WorldWideScience

Sample records for medium sized industries

  1. Accidents in the Food-Manufacturing Small and Medium Sized Malaysian Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Zaliha Hj Hussin; Kamaruzaman Jusoff; Soon Yew Ju; Lai Kuan Kong

    2009-01-01

    This research tried to find out the types and causes of accidents that happen in food-manufacturing factories in small and medium-sized industries (SMIs) in Kedah and the actions taken by the employers following the occurrence of the accidents. Results showed that majority of the respondents had encountered slight injuries. The majority of the accidents were caused by human factors, and employers seldom took serious actions against those involved in workplace accidents. Small cut was identifi...

  2. Schwarz Shipyards : How a Medium Sized Enterprise Struggles to Survive Disruptive Industry Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohrbeck, René; BØe-Lillegraven, Siri

    2013-01-01

    This case is designed to discuss strategy formation and strategic renewal in small and medium-sized enterprises that are challenged by external disruptive change. The case can be used to teach: external analysis, BCG-matrix, internal analysis (resources and capabilities), Porter’s-5-Forces, industry life-cycle, Porter’s generic strategies, SWOT analysis, strategy formation and business model analysis. The case builds on an in-depth case study conducted in 2011/2012. The case has been anonymized. More specifically the case describes the triumphs and challenges of a medium-sized European shipyard during the past decades. After the industry crisis in the late 80s the yard management steered through an extremely adventurous period. However, due to external and internal difficulties they ultimately faced bankruptcy. Students are asked to put themselves in the shoes of the shipyard management in 2006, a point in time where they still had the possibility to affect its destiny. The case includes an extensive set of questions that covers the most important elements of a master of science degree course in strategy. The questions are also suitable for exam or term papers.

  3. Innovation in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in the Malaysian information technology (IT) industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to examine innovative activities in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the Malaysian information technology (IT) industry. This study addresses three research questions: 1. What is the innovation pattern among SMEs in the Malaysian IT industry? 2. How significant is interactive learning between SMEs in the Malaysian IT industry and other agents in the innovation system? and 3. What is the role of the government in promoting innovation among SMEs in the Malaysian IT industry? Two approaches were taken to collect data for this study, that is, mail survey and face-to-face interviews. Based on findings from this study, the SMEs in the Malaysian IT industry were divided into four categories, namely, highly innovative, innovative, inventive, and non innovative. The patterns of knowledge acquisition and interactive learning vary among the different categories of firms, and on the whole, vertical linkages with suppliers were found to be the most significant. Finally, support through the provision of funding was considered to be among the most important roles of the government in promoting innovation in SMEs in the Malaysian IT industry. (author)

  4. Eco-modernizing small en medium-sized agro-industries in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Pham Hong Nhat

    2007-01-01

    Following ‘Doi Moi’ (Renovation), which started in 1986, the former centrally planned economy in Vietnam is shifting to an economy where production is linked to market demand and consumption. As a result, the nation has been enjoying an unprecedentedly fast economic growth, especially in recent years: 8.4% in 2005 and 8.17% in 2006. The economic renovation also brought an expansion of the private sector, which consists mainly of small- and medium-sized enterprises, SMEs. The reform process ha...

  5. Financial and Tax Management in Small and Medium Sized Industrial Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestvinová, Viera; Homokyová, Mária; Horváthová, Martina

    2012-12-01

    Target of this paper was to evaluate the importance of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in Slovakia and to determine the application of financial and tax management in this type of enterprises. The results of our findings confirm that SMEs have an important role in Slovakia, and also that especially small businesses have little or no experience with the application of financial and tax management. Therefore the paper contains recommendations for financial and tax management of SMEs.

  6. Development strategy of green energy industry for Taipei—A modern medium-sized city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taipei, a subtropical modern medium city, is essentially featured with high population density, scarce land, and large traffic flow. Moreover, there are abundant green energy resources reserved in Taipei. If they were fully developed, there would be 13,040 GWh electricity generated per year, resulting in a total of 9.37 million tons of carbon dioxide emissions abatement. The development of the green energy industry in this city not only can bring significant energy-saving and carbon-reducing benefits, but also may create huge derivative business opportunities. For example, the total output values of the solar PV and electric vehicles industries would be as high as 700 billion yuan. In this study, through Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis, we concluded that the top priorities for Taipei for the development of green energy industries are building energy conservation and electrified transportation, specifically, the following four items: electric vehicles, Light-Emitting Diode (LED) lighting, inverter air conditioning, and Energy Service Company (ESCO). Meanwhile, Taipei is a domestic and international key of politics, transportation, technology, commerce, and finance. Taipei is very likely to become an internationalized green energy industrial hub, achieving the “3E” goals of economic prosperousness, environmental protection, and energy security. -- Highlights: •Building energy conservation and electrified transportation are top priorities. •SWOT analysis applied to systematically conclude four green energy industrial items for Taipei. •Specifically, electric vehicles, LED lighting, inverter air conditioning, and ESCO. •13,040 GWh electricity would be generated per year from Taipei's rich renewables. •The derivative business opportunities would exceed 700 billion yuan

  7. Use of recycling through medium size granular filters to treat small food processing industry effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménoret, C; Boutin, C; Liénard, A; Brissaud, F

    2002-01-01

    Currently there are no suitable wastewater treatment systems for effluents from small food processing industries (dairy, cheese, wine production). Such raw sewages are characterized by high organic matter concentrations (about 10 g COD L-1) and relatively low daily volumes (about 2 m3). An adaptation of attached-growth cultures on fine media processes, known to be easy and inexpensive to use, could fit both the technical and economical context of those industries. Coarser filter particle size distributions than those normally used allow a better aeration and reduce clogging risk. The transit time of the effluent through the porous filter materials is shortened and requires recycling to increase the contact time between the biomass and the substrate. A pilot plant was built to compare the efficiency of two kinds of filter materials, gravel (2-5 mm) and pozzolana (3-7 mm). Two measurement campaigns were undertaken on a full-scale unit dealing with cheese dairy effluents. Both pilot-scale and full-scale plants show high COD removal rates (> 95%). Pilot-scale experiments show that accumulation of organic matter leads to the clogging of the recycling filter. To prevent early clogging, a better definition of feeding cycles is needed. PMID:12201106

  8. Sustainability of small and medium-sized agro-industries in Northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Wattanapinyo, A.

    2006-01-01

    For many yearsThailandhas faced unexpected environmental impacts and risks from (industrial) development. In spreading over the country these impacts and risks have caused growing social conflicts around resident communities in rural areas. In investigating the (un)sustainability of agro-food processing industries inThailand, this study developed a methodology to analyze and assess the potential contributions of core actors in stimulating industrial performance into more environmentally sound...

  9. Explaining Internationalisation of Small to Medium Sized Enterprises within the Queensland Food and Beverage Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Spowart

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of International New Ventures (INVs has increased during the past twenty years. Nevertheless,to date there has been no general consensus within the literature on an explanation as to the rapid internationalisation of some firms. Do they follow a similar process to other firms that internationalise based ona more ‘measured’ incremental sequential process of internationalisation. This paper proposes and tests an innovation diffusion model of the internationalisation of small firm INVs and others by drawing on keyinnovation diffusion models from the literature. The results of this analysis indicate that the synthesised model ofexport adoption is effective in explaining the internationalisation process of INVs and other firms within theQueensland Food and Beverage Industry. Significantly, the features of the original innovation diffusion modelsdeveloped in the consumer behaviour literature, which had limited examination within the internationalisationliterature, were confirmed. This includes the ability of firms, or specifically decision-makers, to skip stagesbased on previous experience.

  10. Innovative capabilities, firm performance and foreign ownership: Empirical analysis of large and medium-sized companies form all industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Talaja

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article innovative capability, i.e. the ability of new products and markets development, is analyzed and empirically tested. The results have proven that the companies with more developed innovative capabilities achieve higher performance levels, but that there is no difference in innovative capabilities between large and medium-sized companies. On the other hand, medium-sized companies have slightly higher levels of sales growth and increase in market share. Also, companies in foreign ownership are better at development of new products and new production methods, and they have higher levels of sales growth, market share and increase in market share.

  11. Development of a Low NOx Medium sized Industrial Gas Turbine Operating on Hydrogen-Rich Renewable and Opportunity Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, Ram

    2013-07-31

    This report presents the accomplishments at the completion of the DOE sponsored project (Contract # DE-FC26-09NT05873) undertaken by Solar Turbines Incorporated. The objective of this 54-month project was to develop a low NOx combustion system for a medium sized industrial gas turbine engine operating on Hydrogen-rich renewable and opportunity Fuels. The work in this project was focused on development of a combustion system sized for 15MW Titan 130 gas turbine engine based on design analysis and rig test results. Although detailed engine evaluation of the complete system is required prior to commercial application, those tasks were beyond the scope of this DOE sponsored project. The project tasks were organized in three stages, Stages 2 through 4. In Stage 2 of this project, Solar Turbines Incorporated characterized the low emission capability of current Titan 130 SoLoNOx fuel injector while operating on a matrix of fuel blends with varying Hydrogen concentration. The mapping in this phase was performed on a fuel injector designed for natural gas operation. Favorable test results were obtained in this phase on emissions and operability. However, the resulting fuel supply pressure needed to operate the engine with the lower Wobbe Index opportunity fuels would require additional gas compression, resulting in parasitic load and reduced thermal efficiency. In Stage 3, Solar characterized the pressure loss in the fuel injector and developed modifications to the fuel injection system through detailed network analysis. In this modification, only the fuel delivery flowpath was modified and the air-side of the injector and the premixing passages were not altered. The modified injector was fabricated and tested and verified to produce similar operability and emissions as the Stage 2 results. In parallel, Solar also fabricated a dual fuel capable injector with the same air-side flowpath to improve commercialization potential. This injector was also test verified to produce 15-ppm NOx capability on high Hydrogen fuels. In Stage 4, Solar fabricated a complete set of injectors and a combustor liner to test the system capability in a full-scale atmospheric rig. Extensive high-pressure single injector rig test results show that 15-ppm NOx guarantee is achievable from 50% to 100% Load with fuel blends containing up to 65% Hydrogen. Because of safety limitations in Solar Test Facility, the atmospheric rig tests were limited to methane-based fuel blends. Further work to validate the durability and installed engine capability would require long-term engine field test.

  12. Pressure cooker under pressure: implementation of life cycle strategies and tools in a medium sized industry in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Cristina; Alexandre, Jorge; Camocho, David; Martins, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns the application of a set of life cycle oriented strategies and tools to a pressure cooker manufactured by a medium size company located in Portugal and targeting the international market. The life cycle assessment (LCA) indicated the major environmental problems of this product, which together with the company strategy of appealing the consumer through a 100% recyclable and more ergonomic product, provided the direction for the product and market development. Besides the L...

  13. THE ALGORITHM IMPLEMENTATION OF THE DIVERSIFICATION STRATEGY IN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES (FOR EXAMPLE, THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ??????? ?????????? ?????

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Diversification in small businesses in the general sense is an extension of business activities to new areas of business (expanding the range of products, types of services provided, etc.. Application of the strategy of diversification in the small and medium business is justified in cases where the industry does not give us opportunities for further growth or when growth opportunities outside the industry more attractive. To determine whether diversification overdue and justified, the entrepreneur must clearly define the algorithm for their actions.Purpose: To determine the algorithm implementation of the strategy of diversification.Methodology: Desk research.Results: The developed algorithm.Practical implications: Management.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-19

  14. A model of integration between knowledge management and business processes of industrial small and medium-sized enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Mahmoud Talaat mustafa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research is to provide an integrated study on the subject of integration between knowledge management and business processes, to identify the needs for different aspects of necessary knowledge for the development of small and medium-sized enterprises, where young investors seek to develop their knowledge by trying to increase the sources of access to information so that they can comply with the requirements of constant change in the organizations they have, and thus the development of their institutions, where those institutions need knowledge to identify the changes occurring in each sector of production and service, whether local or foreign, which enables them to provide products or services on the level of high quality.They also must service work to develop and employ methods of conducting research targeting product, and management development of systems for promoting good products or services. Capturing knowledge can be through knowledge management by browsing of pages published by various organizations on the Internet and, recognizing everything new in the field of manufacturing or production used by various institutions, and therefore constantly developing products according to the needs of different categories of consumers.

  15. An investigation into medium-sized multinational enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Daniele Schilirò; Maria Musca

    2013-01-01

    The paper provides an investigation of medium-sized Italian industrial enterprises that have become multinational companies. It concetrates on the set of medium and medium-large enterprises who seem to grow more in foreign markets, either through exports or through foreign direct investment. The work also offers a descriptive empirical picture of the performance of medium-sized Italian multinationals, which is compared with the performance of large corporations. From this analysis, which is ...

  16. Medium-size nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CEA (TECHNICATOME) has developed a range of pressurized water reactors of the type ''CAS compact'' which are adapted to civil ship propulsion, or to electric power production, combined possibly with heat production, up to outputs equivalent to 125 MWe. Nuclear plants equipped with these reactors are suitable to medium-size electric networks. Among the possible realizations, two types of plants are mentioned as examples: 1) Floating electron-nuclear plants; and 2) Combined electric power and desalting plants. The report describes the design characteristics of the different parts of a 125 MWe unit floating electro-nuclear plant: nuclear steam system CAS 3 G, power generating plant, floating platform for the whole plant. The report gives attention to the different possibilities according to site conditions (the plant can be kept floating, in a natural or artificial basin, it can be put aground, ...) and to safety and environment factors. Such unit can be used in places where there is a growing demand in electric power and fresh water. The report describes how the reactor, the power generating plant and multiflash distillation units of an electric power-desalting plant can be combined: choice of the ratio water output/electric power output, thermal cycle combination, choice of the gain ratio, according to economic considerations, and to desired goal of water output. The report analyses also some technical options, such as: choice of the extraction point of steam used as heat supply of the desalting station (bleeding a condensation turbine, or recovering steam at the exhaust of a backpressure turbine), design making the system safe. Lastly, economic considerations are dealt with: combining the production of fresh water and electric power provides usually a much better energy balance and a lower cost for both products. Examples are given of some types of installations which combine medium-size reactors with fresh water stations yielding from 10000 to 120000 m3 per day

  17. Techno-economic evaluation of commercial cogeneration plants for small and medium size companies in the Italian industrial and service sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The liberalization of the electricity market and the concern for energy efficiency have resulted in a surge of interest in cogeneration and distributed power generation. In this regard, companies are encouraged to evaluate the opportunity to build their own cogeneration plant. In Italy, the majority of such companies belong to the industrial or service sector; it is small or medium in size and the electric power ranges between 1 ÷ 10 MW. Commercially available gas turbines are the less expensive option for cogeneration. Particular attention has been given to the possibility of combining an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) with gas turbine, to improve the conversion efficiency. Companies have to account for both technical and economical aspects to assess viability of cogeneration. A techno-economic analysis was performed to identify, in the Italian energy market, which users can take advantage of a cogeneration plant aimed to cover at least part of their energy demand. Since electricity and thermal needs change considerably in the same sector, single product categories have been considered in the analysis. Our work shows that in the industrial sector, independent of the product category, cogeneration is a viable option form a techno-economic perspective. - Highlights: ? The best technologies for 1 ÷ 10 MW distributed generation plant are gas turbine and ORC. ? A variety of commercial cogeneration plants is available to meet user needs. ? Cogeneration is a technical and economical advantage for industrial sector companies.

  18. Italian medium-sized enterprises and the fourth capitalism

    OpenAIRE

    Schilirò, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    The work addresses the issue of Italian medium-sized enterprises of the fourth capitalism. The question is whether this business model is going to last and actually represent a new model for global competition. This contribution examines the features of the model of the medium industrial enterprise. It also investigates the performance of the Italian medium-sized enterprises, comparing with large companies. The analysis of the data, albeit at a descriptive level using data published by Mediob...

  19. Type Toyota Management Systems (MSTT) of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Mechanical and Electrical Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kluge, Stefan; Rau, Andreas; Westkämper, Engelbert (Interview)

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives an overview and considers the most recent aspects of a study, dealing with the topic of Type Toyota Management Systems. In the survey SMEs in mechanical and electrical industry have been asked. On the one hand, a questionnaire for a mass evaluation was used and on the other hand specialists have been interviewed orally for the specific evaluation. The paper shows the methodology of the survey and some of the highlights of the results. Additionally, some approaches to face fut...

  20. Do border economies generate comparative advantages for small- and medium-sized enterprises? : Evidence from the Maquiladora industry

    OpenAIRE

    Sander, Birgit

    1997-01-01

    Maquiladora assembly emerged to solve a specific problem in a specific region. In the mid 1960s, it was designed to absorb unemployment and to foster industrialization at the US-Mexican border. In the course of its development, it developed considerable dynamics with respect to both regional distribution and technological diversification. Beyond initial intentions, maquiladora assembly proved to be a powerful instrument to foster modernization and international integration of the Mexican econ...

  1. Products, practices and processes: exploring the innovation potential for low-carbon housing refurbishment among small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the UK construction industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scenario-based studies agree that the technical potential for CO2 emissions reduction from the housing stock is large. This paper explores how a market might be developed for the refurbishment activities assumed in these scenarios, taking the existing market for repair, maintenance and improvement (RMI) as its starting point. Interviews with 16 small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the construction industry reveal the interdependence of products, practices and processes in housing renovation activities. Conservative practice as well as innovation can be understood as the outcome of multi-lateral influences on firms from other firms, clients, the material buildings and products in their working lives, and from regulations and regulators. Contractors' openness to innovation is contingent on an informal approach to risk assessment, taking account of cost, time efficiency, client demands, and installer confidence in the reliability of the resulting work. The implications of the research are discussed in relation to the need for new practices and processes on refurbishment projects, raising questions for future research on key questions of quality assurance, performance over time, the application of standards, and vocational training. -- Highlights: •Repair, maintenance and improvement works are triggers for low-carbon refurbishment. •Millions of property owners and small firms make for fragmented decision-making. •Actor-Network Theory is used to frame decision-making processes for refurbishment. •Small builders can be innovative if clients allow time and money for experimentation. •Energy policy for existing homes needs to engage with the construction sector

  2. Developing Business Models in the Video Game Industry : An evaluation to strategic choices made by small and medium-sized development studios

    OpenAIRE

    Zijlstra, Peter; Visser, Christiaan

    2012-01-01

    Digitalization has given rise to new opportunities for small and medium-sized video game development studios. No longer bound by physical products and creative restrains, the de-veloper has been empowered with independency. This qualitative study is aimed to under-stand how a development studio develops their business model and how underlying strate-gy is formulated. Additionally we evaluate the degree of innovativeness of the business model in terms of radical and incremental innovation acco...

  3. Understanding the adoption and use of information systems/information technology in small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises : a study in Portuguese industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Caldeira, Mario

    1998-01-01

    This research analysed factors and sets of factors that affect and explain the varying levels of success in the adoption and use of IS/IT (Information Systems/Information Technology) in Portuguese manufacturing SMEs (Small and Medium-sized Enterprises). The study set out to fill a gap in knowledge not covered by previous research into the area of IS/IT in SMEs. Existing work was found to be of limited relevance or was out-of-date, due to the rapid evolution of IS/IT, and did no...

  4. Holonic Business Process Modeling in Small to Medium Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Budi Mulyono

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Holonic modeling analysis which is the application of system thinking in design, manage, and improvement, is used in a novel context for business process modeling. An approach and techniques of holon and holarchies is presented specifically for small and medium sized enterprise process modeling development. The fitness of the approach is compared with well known reductionist or task breakdown approach. The strength and weaknesses of the holonic modeling is discussed with illustrating case example in term of its suitability for an Indonesia’s small and medium sized industry. The novel ideas in this paper have great impact on the way analyst should perceive business process. Future research is applying the approach in supply chain context.Key words: Business process, holonic modeling, operations management, small to medium sized enterprise

  5. AN INVESTIGATION INTO MEDIUM-SIZED MULTINATIONAL ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Schilirò

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an investigation of medium-sized Italian industrial enterprises that have become multinational companies. It concetrates on the set of medium and medium-large enterprises who seem to grow more in foreign markets, either through exports or through foreign direct investment. The work also offers a descriptive empirical picture of the performance of medium-sized Italian multinationals, which is compared with the performance of large corporations. From this analysis, which is based on several data sources, it is possible to outline a profile regarding the medium-size italian multinational enterprises; the aim is to understand the complex strategy towards internationalization of these companies, where the dimension of production is important and, therefore, innovation has a key role. Also the commercial dimension is crucial, because it leads to point to the direct supervision of foreign markets and to look very carefully at the customers, offering them a wide range of services. Finally, the paper highlights some critical issues that the medium sized multinational enterprises have to face for competing: namely, the stagnant productivity, the high taxation, the insufficient institutional support for internationalization, the bureaucracy and its high costs, the lack of skilled human capital available in the labor market due to inadequate policy training.

  6. Industrial-size photobioreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogbonna, J.C.; Tanaka, Hideo [Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-07-01

    Photosynthetic microorganisms can be engineered to produce pharmaceuticals, chemical intermediates, and clean energy (e.g., hydrogen). They also fix atmospheric carbon dioxide--an important consideration as increased levels of carbon dioxide are linked to global warming. As a first step in the photobioreactor design, the authors investigated the relative significance of the exponential and the linear growth rates during light-limited batch cultivation of photosynthetic cells using various types and sizes of photobioreactors. They also developed a mathematical model that could explain the existence of the various growth phases during the light-limited batch cultivation. Because the cost of electricity is high, use of solar energy is obviously desirable, because it is abundant and free. However, an appropriate method for harvesting the solar energy and distributing the light inside the photobioreactor is required. A light collection device consisting of Fresnel lenses is used to collect the solar light, which is then distributed inside the reactor through the optical fibers. Because the position of the sun changes continuously, the device is equipped with a light-tracking sensor so that the lenses rotate with the position of the sun. Because of diurnal and seasonal changes in the sunlight intensity, however, high volumetric productivity is difficult to achieve if only solar energy is used for reactor illumination. For maximum productivity, therefore, the solar light should be supplemented with an artificial light source at night and on cloudy days.

  7. Insights about Integrated Marketing Communication in Small-and-Medium-sized Italian Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Annamaria Esposito

    2013-01-01

    The paper investigates if and how integrated marketing communication (IMC) has been implemented by Italian small-and-medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Three case studies about small and-medium Italian enterprises analysis are carried out: three small and-medium enterprises in different industries through interviews and document analysis. The article highlights the fact that small-and-medium-sized Italian enterprises implement marketing communication using a flexible approach. The most widespre...

  8. Study on the Service Quality Evaluation and Improvement for Medium and Small Sized Hotels

    OpenAIRE

    Fan Chen

    2009-01-01

    The tourism industry is in the important state in the national economy, and the hotel industry is the important part of the tourism industry, and the medium and small sized hotels occupy certain market share because of the numerous quantity. Because the service qualities of medium and small sized hotels are different, so the service quality of the hotel is the nuclear content of hotel management. At present, the supply exceeds the demand in the global hotel market, and the competitions among ...

  9. Perspective on small and medium size reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been renewed interests in the United States in small and medium size nuclear power plants (600 MWe or less). The reasons for this include: (1) there is a large uncertainty in load growth projections. Small to medium size nuclear power plants may be better suited to meet uncertain load growth projections. (2) It has been argued that a large economy of scale exists because of the nature of nuclear power installations. A recent examination of the French program shows that no economy of scale exists between the 900 MWe and 1300 MWe plants. Others have suggested that it is possible to reduce the economy of scale so it is not a prohibitive factor. (3) In the past in the United States, it has been customary for several smaller utilities to share the output of a large nuclear plant to take advantage of the perceived economy of scale. Difficulties have been encountered by some of these enterprises. (4) An examination of capacity factors for the United States shows that plants of smaller output appear to operate more reliably and economically than larger plants

  10. Medium-size power plants. Economic options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the authors describe a method for economic evaluation of a nuclear power plant project such as advocated by the IAEA but modified through the introduction of various parameters that may affect the evaluation, i.e. the weighted evaluation rate, the annual increase in the cost of fuel, and the discount rate. The method is applied to barge-based medium-size reactors (125 MW(e)). The authors calculate the investment cost, together with the costs of administration, operation and maintenance; use is made of current assumptions regarding the price of fuel for the case of a reference nuclear plant and an oil-fired plant of the same power and in the same programme. In this way the authors derive the discounted cost of the nuclear programme and concurrent conventional programme on the basis of the following assumptions: a weighted inflation rate varying between 0 and 6% per year; an annual increase in real fuel prices ranging from 0 to 3%; and a real discount rate, equal to the real interest rate, varying between 4 and 7% per year and corresponding to nominal discount rates of up to 13.4%. The conclusion reached is that, given the real interest rates actually prevailing on the financial market, a weighted inflation rate foreseen by the majority of experts, and a rise in real fuel prices of the order of 1% per year, the medium-size nuclear power plant is more economical than a conventional plant of the same output. (author)

  11. Consórcio de exportação como alternativa de pequenas e médias empresas: um estudo de caso na cadeia têxtil The export consortium as a best initial alternative for small and medium sized industries: a case study in clothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Barbieri Lima

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo central deste estudo é evidenciar a grande importância e utilidade da formação de consórcios de exportação - que é a união de indústrias do mesmo segmento ou complementares para a exportação de seus produtos em conjunto - para empresas brasileiras de pequeno e médio porte, em detrimento da adoção da exportação indireta ou direta como modo de entrada no mercado internacional. Realizou-se, para isso, a revisão bibliográfica sobre Estratégias ou Modos de Entrada em Mercados Internacionais e Consórcios de Exportação (MALHOTRA, 2001. Utilizou-se o método de estudo de caso (YIN, 2001 para analisar a Associação Brasileira do Vestuário (ABRAVEST, entidade que vem se destacando na formação e consolidação de consórcios de exportação na indústria do setor vestuário, com ênfase nos seguintes tópicos: desenvolvimento do programa, compromissos setoriais e metas de exportação, aplicação dos recursos e consórcios em atividade. Como resultado, foi possível verificar que, entre as três opções analisadas no artigo (exportação direta, exportação indireta e consórcios de exportação, a terceira opção foi aceita como a melhor ou mais viável para a internacionalização de empresas de pequeno porte.The importance and value of an export consortium was investigated as a means for small and medium sized Brazilian industries to orchestrate export efforts instead of adopting indirect or direct export to enter foreign markets. An export consortium is an association of industries in the same or complementary segments for the purpose of export. Bibliography was reviewed for initial export strategies including a case study of the Brazilian Clothing Association. The consortia of this exemplary Association have emphasized program development, sector agreements, export objectives and resource application integrated with local activities. An export consortium was found to be the best and most viable alternative for initial export by small and medium sized Brazilian clothing industries in this case, when compared to indirect or direct export.

  12. Small and medium sized reactors: Status and prospects. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the early years of nuclear power deployment, the plants entering service were dominated by what are now considered small (less than 300 MW(e)) and medium (300 to 700 MW(e)) reactors. In the late 1970s, the balance shifted to larger size plants to serve the requirements of industrialized countries. However, since the early 1990s, the increased interest of developing countries in nuclear power, mainly in Asia, has resulted in intensified efforts in development of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). Also, in industrialized countries, electricity market deregulation is calling for power generation flexibility that SMRs may offer. Apart from electricity generation, SMRs are of particular interest for non-electrical applications of nuclear energy, such as desalination of seawater and district heating. In recognition of the current global interest in small and medium sized reactors this seminar was convened to provide a forum for the exchange of information by experts and policy makers from industrialized and developing countries on the technical, economic, environmental, and social aspects of SMR development and implementation in the 21st century, and to make this information available to all interested IAEA Member States. Keynote addresses also provided information on global energy demand and supply and international trends impacting the development and introduction of SMRs. Two hundred forty seven attendees from 39 countries and 5 international organizations participated in the seminar. The majority of the participants were from developing countries. The seminar not only provided valuable up to date information on SMRs, it also highlighted the importance of continued international co-operation in the development and application of nuclear power for peaceful uses throughout the world

  13. Significance assessment of small-medium sized reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, Minoru [Japan Atomic Power Co., Research and Development Dept., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    Preliminary assessment for deployment of small-medium sized reactor (S and M reactor) as a future option has been conducted at the JAPCO (Japan Atomic Power Company) under the cooperation with the CRIERI (Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry). Significance of the S and M reactor introduction is listed as follows; lower investment cost, possible siting near demand side, enlarged freedom of siting, shorter transmission line, good compatibility with slow increase of demand and plain explanation of safety using simpler system such as integral type vessel without piping, natural convection core cooling and passive safety system. The deployment of simpler plant system, modular shop fabrication, ship-shell structured building and longer operation period can assure economics comparable with that of a large sized reactor, coping with scale-demerit. Also the S and M reactor is preferable in size for the nuclear heat utilization such as hydrogen production. (T. Tanaka)

  14. Small, Medium and Micro-sized enterprises (SMMEs) and the housing construction industry : a possible solution to South Africa's socio-economic problems

    OpenAIRE

    Joubert, C.S.; Schoeman, N.J. (Nicolaas Johannes); Blignaut, James Nelson

    1999-01-01

    South Africa as a developing country faces many socio-economic problems like high unemployment, low levels of working skills, poverty and rampant crime. In this paper it is argued that by targeting SMMEs both in general and specifically in the housing construction industry, there is meaningful scope for the creation of jobs in the South African economy. This is mainly because SMMEs are labour intensive. Using Endogenous Growth theory as a basis, it is argued that by employing g...

  15. From medium-sized to megawatt turbines...

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongen, W. van [NedWind bv, Rhenen (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    One of the world`s first 500 kW turbines was installed in 1989 in the Netherlands. This forerunner of the current NedWind 500 kW range also represents the earliest predesign of the NedWind megawatt turbine. After the first 500 kW turbines with steel rotor blades and rotor diameter of 34 m, several design modifications followed, e.g. the rotor diameter was increased to 35 m and a tip brake was added. Later polyester blades were introduced and the rotor diameter was increased with 5 in. The drive train was also redesigned. Improvements on the 500 kW turbine concept has resulted in decreased cost, whereas annual energy output has increased to approx. 1.3 million kWh. Wind energy can substantially contribute to electricity supply. Maximum output in kiloWatthours is the target. Further improvement of the existing technology and implementation of flexible components may well prove to be a way to increase energy output, not only in medium or large sized wind turbines. 7 figs.

  16. The role of small and medium-sized reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The second half of the twentieth century has seen nuclear power evolve from the research and development environment to an industry that supplies 17% of the world's electricity. The past decade, however, has seen stagnation in nuclear power plant construction in the Western industrialized world, slow nuclear power growth in Eastern Europe and expansion only in East Asia. But the turn of the century is potentially a turning-point for nuclear power because of: increasing world energy consumption, with nuclear power's contribution to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, nuclear fuel resources sustainability, and improvements in operation of current nuclear power plants; advanced reactor designs that will improve economics and availability, and further enhance safety; and continued strengthening of the nuclear power safeguards system. This paper looks at the role that small and medium-sized reactors can play in an increasingly competitive global energy market, particularly with regard to maintaining a sustainable mix of energy sources. (author)

  17. Diagnóstico ambiental de indústrias de fabricação de estruturas metálicas e esquadrias de metal de pequeno e médio porte / Environmental diagnosis of small and medium size manufacturing industries of metallic frames and metallic structures

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patrícia Dal, Moro; Adalberto, Pandolfo; Leila Dal, Moro; Naira Elizabete, Barbacovi; Leandro Doro, Tagliari.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O crescimento populacional na última metade do século XX, acompanhado dos avanços tecnológicos, levou ao desenvolvimento acelerado das indústrias, o que ocasionou o aumento da poluição ambiental causada pelos resíduos sólidos. Assim, a legislação tem se tornado cada vez mais exigente, o que obriga a [...] s empresas a serem cada vez mais responsáveis, no que se refere à questão ambiental em sua estratégia operacional. Diante deste fato, este trabalho buscou realizar um diagnóstico ambiental em indústrias de fabricação de estruturas metálicas e esquadrias de metal de pequeno e médio porte, a fim de verificar as formas de fabricação, gerenciamento, resíduos sólidos gerados e os programas ambientais adotados. Para a obtenção das informações, foram visitadas 18 empresas, as quais participaram da aplicação de um questionário semiestruturado. Abstract in english Population growth in the latter half of the 20th century, accompanied by technological advances, led to the accelerated development of industries, which resulted in increased environmental pollution by solid waste. Legal aspects have increased considerably, demanding companies to be more responsible [...] with regard to environmental issues in their operational strategy. Considering this fact, this study attempts to make an environmental diagnosis in small and medium-sized manufacturing industries of steel structures and frameworks in order to verify forms of manufacturing, management, solid waste generated, and environmental programs adopted. Information was collected in eighteen companies through semi-structured questionnaires.

  18. Market Potential Estimation of a Small and Medium Size Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technically, nuclear reactors which produce energy in the form of heat can supply energy products other than electricity, including district heat, process heat, potable water etc. Currently non-civil uses of nuclear energy are very limited civil applications except for a military nuclear powered ship and an energy usage in isolated areas. However, the future global environment and an energy resources scarcity could promote a significant usage of non-electrical applications on an industrial scale. Considering these situations, this report analyzed the following: (1) Worldwide non-electrical application of a small and medium sized nuclear reactor - survey the situation of the current technical applications, - survey the global market potential estimation for various applications (2) Technical cooperation potential in several countries - identify necessary conditions for nuclear cooperation, - select candidate countries: Morocco, UAE, Indonesia, Chile and Vietnam, - survey the energy and water situation, - survey the legal and international regime infrastructure

  19. Diseño de un sistema de acumulación de costos para la micro, pequeña y mediana industria panadera / Design of a System for the Accumulation of Costs for Micro, Small And Medium Sized Bakery Industries

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marysela C, Morillo Moreno; Dianosky Yoleida, Pulido.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Las micro, pequeñas y medianas industrias (MPyMI) son fundamentos en una economía sólida, ellas deben diseñar estrategias gerenciales y de apoyo acorde a sus características que les permitan mejorar su competitividad y buscar su consolidación; de allí la necesidad de contar con sistemas de acumulaci [...] ón de costos que generen información apropiada, oportuna y detallada. Luego de un diagnóstico realizado en las industrias panaderas del municipio Barinas, estado Barinas, se constató que éstas son en su mayoría MPyMI, y que no poseen un sistema de acumulación de costos adecuado que permita calcular costos de producción precisos para la planificación, control y toma de decisiones. Por ello, se presentan los resultados de una investigación proyectiva ubicada en el nivel comprensivo, en la cual se diseña un sistema de costos adaptado a las necesidades de estas industrias, compatible con la naturaleza de sus actividades fabriles, a objeto de facilitar y difundir su uso. Se propone un Sistema de Acumulación de Costos Híbrido, a partir de la combinación del sistema de costos por proceso y del sistema de costos por operaciones, para obtener información sistemática, oportuna y confiable, de los costos de producción para la toma de decisiones, dotados a la vez de procedimientos y mecanismos de control. Abstract in english Micro, small and medium sized industries are fundamental in a solid economy, and management and support strategies according to their characteristics should be designed and that allow them to better their competitiveness and consolidation, and for this reason there is a need to account for systems o [...] f cost accumulation that generate appropriate, timely and detailed information. After the realization of a study in the bakery industries in the Barinas Municipality, Barinas State, it was found that the majority of these businesses did not have a system for the adequate accumulation of costs which allowed them to calculate precise production costs for planning, control and decision-making. For this reason we present herein the results of a projected research project on a comprehensive level in which a system of costs is designed, adapted to the needs of these industries, compatible with the nature of their productive activity, in order to facilitate and expand its use. A system of accumulation of hybrid costs is proposed based on a combination of process cost systems and operational cost systems in order to obtain systematic, timely and reliable information on production costs for decision making, and which includes control mechanisms and procedures.

  20. SPATIAL CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR IN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED TOWNS

    OpenAIRE

    Leeuwen, Eveline S. van; Rietveld, Piet

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Small and medium-sized towns are often recognized as important components of the rural economy. In this article, we focus on the current function of small and medium-sized towns in providing retail services to local households in five European countries. Furthermore, we analyse the spatial shopping behaviour of these households. It appears that towns are still important places for shopping: more than half of the purchases of households living in town or the direct hinterla...

  1. Status of the CTA medium size telescope prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Baehr, Juergen

    2012-01-01

    We present here the status of the medium size prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array. The main reasons to build the prototype are the test of the steel structure, the training of various mounting operations, the test of the drive system and the test of the safety system. The essential difference between the medium size telescope prototype and a fully instrumented are that the camera is not instrumented and only a part of the mounted mirrors are optical mirrors. Insofar ...

  2. A MODEL FOR SUPPORTING CONSISTENT COST MANAGEMENT IN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES: APPLICATION IN A CHEMICAL INDUSTRY COMPANY MODELO PARA APOIO A GESTÃO CONSISTENTE DE CUSTOS EM PEQUENAS E MÉDIAS EMPRESAS: APLICAÇÃO NUMA EMPRESA DO SETOR QUÍMICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Juan Bacic

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a structured model for improving production processes in small to medium-size industrial companies. Application of the model enables acting upon a set of cost generating causes, leading in a consistent manner to cost reductions. The model is based on the principles of management through total quality and considers the fundamental aspects that make it possible to eliminate waste, reduce defect costs and improve processes, thus enabling increased efficiency and reduction of variability. The model proposed is based on the set of variable principles pointed to by authors who deal with quality as key elements in management. The fulcrum of the system consists of control of the “6m” in Ishikawa’a causeeffect diagram (raw material, machinery, labor, methods, environment and mediations, supported by the action of a set of auxiliary tools and concepts. With the objective of testing the results of the model in practice, an application of it was made in a company from the chemical sector. The work describes the main aspects of the application and shows results obtained along the years from 1996 to 2005. Analysis of results shows significant obtainment of gains in productivity, diminished variability and maintenance of positive results over time. Keywords: Cost reduction. Model for improvement. Process management. Chemical industry. O artigo apresenta um modelo estruturado para melhoria dos processos produtivos de empresas industriais de portes pequeno e médio. A aplicação do modelo possibilita atuar sobre um conjunto de causas geradoras de custos, conduzindo, de forma consistente, a reduções de custo. O modelo é baseado nos princípios da gestão pela qualidade total e considera os aspectos fundamentais que possibilitam eliminar desperdícios, reduzir custos de falhas e melhorar os processos, possibilitando, assim, aumento de eficiência e diminuição da variabilidade. O modelo proposto baseia-se no conjunto das principais variáveis apontadas pelos autores de qualidade, como elementos-chave na gestão. O fulcro do sistema consiste no controle dos “6M” do diagrama causa-efeito de Ishikawa (matéria-prima, maquinário, mão-de-obra, métodos, meio-ambiente e medições, apoiado pela ação de um conjunto de ferramentas e conceitos auxiliares. Com o objetivo de testar na prática os resultados do modelo, foi realizada a aplicação numa empresa do setor químico. O trabalho descreve os aspectos principais dessa aplicação e mostra os resultados obtidos ao longo dos anos 1996-2005. A análise dos resultados mostra significativa obtenção de ganhos de produtividade, diminuição de variabilidade e manutenção dos resultados positivos ao longo do tempo. Palavras-chave: Redução de custos. Modelo de melhoria. Gestão de processos. Indústria química.

  3. An Overview of Foodpreneur Awareness among Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SME of Halal Certification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norngainy Mohd Tawil

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to measure the awareness of Halal Certification among the Medium-Sized Enterprises (SME especially those who are involved in the food industry. The study reveals that the awareness toward Halal Certification among Small-Medium Enterprise (SME is at low level. But that raises a question mark when the study also indicates that the perceptions of the Muslim entrepreneur on halal food are very good.

  4. Development of medium sized ABWR (ABWR-600, ABWR-900)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitachi has been developing the Medium sized ABWR as a power source that features flexibility to various market needs, such as minimized capital risks, timely return on a capital investment, etc. Basic design policy of the Medium sized ABWR is 1) to be based on ABWR design with superior experiences in construction and operation, 2) to utilize standard BWR fuel adopting proven technology, 3) to achieve rationalized design by suitably utilizing the key components developed for large sized reactor. Development of the Medium sized ABWR has been working to proceed step by step. The first step was to design an output scale of the 600 MWe class (ABWR-600), which is appropriate for a distributed power-supply. The next step we start developing of the up-rated to an output scale of the 900 MWe class (ABWR-900) based on ABWR-600 rationalized technology for further cost saving. (author)

  5. Development of medium sized ABWRs (ABWR-600, ABWR-900)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitachi has been developing medium sized ABWRs as a power source that features flexibility to meet various market needs, such as minimizing capital risks, providing a timely return on capital investments, etc. Basic design concepts of the medium sized ABWRs are 1) using the current ABWR design which has accumulated favorable construction and operation histories as a starting point; 2) utilizing standard BWR fuels which have been fabricated by proven technology; 3) achieving a rationalized design by suitably utilizing key components developed for large sized reactors. Development of the medium sized ABWRs has proceeded in a systematic, stepwise manner. The first step was to design an output scale for the 600 MWe class reactor (ABWR-600) which is appropriate for a distributed power supply. The next step was to develop an uprating concept to extend this output scale to the 900 MWe class reactor (ABWR-900) based on the rationalized technology of the ABWR-600 for further cost savings. (author)

  6. Small and Medium Sized Enterprises In Thailand and Development of Cleaner Production

    OpenAIRE

    Nørgaard, Jens Kristian

    2003-01-01

    In the perspective of the rapid industrial development experienced over the last decades in Thailand, this report intend to contribute to the discussion about development of cleaner production (CP) among small and medium sized enterprises, as a tool to prevent degradation of the country’s natural resources. The objective is to examine the present barriers and possibilities to the low adoption of CP among the industry in Samut Prakarn and to study, which competences small firms have developed ...

  7. Entry in a Psychically Distant Market: Finnish Small and Medium-sized Software Firms in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Ojala, Arto

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the market entry and entry mode choice of eight small and medium-sized Finnish software firms in the Japanese market. The findings in this study reveal that, despite of the psychic distance between Finland and Japan, most of the firms entered Japan at a very early stage of their internationalization process by using direct entry modes. This was mainly due to the market size, sophisticated industry structure, and requirements for intensive cooperation with ...

  8. Strategic Financial Management in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Zongsheng Liu

    2010-01-01

    Along with the development of social economy and the progress of science and technology, Chinese enterprises are being in a stage filled with opportunities and dangers. This paper introduces the connotation and significance of strategic financial management, elaborates the problems in the financial strategies conducted by small and medium-sized enterprises together with the causes and proposes some countermeasures finally.

  9. Reference sources for small and medium-sized libraries

    CERN Document Server

    O'Gorman, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on new reference sources published since 2008 and reference titles that have retained their relevance, this new edition brings O'Gorman's complete and authoritative guide to the best reference sources for small and medium-sized academic and public libraries fully up to date.

  10. Decay heat removal system in a medium size HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study investigates the operation of the decay heat removal system (DHR) during loss of flow (LOF) accident in which the primary flow is reduced to zero at full power operation of medium size high temperature gas reactor (HTGR). (author)

  11. The causal effect of board size in the performance of small and medium-sized firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Morten; Kongsted, Hans Christian

    2008-01-01

    Empirical studies of large publicly traded firms have shown a robust negative relationship between board size and firm performance. The evidence on small and medium-sized firms is less clear; we show that existing work has been incomplete in analyzing the causal relationship due to weak identification strategies. Using a rich data set of almost 7000 closely held corporations we provide a causal analysis of board size effects on firm performance: We use a novel instrument given by the number of children of the chief executive officer (CEO) of the firms. First, we find a strong positive correlation between family size and board size and show this correlation to be driven by firms where the CEO's relatives serve on the board. Second, we find empirical evidence of a small adverse board size effect driven by the minority of small and medium-sized firms that are characterized by having comparatively large boards of six or more members.

  12. The status of development of small and medium sized reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several IAEA Member States have shown their interest in reactor designs, having a smaller power rating [100-500 MW(e) range] than those generally available on the international market. These small and medium sized power reactors are of interest either for domestic applications or for export into countries with less developed infrastructure. There are different developments undertaken for these power reactors to be ready for offering in the nineties and beyond. The paper gives an overview about the status and different trends in IAEA Member States in the development of small and medium sized reactors for the 90's and provides an outlook for very new reactor designs as a long term option for nuclear power. (orig.)

  13. Development of ESCO as a tool for realising energy efficiency in small and medium sized industry; ESCO = Energy Service Company; Udvikling af ESCO som vaerktoej til realisering af energieffektivisering i smaa og mellemstore erhvervsvirksomheder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Ove Folmer (DS Haandvaerk og Industri, Odense (Denmark))

    2011-07-01

    The project carried out an advisory process in 10 different SME (small and medium-sized enterprises). The process was based on energy management and employee involvement in energy conservation activities, which has led to a wide variety of projects in companies that have focused on the initiation and solution of diverse energy-saving activities. Results of the project consist of a series of case studies that describe the processes that have been implemented in the company. The selected cases demonstrate the diversity of businesses, their energy saving potential and need for funding. It also describes and assesses the various financing possibilities, a model for qualitative advising in SMEs and a module for the training of the people involved - including installers, craftsmen and advisor. (LN)

  14. Sales strategy in small and medium-sized food companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Renate; Stacey, Julia

    2002-01-01

    All managing teams know that they have to deal with the company's strategy in handling the market. But how do they do it and on the basis of which beleifs and interpretations? A nearly completed PhD project has examined the way in which three small and medium-sized food companies define their market, their competitors and customers, and how they create the world they perceive and act in through their own actions.

  15. Problems Facing Small and Medium Size Contractors in Swaziland

    OpenAIRE

    Wellington Didibhuku Thwala; Mpendulo Mvubu

    2009-01-01

    The paper explores the problems facing Small and Medium Size Contractors in Swaziland. The construction sector in Swaziland is not only a significant source of direct employment but also a sector which contributes, through its wide range of projects and operations. The paper will also look at the current government initiatives that had been put in place to address the challenges and problems in order to ensure that contractors are successful. There is a high failure rate among small and mediu...

  16. Holonic Business Process Modeling in Small to Medium Sized Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Budi Mulyono; Tezar Yuliansyah Saputra; Nur Arief Rahmatsyah

    2009-01-01

    Holonic modeling analysis which is the application of system thinking in design, manage, and improvement, is used in a novel context for business process modeling. An approach and techniques of holon and holarchies is presented specifically for small and medium sized enterprise process modeling development. The fitness of the approach is compared with well known reductionist or task breakdown approach. The strength and weaknesses of the holonic modeling is discussed with illustrating case exa...

  17. Utilizing Content Marketing in Small and Medium-Sized Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Parviainen, Ville

    2014-01-01

    The major objective of this study is to find out how and to what extent online content is currently utilized for marketing purposes among small and medium-sized organizations in Finland. Additionally, positive and negative future prospects concerning this type of content marketing were explored. The study is mainly qualitative by nature. The empirical part of this thesis was carried out between July 2013 and March 2014 and it consists of five semi-structured interviews with five professio...

  18. Language strategies in Finnish small and medium-sized enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Talja, Katriina

    2011-01-01

    Objectives of the Study Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) have scarcely been researched from the point of view of language strategy. The objective of the study is to identify language strategies of Finnish SMEs doing business abroad and to analyze these strategies. The objectives were met through a survey directed at Finnish SMEs and face-to-face interviews with five case companies. Summary Languages are increasing important in the globalizing world, yet few companies ha...

  19. Powertrain System Design of Medium-sized Hybrid Electric Tractor

    OpenAIRE

    Xie Bin; Li Hao; Song Zheng-He; Mao En-Rong

    2013-01-01

    The environment issue has been more and more serious than ever before along with the increasing numbers of tractors. Different from pure electric tractors, medium-sized tractor more widely adopt hybrid power driver according to the machine structure and operation characteristics. The Hybrid Electric Tractor (HET) is capable of enabling the diesel works in an optimal area by controlling the output torque of engine and electronic motor to achieve fuel economy and emission reduction. Designing t...

  20. ERP adoption in small and medium sized enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Juell-Skielse, Gustaf

    2006-01-01

    Enterprise resource planning (ERP) is established among a majority of small and medium sized companies in Kista Science City and seems to have a positive effect on organizational effectiveness. Kista Science City is Sweden’s largest corporate centre, with more companies and employees in a limited area than anywhere else in Europe. This study looks at the level of adoption of ERP functions, perceived organizational effectiveness and critical success factors. The most common use of ERP is for f...

  1. Fracture mechanics characterisation of medium-size adhesive joint specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Jacobsen, T.K.

    2004-01-01

    Medium-size specimens (<2 m in length), consisting of two glass-fibre beams bonded together by an adhesive layer were tested in four point bending to determine their load carrying capacity. Specimens having different thickness were tested. Except for onespecimen, the cracking occurred as cracking along the adhesive layer; initially cracking occurred along the adhesive/laminate interface, but after some crack extension the cracking took place inside the laminate (for one specimen the later part o...

  2. IAEA activities for innovative small and medium sized reactors (SMRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The renewed interest in many Member States in the development and application of Small and Medium Sized Reactors (SMRs) is reflected in the increased activities of the IAEA's Nuclear Power Technology Development Section (NPTDS) for this trend. The paper gives an overview, summarizes intermediate results, and presents major findings of the NPTDS activities for innovative SMRs, including the preparation of new Status Report on Innovative SMR Designs and Coordinated Research Project for the Development of Small Reactors without On-Site Refuelling. (authors)

  3. Organizing Capacity of Territorial Actors in Medium-sized Cities.

    OpenAIRE

    Feliu, Jaume

    2007-01-01

    We are interested in the capacity of organisation and the difficulties to create networks of actors in medium-sized cities that receives a station of High Speed Train (HST). HST is constructed mainly to serve big cities, but it is also an opportunity to create interesting processes local development in those territories between big cities. Local actors can play an important role in it. We study three cities through the application of a new metrology to evaluate the degree of local development...

  4. Female Leadership Motivation in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Lillbacka, Marjo

    2010-01-01

    Leaders need to know what motivates their employees and how they can get their employees work their best. Women leaders are said to encourage and support their employees, which is essential for leadership motivation. Motivated employees improve enterprises’ overall business performance and results. The research is based on leadership, motivation and self-motivation in small and medium-sized enterprises in Ostrobothnia. The research problem is to find out how female leaders motivate their empl...

  5. Internal Control in Swedish Small and Medium Size Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Gebramicheal, Zelalem Berhanu; Habtegiorgis, Tsegahiwot Teketel

    2009-01-01

    Small and medium size enterprises are currently the major part of economic activities through out the world. Nowadays, they represent about 99% of all types of enterprises in Sweden, with providing high job opportunities to its labour force as these enterprises need focus in their development; the internal control mechanism is a means and a way of directing, monitoring and measuring the SMEs resources. It plays an important role in preventing and detecting fraud and protecting the physical an...

  6. Small and medium-sized firms' competitiveness and territorial characteristics/assets: The cases of Bari, Varna and Thessaloniki

    OpenAIRE

    METAXAS, THEODORE; Kallioras, Dimitris

    2013-01-01

    The paper investigates the importance of territorial characteristics/assets (i.e. agglomeration economies, urban infrastructure, factors of labor and cost, development policies, qualitative factors, inter alia) on small- and medium-sized firms’ competitiveness. The analysis uses primary data from 374 small- and medium-sized firms located in Bari (Italy), Varna (Bulgaria) and Thessaloniki (Greece). These firms operate in the sectors of industry, commerce and services. Through the use of explor...

  7. Industrial Particle Size Measurement Using Light Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muly, E. C.; Frock, H. N.

    1980-12-01

    The precise knowledge of particle size and particle size distribution is fundamental to the control of a wide variety of industrial processes. Processing steps as diverse as crystallization, grinding, emulsification, and atomization, produce particles in the size range .1 to 1000 micrometers in diameter. While the object of some processes may be the production of particles of specified sizes, e.g., abrasives and glass beads, other processes may require particle size control for process efficiency, e.g., crystallization, and still others for control of final product quality, e.g., minerals, cement, and ceramics. In many processes more than one of these reasons may be important. A line of instruments has been developed using light scattering to measure various parameters of particulate distributions. These instruments employ laser illumination of a flowing stream of particles, producing Fraunhofer diffraction patterns which are processed both optically and electronically with unique, proprietary techniques. Various parameters of the particle size distribution are measured. The measurement is both rapid and precise. This paper will cover the importance of particle size measurements in various processes, different types of measurement methods, and the application of light scattering technology to size determinations in wet slurries and dry powders. A number of specific applications will be discussed encompassing minerals grinding, Portland cement, and rolling mill emulsions. Some references will be made to energy savings through automation.

  8. Imperfect information and labor market bias against small and medium-sized enterprises: a Korean case

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Soonae; Kim, Byung-Yeon; Jang, Wonchang; Nam, Kyung-min

    2014-01-01

    We examine the labor market’s bias against small and medium-sized enterprises focusing on the Seoul Digital Industrial Complex case. We adopt Heckman’s approach to control selection bias, and use primary data from questionnaire surveys conducted at both firm and employee levels. We find that conventional firm-specific factors, such as wages, fringe benefits, and weekly work hours, primarily explain the labor market bias, but imperfect information is also positively associated with the bias. F...

  9. The Scalability of H. Igor Ansoff's Strategic Management Principles for Small and Medium Sized Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Dan H Kipley; Alfred O Lewis

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the praxis of the multi-dimensional components of H. Igor Ansoff¹s Strategic Management Systems and the efficacy of use of each of its components relative to the formulation and implementation of corporate level strategy in for-profit, not-for-profit, small and medium sized enterprises. Based on empirically validated research and industry supported journals, substantial evidence endorse both an implicit and explicit acknowledgement of its applicabi...

  10. The causal effect of board size in the performance of small and medium-sized firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Morten; Kongsted, Hans Christian; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    Empirical studies of large publicly traded firms have shown a robust negative relationship between board size and firm performance. The evidence on small and medium-sized firms is less clear; we show that existing work has been incomplete in analyzing the causal relationship due to weak identification strategies. Using a rich data set of almost 7000 closely held corporations we provide a causal analysis of board size effects on firm performance: We use a novel instrument given by the number of c...

