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1

Investigating power factor compensation capacity calculation in medium sized industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are a variety of techniques developed in order to improve the efficiency of electrical systems and reduce cost of providing electricity to the consumer. This paper presents a new technique for power-factor capacity calculation in medium-sized industrial/ commercial setups. Various loads of similar nominal power-factor are categorized and demand-factor of loads is so selected that it has engineering justifications. The developed system works on the principle of low-voltage power-factor correction, which substantially reduces electricity bill and increases loading-capacity of the electrical system. It allows commercial and industrial consumers to save on their power cost appreciably. This work utilizes software, which takes few inputs and produces numerous useful results. Adoption of this system can help the user in computing compensation-capacity, system KVA (size of transformer) and cost of compensation. A feature of this system is prediction of low PF penalty. Moreover, it also suggests the tentative payback period. (author)

2008-01-01

2

STRATEGIES FOR SMALL- AND MEDIUM-SIZED COMPANIES IN CHINESE INSURANCE INDUSTRY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the development of the Chinese economy, insurance industry is becoming one of the most important commercial industries in China. Currently small- and medium-sized (SME) insurance companies gain more and more important status in the insurance market, but the main problem is to find a suitable strategy to develop in a balanced way. It is very important for the SME insurance organizations to identify their core resources and competencies and cultivate their competitiveness and competitive a...

Qian, Xiaochen

2010-01-01

3

An energy efficiency program for Swedish industrial small- and medium-sized enterprises  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Industrial energy programs such as energy audit programs and long-term agreements (LTAs) are one of the most common means of promoting energy efficiency in industry. As a result of the European Energy End-Use Efficiency and Energy Services Directive from 2006, the Swedish Government Bill proposed a national energy program towards industrial small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) using more than 500 MWh energy annually. The aim of this paper is to present the structure and design of the pr...

Thollander, Patrik; Dotzauer, Erik

2010-01-01

4

Finnish medium sized manufacturing companies access to Norwegian petroleum and offshore industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Norwegian petroleum and offshore industry is one of the biggest industry clusters in Northern Europe measured by the total turnover. The yearly investment level, approximately 40-50 billion NOK until the end of the century, makes this industry interesting as a potential purchasing market for various products and services. The purpose of the present report is to provide some basic information of the Norwegian petroleum and offshore industry to the Finnish medium sized manufacturing companies interested in entering this market. The objective of this report is to arouse interest in the oil and gas industry and provide up-to-date statistical data of a number of major factors characterizing the industry. In this sense the report serves as a preparatory data source book for persons who want to widen their knowledge of the offshore industry. This report strongly emphasizes practical aspects. Lists and addresses of the major authorities, oil companies and offshore manufacturing companies might help in seeking additional information. They can also be made use of contacting the potential customers. Besides the statistical and practical information, subjects like the history of the Norwegian petroleum industry, specific features of the major oil and gas fields, environmental aspects e.g. are also discussed in this report. This general knowledge might be useful when meeting Norwegian customers

1995-01-01

5

Schwarz Shipyards : How a Medium Sized Enterprise Struggles to Survive Disruptive Industry Change  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This case is designed to discuss strategy formation and strategic renewal in small and medium-sized enterprises that are challenged by external disruptive change. The case can be used to teach: external analysis, BCG-matrix, internal analysis (resources and capabilities), Porterâ??s-5-Forces, industry life-cycle, Porterâ??s generic strategies, SWOT analysis, strategy formation and business model analysis. The case builds on an in-depth case study conducted in 2011/2012. The case has been anonymized. More specifically the case describes the triumphs and challenges of a medium-sized European shipyard during the past decades. After the industry crisis in the late 80s the yard management steered through an extremely adventurous period. However, due to external and internal difficulties they ultimately faced bankruptcy. Students are asked to put themselves in the shoes of the shipyard management in 2006, a point in time where they still had the possibility to affect its destiny. The case includes an extensive set of questions that covers the most important elements of a master of science degree course in strategy. The questions are also suitable for exam or term papers.

Rohrbeck, René; Bøe-Lillegraven, Siri

2013-01-01

6

Documentation of New Promotion Approaches in Small and Medium Sized Businesses of the Textile Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The most important marketing activity of the owner/manager of SMEs is to concentrate on entrepreneurial promotion methods of their businesses. New and entrepreneurial promotion plays a leading role in progress and development of SMEs. There has been an emerging concentration on the concept of promotion and the role of its elements in progress of SMEs in marketing research. The purpose of this paper is to identify and document promotion methods in small and medium sized businesses of the textile industry, particularly in Iran. In order to identify the concepts and methods of promotion and to present practical results in this context, a quality research has been conducted by interviewing the owners/managers of SMEs.

Mehran Rezvani

2012-01-01

7

Innovation in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in the Malaysian information technology (IT) industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study is to examine innovative activities in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the Malaysian information technology (IT) industry. This study addresses three research questions: 1. What is the innovation pattern among SMEs in the Malaysian IT industry? 2. How significant is interactive learning between SMEs in the Malaysian IT industry and other agents in the innovation system? and 3. What is the role of the government in promoting innovation among SMEs in the Malaysian IT industry? Two approaches were taken to collect data for this study, that is, mail survey and face-to-face interviews. Based on findings from this study, the SMEs in the Malaysian IT industry were divided into four categories, namely, highly innovative, innovative, inventive, and non innovative. The patterns of knowledge acquisition and interactive learning vary among the different categories of firms, and on the whole, vertical linkages with suppliers were found to be the most significant. Finally, support through the provision of funding was considered to be among the most important roles of the government in promoting innovation in SMEs in the Malaysian IT industry. (author)

2001-01-01

8

Eco-modernizing small en medium-sized agro-industries in Vietnam  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Following ‘Doi Moi’ (Renovation), which started in 1986, the former centrally planned economy in Vietnam is shifting to an economy where production is linked to market demand and consumption. As a result, the nation has been enjoying an unprecedentedly fast economic growth, especially in recent years: 8.4% in 2005 and 8.17% in 2006. The economic renovation also brought an expansion of the private sector, which consists mainly of small- and medium-sized enterprises, SMEs. The r...

2007-01-01

9

The importance of building downwash in assessing the need to heighten stacks of existing small and medium sized industries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This extended abstract intends to share the authors experience on the modelling of atmospheric pollutant dispersal and on the importance of building downwash considerations when assessing the need to heighten stacks of small and medium sized industrial enterprises (SME's). In order to understand the reasons that make industrial companies, especially SME's, consider stack heightening, in section 2 the existing Portuguese legislation on air quality and the stack heightening rules are briefly commented. New legislation that ought to appear soon (new Portuguese Air Act) is also commented and compared critically with the existing one. Then, section 3 characterizes Portuguese industry in terms of the ambient quality problems related to stack height. The adequacy of the stack heightening legislation to the particularities of the Portuguese case is discussed. In section 4 the authors experience in the specific study of stack heightening is presented. The methodology considered in these studies is discussed and compared with the application of existing and soon to appear legislation on stack height calculation. Finally, section 5 presents the conclusions and the need for an increased awareness on the pollutant dispersal problem is discussed. (orig.)

Gomes, J.F.P. [Centro de Tecnologias Ambientais, ISQ - Inst. de Soldadura e Qualidade, Oeiras (Portugal); Duarte, R. [Escola Superior de Tecnologia - Inst. Politecnico de Setubal (Portugal)

2004-07-01

10

Storage of pulverised brown coal in small silos in medium-sized industrial plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Because of the special properties of pulverised brown coal, such as the low sulphur and ash content, retention of noxious substances in the ash and good combustion properties, this cheap native fuel can be used for numerous purposes in mediumsized industrial plants. For this reason work has been in progress for some time on technical solutions which will meet the requirement of this group of consumers, that is to say, in particular plants with a yearly oil consumption of 500 to 2500 t, such as, for example, asphalt mixing plants, drying plants, small boiler plants, etc. Having been approved as a pilot plant, the first unit with the silo design described in the present paper was put into service at an asphalt mixing plant in the spring of 1983 and since then has been operating trouble-free. Final approval has meanwhile been granted for further units of this type. Given certain conditions, the storage of pulverised coal with the maximum safety and with a considerable saving in capital outlay is therefore now possible for small consumers with a maximum silo capacity of 120 m/sup 3/. The outlay for a silo unit of this type amounts to about DM 150,000 and is thus approximately 50% lower than the cost entailed for conventional storage techniques. Thanks to a series of completely co-ordinated safety measures and requirements which are fulfilled by all parties involved, from the pulverised coal producer to the consumer, the danger of sources of ignition and thus of coal-dust explosions is precluded. In spite of this fact the possibility of a theoretical breakdown has nevertheless been taken into account, in as much as the silo unit is designed with a pressure-relief device so that it can withstand pressure surges, thus doubly ensuring the maximum safety.

Kreusing, H.

1984-03-01

11

Purchasing practice in SMEs : Practical Impressions about the Purchasing Activities of Small and Medium sized Enterprises in the Manufacturing Industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Small and medium sized companies are important to the European economy and considered as the true backbone of the European economy, being primarily responsible for wealth and economic growth. Further, the purchasing function of small and medium sized companies had become more and more important to firms within the creating of competitive advantages. Additional, former research emphasizes the need of companies to engage in closer relationships in order to survive in nowadays business environme...

Kulik, Stephanie

2010-01-01

12

Development of a Low NOx Medium sized Industrial Gas Turbine Operating on Hydrogen-Rich Renewable and Opportunity Fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents the accomplishments at the completion of the DOE sponsored project (Contract # DE-FC26-09NT05873) undertaken by Solar Turbines Incorporated. The objective of this 54-month project was to develop a low NOx combustion system for a medium sized industrial gas turbine engine operating on Hydrogen-rich renewable and opportunity Fuels. The work in this project was focused on development of a combustion system sized for 15MW Titan 130 gas turbine engine based on design analysis and rig test results. Although detailed engine evaluation of the complete system is required prior to commercial application, those tasks were beyond the scope of this DOE sponsored project. The project tasks were organized in three stages, Stages 2 through 4. In Stage 2 of this project, Solar Turbines Incorporated characterized the low emission capability of current Titan 130 SoLoNOx fuel injector while operating on a matrix of fuel blends with varying Hydrogen concentration. The mapping in this phase was performed on a fuel injector designed for natural gas operation. Favorable test results were obtained in this phase on emissions and operability. However, the resulting fuel supply pressure needed to operate the engine with the lower Wobbe Index opportunity fuels would require additional gas compression, resulting in parasitic load and reduced thermal efficiency. In Stage 3, Solar characterized the pressure loss in the fuel injector and developed modifications to the fuel injection system through detailed network analysis. In this modification, only the fuel delivery flowpath was modified and the air-side of the injector and the premixing passages were not altered. The modified injector was fabricated and tested and verified to produce similar operability and emissions as the Stage 2 results. In parallel, Solar also fabricated a dual fuel capable injector with the same air-side flowpath to improve commercialization potential. This injector was also test verified to produce 15-ppm NOx capability on high Hydrogen fuels. In Stage 4, Solar fabricated a complete set of injectors and a combustor liner to test the system capability in a full-scale atmospheric rig. Extensive high-pressure single injector rig test results show that 15-ppm NOx guarantee is achievable from 50% to 100% Load with fuel blends containing up to 65% Hydrogen. Because of safety limitations in Solar Test Facility, the atmospheric rig tests were limited to methane-based fuel blends. Further work to validate the durability and installed engine capability would require long-term engine field test.

Srinivasan, Ram

2013-07-31

13

Crisis in the blanket collective agreement and integration capability of employers' associations : empirical studies based on two medium-sized industries in Baden-Württemberg  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"Starting from the literature on the erosion of the German industrial relations system and the weaknesses of the employers' associations, this paper investigates the difficulties faced, and attempted solutions adopted, by employer associations in two sectors in Baden-Württemberg: quarrying (ISTE) and the manufacture of wood products (VSH). Both are characterized by small and medium sized firms. Based on interviews with experts from both sectors, the author found out that, apart from diff...

1998-01-01

14

THE INFLUENCE IN ROMANIAN HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY OF SMALL MEDIUM-SIZED FIRMS AND THEIR SPECIFIC MEANS TO IMPROVE PERFORMANCE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

SMEs play an important role in fostering variety, self-fulfillment, and independence in society as well as essentially contributing to social and local integration. Because the tourism sector, especially the hospitality industry, in Europe is dominated by

Baltescu Codruta Adina

2009-01-01

15

Do border economies generate comparative advantages for small- and medium-sized enterprises? : Evidence from the Maquiladora industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Maquiladora assembly emerged to solve a specific problem in a specific region. In the mid 1960s, it was designed to absorb unemployment and to foster industrialization at the US-Mexican border. In the course of its development, it developed considerable dynamics with respect to both regional distribution and technological diversification. Beyond initial intentions, maquiladora assembly proved to be a powerful instrument to foster modernization and international integration of the Mexican econ...

Sander, Birgit

1997-01-01

16

Techno-economic evaluation of commercial cogeneration plants for small and medium size companies in the Italian industrial and service sector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The liberalization of the electricity market and the concern for energy efficiency have resulted in a surge of interest in cogeneration and distributed power generation. In this regard, companies are encouraged to evaluate the opportunity to build their own cogeneration plant. In Italy, the majority of such companies belong to the industrial or service sector; it is small or medium in size and the electric power ranges between 1 ÷ 10 MW. Commercially available gas turbines are the less expensive option for cogeneration. Particular attention has been given to the possibility of combining an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) with gas turbine, to improve the conversion efficiency. Companies have to account for both technical and economical aspects to assess viability of cogeneration. A techno-economic analysis was performed to identify, in the Italian energy market, which users can take advantage of a cogeneration plant aimed to cover at least part of their energy demand. Since electricity and thermal needs change considerably in the same sector, single product categories have been considered in the analysis. Our work shows that in the industrial sector, independent of the product category, cogeneration is a viable option form a techno-economic perspective. - Highlights: ? The best technologies for 1 ÷ 10 MW distributed generation plant are gas turbine and ORC. ? A variety of commercial cogeneration plants is available to meet user needs. ? Cogeneration is a technical and economical advantage for industrial sector companies.

