management, being relevant to the different functional areas and assisting in providing the benefits operations management aims to realise. While extensive research has been conducted on specific process improvement methodologies, high resource requirement of specific process improvement methodologies make them inappropriate for many Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs). Compared to specific improvement methodologie...

  13. The challenges of Iranian small and medium-sized enterprises through process of internationalization

    Amirkhani, Kianoosh

    2012-01-01

    The effect of globalization and attracting new market increase the attitude of firms toward foreign market incrementally .This thesis was conducted to introduce a comprehensive framework of internationalization process in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Iran as well as monitoring challenges that firms will face in foreign market operation. Take a glance at the literature of internationalization, Iran`s economic situation and entry modes. The aim of this research was encouraging other st...

  14. European Health Claims for Small and Medium-Sized Companies – Utopian Dream or Future Reality?

    Sonja Brandenburger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In December 2007, the European Regulation (EC 1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims came into force. The European Union wanted to regulate the use of health claims on products. An online survey was carried out to evaluate the situation, particularly of small and medium-sized companies, dealing with the new regulation. Methods: The online survey on health claims was conducted with 16 enterprises. To underline the findings a SWOT (Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats analysis was made of the nutrition and health claims regulation regarding small and medium-sized companies in the European food and drink market. Results: The findings of this study indicated that the European Union did a step in the right direction. Most companies defined the decent competition, the simplified trade within the inner-European market, and the consumer protection as positive aspects. The biggest threat is seen in false investment conditioned by the limited research and development budgets, especially of small and medium-sized enterprises, and the cost intensive scientific evaluation to reach an authorized health claim. Conclusions: Overall, there are several strengths and opportunities speaking for SMEs and health claims in the near future. The most promising ones are the publishing of the new European Union Register of Nutrition and Health Claims and the learning effects that will occur. The biggest threat is, and will remain to be, false investment and the possible loss of a lot of money. Nevertheless, health claims for small and medium-sized enterprises will inevitably be the future to keep the European food and drink market competitive.

  15. Based on the AHP Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise Supply Chain Supplier Evaluation Research

    Xianwu Hu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have a research of the small and medium-sized enterprise supply chain supplier based on the AHP. For supply chain management issues in the supplier evaluation establishes the evaluation index system and then uses AHP decide the weight of each evaluation index. Moreover, it uses Linear Weighting Method to study supplier performance from perspective of quantitative research and gives the measurement process. In our empirical research, the applied method is scientific and feasible.

  16. Status of the Medium-Sized Telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Garczarczyk, Markus; Schlenstedt, Stefan; Oakes, Louise; Schwanke, Ullrich; Team, the MST

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), is an international project for the next generation ground- based observatory for gamma-ray astronomy in the energy range from 20 GeV to 300 TeV. The sensitivity in the core energy range will be dominated by up to 40 Medium-Sized Telescopes (MSTs). The MSTs, of Davies-Cotton type with a 12 m diameter reflector are currently in the prototype phase. A full-size mechanical telescope structure has been assembled in Berlin. The telescope is partially equipped w...

  17. Measurement of Credit Risk of Small and Medium-sized S&T Enterprises in China

    Jia-wen Zhang; Long-hui Chen; Xiang-yun Liu; Fen Ding

    2014-01-01

    This paper mainly studies the measurement of credit risk of Chinese small and medium-sized enterprises in Science and Technology (SMEs in S&T). Starting from the characteristics of the development of S&T enterprises, this paper selects the chinext 12 Chinese small enterprises annual data as sample, and builds a first-passage-time jump-diffusion structural model to measure small and mid-sized enterprise credit risk on the basis of the traditional KMV model.At last,it concludes that the...

  18. The Creation of Small and Medium-Sized Sport Enterprises and the Environmental Factors Affecting It

    Seyed Morteza Azimzadeh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium-sized enterprises are very basic solutions for the development of a country; therefore, it is important to understand the factors involved in their creation. Hence, this study sought to examine the relationship between environmental factors and creation of Small and medium-sized sport enterprises. The research population was small and medium-sized sport enterprises (1500 companies; their owners / managers were selected as the research sample (n = 258 by simple random sampling. Data were gathered using environmental factors (α=0.77 and enterprises creation qualification (α=0.81 questionnaires. Descriptive and inferential statistics (Pearson correlation coefficient, Kolmogrof - Smirnov test, and multivariate regression analysis with SPSS16 software was used for data analysis. The results showed that in addition to positive and significant relationship with business, environmental factors could predict 6% of the creation variance; Also, except for the political dimension, all environmental aspects established a significant relationship with enterprise creation( p<0.01. Regression analysis showed that of environmental dimensions, economics and technology dimensions could explain 7 percent of Sports enterprise creation variance. According to path analysis method, this prediction ability is presented in a model. The findings suggested a diminished role of environment and its dimensions in explaining the process of SMEs creation.

  19. Paths to Knowledge Management in Small and Medium-Sized Hotels

    Mik Kim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate what path options can facilitate small and medium-sized hotels’ knowledge management? And how the options are realised by them? In order to answer these questions, this study undertook an empirical investigation into the current status and practice of knowledge management in small and medium-sized hotels. The empirical investigation was performed through thirteen face-to-face in-depth interviews with owners and managers in small and medium-sized hotels. While the interview method is selected so as to answer the questions, secondary data are utilised to support this study such as in defining the research questions and informing the study findings. This study observed that there were four broad approaches to the way in which hotels put their paths to knowledge management. Each type of the paths is named as: Match, Combination, Divergence, and Specialisation. As arguably, knowledge management is both part of the cost of doing business and the most likely source of competitive advantage, it is as important to the sole operator as to the large corporation. By understanding the different options, hotels will be able to make better decisions in the choice of their suitable paths to knowledge management.

  20. THE EVOLUTION OF FINANCIAL STANDARDS FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM- SIZED ENTITIES

    Gordana IVANKOVIČ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the growing need for more comparable accounting standards, the beginnings of International Financial Reporting Standards for small and medium sized entities (IFRS for SMEs can be found in the year 2004. IFRS for SMEs represents for the first time an accounting standard for small and medium-sized companies that can be used globally. The paper aims to examine the historical development of IFRS, the principal institutions linked to their adoption and the harmonization process of standards within the European Union. The main contribution of the paper refers to the evolution of IFRS for SMEs and the main differences between the full IFRS in use and the IFRS for SMEs.The results of the comparative analysis demonstrate that several differences exist between them. Although the aim of the new standard is to assure comparable financial statements for small and medium-sized entities, the presented disadvantages demonstrate that not necessarily its implementation will assure more benefits than the cost that will occur.

  1. Enhanced Bio-Ethanol Production from Industrial Potato Waste by Statistical Medium Optimization

    Gulten Izmirlioglu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Industrial wastes are of great interest as a substrate in production of value-added products to reduce cost, while managing the waste economically and environmentally. Bio-ethanol production from industrial wastes has gained attention because of its abundance, availability, and rich carbon and nitrogen content. In this study, industrial potato waste was used as a carbon source and a medium was optimized for ethanol production by using statistical designs. The effect of various medium components on ethanol production was evaluated. Yeast extract, malt extract, and MgSO4·7H2O showed significantly positive effects, whereas KH2PO4 and CaCl2·2H2O had a significantly negative effect (p-value < 0.05. Using response surface methodology, a medium consisting of 40.4 g/L (dry basis industrial waste potato, 50 g/L malt extract, and 4.84 g/L MgSO4·7H2O was found optimal and yielded 24.6 g/L ethanol at 30 °C, 150 rpm, and 48 h of fermentation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that industrial potato waste can be used effectively to enhance bioethanol production.

  2. Employment and other selected personnel attributes in metallurgical and industrial enterprises of different size - research results

    A. Pawliczek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper deals with the issue of employment and other selected personnel attributes as employees’ affiliations, employees’ benefits, monitoring of employees’ satisfaction, monitoring of work productivity, investments into employees education and obstacles in hiring qualified human resources. The characteristics are benchmarked on the background of enterprise size based on the employees count in the year 2013. The relevant data were collected in Czech industrial enterprises, including metallurgical companies, with the help of university questionnaire research in order to induce synergy effect arising from mutual communication of academy-students-industry. The most important results are presented later in the paper, complemented with discussion based on relevant professional literature sources. The findings suggest that bigger companies check productivity and satisfaction and dismiss employees more frequently, unlike medium companies which do not reduce their workforce and solve the impact of crisis by decreased affiliations, reduced benefits and similar savings.

  3. Flexible Business Process Integration for Clusters of Small-Medium Sized Enterprises in Heterogenous Environment

    Bo Jiang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Industry clusters-groups of geographically proximate enterprises in the same industry are a striking feature of the geography of economic activity and greatly impact the overall economic development. However, most of them are low-cost-based clusters that are composed of small-medium enterprises which needs social electronic services and flexible business process integration. In this paper, we present an on-demand information service platform for small-medium enterprise clusters and propose loosely-coupled service-oriented business process integration scheme for this platform. Several key techniques such as business application definition language and graphical representation for integration in heterogenous environment, packaging and executive strategy for integrating services, dependency set and context of integration service, and mapping translation based on synonymous semantic definition are proposed. Professional services can be provided via this platform to promote the enterprises’ innovative ability and help business to gain competitive advantages. The platform and the related techniques have been applied in realistic textile industrial clusters.

  4. Financing Mode of American Small and Medium-sized Enterprises and the Enlightenment to Our Country

    Lidan YOU

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of the characteristic of small and medium-sized enterprises such as small scale of assets, low transparency message and heavy uncertainty of management, the financing mode of small and medium-sized enterprises of various countries is the same basically. This paper reflect the characteristic of the financing mode of small and medium-sized enterprises of our country indirectly through studying the financing mode and characteristics of American small and medium-sized enterprises, expecting to enlighten alleviating the difficulty of financing of small and medium-sized enterprises of our country . Key words: Financing mode, Characteristic, Enlightenment Résumé : La modèle de fusion des petites et moyennes entreprises dans tous les pays existe des points communs , en raison de ses quelques caractéristiques suivantes : les capitaux de petite envergure , la transparence insuffisante des informations et l’instabilité de gestion . A travers la recherche sur la modèle de fusion des petites et moyennes entreprises aux états-unis , ce texte reflète de façon indirecte les traits de modèle de fusion des petites et moyennes entreprises en Chine dans l’espoir de donner l’inspiration à l’atténuation des difficultés de la fusion des petites et moyennes entreprises de notre pays . Mots-clés: modèle de diffusion, traits , inspiration 摘要:由於中小企業具有資產規模小,資訊透明度低,經營不確定性大等特徵,各國中小企業融資模式存在一定的共同之處。本文通過研究美國中小企業融資模式及其特徵,間接反映了我國中小企業融資模式的特點,期望對緩解我國中小企業融資困難有所啟示。 關鍵詞:融資模式;特徵;啟示

  5. Cloud Computing: The Level of Awareness Amongst Small & Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Developing Economies

    Yeboah-Boateng, Ezer Osei; Essandoh, Kofi Asare

    2013-01-01

    Cloud computing services are being touted as a major enabler for small businesses lately. This new paradigm is seen to offer unique opportunities to small and medium enterprises (SMEs) worldwide and developing economies are no exception. It presents SMEs access to similar technologies available to...... study indicated that a slight majority of the respondents were familiar with cloud computing on the individual level but the level of awareness amongst the larger SME industry was low to medium. The finding therefore recommends education and sensitization on cloud computing in order to increase...... their larger counterparts and those in the developed world which inherently creates innovativeness, increases competitive advantage and impacts their operations and processes. This paper seeks to determine the level of awareness and familiarity with this emerging computing paradigm. The results of the...

  6. Innovation, adaptability, and collaboration: Keys to success for small and medium sized reactors. Cairo, 27 May 2001

    Small and medium sized reactors, within a power output of less than 700 MW(e), are receiving increased consideration in the effort to meet changing market requirements. Smaller plants allow a more incremental investment, which can be used to hedge against demand uncertainty. They are more suitable for standardization and prefabrication, which in turn encourages enhanced quality control and stimulates rapid development of expertise and shorter construction schedules. They provide a better match to grid capacity in developing countries. And they are more easily adapted to a broad range of industrial settings and applications, such as district heating, heavy oil recovery, or the production of hydrogen and other chemical fuels. Sea water desalination is an application for which smaller reactors hold a particular advantage. Nuclear powered desalination is a proven technology. Clearly, we live in an era in which our society faces many difficult economic, environmental and social issues associated with sustainable development and energy demand. Against that backdrop, nuclear power is a mature technology that deserves careful consideration as a contributor to solving some of these issues. The development of innovative small and medium sized reactors will play a key role in helping to match state-of-the-art technology to user needs. An exchange of information and ideas is a step towards further progress

  7. Operational Risk Assessment and Management in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    Viktorija Stasytytė

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern organizations have raised a need to actively and quickly react to the changes in external business environment, as well as in internal processes considering not only the present situation, but also evaluating possible changes and forecasting the future. Enterprise risk assessment and management, which is strongly related with foreseeing the uncertain future, becomes topical not only scientifically, but also practically seeking to reveal new and unique solutions. Operational risk management in small and medium enterprises, creating the largest part of value added in the whole European Union, demands a separate attention and coordinated decisions and means. The objective of the paper – to analyse the process of enterprise risk management in small and medium-sized enterprises, as well as to propose adequate risk management solutions for these companies. After performing a research, it was found out that small and medium enterprises more than big organizations require a risk management strategy and methodology, need to distinguish activity objectives and events influencing them, and they can efficiently apply a risk portfolio method to manage risk. In small and medium enterprises it is recommended to incorporate a risk management system based on COSO ERM model that can be modified depending on company needs and possibilities, turning it into less formal and structured and easily applicable.

  8. Mass size distributions of elemental aerosols in industrial area.

    Moustafa, Mona; Mohamed, Amer; Ahmed, Abdel-Rahman; Nazmy, Hyam

    2015-11-01

    Outdoor aerosol particles were characterized in industrial area of Samalut city (El-minia/Egypt) using low pressure Berner cascade impactor as an aerosol sampler. The impactor operates at 1.7 m(3)/h flow rate. Seven elements were investigated including Ca, Ba, Fe, K, Cu, Mn and Pb using atomic absorption technique. The mean mass concentrations of the elements ranged from 0.42 ng/m(3) (for Ba) to 89.62 ng/m(3) (for Fe). The mass size distributions of the investigated elements were bi-modal log normal distribution corresponding to the accumulation and coarse modes. The enrichment factors of elements indicate that Ca, Ba, Fe, K, Cu and Mn are mainly emitted into the atmosphere from soil sources while Pb is mostly due to anthropogenic sources. PMID:26644919

  9. [Cultivation strategy and path analysis on big brand Chinese medicine for small and medium-sized enterprises].

    Wang, Yong-Yan; Yang, Hong-Jun

    2014-03-01

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are important components in Chinese medicine industry. However, the lack of big brand is becoming an urgent problem which is critical to the survival of SMEs. This article discusses the concept and traits of Chinese medicine of big brand, from clinical, scientific and market value three aspects. Guided by market value, highlighting clinical value, aiming at the scientific value improvement of big brand cultivation, we put forward the key points in cultivation, aiming at obtaining branded Chinese medicine with widely recognized efficacy, good quality control system and mechanism well explained and meanwhile which can bring innovation improvement to theory of Chinese medicine. According to the characters of SMEs, we hold a view that to build multidisciplinary research union could be considered as basic path, and then, from top-level design, skill upgrading and application three stages to probe the implementation strategy. PMID:25204160

  10. The Perspective of Small and Medium Size Nuclear Power Reactors in the Brazilian Isolated Electricity Grids

    As a consequence of the international crisis that has shaken the nuclear industry almost all over the world during the late 1980s, new academic contributions, which could settle a new basis for the nuclear energy in Brazil, have been scarce. This paper aims to partially fulfill this gap. We discuss some perspectives for the nuclear option to regain some prominence in the Brazilian energy matrix. Recent developments in the nuclear industry, including advances in plant design, have been opening interesting markets for small and medium nuclear power reactors (SMNPRs). We access the suitability and feasibility of such new technology in the Brazilian isolated electricity grids. We conclude by saying that, although the difficulties are still huge, SMNPRs may be a good strategy for Brazil to revitalize its nuclear policy. (author)

  11. Exploring drivers for energy efficiency within small- and medium-sized enterprises: First evidences from Italian manufacturing enterprises

    Highlights: ► Allowances, public financing and external pressures as major external drivers. ► Ambitious decision-makers with great entrepreneurial mind as major internal drivers. ► Effect of firm’s size (even within SMEs) on drivers to industrial energy efficiency. ► Preliminary evidences of the effect of firm’s internal and external complexity. ► Preliminary evidences of the effect of firm’s innovation characteristics. - Abstract: Several studies have investigated the barriers to industrial energy efficiency, but few have focused on the most effective means (drivers) to promote the adoption of energy-efficient technologies and practices. In this respect, Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) have been completely overlooked despite interesting consequences for their overall energy consumption and their concurrent low levels of adoption of energy-efficiency measures. Starting from insights garnered from the extant literature on the drivers of industrial energy efficiency, this paper presents an empirical investigation of 71 Italian manufacturing SMEs through a multiple case-study approach. The research highlights the importance of allowances or public financing for energy efficiency interventions, as well as the importance of external pressures such as increases in energy prices and the introduction or increasing of fees on both resources consumed and on emissions of pollutants. Moreover, enterprises look favourably upon energy-efficient technologies which are able to provide long-term benefits, evidence of their willingness to adopt seemingly radical solutions when these are able to improve their long-term competitiveness. Other drivers considered as strategic for increasing energy efficiency are the presence within the company of people with great ambition and entrepreneurial mind and the management sensitivity to the issue. This paper also provides a preliminary analysis of how factors such as firm size, sector, supply chain complexity, and innovation characteristics are or might be able to significantly affect drivers toward the adoption of energy-efficient technologies

  12. The Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Performance Evaluation Model Based on DEA and AHP Method

    Qiong Sun; Zhengran Gao

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, DEA model and AHP model combined with a new method to evaluate the performance of the small and medium enterprises. In this paper, mainly introduced the analytic hierarchy process(AHP)and data envelopment analysis ( DEA ), based on the existing on the small and medium-sized enterprise performance evaluation methods are analyzed, finally, through empirical analysis that the method of DEA based on AHP and has good applicability and feasibility. ...

  13. Current information technology needs of small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors

    Wimple, C., LLNL

    1998-04-01

    This report documents recent efforts of the American Textile Partnership (AMTEX{sup TM}) Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Project to identify opportunities for cost effective enhanced information technology use by small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors. Background on the AMTEX/DAMA project and objectives for the specific DAMA Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) effort are discussed in this section. The approach used to gather information about current opportunities or needs is outlined in Section 2 Approach, and relevant findings are identified and a brief analysis of the information gathered is presented in Section 3 Findings. Recommendations based on the analysis, are offered in Section 4 Recommendations, and plans are suggested for DAMA follow-on in Section 5 Future Plans. Trip reports for each of the companies visited are contained in Appendix E - Company Trip Reports. These individual reports contain the data upon which the analysis presented in Section 3 Findings is based.

  14. The effect of temperature and nano-sized calcium carbonate on tensile properties of medium density polyethylene

    In the present work, high temperature tensile properties of medium density polyethylene and its nano composites are investigated. For this purpose medium density polyethylene reinforced with different weight percentages of nano-sized calcium (2, 5, 10) are produced by compression moulding method. Tensile tests have been carried out at different temperatures, i.e. 30, 60, 90degC using thermomechanical analysis apparatus. Besides, the fracture surface of medium density polyethylene and medium density polyethylene/CaC03 nano composites are also investigated using scanning electron microscopy. The thermomechanical analysis results indicate that the elastic modulus and yield stress have increased by addition of nano sized calcium carbonate as reinforcement for medium density polyethylene . At elevated temperature, the tensile strength is shown to be reduced in all materials including medium density polyethylene and its nano composites. The obtained results confirm that the reinforcing effect of nano-sized calcium carbonate becomes significant particularly at higher temperatures

  15. The innovativeness in the food industry: A study of medium and large businesses in Southern Brazil

    Cristina Dai Prá Martens

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is about innovativeness in the context of entrepreneurial orientation. The aim is to present the results of an exploratory and qualitative research that sought to characterize innovativeness in food industries. A conceptual review on entrepreneurial orientation and innovativeness is presented as a base for the study. Data collection was carried out through semi-structured interviews with professionals of nine medium and large food industries from the central region of Rio Grande do Sul state. The analysis concludes with an over-view about innovative behavior, which is evidenced differently in industries surveyed. Innovation in products and services is featured in four industries, while process innovation is a priority in eight of the nine industries. There is constant investment in innovation, for a department of P&D in four industries and active participation of the supplier in innovations of the both industries. There are people dedicated to innovative activities in five industries and people involved in the other part. Creativity is especially important, although lacks systematic procedures for its development. The differentiation is especially in cases where it is possible to have innovative activities of difficult for competitors to duplicate.

  16. Diesel particulate matter and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon exposure of diesel vehicle operators in small to medium sized underground coal mines J.M. Pretorius

    Pretorius, Jan Marthinus

    2010-01-01

    Limited data is currently available for diesel particulate matter (DPM) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure in underground coal mines in South Africa. The lack of regulatory exposure limits for DPM and PAH in South Africa makes it difficult for the mining industry to evaluate concerned exposure results effectively. The purpose of this study was to determine load haul dump (LHD) vehicle operator exposure to DPM and PAH in four small to medium sized coal mines. Ex...

  17. Environmental management and educational needs of the small and medium-sized businesses of the metallurgical sector in the south region of Madrid

    In this study, the environmental management and needs of the small and medium-sized businesses of the metallurgical industry in the south region of Madrid were analysed. Information was obtained through a telephone questionnaire distributed to more than 170 companies. Although most of the respondent employees do not consider environmental training one of their priorities, they expressed their interest in implementing Environmental Management Systems, waste minimization and higher knowledge of the specific legal aspects. (Author) 7 refs

  18. The Impact of Firm Size and E-commerce Usage on Business Performance on Hospitality Industry: A case of Libya

    Mohamed Ahmed A. Said

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The hospitality industry is major service sector in most of developed and developing countries in the world economy, and nowadays many hotels implemented e-commerce for their business models and gained great advantages and increase profitability. This study aims to examine the impact of firm size and e-commerce usage on business performance of hospitality industry in general and hotels in Libya in particular. A quantitative approach was applied on hotel industry in Libya, mainly those hotels that have previous practices and experience with e-commerce. The results shows that small and medium size firms in hospitality industry in Libya are facing similar challenges and obstacles to other small businesses when establishing e-commerce website, and also shows a strong relationship between e-commerce usage and business performance, and high increase in profitability when hotels implement e-commerce and start to conduct online booking

  19. The Impact of Firm Size and E-commerce Usage on Business Performance on Hospitality Industry: A case of Libya

    Mohamed Ahmed A Said

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The hospitality industry is major service sector in most of developed and developing countries in the world economy, and nowadays many hotels implemented e-commerce for their business models and gained great advantages and increase profitability. This study aims to examine the impact of firm size and e-commerce usage on business performance of hospitality industry in general and hotels in Libya in particular. A quantitative approach was applied on hotel industry in Libya, mainly those hotels that have previous practices and experience with e-commerce. The results shows that small and medium size firms in hospitality industry in Libya are facing similar challenges and obstacles to other small businesses when establishing e-commerce website, and also shows a strong relationship between e-commerce usage and business performance, and high increase in profitability when hotels implement e-commerce and start to conduct online booking.

  20. Innovation, profitability and growth in medium and high-tech manufacturing industries: Evidence from Italy

    Mancusi, Maria Luisa; Vezzulli, Andrea; Malerba, Franco; COZZA Claudio; Perani, Giulio

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The main goal of this paper is to assess the impact of product innovation on the economic performance of firms operating in medium and high-tech industries. Using information from a large and unique dataset on Italian firms we estimate, by means of propensity scores matching methods, a positive and significant ?innovation premium? both in terms of profitability and growth (in the short run) for those firms who introduced new innovative products. We also find that this inno...

  1. Enterprise resource planning solution selection criteria in medium-sized South African companies

    M., Malie; N., Duffy; A.C. J, van Rensburg.

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the factors that medium-sized South African companies consider important in the acquisition of an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) solution. Through an extensive literature review, fourteen ERP selection criteria were identified. Using these fourteen criter [...] ia, a questionnaire was developed to test and rate these criteria on a 10-point scale. Results from the survey show that manufacturing and non-manufacturing companies rate reliability, compatibility, service, and support as the most important criteria when selecting an ERP solution.

  2. Axial BP zoning for the soluble boron free operation in medium-sized PWR

    Feasibility of soluble boron free operation for the medium-sized commercial reactors was investigated. Westinghouse advanced reactor, AP-600 was chosen as a design prototype. Design modification was applied for the assembly design with gadolinia burnable poison - high Gd enrichment and axial poison zoning. CASMO and NECTA-C code system checked axial offset and peaking factors as fuels burned up. A core with complex axial burnable poison zoning satisfied design goals - small excess reactivity for 18 month cycle. Therefore, critical bank positioning for three control rod banks was sought with ease. A.O. value and Fq value were kept within the safety limit

  3. Do Small and Medium Sized Enterprises Match Their Assets and Liabilities? Evidence from Portugal

    Jan Bartholdy; Cesario Mateus; Dennis Olson

    2012-01-01

    For small and medium-sized enterprises, various types of debt are not identical. There are specific costs and benefits associated with each funding source. We argue that the asset and liability sides of the balance sheet are interrelated. Specifically, we hypothesize that firms match specific assets with a specific set of liabilities. We test our theory using a unique sample of Portuguese firms for the years 1990-2000. Our data set identifies various short-term and long-term funding sources, ...

  4. Tax-saving, Innovative Incentives for Small and Medium - Sized Enterprises in Hungary

    Rita Ambrus; Ilona Kaufman

    2012-01-01

    The small-and medium-sized enterprises in the Hungarian economy have been playing a decisive role. Among the difficulties they face during their activities one of the most serious is to raise funds for their labour costs. They try to reduce their tax wedge burden, which is regarded one of the highest in Europe, in various ways. In order to keep the adequate workforce they can provide fringe benefits supplementing to wages and salaries. The cautious application of the referring acts enables co...