  11. Medium-sized water reactors for undeveloped regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the new century the growth of population and an increasing of energy demands together with the difficulties of fossil fuel supply are expected. It is important to find optimal ways in solving such problems without the climate warming. The nuclear power having many advantages in comparison with fossil fuel technologies could play the great role in near future. The Medium-Sized Nuclear Reactors for production of electricity, heat and fresh water are considered as a main direction of nuclear power applications in the developing world It is important to discuss the requirements to such nuclear plants for using in the Countries with Small and Medium Electricity Grids. Particularly, cost-benefit analysis of construction NPP has to include assessment of all type risks and effectiveness of plant. In the paper an attention is paid on Water Reactors designed on the basis of navy technology. Such compact PWR built on special mills and placed on special floating vessel could be used in undeveloped regions. Total plant can be transported to any point of World Ocean and return back to mill for repair or decommissioning after exhaustion of lifetime. It is expected that such reactors with innovative design approach, provision of high safety and proper economic efficiency, based on leasing procedures, could be very attractive for medium-sized and developing countries.(author)

  12. Cogeneration through small and medium sized gas turbines in Italy: Marketing survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Italy, the use of cogeneration systems by private industrial concerns has greatly increased in the early 90's. The successful technological development of highly efficient low and medium sized gas turbines and the successful application of cogenerated power to a number of industrial processes, favourable legislation and financial incentives on the part of the Italian Government, especially interested in promoting energy conservation and the use of natural gas as an alternative to petroleum, as well as, fast payback periods for such investments are amongst the major regions for the growing demand for this type of power system alternative in Italy

  13. A medium sized telescope prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CTA (Cherenkov Telescope Array) is a proposed next generation instrument to observe very high energy (VHE) gamma-rays at ground level. The array will consist of 3 sizes of telescope covering a wide photon energy range: small (4m diameter) telescopes sensitive to the highest energy photons, medium sized telescopes (12 m) operating in the mid energy range, and a small number of large telescopes (24 m) with high sensitivity to low energy photons. Current Cherenkov Telescope experiments consist of up to 5 telescopes; CTA will be made up of an order of magnitude more, which will greatly enhance the number of photons that can be detected as well as increasing the number of views of each cascade, bringing significantly improved angular resolution and background suppression. The observatory is currently in the planning and development phase. A prototype CTA medium sized telescope (MST) is being built in Adlershof (Berlin). This talk focuses on plans for CTA and the design and construction of the MST prototype, as well as its operation, instrumentation and early measurement results.

  14. Status and Prospects for Small and Medium Sized Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is considerable interest by Member States in the continued development of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) as a significant energy sources for the future. The support for this programme within the IAEA was recently reaffirmed at the 1997 General Conference. Although the generation of electricity has been predominant focus of existing SMRs, there is increasing interest in using these plants for other applications such as desalination, district heating and hydrogen production from the reforming of methane. Addressed herein is a review of ongoing SMR development activities within selected Member States, an overview of the Agency's SMR programme and a discussion of selected SMR designs with emphasis on their safety attributes. (author)

  15. MANUFACTURING ORIENTED DESIGN IN SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZE FACTORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Peters

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Special circumstances and considerations for the implementation of Computer Integrated Manufacturing principles in small and medium size factories are identified and discussed. An approach for esthablishing such programs is suggested and illustrated with a number of examples.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Spesiale omstandighede en oorwegings vir die implementering van Rekenaargeintegreerde Vervaardigingsbeginsels in klein en mediumgrootte fabrieke word geidentifiseer en bespreek. 'n Benadering vir die daarstelling van sodanige programme word voorgestel en geillustreer met behulp van verskeie voorbeelde.

  16. Internationalization of small and medium-sized enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Paunovi?

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Highly developed countries, which are similar to Croatia by size and population, highlight the importance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs as holders of export activities and key factors in raising the competitiveness of the entire economy. In this paper authors research the concept of internationalization of SMEs. Analyzing the influence of decision makers on the process of internationalization and showing its advantages and disadvantages for the respective company and country, this research introduces the most common models on the basis of which this process is implemented in practice. A case study of a small export company from Croatia illustrates the process of internationalization to the U.S. market and provides useful information to the companies which are planning to enter new markets.

  17. Stability of medium-sized neutral and charged silicon clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bao-Xing

    2005-06-01

    Using the full-potential linear-muffin-tin-orbital molecular-dynamics method based on the single-parent evolution algorithm, we have studied the stability for the medium-sized neutral, anionic, and cationic silicon clusters in detail. We have found the ground state structures of Sin (n=26-30) . Our calculated results suggest that the compact structures containing interior atoms begin to compete for the ground state structures with the stacked prolate structures from n=24 . The prolate structures transit into the spherical compact structures at n=27 for neutral silicon clusters, whereas the transition size occurs at n=28 for anionic and cationic silicon clusters. Starting from n=29 , the stable structures with larger binding energies are basically the compact spherical structures. The results are in excellent agreement with the related experiments.

  18. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION STEPS FOR INDIAN SMALL & MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurva Anand

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents review of literature on Knowledge management (KM in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs. It focuses on the strategy, implementation, technological and performance measurement &benchmarking issues regarding KM in Indian SMEs. KM is a practical tool for any organization. So KM does not remain just a theory now but it paves the way to formulating an understanding of KM and its role within SMEs. KM has gained importance in the today’s global knowledge economy. It is important not only for big firms, but for small and medium size enterprises (SMEs also. Indian SMEs sector is also one of the fastest growing sectors of Indian economy. So it is very important for SMEs to know what their knowledge assets are,and how to manage and make best use of these assets to get maximum return, since without proper KM approaches, SMEs are likely to have more to lose than larger enterprises. This paper tries to identify the steps regarding implementation of KM in Indian SMEs for improving competitiveness of SMEs in globalised market.

  19. CANDU 6 - the highly successful medium sized reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CANDU 6 Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor system, featuring horizontal fuel channels and heavy water moderator continues to evolve, supported by AECL's strong commitment to comprehensive R and D programs. The initial CANDU 6 design started in the 1970's. The first plants went into service in 1983, and the latest version of the plant is under construction in China. With each plant the technology has evolved giving the dual advantages of proveness and modern technology. CANDU 6 delivers important advantages of the CANDU system with benefit to small and medium-sized grids. This technology has been successfully adopted by, and localized to varying extents in, each of the CANDU 6 markets. For example, all CANDU owners obtain their fuel from domestic suppliers. Progressive CANDU development continues at AECL to enhance this medium size product CANDU 6. There are three key CANDU development strategic thrusts: improved economics, fuel cycle flexibility, and enhanced safety. The CANDU 6 product is also enhanced by incorporating improvements and advanced features that will be arising from our CANDU Technology R and D programs in areas such as heavy water and tritium, control and instrumentation, fuel and fuel cycles, systems and equipment and safety and constructability. (author)

  20. Surveillance of medium-size dams; Surveillance des barrages de taille moyenne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    French hydro-power buildings belong to the government and are retroceded by the licence holder when the granting delay comes to an end. Experience has shown that less care is given by licence holders to the maintenance of medium-size dams that to big dams. For this reason, the French Ministry of Industry decided to harmonize and standardize the surveillance practices of medium-size dams. A circular was signed on May 23, 1997 which concerns the 10 to 20 m height dams with water reservoir volumes lower than the H{sup 2} x V{sup 0.5} criterion which is an evaluation of the potential risk of the dam. The surveillance modalities concern: the construction, the licence holder file, the first filling up, the operation, and the periodical safety inspections. (J.S.)

  1. Industrial computed tomography image size measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Chen; Jin-Xiao, Pan; Bin, Liu

    2009-09-01

    As one of the most useful modern detection technologies, Industrial Computed Tomography (ICT) image size measurement can correctly non-destructively measure the size of workpieces' inner construction, and it is considered as the standard for quality assurance and reverse engineering. In view of the advantages and disadvantages compared to conventional methods, this paper improves the precision of image size measurement with a new algorithm that uses an approximate function to describe edge degradation. First, this algorithm constructs the approximate function and determines the optimal point of edge detection, based on image intensity and inflexions. Then, in order to accurately extract the image edge, this algorithm is used to revise the primary image, completing construction of the CT image. Excellent results are obtained from simulations and experiments. The experimental results indicate that the relative error is 2% for the CT image when the step evolution of the image edge is pooled. The relative error of this method is decreased by as much as 1.5% compared to wavelet transformation and ridgelet transformation. Therefore, this new algorithm demonstrates increased effectiveness in extracting an accurate measurement of the CT image edge.

  2. Industrial computed tomography image size measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As one of the most useful modern detection technologies, Industrial Computed Tomography (ICT) image size measurement can correctly non-destructively measure the size of workpieces' inner construction, and it is considered as the standard for quality assurance and reverse engineering. In view of the advantages and disadvantages compared to conventional methods, this paper improves the precision of image size measurement with a new algorithm that uses an approximate function to describe edge degradation. First, this algorithm constructs the approximate function and determines the optimal point of edge detection, based on image intensity and inflexions. Then, in order to accurately extract the image edge, this algorithm is used to revise the primary image, completing construction of the CT image. Excellent results are obtained from simulations and experiments. The experimental results indicate that the relative error is 2% for the CT image when the step evolution of the image edge is pooled. The relative error of this method is decreased by as much as 1.5% compared to wavelet transformation and ridgelet transformation. Therefore, this new algorithm demonstrates increased effectiveness in extracting an accurate measurement of the CT image edge.

  3. Can small and medium sized reactors be competitive?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cost is an important attribute for the future development of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). This paper addresses the target costs necessary for SMRs to be competitive in the markets of the 21st century and ways and means that designers are considering to meet these targets. It briefly reviews the impacts on nuclear energy competitiveness of economic globalisation, market deregulation, privatisation of the power sector and policy measures aiming at sustainable development and highlights new challenges and opportunities that are created for nuclear power plants as a result of the changing policy making framework in the electricity sector. Recognising the importance of capital cost (60% or more of nuclear electricity generation cost) the paper elaborates on technical (e.g. simplified design and factory building) and managerial (e.g. series order) measures aiming at capital cost reduction. The impacts of deregulation of the electricity market and privatisation of the sector on the competitiveness of SMRs are addressed. The paper stresses the importance of internalisation of social and environmental costs and sustainable development objectives for the competitiveness of nuclear energy and in particular of SMRs that are adapted to decentralised electricity supply and co-generation. Finally, it presents some findings and conclusions, drawn from the NEA analyses, on the prospects for enhancing the economics of small and medium reactors and their potential contribution to sustainable energy mixes. (author)

  4. Variability management challenges in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuomas Ihme

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Variability has become important means to provide customer specific products fast to the market. This paper presents findings from a literature study and questionnaire designed to find out the current variability management practices, challenges and needs in small and medium sized companies (SMEs. The literature study was carried out first, and based on its findings questionnaire study was designed and carried out. Transparency of variability and design decisions between R and D and business and customer interfaces and transparency of variability and design decisions within R and D were the most important and challenging variability areas in the studied organisations. The most frequently used architecture design issue was the use of known architectural styles and patterns to handle variability. The findings of the most challenging and important variability management topics, as well as the important improvement goals can be used to direct future research, and efforts to support companies in variability management.

  5. Medium-size high-temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) experience for the 40-MW(e) Peach Bottom Nuclear Generating Station of Philadelphia Electric Company and the 330-MW(e) Fort St. Vrain Nuclear Generating Station of the Public Service Company of Colorado. Both reactors are graphite moderated and helium cooled, operating at approx. 7600C (14000F) and using the uranium/thorium fuel cycle. The plants have demonstrated the inherent safety characteristics, the low activation of components, and the high efficiency associated with the HTGR concept. This experience has been translated into the conceptual design of a medium-sized 1170-MW(t) HTGR for generation of 450 MW of electric power. The concept incorporates inherent HTGR safety characteristics [a multiply redundant prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV), a graphite core, and an inert single-phase coolant] and engineered safety features

  6. Beyond design depressurization accident in a medium sized HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential for the release of fission products during a beyond design accident in a medium size HTGR (HTGR-500) was investigated. The dynamic simulator for nuclear power plants (DSNP) modular code was employed in the simulation of a depressurization accident coupled with the failure of forced circulation in the decay heat removal systems. For such an extreme accident the maximal localized fuel temperature reaches 3050 degC, and within 100 hours from the beginning of the accident, 3.4% of the Cs137 inventory will be released from the fuel elements to the primary circuit, and 4.6*10-2% are estimated to be released to the environment. Fission products being swept from the primary circuit by the CO and helium released from the graphite matrix, prove to be an important factor. Although a severe accident scenario was assumed, the comparative consequence analysis point at a lower risk than the analogous light water reactor severe accident. (author)

  7. The study of venture capital finance and investment behaviour in small and medium-sized enterprises

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Thokozani Patmond, Mbhele.

    Full Text Available Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are often credited with innovative entrepreneurial practices and conceiving new market opportunities. Government has reinforced these positive economic externalities through policy programmes and designated support structures. Venture capital organisations o [...] ften galvanise innovative knowledge by entrenching and sustaining nascent businesses through value-creating funding behaviours. In this way, the venture capital industry financially supports entrepreneurial activity for economic growth and governs and nurtures the growth of the SMEs. These show that the venture capital industry embraces value-creating opportunities on the basis of rational partnerships with enterprises that have limited track records and less formal control mechanisms. The tentative factor analysis findings suggest an integrated framework for the venture capital industry from the significant intercorrelations among the variables. The most important focus of this article, however, is its attempt to examine the behavioural traits of SMEs and venture capitalists regarding systematic finance and investment for inclusivity and due diligence.

  8. Insights about Integrated Marketing Communication in Small-and-Medium-sized Italian Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Esposito

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates if and how integrated marketing communication (IMC has been implemented by Italian small-and-medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. Three case studies about small and-medium Italian enterprises analysis are carried out: three small and-medium enterprises in different industries through interviews and document analysis. The article highlights the fact that small-and-medium-sized Italian enterprises implement marketing communication using a flexible approach. The most widespread communication purpose is to activate dialogues and new connections with their stakeholders and the most used communication tools are participation in fairs, sponsorships and events, but the very emerging tool is online communication: digital and social media. Despite the small number of cases included, the paper is to be considered as a starting point for a further quantitative investigation on this topic. The research shows that SMEs managers tend to adapt IMC in order to grasp opportunities on the market, rather than planning and communicating the values related to the product in an integrated way. This point ought to be taken into account to start an exchange of practices between managers and professionals in the marketing communication field..

  9. Challenges and Considerations for Innovative Small and Medium Sized Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an ongoing interest in Member States in the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). In the near term, most new NPPs are likely to be evolutionary water cooled reactor designs building on proven systems while incorporating technological advances and often the economics of scale, resulting from the reactor outputs of up to 1600 MW(e). For a longer term, the focus is on innovative designs aiming to provide increased benefits in the areas of safety and security, non-proliferation, waste management, resource utilization and economy, as well as to offer a variety of energy products and flexibility in design, siting and fuel cycle options. Many innovative designs are reactors within the SMR range, having an equivalent electric power less than 700 MW(e) or even less than 300 MW(e). It is important that small or medium sized reactor does not necessarily mean small or medium sized nuclear power plant. The majority of innovative SMR concepts and designs provide for power station configurations with several units at a site or for NPP configurations with 2 or more reactor modules. In most cases, the units or modules could be added incrementally. Innovative SMRs are in many cases intended for markets different from those in which large nuclear power plants operate, i.e., markets that value more distributed electrical supplies, a better match between supply increments and investment capability or demand growth, more flexible siting or greater product variety. SMRs cannot compete with larger capacity plants on an economy of scale basis. However, they could be competitive via employing alternative design strategies, taking advantage of smaller reactor size resulting in a less complex design and operation and maintenance or in an increased overall energy conversion efficiency, and by relying on alternative deployment strategies, taking advantage of multiple unit factors and learning curve, and shorter construction schedule and 'exact' unit timing factors. Because many innovative SMRs are not water cooled, licensing approaches focussed on current light water reactors may need adjustments toward a technology-neutral approach. And most of the innovative SMR concepts rely broadly on passive safety systems, the reliability of which needs to be proven to enable risk-informed qualification and licensing. In addition, many potential applications of SMRs, such as district heat, potable water or hydrogen production, may require them to be located close to customers or a chemical plant. Based on the outputs of IAEA activities for innovative SMRs, it is possible to identify common approaches that could help the potential vendors to meet the expectations of many users and the international community. The paper will provide details on such considerations, with a link to various subject areas and categories of stake holders.(author)

  10. The Management And Exchange of Knowledge AndInnovation in Environments of Collaborating Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    OSANNA; N.M. DURAKBASA; L. CRISAN; Bauer, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    The importance of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) is today far beyond any discussion in countries all over the world - in European countries as well as in Asia and in USA, in Africa as well as in Latin America. To meet market demands in present and future global industrial world, manufacturing enterprises of any kind and any size must be flexible and agile enough to respond quickly to product demand changes. With support of artificial intelligence and modern information technology i...

  11. Salary Management System for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhang; Guangli, Xu; Yuhuan, Zhang; Yilong, Lei

    Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in the process of wage entry, calculation, the total number are needed to be done manually in the past, the data volume is quite large, processing speed is low, and it is easy to make error, which is resulting in low efficiency. The main purpose of writing this paper is to present the basis of salary management system, establish a scientific database, the computer payroll system, using the computer instead of a lot of past manual work in order to reduce duplication of staff labor, it will improve working efficiency.This system combines the actual needs of SMEs, through in-depth study and practice of the C/S mode, PowerBuilder10.0 development tools, databases and SQL language, Completed a payroll system needs analysis, database design, application design and development work. Wages, departments, units and personnel database file are included in this system, and have data management, department management, personnel management and other functions, through the control and management of the database query, add, delete, modify, and other functions can be realized. This system is reasonable design, a more complete function, stable operation has been tested to meet the basic needs of the work.

  12. Powertrain System Design of Medium-sized Hybrid Electric Tractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Bin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The environment issue has been more and more serious than ever before along with the increasing numbers of tractors. Different from pure electric tractors, medium-sized tractor more widely adopt hybrid power driver according to the machine structure and operation characteristics. The Hybrid Electric Tractor (HET is capable of enabling the diesel works in an optimal area by controlling the output torque of engine and electronic motor to achieve fuel economy and emission reduction. Designing the parallel hybrid tractor transmission system and control method are put forward in a 66kW off-road tractor based on the plowing operation cycle condition. The overall power should meet the maximum power of the plowing operation with the power balance equation. The control strategies are established by road transport modes and field operating modes, respectively. A logic fuzzy control system to Degree of Hybridization (DOH on account of the output torque and State of Charge (SOC is introduced. Aiming at the fuel economy parameter, the optimization design shows that the hybrid tractor can improve 19.2% of fuel economy between SOC 0.4~0.7 compared with the traditional tractor.

  13. Small and Medium Sized Reactors: Driving Forces and Technology Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There will be growing demands for energy in the coming decades. One aspect of particular importance is that prospects for nuclear energy will to a considerable extent be influenced by developing countries. Since population growth will occur primarily in developing countries nuclear energy cannot play a significant global role without being a viable option in these countries. Since new power plants to be built will have to be compatible with regional electricity grids, this may result in a greater focus on plants in the small and medium range, defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to produce up to 700 Megawatt of electrical power. This paper first examines the driving forces that could influence the development of nuclear energy in general and of Small and Medium Sized Reactors (SMRs) in particular in the next decades and identifies key factors in that process. Concerns over climate change may to a certain extent influence the discussion on future energy options. Other factors of equal importance for the future of nuclear are a continued emphasis on maintaining high safety standards, the implementation of acceptable solutions for spent fuel and radioactive waste disposal and a globally accepted non-proliferation regime, factors that may in turn have an impact on public acceptance. Economic competitiveness of nuclear energy is an additional important factor, and without being commercially viable, no energy source can in the long run represent a major and stable component in a competitive energy sector. The introduction of SMRs in developing countries poses additional challenges, such as investment limitations. Technology development plays an important role in keeping the nuclear option open for countries wishing to use nuclear reactors to meet their energy needs, and advances in reactor design will be important to enable a significant nuclear component in developing countries. This paper considers the contribution that nuclear science and technology can make towards meeting those needs and discusses the role of the IAEA in the nuclear technology area. The activities of the IAEA encompass the broad areas of nuclear technology, safety and safeguards, together with outreach activities which seek to provide information to decision makers, civil society and the public. (authors)

  14. Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Target System's Design of Key Performance Assess

    OpenAIRE

    Zhihui Sun

    2009-01-01

    The article from the situation that the present small and medium-sized enterprises' performance assess is unable to obtain the anticipated effect to embark, through analyzing the questions which consist in the small and medium-sized enterprises' performance assess targets design, and combining with the small and medium-sized enterprises' actual situation to design a set of target system of key performance assess. In this system which carries on the omni-directional analysis to the target syst...

  15. The Creation of Small and Medium-Sized Sport Enterprises and the Environmental Factors Affecting It

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Morteza Azimzadeh; Brenda Pitts; Arash Sarvari MirAzizi

    2013-01-01

    Small and medium-sized enterprises are very basic solutions for the development of a country; therefore, it is important to understand the factors involved in their creation. Hence, this study sought to examine the relationship between environmental factors and creation of Small and medium-sized sport enterprises. The research population was small and medium-sized sport enterprises (1500 companies); their owners / managers were selected as the research sample (n = 258) by simple random sampli...

  16. Approaches to Assess Competitiveness of Small and Medium Sized Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is continuing interest in Member States concerning the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs), i.e., reactors with the equivalent electric power of less than 700 MW. Currently, developed SMRs are in most cases intended for markets different than those in which large nuclear power plants operate. Such markets have essentially different investment requirements, siting flexibility, grid connections and infrastructure restrictions. Therefore, economic factors affecting the competitiveness or competition of SMRs in such markets would also be different from those observed in established markets for electricity production. For example, investment capability may be limited, which would favour capacity addition in smaller increments; grids may be small or weak, which would favour capacities exactly matching the demand; infrastructure and human resource may be insufficient, which would favour less complex operation and maintenance requirements; and non-electrical energy products, such as potable water, may be in demand, which would favour reasonably close plant location to the customer. In practice it is futile to compare a single SMR needs to a single larger capacity plant on an economy of scale basis because SMRs are suitable for those locations that might not be appropriate for larger plants. However, a series of SMRs could be considered comparable to fewer larger plants to achieve the same overall power station capacity. In this case, SMRs have a potential to be competitive by employing alternative design strategies, taking advantage of smaller reactor size, offering a less complex design and operation and maintenance, relying on deployment-in-series approaches, taking an advantage of the accelerated learning, multiple unit factors and shorter construction duration. Reflecting on developments in member states, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is finalizing the preparation of a report highlighting the economics and investment related factors affecting SMR competitiveness, as well as the tools available to assess these factors. In parallel with this, IAEA is conducting a series of case studies on SMR competitive deployment and application, making use of these tools and fostering their further development. The case studies that would highlight comparative benefits and disadvantages of SMRs versus larger reactors for different deployment strategies and application conditions, will be finalized in the end of 2009, and their final results are not yet available Therefore, the present paper summarizes the major outputs of the report titled 'Approaches to Assess Competitiveness of SMRs' and discusses approaches that need to be taken into account in the assessment rather than the results of their application. However, several illustrations of the application of such approaches are provided. (author)

  17. Use of sales and operations planning in small and medium-sized enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing competitiveness in the market, customer expectations related to the shortening of the deadlines and the reduction of prices of products and services force companies to improve the efficiency of internal processes. The integration of planning process is one of possible ways to achieve this aim. The integration of planning processes by the use of SOP model (Sales and Operations Planning is a method to implement this idea. The study allowed to identify ways to implement the process of sales and operations planning in small and medium-sized enterprises. Material and methods: The study was conducted in companies from different industries. The research method was in-depth interviews conducted with managers of companies or persons occupying management positions in the organizational process of implementing sales and operations planning. Results: During the survey, 10 companies were asked about the use of sales and operations planning, its elements and organizational aspects of its development, by the company. Conclusions: The use of sales and operations plan is closely dependent on the size of the company and its localization in the supply chain. Small enterprises are not interested in the integration of the planning process due to the small scale of operations and the centralization of decision-making process. Medium-sized enterprises, due to the increased complexity of the processes of planning, see the benefits of their integration in the SOP model.

  18. Medium-term perspectives of the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the 1990's, natural gas was the energy source with the fastest rate of growth in the world energy balance. Nevertheless, recent evolutions of the energy context, in particular in terms of prices, have had a rather strong impact on the progress of the different energy sources penalizing gas a little. Beyond this competition between energies, which may increase, the medium-term perspectives of natural gas development is in keeping with an environment full of uncertainties. This article presents: the world supply and demand prospects for 2010-2015 (impact of high gas prices on other energy sources, occurrence of production constraints, political decisions of producing countries and world gas industry balance), trends on main markets (North America, Europe, Asia-Oceania), and international trade. (J.S.)

  19. Dynamics of firm size in healthcare industry

    OpenAIRE

    Fariba Hashemi

    2012-01-01

    Healthcare is one of the world’s fastest growing industries consisting of broad services offered by various hospitals, physicians, nursing homes, diagnostic laboratories, pharmacies and supported by drugs, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, medical equipment, manufacturers and suppliers. The industry is highly fragmented, comprising of various ancillary sectors namely medical equipment and supplies, pharmaceutical, healthcare services, biotechnology, and alternative medicines. The present study focu...

  20. Theoretical Investigation of Trust in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentinas Navickas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The hectic pace of competition pushes the sector of small and medium enterprise to adopt sophisticated marketing ideas. In this context, customers are becoming more and more selective. However, expansion possibilities are burdened by the great variety of limitations. The current study paper aims to investigate the academic perception of trust which is treated as competitive advantage for small and medium enterprises. The object of the article is trust in small and medium enterprises. It has three objectives: to analyse small and medium enterprise characteristics through the academic perspective; to consider trust from the theoretical point of view; and to present the models that centre their attention on the trust as a construct that enhances customer satisfaction. Regarding the novelty of the current study, it brings a novel approach on a great variety of collected understandings of trust and puts an important foundation for future theory and practice investigations.

  1. Approaches to assess competitiveness of small and medium sized reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is continuing interest in Member States concerning the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs), i.e., reactors with the equivalent electric power of less than 700 MW. Currently, developed SMRs are in most cases intended for markets different than those in which large nuclear power plants operate. Such markets have essentially different investment requirements, siting flexibility, grid connections and infrastructure restrictions. Therefore, economic factors affecting the competitiveness or competition of SMRs in such markets would also be different from those observed in established markets for electricity production. For example, investment capability may be limited, which would favour capacity addition in smaller increments; grids may be small or weak, which would favour capacities exactly matching the demand; infrastructure and human resource may be insufficient, which would favour less complex operation and maintenance requirements; and non-electrical energy products, such as potable water, may be in demand, which would favour reasonably close plant location to the customer. In practice it is futile to compare a single SMR needs to a single larger capacity plant on an economy of scale basis because SMRs are suitable for those locations that might not be appropriate for larger plants. However, a series of SMRs could be considered comparable to fewer larger plants to achieve the same overall power station capacity. In this case, SMRs have a potential to be competitive by employing alternative design strategies, taking advantage of smaller reactor size, offering a less complex design and operation and maintenance, relying on deployment-in-series approaches, taking an advantage of the accelerated learning, multiple unit factors and shorter construction duration. Reflecting on developments in member states, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is finalizing the preparation of a report highlighting the economics and investment related factors affecting SMR competitiveness, as well as the tools available to assess these factors. Adequate comparative assessment of SMR competitiveness is a complex task that may require considering time dependent expenditure and generation profiles and interest rates to determine adequate values of levelized unit energy cost (LUEC) for deployment scenarios with several consequently built plants of different types and capacities. As private capital may play an important role in financing of the new plants, investment and revenue models need to be employed to determine time-dependent characteristics, such as investments and revenues. Uncertainty analysis needs to be incorporated to add a degree of fidelity to the overall assessment. A variety of methods and tools required to conduct comparative economic assessments would been described in this paper. Many of these tools already exist in member states or are available from international organizations. In addition to this, the IAEA coordinated the development of an open model for the analysis of SMR economic and investment opportunities, which targets bringing together all currently available state-of-the-art models for generation costs, revenues, financial costs, and external factors and risks, while 'keeping the door open' for any new approach or development once it becomes available. The open model is being developed for a specific task of comparing the deployments of SMRs versus larger reactors in liberalized energy markets. LUEC will be an important figure of merit in this model; however, provisions would be made to ensure that LEUC is calculated taking into account time-dependent expenditure and production profiles and changing interest rates. In addition models to calculate investment profiles and revenues will be included. Finally, an approach to take into account other factors potentially affecting the competitiveness of SMRs, such as energy supply security, proliferation-resistance, political posture, etc. will be developed. In parallel with the development of such model, IAEA is conducting a s

  2. Management Education for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the European Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Rainer

    This report summarizes the activities of various bodies providing training impetus for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Europe on the three levels of (1) basic management education for potential small and medium-sized business owners and/or managers; (2) programs for small firm start-ups; and (3) activities to improve the management of…

  3. Design and implementation of web server soft load balancing in small and medium-sized enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liu

    2011-12-01

    With the expansion of business scale, small and medium-sized enterprises began to use information platform to improve their management and competition ability, the server becomes the core factor which restricts the enterprise's infomationization construction. This paper puts forward a suitable design scheme for small and medium-sized enterprise web server soft load balancing, and proved it effective through experiment.

  4. Small-to medium-sized manufacturers in supply chains : Development of effective customer relationships and growth

    OpenAIRE

    Valsamakis, Vassilios P.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis details a study into the role of Small- to Medium- sized Manufacturers (SMMs) in supply chains and how this may affect SMMs' growth potential. The study draws upon a variety of research streams including Supply Chain Management, Industrial Marketing, and the literature on factors that affect firm growth. The objectives of the study are to: identify relationship management activities employed by SMMs and investigate the links between relationship management activi...

  5. Enablers and Difficulties for Innovation in Chile: Perceptions from Medium Size Plastic Firm Managers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José O, Maldifassi; Patricio, Crovetto.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The research objective was to understand the reasons that would impel firms to innovate. The firms analyzed in this study were medium-size firms of the plastic manufacturing sector in Chile. After the analysis of the theory related to technological innovation, a model of the drivers for technologica [...] l innovation was developed. From the model a questionnaire was prepared to test which factors could influence the tendency of firms to engage in technological innovation activities. According to the data, the most influential factors that would encourage innovation in the set of firms studied are a high degree of competition in the industry, the availability of qualified workers, and a strategic relationship with customers.

  6. Examples from P2 and energy assessments at small to medium size manufacturers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using engineering student-faculty teams, the U.S. Department of energy sponsored industrial assessment center (IAC) at the university of louisville does free pollution prevention and energy assessments at small to medium size manufacturers (SIC 20-39) in kentucky and indiana. Each client plant must meet three of the following four criteria: Annual energy bills less than $1, 750, 000 and more than $50, 00. Gross annual sales of less than $75 million. Less than 500 employees. Lack a dedicated energy/waste engineer. Lack of in-house staff to perform these analyses. The program criteria and assessment procedures are briefly described and summaries of assessment at a sheet fed offset (lithographic) printing plant and 2 denim jeans pre washing plants are presented. 4 figs., 8 tabs

  7. SECURITY CONCERNS IN MEDIUM SIZE ENTERPRISE CLOUD COMPUTING

    OpenAIRE

    SHAIK.SAIDHBIMCA , IBRAHIM GASHAW

    2013-01-01

    Cloud computing in an small size enterprise infrastructure bring significant security concerns. Successful implementation of cloud computing in a small size enterprise requires proper planning and understanding of emerging risks, threats, vulnerabilities, and possible countermeasures. We believe small size enterprise should analyze the company/organization security risks, threats, and available countermeasures before adopting this technology. In this paper, we have discussed security risks an...

  8. SECURITY CONCERNS IN MEDIUM SIZE ENTERPRISE CLOUD COMPUTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAIK.SAIDHBIMCA , IBRAHIM GASHAW

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing in an small size enterprise infrastructure bring significant security concerns. Successful implementation of cloud computing in a small size enterprise requires proper planning and understanding of emerging risks, threats, vulnerabilities, and possible countermeasures. We believe small size enterprise should analyze the company/organization security risks, threats, and available countermeasures before adopting this technology. In this paper, we have discussed security risks and concerns in cloud computing and enlightened steps that a small size enterprise can take to reduce security risks and protect their resources. We have also explained cloud computing strengths/benefits, weaknesses, and applicable areas in information risk management

  9. Flexible Business Process Integration for Clusters of Small-Medium Sized Enterprises in Heterogenous Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Jiang; Yun Ling

    2009-01-01

    Industry clusters-groups of geographically proximate enterprises in the same industry are a striking feature of the geography of economic activity and greatly impact the overall economic development. However, most of them are low-cost-based clusters that are composed of small-medium enterprises which needs social electronic services and flexible business process integration. In this paper, we present an on-demand information service platform for small-medium enterprise clusters and propose lo...

  10. Atomic structure of metallic clusters of medium size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used Density Functional Theory and the Spherically Averaged Pseudopotential (SAPS) model to study the relative stabilities of sodium clusters with different atomic arrangements in the size range N ? 340. Starting with perfect crystalline clusters with filled atomic shells we find that small distortions of the geometry strongly enhance their stability. However, in the size range studied in this work the distorted crystalline structures are not the absolute energy minima. These are, instead, non-crystalline structures obtained by energy minimization without any structural constraints. In particular, non-crystalline clusters with a number of electrons able to give filled electronic shells are the most stable clusters. The crossover between magic numbers of electronic origin (clusters with filled electronic shells) and magic numbers of atomic origin (crystalline structures with filled atomic shells) has not yet taken place in the size range studied here and should occur for larger sizes. (author). 10 refs, 5 figs

  11. Small and medium sized reactors with special emphasis on non-power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper examines the possible role of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) for world energy supply based on recent studies by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), the IAEA, the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD and papers presented at a seminar on SMRs held in New Delhi, in August 191. It notes that nuclear power appears to be receiving more favourable consideration as the environmental effects of fossil fuels and renewable energy sources become more evident, and that SMRs are generating particular interest, especially in the USA, because of their passive safety features and reduced financial risk. Although larger reactors will be preferred for electricity generation in most developed countries, unless SMRs are cheaper or offer other benefits, they could be used where electricity demand is too small for large reactors. Small and medium sized reactors could have a more general role in supplying district heating or process heat as they provide a better match to the energy required. However, there are many obstacles to their use at present, including public opposition, cheap gas, small system size, low load factors, lack of finance and competition from independent boilers. Current prospects for SMRs in district heating systems are poor, but the obstacles appear less serious for process heat applications, including desalination, and these could therefore offer early opportunities for SMRs to demonstrate their safety and reliability. Industrial sites also have more consistent demands for heat and electricity which would allow the reactors to operate more efficiently in a co-generation mode. It is concluded that the prospects for SMRs are reasonably good in the longer term. However, it is essential that one or two prototype reactors be built as soon as possible to provide experience and confirm their claimed benefits. This likely to need international co-operation and finance, which will require the selection of the most suitable national designs for further development. (author). 23 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs

  12. The Management And Exchange of Knowledge AndInnovation in Environments of Collaborating Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OSANNA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs is today far beyond any discussion in countries all over the world - in European countries as well as in Asia and in USA, in Africa as well as in Latin America. To meet market demands in present and future global industrial world, manufacturing enterprises of any kind and any size must be flexible and agile enough to respond quickly to product demand changes. With support of artificial intelligence and modern information technology it is possible to realise modern cost-effective customer-driven design and manufacturing taking into account the importance and basic role of quality management and metrology. This will be especially possible on the basis of the innovative concept and model for modern enterprises the so-called "Multi-Functions Integrated Factory - MFIF" that makes possible an agile and optimal industrial production in any kind of industry and especially in up-to-date SMEs.

  13. Layout design studies for medium-sized telescopes within the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Hassan, T; Nieto, D; Wood, M

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is an international project for a next-generation ground-based gamma-ray observatory. CTA, conceived as an array of tens of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, comprising small, medium and large-size telescopes, is aiming to improve on the sensitivity of current-generation experiments by an order of magnitude and provide energy coverage from 20 GeV to more than 300 TeV. In this study we explore how the medium-sized telescopes layout design and composition impacts the overall CTA performance by analyzing Monte Carlo simulations including Davies-Cotton and Schwarzschild-Couder medium-sized telescopes.

  14. Strategic Alliance Typology and Survival Chances among Medium-Sized Manufacturing Firms in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeje Kafigi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Firms strive to grow and survive. The survival chances can be fostered by a list of business strategies, such as strategic alliances. Different types of strategic alliances exist. This study groups the typology into manufacturing and non-manufacturing alliances. Little research has been done on Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs, particularly Medium-Sized Enterprises (MEs, from the manufacturing industry in the least developed countries such as Tanzania in relation to the alliance typology and partnering firms’ survival chances that can be explained by an ability to accumulate resources and reduce both costs and risks. A cross-sectional survey design and multistage probability sampling technique enabled the participation of 398 CEOs from three zones of Tanzania whose options were collected through questionnaires. In the context of this paper, both the Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Multiple Regression Analysis (MRA are applied to explain the two main alliance types and how they predict firms’ survival chances respectively. To a great extent, we find that there exists a relationship between alliance typology and both the reduction of costs and risks, as well as resource accessibility. However, we argue that partners could adopt alliance types that concurrently reduce the costs and risks; but at the same time enabling them to acquire resources if they would carefully study and establish the link between costs, risks and resources.

  15. Contribution of small and medium sized enterprises in development of agribusiness of Serbian Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popovi? Blaženka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic development of Serbian republic is more and more connected with development of small and medium sized enterprises, which represent one of the main bases of Serbian economy. The economic potential of agriculture imposes the need of analyzing the condition in area of small and medium sized entrepreneurship which should be the carrier of future development of agribusiness. By ranging and grouping of Serbian republic municipalities (by discrimination and cluster analysis according to level of development of small and medium sized entrepreneurship in agriculture, the clear view is got in current state of regional development of this agricultural sector as the possibilities of future development. By development of small and medium sized enterprises in agriculture it is possible to achieve strategic goals of Serbian republic agro development and for realization of these goals it is necessary to ensure the stable economic ambient, appropriate pre conditions as measures of support which will be stimulating for development of agribusiness.

  16. Customer Relationship Management system for small and medium-sized enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Liang

    2008-01-01

    This bachelor work provides a case study of small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) to analyze the general proposal criteria for customer relationship management (CRM) software selection. The selected software can help small and medium-sized enterprise to solve the marketing issues which are connected with customers to enhance customer satisfaction and loyalty to realize customer retention, customer acquisition and market share expanding.

  17. The role of promotional strategies for small and medium- sized entreprises in sustainable marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Ioana Cecilia Popescu; Diana Maria Vrânceanu; Mihai Ioan Ro?ca

    2012-01-01

    In Romania, small and medium-sized enterprises manifest a certain interest in marketing activities, resulted in the existence of a specific marketing structure in half of them, as attests a survey done on a sample of 140 organizations. This research, focused on understanding the promotional strategies and tactics used by Romanian small and medium-sized enterprises, concluded that communication is oriented predominantly to quantitative objectives, not designed according to sustainable marketin...

  18. The Vital Factors for Small and Medium Sized Sport Enterprises Start-ups

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Morteza Azimzadeh; Brenda Pitts; Mohammad Ehsani; Asadollah Kordnaeij

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, the new enterprises are recognized as the main source of job creation, innovation and development. In today’s business world, new enterprises are recognized as an important source of job creation, innovation and development. Therefore, identifying influencing factors that play key roles in the start-up of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) is critical. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify critical factors for starting-up Small and Medium sized Sport Enterprises (SM...

  19. THE KEY DETERMINANTS OF AND BARRIERS TO INTERNET ADOPTION IN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED HOTELS

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Kim Lian Chan

    2012-01-01

    The present paper presents qualitative empirical evidence that addresses why internet usage/adoption is low and how it can be improved in small and medium-sized hotels in Malaysia. It explores the key barriers to and influencing factors of internet adoption in a sample of 25 Malaysian small and medium-sized hotels based on a theoretical framework of the organisational innovation and resource-based view theories. Key barriers to internet usage include owner/operator characteristics, cost and i...

  20. EXTERNAL FORCES DRIVING CHANGE IN THE ROMANIAN SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roiban Roxana Nadina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Change is a constant in everyday life confronting organizations to continuously adapt their strategy, structure, processes, and culture in order to survive and stay competitive on the market. Implementing organizational change is one of the most important skills required for managers and in the meantime the most difficult one. The forces driving change within an organization, that can be either external or internal, are those that propel a company forward towards change and in order to identify the need for change and make the proper changes, managers have to develop a tool that allows them to analyze how does the environment influence their business activities. A vision for change will clarify the directions in which the organization needs to move, starting from its current state and taking in consideration the existing opportunities and threats from the environment that allow to move to a future desired state. The purpose of this paper is to identify the concern for change in the Romanian small and medium sized enterprises by presenting and explaining the past and present influences of the main external forces that have determined the need for change in the last 3-5 years and to make recommendations about future possible changes that have to be performed by managers for a better harmonization with the environment. The research method used for this study is the interview on a sample that contains some of the most relevant SME’s from the western side of Romania, from different industries. We analyzed the main external forces that had an impact on the small and medium sized enterprises and how were they generating the need for organizational change, in order to see which present and future changes are required.

  1. Structure and growth pattern of medium-size silicon clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The fundamental importance of understanding the evolution of properties of atomic clusters with increasing size and the potential use of atomic clusters as building blocks of new materials have stimulated many experimental and theoretical studies, particularly on silicon clusters Sin. For n ? 7 the ground state geometries of silicon clusters are firmly established, while for 8 ? n ? 20 there are experimental data on ionic mobility and spectroscopic energies of silicon clusters that indirectly support the ground state geometries predicted by first-principles calculations. However, there are still a great variety of unexplored isomers of clusters in the range 8 ? n ? 20 that may also be consistent with the experimental data, and the experimental results themselves may be also subject to correction. An intriguing finding from the first-principles calcitonins is that the lowest energy geometries or n?11 differ greatly between clusters that differ in size by only one atom, although they mostly involve tricapped trigonal prism (TTP) units. There is no fundamental explanation for this, beyond the obvious necessity for surface atoms to minimize the number of dangling bonds. This is generally accompanied by over coordination of interior atoms of clusters, compared to bulk silicon, leading to an increase in the number of bonds and their simultaneous wreaking. The actual growth pattern of clusters by sequential addition of silicon atoms will not necessarily include only the lowest energy isomers, because high barriers over requirements for large atomic displacements may prevent rearrangement of each lowest energy isomer to the lowest-energy isomer of the next larger size. Thus, from a slightly more practical point of view, regular (smooth) growth patterns of silicon clusters are of interest. However, systematic research on silicon clusters showing such smooth growth patterns for a wide range of cluster sizes has not previously been presented in the literature. This work presents one such sequence of cluster structures explored using the self-consistent non-conventional tight-binding method (NTBM) (Z.M. Khakimov. Com put. Mater. Sci. 3, 95 (1994)) and recently developed molecular dynamics simulation algorithm (Z. M. Khakimov, Comput. Phys. Comm. 147, 731 (2002)). The results obtained by NTBM are in excellent agreement with available experimental data and accurate first-principles calculation results for small silicon clusters. Certain deviations between the latter and our results, especially for larger clusters, show not only possible ways of improvement of NTBM parameterization, but also the necessity of careful examination of the first-principles calculations for silicon clusters, because such calculations have mostly been done using optimization of cluster geometries at lower levels of theory, followed by single point energy calculations with a higher level of theory. Overestimation or underestimation of bond distances (that can be eliminated only by balanced accounting for basis sets and correlations effects) and, in particular, inconsistent ratios of shortest and longest bond distances (this may be also caused by missing of true global minimum because of particular search strategy) may in principle lead to different growth patterns of clusters. This work was supported in part by CRDF (Grant No ZC1-2519-TA-03) and the Science and Technology Center of Uzbekistan (Grant No F-2.1.18)

  2. THE FINANCIAL LIQUIDITY OF THE FOOD INDUSTRY ENTERPRISES IN POLAND IN THE SYSTEM SIZE OF ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bieniasz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the diversification of financial liquidity of food industry enterprises in Poland in 2009-2011 and indicates the main factors shaping liquidity. The study used unpublished data of Central Statistical Office, allowing for the analysis of liquidity in the system classes the food industry and the system enterprise size (small, medium, large. The analyses show, that the food industry in Poland in 2009-2011, regardless of their size and adopted ratios, have the ability to regulate the current liabilities, but kept at a low level. Analysis of the factors influencing liquidity showed, that the primary importance was turnover ratio of current liabilities, as well as ratio of financing of income through equity.

  3. Sustainability and Small to Medium Sized Enterprises--How to Engage Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Linda

    2004-01-01

    Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) have a major advantage over larger organisations in regard to addressing sustainability issues--their size means they are able to react very quickly to changes in the business environment. They are disadvantaged, however, by lack of information on marketplace changes that make sustainability an opportunity…

  4. The role of small and medium size reactors in the future US nuclear market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses the various aspects of siting and sizing new generating facilities in the USA. Environmental and licensing issues are discussed. The economic considerations and assumptions for new plants are presented. Also, the electric transmission and distribution system characteristics and constraints are described with the potential role for several small and medium size designs summarized. (authors)

  5. International seminar on status and prospects for small and medium sized reactors. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small and medium sized reactors have been defined by IAEA in accordance with their net electrical power rating, or thermal equivalent power rating for reactors producing process heat. Within the global energy supply and demand the role of nuclear power, and specifically the role of small and medium sizes reactors, is reviewed. Some new design prospects of dual purpose power plants, namely for heat production and desalination, are presented. Some proposal for new concepts of small size power reactors are described. A special concern is devoted to economic and energy policy issues as well as to safety and non-proliferation matters

  6. A study on the Establishment of Process Safety Management (PSM) System for Small and Medium Size Chemical Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, J.B. [Dept. of Safety Engineering, Chungju National University, Chungju (Korea); Ko, J.W. [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Kwangwoon University, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    The article 49-2 of Industrial Safety Law requires that all the owners of industrial plants which contains dangerous facilities perform the process safety management. That is, this law requires the owners of industrial plants to take necessary measures to prevent fire, harmful gas leaking, explosion, and other serious accidents that could cause demage and injuries to the employees. So far, domestic chemical plants have tried to invest money and time in safety management. But, such efforts have been made only in chemical plants that were subsidiaries of large business groups. Moreover, since the economic crisis of Korea which is symbolized by the IMF bailout, small and medium size companies could not afford to invest in safety management. Their major concern is to increase productivity and thereby, survive in this crisis. The goal of this research is to develop the process safety management system that can help small and medium size companies to positively secure the process safety management. So, in developing the process safety management system, the financial and practical difficulties of such companies are fully taken into consideration. 12 refs., 5 figs.

  7. An integrated approach for developing a technology strategy framework for small- to medium-sized furniture manufacturers to improve competitiveness

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.S., Lourens; J.A., Jonker.

    Full Text Available Low-technology firms, such as those found within the furniture manufacturing industry, have no framework or methodology to guide them successfully to acquire and integrate technology that enables them to operate more competitively. The aim of this article is to illustrate the development of a techno [...] logy strategy framework for small- to medium-sized furniture manufacturers to assist them to improve their competitiveness. More specifically, this article presents an integrated technology strategy framework that enables management to integrate their business strategy with their technology requirements successfully, thus improving competitiveness.

  8. Fostering Linkages between Transnational Corporations and Small to Medium-Sized Enterprises in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delane Botelho

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available When large Transnational Corporations (TNCs enter a host country, consequent development of local Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs is expected. The public sector may play an important role by fostering Business Linkages (BL, by which TNCs establish purchasing relationships with local SMEs. This article was motivated by growing attention in literature to the interaction between economic development and the ability of companies to absorb and disseminate competences. Its purpose is to understand the role of public policy programs that promote BLs for development by: (a analyzing actions and programs developed by public and private institutions to foster BL in Brazil; (b discovering the participants? benefits from such actions and programs; and (c identifying opportunities for public sector promotion of BL. The research design was a multiple case study which analyzed Supplier Development Projects in five Brazilian states. Results indicate that public policies may complement overall development as well as industrial policy, which is related to capacity building, stimulating technology transfer, and, more broadly, promoting a business friendly environment able to attract investment for development, calling for a regional and sub-regional approach for a country the size of Brazil.

  9. Fostering linkages between transnational corporations and small to medium-sized enterprises in Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Delane, Botelho; Milber Fernandes Morais, Bourguignon.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available When large Transnational Corporations (TNCs) enter a host country, consequent development of local Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) is expected. The public sector may play an important role by fostering Business Linkages (BL), by which TNCs establish purchasing relationships with local SMEs. This [...] article was motivated by growing attention in literature to the interaction between economic development and the ability of companies to absorb and disseminate competences. Its purpose is to understand the role of public policy programs that promote BLs for development by: (a) analyzing actions and programs developed by public and private institutions to foster BL in Brazil; (b) discovering the participants' benefits from such actions and programs; and (c) identifying opportunities for public sector promotion of BL. The research design was a multiple case study which analyzed Supplier Development Projects in five Brazilian states. Results indicate that public policies may complement overall development as well as industrial policy, which is related to capacity building, stimulating technology transfer, and, more broadly, promoting a business friendly environment able to attract investment for development, calling for a regional and sub-regional approach for a country the size of Brazil.

  10. Feasibility of a medium-size central cogenerated energy facility, energy management memorandum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, R. W.

    1982-09-01

    The thermal-economic feasibility was studied of a medium-size central cogenerated energy facility designed to serve five varied industries. Generation options included one dual-fuel diesel and one gas turbine, both with waste heat boilers, and five fired boilers. Fuels included natural gas, and for the fired-boiler cases, also low-sulphur coal and municipal refuse. The fired-boiler cogeneration systems employed back-pressure steam turbines. For coal and refuse, the option of steam only without cogeneration was also assessed. The refuse-fired cases utilized modular incinerators. The options provided for a wide range of steam and electrical capacities. Deficient steam was assumed generated independently in existing equipment. Excess electrical power over that which could be displaced was assumed sold to Commonwealth Edison Company under PURPA (Public Utility Regulator Policies Act). The facility was assumed operated by a mutually owned corporation formed by the cogenerated power users. The economic analysis was predicted on currently applicable energy-investment tax credits and accelerated depreciation for a January 1985 startup date. Based on 100% equity financing, the results indicated that the best alternative was the modular-incinerator cogeneration system.

  11. The Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Performance Evaluation Model Based on DEA and AHP Method

    OpenAIRE

    Qiong Sun; Zhengran Gao

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, DEA model and AHP model combined with a new method to evaluate the performance of the small and medium enterprises. In this paper, mainly introduced the analytic hierarchy process?AHP?and data envelopment analysis ( DEA ), based on the existing on the small and medium-sized enterprise performance evaluation methods are analyzed, finally, through empirical analysis that the method of DEA based on AHP and has good applicability and feasibility. ...

  12. The Career Planning of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Based on Knowledge Life Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Liu; Xinbo Sun

    2009-01-01

    The article use the theory of knowledge life cycle, the small and medium-sized enterprises’ concept and the career planning, seek the joint between the career planning of enterprises and the theory of knowledge life cycle, has effectively studied the transmission mechanism in forming of the career planning of enterprises and the theory of knowledge life cycle, moreover bring forward corresponding human resource management measure, provide the cut-in point of theory for the small and medium-si...

  13. Motives behind Strategic Alliance Formation among Medium-Sized Manufacturing Firms in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Kafigi Jeje

    2014-01-01

    Research on strategic alliance motives has attracted a great attention as firms strive to become market leaders. One critical area is to assess the contribution of these motives to strategic alliance formation. Most studies on alliance motives concentrate on international strategic alliances that involve large or multinational corporations from developed economies. Little research has been done on Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), particularly Medium-Sized Enterprises (MEs) from the manufa...

  14. Medium-sized deletion in the BRCA1 gene: limitations of Sanger sequencing and MLPA analyses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandra, Herman; Dominic, Varga; Heidrun L., Deissler; Rolf, Kreienberg; Helmut, Deissler.

    Full Text Available We describe a family with a history of breast and ovarian cancer in which MLPA analysis of the BRCA1 gene pointed to a deletion including a part of exon 11. Further characterization confirmed a loss of 374 bp in a region completely covered by conventional sequencing which had not revealed the deleti [...] on. Because this alteration was only detected serendipitously with an MLPA probe, we calculated the probabilities of detecting medium-sized deletions in large exons by methods including initial PCR amplification. This showed that a considerable fraction of medium-sized deletions are undetectable by currently used standard methods of mutation analyses. We conclude that long, widely overlapping amplicons should be used to minimize the risk of missing medium-sized deletions. Alternatively, large exons could be completely covered by narrow-spaced MLPA probes.

  15. A Medium Sized Schwarzschild-Couder Cherenkov Telescope Mechanical Design Proposed for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Byrum, K; Benbow, W; Cameron, R; Criswell, S; Errando, M; Guarino, V; Kaaret, P; Kieda, D; Mukherjee, R; Naumann, D; Nieto, D; Northrop, R; Okumura, A; Roache, E; Rousselle, J; Schlenstedt, S; Sternberger, R; Vassiliev, V; Wakely, S; Zhao, H

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is an international next-generation ground-based gamma-ray observatory. CTA will be implemented as southern and northern hemisphere arrays of tens of small, medium and large-sized imaging Cherenkov telescopes with the goal of improving the sensitivity over the current-generation experiments by an order of magnitude. CTA will provide energy coverage from ~20 GeV to more than 300 TeV. The Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) medium size (9.5m) telescopes will feature a novel aplanatic two-mirror optical design capable of accommodating a wide field-of-view with significantly improved angular resolution as compared to the traditional Davies-Cotton optical design. A full-scale prototype SC medium size telescope structure has been designed and will be constructed at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in southern Arizona during the fall of 2015. concentrate on the novel features of the design.

  16. UNICS - An Unified Instrument Control System for Small/Medium Sized Astronomical Observatories

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, Mudit K; Burse, Mahesh P; Chordia, Pravin A; Chillal, Kalpesh S; Mestry, Vilas B; Das, Hillol K; Kohok, Abhay A

    2009-01-01

    Although the astronomy community is witnessing an era of large telescopes, smaller and medium sized telescopes still maintain their utility being larger in numbers. In order to obtain better scientific outputs it is necessary to incorporate modern and advanced technologies to the back-end instruments and to their interfaces with the telescopes through various control processes. However often tight financial constraints on the smaller and medium size observatories limit the scope and utility of these systems. Most of the time for every new development on the telescope the back-end control systems are required to be built from scratch leading to high costs and efforts. Therefore a simple, low cost control system for small and medium size observatory needs to be developed to minimize the cost and efforts while going for the expansion of the observatory. Here we report on the development of a modern, multipurpose instrument control system UNICS (Unified Instrument Control System) to integrate the controls of vari...