2012-12-15

17

Identifying Factors Influencing Entry Mode Selection in Food Industry of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As internationalization increases in today’s business society, it becomes ever more important for individual business to keep us with the development. The way a company ventures from its domestic market to new geographical markets and selecting the right entry modes are important decision that demands a lot of resources and planning. In the process of selecting entry modes a wide range of factors must be taken into consideration before making the final decision. To provide a better understanding of the impact of some internal and external factors on Iranian SMEs in food industry we chose a conceptual framework from Root and studied its variables in our sample. This model states that a target country market factors, b target country environmental factors c target country production factors and d home country factors as external factors and e country production and f company resource/commitment factors as internal factors have impact on the process of choosing entry modes. In order to collect data we use questionnaire. Our findings illustrated that all of the factors were mentioned in Root’s model had impact on selecting entry modes to a foreign country.

Mahdi Haghighi Kaffash

2012-09-01

18

MOSAIK - modular software for energy counseling at medium-sized companies and small consumers; MOSAIK - Modulare Software fuer die Energieberatung in Industrie und Kleinverbrauch  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the sectors of medium-sized companies and small consumers, obstacles to the identification and implementation of measures aimed at rational energy use are considerable. An important approach towards improving this unsatisfactory situation consists in more rapid and inexpensive energy counselings in standardized form with the aid of flexible software tools. At IER, the modular software tool MOSAIK is being developed (modular software instrument for the energetic analysis and evaluation of measures aimed at rational energy use in the sectors of medium-sized companies and small consumers). This software tool is described with its most important applications. (orig./RHM)

Sawillion, M.; Thoene, E.

1996-12-31

19

The Study of Collaborative IP Models and Successful Factors-Taking the Small-and-Medium Sized LCD Industry as an Example  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available More and more enterprises conduct business strategically through strategic alliances, mergers & acquisitions, joint ventures, outsourcing, and collaborations to keep their competitive advantages in view of influences such as reduction of product lifecycles, fast changing markets, and global economics. Besides, enterprises gradually recognize that intellectual property management and plans are important. In the generation of R&D management based on innovative capabilities, it can commercialize the developed technologies and yield economic benefits through the effective management and deployment of patents. This research aims to identify how the collaborative Intellectual Property (IP model could shorten product life cycle and further make enterprises successful in the global market. This research firstly figures out the features of the small-and-medium Liquid Crystal Display (LCD industrial and challenges what this industry confronts after the competitive analysis of industry and market. Then the technological trend and patent positions were studied through patent information analysis and tools from Patent Guilder Software. This research also uses the case study methodology and selected the first company that adopted a collaborative IP model. Furthermore, this paper identifies the key performance indicators for the model and finds out the innovative business model for the company.

Li-Min Wu

2013-03-01

20

AN INVESTIGATION INTO MEDIUM-SIZED MULTINATIONAL ENTERPRISES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper provides an investigation of medium-sized Italian industrial enterprises that have become multinational companies. It concetrates on the set of medium and medium-large enterprises who seem to grow more in foreign markets, either through exports or through foreign direct investment. The work also offers a descriptive empirical picture of the performance of medium-sized Italian multinationals, which is compared with the performance of large corporations. From this analysis, which is based on several data sources, it is possible to outline a profile regarding the medium-size italian multinational enterprises; the aim is to understand the complex strategy towards internationalization of these companies, where the dimension of production is important and, therefore, innovation has a key role. Also the commercial dimension is crucial, because it leads to point to the direct supervision of foreign markets and to look very carefully at the customers, offering them a wide range of services. Finally, the paper highlights some critical issues that the medium sized multinational enterprises have to face for competing: namely, the stagnant productivity, the high taxation, the insufficient institutional support for internationalization, the bureaucracy and its high costs, the lack of skilled human capital available in the labor market due to inadequate policy training.

Daniele Schilirò

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
21

Small and Medium Sized Food Producers - how are they affected by the trading blocs and the distributors’ own brands? : A case study of three SME in the food industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: The Swedish food industry has changed dramatically during the last decades and to become and remain as a player has become a demanding task for several of the small and medium sized enterprises (SME). The trading blocs have increased the development of their own brand (DOB) and this has given the SME new competition but also the possibility to produce these products for the trading blocs. In addition to this the trading blocs have be-come more and more centralized and to strengthe...

Bjo?rn, Emma; Stenstro?m, Lovisa; Altoray, Erich

2007-01-01

22

Program study: Energy efficiency in industry and the commercial/public sector. Final report. Pt. 3. Joint venture research as R and D instrument in small and medium-sized companies. Programmstudie Rationelle Energieverwendung in Industrie und Kleinverbrauch. Abschlussbericht. T. 3. Verbundforschung als FuE-Instrument in mittelstaendischen Branchen in Industrie und Handwerk  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The analyses had four goals in identifying the potentials of energy efficiency in industry and the commercial sector and in speeding up its implementation. The present 3. part deals with the following subject: Lacking technical knowledge in small and medium-sized companies in energy-intensive branches and on the part of the manufacturers of the relevant machinery and plants are a major obstacle to basic process innovations. A few branches were therefore analysed in order to identify joint venture R and D projects supported by manufacturers, users and research institutes. (orig./UA) With 79 refs., 36 tabs., 34 figs.

Morovic, T.; Hillenbrand, T.; Jochem, E.; Toussaint, D.

1991-06-30

23

Consórcio de exportação como alternativa de pequenas e médias empresas: um estudo de caso na cadeia têxtil The export consortium as a best initial alternative for small and medium sized industries: a case study in clothing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo central deste estudo é evidenciar a grande importância e utilidade da formação de consórcios de exportação - que é a união de indústrias do mesmo segmento ou complementares para a exportação de seus produtos em conjunto - para empresas brasileiras de pequeno e médio porte, em detrimento da adoção da exportação indireta ou direta como modo de entrada no mercado internacional. Realizou-se, para isso, a revisão bibliográfica sobre Estratégias ou Modos de Entrada em Mercados Internacionais e Consórcios de Exportação (MALHOTRA, 2001. Utilizou-se o método de estudo de caso (YIN, 2001 para analisar a Associação Brasileira do Vestuário (ABRAVEST, entidade que vem se destacando na formação e consolidação de consórcios de exportação na indústria do setor vestuário, com ênfase nos seguintes tópicos: desenvolvimento do programa, compromissos setoriais e metas de exportação, aplicação dos recursos e consórcios em atividade. Como resultado, foi possível verificar que, entre as três opções analisadas no artigo (exportação direta, exportação indireta e consórcios de exportação, a terceira opção foi aceita como a melhor ou mais viável para a internacionalização de empresas de pequeno porte.The importance and value of an export consortium was investigated as a means for small and medium sized Brazilian industries to orchestrate export efforts instead of adopting indirect or direct export to enter foreign markets. An export consortium is an association of industries in the same or complementary segments for the purpose of export. Bibliography was reviewed for initial export strategies including a case study of the Brazilian Clothing Association. The consortia of this exemplary Association have emphasized program development, sector agreements, export objectives and resource application integrated with local activities. An export consortium was found to be the best and most viable alternative for initial export by small and medium sized Brazilian clothing industries in this case, when compared to indirect or direct export.

Gustavo Barbieri Lima

2008-06-01

24

Small and medium sized reactors: Status and prospects. Proceedings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the early years of nuclear power deployment, the plants entering service were dominated by what are now considered small (less than 300 MW(e)) and medium (300 to 700 MW(e)) reactors. In the late 1970s, the balance shifted to larger size plants to serve the requirements of industrialized countries. However, since the early 1990s, the increased interest of developing countries in nuclear power, mainly in Asia, has resulted in intensified efforts in development of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). Also, in industrialized countries, electricity market deregulation is calling for power generation flexibility that SMRs may offer. Apart from electricity generation, SMRs are of particular interest for non-electrical applications of nuclear energy, such as desalination of seawater and district heating. In recognition of the current global interest in small and medium sized reactors this seminar was convened to provide a forum for the exchange of information by experts and policy makers from industrialized and developing countries on the technical, economic, environmental, and social aspects of SMR development and implementation in the 21st century, and to make this information available to all interested IAEA Member States. Keynote addresses also provided information on global energy demand and supply and international trends impacting the development and introduction of SMRs. Two hundred forty seven attendees from 39 countries and 5 international organizations participated in the seminar. The majority of the participants were from developing countries. The seminar not only provided valuable up to date information on SMRs, it also highlighted the importance of continued international co-operation in the development and application of nuclear power for peaceful uses throughout the world

2002-08-01

25

Status and prospects for small and medium sized reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Member States have evinced interest in the continued development of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) as an energy source for the future. Support for this programme was recently reaffirmed at the IAEA 1997 General Conference. Although the generation of electricity is the predominant focus of existing SMRs, there is increasing interest in using these plants for desalination, district heating and high temperature industrial process heat applications. Here is a review of SMR development within selected Member States, an overview of the IAEA's SMR programme and a discussion of selected SMR designs with emphasis on safety attributes. (author)

2000-08-01

26

Significance assessment of small-medium sized reactors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Preliminary assessment for deployment of small-medium sized reactor (S and M reactor) as a future option has been conducted at the JAPCO (Japan Atomic Power Company) under the cooperation with the CRIERI (Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry). Significance of the S and M reactor introduction is listed as follows; lower investment cost, possible siting near demand side, enlarged freedom of siting, shorter transmission line, good compatibility with slow increase of demand and plain explanation of safety using simpler system such as integral type vessel without piping, natural convection core cooling and passive safety system. The deployment of simpler plant system, modular shop fabrication, ship-shell structured building and longer operation period can assure economics comparable with that of a large sized reactor, coping with scale-demerit. Also the S and M reactor is preferable in size for the nuclear heat utilization such as hydrogen production. (T. Tanaka)

Kanno, Minoru [Japan Atomic Power Co., Research and Development Dept., Tokyo (Japan)

2002-12-01

27

The Role of Industrial Incentives in Development of Small and Medium Industries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Small and medium industries have had a significant impact on creation of new employment opportunities in recent years. In other words, in today’s modern world, small and medium industries have a significant role in variables like economic growth, competitiveness, and resolution of the ubiquitous unemployment crisis. Even though large-scale industries are still important in economic policy-making due to their economy of scale, the effect of massive production, experience, and organization, small and medium industries have some advantages including transportation, market size, regulations, choice effectiveness, and control. Accordingly, these industries have become the first choice for the production of most goods.This study investigated the role of industrial incentives in the development of small and medium industries in East Azerbaijan province. Based on the review of articles, texts, relevant sources, and comments from experts, relevant indicators were defined for each component of industrial incentives. Based on these indicators, a questionnaire was developed with 30 questions. After testing the validity and reliability of the questionnaire, it was applied to statistical samples using stratified random sampling. Then the questionnaires were collected and the obtained information was analyzed using descriptive statistics as well as inferential statistics (Spearman correlation test r and step by step Regression. The results show that there is a statistically significant relationship between the variables in this study. and obtained Results of regression Analysis shows that across 4 indicators Industrial Incentives, 2 indicators of it, that is, Financial and Customal Incentives were appropriate predicators for Development of Small and Medium Industries.

Afshin Rahnama

2011-11-01

28

Intellectual capital and anticipated future sales in small and medium-sized biotechnology companies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of the study is to empirically verify impacts of intellectual capital to the anticipated future sales of small and medium-sized companies within biotechnology industry. Intellectual capital is divided into the following three categories: human, structural, and relational capital. Theoretically, a balanced interaction between the three categories implies value creation potential, and high anticipated sales of the company. In the empirical setting, survey data of small and medium-...

Hermans, Raine; Kauranen, Ilkka

2003-01-01

29

Small and Medium Sized Enterprises In Thailand and Development of Cleaner Production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the perspective of the rapid industrial development experienced over the last decades in Thailand, this report intend to contribute to the discussion about development of cleaner production (CP) among small and medium sized enterprises, as a tool to prevent degradation of the country’s natural resources. The objective is to examine the present barriers and possibilities to the low adoption of CP among the industry in Samut Prakarn and to study, which competences small firms have develope...

Nørgaard, Jens Kristian

2003-01-01

30

Fracture mechanics characterisation of medium-size adhesive joint specimens  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Medium-size specimens (<2 m in length), consisting of two glass-fibre beams bonded together by an adhesive layer were tested in four point bending to determine their load carrying capacity. Specimens having different thickness were tested. Except for onespecimen, the cracking occurred as cracking along the adhesive layer; initially cracking occurred along the adhesive/laminate interface, but after some crack extension the cracking took place inside the laminate (for one specimen the later part of thecracking occurred unstably along the adhesive/ laminate interface). Crack bridging by fibres was observed. The measured applied moment at steady-state crack growth was compared with predictions based on independent mixed mode fracture resistancemeasurements made on small laboratory specimens. The predicted and measured strength values of the medium-size specimens were found to be in good agreement with each other. Thus, the scaling from small specimens to medium-size specimens was successfullyachieved.

Sørensen, Bent F.

2004-01-01

31

Experience Reference from the Financial Support Practices for Japan’s Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The government-dominant financial system in Japan has exerted significant effects on the reconstruction of economy, the realization of industrial policy goals, and the construction of independent industrial and national economic system after the war. In Japan, the government takes much count of support for small and medium-sized enterprise financing. It establishes a small and medium-sized enterprise financial system that takes non-governmental units as principal parts and government as assis...

Zhaozhen Fan

2009-01-01

32

Status of the CTA medium size telescope prototype  

CERN Document Server

We present here the status of the medium size prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array. The main reasons to build the prototype are the test of the steel structure, the training of various mounting operations, the test of the drive system and the test of the safety system. The essential difference between the medium size telescope prototype and a fully instrumented are that the camera is not instrumented and only a part of the mounted mirrors are optical mirrors. Insofar no high energy gamma rays can be detected by the prototype telescope. The prototype will be setup in autumn 2012 in Berlin.

,

2012-01-01

33

The economics of medium-sized reactors in deregulated markets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The prospects for the deployment of small and medium reactors in deregulated markets is crucially dependent on demonstrating that such reactors are economically competitive with alternative power sources. Other factors, such as safety, reliability, waste arisings, environmental impact etc are also important to get right, but unless the economics are competitive, private investment is unlikely to be available for any reactor system. This paper examines the economics of the Westinghouse AP-600, which is the only medium-sized evolutionary PWR in the world today which has achieved regulatory approval. The paper presents an economic analysis of an AP-600 which shows that medium-sized systems can be economic in a competitive market and identifies the economic barriers that need to be overcome for their deployment to become a reality. The paper shows how sensitive the overall generating cost can be to the perceived financial risk, which helps to highlight where attention most needs to be focused. (author)

2002-08-01

34

Problems Facing Small and Medium Size Contractors in Swaziland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper explores the problems facing Small and Medium Size Contractors in Swaziland. The construction sector in Swaziland is not only a significant source of direct employment but also a sector which contributes, through its wide range of projects and operations. The paper will also look at the current government initiatives that had been put in place to address the challenges and problems in order to ensure that contractors are successful. There is a high failure rate among small and medium size contractors in Swaziland. These contractors fail for a variety of reasons ranging from lack of adequate capacity to handle the uniqueness, complexity and risks in contracting, lack of effective management, lack of business management, poor record keeping and inadequate technical, financial and contract managerial skills. Drawing on research on small and medium size contractors, the paper used both secondary and primary litera-ture. 100 questionnaires were distributed to different role players in the construction sector in Swaziland. The response rate was eighty seven (87 percent. The paper reveals that the most problems facing small and medium size contractors in Swaziland is lack of access to finance and late payment by government. The paper closes with recommendations and key lessons for the future.