  5. Financial Management Challenges In Small And Medium-Sized Enterprises: A Strategic Management Approach

    Hande Karadag

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract :Due to their significant role in creation of new jobs, rise in GDP, entrepreneurship and innovation, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs are recognized as the the drivers of socio-economic growth, both in developed and developing economies. In Turkey, 99.9 % of all enterprises fall into SME category. Therefore, the significance of SMEs for Turkish economy and society is much higher in Turkey, compared to other emerging and developed countries. Small and medium-sized companies are faced with a number of challenges whereas the problems arising from “poor financial management” are reported as the major causes of business failures in SMEs. Strategic financial management (SFM which is a research area that has attracted the interest of researchers after 2010, is one of the key managerial areas of SMEs, due to its vital role on the survival, growth and performance of SMEs. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the central role of financial management and identify the financial management challenges and practices that influence the organizational performance in Turkish SMEs, from a strategic management perspective. Within the course of this paper, the importance and challenges of SMEs in Turkey are presented in the first section, while the literature on strategic and financial management in SMEs are reviewed in the second part. In the third section, the recent strategic financial management concept, the implications of strategic financial management practices for SMEs in Turkey and the relationships between strategic financial management practices and SME performance, are discussed. Small and medium sized enterprise finance in Turkey is a developing research area, therefore this paper aims to make a significant contribution to the existing literature by analyzing the major challenges at the conduct of financial management in Turkish SMEs and the influence of strategic financial management practices on the performances of small and medium sized companies in Turkey.Additionally, the conceptual framework developed is expected to be useful to academics in developing an agenda for future empirical research.

  6. IMPACT OF VIRTUALIZATION PROCESS ON THE COMPETITIVENESS OF SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED FIRMS

    Marta NAJDA-JANOSZKA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of the impact of virtualization process on competitiveness of small and medium sized firms. The developed methodology for measuring the level of organizational virtualness has been effectively applied to a wide range of businesses, both large and the smallest companies representing traditional and high-technology sectors. Through statistical analysis it has been confirmed that virtualization process has a positive impact on competitiveness of companies. However, not all theoretically assumed pathways of such impact have been observed. Presented results and conclusions of the examination give a new perspective for discussion about challenges of effective implementing virtual organization concept into business practice.

  7. Research on Imbalanced Multi-Classification of Performance Evaluation of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Ying Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Performance evaluation of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs was the valuable problem for theresearchers and the stakeholders of SMEs, which was not only for internal managers to control over the entireorganization, but also for external stakeholders to familiar the SMEs. The author collected the data of 164 SMEsin east of China in 2011, and used two-step clustering method, k-means clustering method, system clusteringmethod, neural networks method, and amended support vector machine method to analyses this problems ofimbalanced multi-classification. The results of amended support vector machine were better than the results ofthe others.

  8. eLEARNING - A CHANCE FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Hamburg, Ileana; Lindecke, Christiane; Terstriep, Judith

    2005-01-01

    eLearning through its flexibility and facility of access is seen as a major enabler of lifelong learning (LLL), as a catalyst of change and a chance for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to improve their business and to integrate into European market. But so far the eLearning in the context of vocational educational training has been mainly adopted by large enterprises, while only little activity can be observed in SMEs. The question arises what the chances and challenges for SMEs are...

  9. Energetics of core disruptive accident for different fuels for a medium sized fast reactor

    A comparative study has been made on the mechanical energy released in a core disruptive accident resulting from an unprotected loss of flow accident (LOFA) in a medium sized liquid metal fast breeder reactor with oxide, carbide and metal fuels. The study is conducted by ignoring the passive safety features incorporated in the design so that the accident scenario culminates in an energetic disassembly of the core with large energy release. The paper further provides the salient features of the analysis and presents the results with suitable physical explanations

  10. Depressurization accidents in a medium-sized high-temperature gas reactor

    The amount of fission product release during a core heatup accident in a medium-sized high-temperature gas reactor depends on the size of the inadvertent opening in the primary circuit; this dependence is assessed. The opening triggers a depressurization event that is assumed to be coupled with the failure of the forced circulation in both decay-heat removal systems. The scenario investigated is a beyond-design-base accident. The DSNP modular simulation code is used. This paper reports that a two-dimensional model is developed to simulate the HTR-500 design. The study shows that the depressurization process does not contribute significantly to the sweeping out (from the primary circuit) of fission products released from the fuel during the core heatup. There is also no significant variation in the results when the opening size is >33 cm2, and only a slight sensitivity is found when the rupture size is between 3.3 and 33 cm2. The fission product release decreases considerably in the range from 1 to 3.3 cm2. The small-sized rupture is of major significance, as the failure of the relief valves to reclose increases the frequency of the event

  11. IMPACT OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ON OPERATING COST FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM - SIZED BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS AFFILIATED TO A PURCHASING GROUP

    Dominik Zimon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to ask one question. How the implementation of the requirements of ISO 9001 system affects the costs of running the business? Design/methodology/approach - The research covered time from 2006 to 2011 and was an attempt to assess the impact of the maintenance of the ISO 9001 Quality Management System on the costs of small and medium sized business organizations. The main objective was the selection of right research subjects that would allow the formulation of the most reliable and statistically valid conclusions. For this purpose we obtained permissions to conduct research in organizations characterized by comparable futures such as size, industry, type of business and strategy. Findings - The study shows that the costs associated with the implementation and maintenance of the Quality Management System standard is still too high, and effectively discourages representatives of small and medium-sized commercial organizations from implementing ISO 9001 system.

  12. Continuous medium exchange and cell isolation by size-selective passage through slanted micro-obstacles

    The ability to isolate cells from contaminant particles such as cellular debris and simultaneously exchange the carrier medium of the cells is important for obtaining experimental integrity and optimal cell health. Although microfluidic manipulation techniques have demonstrated their ability to exchange the carrier medium of cells, they still require large device footprint (typically several cm2) that makes it difficult for them to be integrated into microfluidic systems. Here, we report a microfluidic device that overcomes the limitation by utilizing size-selective passage through slanted obstacles. A gap formed underneath the obstacles allows passage of small contaminant particles, while directing larger cells along the periphery of the obstacles. We demonstrated the utility of our device in a small device footprint of 0.05 mm2 for efficient exchange of the carrier medium of mammalian cells, and achieved isolation of the cells from 1 µm diameter contaminant particles in 4.4 ms with an enrichment factor of 834, an isolation purity of ≈70%, and a throughput of 465 cells min−1. (paper)

  13. Status of the Medium-Sized Telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), is an international project for the next generation ground- based observatory for gamma-ray astronomy in the energy range from 20 GeV to 300 TeV. The sensitivity in the core energy range will be dominated by up to 40 Medium-Sized Telescopes (MSTs). The MSTs, of Davies-Cotton type with a 12 m diameter reflector are currently in the prototype phase. A full-size mechanical telescope structure has been assembled in Berlin. The telescope is partially equipped with different mirror prototypes, which are currently being tested and evaluated for performances characteristics. A report concentrating on the details of the tele- scope structure, the drive assemblies and the optics of the MST prototype will be given.

  14. Internationalization and Networks in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: the role of ethnic ties

    Marco Antonio Seifriz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The international insertion of small and medium-sized enterprises (SME has attracted academic attention with the emergence of new internationalization theories based on the network approach. There is evidence that social networks based on descent ties contribute to the international integration of firms, particularly small ones. The quantitative cross-sectional study conducted with 71 SME affiliated with the Business Association of Blumenau, city marked by German immigration, sought to test the predictive role of descent ties (content of ties and strength of ties in the degree of SME internationalization. The results suggest that only the strength of ties (frequency of contacts with the country of descent contributes to explaining the degree of internationalization. Limitations of sample size require caution in generalizing the results.

  15. Approaches for Assessing the Economic Competitiveness of Small and Medium Sized Reactors

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world'. One way this objective is achieved is through the publication of a range of technical series. Two of these are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III.A.6 of the IAEA Statute, the safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property.' The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are written primarily in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own programmes. The principal users are the regulatory bodies in Member States and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series comprises reports designed to encourage and assist R and D on, and application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia, and government officials, among others. This information is presented in guides, reports on technology status and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series complements the IAEA Safety Standards Series. To be competitive in anticipated markets, small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) rely on design and deployment approaches that are able to offset the adverse impacts of economy of scale. Such approaches include design simplification resulting from the application of safety design features that are the most appropriate for reactors of smaller capacity; the economy of mass production of multiple prefabricated modules; the option of incremental capacity increase, with possible benefits resulting from accelerated learning; sharing of common equipment and facilities; shorter construction periods, unit timing (spread of investments over time); and, possibly, greater involvement of local industry and local labour. The effectiveness of all of these approaches to SMR design and deployment depends on the application and on market variables, such as interest rates, and needs to be assessed and demonstrated for specific cases. Upon the advice and with the support of IAEA Member States, the IAEA provides a forum for the exchange of information by experts and policy makers from industrialized and developing countries on the technical, economic, environmental and social aspects of SMR development and implementation in the twenty-first century, and makes this information available to all interested Member States by producing status reports and other publications dedicated to advances in SMR design and technology development. This report was prepared to assist existing and potential stakeholders in Member States in understanding the economic competitiveness of SMR technologies compared to other energy sources and large reactors (LRs); to provide information on available approaches and frameworks to assess the economic competitiveness of advanced SMRs and LRs under specific conditions of their application; and to share knowledge on positive experiences of several Member States that are introducing SMRs into their energy mix. The report is intended for a variety of stakeholders including: design organizations involved in SMR development programmes; investors and potential users of innovative SMRs; and officers in the ministries or atomic energy commissions in Member States responsible for implementing nuclear technology development programmes or evaluating nuclear power deployment options in the near, medium and longer term. The main sections of this report highlight the experience with and future plans for SMRs in several Member States, and present the available methodological options to assist design organizations and guide potential users on the economic performance and investment attractiveness of SMRs. The report also provides recommendations on how to apply the available methodologies and define a framework for subsequent comparative assessment studies of different deployment strategies for different nuclear power plants under various possible conditions of their application. The annexes contributed by Member States provide in-depth descriptions of different assessment methods, give examples of their application, suggest further developments towards a consolidated methodology and also offer more details of the experience of Member States

  16. Quantum-sized ZnO nanoparticles synthesized in aqueous medium for toxic gases detection

    Highlights: ► Quantum-sized ZnO nanoparticles are synthesized in aqueous medium. ► ZnO is used to detect toxic gases in the atmosphere. ► ZnO sensing material has high sensitivity to NO2 at operating temperature of 290 °C. ► ZnO based sensor exhibits high selectivity to CO and CH4. ► The intrinsic sensing of ZnO arises from stoichiometric defects. - Abstract: Quantum-sized ZnO nanoparticles have been prepared by the sol–gel method in aqueous medium using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as surface modifier to control the growth of ZnO particles and Ostwald ripening, because the majority of bioanalyses require water-stable materials. The crystal structure, grain size and optical property of the ZnO nanoparticles have been characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS). The obtained quantum-sized ZnO nanoparticles as a novel sensing material have been used to detect NO2 in environment. The sensing tests indicate that the ZnO sensing material not only has high response to NO2 but also exhibits high selectivity to CO and CH4 at optimum operating temperature of 290 °C. The sensing response depends on the calcination temperature of the ZnO precursor and operating temperature of the sensor. The intrinsic sensing property has also been exploited by photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectra.

  17. Enhanced Bio-Ethanol Production from Industrial Potato Waste by Statistical Medium Optimization.

    Izmirlioglu, Gulten; Demirci, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Industrial wastes are of great interest as a substrate in production of value-added products to reduce cost, while managing the waste economically and environmentally. Bio-ethanol production from industrial wastes has gained attention because of its abundance, availability, and rich carbon and nitrogen content. In this study, industrial potato waste was used as a carbon source and a medium was optimized for ethanol production by using statistical designs. The effect of various medium components on ethanol production was evaluated. Yeast extract, malt extract, and MgSO₄·7H₂O showed significantly positive effects, whereas KH₂PO₄ and CaCl₂·2H₂O had a significantly negative effect (p-valuepotato, 50 g/L malt extract, and 4.84 g/L MgSO₄·7H₂O was found optimal and yielded 24.6 g/L ethanol at 30 °C, 150 rpm, and 48 h of fermentation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that industrial potato waste can be used effectively to enhance bioethanol production. PMID:26501261

  18. Determinants of Supply and Demand for Trade Credit by Micro, Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Claudinê Jordão de Carvalho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the determinant factors of supply and demand for trade credit by micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs, using data collected in a survey of managers from 481 firms in 32 cities in the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais (Brazil between 2008 and 2010. The multivariate relationship model proposed here is grounded in trade credit, agency and transaction costs theories. This study is based on a technique known as path analysis that uses a system of simple regressions estimated by simultaneous equations. The main results show the following: (i trade credit and short-term bank loans are supplementary (and not substitute sources of funds for MSMEs, which demonstrates that trade credit can be used by financial institutions as an indicator of the creditworthiness of the company; (ii the proportion of credit sales, the days sales outstanding measure and sales growth are positively related to the amount of trade credit demanded, which suggests that trade credit is transferred along the supply chain; and (iii the supply of trade credit is positively related to the importance that management ascribes to both internal capital and bank credit, which illustrates the strategic use of the supply of trade credit to increase sales. These results have important implications for companies' managers, financial institutions and the government agencies responsible for formulating policies that support and promote the development of small and medium-sized enterprises.

  19. [Role of medium-sized independent laboratories in control of healthcare-associated infection].

    Anzai, Eiko; Fukui, Toru

    2009-05-01

    In 2006, the Ministry of Health and Welfare revised the regulations regarding the Medical Service Law. The amendments stipulate that all healthcare institutions are required to implement infection control programs. However, small hospitals and clinics have no clinical microbiology laboratories, whereas medium-sized hospitals have few medical technologists and the outsourcing of microbiology tests to independent laboratories is common. The decreasing number of laboratories and recent outsourcing tendency reflect the increasing commercialization, and, with it, the escalating number of commercially operating chains. Each independent laboratory is responsible for supporting activities related to the surveillance, control, and prevention of healthcare-associated infections in the associated small and medium-sized hospitals. The people responsible for infection control in these hospitals usually do not have a background in microbiology. The evaluation of communication between independent laboratory staff and hospital personnel, and rapid turnaround time of microbiology laboratory test reports are important elements ensuring the quality of independent laboratory work. With the pressures of financial constraints in the Japanese medical insurance system, the development of a cost-effective and practical protocol for quality assurance is a real dilemma. PMID:19522254

  20. Detection of Clostridium difficile in small and medium-sized wild Mammals in Southern Ontario, Canada.

    Jardine, Claire M; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Rousseau, Joyce; Weese, J Scott

    2013-04-01

    We sampled 325 small and medium-sized wild mammals in Ontario, Canada in 2007 and 2010 to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Clostridium difficile in wild mammals living in proximity to captive wildlife and livestock. Clostridium difficile was isolated from five of 109 animals (4.6%) on four of 25 farms (16%), but was not isolated from any of the 216 samples from raccoons (Procyon lotor) living on the grounds of the Toronto Zoo. The positive animals included two raccoons from one beef farm, one raccoon from a different beef farm, one raccoon from a swine farm, and a shrew (Blarina brevicauda) from a dairy farm. None had evidence of gastrointestinal disease. Three of the five isolates were toxinotype variants (II, IV, and XIII) that are rarely identified in humans and domestic animals. The other two were toxinotype 0, a common toxinotype in humans and animals; however, all five isolates were of different ribotypes. None of the recovered ribotypes were recognized as ribotypes present in the authors' reference library of over 3,000 human and domestic animal C. difficile isolates. Neither the public health nor the animal health relevance of these findings is clear. It is not known whether C. difficile is a pathogen of small and medium-sized wild mammals, although the susceptibility of various laboratory species suggests it could cause disease. PMID:23568920

  1. ST14A cells have properties of a medium-size spiny neuron.

    Ehrlich, M E; Conti, L; Toselli, M; Taglietti, L; Fiorillo, E; Taglietti, V; Ivkovic, S; Guinea, B; Tranberg, A; Sipione, S; Rigamonti, D; Cattaneo, E

    2001-02-01

    The ST14A cell line was previously derived from embryonic day 14 rat striatal primordia by retroviral transduction of the temperature-sensitive SV40 large T antigen. We showed that cell division and expression of nestin persists at 33 degrees C, the permissive temperature, whereas cell division ceases, nestin expression decreases, and MAP2 expression increases at the nonpermissive temperature of 39 degrees C. In this study, we further characterized the cells and found that they express other general and subtype-specific neuronal characteristics. ST14A cells express enolase and beta III-tubulin. Furthermore, they express the striatal marker DARPP-32, which is up-regulated upon differentiation of the cells by growth in serum-free medium. Stimulation with dopamine, the D2-dopamine receptor agonist quinpirole, or the D1-dopamine receptor agonist SKF82958 results in phosphorylation of CREB. Treatment of the cells with a mixture of reagents which stimulate the MAPK and adenylyl cyclase pathways radically changes the morphology of the ST14A cells. The cells develop numerous neurite-like appearing processes which stain with beta III-tubulin. Moreover, under these conditions, intracellular injection of rectangular depolarizing current stimuli elicits overshooting action potentials with a relatively fast depolarization rate when starting from a strongly hyperpolarized membrane potential. Taken together, these data imply that the ST14A cell line displays some of the characteristics of a medium-size spiny neuron subtype and provides a new tool to elucidate the pathways and molecules involved in medium-size spiny neuron differentiation and disease. PMID:11161610

  2. Tube vibration in industrial size test heat exchanger

    Tube vibration data from tests of a specially built and instrumented, industrial-type, shell-and-tube heat exchanger are reported. The heat exchanger is nominally 0.6 m (2 ft) in dia and 3.7 m (12 ft) long. Both full tube and no-tubes-in-window bundles were tested for inlet/outlet nozzles of different sizes and with the tubes supported by seven, equally-spaced, single-segmental baffles. Prior to water flow testing, natural frequencies and damping of representative tubes were measured in air and water. Flow testing was accomplished by increasing the flow rates in stepwise fashion and also by sweeping through a selected range of flow rates. The primary variables measured and reported are tube accelerations and/or displacements and pressure drop through the bundle. Tests of the full tube bundle configuration revealed tube rattling to occur at intermediate flow rates, and fluidelastic instability, with resultant tube impacting, to occur when the flow rate exceeded a threshold level; principally, the four-span tubes were involved in the regions immediately adjacent to the baffle cut. For the range of flow rates tested, fluidelastic instability was not achieved in the no-tubes-in-window bundle; in this configuration the tubes are supported by all seven baffles and are, therefore, stiffer

  3. Discriminating between Medium-Sized Tridactyl Trackmakers: Tracking Ornithopod Tracks in the Base of the Cretaceous (Berriasian, Spain)

    Castanera, Diego; Pascual, Carlos; Razzolini, Novella L.; Vila, Bernat; Barco, José L.; Canudo, José I.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent work on the Jurassic-Cretaceous transition of the Iberian Range (Spain) has opened a new window onto the interpretation of the trackmakers of some medium-sized tridactyl tracks. The ichnotaxon Therangospodus oncalensis has been described in the Huérteles Formation (Berriasian) and is one of the classical tracks from the area assigned to medium-sized theropods. Methodology/Principal Findings A review of the type locality of Therangospodus oncalensis (Fuentesalvo tracksite) an...

  4. Export Barriers for SMEs : A Case Study of Bangladeshi Small and Medium Sized Shrimp Exporting Companies to the European Market

    Huda, Nazmul

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Exporting is very important for developing countries. Small and medium sized companies in the developing countries face several barriers when exporting their products in the developed countries. Bangladesh is a small country in the South East Asia. The shrimp exporting sector is the second biggest export sector of Bangladesh. The purpose of the thesis was to find the major export barriers faced by the small and medium sized shrimp exporting companies of Bangladesh to the European ...

  5. Rapid preparation of ceramic moulds for medium-sized superalloy castings with magnesia-phosphate-bonded bauxite-mullite investments

    Li Tingzhong; Luo Jirong; Wu Shusen

    2010-01-01

    Phosphate-bonded investments have already been widely utilized in dental restoration and micro-casting of artistic products for its outstanding rapid setting and high strength. However, the rapid setting rate of investment slurry has up to now been a barrier to extend the use of such slurry in preparation of medium-sized ceramic moulds. This paper proposes a new process of rapid fabrication of magnesia-phosphate-bonded investment ceramic moulds for medium-sized superalloy castings utilizing b...

  6. The Roles of Government Funding in Enhancing the Competitiveness of Small and Medium-sized Enterprise in Sabah, Malaysia

    Abdol Samad Nawi; Irwan Bin Ismail; Zainuddin Zakaria; Jannah Munirah Md Noor; Bashir Ahmad Bin Shabir Ahmad; Nik Fakrul Hazri; Wan Anisabanum Salleh; Mohd Tajul Hasnan Mohd Tajuddin; Nur Raihana Mohd Sallem

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to determine the roles of government funding in enhancing Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Sabah, Malaysia. Specifically, the study is focused on the Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Sabah, Malaysia which were funded by many government-linked agencies such as Yayasan Tekun Nasional, Amanah Ikhtiar, Koperasi Pembangunan Desa and Agro Bank. This qualitative study was carried out in the rural and urban areas in Sabah, Malaysia. The findings of this stu...

  7. The Role of Knowledge Management in Enhancing the Competitiveness of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs)

    Ali A. Alawneh; Amer Abuali; Tamara Y. Almarabeh

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge is one of the enterprise’s most important assets that influence its competitiveness. One way to capture an enterprise’s knowledge and make it available to all its members is through the use of knowledge management practices. This paper discusses the importance of knowledge management (KM) in Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and presents a framework to deal with knowledge management in order to enhance their competitiveness. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are know...

  8. How to Improve Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Profitability by Practicing an Efficient Human Resources Management

    García Sánchez, Antonio; Popescu, Dan; Iulia CHIVU; Alina CIOCÂRLAN-CHITUCEA; Daniela Oana POPESCU

    2011-01-01

    In The European Union’s country members, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play an essential role in economic life, having special features that make adaptation process to the contemporary economy easier. Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) are the most dynamic and vital factor of progress in the contemporary society, main generator of economic performance and substance in any country, employment opportunity provider for most of population, major contributor...

  9. Atomic size effects on local coordination and medium range order in molten trivalent metal chlorides

    Structural correlations in molten trivalent metal chlorides are evaluated as functions of the metal ion size RM across the range from LaCl3 (RM approx. 1.4 A) to AlCl3 (RM approx. 0.8 A), using a charged soft-sphere model and the hypernetted chain approximation. Main attention is given to trends in the local liquid structure (partial radial distribution functions, coordination numbers and bond lengths) and in the intermediate range order (first sharp diffraction peak in the number-number and partial structure factors). The trend towards fourfold local coordination of the metal ions, the stabilization of their first-neighbour chlorine cage and the growth of medium range order are found to proceed in parallel as the size of the metal ion is allowed to decrease at constant number density and temperature. A tendency to molecular-type local structure and liquid-vapour phase separation is found within the hypernetted chain scheme at small metal ion sizes corresponding to AlCl3 and is emphasized by decreasing the number density of the fluid. The predicted molecular units are rather strongly distorted Al2Cl6 dimers, in agreement with observation. The calculated structural trends for other trichlorides are compared with diffraction and transport data. (author). 17 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab

  10. Determinants of Profitability of Food Industry in India: A Size-Wise Analysis

    Ramachandran Azhagaiah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Profitability is the profit earning capacity, which is a crucial factorin contributing to the survival of firms. This paper is a maidenattempt at estimating the impact of size on profitability, consideringthe ‘size’ as the control variable. For this purpose, the selectedfirms are classified into three size categories as ‘small,’ ‘medium,’and ‘large’ based on the sales turnover. The results show that volatilityand growth are the major predictors in determining profitabilityin case of small size firms while growth is important in determiningthe profitability of medium size firms. Capital intensityhas a significant positive coefficient with the profitability of largesize firms. The overall result shows that the larger the size of thefirm, the more the investment in long lived assets has helped toincrease the profitability of the firm unlike the trend in cases ofsmall size and medium size firms.

  11. Role of Relationship Marketing in Small and Medium-Sized Entreprises

    Ružica Butigan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Along with marketing, small and medium enterprises (SMEs are commonly associated in literature with relationship marketing which results in marketing networks. This paper examines the specific characteristics that differentiate large companies from small and medium-sized enterprises, and the reasons that prevent SMEs from engaging in traditional marketing within the scope of marketing mix. The paper also shows that the key characteristic which distinguishes small from large companies is a prominent role of owner/managers. The owner/manager affects marketing of SMEs by creating his or her own personal networks with stakeholders in the environment, and considers it an important strategic focus and a factor that increases the performance of marketing decision-making. After a thorough review of secondary data sources this paper examines relationship marketing as a marketing framework for SMEs and, finally, proves that relationship marketing is more appropriate for SMEs than are traditional marketing concepts, that relationship marketing and network marketing create an important framework for SMEs and that there is a link between relationship marketing, personal networks and SMEs.

  12. Correlates of Tax Compliance of Small and Medium Size Businesses in Cameroon

    Oludele Akinloye Akinboade

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Taxation provides a predictable and stable flow of revenue to finance development objectives. This is important in a country like Cameroon that has serious challenges with meeting its development objectives. Small and medium enterprises (SMEs are significant for economic growth in the country, contributing as much as about 22 percent of the gross domestic product. SMEs generate taxable incomes. They also collect employment and value added taxes on behalf of the government. Taxation, however, imposes high cost to small businesses. SMEs are less tax compliant in comparison to large businesses. SMEs are considered the ‘hard to tax group from the informal sector.’ As such, the literature suggests that only a fraction of their taxable incomes is reported to tax authorities. Against this background, factors that correlate with tax compliance of 575 small and medium size companies in Cameroon are discussed from a survey of companies in the manufacturing and wholesale sectors. High registration cost and time-consuming processes promote tax non-compliance. The perception that tax system is corrupt discourages registration and filing compliance. When there are too many compliance hurdles, the probability of filing compliance is reduced. However, a fair and static system encourages filing and registration compliance. A clear and consistent tax system promotes filing compliance. Authorities that understand their responsibilities and are willing to respond to enquiries during the registration process promote tax compliance in general.

  13. Creativity, creations and innovations in the management of small and medium-sized business

    Usheva M.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Creativity is a process of development and expression of new ideas interwoven in the company mission and vision to lead not only to financial success but also to real loyalty and involvement of the employees with the company problems and achievements. The main objective of this paper is through the research among contemporary managers and entrepreneurs, representatives of small and medium-sized business in the region of Blagoevgrad to prove that creativity skills are deployed in each person, to identify the specific characteristics of the creative thinking of the manager and the tools that stimulate them to increase competitiveness in the context of the sustainable development of the small and medium business in international and domestic tourism market. The main result to be achieved is evidence that when there is adequate (positive self-evaluation, intrinsic motivation or chiefly necessity of creativity manifestation, emotivity in the sense of creative enthusiasm, personal professional effectiveness and appropriate situational factors, the modern manager is able to model conditions for the manifestation of creativity (creative self-expression, both in themselves and in their subordinates. This in turn leads to increased competitiveness and intensive implementation of innovations in the company management and operation. The main research methods used in the study are literature review on the subject, survey, analysis of processes, intuitive and systematic approach, systematic observation, data classification and interpretation.