  17. Evaluation of innovation activities of small and medium-sized businesses in Slovak Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Kostiviarova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the presented paper is to contribute to the discussion on innovation activities of small and medium-sized businesses of the Slovak Republic and the European Union. It is based on the results of research carried out by the National Agency for the Development of Small and Medium Enterprises (NADSME, where the focus was on the innovation capacity of small and medium firms in Slovakia. And it was complemented by the results of an analysis of firms’ innovation activities in the Banská Bystrica region carried out within the project “Regional Innovation Strategy of the Banska Bystrica Region”.

  18. Comment on the IASB’s Exposure Draft ‘IFRS for Small and Medium-sized Entities’

    OpenAIRE

    CISI, Maurizio

    2008-01-01

    In February 2007 the IASB invited comments on its Exposure Draft of a proposed IFRS for Small and Medium-Sized Entities. The deadline for comments was 30 November 2007. Below we reproduce3 the comment letter prepared by the European Accounting Association’s Financial Reporting Standards Committee (EAA FRSC). This is a follow up of the EAA FRSC’s comment letter prepared in response to the IASB’s Discussion Paper on ‘Preliminary Views on Accounting Standards for Small and Medium-Sized Entities’...

  19. China’s Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise Grass-Roots Staff Liquidity Study

    OpenAIRE

    CHI Wanrui; Chi, Ying; MENG Yong

    2013-01-01

    China’s small and medium-sized enterprises have become an important force of social employment with a rapid growth in recent years, which made an important contribution to China’s economic and social development. At the same time, small and medium-sized enterprises have exposed the limits of growth in the process of their development. In view of human resources management, most business owners see employees as the tools of the accumulation of wealth, and they usually pay little attention to e...

  20. A Medium Sized Schwarzschild-Couder Cherenkov Telescope Mechanical Design Proposed for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    OpenAIRE

    Byrum0, K.; Humensky, T. B.; Benbow, W.; Cameron, R.; Criswell, S; Errando, M; Guarino, V.; Kaaret, P.; Kieda, D.; Mukherjee, R; Naumann, D.; Nieto, D.; Northrop, R.; Okumura, A.; Roache, E.

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is an international next-generation ground-based gamma-ray observatory. CTA will be implemented as southern and northern hemisphere arrays of tens of small, medium and large-sized imaging Cherenkov telescopes with the goal of improving the sensitivity over the current-generation experiments by an order of magnitude. CTA will provide energy coverage from ~20 GeV to more than 300 TeV. The Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) medium size (9.5m) telescop...

  1. Layout design studies for medium-sized telescopes within the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, T.; Humensky, B.; Nieto, D.; Wood, M.; consortium., for the CTA

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is an international project for a next-generation ground-based gamma-ray observatory. CTA, conceived as an array of tens of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, comprising small, medium and large-size telescopes, is aiming to improve on the sensitivity of current-generation experiments by an order of magnitude and provide energy coverage from 20 GeV to more than 300 TeV. In this study we explore how the medium-sized telescopes layout ...

  2. Monte Carlo comparison of medium-size telescope designs for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    OpenAIRE

    Jogler, T.; Wood, M.D.(Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Institut für Hochenergiephysik, A-10560 Wien, Austria 28 28 Funded by the Austrian Ministry for Traffic and Research under the contract GZ 616.360/2-IV GZ 616.363/2-VIII, and by the Fonds für Wissenschaft und Forschung FWF No. P08929-PHY.); Dumm, J; Consortium, A. Bouvier for the CTA

    2013-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a future very high energy gamma-ray observatory. CTA will be comprised of small-,medium- and large-size telescopes covering an energy range from tens of GeV to hundreds of TeV and will surpass existing telescopes in sensitivity by an order of magnitude. The aim of our study is to find the optimal design for the medium-size telescopes (MSTs), which will determine the sensitivity in the key energy range between a few hundred GeV to about ...

  3. Design features to achieve defence-in-depth in small and medium sized reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broader incorporation of inherent and passive safety design features has become a 'trademark' of many advanced reactor concepts, including several evolutionary designs and nearly all innovative small and medium sized design concepts. Ensuring adequate defence-in-depth is important for reactors of smaller output because many of them are being designed to allow more proximity to the user, specifically, when non-electrical energy products are targeted. Based on the activities recently performed by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the paper provides a summary description of the design features used to achieve defence in depth in the innovative concepts of small and medium sized reactors with fast neutron spectrum. (author)

  4. Design features to achieve defence-in-depth in small and medium sized reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broader incorporation of inherent and passive safety design features has become a 'trademark' of many advanced reactor concepts, including several evolutionary designs and nearly all innovative small and medium sized design concepts. Ensuring adequate defence-in-depth is important for reactors of smaller output because many of them are being designed to allow more proximity to the user, specifically, when non-electrical energy products are targeted. Based on the activities recently performed by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the paper provides a summary description of the design features used to achieve defence in depth in the eleven representative concepts of small and medium sized reactors. (author)

  5. Gestão do desenvolvimento de produto em empresas de pequeno e médio porte do setor de máquinas e implementos agrícolas do Estado de SP Product development process management in small and medium-sized Brazilian companies in the agricultural machinery and implement industry sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos de Toledo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Para que as empresas nacionais do setor de máquinas e implementos agrícolas consigam sobreviver e ampliar sua participação nesse mercado em crescimento, do interesse econômico de companhias multinacionais e no qual essas detêm expressiva participação, elas necessitam melhorar a capacitação para desenvolver novos produtos e assim atender as novas demandas quanto a requisitos e homologação dessa produção. As empresas nacionais do setor apresentam um perfil predominante de empresas familiares, de pequeno e médio porte, e pouco se conhece sobre a realidade da gestão do Processo de Desenvolvimento de Produto (PDP nessas organizações. Este trabalho caracteriza e analisa os perfis e a maturidade da gestão do PDP em empresas de pequeno e médio porte de capital nacional do segmento de máquinas e implementos agrícolas do Estado de São Paulo. Foi realizada uma pesquisa de levantamento (survey em 40 empresas. Para a análise dos dados utilizou-se a técnica de análise multivariada de clusters. As empresas da amostra apresentam uma estrutura heterogênea com relação à gestão do PDP. Foram identificados três grupos de empresas, com diferentes perfis de maturidade do PDP: Grupo I (20% da amostra, Grupo II (50% da amostra e Grupo III (30% da amostra. Evidenciam-se diferenças na gestão do PDP principalmente entre os Grupos I (com menor nível de maturidade do PDP e III (com nível de maturidade relativamente mais elevado. Apesar das diferenças na gestão do PDP entre os grupos, comparando-se a prática com o referencial teórico (as boas práticas sobre gestão do PDP, os 3 grupos se encontram no nível geral básico, ou inicial, de maturidade do PDP. A análise e identificação do nível de maturidade em que as empresas se encontram podem auxiliar no direcionamento do processo de melhoria do PDP e na elaboração de políticas públicas que incentivem o desenvolvimento e inovação de produto nas empresas nacionais do setorThe product development process (PDP, if well-structured and managed, can become a business process that directly influences the companies' competitiveness increase. The PDP in Brazilian SMEs in the agricultural machinery and implement industry Sector (AMI is little known since most publications on product development focuses on the reality of large and multinational companies, which have a quite different structure from SMEs. The purpose of this paper is to characterize and analyze the management maturity profiles of the product development process in small and medium sized Brazilian companies in the agricultural machinery and implement industry sector located in the state of São Paulo. Therefore, the addressed actions of PDP improvements in those companies can be undertaken. A survey research was conducted in 40 companies. An in loco interview was applied to the respective individual in-charge of PDP by means of a structured questionnaire. For the data analysis, descriptive statistics and the multivariate cluster analysis techniques were used. The findings indicated that the SMEs in AMIs of the state of Sao Paulo present a heterogeneous structure with respect to PDP management. Three groups of companies were identified in the sample with different maturity PDP profiles: Group I (20% of companies in the sample, Group II (50% of the sample, and Group III (30% of the sample. Differences in the management of PDP were observed, especially among companies of Group I (smallest level of PDP maturity and Group III (highest level of PDP maturity. However, despite the differences in PDP management presented in the groups of companies, according to the literature on PDP management, all groups are in the basic (initial maturity level of PDP. The identification of the maturity level, in which these companies are, can help the determination of activities that link the internal actions to improve the PDP of these companies and the proposal of specific public policies that encourage the improvement of product development for domestic companies in this industry sector.

  6. Bank Lending to Small and Medium Sized Business: Evidence from Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Gennadievich Korolev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Access of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs to external financing sources is defined in many respects by the tendencies of bank system development in different countries as well as by the possibilities and interest of commercial banks to make loans to creditworthy small- and medium-sized borrowers. In the present paper, we suggest that even in post-crisis conditions, this is small- and medium-sized Russian banks, rather than large banking institutions, that tend to issue loans to small and medium-sized enterprises. Analysis of the data available from the Russian banks gives evidence that with the growth of the bank size and with widening of the scope of the bank’s activity, bank’s lending to legal entities, in particular, to SMEs and to individual entrepreneurs, tends to become more intense. At the same time, the share of lending to SMEs and individual entrepreneurs in the legal entities loan portfolio tends to decrease.

  7. Dinamismo de mercado en la pequeña y mediana industria de Colombia: el caso SuperBrix / Dynamisme de Marché dans la Petite et Moyenne Industrie de Colombie: Le cas de SuperBrix / Market Dynamism in Small and Medium-Sized Colombian Industry: The Case of SuperBrix / Dinamismo de mercado na pequena e mediana indústria da Colômbia: o caso SuperBrix

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Camilo, Mejía Reátiga; David, Juliao Esparragoza.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Em março de 2010 o engenheiro Mariano Ghisays, presidente executivo da Superbrix, não somente questionava-se se abranger o mercado asiático era uma opção viável, também se a mesma emergia numa cojuntura apropriada da economia e a capacidade tecnológica da sua empresa, que até aquele momento tinha si [...] do impossível de copiar. A oportunidade de entrar em países como a China, a Coreia, a Índia, a Malásia e a Cingapura já tinha sido levado em conta pela diretoria alguns anos atrás; contudo a decisão foi adiada a fim de consolidar o mercado americano, o que fora atingido depois de várias tentativas de entrada, logo depois de apurar a sua estratégia de mergulho no mesmo. Mariano se perguntava, então: de que maneira uma mediana empresa do Caribe colombiano, capitalizando a sua experiência de entrada em vários mercados internacionais, poderia com êxito atingir esses países asiáticos, onde os preços, concorrência e probabilidade de cópia dos seus produtos representavam um risco enorme para a companhia? Abstract in spanish En marzo de 2010 el ingeniero Mariano Ghisays, presidente ejecutivo de SuperBrix, no sólo se preguntaba si llegar al mercado asiático era una opción viable, sino también si ésta emergía en una coyuntura apropiada de la economía y capacidad tecnológica de su empresa, la cual, hasta el momento, no hab [...] ía podido ser copiada. La oportunidad de ingresar a países como China, Corea, India, Malasia y Singapur había sido tenida en cuenta por las directivas algunos años atrás, pero fue pospuesta con el fin de consolidar el mercado americano, lo cual se consiguió después de varios intentos de entrada, luego de afinar su estrategia de inmersión al mismo. Mariano se preguntaba, entonces, ¿de qué manera una mediana empresa del Caribe colombiano, capitalizando su experiencia de entrada en varios mercados internacionales, podría lograr con éxito llegar a estos países asiáticos, en donde los precios, competencia y probabilidad de copia de sus productos representaban un enorme riesgo para la compañía? Abstract in english In March of 2010, engineer Mariano Ghisays, executive president of Superbrix, thought not only about whether entering the Asian market was a viable option but also if it were to happen under a favorable economic situation and with his company's technological capacity, which at that time, no one had [...] been able to copy. The opportunity to enter countries such as China, Korea, India, Malaysia and Singapore had been in the sights of the company's directors for years, but was postponed while they consolidated the American market. This was achieved after various attempts at entry, while also fine-tuning their immersion strategy. Marciano then thought about how a medium-sized company from the Colombian Caribbean region, capitalizing on its experience after already having entered various international markets, successfully reach these Asian countries, where prices, competition and the probability of their products being copied posed an enormous risk for the company?

  8. The strategic relevance of technology-related variables to the competitiveness of small- to medium-sized furniture manufacturers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.S., Lourens; J.A., Jonker.

    Full Text Available SMMEs can make a critical and positive economic contribution to South Africa, and small- to medium-sized furniture manufacturers (SM/FMs) have the potential to contribute to economic growth, job creation, and GDP. However, the furniture industry has not stayed abreast of technological advances. To s [...] urvive in an environment of increasing competition and imports, competitive strategies must be devised. One such strategy is for technology adoption and implementation that can provide solutions for the furniture industry to improve speed, quality, variety, flexibility, and productivity, resulting in improved competitiveness. However, the adoption of technology means that its acquisition and application must be managed strategically, as the use of technology involves far more than simply taking it into account during the business-planning process. This paper investigates the impact of business strategy and selected technology-related variables on the competitiveness of SM/FM.

  9. MANAGEMENT OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES

    OpenAIRE

    JAN ŠT?PÁNEK

    2013-01-01

    The ability to measure and manage economic efficiency in small and medium-sized enterprises is highly valued competitive advantage. Economic efficiency reveals the absolute size of indicators of efficient usage of resources employed, efficiency and effectiveness of business processes, products and services. While measuring and managing economic efficiency, it is necessary to reflect the influence of internal and external business environment and take into account the diversity of assessment o...

  10. Successful E-Learning in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Morten Flate

    2009-01-01

    So far, e-learning has primarily been used when there are many learners involved. The up-front investments related to e-learning are relatively high, and may be perceived as prohibitive for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Some e-learning is, however, getting less expensive, and some e-learning models are more suited for small-scale…

  11. Continuing Education for Managers from Small and Medium Sized German Companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fub, Jorg

    1995-01-01

    An international trade school in southern Germany, which is a highly export-oriented environment, has established a vocational and professional continuing education program for personnel of small- and medium-size companies. Offerings include a graduate course in international marketing, seminars for export companies, distance education in…

  12. Pleomorphic CD8+ small/medium size cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamaysi, Z; Ben-Arieh, Y; Epelbaum, R; Bergman, R

    2006-10-01

    Pleomorphic small/medium-sized cutaneous T-cell lymphoma is a recently recognized rare type of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma which is clinicopathologically different from mycosis fungoides and Sezary syndrome. By definition the phenotype of the neoplastic lymphocytes in pleomorphic small/medium-sized cutaneous CD3CD4CD8 but CD8 pleomorphic small/medium sized cutaneous T-cell lymphoma cases have been occasionally described. We describe a 55-year-old female with a pruritic erythematous nodule on the lateral aspect of her right foot present for 1.5 years. Histology revealed a nonepidermotropic lichenoid infiltrate in the papillary dermis and a patchy infiltrate in the mid and lower dermis composed of small to medium-sized pleomorphic lymphocytes. The immunophenotype of these lymphocytes was CD3CD4CD8TIA-1. Staining for CD20, CD30, CD56, TdT, and LMP1 were negative, and the Ki-67 proliferation index was 5% to 10%. Gene rearrangement studies demonstrated a T-cell clone. The laboratory and imaging workup did not reveal extracutaneous involvement. The lesion was treated by local irradiation but a follow-up biopsy demonstrated only partial remission. Consequently, the lesion was treated by surgical excision. PMID:17012921

  13. Current information technology needs of small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wipple, C.; Vosti, E.

    1997-11-01

    This report documents recent efforts of the American Textile Partnership (AMTEX) Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Project to address needs that are characterized of small to medium sized apparel manufactures and contractors. Background on the AMTEX/DAMA project and objectives for this specific efforts are discussed.

  14. Training Provision and the Development of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises. Research Report No. 26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhead, Paul; Storey, David J.

    The literature on the training provided by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Great Britain was reviewed to determine the extent and quality of training available and the link between training provision and small business performance. Smaller firms were less likely to offer training, and the training they did provide was generally…

  15. An Agile Methodology for Implementing Service-Oriented Architecture in Small and Medium Sized Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of Lean/Agile principles, using action research to develop and deploy new technology for Small and Medium sized enterprises. The research case was conducted at the Lapeer County Sheriff's Department and involves the initial deployment of a Service Oriented Architecture to alleviate the data…

  16. Design of hydrothermal control system in medium-sized multifunctional radon chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces a hydrothermal control system designed for an airtight medium-sized multifunctional radon chamber. Fuzzy divisional control and intelligent self-adapting are adopted in this system. We use 485 bus collecting and control hydrothermal parameters and PCII/O card driving the electrical parts in radon chamber. (authors)

  17. Gestão do desenvolvimento de produto em empresas de pequeno e médio porte do setor de máquinas e implementos agrícolas do Estado de SP / Product development process management in small and medium-sized Brazilian companies in the agricultural machinery and implement industry sector

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Carlos de, Toledo; Julianita Maria Scaranello, Simões.

    Full Text Available Para que as empresas nacionais do setor de máquinas e implementos agrícolas consigam sobreviver e ampliar sua participação nesse mercado em crescimento, do interesse econômico de companhias multinacionais e no qual essas detêm expressiva participação, elas necessitam melhorar a capacitação para dese [...] nvolver novos produtos e assim atender as novas demandas quanto a requisitos e homologação dessa produção. As empresas nacionais do setor apresentam um perfil predominante de empresas familiares, de pequeno e médio porte, e pouco se conhece sobre a realidade da gestão do Processo de Desenvolvimento de Produto (PDP) nessas organizações. Este trabalho caracteriza e analisa os perfis e a maturidade da gestão do PDP em empresas de pequeno e médio porte de capital nacional do segmento de máquinas e implementos agrícolas do Estado de São Paulo. Foi realizada uma pesquisa de levantamento (survey) em 40 empresas. Para a análise dos dados utilizou-se a técnica de análise multivariada de clusters. As empresas da amostra apresentam uma estrutura heterogênea com relação à gestão do PDP. Foram identificados três grupos de empresas, com diferentes perfis de maturidade do PDP: Grupo I (20% da amostra), Grupo II (50% da amostra) e Grupo III (30% da amostra). Evidenciam-se diferenças na gestão do PDP principalmente entre os Grupos I (com menor nível de maturidade do PDP) e III (com nível de maturidade relativamente mais elevado). Apesar das diferenças na gestão do PDP entre os grupos, comparando-se a prática com o referencial teórico (as boas práticas sobre gestão do PDP), os 3 grupos se encontram no nível geral básico, ou inicial, de maturidade do PDP. A análise e identificação do nível de maturidade em que as empresas se encontram podem auxiliar no direcionamento do processo de melhoria do PDP e na elaboração de políticas públicas que incentivem o desenvolvimento e inovação de produto nas empresas nacionais do setor Abstract in english The product development process (PDP), if well-structured and managed, can become a business process that directly influences the companies' competitiveness increase. The PDP in Brazilian SMEs in the agricultural machinery and implement industry Sector (AMI) is little known since most publications o [...] n product development focuses on the reality of large and multinational companies, which have a quite different structure from SMEs. The purpose of this paper is to characterize and analyze the management maturity profiles of the product development process in small and medium sized Brazilian companies in the agricultural machinery and implement industry sector located in the state of São Paulo. Therefore, the addressed actions of PDP improvements in those companies can be undertaken. A survey research was conducted in 40 companies. An in loco interview was applied to the respective individual in-charge of PDP by means of a structured questionnaire. For the data analysis, descriptive statistics and the multivariate cluster analysis techniques were used. The findings indicated that the SMEs in AMIs of the state of Sao Paulo present a heterogeneous structure with respect to PDP management. Three groups of companies were identified in the sample with different maturity PDP profiles: Group I (20% of companies in the sample), Group II (50% of the sample), and Group III (30% of the sample). Differences in the management of PDP were observed, especially among companies of Group I (smallest level of PDP maturity) and Group III (highest level of PDP maturity). However, despite the differences in PDP management presented in the groups of companies, according to the literature on PDP management, all groups are in the basic (initial) maturity level of PDP. The identification of the maturity level, in which these companies are, can help the determination of activities that link the internal actions to improve the PDP of these companies and the proposal of specific public policies that encourage the improvement of product development for dome

  18. Simplification of Process Integration Studies in Intermediate Size Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgård, Henrik; Petersen, P. M.

    2002-01-01

    It can be argued that the largest potential for energy savings based on process integration is in the intermediate size industry. But this is also the industrial scale in which it is most difficult to make the introduction of energy saving measures economically interesting. The reasons are that the required engineering effort is too great and therefore too expensive, and that the resulting systems designs often become inordinately complex and therefore not attractive in operation. The present study describes steps that aim at reducing the magnitude of the theoretical work and engineering effort associated with a given process integration study in an intermediate size industry. This is based on the observation that the systems that eventually result from a process integration project and that are economically and operationally most interesting are also quite simple. Four steps that may be used separately or in series ahead of or simultaneously with the conventional process integration procedures (for example, the pinch point method) are described and are applied to an industrial case study. It might be feared that the use of preselections and groupings would limit the "freedom of movement' and therefore lead to non-optimal economic solutions, which may be right. But the objective of the optimisation is not to reach the best economic solution, but to relatively quickly develop the design of a simple and operationally friendly network without losing too much energy saving potential. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Design features to achieve defence in depth in small and medium sized reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a continued interest among Member States in the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). In the very near term, most new nuclear power plants (NPPs) are likely to be evolutionary water cooled reactor designs building on proven systems while incorporating technological advances and often economies of scale, resulting in outputs of up to 1600 MW(e) from the reactor. For the longer term, the focus is on innovative designs to provide increased benefits in the areas of safety and security, nonproliferation, waste management, resource utilization and economics, as well as to offer a variety of energy products and flexibility in design, siting and fuel cycle options. Many innovative designs are implemented in reactors within the small to medium size range having equivalent electric power of less than 700 MW(e) or even less than 300 MW(e). Incorporation of inherent and passive safety design features has become a 'trademark' of many advanced reactor concepts, including several evolutionary designs and nearly all innovative SMR design concepts. Ensuring adequate defence in depth is important for reactors with smaller output because many of them are being designed to allow greater proximity to the user, specifically when non-electrical energy products are targeted. The IAEA provides a forum for the exchange of information by experts and policy makers from industrialized and developing countries on the technical, economic, environmental, and social aspects of SMR development and implementation. It makes this information available to all interested Member States by producing status reports and other publications focusing on advances in SMR design and technology development. The objective of this report is to assist developers of SMRs in Member States in defining consistent defence in depth approaches regarding the elimination of accident initiators/prevention of accident consequences through design and incorporation of inherent and passive safety features and passive systems into safety design concepts of such reactors. Another objective is to assist potential users in Member States in their evaluation of the overall technical potential of SMRs with inherent and passive safety design features, including possible implications in areas other than safety. This report is intended for different categories of stakeholders, including designers and potential users of innovative SMRs, as well as officers in ministries or atomic energy commissions in Member States responsible for implementing nuclear power development programmes or evaluating nuclear power deployment options in the near, medium, and longer term. The main sections of this report present state of the art advances in defence in depth approaches based on the incorporation of inherent and passive safety features into the design concepts of pressurized water reactors, pressurized light water cooled heavy water moderated reactors, high temperature gas cooled reactors, liquid metal cooled fast reactors, and non-conventional designs within the SMR range. They also highlight benefits and negative impacts in areas other than safety arising from the incorporation of such features. The annexes provide descriptions of the design features of 11 representative SMR concepts used to achieve defence in depth and patterned along a common format reflecting the definitions and recommendations of the IAEA safety standards. The annexes were prepared by designers of the corresponding SMRs

  20. Provision and perception of occupational health in small and medium-sized enterprises in Sheffield, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, L M; Curran, A D; Eskin, F; Fishwick, D

    2001-02-01

    A random sample of managers of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) was selected from a database of businesses in Sheffield, UK. They were invited to take part in a study to evaluate the provision and perception of occupational health in SMEs in Sheffield. The study used an interviewer-led questionnaire, which collected quantitative and qualitative data; each interview took approximately 40 min to complete. Several approaches to recruitment were adopted during the study. Twenty-eight managers were interviewed over the 6 month study period. All of the SMEs employed employed the services of a part-time occupational health physician; 7.2% employed a health and safety advisor; and 10.8% employed a part-time occupational health nurse. Twenty-five per cent had a nominated person responsible for occupational health and 67% thought that a doctor or nurse would be the best person to provide an occupational health service. Twenty-eight per cent of the companies carried out some form of pre-employment screening and 14.2% carried out health promotion. Fifteen (53.5%) collected some form of health related absence data. Eight companies (28.6%) organized a formal induction programme for all new employees. Further work should be undertaken in an attempt to improve access to local industry and particularly to SMEs. This study has clearly shown that access is possible, but different strategies of approach were required before a workable strategy could be found. Undoubtedly, this access can be improved by better understanding of the interaction between researchers, occupational health providers and local managers of SMEs. PMID:11235826

  1. Dyeing Industry Effluent System as Lipid Production Medium of Neochloris sp. for Biodiesel Feedstock Preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Vidyadharani Gopalakrishnan; Dhandapani Ramamurthy

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae lipid feedstock preparation cost was an important factor in increasing biodiesel fuel hikes. This study was conducted with the concept of implementing an effluent wastewater as lipid production medium for microalgae cultivation. In our study textile dyeing industry effluent was taken as a lipid production medium for Neochloris sp. cultivation. The changes in physicochemical analysis of effluent before and after Neochloris sp. treatment were recorded using standard procedures and AA...

  2. IMPACT OF NEW INDUSTRIAL POLICY ON MICRO, SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES (MSMES IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. BharathaJyothi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Indian small scale industries play an imperative role in the economic expansion of the country and have vast approaching for employment generation. The Increasing small scale sector also results in decentralized industrial development, better distribution of wealth and investment and entrepreunial talent. The Government has initiated several policies for the growth and development of small scale industries. The ministry of Agro and Land Rural industries and Ministry of SSI have been merged into a single, Ministry namely, Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs.

  3. Small- and Medium-Sized Commercial Building Monitoring and Controls Needs: A Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Underhill, Ronald M.; Goddard, James K.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Piette, M. A.; Granderson, J.; Brown, Rich E.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; Kuruganti, T.

    2012-10-31

    Buildings consume over 40% of the total energy consumption in the U.S. A significant portion of the energy consumed in buildings is wasted because of the lack of controls or the inability to use existing building automation systems (BASs) properly. Much of the waste occurs because of our inability to manage and controls buildings efficiently. Over 90% of the buildings are either small-size (<5,000 sf) or medium-size (between 5,000 sf and 50,000 sf); these buildings currently do not use BASs to monitor and control their building systems from a central location. According to Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), about 10% of the buildings in the U.S. use BASs or central controls to manage their building system operations. Buildings that use BASs are typically large (>100,000 sf). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) were asked by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP) to identify monitoring and control needs for small- and medium-sized commercial buildings and recommend possible solutions. This study documents the needs and solutions for small- and medium-sized buildings.

  4. THE KEY DETERMINANTS OF AND BARRIERS TO INTERNET ADOPTION IN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED HOTELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Kim Lian Chan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents qualitative empirical evidence that addresses why internet usage/adoption is low and how it can be improved in small and medium-sized hotels in Malaysia. It explores the key barriers to and influencing factors of internet adoption in a sample of 25 Malaysian small and medium-sized hotels based on a theoretical framework of the organisational innovation and resource-based view theories. Key barriers to internet usage include owner/operator characteristics, cost and investment, firm size and internet access. Operator/user’s assessment of perceived resource readiness, perceived potential utility and perceived performance seem to be the key influencing factors. The proposed holistic internet adoption framework also serves as a novel tool and a useful guide for individuals and ICT policymakers for improving and implementing e-commerce/internet. This paper adds to the internet adoption and decision literature and advances the theoretical and practical understanding of internet usage in small and medium-sized hotels, but requires further validation in other countries.

  5. Teaming up for mutual learning : A case study of merging innovation aproaches of a medium-sized company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, SØren Bolvig; Pedersen, Tanja Aabo

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this paper is two-folded within the theme of collaboration between education and industry. Firstly it unfolds how learning for design-engineer students can be established and facilitated in a dynamic setting with industrial partners and secondly how industrial partners can benefit from student collaboration. The paper is based on research activities carried out in the context of a 3rd semester project at the Industrial Design Msc. program at The School of Architecture, Design & Planning at Aalborg University. Here, the teaching style is Problem Based Learning (PBL). In PBL, student’s focuses on a complex problem that does not have a single correct answer – in this case the addressed problem was concerned with the innovation approach of a medium-sized company. Traditionally innovation projects and strategic planning has emerged from top managers offices and has been based on i.a. technological an economic factors. An alternative approach has emerged, which suggests that innovation is most successfully initiated by the research and design resources with-in a company. The two approaches are denoted as respectively Top-down and Bottom-up [5]. Practicing the Top-down approach was familiar and integrated within the company, while the student introduced the Bottom-up approach during the project - the initiatives, experiences and observations are reported in this paper.

  6. Approaches for Assessing the Economic Competitiveness of Small and Medium Sized Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world'. One way this objective is achieved is through the publication of a range of technical series. Two of these are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III.A.6 of the IAEA Statute, the safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property.' The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are written primarily in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own programmes. The principal users are the regulatory bodies in Member States and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series comprises reports designed to encourage and assist R and D on, and application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia, and government officials, among others. This information is presented in guides, reports on technology status and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series complements the IAEA Safety Standards Series. To be competitive in anticipated markets, small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) rely on design and deployment approaches that are able to offset the adverse impacts of economy of scale. Such approaches include design simplification resulting from the application of safety design features that are the most appropriate for reactors of smaller capacity; the economy of mass production of multiple prefabricated modules; the option of incremental capacity increase, with possible benefits resulting from accelerated learning; sharing of common equipment and facilities; shorter construction periods, unit timing (spread of investments over time); and, possibly, greater involvement of local industry and local labour. The effectiveness of all of these approaches to SMR design and deployment depends on the application and on market variables, such as interest rates, and needs to be assessed and demonstrated for specific cases. Upon the advice and with the support of IAEA Member States, the IAEA provides a forum for the exchange of information by experts and policy makers from industrialized and developing countries on the technical, economic, environmental and social aspects of SMR development and implementation in the twenty-first century, and makes this information available to all interested Member States by producing status reports and other publications dedicated to advances in SMR design and technology development. This report was prepared to assist existing and potential stakeholders in Member States in understanding the economic competitiveness of SMR technologies compared to other energy sources and large reactors (LRs); to provide information on available approaches and frameworks to assess the economic competitiveness of advanced SMRs and LRs under specific conditions of their application; and to share knowledge on positive experiences of several Member States that are introducing SMRs into their energy mix. The report is intended for a variety of stakeholders including: design organizations involved in SMR development programmes; investors and potential users of innovative SMRs; and officers in the ministries or atomic energy commissions in Member States responsible for implementing nuclear technology development programmes or evaluating nuclear power deployment options in the near, medium and longer term. The main sections of this report highlight the experience with and future plans for SMRs in several Member States, and present the available methodological options to assist design organizations and guide potential users on the economic performance and investment attractiveness of SMRs. The report also provides recommendations on how to

  7. The Strategic Measures for the Industrial Security of Small and Medium Business

    OpenAIRE

    Chang-Moo Lee

    2014-01-01

    The competitiveness of companies increasingly depends upon whether they possess the cutting-edge or core technology. The technology should be protected from industrial espionage or leakage. A special attention needs to be given to SMB (small and medium business), furthermore, because SMB occupies most of the companies but has serious problems in terms of industrial security. The technology leakages of SMB would account for more than 2/3 of total leakages during last five years. The purpose of...

  8. Employment and other selected personnel attributes in metallurgical and industrial enterprises of different size - research results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pawliczek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper deals with the issue of employment and other selected personnel attributes as employees’ affiliations, employees’ benefits, monitoring of employees’ satisfaction, monitoring of work productivity, investments into employees education and obstacles in hiring qualified human resources. The characteristics are benchmarked on the background of enterprise size based on the employees count in the year 2013. The relevant data were collected in Czech industrial enterprises, including metallurgical companies, with the help of university questionnaire research in order to induce synergy effect arising from mutual communication of academy-students-industry. The most important results are presented later in the paper, complemented with discussion based on relevant professional literature sources. The findings suggest that bigger companies check productivity and satisfaction and dismiss employees more frequently, unlike medium companies which do not reduce their workforce and solve the impact of crisis by decreased affiliations, reduced benefits and similar savings.

  9. Research on the Symbiotic Relationship between Small & Medium-sized Enterprises and Banks in Jilin Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Lixia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As the market economy deepens continually, the small & medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in Jilin Province play more and more important role for the economic development of Jilin. Although the SMEs in Jilin have developed greatly in recent years, their difficulties in financing seriously hamper their development. The paper analyzes the status of the relation between the SMEs and banks in Jilin and suggests that it is necessary for the SMEs to establish symbiotic relationship with banks, we also put forward the paths for them to establish continuous reciprocal symbiotic relation with banks in order to help SMEs solve their financing problems and guide the banks to get more profit to realize win-win for both of them.
    Key words: Small & Medium-sized enterprises in Jilin Province; banks; Symbiotic relationship

  10. The Role of Branding in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franc Vidic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to show the relationship between branding and brand management in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. Traditionally, branding was associated with large and global corporations. However, we often forget that small and medium-sized enterprises also deal with their own names (brands in their own way. The study identified four types of businesses, regardless of their association with brands. We named these four types, as follows: Ignorant; User; Low-Cost Producer; and Differentiation Producer. If the first two types (i.e. Ignorant and User differ primarily in the extent to which they use simple branding activities, and are used mainly in the local market where the enterprises tend to operate, we found that the last two types (i.e. low-cost producers and differentiation producers design their branding strategies in accordance with their generic strategies and mode of growth.

  11. The role of independent intermediaries. The case of small and medium-sized exporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tage Koed; Moen, Øystein

    2012-01-01

    The article examines how small and medium-sized exporters collaborate with intermediaries in foreign markets by studying the level of control, i.e. the delegation of decisions rights and task solution. It goes one step further than previous research, since it examines degrees of control and participation rather than just discrete types of intermediary modes (agents, importers, dealers, etc.). Associations with performance as well as the role of product and distributor characteristics are analyzed. Empirical data based on a sample of product-market ventures in 227 small and medium-sized Norwegian export firms are analysed by a structural equation modelling approach. The article provides empirical evidence that managers keep control of decision making to an extent that may have a negative impact on export performance. The empirical study indicates that firms should participate more in task solution but less in decision making in their collaboration with foreign intermediaries

  12. Services Supporting Knowledge Maturing in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Ronald

    The hype around Web 2.0 has again sparked tremendous interest in IT-supported knowledge management and technology-enhanced learning in organizations. Although there has been abundant evidence of how to benefit from Web 2.0 technologies, information on how to go about deploying these in small and medium-sized enterprises in a coordinated manner are scarce. Based on the findings of an empirical study and an ethnographically informed study on knowledge maturing, this paper suggests a set of knowledge services to support a series of knowledge actions chained with the help of the knowledge maturing model. This set of services can be used by small and medium-sized enterprises for analyzing IT tools and systems which currently support their employees’ knowledge maturing activities, to foster knowledge cooperation with customers, suppliers and partners in their business environment and to find gaps which can be filled particularly by consuming services over the Web.

  13. Attractive and climate-friendly medium-sized cities; Attraktive og klimavennlige mellomstore byer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennoey, Aud

    2012-07-01

    Ministry of the Environment (MD) wanted an overview of current knowledge of climate-friendly and attractive urban development in medium-sized cities (10 - 50 000 inhabitants). This report presents and discusses knowledge between major cities' situation and challenges of land use and transport development to reduce car traffic and greenhouse gas emissions and on urban development for more attractive cities. A main conclusion is that there are major gaps in knowledge and opportunities for improvement. If those covered will be far better opportunities for planners, local authorities and others may be able to contribute to more climate-friendly and attractive medium-sized cities.The report is part of the project Comprehensive information pack for the status of knowledge from research on urban development. The project has also prepared a report entitled Planning for attractive urban environment. The reports are intended to complement each other and should be seen in context.(eb)

  14. Medium-sized superflat color picture tubes (CPT); Chugata super flat CPT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Two types of medium-sized superflat color picture tubes (CPTs), 60 cm (25 inches) and 51 cm (21 inches), have been developed. The tube has balanced characteristics of, e.g., glass strength, brightness and contrast, by the new designs of the new fluorescent planes, for which the supergrade aperture mask is used, and also by the optimized designs of panel and mask radii. The CRT is made flat by the shadow mask method. For the electron guns, the expanded field type single-focus gun is used for the 51 cm CRT, to secure high focusing performance even in the medium-sized tube, and the dynamic focus gun which realizes high resolution over the entire picture is used for the 60 cm CRT. (translated by NEDO)

  15. Innovation, adaptability, and collaboration: Keys to success for small and medium sized reactors. Cairo, 27 May 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small and medium sized reactors, within a power output of less than 700 MW(e), are receiving increased consideration in the effort to meet changing market requirements. Smaller plants allow a more incremental investment, which can be used to hedge against demand uncertainty. They are more suitable for standardization and prefabrication, which in turn encourages enhanced quality control and stimulates rapid development of expertise and shorter construction schedules. They provide a better match to grid capacity in developing countries. And they are more easily adapted to a broad range of industrial settings and applications, such as district heating, heavy oil recovery, or the production of hydrogen and other chemical fuels. Sea water desalination is an application for which smaller reactors hold a particular advantage. Nuclear powered desalination is a proven technology. Clearly, we live in an era in which our society faces many difficult economic, environmental and social issues associated with sustainable development and energy demand. Against that backdrop, nuclear power is a mature technology that deserves careful consideration as a contributor to solving some of these issues. The development of innovative small and medium sized reactors will play a key role in helping to match state-of-the-art technology to user needs. An exchange of information and ideas is a step towards further progress

  16. Adaptive Traffic Control Systems in a medium-sized Scandinavian city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; Olesen, Anne Vingaard

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Traffic Control Systems (ATCS) are aimed at reducing congestion. ATCS adapt to approaching traffic to continuously optimise the traffic flows in question. ATCS have been implemented in many locations, including the Scandinavian countries, with various effects. Due to congestion problems, ATCS were installed in the eight signalised intersections of a 1.7 km stretch of the ring road in the medium-sized Danish city of Aalborg. To measure the effect of ATCS a with/without study was carried ...

  17. Model of Thai Small and Medium Sized Enterprises’ Organizational Capabilities: Review and Verification

    OpenAIRE

    Apicha Boonpattarakan

    2012-01-01

    In today’s competitive environment, small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) must focus on strengthening their organizational capabilities, considered to be a vital ingredient for building firms’ competitiveness. A number of factors may be deemed to be the drivers of organizational capabilities. Thus, this study was aimed at investigating and discussing those dimensions and their elements associated with organizational capabilities. The review of the literature indicates that the fundamental...

  18. The Research of External Financing Options of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in China

    OpenAIRE

    LI, HONGYU; Meiyue LIU

    2012-01-01

    Since the reform and opening up, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in China developed rapidly, which have become an important part of China’s economic and social development. However, the financing difficulties of SMEs have become increasingly prominent during recent years, and it hinders the healthy development of SMEs in China. This paper analyzes the current financing situation of SMEs in China, and conducts a deeply comparative analysis for several common external financi...

  19. Adaptability of the internal business environment of small and medium-sized enterprises in Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Misunova Hudakova, Ivana; Misun, Juraj

    2014-01-01

    Companies that are exposed to an uncertain changing business environment must be able to adapt and change in order to achieve some compliance with the subject of business carried out and the objectives with the ambient conditions. Also these conditions can be a source of threats for small and medium-sized enterprises. In this context, we emphasize the adaptability of the enterprise. It is the active joining of resolving the conflict between the business entity and its environment. Signs of th...

  20. Bridging “Digital Divide” in Medium and Small-sized Enterprises’Informatization

    OpenAIRE

    Baozhen Chen

    2009-01-01

    Great significance lies in the informatization of medium and small-sized enterprises in that it will convert the economic growth method and improve those enterprises’ competitive abilities at the international market. However, “digital divide” confronted in their informatization must be bridged by reinforcing the support for their informatization process, achieving the goal of informatization step by step, actively promoting “the Enterprises’ Informatization Project” and soundly carrying out ...

  1. Incidence of Guerrilla Marketing Practices in Small and Medium Sized Turkish Exporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Caliskan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Guerrilla Marketing is a marketing tactic designed to attract prospects’ attention and to obtain competitive advantage by utilizing low cost or no cost marketing activities. Its popularity has been increasing as markets become increasingly competitive. Small or Medium sized Turkish exporters may benefit from deploying guerrilla marketing practices in the exporting process. In this article, the implementation level of guerrilla marketing practices among different types of exporters is analyzed.

  2. Implementing Lean Procurement : Opportunities, methods and hinders for medium sized enterprises - a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Hagström, Mikael; Wollner, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes how lean procurement can be implemented in a medium sized enterprise, focusing on opportunities in the process, methods to achieve the opportunities, and hinders that need to be handled. A literature study has been conducted to identify these aspects, organized by six implied implementation stages of lean procurement. To challenge the findings, an empirical study was conducted at Isaberg Rapid, in order to confirm or discard identified important concepts. In order to con...

  3. Information and communication technologies and their benefits for medium and large-sized enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Tichý, Ond?ej

    2012-01-01

    The primary research, which is brought by this paper, focuses on medium and large-sized enterprises in sectors of information and communication technologies(ICT). It investigates their attitude to the ICT that they use. Based on these ICT, the article is looking for trends set by the companies. Then, these trends could be considered as an inspiration for companies from other sectors of business. The research results have shown that the specially developed software belongs between the most ...

  4. A primer on governance and performance in small and medium-sized enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Yacuzzi, Enrique

    2005-01-01

    This paper is a primer on corporate performance, corporate governance, and their interrelationships and measurement systems, with particular focus on Small and Medium- Sized Enterprises (SMEs). This is the first report of a larger on going research project. In the domain of performance measurement the paper describes the trend from financial to non-financial measures, as well as a taxonomy of measures and the impact of the TQM movement on measurement practices. In the domain of governance, go...

  5. Fashionable Strategies : Internationalization process of small and medium sized Nordicfashion companies

    OpenAIRE

    Barwinski, Arne; Burvall, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    In our master thesis “Fashionable strategies” we analyze the internationalization processof small and medium sized Nordic Fashion companies. In our study we conducted aquantitative survey and qualitative in-depths interviews to shed light on the topic. We usehereby an iterative research strategy through the triangulation analysis method as researchapproach. The combination of methodologies and perspectives allowed us to analyze ourtheoretical framework and the research questions in a favorabl...

  6. Regional context of small and medium-sized enterprises' development. case study of southern Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Wach, Krzysztof

    2010-01-01

    The paper verifies the existence of relations between development of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and the particular factors of regional environment as well as demographic parameters of entrepreneurs and their enterprises. SMEs localized in Southern Poland in accordance with NUTS -1 nomenclature, which is made of two voivodeships: Lesser Poland (Ma?opolska) and Silesia (?l?sk), are research subjects. The main aim of the research is indication factors of regional environment which...

  7. CRITICAL FACTORS IN OUTSOURCING OF ACCOUNTING FUNCTIONS IN MALAYSIAN SMALL MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES (SMEs)

    OpenAIRE

    Magiswary Dorasamy; Maran Marimuthu; Jayamalathi Jayabalan; Murali Raman; Maniam Kaliannan

    2010-01-01

    The challenges that business face in sustaining competitive advantage in the corporate world have become a major concern. Businesses are adopting cutting-edge technologies and best practices to cope with rapid, global changes. Various business functions are being reengineered for this purpose. Accounting functions play an important role in helping businesses to maintain competitive advantage. However, some small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) face problems handling fundamental accounting...

  8. SELECTED ELEMENTS OF THE INTERNATIONALIZATION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEATA GLINKOWSKA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author tried to analyze some aspects of the process of internationalization of small and medium-sized enterprises. It contains the essence and definitions related to the process of internationalization, the theoretical analysis of the skills and attributes necessary for the modern entrepreneur / manager, wishing to enter foreign markets. The author also concluded the analysis of theoretical and practical statistics compiled by the Polish Ministry of Finance on the process of internationalization of Polish enterprises.

  9. The challenges of Iranian small and medium-sized enterprises through process of internationalization

    OpenAIRE

    Amirkhani, Kianoosh

    2012-01-01

    The effect of globalization and attracting new market increase the attitude of firms toward foreign market incrementally .This thesis was conducted to introduce a comprehensive framework of internationalization process in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Iran as well as monitoring challenges that firms will face in foreign market operation. Take a glance at the literature of internationalization, Iran`s economic situation and entry modes. The aim of this research was encouraging other st...

  10. Integrated Foreign Exchange Risk Management: The Role of Import in Medium-Sized, Manufacturing Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Høg, Esben; Kuhn, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as an instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role of import in medium-sized manufacturing firms in Denmark (a small, open economy). We find a strong, negative relation between import and the use of foreign exchange derivatives on the aggregate level. Our findin...

  11. The role of independent intermediaries. The case of small and medium-sized exporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tage Koed; Moen, Øystein; Hammervold, Randi

    2012-01-01

    The article examines how small and medium-sized exporters collaborate with intermediaries in foreign markets by studying the level of control, i.e. the delegation of decisions rights and task solution. It goes one step further than previous research, since it examines degrees of control and participation rather than just discrete types of intermediary modes (agents, importers, dealers, etc.). Associations with performance as well as the role of product and distributor characteristics are analyze...

  12. Pointing Calibration for the Cherenkov Telescope Array Medium Size Telescope Prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Oakes, Louise; Behera, Bagmeet; Baehr, Juergen; Gruenewald, Sandra; Raeck, Tobias; Schlenstedt, Stefan; Schubert, Anja; Schwanke, Ullrich; consortium., for the CTA

    2013-01-01

    Pointing calibration is an offline correction applied in order to obtain the true pointing direction of a telescope. The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) aims to have the precision to determine the position of point-like as well as slightly extended sources, with the goal of systematic errors less than 7 arc seconds in space angle. This poster describes the pointing calibration concept being developed for the CTA Medium Size Telescope (MST) prototype at Berlin-Adlershof, show...

  13. The Adoption of Management Accounting Practices in Malaysian Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Kamilah Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence on the adoption of a broad range of management accounting practices in Malaysian small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the manufacturing sector. Data collected from a postal survey of 160 accountant managers are used to facilitate the study. The results indicate that the traditional MAPs such as conventional budgeting, traditional costing and financial performance measures are widely used by the respondents. The results also show that a significan...

  14. Managerial ownership and firm performance in German small and medium-sized enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Elisabeth; Spitz, Alexandra

    2002-01-01

    We analyze the relationship between managerial ownership and company performance, testing the incentive and entrenchment hypothesis. Differently from previous literature, we focus on small and medium-sized private enterprises which constitute an important part of the German economy. We use a panel of 356 companies in the German business-related service sector for the years 1997-2000. Our findings are that performance, measured by survey-based profit information, is increasing in managerial ow...

  15. New Balancing Equipment for Mass Production of Small and Medium-Sized Electrical Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Argeseanu, Alin; Ritchie, Ewen; Leban, Krisztina Monika

    2011-01-01

    The level of vibration and noise is an important feature. It is good practice to explain the significance of the indicators of the quality of electrical machines. The mass production of small and medium-sized electrical machines demands speed (short typical measurement time), reliability of measurement, easy use and low cost. This paper proposes a new low cost equipment able to provide required performances.

  16. New Balancing Equipment for Mass Production of Small and Medium-Sized Electrical Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argeseanu, Alin; Ritchie, Ewen

    2010-01-01

    The level of vibration and noise is an important feature. It is good practice to explain the significance of the indicators of the quality of electrical machines. The mass production of small and medium-sized electrical machines demands speed (short typical measurement time), reliability of measurement, easy use and low cost. This paper proposes a new low cost equipment able to provide required performances.

  17. Selling French Films on Foreign Markets: The international strategy of a medium-sized company

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, Gerben

    2004-01-01

    Foreign markets largely shaped the business strategy of Les Films Albatros, a medium-sized, internationally networked specialty producer of films in interwar France. Depending more on foreign revenues than did the Hollywood studios, Albatros also realized higher gross returns. Because films were capital goods providing aperishable product (seats at a specific time), their price depended on both expected performance and the threshold ticket-selling capacity necessary to recoup cinema fixed cos...

  18. Assessing Incorrect Household Waste Sorting in a Medium-Sized Swedish City

    OpenAIRE

    Kamran Rousta; Karin M. Ekström

    2013-01-01

    Source separation is a common method for dealing with the increasing problem of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in society. The citizens are then responsible for separating waste fractions produced in their home. If the consumers fail to sort the waste according to the source separation scheme, it will lead to an ineffective system. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the environmental, economic and social aspects of incorrect waste sorting in a medium sized Swedish city that has established ...

  19. A Social Media Marketing Plan for a Medium-sized Consumer Goods Company

    OpenAIRE

    Okolie, Emeka

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a social media marketing plan for the case com-pany to integrate it into its existing marketing communications. The case company of this study is a medium-sized consumer goods producing company that advertises its brand and products using traditional methods of advertising (radio, television, flyers and event promotion). At the moment, these methods seem to be lacking in efficiency and effective-ness caused by the saturation of marketing information w...

  20. A software process improvement solution for small and medium-size enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo-Manzano Villalon, Jose Antonio; Cuevas Agustin, Gonzalo; San Feliu Gilabert, Tomas; Serrano Rico, Ariel Edgar; García Pacheco, Iván

    2006-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to outline the main structure of an alternative software process improvement method for small- and medium-size enterprises. This method is based on the action package concept, which helps to institutionalize the effective practices with affordable implementation costs. This paper also presents the results and lessons learned when this method was applied to three enterprises in the requirements engineering domain.

  1. The Construction of Human Resource Management System in Small and Medium-sized Private Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Jieyun Zhang; Juhong Gong

    2009-01-01

    The small and medium-sized private enterprises (SMEs) play an increasingly important role in creating output value and providing new employment opportunities, but there are a lot of problems with human resources in SMEs, such as poor quality of business owners, lack of strategic planning on human resources, etc. It’s necessary, therefore, for SMEs to strengthen the setup of human resource management system. This paper puts forward some implementation details according to "human resource evalu...

  2. Key Drivers to Developing Guanxi in China for Taiwanese Small to Medium Sized Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Lan-Ying Huang; H. Young Baek; Soonhong Min

    2009-01-01

    As Chinese economy has become one of the world’s economic powerhouse, research on guanxi, social or business ties in China, has been gaining ground in business research. The study is couched in the theoretical framework of social embeddedness in which the flows of information, resources, and opportunities occur across recognized members of a social network to create mutual benefits. This study empirically tests the major impetus for Taiwanese small to medium sized firms (SMEs) to utiliz...

  3. On Key Points of Financial Cost Management in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Xingwu Yu; Weixing Wang

    2010-01-01

    Chinese small and medium-sized enterprises (SME), accounting for 99.3% of all Chinese corporations, createenormous economic fortune and employment opportunity. However, most of SMEs are lack of capital, withsimple equipments and improper management, so they are incapable to withstand risks and easy to be involvedin difficulty. Therefore, we should properly guide SMEs to enhance financing, investment management and themanagement of other value chain activities, which will contribute to their s...

  4. Transfer of pruduction knowledge to small and medium-size enterprises : a suggested model

    OpenAIRE

    von Axelson, Jens

    2005-01-01

    The work that this thesis is a result of has the ambition to suggest a model forknowledge transfer to small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs). The knowledge in focus here is competitive production methods such as: leanproduction, six sigma, continuous improvement, total quality management ortotal productivity maintenance.To invest in research in the SMEs, that often are the larger company’ssuppliers, gives effects in the entire supply chain. Another point of view is thatbigger companies are ...

  5. ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING ON CLOUD FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED BUSINESS, s?

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Khalid A. Fakeeh; Junaid Qayyum; Aiman J. Albarakati?

    2014-01-01

    Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) execution letdowns are one of the most important concerns for every organization/institution bearing in mind ERP but particularly small and medium size businesses that be deficient in the proficiency to put into practice inside devoid of appointing faint/outside conferring with, or those who have slighter resources. Do the benefits of Enterprise Resource Planning prevail over the drawbacks and in which manner that influence SMB, s? We do consider the advanta...

  6. General implementation stages of the ABC method in the Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    C?pu?neanu, Sorinel/I; Topor, Dan; Rof, Leti?ia Maria

    2011-01-01

    This article highlights the analysis and implementation stages of the ABC method in small and medium sized enterprises in Romania. It presents the historical development of the ABC method and its implementation issues identified in the economic entities. It stresses the importance of the ABC method to obtain relevant information to management decision-making entities. Emphasis is placed on the analysis type implementation issues: financial, behavioral, technical, informational, managerial, al...

  7. Hausbank or Fournisseur? Bank services for small and medium sized enterprises in Germany and France

    OpenAIRE

    Quack, Sigrid; Hildebrandt, Swen

    1995-01-01

    Deregulation of financial systems, internationalisation of financial markets and globalisation of product markets have led to considerable changes in the institutional and economic environment of banks and small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). In this paper we examine the impact of these overall changes on the evolution of the exclusive "Hausbank"-relationship in Germany and the loose "fournisseur" (supplier) relationship in France. The cross-country comparison is informed by theoretical...

  8. Audit from Audit Exempted Small and Medium-sized Entities (SMEs) in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Lakhe Shrestha, Biswas Kaji; Wai, Honey Htun

    2011-01-01

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are seen as backbone for economic growth because they are regarded as catalyst for entrepreneurial skills, innovation and employment. Since in Sweden approximately 99.89% of enterprises are SMEs, they take an important role in country’s economic development.        Most of the countries especially EU nations have abolished the statutory audit provision for (SMEs). The new Swedish legislation of statutory audit exemption came into effect on 1st Novembe...

  9. Environmental protection and competitive ability of small and medium size enterprises in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Kožená, Marcela

    2008-01-01

    At the present time the protection of environment is one of the global objectives of the mankind. Its realization should start at the company level where many problems begin. The aim of this article is analysis of application of sustainable development strategy in small and medium size enterprises in the Czech Republic; primarily the detection of its main problems in the process of implementation of environmental management systems (EMS) into company managements. Another objective of the rese...

  10. THE EVOLUTION OF FINANCIAL STANDARDS FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM- SIZED ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana IVANKOVI?