Wellington Didibhuku Thwala

2009-12-01

35

Reference sources for small and medium-sized libraries  

CERN Document Server

Focusing on new reference sources published since 2008 and reference titles that have retained their relevance, this new edition brings O'Gorman's complete and authoritative guide to the best reference sources for small and medium-sized academic and public libraries fully up to date.

O'Gorman, Jack

2014-01-01

36

Development of ESCO as a tool for realising energy efficiency in small and medium sized industry; ESCO = Energy Service Company; Udvikling af ESCO som vaerktoej til realisering af energieffektivisering i smaa og mellemstore erhvervsvirksomheder  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The project carried out an advisory process in 10 different SME (small and medium-sized enterprises). The process was based on energy management and employee involvement in energy conservation activities, which has led to a wide variety of projects in companies that have focused on the initiation and solution of diverse energy-saving activities. Results of the project consist of a series of case studies that describe the processes that have been implemented in the company. The selected cases demonstrate the diversity of businesses, their energy saving potential and need for funding. It also describes and assesses the various financing possibilities, a model for qualitative advising in SMEs and a module for the training of the people involved - including installers, craftsmen and advisor. (LN)

Jensen, Ove Folmer (DS Haandvaerk og Industri, Odense (Denmark))

2011-07-01

37

City-Ranking of European Medium-Sized Cities  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Against the background of economical and technological changes caused by the globalization and the integration process, cities in Europe face the challenge of combining competitiveness and sustainable urban development simultaneously. Very evidently, this challenge is likely to have an impact on issues of Urban Quality such as housing, economy, culture, social and environmental conditions. In this contribution the main focus does not lie on the leading European metropolises but on medium-sized cities and their perspectives for development. In research, focus tends to be on the larger, â??globalâ? metropolises, and as a result, less is known about the challenges mediumsized cities face. It appears that these are qualitatively different. They have to cope with competition from the larger metropolises on corresponding issues, but appear less well equipped in terms of critical mass, resources and often also organizing capacity. In order to make clear the position of medium-sized cities vis-à-vis other medium-sizedcities as well as larger cities, we present the preliminary results of a city-ranking and a benchmark of (a sample of) European cities. Particular emphasis will be on the value of city-ranking, benchmarking and international lesson drawing/policy transfer as tools to explore possible future development trajectories of European medium-sized cities. The advantages and disadvantages of city-ranking, benchmarking and international lesson drawing/policy transfer will be explored in detail.

Giffinger, Rudolf; Fertner, Christian

38

Female Leadership Motivation in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Leaders need to know what motivates their employees and how they can get their employees work their best. Women leaders are said to encourage and support their employees, which is essential for leadership motivation. Motivated employees improve enterprises’ overall business performance and results. The research is based on leadership, motivation and self-motivation in small and medium-sized enterprises in Ostrobothnia. The research problem is to find out how female leaders motivate their em...

2010-01-01

39

ERP adoption in small and medium sized enterprises  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Enterprise resource planning (ERP) is established among a majority of small and medium sized companies in Kista Science City and seems to have a positive effect on organizational effectiveness. Kista Science City is Sweden’s largest corporate centre, with more companies and employees in a limited area than anywhere else in Europe. This study looks at the level of adoption of ERP functions, perceived organizational effectiveness and critical success factors. The most common use of ERP is for...

2006-01-01

40

ERP system implementation in small and medium-sized enterprises  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis presents a study of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system implementation in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Compared to large enterprises, SMEs represent fundamentally different environments, with a number of characteristics typifying the SME context. Because of these distinguishing differences, the findings from studies of ERP implementation in large enterprises cannot be fully applied to SMEs. The purpose of this research project is to explore the influences of th...

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Sales strategy in small and medium-sized food companies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

All managing teams know that they have to deal with the company's strategy in handling the market. But how do they do it and on the basis of which beleifs and interpretations? A nearly completed PhD project has examined the way in which three small and medium-sized food companies define their market, their competitors and customers, and how they create the world they perceive and act in through their own actions.

Nielsen, Renate; Stacey, Julia

2002-01-01

42

A governance indicator for small and medium-sized enterprises  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A governance indicator for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) is presented. The indicator adopts stakeholder theory in selecting its elements, which also include a few general governance principles as well as board features. The paper reviews main governance indicators treated in the literature, which are mostly applied to publicly traded firms. It then proposes a specific indicator for SMEs which, in general, are private. The indicator takes into account - in its structure - the evalu...

Yacuzzi, Enrique

2008-01-01

43

KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION STEPS FOR INDIAN SMALL & MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents review of literature on Knowledge management (KM) in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). It focuses on the strategy, implementation, technological and performance measurement &benchmarking issues regarding KM in Indian SMEs. KM is a practical tool for any organization. So KM does not remain just a theory now but it paves the way to formulating an understanding of KM and its role within SMEs. KM has gained importance in the today’s global knowledge economy. It is i...

2011-01-01

44

Problems Facing Small and Medium Size Contractors in Swaziland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper explores the problems facing Small and Medium Size Contractors in Swaziland. The construction sector in Swaziland is not only a significant source of direct employment but also a sector which contributes, through its wide range of projects and operations. The paper will also look at the current government initiatives that had been put in place to address the challenges and problems in order to ensure that contractors are successful. There is a high failure rate among small and mediu...

2009-01-01

45

Internal Control in Swedish Small and Medium Size Enterprises  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Small and medium size enterprises are currently the major part of economic activities through out the world. Nowadays, they represent about 99% of all types of enterprises in Sweden, with providing high job opportunities to its labour force as these enterprises need focus in their development; the internal control mechanism is a means and a way of directing, monitoring and measuring the SMEs resources. It plays an important role in preventing and detecting fraud and protecting the physical an...

Gebramicheal, Zelalem Berhanu; Habtegiorgis, Tsegahiwot Teketel

2009-01-01

46

The Scalability of H. Igor Ansoff's Strategic Management Principles for Small and Medium Sized Firms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this paper is to examine the praxis of the multi-dimensional components of H. Igor Ansoff¹s Strategic Management Systems and the efficacy of use of each of its components relative to the formulation and implementation of corporate level strategy in for-profit, not-for-profit, small and medium sized enterprises. Based on empirically validated research and industry supported journals, substantial evidence endorse both an implicit and explicit acknowledgement of its applic...

2008-01-01

47

Synthesized grain size distribution in the interstellar medium  

CERN Document Server

We examine a synthetic way of constructing the grain size distribution in the interstellar medium (ISM). First we formulate a synthetic grain size distribution composed of three grain size distributions processed with the following mechanisms that govern the grain size distribution in the Milky Way: (i) grain growth by accretion and coagulation in dense clouds, (ii) supernova shock destruction by sputtering in diffuse ISM, and (iii) shattering driven by turbulence in diffuse ISM. Then, we examine if the observational grain size distribution in the Milky Way (called MRN) is successfully synthesized or not. We find that the three components actually synthesize the MRN grain size distribution in the sense that the deficiency of small grains by (i) and (ii) is compensated by the production of small grains by (iii). The fraction of each {contribution} to the total grain processing of (i), (ii), and (iii) (i.e., the relative importance of the three {contributions} to all grain processing mechanisms) is 30-50%, 20-4...

Hirashita, Hiroyuki

2012-01-01

48

Application of medium sized SMES electric power systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to evaluate the technological and economical impact of medium sized SMES with a capacity in the range of a few 100 kWh on power system operation a lot of system engineering studies are still necessary. Although the two examples mentioned in the present paper do not claim to be complete they are still illustrating the general structure of investigations concerning the location, dimensioning and control scheme of SMES. Also there is a relationship between these investigations which has to be taken into consideration with respect to economical reasons. (orig.)

1993-01-01

49

MANUFACTURING ORIENTED DESIGN IN SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZE FACTORIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Special circumstances and considerations for the implementation of Computer Integrated Manufacturing principles in small and medium size factories are identified and discussed. An approach for esthablishing such programs is suggested and illustrated with a number of examples.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Spesiale omstandighede en oorwegings vir die implementering van Rekenaargeintegreerde Vervaardigingsbeginsels in klein en mediumgrootte fabrieke word geidentifiseer en bespreek. 'n Benadering vir die daarstelling van sodanige programme word voorgestel en geillustreer met behulp van verskeie voorbeelde.

J. Peters

2012-01-01

50

Internationalization of small and medium-sized enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Highly developed countries, which are similar to Croatia by size and population, highlight the importance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs as holders of export activities and key factors in raising the competitiveness of the entire economy. In this paper authors research the concept of internationalization of SMEs. Analyzing the influence of decision makers on the process of internationalization and showing its advantages and disadvantages for the respective company and country, this research introduces the most common models on the basis of which this process is implemented in practice. A case study of a small export company from Croatia illustrates the process of internationalization to the U.S. market and provides useful information to the companies which are planning to enter new markets.

Zoran Paunovi?

2010-06-01

51

KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION STEPS FOR INDIAN SMALL & MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents review of literature on Knowledge management (KM in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs. It focuses on the strategy, implementation, technological and performance measurement &benchmarking issues regarding KM in Indian SMEs. KM is a practical tool for any organization. So KM does not remain just a theory now but it paves the way to formulating an understanding of KM and its role within SMEs. KM has gained importance in the today’s global knowledge economy. It is important not only for big firms, but for small and medium size enterprises (SMEs also. Indian SMEs sector is also one of the fastest growing sectors of Indian economy. So it is very important for SMEs to know what their knowledge assets are,and how to manage and make best use of these assets to get maximum return, since without proper KM approaches, SMEs are likely to have more to lose than larger enterprises. This paper tries to identify the steps regarding implementation of KM in Indian SMEs for improving competitiveness of SMEs in globalised market.

Apurva Anand

2011-12-01

52

Medium-sized rock heat source systems. Mellanstora bergvaermesystem; Dimensioneringsanalyser  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results from these medium-sized rock heat source systems show that more functional trouble and inferior performance than expected are obtained if the borehole system is not adapted to the temperature demands of the heat pump cold transfer fluid. The design of the evaporator causes the evaporation temperature to become to low when the cold transfer fluid temperature reaches its lowest level for the year in two of the three plants studied. The third plant presents no functional trouble despite being operated at the same lowest cold transfer fluid temperature during the first years of operation. An analysis of complementary addition of boreholes in one of the plants with functional trouble reveals that the solution may be interesting if the heat pumps has to be capacity controlled for long periods during the heating season. In that plant the space for additional boreholes is limited, why the cost of this measure might be higher than the estimated SEK 240 per meter borehole. The computer code SBMA shows good agreement with measured weekly notations of the cold transfer fluid temperature during the first years of operation. The long-term temperature reduction caused by interaction between the closely located boreholes cannot be verified from only three years of operation. This fact gives cause for a follow-up of a number of medium-sized rock heat source systems for some additional years. 13 illus., 16 tabs. (author).

Spante, L.

1989-05-24

53

Industrial nutrient medium use for yeast selenium preparation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents the preparation of selenium yeast from spent brewer’s yeast by using industrial nutrient medium (malt wort and sparge water. The chemical treatment of the yeast biomass was done with sodium-selenite solution. The preparation of selenium – enriched Saccharomyces uvarum in different conditions of temperature, time, yeast biomass proportion and sodium-selenite concentration of the medium was analysed. Using a culture mediumsupplemented with 30–180 ?g/ ml sodium-selenite results in total selenium accumulation in the range of 0.6–2.2 mg/g for malt wort and 0.4–1.6 mg/g for sparge water and in organic selenium accumulation in the range of 0.6–1.5 mg/g for malt wort and 0.3–0.9 mg/g for sparge water measured by ICP- MS method.

GINA MARINESCU

2011-07-01

54

Direct television broadcasting with a medium-size satellite  

Science.gov (United States)

The low-risk, high reliability DBS design approach that led to the world's first DBS delivery-in-orbit type contact is described relative to the unique TWTA, redundancy, and battery technology used on the medium-size HS 376 spacecraft. The general DBS technical and commercial problems that have been encountered worldwide to date are summarized. DBS coverage of Great Britain, Japan, Saudi Arabia, Switzerland, Thailand, and the U.S. is considered, as is the community broadcasting satellite service to Australia's remote outback via Aussat's existing HS 376 satellite system. Edge-of-coverage EIRP from 47 to 59 dBW is identified, and the varying 7-to-15 year lifetimes resulting from different booster capabilities that have been observed are noted. Antenna patterns are provided for each application discussed.

Pfund, E. T.

55

Optical properties of medium size noble and transition metal nanoparticles  

Science.gov (United States)

Using first-principles methods within time dependent density functional theory and the local density approximation (TDLDA) the absorption spectra of medium size (˜20-80 atoms) silver, gold and copper nanoparticles have been calculated. The nanoparticles are fcc fragments with different aspect ratios. We find that in the case of Ag nanoparticles is well reproduced by classical electrodynamics theory based in Mie's formalism, using the dielectric function of bulk Ag and taking into account the nanoparticle shape. For the case of Cu and Au, there is a similarity in the overall features of the quantum mechanical and classical spectra, but no detailed agreement. We will discuss the role that the d-electrons among all the different elements and the surface states play in controlling the optical properties of the nanoparticles. This work was supported by GOALI NSF grant (DMR-0513048), DOE, the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, and Alcoa Inc.

Idrobo, Juan C.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.

2009-03-01

56

SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES IN REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper examines the role of SME sector in Moldova’s economy and its likely implications in the RD processes. There are emphasized several key features of the relationship between knowledge economy, RD and SMEs, and their effect on regional and local communities. Then, a summary of RD particular features in Moldova is presented.The role of SME sector, examined in terms of its performance by ownership and activity types, as a whole and by main firms’ categories (micro-, small, and medium-sized is analyzed. Small enterprises have been considered as the most adequate solution forpromoting RD in general case. National-level analysis is completed by regional insight into the sector as a whole. Finally, some critical aspects of SMEs’ role in RD in Moldova are discussed.