  14. Hybrid neural intelligent system to predict business failure in small-to-medium-size enterprises.

    Borrajo, M Lourdes; Baruque, Bruno; Corchado, Emilio; Bajo, Javier; Corchado, Juan M

    2011-08-01

    During the last years there has been a growing need of developing innovative tools that can help small to medium sized enterprises to predict business failure as well as financial crisis. In this study we present a novel hybrid intelligent system aimed at monitoring the modus operandi of the companies and predicting possible failures. This system is implemented by means of a neural-based multi-agent system that models the different actors of the companies as agents. The core of the multi-agent system is a type of agent that incorporates a case-based reasoning system and automates the business control process and failure prediction. The stages of the case-based reasoning system are implemented by means of web services: the retrieval stage uses an innovative weighted voting summarization of self-organizing maps ensembles-based method and the reuse stage is implemented by means of a radial basis function neural network. An initial prototype was developed and the results obtained related to small and medium enterprises in a real scenario are presented. PMID:21809475

  15. SINGLE EURO PAYMENTS AREA AND ITS IMPLICATIONS ON THE EUROPEAN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Andreea Avădanei

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this article is to discuss the implications of the Single Euro Payments Area from the perspective of the European SMEs. The current unpredictable and very challenging market situation has not fundamentally changed the fact that payment services need to continue modernization in order to become more flexible, agile and adapt in order to comply with its important purpose in society.SEPA is needed to ensure the new modern payment platform that can enable Europe to move beyond basic services, increase payments efficiency, embrace innovation and integrate further services in the trade process. European Small and Medium-sized Enterprises see SEPA see SEPA as an important step towards the completion of the internal market, but such a major initiative has to be well planed, must meet the practical needs of enterprises and provide, at least in the long run, positive incentives for all market participants.

  16. Knowledge management in small and medium-sized companies; Wissensmanagement bei kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen

    Basu, M. [Netzwirtschaft, EWR Netz GmbH, Worms (Germany); Neises, C. [Regulierungsmanagement, regionetz GmbH, Dueren (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    Knowledge management has now also reached the energy economy, as first branch-specific seminars show. This awakening interest is very much to be welcomed, although until now it has been more the representatives of large energy companies who have made themselves heard. Public utilities, which as a rule are subsumed under the category ''small and medium sized company'', have other possibilities as well as limitations than large corporations when it comes to knowledge management. The present article explains what knowledge management is and how public utilities and regional supply companies can identify and make practical use of opportunities available to them through knowledge management while giving due consideration to their structural characteristics.

  17. FINANCING OF FIXED ASSET INVESTMENT IN THE SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES IN POLAND

    Beata Geruzel-Dudzińska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium-sized enterprises play an important role in the economy, creates, because a significant part of GDP, provides employment to many millions of people. One of the main barriers to the development of these enterprises, not only in Poland but also in EU countries, is the scarcity of equity and the difficulty in obtaining external sources of financing. It is not just about lack of funds to finance current operations, but also, and perhaps above all, lack of investment in fixed assets. This paper aims to present available sources of financing of fixed assets for enterprises from the SME sector and the assessment of their use by these companies.

  18. Medium-sized shape steel rolling facility; Chugata keiko atsuen setsubi

    NONE

    1999-01-10

    Electrical components for the latest medium-sized shape steel rolling facility were delivered to Osaka Steel Company via NKK Corporation. The facility is currently operating in a satisfactory condition. The major features of the facility are as follows: (1) all of the variable speed driving devices are composed of AC induction motors and DC distribution type IGBT inverters to have realized reduced maintenance and improved efficiency; (2) the main units (18 units for a total capacity of 21 MW) and the shearing unit use three-level IGBT inverters, whereas power source power factor was made to near unity, and measures for suppressing harmonics were eliminated by using 12-phase diode converters (for the main units) and PWM converters (for shearing); (3) a most advanced automation system was realized for product cutting programs and stand exchange by using computers (at customers), programmable controllers (ICS-2500S) and factory automating personal computers. (NEDO)

  19. Adaptive Traffic Control Systems in a medium-sized Scandinavian city

    Agerholm, Niels; Olesen, Anne Vingaard

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive Traffic Control Systems (ATCS) are aimed at reducing congestion. ATCS adapt to approaching traffic to continuously optimise the traffic flows in question. ATCS have been implemented in many locations, including the Scandinavian countries, with various effects. Due to congestion problems......, ATCS were installed in the eight signalised intersections of a 1.7 km stretch of the ring road in the medium-sized Danish city of Aalborg. To measure the effect of ATCS a with/without study was carried out. GPS data from a car following the traffic, recorded transportation times for buses in service...... morning peak and midday off-peak. The effect on crossing and turning traffic was slight, and while reduced transportation time was found in one part of the ring road in another part transportation time was seen to increase. The benefit to the ring road was partly gained at the cost of slightly increased...

  20. Tax-saving, Innovative Incentives for Small and Medium - Sized Enterprises in Hungary

    Rita Ambrus

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The small-and medium-sized enterprises in the Hungarian economy have been playing a decisive role. Among the difficulties they face during their activities one of the most serious is to raise funds for their labour costs. They try to reduce their tax wedge burden, which is regarded one of the highest in Europe, in various ways. In order to keep the adequate workforce they can provide fringe benefits supplementing to wages and salaries. The cautious application of the referring acts enables companies to motivate workforce and reduce the tax and contribution burdens at the same time. Our research aimed to find an answer how SMEs take these advantages and what factors support or hinder the use of the system.

  1. Software-Defined Solutions for Managing Energy Use in Small to Medium Sized Commercial Buildings

    Peffer, Therese [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Council on International Education Exchange (CIEE), Portland, ME (United States); Blumstein, Carl [Council on International Education Exchange (CIEE), Portland, ME (United States); Culler, David [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences (EECS); Modera, Mark [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Western Cooling Efficiency Center (WCEC); Meier, Alan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-10

    The Project uses state-of-the-art computer science to extend the benefits of Building Automation Systems (BAS) typically found in large buildings (>100,000 square foot) to medium-sized commercial buildings (<50,000 sq ft). The BAS developed in this project, termed OpenBAS, uses an open-source and open software architecture platform, user interface, and plug-and-play control devices to facilitate adoption of energy efficiency strategies in the commercial building sector throughout the United States. At the heart of this “turn key” BAS is the platform with three types of controllers—thermostat, lighting controller, and general controller—that are easily “discovered” by the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. The user interface showcases the platform and provides the control system set-up, system status display and means of automatically mapping the control points in the system.

  2. Networked Virtual Organizations: A Chance for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises on Global Markets

    Cellary, Wojciech

    Networked Virtual Organizations (NVOs) are a right answer to challenges of globalized, diversified, and dynamic contemporary economy. NVOs need more than e-trade and outsourcing, namely, they need out-tasking and e-collaboration. To out-task, but retain control on the way a task is performed by an external partner, two integrations are required: (1) integration of computer management systems of enterprises cooperating within an NVO; and (2) integration of cooperating representatives of NVO member enterprises into a virtual team. NVOs provide a particular chance to Small and Medium size Enterprises (SMEs) to find their place on global markets and to play a significant role on them. Requirements for SMEs to be able to successfully join an NVO are analyzed in the paper.

  3. IT Governance Practices in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Recommendations from an Empirical Study

    Huang, Rui; Zmud, Robert W.; Price, R. Leon

    Much has been learned through IT governance research about the nature of IT-related decisions, the location of decision rights for these decisions, and governance mechanisms applied to facilitate associated decision processes in large organisations. Our knowledge about IT governance structures in small and medium-sized enterprises (SME), on the other hand, is quite limited. Adopting a qualitative and inductive approach, this study examines the nature and influence of IT governance in SMEs through interviews with executives from three SMEs. Our results demonstrate that IT decision authority was centralized in all three SMEs but that senior management involvement in governance procedures and communication practices about governance policies were observed to explain differences in these organisations’ IT use. We propose recommendations based on the findings of this study.

  4. Requirements and Specifications for a Simplified, Low Pressure Medium Sized PWR

    This paper summarises part of our on-going investigations on the possible introduction of nuclear energy in developing countries or countries with low capacity electrical grids. These investigations are principally concerned with future PWR developments and basically try to search for plausible and economic answers to the three difficult questions that each nuclear technology exporting country faces today: 1)- how to compensate the apparent loss of economic competitiveness, related to the scaling effect, of a small or medium sized reactor? 2)- how to reconcile the introduction of nuclear energy on the large scale with the two major preoccupations of nuclear safety and nuclear proliferation? 3)- how to demonstrate that the proposed concept(s) can effectively meet the safety objectives of the requirements for future reactors in Europe and in other countries?

  5. eLEARNING - A CHANCE FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Ileana Hamburg

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available eLearning through its flexibility and facility of access is seen as a major enabler of lifelong learning (LLL, as a catalyst of change and a chance for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs to improve their business and to integrate into European market. But so far the eLearning in the context of vocational educational training has been mainly adopted by large enterprises, while only little activity can be observed in SMEs. The question arises what the chances and challenges for SMEs are and what is the experience with its usage. In this paper after a presentation of key issues in eLearning chances and challenges of eLearning for SMEs are discussed and experiences are exemplified by three EU-funded eLearning projects. The focus lies on the ongoing project ARIEL - Analysing and Reporting the Implementation of Electronic Learning in Europe - coordinated by the Institut Arbeit und Technik (IAT.

  6. Sustainable infrastructure provision through awareness in selected medium-sized towns in Kwara State

    Afolayan Ganiyu Popoola

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructure is a basic structure required for sustainable socio-economic and physical development of any human settlement. The issue of sustainable development has recently been linked to infrastructure sustainability. Required to achieve this is the acquisition of appropriate education. Different skills, understanding the complexities that threaten the survival of our system, critical and systematic thinking, building capacity and partnership in decision-making, which are essential tools for Education for Sustainable Development (ESD, are required to provide adequate, appropriate and functional infrastructure. This study therefore examines the awareness/knowledge with reference to various skills employed in the provision of infrastructure through communal efforts in ten selected medium-sized towns in Kwara State. These towns are with a population of between 5,000 and 20,000. A total of 400 household heads were sampled systematically through the administration of a questionnaire in the ten selected medium-sized towns. Tabulations, cross tabulations, percentages and chi-square analysis were employed to analyse the gathered data. The findings revealed a significant relationship between awareness/knowledge and the provision of infrastructure with a calculated value of 219.23 greater than the tabulated value 34.41 at alpha level 0.05. Indigenous knowledge coupled with the ideas brought home by indigenes that have travelled far from their immediate communities and some professional skills acquired through community participation in infrastructure provision were employed to provide basic infrastructure required for socio-economic and physical development. Among the infrastructure provided are water, roads, health centres and electricity. The study recommends the improvement of basic education, a review and re-orientation of our educational system to address sustainability for proper collaboration of community efforts with the Community Development division of various local governments. This could be through training of the local communities and promotion of partnership zeal with Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs in infrastructure provision.

  7. Analysis of the Management System Innovation in Small and Medium Sized Family Enterprises of China

    Chengcheng LIU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The family enterprise is one of the oldest forms of enterprise organization in the development of human history. In a way, the development of modern market economy equates the history of the evolution and collaborative of family enterprises. The growth of the family enterprises has now become a unique economic landscape in such a public ownership society in China. China is transitioning from a planned economy to a market economy, and the biggest change is actually the emergence of private enterprises groups. It’s by arriving less much, by arrive infirmly strength has made them one of the most dynamic components in Chinese economy. They not only active in both the urban and rural markets, meet the needs of people’s material and cultural life, ease the employment pressure, but also lay the important foundation of China’s market-oriented reform and participation in international market competition. The general development of family enterprise and its great contribution to China’s economy show that family enterprise as an ancient business system is still active and alive in the modern market economy. Nonetheless, it is not a perfect form of business organization compared with other organizational forms. Family enterprises, especially small and medium-sized family enterprises have also encountered some bottleneck and challenge in the development process, and the only way to get rid of the dilemma is the innovation of family enterprise management system. This paper at first expatiates on the concept of family enterprises, and then based on the study of its characteristics analyzes the present situation of Chinese family enterprise management system. Finally, this paper will find out the existing problems and reasons in the innovation of management system for small and medium-sized family enterprises, in order to put forward effective countermeasures.

  8. Larval assemblages of large and medium-sized pelagic species in the Straits of Florida

    Richardson, David E.; Llopiz, Joel K.; Guigand, Cedric M.; Cowen, Robert K.

    2010-07-01

    Critical gaps in our understanding of the distributions, interactions, life histories and preferred habitats of large and medium-size pelagic fishes severely constrain the implementation of ecosystem-based, spatially structured fisheries management approaches. In particular, spawning distributions and the environmental characteristics associated with the early life stages are poorly documented. In this study, we consider the diversity, assemblages, and associated habitat of the larvae of large and medium-sized pelagic species collected during 2 years of monthly surveys across the Straits of Florida. In total, 36 taxa and 14,295 individuals were collected, with the highest diversity occurring during the summer and in the western, frontal region of the Florida Current. Only a few species (e.g. Thunnus obesus, T. alalunga, Tetrapturus pfluegeri) considered for this study were absent. Small scombrids (e.g. T. atlanticus, Katsuwonus pelamis, Auxis spp.) and gempylids dominated the catch and were orders of magnitude more abundant than many of the rare species (e.g. Thunnus thynnus,Kajikia albida). Both constrained (CCA) and unconstrained (NMDS) multivariate analyses revealed a number of species groupings including: (1) a summer Florida edge assemblage (e.g. Auxis spp., Euthynnus alleterattus, Istiophorus platypterus); (2) a summer offshore assemblage (e.g. Makaira nigricans, T. atlanticus, Ruvettus pretiosus, Lampris guttatus); (3) an ubiquitous assemblage (e.g. K. pelamis, Coryphaena hippurus, Xiphias gladius); and (4) a spring/winter assemblage that was widely dispersed in space (e.g. trachipterids). The primary environmental factors associated with these assemblages were sea-surface temperature (highest in summer-early fall), day length (highest in early summer), thermocline depth (shallowest on the Florida side) and fluorescence (highest on the Florida side). Overall, the results of this study provide insights into how a remarkable diversity of pelagic species spatially and temporally partition spawning within a region that is characterized by dynamic oceanography and strong habitat gradients.

  9. The strategic measures for the industrial security of small and medium business.

    Lee, Chang-Moo

    2014-01-01

    The competitiveness of companies increasingly depends upon whether they possess the cutting-edge or core technology. The technology should be protected from industrial espionage or leakage. A special attention needs to be given to SMB (small and medium business), furthermore, because SMB occupies most of the companies but has serious problems in terms of industrial security. The technology leakages of SMB would account for more than 2/3 of total leakages during last five years. The purpose of this study is, therefore, to analyze the problems of SMB in terms of industrial security and suggest the strategic solutions for SMB in South Korea. The low security awareness and financial difficulties, however, make it difficult for SMB to build the effective security management system which would protect the company from industrial espionage and leakage of its technology. The growing dependence of SMB on network such as internet, in addition, puts the SMB at risk of leaking its technology through hacking or similar ways. It requires new measures to confront and control such a risk. Online security control services and technology deposit system are suggested for such measures. PMID:24955414

  10. The Adoption of Management Accounting Practices in Malaysian Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Kamilah Ahmad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides empirical evidence on the adoption of a broad range of management accounting practices in Malaysian small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in the manufacturing sector. Data collected from a postal survey of 160 accountant managers are used to facilitate the study. The results indicate that the traditional MAPs such as conventional budgeting, traditional costing and financial performance measures are widely used by the respondents. The results also show that a significant number of respondents have adopted one or more measures both financial and non-financial but the reliance on financial measures is greater than for non-financial measures. The main non-financial measures frequently used by respondents are on-time delivery, number of customer complaints, defect rate and manufacturing lead time. These findings suggest that respondents, who use non-financial performance measures, are more internal-process and customer focused rather than employee focused. Further the recently developed management accounting techniques such as ABC, non-financial performance measures particularly on employees-oriented measures, decision support analysis and strategic management accounting are only adopted by the minority of the respondents. The respondents also indicated a low extent of use of all investment appraisal techniques in their decision making process. The finding suggests that given the relatively small size of the responding firms and due to some constraints, it is unlikely for the SMEs to adopt a comprehensive MAP in their firms.

  11. Evaluating the control software for CTA in a medium size telescope prototype

    Oya, I.; Behera, B.; Birsin, E.; Koeppel, H.; Melkumyan, D.; Schmidt, T.; Schwanke, U.; Wegner, P.; Wiesand, S.; Winde, M.; Consortium, CTA

    2012-12-01

    CTA (Cherenkov Telescope Array) is one of the largest ground-based astronomy projects being pursued and will be the largest facility for ground-based ?-ray observations ever built. CTA will consist of two arrays (one in the Northern hemisphere and one in the Southern hemisphere) composed of telescopes of several sizes. A prototype for the Medium Size Telescope (MST) of a diameter of 12 m will be installed in Berlin by the end of 2012. This MST prototype will be composed of the mechanical structure, drive system and mirror facets mounted with powered actuators to enable active control. Five Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) cameras and a weather station will allow the measurement of the performance of the instrument. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Common Software (ACS) distributed control framework is currently being considered by the CTA consortium to serve as the array control middleware. In order to evaluate the ACS software, it has been decided to implement an ACS-based readout and control system for the MST prototype. The design of the control software is following the concepts and tools under evaluation within the CTA consortium, like the use of a Unified Modeling Language (UML) based code generation framework for ACS component modeling, and the use of OPen Connectivity-Unified Architecture (OPC UA) for hardware access. In this contribution, the progress in the implementation of the control system for this CTA prototype telescope is described.

  12. Volatile organic compounds in small- and medium-sized commercial buildings in California.

    Wu, Xiangmei May; Apte, Michael G; Maddalena, Randy; Bennett, Deborah H

    2011-10-15

    While small- and medium-sized commercial buildings (SMCBs) make up 96% of the commercial buildings in the U.S., serving a large variety of uses, little information is available on indoor air quality (IAQ) in SMCBs. This study investigated 37 SMCBs distributed across different sizes, ages, uses, and regions of California. We report indoor concentrations and whole building emission rates of a suite of 30 VOCs and aldehydes in these buildings. There was a considerable range in the concentrations for each of the contaminants, especially for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, decamethylcyclopentasiloxane, d-limonene, 2-butoxyethanol, toluene, 2,2,4-trimethylpentanediol diisobutyrate, and diethylphthalate. The cause of higher concentrations in some building categories generally corresponded to expected sources, for example, chloroform was higher in restaurants and grocery stores, and formaldehyde was higher in retail stores and offices. Factor analysis suggests sources in SMCBs include automobile/traffic, cleaning products, occupant sources, wood products/coating, and plasticizers. The comparison to health guidelines showed that formaldehyde concentrations were above the chronic RELs required by the OEHHA (9 μg/m³) in 86% of the buildings. Data collected in this study begins to fill the knowledge gap for IAQ in SMCBs and helps us understand the indoor sources of VOCs to further improve indoor air quality in SMCBs. PMID:21888354

  13. Deep blank field catalogue for medium- and large-size telescopes

    Jiménez-Esteban, F M; Cardiel, N; Alacid, J M

    2012-01-01

    The observation of blank fields, defined as regions of the sky that are devoid of stars down to a given threshold magnitude, constitutes one of the most relevant calibration procedures required for the proper reduction of astronomical data obtained following typical observing strategies. In this work, we have used the Delaunay triangulation to search for deep blank fields throughout the whole sky, with a minimum size of 10 arcmin in diameter and an increasing threshold magnitude from 15 to 18 in the R band of the USNO-B Catalog of the United States Naval Observatory. The result is a catalogue with the deepest blank fields known so far. A short sample of these regions has been tested with the 10.4m Gran Telescopio Canarias, and it has been shown to be extremely useful for medium and large size telescopes. Because some of the regions found could also be suitable for new extragalactic studies, we have estimated the galactic extinction in the direction of each deep blank field. This catalogue is accessible throug...

  14. Extracting nuclear sizes of medium to heavy nuclei from total reaction cross sections

    Horiuchi, W.; Hatakeyama, S.; Ebata, S.; Suzuki, Y.

    2016-04-01

    Background: Proton and neutron radii are fundamental quantities of atomic nuclei. To study the sizes of short-lived unstable nuclei, there is a need for an alternative to electron scattering. Purpose: The recent paper by Horiuchi et al. [Phys. Rev. C 89, 011601(R) (2014)], 10.1103/PhysRevC.89.011601 proposed a possible way of extracting the matter and neutron-skin thickness of light- to medium-mass nuclei using total reaction cross section, σR. The analysis is extended to medium to heavy nuclei up to lead isotopes with due attention to Coulomb breakup contributions as well as density distributions improved by paring correlation. Methods: We formulate a quantitative calculation of σR based on the Glauber model including the Coulomb breakup. To substantiate the treatment of the Coulomb breakup, we also evaluate the Coulomb breakup cross section due to the electric dipole field in a canonical-basis-time-dependent-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory in the three-dimensional coordinate space. Results: We analyze σR's of 103 nuclei with Z =20 , 28, 40, 50, 70, and 82 incident on light targets, H,21, 4He, and 12C. Three kinds of Skyrme interactions are tested to generate those wave functions. To discuss possible uncertainty due to the Coulomb breakup, we examine its dependence on the target, the incident energy, and the Skyrme interaction. The proton is a most promising target for extracting the nuclear sizes as the Coulomb excitation can safely be neglected. We find that the so-called reaction radius, aR=√{σR/π } , for the proton target is very well approximated by a linear function of two variables, the matter radius and the skin thickness, in which three constants depend only on the incident energy. We quantify the accuracy of σR measurements needed to extract the nuclear sizes. Conclusions: The proton is the best target because, once the incident energy is set, its aR is very accurately determined by only the matter radius and neutron-skin thickness. If σR's at different incident energies are measured, one can determine both the proton and neutron radii for unstable nuclei as well. The total reaction cross sections calculated in this paper are given as Supplemental Material for the sake of future measurements.

  15. R & D, structural change and productivity: the role of high and medium-high technology industries

    Celeste Amorim, Varum; Bruno, Cibrão; António, Morgado; Joana, Costa.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo investiga o potencial impacto do aumento deI & D e de mudanças estruturais na produtividade do trabalho em Portugal. Com base na literatura sobre a relação entre despesas emI & D, mudança estrutural e produtividade, avaliamos a contribuição daI & D e das indústrias de alta tecnologia nes [...] te cenário durante os últimos 30 anos. Os resultados obtidos confirmam a importância dos investimentos emI & D das empresas de indústrias de alta e média-alta tecnologia eI & D público no crescimento da produtividade. Não obstante, não podemos afirmar que este fenômeno tenha como esteio principal o crescente relevo destas indústrias. Abstract in english This paper investigates the potential impact of increased R & D efforts and structural change in Portugal on labour productivity. Based on existing literature on the relation between R & D expenditures, structural change and productivity, we evaluate the contribution of R & D and hightech industries [...] to productivity over the last 30 years. Our results confirm the importance of business R & D in the medium to high-tech sectors and of public R & D, as they stimulate productivity growth. However, we cannot support the hypothosis that productivity growth was primarily rooted in the development of medium-high technology industries.

  16. R & D, structural change and productivity: the role of high and medium-high technology industries

    Celeste Amorim Varum

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the potential impact of increased R & D efforts and structural change in Portugal on labour productivity. Based on existing literature on the relation between R & D expenditures, structural change and productivity, we evaluate the contribution of R & D and hightech industries to productivity over the last 30 years. Our results confirm the importance of business R & D in the medium to high-tech sectors and of public R & D, as they stimulate productivity growth. However, we cannot support the hypothosis that productivity growth was primarily rooted in the development of medium-high technology industries.Este artigo investiga o potencial impacto do aumento deI & D e de mudanças estruturais na produtividade do trabalho em Portugal. Com base na literatura sobre a relação entre despesas emI & D, mudança estrutural e produtividade, avaliamos a contribuição daI & D e das indústrias de alta tecnologia neste cenário durante os últimos 30 anos. Os resultados obtidos confirmam a importância dos investimentos emI & D das empresas de indústrias de alta e média-alta tecnologia eI & D público no crescimento da produtividade. Não obstante, não podemos afirmar que este fenômeno tenha como esteio principal o crescente relevo destas indústrias.

  17. Impact of carbon tax on internal combustion engine size selection in a medium scale CHP system

    Highlights: → We study sizing of internal combustion engines as the prime movers of a CHP system. → We study carbon tax impact on the economics of the system. → Diesel engine based systems is not economical regardless of the operational mode. → HDF is the only mode in which gas engine based systems is uneconomical. → Carbon price considerably affects the system payback period. -- Abstract: Combined heat and power (CHP) systems due to their high efficiency compared to the conventional power generation systems have received considerable attention as they have less harmful impact on the environment. Recently, the serious concern with reducing the greenhouse gas emissions has focussed the attention on the possibility of a carbon tax in some countries. Here, we address the impact of such tax on the sizing and economics of a CHP system. Optimum sizing of CHP systems is of great importance to maximize the benefits of these systems. To select the optimum prime mover of a CHP system, performance characteristics of engine as well as economic parameters should be taken into consideration. A general thermo-economic approach to optimum sizing of internal combustion engines as the prime movers (any type and size) of a medium scale CHP system (500-5000 kW) and planning their operational strategy is developed. Net Annual Cost (NAC) as the criterion for making decision is introduced and appropriate equations for estimating thermodynamic and economic parameters as well as greenhouse gas emissions are presented. We consider three modes of operation: one-way connection (OWC) mode, two-way connection (TWC) mode, and heat demand following (HDF) mode. The proposed method has been used for a case study where data is available in the literature and the optimum nominal powers using gas engines are 3.3 MW, 3.2 MW, and 1.2 MW and in the case of using diesel engines are 3.4 MW, 3.4 MW, and 1.4 MW for TWC, OWC, and HDF modes, respectively. To determine the sensitivity of results to input parameters (e.g. electricity price) a comprehensive parametric study was conducted.

  18. Small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). Sustainable expansion of the potential for peaceful uses of nuclear energy

    Within the peaceful uses of nuclear power for low-cost electricity generation, nuclear power plant technology in the 1970/80s was tailored to high-power units (> 1,000 MWe). The International Energy Agency (IEA) of the OECD in its World Energy Outlook 2012 estimates a worldwide increase in electricity consumption from approx. 21,408 TWh in 2010 to approx. 32,000 or 37,000 TWh in 2035. In this connection, there is growing interest in the nuclear community in nuclear power plant concepts of < 1,000 MWe power for variable uses. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna recognized the trend towards small and medium sized reactors as early as a few years ago and is now supporting development work along theses lines by specific initiatives to foster cooperative ventures among the member countries currently showing interest. More than fifty SMR concepts are currently under development worldwide. Most of them are modeled along the lines of operating experience gained with established reactor lines. IAEA proposes classification in small sized reactors for the range of power of < 300 MWe and medium sized reactors for the power range of 300 to approx. 700 MWe. Most of the SMR variants are designed as modular units prefabricated in factories and shipped by truck or rail for final assembly at the reactor site. In the near future, SMR plants could be used in regions with limited infrastructure and without any electricity distribution grids for powerful large power plants. In industrialized regions, SMRs offer greater flexibility in adaptation of the electricity generating capacity to local consumption rises and in replacing fossil-fired old plants. For the more remote future, plans also include SMR uses for other purposes than electricity generation, such as hydrogen production and coal liquefaction. An overview of the whole SMR spectrum is presented on the basis of some selected projects. Besides projects already completed, most SMR concepts are in the detailed design stage of development with start of construction in the near future, and in the conceptual design stage for commissioning between 2025 and 2030. (orig.)