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the growing need for more comparable accounting standards, the beginnings of International Financial Reporting Standards for small and medium sized entities (IFRS for SMEs can be found in the year 2004. IFRS for SMEs represents for the first time an accounting standard for small and medium-sized companies that can be used globally. The paper aims to examine the historical development of IFRS, the principal institutions linked to their adoption and the harmonization process of standards within the European Union. The main contribution of the paper refers to the evolution of IFRS for SMEs and the main differences between the full IFRS in use and the IFRS for SMEs.The results of the comparative analysis demonstrate that several differences exist between them. Although the aim of the new standard is to assure comparable financial statements for small and medium-sized entities, the presented disadvantages demonstrate that not necessarily its implementation will assure more benefits than the cost that will occur.

  11. The Creation of Small and Medium-Sized Sport Enterprises and the Environmental Factors Affecting It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Morteza Azimzadeh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium-sized enterprises are very basic solutions for the development of a country; therefore, it is important to understand the factors involved in their creation. Hence, this study sought to examine the relationship between environmental factors and creation of Small and medium-sized sport enterprises. The research population was small and medium-sized sport enterprises (1500 companies; their owners / managers were selected as the research sample (n = 258 by simple random sampling. Data were gathered using environmental factors (?=0.77 and enterprises creation qualification (?=0.81 questionnaires. Descriptive and inferential statistics (Pearson correlation coefficient, Kolmogrof - Smirnov test, and multivariate regression analysis with SPSS16 software was used for data analysis. The results showed that in addition to positive and significant relationship with business, environmental factors could predict 6% of the creation variance; Also, except for the political dimension, all environmental aspects established a significant relationship with enterprise creation( p<0.01. Regression analysis showed that of environmental dimensions, economics and technology dimensions could explain 7 percent of Sports enterprise creation variance. According to path analysis method, this prediction ability is presented in a model. The findings suggested a diminished role of environment and its dimensions in explaining the process of SMEs creation.

  12. Voluntary disclosing cash flow statement in non-listed medium sized companies.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SchØler, Finn

    In Denmark, like some other EU Member States, medium-sized companies are requested to present a cash flow statement, but there are exemption rules similar to those for subgroups’ exemption to their presentation of consolidated financial statements. In a sample consisting of the paper versions of annual reports from 385 Danish non-listed medium-sized companies who were disclosing a cash flow statement as part of their annual report, we found that in a few cases, the companies were exempted to presentation of consolidated financial statements, but disclosing the cash flow statement voluntarily! Since there has been some debate between IASB and the EU Commission whether the cash flow statement should be a mandatory part of the annual reporting for non-listed medium-sized companies, we found it interesting to directly ask these voluntary disclosing companies as to their motivation. For this reason we conducted a multiple-case study, where we formulated a structured questionnaire and made partly open-ended interview with each one of the case-companies’ accountably responsible persons, i.e. one of the guys who signed the annual report. Among the majority of the answers we found a common understanding on presenting the cash flow statement because of some tradition, and not because of some clear intention of fulfilling user needs. However, do we really get a better annual report if a cash flow statement is included?

  13. Environmental management and educational needs of the small and medium-sized businesses of the metallurgical sector in the south region of Madrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the environmental management and needs of the small and medium-sized businesses of the metallurgical industry in the south region of Madrid were analysed. Information was obtained through a telephone questionnaire distributed to more than 170 companies. Although most of the respondent employees do not consider environmental training one of their priorities, they expressed their interest in implementing Environmental Management Systems, waste minimization and higher knowledge of the specific legal aspects. (Author) 7 refs

  14. Developing a Methodology Based on Action Learning to Facilitate the Adoption of ICT in Small and Medium-sized Companies in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Nunez, Heilyn Camacho

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to understand and explore better strategies to support the Small and Medium-sized companies sector in Costa Rica in the ICT adoption process. A strategy has been proposed which focuses on learning process and the interaction of university, industry and government (Triple Helix Model) in order to support the SMEs sector. The concrete proposal of the research is to design collaborative project based on action learning approach (Revans, 1982) with partnership of the thre...

  15. Knowledge-based trade, technical change and location environment: the case of small and medium sized enterprises engaged in advanced producer software services in the South East region

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, J.

    2005-01-01

    Technical change is the driving force behind modern economic competitiveness and the evolution of enterprise and industry. The process, however, is not insular; in particular the location environment is regarded as a key component of how technical change is derived, implemented and diffused. This research study explores this assumption in relation to knowledge-based trade via small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) engaged in the development of advanced producer service (APS) software in th...

  16. The Impact of Firm Size and E-commerce Usage on Business Performance on Hospitality Industry: A case of Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ahmed A Said

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The hospitality industry is major service sector in most of developed and developing countries in the world economy, and nowadays many hotels implemented e-commerce for their business models and gained great advantages and increase profitability. This study aims to examine the impact of firm size and e-commerce usage on business performance of hospitality industry in general and hotels in Libya in particular. A quantitative approach was applied on hotel industry in Libya, mainly those hotels that have previous practices and experience with e-commerce. The results shows that small and medium size firms in hospitality industry in Libya are facing similar challenges and obstacles to other small businesses when establishing e-commerce website, and also shows a strong relationship between e-commerce usage and business performance, and high increase in profitability when hotels implement e-commerce and start to conduct online booking.

  17. The Impact of Firm Size and E-commerce Usage on Business Performance on Hospitality Industry: A case of Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ahmed A. Said

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The hospitality industry is major service sector in most of developed and developing countries in the world economy, and nowadays many hotels implemented e-commerce for their business models and gained great advantages and increase profitability. This study aims to examine the impact of firm size and e-commerce usage on business performance of hospitality industry in general and hotels in Libya in particular. A quantitative approach was applied on hotel industry in Libya, mainly those hotels that have previous practices and experience with e-commerce. The results shows that small and medium size firms in hospitality industry in Libya are facing similar challenges and obstacles to other small businesses when establishing e-commerce website, and also shows a strong relationship between e-commerce usage and business performance, and high increase in profitability when hotels implement e-commerce and start to conduct online booking

  18. Exploring drivers for energy efficiency within small- and medium-sized enterprises: First evidences from Italian manufacturing enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Allowances, public financing and external pressures as major external drivers. ? Ambitious decision-makers with great entrepreneurial mind as major internal drivers. ? Effect of firm’s size (even within SMEs) on drivers to industrial energy efficiency. ? Preliminary evidences of the effect of firm’s internal and external complexity. ? Preliminary evidences of the effect of firm’s innovation characteristics. - Abstract: Several studies have investigated the barriers to industrial energy efficiency, but few have focused on the most effective means (drivers) to promote the adoption of energy-efficient technologies and practices. In this respect, Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) have been completely overlooked despite interesting consequences for their overall energy consumption and their concurrent low levels of adoption of energy-efficiency measures. Starting from insights garnered from the extant literature on the drivers of industrial energy efficiency, this paper presents an empirical investigation of 71 Italian manufacturing SMEs through a multiple case-study approach. The research highlights the importance of allowances or public financing for energy efficiency interventions, as well as the importance of external pressures such as increases in energy prices and the introduction or increasing of fees on both resources consumed and on emissions of pollutants. Moreover, enterprises look favourably upon energy-efficient technologies which are able to provide long-term benefits, evidence of their willingness to adopt seemingly radical solutions when these are able to improve their long-term competitiveness. Other drivers considered as strategic for increasing energy efficiency are the presence within the company of people with great ambition and entrepreneurial mind and the management sensitivity to the issue. This paper also provides a preliminary analysis of how factors such as firm size, sector, supply chain complexity, and innovation characteristics are or might be able to significantly affect drivers toward the adoption of energy-efficient technologies

  19. Flexible Business Process Integration for Clusters of Small-Medium Sized Enterprises in Heterogenous Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Jiang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Industry clusters-groups of geographically proximate enterprises in the same industry are a striking feature of the geography of economic activity and greatly impact the overall economic development. However, most of them are low-cost-based clusters that are composed of small-medium enterprises which needs social electronic services and flexible business process integration. In this paper, we present an on-demand information service platform for small-medium enterprise clusters and propose loosely-coupled service-oriented business process integration scheme for this platform. Several key techniques such as business application definition language and graphical representation for integration in heterogenous environment, packaging and executive strategy for integrating services, dependency set and context of integration service, and mapping translation based on synonymous semantic definition are proposed. Professional services can be provided via this platform to promote the enterprises’ innovative ability and help business to gain competitive advantages. The platform and the related techniques have been applied in realistic textile industrial clusters.

  20. Enhanced Bio-Ethanol Production from Industrial Potato Waste by Statistical Medium Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmirlioglu, Gulten; Demirci, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Industrial wastes are of great interest as a substrate in production of value-added products to reduce cost, while managing the waste economically and environmentally. Bio-ethanol production from industrial wastes has gained attention because of its abundance, availability, and rich carbon and nitrogen content. In this study, industrial potato waste was used as a carbon source and a medium was optimized for ethanol production by using statistical designs. The effect of various medium components on ethanol production was evaluated. Yeast extract, malt extract, and MgSO?·7H?O showed significantly positive effects, whereas KH?PO? and CaCl?·2H?O had a significantly negative effect (p-value < 0.05). Using response surface methodology, a medium consisting of 40.4 g/L (dry basis) industrial waste potato, 50 g/L malt extract, and 4.84 g/L MgSO?·7H?O was found optimal and yielded 24.6 g/L ethanol at 30 °C, 150 rpm, and 48 h of fermentation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that industrial potato waste can be used effectively to enhance bioethanol production. PMID:26501261

  1. Cloud Computing: The Level of Awareness Amongst Small & Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Developing Economies.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeboah-Boateng, Ezer Osei; Essandoh, Kofi Asare

    2013-01-01

    Cloud computing services are being touted as a major enabler for small businesses lately. This new paradigm is seen to offer unique opportunities to small and medium enterprises (SMEs) worldwide and developing economies are no exception. It presents SMEs access to similar technologies available to their larger counterparts and those in the developed world which inherently creates innovativeness, increases competitive advantage and impacts their operations and processes. This paper seeks to determine the level of awareness and familiarity with this emerging computing paradigm. The results of the study indicated that a slight majority of the respondents were familiar with cloud computing on the individual level but the level of awareness amongst the larger SME industry was low to medium. The finding therefore recommends education and sensitization on cloud computing in order to increase awareness and knowledge about this emerging technology and its prospects. This is seen as one sure way of enhancing its uptakein developing and emerging markets.

  2. Quantum-sized ZnO nanoparticles synthesized in aqueous medium for toxic gases detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Quantum-sized ZnO nanoparticles are synthesized in aqueous medium. ? ZnO is used to detect toxic gases in the atmosphere. ? ZnO sensing material has high sensitivity to NO2 at operating temperature of 290 °C. ? ZnO based sensor exhibits high selectivity to CO and CH4. ? The intrinsic sensing of ZnO arises from stoichiometric defects. - Abstract: Quantum-sized ZnO nanoparticles have been prepared by the sol–gel method in aqueous medium using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as surface modifier to control the growth of ZnO particles and Ostwald ripening, because the majority of bioanalyses require water-stable materials. The crystal structure, grain size and optical property of the ZnO nanoparticles have been characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS). The obtained quantum-sized ZnO nanoparticles as a novel sensing material have been used to detect NO2 in environment. The sensing tests indicate that the ZnO sensing material not only has high response to NO2 but also exhibits high selectivity to CO and CH4 at optimum operating temperature of 290 °C. The sensing response depends on the calcination temperature of the ZnO precursor and operating temperature of the sensor. The intrinsic sensing property has also been exploited by photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectra.

  3. The effect of temperature and nano-sized calcium carbonate on tensile properties of medium density polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, high temperature tensile properties of medium density polyethylene and its nano composites are investigated. For this purpose medium density polyethylene reinforced with different weight percentages of nano-sized calcium (2, 5, 10) are produced by compression moulding method. Tensile tests have been carried out at different temperatures, i.e. 30, 60, 90degC using thermomechanical analysis apparatus. Besides, the fracture surface of medium density polyethylene and medium density polyethylene/CaC03 nano composites are also investigated using scanning electron microscopy. The thermomechanical analysis results indicate that the elastic modulus and yield stress have increased by addition of nano sized calcium carbonate as reinforcement for medium density polyethylene . At elevated temperature, the tensile strength is shown to be reduced in all materials including medium density polyethylene and its nano composites. The obtained results confirm that the reinforcing effect of nano-sized calcium carbonate becomes significant particularly at higher temperatures

  4. The ABC-paradox: is Time Driven ABC relevant for small and Medium sized enterprises (SME)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fladkjær, Henrik Find; Jensen, Erling

    2011-01-01

    Several articles suggest that Activity Based Costing (ABC) has failed to succeed in practical use. It is even argued that we have an ABC-paradox. Activity Based Costing has won theoretically in nu-merous articles in journals, through books, being included in all major Business Accounting text-books and in curriculum at most business schools. But ABC is not used very much by the compa-nies. Especially in small and medium enterprises ABC is rarely implemented. This is primarily due to two things: First, the ABC model is too difficult to implement. Second, the data foundation for the model is not available in the required quality in the ERP systems used by the businesses. In this article we will explore ways of overcoming these two related problems. We will explore these issues particularly in relation to small and medium enterprises. Through a theoretical analysis and practical implementation in a medium sized manufacturing company we will analyse whether it is possible to create a satisfactory decision making foundation using a TDABC as a less complex cost model in the company. We have analysed our way to the conclusion that compared to ABC, the TDABC model provides the management with a number of pragmatic solutions that can be used in small and medium enter-prises.

  5. Operational Risk Assessment and Management in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktorija Stasytyt?

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern organizations have raised a need to actively and quickly react to the changes in external business environment, as well as in internal processes considering not only the present situation, but also evaluating possible changes and forecasting the future. Enterprise risk assessment and management, which is strongly related with foreseeing the uncertain future, becomes topical not only scientifically, but also practically seeking to reveal new and unique solutions. Operational risk management in small and medium enterprises, creating the largest part of value added in the whole European Union, demands a separate attention and coordinated decisions and means. The objective of the paper – to analyse the process of enterprise risk management in small and medium-sized enterprises, as well as to propose adequate risk management solutions for these companies. After performing a research, it was found out that small and medium enterprises more than big organizations require a risk management strategy and methodology, need to distinguish activity objectives and events influencing them, and they can efficiently apply a risk portfolio method to manage risk. In small and medium enterprises it is recommended to incorporate a risk management system based on COSO ERM model that can be modified depending on company needs and possibilities, turning it into less formal and structured and easily applicable.

  6. The Perspective of Small and Medium Size Nuclear Power Reactors in the Brazilian Isolated Electricity Grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a consequence of the international crisis that has shaken the nuclear industry almost all over the world during the late 1980s, new academic contributions, which could settle a new basis for the nuclear energy in Brazil, have been scarce. This paper aims to partially fulfill this gap. We discuss some perspectives for the nuclear option to regain some prominence in the Brazilian energy matrix. Recent developments in the nuclear industry, including advances in plant design, have been opening interesting markets for small and medium nuclear power reactors (SMNPRs). We access the suitability and feasibility of such new technology in the Brazilian isolated electricity grids. We conclude by saying that, although the difficulties are still huge, SMNPRs may be a good strategy for Brazil to revitalize its nuclear policy. (author)

  7. Current information technology needs of small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimple, C., LLNL

    1998-04-01

    This report documents recent efforts of the American Textile Partnership (AMTEX{sup TM}) Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Project to identify opportunities for cost effective enhanced information technology use by small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors. Background on the AMTEX/DAMA project and objectives for the specific DAMA Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) effort are discussed in this section. The approach used to gather information about current opportunities or needs is outlined in Section 2 Approach, and relevant findings are identified and a brief analysis of the information gathered is presented in Section 3 Findings. Recommendations based on the analysis, are offered in Section 4 Recommendations, and plans are suggested for DAMA follow-on in Section 5 Future Plans. Trip reports for each of the companies visited are contained in Appendix E - Company Trip Reports. These individual reports contain the data upon which the analysis presented in Section 3 Findings is based.

  8. IMPACT OF INNOVATION UPON THE DYNAMICS OF ROMANIAN SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEANINA CIUREA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is central to economic growth, as the area in which it develops takes the whole sphere of economic activities: product, process, service, organization, marketing, hence the economic effects they may cause. Creating "innovative enterprises", giving tax cuts to certain periods of time, preferential loans, creating funds 'risk capital' are just some of the measures that European countries which already apply and Romania, willing to encourage innovation. The present paper presents two ways of exposing this issue, using theoretical sources but also real official data concerning the concept of innovation and also the ways of applying it within small and medium sized enterprises.

  9. Foreign Exchange Risk Management Practices : A Study of Swedish Medium- and Large-sized Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Jakobsson, Catrin; Edvardsen, Daniel; Henriksson, Ola

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the thesis is to describe which foreign exchange risk techniques that are used by medium- and large-sized Swedish companies within the Jönköping region, and how they as well as a bank evaluate the techniques in the current recession. Background: The reason why companies decide to expand their operations abroad is to take advantage from imperfections in other national markets. The fluctuations in currencies and exchange rates can have a huge effect on a company’s cash f...

  10. IMPACT OF VIRTUALIZATION PROCESS ON THE COMPETITIVENESS OF SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta NAJDA-JANOSZKA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of the impact of virtualization process on competitiveness of small and medium sized firms. The developed methodology for measuring the level of organizational virtualness has been effectively applied to a wide range of businesses, both large and the smallest companies representing traditional and high-technology sectors. Through statistical analysis it has been confirmed that virtualization process has a positive impact on competitiveness of companies. However, not all theoretically assumed pathways of such impact have been observed. Presented results and conclusions of the examination give a new perspective for discussion about challenges of effective implementing virtual organization concept into business practice.

  11. Enterprise resource planning solution selection criteria in medium-sized South African companies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Malie; N., Duffy; A.C. J, van Rensburg.

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the factors that medium-sized South African companies consider important in the acquisition of an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) solution. Through an extensive literature review, fourteen ERP selection criteria were identified. Using these fourteen criter [...] ia, a questionnaire was developed to test and rate these criteria on a 10-point scale. Results from the survey show that manufacturing and non-manufacturing companies rate reliability, compatibility, service, and support as the most important criteria when selecting an ERP solution.

  12. eLEARNING - A CHANCE FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES

    OpenAIRE

    Ileana Hamburg; Christiane Lindecke; Judith Terstriep

    2005-01-01

    eLearning through its flexibility and facility of access is seen as a major enabler of lifelong learning (LLL), as a catalyst of change and a chance for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to improve their business and to integrate into European market. But so far the eLearning in the context of vocational educational training has been mainly adopted by large enterprises, while only little activity can be observed in SMEs. The question arises what the chances and challenges for SMEs are...

  13. Entrepreneurial behaviour consequences on small and medium-sized firms’ innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Antonie NI?U

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The European framework regarding innovation is dominated by the assumed objectives of the Lisbon Strategy and by its major reviewing demarches. In this perspective, the paper is based on a proposed model for the entrepreneurial process in Romania, depending on the economical development stage and the competitiveness level of the country, according to which there are set, on the one hand, the relationships between the conditions of the entrepreneurial framework and entrepreneurship, and, on the other hand, between entrepreneurship and innovation output in the cases of small and medium-sized enterprises.

  14. Integrated foreign exchange risk management : the role of import in medium-sized, manufacturing firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; HØg, Esben

    2010-01-01

    Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as an instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role of import in medium-sized manufacturing firms in Denmark (a small, open economy). We find a strong, negative relation between import and the use of foreign exchange derivatives on the aggregate level. Our findings are consistent with the notion that firms use import to match the foreign exchange exposure created by foreign sales activities.

  15. Integrated Foreign Exchange Risk Management: The Role of Import in Medium-Sized, Manufacturing Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; HØg, Esben

    2010-01-01

    Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as an instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role of import in medium-sized manufacturing firms in Denmark (a small, open economy). We find a strong, negative relation between import and the use of foreign exchange derivatives on the aggregate level. Our findings are consistent with the notion that firms use import to match the foreign exchange exposure created by foreign sales activities.

  16. Integrated Foreign Exchange Risk Management : The Role of Import in Medium-Sized, Manufacturing Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; HØg, Esben

    Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for the exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as the instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role of import in medium-sized, manufacturing firms in Denmark (a small, open economy). We find a strong, negative relation between import and foreign exchange derivatives usage on the aggregate level. Our findings are consistent with the notion that firms use import to match the foreign exchange exposure created by foreign sales activities.

  17. Adoption of COBIT5 and ITIL in Small and Medium Size Enterprises in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Chao; Zhang, Dong

    2014-01-01

    This thesis investigates the adoption of COBIT5 and ITIL used as the frameworks for IT governance (ITG) in Chinese Small and Medium Size Enterprises(SMEs). With the implementation of IT governance, the IT will be fully used to promote the core business of the enterprise and the risk and investments of IT will be balanced. To achieve the purpose of this thesis, questionnaire and mail survey are used as the method for research. We received 140 responds from the Chinese SMEs and these data are u...

  18. NectarCAM : a camera for the medium size telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    OpenAIRE

    Glicenstein, J-F; Abril, O.; Barrio, J-A.; Blanch Bigas, O; Bolmont, J.; Bouyjou, F.; Brun, P.; Chabanne, E; Champion, C.; Colonges, S; Corona, P.; Delagnes, E; Delgado, C.; Ginzov, C. Diaz; DURAND, D

    2015-01-01

    NectarCAM is a camera proposed for the medium-sized telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) covering the central energy range of ~100 GeV to ~30 TeV. It has a modular design and is based on the NECTAr chip, at the heart of which is a GHz sampling Switched Capacitor Array and a 12-bit Analog to Digital converter. The camera will be equipped with 265 7-photomultiplier modules, covering a field of view of 8 degrees. Each module includes the photomultiplier bases, high...

  19. Research on Imbalanced Multi-Classification of Performance Evaluation of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Performance evaluation of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs was the valuable problem for theresearchers and the stakeholders of SMEs, which was not only for internal managers to control over the entireorganization, but also for external stakeholders to familiar the SMEs. The author collected the data of 164 SMEsin east of China in 2011, and used two-step clustering method, k-means clustering method, system clusteringmethod, neural networks method, and amended support vector machine method to analyses this problems ofimbalanced multi-classification. The results of amended support vector machine were better than the results ofthe others.

  20. Assessment of the possible potential of photovoltaics in a medium-size city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One possibility to reduce CO2 emissions is the application of photovoltaics (PV). This form of current generation is inexhaustible. It involves hardly any risks and can be disposed of at random. But what kind of potential do photovoltaics have? The disadvantages like low energy density, fluctuating availability and high costs are well known. What conclusions can thus be drawn for the future role of photovoltaics? The authors discuss these questions at the example of a medium-size German city and describe the main influencing factors for the future development. (orig.)

  1. The Need and Importance of Outsourcing for Small and Medium Sized Companies : case "PAQUS"

    OpenAIRE

    Quandt, Michal

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to enlighten the reader about the importance and profitability of outsourcing in small and medium sized enterprises. It is focused on introducing the idea of outsourcing cooperation networks into the business. Outsourcing is know to human race, in different forms, since the beginning of human kind. Peoples talents and interests made it to be a notion of hiring another person, to do certain task in which he/she excels, it is quite common in societies and cultural...

  2. Financing Swedish Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Methods, Problems and Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Abouzeedan, Adli

    2003-01-01

    Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) are the seeds for a vital entrepreneurial economy. The Swedish SMEs, in particular, are very important for the future development of the Baltic Region. Financing these firms is an issue of great significance and a subject to care for. In this paper, we looked at established financing methods for Swedish SMEs. We also analyzed the impact of these methods on firm survivability using the Survival Index Value (SIV) model. The SIV model is a new tool to ev...

  3. The innovativeness in the food industry: A study of medium and large businesses in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Dai Prá Martens

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is about innovativeness in the context of entrepreneurial orientation. The aim is to present the results of an exploratory and qualitative research that sought to characterize innovativeness in food industries. A conceptual review on entrepreneurial orientation and innovativeness is presented as a base for the study. Data collection was carried out through semi-structured interviews with professionals of nine medium and large food industries from the central region of Rio Grande do Sul state. The analysis concludes with an over-view about innovative behavior, which is evidenced differently in industries surveyed. Innovation in products and services is featured in four industries, while process innovation is a priority in eight of the nine industries. There is constant investment in innovation, for a department of P&D in four industries and active participation of the supplier in innovations of the both industries. There are people dedicated to innovative activities in five industries and people involved in the other part. Creativity is especially important, although lacks systematic procedures for its development. The differentiation is especially in cases where it is possible to have innovative activities of difficult for competitors to duplicate.

  4. Binachinabadam-4: A High Yielding Mutant Variety of Groundnut with Medium Pod Size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With a view to develop a high yielding variety of groundnut with medium sized pod and kernel, 1000 seeds of the local popular cultivar Dacca-1 with smaller pod size were irradiated with 200 Gy gamma rays in 1997. At maturity, all M1 plants were harvested and pods were kept separately. During M2-M4 generations, selection was conducted following high mean and high/low variances compared to the check Dacca-1. Fourteen true breeding lines were selected in a preliminary yield trial at M5 generation, based on pod size and yield performance. Based on the same criteria, in an advance yield trial, only 8 mutant families were further selected. From zonal yield trials, 3 top yielding mutant lines were selected. Of these three mutant lines, D1/20/3M-30 produced the highest average yield with pod size significantly bigger than the parent variety but smaller than Binachinabadam-2, a variety with bold pod size, found in both, farmer's field and on-station trials. D1/20/3M-30 has been registered as Binachinabadam-4 for commercial cultivation in 2008. (author)

  5. Depressurization accidents in a medium-sized high-temperature gas reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount of fission product release during a core heatup accident in a medium-sized high-temperature gas reactor depends on the size of the inadvertent opening in the primary circuit; this dependence is assessed. The opening triggers a depressurization event that is assumed to be coupled with the failure of the forced circulation in both decay-heat removal systems. The scenario investigated is a beyond-design-base accident. The DSNP modular simulation code is used. This paper reports that a two-dimensional model is developed to simulate the HTR-500 design. The study shows that the depressurization process does not contribute significantly to the sweeping out (from the primary circuit) of fission products released from the fuel during the core heatup. There is also no significant variation in the results when the opening size is >33 cm2, and only a slight sensitivity is found when the rupture size is between 3.3 and 33 cm2. The fission product release decreases considerably in the range from 1 to 3.3 cm2. The small-sized rupture is of major significance, as the failure of the relief valves to reclose increases the frequency of the event

  6. Industrial cogeneration: a viable alternative for the rational use of energy in a medium size industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work it is emphasized the importance of cogeneration in the rational use of energy. The appropriate parameters for the installation of a cogeneration system are established, the general requirements for operations in parallel with the utility are defined, and the successful method used in other countries is described. 10 refs

  7. Status of the Medium-Sized Telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), is an international project for the next generation ground- based observatory for gamma-ray astronomy in the energy range from 20 GeV to 300 TeV. The sensitivity in the core energy range will be dominated by up to 40 Medium-Sized Telescopes (MSTs). The MSTs, of Davies-Cotton type with a 12 m diameter reflector are currently in the prototype phase. A full-size mechanical telescope structure has been assembled in Berlin. The telescope is partially equipped with different mirror prototypes, which are currently being tested and evaluated for performances characteristics. A report concentrating on the details of the tele- scope structure, the drive assemblies and the optics of the MST prototype will be given.

  8. Industrial Fabrication of Medium-Beta SCRF Cavities for a High-Intensity Proton Linac

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzminski, J.; Chan, K. C. D.; Gentzlinger, R.; Maccioni, P.

    2000-01-01

    During 1999, four 700-MHz, medium-beta (b = 0.64), superconducting radio frequency (SCRF) cavities for a high-intensity proton linac project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) were manufactured by industry. The SCRF cavities were designed by a LANL team in Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA, and manufactured at a CERCA plant in Romans, France. The cavities were made of 4-mm-thick, solid niobium sheets with a residual resistivity ratio (RRR) greater than 250. These niobium she...

  9. Innovation Gateways for SMEs: Finding the Formula for Successful Interaction between Universities and Small and Medium-Size Firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Peter T.

    1995-01-01

    The University of Warwick's Breakthrough Technologies program links with small and medium-sized businesses to stimulate awareness of innovations. The Manufacturing Excellence Initiative provides postgraduate training for company staff that focuses on best practices and change management. (SK)

  10. Cash flow vs. collateral-based credit: performance of micro, small and medium-sized firms in transition economies.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cassano, F.; Joeveer, K.; Švejnar, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 21, ?. 2 (2013), s. 269-300. ISSN 0967-0750 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : micro, small and medium - sized enterprises * bank credit * firm performance Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.755, year: 2013

  11. Entrepreneurship in small and medium-sized enterprises: Comparative study between Slovakia and Poland for the years 2001-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Ubrežiová, Iveta; Wach, Krzysztof; Horváthová, Jarmila

    2008-01-01

    The main attention of the submitted paper is devoted to the comparison of development of entrepreneurship in Slovak and Polish small and mediumsized enterprise sector. The conditions for blooming entrepreneurship are created in a national economy. Especially the role of SMEs in transition economy, both countries Slovakia and Poland, has impact on SMEs. Entrepreneurship of small and medium-sized enterprises, is extended in the whole Slovakia. From the viewpoint of regional structure most...

  12. The Research on Enterprise Management Innovation --- Based on the Study of Small and Medium Sized Family Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Qian Luo; Xilin Liu

    2014-01-01

    The small and medium sized family enterprises in China have developed rapidly since the reform and opening up.Numerous facts show that the family management is reasonable and proper in the early development of small and medium-sized family enterprise. However, with the further development of family enterprise, the shortcomings of family management are exposed and have become obstacles which restrict the development of enterprise, as a result, the research and analysis in the management proble...

  13. The Roles of Government Funding in Enhancing the Competitiveness of Small and Medium-sized Enterprise in Sabah, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Abdol Samad Nawi; Irwan Bin Ismail; Zainuddin Zakaria; Jannah Munirah Md Noor; Bashir Ahmad Bin Shabir Ahmad; Nik Fakrul Hazri; Wan Anisabanum Salleh; Mohd Tajul Hasnan Mohd Tajuddin; Nur Raihana Mohd Sallem

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to determine the roles of government funding in enhancing Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Sabah, Malaysia. Specifically, the study is focused on the Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Sabah, Malaysia which were funded by many government-linked agencies such as Yayasan Tekun Nasional, Amanah Ikhtiar, Koperasi Pembangunan Desa and Agro Bank. This qualitative study was carried out in the rural and urban areas in Sabah, Malaysia. The findings of this stu...

  14. Study on Technological Innovation Outsourcing in Scientific and Technological Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Based on Motives

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaolin Li

    2011-01-01

    For the time being, technological innovation outsourcing has become an important channel for enterprises, especially in scientific and technological small and medium-sized enterprises. Based on characteristics of scientific and technological small and medium-sized enterprises, this article made an analysis in the motives and the existing problems. First of all, the author analyzed the motives in four aspects. Then, the author pointed out problems existing in evaluation and selection of outsou...

  15. A Study on the Influences of Financing on Technological Innovation in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Jingting Ma; Shumei Wang,; Jian Gui

    2010-01-01

    As the most vigorous part in the national economy, small and medium-sized enterprises exert an active role in increasing employment, training entrepreneurs, invigorating economy, cooperating with large enterprises and improving market competition and so on. What’s more, S&T enterprises of this kind also take an active role in technological innovation. In view of the poor technological innovation ability of small and medium-sized enterprises in China, such an analysis will be helpful for their...

  16. Enhancing work motivation for Japanese female nurses in small to medium-sized private hospitals by analyzing job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Yasushi; Kido, Shigeri; Shahzad, Machiko Taruzuka; Shida, Kyoko; Satoh, Toshihiko; Aizawa, Yoshiharu

    2010-03-01

    Proper work environments are important for nurses to feel motivated. We examined the associations between work motivation and job satisfaction among Japanese nurses to improve their motivation. In Japan, relatively small and medium-sized private hospitals play a central role in the healthcare industry. In the present study, the subjects were nurses working in 23 small and medium-sized private hospitals that had 65 to 326 beds. We analyzed 1,116 registered and licensed practical female nurses (average age, 38.3 years; standard deviation, 11.3 years). Many nurses with their specialized nursing skills dedicate themselves to patient care. However, many of these nurses may not be interested in contributing to their hospitals. Nurses may have different opinions regarding dedication to patient care and contribution to their hospitals. Therefore, concerning work motivation, we produced these two different items, "Nurses' dedication to patients" and "Nurses' contribution to their hospitals." We also produced our own original new job satisfaction questionnaire. We found 7 facets of job satisfaction: "Work as specialists," "Workplace safety," "Relationships with superiors," "Work-life balance," "Relationships among nurses," "Communications with physicians," and "Salary." Multiple linear regression analyses show that both "Nurses' dedication to patients" and "Nurses' contribution to their hospitals" were significantly associated with "Work as specialists." Nurses feel their jobs of protecting people's lives and health are valuable. They do not feel motivated only by money. They value the intrinsic nature of their jobs. Creating proper work environments is important for nurses to be able to work as specialists. PMID:20208420

  17. Determinants of Profitability of Food Industry in India: A Size-Wise Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Azhagaiah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Profitability is the profit earning capacity, which is a crucial factorin contributing to the survival of firms. This paper is a maidenattempt at estimating the impact of size on profitability, consideringthe ‘size’ as the control variable. For this purpose, the selectedfirms are classified into three size categories as ‘small,’ ‘medium,’and ‘large’ based on the sales turnover. The results show that volatilityand growth are the major predictors in determining profitabilityin case of small size firms while growth is important in determiningthe profitability of medium size firms. Capital intensityhas a significant positive coefficient with the profitability of largesize firms. The overall result shows that the larger the size of thefirm, the more the investment in long lived assets has helped toincrease the profitability of the firm unlike the trend in cases ofsmall size and medium size firms.

  18. Tube vibration in industrial size test heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tube vibration data from tests of a specially built and instrumented, industrial-type, shell-and-tube heat exchanger are reported. The heat exchanger is nominally 0.6 m (2 ft) in dia and 3.7 m (12 ft) long. Both full tube and no-tubes-in-window bundles were tested for inlet/outlet nozzles of different sizes and with the tubes supported by seven, equally-spaced, single-segmental baffles. Prior to water flow testing, natural frequencies and damping of representative tubes were measured in air and water. Flow testing was accomplished by increasing the flow rates in stepwise fashion and also by sweeping through a selected range of flow rates. The primary variables measured and reported are tube accelerations and/or displacements and pressure drop through the bundle. Tests of the full tube bundle configuration revealed tube rattling to occur at intermediate flow rates, and fluidelastic instability, with resultant tube impacting, to occur when the flow rate exceeded a threshold level; principally, the four-span tubes were involved in the regions immediately adjacent to the baffle cut. For the range of flow rates tested, fluidelastic instability was not achieved in the no-tubes-in-window bundle; in this configuration the tubes are supported by all seven baffles and are, therefore, stiffer

  19. 78 FR 45969 - Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the... and Medium- sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the European Union. DATES: September 13.... small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) perceive as disproportionately affecting their exports to...

  20. Creativity, creations and innovations in the management of small and medium-sized business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usheva M.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Creativity is a process of development and expression of new ideas interwoven in the company mission and vision to lead not only to financial success but also to real loyalty and involvement of the employees with the company problems and achievements. The main objective of this paper is through the research among contemporary managers and entrepreneurs, representatives of small and medium-sized business in the region of Blagoevgrad to prove that creativity skills are deployed in each person, to identify the specific characteristics of the creative thinking of the manager and the tools that stimulate them to increase competitiveness in the context of the sustainable development of the small and medium business in international and domestic tourism market. The main result to be achieved is evidence that when there is adequate (positive self-evaluation, intrinsic motivation or chiefly necessity of creativity manifestation, emotivity in the sense of creative enthusiasm, personal professional effectiveness and appropriate situational factors, the modern manager is able to model conditions for the manifestation of creativity (creative self-expression, both in themselves and in their subordinates. This in turn leads to increased competitiveness and intensive implementation of innovations in the company management and operation. The main research methods used in the study are literature review on the subject, survey, analysis of processes, intuitive and systematic approach, systematic observation, data classification and interpretation.

  1. Correlates of Tax Compliance of Small and Medium Size Businesses in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oludele Akinloye Akinboade

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Taxation provides a predictable and stable flow of revenue to finance development objectives. This is important in a country like Cameroon that has serious challenges with meeting its development objectives. Small and medium enterprises (SMEs are significant for economic growth in the country, contributing as much as about 22 percent of the gross domestic product. SMEs generate taxable incomes. They also collect employment and value added taxes on behalf of the government. Taxation, however, imposes high cost to small businesses. SMEs are less tax compliant in comparison to large businesses. SMEs are considered the ‘hard to tax group from the informal sector.’ As such, the literature suggests that only a fraction of their taxable incomes is reported to tax authorities. Against this background, factors that correlate with tax compliance of 575 small and medium size companies in Cameroon are discussed from a survey of companies in the manufacturing and wholesale sectors. High registration cost and time-consuming processes promote tax non-compliance. The perception that tax system is corrupt discourages registration and filing compliance. When there are too many compliance hurdles, the probability of filing compliance is reduced. However, a fair and static system encourages filing and registration compliance. A clear and consistent tax system promotes filing compliance. Authorities that understand their responsibilities and are willing to respond to enquiries during the registration process promote tax compliance in general.

  2. Hybrid neural intelligent system to predict business failure in small-to-medium-size enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrajo, M Lourdes; Baruque, Bruno; Corchado, Emilio; Bajo, Javier; Corchado, Juan M

    2011-08-01

    During the last years there has been a growing need of developing innovative tools that can help small to medium sized enterprises to predict business failure as well as financial crisis. In this study we present a novel hybrid intelligent system aimed at monitoring the modus operandi of the companies and predicting possible failures. This system is implemented by means of a neural-based multi-agent system that models the different actors of the companies as agents. The core of the multi-agent system is a type of agent that incorporates a case-based reasoning system and automates the business control process and failure prediction. The stages of the case-based reasoning system are implemented by means of web services: the retrieval stage uses an innovative weighted voting summarization of self-organizing maps ensembles-based method and the reuse stage is implemented by means of a radial basis function neural network. An initial prototype was developed and the results obtained related to small and medium enterprises in a real scenario are presented. PMID:21809475

  3. Role of Relationship Marketing in Small and Medium-Sized Entreprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ružica Butigan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Along with marketing, small and medium enterprises (SMEs are commonly associated in literature with relationship marketing which results in marketing networks. This paper examines the specific characteristics that differentiate large companies from small and medium-sized enterprises, and the reasons that prevent SMEs from engaging in traditional marketing within the scope of marketing mix. The paper also shows that the key characteristic which distinguishes small from large companies is a prominent role of owner/managers. The owner/manager affects marketing of SMEs by creating his or her own personal networks with stakeholders in the environment, and considers it an important strategic focus and a factor that increases the performance of marketing decision-making. After a thorough review of secondary data sources this paper examines relationship marketing as a marketing framework for SMEs and, finally, proves that relationship marketing is more appropriate for SMEs than are traditional marketing concepts, that relationship marketing and network marketing create an important framework for SMEs and that there is a link between relationship marketing, personal networks and SMEs.

  4. Modeling, simulation, and concept design for hybrid-electric medium-size military trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzoni, Giorgio; Josephson, John R.; Soliman, Ahmed; Hubert, Christopher; Cantemir, Codrin-Gruie; Dembski, Nicholas; Pisu, Pierluigi; Mikesell, David; Serrao, Lorenzo; Russell, James; Carroll, Mark

    2005-05-01

    A large scale design space exploration can provide valuable insight into vehicle design tradeoffs being considered for the U.S. Army"s FMTV (Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles). Through a grant from TACOM (Tank-automotive and Armaments Command), researchers have generated detailed road, surface, and grade conditions representative of the performance criteria of this medium-sized truck and constructed a virtual powertrain simulator for both conventional and hybrid variants. The simulator incorporates the latest technology among vehicle design options, including scalable ultracapacitor and NiMH battery packs as well as a variety of generator and traction motor configurations. An energy management control strategy has also been developed to provide efficiency and performance. A design space exploration for the family of vehicles involves running a large number of simulations with systematically varied vehicle design parameters, where each variant is paced through several different mission profiles and multiple attributes of performance are measured. The resulting designs are filtered to remove dominated designs, exposing the multi-criterial surface of optimality (Pareto optimal designs), and revealing the design tradeoffs as they impact vehicle performance and economy. The results are not yet definitive because ride and drivability measures were not included, and work is not finished on fine-tuning the modeled dynamics of some powertrain components. However, the work so far completed demonstrates the effectiveness of the approach to design space exploration, and the results to date suggest the powertrain configuration best suited to the FMTV mission.

  5. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) from medium-sized to large mammals in Ehime Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Takeo; Yano, Shinji; Yamamoto, Takahito; Yamamoto, Eiji; Miyamoto, Taisuke

    2013-06-01

    Ixodid ticks were collected from medium-sized to large mammals in Ehime Prefecture, Shikoku, Japan. Ten species of ticks (Amblyomma testudinarium, Dermacentor taiwanensis, Haemaphysalis flava, H. formosensis, H. hystricis, H. longicornis, H. megaspinosa, Ixodes nipponensis, I. ovatus, and I. tanuki) were collected from a total of 29 mammals comprising 11 species. Haemaphysalis hystricis, a possible vector of Japanese spotted fever in Ehime prefecture, was collected from Canis lupus familiaris (domestic dog), Martes melampus melampus, and Sus scrofa leucomystax. This is a first report of H. hystricis from the domesticated dog in the endemic area of Japanese spotted fever. This suggests that it is necessary to pay attention to dogs as a host of the vector ticks for Japanese spotted fever control. Nyctereutes procyonoides and Ma. melampus are new hosts for A. testudinarium. Nyctereutes procyonoides, Mustela itatsi, and Lepus brachyurus are new hosts for H. formosensis. Martes melampus is a new host for H. hystricis. PMID:23242932

  6. Small and Medium Sized Enterprises Development under Trade Liberalisation: A Survey of Nigerian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obokoh, Lawrence Ogechukwu

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews the policies implemented by the Nigerian government over the years to assist the development of manufacturing small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs in Nigeria following the implementation of Trade liberalisation policy in 1986. The aim of the liberalise trade policy was to encourage competition and improve efficiency in the use of local resources; yet most Nigerian SMEs still find it difficult to compete and merely struggle to survive the liberalised economic environment in Nigeria. The result of the study of a sample of 500 manufacturing SMEs operating in Lagos State reveals that despite the laudable policies, the effects are not felt by most manufacturing SMEs due to improper planning and the absence of favourable investment climate necessary for these policies to be effective.

  7. The seven services which EDF provides to small and medium-sized companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchand, M. [EDF, GDF Services (France)

    1997-12-31

    The seven services provided by Electricite de France for small and medium sized businesses are outlined. They provide a response to three areas of concern. The services offered to make electricity management easier and to control costs are DIAPASON, which applies the most suitable tariff at points of delivery, and FACILIS, customised payment facilities. ELECTRO PROCESS, providing information and training on processes, is designed to help with the control of electrical processes. The four remaining services are intended to guarantee the quality of electricity supplied to the customer. They are:EMERAUDE, contractural commitment concerning the quality of supply and detailing maximum power cut limits; ECHO RESEAU, information for a new consumer on the quality of the electrical supply to be provided; PREVENANCE, information on planned power cuts; FIABELEC, a complete solution to reducing the sensitivity of an internal electrical installation. (UK)

  8. Tax-saving, Innovative Incentives for Small and Medium - Sized Enterprises in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Ambrus

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The small-and medium-sized enterprises in the Hungarian economy have been playing a decisive role. Among the difficulties they face during their activities one of the most serious is to raise funds for their labour costs. They try to reduce their tax wedge burden, which is regarded one of the highest in Europe, in various ways. In order to keep the adequate workforce they can provide fringe benefits supplementing to wages and salaries. The cautious application of the referring acts enables companies to motivate workforce and reduce the tax and contribution burdens at the same time. Our research aimed to find an answer how SMEs take these advantages and what factors support or hinder the use of the system.

  9. Requirements and Specifications for a Simplified, Low Pressure Medium Sized PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarises part of our on-going investigations on the possible introduction of nuclear energy in developing countries or countries with low capacity electrical grids. These investigations are principally concerned with future PWR developments and basically try to search for plausible and economic answers to the three difficult questions that each nuclear technology exporting country faces today: 1)- how to compensate the apparent loss of economic competitiveness, related to the scaling effect, of a small or medium sized reactor? 2)- how to reconcile the introduction of nuclear energy on the large scale with the two major preoccupations of nuclear safety and nuclear proliferation? 3)- how to demonstrate that the proposed concept(s) can effectively meet the safety objectives of the requirements for future reactors in Europe and in other countries?

  10. Software-Defined Solutions for Managing Energy Use in Small to Medium Sized Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peffer, Therese [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Council on International Education Exchange (CIEE), Portland, ME (United States); Blumstein, Carl [Council on International Education Exchange (CIEE), Portland, ME (United States); Culler, David [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences (EECS); Modera, Mark [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Western Cooling Efficiency Center (WCEC); Meier, Alan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-10

    The Project uses state-of-the-art computer science to extend the benefits of Building Automation Systems (BAS) typically found in large buildings (>100,000 square foot) to medium-sized commercial buildings (<50,000 sq ft). The BAS developed in this project, termed OpenBAS, uses an open-source and open software architecture platform, user interface, and plug-and-play control devices to facilitate adoption of energy efficiency strategies in the commercial building sector throughout the United States. At the heart of this “turn key” BAS is the platform with three types of controllers—thermostat, lighting controller, and general controller—that are easily “discovered” by the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. The user interface showcases the platform and provides the control system set-up, system status display and means of automatically mapping the control points in the system.

  11. Heavy metal contamination of road-deposited sediments in a medium size city of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Bian, Bo; Li, Lei

    2008-12-01

    Road-deposited sediment (RDS) is an important environmental medium that affects the characteristics of heavy metals in stormwater runoff. 62 RDS samples were collected from four different land use types (commercial, residential, intense traffic and riverside park) in the Zhenjiang city of China. The samples were analysed for concentrations of five metals (Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni). The maximum mean concentrations of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni from different land use types were 686, 589, 158, 129 and 125 mg/kg, respectively. The intense traffic area displayed the highest metal concentrations, whilst Zn, Cr, Ni and Cu did not show any discernible variations among the other three areas. Seven particle sizes were analysed separately for the heavy metal concentrations. In all studied areas, particles nonpoint source contamination loading to the water environment in urban areas. PMID:18085420

  12. Analysis of the Management System Innovation in Small and Medium Sized Family Enterprises of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengcheng LIU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The family enterprise is one of the oldest forms of enterprise organization in the development of human history. In a way, the development of modern market economy equates the history of the evolution and collaborative of family enterprises. The growth of the family enterprises has now become a unique economic landscape in such a public ownership society in China. China is transitioning from a planned economy to a market economy, and the biggest change is actually the emergence of private enterprises groups. It’s by arriving less much, by arrive infirmly strength has made them one of the most dynamic components in Chinese economy. They not only active in both the urban and rural markets, meet the needs of people’s material and cultural life, ease the employment pressure, but also lay the important foundation of China’s market-oriented reform and participation in international market competition. The general development of family enterprise and its great contribution to China’s economy show that family enterprise as an ancient business system is still active and alive in the modern market economy. Nonetheless, it is not a perfect form of business organization compared with other organizational forms. Family enterprises, especially small and medium-sized family enterprises have also encountered some bottleneck and challenge in the development process, and the only way to get rid of the dilemma is the innovation of family enterprise management system. This paper at first expatiates on the concept of family enterprises, and then based on the study of its characteristics analyzes the present situation of Chinese family enterprise management system. Finally, this paper will find out the existing problems and reasons in the innovation of management system for small and medium-sized family enterprises, in order to put forward effective countermeasures.

  13. Sustainable infrastructure provision through awareness in selected medium-sized towns in Kwara State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afolayan Ganiyu Popoola

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructure is a basic structure required for sustainable socio-economic and physical development of any human settlement. The issue of sustainable development has recently been linked to infrastructure sustainability. Required to achieve this is the acquisition of appropriate education. Different skills, understanding the complexities that threaten the survival of our system, critical and systematic thinking, building capacity and partnership in decision-making, which are essential tools for Education for Sustainable Development (ESD, are required to provide adequate, appropriate and functional infrastructure. This study therefore examines the awareness/knowledge with reference to various skills employed in the provision of infrastructure through communal efforts in ten selected medium-sized towns in Kwara State. These towns are with a population of between 5,000 and 20,000. A total of 400 household heads were sampled systematically through the administration of a questionnaire in the ten selected medium-sized towns. Tabulations, cross tabulations, percentages and chi-square analysis were employed to analyse the gathered data. The findings revealed a significant relationship between awareness/knowledge and the provision of infrastructure with a calculated value of 219.23 greater than the tabulated value 34.41 at alpha level 0.05. Indigenous knowledge coupled with the ideas brought home by indigenes that have travelled far from their immediate communities and some professional skills acquired through community participation in infrastructure provision were employed to provide basic infrastructure required for socio-economic and physical development. Among the infrastructure provided are water, roads, health centres and electricity. The study recommends the improvement of basic education, a review and re-orientation of our educational system to address sustainability for proper collaboration of community efforts with the Community Development division of various local governments. This could be through training of the local communities and promotion of partnership zeal with Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs in infrastructure provision.

  14. Particle size and hydration medium effects on hydration properties and sugar release of wheat straw fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheat straw is gaining importance as a feedstock for the production of biofuels and high value-added bioproducts. Several pretreatments recover the fermentable fraction involving the use of water or aqueous solutions. Therefore, hydration properties of wheat straw fibers play an important role in improving pretreatment performance. In this study, the water retention capacity (WRC) and swelling of wheat straw fibers were studied using water, propylene glycol (PPG) and an effluent from a H2-producing reactor as the hydration media with three particle sizes (3.35, 2.00 and 0.212 mm). The effects of swelling were analyzed by optical and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The highest WRC was reached with the effluent medium (9.84 ± 0.87 g g?1 in 4 h), followed by PPG (8.52 ± 0.18 g g?1 in 1 h) and water (8.74 ± 0.76 g g?1 in 10 h). The effluent hydration treatment had a synergic effect between the enzymes present and the water. The particle size had a significant effect on the WRC (P < 0.01), the highest values were reached with 3.35 mm fibers. The CLSM images showed that finer fibers were subjected to a shaving effect due to the grinding affecting its capacity to absorb the hydration medium. The microscopic analysis showed the increase in the width of the epidermal cells after the hydration and a more undulating cell wall likely due to the hydration of the amorphous regions in the cellulose microfibrils. The sugar release was determined, achieving the highest glucose content with the effluent hydration treatment. - Highlights: • Water retention capacity (WRC) and swelling of wheat straw fibers were studied. • The highest WRC was achieved with a biological effluent. • The enzymatic activity in the biological effluent yielded the highest sugar release. • Finer fibers showed a shaving effect that affected its capacity to absorb water. • A more undulating cell wall was visualized after the hydration

  15. The Adoption of Management Accounting Practices in Malaysian Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamilah Ahmad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides empirical evidence on the adoption of a broad range of management accounting practices in Malaysian small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in the manufacturing sector. Data collected from a postal survey of 160 accountant managers are used to facilitate the study. The results indicate that the traditional MAPs such as conventional budgeting, traditional costing and financial performance measures are widely used by the respondents. The results also show that a significant number of respondents have adopted one or more measures both financial and non-financial but the reliance on financial measures is greater than for non-financial measures. The main non-financial measures frequently used by respondents are on-time delivery, number of customer complaints, defect rate and manufacturing lead time. These findings suggest that respondents, who use non-financial performance measures, are more internal-process and customer focused rather than employee focused. Further the recently developed management accounting techniques such as ABC, non-financial performance measures particularly on employees-oriented measures, decision support analysis and strategic management accounting are only adopted by the minority of the respondents. The respondents also indicated a low extent of use of all investment appraisal techniques in their decision making process. The finding suggests that given the relatively small size of the responding firms and due to some constraints, it is unlikely for the SMEs to adopt a comprehensive MAP in their firms.

  16. Volatile organic compounds in small- and medium-sized commercial buildings in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiangmei May; Apte, Michael G; Maddalena, Randy; Bennett, Deborah H

    2011-10-15

    While small- and medium-sized commercial buildings (SMCBs) make up 96% of the commercial buildings in the U.S., serving a large variety of uses, little information is available on indoor air quality (IAQ) in SMCBs. This study investigated 37 SMCBs distributed across different sizes, ages, uses, and regions of California. We report indoor concentrations and whole building emission rates of a suite of 30 VOCs and aldehydes in these buildings. There was a considerable range in the concentrations for each of the contaminants, especially for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, decamethylcyclopentasiloxane, d-limonene, 2-butoxyethanol, toluene, 2,2,4-trimethylpentanediol diisobutyrate, and diethylphthalate. The cause of higher concentrations in some building categories generally corresponded to expected sources, for example, chloroform was higher in restaurants and grocery stores, and formaldehyde was higher in retail stores and offices. Factor analysis suggests sources in SMCBs include automobile/traffic, cleaning products, occupant sources, wood products/coating, and plasticizers. The comparison to health guidelines showed that formaldehyde concentrations were above the chronic RELs required by the OEHHA (9 ?g/m³) in 86% of the buildings. Data collected in this study begins to fill the knowledge gap for IAQ in SMCBs and helps us understand the indoor sources of VOCs to further improve indoor air quality in SMCBs. PMID:21888354

  17. Size distribution of supernova remnants and the interstellar medium: the case of M33

    CERN Document Server

    Asvarov, Abdul I

    2013-01-01

    The size distribution of supernova remnants (SNRs) can help to clarify the various aspects of their evolution and interaction with the interstellar medium (ISM). Since the observed samples of SNRs are a collection of objects with very different ages and origin that evolve in different conditions of the ISM, statistical Monte Carlo methods can be used to model their statistical distributions. Based on very general assumptions on the evolution, we have modeled samples of SNRs at various initial and environmental conditions, which were then compared with observed collections of SNRs. In the evolution of SNRs the pressure of the ISM is taken into account, which determines their maximum sizes and lifetimes. When comparing the modeled and observed distributions, it is very important to have homogeneous observational data free from selection effects. We found that a recently published collection of SNRs in M33 (Long et al. 2010, ApJS,187,495) satisfies this requirement if we select the X-ray SNRs with hardness ratio...