Igor G. SÎRODOEV

2009-12-01

57

Economic situation of medium-sized utilities; Wirtschaftlichkeit mittelstaendischer Energieversorger  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Accenture published a wide-range empirical study (MainBench Study) for which more than 50 German utilities were analyzed for a period of five years. The results were surprising: Expected trends, e.g. the decline of small utilities, did not take place, and there were new trends and astonishing developments instead. For example, small and medium-sized multi-utilities profited from the changed marketing conditions. [German] Accenture hat eine breit angelegte empirische Untersuchung (MainBench-Studie) veroeffentlicht, in der ueber 50 mehrspartige deutsche Versorgungsunternehmen ueber einen Zeitraum von fuenf Jahren untersucht wurden. Die Ergebnisse ueberraschen teilweise: Ehemals prognostizierte Entwicklungen, wie beispielsweise eine schnelle Marktbereinigung um kleinere Energieversorger, sind ueberwiegend nicht eingetreten. Stattdessen lassen sich neue Trends und erstaunliche Entwicklungen beobachten. So konnten z.B. mittlere und kleinere Unternehmen bisher besonders von den veraenderten Bedingungen profitieren. (orig./CB)

Brinkmann, F.; Pfaffhausen, H. [Accenture, Muenchen (Germany)

2003-02-01

58

Incident Response Plan for a Small to Medium Sized Hospital  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most small to medium health care organizations do not have the capability to address cyber incidents within the organization.Those that do are poorly trained and ill equipped .These health care organizations are subject to various laws that address privacy concerns , proper handling of financial information, and Person ally Identifiable Information. Currently an IT staff handles responses to these incidents in an Ad Hoc manner.A properly trained, staffed,and equipped Cyber Incident Response Team is needed to quickly respond to these incidents to minimize data loss, and provide forensic data for the purpose of notification, disciplinary action, legal action, and to remove the risk vector. This paper 1 will use the proven Incident Command System model used in emergency services to show any sized agency can have an a dequate CIRT.

Charles DeVoe

2013-04-01

59

Safety Analysis for Medium/Small Size Integral Reactor: Evaluation of Safety Characteristics for Small and Medium Integral Reactor.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Small and medium integral reactor is developed to be utilized for non- electric areas such as district heating and steam production for desalination and other industrial purposes, and then these applications may typically imply a closeness between the...

H. Kim K. W. Seul S. K. Ahn Y. S. Bang D. G. Park

1997-01-01

60

BTX measurements in a medium-sized European city  

Science.gov (United States)

The BTX levels are significantly high compared to the EU directive for benzene in European cities with population around or higher one million. Since there are hundreds of towns in Europe with smaller population, it is important to know the levels of aromatics in these areas. This work presents the results of a benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) measurement campaign that took place in Ioannina, a medium-sized Greek city. As a result of traffic situation and the local meteorological conditions, pollution levels in Ioannina are unusually high, at least for a city of that size. BTX levels were measured using passive samplers placed at several points around the city, as well as across a selected street canyon using both passive and active samplers, combined with simultaneous measurements of traffic flow and wind speed. The measurement procedure was repeated in an exact manner for all four seasons and the results suggest that benzene levels, at all sampling points, exceed the limit set by EU Directive 2000/69. Benzene levels appear correlated to traffic density, while benzene/toluene/xylene ratios present a seasonal variation linked to meteorological conditions.

Pilidis, Georgios A.; Karakitsios, Spyros P.; Kassomenos, Pavlos A.

 
 
 
 
61

Rotational variability in medium and large sized TNOs  

Science.gov (United States)

Trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) are considered some of the most pristine objects in the Solar System. Their surfaces display a wide range of compositions, going from surfaces covered by dark irradiation mantels, to surfaces totally covered by ices. According to models of the retention of volatiles, only TNOs with a diameter d > 1000 km are expected to retain any of their original complement of volatile ices on their surface. However, surface refreshing processes on smaller bodies (e.g., collisions, transient atmospheres and cometary activity) could bring to the surface some amount of ices that are stable at depth. When these processes affect only part of the surface they cause surface heterogeneity. The study of rotational variability of medium and large sized TNOs is important to better understand the physical processes affecting their surfaces, and if these processes are local in scale or, on the contrary, extend across the whole surface. We present rotationally resolved spectroscopy of two TNOs, (20000) Varuna and (136472) Makemake. Varuna is a medium sized TNO ( 621 km). We observed Varuna with NICS@TNG telescope, in the NIR, covering two entire rotations of the object. The analysis of the data shows a homogeneous surface composed of a mixture of complex organics, silicates and water ice. Our data also indicate an upper limit of 10% of methane ice on the surface. The Dwarf Planet Makemake is also studied in this work. The surface of this large TNO shows that, similar to Pluto and Eris, it clearly retains large amounts of volatile ices. Moreover, thermal observations indicate that Makemake has a heterogeneous surface that could be the result of volatile migration. We present new visible spectra of Makemake, obtained with ISIS@WHT telescope, covering 80% of the surface. We present a detailed study of the differences in the absorption bands across the surface that are indicative of changes in the relative abundances of ices, temperature, and/or particle size. Moreover, we collect all data available from literature, after 8 year from the discovery of Makemake, and compare with our data to investigate possible rotational and secular variations.

Lorenzi, Vania; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Licandro, J.; Emery, J. P.; Dalle Ore, C. M.

2013-10-01

62

Challenges and Considerations for Innovative Small and Medium Sized Reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is an ongoing interest in Member States in the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). In the near term, most new NPPs are likely to be evolutionary water cooled reactor designs building on proven systems while incorporating technological advances and often the economics of scale, resulting from the reactor outputs of up to 1600 MW(e). For a longer term, the focus is on innovative designs aiming to provide increased benefits in the areas of safety and security, non-proliferation, waste management, resource utilization and economy, as well as to offer a variety of energy products and flexibility in design, siting and fuel cycle options. Many innovative designs are reactors within the SMR range, having an equivalent electric power less than 700 MW(e) or even less than 300 MW(e). It is important that small or medium sized reactor does not necessarily mean small or medium sized nuclear power plant. The majority of innovative SMR concepts and designs provide for power station configurations with several units at a site or for NPP configurations with 2 or more reactor modules. In most cases, the units or modules could be added incrementally. Innovative SMRs are in many cases intended for markets different from those in which large nuclear power plants operate, i.e., markets that value more distributed electrical supplies, a better match between supply increments and investment capability or demand growth, more flexible siting or greater product variety. SMRs cannot compete with larger capacity plants on an economy of scale basis. However, they could be competitive via employing alternative design strategies, taking advantage of smaller reactor size resulting in a less complex design and operation and maintenance or in an increased overall energy conversion efficiency, and by relying on alternative deployment strategies, taking advantage of multiple unit factors and learning curve, and shorter construction schedule and 'exact' unit timing factors. Because many innovative SMRs are not water cooled, licensing approaches focussed on current light water reactors may need adjustments toward a technology-neutral approach. And most of the innovative SMR concepts rely broadly on passive safety systems, the reliability of which needs to be proven to enable risk-informed qualification and licensing. In addition, many potential applications of SMRs, such as district heat, potable water or hydrogen production, may require them to be located close to customers or a chemical plant. Based on the outputs of IAEA activities for innovative SMRs, it is possible to identify common approaches that could help the potential vendors to meet the expectations of many users and the international community. The paper will provide details on such considerations, with a link to various subject areas and categories of stake holders.(author)

2008-05-25

63

The design of a compact integral medium size PWR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model the IRIS reactor in RELAP5 and VIPRE codes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use Printed Circuit Heat Exchangers and internally and externally cooled fuel pins in IRIS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We increase the IRIS power by 50% and demonstrate adequate safety performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show significant potential gain in economics for any integral PWR reactor design. - Abstract: Integral reactors have been proposed in recent years as a means to eliminate loss of coolant events, and reduce the number of large vessels of a nuclear power plant. In this paper the focus on how to further increase the power that can be derived from a given vessel volume. The example is applied to the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS), a medium size, light water reactor rated at 1000 MWt. The IRIS is an integral design containing all pumps and steam generators along with a traditional PWR core inside the reactor vessel. IRIS was designed with 8 Once-Through Helically Coiled Steam Generators (OTHSG), located above the core, in an annular region between the riser and the pressure vessel wall. This work examines ideas to increase its power output in the same vessel size while maintaining or improving the safety margins. The combination of Printed Circuit Heat Exchangers (PCHE) and Internally and EXternally cooled Annular Fuel (IXAF) is proposed to implement such improvement in otherwise the reference IRIS design. Safety implications of such steam generator and fuel design changes for the same reactor size are examined, under both steady state and transients, using the RELAP5 and VIPRE codes. It is found that the IRIS reactor power can be increased by 50% by using the PCHE and IXAF. The proposed design is found to be less expensive per unit electric power produced, these improvements and analyses can be applied to any integral reactor design.

Shirvan, Koroush, E-mail: kshirvan@mit.edu [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Hejzlar, Pavel [TerraPower, LLC, Bellevue, WA (United States); Kazimi, Mujid S. [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

2012-02-15

64

Accurate thermochemistry for medium-sized and large molecules  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Accurate techniques such as Gaussian-2 (G2) theory have been proposed in recent years to evaluate the thermochemistry of small molecules from first-principles. However, as the molecules get larger, the errors in G2 theory and similar approaches tend to accumulate. For example, the computed heats of formation of benzene and naphthalene with G2 and G2(MP2) theories, respectively, have errors of 3.9 and 7.2 kcal/mol. In this work, we explore strategies for computing accurate heats of formation for medium-sized and large molecules. In our first scheme, G2 theory is combined with isodesmic bond separation reaction energies to yield accurate thermochemistry for larger molecules. For a test set of 40 molecules composed of H, C, O, and N, our method yields enthalpies of formation, {Delta}H{sub f}{sup 0}(298 K), with a mean absolute deviation from experiment of only 0.5 kcal/mol. This is an improvement of a factor of three over the deviation of 1.5 kcal/mol seen in standard G2 theory.

Raghavachari, K.; Stefanov, B.B. [Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (United States); Curtiss, L.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1997-12-31

65

Powertrain System Design of Medium-sized Hybrid Electric Tractor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The environment issue has been more and more serious than ever before along with the increasing numbers of tractors. Different from pure electric tractors, medium-sized tractor more widely adopt hybrid power driver according to the machine structure and operation characteristics. The Hybrid Electric Tractor (HET is capable of enabling the diesel works in an optimal area by controlling the output torque of engine and electronic motor to achieve fuel economy and emission reduction. Designing the parallel hybrid tractor transmission system and control method are put forward in a 66kW off-road tractor based on the plowing operation cycle condition. The overall power should meet the maximum power of the plowing operation with the power balance equation. The control strategies are established by road transport modes and field operating modes, respectively. A logic fuzzy control system to Degree of Hybridization (DOH on account of the output torque and State of Charge (SOC is introduced. Aiming at the fuel economy parameter, the optimization design shows that the hybrid tractor can improve 19.2% of fuel economy between SOC 0.4~0.7 compared with the traditional tractor.

Xie Bin

2013-01-01

66

Foreign Markets Entry Mode Decision for Italian Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Using a resource-based view model, this paper examines the main factors influencing Small and Medium-SizedEnterprise (SME international entry mode selection. In addition, a possible relationship between firmsbelonging to industrial districts and the entry mode choice has been verified. Data for the analysis of this studywere collected interviewing 221 owners/managers of SMEs in Italy. Results showed that entry mode decisionsare mainly influenced by firm specific factors. Furthermore, the study does not support the hypothesis of aconnection between the firm’s belonging to an industrial district and firms’ behavior in entry mode selection.This study has made it possible to detect by a resource-based perspective the main factors influencing the choiceof entry modes.

Fabio Musso

2012-01-01

67

Approaches to Assess Competitiveness of Small and Medium Sized Reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is continuing interest in Member States concerning the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs), i.e., reactors with the equivalent electric power of less than 700 MW. Currently, developed SMRs are in most cases intended for markets different than those in which large nuclear power plants operate. Such markets have essentially different investment requirements, siting flexibility, grid connections and infrastructure restrictions. Therefore, economic factors affecting the competitiveness or competition of SMRs in such markets would also be different from those observed in established markets for electricity production. For example, investment capability may be limited, which would favour capacity addition in smaller increments; grids may be small or weak, which would favour capacities exactly matching the demand; infrastructure and human resource may be insufficient, which would favour less complex operation and maintenance requirements; and non-electrical energy products, such as potable water, may be in demand, which would favour reasonably close plant location to the customer. In practice it is futile to compare a single SMR needs to a single larger capacity plant on an economy of scale basis because SMRs are suitable for those locations that might not be appropriate for larger plants. However, a series of SMRs could be considered comparable to fewer larger plants to achieve the same overall power station capacity. In this case, SMRs have a potential to be competitive by employing alternative design strategies, taking advantage of smaller reactor size, offering a less complex design and operation and maintenance, relying on deployment-in-series approaches, taking an advantage of the accelerated learning, multiple unit factors and shorter construction duration. Reflecting on developments in member states, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is finalizing the preparation of a report highlighting the economics and investment related factors affecting SMR competitiveness, as well as the tools available to assess these factors. In parallel with this, IAEA is conducting a series of case studies on SMR competitive deployment and application, making use of these tools and fostering their further development. The case studies that would highlight comparative benefits and disadvantages of SMRs versus larger reactors for different deployment strategies and application conditions, will be finalized in the end of 2009, and their final results are not yet available Therefore, the present paper summarizes the major outputs of the report titled 'Approaches to Assess Competitiveness of SMRs' and discusses approaches that need to be taken into account in the assessment rather than the results of their application. However, several illustrations of the application of such approaches are provided. (author)

2009-10-27

68

Evaluation of the Benefits of Automated Vehicle Location Systems in Small and Medium Sized Transit Agencies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study addresses the issue of Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) applications in small and medium sized transit agencies. Small to medium transit agencies were contacted to determine their perception of their experience with AVL and the benefits it has p...

Z. R. Peng E. A. Beimborn S. Octania R. J. Zygowicz

1999-01-01

69

The Creation of Small and Medium-Sized Sport Enterprises and the Environmental Factors Affecting It  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Small and medium-sized enterprises are very basic solutions for the development of a country; therefore, it is important to understand the factors involved in their creation. Hence, this study sought to examine the relationship between environmental factors and creation of Small and medium-sized sport enterprises. The research population was small and medium-sized sport enterprises (1500 companies); their owners / managers were selected as the research sample (n = 258) by simple random sampli...