  19. The Roles of Government Funding in Enhancing the Competitiveness of Small and Medium-sized Enterprise in Sabah, Malaysia

    Abdol Samad Nawi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to determine the roles of government funding in enhancing Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Sabah, Malaysia. Specifically, the study is focused on the Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Sabah, Malaysia which were funded by many government-linked agencies such as Yayasan Tekun Nasional, Amanah Ikhtiar, Koperasi Pembangunan Desa and Agro Bank. This qualitative study was carried out in the rural and urban areas in Sabah, Malaysia. The findings of this study revealed that there are several main roles of government funding to enhance the competitiveness of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Sabah, Malaysia. These four main roles were namely provision of access to capital for opening and improving the business, provision of access to capital for skills and knowledge development, improvement of entrepreneurs’ relations, and promoting entrepreneurship and reducing “fear of failure”. In accordance, it can be concluded that the government funds are instrumental in the success of the efforts to enhance the competitiveness level of the so-called Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Sabah, Malaysia. Besides, it is highly recommended that state government and all parties (the stakeholders should specifically implement efforts to fund the Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises as well as to improve their level of competitiveness.

  20. Particle size and hydration medium effects on hydration properties and sugar release of wheat straw fibers

    Wheat straw is gaining importance as a feedstock for the production of biofuels and high value-added bioproducts. Several pretreatments recover the fermentable fraction involving the use of water or aqueous solutions. Therefore, hydration properties of wheat straw fibers play an important role in improving pretreatment performance. In this study, the water retention capacity (WRC) and swelling of wheat straw fibers were studied using water, propylene glycol (PPG) and an effluent from a H2-producing reactor as the hydration media with three particle sizes (3.35, 2.00 and 0.212 mm). The effects of swelling were analyzed by optical and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The highest WRC was reached with the effluent medium (9.84 ± 0.87 g g−1 in 4 h), followed by PPG (8.52 ± 0.18 g g−1 in 1 h) and water (8.74 ± 0.76 g g−1 in 10 h). The effluent hydration treatment had a synergic effect between the enzymes present and the water. The particle size had a significant effect on the WRC (P < 0.01), the highest values were reached with 3.35 mm fibers. The CLSM images showed that finer fibers were subjected to a shaving effect due to the grinding affecting its capacity to absorb the hydration medium. The microscopic analysis showed the increase in the width of the epidermal cells after the hydration and a more undulating cell wall likely due to the hydration of the amorphous regions in the cellulose microfibrils. The sugar release was determined, achieving the highest glucose content with the effluent hydration treatment. - Highlights: • Water retention capacity (WRC) and swelling of wheat straw fibers were studied. • The highest WRC was achieved with a biological effluent. • The enzymatic activity in the biological effluent yielded the highest sugar release. • Finer fibers showed a shaving effect that affected its capacity to absorb water. • A more undulating cell wall was visualized after the hydration

  1. Studies of various single phase natural circulation systems for small and medium sized reactor design

    Highlights: • SMRs and passive safety systems in single phase systems are reviewed. • Simple loop analysis has been done for gas, single phase water, and liquid metals. • Gas systems have a greater tendency to fall into DTHT regime. • SMR and large LWR reactors can differ in operating heat transfer regime. -- Abstract: Passive safety is a primary motive behind the development of small and medium sized reactors of various coolants. After the Fukushima accident, there is an increased interest in a nuclear reactor's reliance on passive safety systems. Most of the existing passive systems, regardless of the reactor type, utilize buoyancy force to drive the cooling flow. Hence, it is essential to evaluate if the naturally developed cooling flow is sufficient to maintain the heated surface temperature of the fuel elements below the design limit. Evaluating passively driven flows can be quite a challenging task in both two phase natural circulation systems and also in single phase natural circulation systems. Previous research works have found that single phase heat transfer can be deteriorated and becomes uncertain when the driving force of a system is shifted from external force (forced convection) to self generated buoyancy force or a combination of both (natural or mixed convection). In this paper, single phase gas, water, and liquid metal reactors with passive systems are reviewed briefly. A simple theoretical analysis of each reactor type is performed to find the tendency of the shift in the operating heat transfer regime into the deteriorated region. The analysis results show that single phase water system can maintain operation within the forced convection regime but the operating regime gets closer to the deteriorating heat transfer regime as the system's physical size reduces from a large nuclear power plant to the small and medium reactor scale. The gas cooled system has a high tendency to operate in the deteriorated heat transfer regime when the driving force changes from forced to natural. Meanwhile the liquid metal system demonstrates more margins to operate outside from the deteriorated heat transfer region compared to the two other fluid systems. However further studies are needed to clearly identify the boundaries of the deteriorated heat transfer regime for each coolant since the deterioration greatly depends on the thermophysical properties variation of the coolant and the near-wall flow behavior of the coolant with respect to temperature change

  2. Think locally, act locally: Detection of small, medium-sized, and large communities in large networks

    Jeub, Lucas G. S.; Balachandran, Prakash; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.; Mahoney, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    It is common in the study of networks to investigate intermediate-sized (or "meso-scale") features to try to gain an understanding of network structure and function. For example, numerous algorithms have been developed to try to identify "communities," which are typically construed as sets of nodes with denser connections internally than with the remainder of a network. In this paper, we adopt a complementary perspective that communities are associated with bottlenecks of locally biased dynamical processes that begin at seed sets of nodes, and we employ several different community-identification procedures (using diffusion-based and geodesic-based dynamics) to investigate community quality as a function of community size. Using several empirical and synthetic networks, we identify several distinct scenarios for "size-resolved community structure" that can arise in real (and realistic) networks: (1) the best small groups of nodes can be better than the best large groups (for a given formulation of the idea of a good community); (2) the best small groups can have a quality that is comparable to the best medium-sized and large groups; and (3) the best small groups of nodes can be worse than the best large groups. As we discuss in detail, which of these three cases holds for a given network can make an enormous difference when investigating and making claims about network community structure, and it is important to take this into account to obtain reliable downstream conclusions. Depending on which scenario holds, one may or may not be able to successfully identify "good" communities in a given network (and good communities might not even exist for a given community quality measure), the manner in which different small communities fit together to form meso-scale network structures can be very different, and processes such as viral propagation and information diffusion can exhibit very different dynamics. In addition, our results suggest that, for many large realistic networks, the output of locally biased methods that focus on communities that are centered around a given seed node (or set of seed nodes) might have better conceptual grounding and greater practical utility than the output of global community-detection methods. They also illustrate structural properties that are important to consider in the development of better benchmark networks to test methods for community detection.

  3. Size and profitability in the international oil- and gas industry

    Many industrial sectors have gone through a series of mergers and acquisitions. In the international oil- and gas industry this has produced new companies such as ExxonMobil and TotalFinaElf. BP and Amoco merged and then subjugated Atlantic Richfield (ARCO). ChevronTexaco has been established and ConocoPhillips are currently working on the same thing. Saga was previously acquired by Norsk Hydro and Statoil, and Shell recently bought Enterprise and Pennzoil-Quaker. Taking the stock market's principles for corporate analysis and valuation as a starting point, this article discusses the forces behind this consolidation process

  4. Optimization as investment decision support in a Swedish medium-sized iron foundry - A move beyond traditional energy auditing

    Due to increased globalisation, industries are facing greater competition that is pressing companies into decreasing their expenses in order to increase their profits. As regards Swedish industry, it has been faced with substantial increases in energy prices in recent years. Barriers to energy efficiency such as imperfect information inhibit investments in energy efficiency measures, energy audits being one means of reducing barriers and overcoming imperfect information. However, an evaluation of such energy audits in Sweden reveals that it is chiefly low-cost measures that are undertaken as a result of an audit. Moreover, these audits often tend to focus on support processes such as ventilation, lighting, air compressors etc., while measures impacting production processes are often not as extensively covered, which underlines the need for further support in addition to energy audits. Decision support is practised in a variety of different disciplines such as optimization and simulation and the aim of this paper is to explore whether investment decision support practices may be used successfully towards small and medium-sized manufacturers in Sweden when complex production-related investment decisions are taken. The optimization results from the different cases, involving a foundry's investment in a new melting unit, indicate that with no electricity price fluctuations over the day, the investment seems sound as it lowers the overall energy costs. However, with fluctuating electricity prices, there are no large differences in energy costs between the option of retaining the existing five melting furnaces at the foundry and investing in a twin furnace and removing the holding furnaces - which was the initial investment plan for the foundry in the study. It would not have been possible to achieve this outcome without the use of investment decision support such as MIND. One of the main conclusions in this paper is that investment decision support, when strategic investment decisions are to be taken, may be a means of emphasising energy efficiency for energy-intensive SMEs beyond the level of traditional energy auditing. (author)

  5. Optimization as investment decision support in a Swedish medium-sized iron foundry - A move beyond traditional energy auditing

    Due to increased globalisation, industries are facing greater competition that is pressing companies into decreasing their expenses in order to increase their profits. As regards Swedish industry, it has been faced with substantial increases in energy prices in recent years. Barriers to energy efficiency such as imperfect information inhibit investments in energy efficiency measures, energy audits being one means of reducing barriers and overcoming imperfect information. However, an evaluation of such energy audits in Sweden reveals that it is chiefly low-cost measures that are undertaken as a result of an audit. Moreover, these audits often tend to focus on support processes such as ventilation, lighting, air compressors etc., while measures impacting production processes are often not as extensively covered, which underlines the need for further support in addition to energy audits. Decision support is practised in a variety of different disciplines such as optimization and simulation and the aim of this paper is to explore whether investment decision support practices may be used successfully towards small and medium-sized manufacturers in Sweden when complex production-related investment decisions are taken. The optimization results from the different cases, involving a foundry's investment in a new melting unit, indicate that with no electricity price fluctuations over the day, the investment seems sound as it lowers the overall energy costs. However, with fluctuating electricity prices, there are no large differences in energy costs between the option of retaining the existing five melting furnaces at the foundry and investing in a twin furnace and removing the holding furnaces - which was the initial investment plan for the foundry in the study. It would not have been possible to achieve this outcome without the use of investment decision support such as MIND. One of the main conclusions in this paper is that investment decision support, when strategic investment decisions are to be taken, may be a means of emphasising energy efficiency for energy-intensive SMEs beyond the level of traditional energy auditing

  6. Effective Masses and Sizes of N(939), $\\Delta\\!\\!\\mbox{\\boldmath(1232)}$ and N(1440) in Nuclear Medium

    Ichie, Hiroko; Hatashigaki, Arata; Suzuki, Akira; Kimura, Masahiro

    1993-01-01

    The effective masses and sizes of N(939), $\\Delta(1232)$ and N(1440) in nuclear medium are calculated for a model in which quarks are subjected to a confinement force quenched by the scalar part of nuclear interactions. At the nuclear matter density, the nucleon swells by 50\\% relative to the free nucleon. The masses of $\\Delta(1232)$ and N(1440) decrease in nuclear medium more than the nucleon, so that the pion requires less energy to excite them in nuclear medium than it does for a free nuc...

  7. Effects of urban green areas on air temperature in a medium-sized Argentinian city

    Alejandra S. Coronel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban climate is the result of both atmospheric and geographic factors affecting a region, as well as the morphology, structures and human activities in a city. Urban vegetation in particular affects this climate at a local scale and provides many other social, economic and ecological benefits. Thus, it is important to explore the effects of different green areas used for urban and periurban agriculture and forestry activities (UPAF on daily atmospheric temperature and the required degrees of cooling or refrigerating temperature. Comfort temperatures were defined using a range 18-24°C and analyzed using actual measured as well as forecasted temperatures using a future scenario. Actual temperatures were recorded from September 2013 to August 2014 using digital sensors across eight sites in Rosario, Argentina: three in the central core with no vegetation, one in the central core with street trees, one in an urban agriculture site, one in a public park and two in periurban agricultural areas. Results show that air temperature in the central core with no vegetation were higher than those in other sites with vegetation during day and night, with the exception of the temperatures measured at the central core site with street trees. Findings also show that temperature effects in urban agricultural gardens of approximately 0.2 ha were similar to those of gardens and public parks 2-3 ha in size. Three UPAF types were classified according to cooling degree days, which decreased in order from (1 central core with no trees; (2 central core with street trees and public parks; and (3 urban and periurban agriculture areas. Conversely, the opposite trends for heating degree days were found. Results from this study can be used for integrating UPAF measures into climate change mitigation and urban planning policies in medium-sized cities in the developing world.

  8. Size and liquidity effects in Nigeria: an industrial sector study

    Hearn, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    This study estimates liquidity premiums using the recently developed Liu (2006) measure within a multifactor capital asset pricing model (CAPM) including size premiums and a time varying parameter model for the West African emerging market of Nigeria. The evidence suggests that liquidity factors are relevant only for financial and basic materials sector stocks while size factor is more generally relevant in explaining the cross section of stock returns in the Nigerian domestic equity market....

  9. Harmonization process in defining small and medium-sized enterprises. Arguments for a quantitative definition versus a qualitative one

    Maria-Mădălina BUCULESCU (COSTICĂ

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Harmonization process of the definition and financial reporting of small and medium-sized enterprises is still a challenge for European and international organizations and institutions. Analysing the definitions of SMEs issued by European Commission, World Bank, OECD, the definitions used within a couple of countries and other studies regarding this aspect, it concluded that is not yet a consensus regarding the definition of the small and medium-sized enterprises. The various criteria used to classify the enterprises in the category of SMEs, different thresholds, the economic activity and economic context of each country are the main factors which interfere with the existence of one international available quantitative definition for small and medium-sized enterprises.

  10. Simplification of Process Integration Studies in Intermediate Size Industries

    Dalsgård, Henrik; Petersen, P. M.; Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    separately or in series ahead of or simultaneously with the conventional process integration procedures (for example, the pinch point method) are described and are applied to an industrial case study. It might be feared that the use of preselections and groupings would limit the "freedom of movement' and...

  11. Status of innovative small and medium sized reactor designs 2005. Reactors with conventional refuelling schemes

    There is a renewed interest in Member States in the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). In the near term, most new NPPs are likely to be evolutionary designs building on proven systems while incorporating technological advances and often the economics of scale, resulting from the reactor outputs of up to 1600 MW(e). For the longer term, the focus is on innovative designs aiming to provide increased benefits in the areas of safety and security, non-proliferation, waste management, resource utilization and economy, as well as to offer a variety of energy products and flexibility in design, siting and fuel cycle options. Many innovative designs are reactors within the small-to-medium size range, having an equivalent electric power less than 700 MW(e) or even less than 300 MW(e). The projected timelines of readiness for deployment are generally between 2010 and 2030. The objective of this report is to provide Member States, including those just considering the initiation of nuclear power programmes, and those already having practical experience in nuclear power, with a balanced and objective information on important development trends and objectives of innovative SMRs for a variety of uses, on the achieved state-of-the-art in design and technology development for such reactors and on their design and regulatory status. The report is intended for many categories of stakeholders, including regulators, electricity producers, designers, non-electrical producers and policy makers. The main chapters of this report, addressed to all abovementioned groups of stakeholders, provide a summary of major specifications, applications and user-related special features of innovative SMRs, outline the achieved design and regulatory status and its progress since previous IAEA publications, review targeted deployment dates, fuel cycle options, design approaches used to meet design objectives in specific subject areas, enabling technologies and current research and development (R and D) programmes in Member States, and non-technical factors and arrangements that could facilitate successful development and deployment of innovative reactors within the small-to-medium power range. The annexes, intended mostly for designers and technical managers, provide detailed design descriptions of innovative SMRs under development worldwide and are patterned along a newly developed common format, which makes it possible to identify the design philosophy, objectives and approaches, as well as technical features and non-technical factors and arrangements with a potential to provide solutions in the specific areas of concern associated with future nuclear energy systems. Detailed design descriptions in this report were prepared firsthand by the designers and reviewed, updated and approved for publication by the respective vendors, research and design organizations and academic institutions in Member States. The scope of this report is limited to reactors with conventional, proven in operation refuelling schemes and does not include small reactors that could operate without reloading and shuffling of fuel for a long period, from 10 years and more, with no fresh or spent fuel being stored at the site during reactor operation. Because of a large number of inputs, such reactors would require a separate dedicated publication

  12. 77 FR 49991 - Small Business Size Standards; Adoption of 2012 North American Industry Classification System for...

    2012-08-20

    .... ......... 316213 Men's Footwear 500 employees. (except Athletic) Manufacturing. ......... 316214 Women's Footwear... industry. SBA's adoption of NAICS 2012 will result in changes to small business size standards for 41 NAICS... highest size standard among the NAICS 2007 industries and part(s) that comprise the NAICS 2012......

  13. [Problems in the ascertainment of sizes of the control areas of natural gas industrial projects].

    Bystrykh, V V

    2009-01-01

    The paper reviews the problems in the ascertainment of sizes of the control areas of industrial projects, including those of natural gas industry, and analyzes discrepancies in the normative-legal base. The historical aspects and results of substantiating the safe sizes of control areas for the projects of the Orenburg oil-gas condensate field are presented. PMID:19802941

  14. Preliminary considerations of introducing small and medium size power reactors to developing countries

    The paper elaborates some preliminary consideration of introducing small and medium size power reactors (SMPRs) to developing countries with reference to some statistical data and the technical status in Taiwan, Republic of China. General views are presented first concerning economic circumstances, safety concerns, environmental impacts and technology transfer. From these considerations, it is insisted that the characteristics of future SMPR must include simplicity of system, inherent safety and modular design. Considerations are also made of the current and future energy consumption and supply in Taiwan. It is concluded that there will be a very strong demand for nuclear power in Taiwan in the years to come. The favorable factors of SMPR that attract developing countries include: (1) the ease of matching the uncertain load growth, (2) less economic risk in investment, (3) shorter construction leadtimes, (4) less environmental impacts, (5) simpler system with reduced potential hazard and less maintenance effort, (6) less impact to the existing grid system, (7) easier technology transfer, (8) easier establishment of fabrication capability for small and standardized components, (9) more local participation and (10) simpler licensing procedure. But the difficulty in new site exploration to meet the need of growing number of units may represent a problem to be resolved especially for densely populated countries. (Nogami, K.)

  15. ADVANTAGES OF CROWDFUNDING AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE OF FINANCING OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Zorica Golić

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The lack of funding, and limited access to it are the basic problems faced by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. Given the great role and importance of SMEs in every national economy, any progress in solving these problems in terms of creating and finding alternative sources of funding should attract great attention in both professional and scientific and the wider socio-political communities. Crowdfunding is an innovative and relatively new concept that connects entrepreneurs and investors through the Internet. This method allows the entrepreneurs to collect funds through the Internet by "open invitation" to finance their projects/ventures and thus raise the necessary funds by relatively small contributions of a relatively large number of investors. As such, crowdfunding is a fast-growing model increasingly debated of in academic circles and the European institutions. This paper will consider crowdfunding as an alternative means of financing SMEs and try to give different aspects of crowdfunding - and explain how it works, what are the advantages of using it for SMEs and thus expand the knowledge on the topic.

  16. The spatiotemporal trajectory of a dengue epidemic in a medium-sized city

    Daniela G Morato

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases is important to allow for improvements of control measures. To investigate the spatiotemporal pattern of an epidemic dengue occurred at a medium-sized city in the Northeast Region of Brazil in 2009, we conducted an ecological study of the notified dengue cases georeferenced according to epidemiological week (EW and home address. Kernel density estimation and space-time interaction were analysed using the Knox method. The evolution of the epidemic was analysed using an animated projection technique. The dengue incidence was 6.918.7/100,000 inhabitants; the peak of the epidemic occurred from 8 February-1 March, EWs 6-9 (828.7/100,000 inhabitants. There were cases throughout the city and was identified space-time interaction. Three epicenters were responsible for spreading the disease in an expansion and relocation diffusion pattern. If the health services could detect in real time the epicenters and apply nimbly control measures, may possibly reduce the magnitude of dengue epidemics.

  17. Adoption of Profitable Energy Efficiency Related Process Improvements in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

    Muthulingam, Suresh; Corbett, Charles J.; Benartzi, Shlomo [University of California, (USA); Oppenheim, Bohdan [Loyola Marymount University (USA)

    2009-07-01

    We investigate the adoption and non-adoption of energy efficiency initiatives using a database of over 100,000 recommendations provided to more than 13,000 small and medium sized manufacturing firms. Even though the average payback across all recommendations is just over one year, many of these profitable opportunities are not implemented. Using a probit instrumental variable model, we identify four biases in the adoption of these recommendations. First, managers are myopic as they miss out on many profitable opportunities. Second, managers are more influenced by upfront costs than by net benefits when evaluating such initiatives. Third, adoption of a recommendation depends not only on its characteristics but also on the sequence in which the recommendations are presented. Adoption rates are higher for initiatives appearing early in a list of recommendations. Finally, adoption is not influenced by the number of options provided to decision makers. This contributes to the debate about whether or not choice overload occurs. We highlight decision biases previously unobserved in the Operations Management literature using field data rather than experimental data. We draw implications for enhancing adoption of energy efficiency initiatives and for other decision contexts where a collection of process improvement recommendations are made to firms. Keywords: Process Improvement, Energy Efficiency, Decision Bias, Adoption, Behavioral Operations.

  18. Continuous improvement of the quality reporting system of a medium-size company

    Hawkins, Anthony; Onuh, Spencer

    2001-10-01

    Many companies are faced with quality improvement issues on a daily basis but their response to this problem varies. This paper discusses the improvement in the defect reporting system at a medium sized manufacturing company following the appointment of an experienced, motivated, design engineer to be dedicated to that task. It sets out the situation that the engineer inherited and details the changes that were incorporated; it assesses which were successful and which failed. Following a survey of current literature, it was seen that there is little written specifically on the subject of audited defect reporting. It is felt that this study goes some way to filling that void. A successful survey of engineering companies in Southern Hampshire reinforces the principle findings, that the emphasising of the Check part of Demming's Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle is a novel approach to the Quality Improvement Process, and that it has reduced the cost of rework by an audited 80% in a period of two years.

  19. Open Model for the Evaluation of Economic Attractiveness of Small and Medium Sized Reactors. Annex VI

    This annex describes the development of an open model for simulation and evaluation of the economic features of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs), being undertaken by the Politecnico di Milano in Italy. The model aims at establishing a comparative assessment of SMRs versus large reactors (LRs) as its final output. The model will allow assessment of the competitiveness of SMRs under different deployment and application conditions. The distinctive attributes of SMRs such as replication, scalability, reversibility and standardization are briefly described below. The features of SMRs impacting the domains of generation costs (co-siting economies, learning economies, technical economies, mass production and factory fabrication economies), deployment conditions (market matching, market suitability, reduced entry barriers) and financial costs (lower financial distress, reduced risk premium) are addressed before explaining the model architecture. Other state of the art models in this regard are also discussed, along with their respective attributes. The special features of the SMR model being developed are discussed. At the current stage of research, selected elements of the generation costs are modelled analytically. Provisions for adapting financial and external costs from other contemporary models and integrating the same into the main framework are being established. The model has been realized as a code, and the updated version of this code is used in the case studies of SMR competitiveness in different applications, carried out within the IAEA project Common Technology and Issues for SMRs

  20. The CTA medium size telescope prototype, a test bench for the array control software

    CTA (Cherenkov Telescope Array) will be the largest ground-based gamma-ray observatory ever built. Two arrays are foreseen to be build, one in the Southern and one in the Northern hemisphere. A prototype for the Medium Size Telescope (MST) type (diameter: 12 m) will be installed in Berlin in early 2012. This MST prototype will be composed of the mechanical structure, drive system and mirror facets with an active mirror control system. The stability of the mechanical structure will be investigated with CCD cameras and a weather station. Furthermore the ALMA Common Software (ACS) distributed control framework will used as readout and control system for the MST, allowing to evaluate the software with the future use for the whole CTA array in mind. The design of the control software is following the concepts and tools under evaluation within the CTA consortium, like the use of a UML based code generation framework for ACS component modeling, and the use of OPC Unified Architecture (OPC UA) for hardware access. In this contribution the progress in the implementation of the control system for this CTA prototype telescope is described.

  1. Design features to achieve defence-in-depth in small and medium sized reactors

    According to the categorization adopted by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), small and medium sized reactors are those with the equivalent electric output less than 700 MW. In most of the cases, deployment potential of SMRs is supported by their ability to fill niches in which they would address market situations different from those of currently operated large-capacity nuclear power plants. Ensuring adequate defence-in-depth (DID) is important for reactors of smaller output because many of them are being designed to allow more proximity to the user, specifically, when non-electrical energy products are targeted. Based on the activities recently performed by IAEA, the paper provides a summary description of the design features used to achieve DID in the eleven representative concepts of SMRs. The SMRs considered included reactors of different types - pressurized water reactors, pressurized boiling light water cooled heavy water moderated reactors, high temperature gas cooled reactors, fast reactors,and non conventional very high temperature designs. The design descriptions were structured to follow the definitions and recommendations of the IAEA safety standardNS-R-1 'Safety of the Nuclear Power Plants: Design Requirements'. The focus of this paper would be on sodium cooled and lead cooled fast reactors -the 4S-LMR (Japan) and the SSTAR and the STAR-LM (USA)

  2. Sustainability indices as a tool for urban managers, evidence from four medium-sized Chinese cities

    This research in four medium-sized Chinese cities aims at measuring urban sustainability in China and focuses on three issues. First, the situation in these four cities with regard to urban sustainability is evaluated. Secondly, a number of relations between different aspects of urban sustainability is explored. Finally, it is indicated how urban managers can improve with sustainability indices as tools currently ineffective urban management practices. Although all four cities are moving towards sustainable development, the current situation shows still weak sustainability in three, and even non-sustainability in one city. The social and, in particular, the economic dimensions of urban sustainability make significant positive contributions to overall urban sustainability. However, the decline of natural resources and environmental degradation are influencing it negatively. It is therefore suggested that more priority should be assigned to urban environmental protection and management in China. The fundamental reason for environmental degradation is believed to be inefficient urban management. To implement effective urban management in China, there is an urgent need to redefine the role of local government, reform local organizational structure, enhance local participatory institutional capacity, properly distribute the urban welfare, and thus integrate economic, social and environmental objectives local strategic and action plans

  3. Strategies for Successful Information Technology Adoption in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    Morteza Ghobakhloo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Information Technology (IT adoption is an important field of study in a number of areas, which include small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. Due to the numerous advantages of IT, SMEs are trying to adopt IT applications to support their businesses. IT adoption by SMEs differs from larger organizations because of their specific characteristics, such as resources constraints. Therefore, this research aims to provide a better and clearer understanding of IT adoption within SMEs by reviewing and analyzing current IT literature. In this research, the review of literature includes theories, perspectives, empirical research and case studies related to IT adoption, in particular within SMEs from various databases such as Business Premier, Science Direct, JStor, Emerald Insight and Springer Link. The proposed model of effective IT adoption is believed to provide managers, vendors, consultants and governments with a practical synopsis of the IT adoption process in SMEs, which will in turn assist them to be successful with IT institutionalization within these businesses.