  18. Evaluating the control software for CTA in a medium size telescope prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CTA (Cherenkov Telescope Array) is one of the largest ground-based astronomy projects being pursued and will be the largest facility for ground-based ?-ray observations ever built. CTA will consist of two arrays (one in the Northern hemisphere and one in the Southern hemisphere) composed of telescopes of several sizes. A prototype for the Medium Size Telescope (MST) of a diameter of 12 m will be installed in Berlin by the end of 2012. This MST prototype will be composed of the mechanical structure, drive system and mirror facets mounted with powered actuators to enable active control. Five Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) cameras and a weather station will allow the measurement of the performance of the instrument. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Common Software (ACS) distributed control framework is currently being considered by the CTA consortium to serve as the array control middleware. In order to evaluate the ACS software, it has been decided to implement an ACS-based readout and control system for the MST prototype. The design of the control software is following the concepts and tools under evaluation within the CTA consortium, like the use of a Unified Modeling Language (UML) based code generation framework for ACS component modeling, and the use of OPen Connectivity-Unified Architecture (OPC UA) for hardware access. In this contribution, the progress in the implementation of the control system for this CTA prototype telescope is described.

  19. The Roles of Government Funding in Enhancing the Competitiveness of Small and Medium-sized Enterprise in Sabah, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdol Samad Nawi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to determine the roles of government funding in enhancing Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Sabah, Malaysia. Specifically, the study is focused on the Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Sabah, Malaysia which were funded by many government-linked agencies such as Yayasan Tekun Nasional, Amanah Ikhtiar, Koperasi Pembangunan Desa and Agro Bank. This qualitative study was carried out in the rural and urban areas in Sabah, Malaysia. The findings of this study revealed that there are several main roles of government funding to enhance the competitiveness of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Sabah, Malaysia. These four main roles were namely provision of access to capital for opening and improving the business, provision of access to capital for skills and knowledge development, improvement of entrepreneurs’ relations, and promoting entrepreneurship and reducing “fear of failure”. In accordance, it can be concluded that the government funds are instrumental in the success of the efforts to enhance the competitiveness level of the so-called Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Sabah, Malaysia. Besides, it is highly recommended that state government and all parties (the stakeholders should specifically implement efforts to fund the Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises as well as to improve their level of competitiveness.

  20. Impact of carbon tax on internal combustion engine size selection in a medium scale CHP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? We study sizing of internal combustion engines as the prime movers of a CHP system. ? We study carbon tax impact on the economics of the system. ? Diesel engine based systems is not economical regardless of the operational mode. ? HDF is the only mode in which gas engine based systems is uneconomical. ? Carbon price considerably affects the system payback period. -- Abstract: Combined heat and power (CHP) systems due to their high efficiency compared to the conventional power generation systems have received considerable attention as they have less harmful impact on the environment. Recently, the serious concern with reducing the greenhouse gas emissions has focussed the attention on the possibility of a carbon tax in some countries. Here, we address the impact of such tax on the sizing and economics of a CHP system. Optimum sizing of CHP systems is of great importance to maximize the benefits of these systems. To select the optimum prime mover of a CHP system, performance characteristics of engine as well as economic parameters should be taken into consideration. A general thermo-economic approach to optimum sizing of internal combustion engines as the prime movers (any type and size) of a medium scale CHP system (500-5000 kW) and planning their operational strategy is developed. Net Annual Cost (NAC) as the criterion for making decision is introduced and appropriate equations for estimating thermodynamic and economic parameters as well as greenhouse gas emissions are presented. We consider three modes of operation: one-way connection (OWC) mode, two-way connection (TWC) mode, and heat demand following (HDF) mode. The proposed method has been used for a case study where data is available in the literature and the optimum nominal powers using gas engines are 3.3 MW, 3.2 MW, and 1.2 MW and in the case of using diesel engines are 3.4 MW, 3.4 MW, and 1.4 MW for TWC, OWC, and HDF modes, respectively. To determine the sensitivity of results to input parameters (e.g. electricity price) a comprehensive parametric study was conducted.

  1. Optimization as investment decision support in a Swedish medium-sized iron foundry - A move beyond traditional energy auditing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to increased globalisation, industries are facing greater competition that is pressing companies into decreasing their expenses in order to increase their profits. As regards Swedish industry, it has been faced with substantial increases in energy prices in recent years. Barriers to energy efficiency such as imperfect information inhibit investments in energy efficiency measures, energy audits being one means of reducing barriers and overcoming imperfect information. However, an evaluation of such energy audits in Sweden reveals that it is chiefly low-cost measures that are undertaken as a result of an audit. Moreover, these audits often tend to focus on support processes such as ventilation, lighting, air compressors etc., while measures impacting production processes are often not as extensively covered, which underlines the need for further support in addition to energy audits. Decision support is practised in a variety of different disciplines such as optimization and simulation and the aim of this paper is to explore whether investment decision support practices may be used successfully towards small and medium-sized manufacturers in Sweden when complex production-related investment decisions are taken. The optimization results from the different cases, involving a foundry's investment in a new melting unit, indicate that with no electricity price fluctuations over the day, the investment seems sound as it lowers the overall energy costs. However, with fluctuating electricity prices, there are no large differences in energy costs between the option of retaining the existing five melting furnaces at the foundry and investing in a twin furnace and removing the holding furnaces - which was the initial investment plan for the foundry in the study. It would not have been possible to achieve this outcome without the use of investment decision support such as MIND. One of the main conclusions in this paper is that investment decision support, when strategic investment decisions are to be taken, may be a means of emphasising energy efficiency for energy-intensive SMEs beyond the level of traditional energy auditing

  2. Optimization as investment decision support in a Swedish medium-sized iron foundry - A move beyond traditional energy auditing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to increased globalisation, industries are facing greater competition that is pressing companies into decreasing their expenses in order to increase their profits. As regards Swedish industry, it has been faced with substantial increases in energy prices in recent years. Barriers to energy efficiency such as imperfect information inhibit investments in energy efficiency measures, energy audits being one means of reducing barriers and overcoming imperfect information. However, an evaluation of such energy audits in Sweden reveals that it is chiefly low-cost measures that are undertaken as a result of an audit. Moreover, these audits often tend to focus on support processes such as ventilation, lighting, air compressors etc., while measures impacting production processes are often not as extensively covered, which underlines the need for further support in addition to energy audits. Decision support is practised in a variety of different disciplines such as optimization and simulation and the aim of this paper is to explore whether investment decision support practices may be used successfully towards small and medium-sized manufacturers in Sweden when complex production-related investment decisions are taken. The optimization results from the different cases, involving a foundry's investment in a new melting unit, indicate that with no electricity price fluctuations over the day, the investment seems sound as it lowers the overall energy costs. However, with fluctuating electricity prices, there are no large differences in energy costs between the option of retaining the existing five melting furnaces at the foundry and investing in a twin furnace and removing the holding furnaces - which was the initial investment plan for the foundry in the study. It would not have been possible to achieve this outcome without the use of investment decision support such as MIND. One of the main conclusions in this paper is that investment decision support, when strategic investment decisions are to be taken, may be a means of emphasising energy efficiency for energy-intensive SMEs beyond the level of traditional energy auditing. (author)

  3. The strategic measures for the industrial security of small and medium business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Moo

    2014-01-01

    The competitiveness of companies increasingly depends upon whether they possess the cutting-edge or core technology. The technology should be protected from industrial espionage or leakage. A special attention needs to be given to SMB (small and medium business), furthermore, because SMB occupies most of the companies but has serious problems in terms of industrial security. The technology leakages of SMB would account for more than 2/3 of total leakages during last five years. The purpose of this study is, therefore, to analyze the problems of SMB in terms of industrial security and suggest the strategic solutions for SMB in South Korea. The low security awareness and financial difficulties, however, make it difficult for SMB to build the effective security management system which would protect the company from industrial espionage and leakage of its technology. The growing dependence of SMB on network such as internet, in addition, puts the SMB at risk of leaking its technology through hacking or similar ways. It requires new measures to confront and control such a risk. Online security control services and technology deposit system are suggested for such measures. PMID:24955414

  4. R & D, structural change and productivity: the role of high and medium-high technology industries

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Celeste Amorim, Varum; Bruno, Cibrão; António, Morgado; Joana, Costa.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo investiga o potencial impacto do aumento deI & D e de mudanças estruturais na produtividade do trabalho em Portugal. Com base na literatura sobre a relação entre despesas emI & D, mudança estrutural e produtividade, avaliamos a contribuição daI & D e das indústrias de alta tecnologia nes [...] te cenário durante os últimos 30 anos. Os resultados obtidos confirmam a importância dos investimentos emI & D das empresas de indústrias de alta e média-alta tecnologia eI & D público no crescimento da produtividade. Não obstante, não podemos afirmar que este fenômeno tenha como esteio principal o crescente relevo destas indústrias. Abstract in english This paper investigates the potential impact of increased R & D efforts and structural change in Portugal on labour productivity. Based on existing literature on the relation between R & D expenditures, structural change and productivity, we evaluate the contribution of R & D and hightech industries [...] to productivity over the last 30 years. Our results confirm the importance of business R & D in the medium to high-tech sectors and of public R & D, as they stimulate productivity growth. However, we cannot support the hypothosis that productivity growth was primarily rooted in the development of medium-high technology industries.

  5. Can the business model of Handelsbanken be an archetype for small and medium sized banks? A comparative case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousgaard Larsen, Morten; Lange Nissen, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    The Danish Banking sector faces increasing requirements regarding regulation and profitability, which especially threatens small- and medium sized banks. This study analyzes whether the successful business model of Handelsbanken (‘The Handelsbanken Way’) to banking in regard to the needed strengthening of the financial and non-financial position can serve as a blueprint for small- and medium sized banks. We conduct a comparative case study by interviewing Handelsbanken and the disguised ‘Danish Local Bank’ (DLB), where the DLB is a representative example of a small- and medium sized Danish bank. This study is structured according to the frameworks from Business Model implementations and from implied organizational structures. Using the notion of Osterwalder and Pigneur (2010), this study reveals only minor differences in the Business Models of Handelsbanken and DLB. Despite the supposedly obvious advantages of ‘The Handelsbanken Way’, this study suggests that the financially troubled small- and medium sizedbanks in Denmark will not necessarily benefit from the tactical choice of decentralization unless they incorporate specific adjustments. This study contribute to the existing theory concerning Handelsbanken’s approach to banking in regard to the appropriateness as a part of the solution to financial troubled small- and medium sized banks in Denmark.

  6. Sexual dimorphism of medium-sized neurons with spines in human nucleus accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazdanovi? ????

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The nucleus accumbens is a limbic nucleus, representing part of the striatum body, and together with the caudate nucleus and putamen, it lies on the septum. The aim of this study was to examine morphological sexual dimorphism in spine density and also to undertake an immunohistochemical study of expression for estrogen and progesterone receptors in the medium-sized neurons in the nucleus accumbens. The research was conducted on twenty human brains of persons of both sexes, between the age of 20-75 years. The Golgi method was applied to determine the types and subtypes of neurons, morphologies of soma, dendrites and axons, as well as the relations between the cells and glial elements. The following were quantitatively examined: the maximum diameter of the neurons, the minimal diameter of the neurons, and the total length of the dendrites. The expression of receptors for estrogen and progesterone, their distribution and intensity were defined immunohistochemically. The parameters of the bodies of neurons in the shell and core of the nucleus accumbens were studied in both men and women. No statistically significant differences were found. Examination of the spine density showed statistical significance in terms of a higher density of spines in women. Immunohistochemically, in the female brain estrogen expression is diffusely spread in a large number of neurons; it is extra nuclear, of granular appearance and high intensity. In the male brain, expression of estrogen is visible and distributed over about one half of different types of neurons; it is extra nuclear, of granular appearance, mostly of middle and low staining intensity. Expression of progesterone in the female brain was very discreet and on a very small number of neurons; it was extra nuclear and with a weak staining intensity. Expression of progesterone in the male brain was distributed on a small number of neurons. It had a granular appearance, it was extra nuclear, with a very low staining intensity. Our results show differences in the morphology as well as expression of receptors for estrogen and progesterone on medium-sized neurons with spines in the nucleus accumbens of men and women.

  7. Studies of various single phase natural circulation systems for small and medium sized reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • SMRs and passive safety systems in single phase systems are reviewed. • Simple loop analysis has been done for gas, single phase water, and liquid metals. • Gas systems have a greater tendency to fall into DTHT regime. • SMR and large LWR reactors can differ in operating heat transfer regime. -- Abstract: Passive safety is a primary motive behind the development of small and medium sized reactors of various coolants. After the Fukushima accident, there is an increased interest in a nuclear reactor's reliance on passive safety systems. Most of the existing passive systems, regardless of the reactor type, utilize buoyancy force to drive the cooling flow. Hence, it is essential to evaluate if the naturally developed cooling flow is sufficient to maintain the heated surface temperature of the fuel elements below the design limit. Evaluating passively driven flows can be quite a challenging task in both two phase natural circulation systems and also in single phase natural circulation systems. Previous research works have found that single phase heat transfer can be deteriorated and becomes uncertain when the driving force of a system is shifted from external force (forced convection) to self generated buoyancy force or a combination of both (natural or mixed convection). In this paper, single phase gas, water, and liquid metal reactors with passive systems are reviewed briefly. A simple theoretical analysis of each reactor type is performed to find the tendency of the shift in the operating heat transfer regime into the deteriorated region. The analysis results show that single phase water system can maintain operation within the forced convection regime but the operating regime gets closer to the deteriorating heat transfer regime as the system's physical size reduces from a large nuclear power plant to the small and medium reactor scale. The gas cooled system has a high tendency to operate in the deteriorated heat transfer regime when the driving force changes from forced to natural. Meanwhile the liquid metal system demonstrates more margins to operate outside from the deteriorated heat transfer region compared to the two other fluid systems. However further studies are needed to clearly identify the boundaries of the deteriorated heat transfer regime for each coolant since the deterioration greatly depends on the thermophysical properties variation of the coolant and the near-wall flow behavior of the coolant with respect to temperature change

  8. Studies of various single phase natural circulation systems for small and medium sized reactor design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wibisono, Andhika Feri, E-mail: feri.wibisono@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Yoonhan, E-mail: yh.ahn@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Williams, Wesley C., E-mail: wcw@phd-engineering.com [PHD Engineering, LLC, 11828 Villa Avenue, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Addad, Yacine, E-mail: yacine.addad@kustar.ac.ae [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research (KUSTAR), P.O. Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Lee, Jeong Ik, E-mail: jeongiklee@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • SMRs and passive safety systems in single phase systems are reviewed. • Simple loop analysis has been done for gas, single phase water, and liquid metals. • Gas systems have a greater tendency to fall into DTHT regime. • SMR and large LWR reactors can differ in operating heat transfer regime. -- Abstract: Passive safety is a primary motive behind the development of small and medium sized reactors of various coolants. After the Fukushima accident, there is an increased interest in a nuclear reactor's reliance on passive safety systems. Most of the existing passive systems, regardless of the reactor type, utilize buoyancy force to drive the cooling flow. Hence, it is essential to evaluate if the naturally developed cooling flow is sufficient to maintain the heated surface temperature of the fuel elements below the design limit. Evaluating passively driven flows can be quite a challenging task in both two phase natural circulation systems and also in single phase natural circulation systems. Previous research works have found that single phase heat transfer can be deteriorated and becomes uncertain when the driving force of a system is shifted from external force (forced convection) to self generated buoyancy force or a combination of both (natural or mixed convection). In this paper, single phase gas, water, and liquid metal reactors with passive systems are reviewed briefly. A simple theoretical analysis of each reactor type is performed to find the tendency of the shift in the operating heat transfer regime into the deteriorated region. The analysis results show that single phase water system can maintain operation within the forced convection regime but the operating regime gets closer to the deteriorating heat transfer regime as the system's physical size reduces from a large nuclear power plant to the small and medium reactor scale. The gas cooled system has a high tendency to operate in the deteriorated heat transfer regime when the driving force changes from forced to natural. Meanwhile the liquid metal system demonstrates more margins to operate outside from the deteriorated heat transfer region compared to the two other fluid systems. However further studies are needed to clearly identify the boundaries of the deteriorated heat transfer regime for each coolant since the deterioration greatly depends on the thermophysical properties variation of the coolant and the near-wall flow behavior of the coolant with respect to temperature change.

  9. The Impact of Firm Size on Dividend Behaviour: A Study With Reference to Corporate Firms across Industries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhagaiah Ramachandran

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to examine the association between the Corporate Leverage (CL and the Dividend Policy (DP of firms across industries in India in respect of Size of Corporate Firms. The investigation is conducted on a panel sample of 73 firms across industries [Cement, Chemical and Fertilizer, IT, Oil and Gas, Pharmaceutical, Shipping, and Textiles], which listed their shares in National Stock Exchange (NSE in India for the period 1996–2007. The impacts of Capital Structure (CS variables (leverage on DP measures – dividend payout (Net dividend paid/net income in the presence of some basic fundamental variables are considered to be the determinants of DP, using the Multiple Regression Technique (OLS method. The results of the cross-sectional ols Model for the selected sample firms under various sectors show that there is a significant effect of selected independent variables. Therefore, this study proves that the DP of Small Size, Medium Size, Large Size, and Overall Corporate Firms across industries in India is dependent on the level of debt in CS.

  10. Effects of Socio-Cultural Realities on the Nigerian Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs): Case of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Lagos State

    OpenAIRE

    Felicia O. Johnson; Olusoji George; Oluwakemi Owoyemi; Mofope Adegboye

    2013-01-01

    Socio-cultural realities are importance components in the Nigerian business environment. There is a shortage ofliterature and studies that linked socio-cultural realities to business development and performance.Small-Medium Enterprises (SMEs) constitutes over 70 per cent of the Nigerian businesses and characteristicallyinformal. The objectives of this paper are in two-folds, namely (i) identify socio-cultural realities in the SMEbusiness environment in Nigeria and; (ii) examine the impact of ...

  11. Think locally, act locally: Detection of small, medium-sized, and large communities in large networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeub, Lucas G. S.; Balachandran, Prakash; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.; Mahoney, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    It is common in the study of networks to investigate intermediate-sized (or "meso-scale") features to try to gain an understanding of network structure and function. For example, numerous algorithms have been developed to try to identify "communities," which are typically construed as sets of nodes with denser connections internally than with the remainder of a network. In this paper, we adopt a complementary perspective that communities are associated with bottlenecks of locally biased dynamical processes that begin at seed sets of nodes, and we employ several different community-identification procedures (using diffusion-based and geodesic-based dynamics) to investigate community quality as a function of community size. Using several empirical and synthetic networks, we identify several distinct scenarios for "size-resolved community structure" that can arise in real (and realistic) networks: (1) the best small groups of nodes can be better than the best large groups (for a given formulation of the idea of a good community); (2) the best small groups can have a quality that is comparable to the best medium-sized and large groups; and (3) the best small groups of nodes can be worse than the best large groups. As we discuss in detail, which of these three cases holds for a given network can make an enormous difference when investigating and making claims about network community structure, and it is important to take this into account to obtain reliable downstream conclusions. Depending on which scenario holds, one may or may not be able to successfully identify "good" communities in a given network (and good communities might not even exist for a given community quality measure), the manner in which different small communities fit together to form meso-scale network structures can be very different, and processes such as viral propagation and information diffusion can exhibit very different dynamics. In addition, our results suggest that, for many large realistic networks, the output of locally biased methods that focus on communities that are centered around a given seed node (or set of seed nodes) might have better conceptual grounding and greater practical utility than the output of global community-detection methods. They also illustrate structural properties that are important to consider in the development of better benchmark networks to test methods for community detection.

  12. Image Analysis of Pellet Size for a Control System in Industrial Feed Production

    OpenAIRE

    Ljungqvist, Martin Georg; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Frosch, Stina

    2011-01-01

    When producing aquaculture fish feed pellets, the size of the output product is of immense importance. As the production method cannot produce pellets of constant and uniform size using constant machine settings, there is a demand for size control. Fish fed with feed pellets of improper size are prone to not grow as expected, which is undesirable to the aquaculture industry. In this paper an image analysis method is proposed for automatic size-monitoring of pellets. This is called granulometr...

  13. Effects of urban green areas on air temperature in a medium-sized Argentinian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra S. Coronel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban climate is the result of both atmospheric and geographic factors affecting a region, as well as the morphology, structures and human activities in a city. Urban vegetation in particular affects this climate at a local scale and provides many other social, economic and ecological benefits. Thus, it is important to explore the effects of different green areas used for urban and periurban agriculture and forestry activities (UPAF on daily atmospheric temperature and the required degrees of cooling or refrigerating temperature. Comfort temperatures were defined using a range 18-24°C and analyzed using actual measured as well as forecasted temperatures using a future scenario. Actual temperatures were recorded from September 2013 to August 2014 using digital sensors across eight sites in Rosario, Argentina: three in the central core with no vegetation, one in the central core with street trees, one in an urban agriculture site, one in a public park and two in periurban agricultural areas. Results show that air temperature in the central core with no vegetation were higher than those in other sites with vegetation during day and night, with the exception of the temperatures measured at the central core site with street trees. Findings also show that temperature effects in urban agricultural gardens of approximately 0.2 ha were similar to those of gardens and public parks 2-3 ha in size. Three UPAF types were classified according to cooling degree days, which decreased in order from (1 central core with no trees; (2 central core with street trees and public parks; and (3 urban and periurban agriculture areas. Conversely, the opposite trends for heating degree days were found. Results from this study can be used for integrating UPAF measures into climate change mitigation and urban planning policies in medium-sized cities in the developing world.

  14. Testing urbanization economies in manufacturing industries: urban diversity or urban size?

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Shihe; Hong, Junjie

    2008-01-01

    Whether urbanization economies are caused by urban diversity or urban scale is not clear in regional and urban economics literature. Many empirical studies have used either city population size or urban industrial diversity to measure urbanization economies and have reached different conclusions. This paper argues that city size mainly captures the pure scale economies of urban public goods, and may generate net diseconomies when a city size is too large. Urban industrial diversity can also e...

  15. The Size Distribution of Chinese Manufacturing Firms: From the Perspective of Industry Life Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Yanying CHEN; WANG, LI; Gaofeng TIAN

    2012-01-01

    Using panel data of Chinese manufacturing firms between 2003 and 2008, this paper aims to examine the evolution of firm size distribution (FSD) as the industry goes through its life-cycle. The results reveal that during the life-cycle process, China’s manufacturing firms’ average size becomes larger then shrinks, and the degree of firm size heterogeneity and industry concentration increases all the time. Empirical results also indicate that the change rate of FSD is affected by firms’ net ent...

  16. Status of innovative small and medium sized reactor designs 2005. Reactors with conventional refuelling schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a renewed interest in Member States in the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). In the near term, most new NPPs are likely to be evolutionary designs building on proven systems while incorporating technological advances and often the economics of scale, resulting from the reactor outputs of up to 1600 MW(e). For the longer term, the focus is on innovative designs aiming to provide increased benefits in the areas of safety and security, non-proliferation, waste management, resource utilization and economy, as well as to offer a variety of energy products and flexibility in design, siting and fuel cycle options. Many innovative designs are reactors within the small-to-medium size range, having an equivalent electric power less than 700 MW(e) or even less than 300 MW(e). The projected timelines of readiness for deployment are generally between 2010 and 2030. The objective of this report is to provide Member States, including those just considering the initiation of nuclear power programmes, and those already having practical experience in nuclear power, with a balanced and objective information on important development trends and objectives of innovative SMRs for a variety of uses, on the achieved state-of-the-art in design and technology development for such reactors and on their design and regulatory status. The report is intended for many categories of stakeholders, including regulators, electricity producers, designers, non-electrical producers and policy makers. The main chapters of this report, addressed to all abovementioned groups of stakeholders, provide a summary of major specifications, applications and user-related special features of innovative SMRs, outline the achieved design and regulatory status and its progress since previous IAEA publications, review targeted deployment dates, fuel cycle options, design approaches used to meet design objectives in specific subject areas, enabling technologies and current research and development (R and D) programmes in Member States, and non-technical factors and arrangements that could facilitate successful development and deployment of innovative reactors within the small-to-medium power range. The annexes, intended mostly for designers and technical managers, provide detailed design descriptions of innovative SMRs under development worldwide and are patterned along a newly developed common format, which makes it possible to identify the design philosophy, objectives and approaches, as well as technical features and non-technical factors and arrangements with a potential to provide solutions in the specific areas of concern associated with future nuclear energy systems. Detailed design descriptions in this report were prepared firsthand by the designers and reviewed, updated and approved for publication by the respective vendors, research and design organizations and academic institutions in Member States. The scope of this report is limited to reactors with conventional, proven in operation refuelling schemes and does not include small reactors that could operate without reloading and shuffling of fuel for a long period, from 10 years and more, with no fresh or spent fuel being stored at the site during reactor operation. Because of a large number of inputs, such reactors would require a separate dedicated publication

  17. The spatiotemporal trajectory of a dengue epidemic in a medium-sized city

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniela G, Morato; Florisneide R, Barreto; José U, Braga; Marcio S, Natividade; Maria da Conceição N, Costa; Vanessa, Morato; Maria da Glória Lima Cruz, Teixeira.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases is important to allow for improvements of control measures. To investigate the spatiotemporal pattern of an epidemic dengue occurred at a medium-sized city in the Northeast Region of Brazil in 2009, we conducted an ecological study of th [...] e notified dengue cases georeferenced according to epidemiological week (EW) and home address. Kernel density estimation and space-time interaction were analysed using the Knox method. The evolution of the epidemic was analysed using an animated projection technique. The dengue incidence was 6.918.7/100,000 inhabitants; the peak of the epidemic occurred from 8 February-1 March, EWs 6-9 (828.7/100,000 inhabitants). There were cases throughout the city and was identified space-time interaction. Three epicenters were responsible for spreading the disease in an expansion and relocation diffusion pattern. If the health services could detect in real time the epicenters and apply nimbly control measures, may possibly reduce the magnitude of dengue epidemics.

  18. The spatiotemporal trajectory of a dengue epidemic in a medium-sized city

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniela G, Morato; Florisneide R, Barreto; José U, Braga; Marcio S, Natividade; Maria da Conceição N, Costa; Vanessa, Morato; Maria da Glória Lima Cruz, Teixeira.

    Full Text Available Understanding the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases is important to allow for improvements of control measures. To investigate the spatiotemporal pattern of an epidemic dengue occurred at a medium-sized city in the Northeast Region of Brazil in 2009, we conducted an ecological study of th [...] e notified dengue cases georeferenced according to epidemiological week (EW) and home address. Kernel density estimation and space-time interaction were analysed using the Knox method. The evolution of the epidemic was analysed using an animated projection technique. The dengue incidence was 6.918.7/100,000 inhabitants; the peak of the epidemic occurred from 8 February-1 March, EWs 6-9 (828.7/100,000 inhabitants). There were cases throughout the city and was identified space-time interaction. Three epicenters were responsible for spreading the disease in an expansion and relocation diffusion pattern. If the health services could detect in real time the epicenters and apply nimbly control measures, may possibly reduce the magnitude of dengue epidemics.

  19. Change Management – Condition of Organizational Sustainability in IT&C Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Popescu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present research aims to establish and outline strategies for promoting change in the context of organizational learning, in order to maintain deeply active and creative human resources, while capable of achieving economic sustainability. This is becoming more obvious now as the changes take place in a dynamic world where human resources are the only key factors able to provide the design and implementation of routine changes and procedures, in the present and not in the future. Furthermore, to highlight strengths and weaknesses of approaches regarding the sustainability and organizational change, our topic of research was conducted as an empirical study on the IT&C Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs, especially in the context of sustainability tending to become even more a value of modern, dynamic and powerful organizations. The main objective of the article is to outline some potential ways to implement the change management in the IT&C Romanian SMEs environment and their perception manner concerning the rationality and operationality of change, to ensure the viability and the organizational sustainability.

  20. THE IFRS STANDARD FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTITIES – ANOTHER CHALLENGE FOR THE ROMANIAN ACCOUNTING?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Florina POPA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the early 2000s, the accounting has been connected to the international realities. From that moment on, we have witnessed an extraordinary dynamic of the Romanian accounting, evidenced by the many changes that have occurred in the accounting rules. Internationally, the dynamism is also the main feature of today's accounting. We witness almost annually the reconsideration of the international accounting referential. In this context of the frequent changes that occur in the accounting aria, the IASB launched the International Financial Reporting Standards for Non-Publicly Accountable Entities (formerly Small and Medium-Sized Entities, a controversial approach in the international accounting. The objectives of this paper will be followed on two levels: first, we will put forth the position of different countries on this IASB initiative and second, we will show, by the means of a positive research based on an empirical study, the attitudes of professional accountants in Romania towards the possible implementation of the IFRS for NPAEs in the Romanian accounting in the next period.

  1. The CTA medium size telescope prototype, a test bench for the array control software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birsin, Emrah; Oya, Igor; Schwanke, Ullrich [Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin (Germany); Behera, Bagmeet; Koeppel, Hendryk; Melkumyan, David; Schmidt, Torsten; Wegner, Peter; Wiesand, Stephan; Winde, Michael [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Zeuthen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    CTA (Cherenkov Telescope Array) will be the largest ground-based gamma-ray observatory ever built. Two arrays are foreseen to be build, one in the Southern and one in the Northern hemisphere. A prototype for the Medium Size Telescope (MST) type (diameter: 12 m) will be installed in Berlin in early 2012. This MST prototype will be composed of the mechanical structure, drive system and mirror facets with an active mirror control system. The stability of the mechanical structure will be investigated with CCD cameras and a weather station. Furthermore the ALMA Common Software (ACS) distributed control framework will used as readout and control system for the MST, allowing to evaluate the software with the future use for the whole CTA array in mind. The design of the control software is following the concepts and tools under evaluation within the CTA consortium, like the use of a UML based code generation framework for ACS component modeling, and the use of OPC Unified Architecture (OPC UA) for hardware access. In this contribution the progress in the implementation of the control system for this CTA prototype telescope is described.

  2. Adaptive Traffic Control Systems in a medium-sized Scandinavian city : – effects and experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; Olesen, Anne Vingaard

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Traffic Control Systems (ATCS) are aimed at reducing congestion. ATCS adapt to approaching traffic to continuously optimise the traffic flows in question. ATCS have been implemented in many locations, including the Scandinavian countries, with various effects. Due to congestion problems, ATCS were installed in the eight signalised intersections of a 1.7 km stretch of the ring road in the medium-sized Danish city of Aalborg. To measure the effect of ATCS a with/without study was carried out. GPS data from a car following the traffic, recorded transportation times for buses in service, and GPS data from a range of cars driving on the ring road formed the basis for the study. The result of ATCS implementation was a significant 17% reduction in transportation time on the ring road in the most congested period, the afternoon peak. Less significant effects were found regarding the morning peak and midday off-peak. The effect on crossing and turning traffic was slight, and while reduced transportation time was found in one part of the ring road in another part transportation time was seen to increase. The benefit to the ring road was partly gained at the cost of slightly increased transportation time for crossing traffic.

  3. Quantitative evaluation of waste prevention on the level of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste prevention is a principle means of achieving the goals of waste management and a key element for developing sustainable economies. Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) contribute substantially to environmental degradation, often not even being aware of their environmental effects. Therefore, several initiatives have been launched in Austria aimed at supporting waste prevention measures on the level of SMEs. To promote the most efficient projects, they have to be evaluated with respect to their contribution to the goals of waste management. It is the aim of this paper to develop a methodology for evaluating waste prevention measures in SMEs based on their goal orientation. At first, conceptual problems of defining and delineating waste prevention activities are briefly discussed. Then an approach to evaluate waste prevention activities with respect to their environmental performance is presented and benchmarks which allow for an efficient use of the available funds are developed. Finally the evaluation method is applied to a number of former projects and the calculated results are analysed with respect to shortcomings and limitations of the model. It is found that the developed methodology can provide a tool for a more objective and comprehensible evaluation of waste prevention measures

  4. IMPORTANCE OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES IN ROMANIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B?L?NESCU M?D?LINA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The market economy has reduced the number of large enterprises and has determinated the emergence ofa special class like small and medium-sized enterprises. Those companies play a special role in the nationaleconomy, especially through the fact that attract about 65% of employees in Romania, makes significantinvestments, takes approximately 30% of gross value added in the national economy, operates mainly in servicesactivity, are flexible, concerned with development and have the ability to adopt new technologies. The SMEsector has been affected by the crisis, but not in the same measure as large enterprises. This fact is demonstratedby the economic and financial indicators that I have analised, in 2011 SME beeing able to overcome the crisisand to achieve higher performance than in the years before crisis. The SME sector is considered the most activesector of the modern economy, plays a important role in the economic structure of our country, helping to ensureeconomic and social development as it is shown by the strong bond that exist between the GVA in SME sectorand total GVA added to the national economy, demonstrated in the calculations that I have made in this study.

  5. Service Pyramid Concept of Knowledge Intensive Business Services in the Small and Medium Sized Enterprises Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sándor Nagy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The activity of service companies is more complex today than before the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT became widespread in business. Fewer service companies can be found on the market based solely on physical customer interaction; however, they have been replaced with standardized and automated services. This structural change can be observed particularly among Knowledge Intensive Business Services (KIBS companies where the use of ICT is not simply a market requirement, but a competition tool, as well. Without the application of any ICT instrument, a KIBS company could not meet market expectations, and furthermore, business developments are mainly ICT-based. On the other hand, companies need to develop their businesses more and more, as KIBS companies which are not able to differentiate themselves as trustworthy on the business services market will disappear. ‘Just another business service company’ cannot really sell today. This is applicable to a greater extent to Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SME, where ICT has opened market opportunities that have never existed for them before. The aim of this paper is to highlight the new features of KIBS business activities in the SME sector and the related research questions.

  6. Pointing Calibration for the Cherenkov Telescope Array Medium Size Telescope Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Oakes, Louise; Baehr, Juergen; Gruenewald, Sandra; Raeck, Tobias; Schlenstedt, Stefan; Schubert, Anja; Schwanke, Ullrich

    2013-01-01

    Pointing calibration is an offline correction applied in order to obtain the true pointing direction of a telescope. The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) aims to have the precision to determine the position of point-like as well as slightly extended sources, with the goal of systematic errors less than 7 arc seconds in space angle. This poster describes the pointing calibration concept being developed for the CTA Medium Size Telescope (MST) prototype at Berlin-Adlershof, showing test results and preliminary measurements. The MST pointing calibration method uses two CCD cameras, mounted on the telescope dish, to determine the true pointing of the telescope. The "Lid CCD" is aligned to the optical axis of the telescope, calibrated with LEDs on the dummy gamma-camera lid; the "Sky CCD" is pre-aligned to the Lid CCD and the transformation between the Sky and Lid CCD camera fields of view is precisely modelled with images from special pointing runs which are also used to determine the pointing model. During source ...

  7. Experimental testing of centrifugal pump: small and medium sized enterprise product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, R.; Paddiyatu, F.; Khafidh, M.; Nugroho, S.; Sugiyanto, S.; Jamari, J.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports the experimental testing for centrifugal pump for fisherman ship, manufactured by small and medium sized enterprises in Central Java Province, Indonesia. The research covers material analysis, component observation, endurance and vibration test. Six centrifugal pumps are tested and three main pump components are discussed: shaft, bearings and seals. The results show that the material of the shaft is predicted to support and transmit the load from the engine to impeller. The problem found in the tolerance and geometry accuracy of the shaft which causes difficulties during assembling process, excessive wear and leakage during testing. From the endurance and vibration test, the ball bearings fail and lock the shaft due to the fatigue on the rolling elements and raceways. The oil seal and water seal also fail in maintaining the oil and water in the chamber and induce the unlubricated system for the ball bearings. Some suggestions are delivered to improve the product quality of the centrifugal pump. A good quality of the centrifugal pump for fishermen ship and long life span is expected to be produced by local SMEs to win the free trade competition in the Indonesian market.

  8. Determinants of the Capital Structure of Small and Medium Sized Brazilian Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Toshiro Nakamura

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the determinants of the capital structure of small and medium enterprises (SMEs using a unique database that includes over 19,000 Brazilian firms and spans 13 years of data. The econometric analysis employs the System Generalized Method of Moments estimator (GMM-Sys and two strong results emerge: (a profitability is negatively related to leverage, and (b asset growth is positively related to leverage. Both results are consistent with the pecking order theory of capital structure and suggest that SMEs tend to finance their expansion with debt only after exhausting their internal resources. Additionally, we find weaker evidence for the following: (a size is positively related to leverage, which can be interpreted as evidence that larger firms have more access to credit markets; (b riskier SMEs tend to be less financially leveraged, consistent with the bankruptcy cost arguments from trade-off theories; and (c the age of the firm is negatively related to financial leverage, suggesting that older SMEs may be slightly more conservative in their financing choices. Finally, the magnitude of the coefficient of lagged leverage shows the high persistence of this variable and is compatible with the hypothesis that SMEs adjust their debt/equity ratio towards a target value, although at a low speed.

  9. The CTA medium size telescope prototype, a test bench for the array control software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CTA (Cherenkov Telescope Array) will be the largest ground-based gamma-ray observatory ever built. Two arrays are foreseen to be build, one in the Southern and one in the Northern hemisphere. A prototype for the Medium Size Telescope (MST) type (diameter: 12 m) will be installed in Berlin in early 2012. This MST prototype will be composed of the mechanical structure, drive system and mirror facets with an active mirror control system. The stability of the mechanical structure will be investigated with CCD cameras and a weather station. Furthermore the ALMA Common Software (ACS) distributed control framework will used as readout and control system for the MST, allowing to evaluate the software with the future use for the whole CTA array in mind. The design of the control software is following the concepts and tools under evaluation within the CTA consortium, like the use of a UML based code generation framework for ACS component modeling, and the use of OPC Unified Architecture (OPC UA) for hardware access. In this contribution the progress in the implementation of the control system for this CTA prototype telescope is described.

  10. ADVANTAGES OF CROWDFUNDING AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE OF FINANCING OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Goli?

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The lack of funding, and limited access to it are the basic problems faced by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. Given the great role and importance of SMEs in every national economy, any progress in solving these problems in terms of creating and finding alternative sources of funding should attract great attention in both professional and scientific and the wider socio-political communities. Crowdfunding is an innovative and relatively new concept that connects entrepreneurs and investors through the Internet. This method allows the entrepreneurs to collect funds through the Internet by "open invitation" to finance their projects/ventures and thus raise the necessary funds by relatively small contributions of a relatively large number of investors. As such, crowdfunding is a fast-growing model increasingly debated of in academic circles and the European institutions. This paper will consider crowdfunding as an alternative means of financing SMEs and try to give different aspects of crowdfunding - and explain how it works, what are the advantages of using it for SMEs and thus expand the knowledge on the topic.

  11. Determinants of the capital structure of small and medium sized Brazilian enterprises

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Denis, Forte; Lucas Ayres, Barros; Wilson Toshiro, Nakamura.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the determinants of the capital structure of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) using a unique database that includes over 19,000 Brazilian firms and spans 13 years of data. The econometric analysis employs the System Generalized Method of Moments estimator (GMM-Sys) and [...] two strong results emerge: (a) profitability is negatively related to leverage, and (b) asset growth is positively related to leverage. Both results are consistent with the pecking order theory of capital structure and suggest that SMEs tend to finance their expansion with debt only after exhausting their internal resources. Additionally, we find weaker evidence for the following: (a) size is positively related to leverage, which can be interpreted as evidence that larger firms have more access to credit markets; (b) riskier SMEs tend to be less financially leveraged, consistent with the bankruptcy cost arguments from trade-off theories; and (c) the age of the firm is negatively related to financial leverage, suggesting that older SMEs may be slightly more conservative in their financing choices. Finally, the magnitude of the coefficient of lagged leverage shows the high persistence of this variable and is compatible with the hypothesis that SMEs adjust their debt/equity ratio towards a target value, although at a low speed.

  12. Understanding the structural transformation, stability of medium-sized neutral and charged silicon clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Li Ping; Zhang, Fang Hui; Zhu, Yong Sheng; Lu, Cheng; Kuang, Xiao Yu; Lv, Jian; Shao, Peng

    2015-01-01

    The structural and electronic properties for the global minimum structures of medium-sized neutral, anionic and cationic Sin? (n?=?20–30, ??=?0, ?1 and +1) clusters have been studied using an unbiased CALYPSO structure searching method in conjunction with first-principles calculations. A large number of low-lying isomers are optimized at the B3PW91/6-311?+?G* level of theory. Harmonic vibrational analysis has been performed to assure that the optimized geometries are stable. The growth behaviors clearly indicate that a structural transition from the prolate to spherical-like geometries occurs at n?=?26 for neutral silicon clusters, n?=?27 for anions and n?=?25 for cations. These results are in good agreement with the available experimental and theoretical predicted findings. In addition, no significant structural differences are observed between the neutral and cation charged silicon clusters with n?=?20–24, both of them favor prolate structures. The HOMO-LUMO gaps and vertical ionization potential patterns indicate that Si22 is the most chemical stable cluster, and its dynamical stability is deeply discussed by the vibrational spectra calculations. PMID:26526519

  13. Open Model for the Evaluation of Economic Attractiveness of Small and Medium Sized Reactors. Annex VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annex describes the development of an open model for simulation and evaluation of the economic features of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs), being undertaken by the Politecnico di Milano in Italy. The model aims at establishing a comparative assessment of SMRs versus large reactors (LRs) as its final output. The model will allow assessment of the competitiveness of SMRs under different deployment and application conditions. The distinctive attributes of SMRs such as replication, scalability, reversibility and standardization are briefly described below. The features of SMRs impacting the domains of generation costs (co-siting economies, learning economies, technical economies, mass production and factory fabrication economies), deployment conditions (market matching, market suitability, reduced entry barriers) and financial costs (lower financial distress, reduced risk premium) are addressed before explaining the model architecture. Other state of the art models in this regard are also discussed, along with their respective attributes. The special features of the SMR model being developed are discussed. At the current stage of research, selected elements of the generation costs are modelled analytically. Provisions for adapting financial and external costs from other contemporary models and integrating the same into the main framework are being established. The model has been realized as a code, and the updated version of this code is used in the case studies of SMR competitiveness in different applications, carried out within the IAEA project Common Technology and Issues for SMRs

  14. Gamma knife radiosurgery in medium-sized arteriovenous malformations. Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six patients with medium-sized arteriovenous malformation (AVM), treated by gamma knife radiosurgery without preceding embolization, are reported. Total AVM coverage at the time or dose planning was feasible in four patients, the selected dose at the periphery of the nidus was limited to 7.2-14.0 Gy. The two remaining patients had only partial coverage; the part or the nidus adjacent to the major feeding artery was covered and a dose of 21.0-25.0 Gy was given within this limited area, although the remaining part of the nidus was irradiated with a dose of 5.0-7.0 Gy or less. Neither hemorrhage nor significant radiation-induced complications occurred in any of the six cases during the postradiosurgical follow-up period which ranged from 18 to 85 months. Complete nidus obliteration was angiographically confirmed 38 months after radiosurgery in one case, more than 90% obliteration of the treated nidus, respectively, 36 and 70 months after radiosurgery, in two cases. MR angiography demonstrated disappearance of the nidus in one case and remarkably decreased nidus volume in one, respectively, 30 and 18 months after radiosurgery. In the one remaining case, MR imaging obtained at 24 months after treatment showed a significantly diminished flow signal void, as well as the appearance of a gadolinium enhanced area within the treated nidus. In addition, a T2-weighted image showed hyperintense edema surrounding the AVM. (K.H.)

  15. Project appraisal for small and medium size wind energy installation: The Italian wind energy policy effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last few years, the distributed energy production from small wind turbines (i.e.<200 kWp) has developed into a relevant business opportunity for different investors in Italy. The market, especially in Italy, has rapidly grown, achieving 9 MWp only in 2011, with an increase from 1.5 MW in 2009 to 13.3 MW at the end of 2011. This paper reports the results of a case study on the installation of several small wind turbines. It aims to provide an analysis of the conditions in Italy that make it possible to install these machines and offer a reliable reference for designing, planning, and controlling small wind turbine projects while focusing on the strategic variables of time, cost, and quality used by typical enterprises in the investment projects. The results are relevant to investors as well as engineering, procurement, and construction companies involved in this new sector, which must understand Italy’s renewable energy policy and its effects in practice. Moreover, certain national energy policy conclusions are reported and discussed in this paper. To properly study the sector, the data on time, cost and quality are analysed using typical project management tools. - Highlights: • Focus on the Italian wind energy sector. • Analysis of Italian policy effects. • Focus on small/medium size wind energy machines

  16. Information Technology Adoption in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises; An Appraisal of Two Decades Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Ghobakhloo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs account for major source of employment, technological advancements, and competitive advantages for both developed and developing countries. Owing to the intensified competitive pressure and necessity for entering to global market undergone by SMEs, these businesses are incrementally employing Information Technology (IT to take advantage of its substantial benefits. Most of prior researches have more focused on IT adoption in large organizations. However, and with regard to the limited resources controlled by SMEs, the process of IT adoption in this business sector is considerably different. The purpose of this paper is to analyze and contrast the internal and external issues affecting the process of IT adoption in SMEs to provide clearer understanding of this process by reviewing IT adoption literature, which includes more than 20 years of empirical research and case studies from a variety of databases with high concentration on certain SME-related issues. Proposed integrated framework demonstrates the process of IT adoption in SMEs through reviewing exiting perspectives in the literature. This study will assist different parties involved with adoption process including managers, vendors, consultants, and governments to achieve a practical synopsis of the IT adoption process in SMEs, which is believed to assist them with successful adoption.

  17. NectarCAM : a camera for the medium size telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Glicenstein, J-F; Barrio, J-A; Blanch~Bigas, O; Bolmont, J; Bouyjou, F; Brun, P; Chabanne, E; Champion, C; Colonges, S; Corona, P; Delagnes, E; Delgado, C; Ginzov, C Diaz; Durand, D; Ernenwein, J-P; Fegan, S; Ferreira, O; Fesquet, M; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Fouque, N; Gascon, D; Giebels, B; Henault, F; Hermel, R; Hoffmann, D; Horan, D; Houles, J; Jean, P; Jocou, L; Karkar, S; Knoedlseder, J; Kossakowski, R; Lamanna, G; LeFlour, T; Lenain, J-P; Leveque, A; Louis, F; Martinez, G; Moudden, Y; Moulin, E; Nayman, P; Nunio, F; Olive, J-F; Panazol, J-L; Pavy, S; Petrucci, P-O; Pierre, E; Prast, J; Punch, M; Ramon, P; Rateau, S; Ravel, T; Rosier-Lees, S; Sanuy, A; Shayduk, M; Sizun, P-Y; Sulanke, K-H; Tavernet, J-P; Tejedor~Alvarez, L-A; Toussenel, F; Vasileiadis, G; Voisin, V; Waegebert, V; Wischnewski, R

    2015-01-01

    NectarCAM is a camera proposed for the medium-sized telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) covering the central energy range of ~100 GeV to ~30 TeV. It has a modular design and is based on the NECTAr chip, at the heart of which is a GHz sampling Switched Capacitor Array and a 12-bit Analog to Digital converter. The camera will be equipped with 265 7-photomultiplier modules, covering a field of view of 8 degrees. Each module includes the photomultiplier bases, high voltage supply, pre-amplifier, trigger, readout and Ethernet transceiver. The recorded events last between a few nanoseconds and tens of nanoseconds. The camera trigger will be flexible so as to minimize the read-out dead-time of the NECTAr chips. NectarCAM is designed to sustain a data rate of more than 4 kHz with less than 5\\% dead time. The camera concept, the design and tests of the various subcomponents and results of thermal and electrical prototypes are presented. The design includes the mechanical structure, cooling of the electro...

  18. Manage Projects Smarter: Picking Tools for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Quade

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs are increasingly dealing with international projects and distributed (sometimes even virtual teams. Consequently, they are looking for project management (PM tools which fit their respective needs regarding communication and collaboration. Unfortunately, the majority of the PM software available in the market seems to be oversized for this purpose. Instead most project managers are requesting smart solutions that allow quick implementation without any significant organisational or technical change. Within the research project InterComp SME 2.0 we combine theoretical research and real business to develop hands-on solutions for SMEs. This paper describes an effective approach for a “PM Toolbox” that allows finding the right project tool for a specific project need. The toolbox has been developed in due consideration of user stories gained from business practice, a more detailed SME business survey, a theoretical PM meta model and a market of PM tools. Since the business survey revealed that the readiness to use and test a “toolbox” is highly dependent on the type of user and his or her technical background, we designed the system based on use cases and user typology. As a result, we suggest a framework of open, freely available, easy-to-install, single and multi purpose PM software tools which can be selected solely on a need basis. With this free platform we want to guide practitioners through the tool jungle with the potential to grow into a lively community.

  19. Design features to achieve defence-in-depth in small and medium sized reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the categorization adopted by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), small and medium sized reactors are those with the equivalent electric output less than 700 MW. In most of the cases, deployment potential of SMRs is supported by their ability to fill niches in which they would address market situations different from those of currently operated large-capacity nuclear power plants. Ensuring adequate defence-in-depth (DID) is important for reactors of smaller output because many of them are being designed to allow more proximity to the user, specifically, when non-electrical energy products are targeted. Based on the activities recently performed by IAEA, the paper provides a summary description of the design features used to achieve DID in the eleven representative concepts of SMRs. The SMRs considered included reactors of different types - pressurized water reactors, pressurized boiling light water cooled heavy water moderated reactors, high temperature gas cooled reactors, fast reactors,and non conventional very high temperature designs. The design descriptions were structured to follow the definitions and recommendations of the IAEA safety standardNS-R-1 'Safety of the Nuclear Power Plants: Design Requirements'. The focus of this paper would be on sodium cooled and lead cooled fast reactors -the 4S-LMR (Japan) and the SSTAR and the STAR-LM (USA)

  20. Design concepts and safety concerns of the small and medium size reactors (SMR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The small and medium size reactors (SMR) and interface facilities such as desalination plant are expected to be located near the population area because of restrictions in transporting the plant products such as fresh water to long distance area. To protect the public around the plant facility from the possible release of radioactive materials, the design development of the SMR is focusing on an enhancement of the safety and reliability as well as the economics. In this study, the major safety concepts of the SMR designs significantly different from the current PWR designs are investigated and the safety concerns applicable to the integrated SMR design of Korea (called SMART), were identified. Those safety issues include the use of proven technology, application of strengthening defense in depth, event categorization and selection, simplification of emergency planning, determination of accident source terms and so on. The efforts to resolve the safety concerns in the design stage will provide an improvement of the safety of the SMART design

  1. The spatiotemporal trajectory of a dengue epidemic in a medium-sized city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela G Morato

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases is important to allow for improvements of control measures. To investigate the spatiotemporal pattern of an epidemic dengue occurred at a medium-sized city in the Northeast Region of Brazil in 2009, we conducted an ecological study of the notified dengue cases georeferenced according to epidemiological week (EW and home address. Kernel density estimation and space-time interaction were analysed using the Knox method. The evolution of the epidemic was analysed using an animated projection technique. The dengue incidence was 6.918.7/100,000 inhabitants; the peak of the epidemic occurred from 8 February-1 March, EWs 6-9 (828.7/100,000 inhabitants. There were cases throughout the city and was identified space-time interaction. Three epicenters were responsible for spreading the disease in an expansion and relocation diffusion pattern. If the health services could detect in real time the epicenters and apply nimbly control measures, may possibly reduce the magnitude of dengue epidemics.

  2. CRITICAL FACTORS IN OUTSOURCING OF ACCOUNTING FUNCTIONS IN MALAYSIAN SMALL MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES (SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magiswary Dorasamy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenges that business face in sustaining competitive advantage in the corporate world have become a major concern. Businesses are adopting cutting-edge technologies and best practices to cope with rapid, global changes. Various business functions are being reengineered for this purpose. Accounting functions play an important role in helping businesses to maintain competitive advantage. However, some small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs face problems handling fundamental accounting functions. This is predominantly because of their lack of expertise; accounting functions require not only knowledge of generally accepted accounting rules or tax regulations but also the expertise needed to apply the rules in a given business environment (Everaert, Sarens and Rommel, 2006. This paper offers some insight on the outsourcing of accounting functions as there is paucity of data in this area in the context of Malaysia. Essentially, it presents empirical evidence regarding Malaysian SMEs' accounting outsourcing practices. A survey of SMEs was conducted to identify the overall outsourcing landscape as it relates to accounting and third-party organisations. The factors that contribute to the decision to outsource accounting functions are analysed. The study reveals a significant relationship between outsourcing accounting functions and two contributing factors, risks and operation management.

  3. Barriers to energy efficiency improvement. Empirical evidence from small-and-medium-sized enterprises in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostka, Genia; Moslener, Ulf; Andreas, Jan G.

    2012-07-01

    This paper analyzes barriers for energy efficiency investments for small-and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in China. Based on a survey of 480 SMEs in Zhejiang Province, this study assesses financial, informational, and organizational barriers for energy efficiency investments in the SME sector. The conventional view has been that the lack of appropriate financing mechanisms particularly hinders SMEs to adopt cost-effective energy efficiency measures. As such, closing the financing gap for SMEs is seen as a prerequisite in order to promote energy efficiency in the sector. The econometric estimates of this study, however, suggest that access to information is an important determinant of investment outcomes, while this is less clear with respect to financial and organizational factors. More than 40 percent of enterprises in the sample declared that that they are not aware of energy saving equipments or practices in their respective business area, indicating that there are high transaction costs for SMEs to gather, assess, and apply information about energy saving potentials and relevant technologies. One implication is that the Chinese government may assume an active role in fostering the dissemination of energy-efficiency related information in the SME sector. (orig.)