2013-01-01

70

Approaches to assess competitiveness of small and medium sized reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is continuing interest in Member States concerning the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs), i.e., reactors with the equivalent electric power of less than 700 MW. Currently, developed SMRs are in most cases intended for markets different than those in which large nuclear power plants operate. Such markets have essentially different investment requirements, siting flexibility, grid connections and infrastructure restrictions. Therefore, economic factors affecting the competitiveness or competition of SMRs in such markets would also be different from those observed in established markets for electricity production. For example, investment capability may be limited, which would favour capacity addition in smaller increments; grids may be small or weak, which would favour capacities exactly matching the demand; infrastructure and human resource may be insufficient, which would favour less complex operation and maintenance requirements; and non-electrical energy products, such as potable water, may be in demand, which would favour reasonably close plant location to the customer. In practice it is futile to compare a single SMR needs to a single larger capacity plant on an economy of scale basis because SMRs are suitable for those locations that might not be appropriate for larger plants. However, a series of SMRs could be considered comparable to fewer larger plants to achieve the same overall power station capacity. In this case, SMRs have a potential to be competitive by employing alternative design strategies, taking advantage of smaller reactor size, offering a less complex design and operation and maintenance, relying on deployment-in-series approaches, taking an advantage of the accelerated learning, multiple unit factors and shorter construction duration. Reflecting on developments in member states, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is finalizing the preparation of a report highlighting the economics and investment related factors affecting SMR competitiveness, as well as the tools available to assess these factors. Adequate comparative assessment of SMR competitiveness is a complex task that may require considering time dependent expenditure and generation profiles and interest rates to determine adequate values of levelized unit energy cost (LUEC) for deployment scenarios with several consequently built plants of different types and capacities. As private capital may play an important role in financing of the new plants, investment and revenue models need to be employed to determine time-dependent characteristics, such as investments and revenues. Uncertainty analysis needs to be incorporated to add a degree of fidelity to the overall assessment. A variety of methods and tools required to conduct comparative economic assessments would been described in this paper. Many of these tools already exist in member states or are available from international organizations. In addition to this, the IAEA coordinated the development of an open model for the analysis of SMR economic and investment opportunities, which targets bringing together all currently available state-of-the-art models for generation costs, revenues, financial costs, and external factors and risks, while 'keeping the door open' for any new approach or development once it becomes available. The open model is being developed for a specific task of comparing the deployments of SMRs versus larger reactors in liberalized energy markets. LUEC will be an important figure of merit in this model; however, provisions would be made to ensure that LEUC is calculated taking into account time-dependent expenditure and production profiles and changing interest rates. In addition models to calculate investment profiles and revenues will be included. Finally, an approach to take into account other factors potentially affecting the competitiveness of SMRs, such as energy supply security, proliferation-resistance, political posture, etc. will be developed. In parallel with the development of such model, IAEA is conducting a s

2009-10-27

71

Defining an Industry: What is the Size and Scope of the Australian Building and Construction Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The analysis and understanding of the conduct and performance of an industry beginswith a study of its structure. However, before analysing an industry's structure it isnecessary to define the industry and identify its size, scope and scale to establish itstrue economic contribution. This paper discusses the size and scope of the Australianbuilding and construction industry, firstly, from a traditional industry economics approachby firm size and business characteristics using data from three construction industrysurveys done over 15 years by the ABS. Secondly, data from an industry 'cluster'perspective is shown. The objective of the paper is to compare the differences found inindustry size and scope in the structure-conduct-performance approach and thealternative industry cluster approach. Each model reveals different characteristics of theindustry. The conclusion finds that the building and construction industry is a casewhere the traditional structure-conduct-performance model cannot be easily applied.53

Gerard de Valence

2011-09-01

72

Defining an Industry: What is the Size and Scope of the Australian Building and Construction Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The analysis and understanding of the conduct and performance of an industry beginswith a study of its structure. However, before analysing an industry's structure it isnecessary to define the industry and identify its size, scope and scale to establish itstrue economic contribution. This paper discusses the size and scope of the Australianbuilding and construction industry, firstly, from a traditional industry economics approachby firm size and business characteristics using data from three construction industrysurveys done over 15 years by the ABS. Secondly, data from an industry 'cluster'perspective is shown. The objective of the paper is to compare the differences found inindustry size and scope in the structure-conduct-performance approach and thealternative industry cluster approach. Each model reveals different characteristics of theindustry. The conclusion finds that the building and construction industry is a casewhere the traditional structure-conduct-performance model cannot be easily applied.53

Gerard de Valence

2011-08-01

73

Harmonic resonance at a medium-sized industrial plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Harmonic resonance is a concern at the plant because approximately 50% of the normal electrical load consists of computer equipment, switch mode power supplies and ac induction motor adjustable speed controllers. Due to the nonlinear characteristics of these loads, significant harmonic voltages and currents are produced on the electrical distribution system. Measurements were made with a harmonic analyzer at several locations in the electrical distribution system to quantify harmonic currents and voltages. The system impedance diagram, prepared from the system one line diagram, was used to model the electrical system and calculate power system natural frequencies. Calculations indicated harmonic resonance occurs near the seventh harmonic frequency depending on configuration of the electrical power system. The plant equivalent circuit was prepared for several harmonic frequencies to show the amplification of currents and voltages due to the effects of harmonic resonance. Calculations to determine network harmonics are presented using a simplified system representation in combination with traditional circuit reduction methods. The results of these calculations are shown to be valid by actual system measurement.

Currence, E.J. [Holabird and Root, Rochester, MN (United States); Plizga, J.E. [IBM Corp., Rochester, MN (United States); Nelson, H.N. [Industrial Design Corp., Pocatello, ID (United States)

1995-07-01

74

Defining an Industry: What is the Size and Scope of the Australian Building and Construction Industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This is a reprint from Vol 1, no 1, which has not previously been available in electronic format.The analysis and understanding of the conduct and performance of an industry begins with a study of its structure. However, before analysing an industry's structure it is necessary to define the industry and identify its size, scope and scale to establish its true economic contribution. This paper discusses the size and scope of the Australian building and construction industry, firstly ...

Gerard de Valence

2010-01-01

75

IS IT NECESSARY TO REGULATE FINANCIAL REPORTING OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTITIES?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper deals with the analysis of the position of small and medium-sized entities in the Slovak Republic and with the international regulation of small and medium-sized entities’ financial reporting. It provides the business demography of economic subjects by size class category by number of employees and follows by an average number of employed persons by size classes of enterprises in persons. Due to the fact that the number of these entities represents a significant role, the regulat...

2013-01-01

76

[Application of health questionnaires for health management in small- and medium-sized enterprises].  

Science.gov (United States)

Two kinds of health questionnaires, the Todai Health Index (THI) and Cumulative Fatigue Index (CFI), were applied as a screening device for health management of workers belonging to small-medium sized enterprises. A total of 495 workers composed of 452 male workers of a glass-bottle manufacturing factory and 43 male workers of a soft-drink bottling factory were the subjects of the present study. It was found that the two kinds of health questionnaires were different from each other and have their own characteristics. Twelve scales of THI were grouped into two, the first consisting of ten scales (SUSY, RESP, EYSK, MOUT, DIGE, IMPU, MENT, DEPR, NERV, and LIFE) and the second consisting of two scales (AGGR and LISC). Nine categories of CFI were grouped into one by using principal factor analysis. It was confirmed that the twelve scale scores of THI obtained at small-medium sized factories differed from those scale scores of a reference group investigated at a large-sized enterprise. It is on the basis of the scales of aggressiveness and lies and also of the scale of mental unstability which characterizes workers, locality, job (clerical or field work), and size of industry (large or small sized) that the difference could be evaluated. Urban life characterized by a life style of staying up late at night and waking up late in the morning has been reflected on the scale of life irregularity. Irregularity of life induced by transformation of working schedule, such as two or three shifts of work and overtime, was also reflected on this scale. Two scales of THI test, i.e., many subjective symptoms and digestive organ complaints, seemed to be the representative scales indicating a close relation between work load and health level. The discriminant score for diagnosis of psychosomatic diseases is considered to be one of the most useful assessments of the individual's health condition. As mentioned above, THI is recommended as a convenient assessment method for health management of workers and for screening individuals or groups requiring health management from the total respondents belonging to small-medium sized enterprises where health administrators or professionals for health services are not available. A combined use of THI and CFI is more effective in evaluating health status of field workers than the independent use of one of these two tests, because the causal relationship between work load and health status cannot be satisfactorily observed, only through THI. PMID:3712831

Kishida, K; Saito, M; Hasegawa, T; Aoki, S; Suzuki, S

1986-01-01

77

Enablers and Difficulties for Innovation in Chile: Perceptions from Medium Size Plastic Firm Managers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english The research objective was to understand the reasons that would impel firms to innovate. The firms analyzed in this study were medium-size firms of the plastic manufacturing sector in Chile. After the analysis of the theory related to technological innovation, a model of the drivers for technologica [...] l innovation was developed. From the model a questionnaire was prepared to test which factors could influence the tendency of firms to engage in technological innovation activities. According to the data, the most influential factors that would encourage innovation in the set of firms studied are a high degree of competition in the industry, the availability of qualified workers, and a strategic relationship with customers.

José O, Maldifassi; Patricio, Crovetto.

78

What Drives Innovation? Findings from Medium Sized Plastic firms in Chile  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research objective was to understand the main reasons that would impel firms to innovate. The firms analyzed in this study were medium-size firms of the plastic manufacturing sector in Chile. After the analysis of the theory related to technological innovation, a model of the drivers for technological innovation was developed and a set of hypotheses was proposed. A questionnaire was designed covering several factors that could influence the tendency of firms to engage in technological innovation activities. According to the data, the most influential factors that would encourage innovation in the set of firms studied are a high degree of competition in the industry, the availability of qualified workers, and a strategic relationship with customers.

José O. Maldifassi

2013-03-01

79

Examples from P2 and energy assessments at small to medium size manufacturers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using engineering student-faculty teams, the U.S. Department of energy sponsored industrial assessment center (IAC) at the university of louisville does free pollution prevention and energy assessments at small to medium size manufacturers (SIC 20-39) in kentucky and indiana. Each client plant must meet three of the following four criteria: Annual energy bills less than $1, 750, 000 and more than $50, 00. Gross annual sales of less than $75 million. Less than 500 employees. Lack a dedicated energy/waste engineer. Lack of in-house staff to perform these analyses. The program criteria and assessment procedures are briefly described and summaries of assessment at a sheet fed offset (lithographic) printing plant and 2 denim jeans pre washing plants are presented. 4 figs., 8 tabs

1996-06-03

80

The Role of Higher Education in the Effective Delivery of Multimedia Management Training to Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The UK government's University for Industry (UfI) initiative heralds an era for change in further and higher education. It is part of the government's policies on lifelong learning and the problem of many small and medium -sized enterprises (SMEs) that carry out limited training is of particular importance. One proposed solution is to develop multimedia management courseware in the higher and further education sectors which can then be transferred to SMEs in order to meet their training needs...

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Dressed for Success : A study of Success Factors For Small and Medium-sized Manufacturing Enterprises in Sweden  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The business climate of today, with increasing globalization, has resulted in structural changes in the commercial and industrial sectors. As a result, many large companies have moved their production abroad. Therefore the smaller companies have become increasingly important for growth and employment nationally. Small businesses are a significant contributor to the well-being of nations and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play an important role for Sweden, both in terms of economic ...

Lingega?rd, Sofia; Sandstro?m, Emma

2008-01-01

82

The study of venture capital finance and investment behaviour in small and medium-sized enterprises  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are often credited with innovative entrepreneurial practices and conceiving new market opportunities. Government has reinforced these positive economic externalities through policy programmes and designated support structures. Venture capital organisations o [...] ften galvanise innovative knowledge by entrenching and sustaining nascent businesses through value-creating funding behaviours. In this way, the venture capital industry financially supports entrepreneurial activity for economic growth and governs and nurtures the growth of the SMEs. These show that the venture capital industry embraces value-creating opportunities on the basis of rational partnerships with enterprises that have limited track records and less formal control mechanisms. The tentative factor analysis findings suggest an integrated framework for the venture capital industry from the significant intercorrelations among the variables. The most important focus of this article, however, is its attempt to examine the behavioural traits of SMEs and venture capitalists regarding systematic finance and investment for inclusivity and due diligence.

Mbhele, Thokozani Patmond.

83

Analyses of the realization of rational use of energy in small and medium sized enterprises in the commercial and tertiary sector  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Considerable unused energy (cost) saving potentials exist in the commercial and tertiary sector with its small and medium sized enterprises. Small enterprises mostly need external assistance to improve their energy efficiency, which presents options for services like energy consulting. However those industrial sectors consisting of small and medium sized enterprises have as yet rarely been investigated in regard to opportunities and problems in realizing energy saving measures so that necessa...

2000-01-01

84

Small and medium sized reactors with special emphasis on non-power applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper examines the possible role of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) for world energy supply based on recent studies by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), the IAEA, the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD and papers presented at a seminar on SMRs held in New Delhi, in August 191. It notes that nuclear power appears to be receiving more favourable consideration as the environmental effects of fossil fuels and renewable energy sources become more evident, and that SMRs are generating particular interest, especially in the USA, because of their passive safety features and reduced financial risk. Although larger reactors will be preferred for electricity generation in most developed countries, unless SMRs are cheaper or offer other benefits, they could be used where electricity demand is too small for large reactors. Small and medium sized reactors could have a more general role in supplying district heating or process heat as they provide a better match to the energy required. However, there are many obstacles to their use at present, including public opposition, cheap gas, small system size, low load factors, lack of finance and competition from independent boilers. Current prospects for SMRs in district heating systems are poor, but the obstacles appear less serious for process heat applications, including desalination, and these could therefore offer early opportunities for SMRs to demonstrate their safety and reliability. Industrial sites also have more consistent demands for heat and electricity which would allow the reactors to operate more efficiently in a co-generation mode. It is concluded that the prospects for SMRs are reasonably good in the longer term. However, it is essential that one or two prototype reactors be built as soon as possible to provide experience and confirm their claimed benefits. This likely to need international co-operation and finance, which will require the selection of the most suitable national designs for further development. (author). 23 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs

1994-07-01

85

Defining an Industry: What is the Size and Scope of the Australian Building and Construction Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is a reprint from Vol 1, no 1, which has not previously been available in electronic format.The analysis and understanding of the conduct and performance of an industry begins with a study of its structure. However, before analysing an industry's structure it is necessary to define the industry and identify its size, scope and scale to establish its true economic contribution. This paper discusses the size and scope of the Australian building and construction industry, firstly froma traditional industry economics approach by firm size and business characteristics using data fron three construction industry surveys done over 15 years by the ABS. Secondly, data from an industry 'cluster' perspective is shown. The objective of the paper is to compare the differences found in industry size and scope in the structure-conduct-performance approach and the alternative industry cluster approach. Each model reveals different characteristics of the industry. The conclusion finds that the building and construction industry is a case where the traditional structure-conduct-performance model cannot be easily applied. 