  4. Key Supplier Relationship Management: The Case of Croatian Medium-Sized and Large Manufacturing Companies

    Dario Miočević

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The key supplier relationship management represents a vital organizational process. Companies should pay attention not only to managing customer relationships but also to managing relationships with suppliers in order to perform well. They should identify the extent to which a certain supplier adds value through the procurement process. In this line of reasoning, both theory and practice make a distinction between strategic (key and non-strategic (transactional suppliers. By employing the segmentation of the supply market, companies balance their supplier portfolio and are capable of identifying the key suppliers. They can also develop specific programs and initiatives that are aimed at preserving these relationships. In the empirical part of the paper, a survey was conducted on a sample of 123 medium-sized and large Croatian manufacturing companies. The structural model involving the relationship between the key supplier relationship management and value-oriented purchasing was tested. The results indicate that there is a statistically direct, positive and significant relationship between these two constructs. Likewise, the results stress that a theoretical conceptualization and operationalization of the key supplier relationship management construct is both valid and justified. Finally, the theoretical and practical implications and limitations of this study are offered.

  5. Expedient total synthesis of small to medium-sized membrane proteins via Fmoc chemistry.

    Zheng, Ji-Shen; Yu, Mu; Qi, Yun-Kun; Tang, Shan; Shen, Fei; Wang, Zhi-Peng; Xiao, Liang; Zhang, Longhua; Tian, Chang-Lin; Liu, Lei

    2014-03-01

    Total chemical synthesis provides a unique approach for the access to uncontaminated, monodisperse, and more importantly, post-translationally modified membrane proteins. In the present study we report a practical procedure for expedient and cost-effective synthesis of small to medium-sized membrane proteins in multimilligram scale through the use of automated Fmoc chemistry. The key finding of our study is that after the attachment of a removable arginine-tagged backbone modification group, the membrane protein segments behave almost the same as ordinary water-soluble peptides in terms of Fmoc solid-phase synthesis, ligation, purification, and mass spectrometry characterization. The efficiency and practicality of the new method is demonstrated by the successful preparation of Ser64-phosphorylated M2 proton channel from influenza A virus and the membrane-embedded domain of an inward rectifier K(+) channel protein Kir5.1. Functional characterizations of these chemically synthesized membrane proteins indicate that they provide useful and otherwise-difficult-to-access materials for biochemistry and biophysics studies. PMID:24559202

  6. Determinants of the Capital Structure of Small and Medium Sized Brazilian Enterprises

    Wilson Toshiro Nakamura

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the determinants of the capital structure of small and medium enterprises (SMEs using a unique database that includes over 19,000 Brazilian firms and spans 13 years of data. The econometric analysis employs the System Generalized Method of Moments estimator (GMM-Sys and two strong results emerge: (a profitability is negatively related to leverage, and (b asset growth is positively related to leverage. Both results are consistent with the pecking order theory of capital structure and suggest that SMEs tend to finance their expansion with debt only after exhausting their internal resources. Additionally, we find weaker evidence for the following: (a size is positively related to leverage, which can be interpreted as evidence that larger firms have more access to credit markets; (b riskier SMEs tend to be less financially leveraged, consistent with the bankruptcy cost arguments from trade-off theories; and (c the age of the firm is negatively related to financial leverage, suggesting that older SMEs may be slightly more conservative in their financing choices. Finally, the magnitude of the coefficient of lagged leverage shows the high persistence of this variable and is compatible with the hypothesis that SMEs adjust their debt/equity ratio towards a target value, although at a low speed.

  7. Computerization of radiology departmental management using the personal computer: application in medium sized hospital

    The author developed a computer program for use in registration, monthly statistics, printing of reports, data storage and retrieval in the Radiology department. This program has been used in the Department of Radiology, MoonHwa Hospital since November 1990. This program was written in FoxBASE language, consisted of two independent subprograms, one installed in a registration computer without a printer and another in a reporting computer with a printer. The subprograms were designed to link their data by floppy disk. Each computer's hard disk contained permanent files for retrieval and temporary files for data input. All permanent files were indexed on several keywords including the patient's identification data. 1. Registration was performed easily and rapidly. 2. A monthly statistic was obtained simply. 3. Retrieval of the results of previous radiologic studies, printing of report, storage and indexing of data were achieved automatically. This program had merits of simple operation, large storage capacity, rapid retrieval speed, relative low price, easy adjustment for other hospitals. Therefore this program is considered to be an economic substitute for computerization of radiology departmental management in medium sized hospitals

  8. Resource efficiency and culture--workplace training for small and medium-sized enterprises.

    Bliesner, Anna; Liedtke, Christa; Rohn, Holger

    2014-05-15

    Although there are already some qualification offers available for enterprises to support resource efficiency innovations, the high potentials that can be identified especially for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) have not been activated until now. As successful change lies in the hands of humans, the main aim of vocational education has to be the promotion of organisational and cultural changes in the enterprises. As there is already a small but increasing number of enterprises that perform very well in resource efficiency innovations one question arises: What are typical characteristics of those enterprises? Leaning on a good-practice approach, the project "ResourceCulture" is going to prove or falsify the hypothesis that enterprises being successful with resource efficiency innovations have a specific culture of trust, which substantially contributes to innovation processes, or even initially enables them. Detailed empirical field research will light up which correlations between resource efficiency, innovation and cultures of trust can be found and will offer important aspects for the improvement of management instruments and qualification concepts for workplace training. The project seizes qualification needs that were likewise mentioned by enterprises and consultants, regarding the implementation of resource efficiency. This article - based on first empirical field research results - derives preliminary indications for the design of the qualification module for the target groups resource efficiency consultants and managers. On this basis and in order to implement "ResourceCulture" conceptual and methodological starting points for workplace training are outlined. PMID:24364995

  9. Gamma knife radiosurgery in medium-sized arteriovenous malformations. Preliminary report

    Six patients with medium-sized arteriovenous malformation (AVM), treated by gamma knife radiosurgery without preceding embolization, are reported. Total AVM coverage at the time or dose planning was feasible in four patients, the selected dose at the periphery of the nidus was limited to 7.2-14.0 Gy. The two remaining patients had only partial coverage; the part or the nidus adjacent to the major feeding artery was covered and a dose of 21.0-25.0 Gy was given within this limited area, although the remaining part of the nidus was irradiated with a dose of 5.0-7.0 Gy or less. Neither hemorrhage nor significant radiation-induced complications occurred in any of the six cases during the postradiosurgical follow-up period which ranged from 18 to 85 months. Complete nidus obliteration was angiographically confirmed 38 months after radiosurgery in one case, more than 90% obliteration of the treated nidus, respectively, 36 and 70 months after radiosurgery, in two cases. MR angiography demonstrated disappearance of the nidus in one case and remarkably decreased nidus volume in one, respectively, 30 and 18 months after radiosurgery. In the one remaining case, MR imaging obtained at 24 months after treatment showed a significantly diminished flow signal void, as well as the appearance of a gadolinium enhanced area within the treated nidus. In addition, a T2-weighted image showed hyperintense edema surrounding the AVM. (K.H.)

  10. Project appraisal for small and medium size wind energy installation: The Italian wind energy policy effects

    In the last few years, the distributed energy production from small wind turbines (i.e.<200 kWp) has developed into a relevant business opportunity for different investors in Italy. The market, especially in Italy, has rapidly grown, achieving 9 MWp only in 2011, with an increase from 1.5 MW in 2009 to 13.3 MW at the end of 2011. This paper reports the results of a case study on the installation of several small wind turbines. It aims to provide an analysis of the conditions in Italy that make it possible to install these machines and offer a reliable reference for designing, planning, and controlling small wind turbine projects while focusing on the strategic variables of time, cost, and quality used by typical enterprises in the investment projects. The results are relevant to investors as well as engineering, procurement, and construction companies involved in this new sector, which must understand Italy’s renewable energy policy and its effects in practice. Moreover, certain national energy policy conclusions are reported and discussed in this paper. To properly study the sector, the data on time, cost and quality are analysed using typical project management tools. - Highlights: • Focus on the Italian wind energy sector. • Analysis of Italian policy effects. • Focus on small/medium size wind energy machines

  11. Quantitative evaluation of waste prevention on the level of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs)

    Waste prevention is a principle means of achieving the goals of waste management and a key element for developing sustainable economies. Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) contribute substantially to environmental degradation, often not even being aware of their environmental effects. Therefore, several initiatives have been launched in Austria aimed at supporting waste prevention measures on the level of SMEs. To promote the most efficient projects, they have to be evaluated with respect to their contribution to the goals of waste management. It is the aim of this paper to develop a methodology for evaluating waste prevention measures in SMEs based on their goal orientation. At first, conceptual problems of defining and delineating waste prevention activities are briefly discussed. Then an approach to evaluate waste prevention activities with respect to their environmental performance is presented and benchmarks which allow for an efficient use of the available funds are developed. Finally the evaluation method is applied to a number of former projects and the calculated results are analysed with respect to shortcomings and limitations of the model. It is found that the developed methodology can provide a tool for a more objective and comprehensible evaluation of waste prevention measures

  12. Experimental testing of centrifugal pump: small and medium sized enterprise product

    Ismail, R.; Paddiyatu, F.; Khafidh, M.; Nugroho, S.; Sugiyanto, S.; Jamari, J.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports the experimental testing for centrifugal pump for fisherman ship, manufactured by small and medium sized enterprises in Central Java Province, Indonesia. The research covers material analysis, component observation, endurance and vibration test. Six centrifugal pumps are tested and three main pump components are discussed: shaft, bearings and seals. The results show that the material of the shaft is predicted to support and transmit the load from the engine to impeller. The problem found in the tolerance and geometry accuracy of the shaft which causes difficulties during assembling process, excessive wear and leakage during testing. From the endurance and vibration test, the ball bearings fail and lock the shaft due to the fatigue on the rolling elements and raceways. The oil seal and water seal also fail in maintaining the oil and water in the chamber and induce the unlubricated system for the ball bearings. Some suggestions are delivered to improve the product quality of the centrifugal pump. A good quality of the centrifugal pump for fishermen ship and long life span is expected to be produced by local SMEs to win the free trade competition in the Indonesian market.

  13. Design concepts and safety concerns of the small and medium size reactors (SMR)

    The small and medium size reactors (SMR) and interface facilities such as desalination plant are expected to be located near the population area because of restrictions in transporting the plant products such as fresh water to long distance area. To protect the public around the plant facility from the possible release of radioactive materials, the design development of the SMR is focusing on an enhancement of the safety and reliability as well as the economics. In this study, the major safety concepts of the SMR designs significantly different from the current PWR designs are investigated and the safety concerns applicable to the integrated SMR design of Korea (called SMART), were identified. Those safety issues include the use of proven technology, application of strengthening defense in depth, event categorization and selection, simplification of emergency planning, determination of accident source terms and so on. The efforts to resolve the safety concerns in the design stage will provide an improvement of the safety of the SMART design

  14. CRITICAL FACTORS IN OUTSOURCING OF ACCOUNTING FUNCTIONS IN MALAYSIAN SMALL MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES (SMEs

    Magiswary Dorasamy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenges that business face in sustaining competitive advantage in the corporate world have become a major concern. Businesses are adopting cutting-edge technologies and best practices to cope with rapid, global changes. Various business functions are being reengineered for this purpose. Accounting functions play an important role in helping businesses to maintain competitive advantage. However, some small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs face problems handling fundamental accounting functions. This is predominantly because of their lack of expertise; accounting functions require not only knowledge of generally accepted accounting rules or tax regulations but also the expertise needed to apply the rules in a given business environment (Everaert, Sarens and Rommel, 2006. This paper offers some insight on the outsourcing of accounting functions as there is paucity of data in this area in the context of Malaysia. Essentially, it presents empirical evidence regarding Malaysian SMEs' accounting outsourcing practices. A survey of SMEs was conducted to identify the overall outsourcing landscape as it relates to accounting and third-party organisations. The factors that contribute to the decision to outsource accounting functions are analysed. The study reveals a significant relationship between outsourcing accounting functions and two contributing factors, risks and operation management.

  15. The spatiotemporal trajectory of a dengue epidemic in a medium-sized city

    Daniela G, Morato; Florisneide R, Barreto; José U, Braga; Marcio S, Natividade; Maria da Conceição N, Costa; Vanessa, Morato; Maria da Glória Lima Cruz, Teixeira.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases is important to allow for improvements of control measures. To investigate the spatiotemporal pattern of an epidemic dengue occurred at a medium-sized city in the Northeast Region of Brazil in 2009, we conducted an ecological study of th [...] e notified dengue cases georeferenced according to epidemiological week (EW) and home address. Kernel density estimation and space-time interaction were analysed using the Knox method. The evolution of the epidemic was analysed using an animated projection technique. The dengue incidence was 6.918.7/100,000 inhabitants; the peak of the epidemic occurred from 8 February-1 March, EWs 6-9 (828.7/100,000 inhabitants). There were cases throughout the city and was identified space-time interaction. Three epicenters were responsible for spreading the disease in an expansion and relocation diffusion pattern. If the health services could detect in real time the epicenters and apply nimbly control measures, may possibly reduce the magnitude of dengue epidemics.

  16. NectarCAM : a camera for the medium size telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Glicenstein, J-F; Barrio, J-A; Blanch~Bigas, O; Bolmont, J; Bouyjou, F; Brun, P; Chabanne, E; Champion, C; Colonges, S; Corona, P; Delagnes, E; Delgado, C; Ginzov, C Diaz; Durand, D; Ernenwein, J-P; Fegan, S; Ferreira, O; Fesquet, M; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Fouque, N; Gascon, D; Giebels, B; Henault, F; Hermel, R; Hoffmann, D; Horan, D; Houles, J; Jean, P; Jocou, L; Karkar, S; Knoedlseder, J; Kossakowski, R; Lamanna, G; LeFlour, T; Lenain, J-P; Leveque, A; Louis, F; Martinez, G; Moudden, Y; Moulin, E; Nayman, P; Nunio, F; Olive, J-F; Panazol, J-L; Pavy, S; Petrucci, P-O; Pierre, E; Prast, J; Punch, M; Ramon, P; Rateau, S; Ravel, T; Rosier-Lees, S; Sanuy, A; Shayduk, M; Sizun, P-Y; Sulanke, K-H; Tavernet, J-P; Tejedor~Alvarez, L-A; Toussenel, F; Vasileiadis, G; Voisin, V; Waegebert, V; Wischnewski, R

    2015-01-01

    NectarCAM is a camera proposed for the medium-sized telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) covering the central energy range of ~100 GeV to ~30 TeV. It has a modular design and is based on the NECTAr chip, at the heart of which is a GHz sampling Switched Capacitor Array and a 12-bit Analog to Digital converter. The camera will be equipped with 265 7-photomultiplier modules, covering a field of view of 8 degrees. Each module includes the photomultiplier bases, high voltage supply, pre-amplifier, trigger, readout and Ethernet transceiver. The recorded events last between a few nanoseconds and tens of nanoseconds. The camera trigger will be flexible so as to minimize the read-out dead-time of the NECTAr chips. NectarCAM is designed to sustain a data rate of more than 4 kHz with less than 5\\% dead time. The camera concept, the design and tests of the various subcomponents and results of thermal and electrical prototypes are presented. The design includes the mechanical structure, cooling of the electro...

  17. Information Technology Adoption in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises; An Appraisal of Two Decades Literature

    Morteza Ghobakhloo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs account for major source of employment, technological advancements, and competitive advantages for both developed and developing countries. Owing to the intensified competitive pressure and necessity for entering to global market undergone by SMEs, these businesses are incrementally employing Information Technology (IT to take advantage of its substantial benefits. Most of prior researches have more focused on IT adoption in large organizations. However, and with regard to the limited resources controlled by SMEs, the process of IT adoption in this business sector is considerably different. The purpose of this paper is to analyze and contrast the internal and external issues affecting the process of IT adoption in SMEs to provide clearer understanding of this process by reviewing IT adoption literature, which includes more than 20 years of empirical research and case studies from a variety of databases with high concentration on certain SME-related issues. Proposed integrated framework demonstrates the process of IT adoption in SMEs through reviewing exiting perspectives in the literature. This study will assist different parties involved with adoption process including managers, vendors, consultants, and governments to achieve a practical synopsis of the IT adoption process in SMEs, which is believed to assist them with successful adoption.

  18. Assessing Incorrect Household Waste Sorting in a Medium-Sized Swedish City

    Kamran Rousta

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Source separation is a common method for dealing with the increasing problem of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW in society. The citizens are then responsible for separating waste fractions produced in their home. If the consumers fail to sort the waste according to the source separation scheme, it will lead to an ineffective system. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the environmental, economic and social aspects of incorrect waste sorting in a medium sized Swedish city that has established a source separation system. In order to determine the extent to which citizens correctly sort their waste, food waste (black bags and combustible fraction (white bags, were collected randomly from a residential area and categorized in different waste fractions. The results show that approximately 68 wt% of the waste in the white and 29 wt% in the black bags were not sorted correctly. This incorrect sorting accrues over 13 million SEK per year cost for this community. In order to improve the inhabitants’ participation in the waste management system, it is necessary to change different factors such as convenience and easy access to the recycling stations in the local MSW management systems as well as to review current regulation and policy.

  19. Medium-sized grazing incidence high-energy X-ray telescopes employing continuously graded multilayers

    Joensen, K. D.; Christensen, Finn Erland; Schnopper, H. W.; Gorenstein, P.; Susini, J.; Hoghoj, P.; Hustache, R.; Wood, J. L.; Parker, K.

    1993-01-01

    The authors present a concept of continuously graded multilayer structures for medium-sized X-ray telescopes which is based on several material combinations. They show that the theoretical reflectivity characteristics of these structures make them very advantageous when applied to high energy X......-ray grazing incidence telescopes. They consider the performance of continuously graded Ni/C multilayers in a multi-focus, Kirkpatrick-Baez, geometry and show a significant improvement when compared to standard coatings of gold. For a total length of 3.3 m, a total aperture of 48 cm by 48 cm and 64 foci, an...... effective area of 250 cm2 at 60 keV and a FWHM field of view of 6' is obtained. It is shown that a modular array of conical telescopes (conical approximation to a Wolter-I geometry), with the same length and aperture provides similar effective areas. Energy-dispersive X-ray reflectivity data (15-70 keV) is...

  20. Microfinance: Diagnosis of the micro-business, medium-sized business and its financial technology

    Emerson Toledo Concha

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This research work shows how the financing for micro and small businesses in Peru has increased and has greatlyexpanded in the last few years, not only in institutions specialized in this field, focused their efforts in giving financialservices to businesspeople of micro and medium-sized business, but most of the so-called traditional banks havefocused their attention to this emerging sector using the know-how of microfinance lending technology, banking seekto work with people of low income sectors, that were not subject for credit opportunities to develop their business andas a consequence not able to improve their quality of life .Throughout this investigation, we make a diagnosis of macro and micro environment of the microfinance field, itsdevelopment and expectations for a strong presence in the Peruvian financial market. We consider the development oflending technology, where the analysis of the ability and willingness to pay are the fundamental basis for the evaluationof credits in specialized companies in this sector.

  1. Diode laser anastemoses of medium-size arteries with indocyanine green dye-enhanced albumine

    Weng, Guo-Xing; Williamson, Warren; Aretz, H. Thomas

    1998-11-01

    In order to achieve a better long-term patency result and solve the problem of tensile strength in laser artery anastomoses, diode laser and Indocyanine Green (ICG) enhanced albumin were applied to medium-size artery anastomoses with three different methods, that is, direct laser vascular anastomoses, direct method enforced with ICG albumin, and laser welding with ICG albumin as 'solder'. Internal mammary artery (IMA) harvested from patients undergoing coronary bypass procedures, in vivo rat abdominal artery, and in vitro swine heart and IMA were chosen as the experimental materials. The results revealed that only 3.15 +/- 0.36 minutes were required for each anastomosis; the bursting pressure and tensile strength were greater in the groups enforced with ICG albumin and laser welding than that with direct laser anastomoses. In the laser soldering group, the thermal damage was limited in the adventitial layer, only at a depth of 200 micrometers . There was also a satisfied result in the in vivo laser welding rat's abdominal adventitial layer, only at a depth of 200 micrometers . There was also a satisfied result in the in vivo laser welding rat's abdominal arteries. However, end-to-side laser welding of IMA soronary artery with ICG albumin needs further investigation about its tensile strength in an in vivo model.

  2. Drivers for OSH interventions in small and medium-sized enterprises.

    Cagno, Enrico; Masi, Donato; Leão, Celina Pinto

    2016-01-01

    The debate concerning occupational safety and health (OSH) interventions has recently focused on the need of improving the evaluation of interventions, and in particular on the need for providing information about why the intervention worked or not, under what circumstances and in which context. Key concepts in the analysis of the context are the drivers, i.e., those factors enabling, fostering or facilitating OSH interventions. However, the concept of driver for an OSH intervention is both confused and contested. Although the term is widely used, there is little consensus on how drivers should be understood, how important they are in different contexts and how they can facilitate interventions. This exploratory study based on interviews with the owner-managers and the safety officers of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) gives an overview of the most characteristic drivers for OSH interventions. The results will be used to make an initial evaluation of SMEs' needs, and will help orient interventions and future research. PMID:26654679

  3. Sustainable Product Service Systems in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs: Opportunities in the Leather Manufacturing Industry

    Ricardo J. Hernández Pardo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach to identify opportunities to develop sustainable Product Service Systems (PSS involving Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs. The purpose of the research is to build understanding of how the integration of product and service design and the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT can contribute to identify opportunities to develop sustainable PSS involving SMEs. In order to develop the approach, research with 16 Colombian Manufacturing SMEs was carried out. A reference model and four generic types of PSS according to the relationships between product and service design and ICT are used to analyse the data. Finally, the possibility of extending the approach into a general framework to work with other industries is discussed.

  4. Applying Model Checking to Industrial-Sized PLC Programs

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079190; Darvas, Daniel; Blanco Vinuela, Enrique; Tournier, Jean-Charles; Bliudze, Simon; Blech, Jan Olaf; Gonzalez Suarez, Victor M

    2015-01-01

    Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) are embedded computers widely used in industrial control systems. Ensuring that a PLC software complies with its specification is a challenging task. Formal verification has become a recommended practice to ensure the correctness of safety-critical software but is still underused in industry due to the complexity of building and managing formal models of real applications. In this paper, we propose a general methodology to perform automated model checking of complex properties expressed in temporal logics (\\eg CTL, LTL) on PLC programs. This methodology is based on an intermediate model (IM), meant to transform PLC programs written in various standard languages (ST, SFC, etc.) to different modeling languages of verification tools. We present the syntax and semantics of the IM and the transformation rules of the ST and SFC languages to the nuXmv model checker passing through the intermediate model. Finally, two real cases studies of \\CERN PLC programs, written mainly in th...

  5. The electricity supply industry in England and Wales. Medium term development plan 1986-93

    The main objective of the Electricity Supply Industry in England and Wales is to develop and maintain electricity supplies to meet customers' needs as cheaply as possible. Over the medium term, 1986 - 1993, the goal is to reduce the real average price per kWh sold, whilst maintaining high standards of service and meeting financial obligations. The strategy set out comprises reducing controllable costs per kWh sold to 1992/3, pursuing a vigorous and selective marketing strategy so that an expected sales increase of 10% is achieved, securing a long term supply of coal at minimum cost by developing the commercial relationship with British Coal, increasing the proportion of electrical energy supplied by nuclear energy to 25% by 1992/3 and being environmentally concerned. The introduction outlines the medium term business, energy and economic environment, financial targets and price prospects. Plans to support the strategy outlined are presented. Each section sets out the objectives and the plans to achieve these. The strategy for new power stations is to develop fossil-fueled and nuclear as well as to develop alternative technologies. (UK)

  6. The Impact of Firm Size on Dividend Behaviour: A Study With Reference to Corporate Firms across Industries in India

    Azhagaiah Ramachandran

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to examine the association between the Corporate Leverage (CL and the Dividend Policy (DP of firms across industries in India in respect of Size of Corporate Firms. The investigation is conducted on a panel sample of 73 firms across industries [Cement, Chemical and Fertilizer, IT, Oil and Gas, Pharmaceutical, Shipping, and Textiles], which listed their shares in National Stock Exchange (NSE in India for the period 1996–2007. The impacts of Capital Structure (CS variables (leverage on DP measures – dividend payout (Net dividend paid/net income in the presence of some basic fundamental variables are considered to be the determinants of DP, using the Multiple Regression Technique (OLS method. The results of the cross-sectional ols Model for the selected sample firms under various sectors show that there is a significant effect of selected independent variables. Therefore, this study proves that the DP of Small Size, Medium Size, Large Size, and Overall Corporate Firms across industries in India is dependent on the level of debt in CS.

  7. Job Stress in the United Kingdom: Are Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises and Large Enterprises Different?