  4. Sustainability indices as a tool for urban managers, evidence from four medium-sized Chinese cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research in four medium-sized Chinese cities aims at measuring urban sustainability in China and focuses on three issues. First, the situation in these four cities with regard to urban sustainability is evaluated. Secondly, a number of relations between different aspects of urban sustainability is explored. Finally, it is indicated how urban managers can improve with sustainability indices as tools currently ineffective urban management practices. Although all four cities are moving towards sustainable development, the current situation shows still weak sustainability in three, and even non-sustainability in one city. The social and, in particular, the economic dimensions of urban sustainability make significant positive contributions to overall urban sustainability. However, the decline of natural resources and environmental degradation are influencing it negatively. It is therefore suggested that more priority should be assigned to urban environmental protection and management in China. The fundamental reason for environmental degradation is believed to be inefficient urban management. To implement effective urban management in China, there is an urgent need to redefine the role of local government, reform local organizational structure, enhance local participatory institutional capacity, properly distribute the urban welfare, and thus integrate economic, social and environmental objectives local strategic and action plans

  5. Job Stress in the United Kingdom: Are Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises and Large Enterprises Different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yanqing; Saridakis, George; Blackburn, Robert

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the relationships between firm size and employees' experience of work stress. We used a matched employer-employee dataset (Workplace Employment Relations Survey 2011) that comprises of 7182 employees from 1210 private organizations in the United Kingdom. Initially, we find that employees in small and medium-sized enterprises experience lower level of overall job stress than those in large enterprises, although the effect disappears when we control for individual and organizational characteristics in the model. We also find that quantitative work overload, job insecurity and poor promotion opportunities, good work relationships and poor communication are strongly associated with job stress in the small and medium-sized enterprises, whereas qualitative work overload, poor job autonomy and employee engagements are more related with larger enterprises. Hence, our estimates show that the association and magnitude of estimated effects differ significantly by enterprise size. PMID:24302431

  6. Size and profitability in the international oil- and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many industrial sectors have gone through a series of mergers and acquisitions. In the international oil- and gas industry this has produced new companies such as ExxonMobil and TotalFinaElf. BP and Amoco merged and then subjugated Atlantic Richfield (ARCO). ChevronTexaco has been established and ConocoPhillips are currently working on the same thing. Saga was previously acquired by Norsk Hydro and Statoil, and Shell recently bought Enterprise and Pennzoil-Quaker. Taking the stock market's principles for corporate analysis and valuation as a starting point, this article discusses the forces behind this consolidation process

  7. Analyzing the efficiency of small and medium-sized enterprises of a national technology innovation research and development program

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sungmin

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the efficiency of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) of a national technology innovation research and development (R&D) program. In particular, an empirical analysis is presented that aims to answer the following question: “Is there a difference in the efficiency between R&D collaboration types and between government R&D subsidy sizes?” Methodologically, the efficiency of a government-sponsored R&D project (i.e., GSP) is measured by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), ...

  8. Analysis of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises’ E-Commerce Development Status in China in the New Economy Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng ZHANG

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce has become a new operation model in the new economy ear and the growth point of national economy. Since 1990s, e-commerce has risen and developed rapidly in the entire world, and been changing the original economic pattern as well as the original operation model and economic level. E-commerce has facilitated the development of new economy and become the prerequisite for economic globalization, made e-commerce an important symbol of economic globalization and promoted sustainable development of social economy. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs play a proactive role in China’s economic development. E-commerce can not only reduce operation cost and enhance economic benefits of small and medium-sized enterprises but also provide them with opportunities for competing with large enterprise and wider market space. However, they inevitably encounter varied barriers in the process. This paper proposed some solutions for problems existing in the development of small and medium-sized enterprises in the hope of making small and medium-sized enterprises further conduct e-commerce in a scientific and reasonable way in the new economy era.

  9. Managing cooperation in supply network structures and small or medium-sized enterprises main criteria and tools for managers

    CERN Document Server

    Villa, Agostino

    2011-01-01

    Offers a simple methodology to networks managers to enable them to evaluate the organisational efficiency and robustness of their network Displays different approaches to the analysis of the organisation of small- or medium-sized enterprises in Europe Enables managers to understand when and why becoming a partner in a cluster can be profitable for their enterprise

  10. Cash flow vs. collateral-based credit: performance of micro, small and medium-sized firms in transition economies.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cassano, F.; Joeveer, K.; Švejnar, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 21, ?. 2 (2013), s. 269-300. ISSN 0967-0750 R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP402/10/2130 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : micro, small and medium - sized enterprises * bank credit * firm performance Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.755, year: 2013

  11. The efficiency of working capital management and its impact on the profitability of small, medium and large enterprises of the food industry in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Go?a?

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the efficiency of working capital management in small, medium and large enterprises of the food industry in Poland years in 2005- -2009. The efficiency of working capital management has been evaluated by using the in-ventory cycle, receivables, liabilities and cash conversion cycle and by its relation to rate of return on non-financial assets. Studies have shown that the effectiveness of working capital was differentiated by size of enterprises and in industries where working capital cycles are the shortest, a relatively higher rate of return on assets was achieved. In the national food industry the highest efficiency, measured by cash conversion cycle and assets profitability, was characteristic for large companies. The beneficial effect of shortening the cycle of working capital on the profitability of assets also verified the regression analysis.

  12. Industrial Fabrication of Medium-Beta SCRF Cavities for a High-Intensity Proton Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Kuzminski, J; Gentzlinger, R C; Maccioni, P

    2000-01-01

    During 1999, four 700-MHz, medium-beta (b = 0.64), superconducting radio frequency (SCRF) cavities for a high-intensity proton linac project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) were manufactured by industry. The SCRF cavities were designed by a LANL team in Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA, and manufactured at a CERCA plant in Romans, France. The cavities were made of 4-mm-thick, solid niobium sheets with a residual resistivity ratio (RRR) greater than 250. These niobium sheets were supplied by Wah Chang (USA), Heraeus AG (Germany), and Tokyo Denkai (Japan). The SCRF cavities were shipped to LANL for performance testing. This paper describes the experience gained during the manufacturing process at CERCA.

  13. Applying Model Checking to Industrial-Sized PLC Programs

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079190; Darvas, Daniel; Blanco Vinuela, Enrique; Tournier, Jean-Charles; Bliudze, Simon; Blech, Jan Olaf; Gonzalez Suarez, Victor M

    2015-01-01

    Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) are embedded computers widely used in industrial control systems. Ensuring that a PLC software complies with its specification is a challenging task. Formal verification has become a recommended practice to ensure the correctness of safety-critical software but is still underused in industry due to the complexity of building and managing formal models of real applications. In this paper, we propose a general methodology to perform automated model checking of complex properties expressed in temporal logics (\\eg CTL, LTL) on PLC programs. This methodology is based on an intermediate model (IM), meant to transform PLC programs written in various standard languages (ST, SFC, etc.) to different modeling languages of verification tools. We present the syntax and semantics of the IM and the transformation rules of the ST and SFC languages to the nuXmv model checker passing through the intermediate model. Finally, two real cases studies of \\CERN PLC programs, written mainly in th...

  14. The Selection of Payment Terms for the Export-Orientated Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in China: A Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan LI

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Small and Medium-sized Enterprises are the main force of China's foreign trade. Payment terms are the key issue in international trade since it involves many risks and must be handled with special care. This thesis compared the three traditional payment terms in international trade and put forward the suggestions for the selection of payment terms for the Small and Medium-sized Enterprises in China. Key words: Small and medium-sized enterprises; Method of payment

  15. Life cycle assessment of a medium sized PV facility in Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier University's School of Engineering has been involved in education and research in renewable energy for the past 35 years. With the aim demonstration of the viability of production of solar electricity at a high latitude location such as Edinburgh (56 degree north)the school undertook to commission a medium-sized PV electricity generation project. The installation of 32 rows of BP solar silicon panels covering a total area of 160 square metres ensures generation of 17.6kW peak (AC) power. Figure 1 presents a photograph of the facility under discussion. The project has been part (60%) financed by UK Government's PV electricity demonstration programme through the office of Energy Saving Trust. The University has plans to generate hydrogen from solar electricity that will be stored for noctumal production of electricity using fuel-cell technology, thus completing the complete cycle of generation, storage and reproduction of sustainable energy. The project that is part of Napier University's Merchiton Campus was completed on 6 April 2005 and since that date AC power has been fed into the University grid with the peak power being enough to operate up to 80 of the 500 computers at the University's Jack Kilby Computing Centre. DC power is produced from the BP solar high efficincy (17%) monocrystalline panels, each of which produces 90W of power at 22 Volts. This DC electricity is then fed into a total of four inverters hence converting to a stable AC supply. Two of the larger inverters receive current from 12 rows (4 strings x 3 rows) each, while the smaller inverters take power in from 4 rows (2 strings x 2 rows) each. The PV facility is fully instrumented with both input (incident solar energy) and PV electrical energy output recorded at a frequency of 15 minutes. This article will present the energetic, environmental and monetary life cycle assessment (LCA) of the above facility.(Author)

  16. Distribution and compartmental organization of GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons in the mouse Nucleus Accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Gangarossa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The nucleus accumbens (NAc is a critical brain region involved in many reward-related behaviors. The NAc comprises major compartments the core and the shell, which encompass several subterritories. GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs constitute the output neurons of the NAc core and shell. While the functional organization of the NAc core outputs resembles the one described for the dorsal striatum, a simple classification of the NAc shell neurons has been difficult to define due to the complexity of the compartmental segregation of cells. We used a variety of BAC transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescence (EGFP or the Cre-recombinase (Cre under the control of the promoter of dopamine D1, D2, and D3 receptors and of adenosine A2a receptor to dissect the microanatomy of the NAc. Moreover, using various immunological markers we characterized in detail the distribution of MSNs in the mouse NAc. In addition, cell-type specific ERK phosphorylation in the NAc subterritories was analyzed following acute administration of SKF81297 (a D1R-like agonist, quinpirole (a D2R-like agonist, apomorphine (a non-selective DA receptor agonist, raclopride (a D2R-like antagonist, and psychostimulant drugs, including cocaine and d-amphetamine. Each drug generated a unique topography and cell-type specific activation of ERK in the NAc. Our results show the existence of marked differences in the receptor expression pattern and functional activation of MSNs within the shell subterritories. This study emphasizes the anatomical and functional heterogeneity of the NAc, which will have to be considered in its further study.

  17. PEDESTRIAN RESPONSE TO ROAD TRAFFIC NOISE FOR MEDIUM SIZE CITY IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritikana Das

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Level of vehicular noise pollution is one of the major factors to choose pedestrian mode of transportation among other modes of transportation. Transportation systems and their related outcomes are responsible for ensuring safe travel options, including walking people of all ages and different abilities. This study will provide an opportunity to quantify the environmental impact in terms of noise level for future development and planning of pedestrian infrastructure in India. It will also help in modal shifting towards walking, improvements in energy efficiency, and the impact of specific contaminants on health. Exposure of high noise level can cause annoyance and severe stress on auditory and nervous system of pedestrians. Most of the Indian cities have noise level above than acceptable limits because of rapid urbanization with increasing number of vehicular traffic. The objective of this study is to study response of pedestrians towards noise pollution in Roorkee at different locations based on different land use. Roorkee is a medium size city with a population of 2.73 lakhs (Roorkee Metropolitan areas, 2011 census, situated in Uttarakhand, India. It is a city with large number of educational institutions and sizable numbers of student population. Noise level study has been carried out at ten locations on NH-58 near Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee. Noise data was collected at an interval of 30 seconds. Design implications for future improvement of pedestrian infrastructure have been presented in this paper considering traffic noise as an environmental factor. It is expected that the study outcome shall be useful in understanding positive effect of low traffic noise encouraging increased usage of pedestrian facilities within urban transport network.

  18. THE PREMISES OF STRATEGIC MARKETING PLANNING IMPLEMENTATION WITHIN SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popescu Andrei

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present paper is to identify the framework and the necessary conditions for the small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs to be able to adopt the strategic marketing planning. Also, the paper aims to underline the importance of the strategic marketing planning and the manner in which the SMEs can adopt, implement and operationalize the strategic marketing planning instruments, whose correct understanding and usage ensure the capacity to generate competitive advantage, the key element both from the perspective of the fierce competition and the perspective of the future development of the SMEs. Within SMEs the implementation of marketing becomes an evident requirment, mostly due to the relationship that these have with the market, thus, leading towards market orientation of the activities, a new approach developed by the marketing vision on managing the activities from these types of organizations. Regarded upon, from the marketing perspective, the activities from the SMEs, especially the marketing activities, cannot take place randomly. Resource allocation, a characteristic of these types of organizations, and the objectives with regards to superior customer needs satisfaction and economic efficiency maximization, claim thorough plannification and deployment of the activities in a sequence that represents the implementation of a strategy previously assumed. Within this framework, the strategic marketing planning appears as a complex process employing all scientific instruments that comprise segmentation, positioning and marketing mix. Utilizing the strategic marketing planning within SMEs depends to further extend on marketing integration; process directly related with a series of factors such as the nature of the market, development stage, product type, management quality and the influences of the marketing department of the SME. The implications onto the marketing activities from SMEs are reflected upon each strategic marketing planning instrument, where we can find, under correct understanding and application, objectives and market and penetration strategies as product, price, distribution and promotion strategies.

  19. Bioluminescence imaging in a medium-sized animal by local injection of d-luciferin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luciferase is one of the most commonly used reporter enzymes in the field of molecular imaging. D-luciferin is known as the substrate for luciferase enzyme and its cost is very expensive. Therefore, the bioluminescence molecular imaging study has been allowed in small animals such as mice and rats. In this current study, we validated local injection of D-luciferin in articular capsule for bioluminescence imaging in rabbits. Chondrocytes were cultured and infected by replication-defective adenoviral vector encoding firefly luciferase. And then was performed different method of chondrocyte cell injection and transplantation into the knee of rabbits. The rabbits underwent imaging by cooled CCD camera after local injection of D-luciferin (3mg) into experimental knee joint as well as contralateral normal knee joint on days 1, 5, 7, 9. We sought whether optimal imaging signal was acquired by using cooled CCD camera after local injection of D-luciferin. We successfully visualized injected or transplanted cells in knee joint by local injection of D-luciferin. Total photon flux (7.86E+08 p/s/cm2/sr) from the knee joint transplanted with cells approximately increased 10-fold more than (9.43E+07p/s/cm2/sr) that from injected knee joints until 7 day. Imaging signal was observed in transplanted joints until day 9 after surgery while signal from injected knee was observed by day 7 after injection. We successfully carried out bioluminescence imaging study with medium sized animal by local injection of small amount of D-luciferin. Survival of chondrocytes were prolonged when surgically transplanted in joints than when directly injected in joint space

  20. Analysing a method for small and medium sized companies to rate oil quality during immersion frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraín Hisnardo Rojas Uribe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available  This work studied the deterioration of commercial Frytol oil in controlled frying conditions using the anisidine index (AI as standard evaluation method. The effect of temperature and time was studied at 170°C for up to 10 hours and at 200°C for up to 6 hours in the presence of factors which speeded up oil deterioration: 1% and 8% water based on the mass of oil and non-lipid material, 1% and 6% based on the mass of oil. Air flow rate was kept constant at 25 L h-1. The relationship between AI, colour and viscosity was studied to evaluate the technical viability of measuring these variables as a function of time to be used as a method for rating oil deterioration by small and medium sized enterprises (SME. Oil deterioration was higher and faster at maximum study interval values for each experimental factor, although only the effect of temperature was significant (p2=0.558 and R2=0.526, respectively, colour depending on frying temperature. Viscosity measured at 30°C had the highest coefficient of determination (R2=0.809 and was independent of frying temperature. Viscosity is thus a variable which can be used for determining frying oil deterioration in SME as a consequence of a significant change from 10 cP to 45 cP which is closer to frying oil deterioration limit (AI 156. It can facilitate determination and lower associated costs, thereby improving product quality and customer confidence in them. 

  1. Optimization as investment decision support in a Swedish medium-sized iron foundry - A move beyond traditional energy auditing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thollander, Patrik; Mardan, Nawzad; Karlsson, Magnus [Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linkoeping University, SE 581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2009-04-15

    Due to increased globalisation, industries are facing greater competition that is pressing companies into decreasing their expenses in order to increase their profits. As regards Swedish industry, it has been faced with substantial increases in energy prices in recent years. Barriers to energy efficiency such as imperfect information inhibit investments in energy efficiency measures, energy audits being one means of reducing barriers and overcoming imperfect information. However, an evaluation of such energy audits in Sweden reveals that it is chiefly low-cost measures that are undertaken as a result of an audit. Moreover, these audits often tend to focus on support processes such as ventilation, lighting, air compressors etc., while measures impacting production processes are often not as extensively covered, which underlines the need for further support in addition to energy audits. Decision support is practised in a variety of different disciplines such as optimization and simulation and the aim of this paper is to explore whether investment decision support practices may be used successfully towards small and medium-sized manufacturers in Sweden when complex production-related investment decisions are taken. The optimization results from the different cases, involving a foundry's investment in a new melting unit, indicate that with no electricity price fluctuations over the day, the investment seems sound as it lowers the overall energy costs. However, with fluctuating electricity prices, there are no large differences in energy costs between the option of retaining the existing five melting furnaces at the foundry and investing in a twin furnace and removing the holding furnaces - which was the initial investment plan for the foundry in the study. It would not have been possible to achieve this outcome without the use of investment decision support such as MIND. One of the main conclusions in this paper is that investment decision support, when strategic investment decisions are to be taken, may be a means of emphasising energy efficiency for energy-intensive SMEs beyond the level of traditional energy auditing. (author)

  2. NEW APPROACHES TO CUSTOMER BASE SEGMENTATION FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meleancă Raluca-Cristina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this paper is to explore current praxis and theory related to customer segmentation and to offer an approach which is best suited for small and medium sized enterprises. The proposed solution is the result of an exploratory research aiming to recognize the main variables which influence the practice of segmenting the customer base and to study the most applied alternatives available for all types of enterprises. The research has been performed by studying a large set of secondary data, scientific literature and case studies regarding smaller companies from the European Union. The result of the research consists in an original approach to customer base segmentation, which combines aspects belonging to different well spread practices and applies them to the specific needs of a small or medium company, which typically has limited marketing resources in general and targeted marketing resources in particular. The significance of the proposed customer base segmentation approach lies in the fact that, even though smaller enterprises are in most economies the greatest in number compared to large companies, most of the literature on targeting practices has focused primarily on big companies dealing with a very large clientele, while the case of the smaller companies has been to some extent unfairly neglected. Targeted marketing is becoming more and more important for all types of companies nowadays, as a result of technology advances which make targeted communication easier and less expensive than in the past and also due to the fact that broad-based media have decreased their impact over the years. For a very large proportion of smaller companies, directing their marketing budgets towards targeted campaigns is a clever initiative, as broad based approaches are in many cases less effective and much more expensive. Targeted marketing stratagems are generally related to high tech domains such as artificial intelligence, data mining and marketing analytics and presuppose the availability of sophisticated computer software and specialized personnel. The methodology proposed in this paper takes into consideration the fact that, due to financial and time-related constrains, smaller companies need a more practical and straightforward solution for segmenting their customer base. The simplicity of the solution, however, should not come at the expense of its efficiency. The original contribution of this paper resides precisely in the fact that it aims to offer the best of two worlds: the simplicity and cost-effectiveness of plain methods which can be used without the aid of specialized software and the high return on investment given by the use of artificial intelligence algorithms such as clustering. The main implications of this paper relate to the fact that it draws attention to how targeted marketing can be performed successfully by companies with restricted budgets by providing an actionable set of guidelines which can be put into practice by smaller enterprises using limited efforts and resources.

  3. SWR 1000: An Advanced, Medium-Sized Boiling Water Reactor, Ready for Deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The latest developments in nuclear power generation technology mainly concern large-capacity plants in the 1550 -1600 MW range, or very small plants (100 - 350 MW). The SWR 1000 boiling water reactor (BWR), by contrast, offers all of the advantages of an advanced plant design, with excellent safety performance and competitive power generation costs, in the medium-capacity range (1000 - 1250 MW). The SWR 1000 is particularly suitable for countries whose power systems are not designed for large-capacity generating facilities. The economic efficiency of this medium-sized plant in comparison with large-capacity designs is achieved by deploying very simple passive safety equipment, simplified systems for plant operation, and a very simple plant configuration in which systems engineering is optimized and dependence on electrical and instrumentation and control (I and C) systems is reduced. In addition, systems and components that require protection against natural and external man-made hazards are accommodated in such a way that as few buildings as possible have to be designed to withstand the loads from such events. The fuel assemblies to be deployed in the SWR 1000 core, meanwhile, have been enlarged from a 10 x 10 rod array to a 12 x 12 array. This reduces the total number of fuel assemblies in the core and thus also the number of control rods and control rod drives, as well as in-core neutron flux monitors. The design owes its competitiveness to the fact that investment costs, maintenance costs and fuel cycle costs are all lower. In addition, refueling outages are shorter, thanks to the reduced scope of outage activities. The larger fuel assemblies have been extensively and successfully tested, as have all of the other new components and systems incorporated into the plant design. As in existing plants, the forced coolant circulation method is deployed, ensuring problem-free startup, and enabling plant operators to adjust power rapidly in the high power range (70%-100%) without moving the control rods, as well as allowing spectral-shift and stretch-out operation. The considerable gains provided by forced coolant circulation in terms of operational flexibility and fuel utilization mean that the investment and maintenance costs of the pumps are covered after several years of service. The plant safety concept is based on a combination of passive safety systems and a reduced number of active safety systems. All postulated accidents can be controlled using passive systems alone. Control of a postulated core melt accident is assured with considerable safety margins thanks to passive flooding of the containment for in-vessel melt retention. The SWR 1000 is compliant with international nuclear codes and standards, and is also designed to withstand the effects of an aircraft crash involving a military aircraft or a large passenger airliner. (authors)

  4. The administration and the environmental behavior of the small and medium industrial companies: The case of a city of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present article approaches the subject of the management and the environmental behavior in the industrial activity, especially in the small and medium companies, a city of Argentina. It is considers that the environmentalist strategies can be a possible exit to the socioeconomic and environmental crisis, but single for the great companies; since the rest of the companies presents/displays serious difficulties (economic, social, psychological, etc.) in order to initiate a sustainable industrial development

  5. The power of Alberta business : the impact of electricity deregulation on Alberta small and medium-sized business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deregulation of the electricity market came into effect on January 1, 2001 in Alberta. This deregulation affects the retail and generation fields of electricity. The intention was to introduce competition and apply downward pressure on electricity prices, but the reverse effect was witnessed: power prices increased. It resulted in a period of anxiety on the part of businesses, caused by the volatility of electricity prices. A survey of Canadian Federation of Independent Business (CFIB) members was conducted in May and June 2001 to better understand the impacts of electricity deregulation on small and medium-sized businesses. A broad range of businesses provided responses (951 responses) covering all sectors of industry and regions in Alberta. A large proportion of respondents were dissatisfied with deregulation, caused in part by the confusion created by the flurry of rebate and credit announcements designed to ease the transition. Small firms were faced with significant increases in electricity prices, and several could not estimate the size of the increase as it was too difficult to measure. Responses varied from a low of 5 per cent increase to a high of 400 per cent in power rates. Most respondents also indicated that the increases had an impact on their business. The impact of power rate increases by sector was examined. Another consequence of deregulation was the fact that billing moved from a single invoice received to the requirement to actively manage energy usage. It was discovered that a lack of information on electricity cost and consumption management impeded the the ability to make business decisions. The CFIB asked respondents to indicate the measures being considered to address management of electricity costs. Incorporating energy-saving devices and/or methods had been considered by slightly more than 40 per cent of respondents. Negotiating with power retailers represented another option under consideration by some. It was felt that government must still play an important role in the electricity business. The recommendations touched on the stimulation of retail competition, providing transitional/long-term price relief, and provide businesses with adequate information. 15 figs

  6. An Innovative Farm Scale Biogas/Composting Facility for a Sustainable Medium Size Dairy Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel E. Ghaly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Approach: The amount of energy related costs as a portion of the total farm operating cost can be as high as 29% and the continuing increase of the real cost of energy related farm input has been one of the major factors impacting the cost of agricultural production. However, agricultural has the potential of replacing some of the purchased energy in the form of fossil fuels, commercial fertilizer and field production of animal feed with bioenergy and organic fertilizer from onsite renewable biomass such as animal manure in order to economically and environmentally sustain it. The aim of this study was to develop an innovative energy efficient pilot scale anaerobic digester composting facility. Methodology: A solid/liquid manure separator farm scale anaerobic digester and composting facility for a medium sized dairy farm were designed, constructed and tested. In order to make the anaerobic digestion economically viable under Canadian climatic conditions, the design, installation and operation of the system were based on advantages gained from the digester as a component of the total farm management system. In addition to the biogas production, benefits related to manure handling and storage, environmental quality improvement through odor control and water pollution reduction, fertilizer recovery and water recycling, were considered. Results: The layout of the farm was modified to provide solutions for four environmental problems related to: disposal of milkhouse wastes and overflow from the manure storage facility into the fire pond. The system possesses high energy conversion efficiency at relatively low capital cost and reduced labour requirement and has indirect energy ramifications through the production of organic fertilizer (compost to replace expensive and energy consuming commercial fertilizer as well as the production of bioenergy (biogas which will reduce the demand for energy. The overflow from the system (purified water can be recycled for cleaning the barn, thereby reducing the costs of water use and manure storage facilities on one hand and eliminating pollution problems associated with manure storage and disposal on the other hand. Conclusion: The use of dairy waste as a source of energy and fertilizer resulted in a saving of 6289 kg of fertilizer at a cost of $17 925 annually and additional saving of $20 547 on energy use.

  7. Knowledge Management Acceptance: Success Factors amongst Small and Medium-Size Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine N.L.  TAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The value and importance of knowledge, as seen by numerous organisations today, does without a doubt play a crucial role in the current ever-challenging and aggressive business environment. As a result, businesses that aspire to be labelled as being successful and competitive need to seek and find better ways to improve their firms? performance. Hence, Knowledge Management (KM, which is viewed as a source of sustainable competitive advantage, has attracted the attention of various companies all over the business world, including Small and Medium-Size Enterprises (SMEs in Malaysia. With the realisation of KM, the systematic management of organisation knowledge - a strategic corporate asset not to be taken lightly; can thus be created, transferred, shared and, utilised, in pushing for greater organisational competitiveness, innovativeness and, productivity. This research examined the success factors that help to increase the business performance of SMEs in Malaysia. Besides, it also highlighted the importance and contribution of KM amongst SMEs. Therefore, the reason behind this study is to understand and recognised the acceptance of KM and therefore further classified the success factors that contributed to the business performance outcome amongst SMEs in Malaysia. With this, the success factors observed in this research; culture; leadership; employee participation; Information and Communications Technology (ICT; organisational structure; are thoroughly investigated to explore on whether these factors have an impact on knowledge creation; knowledge transfer; knowledge sharing and knowledge utilisation; of KM processes among SMEs in Malaysia. Approach: This study aids to determined and examined the success factors; culture; leadership; employee participation; Information and Communications Technology (ICT; organisational structure; of SMEs that further influences KM processes; knowledge creation, transfer, sharing, utilisation. Results: It is hoped that SMEs with the help of this study, are able apply the success factors and KM processes as a guideline in achieving successful KM acceptance. It is anticipated that the factors proposed in this study could help businesses especially SMEs to better organise their KM initiatives, as well as to assists Malaysia in producing a superior and highly acclaimed knowledgeable society. Conclusion: The findings may be used as recommendations to SMEs that are keen in accepting and adopting KM in their daily operations. Furthermore, this study may also serve as a basis for future quantitative research studies among researchers, practitioners and professionals alike, in gaining a profound understanding of KM in sectors other than SMEs.

  8. The Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises Office (SME Office) at the European Medicines Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, M

    2010-01-01

    On 15 December 2005, the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) launched an "SME Office" to provide financial and administrative assistance to micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), with the aim of promoting innovation and the development of new human and veterinary medicinal products by SMEs. According to current EU definition of an SME, companies with fewer than 250 employees, and an annual turnover of not more than 50 million euro or an annual balance sheet total of not more than 43 million euro, are eligible for assistance from the SME Office. Incentives available from the EMEA for SMEs, include: Administrative and procedural assistance from SME Office within the Agency; Fee reductions (90%) for scientific advice and inspections; Fee exemptions for certain administrative services (excluding parallel distribution); Deferral of the fee payable for an application for marketing authorisation or related inspection until after the grant of the marketing authorisation; Conditional fee exemption where scientific advice followed and marketing application is unsuccessful; Assistance with translations of the product information documents. At the end of May 2009, more than 380 companies from 21 countries across the European Economic Area (EEA) had SME status assigned by the EMEA. The large majority of companies are developing medicinal products for human use, 16 are veterinary companies, 15 companies are developing products for both human and veterinary use and 38 are regulatory consultants. Since the SME initiative started the Agency has processed more than 130 requests for scientific advice with fee reductions totalling of 6.9 million euro. Regulatory assistance has been provided to more than 170 companies and 12 companies have benefited from the SME translation service. Stakeholders have acknowledged the significant role the SME Office now plays as a service provider. In the period between January 2006 and June 2009, 34 applications for marketing authorization from SME applicants were filed for medicinal products for human use. Current analysis shows SMEs to have a lower success rate compared to non-SME companies. Major objections for SMEs are particularly high in the area of quality. Although the SME initiative is still at an early stage, it is apparent from the experience gained with applications for marketing authorisation to date that it is important for companies to open up an early dialogue with the EMEA. Scientific advice should be sought early, proactively and comprehensively on key issues in development (quality, non-clinical, clinical) and follow-up advice should be sought as development proceeds. For advanced therapy medicinal products, the assistance available to SMEs will be reinforced in 2009, with the introduction of the certification process. PMID:20101799

  9. Small, medium, large or supersize? The development and evaluation of interventions targeted at portion size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, W M; Steenhuis, I H M; Poelman, M P

    2014-07-01

    In the past decades, portion sizes of high-caloric foods and drinks have increased and can be considered an important environmental obesogenic factor. This paper describes a research project in which the feasibility and effectiveness of environmental interventions targeted at portion size was evaluated. The studies that we conducted revealed that portion size labeling, offering a larger variety of portion sizes, and proportional pricing (that is, a comparable price per unit regardless of the size) were considered feasible to implement according to both consumers and point-of-purchase representatives. Studies into the effectiveness of these interventions demonstrated that the impact of portion size labeling on the (intended) consumption of soft drinks was, at most, modest. Furthermore, the introduction of smaller portion sizes of hot meals in worksite cafeterias in addition to the existing size stimulated a moderate number of consumers to replace their large meals by a small meal. Elaborating on these findings, we advocate further research into communication and marketing strategies related to portion size interventions; the development of environmental portion size interventions as well as educational interventions that improve people's ability to deal with a 'super-sized' environment; the implementation of regulation with respect to portion size labeling, and the use of nudges to stimulate consumers to select healthier portion sizes. PMID:25033959

  10. Small, medium, large or supersize? The development and evaluation of interventions targeted at portion size

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeer, W.M.; Steenhuis, I H M; Poelman, M.P.

    2014-01-01

    In the past decades, portion sizes of high-caloric foods and drinks have increased and can be considered an important environmental obesogenic factor. This paper describes a research project in which the feasibility and effectiveness of environmental interventions targeted at portion size was evaluated. The studies that we conducted revealed that portion size labeling, offering a larger variety of portion sizes, and proportional pricing (that is, a comparable price per unit regardless of the ...

  11. Determinants of small and medium sized fast growing enterprises in central and eastern Europe: a panel data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Mateev

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the main determinants of growth in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs in central and eastern Europe. The important role played by SMEs in the economic development of central and eastern European (CEE countries has attracted the recent attention of academics and policymakers but remains relatively unexplored. Empirical research has suggested that firm growth is determined not only by the traditional characteristics of size and age but also by other firm-specific factors such as indebtedness, internal financing, future growth opportunities, process and product innovation, and organisational changes. Although growth in manufacturing and service SMEs in transition economies is well explained by the traditional firm characteristics of size and age, there is no empirical evidence concerning what other specific factors may be associated with SME growth and performance in these countries. Using a panel dataset of 560 fast growing small and medium enterprises from six transition economies we find that firm size when measured by firm total assets can explain to a large extent the growth in SMEs in these countries. When size is proxied by a firm’s number of employees the observed effect is marginal. Firm specific characteristics such as leverage, current liquidity, future growth opportunities, internally generated funds, and factor productivity are found to be important factors in determining a firm’s growth and performance. Age and ownership do not seem to be able to explain firm growth. The results of our empirical study have also some policy implications: we argue that governments in transition economies need to pay an increased attention to small and medium sized enterprises and try to create a business environment that will be beneficial for SME development.

  12. 78 FR 51746 - Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... Washington, DC, hearing on October 8, 2013, was published in the Federal Register of July 30, 2013 (78 FR... Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the... Barriers that U.S. Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the European...

  13. 78 FR 66950 - Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... on October 8, 2013 was published in the Federal Register of July 30, 2013 (78 FR 45969); the notice... Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the... prepare a report that catalogs trade barriers that U.S. small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)...

  14. The Turnover Cycle of Capital in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises from the Construction Sector Listed on Newconnect

    OpenAIRE

    Radwa?ski, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of small and medium-sized enterprises play a key role in the development of the Polish economy. These entities are essential for the sustainable functioning of the economy, allowing one to benefit from the effects of the dynamic development of future generations. In the first part of the article the diagnostics on the liquidity of a company is presented. Then liabilities turnover, receivables turnover cycle and inventory turnover cycle are briefly characterized....

  15. An investigation into selected determinants of family harmony in small and medium-sized family farms in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Merwe, Stephanus Petrus

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to empirically explore the determinants of family harmony in small and medium-sized family farms. Data from 244 questionnaires from 36 family farms were collected and analysed. Three factors with eigen-values greater than one were extracted, explaining 63.56% of the variance, describing the theoretical dimensions of the dependent variable family harmony and the independent variables existence of family forums and conflict management. The impact of the e...

  16. Different determinants affecting managerial decision-making : The international expansion of medium-sized companies in the Italian food sector

    OpenAIRE

    Ferracin, Giorgia; Vega Mazzeo, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the influence that newspaper news and other determinants exercise on the decision-making of executives and hence on the expansion strategies and the performance of medium-sized companies in the Italian food sector. This sector is characterized by companies that have a turnover between 10 and 50 million Euros and, for the bigger ones in this range, around 100 and 200 employees. The use of interviews (questionnaires) and secondary data, combined with a news gathering pro...

  17. Performance Measurement in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises - Literature Review and Results from a German Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Kreusel, N.; Neusser, N.

    2008-01-01

    A literature review of Performance Measurement Systems (PMS) in Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) shows that the main contributions focus on the development of theoretical models, but not on guidelines for practical implementation. In this context, an important neglected aspect is the general fitness or readiness of a SME to implement a PMS. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to determine critical prerequisites for a successful PMS implementation in SMEs. For this purpose, a case study...

  18. How to predict diffusion of medium-sized molecules in polymer matrices. From atomistic to coarse grain simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Gautieri, Alfonso; Vesentini, Simone; Redaelli, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The normal diffusion regime of many small and medium-sized molecules occurs on a time scale that is too long to be studied by atomistic simulations. Coarse-grained (CG) molecular simulations allow to investigate length and time scales that are orders of magnitude larger compared to classical molecular dynamics simulations, hence providing a valuable approach to span time and length scales where normal diffusion occurs. Here we develop a novel multi-scale method for the pre...

  19. Product Related Environmental Work in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Thailand, Developing and Manufacturing Electrical and Electronic Products

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Fredrik

    2007-01-01

    Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Thailand that develop and manufacture electrical and electronic products are among other SMEs in the world meeting increasingly stringent legal and customer requirements related to environmental issues. Obstacles for the SMEs around the world to meet these requirements are almost the same in form of lack of knowledge, budget and resources. The differences between SMEs in Thailand and SMEs in the EU, Japan or even Korea are that these countries have...

  20. An Empirical Study of IT Innovation Adoption Among Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Klang Valley, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Wenjie Zhao; Noor A. Mohd Salleh; Sedigheh Moghavvemi; Fatemeh Hakimian

    2011-01-01

    Purpose—The purpose of this research is to use and validate the Entrepreneurial Event model as a base model to investigate SME owners’ perception toward IT innovation adoption and use. This paper also attempts to investigate the key determinants of the adoption of IT innovation among small and medium sized enterprises in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This study revised and validated the Entrepreneurial Event Model in a new context and tried to examine the effect of perceived desirability, propensit...

  1. An investigation into the winner-loser and momentum anomalies in four medium-sized European markets

    OpenAIRE

    O'Keeffe, Cormac

    2013-01-01

    The allocative efficiency of financial markets is of central importance to academics, investors, and regulators. However, there is a dearth of research relating to the efficiency of medium-sized European markets. This thesis addresses this research gap by examining the winner-loser and momentum anomalies in Ireland, Greece, Norway, and Denmark. The profitability of contrarian and strength rule strategies is examined using a variety of models and rank and holding periods of differing lengths. ...

  2. Quantum chemical study of the electronic properties of an Iridium-based photosensitizer bound to medium-sized silver clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Bokareva, Olga S.; Kühn, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The equilibrium structures and electronic excitation spectra of the Ir(III) photosensitizer Ir(ppy)$_2$(bpy)]$^+$ bound to medium-sized silver clusters Ag$_n$ ($n=$19, 20) are investigated using time-dependent density functional theory. The long-range corrected LC-BLYP approach is used with a system-specific range separation parameter. The weak physisorption of the hybrid complexes yield only small changes in the broadened absorption spectra of the hybrid system as compared ...

  3. The Impact of Firm Characteristics in Access of Financing by Small and Medium-sized Enterprises in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Reuben Kira; Zhongzhi He

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of Small and Medium-sized Enterprise (SME) sector in economic development, job creationand income generation has been recognized worldwide. However, these contributions are not effectivelyharnessed in Tanzania. The main challenge limiting the sector to contribute fully is a shortage of finance. Thisstudy examines the impact of firm characteristics in access to debt financing by Tanzanian SMEs. The equationspecified access to finance as dependent variable while firm character...

  4. An investigation into the suitability of younger generation successors in small and medium-sized family businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Merwe, Stephanus Petrus

    2011-01-01

    This study highlighted the importance of the suitability of the younger generation family members in small and medium-sized family businesses to successfully manage the business after management succession. Data from 270 questionnaires linked to 77 family businesses were collected and analysed. An Oblimin oblique rotation was performed on the principal components of the exploratory factor analysis. Five factors with eigen-values greater than one, explaining 65,78% of the variance, were extrac...

  5. Information systems for small and medium-sized enterprises state of art of is research in SMEs

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book establishes and explores existing and emerging theories on Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) and the adoption of IT/IS. It presents the latest empirical research findings in that area of IS research and explores new technologies and practices. The book is written for researchers and professionals working in the field of IS research or the research of SMEs. Moreover, the book will be a reference for researchers, professionals and students in management information systems science and related fields.

  6. Risk determinants of small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises (SMEs): An exploratory study in New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Ariful; Tedford, Des

    2012-01-01

    The smooth running of small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises (SMEs) presents a significant challenge irrespective of the technological and human resources they may have at their disposal. SMEs continuously encounter daily internal and external undesirable events and unwanted setbacks to their operations that detract from their business performance. These are referred to as 'disturbances' in our research study. Among the disturbances, some are likely to create risks to the enterprise...

  7. Lowest-energy cage structures of medium-sized (ZnO){sub n} clusters with n = 15 ? 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Lingli; Sai, Linwei [School of Mathematical Sciences, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China and College of Advanced Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhao, Jijun, E-mail: zhaojj@dlut.edu.cn [College of Advanced Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China and Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Dalian University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Dalian 116024 (China); Qiu, Ruifeng [School of Mathematical Sciences, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2015-01-22

    Fullerene-like cage structures of medium-sized (ZnO){sub n} clusters with n = 15 ? 24 were generated by spiral algorithm and optimized using density functional theory calculations. Most of these lowest-energy cage structures contain only four-membered and six-membered rings, whereas eight-membered rings were found in the lowest-energy cages of (ZnO){sub n} (n = 19, 20, 23, 24). Our best cage configurations either reproduce or prevail the previously reported ones. The size-dependent electronic properties were also discussed.

  8. Lowest-energy cage structures of medium-sized (ZnO)n clusters with n = 15 ? 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullerene-like cage structures of medium-sized (ZnO)n clusters with n = 15 ? 24 were generated by spiral algorithm and optimized using density functional theory calculations. Most of these lowest-energy cage structures contain only four-membered and six-membered rings, whereas eight-membered rings were found in the lowest-energy cages of (ZnO)n (n = 19, 20, 23, 24). Our best cage configurations either reproduce or prevail the previously reported ones. The size-dependent electronic properties were also discussed

  9. Electronic spectroscopy of medium-sized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Implications for the carriers of the 2175 {\\AA} UV bump

    CERN Document Server

    Steglich, M; Rouillé, G; Huisken, F; Mutschke, H; Henning, Th

    2010-01-01

    Mixtures of polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been produced by means of laser pyrolysis. The main fraction of the extracted PAHs were primarily medium-sized, up to a maximum size of 38 carbon atoms per molecule. The use of different extraction solvents and subsequent chromatographic fractionation provided mixtures of different size distributions. UV-VIS absorption spectra have been measured at low temperature by matrix isolation spectroscopy and at room temperature with PAHs as film-like deposits on transparent substrates. In accordance with semi-empirical calculations, our findings suggest that large PAHs with sizes around 50 to 60 carbon atoms per molecule could be responsible for the interstellar UV bump at 217.5 nm.

  10. ELECTRONIC SPECTROSCOPY OF MEDIUM-SIZED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE CARRIERS OF THE 2175 A UV BUMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been produced by means of laser pyrolysis. The main fraction of the extracted PAHs was primarily medium-sized, up to a maximum size of 38 carbon atoms per molecule. The use of different extraction solvents and subsequent chromatographic fractionation provided mixtures of different size distributions. UV-VIS absorption spectra have been measured at low temperature by matrix isolation spectroscopy and at room temperature with PAHs as film-like deposits on transparent substrates. In accordance with semi-empirical calculations, our findings suggest that large PAHs with sizes around 50-60 carbon atoms per molecule could be responsible for the interstellar UV bump at 217.5 nm.

  11. Microstructure and grain size dependence of creep and creep-fatigue properties of low carbon medium nitrogen type 316 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of grain size on the creep and creep-fatigue behavior of low carbon medium nitrogen type 316(316FR) steel has been investigated at 550degC, compared with conventional type 316(SUS316) steel. The microstructure of ruptured specimens has been examined with electron microscope. The creep rupture strength of both steels decreased with increasing grain size. The rupture strength of 316FR was higher than that of SUS316 at any grain size. The rupture ductility of 316FR, where very small Laves precipitated on the grain boundary during creep, slightly decreased with increasing grain size, while that of SUS316, where carbide precipitated on the grain boundary, did not change with grain size. The rupture elongation of 316FR at largest grain size, however, was much higher than that of SUS316. This difference in rupture ductility is attributed to the grain boundary carbide developed during creep. The creep-fatigue life of both steels decreased with increasing grain size. Because 316FR showed longer life and smaller dependence on grain size than SUS316, 316FR had much longer life than SUS316 at large grain size. The fracture mode of 316FR changed from transgranular to intergranular with increasing grain size, while that of SUS316 was intergranular at any grain size. Although 316FR showed intergranular fracture at very large grain size, it had much longer life than SUS316. This means that the crack propagation along grain boundary of 316FR is more difficult than SUS316. Such difference in crack propagation behavior may be depends on the grain boundary precipitation, that is, Laves or carbide. (author)

  12. Potential role of the Romanian research and industry on the small and medium reactors market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need of diversifying the energy sources, independence from foreign supplies and modernization of economy have constituted the major factors in implementation of nuclear energy in Romania. The choice of the heavy water reactor CANDU-600 was made on grounds of advanced safety features, proven efficient economic operation as well as on the technologic feasibility for manufacturing of components, equipment, instrumentation, heavy water and natural uranium fuel in Romania. Unlike turn-key acquisition approaches, the Romanian option provided an active national participation in construction the Cernavoda NPP. As consequence, important support was being given to development of the industries involved in the nuclear fuel cycle, manufacturing of equipment and nuclear materials, construction-montage, engineering, consulting, services, etc. This was done based on technology transfer, implementation of advanced design and execution standards, quality assurance procedures and modern nuclear safety requirements at international level. The efforts materialized in an important national participation in the construction of the Cernavoda NPP and all related programs are successful. Now, Romanian firms are also involved in supplying components, equipment and services to NPP's in other eastern and central Europeans countries. The paper presents the achievements of the Romanian economy in this field and the effort of the Romanian companies on the small and medium power reactors market. Lists with main R and D institutes, nuclear fuel cycle facilities as well as potential equipment suppliers are attached. (author)

  13. Absenteeism at a Medium Size Philanthropic Hospital Absenteísmo em Hospital Filantrópico de Médio Porte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilidia Terezinha Martelli Takahashi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The absenteeism is a complex administrative problem for organizations. In hospitals, it becomes even more complicated as the patient care can not be interrupted. The term absenteeism - disease, refers to the time off work due to health problems. It is intended to analyze the absence of workers due to health problems is related to age, sex, length of employment at the institution, part work shift and functional category. This is a retrospective, descriptive and documentary study. Data was collected from medical certificates submitted in the period from 01 July 2007 to 30 June 2008 to the sector of human resources of a medium-sized philanthropic hospital. The analysis results show that the number of certificates is greater in females (90.80% and staff that work less time in the institution (61.19%. It was found that the number of certificates is higher in workers who make the rotation between morning and afternoon shifts. It was also noted that workers aged over 48 years, had lower number of certificates than the younger ones. The nursing technicians assistant were the professional categories that had presented more certificates (46.05%. The results identify several factors related to absenteeism and provide subsidies to strengthen actions to monitor the health of workers and also the implementation of actions aimed at improving the quality of life at work. O absenteísmo é um complexo problema administrativo para as organizações. Nos hospitais, torna-se ainda mais complicado, pois o cuidado ao cliente não pode ser interrompido. Entende-se por absenteísmo-doença, as faltas ao trabalho por problemas de saúde. Tem-se como objetivo analisar as faltas dos trabalhadores por causas de saúde relacionando-as com idade, sexo, tempo de trabalho na instituição, turno de trabalho e categoria funcional. Trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo, descritivo edocumental. Os dados foram coletados dos atestados de saúde apresentados no período de 01 julho de 2007 a 30 de junho de 2008 ao setor de recursos humanos de um hospital filantrópico de médio porte. As análises dos resultados demonstraram que o número de atestados apresentados é maior no sexo feminino (90,80% e em funcionários com menor tempo de trabalho na instituição (61,19%. Verificou-se que onúmero de atestados é mais elevado nos trabalhadores que fazem revezamento entre os turnos matutino e vespertino. Também foi observado que os trabalhadores com idade acima de 48 anos, apresentaram menor número de atestados que os mais jovens. Os auxiliares e técnicos de enfermagem foram as categorias profissionais que mais apresentaram atestados (46,05%. Os dados encontrados permitem identificar vários fatores relacionados ao absenteísmo e fornecem subsídios para reforçar ações que acompanhem as questões de saúde dos trabalhadores e também a implantação de ações que visem à melhoria da qualidade de vida no trabalho.

  14. Methodologies and Decision Criteria for Demonstrating Competitiveness of Small and Medium Sized Reactors - Present Value Capital Cost Model. Annex VIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smaller size reactors are required to fulfil the growing energy needs of developing countries and emerging markets, as well as niche markets in developed countries. Grid appropriate reactors have been identified within the United States Department of Energy Global Nuclear Energy Partnership initiative as one of the key elements required to enable worldwide expansion of the peaceful use of nuclear power. In a speech at a conference in Algiers on 9 January 2007, the former IAEA Director General, Mohamed El Baradei, discussed the interest in new small and medium-size reactor designs which allow a more incremental investment than is required for a big reactor, and provide a better match to grid capacity in many developing countries'. Smaller size reactors (IAEA defines as 'small' those reactors with a power <300 MW(e) and 'medium' with a power <700 MW(e)) are the logical choice for smaller countries or those with a limited electrical grid. In fact, smaller reactors are now in different stages of development throughout the world, and interest in their deployment has also been expressed. With regards to decisions on the addition of power plant capacity, small reactors have many attractive characteristics, namely size, simplicity, enhanced safety, cost savings and lower financial resource requirements. On the downside, the specific costs of some components and systems of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) may be higher as a result of economy of scale effects. This annex explores some of the factors affecting decisions on power plant capacity addition in world markets, focusing particularly on many of the characteristics of SMRs

  15. EFFICIENT MANAGEMENT OF SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES FOR A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP

    OpenAIRE

    Suzana Demyen; Iulia Nicolae

    2013-01-01

    The present  paper presents aspects of the management of small and medium enterprises in agriculture and services, in order to create a concrete analysis framework for sustainable development in rural areas. Socio - economic analysis based on current data and future forecasts are the basis for drawing conclusions on the possibilities of encouraging a sustainable entrepreneurship in less developed regions and also for economic revitalization.

  16. Developing a Methodology Based on Action Learning to Facilitate the Adoption of ICT in Small and Medium-sized Companies in Costa Rica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunez, Heilyn Camacho

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to understand and explore better strategies to support the Small and Medium-sized companies sector in Costa Rica in the ICT adoption process. A strategy has been proposed which focuses on learning process and the interaction of university, industry and government (Triple Helix Model) in order to support the SMEs sector. The concrete proposal of the research is to design collaborative project based on action learning approach (Revans, 1982) with partnership of the three sectors in order to address concrete ICT projects in SMEs. The project was carried out in the action research context, considering a holistic approach needed in the SMEs and fostering the multi learning perspective claimed in the triple helix model (Etzkowitz, 2008).

  17. Optimal Sizing of Battery Storage Systems for Industrial Applications when Uncertainties Exist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Carpinelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Demand response (DR can be very useful for an industrial facility, since it allows noticeable reductions in the electricity bill due to the significant value of energy demand. Although most industrial processes have stringent constraints in terms of hourly active power, DR only becomes attractive when performed with the contemporaneous use of battery energy storage systems (BESSs. When this option is used, an optimal sizing of BESSs is desirable, because the investment costs can be significant. This paper deals with the optimal sizing of a BESS installed in an industrial facility to reduce electricity costs. A four-step procedure, based on Decision Theory, was used to obtain a good solution for the sizing problem, even when facing uncertainties; in fact, we think that the sizing procedure must properly take into account the unavoidable uncertainties introduced by the cost of electricity and the load demands of industrial facilities. Three approaches provided by Decision Theory were applied, and they were based on: (1 the minimization of expected cost; (2 the regret felt by the sizing engineer; and (3 a mix of (1 and (2. The numerical applications performed on an actual industrial facility provided evidence of the effectiveness of the proposed procedure.

  18. Strategy Analysis of Real Estate Company Property Development in Medium Size City in China

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Yiping

    2011-01-01

    Real estate industry is a new economic growth point and main industry in Chinese gross domestic product nowadays. This paper analyzes the trend of Chinese real estate market development to help investors to understand the current situation of Chinese real estate markets and policies better, so as to make better real estate investment decisions in China in the future. Because of oversaturated with investment and higher cost of investment there are more and more limitations in investing in big ...

  19. A qualitative study of pandemic influenza preparedness among small and medium-sized businesses in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Deron C; Confield, Evan; Gasner, Mary Rose; Weisfuse, Isaac

    2011-10-01

    Small businesses need to engage in continuity planning to assure delivery of goods and services and to sustain the economy during an influenza pandemic. This is especially true in New York City, where 98 per cent of businesses have fewer than 100 employees. It was an objective therefore, to determine pandemic influenza business continuity practices and strategies suitable for small and medium-sized NYC businesses. The study design used focus groups, and the participants were owners and managers of businesses with fewer than 500 employees in New York City. The main outcome measures looked for were the degree of pandemic preparedness, and the feasibility of currently proposed business continuity strategies. Most participants reported that their businesses had no pandemic influenza plan. Agreement with feasibility of specific business continuity strategies was influenced by the type of business represented, cost of the strategy, and business size. It was concluded that recommendations for pandemic-related business continuity plans for small and medium-sized businesses should be tailored to the type and size of business and should highlight the broad utility of the proposed strategies to address a range of business stressors. PMID:22308579

  20. Determinants of the Capital Structure of Small and Medium Sized Brazilian Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Denis Forte; Lucas Ayres Barros; Wilson Toshiro Nakamura

    2013-01-01

    This research investigates the determinants of the capital structure of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) using a unique database that includes over 19,000 Brazilian firms and spans 13 years of data. The econometric analysis employs the System Generalized Method of Moments estimator (GMM-Sys) and two strong results emerge: (a) profitability is negatively related to leverage, and (b) asset growth is positively related to leverage. Both results are consistent with the pecking order theory of ...

  1. Cloud Computing: The Level of Awareness Amongst Small & Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Developing Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeboah-Boateng, Ezer Osei; Essandoh, Kofi Asare

    2013-01-01

    Cloud computing services are being touted as a major enabler for small businesses lately. This new paradigm is seen to offer unique opportunities to small and medium enterprises (SMEs) worldwide and developing economies are no exception. It presents SMEs access to similar technologies available to their larger counterparts and those in the developed world which inherently creates innovativeness, increases competitive advantage and impacts their operations and processes. This paper seeks to deter...

  2. EFFICIENT MANAGEMENT OF SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES FOR A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Demyen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present  paper presents aspects of the management of small and medium enterprises in agriculture and services, in order to create a concrete analysis framework for sustainable development in rural areas. Socio - economic analysis based on current data and future forecasts are the basis for drawing conclusions on the possibilities of encouraging a sustainable entrepreneurship in less developed regions and also for economic revitalization.

  3. Optimal Sizing of Battery Storage Systems for Industrial Applications when Uncertainties Exist

    OpenAIRE

    Guido Carpinelli; Anna Rita di Fazio; Shahab Khormali; Fabio Mottola

    2014-01-01

    Demand response (DR) can be very useful for an industrial facility, since it allows noticeable reductions in the electricity bill due to the significant value of energy demand. Although most industrial processes have stringent constraints in terms of hourly active power, DR only becomes attractive when performed with the contemporaneous use of battery energy storage systems (BESSs). When this option is used, an optimal sizing of BESSs is desirable, because the investment costs can be signific...

  4. Mapping trends of large and medium size carnivores of conservation interest in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Mihai Cristian Adamescu; Constantin Cazacu; Ovidiu Ionescu; Georgeta Ionescu; Ramon Jurj; Marius Popa; Roxana Cazacu; Ancuta Cotovelea

    2014-01-01

    We analysed yearly estimates of population size data during 2001-2012 for five carnivores species of conservation interest (Ursus arctos, Canis lupus, Lynx lynx, Felis silvestris and Canis aureus). Population size estimations were done by the game management authorities and integrated by the competent authorities on the Ministry of Environment and Climate Change. Trends in data were detected using non-parametric Mann-Kendall test. This test was chosen considering the short length of data seri...