Gerard de Valence

2010-07-01

86

Safety Analysis for Medium/Small Size Integral Reactor: Evaluation of Safety Characteristics for Small and Medium Integral Reactor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Small and medium integral reactor is developed to be utilized for non-electric areas such as district heating and steam production for desalination and other industrial purposes, and then these applications may typically imply a closeness between the reactor and the user. It requires the reactor to be designed with the adoption of special functional and inherent safety features to ensure and promote a high level of safety and reliability, in comparison with the existing nuclear power plants. The objective of the present study is to establish the bases for the development of regulatory requirements and technical guides to address the special safety characteristics of the small and medium integral reactor. In addition, the study aims to identify and to propose resolutions to the possible safety concerns in the design of the small and medium integral reactor. 34 refs., 20 tabs. (author)

Kim, Hho jung; Seul, K.W.; Ahn, S.K.; Bang, Y.S.; Park, D.G.; Kim, B.K.; Kim, W.S.; Lee, J.H.; Kim, W.K.; Shim, T.M.; Choi, H.S.; Ahn, H.J.; Jung, D.W.; Kim, G.I.; Park, Y.M.; Lee, Y.J. [Korea Inst. of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

1997-07-01

87

Construction of Soft Power of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Enterprise soft strength is a part of core competitiveness of the enterprise, so this paper takes small and mediumsized enterprises as research object to introduces the meanings and characteristics of enterprise soft power, and it puts forward the main contents of soft power of small and medium-sized enterprises and the problems which are existing in the process of construct enterprise soft power, and then the author gives the countermeasures to improve the soft power of small and medium-sized enterprises.

Key words: Enterprise soft power; Small and medium-sized enterprises; Construction

Hongyu LI

2012-11-01

88

Business Benefits from Enterprise Systems Implementation in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The market for enterprise systems (ESs continues to grow as business becomes increasingly global and competitive. Increasingly, the market focus for ES vendors is on small businesses. The purpose of this study is to provide a unique ES vendor/consultant perspective on (a the business benefits small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs expect from their ES investment and (b to examine current practices of ES implementation in SMEs through a conceptual framework that considers the organisational, process and strategic context of the implementation. This study does so with interview data collected from ES vendors, ES consultants and IT research firms, who are the key players in the New Zealand ES industry. A distinctive contribution of this research is the vendor/consultant perspective as the unit of analysis, rather than the SME perspective commonly used in similar research. The vendor/consultant perspective offers a comprehensive viewpoint that extends across numerous SMEs in a variety of industries. Findings from interviews with these professionals indicate that although many ES implementations are several years old now, SMEs have only recently started tracking benefits through analytical processes in expectation to realise business value from their ES investment. The results also identify how ES implementation practices are adapting to be more suitable to the SME sector, an important market for ES vendors given the saturation of the large enterprise market for ES implementation.

Sanjay Mathrani

2009-08-01

89

Energy conserved and costs saved by small and medium-size manufacturers, 1988--1989  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Centers (EADCs) provided energy-conserving and cost saving assistance in 339 small and medium-size manufacturing plants nationwide during 1988-89. This report presents the results of what was recommended to those manufacturers, the record of what was implemented by them, and an analysis of the financial rewards gained by them. It also includes an accounting of the financial returns to the federal government, derived from taxes upon the cost savings, or incremental income, of the manufacturers who implement the EADCs` recommendations. EADCs collect implementation data within a year of the energy audit, and for these results that time period extended through 1990. The EADCs are located at accredited engineering departments of universities and staffed by faculty and students. At present there are 18 EADCs serving manufacturers in 37 states; of these, two were established as a result of the 1989 competition, and five more were chosen competitively in 1990. Most of the results in this report were generated by 11 EADCs (named in the Appendix); two others withdrew voluntarily after completing only 10 energy audits during 1988-89. Primary responsibility for selecting, training, evaluating, and managing the EADCs belongs to the Industrial Technology and Energy Management (ITEM) division of University City Science Center (UCSC). The Department of Energy`s Office of Industrial Technologies sponsors the EADC program through an agreement with UCSC.

Kirsch, F.W.

1991-05-01

90

Medium- and large-size cogeneration projects in Spain  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cogeneration technology nowadays is not only an ideal system for the rational use of energy but is also a strategic investment that will allow various parts of Spanish industry to face the challenge of the European single market in conditions of acceptable competitiveness. These important advantages can be added to the favourable situation existing in Spain since its electricity generating capacity must be increased over the short term. These considerations, together with a constantly growing concern to protect the environment, have given rise to a significant increase in the utilization of this type of installation. It is significant to see how virtually all the electricity utilities in Spain are taking part in some of these new cogeneration projects since they fit in well with some of the other new targets the electricity sector has set, essentially in terms of diversification, image and customer service. There follows a brief summary of the recent history of cogeneration in Spain, its current situation and its utilization prospects for the near future. Comments are also given on aspects related to the legislation and funding system which IDAE proposes for carrying out this type of project. (Author)

Olmedo, D.C. (IDAE, Madrid (Spain))

1993-02-01

91

Contribution of small and medium sized enterprises in development of agribusiness of Serbian Republic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The economic development of Serbian republic is more and more connected with development of small and medium sized enterprises, which represent one of the main bases of Serbian economy. The economic potential of agriculture imposes the need of analyzing the condition in area of small and medium sized entrepreneurship which should be the carrier of future development of agribusiness. By ranging and grouping of Serbian republic municipalities (by discrimination and cluster analysis according to level of development of small and medium sized entrepreneurship in agriculture, the clear view is got in current state of regional development of this agricultural sector as the possibilities of future development. By development of small and medium sized enterprises in agriculture it is possible to achieve strategic goals of Serbian republic agro development and for realization of these goals it is necessary to ensure the stable economic ambient, appropriate pre conditions as measures of support which will be stimulating for development of agribusiness.

Popovi? Blaženka

2009-01-01

92

EXTERNAL FORCES DRIVING CHANGE IN THE ROMANIAN SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Change is a constant in everyday life confronting organizations to continuously adapt their strategy, structure, processes, and culture in order to survive and stay competitive on the market. Implementing organizational change is one of the most important skills required for managers and in the meantime the most difficult one. The forces driving change within an organization, that can be either external or internal, are those that propel a company forward towards change and in order to identify the need for change and make the proper changes, managers have to develop a tool that allows them to analyze how does the environment influence their business activities. A vision for change will clarify the directions in which the organization needs to move, starting from its current state and taking in consideration the existing opportunities and threats from the environment that allow to move to a future desired state. The purpose of this paper is to identify the concern for change in the Romanian small and medium sized enterprises by presenting and explaining the past and present influences of the main external forces that have determined the need for change in the last 3-5 years and to make recommendations about future possible changes that have to be performed by managers for a better harmonization with the environment. The research method used for this study is the interview on a sample that contains some of the most relevant SME’s from the western side of Romania, from different industries. We analyzed the main external forces that had an impact on the small and medium sized enterprises and how were they generating the need for organizational change, in order to see which present and future changes are required.

Roiban Roxana Nadina

2012-07-01

93

The Vital Factors for Small and Medium Sized Sport Enterprises Start-ups  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nowadays, the new enterprises are recognized as the main source of job creation, innovation and development. In today’s business world, new enterprises are recognized as an important source of job creation, innovation and development. Therefore, identifying influencing factors that play key roles in the start-up of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) is critical. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify critical factors for starting-up Small and Medium sized Sport Enterprises (...

2013-01-01

94

Customer Relationship Management system for small and medium-sized enterprise  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This bachelor work provides a case study of small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) to analyze the general proposal criteria for customer relationship management (CRM) software selection. The selected software can help small and medium-sized enterprise to solve the marketing issues which are connected with customers to enhance customer satisfaction and loyalty to realize customer retention, customer acquisition and market share expanding.

Cao, Liang

2008-01-01

95

European Private Company : A solution for minority shareholders within small- and medium sized enterprises in Sweden?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Swedish companies act of 2005 regulates public and private limited companies. With these two classification shortages of rights prosper to different kinds of company structures that exist in today’s business environment. The Swedish companies act focuses on larger companies and therefore smaller companies are often neglected. Specific problems that may occur in a small- and medium sized enterprise are not solved. The problems that occur in small- and medium sized companies have rather a...

Aziz, Diden

2011-01-01

96

Success factors of entrepreneurial small and medium sized enterprises in the Gnosjö municipality  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Date of final Seminar: June 8th, 2012 Title: Success factors of entrepreneurial small and medium sized enterprises in Gnosjö municipality Authors:    Johan Eriksson and Muyu Li Group Number: 2898 Supervisor: Michaël Le Duc Examiner: Ole Liljefors Research Question: What important factors affect the success of entrepreneurial SMEs in the Gnosjö municipality? Background: With the economic crisis and recession, the world has begun to take notice of SMEs (small and medium sized enterprises)...

Eriksson, Johan; Li, Muyu

2012-01-01

97

What Types of Small and Medium-Sized Businesses are Utilizing New Financial Products?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The increased diversification of fund rising methods among small and medium-sized businesses has been a major policy challenge in recent years, and private financial institutions are proactively striving to disseminate new financial technologies. However, this does not necessarily mean that every small and medium-sized business benefits from such technologies. It is difficult to analyze this aspect based on ready-made data. Fortunately, this paper can analyze the current status and challenges...

Yamori, Nobuyoshi

2009-01-01

98

The role of promotional strategies for small and medium- sized entreprises in sustainable marketing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Romania, small and medium-sized enterprises manifest a certain interest in marketing activities, resulted in the existence of a specific marketing structure in half of them, as attests a survey done on a sample of 140 organizations. This research, focused on understanding the promotional strategies and tactics used by Romanian small and medium-sized enterprises, concluded that communication is oriented predominantly to quantitative objectives, not designed according to sustainable marketin...

2012-01-01

99

Market size and vertical structure in the rail way industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We provide a theoretical framework to discuss the relation between market size and vertical structure in the railway industry. The framework is based on a simple downstream monopoly model with two input suppliers, labor forces and the rail infrastructure firm. The operation of the downstream firm (i.e., the train operating firm) generates costs on the rail infrastructure firm. We show that the downstream firm with a larger market size is more likely to integrate with the rail infrastructure f...

Matsushima, Noriaki; Mizutani, Fumitoshi

2011-01-01

100

Bridging the energy gap through small and medium sized nuclear reactors in India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

India is the only country in the world which is employing small sized nuclear reactors for its nuclear power programme. It has now embarked on a programme of augmenting the contribution of the nuclear power by way of employing both medium and small sized nuclear reactors in the next 15 years. This paper discusses the Indian experience and its efforts for industrial mobilisation for rapidly constructing 235/500 MWe nuclear reactor units in a period of about 8 to 9 years. The current energy situation in India and this context the near term role of nuclear power for supplementing the existing sources of commercial energy have been evaluated. Nuclear power has reached such a stage of maturity whereby it has now become a commercially viable source of electricity and it could be utilised on large scale to bridge the energy gap. At present six reactor units of 210/235 MWe capacity are in operation and eight more are in different stages of construction. While we are continuing with the construction of 235 MWe units, a programme of being pursued to construct 550 MWe capacity reactor units from midnineties onwards. This has become possible with the strengthening of regional electricity grids and simultaneous efforts undertaken for augmentation of fuel supply, heavy water production and industrial infrastructure. For a developing country like India, implementation of a sizable nuclear power programme has posed certain special challenges as major inputs are required to be made available with indigeneous efforts. This paper discusses such challenges and presents the ways and means adopted to surmount them. Other developing countries with conditions comparable to those in India could benefit from Indian experience in this regard. This paper also proposes India's willingness to cooperate with other countries for exchange of information and assistance in terms of technical knowhow. (author)

1987-08-24

 
 
 
 
101

IS IT NECESSARY TO REGULATE FINANCIAL REPORTING OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTITIES?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper deals with the analysis of the position of small and medium-sized entities in the Slovak Republic and with the international regulation of small and medium-sized entities’ financial reporting. It provides the business demography of economic subjects by size class category by number of employees and follows by an average number of employed persons by size classes of enterprises in persons. Due to the fact that the number of these entities represents a significant role, the regulation of their financial reporting becomes a material fact. The International Accounting Standards Board issued the International Financial Reporting Standard for Small and Medium-sized Entities (IFRS® for SMEs to achieve the international comparability of accounting and reporting information. The paper covers as well as the perspectives of the IFRS® for SMEs implementation within the European Union.