    Lai, Yanqing; Saridakis, George; Blackburn, Robert

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the relationships between firm size and employees' experience of work stress. We used a matched employer-employee dataset (Workplace Employment Relations Survey 2011) that comprises of 7182 employees from 1210 private organizations in the United Kingdom. Initially, we find that employees in small and medium-sized enterprises experience lower level of overall job stress than those in large enterprises, although the effect disappears when we control for individual and organizational characteristics in the model. We also find that quantitative work overload, job insecurity and poor promotion opportunities, good work relationships and poor communication are strongly associated with job stress in the small and medium-sized enterprises, whereas qualitative work overload, poor job autonomy and employee engagements are more related with larger enterprises. Hence, our estimates show that the association and magnitude of estimated effects differ significantly by enterprise size. PMID:24302431

  8. Bioluminescence imaging in a medium-sized animal by local injection of d-luciferin

    Luciferase is one of the most commonly used reporter enzymes in the field of molecular imaging. D-luciferin is known as the substrate for luciferase enzyme and its cost is very expensive. Therefore, the bioluminescence molecular imaging study has been allowed in small animals such as mice and rats. In this current study, we validated local injection of D-luciferin in articular capsule for bioluminescence imaging in rabbits. Chondrocytes were cultured and infected by replication-defective adenoviral vector encoding firefly luciferase. And then was performed different method of chondrocyte cell injection and transplantation into the knee of rabbits. The rabbits underwent imaging by cooled CCD camera after local injection of D-luciferin (3mg) into experimental knee joint as well as contralateral normal knee joint on days 1, 5, 7, 9. We sought whether optimal imaging signal was acquired by using cooled CCD camera after local injection of D-luciferin. We successfully visualized injected or transplanted cells in knee joint by local injection of D-luciferin. Total photon flux (7.86E+08 p/s/cm2/sr) from the knee joint transplanted with cells approximately increased 10-fold more than (9.43E+07p/s/cm2/sr) that from injected knee joints until 7 day. Imaging signal was observed in transplanted joints until day 9 after surgery while signal from injected knee was observed by day 7 after injection. We successfully carried out bioluminescence imaging study with medium sized animal by local injection of small amount of D-luciferin. Survival of chondrocytes were prolonged when surgically transplanted in joints than when directly injected in joint space

  9. PEDESTRIAN RESPONSE TO ROAD TRAFFIC NOISE FOR MEDIUM SIZE CITY IN INDIA

    Pritikana Das

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Level of vehicular noise pollution is one of the major factors to choose pedestrian mode of transportation among other modes of transportation. Transportation systems and their related outcomes are responsible for ensuring safe travel options, including walking people of all ages and different abilities. This study will provide an opportunity to quantify the environmental impact in terms of noise level for future development and planning of pedestrian infrastructure in India. It will also help in modal shifting towards walking, improvements in energy efficiency, and the impact of specific contaminants on health. Exposure of high noise level can cause annoyance and severe stress on auditory and nervous system of pedestrians. Most of the Indian cities have noise level above than acceptable limits because of rapid urbanization with increasing number of vehicular traffic. The objective of this study is to study response of pedestrians towards noise pollution in Roorkee at different locations based on different land use. Roorkee is a medium size city with a population of 2.73 lakhs (Roorkee Metropolitan areas, 2011 census, situated in Uttarakhand, India. It is a city with large number of educational institutions and sizable numbers of student population. Noise level study has been carried out at ten locations on NH-58 near Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee. Noise data was collected at an interval of 30 seconds. Design implications for future improvement of pedestrian infrastructure have been presented in this paper considering traffic noise as an environmental factor. It is expected that the study outcome shall be useful in understanding positive effect of low traffic noise encouraging increased usage of pedestrian facilities within urban transport network.

  10. Distribution and compartmental organization of GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons in the mouse Nucleus Accumbens

    Giuseppe Gangarossa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The nucleus accumbens (NAc is a critical brain region involved in many reward-related behaviors. The NAc comprises major compartments the core and the shell, which encompass several subterritories. GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs constitute the output neurons of the NAc core and shell. While the functional organization of the NAc core outputs resembles the one described for the dorsal striatum, a simple classification of the NAc shell neurons has been difficult to define due to the complexity of the compartmental segregation of cells. We used a variety of BAC transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescence (EGFP or the Cre-recombinase (Cre under the control of the promoter of dopamine D1, D2, and D3 receptors and of adenosine A2a receptor to dissect the microanatomy of the NAc. Moreover, using various immunological markers we characterized in detail the distribution of MSNs in the mouse NAc. In addition, cell-type specific ERK phosphorylation in the NAc subterritories was analyzed following acute administration of SKF81297 (a D1R-like agonist, quinpirole (a D2R-like agonist, apomorphine (a non-selective DA receptor agonist, raclopride (a D2R-like antagonist, and psychostimulant drugs, including cocaine and d-amphetamine. Each drug generated a unique topography and cell-type specific activation of ERK in the NAc. Our results show the existence of marked differences in the receptor expression pattern and functional activation of MSNs within the shell subterritories. This study emphasizes the anatomical and functional heterogeneity of the NAc, which will have to be considered in its further study.

  11. Distribution and compartmental organization of GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons in the mouse nucleus accumbens.

    Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Espallergues, Julie; de Kerchove d'Exaerde, Alban; El Mestikawy, Salah; Gerfen, Charles R; Hervé, Denis; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Valjent, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a critical brain region involved in many reward-related behaviors. The NAc comprises major compartments the core and the shell, which encompass several subterritories. GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) constitute the output neurons of the NAc core and shell. While the functional organization of the NAc core outputs resembles the one described for the dorsal striatum, a simple classification of the NAc shell neurons has been difficult to define due to the complexity of the compartmental segregation of cells. We used a variety of BAC transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescence (EGFP) or the Cre-recombinase (Cre) under the control of the promoter of dopamine D1, D2, and D3 receptors and of adenosine A2a receptor to dissect the microanatomy of the NAc. Moreover, using various immunological markers we characterized in detail the distribution of MSNs in the mouse NAc. In addition, cell-type specific extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation in the NAc subterritories was analyzed following acute administration of SKF81297 (a D1R-like agonist), quinpirole (a D2 receptors (D2R)-like agonist), apomorphine (a non-selective DA receptor agonist), raclopride (a D2R-like antagonist), and psychostimulant drugs, including cocaine and d-amphetamine. Each drug generated a unique topography and cell-type specific activation of ERK in the NAc. Our results show the existence of marked differences in the receptor expression pattern and functional activation of MSNs within the shell subterritories. This study emphasizes the anatomical and functional heterogeneity of the NAc, which will have to be considered in its further study. PMID:23423476

  12. Life cycle assessment of a medium sized PV facility in Scotland

    Napier University's School of Engineering has been involved in education and research in renewable energy for the past 35 years. With the aim demonstration of the viability of production of solar electricity at a high latitude location such as Edinburgh (56 degree north)the school undertook to commission a medium-sized PV electricity generation project. The installation of 32 rows of BP solar silicon panels covering a total area of 160 square metres ensures generation of 17.6kW peak (AC) power. Figure 1 presents a photograph of the facility under discussion. The project has been part (60%) financed by UK Government's PV electricity demonstration programme through the office of Energy Saving Trust. The University has plans to generate hydrogen from solar electricity that will be stored for noctumal production of electricity using fuel-cell technology, thus completing the complete cycle of generation, storage and reproduction of sustainable energy. The project that is part of Napier University's Merchiton Campus was completed on 6 April 2005 and since that date AC power has been fed into the University grid with the peak power being enough to operate up to 80 of the 500 computers at the University's Jack Kilby Computing Centre. DC power is produced from the BP solar high efficincy (17%) monocrystalline panels, each of which produces 90W of power at 22 Volts. This DC electricity is then fed into a total of four inverters hence converting to a stable AC supply. Two of the larger inverters receive current from 12 rows (4 strings x 3 rows) each, while the smaller inverters take power in from 4 rows (2 strings x 2 rows) each. The PV facility is fully instrumented with both input (incident solar energy) and PV electrical energy output recorded at a frequency of 15 minutes. This article will present the energetic, environmental and monetary life cycle assessment (LCA) of the above facility.(Author)

  13. Analysing a method for small and medium sized companies to rate oil quality during immersion frying

    Efraín Hisnardo Rojas Uribe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available  This work studied the deterioration of commercial Frytol oil in controlled frying conditions using the anisidine index (AI as standard evaluation method. The effect of temperature and time was studied at 170°C for up to 10 hours and at 200°C for up to 6 hours in the presence of factors which speeded up oil deterioration: 1% and 8% water based on the mass of oil and non-lipid material, 1% and 6% based on the mass of oil. Air flow rate was kept constant at 25 L h-1. The relationship between AI, colour and viscosity was studied to evaluate the technical viability of measuring these variables as a function of time to be used as a method for rating oil deterioration by small and medium sized enterprises (SME. Oil deterioration was higher and faster at maximum study interval values for each experimental factor, although only the effect of temperature was significant (p2=0.558 and R2=0.526, respectively, colour depending on frying temperature. Viscosity measured at 30°C had the highest coefficient of determination (R2=0.809 and was independent of frying temperature. Viscosity is thus a variable which can be used for determining frying oil deterioration in SME as a consequence of a significant change from 10 cP to 45 cP which is closer to frying oil deterioration limit (AI 156. It can facilitate determination and lower associated costs, thereby improving product quality and customer confidence in them. 

  14. THE PREMISES OF STRATEGIC MARKETING PLANNING IMPLEMENTATION WITHIN SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Popescu Andrei

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present paper is to identify the framework and the necessary conditions for the small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs to be able to adopt the strategic marketing planning. Also, the paper aims to underline the importance of the strategic marketing planning and the manner in which the SMEs can adopt, implement and operationalize the strategic marketing planning instruments, whose correct understanding and usage ensure the capacity to generate competitive advantage, the key element both from the perspective of the fierce competition and the perspective of the future development of the SMEs. Within SMEs the implementation of marketing becomes an evident requirment, mostly due to the relationship that these have with the market, thus, leading towards market orientation of the activities, a new approach developed by the marketing vision on managing the activities from these types of organizations. Regarded upon, from the marketing perspective, the activities from the SMEs, especially the marketing activities, cannot take place randomly. Resource allocation, a characteristic of these types of organizations, and the objectives with regards to superior customer needs satisfaction and economic efficiency maximization, claim thorough plannification and deployment of the activities in a sequence that represents the implementation of a strategy previously assumed. Within this framework, the strategic marketing planning appears as a complex process employing all scientific instruments that comprise segmentation, positioning and marketing mix. Utilizing the strategic marketing planning within SMEs depends to further extend on marketing integration; process directly related with a series of factors such as the nature of the market, development stage, product type, management quality and the influences of the marketing department of the SME. The implications onto the marketing activities from SMEs are reflected upon each strategic marketing planning instrument, where we can find, under correct understanding and application, objectives and market and penetration strategies as product, price, distribution and promotion strategies.

  15. High-Resolution Spectroscopic Studies of Complexes Formed by Medium-Size Organic Molecules.

    Becucci, Maurizio; Melandri, Sonia

    2016-05-11

    A wealth of structural and dynamical information has been obtained in the last 30 years from the study of high-resolution spectra of molecular clusters generated in a cold supersonic expansion by means of highly resolved spectroscopic methods. The data obtained, generally lead to determination of the structures of stable conformations. In addition, in the case of weakly bound molecular complexes, it is usual to observe the effects of internal motions due to the shallowness of the potential energy surfaces involved and the flexibility of the systems. In the case of electronic excitation experiments, also the effect of electronic distribution changes on both equilibrium structures and internal motions becomes accessible. The structural and dynamical information that can be obtained by applying suitable theoretical models to the analysis of these unusually complex spectra allows the determination and understanding of the driving forces involved in formation of the molecular complex. In this way, many types of non-covalent interactions have been characterized, from pure van der Waals interactions in complexes of rare gases to moderate-strength and weak hydrogen bonds and to the most recent halogen bonds and n-π interactions. The aim of this review is to underline how the different experimental and theoretical methods converge in giving a detailed picture of weak interactions in small molecular adducts involving medium-size molecules. The conclusions regarding geometries and energies can contribute to understanding of the different driving forces involved in the dynamics of the processes and can be exploited in all fields of chemistry and biochemistry, from design of new materials with novel properties to rational design of drugs. PMID:26986455

  16. Determinants of small and medium sized fast growing enterprises in central and eastern Europe: a panel data analysis

    Miroslav Mateev; Yanko Anastasov

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the main determinants of growth in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in central and eastern Europe. The important role played by SMEs in the economic development of central and eastern European (CEE) countries has attracted the recent attention of academics and policymakers but remains relatively unexplored. Empirical research has suggested that firm growth is determined not only by the traditional characteristics of size and age but also by oth...

  17. East-West co-operation of small and medium sized enterprises : evidence from the Berlin region

    Sander, Birgit

    1996-01-01

    Globalization opens new opportunities also for small and medium sized enterprises (SME). However, empirical information on SMEs' international activities is still fragmented. The paper adds another piece of evidence in analyzing how Berlin SMEs are co-operating with partners in transition economies. To identify the size impact, co-operation activities of SMEs are contrasted to those of large enterprises. It is explored where SMEs identify sources of comparative advantage, which mechanisms, wh...

  18. 40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. 141.81 Section 141.81 Protection of... WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper § 141.81 Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps... review and approve the addition of a new source or long-term change in water treatment before it...

  19. Grand Challenge Problem 10: TELEARC an Agile and Productive Networking of TEL Small and Medium Sized Research Labs

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone; Balacheff, Nicolas; Bottino, Rosa Maria; Burgos, Daniel; Dimitracopoulou, Angelique; Ludvigsen, Sten; Mille, Alain

    Small and medium sized research labs (SMLs) are dominating European TEL research. This is justified by the great numbers of countries and regions in Europe needing to develop a research and innovation competence to facilitate the diverse educational systems contextualized in various institutional...

  20. Revenue-Based Financial Modeling: A Sustainable Model for Medium-Size, Private, Mission-Based Schools of Education

    Harbouk, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the implementation and assessment of revenue-based budgeting at a medium-size, private, mission-based graduate school of education (SOE), under the pseudonym Peter Claver University (PCU). Additionally, two other similar schools were included in the study because they used revenue-based budgeting for a period of 10 years or…

  1. Cash flow vs. collateral-based credit: performance of micro, small and medium-sized firms in transition economies

    Cassano, F.; Joeveer, K.; Å vejnar, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 2 (2013), s. 269-300. ISSN 0967-0750 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/10/2130 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : micro, small and medium-sized enterprises * bank credit * firm performance Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.755, year: 2013

  2. Cash flow vs. collateral-based credit: performance of micro, small and medium-sized firms in transition economies

    Cassano, F.; Joeveer, K.; Å vejnar, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 2 (2013), s. 269-300. ISSN 0967-0750 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : micro, small and medium-sized enterprises * bank credit * firm performance Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.755, year: 2013

  3. Using the Critical Incident Technique to Research Decision Making regarding Access to Training and Development in Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Coetzer, Alan; Redmond, Janice; Sharafizad, Jalleh

    2012-01-01

    Employees in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) form part of a "disadvantaged" group within the workforce that receives less access to training and development (T&D) than employees in large firms. Prior research into reasons for the relatively low levels of employee participation in training and development has typically involved surveys of…

  4. Managing cooperation in supply network structures and small or medium-sized enterprises main criteria and tools for managers

    Villa, Agostino

    2011-01-01

    Offers a simple methodology to networks managers to enable them to evaluate the organisational efficiency and robustness of their network Displays different approaches to the analysis of the organisation of small- or medium-sized enterprises in Europe Enables managers to understand when and why becoming a partner in a cluster can be profitable for their enterprise

  5. Using Computer-Based Continuing Professional Education of Training Staff to Develop Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Thailand

    Sooraksa, Nanta

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a career development program for staff involved in providing training for small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Thailand. Most of these staff were professional vocational teachers in schools. The program uses information communication technology (ICT), and its main objective is to teach Moodle software as a tool for…

  6. Analysis of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises’ E-Commerce Development Status in China in the New Economy Era

    Zheng ZHANG

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce has become a new operation model in the new economy ear and the growth point of national economy. Since 1990s, e-commerce has risen and developed rapidly in the entire world, and been changing the original economic pattern as well as the original operation model and economic level. E-commerce has facilitated the development of new economy and become the prerequisite for economic globalization, made e-commerce an important symbol of economic globalization and promoted sustainable development of social economy. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs play a proactive role in China’s economic development. E-commerce can not only reduce operation cost and enhance economic benefits of small and medium-sized enterprises but also provide them with opportunities for competing with large enterprise and wider market space. However, they inevitably encounter varied barriers in the process. This paper proposed some solutions for problems existing in the development of small and medium-sized enterprises in the hope of making small and medium-sized enterprises further conduct e-commerce in a scientific and reasonable way in the new economy era.

  7. Graduate Transition into Work: The Bridging Role of Graduate Placement Programmes in the Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprise Workplace

    Gallagher, Pádraig

    2015-01-01

    This research looks at the role of graduate placement programmes in bridging the gap between higher education and the small- and medium-sized enterprise (SME) sector. The research design and methodology used in this study was exploratory, in-depth and qualitative in nature. The research took the form of a multiple case study and focused on seven…

  8. Using the Critical Incident Technique to Research Decision Making regarding Access to Training and Development in Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Coetzer, Alan; Redmond, Janice; Sharafizad, Jalleh

    2012-01-01

    Employees in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) form part of a "disadvantaged" group within the workforce that receives less access to training and development (T&D) than employees in large firms. Prior research into reasons for the relatively low levels of employee participation in training and development has typically involved surveys of…

  9. Using Computer-Based Continuing Professional Education of Training Staff to Develop Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Thailand

    Sooraksa, Nanta

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a career development program for staff involved in providing training for small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Thailand. Most of these staff were professional vocational teachers in schools. The program uses information communication technology (ICT), and its main objective is to teach Moodle software as a tool for…

  10. Can the business model of Handelsbanken be an archetype for small and medium sized banks? A comparative case study

    Kousgaard Larsen, Morten; Lange Nissen, Jacob; Lueg, Rainer; Schmaltz, Christian; Røjkjær Thorhauge, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    The Danish Banking sector faces increasing requirements regarding regulation and profitability, which especially threatens small- and medium sized banks. This study analyzes whether the successful business model of Handelsbanken (‘The Handelsbanken Way’) to banking in regard to the needed strengt...

  11. 75 FR 5804 - Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: U.S. and EU Export Activities, and Barriers and Opportunities...

    2010-02-04

    ... published in the Federal Registers of October 28, 2009 (74 FR 55581); December 1, 2009 (74 FR 62812); and... COMMISSION Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: U.S. and EU Export Activities, and Barriers and Opportunities... Enterprises: U.S. and EU Export Activities, and Barriers and Opportunities Experienced by U.S. Firms,...

  12. 75 FR 9431 - Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: U.S. and EU Export Activities, and Barriers and Opportunities...

    2010-03-02

    ... October 28, 2009 (74 FR 55581); December 1, 2009 (74 FR 62812); and December 11, 2009 (74 FR 65787). A... the Federal Register of February 4, 2010 (75 FR 5804). Washington Hearing: The rescheduled Washington... COMMISSION Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: U.S. and EU Export Activities, and Barriers and...

  13. Energetic Communities: Planning support for sustainable energy transition in small- and medium-sized communities

    Christina Valeska Sager-Klauss

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The necessity for transition in the energy sector is beyond dispute and high on the political agendas. Climate change, the depletion of fossil fuels and the vulnerability of economies to resource speculation and unreliable political systems in the producing countries lay path for a broad implementation of smart alternative solutions. This means the integration of more sustainable renewable energy sources in the existing supply structures or the displacement of existing systems by new ones. Cities and communities are central players in the energy transition process. Energy demand is determined by the built environment. Renewable energy production needs space. The conflicts between different interest groups often break out in the context of local implementation measures that affect urban planning and the appearance of landscapes.Small- and medium-sized communities might prove to be game-changers in the overall energy transition because many problems have to be solved within their ambit. Urban planning is dealing with the numerous processes of urban change. Energy is a fairly new task to be addressed and many stakeholders lack experience and criteria for strategic decision making. After a period of fierce determination to turn the wheel against climate change, it seems that there is a growing resignation among politicians, planners and the public because some things have not turned out the way we’d expected and the hope for quick solutions fades. Rebound-effects seem to eat up the savings to a good extent, and alternative ideas of how sustainable energy systems may be put into place have not yet been persuasive in many cases. Energy systems have proved to be complex. They are still perceived to be important but in practice there is a growing uneasiness about the right steps to take. The overarching research question of this thesis is: What do decision makers in smalland medium-sized communities need to become more successful in implementing energy transition processes? For the research project this general question was broken down into four primary research questions:How can communities anchor and monitor long-term energy transition visions in their communal development plans?What tools and models are available for urban energy system analysis?How can tools and models be adapted to the specific demands and boundary conditions in the case study communities to ensure long-term implementation of appropriate technologies and measures?How does the practical implementation of the adapted tools work in the case study and what barriers must be overcome for long-term success?To answer these questions a combination of review of the current state of scientific literature of the thematic field with a practical application and evaluation of ‘real’ implementation projects was chosen. This appears to be a beneficial approach to scientific research in planning disciplines. The first research question is closely connected to urban planning and strategy. To anchor energy transition goals in these disciplines the potentials and consequences of political energy visions were studied. To monitor developments and progress existing indicator systems were reviewed and adapted to the needs of small- and medium-sized communities. For this overall target-definition the question of 'Exergy Thinking' in planning urban environments and energy systems was discussed. This basically means to create a deep understanding of the quality aspects in energy demand and supply systems and to be aware for better matching solutions. This approach opens many options for the integration of renewables in the heating and cooling supply. It showed that the definition of a clear long-term target or 'energy vision' supports the implementation of measures because it facilitates communication and controversy.The large number of available tools and scientific methods for the analysis and optimization of communal energy systems was reviewed to answer the second research question. The results from this work mainly led to the one central challenge that has to be solved whenever complex modelling and strategic decision making are affected: Data. Data describes the status-quo and gives necessary information on the complex system interactions and influence factors. The options to create a concise data framework for the central objective were addressed in two steps. From literature, existing models and approaches general data frameworks were collected and summarized. Since the method was to be applied to the test case study the data was validated and tested under the case study conditions. This showed deviations and necessary specifications but as well a good analogy to the default data. From this a transparent and adjustable spreadsheet-model was developed to create scenarios for the case study and to answer the fourth research question. To create a holistic picture of the communal energy system and the effects of increased exploitation of renewables geographic information systems (GIS show very valuable functionalities. Especially since the processing and interpretation of geographic information is anchored in urban planning disciplines and creates an easy access if energy system information is integrated. The open data architecture of GIS allows the integration of different data types as long as they have a spatial correlation. This enables to retrieve valuable results from a scenario model even with rather fragmented and incomplete data. To show the effects of different implementation strategies represented by the different 'energy visions' three energy scenarios were run for the case study. These three scenarios represent central 'beliefs' or ' approaches' in energy transition as well as overall development indicators and specific local aspects. Therefore the success of energy transition measures remains limited if not all essential development parameters take a favorable course.The scenario evaluation shows some interesting results and shows the principal usability of the approach and the model. The base-case scenario shows that the community already reaches good results for the global energy indicators because of the existing measures. On a medium and long-term these measures are not sufficient though to stay on a good course. Especially the long-term developments in some cases produce unexpected results. For instance the rather unfavourable development of CO2-emissions in the renewable energies scenario was not a predictable result at first glance. Here the effects of the chosen technologies and the effects of superior developments show their impact. As well the huge impact of the assumed efficiency measures was somewhat unexpected. Even though the assumed refurbishment rates do not exceed national recommendations and the efficiency qualities are far from passive-house standard, the efficiency scenario shows the fastest and best results for the global environment indicators. This can be explained by the fact that the demand reduction optimally complements the existing renewable energy strategy and can show its full potential in this combination. The results of the smart-city scenario show the expected and desired trends of a moderate and balanced long-term strategy that leadsto a slower but continuous positive development in all the analysed energy system indicators. The long-term trends of the scenarios and the effects of following ‘plain’ strategies can be visualised well with the model and the developed scheme. Therefore the initial research questions can be answered positively. The framework gives good and useful results and offers many options for future extension. Certainly the next and most important aspect to include into the framework is the question of costs and economic effects. The overall investment and operational costs for the measures in the different scenarios will be very different. Efficiency measures especially in the existing building stock are costly while the costs for PV-plants will most probably further decline. This is certainly a shortcoming for the efficiency scenario. A future study could as well look at overall economic effects of the different strategies for the benefit of the community. Basic figures on the economic effects of renewable energy systems are already available (Hirschl et al. 2010 and could be implemented. This would certainly make the framework more beneficial for communal stakeholders. The model is transparent and simple enough to go this way in the near future and the achieved results of this thesis project are a good basis for this. The realisation of energy systems as sketched in the smart cities scenario still demands some changes in the regulatory boundary conditions and some new technologies mainly in the information and communication technologies. Smart and electricity grid compatible buildings which can contribute services in grid stability are an issue still to come and contribute to the integration of renewable electricity. The integration of renewable heat in communal supply systems is a big future opportunity to realise LowEx potentials in the heating and cooling sector. Stakeholders in small- and medium-sized communities should be encouraged by the outcomes of the thesis to take initial steps on the energy transition path, since the results that can be reached with state-of-the-art technologies are very encouraging. Energy transition on a large scale depends on the local implementation. Despite the fact that public and scientific focus and attention is mostly on the megacities, it will be the countless small initiatives that will turn the tide.

  14. NEW APPROACHES TO CUSTOMER BASE SEGMENTATION FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Meleancă Raluca-Cristina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this paper is to explore current praxis and theory related to customer segmentation and to offer an approach which is best suited for small and medium sized enterprises. The proposed solution is the result of an exploratory research aiming to recognize the main variables which influence the practice of segmenting the customer base and to study the most applied alternatives available for all types of enterprises. The research has been performed by studying a large set of secondary data, scientific literature and case studies regarding smaller companies from the European Union. The result of the research consists in an original approach to customer base segmentation, which combines aspects belonging to different well spread practices and applies them to the specific needs of a small or medium company, which typically has limited marketing resources in general and targeted marketing resources in particular. The significance of the proposed customer base segmentation approach lies in the fact that, even though smaller enterprises are in most economies the greatest in number compared to large companies, most of the literature on targeting practices has focused primarily on big companies dealing with a very large clientele, while the case of the smaller companies has been to some extent unfairly neglected. Targeted marketing is becoming more and more important for all types of companies nowadays, as a result of technology advances which make targeted communication easier and less expensive than in the past and also due to the fact that broad-based media have decreased their impact over the years. For a very large proportion of smaller companies, directing their marketing budgets towards targeted campaigns is a clever initiative, as broad based approaches are in many cases less effective and much more expensive. Targeted marketing stratagems are generally related to high tech domains such as artificial intelligence, data mining and marketing analytics and presuppose the availability of sophisticated computer software and specialized personnel. The methodology proposed in this paper takes into consideration the fact that, due to financial and time-related constrains, smaller companies need a more practical and straightforward solution for segmenting their customer base. The simplicity of the solution, however, should not come at the expense of its efficiency. The original contribution of this paper resides precisely in the fact that it aims to offer the best of two worlds: the simplicity and cost-effectiveness of plain methods which can be used without the aid of specialized software and the high return on investment given by the use of artificial intelligence algorithms such as clustering. The main implications of this paper relate to the fact that it draws attention to how targeted marketing can be performed successfully by companies with restricted budgets by providing an actionable set of guidelines which can be put into practice by smaller enterprises using limited efforts and resources.