  5. Firm size and productivity. Evidence from the electricity distribution industry in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tovar, Beatriz [Departmento de Analisis Economico Aplicado y EIT, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Javier Ramos-Real, Francisco [Departamento de Analisis Economico, Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Campus de Guajara, Universidad de La Laguna, La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife, Espana (Spain); De Almeida, Edmar Fagundes [IE-UFRJ (Instituto de Economia-Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro) (Brazil)

    2011-02-15

    In this paper we apply Stochastic Frontier Analysis through a distance function to investigate the impact of firm size on productivity development in electricity distribution. We use a sample of seventeen Brazilian firms from 1998 to 2005 and decompose productivity into technical efficiency, scale efficiency and technical change. Moreover, a further step is to decompose the technical change measurement into several components. The results indicate that firm size is important for industry's productivity, and therefore a key aspect to consider when making decisions that affect the market structure in the electricity distribution industry. (author)

  6. An empirical study on the effects of industrial clusters on small and medium enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Zeinab Armoun; MohammadAli Astanbous; Ahmad tavangar; Mojtaba Javidnia

    2012-01-01

    Tendency to industrial clustering at the end of the twentieth century was a turning point in industrial development programs in most countries of the world. Industrial clustering is a model of industrial organization, which has entered industrial literature as a new development strategy. Clustering has provided utilization of efficiencies of scale and aggregation as well as efficiencies of collective efforts by creating conditions for competitiveness advantage, economical growth and export de...

  7. A Comprehensive, Competency-Based Education Framework Using Medium-Sized ERP Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtz, Brenda; Cilliers, Charmain; Calitz, Andre

    2012-01-01

    Graduates with industry-relevant ERP competencies are highly sought after. This requirement is due to a dominance of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems and the positive affect which good quality ERP specialists have on the success rate of ERP system implementation projects. Universities are therefore increasingly pressurised to supply…

  8. Simulation of Supply-Chain Networks: A Source of Innovation and Competitive Advantage for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Liotta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available On a daily basis, enterprises of all sizes cope with the turbulence and volatility of market demands, cost variability, and severe pressure from globally distributed competitors. Managing uncertainty about future demand requirements and volumes in supply-chain networks has become a priority. One of the ways to deal with uncertainty is the utilization of simulation techniques and tools, which provide greater predictability of decision-making outcomes. For example, simulation has been widely applied in decision-making processes related to global logistics and production networks at the strategic, tactical, and operational levels, where it is used to predict the impact of decisions before their implementation in complex and uncertain environments. Large enterprises are inclined to use simulation tools whereas small and medium-sized enterprises seem to underestimate its advantages. The objective of this article is to emphasize the relevance of simulation for the design and management of supply-chain networks from the perspective of small and medium-sized firms.

  9. The ABC-paradox: is Time Driven ABC relevant for small and Medium sized enterprises (SME)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fladkjær, Henrik Find; Jensen, Erling

    2011-01-01

    Several articles suggest that Activity Based Costing (ABC) has failed to succeed in practical use. It is even argued that we have an ABC-paradox. Activity Based Costing has won theoretically in nu-merous articles in journals, through books, being included in all major Business Accounting text-books and in curriculum at most business schools. But ABC is not used very much by the compa-nies. Especially in small and medium enterprises ABC is rarely implemented. This is primarily due to two things: ...

  10. Explaining National Differences in the Size and Industrial Distribution of Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Steven J.; Henrekson, Magnus

    1997-01-01

    What factors determine national differences in the size and industry distribution of employment? This study stresses the role of business taxation, employment security laws, credit market policies, wage-setting institutions and the size of the public sector. We characterize these aspects of the economic policy environment in Sweden prior to 1990-91 and compare them to the situation in other European countries and the United States. Our characterization and international comparisons show that ...

  11. Image Analysis of Pellet Size for a Control System in Industrial Feed Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungqvist, Martin Georg; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    2011-01-01

    When producing aquaculture fish feed pellets, the size of the output product is of immense importance. As the production method cannot produce pellets of constant and uniform size using constant machine settings, there is a demand for size control. Fish fed with feed pellets of improper size are prone to not grow as expected, which is undesirable to the aquaculture industry. In this paper an image analysis method is proposed for automatic size-monitoring of pellets. This is called granulometry and the method used here is based on the mathematical morphological opening operation. In the proposed method, no image object segmentation is needed. The results show that it is possible to extract a general size distribution from an image of piled disordered pellets representing both length and diameter of the pellets in combination as an area.

  12. Image analysis of pellet size for a control system in industrial feed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungqvist, Martin Georg; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Frosch, Stina

    2011-01-01

    When producing aquaculture fish feed pellets, the size of the output product is of immense importance. As the production method cannot produce pellets of constant and uniform size using constant machine settings, there is a demand for size control. Fish fed with feed pellets of improper size are prone to not grow as expected, which is undesirable to the aquaculture industry. In this paper an image analysis method is proposed for automatic size-monitoring of pellets. This is called granulometry and the method used here is based on the mathematical morphological opening operation. In the proposed method, no image object segmentation is needed. The results show that it is possible to extract a general size distribution from an image of piled disordered pellets representing both length and diameter of the pellets in combination as an area. PMID:22031836

  13. Top management and the adoption of energy efficiency practices: Evidence from small and medium-sized manufacturing firms in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriers to energy efficiency have been extensively discussed in the energy literature, but little is known about positive drivers. This paper investigates the role of top managers and more specifically of top operations managers on the adoption of energy-efficiency practices, based on 5779 energy efficiency recommendations made to 752 small and medium-sized manufacturing firms under the US Department of Energy's IACs (Industrial Assessment Centers) Program, through which teams of students and faculty from engineering schools provide free energy assessments. Top operations managers possess knowledge of production processes, for maximizing the effective manufacture and distribution of goods. We find that their involvement significantly increases the adoption of energy-efficiency initiatives, while involvement of general top managers without an operational role has little or no effect. Involvement of top operations managers increases the percentage of recommended energy savings that are implemented by 13.4% on average and increases the probability of adoption of more disruptive individual recommendations related to process and equipment change from 31% to 44%. Our findings imply that, in order to advance energy efficiency in SMEs (Small and Medium Enterprises), it may be advisable to target managers who are sufficiently senior but still in a clearly operationally-focused position. - Highlights: • We examine how top managers influence the adoption of energy-efficiency practices. • Top operations managers implement 13.4% more of recommended savings. • Involvement of top managers without an operational role has little or no effect. • Top operations managers enhance adoption of recommendations that are disruptive

  14. Improvement of environmental management incentives for small and medium-sized enterprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Kee Bok; Lee, Seung Kyu; Lim, Chae Woon; Chung, Ho Sun [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The developed countries have been prepared the national innovation for sustainable development for a long time. The international advanced enterprises, such as multinational enterprises, are enhancing the active and strategic environmental management. However, in spite of such changes in the world, small and middle-sized enterprises do not show any substantial changes. It is true that most of enterprises do not recognize the need of environmental management. Although they have intention for environmental improvement, it is also true that they do not have any strength to maintain effective management. Moreover, with over 99% of small and middle-sized enterprises among entire enterprises in Korea, it is hardly possible to establish an effective regulation system. The purpose of this study is to make a policy plan to induce the development of environmental friendly small and middle-sized enterprises under the recognition of such problems. 138 refs., 4 figs., 195 tabs.

  15. Cooling rate and size effects on the medium-range structure of multicomponent oxide glasses simulated by molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilocca, Antonio

    2013-09-21

    A set of molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the effect of cooling rate and system size on the medium-range structure of melt-derived multicomponent silicate glasses, represented by the quaternary 45S5 Bioglass composition. Given the significant impact of the glass degradation on applications of these materials in biomedicine and nuclear waste disposal, bulk structural features which directly affect the glass dissolution process are of particular interest. Connectivity of the silicate matrix, ion clustering and nanosegregation, distribution of ring and chain structural patterns represent critical features in this context, which can be directly extracted from the models. A key issue is represented by the effect of the computational approach on the corresponding glass models, especially in light of recent indications questioning the suitability of conventional MD approaches (that is, involving melt-and-quench of systems containing ~10(3) atoms at cooling rates of 5-10 K/ps) when applied to model these glasses. The analysis presented here compares MD models obtained with conventional and nonconventional cooling rates and system sizes, highlighting the trend and range of convergence of specific structural features in the medium range. The present results show that time-consuming computational approaches involving much lower cooling rates and/or significantly larger system sizes are in most cases not necessary in order to obtain a reliable description of the medium-range structure of multicomponent glasses. We identify the convergence range for specific properties and use them to discuss models of several glass compositions for which a possible influence of cooling-rate or size effects had been previously hypothesized. The trends highlighted here represent an important reference to obtain reliable models of multicomponent glasses and extract converged medium-range structural features which affect the glass degradation and thus their application in different fields. In addition, as a first application of the present findings, the fully converged structure of the 45S5 glass was further analyzed to shed new light on several dissolution-related features whose interpretation has been rather controversial in the past. PMID:24070291

  16. Cooling rate and size effects on the medium-range structure of multicomponent oxide glasses simulated by molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilocca, Antonio [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom)

    2013-09-21

    A set of molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the effect of cooling rate and system size on the medium-range structure of melt-derived multicomponent silicate glasses, represented by the quaternary 45S5 Bioglass composition. Given the significant impact of the glass degradation on applications of these materials in biomedicine and nuclear waste disposal, bulk structural features which directly affect the glass dissolution process are of particular interest. Connectivity of the silicate matrix, ion clustering and nanosegregation, distribution of ring and chain structural patterns represent critical features in this context, which can be directly extracted from the models. A key issue is represented by the effect of the computational approach on the corresponding glass models, especially in light of recent indications questioning the suitability of conventional MD approaches (that is, involving melt-and-quench of systems containing ?10{sup 3} atoms at cooling rates of 5-10 K/ps) when applied to model these glasses. The analysis presented here compares MD models obtained with conventional and nonconventional cooling rates and system sizes, highlighting the trend and range of convergence of specific structural features in the medium range. The present results show that time-consuming computational approaches involving much lower cooling rates and/or significantly larger system sizes are in most cases not necessary in order to obtain a reliable description of the medium-range structure of multicomponent glasses. We identify the convergence range for specific properties and use them to discuss models of several glass compositions for which a possible influence of cooling-rate or size effects had been previously hypothesized. The trends highlighted here represent an important reference to obtain reliable models of multicomponent glasses and extract converged medium-range structural features which affect the glass degradation and thus their application in different fields. In addition, as a first application of the present findings, the fully converged structure of the 45S5 glass was further analyzed to shed new light on several dissolution-related features whose interpretation has been rather controversial in the past.

  17. Synthesis, antimicrobial activity and molecular docking of novel tetracyclic scaffolds incorporating a flavonoid framework with medium sized oxygen heterocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongamanti, Ashok; Aamate, Vikas Kumar; Devulapally, Mohan Gandhi; Gundu, Srinivas; Kotni, Meena Kumari; Manga, Vijjulatha; Balasubramanian, Sridhar; Ernala, Prasad

    2015-02-15

    A convenient approach for the synthesis of novel tetracyclic scaffolds incorporating a flavonoid framework with medium sized heterocyclic rings (eight-, nine-, ten- and eleven-membered rings) containing two oxygen atoms from flavonols through alkylation using different dibromoalkanes was described. The synthesized compounds were established based on the spectral data and X-ray crystal structure for 6c. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activity. Docking studies were carried out for most active two compounds 6f and 6i. PMID:25592711

  18. Small- and medium-sized enterprises in cross-border networks: Empirical evidence from the Pearl River Delta

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Klaus-Dieter

    1997-01-01

    The Pearl River Delta is one of the most successful cases of economic re-integration after a long period of separation. Hong Kong's traditional policy of non-interventionism and China's open-door policy have induced a rapid increase in cross-border trade, outward processing and outward investment. The paper focuses on the different modes of integration as well as on the driving forces behind. It argues that small- and medium- sized enterprises have played the pivotal role in the Delta's econo...

  19. Intent to be a Socially Responsible Small or Medium-sized Enterprise: Theory of Planned Behavior and Leaders’ Actualizing

    OpenAIRE

    Ashley Jane Bennington; Marcel C. Minutolo

    2012-01-01

    A review of the academic research in corporate social responsibility shows little work on small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in the U.S. whereas considerable work in this domain has been conducted in the European context. This study seeks to make a contribution to the research void by addressing one particular area of social responsibility in the U.S. context. Specifically, we employ Ajzen’s reasoned action approach to begin to build an understanding of what promotes leaders of SMEs to...

  20. The Ubiquity of Micrometer-Sized Dust Grains in the Dense Interstellar Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Pagani, Laurent; Steinacker, Jürgen; Bacmann, Aurore; Stutz, Amelia; Henning, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Cold molecular clouds are the birthplaces of stars and planets, where dense cores of gas collapse to form protostars. The dust mixed in these clouds is thought to be made of grains of an average size of 0.1 micrometer. We report the widespread detection of the coreshine effect as a direct sign of the existence of grown, micrometer-sized dust grains. This effect is seen in half of the cores we have analyzed in our survey, spanning all Galactic longitudes, and is dominated by ...

  1. Understanding and Supporting Cloud Computing Adoption in Irish Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs)

    OpenAIRE

    Carcary, Marian; Doherty, Eileen; Conway, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    Cloud Computing adoption has experienced a considerable rate of growth since its emergence in 2006. In 2011, it had become the top technology priority for organizations worldwide and according to some leading industry reports the cloud computing market is estimated to reach $241 billion by 2020. Reasons for adoption are multi?fold, including for example the expected realisation of benefits pertaining to cost reduction, improved scalability, improved resource utilization, worker mo...

  2. Understanding and Supporting Cloud Computing Adoption in Irish Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Carcary, Marian; Doherty, Eileen; Conway, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    Cloud Computing adoption has experienced a considerable rate of growth since its emergence in 2006. In 2011, it had become the top technology priority for organizations worldwide and according to some leading industry reports the cloud computing market is estimated to reach $241 billion by 2020. Reasons for adoption are multi-fold, including for example the expected realisation of benefits pertaining to cost reduction, improved scalability, improved resource utilizatio...

  3. The competitiveness of small and medium-sized companies in the provision of services.

    OpenAIRE

    Štverková, Hana; Humlová, Vlasta; K?ibíková, Pavlína

    2011-01-01

    The topic deals with SMEs in the Czech Republic in terms of provision of services in the catering industry within the current social, economic and technological change. The topic is focused on the competitiveness of SMEs in the service. The potential to increase the competitiveness of SMEs is derived mainly from an increase in the quality offered and in services, but also in developing new services.

  4. Organizational Learning, Innovation and Performance: A Study of Malaysian Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Islam Mohamed Salim; Mohamed Sulaiman

    2011-01-01

    This empirical study attempts to investigate the effect of organizational learning on innovation as well as theimpact of innovation on company performance. Based on the literature review, two hypotheses are proposed toguide the study: the positive impact of organizational learning on innovation and the positive relationshipbetween innovation and performance. Data was collected via electronic survey from 320 small and mediumenterprises operating in the ICT industry in Malaysia. Findings from t...

  5. Explaining Internationalisation of Small to Medium Sized Enterprises within the Queensland Food and Beverage Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell Spowart; Rumintha Wickramasekera

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of International New Ventures (INVs) has increased during the past twenty years. Nevertheless,to date there has been no general consensus within the literature on an explanation as to the rapid internationalisation of some firms. Do they follow a similar process to other firms that internationalise based ona more ‘measured’ incremental sequential process of internationalisation. This paper proposes and tests an innovation diffusion model of the internationalisation of small fir...

  6. Firm size and productivity. Evidence from the electricity distribution industry in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we apply Stochastic Frontier Analysis through a distance function to investigate the impact of firm size on productivity development in electricity distribution. We use a sample of seventeen Brazilian firms from 1998 to 2005 and decompose productivity into technical efficiency, scale efficiency and technical change. Moreover, a further step is to decompose the technical change measurement into several components. The results indicate that firm size is important for industry's productivity, and therefore a key aspect to consider when making decisions that affect the market structure in the electricity distribution industry. - Research Highlights: ?We apply Stochastic Frontier Analysis through a distance function to investigate the impact of firm's size on productivity development in electricity distribution using a sample of eighteen Brazilian firms from 1998 to 2005. ?Productivity is decomposed into technical efficiency, scale-efficiency and technical change. ?Firm size is important for the industry's productivity, and therefore a key aspect to consider when making decisions that affect the market structure in the electricity distribution industry.

  7. Implementing a Functional ISO 9001 Quality Management System in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Sousa-Poza

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This conceptual paper provides guidance for the implementation of a functionalISO 9001 quality management system (QMS in small and medium-sizedenterprises (SMEs. To help a SME understand its starting point, four initialstates for QMS implementation are defined. Five paths for moving the QMS fromthe initial state to the desired state are described. To support the transition fromthe initial to the desired state, some key considerations in implementing a QMSin SMEs are discussed. The paper is based on site visits and implementationassistance the authors have provided to several SMEs. It is anticipated the paperwill help managers in SMEs understand the process of implementing ISO 9001and help them avoid the development of a paper-driven QMS that provideslimited value.

  8. Faint Scattering Around Pulsars Probing the Interstellar Medium on Solar System Size Scales

    CERN Document Server

    Stinebring, D R; Cordes, J M; Becker, K M; Goodman, J E E; Kramer, M A; Sheckard, J L; Smith, T C T

    2001-01-01

    We have made high-resolution, high-sensitivity dynamic spectra of a sample of strong pulsars at 430 MHz with the Arecibo radiotelescope. For 4 pulsars we find faint but sharply delineated features in the secondary spectra. These are examples of the previously observed ``crisscross'' or ``multiple drift slope'' phenomenon presumed to be due to multiple imaging of the pulsar by the interstellar medium. The unprecedented resolution and dynamic range of our observations allow a deeper level of analysis. Distances to the dominant scattering screen along the line of sight are determined and are shown to agree well with those inferred from other scintillation phenomena. Multiple imaging of the pulsar by the ISM is required. A compact central image surrounded by a faint scattering halo, roughly circularly symmetric, is consistent with the data. Scattering from filaments may also be consistent. The angular extent of the scattering material parallel to the direction of the pulsar velocity is roughly 5 mas, correspondin...

  9. Permeability and pore size distribution in medium strength self-compacting concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Cánovas, M.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of self-compacting concrete (SCC has been on the rise in recent years. Research on this type of concrete has focused primarily on determining optimal dosage, while durability, particularly for medium strength SCC, has received much less attention. The present study explored the permeability of a number of medium strength (characteristic strength, 30 MPa self-compacting concretes, including SCCs made with common cement, in pursuit of a balance between performance and cost. Pressurised water and mercury intrusion porosimetry tests were conducted to determine concrete behaviour when exposed to aggressive agents. The findings showed that the capillary networks of these concretes are essentially impermeable to aggressive agents.

    El hormigón autocompactante ha experimentado un amplio desarrollo en los últimos años. Los estudios sobre este hormigón se han centrado en obtener dosificaciones óptimas, mientras los relativos a su durabilidad son escasos, especialmente en el caso de hormigones de resistencia moderada. Este trabajo se centra en el estudio de la permeabilidad de distintos hormigones autocompactantes de resistencia moderada (resistencia característica 30 MPa. El estudio incluye hormigones fabricados con cementos comunes, en los que se ha buscado un equilibrio entre prestaciones y precio. Con el fin de estudiar su comportamiento frente a la penetración de agentes agresivos, se han realizado los ensayos de permeabilidad al agua bajo presión y estudio de la porosimetría por intrusión de mercurio. Los resultados de los ensayos ponen de manifiesto el buen comportamiento de estos hormigones frente a la posible penetración de agentes agresivos por la red capilar.

  10. Organizational Learning, Innovation and Performance: A Study of Malaysian Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Mohamed Salim

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This empirical study attempts to investigate the effect of organizational learning on innovation as well as theimpact of innovation on company performance. Based on the literature review, two hypotheses are proposed toguide the study: the positive impact of organizational learning on innovation and the positive relationshipbetween innovation and performance. Data was collected via electronic survey from 320 small and mediumenterprises operating in the ICT industry in Malaysia. Findings from the study support both the two hypothesesthus providing further evidence that organizational learning contributes to innovation capability, and thatinnovation is positively related to firm performance. Several guidelines and practical implications from the studyare also discussed.

  11. The Ubiquity of Micrometer-Sized Dust Grains in the Dense Interstellar Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Pagani, Laurent; Bacmann, Aurore; Stutz, Amelia; Henning, Thomas; 10.1126/SCIENCE.1193211

    2011-01-01

    Cold molecular clouds are the birthplaces of stars and planets, where dense cores of gas collapse to form protostars. The dust mixed in these clouds is thought to be made of grains of an average size of 0.1 micrometer. We report the widespread detection of the coreshine effect as a direct sign of the existence of grown, micrometer-sized dust grains. This effect is seen in half of the cores we have analyzed in our survey, spanning all Galactic longitudes, and is dominated by changes in the internal properties and local environment of the cores, implying that the coreshine effect can be used to constrain fundamental core properties such as the three-dimensional density structure and ages and also the grain characteristics themselves.

  12. Influence of grain size on chalcopyrite ore leaching in acidic medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. ANTONIJEVIC

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an investigation of column leaching of a chalcopyrite ore using sulphuric acid where dissolved oxygen and iron(III ions play the role of oxidants. The investigations were carried out in PVC columns, diameter 110 mm and height 1000 mm, by percolation of the leaching solution through the ore layer. The influence of ore grain size on the degree of leaching and acid consumption was examined. The formation of gypsum on limestone results in the comminution of the initial raw material during leaching. The grain size of chalcopyrite was found to have no important influence on the leaching rate of copper. A higher consumption of sulphuric acid was found for the fractions (–3+1 mm, (?5+0 mm and (?5+3 mm than for the fractions (?10+5 mm, (?20+10 mm and (?20+0 mm.

  13. The ubiquity of micrometer-sized dust grains in the dense interstellar medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Laurent; Steinacker, Jürgen; Bacmann, Aurore; Stutz, Amelia; Henning, Thomas

    2010-09-24

    Cold molecular clouds are the birthplaces of stars and planets, where dense cores of gas collapse to form protostars. The dust mixed in these clouds is thought to be made of grains of an average size of 0.1 micrometer. We report the widespread detection of the coreshine effect as a direct sign of the existence of grown, micrometer-sized dust grains. This effect is seen in half of the cores we have analyzed in our survey, spanning all Galactic longitudes, and is dominated by changes in the internal properties and local environment of the cores, implying that the coreshine effect can be used to constrain fundamental core properties such as the three-dimensional density structure and ages and also the grain characteristics themselves. PMID:20929841

  14. Monte Carlo Studies of medium-size telescope designs for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, M; Dumm, J; Funk, S

    2015-01-01

    We present studies for optimizing the next generation of ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). Results focus on mid-sized telescopes (MSTs) for CTA, detecting very high energy gamma rays in the energy range from a few hundred GeV to a few tens of TeV. We describe a novel, flexible detector Monte Carlo package, FAST (FAst Simulation for imaging air cherenkov Telescopes), that we use to simulate different array and telescope designs. The simulation is somewhat simplified to allow for efficient exploration over a large telescope design parameter space. We investigate a wide range of telescope performance parameters including optical resolution, camera pixel size, and light collection area. In order to ensure a comparison of the arrays at their maximum sensitivity, we analyze the simulations with the most sensitive techniques used in the field, such as maximum likelihood template reconstruction and boosted decision trees for background rejection. Choosing telescope design parameters repre...

  15. Effect of Basal Medium, Explants Size and Density on the In Vitro Proliferation and Growth of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. Cultivar ‘16-bis’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouaad Amine MAZRI

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of basal medium, explant size and density on shoot multiplication, growth, rooting and acclimatization of date palm cv. ‘16-bis’ was evaluated. Bud clusters of different sizes (2, 3, 4 and 5 buds per cluster were cultured at density of 1, 2, 3 and 4 clusters on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS, woody plant medium (WPM and Nitsch medium (NM supplemented with 0.5 mg/L 2-naphthoxyacetic acid and 0.5 mg/L kinetin for three months (multiplication phase. Separated shoots of different sizes (<3 cm; 3 to 4.5 cm and 4.5 to 6 cm were cultured at density of 1, 2, 3 and 4 shoots on hormone free MS medium, WPM or NM for three months (Elongation-rooting phase. The proliferation and development of shoots were affected by the basal medium, explant size and density. The optimal shoot proliferation (18.1 was observed when 4 buds clusters were cultured at the density of 2 clusters per jar in MS medium. Separated shoots of 4.5 to 6 cm length exhibited the optimal in vitro development in terms of leaf length and greening, and root number and length when cultured on MS medium. In addition, these shoots reached the highest acclimation frequency with 80%. Our results would be utilized for an efficient propagation of plantlets of cv. ‘16-bis’, a selected date palm cultivar resistant to the bayoud disease.

  16. Culture medium optimization of ?-amylase producing organism Mocur spp. using the variable size-simplex algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Vahidi; Bijan Shafagi; Zahra Mirzabeigi

    2005-01-01

    Effects of different culture conditions on growth and production of amylase by Mucor sp, using the variable size - simplex design, was investigated. The results showed that the optimum condition are pH of 5.5 -7, temperature of 23.8- 25 oC, shaking rate of 126 -155 rpm, starch at the concentration of 5.6 - 8 g/L and arginin at the concentration of 4.3 - 5.7 g/L.

  17. Culture medium optimization of ?-amylase producing organism Mocur spp. using the variable size-simplex algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Vahidi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of different culture conditions on growth and production of amylase by Mucor sp, using the variable size - simplex design, was investigated. The results showed that the optimum condition are pH of 5.5 -7, temperature of 23.8- 25 oC, shaking rate of 126 -155 rpm, starch at the concentration of 5.6 - 8 g/L and arginin at the concentration of 4.3 - 5.7 g/L.

  18. Market entry decisions of US small and medium-sized software firms

    OpenAIRE

    Ojala, Arto; Tyrväinen, Pasi

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper investigates market entry decisions of the U.S. software SMEs by analyzing the impact of the most obvious factors (cultural distance, geographical distance, country risk, and three market size variables) in traditional internationalization theories to target country selection. By investigating the influence of these commonly cited macro-level factors, this study proposes the best indicator for market entry decisions of the U.S. small and mediumsized software...

  19. Risk Identification in Offshore Out-sourcing of Services in Small and Medium sized Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz, Christian; Volianska, Oleksandra

    2011-01-01

    Background: Development of technologies and worldwide reductions of trade barriers during the last decades increased competition and the need to offer high-quality prod-ucts and services for a reasonable price. Particularly, the service sector increased in size and variety of outputs. The development of the information technology segment has de-termined the market environment. To be able to compete in this global market offshore outsourcing of IT functions can be a valuable tool if handled in...

  20. R&D Investment and Financing Constraints of Small and Medium-Sized Firm

    OpenAIRE

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Binz, Hanna L.

    2008-01-01

    This study tests for financial constraints on R&D investment and how they differ from capital investment. To identify constraints in the access to external capital, we employ a credit rating index. Our models show that internal constraints, measured by mark-ups, are more decisive for R&D than for capital investment. For external constraints, we find a monotonic relationship between the level of constriction and firm size for both types of investment. Thus, external constraints turn out to be ...

  1. Monte Carlo Studies of medium-size telescope designs for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, M.; Jogler, T.; Dumm, J; Funk, S

    2015-01-01

    We present studies for optimizing the next generation of ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). Results focus on mid-sized telescopes (MSTs) for CTA, detecting very high energy gamma rays in the energy range from a few hundred GeV to a few tens of TeV. We describe a novel, flexible detector Monte Carlo package, FAST (FAst Simulation for imaging air cherenkov Telescopes), that we use to simulate different array and telescope designs. The simulation is ...

  2. The path in late internationalization: an exploratory case study of a medium-sized company

    OpenAIRE

    Rosendahl, Sanna

    2013-01-01

    The role SMEs have in economic welfare and global competitiveness is increasingly emphasized throughout nations. Due to globalization, SMEs have now opportunities to internationalize but also pressure to internationalize in order to survive. Academic studies are increasingly interested in the dynamics of internationalization of SMEs in addition to multinational conglomerates. The objective of this study was to explore an established, middle-sized company in their starting point in intern...

  3. How to Improve Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Profitability by Practicing an Efficient Human Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio GARCÍA SÁNCHEZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In The European Union’s country members, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs play an essential role in economic life, having special features that make adaptation process to the contemporary economy easier. Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs are the most dynamic and vital factor of progress in the contemporary society, main generator of economic performance and substance in any country, employment opportunity provider for most of population, major contributor to the national budget, and engine to improve the living standard of the population. SMEs represent 99% from all enterprises, drawing up the main human resources aglomeration. In the contemporary economic context, SMEs should act as learning entities, by developing the most important resources they own: the human resources. Human resource development (HRD has gained a permanent role within SMEs, agencies and nations, increasingly not only as an academic discipline, but as a central theme in development area. Being a combination of training and education, in a broad context of adequate human resource policies, HRD ensures the continual improvement and growth of both individual and organization.

  4. The Role of Knowledge Management in Enhancing the Competitiveness of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A. Alawneh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge is one of the enterprise’s most important assets that influence its competitiveness. One way to capture an enterprise’s knowledge and make it available to all its members is through the use of knowledge management practices. This paper discusses the importance of knowledge management (KM in Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs and presents a framework to deal with knowledge management in order to enhance their competitiveness. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs are known for too much implicit knowledge, limited resources, insufficiently shared between managers and other employees. So, in the context of SMEs, KM can be used to capture knowledge and experience generated during their operations, activities, and processes. This research paper addresses a new way of thinking about the role of KM in SMEs through developing a framework that combines five phases of the KM lifecycle (capture, creation, codification, communication, and capitalization. This framework is called “A Five C’s Knowledge Management Framework”. The application of this framework will improve the success rate and competitiveness of SMEs.

  5. Randomized clinical trial of mast cell inhibition in patients with a medium-sized abdominal aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, H; Eldrup, N

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is thought to develop as a result of inflammatory processes in the aortic wall. In particular, mast cells are believed to play a central role. The AORTA trial was undertaken to investigate whether the mast cell inhibitor, pemirolast, could retard the growth of medium-sized AAAs. In preclinical and clinical trials, pemirolast has been shown to inhibit antigen-induced allergic reactions. METHODS: Inclusion criteria for the trial were patients with an AAA of 39-49?mm in diameter on ultrasound imaging. Among exclusion criteria were previous aortic surgery, diabetes mellitus, and severe concomitant disease with a life expectancy of less than 2?years. Included patients were treated with 10, 25 or 40?mg pemirolast, or matching placebo for 52?weeks. The primary endpoint was change in aortic diameter as measured from leading edge adventitia at the anterior wall to leading edge adventitia at the posterior wall in systole. All ultrasound scans were read in a central imaging laboratory. RESULTS: Some 326 patients (mean age 70·8?years; 88·0 per cent men) were included in the trial. The overall mean growth rate was 2·42?mm during the 12-month study. There was no statistically significant difference in growth between patients receiving placebo and those in the three dose groups of pemirolast. Similarly, there were no differences in adverse events. CONCLUSION: Treatment with pemirolast did not retard the growth of medium-sized AAAs. Registration number: NCT01354184 (https://www.clinicaltrials.gov).

  6. Increasing Returns to Scale, Dynamics of Industrial Structure and Size Distribution of Firms

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Y; Di, Z; Fan, Ying; Li, Menghui; Di, Zengru

    2004-01-01

    A model is presented of the market dynamics to emphasis the effects of increasing returns to scale, including the description of the born and death of the adaptive producers. The evolution of market structure and its behavior with the technological shocks are discussed. Its dynamics is in good agreement with some empirical stylized facts of industrial evolution. Together with the diversities of demand and adaptive growth strategies of firms, the generalized model has reproduced the power-law distribution of firm size. Three factors mainly determine the competitive dynamics and the skewed size distributions of firms: 1. Self-reinforcing mechanism; 2. Adaptive firm grows strategies; 3. Demand diversities or widespread heterogeneity in the technological capabilities of different firms. Key words: Econophysics, Increasing returns, Industry dynamics, Size distribution of firms

  7. Development of laboratory and process sensors to monitor particle size distribution of industrial slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendse, H.P.

    1992-10-01

    In this paper we present a novel measurement technique for monitoring particle size distributions of industrial colloidal slurries based on ultrasonic spectroscopy and mathematical deconvolution. An on-line sensor prototype has been developed and tested extensively in laboratory and production settings using mineral pigment slurries. Evaluation to date shows that the sensor is capable of providing particle size distributions, without any assumptions regarding their functional form, over diameters ranging from 0.1 to 100 micrometers in slurries with particle concentrations of 10 to 50 volume percents. The newly developed on-line sensor allows one to obtain particle size distributions of commonly encountered inorganic pigment slurries under industrial processing conditions without dilution.

  8. Human resource management in small and medium-sized vineyards in Chile / Administración de recursos humanos en pequeñas y medianas viñas en Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gregorio, Pérez Arrau; Felipe, Muñoz Medina.

    Full Text Available G. Pérez Arrau y F. Muñoz Medina.2014. Administración de recursos humanos en pequeñas y medianas viñas en Chile. Cien. Inv. Agr. 42(2): 141-151. El objetivo de este artículo es la búsqueda de prácticas de gestión de recursos humanos en pequeñas y medianas viñas en Chile, identificando agentes y grup [...] os relevantes que permitan una mejor comprensión de cómo estas empresas gestionan sus recursos humanos. La investigación se basa en 22 entrevistas realizadas a directores de personal e informantes claves de un total de 16 viñas productoras de vino entre los años 2009 y 2012. Se incluye la recolección y análisis de literatura especializada sobre gestión de recursos humanos en PYMES. La investigación muestra características evidentes, problemas y desafíos con el objetivo de mejorar la producción, la innovación y la sostenibilidad a largo plazo. A pesar de que la industria del vino es un área económica emblemática de Chile, la forma en que administra sus recursos humanos es desconocida, por lo que esta investigación se centra en esta área poco conocida tan importante para la productividad. Abstract in english G. Pérez Arrau, and F. Muñoz Medina. 2014. Human resource management in small and medium-sized vineyards in Chile. Cien. Inv. Agr. 41(2): 141-151. The focus of this paper is the identification of human resource management practices in small and medium-sized vineyards in Chile, identifying agents and [...] relevant groups that allow a better understanding of how these companies manage their human resources. The research is based on 22 interviews held with personnel managers and key informants from a total of 16 wine-producing vineyards between 2009 and 2012. The research involved collecting studies and analyzing the specialized literature on human resource management in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The research highlights the features, relevant problems and challenges of human resources management with the aim of improving production, innovation and long-term sustainability. Although the wine industry is an emblematic economic area of Chile, how it manages its human resources is unknown, so this research focuses on this little-known area that is so important to productivity.

  9. Analysis of the Emerging China Green Era and Its Influence on Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Development: Review and Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Randriamalala Jean Luc Stevens; Mijitaba Maman Moustapha; Pertiwi Evelyn; Randriamalala Jean Stevenson

    2013-01-01

    Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) play a vital role in China’s economy as generators of employment, revenue and innovation. With the unprecedented economic development of China, the increase of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) number has resulted in a massive resources and energy consumption that produces significant generation of waste by-products. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that China is facing an emerging green era. The raise of Chinese environmentalism is...

  10. Market Orientation: Journey from Antecedents to Business Performance in a Developing Economy A Case-Study of Botswana’s Small and Medium Size Manufacturing Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Frederick O. Opeda; Olumide O. Jaiyeoba; Amanze Donatus

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the link between antecedents of market orientation and performance of Botswana’s Small and Medium sized Manufacturing Firms. This study is primarily centered on empirically investigating two issues : test the applicability of MARKOR Scale ( A widely used market orientation measure developed by Kholi and Jaworski (1990) ,amongst Botswana’s small and medium sized manufacturing firms, and investigating the factors (Antecedents) influencing the Botswana’s manufactur...

  11. Policy options to promote energy efficient and environmentally sound technologies in small- and medium-scale industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rapid industrialization of Asian developing countries has pushed the need for more energy at the cost of environmental degradation. Though large industries are targeted for energy conservation and pollution prevention, small and medium scale industries (SMI) also contribute to significant pollution. This paper discusses the role of SMI in the economy, its energy consumption and impact on the environment. An overview of the energy and environment policies of China, India, Sri Lanka, the Philippines and Vietnam, and the role of energy efficient and environmentally sound technologies (E3ST) as a viable means to meet these modern challenges in SMI is discussed. The barriers faced in adopting these technologies have been identified and an analysis has been done of the various strategies and policy options available to governments to promote E3ST in SMI. Examples and illustrations of such successful efforts have also been highlighted

  12. An Empirical Study of IT Innovation Adoption Among Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Klang Valley, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Moghavvemi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—The purpose of this research is to use and validate the Entrepreneurial Event model as a base model to investigate SME owners’ perception toward IT innovation adoption and use. This paper also attempts to investigate the key determinants of the adoption of IT innovation among small and medium sized enterprises in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This study revised and validated the Entrepreneurial Event Model in a new context and tried to examine the effect of perceived desirability, propensity to act and performance expectancy on behavior intention to adopt and use IT innovation in SMEs companies. Design/ methodology/ approach—Based on the research model the questionnaire was developed using previous work in the areas of entrepreneurship (Entrepreneurial Event Model and technology acceptance (UTAUT. The data used to test the hypothesis is collected from various spectrums of Malaysian industries in Kuala Lumpur. A total of 1,000 businesses were identified and 412 completed questionnaires were available in this study. The research model was applied using the structural equation modelling technique. Finding—The results of this study indicated that perceived desirability, propensity to act and performance expectancy have a significant positive influence on behavioral intention, and explained a significant amount of the variance in predicting a SMEs owners intention to adopt IT innovation. Propensity to act is the strongest determinant of intention to use IT innovations among Malaysian SME owners follow by perceived desirability and performance expectancy. The results suggest that attractiveness of IT innovation is an important determinant towards the intention to adopt IT innovation. The result revealed that SME owners are more willing to use IT innovation, which is more attractive. Perceived usefulness (performance expectancy of IT innovation is the third most important factor that SME owners consider when they want to adopt and use new technology in their jobs. The results also revealed that experience moderated the relationship between determinants and behavior intention. Research Limitations/implications—The number of male and female SMEs owners is not equal and our respondents were mostly men compared to women. This study measure intention to use IT innovation, and did not measure use behavior. Practical implications—This study extends to knowledge on IS adoption behavior research by using entrepreneurial event models in the context of technology acceptance. Furthermore, from the SME owners’ points of view, this study has shed some light on the adoption and use behavior and clarified the situation for SME owners when they want to adopt and use IT innovation to be successful in their job and market. Originality/value—This study is one of the first to utilize the Entrepreneurial Event Model (EPM to the technology acceptance domain. It also provides a broader view of the IT innovation adoption decision and sheds some additional light on individual technology usage behavior.

  13. An Empirical Study of IT Innovation Adoption Among Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Klang Valley, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Zhao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—The purpose of this research is to use and validate the Entrepreneurial Event model as a base model to investigate SME owners’ perception toward IT innovation adoption and use. This paper also attempts to investigate the key determinants of the adoption of IT innovation among small and medium sized enterprises in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This study revised and validated the Entrepreneurial Event Model in a new context and tried to examine the effect of perceived desirability, propensity to act and performance expectancy on behavior intention to adopt and use IT innovation in SMEs companies.Design/ methodology/ approach—Based on the research model the questionnaire was developed using previous work in the areas of entrepreneurship (Entrepreneurial Event Model and technology acceptance (UTAUT. The data used to test the hypothesis is collectedfrom various spectrums of Malaysian industries in Kuala Lumpur. A total of 1,000 businesses were identified and 412 completed questionnaires were available in this study. The research model was applied using the structural equation modelling technique.Finding—The results of this study indicated that perceived desirability, propensity to act and performance expectancy have a significant positive influence on behavioral intention, and explained a significant amount of the variance in predicting a SMEs owners intention to adopt IT innovation. Propensity to act is the strongest determinant of intention to use IT innovations among Malaysian SME owners follow by perceived desirability and performance expectancy. The results suggest that attractiveness of IT innovation is an important determinant towards the intention to adopt IT innovation. The result revealed that SME owners are more willing to use IT innovation, which is more attractive. Perceived usefulness (performance expectancy of IT innovation is the third most important factor that SME owners consider when they want to adopt and use new technology in their jobs. The results also revealed that experience moderated the relationship between determinants and behavior intention.Research Limitations/implications—The number of male and female SMEsowners is not equal and our respondents were mostly men compared to women. This study measure intention to use IT innovation, and did not measure use behavior.Practical implications—This study extends to knowledge on IS adoption behavior research by using entrepreneurial event models in the context of technology acceptance.Furthermore, from the SME owners’ points of view, this study has shed some light on the adoption and use behavior and clarified the situation for SME owners when they want to adopt and use IT innovation to be successful in their job and market.Originality/value—This study is one of the first to utilize the Entrepreneurial Event Model (EPM to the technology acceptance domain. It also provides a broader view of the IT innovation adoption decision and sheds some additional light on individual technology usage behavior.

  14. Evaluation of the Decree on Emission Regulations for Medium-sized Combustion Installations; Evaluatie Besluit emissie-eisen middelgrote stookinstallaties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroon, P.; Plomp, A.J. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Van Berkel, L.; Burgers, W.; Hermans, L.; Groot, M.; Simonse, W. [Kenniscentrum InfoMil, Rijkswaterstaat Water, Verkeer en Leefomgeving, Den Haag (Netherlands); Kruithof, P.; Taal, M.; Van Bergen, J.; Walthaus, H. [Ministerie van Infrastructuur en Milieu IenM, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    In April 2010 the Dutch decree on emission limit values (ELVs) on medium-sized combustion installations entered into force. Bems sets ELVs for NOx, SO2, PM and CxHy. In 2013 the Bems legislation was transferred to the Activities Decree (In Dutch: Ab - Activiteitenbesluit). At the same time the Industrial Emissions Directive (IED) was implemented in the Ab. At the time Bems entered into force, it was decided to evaluate this legislation in 2014. Due to incorporation of Bems and the implementation of the IED in the Ab, it was decided to perform this evaluation a year earlier, thereby enabling the consideration of several stakeholders' comments on these implementations. This report presents the main conclusions of this evaluation. In Bems, combustion installations smaller than 50 MWth have to comply with ELVs based on Best Available Technology (BAT). Five possible ELVs have been discussed but not implemented in Bems, due to a lack of knowledge. These ELVs have been included in this evaluation. For gas engines < 2.5 MWth the NOx ELV could be more stringent, namely 140 mg/Nm{sup 3} instead of 340 mg/Nm{sup 3}; all ELVs are set at dry conditions in the flue gas and 3% O2. For biogas engines, introduction of the same ELV might be postponed until a comparable ELV enters into force in 2016 in a Californian region. Both the Californian ELV and this ELV need a gas cleaning technology. For (bio)diesel engines the dust ELV could be more stringent, namely 15 mg PM/Nm{sup 3} instead of 50 mg PM/Nm{sup 3}, while for NOx the ELV can be tightened from 450 mg/Nm{sup 3} to 250 mg/Nm{sup 3}. Both ELVs may be postponed until Tier 4 limits in the USA enter into force in the period 2014-2017. The Netherlands is one of the very few countries with CxHy ELVs for gas engines. The current CxHy ELV of 1500 mg C/Nm{sup 3} may be tightened to 1200 mg C/Nm{sup 3}. Other issues and changes, directly related to the Dutch legislation, have been discussed as well. These include exemption rules for installations running less than 500 full-load hours per year and the reintroduction of an inspection prior to commissioning. Moreover, maximum ELVs for furnaces <50 MWth of 80 mg NOx/Nm{sup 3} for gas firing and 120 mg NOx/Nm{sup 3} for oil firing have been discussed. As a result of this evaluation, the Ab has been changed; for example, ELVs for combustion of non-standard fuels are now set by the licensing authority. Finally, several chapters in this report are devoted to biomass firing and potential restrictions of ELVs for new installations [Dutch] Dit rapport betreft een evaluatie van het Besluit emissie-eisen middelgrote stookinstallaties milieubeheer (Bems). Het besluit geeft milieuregels voor bedrijven die energie (warmte, elektriciteit, mechanische energie) opwekken door het verbranden van brandstoffen in stookinstallaties, zoals verwarmingsketels, motoren en gasturbines.

  15. Monte Carlo studies of medium-size telescope designs for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, M.; Jogler, T.; Dumm, J.; Funk, S.

    2016-01-01

    We present studies for optimizing the next generation of ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). Results focus on mid-sized telescopes (MSTs) for CTA, detecting very high energy gamma rays in the energy range from a few hundred GeV to a few tens of TeV. We describe a novel, flexible detector Monte Carlo package, FAST (FAst Simulation for imaging air cherenkov Telescopes), that we use to simulate different array and telescope designs. The simulation is somewhat simplified to allow for efficient exploration over a large telescope design parameter space. We investigate a wide range of telescope performance parameters including optical resolution, camera pixel size, and light collection area. In order to ensure a comparison of the arrays at their maximum sensitivity, we analyze the simulations with the most sensitive techniques used in the field, such as maximum likelihood template reconstruction and boosted decision trees for background rejection. Choosing telescope design parameters representative of the proposed Davies-Cotton (DC) and Schwarzchild-Couder (SC) MST designs, we compare the performance of the arrays by examining the gamma-ray angular resolution and differential point-source sensitivity. We further investigate the array performance under a wide range of conditions, determining the impact of the number of telescopes, telescope separation, night sky background, and geomagnetic field. We find a 30-40% improvement in the gamma-ray angular resolution at all energies when comparing arrays with an equal number of SC and DC telescopes, significantly enhancing point-source sensitivity in the MST energy range. We attribute the increase in point-source sensitivity to the improved optical point-spread function and smaller pixel size of the SC telescope design.

  16. Sales Organization & Tactics : Solutions for improving the sales function in medium sized B-2-B companies

    OpenAIRE

    Aller, Rick Johan

    2010-01-01

    The thesis is a work summarizing the most important obstacles in the sales function in a mid-sized B-2-B company. It suggests solutions to the problems on both an organizational and a tactical level. Practical knowledge and case studies are intertwined in the theory for the reader to quickly grasp the vital points of both organizational and tactical issues. It then provides a guide for applying the suggested solutions in practice. The thesis is helpful to any company or start-up aiming to imp...

  17. Influence of grain size on chalcopyrite ore leaching in acidic medium

    OpenAIRE

    M. M. ANTONIJEVIC; G. D. BOGDANOVIC; S. M. SERBULA; S. M. MILIC

    2007-01-01

    This work presents an investigation of column leaching of a chalcopyrite ore using sulphuric acid where dissolved oxygen and iron(III) ions play the role of oxidants. The investigations were carried out in PVC columns, diameter 110 mm and height 1000 mm, by percolation of the leaching solution through the ore layer. The influence of ore grain size on the degree of leaching and acid consumption was examined. The formation of gypsum on limestone results in the comminution of the initial raw mat...

  18. Small and medium-sized firms top management teams’ decision making in global acquisitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Kiessling

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The new global marketplace has caused changes in some organizations’/industries’ forms and execution of strategy and reliance on international personnel. Entry and success through the accumulation of knowledge in the global marketplace have become the impetus for sustainable competitive/developmental advantage for many corporations. Many organizations choose a strategy focusing on international acquisitions in foreign markets to compete effectively in the current ever-changing dynamic competitive landscape. After acquisition, the monitoring of the operations of the new international subsidiary by US firms typically is an ethnocentric example of applying home-country standards and controls. We suggest that the top management team (TMT of a firm is a valuable resource, needs to be retained and that ethnocentric monitoring must be reconsidered. This research focuses on the TMT and their value to the firm to help explain the variation in acquisition success. Thus post-acquisition integration and monitoring must account for this valuable asset.

  19. Engaging with economic evaluation methods: insights from small and medium enterprises in the UK medical devices industry after training workshops

    OpenAIRE

    Craven Michael P; Allsop Matthew J; Morgan Stephen P; Martin Jennifer L

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background With increased governmental interest in value assessment of technologies and where medical device manufacturers are finding it increasingly necessary to become more familiar with economic evaluation methods, the study sought to explore the levels of health economics knowledge within small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and to scope strategies they employ to demonstrate the value of their products to purchasers. Methods A short questionnaire was completed by participan...

  20. The medium-sized charged YbSin± (n = 7-13) clusters: A relativistic computational investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: The geometries and electronic properties of the medium-sized YbSin± (n = 7-13) clusters are investigated systematically by using relativistic density functional method. The medium-sized YbSin± clusters with n = 8, 9, 10, and 13 significantly deform their neutral geometries, which are confirmed by the calculated AIP and VIP values. The relative stabilities in terms of the calculated fragmentation energies exhibit that the YbSin+ (n = 8, 10, 13) and YbSin- (n = 8, 10, 12) clusters have stronger abundances than their corresponding neighbors; the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gaps of the charged clusters are increased generally as the cluster size going from n = 7 to 13; the large HOMO-LUMO gaps of charged clusters indicate that their chemical activities are weaker than those of their neutral counterparts, especially for n = 7, 10, and 13 clusters. Generally, the obtained or removed charge influences electronic and geometrical structures of the charged clusters. Research highlights: ? Most of the charged YbSin (n = 7-13) clusters keep frameworks as the neutrals, and the geometries of 8a+, 9a+, 10a+, and 13a+ are significant deformed, which are reflected from the calculated VIPs and AIPs values. The charged YbSi8 cluster is actually the most stable isomer. ? According to the calculated HOMO-LUMO gaps of the clusters, one finds that the HOMO-LUMO gaps for the charged YbSin (n = 7-13) clusters are smaller than those of the neutrals, reflecting that the removed or obtained charge influences the HOMO-LUMO gaps of neutral clusters. ? The calculated results show that the YbSin (n = 7-13) clusters are the nonmagnetic structures because the f orbitals are filled completely, which are not involved in the chemical bonding. - Abstract: The geometries and electronic properties of the medium-sized YbSin± (n = 7-13) clusters are investigated systematically by using relativistic density functional method. The medium-sized YbSin± clusters with n = 8, 9, 10, and 13 significantly deform their neutral geometries, which are confirmed by the calculated AIP and VIP values. The relative stabilities in terms of the calculated fragmentation energies exhibit that the YbSin+ (n = 8, 10, 13) and YbSin- (n = 8, 10, 12) clusters have stronger abundances than their corresponding neighbors; the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gaps of the charged clusters are increased generally as the cluster size going from n = 7 to 13; the large HOMO-LUMO gaps of charged clusters indicate that their chemical activities are weaker than those of their neutral counterparts, especially for n = 7, 10, and 13 clusters. Generally, the obtained or removed charge influences electronic and geometrical structures of the charged clusters.

  1. Mapping trends of large and medium size carnivores of conservation interest in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Cristian Adamescu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We analysed yearly estimates of population size data during 2001-2012 for five carnivores species of conservation interest (Ursus arctos, Canis lupus, Lynx lynx, Felis silvestris and Canis aureus. Population size estimations were done by the game management authorities and integrated by the competent authorities on the Ministry of Environment and Climate Change. Trends in data were detected using non-parametric Mann-Kendall test. This test was chosen considering the short length of data series and its usefulness for non-normal distributed data. The trend was tested at three spatial scales: game management units (n=1565, biogeographical region (n=5 and national. Trends depicted for each game management unit were plotted using ArcGIS, resulting species trend distribution maps. For the studied period increasing population trends were observed for Ursus arctos, Canis lupus, Canis aureus and Lynx lynx, while for Felis silvestris there was no trend recorded. Such an analysis in especially useful for conservation proposes, game management and reporting obligations under article 17 of the EC Habitat Directive, using population trend as a proxy for population dynamics. We conclude that the status of the five carnivore species is favourable during the study period.

  2. 3D Characterization of the Magnetic Signature of a Medium Sized Impact Crater at Odessa, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, A.; Soule, D.; Everett, M.; Rodman, T.; Mangue Ndong, M.; Pereira, A.; Platt, P.; Trahan, A.

    2008-12-01

    Meteorite impacts are a common occurrence throughout Earth's geologic history. Many of the surface expressions of large ancient impacts have been subsequently erased by weathering and erosion processes. The study of preserved meteorite impacts is necessary to better understand this natural hazard which has been increasingly linked to rapid climate change and mass extinctions. The 60 ka Odessa meteorite crater located in Ector Co. Texas, is unique because it is not only well-preserved, but also has been the subject of extensive geologic examination. Geologic mapping and numeric models indicate that the crater was caused by a relatively small oblique impactor. The crater rim is remarkably well exposed. Much of the ejecta blanket is present, although deeply eroded. There has been considerable site disturbance due to drilling, shaft excavation, trenching, construction of a museum, trails, and the oil/gas activity in surrounding fields. Two previous geophysical investigations have shown that our data clearly corresponds to large-scale thrust deformation. With this in mind we have performed 3D high resolution magnetic gradiometer surveys that will allow us to quantify and characterize the magnetic signature of small to medium impacts. We will tie this data set to a 3D photorealistic outcrop image provided by laser scanning with coarser-scale, below-ground geophysical information. Our geophysical imagery provides a useful constraint on numerical simulations of the impact and its immediate regional-scale environmental effects. This information can be used to identify impact sites whose surface expression has been erased by natural erosional processes, allowing for improved frequency estimates and improved geo-hazard assessment.

  3. Reconstructing eruptive source parameters from tephra deposit: a numerical approach for medium-sized explosive eruptions

    CERN Document Server

    Spanu, A; Barsotti, S

    2015-01-01

    Since the seventies, several reconstruction techniques have been proposed, and are currently used, to extrapolate and quantify eruptive parameters from sampled deposit datasets. Discrete numbers of tephra ground loadings or stratigraphic records are usually processed to estimate source eruptive values. Reconstruction techniques like Pyle, Power law and Weibull are adopted as standard to quantify the erupted mass (or volume) whereas Voronoi for reconstructing the granulometry. Reconstructed values can be affected by large uncertainty due to complexities occurring within the atmospheric dispersion and deposition of volcanic particles. Here we want to quantify the sensitivity of reconstruction techniques, and to quantify how much estimated values of mass and grain size differ from emitted and deposited ones. We adopted a numerical approach simulating with a dispersal code a mild explosive event occurring at Mt. Etna, with eruptive parameters similar to those estimated for eruptions occurred in the last decade. T...