MICHAL JEŠŠ

2013-01-01

102

Collisional parton energy loss in a finite size QCD medium revisited: Off mass-shell effects  

CERN Multimedia

We study the collisional energy loss mechanism for particles produced off mass-shell in a finite size QCD medium. We show that these effects reduce the energy loss as compared to the case when the particles are described as propagating on mass-shell. The effect is introduced by considering particles produced in wave packets instead of plane waves, which introduces the length scale associated to the in-medium particles' life-time. The reduction of the energy loss is stronger as this scale becomes of the order or smaller than the medium size

Ayala, Alejandro; Montano, Luis Manuel; Rojas, Eduardo

2007-01-01

103

The role of small and medium size reactors in the future US nuclear market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper addresses the various aspects of siting and sizing new generating facilities in the USA. Environmental and licensing issues are discussed. The economic considerations and assumptions for new plants are presented. Also, the electric transmission and distribution system characteristics and constraints are described with the potential role for several small and medium size designs summarized. (authors)

2001-12-11

104

Dinamismo de mercado en la pequeña y mediana industria de Colombia: el caso SuperBrix / Dynamisme de Marché dans la Petite et Moyenne Industrie de Colombie: Le cas de SuperBrix / Market Dynamism in Small and Medium-Sized Colombian Industry: The Case of SuperBrix / Dinamismo de mercado na pequena e mediana indústria da Colômbia: o caso SuperBrix  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Em março de 2010 o engenheiro Mariano Ghisays, presidente executivo da Superbrix, não somente questionava-se se abranger o mercado asiático era uma opção viável, também se a mesma emergia numa cojuntura apropriada da economia e a capacidade tecnológica da sua empresa, que até aquele momento tinha si [...] do impossível de copiar. A oportunidade de entrar em países como a China, a Coreia, a Índia, a Malásia e a Cingapura já tinha sido levado em conta pela diretoria alguns anos atrás; contudo a decisão foi adiada a fim de consolidar o mercado americano, o que fora atingido depois de várias tentativas de entrada, logo depois de apurar a sua estratégia de mergulho no mesmo. Mariano se perguntava, então: de que maneira uma mediana empresa do Caribe colombiano, capitalizando a sua experiência de entrada em vários mercados internacionais, poderia com êxito atingir esses países asiáticos, onde os preços, concorrência e probabilidade de cópia dos seus produtos representavam um risco enorme para a companhia? Abstract in spanish En marzo de 2010 el ingeniero Mariano Ghisays, presidente ejecutivo de SuperBrix, no sólo se preguntaba si llegar al mercado asiático era una opción viable, sino también si ésta emergía en una coyuntura apropiada de la economía y capacidad tecnológica de su empresa, la cual, hasta el momento, no hab [...] ía podido ser copiada. La oportunidad de ingresar a países como China, Corea, India, Malasia y Singapur había sido tenida en cuenta por las directivas algunos años atrás, pero fue pospuesta con el fin de consolidar el mercado americano, lo cual se consiguió después de varios intentos de entrada, luego de afinar su estrategia de inmersión al mismo. Mariano se preguntaba, entonces, ¿de qué manera una mediana empresa del Caribe colombiano, capitalizando su experiencia de entrada en varios mercados internacionales, podría lograr con éxito llegar a estos países asiáticos, en donde los precios, competencia y probabilidad de copia de sus productos representaban un enorme riesgo para la compañía? Abstract in english In March of 2010, engineer Mariano Ghisays, executive president of Superbrix, thought not only about whether entering the Asian market was a viable option but also if it were to happen under a favorable economic situation and with his company's technological capacity, which at that time, no one had [...] been able to copy. The opportunity to enter countries such as China, Korea, India, Malaysia and Singapore had been in the sights of the company's directors for years, but was postponed while they consolidated the American market. This was achieved after various attempts at entry, while also fine-tuning their immersion strategy. Marciano then thought about how a medium-sized company from the Colombian Caribbean region, capitalizing on its experience after already having entered various international markets, successfully reach these Asian countries, where prices, competition and the probability of their products being copied posed an enormous risk for the company?

Camilo, Mejía Reátiga; David, Juliao Esparragoza.

2013-04-01

105

International seminar on status and prospects for small and medium sized reactors. Book of extended synopses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Small and medium sized reactors have been defined by IAEA in accordance with their net electrical power rating, or thermal equivalent power rating for reactors producing process heat. Within the global energy supply and demand the role of nuclear power, and specifically the role of small and medium sizes reactors, is reviewed. Some new design prospects of dual purpose power plants, namely for heat production and desalination, are presented. Some proposal for new concepts of small size power reactors are described. A special concern is devoted to economic and energy policy issues as well as to safety and non-proliferation matters

2001-05-27

106

The Study of Bipolar Transurethral Resection Efficiency of Medium- and Small-Sized Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to study the efficiency and prove the choice of bipolar transurethral resection if there are indications for medium-sized benign prostatic hyperplasia surgical treatment. Materials and Methods. The research was based on the comparative analysis of surgical results of 244 patients by bipolar (n=122 and monopolar (n=122 transurethral resection, the size of prostatic hyperplasia being 40–80 cm3.Conclusion. The obtained results of surgical treatment of patients operated by the bipolar transurethral resection technique prove the efficiency of the endoscopic method and make the choice of the technique preferable in case of medium-sized benign prostatic hyperplasia.

A.A. Kamalov

2012-12-01

107

Financing Mode of American Small and Medium-sized Enterprises and the Enlightenment to Our Country  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Because of the characteristic of small and medium-sized enterprises such as small scale of assets, low transparency message and heavy uncertainty of management, the financing mode of small and medium-sized enterprises of various countries is the same basically. This paper reflect the characteristic of the financing mode of small and medium-sized enterprises of our country indirectly through studying the financing mode and characteristics of American small and medium-sized enterprises, expecting to enlighten alleviating the difficulty of financing of small and medium-sized enterprises of our country . Key words: Financing mode, Characteristic, Enlightenment Résumé : La modèle de fusion des petites et moyennes entreprises dans tous les pays existe des points communs , en raison de ses quelques caractéristiques suivantes : les capitaux de petite envergure , la transparence insuffisante des informations et l’instabilité de gestion . A travers la recherche sur la modèle de fusion des petites et moyennes entreprises aux états-unis , ce texte reflète de façon indirecte les traits de modèle de fusion des petites et moyennes entreprises en Chine dans l’espoir de donner l’inspiration à l’atténuation des difficultés de la fusion des petites et moyennes entreprises de notre pays . Mots-clés: modèle de diffusion, traits , inspiration ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????

Lidan YOU

2005-03-01

108

Feasibility of a medium-size central cogenerated energy facility, energy management memorandum  

Science.gov (United States)

The thermal-economic feasibility was studied of a medium-size central cogenerated energy facility designed to serve five varied industries. Generation options included one dual-fuel diesel and one gas turbine, both with waste heat boilers, and five fired boilers. Fuels included natural gas, and for the fired-boiler cases, also low-sulphur coal and municipal refuse. The fired-boiler cogeneration systems employed back-pressure steam turbines. For coal and refuse, the option of steam only without cogeneration was also assessed. The refuse-fired cases utilized modular incinerators. The options provided for a wide range of steam and electrical capacities. Deficient steam was assumed generated independently in existing equipment. Excess electrical power over that which could be displaced was assumed sold to Commonwealth Edison Company under PURPA (Public Utility Regulator Policies Act). The facility was assumed operated by a mutually owned corporation formed by the cogenerated power users. The economic analysis was predicted on currently applicable energy-investment tax credits and accelerated depreciation for a January 1985 startup date. Based on 100% equity financing, the results indicated that the best alternative was the modular-incinerator cogeneration system.

Porter, R. W.

1982-09-01

109

Fostering linkages between transnational corporations and small to medium-sized enterprises in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english When large Transnational Corporations (TNCs) enter a host country, consequent development of local Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) is expected. The public sector may play an important role by fostering Business Linkages (BL), by which TNCs establish purchasing relationships with local SMEs. This [...] article was motivated by growing attention in literature to the interaction between economic development and the ability of companies to absorb and disseminate competences. Its purpose is to understand the role of public policy programs that promote BLs for development by: (a) analyzing actions and programs developed by public and private institutions to foster BL in Brazil; (b) discovering the participants' benefits from such actions and programs; and (c) identifying opportunities for public sector promotion of BL. The research design was a multiple case study which analyzed Supplier Development Projects in five Brazilian states. Results indicate that public policies may complement overall development as well as industrial policy, which is related to capacity building, stimulating technology transfer, and, more broadly, promoting a business friendly environment able to attract investment for development, calling for a regional and sub-regional approach for a country the size of Brazil.

Delane, Botelho; Milber Fernandes Morais, Bourguignon.

110

An integrated approach for developing a technology strategy framework for small- to medium-sized furniture manufacturers to improve competitiveness  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Low-technology firms, such as those found within the furniture manufacturing industry, have no framework or methodology to guide them successfully to acquire and integrate technology that enables them to operate more competitively. The aim of this article is to illustrate the development of a techno [...] logy strategy framework for small- to medium-sized furniture manufacturers to assist them to improve their competitiveness. More specifically, this article presents an integrated technology strategy framework that enables management to integrate their business strategy with their technology requirements successfully, thus improving competitiveness.

Lourens, A.S.; Jonker, J.A..

111

Role of Relationship Marketing in Small and Medium-Sized Entreprises  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Along with marketing, small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are commonly associated in literature with relationship marketing which results in marketing networks. This paper examines the specific characteristics that differentiate large companies from small and medium-sized enterprises, and the reasons that prevent SMEs from engaging in traditional marketing within the scope of marketing mix. The paper also shows that the key characteristic which distinguishes small from large companies is a pr...

2011-01-01

112

Simplification of Process Integration Studies in Intermediate Size Industries  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

It can be argued that the largest potential for energy savings based on process integration is in the intermediate size industry. But this is also the industrial scale in which it is most difficult to make the introduction of energy saving measures economically interesting. The reasons are that the required engineering effort is too great and therefore too expensive, and that the resulting systems designs often become inordinately complex and therefore not attractive in operation. The present study describes steps that aim at reducing the magnitude of the theoretical work and engineering effort associated with a given process integration study in an intermediate size industry. This is based on the observation that the systems that eventually result from a process integration project and that are economically and operationally most interesting are also quite simple. Four steps that may be used separately or in series ahead of or simultaneously with the conventional process integration procedures (for example, the pinch point method) are described and are applied to an industrial case study. It might be feared that the use of preselections and groupings would limit the "freedom of movement' and therefore lead to non-optimal economic solutions, which may be right. But the objective of the optimisation is not to reach the best economic solution, but to relatively quickly develop the design of a simple and operationally friendly network without losing too much energy saving potential. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Dalsgård, Henrik; Petersen, P. M.

2002-01-01

113

Development of a medium-size SWIR imaging telescope: integration, calibration, and MTF measurement  

Science.gov (United States)

Development of an imaging telescope having a large mirror generally requires a sound infrastructure including expensive devices such as collimators and interferometers. In this paper we investigate the development and characterization of a medium size telescope (140 mm aperture) using simple techniques. Alignment was done with a mechanical measurement device. Detector was placed using an image of a ruled outside building. Radiometric calibration was done with open-sky images. And finally MTF was measured using stellar images. We found that MTF of our telescope is greater than %15 all along the detector at 20 lp/mm, which is the Nyquist frequency of 25 ?m pixel size. This shows that alignment and focus adjustments work well enough in the telescope. These simple techniques can be used for the development and characterization of a medium-size and medium-resolution imaging telescopes.

Yilmaz, Ozgur; Selimoglu, Ozgur; Turk, Fethi

2013-09-01

114

Medium-sized deletion in the BRCA1 gene: limitations of Sanger sequencing and MLPA analyses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We describe a family with a history of breast and ovarian cancer in which MLPA analysis of the BRCA1 gene pointed to a deletion including a part of exon 11. Further characterization confirmed a loss of 374 bp in a region completely covered by conventional sequencing which had not revealed the deletion. Because this alteration was only detected serendipitously with an MLPA probe, we calculated the probabilities of detecting medium-sized deletions in large exons by methods including initial PCR amplification. This showed that a considerable fraction of medium-sized deletions are undetectable by currently used standard methods of mutation analyses. We conclude that long, widely overlapping amplicons should be used to minimize the risk of missing medium-sized deletions. Alternatively, large exons could be completely covered by narrow-spaced MLPA probes.

Sandra Herman

2012-01-01

115

Medium-sized deletion in the BRCA1 gene: limitations of Sanger sequencing and MLPA analyses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We describe a family with a history of breast and ovarian cancer in which MLPA analysis of the BRCA1 gene pointed to a deletion including a part of exon 11. Further characterization confirmed a loss of 374 bp in a region completely covered by conventional sequencing which had not revealed the deleti [...] on. Because this alteration was only detected serendipitously with an MLPA probe, we calculated the probabilities of detecting medium-sized deletions in large exons by methods including initial PCR amplification. This showed that a considerable fraction of medium-sized deletions are undetectable by currently used standard methods of mutation analyses. We conclude that long, widely overlapping amplicons should be used to minimize the risk of missing medium-sized deletions. Alternatively, large exons could be completely covered by narrow-spaced MLPA probes.

Sandra, Herman; Dominic, Varga; Heidrun L., Deissler; Rolf, Kreienberg; Helmut, Deissler.

116

Development of ultra efficiency medium-size gas-fired absorption water chiller-heater  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since they were first developed, gas absorption chiller-heaters have been getting smaller in size, lighter in weight, and more efficient in energy consumption. This progress has been made possible by diverse technical innovations such as use of the double effect cycle. The authors set out to make small-size and medium-size gas absorption chiller-heaters more efficient by modifying the various components of the machines. Our experiments led to successful development of commercial type machines whose cooling COP is 1.2, close enough to the theoretically optimum efficiency. Not only large-size but also medium-size and small-size absorption chiller-heaters are getting more efficient (cooling COP of 0.95). To boost the efficiency of the medium-size and small-size machines requires putting together improvements of various machine components. The major items to be improved to realize a higher efficiency of the absorption water chiller-heater system are listed, along with some specific measures to achieve what was envisaged. The following four major items for development are studied: (1) Solution circulation cycle; (2) High-performance heat transfer tube; (3) Heat exchangers for heat recovery (exhaust gas, condensed refrigerator); and (4) Heating efficiency. 9 figs., 2 tabs.

Kurosawa, S. [Appliance and Installation R and D Dept., Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd. (Japan); Yoshida, A. [Osaka Gas Co. Ltd. (Japan); Ogawa, M. [Energy Conversion Systems Technical Research Inst., Toho Gas CO. Ltd. (Japan); Sano, H. [Air Conditioning Research and Development Lab., Yazaki Corp. (Japan)

1995-08-01

117

Comment on the IASB’s Exposure Draft ‘IFRS for Small and Medium-sized Entities’  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In February 2007 the IASB invited comments on its Exposure Draft of a proposed IFRS for Small and Medium-Sized Entities. The deadline for comments was 30 November 2007. Below we reproduce3 the comment letter prepared by the European Accounting Association’s Financial Reporting Standards Committee (EAA FRSC). This is a follow up of the EAA FRSC’s comment letter prepared in response to the IASB’s Discussion Paper on ‘Preliminary Views on Accounting Standards for Small and Medium-Sized E...

Cisi, Maurizio

2008-01-01

118

Design features to achieve defence-in-depth in small and medium sized reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Broader incorporation of inherent and passive safety design features has become a 'trademark' of many advanced reactor concepts, including several evolutionary designs and nearly all innovative small and medium sized design concepts. Ensuring adequate defence-in-depth is important for reactors of smaller output because many of them are being designed to allow more proximity to the user, specifically, when non-electrical energy products are targeted. Based on the activities recently performed by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the paper provides a summary description of the design features used to achieve defence in depth in the eleven representative concepts of small and medium sized reactors. (author)

2009-05-10

119

The Career Planning of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Based on Knowledge Life Cycle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article use the theory of knowledge life cycle, the small and medium-sized enterprises’ concept and the career planning, seek the joint between the career planning of enterprises and the theory of knowledge life cycle, has effectively studied the transmission mechanism in forming of the career planning of enterprises and the theory of knowledge life cycle, moreover bring forward corresponding human resource management measure, provide the cut-in point of theory for the small and medium-sized enterprises in our country to make the career planning through the theory of knowledge life cycle.