  15. SWR 1000: An Advanced, Medium-Sized Boiling Water Reactor, Ready for Deployment

    The latest developments in nuclear power generation technology mainly concern large-capacity plants in the 1550 -1600 MW range, or very small plants (100 - 350 MW). The SWR 1000 boiling water reactor (BWR), by contrast, offers all of the advantages of an advanced plant design, with excellent safety performance and competitive power generation costs, in the medium-capacity range (1000 - 1250 MW). The SWR 1000 is particularly suitable for countries whose power systems are not designed for large-capacity generating facilities. The economic efficiency of this medium-sized plant in comparison with large-capacity designs is achieved by deploying very simple passive safety equipment, simplified systems for plant operation, and a very simple plant configuration in which systems engineering is optimized and dependence on electrical and instrumentation and control (I and C) systems is reduced. In addition, systems and components that require protection against natural and external man-made hazards are accommodated in such a way that as few buildings as possible have to be designed to withstand the loads from such events. The fuel assemblies to be deployed in the SWR 1000 core, meanwhile, have been enlarged from a 10 x 10 rod array to a 12 x 12 array. This reduces the total number of fuel assemblies in the core and thus also the number of control rods and control rod drives, as well as in-core neutron flux monitors. The design owes its competitiveness to the fact that investment costs, maintenance costs and fuel cycle costs are all lower. In addition, refueling outages are shorter, thanks to the reduced scope of outage activities. The larger fuel assemblies have been extensively and successfully tested, as have all of the other new components and systems incorporated into the plant design. As in existing plants, the forced coolant circulation method is deployed, ensuring problem-free startup, and enabling plant operators to adjust power rapidly in the high power range (70%-100%) without moving the control rods, as well as allowing spectral-shift and stretch-out operation. The considerable gains provided by forced coolant circulation in terms of operational flexibility and fuel utilization mean that the investment and maintenance costs of the pumps are covered after several years of service. The plant safety concept is based on a combination of passive safety systems and a reduced number of active safety systems. All postulated accidents can be controlled using passive systems alone. Control of a postulated core melt accident is assured with considerable safety margins thanks to passive flooding of the containment for in-vessel melt retention. The SWR 1000 is compliant with international nuclear codes and standards, and is also designed to withstand the effects of an aircraft crash involving a military aircraft or a large passenger airliner. (authors)

  16. Population size drives industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcoholic fermentation and is under genetic control.

    Albertin, Warren; Marullo, Philippe; Aigle, Michel; Dillmann, Christine; de Vienne, Dominique; Bely, Marina; Sicard, Delphine

    2011-04-01

    Alcoholic fermentation (AF) conducted by Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been exploited for millennia in three important human food processes: beer and wine production and bread leavening. Most of the efforts to understand and improve AF have been made separately for each process, with strains that are supposedly well adapted. In this work, we propose a first comparison of yeast AFs in three synthetic media mimicking the dough/wort/grape must found in baking, brewing, and wine making. The fermentative behaviors of nine food-processing strains were evaluated in these media, at the cellular, populational, and biotechnological levels. A large variation in the measured traits was observed, with medium effects usually being greater than the strain effects. The results suggest that human selection targeted the ability to complete fermentation for wine strains and trehalose content for beer strains. Apart from these features, the food origin of the strains did not significantly affect AF, suggesting that an improvement program for a specific food processing industry could exploit the variability of strains used in other industries. Glucose utilization was analyzed, revealing plastic but also genetic variation in fermentation products and indicating that artificial selection could be used to modify the production of glycerol, acetate, etc. The major result was that the overall maximum CO(2) production rate (V(max)) was not related to the maximum CO(2) production rate per cell. Instead, a highly significant correlation between V(max) and the maximum population size was observed in all three media, indicating that human selection targeted the efficiency of cellular reproduction rather than metabolic efficiency. This result opens the way to new strategies for yeast improvement. PMID:21357433

  17. Diversity of medium and large sized mammals in a Cerrado fragment of central Brazil

    F.S. Campos; A.R.B. Lage; P.H.P. Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    Studies related to community ecology of medium and large mammals represent a priority in developing strategies for conservation of their habitats. Due to the significant ecological importance of these species, a concern in relation to anthropogenic pressures arises since their populations are vulnerable to hunting and fragmentation. In this study, we aimed to analyze the diversity of medium and large mammals in a representative area of the Cerrado biome, located in the National Forest of Silv...

  18. Adaptive Window Size-Based Medium Access Control Protocol for Cognitive Radio Wireless Sensor Networks

    Gyanendra Prasad Joshi; Seung Yeob Nam; Sung Won Kim; Byung-Seo Kim

    2016-01-01

    Many existing medium access control protocols for cognitive radio wireless sensor networks waste bandwidth and suffer from delay because of the fixed channel negotiation period in the common control channel. In this paper, we propose a medium access control protocol for cognitive radio wireless sensor networks that adjusts the channel negotiation period based on network density. We simulate the proposed approach and compare it to the performance of the fixed channel negotiation period based a...

  19. An Innovative Farm Scale Biogas/Composting Facility for a Sustainable Medium Size Dairy Farm

    Abdel E. Ghaly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Approach: The amount of energy related costs as a portion of the total farm operating cost can be as high as 29% and the continuing increase of the real cost of energy related farm input has been one of the major factors impacting the cost of agricultural production. However, agricultural has the potential of replacing some of the purchased energy in the form of fossil fuels, commercial fertilizer and field production of animal feed with bioenergy and organic fertilizer from onsite renewable biomass such as animal manure in order to economically and environmentally sustain it. The aim of this study was to develop an innovative energy efficient pilot scale anaerobic digester composting facility. Methodology: A solid/liquid manure separator farm scale anaerobic digester and composting facility for a medium sized dairy farm were designed, constructed and tested. In order to make the anaerobic digestion economically viable under Canadian climatic conditions, the design, installation and operation of the system were based on advantages gained from the digester as a component of the total farm management system. In addition to the biogas production, benefits related to manure handling and storage, environmental quality improvement through odor control and water pollution reduction, fertilizer recovery and water recycling, were considered. Results: The layout of the farm was modified to provide solutions for four environmental problems related to: disposal of milkhouse wastes and overflow from the manure storage facility into the fire pond. The system possesses high energy conversion efficiency at relatively low capital cost and reduced labour requirement and has indirect energy ramifications through the production of organic fertilizer (compost to replace expensive and energy consuming commercial fertilizer as well as the production of bioenergy (biogas which will reduce the demand for energy. The overflow from the system (purified water can be recycled for cleaning the barn, thereby reducing the costs of water use and manure storage facilities on one hand and eliminating pollution problems associated with manure storage and disposal on the other hand. Conclusion: The use of dairy waste as a source of energy and fertilizer resulted in a saving of 6289 kg of fertilizer at a cost of $17 925 annually and additional saving of $20 547 on energy use.

  20. Karyotypes of some medium-sized Dytiscidae (Agabinae and Colymbetinae (Coleoptera

    Robert Angus

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An account is given of the karyotypes of 29 species of medium sized Dytiscidae (Coleoptera. Of the 20 species of Agabus Leach, 1817, 18 have karyotypes comprising 21 pairs of autosomes and sex chromosomes which are either X0(♂ or XX (♀. These species are A. serricornis (Paykull, 1799, A. labiatus (Brahm, 1791, A. congener (Thunberg, 1794, A. lapponicus (Thomson, 1867, A. thomsoni (J. Sahlberg, 1871, A. confinis (Gyllenhal, 1808, A. sturmii (Gyllenhal, 1808, A. bipustulatus (Linnaeus, 1767, A. nevadensis Håkan Lindberg, 1939, A. wollastoni Sharp, 1882, A. melanarius Aubé, 1837, A. biguttatus (Olivier, 1795, A. binotatus Aubé, 1837, A. affinis (Paykull, 1798, A. unguicularis (Thomson, 1867, A. ramblae Millan & Ribera, 2001, A. conspersus (Marsham, 1802 and A. nebulosus (Forster, 1771. However two species, A. infuscatus Aubé, 1838 and A. adpressus Aubé, 1837, have developed a neo-XY system, with karyotypes comprising 21 pairs of autosomes and XY sex chromosomes (♂. No chromosomal differences have been detected between typical A. bipustulatus and A. bipustulatus var. solieri Aubé, 1837, nor have any been found between the three species of the A. bipustulatus complex (A. bipustulatus, A. nevadensis and A. wollastoni. The four species of Colymbetes Clairville, 1806, C. fuscus (Linnaeus, 1758, C. paykulli Erichson, 1837, C. piceus Klug, 1834 and C. striatus (Linnaeus, 1758 have karyotypes comprising 20 pairs of autosomes and sex chromosomes which are X0 (♂, XX (♀. Two of the species of Rhantus Dejean, 1833, R. exsoletus (Forster, 1771 and R. suturellus (Harris, 1828 have karyotypes comprising 20 pairs of autosomes and X0/XX sex chromosomes, but the other three species, R. grapii (Gyllenhal, 1808, R. frontalis (Marsham, 1802 and R. suturalis (Macleay, 1825 have 22 pairs of autosomes and X0/XX sex chromosomes. Agabus congener and Rhantus suturellus may have one B-chromosome. Nine of the species have previously published karyotype data but for seven of these the data are wrong and are here corrected.

  1. Perceived impediments to export involvement among small and medium sized firms : non-exporters perspective

    Mercy Mpinganjira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of this paper is to examine perceived impediments to export involvement among non-exporting small and medium sized firms (SME's in Malawi. The study also examines levels of interest in exporting among the firms. Problem investigated: Many countries have programs aimed at promoting export involvement among SME's. Despite this, most SME's continue to ignore exporting as a viable business strategy. Information on perceived impediments to export involvement especially from the non-exporters' perspective is often lacking hence the need for this study. Methodology: Data was collected from 80 owner managers of non-exporting SME's. A structured questionnaire was the main instrument used to collect data. Personal interviews were also held with managers for the purposes of probing their answers to the questions in the questionnaire. Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS version 18 was used to analyse the quantitative data obtained from use of the structured questionnaire. Qualitative data obtained through personal interviews was analysed used thematic analysis. Findings: The findings of the study showed significant levels of interest in exporting among the firms. The majority of the owner managers indicated willingness to exploit export opportunities that may be readily available to them. The findings however showed that just over half of the respondents had discussed or investigated the possibility of exporting before. On impediments to exporting, the findings showed that managers perceive many factors as important impediments to their firm's involvement in exporting. The top two most important impediments were internal to the firm and related to human resource issues. They included insufficient knowledge about export opportunities and lack of personnel knowledgeable in exporting. Originality and value of the research: A review of literature shows that most export promotion studies tend to focus more on issues relating to firms already involved in exporting. Efforts aimed at encouraging more SME's to take up exporting are however likely to fail if they do not address non-exporters' concerns. Conclusion: There are many non-exporting firms which would consider exporting if only they could receive appropriate help. It is thus important for officials involved in export promotion to understand perceived impediments to export involvement from the non-exporters perspective. Such information can help in designing export promotional programs that will address concerns and help improve uptake of exporting as a business strategy. This study contributes towards this understanding.

  2. Knowledge Management Acceptance: Success Factors amongst Small and Medium-Size Enterprises

    Christine N.L.  TAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The value and importance of knowledge, as seen by numerous organisations today, does without a doubt play a crucial role in the current ever-challenging and aggressive business environment. As a result, businesses that aspire to be labelled as being successful and competitive need to seek and find better ways to improve their firms’ performance. Hence, Knowledge Management (KM, which is viewed as a source of sustainable competitive advantage, has attracted the attention of various companies all over the business world, including Small and Medium-Size Enterprises (SMEs in Malaysia. With the realisation of KM, the systematic management of organisation knowledge - a strategic corporate asset not to be taken lightly; can thus be created, transferred, shared and, utilised, in pushing for greater organisational competitiveness, innovativeness and, productivity. This research examined the success factors that help to increase the business performance of SMEs in Malaysia. Besides, it also highlighted the importance and contribution of KM amongst SMEs. Therefore, the reason behind this study is to understand and recognised the acceptance of KM and therefore further classified the success factors that contributed to the business performance outcome amongst SMEs in Malaysia. With this, the success factors observed in this research; culture; leadership; employee participation; Information and Communications Technology (ICT; organisational structure; are thoroughly investigated to explore on whether these factors have an impact on knowledge creation; knowledge transfer; knowledge sharing and knowledge utilisation; of KM processes among SMEs in Malaysia. Approach: This study aids to determined and examined the success factors; culture; leadership; employee participation; Information and Communications Technology (ICT; organisational structure; of SMEs that further influences KM processes; knowledge creation, transfer, sharing, utilisation. Results: It is hoped that SMEs with the help of this study, are able apply the success factors and KM processes as a guideline in achieving successful KM acceptance. It is anticipated that the factors proposed in this study could help businesses especially SMEs to better organise their KM initiatives, as well as to assists Malaysia in producing a superior and highly acclaimed knowledgeable society. Conclusion: The findings may be used as recommendations to SMEs that are keen in accepting and adopting KM in their daily operations. Furthermore, this study may also serve as a basis for future quantitative research studies among researchers, practitioners and professionals alike, in gaining a profound understanding of KM in sectors other than SMEs.

  3. The Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises Office (SME Office) at the European Medicines Agency.

    Carr, M

    2010-01-01

    On 15 December 2005, the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) launched an "SME Office" to provide financial and administrative assistance to micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), with the aim of promoting innovation and the development of new human and veterinary medicinal products by SMEs. According to current EU definition of an SME, companies with fewer than 250 employees, and an annual turnover of not more than 50 million euro or an annual balance sheet total of not more than 43 million euro, are eligible for assistance from the SME Office. Incentives available from the EMEA for SMEs, include: Administrative and procedural assistance from SME Office within the Agency; Fee reductions (90%) for scientific advice and inspections; Fee exemptions for certain administrative services (excluding parallel distribution); Deferral of the fee payable for an application for marketing authorisation or related inspection until after the grant of the marketing authorisation; Conditional fee exemption where scientific advice followed and marketing application is unsuccessful; Assistance with translations of the product information documents. At the end of May 2009, more than 380 companies from 21 countries across the European Economic Area (EEA) had SME status assigned by the EMEA. The large majority of companies are developing medicinal products for human use, 16 are veterinary companies, 15 companies are developing products for both human and veterinary use and 38 are regulatory consultants. Since the SME initiative started the Agency has processed more than 130 requests for scientific advice with fee reductions totalling of 6.9 million euro. Regulatory assistance has been provided to more than 170 companies and 12 companies have benefited from the SME translation service. Stakeholders have acknowledged the significant role the SME Office now plays as a service provider. In the period between January 2006 and June 2009, 34 applications for marketing authorization from SME applicants were filed for medicinal products for human use. Current analysis shows SMEs to have a lower success rate compared to non-SME companies. Major objections for SMEs are particularly high in the area of quality. Although the SME initiative is still at an early stage, it is apparent from the experience gained with applications for marketing authorisation to date that it is important for companies to open up an early dialogue with the EMEA. Scientific advice should be sought early, proactively and comprehensively on key issues in development (quality, non-clinical, clinical) and follow-up advice should be sought as development proceeds. For advanced therapy medicinal products, the assistance available to SMEs will be reinforced in 2009, with the introduction of the certification process. PMID:20101799

  4. TLD area monitoring on the small size industrial irradiator facility

    To complement radiological survey performed on the new small size gamma irradiator set up at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CNEN/SP-IPEN) it was positioned 12 TLD units inside the ware house that enclosure the irradiator facility and 8 units outside. During the second period of monitoring occurred arrival of two 60 Co sealed sources containers (3.4 PBq and 9.2PBq), charging of the sources in racks inside the storage pool and the irradiation of several kinds of products. CaSO4:Dy/PTFE dosimeters have been used in several facilities due to their sensibility to photons and robustness. TLD evaluation was carried out at Laboratorio de Dosimetria Termoluminescente in Centro de Metrologia das Radiacoes. Results using the dosimetric quantity exposure for photons in air show that at only one point the exposure value is higher than register level for workers and the others are close to background level. High exposure point is due to the container containing 60Co sealed sources (9.2PBq) set temporary at the backside of irradiator shielding. After the removal of the stored container, exposure will diminish probably up to background level. Using photon dose equivalent, the operational quantity used in Brazil for external individual monitoring, it can be observed that the facility safety is adequate for workers and public in normal condition of operation. It is important to emphasize that, as exposure is very low inside and nearby the facility, there is no radiological impact on the environment. (author)

  5. TLD area monitoring on the small size industrial irradiator facility

    Kodama, Yasko; Rela, Paulo Roberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes]. E-mail: ykodama@ipen.br; prela@ipen.br; Manzoli, Jose Eduardo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Metrologia das Radiacoes]. E-mail: jmanzoli@ipen.br

    2005-07-01

    To complement radiological survey performed on the new small size gamma irradiator set up at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CNEN/SP-IPEN) it was positioned 12 TLD units inside the ware house that enclosure the irradiator facility and 8 units outside. During the second period of monitoring occurred arrival of two 60 Co sealed sources containers (3.4 PBq and 9.2PBq), charging of the sources in racks inside the storage pool and the irradiation of several kinds of products. CaSO4:Dy/PTFE dosimeters have been used in several facilities due to their sensibility to photons and robustness. TLD evaluation was carried out at Laboratorio de Dosimetria Termoluminescente in Centro de Metrologia das Radiacoes. Results using the dosimetric quantity exposure for photons in air show that at only one point the exposure value is higher than register level for workers and the others are close to background level. High exposure point is due to the container containing 60Co sealed sources (9.2PBq) set temporary at the backside of irradiator shielding. After the removal of the stored container, exposure will diminish probably up to background level. Using photon dose equivalent, the operational quantity used in Brazil for external individual monitoring, it can be observed that the facility safety is adequate for workers and public in normal condition of operation. It is important to emphasize that, as exposure is very low inside and nearby the facility, there is no radiological impact on the environment. (author)

  6. A small size continuous run industrial gamma irradiator

    Calvo, Wilson A. P.; Rela, Paulo R.; Springer, Francisco E.; Costa, Fábio E. da; Omi, Nelson M.; Silva, Leonardo G. A. e.

    2004-09-01

    A new small size gamma irradiator is being set up at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Brazil, with a revolutionary design. The developed technology for this facility consists of continuous tote box transport system, comprising a single concrete vault, where the automated transport system of products inside and outside of the irradiator utilizes a rotating door, integrated with the shielding, avoiding the traditional maze configuration. Covering 76 m 2 of floor area, the irradiator design is product overlap sources and the maximum capacity of Cobalt-60 wet sources is 37 PBq (1 MCi). The irradiator is being installed in a Governmental Institution and it will be used as a demonstration facility for manufacturers, who need an economic and logistic in-house irradiation system alternative. Also, it will be useful for supporting the local scientific community on development of products and process using gamma radiation, assisting the traditional and potential users on process validation, training and qualification of operators and radioprotection officers.

  7. Potential role of the Romanian research and industry on the small and medium reactors market

    The need of diversifying the energy sources, independence from foreign supplies and modernization of economy have constituted the major factors in implementation of nuclear energy in Romania. The choice of the heavy water reactor CANDU-600 was made on grounds of advanced safety features, proven efficient economic operation as well as on the technologic feasibility for manufacturing of components, equipment, instrumentation, heavy water and natural uranium fuel in Romania. Unlike turn-key acquisition approaches, the Romanian option provided an active national participation in construction the Cernavoda NPP. As consequence, important support was being given to development of the industries involved in the nuclear fuel cycle, manufacturing of equipment and nuclear materials, construction-montage, engineering, consulting, services, etc. This was done based on technology transfer, implementation of advanced design and execution standards, quality assurance procedures and modern nuclear safety requirements at international level. The efforts materialized in an important national participation in the construction of the Cernavoda NPP and all related programs are successful. Now, Romanian firms are also involved in supplying components, equipment and services to NPP's in other eastern and central Europeans countries. The paper presents the achievements of the Romanian economy in this field and the effort of the Romanian companies on the small and medium power reactors market. Lists with main R and D institutes, nuclear fuel cycle facilities as well as potential equipment suppliers are attached. (author)

  8. Balancing and lot-sizing mixed-model lines in the footwear industry

    Sadeghi, Parisa

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the full research proposal for the project \\Balancing and lot-sizing mixed-model lines in the footwear industry", to be developed as part of the master program in Engenharia Electrot ecnica e de Computadores - Sistemas de Planeamento Industrial of the Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto. The Portuguese footwear industry is undergoing a period of great development and innovation. The numbers speak for themselves, Portugal footwear exported 71 million ...

  9. Industry life cycle, technological regimes and firm size; comparison of manufacturing and services

    Tiainen, Ossi

    2014-01-01

    Despite the increased attention that services have recently received, many research areas within industry evolution and innovation remain yet to integrate manufacturing and services under the same concepts and frameworks. Following a synthesis approach, the objective of this study is to compare manufacturing and services with respect to three particularly important areas within industry evolution and innovation: industry life cycle (ILC), technological regimes, and firm size. Three differe...

  10. The power of Alberta business : the impact of electricity deregulation on Alberta small and medium-sized business

    Deregulation of the electricity market came into effect on January 1, 2001 in Alberta. This deregulation affects the retail and generation fields of electricity. The intention was to introduce competition and apply downward pressure on electricity prices, but the reverse effect was witnessed: power prices increased. It resulted in a period of anxiety on the part of businesses, caused by the volatility of electricity prices. A survey of Canadian Federation of Independent Business (CFIB) members was conducted in May and June 2001 to better understand the impacts of electricity deregulation on small and medium-sized businesses. A broad range of businesses provided responses (951 responses) covering all sectors of industry and regions in Alberta. A large proportion of respondents were dissatisfied with deregulation, caused in part by the confusion created by the flurry of rebate and credit announcements designed to ease the transition. Small firms were faced with significant increases in electricity prices, and several could not estimate the size of the increase as it was too difficult to measure. Responses varied from a low of 5 per cent increase to a high of 400 per cent in power rates. Most respondents also indicated that the increases had an impact on their business. The impact of power rate increases by sector was examined. Another consequence of deregulation was the fact that billing moved from a single invoice received to the requirement to actively manage energy usage. It was discovered that a lack of information on electricity cost and consumption management impeded the the ability to make business decisions. The CFIB asked respondents to indicate the measures being considered to address management of electricity costs. Incorporating energy-saving devices and/or methods had been considered by slightly more than 40 per cent of respondents. Negotiating with power retailers represented another option under consideration by some. It was felt that government must still play an important role in the electricity business. The recommendations touched on the stimulation of retail competition, providing transitional/long-term price relief, and provide businesses with adequate information. 15 figs

  11. Medical Engineering Education for Engineers Working in Small & Medium Sized Enterprise

    Nagai, Chiaki; Moriwaki, Toshimichi

    Medical device industry is expected to be one of the growing fields in coming years, because a large amount of medical bill expenditure becomes pressing matters to overcome in Japan?s rapidly aging society. Authors have developed medical engineering programs for SMe?s to meet these demand by the government grant under academia-industry collaboration in this region and were successful to put these programs into practice. We have two medical engineering education programs in Kobe-Kansai region, one is by graduate school of Kobe University, and the other is non degree program by Kobe City Industrial Promotion Foundation. Present situation of these education are described.

  12. Determinants of small and medium sized fast growing enterprises in central and eastern Europe: a panel data analysis

    Miroslav Mateev

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the main determinants of growth in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs in central and eastern Europe. The important role played by SMEs in the economic development of central and eastern European (CEE countries has attracted the recent attention of academics and policymakers but remains relatively unexplored. Empirical research has suggested that firm growth is determined not only by the traditional characteristics of size and age but also by other firm-specific factors such as indebtedness, internal financing, future growth opportunities, process and product innovation, and organisational changes. Although growth in manufacturing and service SMEs in transition economies is well explained by the traditional firm characteristics of size and age, there is no empirical evidence concerning what other specific factors may be associated with SME growth and performance in these countries. Using a panel dataset of 560 fast growing small and medium enterprises from six transition economies we find that firm size when measured by firm total assets can explain to a large extent the growth in SMEs in these countries. When size is proxied by a firm’s number of employees the observed effect is marginal. Firm specific characteristics such as leverage, current liquidity, future growth opportunities, internally generated funds, and factor productivity are found to be important factors in determining a firm’s growth and performance. Age and ownership do not seem to be able to explain firm growth. The results of our empirical study have also some policy implications: we argue that governments in transition economies need to pay an increased attention to small and medium sized enterprises and try to create a business environment that will be beneficial for SME development.

  13. Management and organization problems of small and medium sized enterprise’s: a research on textile firms in Denizli

    Celalettin Serinkan; Hasan Cabar

    2008-01-01

    Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SME) are important establishments for countries to evolve entrepreneurship, to refresh economy, to create employment, technological development and structural change. SME’s have to know and apply management and organization topics to continue their lifes in today’s circumstances. In today’s business environment that is intensified competition is lived, importance of investigating solution ways and taking necessary steps for management and ...

  14. Different determinants affecting managerial decision-making : The international expansion of medium-sized companies in the Italian food sector

    Ferracin, Giorgia; Vega Mazzeo, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the influence that newspaper news and other determinants exercise on the decision-making of executives and hence on the expansion strategies and the performance of medium-sized companies in the Italian food sector. This sector is characterized by companies that have a turnover between 10 and 50 million Euros and, for the bigger ones in this range, around 100 and 200 employees. The use of interviews (questionnaires) and secondary data, combined with a news gathering pro...

  15. Abundance of Conepatus chinga (Carnivora, Mephitidae) and other medium-sized mammals in grasslands of southern Brazil

    Carlos B. Kasper; Vinícius A. G. Bastazini; José B. G. Soares; Freitas, Thales R. O.

    2012-01-01

    Between January 2007 and December 2010, the abundance of medium-sized mammals was studied, with special focus on the Molina's hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782), at four locations in southern Brazil. In this study, transect line methodology was used to obtain data for Distance Analyses. Transects were traveled by car at night, searching with spotlights along the edges of secondary roads in agricultural landscapes. Along 1,811 km, we obtained 620 observations of 20 mammal species...

  16. An empirical study on the critical success factors of small to medium sized projects in a South African mining company

    Du Randt, Francois Jean; Van Waveren, Cornelis Cristo; Kai-Ying Chan

    2014-01-01

    Projects that fail, for whatever reason, can impact negatively on society, organisations, and other stakeholders. A number of researchers have identified various critical success factors (CSFs) that can influence the outcome and success of a project. This research therefore aims to determine the CSFs that influence various success measures of small- to medium-sized projects at a South African mining company, Exxaro Resources’ Grootegeluk Coal Mine. Other objectives of this research include de...

  17. Occupational Health and Safety(OHS) in Small and Medium Size Enterprises (SMEs): A Primary Review1 SANTE ET SECURITE

    Ping-Qing LIU; Fang Liu(Institute of High Energy Physics); Chun-jing Gao

    2006-01-01


    Problems of occupational health and safety(OHS) in small and medium size enterprises(SMEs) in that mainly are private enterprises, are severe in China where as, the corresponding theoretical study are lagged behind regretfully. This paper summarizes the representative progress in this discipline simply. The exploratory results will be used to make an initial evaluation of SMEs needs, and will help orient future research.
    Key words: Occupational health and safety, Small...

  18. An Empirical Study of IT Innovation Adoption Among Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Klang Valley, Malaysia

    Sedigheh Moghavvemi; Noor A. Mohd Salleh; Wenjie Zhao; Fatemeh Hakimian

    2011-01-01

    Purpose—The purpose of this research is to use and validate the Entrepreneurial Event model as a base model to investigate SME owners’ perception toward IT innovation adoption and use. This paper also attempts to investigate the key determinants of the adoption of IT innovation among small and medium sized enterprises in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This study revised and validated the Entrepreneurial Event Model in a new context and tried to examine the effect of perceived desirability, propensit...