  4. Recent advances in gyrokinetic full-f particle simulation of medium sized Tokamaks with ELMFIRE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large-scale kinetic simulations of toroidal plasmas based on first principles are called for in studies of transition from low to high confinement mode and internal transport barrier formation in the core plasma. Such processes are best observed and diagnosed in detached plasma conditions in mid-sized tokamaks, so gyrokinetic simulations for these conditions are warranted. A first principles test-particle based kinetic model ELMFIRE[1] has been developed and used in interpretation[1,2] of FT-2 and DIII-D experiments. In this work we summarize progress in Cyclone (DIII-D core) and ASDEX Upgrade pedestal region simulations, and show that in simulations the choice of adiabatic electrons results in quenching of turbulence (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Recent advances in gyrokinetic full-f particle simulation of medium sized Tokamaks with ELMFIRE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janhunen, S.J.; Kiviniemi, T.P.; Korpio, T.; Leerink, S.; Nora, M. [Helsinki University of Technology, Euratom-Tekes Association, Espoo (Finland); Heikkinen, J.A. [VTT, Euratom-Tekes Association, Espoo (Finland); Ogando, F. [Helsinki University of Technology, Euratom-Tekes Association, Espoo (Finland); Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    Large-scale kinetic simulations of toroidal plasmas based on first principles are called for in studies of transition from low to high confinement mode and internal transport barrier formation in the core plasma. Such processes are best observed and diagnosed in detached plasma conditions in mid-sized tokamaks, so gyrokinetic simulations for these conditions are warranted. A first principles test-particle based kinetic model ELMFIRE[1] has been developed and used in interpretation[1,2] of FT-2 and DIII-D experiments. In this work we summarize progress in Cyclone (DIII-D core) and ASDEX Upgrade pedestal region simulations, and show that in simulations the choice of adiabatic electrons results in quenching of turbulence (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Computed tomography of a medium size Roman bronze statue of Cupid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettuzzi, M.; Brancaccio, R. [University of Bologna, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bologna (Italy); Casali, F.; Morigi, M.P. [University of Bologna, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bologna (Italy); Centro Fermi, Rome (Italy); Carson, D.; Chiari, G. [Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Maish, J. [The J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-01-14

    Diagnostics based on X-ray computed tomography (CT) are becoming increasingly important, not only in the medical field but in industry and cultural heritage. CT devices typical for medical applications, however, can seldom be used on art objects because both they are not easily transportable and they often present high X-ray absorption. It is therefore necessary to make use of portable instrumentation and/or to develop tomographic systems optimized to the characteristics of the objects under examination. This work describes the computed tomography of a first century A.D. Roman bronze statue of Cupid (96.AB.53) in the collection of the J. Paul Getty Museum, within the collaborative framework between the Getty Conservation Institute and the Department of Physics and Astronomy (DIFA) of the University of Bologna (Italy). The tomography performed at the Getty facilities employed a 450 kV X-ray tube and a detection system developed at DIFA. The study highlighted the casting and construction techniques used by Roman foundry workers and provided information on the status of conservation of the statue. A 3D virtual reconstruction allowed the user to define different cross-sections enabling the study of the internal features. (orig.)

  7. Computed tomography of a medium size Roman bronze statue of Cupid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnostics based on X-ray computed tomography (CT) are becoming increasingly important, not only in the medical field but in industry and cultural heritage. CT devices typical for medical applications, however, can seldom be used on art objects because both they are not easily transportable and they often present high X-ray absorption. It is therefore necessary to make use of portable instrumentation and/or to develop tomographic systems optimized to the characteristics of the objects under examination. This work describes the computed tomography of a first century A.D. Roman bronze statue of Cupid (96.AB.53) in the collection of the J. Paul Getty Museum, within the collaborative framework between the Getty Conservation Institute and the Department of Physics and Astronomy (DIFA) of the University of Bologna (Italy). The tomography performed at the Getty facilities employed a 450 kV X-ray tube and a detection system developed at DIFA. The study highlighted the casting and construction techniques used by Roman foundry workers and provided information on the status of conservation of the statue. A 3D virtual reconstruction allowed the user to define different cross-sections enabling the study of the internal features. (orig.)

  8. Computed tomography of a medium size Roman bronze statue of Cupid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettuzzi, M.; Casali, F.; Morigi, M. P.; Brancaccio, R.; Carson, D.; Chiari, G.; Maish, J.

    2015-03-01

    Diagnostics based on X-ray computed tomography (CT) are becoming increasingly important, not only in the medical field but in industry and cultural heritage. CT devices typical for medical applications, however, can seldom be used on art objects because both they are not easily transportable and they often present high X-ray absorption. It is therefore necessary to make use of portable instrumentation and/or to develop tomographic systems optimized to the characteristics of the objects under examination. This work describes the computed tomography of a first century A.D. Roman bronze statue of Cupid (96.AB.53) in the collection of the J. Paul Getty Museum, within the collaborative framework between the Getty Conservation Institute and the Department of Physics and Astronomy (DIFA) of the University of Bologna (Italy). The tomography performed at the Getty facilities employed a 450 kV X-ray tube and a detection system developed at DIFA. The study highlighted the casting and construction techniques used by Roman foundry workers and provided information on the status of conservation of the statue. A 3D virtual reconstruction allowed the user to define different cross-sections enabling the study of the internal features.

  9. Analysis of hybrid waste-to-energy for medium-sized cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban centers have a huge demand for electricity and the growing problem of the solid waste management generated by their population, a relevant social and administrative problem. The correct disposal of the municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in cities is one of the most complex engineering problems that involves logistics, safety, environmental and energetic aspects for its adequate management. Due to a national policy of solid wastes recently promulgated, Brazilian cities are evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of incinerating the non-recyclable waste. São José dos Campos, a São Paulo State industrialized city, is considering the composting of organic waste for biogas production and mass incineration of non-recyclable waste. This paper presents a waste-to-energy system based on the integration of gas turbines to a MSW incinerator for producing thermal and electric energy as an alternative solution for the solid waste disposal in São José dos Campos, SP. A technical and economic feasibility study for the hybrid combined cycle plant is presented and revealed to be attractive when carbon credit and waste tax are included in the project income. - Highlights: ? We model a hybrid waste-to-energy cogeneration system for the disposal of MSW. ? Reference model for MSW treatment consists of biogas burning and composting. ? Hybrid cogeneration solution is superior to the biogas burning reference model. ? Carbon credit and waste tax increase the attractiveness of the proposed solution

  10. An empirical study on the effects of industrial clusters on small and medium enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Armoun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tendency to industrial clustering at the end of the twentieth century was a turning point in industrial development programs in most countries of the world. Industrial clustering is a model of industrial organization, which has entered industrial literature as a new development strategy. Clustering has provided utilization of efficiencies of scale and aggregation as well as efficiencies of collective efforts by creating conditions for competitiveness advantage, economical growth and export development in the international environment. Today, industrial clustering has been considered as a fundamental strategy for economic development and growth in almost all countries of the world including Iran. This paper aims to assess and to explain important factors affecting the competitiveness of industrial clusters. It also shows the relationship among these factors together. The proposed study uses fuzzy DEMATEL technique; hence, the affecting factors of competitiveness of industrial clusters in the automotive cluster in one of the provinces of Iran is investigated and the importance of each of these factors and their relationships are identified.

  11. Investigation of urban water quality using simulated rainfall in a medium size city of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Bo; Cheng, Xiao-Juan; Li, Lei

    2011-12-01

    Road-deposited sediment (RDS) is an important environmental medium for impacting the characteristics of pollutants in stormwater runoff; it is of critical importance to investigate the water quality of urban environments. The paper develops a rainfall simulator as an important research tool to ensure homogeneity and reduce the large number of variables that are usually inherent to urban water quality research. The rainfall simulator was used to experiment runoff samples from typical residential and traffic areas in the Zhenjiang. The data show that land use is one of the major factors contributing to the difference in the pollutants concentration in the RDS. The maximum mean EMC for TN, TDN, TP, and TDP at residential area was 5.52, 3.07, 1.65, and 0.36 mg/L, respectively. The intense traffic area displayed the highest metal concentrations. Concentrations of runoff pollutants varied greatly with land use and storm characteristics. The correlation of pollutant concentrations with runoff times was another predominant phenomenon. Peaks in pollutants concentration occurred at 1 and 10 min during the whole storm event. A concentration peak that correlates with a peak in runoff flowrate correlates with rainfall intensity. The pollutant loadings (kilograms per hectare) in the Zhenjiang were 11.39 and 55.28 for COD, 8.42 and 57.48 for SS, 0.11 and 0.88 for TN, 0.02 and 0.14 for TP, 0.02 and 0.09 for Zn, and 0.01 and 0.04 for Pb. The higher rainfall contribute to the higher pollutant loading at the residential and intense traffic areas, as a result of the pollutant loadings direct dependence on rainfall intensity. The results confirmed that the rainfall simulator is a reliable tool for urban water quality research and can be used to simulate pollutant wash-off. These findings provide invaluable information for the development of appropriate management strategies to decrease nonpoint source contamination loading to the water environment in urban areas. PMID:21359999

  12. Corporate Social Responsibility in Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in Nigeria: An Example from the Hotel Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eme Joel Efiong

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility (CSR is the promise by business organizations to behave in a way that is ethicallyacceptable and at the same time contributing to the economic development and improvement of the livingconditions of the employees, the catchment community and the larger society. Small and medium scale enterprises(SMEs can serve as the engine room for corporate social responsibility in developing countries, like Nigeria, sincea high proportion of economic activity is generated through them. Hotel industry, belonging to this group hasexpanded rapidly since the return to democratic rule in 1999 primarily due to government’s interest in tourismdevelopment. Such expansion of the hotel industry calls for an enquiry into how socially responsible its activitiesare. Hence, this study explored the corporate social responsibility of the hotel industry in Nigeria. Primarily, thestudy made use of quantitative data obtained though questionnaire administered on the management officers inthese hotels. It was found out that corporate social responsibility practices are minimal and at an informal level. Itis recommended that corporate social responsibility should be embraced by the small and medium scale enterprisesin order to fast track the country’s overall development.

  13. An assessment of acoustic emission techniques on medium-sized pressure vessels tested to failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Location analysis has been used to examine acoustic emission from a partial thickness slit in a test vessel during pressurization. Preliminary invesigations showed that sharp emission pulses at a source would propagate as sharp pulses to a sensor several metres distant and that intrinsic material attenuation was negligible at the 165 kHz operating frequency. Pulse arrival times at three sensors were used to locate emission sources and the requirement for near-coincidence in arrival time at all sensors reduced background noise to very low levels. The slit was clearly delineated by its emission. Emission activity moved from the centre to the ends of the slit as the stress on the slit increased, suggesting that emissions were generated during the initial yielding of the steel. This indication was strengthened by the fact that the emission count appeared to be directly proportional to the volume of plastically yielded material associated with the defect, based on a simple model for the increase in plastic zone size with pressure. Application of acoustic emission techniques to structural validation is discussed in terms of the measured amplitude spectrum of the detected acoustic emissions. A relationship is derived between the detected emission count, the threshold amplitude for detection, the sensor spacing and the created plastic volume for the steel studied. (Auth.)

  14. 48 CFR 52.219-21 - Small Business Size Representation for Targeted Industry Categories Under the Small Business...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Small Business Size Representation for Targeted Industry Categories Under the Small Business Competitiveness Demonstration Program....219-21 Small Business Size Representation for Targeted Industry Categories Under the Small...

  15. Ceramic Membrane Fabrication from Industrial Waste: Effect of Particle Size Distribution on the Porosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Norliza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial waste from sanitary company is chosen in this study as a precursor to fabricate ceramic membrane. It has been reported that enormous rejects being generated every year by this company. A preliminary characterization of this industrial waste shows the presence of quartz mineral, which is one of the main and suitable elements for the formation of ceramic products. Extrusion method was applied in fabricating tubular type ceramic membrane. In this present study, the effect of three different particle size distribution of the powder waste on the porosity is presented. The characterization of the porosity was performed in order to gain the insights in preparing ceramic membrane with good permeability. Results show that almost 40% porosity is able to be obtained using higher particle size distribution. However, further improvements in working conditions should be optimized in order to have a ceramic membrane with good physical properties.

  16. Radioactive waste industrial management in France for medium- and long-term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The context within which the industrial scale management of radioactive wastes takes place is briefly outlined. The regulations already in force or envisaged in France in this field are exposed. Emphasis is given to the activities of the National Agency for the management of radioactive wastes (ANDRA). The reasons why this organization was created are discussed together with the type of work conferred to it, its present workload, the industrial management concepts it applies, its present and future potential, the costs envisaged for waste disposal and the financial solutions adopted. The industrial technical assistance policy of ANDRA is presented

  17. Small and medium-sized enterprises in the export-oriented strategy of Ukraine’s development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Yevdokymova

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the role of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in the economic development of Ukraine, as it enters the world arena through its export potential. The author accentuates the diverse methods, ways and areas of economic policy for improving the export performance of SMEs. In particular, attention is centered on the support of SMEs by governments, international organizations and associations of entrepreneurs-exporters. In the opinion of the author, it is imperative to analyze the global experience in improving and stimulating SME exports not only in the economically developed countries, but also in those that are at such a political and socioeconomic stage of development as Ukraine is today. The author lists the policy areas for improving SME exports and their essence and outlines the prospects for their further development.

  18. THE LIMITS OF THE EXTENDED HÜCKEL THEORY TO CALCULATE THE TOTAL DENSITY OF STATES OF MEDIUM-SIZED MOLECULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN SEBASTIÁN GÓMEZ-JERIA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Two medium-sized molecular systems X60 (X=C,N were analyzed using Extended Hückel, Density Functional and ab initio Hartree-Fock methods. The aim of the work was to test the reliability of the EHT methodology to calculate the total Density of States distribution curve. The Extended Hückel method is only reliable in the cases of the first valence and conduction bands of these systems. For the rest of the Density of States distribution curve EHT performs badly. The sources of error of EHT, come from the non-inclusion of the electron-electron interaction and from incorrect results regarding the relative ordering of the MO degeneracies. Both sources of error should disappear when the occupied and empty molecular orbitals become very similar in energy over a certain range, forming an almost continuous band, as happens in bigger molecular systems

  19. THE LIMITS OF THE EXTENDED HÜCKEL THEORY TO CALCULATE THE TOTAL DENSITY OF STATES OF MEDIUM-SIZED MOLECULES

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JUAN SEBASTIÁN, GÓMEZ-JERIA.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Two medium-sized molecular systems X60 (X=C,N) were analyzed using Extended Hückel, Density Functional and ab initio Hartree-Fock methods. The aim of the work was to test the reliability of the EHT methodology to calculate the total Density of States distribution curve. The Extended Hückel method is [...] only reliable in the cases of the first valence and conduction bands of these systems. For the rest of the Density of States distribution curve EHT performs badly. The sources of error of EHT, come from the non-inclusion of the electron-electron interaction and from incorrect results regarding the relative ordering of the MO degeneracies. Both sources of error should disappear when the occupied and empty molecular orbitals become very similar in energy over a certain range, forming an almost continuous band, as happens in bigger molecular systems

  20. INNOVATION INCUBATORS – ENTITIES OF SUPPORT OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES’ COMPETITIVENESS IN THE MODERN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia MAIER

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Innovation incubators are entities of the infrastructure network of support of small and medium-sized enterprises. At the stage of SMEs’ maximum vulnerability, they improve the survival of innovative businesses through the range of services and facilities provided. They are designed to mitigate the problems faced by SMEs, which develop and implement innovations, ensuring sustainability and competitiveness. Along with promoting the entrepreneurial spirit, innovation incubators play an essential role in promoting knowledge and innovation transfer, introduction of the research results into economic circuit, creating links between businesses, universities, research institutions, etc., links between people, talents and resources. In this article, we will focus on innovation incubators, their role in the development of SMEs in the world and in the Republic of Moldova, making an accent in the creation and development of the country's first Innovation Incubator „Inovatorul”.

  1. FlashCam: a fully-digital camera for the medium-sized telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Pühlhofer, G; Bernhard, S; Capasso, M; Diebold, S; Eisenkolb, F; Florin, D; Föhr, C; Funk, S; Gadola, A; Garrecht, F; Hermann, G; Jung, I; Kalekin, O; Kalkuhl, C; Kasperek, J; Kihm, T; Lahmann, R; Manalaysay, A; Marszalek, A; Pfeifer, M; Rajda, P J; Reimer, O; Santangelo, A; Schanz, T; Schwab, T; Steiner, S; Straumann, U; Tenzer, C; Vollhardt, A; Weitzel, Q; Werner, F; Wolf, D; Zietara, K

    2015-01-01

    The FlashCam group is currently preparing photomultiplier-tube based cameras proposed for the medium-sized telescopes (MST) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The cameras are designed around the FlashCam readout concept which is the first fully-digital readout system for Cherenkov cameras, based on commercial FADCs and FPGAs as key components for the front-end electronics modules and a high performance camera server as back-end. This contribution describes the progress of the full-scale FlashCam camera prototype currently under construction, as well as performance results also obtained with earlier demonstrator setups. Plans towards the production and implementation of FlashCams on site are also briefly presented.

  2. Proposal for the CEA/DRN activity on small and medium size reactors research on threshold effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discussion on Small and Medium Size Reactors - SMR is difficult considering the presumptions, justified or not, that affect the debate. Nevertheless, within this context, the CEA/DRN/DER generic objective is the achievement of an exhaustive identification and assessment of the problems that are specific for the SMR. The paper shows the proposals for the activities that are actually under discussion at the CEA/DRN. Among these activities, the research on threshold effects is an essential stage in the assessment of the choices in innovative concepts. This research, as well as the assessment itself, must cover, in an exploratory way, the aspects of operation, safety, economy, fuel cycle, etc. Before starting or, in some cases, continuing this research work, it seems interesting to define a general outline which, by systematising the approach, provides a helpful tool to the designer. The document is a potential starting point (among others) for the discussions. (author)

  3. Development of Proof-of-Concept Units for the Advanced Medium-Sized Mobile Power Sources (AMMPS) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriulli, JB

    2002-04-03

    The purpose of this report is to document the development of the proof-of-concept units within the Advanced Medium-sized Mobile Power Sources (AMMPS) program. The design used a small, lightweight diesel engine, a permanent magnet alternator, power electronics and digital controls as outlined in the philosophy detailed previously. One small proof-of-concept unit was completed and delivered to the military. The unit functioned well but was not optimized at the time of delivery to the military. A tremendous amount of experience was gained during this phase that can be used in the development of any follow-on AMMPS production systems. Lessons learned and recommendations for follow-on specifications are provided. The unit demonstrated that significant benefits are possible with the new design philosophy. Trade-offs will have to be made but many of the advantages appear to be within the technical grasp of the market.

  4. Performance of Silicon Photomultipliers for the Dual-Mirror Medium-Sized Telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Biteau, Jonathan; Dang, Dennis; Doyle, Kevin; Johnson, Caitlin A; Williams, David A

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-ray observations in the very-high-energy domain (E > 30 GeV) can exploit the imaging of few-nanosecond Cherenkov flashes from atmospheric particle showers. Photomultipliers have been used as the primary photosensors to detect gamma-ray induced Cherenkov light for the past 25 years, but they are increasingly challenged by the swift progress of silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). We are working to identify the optimal photosensors for medium-sized Schwarzschild-Couder telescopes (SCT), which are proposed to contribute a significant fraction of the sensitivity of the Cherenkov Telescope Array in its core energy range. We present the capabilities of the latest SiPMs from the Hamamatsu, SensL, and Excelitas companies that we have characterized in our laboratory, and compare them to the SiPMs equipping the prototype SCT camera that is under construction.

  5. Performance Measurement in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises - Literature Review and Results from a German Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Kreusel, N.

    2008-01-01

    A literature review of Performance Measurement Systems (PMS) in Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) shows that the main contributions focus on the development of theoretical models, but not on guidelines for practical implementation. In this context, an important neglected aspect is the general fitness or readiness of a SME to implement a PMS. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to determine critical prerequisites for a successful PMS implementation in SMEs. For this purpose, a case study in a German SME was conducted. The findings indicate that the existence of specific contingency factors – Corporate Strategy, software-based Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) and Activity Based Costing (ABC) – strongly supports the successful implementation of a PMS and its later use. Hence, further research shall include these prerequisites as new variables determining the PMS process. Based on that, researchers and managers of SMEs can develop individual indicators to identify their own PMS readiness.

  6. Innovation incubators – entities of support of small and medium-sized enterprises’ competitiveness in the Modern economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maier Lidia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Innovation incubators are entities of the infrastructure network of support of small and medium-sized enterprises. At the stage of SMEs’ maximum vulnerability, they improve the survival of innovative businesses through the range of services and facilities provided. They are designed to mitigate the problems faced by SMEs, which develop and implement innovations, ensuring sustainability and competitiveness. Along with promoting the entrepreneurial spirit, innovation incubators play an essential role in promoting knowledge and innovation transfer, introduction of the research results into economic circuit, creating links between businesses, universities, research institutions, etc., links between people, talents and resources.In this article, we will focus on innovation incubators, their role in the development of SMEs in the world and in the Republic of Moldova, making an accent in the creation and development of the country's first Innovation Incubator „Inovatorul”.

  7. Oestrogenicity and chemical target analysis of water from small-sized industries in Pretoria, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mahomed, Shenaaz Ismail; Voyi, Kuku V.V.; Aneck-Hahn, Natalie H.; de Jager, Christiaan

    2008-01-01

    Increasing concern about endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and their effects on humans, animals and the environment resulted in this study being conducted. Water from 7 sites in the Pretoria West area (South Africa), with significant numbers of small-sized industries, was screened for oestrogenicity, using the Recombinant Yeast Cell Bioassay (RCBA). Target chemical analyses were carried out to establish the presence of EDCs, including p-nonylphenol (p-NP), bisphenol A (BPA), phthalate est...

  8. The Influence of Size on Corporate Culture and Organizational Effectiveness in the Nigerian Banking Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Edwinah Amah; C. A. Nwuche

    2013-01-01

    The paper examined the effect of size on corporate culture and organizational effectiveness in the Nigerian banking industry. A total of 388 managers were randomly drawn from a population of 13,339 managers of all the 24 banks in Nigeria. The instruments used for data collection were questionnaire and oral interview. A total of 320 copies of the questionnaire were retrieved and analyzed. Spearman’s Rank Correlation Statistical tool was used to test the hypotheses. The findings revealed that s...

  9. Sizing and dynamic analyses of a micro-grid supplying a harbor industrial area

    OpenAIRE

    Kreckelbergh, Stephane; Vechiu, Ionel

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the first results of the OptimaGRID project which focuses on the design of a microgrid used for industrial area, namely the Tarnos area of the Bayonne harbor. The objective is to size the electrical sources of the micro-grid according with the harbor needs and test its dynamic operation. For these analyses, HOMER® and EUROSTAG® software have been used.

  10. Effect of sodium nitrite-borax blend on the corrosion rate of low carbon steel in industrial water medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of sodium nitrite-borax blend on low carbon steel corrosion in industrial water medium at various temperatures, various inhibitors concentration of sodium nitrite and borax and at various rotational speeds of the specimens have been studied by gravimetric and polarization measurements. Optimization of the three variables was made and correlating the results obtained by using Box-Wilson statistical method. The process was considered as adsorption of inhibitor ions in oxide layer which form a passive film on the metal surface. The Langmuir isotherm was found to be the best description for the adsorption process. Thermodynamic parameters were evaluated and discussed

  11. Heavy metal speciation in various grain sizes of industrially contaminated street dust using multivariate statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y?ld?r?m, Gül?en; Tokal?o?lu, ?erife

    2016-02-01

    A total of 36 street dust samples were collected from the streets of the Organised Industrial District in Kayseri, Turkey. This region includes a total of 818 work places in various industrial areas. The modified BCR (the European Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction procedure was applied to evaluate the mobility and bioavailability of trace elements (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in street dusts of the study area. The BCR was classified into three steps: water/acid soluble fraction, reducible and oxidisable fraction. The remaining residue was dissolved by using aqua regia. The concentrations of the metals in street dust samples were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Also the effect of the different grain sizes (metals was investigated using the modified BCR procedure. The mobility sequence based on the sum of the first three phases (for Cu (48.9)>Pb (42.8)=Cr (42.1)>Ni (41.4)>Zn (40.9)>Co (36.6)=Mn (36.3)>Fe (3.1). No significant difference was observed among metal partitioning for the three particle sizes. Correlation, principal component and cluster analysis were applied to identify probable natural and anthropogenic sources in the region. The principal component analysis results showed that this industrial district was influenced by traffic, industrial activities, air-borne emissions and natural sources. The accuracy of the results was checked by analysis of both the BCR-701 certified reference material and by recovery studies in street dust samples. PMID:26595510

  12. Sustainable Product Service Systems in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs): Opportunities in the Leather Manufacturing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo J. Hernández Pardo; Tracy Bhamra; Ran Bhamra

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to identify opportunities to develop sustainable Product Service Systems (PSS) involving Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). The purpose of the research is to build understanding of how the integration of product and service design and the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) can contribute to identify opportunities to develop sustainable PSS involving SMEs. In order to develop the approach, research with 16 Colombian Manufacturing SMEs was ...

  13. Medium-Voltage Cables in Nuclear Plant Applications - State of Industry and Conditioning Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OAK-B135 This report reviews the types of medium-voltage (MV) cables in use in nuclear power plants and the techniques that are currently available to assess the condition of MV cable systems. The project identified the types of cable systems in nuclear plants and their operating conditions and then assessed the aging and failure mechanisms of these cables and suitable diagnostic test techniques. In addition, ways to alleviate conditions that cause the most severe aging were identified

  14. Public relations agencies in the UK travel industry: Does size matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Mart

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between an agency and its client has a limited time scale. Thus far,research has primarily focused on the relationship between advertising agencies and their clients. Based on a study of the existing literature, most of which is advertising based,this article explores the agency-client relationship for public relations agencies in the UK travel industry. Our model concentrates on the four phases of client-agency relationships:agency selection; successful relationships;failing relationships; and agency switching.Several factors influence these four phases, but this article focuses specifically on an under-examined factor: whether the size of a client's public relations agency might influence the nature of the relationship between a client and agency. UK travel companies with different sized public relations agencies were interviewed to test the model and assess the impact of agency size. We found evidence to suggest that agencies should be aware of how their size may influence client perception during the selection process. Agencies similarly should be conscious that their size might act as an indication of how clients perceive their ability, and indeed may influence their client-agency relationship on an ongoing basis. Attention to size-related perceptions may help prevent clients switching agencies.

  15. Green oriented urban development for urban ecosystem services provision in a medium sized city in southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinico F

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In southern Italy many cities are characterized by a lack of public urban greenspaces. Non-urbanized areas in these cities are suffering from surrounding urbanization pressures. These areas still provide important ecosystem services even if they are limited in size, highly fragmented and often neglected by local planning. New planning strategies are needed in order to protect and enhance the provision of ecosystem services delivered by existing Non-Urbanized areas, but municipalities usually have limited funds for acquiring public green areas via land expropriations. At the same time, requests for new urban development are still considerable. Consequently, it is not realistic to propose strategies for green areas that do not include new developments. The paper illustrates a strategy for a Green Oriented Urban Development (GOUD that has been applied for the Master Plan of Catania, a medium sized city in Sicily (southern Italy. The strategy includes a limited amount of developments as well as new greenspaces in selected areas (Resource Zones, through the transfer of property and development rights between the municipality and developers. The strategy will allow to enhance the provision of ecosystem services, especially cultural services (thanks to a dramatic increase of accessibility to new greenspaces, regulating services (through climate regulation by new green land covers and provisioning services such as urban agricultural products. Results show that it is possible to improve urban ecosystem services creating a more liveable and healthy urban environment at reduced cost for the municipal administrations.

  16. Use of radiation vulcanized natural rubber latex in small and medium scale industries in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The latex based industry is fast growing with the setting up of several units to produce household and examination gloves. Production of rubberized coir using concentrated latex is also growing rapidly while more and more small scale industries have been set up. There is also a growth in the large scale sector in the dipped goods manufacture. Use of irradiated latex in the manufacture of dipped products has good potential as the efficiency of production is enhanced in the case of latex containing less additives. (author)

  17. Results from an exploratory study to identify the factors that contribute to success for UK medical device small- and medium-sized enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourd, P C; Williams, D J

    2008-07-01

    This paper reports the results from an exploratory study that sets out to identify and compare the strategic approaches and patterns of business practice employed by 14 UK small- and medium-sized enterprises to achieve success in the medical device sector of the health-care industry. An interview-based survey was used to construct individual case studies of the medical device technology (MDT) companies. A cross-case analysis was performed to search for patterns and themes that cut across these individual cases. Exploratory results revealed the heterogeneity of MDT companies and the distinctive features of the MDT innovation process that emphasize the importance of a strategic approach for achieving milestones in the product development and exploitation process and for creating value for the company and its stakeholders. Recognizing the heterogeneity of MDT companies, these exploratory findings call for further investigation to understand better the influence of components of the MDT innovation process on the commercialization life cycle and value trajectory. This is required to assist start-up or spin-out MDT companies in the UK and worldwide to navigate the critical transitions that determine access to financial and consumer markets and enhance the potential to build a successful business. This will be important not only for bioscience-based companies but also for engineering-based companies aiming to convert their activities into medical devices and the health- and social-care market. PMID:18756690

  18. Potential advantages of coupling supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle to water cooled small and medium size reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? S-CO2 cycle as candidate for SMS. ? MATLAB code used for S-CO2 cycle analysis. ? Pressure ratio and split ratio comparison analyzed. - Abstract: The supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO2) Brayton cycle is being considered as a favorable candidate for the next generation nuclear reactors power conversion systems. Major benefits of the S-CO2 Brayton cycle compared to other Brayton cycles are: (1) high thermal efficiency in relatively low turbine inlet temperature, (2) compactness of the turbomachineries and heat exchangers and (3) simpler cycle layout at an equivalent or superior thermal efficiency. However, these benefits can be still utilized even in the water-cooled reactor technologies under special circumstances. A small and medium size water-cooled nuclear reactor (SMR) has been gaining interest due to its wide range of application such as electricity generation, seawater desalination, district heating and propulsion. Another key advantage of a SMR is that it can be transported from one place to another mostly by maritime transport due to its small size, and sometimes even through a railway system. Therefore, the combination of a S-CO2 Brayton cycle with a SMR can reinforce any advantages coming from its small size if the S-CO2 Brayton cycle has much smaller size components, and simpler cycle layout compared to the currently considered steam Rankine cycle. In this paper, SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor), a 330 MWth integral reactor developed by KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Institute) for multipurpose utilization, is considered as a potential candidate for applying the S-CO2 Brayton cycle and advantages and disadvantages of the proposed system will be discussed in detail. In consideration of SMART condition, the turbine inlet pressure and size of heat exchangers are analyzed by using in-house code developed by KAIST–Khalifa University joint research team. According to the cycle evaluation, the maximum cycle efficiency under 310 °C is 30.05% at 22 MPa of the compressor outlet pressure and 36% of flow split ratio (FSR) with 82 m3 of total heat exchanger volume while the upper bound of the total cycle efficiency is 37% with ideal components within 310 °C. The total volume of turbomachinery which can afford 330 MWth of SMR is less than 1.4 m3 without casing. All the obtained results are compared to the existing SMART system along with its implication to other existing or conceptual SMRs in terms of overall performance in detail.

  19. The role of skeletal scintigraphy in nuclear oncology at a medium-sized hospital in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Skeletal scintigraphy (SS) has been a workhorse in nuclear medicine departments, whether the department is in a developed country or in a developing country. It also plays an essential role in nuclear oncology in staging or diagnosing cancers or monitoring management of cancer patients. With the availability of improved imaging modalities like positron emission tomography, the role of skeletal scintigraphy is changing accordingly. This study was performed to evaluate the role of SS in nuclear oncology at a medium-sized (900-bed) university hospital in South Korea, by reviewing hospital cases along with the statistics of recently published papers in the journal of Clinical Nuclear Medicine. The hospital does not have a PET. The study period was three years (from 2000 to 2002). The SS is requested from many specialties for various reasons. Only cancer-related cases were selected. Using PubMed database, relevant articles in the Clinical Nuclear Medicine were assessed. To retrieve the articles, the keywords 'skeletal scintigraphy' and 'bone scan' were combined by using Boolean operation. There were a total of 9707 SS out of 16429 nuclear medicine imaging cases at the hospital during the study period. The hospital had 49% of SS contributed to cancer patients, while 52% percent of the SS in the CNM dealt with cancers. During the same period, articles regarding PET were 273 of which 171 were cancer-related PET studies (62%, more often than SS). 59% of the total nuclear medicine studies performed at the hospital were SS, whereas only 9% of the total articles were SS and 5% dealt with cancer-related cases. The cases of SS and cancer-related SS at the hospital increased during the period, whereas the articles in the CNM decreased. Analytic statistics were not considered necessary. In conclusion, there is an increasing demand of SS in nuclear oncology at a medium-sized hospital with non-availability of PET and the proportions of SS and cancer-related SS to the total nuclear medicine imaging cases are consistently higher than the data from the CNM. A major nuclear medicine journal continues to deal less with SS, and more with PET. (author)

  20. Percutaneous Ethanol Injection of Unresectable Medium-to-Large-Sized Hepatomas Using a Multipronged Needle: Efficacy and Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fine needles with an end hole or multiple side holes have traditionally been used for percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) of hepatomas. This study retrospectively evaluates the safety and efficacy of PEI of unresectable medium-to-large (3.5-9 cm) hepatomas using a multipronged needle and with conscious sedation. Twelve patients, eight men and four women (age 51-77 years; mean: 69) received PEI for hepatomas, mostly subcapsular or exophytic in location with average tumor size of 5.6 cm (range: 3.5-9.0 cm). Patients were consciously sedated and an 18G retractable multipronged needle (Quadrafuse needle; Rex Medical, Philadelphia, PA) was used for injection under real-time ultrasound guidance. By varying the length of the prongs and rotating the needle, the alcohol was widely distributed within the tumor. The progress of ablation was monitored by contrast-enhanced ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after each weekly injection and within a month after the final (third) injection and 3 months thereafter. An average total of 63 mL (range: 20-154 ml) of alcohol was injected per patient in an average of 2.3 sessions. Contrast-enhanced CT, ultrasound, or MRI was used to determine the degree of necrosis. Complete necrosis was noted in eight patients (67%), near-complete necrosis (90-99%) in two (16.7%), and partial success (50-89%) in two (16.7%). Follow-up in the first 9 months showed local recurrence in two patients and new lesions in another. There was no mortality. One patient developed renal failure, liver failure, and localized perforation of the stomach. He responded to medical treatment and surgery was not required for the perforation. One patient had severe postprocedural abdominal pain and fever, and another had transient hyperbilirubinemia; both recovered with conservative treatment. PEI with a multipronged needle is a new, safe, and efficacious method in treating medium-to-large-sized hepatocellular carcinoma under conscious sedation. Its survival benefits require further investigations

  1. Determination of the retention efficiency of industrial air filters for particle sizes in the submicron range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle size distribution up to a maximum diameter of 0.1 ?m has been produced in the presence of short-lived tracer Na-24 using an aerosol generator. Industrial air filters with a cross-section of 100 cm2 have been exposed to very high particle fluxes such that particulate breakthroughs down to 10-8 can be assessed by measuring the activity ratio of the air before and after going through the filter. This method, which involves installing an analytical filter (absolute filter) after the test filter, has a high accuracy and makes it possible to determine particle breakthrough under the same conditions of air flow velocity and pressure loss as in industrial processes. In comparison with on-the-spot-methods, e.g. the condensation nucleus counter, the above method includes passage across the entire filter area and excludes secondary aerosols. (author)

  2. Analysis of Strategic Management in Small and Medium Business Organizations in Graphic Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ilija Jolevski; Lili Boshevska

    2013-01-01

    Graphic industry as a field of work and a field of study offers ability for economic growth of every country or region. The increase in competition and the development of the market method of prediction, increase the need for business organizations to continuously observe their own position. Faced with a variable, turbulent and complex environment, the business organizations adopt strategic management, and modern managers, especially those in top management, have to possess knowledge and skil...

  3. Solid waste from leather industry as adsorbent of organic dyes in aqueous-medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luiz C.A. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, Depto. de Quimica, Caixa Postal 37, CEP 37200.000, Lavras-MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: luizoliveira@ufla.br; Goncalves, Maraisa [Universidade Federal de Lavras, Depto. de Quimica, Caixa Postal 37, CEP 37200.000, Lavras-MG (Brazil); Oliveira, Diana Q.L. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, Depto. de Quimica, Caixa Postal 37, CEP 37200.000, Lavras-MG (Brazil); Guerreiro, Mario C. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, Depto. de Quimica, Caixa Postal 37, CEP 37200.000, Lavras-MG (Brazil); Guilherme, Luiz R.G. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, Depto. de Ciencia do solo, CEP 37200.000, Lavras-MG (Brazil); Dallago, Rogerio M. [URI-Campus Erechim, Av. 7 Setembro 1621, Centro, CEP 99700-000, Depto de Quimica, Erechim-RS (Brazil)

    2007-03-06

    The industrial tanning of leather usually produces considerable amounts of chromium-containing solid waste and liquid effluents and raises many concerns on its environmental effect as well as on escalating landfill costs. Actually, these shortcomings are becoming increasingly a limiting factor to this industrial activity that claims for alternative methods of residue disposals. In this work, it is proposed a novel alternative destination of the solid waste, based on the removal of organic contaminants from the out coming aqueous-residue. The adsorption isotherm pattern for the wet blue leather from the Aurea tanning industry in Erechim-RS (Brazil) showed that these materials present high activity on adsorbing the reactive red textile dye as well as other compounds. The adsorbent materials were characterized by IR spectroscopy and SEM and tested for the dye adsorption (reactive textile and methylene blue dyes). The concentrations of dyes were measured by UV-vis spectrophotometry and the chromium extraction from leather waste was realized by basic hydrolysis and determined by atomic absorption. As a low cost abundant adsorbent material with high adsorption ability on removing dye methylene blue (80 mg g{sup -1}) and textile dye reactive red (163 mg g{sup -1}), the leather waste is revealed to be a interesting alternative relatively to more costly adsorbent materials.

  4. Vendor development program among small and medium industries (SMIS: A Malaysian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Bakar Abdul Hamid

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The supplier-buyer relationship has been increasingly undertaken in recent years, by academics, consultants and operations management. Present and especially future development strongly urge for more systematic and transparent decision-making. Developing longer-term relationships and using longer-term contracts, are additional ways to manage, develop and improve supplier performance (Monczka et.al 1998 who, often becomes partner with the purchaser. This paper investigates the supplier development programme initiated by the government of Malaysia to stimulate the economic growth through SMIs sector in co-operation with the large firms (LFs. The economic and industrialisation development propelled by the goverment has encouraged the development of SMIs working closely with large firms (LFs. This programme was seccussfully implemented when the goverment introduced it in the heavy industrial program - the manufacturing of national car PROTON in 1988. The success story of PROTON has initiated the government to disseminate this programme into other industries. Empirical findings from a survey of 15 SMIs and 6LFs (from 4 different industrial sectors within the Klang valley in the supplier development programme indicated that the success rate is not encouraging. Suppliers lack skills and financing to make the necessary indicated that the success rate is not encouraging. Suppliers lack skills and financing to make the necessary investments in training, new technology, research and development to make an effective partnership with final producers.

  5. Non-farm businesses local economic integration level: the case of six Portuguese small and medium-sized Markettowns - a sector approach

    OpenAIRE

    Diniz, Francisco

    2004-01-01

    Small and medium-sized towns in rural areas are of particular interest at this stage in the evolution of the European CAP. Serious consideration is being given to mechanisms that could transfer resources from the agricultural sector into a more diversified rural economy in order to safeguard the well-being of both the farming community and the wider rural population while still preserving the environmental assets which are such a valued feature of Europe¡¯s rural areas. Small and medium-sized...

  6. Construction of a medium-sized Schwarzschild-Couder telescope as a candidate for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: development of the optical alignment system

    OpenAIRE

    Nieto, D.; Griffiths, S.; Humensky, B.; Kaaret, P.; Limon, M.; Mognet, I; Peck, A.; Petrashyk, A; D. Ribeiro; Rousselle, J.; Stevenson, B; V. Vassiliev; Yu, P.; consortium., for the CTA

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is an international project for a next-generation ground-based gamma-ray observatory. CTA, conceived as an array of tens of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, comprising small, medium and large-size telescopes, is aiming to improve on the sensitivity of current-generation experiments by an order of magnitude and provide energy coverage from 20 GeV to more than 300 TeV. The Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) medium-size candidate telescope mo...

  7. Open source customer relationship management solutions potential for an impact of open source CRM solutions on small- and medium sized enterprises

    CERN Document Server

    Vogt, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    The book reveals the overall importance of a customer relationship management system especially for small and medium-sized enterprises. In addition to the topic of CRM, the increasing importance and possibilities of open source software is revealed.The main research question consists of the idea if open source customer relationship management systems are able to fulfill the requirements of a CRM software.In order to be able to answer this question, the following analysis made use of the literature available on the topics CRM, special requirements of small and medium-sized enterprises, and the

  8. MuSAE: A European Project for the Diffusion of Energy and Environmental Planning in Small-Medium Sized Municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Baldinelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic idea of the EU LIFE+ 2011 project MuSAE (“Municipalities Subsidiarity for Actions on Energy”, code LIFE11 ENV/IT/000016 consists of transferring the skills and experience related to energy planning, acquired by the leading beneficiary, the Municipality of Perugia, to three small- or medium-sized Umbrian Municipalities (Marsciano, Umbertide and Lisciano Niccone. This transfer is aimed, among other objectives, at the drafting of the Municipal Energy and Environmental Plan (MEEP and the opening of an energy information office in each partner Municipality, in cooperation with CIRIAF and Umbria Region. The present paper provides a summary of MuSAE activities, analyzing the procedures and modalities of implementation of the various phases of the MEEPs, on the basis of the experience gained over the years through the collaboration with the Municipality of Perugia and adapted to smaller territories such as those represented by the other partner Municipalities. A summary of the dissemination activities and pilot projects is also presented, testifying the first concrete results of the planning activity developed by each administration within the project.

  9. Software-as-a-Service and Cloud Computing, a solution for small and medium-sized companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajenaru, A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium-sized companies are an important part of today’s world economy, for their ability to offer new jobs but also for their capacity of innovation. At the same time, they are in a constant struggle with larger companies that take advantage of their negotiating power to impose their way of doing business to the SMEs. In an ICT enabled world, most large companies being intense ICT users, the lag of ICT adoption in SMEs may create a strong barrier between SMEs and large companies, promoting an over growing digital divide, the SMEs being in danger of being left out in some economic sectors. This paper aims at finding a possible solution in the Software-as-a-Service and Cloud Computing model, a rather new solution, yet more and more sought off by SMEs but also larger companies, especially considering the global financial and economic crisis, as well as evaluating the European Union’s main views and policies regarding the SAAS – Cloud model.

  10. As dificuldades de capitalização das pequenas e médias empresas brasileiras / Capitalization difficulties for the brazilian small and medium size companies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wagner Cezar, Lucato; Milton, Vieira Júnior.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O propósito central deste artigo é discutir as dificuldades enfrentadas pelas pequenas e médias empresas brasileiras (PMEs) para a aquisição dos bens de capital necessários à atualização de sua base tecnológica. Como parte dessa discussão, foram realizados estudos de caso envolvendo 15 empresas com [...] o objetivo de levantar evidências que possibilitaram estabelecer a seguinte hipótese: as maiores dificuldades enfrentadas pelas PMEs brasileiras para adquirir bens de capital estariam diretamente relacionadas a práticas administrativas incorretas desenvolvidas pelos seus proprietários-gestores e não associadas à indisponibilidade de créditos ou outros fatores relacionados aos mercados onde atuam. Abstract in english The purpose of this paper is to discuss the difficulties of the Brazilian small and medium size companies (SMSC) to acquire the capital goods required to update their technological base. A case study comprising 15 SMSC was developed in order to collect evidences that enabled to raise the following h [...] ypothesis: the major difficulties faced by the SMSC to acquire capital goods is directly related to a series of mismanagement actions performed by their owner-managers when running their business, and not a result of lack of credit or other market / economic environment driven factor.

  11. Development of 3D Visualization Technology for Medium-and Large-sized Radioactive Metal Wastes from Decommissioning Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most important point of decommissioning nuclear facilities and nuclear power plants is to spend less money and do this process safely. In order to perform a better decommissioning nuclear facilities and nuclear power plants, a data base of radioactive waste from decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities should be constructed. This data base is described herein, from the radioactive nuclide to the shape of component of nuclear facilities, and representative results of the status and analysis are presented. With the increase in number of nuclear facilities at the end of their useful life, the demand of decommissioning technologies will continue to grow for years to come. This analysis of medium-and large-sized radioactive metal wastes and 3D visualization technology of the radioactive metal wastes using the 3D-SCAN are planned to be used for constructing data bases. The data bases are expected to be used on development of the basic technologies for decommissioning nuclear facilities 4 session

  12. Risk determinants of small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises (SMEs) - an exploratory study in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Ariful; Tedford, Des

    2012-08-01

    The smooth running of small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises (SMEs) presents a significant challenge irrespective of the technological and human resources they may have at their disposal. SMEs continuously encounter daily internal and external undesirable events and unwanted setbacks to their operations that detract from their business performance. These are referred to as `disturbances' in our research study. Among the disturbances, some are likely to create risks to the enterprises in terms of loss of production, manufacturing capability, human resource, market share, and, of course, economic losses. These are finally referred to as `risk determinant' on the basis of their correlation with some risk indicators, which are linked to operational, occupational, and economic risks. To deal with these risk determinants effectively, SMEs need a systematic method of approach to identify and treat their potential effects along with an appropriate set of tools. However, initially, a strategic approach is required to identify typical risk determinants and their linkage with potential business risks. In this connection, we conducted this study to explore the answer to the research question: what are the typical risk determinants encountered by SMEs? We carried out an empirical investigation with a multi-method research approach (a combination of a questionnaire-based mail survey involving 212 SMEs and five in-depth case studies) in New Zealand. This paper presents a set of typical internal and external risk determinants, which need special attention to be dealt with to minimize operational risks of an SME.

  13. Air pollution and cardiovascular hospital admissions in a medium-sized city in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L.F.C., Nascimento.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to estimate the contribution of environmental pollutants to hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease. A time series ecological study was conducted on subjects aged over 60 years and living in São José dos Campos, Brazil, with a population near 700,000 inh [...] abitants. Hospital admission data of public health patients (SUS) were obtained from DATASUS for the period between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2006, according to the ICD-10 diagnoses I20 to I22 and I24. Particulate matter with less than 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter, sulfur dioxide and ozone were the pollutants examined, and the control variables were mean temperature and relative humidity. Data on pollutants were obtained from the São Paulo State Sanitary Agency. The generalized linear model Poisson regression with lags of up to 5 days was used. There were 1303 hospital admissions during the period. Exposure to particulate matter was significantly associated with hospitalization for cardiovascular disease 3 days after exposure (RR = 1.006; 95%CI = 1.000 to 1.010) and an increase of 16 µg/m³ was associated with a 10% increase in risk of hospitalization; other pollutants were not associated with hospitalization. Thus, it was possible to identify the role of exposure to particulate matter as an environmental pollutant in hospitalization for cardiovascular disease in a medium-sized city inSoutheastern Brazil.

  14. REDEFINIÇÃO DA CENTRALIDADE URBANA EM CIDADES MÉDIAS / Redefinition of the urban centrality in medium-sized cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Alves de Oliveira Júnior

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The presented article realizes one effort reflective whose main objective is to analyze the processes ofdecentralization and recentralization in medium-sized cities that, conjugated, result in new centralitiesand the redefinition of the urban centrality in these cities. The new centralities express the saturation ofthe traditional urban centers for the necessities impelled for the new forms contemporaries ofreproduction and accumulation of the capital, beyond the imposition of (new hegemonic times. Thus,new space forms are created and inserted in the urban space that favors the capitalist reproduction ofthe space: the space as social product urged by the accumulation of the capital. Of this form, it isinferred that the alterations in the economic dynamics determine that the city possess new centralitiesbecause the traditional urban centers are not more functional to the reproduction and accumulation ofthe capital, as well as the shelter of new capitals that if they space decentralize for the spaces thateconomically are presented as more propitious and income-producing.

  15. The Effect of Founder Family Influence on Hedging and Speculation : Evidence from Danish, Medium-Sized, Manufacturing Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Kuhn, Jochen

    We investigate the effect of founder family influence in the form of managers, board of directors, and/or ownership on hedging and speculation in medium-sized, manufacturing firms in Denmark. On a crude measure of use / non-use of derivatives we find only a weak indication of differences between founder family firms and other firms in relation to their management of foreign exchange rate, interest rate, and commodity price exposures. Digging deeper into a subsample of users of foreign exchange derivatives and debt denominated in foreign currency, we find that founder family firms not only tend to hedge more extensively, they also tend to speculate more often than other firms. While the former result on hedging is in line with founder families' lack of monetary diversification and their non-pecuniary investment in the firm, the latter result on speculation is surprising and can only be explained by Adam Smith's observation that men - in this case members of the founder family - tend to overestimate their own abilities and good fortune. The results of the study are important 1) because the interaction between founder family influence and risk management has received limited attention in the literature (in contrast to the attention given to the interaction between founder family influence and corporate performance) and 2) because the founders or the founders' families or heirs control most of the firms in the world.

  16. The impact of corporate social responsibility factors on the competitiveness of small and medium-sized enterprises

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Peter, Turyakira; Elmarie, Venter; Elroy, Smith.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has become increasingly important to the competitiveness of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). A positive relationship between the CSR activities of SMEs and their enhanced competitiveness exists, at least if a long-term perspective is adopted (European [...] Competitiveness Report, 2008:106; Mandl & Dorr, 2007:2). Despite the widespread practical and academic interest in CSR and its impact on the competitiveness of SMEs, few theoretical and empirical contributions could be found. The primary objective of this study was to identify and empirically test the CSR factors influencing the competitiveness of SMEs in Uganda. The outcomes of this study will assist SMEs to effectively and responsibly manage their activities to increase their competitiveness. A structured, self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 750 potential SME respondents. The respondents were identified by means of a purposive sampling technique, and the data were collected from 383 usable questionnaires. An exploratory factor analysis was carried out, and Cronbach's alpha coefficients calculated to determine the discriminant validity and reliability of the measuring instrument. Correlations were assessed using structural equation modeling. The empirical results of this study indicate that workforce-oriented CSR activities, society-oriented CSR activities, market-oriented CSR activities and regulated CSR activities significantly influence the competitiveness of SMEs.

  17. Market potential of small and medium-size nuclear reactors as combined heat and power plants in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Study has been launched and supported by the Commission of the European Communities to assess the potential market of small and medium size nuclear reactors through EC Countries and to identify those factors which may play a dominant role in this respect. In its first phase, the Study addresses to modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors that would be installed to produce low-temperature heat and power. Federal Republic of Germany, Italy and France are the countries for which the investigation has been either completed or is under way. The time span of interest is up to the year 2020. Referring to this horizon an appraisal has been made of the number of nuclear units which could come on line to cope with energy demand and their timing. Through the Study a distinction is made between technical potential, economic potential, and effective market potential. It is understood indeed that both economic competitiveness towards other energy sources and institutional or organizational factors may restrict the market which could be covered by this class of nuclear reactors. (author)

  18. Market potential of small and medium-size nuclear reactors as combined heat and power plants in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preliminary results are presented concerning a study launched by the Commission of the European Communities to assess the potential market of small and medium-size nuclear reactors through EC member countries. The study was aimed at identifying those factors that may have a role in shaping the eventual deployment and diffusion of this class of nuclear reactors. In a first phase, attention focused on modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors that would be installed to produce low-temperature heat and power. Federal Republic of Germany, Italy and France are the countries for which the investigation has been completed. The time span of interest is up to the year 2020. Referring to this horizon, an appraisal has been made of the number of nuclear units which could come on line to cope with energy demand and their timing. Through the study a distinction is made between technical potential, economic potential, and effective market potential. It is understood indeed that both economic competitiveness towards other energy sources and also institutional or organizational factors may restrict the market which could become accessible and would be covered by the new nuclear plants. (orig.)

  19. Designing and Validating a Model for Measuring Sustainability of Overall Innovation Capability of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Nizam Ab Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The business environment is currently characterized by intensified competition at both the national and firm levels. Many studies have shown that innovation positively affect firms in enhancing their competitiveness. Innovation is a dynamic process that requires a continuous, evolving, and mastered management. Evaluating the sustainability of overall innovation capability of a business is a major means of determining how well this firm effectively and efficiently manages its innovation process. A psychometrically valid scale of evaluating the sustainability of overall innovation capability of a firm is still insufficient in the current innovation literature. Thus, this study developed a reliable and valid scale of measuring the sustainability of overall innovation capability construct. The unidimensionality, reliability, and several validity components of the developed scale were tested using the data collected from 175 small and medium-sized enterprises in Iran. A series of systematic statistical analyses were performed. Results of the reliability measures, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, and several components of validity tests strongly supported an eight-dimensional (8D scale of measuring the sustainability of overall innovation capability construct. The dimensions of the scale were strategic management, supportive culture and structure, resource allocation, communication and networking, knowledge and technology management, idea management, project development, and commercialization capabilities.

  20. Conducting Creativity Brainstorming Sessions in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Using Computer-Mediated Communication Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Uday S.

    A variety of Web-based low cost computer-mediated communication (CMC) tools are now available for use by small and medium-sized enterprises (SME). These tools invariably incorporate chat systems that facilitate simultaneous input in synchronous electronic meeting environments, allowing what is referred to as “electronic brainstorming.” Although prior research in information systems (IS) has established that electronic brainstorming can be superior to face-to-face brainstorming, there is a lack of detailed guidance regarding how CMC tools should be optimally configured to foster creativity in SMEs. This paper discusses factors to be considered in using CMC tools for creativity brainstorming and proposes recommendations for optimally configuring CMC tools to enhance creativity in SMEs. The recommendations are based on lessons learned from several recent experimental studies on the use of CMC tools for rich brainstorming tasks that require participants to invoke domain-specific knowledge. Based on a consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of the various configuration options, the recommendations provided can form the basis for selecting a CMC tool for creativity brainstorming or for creating an in-house CMC tool for the purpose.