  19. Evaluating the impact of environmental factors on the international competitiveness of Small and Medium sized Enterprises in the Western Balkans

    Andzelic, Goran; Dzakovic, Vladimir; Lalić, Bojan; Zrnic, Danica; Palčič, Iztok

    2012-01-01

    Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) with an export potential face significant obstacles in gaining international competitiveness, due to the highly dynamic environment in which they operate. This study evaluates the impact of environmental factors on international competitiveness of the Western Balkans SMEs by identifying the key pairs of environmental factors and factors of international competitiveness, which facilitate an increase in international competitiveness of these firms. The ...

  20. Regulation and ownership of public utilities : water supply service in a medium-sized Spanish city during the Franco years

    Mirás Araujo, Jesús; Piñeiro Sánchez, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between business and institutional environment has fulfilled an increasing space in historians agenda. The aim of the paper is to investigate the impact of the new institutional framework created in Spain during the Franco Dictatorship (1939-75) on the success or failure of businesses, through a case-study. The scenario is a Spanish medium-sized city where the City council entrusted a private company the service at the beginning of the twentieth century, through franchising. ...

  1. What can companies do to support HIV-positive workers? Recommendations for medium- and large-sized African workplaces

    Scott, Kerry; Campbell, Catherine; SKOVDAL, MORTEN; Madanhire, Claudius; Nyamukapa, Constance; Gregson, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose : To provide recommendations for medium and large sized workplaces on how to supportHIV-positive employees. Supporting HIV-positive workers is an issue of social responsibility and aneconomic necessity for employers. HIV-positive workers can remain productive and healthy formany years if able to access appropriate HIV management support. Approach : Recent (2000 - 2010) academic and grey literature on HIV workplace management wasreviewed and a qualitative study of nine workers receivin...

  2. UCD4SME: Small to Medium-sized Enterprises involving their users and clients for product innovation:

    de Lille, C.S.H.

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of Small to Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) starts to realize the opportunities offered by User-centred Design (UCD). The issue is that our understanding of UCD either comes from large companies or is developed in an academic setting, without taking SMEs into account. This research project demonstrates that in order to make use of UCD in the context of SMEs, the strengths of SMEs play an important role (such as project-based development, involvement of different internal ...

  3. Information and knowledge sharing trends of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Faeda Mohsam; Pieter A. van Brakel

    2011-01-01

    Background: Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), especially in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, are currently facing various financial and other obstacles, which may threaten their survival. Globalisation, the lowering of trade barriers and the reduction of import tariffs have resulted in increased international competition. Businesses are thus forced to undertake continuous improvements and innovation in order to survive, to keep abreast of change and to excel.Objectives: Eff...

  4. Financing Small and Medium-Size Enterprises with Factoring: Global Growth and its Potential in Eastern Europe

    Bakker, Marie H. R.; Klapper, Leora; Gregory F. Udell

    2004-01-01

    Factoring is a form of asset-based finance where the credit is extended based on the value of the borrower's accounts receivable. In recent years factoring has experienced phenomenal growth and has become an important source of financing-especially short-term working capital-for small and medium-size enterprises and corporations, reaching a worldwide volume of 760 billion euro in 2003. Alt...

  5. Investigation and Assessment of Critical Success Factors of Knowledge Management Implementation in Iranian Small-to-Medium Sized Enterprises

    Changiz Valmohammadi

    2010-01-01

    Based on an in-depth review and comparative study of existing studies on Critical Success Factors (CSFs) of Knowledge Management (KM) and by considering the characteristics of small to medium sized enterprises (SMEs), twelve CSFs were identified, namely management leadership and support, organizational culture, information systems, KM strategy, performance measurement, organizational infrastructure, processes and activities, rewarding and motivation, training and education, removal of resourc...

  6. Overview of Technologies for Development of Small and Medium-sized Deep-water Oil and Gas Fields

    I. V. Velmeskin; O. E. Kochneva

    2015-01-01

    At present, the oil companies, engaged in the deep water oil production, encountered the problem of unprofitability of development of small and medium-size fields. Technology, which is applied for the extraction, collection and storage of hydrocarbons in deep-water conditions, is very complicated and expensive. It is noted that projects with annual production of up to 50 thousand barrels are not able to provide even a minimal profitability. In this article, we analyzed up-to-date oil producti...

  7. SUCCESS EVALUATION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES IN TERMS OF THEIR PARTICIPATION IN THE INTERNATIONALIZATION PROCESS

    Lea, Kubí?ková; Lenka, Procházková

    2012-01-01

    In context of discussionsabout the Czech foreign trade development, questions of the Czech enterprises’ability to participate in the internationalization processare often considered. The main aim of this article is to present various points of view on the globalization and enterprise internationalization processwith a special accent on the analysis of the specifics in the internationalization process of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Those enterprises represent a significant part...

  8. THE ROLE OF ENTREPRENEURIAL BEHAVIOUR OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTREPRISE’S IN THEIR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONFIGURATION

    RENATA NI?U ANTONIE; EMOKE-SZIDONIA FEDER

    2009-01-01

    In European and global context, to survive the intense competition, small and medium-sized enterprise’s (SME) must expand, so that internationalisation becomes the inevitable stage in their strategic evolution. The phenomenon is analysed from the perspective of complementarities of different internationalisation theories, the integration of entrepreneurial orientation in that context, in order to enhance resources, exploit opportunities and create value, through innovation, proactive and risk...

  9. Pressures on Green Supply Chain Management: A Study on Manufacturing Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in China

    Xiangmeng HUANG; Boon Leing TAN; Li, Dong

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to empirically investigate the pressures for adopting green supply chain management (GSCM) among Chinese small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Data is collected through the use of mail distributed questionnaires administered to participants at a national trade fair held in Suzhou and two rounds of data collection were carried out to make a more reliable result for the research. ANOVA and Factor analysis are used to analyze the data. Some key findings are found from this s...

  10. Occupational health, safety and ergonomic issues in small and medium-sized enterprises in a developing country

    Ahasan, M. R. (M. Rabiul)

    2002-01-01

    Abstracts Data and information accumulated during several years of questionnaire and checklist surveys; site visits and walk-thorough investigations in some small and medium-sized enterprises provided the basis of this thesis. Seven articles are included in this thesis, dealing with workers' physical, physiological, cognitive and psychosocial issues. The data were collected on the target group of workers from different work sites in Bangladesh for a comprehensive assessment of tasks, jobs...

  11. Beyond the limits of accountants as ‘trusted advisors’ for small and medium sized enterprises:environmental sustainability advice

    Spence, Laura; Agyemang, Gloria; Rinaldi, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    We present emerging research on the potential of small accounting practices as advisors on environmental sustainability for their small and medium sized clients (SMEs). Enabling this resource could have substantial implications to improve sustainability because SMEs are notoriously difficult to reach and influence, but their most ‘trusted advisor’ is consistently their accountant. Using Habermas’ notion of steering, we present research data primarily from interviews with accoun...

  12. Making use of the crowd : Can crowdsourcing function as an enabler for Swedish small – and medium size enterprises?

    Schnitzer, Julia; Axfjord, Jonatan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the concept of crowdsourcing and how this can be exploited by small- and medium size enterprises in Sweden, to function as a mean for improvement. In order to achieve this, a working conceptual model was outlined and three research questions were formulated. The literature review consist of the origin, concept and process of crowdsourcing, its advantages and disadvantages, similar concepts, as well as the resource based view (RBV) in line with McGrath e...

  13. An investigation of development appraisal methods employed by valuers and appraisers in small and medium sized practices in Brazil

    Greenhalgh, Paul; Bendel, Roberto Soares

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – Whilst the real estate development appraisal practices of large national and international real estate companies are well understood, relatively little is known about how development appraisals are conducted by indigenous appraisers and valuers in developing countries. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how development appraisal is conducted in Brazil, compared to the UK, focusing primarily on the methods employed by small- and medium-sized real estate practices and their a...

  14. A program of direct assistance for small and medium-size manufacturers. Quarterly progress report

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    During the quarter ending March 31, 1997, the IACs in the Western Region performed a total of 97 industrial assessments under the contract continuation beginning October 1, 1996. Industrial assessments reports were issued to 43 clients for the 1995-96 program period and 57 clients for the 1996-97 program period. The attached summary shows the aggregate number of audits performed by, number of reports received from, number of critiques completed and returned to, and implementation reports completed by each of the Western Region EADCs/IACs under the 1994-95 program period through the quarter ending March 31, 1997. Also shown are the number of industrial assessments performed by, reports completed by each of the Western Region IACs under the 1994-95 program period. Also shown is the information for industrial assessments for the 1995-96 program period and the information for the 1996-97 program period.

  15. Lowest-energy cage structures of medium-sized (ZnO){sub n} clusters with n = 15 − 24

    Tang, Lingli; Sai, Linwei [School of Mathematical Sciences, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China and College of Advanced Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhao, Jijun, E-mail: zhaojj@dlut.edu.cn [College of Advanced Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China and Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Dalian University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Dalian 116024 (China); Qiu, Ruifeng [School of Mathematical Sciences, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2015-01-22

    Fullerene-like cage structures of medium-sized (ZnO){sub n} clusters with n = 15 − 24 were generated by spiral algorithm and optimized using density functional theory calculations. Most of these lowest-energy cage structures contain only four-membered and six-membered rings, whereas eight-membered rings were found in the lowest-energy cages of (ZnO){sub n} (n = 19, 20, 23, 24). Our best cage configurations either reproduce or prevail the previously reported ones. The size-dependent electronic properties were also discussed.

  16. ELECTRONIC SPECTROSCOPY OF MEDIUM-SIZED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE CARRIERS OF THE 2175 A UV BUMP

    Mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been produced by means of laser pyrolysis. The main fraction of the extracted PAHs was primarily medium-sized, up to a maximum size of 38 carbon atoms per molecule. The use of different extraction solvents and subsequent chromatographic fractionation provided mixtures of different size distributions. UV-VIS absorption spectra have been measured at low temperature by matrix isolation spectroscopy and at room temperature with PAHs as film-like deposits on transparent substrates. In accordance with semi-empirical calculations, our findings suggest that large PAHs with sizes around 50-60 carbon atoms per molecule could be responsible for the interstellar UV bump at 217.5 nm.

  17. Electronic spectroscopy of medium-sized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Implications for the carriers of the 2175 {\\AA} UV bump

    Steglich, M; Rouillé, G; Huisken, F; Mutschke, H; Henning, Th

    2010-01-01

    Mixtures of polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been produced by means of laser pyrolysis. The main fraction of the extracted PAHs were primarily medium-sized, up to a maximum size of 38 carbon atoms per molecule. The use of different extraction solvents and subsequent chromatographic fractionation provided mixtures of different size distributions. UV-VIS absorption spectra have been measured at low temperature by matrix isolation spectroscopy and at room temperature with PAHs as film-like deposits on transparent substrates. In accordance with semi-empirical calculations, our findings suggest that large PAHs with sizes around 50 to 60 carbon atoms per molecule could be responsible for the interstellar UV bump at 217.5 nm.

  18. The ABC-paradox: is Time Driven ABC relevant for small and Medium sized enterprises (SME)?

    Fladkjær, Henrik Find; Jensen, Erling

    Several articles suggest that Activity Based Costing (ABC) has failed to succeed in practical use. It is even argued that we have an ABC-paradox. Activity Based Costing has won theoretically in nu-merous articles in journals, through books, being included in all major Business Accounting text...... available in the required quality in the ERP systems used by the businesses. In this article we will explore ways of overcoming these two related problems. We will explore these issues particularly in relation to small and medium enterprises. Through a theoretical analysis and practical implementation in a......-books and in curriculum at most business schools. But ABC is not used very much by the compa-nies. Especially in small and medium enterprises ABC is rarely implemented. This is primarily due to two things: First, the ABC model is too difficult to implement. Second, the data foundation for the model is not...

  19. Fostering Linkages between Transnational Corporations and Small to Medium-Sized Enterprises in Brazil

    Delane Botelho; Milber Fernandes Morais Bourguignon

    2011-01-01

    When large Transnational Corporations (TNCs) enter a host country, consequent development of local Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) is expected. The public sector may play an important role by fostering Business Linkages (BL), by which TNCs establish purchasing relationships with local SMEs. This article was motivated by growing attention in literature to the interaction between economic development and the ability of companies to absorb and disseminate competences. Its purpose is to under...

  20. Innovativeness of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Greece: an Empirical Investigation

    Hyz, Alina; Gikas, Grigorios

    2014-01-01

    Economic theories recognize the leading role of innovations in the process of economic growth. Undoubtedly investing in innovation is a challenge for all enterprises operating in the modern highly competitive environment. The role and position of small and medium enterprises is unique and extremely important in this matter. The main objective of this study is to examine the conditions of undertaking innovative activities by SME sector in Greece and the identification of the critical success f...

  1. A Firm-Level Analysis of Small and Medium Size Enterprise Financing in Poland

    Klapper, Leora; Sarria-Allende, Virginia; Zaidi, Rida

    2006-01-01

    The authors test competing theories of capital structure choices using firm-level data on firm borrowings. The majority of firms in the dataset are privately owned, young, micro or small and medium enterprise (SME) firms concentrated in the service sector. In general, the financing pattern of firms is low leverage ratios and, in particular, low levels of intermediated financing and long-term financing. Average firm growth rates decreased during the five years of the sample period. Average pro...

  2. Developing innovation in small-medium suppliers: evidence from the Italian car industry

    Giuseppe Calabrese

    1999-01-01

    Small-medium firms represent more than 90% of Italian firms, 50% of Italian production and 2/3 of employment and they need support in innovation process especially in known technology. The small-medium firm, in fact, operates chiefly in medium to low technology sectors, but cannot for this reason reject innovation. Suppliers are often too small to make the necessary investments in training, computer systems, research and development to make an effective partnership with final producers. Withi...

  3. Methodologies and Decision Criteria for Demonstrating Competitiveness of Small and Medium Sized Reactors - Present Value Capital Cost Model. Annex VIII

    Smaller size reactors are required to fulfil the growing energy needs of developing countries and emerging markets, as well as niche markets in developed countries. Grid appropriate reactors have been identified within the United States Department of Energy Global Nuclear Energy Partnership initiative as one of the key elements required to enable worldwide expansion of the peaceful use of nuclear power. In a speech at a conference in Algiers on 9 January 2007, the former IAEA Director General, Mohamed El Baradei, discussed the interest in new small and medium-size reactor designs which allow a more incremental investment than is required for a big reactor, and provide a better match to grid capacity in many developing countries'. Smaller size reactors (IAEA defines as 'small' those reactors with a power <300 MW(e) and 'medium' with a power <700 MW(e)) are the logical choice for smaller countries or those with a limited electrical grid. In fact, smaller reactors are now in different stages of development throughout the world, and interest in their deployment has also been expressed. With regards to decisions on the addition of power plant capacity, small reactors have many attractive characteristics, namely size, simplicity, enhanced safety, cost savings and lower financial resource requirements. On the downside, the specific costs of some components and systems of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) may be higher as a result of economy of scale effects. This annex explores some of the factors affecting decisions on power plant capacity addition in world markets, focusing particularly on many of the characteristics of SMRs

  4. Are the determinants of markup size industry-specific? The case of Slovenian manufacturing firms

    Ponikvar Nina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify factors that affect the pricing policy in Slovenian manufacturing firms in terms of the markup size and, most of all, to explicitly account for the possibility of differences in pricing procedures among manufacturing industries. Accordingly, the analysis of the dynamic panel is carried out on an industry-by-industry basis, allowing the coefficients on the markup determinants to vary across industries. We find that the oligopoly theory of markup determination for the most part holds for the manufacturing sector as a whole, although large variability in markup determinants exists across industries within the Slovenian manufacturing. Our main conclusion is that each industry should be investigated separately in detail in order to assess the precise role of markup factors in the markup-determination process.

  5. Crisis management: Towards a model of good practice for small to medium sized hotels.

    McMullan, Caroline; Baum, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates that the hotel industry provides the perfect environment for certain crises to develop and escalate [1,2,3,4,5]. Given the nature of the industry, hotels must be friendly, inviting, and easy to access. Members of the public, as well as residents, are encouraged to use the facilities. This kind of open door or open access policy makes hotels easy targets for criminals, terrorists, etc. In addition, the fact that guests eat, drink and sleep on the premises opens up a whole ra...

  6. Optimal Sizing of Battery Storage Systems for Industrial Applications when Uncertainties Exist

    Guido Carpinelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Demand response (DR can be very useful for an industrial facility, since it allows noticeable reductions in the electricity bill due to the significant value of energy demand. Although most industrial processes have stringent constraints in terms of hourly active power, DR only becomes attractive when performed with the contemporaneous use of battery energy storage systems (BESSs. When this option is used, an optimal sizing of BESSs is desirable, because the investment costs can be significant. This paper deals with the optimal sizing of a BESS installed in an industrial facility to reduce electricity costs. A four-step procedure, based on Decision Theory, was used to obtain a good solution for the sizing problem, even when facing uncertainties; in fact, we think that the sizing procedure must properly take into account the unavoidable uncertainties introduced by the cost of electricity and the load demands of industrial facilities. Three approaches provided by Decision Theory were applied, and they were based on: (1 the minimization of expected cost; (2 the regret felt by the sizing engineer; and (3 a mix of (1 and (2. The numerical applications performed on an actual industrial facility provided evidence of the effectiveness of the proposed procedure.

  7. A Comprehensive, Competency-Based Education Framework Using Medium-Sized ERP Systems

    Scholtz, Brenda; Cilliers, Charmain; Calitz, Andre

    2012-01-01

    Graduates with industry-relevant ERP competencies are highly sought after. This requirement is due to a dominance of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems and the positive affect which good quality ERP specialists have on the success rate of ERP system implementation projects. Universities are therefore increasingly pressurised to supply…

  8. A Comprehensive, Competency-Based Education Framework Using Medium-Sized ERP Systems

    Scholtz, Brenda; Cilliers, Charmain; Calitz, Andre

    2012-01-01

    Graduates with industry-relevant ERP competencies are highly sought after. This requirement is due to a dominance of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems and the positive affect which good quality ERP specialists have on the success rate of ERP system implementation projects. Universities are therefore increasingly pressurised to supply…

  9. Corporate Environmental Initiatives in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises and Their Outcome

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2016-01-01

    surveys of industrial companies in Denmark over a number of years. The results indicate a slightly increasing involvement over time, but also that the level of results achieved is lower than the level of initiatives taken. That is, the reactive attitude reported previously still seems to be prevailing...

  10. Small and medium-sized hydropower projects in competitive markets: the case of Rio Piedras

    The article describes the case of the Rio Piedras Hydropower Project, a first private hydropower generation initiative in Colombia, within the new regulatory framework for the provision of public services and electric generation under laws 142 and 143, passed in 1994. Reference is made in this article to the background and characteristics of the Project, and some obstacles, challenges and risks encountered are described, as well as the way in which they are being controlled. The investment and commercialization modules developed in analyzing the project are also presented. Finally, some reflections are given as to the medium and long term prospects for electric generation projects in Colombia. (The author)

  11. Rapid preparation of ceramic moulds for medium-sized superalloy castings with magnesia-phosphate-bonded bauxite-mullite investments

    Li Tingzhong

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate-bonded investments have already been widely utilized in dental restoration and micro-casting of artistic products for its outstanding rapid setting and high strength. However, the rapid setting rate of investment slurry has up to now been a barrier to extend the use of such slurry in preparation of medium-sized ceramic moulds. This paper proposes a new process of rapid fabrication of magnesia-phosphate-bonded investment ceramic moulds for medium-sized superalloy castings utilizing bauxite and mullite as refractory aggregates. In order to determine the properties of magnesia-phosphate-bonded bauxite-mullite investments (MPBBMI, a series of experiments were conducted, including modification of the workable time of slurry by liquid(mL/powder(g(L/P ratio and addition of boric acid as retard agent and sodium tri-polyphosphate (STP as strengthening agent, and adjustment of bauxite (g/mullite(g(B/M ratio for mechanical strength. Mechanical vibration was applied to improve initial setting time and fluidity when pouring investment slurry; then an intermediate size ceramic mould for superalloy castings was manufactured by means of this rapid preparing process with MPBBMI material. The results showed that the MPBBMI slurry exhibits proper initial setting time and excellent fluidity when the L/P ratio is 0.64 and the boric acid content is 0.88wt.%. The fired specimens made from the MPBBMI material demonstrated adequate compression strength to withstand impact force of molten metal when the B/M ratio is 0.89 and the STP content is 0.92wt.%. The experimental results confirmed the feasibility of the proposed rapid fabricating process for medium-sized ceramic moulds with MPBBMI material by appropriate measures.

  12. Diversity of medium and large sized mammals in a Cerrado fragment of central Brazil

    F.S. Campos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies related to community ecology of medium and large mammals represent a priority in developing strategies for conservation of their habitats. Due to the significant ecological importance of these species, a concern in relation to anthropogenic pressures arises since their populations are vulnerable to hunting and fragmentation. In this study, we aimed to analyze the diversity of medium and large mammals in a representative area of the Cerrado biome, located in the National Forest of Silvânia, central Brazil, providing insights for future studies on the biodiversity and conservation of Cerrado mammals. Sampling was carried out by linear transects, search for traces, footprint traps and camera traps. We recorded 23 species, among which three are listed in threat categories (e.g., Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Chrysocyon brachyurus and Leopardus tigrinus. We registered 160 records in the study area, where the most frequently recorded species were Didelphis albiventris (30 records and Cerdocyon thous (28 records. Our results indicated that a small protected area of Cerrado can include a large and important percentage of the diversity of mammals in this biome, providing information about richness, abundance, spatial distribution and insights for future studies on the biodiversity and conservation of these biological communities.

  13. Effects of Medium Temperature and Industrial By-Products on the Key Hardened Properties of High Performance Concrete

    Md. Safiuddin; Sudharshan N. Raman; Muhammad Fauzi Mohd Zain

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the work reported in this article was to investigate the effects of medium temperature and industrial by-products on the key hardened properties of high performance concrete. Four concrete mixes were prepared based on a water-to-binder ratio of 0.35. Two industrial by-products, silica fume and Class F fly ash, were used separately and together with normal portland cement to produce three concrete mixes in addition to the control mix. The properties of both fresh and hardened concre...

  14. Organizational Learning, Innovation and Performance: A Study of Malaysian Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

    Islam Mohamed Salim; Mohamed Sulaiman

    2011-01-01

    This empirical study attempts to investigate the effect of organizational learning on innovation as well as theimpact of innovation on company performance. Based on the literature review, two hypotheses are proposed toguide the study: the positive impact of organizational learning on innovation and the positive relationshipbetween innovation and performance. Data was collected via electronic survey from 320 small and mediumenterprises operating in the ICT industry in Malaysia. Findings from t...

  15. Understanding and Supporting Cloud Computing Adoption in Irish Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Carcary, Marian; Doherty, Eileen; Conway, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    Cloud Computing adoption has experienced a considerable rate of growth since its emergence in 2006. In 2011, it had become the top technology priority for organizations worldwide and according to some leading industry reports the cloud computing market is estimated to reach $241 billion by 2020. Reasons for adoption are multi-fold, including for example the expected realisation of benefits pertaining to cost reduction, improved scalability, improved resource utilizatio...

  16. Understanding and Supporting Cloud Computing Adoption in Irish Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs)

    Carcary, Marian; Doherty, Eileen; Conway, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    Cloud Computing adoption has experienced a considerable rate of growth since its emergence in 2006. In 2011, it had become the top technology priority for organizations worldwide and according to some leading industry reports the cloud computing market is estimated to reach $241 billion by 2020. Reasons for adoption are multi?fold, including for example the expected realisation of benefits pertaining to cost reduction, improved scalability, improved resource utilization, worker mo...

  17. Analyzing the efficiency of small and medium-sized enterprises of a national technology innovation research and development program.

    Park, Sungmin

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the efficiency of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) of a national technology innovation research and development (R&D) program. In particular, an empirical analysis is presented that aims to answer the following question: "Is there a difference in the efficiency between R&D collaboration types and between government R&D subsidy sizes?" Methodologically, the efficiency of a government-sponsored R&D project (i.e., GSP) is measured by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), and a nonparametric analysis of variance method, the Kruskal-Wallis (KW) test is adopted to see if the efficiency differences between R&D collaboration types and between government R&D subsidy sizes are statistically significant. This study's major findings are as follows. First, contrary to our hypothesis, when we controlled the influence of government R&D subsidy size, there was no statistically significant difference in the efficiency between R&D collaboration types. However, the R&D collaboration type, "SME-University-Laboratory" Joint-Venture was superior to the others, achieving the largest median and the smallest interquartile range of DEA efficiency scores. Second, the differences in the efficiency were statistically significant between government R&D subsidy sizes, and the phenomenon of diseconomies of scale was identified on the whole. As the government R&D subsidy size increases, the central measures of DEA efficiency scores were reduced, but the dispersion measures rather tended to get larger. PMID:25120949

  18. A comparative study of sustainable development in small and medium tourist hotel industry from Pieria (Greece) and Taiwan

    Anestis K. FOTIADIS; Vassiliadis, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This paper is exploring the relationship of the small hotel sector with the principles of sustainable tourism development. Main objective is to highlight the benefits expected to accrue to the hotel industry and examine the degree of awareness among owners of small and medium hotel units on issues related to sustainable tourism development. A questionnaire was distributed in Greece and Taiwan and a logit model was used, to examine the impact of the dichotomous dependent vari...

  19. Corrosion Behavior and Adsorption Thermodynamics of Some Schiff Bases on Mild Steel Corrosion in Industrial Water Medium

    Shivakumar, S. S.; Mohana, K. N.

    2013-01-01

    The inhibition performance and adsorption behavior of (E)-2-(3-nitrobenzylidene) hydrazine carbothioamide (SB1) and (E)-2-(4-(dimethylamino) benzylidene) hydrazine carbothioamide (SB2) on mild steel corrosion in industrial water medium have been investigated by gravimetric, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The results revealed that inhibition efficiency depends on both the concentration of the inhibitors and temperature of the system. I...

  20. Firm size and productivity. Evidence from the electricity distribution industry in Brazil

    Tovar, Beatriz [Departmento de Analisis Economico Aplicado y EIT, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Javier Ramos-Real, Francisco [Departamento de Analisis Economico, Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Campus de Guajara, Universidad de La Laguna, La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife, Espana (Spain); De Almeida, Edmar Fagundes [IE-UFRJ (Instituto de Economia-Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro) (Brazil)

    2011-02-15

    In this paper we apply Stochastic Frontier Analysis through a distance function to investigate the impact of firm size on productivity development in electricity distribution. We use a sample of seventeen Brazilian firms from 1998 to 2005 and decompose productivity into technical efficiency, scale efficiency and technical change. Moreover, a further step is to decompose the technical change measurement into several components. The results indicate that firm size is important for industry's productivity, and therefore a key aspect to consider when making decisions that affect the market structure in the electricity distribution industry. (author)