Yang Liu

2009-06-01

120

Modified genetic algorithms to model cluster structures in medium-size silicon clusters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the results obtained using a genetic algorithm (GA) to search for stable structures of medium size silicon clusters. In this work the GA uses a semiempirical energy function to find the best cluster structures, which are further optimized using density-functional theory. For small clusters our results agree well with previously reported structures, but for larger ones different structures appear. This is the case of Si36 where we report a different structure, with significant lower energy than those previously found using limited search approaches on common structural motifs. This demonstrates the need for global optimization schemes when searching for stable structures of medium-size silicon clusters

2004-05-01

 
 
 
 
121

Gestão do desenvolvimento de produto em empresas de pequeno e médio porte do setor de máquinas e implementos agrícolas do Estado de SP / Product development process management in small and medium-sized Brazilian companies in the agricultural machinery and implement industry sector  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Para que as empresas nacionais do setor de máquinas e implementos agrícolas consigam sobreviver e ampliar sua participação nesse mercado em crescimento, do interesse econômico de companhias multinacionais e no qual essas detêm expressiva participação, elas necessitam melhorar a capacitação para dese [...] nvolver novos produtos e assim atender as novas demandas quanto a requisitos e homologação dessa produção. As empresas nacionais do setor apresentam um perfil predominante de empresas familiares, de pequeno e médio porte, e pouco se conhece sobre a realidade da gestão do Processo de Desenvolvimento de Produto (PDP) nessas organizações. Este trabalho caracteriza e analisa os perfis e a maturidade da gestão do PDP em empresas de pequeno e médio porte de capital nacional do segmento de máquinas e implementos agrícolas do Estado de São Paulo. Foi realizada uma pesquisa de levantamento (survey) em 40 empresas. Para a análise dos dados utilizou-se a técnica de análise multivariada de clusters. As empresas da amostra apresentam uma estrutura heterogênea com relação à gestão do PDP. Foram identificados três grupos de empresas, com diferentes perfis de maturidade do PDP: Grupo I (20% da amostra), Grupo II (50% da amostra) e Grupo III (30% da amostra). Evidenciam-se diferenças na gestão do PDP principalmente entre os Grupos I (com menor nível de maturidade do PDP) e III (com nível de maturidade relativamente mais elevado). Apesar das diferenças na gestão do PDP entre os grupos, comparando-se a prática com o referencial teórico (as boas práticas sobre gestão do PDP), os 3 grupos se encontram no nível geral básico, ou inicial, de maturidade do PDP. A análise e identificação do nível de maturidade em que as empresas se encontram podem auxiliar no direcionamento do processo de melhoria do PDP e na elaboração de políticas públicas que incentivem o desenvolvimento e inovação de produto nas empresas nacionais do setor Abstract in english The product development process (PDP), if well-structured and managed, can become a business process that directly influences the companies' competitiveness increase. The PDP in Brazilian SMEs in the agricultural machinery and implement industry Sector (AMI) is little known since most publications o [...] n product development focuses on the reality of large and multinational companies, which have a quite different structure from SMEs. The purpose of this paper is to characterize and analyze the management maturity profiles of the product development process in small and medium sized Brazilian companies in the agricultural machinery and implement industry sector located in the state of São Paulo. Therefore, the addressed actions of PDP improvements in those companies can be undertaken. A survey research was conducted in 40 companies. An in loco interview was applied to the respective individual in-charge of PDP by means of a structured questionnaire. For the data analysis, descriptive statistics and the multivariate cluster analysis techniques were used. The findings indicated that the SMEs in AMIs of the state of Sao Paulo present a heterogeneous structure with respect to PDP management. Three groups of companies were identified in the sample with different maturity PDP profiles: Group I (20% of companies in the sample), Group II (50% of the sample), and Group III (30% of the sample). Differences in the management of PDP were observed, especially among companies of Group I (smallest level of PDP maturity) and Group III (highest level of PDP maturity). However, despite the differences in PDP management presented in the groups of companies, according to the literature on PDP management, all groups are in the basic (initial) maturity level of PDP. The identification of the maturity level, in which these companies are, can help the determination of activities that link the internal actions to improve the PDP of these companies and the proposal of specific public policies th

José Carlos de, Toledo; Julianita Maria Scaranello, Simões.

122

Considerable Increase in Resveratrol Production by Recombinant Industrial Yeast Strains with Use of Rich Medium?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Resveratrol synthesis from p-coumarate was analyzed in different Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains expressing the 4-coumaroyl-coenzyme A ligase (4CL1) from Arabidopsis thaliana and the stilbene synthase (STS) from Vitis vinifera and compared between yeast cultures growing in rich or synthetic medium. The use of rich medium considerably improved resveratrol production, and resveratrol yields of up to 391 mg/liter could be achieved with an industrial Brazilian sugar cane-fermenting yeast.

Sydor, Tobias; Schaffer, Steffen; Boles, Eckhard

2010-01-01

123

The strategic relevance of technology-related variables to the competitiveness of small- to medium-sized furniture manufacturers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english SMMEs can make a critical and positive economic contribution to South Africa, and small- to medium-sized furniture manufacturers (SM/FMs) have the potential to contribute to economic growth, job creation, and GDP. However, the furniture industry has not stayed abreast of technological advances. To s [...] urvive in an environment of increasing competition and imports, competitive strategies must be devised. One such strategy is for technology adoption and implementation that can provide solutions for the furniture industry to improve speed, quality, variety, flexibility, and productivity, resulting in improved competitiveness. However, the adoption of technology means that its acquisition and application must be managed strategically, as the use of technology involves far more than simply taking it into account during the business-planning process. This paper investigates the impact of business strategy and selected technology-related variables on the competitiveness of SM/FM.

A.S., Lourens; J.A., Jonker.

124

Pressures on Green Supply Chain Management: A Study on Manufacturing Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aims to empirically investigate the pressures for adopting green supply chain management (GSCM among Chinese small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. Data is collected through the use of mail distributed questionnaires administered to participants at a national trade fair held in Suzhou and two rounds of data collection were carried out to make a more reliable result for the research. ANOVA and Factor analysis are used to analyze the data. Some key findings are found from this study. Firstly, there is indifference among the four industrial sectors in terms of facing pressures in adopting GSCM practices. Secondly, all of the pressures from environmental laws and regulations, the pressures in the process of selling the products and the pressures in the supply chain in the relation with the suppliers and customers have impacted on the decisions of SMEs to employ GSCM practices. The main limitation to this paper is the relatively small manufacturing sample of SMEs. The paper explores the GSCM pressures faced by Chinese SMEs which may be different from the findings through the studies on large enterprises in China.
Key words: Supply chain management; Pressures on green supply chain management small and medium-sized enterprises; Chinese manufacturing industry

Xiangmeng HUANG

2012-03-01

125

Collisional parton energy loss in a finite size QCD medium reexamined: Off-mass-shell effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the collisional energy loss mechanism for particles produced off mass shell in a finite size QCD medium. The off-mass-shell effects introduced consider particles produced in wave packets instead of plane waves and a length scale associated with an in-medium particle lifetime. We show that these effects reduce the energy loss as compared to the case when the particles are described as freely propagating from the source. The reduction in energy loss is stronger as the scale becomes of the order of or smaller than the medium size. We discuss possible consequences of the result on the description of the energy loss process in the parton recombination scenario

2008-04-01

126

Analysis of Trip Attraction Characteristics of Commercial Land Use in Medium Sized Towns in Kerala  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Travel demand forecasting is vital for the design of transportation facilities and services, and also for the future development of a town. The study aims to provide a trip attraction model using multiple regression, that is able to predict the trip attracted to any commercial nodes in the medium sized towns in Kerala. This paper also presents an analysis of trip attraction characteristics of the commercial nodes in medium sized towns of Kerala. Using questionnaire survey, the characteristics of the eight selected commercial nodes from the three medium sized towns Tirur, Perinthalmanna, and Ponnani in Kerala are found out. Socioeconomic surveys are conducted for the selected towns for obtaining the origin-destination data. Based on these surveyed data, the characteristics of the selected nodes are studied and correlation and regression analysis are performed. The study showed that the multiple regression model with the independent variables namely the number of employees and percentage of office in the commercial node with the R2 and Adjusted R2 value of 0.999 and 0.9997 respectively gives the better estimate of trip attraction. This model would be very useful for estimating the trips attracted to a new or existing commercial center in any medium sized towns in Kerala, and thus aid to assess the traffic impact of the commercial center on the geometric design of roadways in the surrounding area.

Prof. Gymmy Joseph Kattor,

2013-07-01

127

Key Influencing Factors behind Moodle Adoption in Irish Small to Medium Sized Higher Education Colleges  

Science.gov (United States)

This research investigated Irish Small to Medium Sized Educational Institutions (SMSEs) involved in Higher Education (HE) that adopted Moodle, the OSS (Open Source Software) course management system (CMS). As Moodle has only been adopted in the Irish HE sector in the last 5-7 years, this research crucially studied the attitudes of the SMSEs that…

Walker, David; Livadas, Lelia; Miles, Gail

2011-01-01

128

Business Continuity Planning Resources for Small- and Medium-Sized Businesses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document/memo summarizes existing resources and guidance on business continuity planning for small- to medium-sized businesses. DTRA will share this information with large commercial businesses who identified the need to help their suppliers and other key collaborators prepare business continuity plans in order to speed recovery from a wide-area bioterrorism incident.

Judd, Kathleen S.; Lesperance, Ann M.

2010-05-14

129

Expectations, Realities, and Perceptions of Subject Specialist Librarians' Duties in Medium-Sized Academic Libraries  

Science.gov (United States)

This study surveys 138 librarians in 21 medium-sized academic libraries to identify time on tasks and value of tasks to address problems between the expectations of library administrators and the perceptions of librarians to their job descriptions. The results validate that the administration's expectations are within the norm.

McAbee, Sonja L.; Graham, John-Bauer

2005-01-01

130

Current information technology needs of small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents recent efforts of the American Textile Partnership (AMTEX) Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Project to address needs that are characterized of small to medium sized apparel manufactures and contractors. Background on the AMTEX/DAMA project and objectives for this specific efforts are discussed.

Wipple, C.; Vosti, E.

1997-11-01

131

Competitiveness of Indonesian Small and Medium Food Processing Industry: Does the Location Matter?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we compare the competitiveness between clustered and dispersed Small Medium Enterprises
(SMEs) in Indonesian food processing industry. This study was driven by the important role of SMEs in
Indonesian food processing industry for helping low income people access the low price foods. Furthermore, as
Indonesian Government implements policy that support clustered SMEs, it could be expected that SMEs in the
cluster area could pur...

Mukhamad Najib; Akira Kiminami; Hironori Yagi

2011-01-01

132

Theoretical formalism of radiative jet energy loss in a finite size dynamical QCD medium  

CERN Document Server

The computation of radiative energy loss in a finite size QCD medium with dynamical constituents is a key ingredient for obtaining reliable predictions for jet quenching in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. In this paper, we present a theoretical formalism for the calculation of the first order in opacity radiative energy loss of a quark jet traveling through a finite size dynamical QCD medium. We show that, while each individual contribution is infrared divergent, the divergence is naturally regulated once all diagrams are taken into account. Our results suggest a remarkably simple general mapping between energy loss expressions for static and dynamical QCD media. Finite size effects are shown to induce a non-linear path length dependence of the energy loss, recovering both the incoherent Gunion-Bertsch limit, as well as destructive Landau-Pomeanchuk-Migdal limit.

Djordjevic, Magdalena

2009-01-01

133

Small- and Medium-Sized Commercial Building Monitoring and Controls Needs: A Scoping Study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Buildings consume over 40% of the total energy consumption in the U.S. A significant portion of the energy consumed in buildings is wasted because of the lack of controls or the inability to use existing building automation systems (BASs) properly. Much of the waste occurs because of our inability to manage and controls buildings efficiently. Over 90% of the buildings are either small-size (<5,000 sf) or medium-size (between 5,000 sf and 50,000 sf); these buildings currently do not use BASs to monitor and control their building systems from a central location. According to Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), about 10% of the buildings in the U.S. use BASs or central controls to manage their building system operations. Buildings that use BASs are typically large (>100,000 sf). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) were asked by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP) to identify monitoring and control needs for small- and medium-sized commercial buildings and recommend possible solutions. This study documents the needs and solutions for small- and medium-sized buildings.

Katipamula, Srinivas; Underhill, Ronald M.; Goddard, James K.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Piette, M. A.; Granderson, J.; Brown, Rich E.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; Kuruganti, T.

2012-10-31

134

Teaming up for mutual learning : A case study of merging innovation aproaches of a medium-sized company  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The focus of this paper is two-folded within the theme of collaboration between education and industry. Firstly it unfolds how learning for design-engineer students can be established and facilitated in a dynamic setting with industrial partners and secondly how industrial partners can benefit from student collaboration. The paper is based on research activities carried out in the context of a 3rd semester project at the Industrial Design Msc. program at The School of Architecture, Design & Planning at Aalborg University. Here, the teaching style is Problem Based Learning (PBL). In PBL, studentâ??s focuses on a complex problem that does not have a single correct answer â?? in this case the addressed problem was concerned with the innovation approach of a medium-sized company. Traditionally innovation projects and strategic planning has emerged from top managers offices and has been based on i.a. technological an economic factors. An alternative approach has emerged, which suggests that innovation is most successfully initiated by the research and design resources with-in a company. The two approaches are denoted as respectively Top-down and Bottom-up [5]. Practicing the Top-down approach was familiar and integrated within the company, while the student introduced the Bottom-up approach during the project - the initiatives, experiences and observations are reported in this paper.

Poulsen, Søren Bolvig; Pedersen, Tanja Aabo

2011-01-01

135

Approaches for Assessing the Economic Competitiveness of Small and Medium Sized Reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world'. One way this objective is achieved is through the publication of a range of technical series. Two of these are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III.A.6 of the IAEA Statute, the safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property.' The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are written primarily in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own programmes. The principal users are the regulatory bodies in Member States and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series comprises reports designed to encourage and assist R and D on, and application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia, and government officials, among others. This information is presented in guides, reports on technology status and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series complements the IAEA Safety Standards Series. To be competitive in anticipated markets, small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) rely on design and deployment approaches that are able to offset the adverse impacts of economy of scale. Such approaches include design simplification resulting from the application of safety design features that are the most appropriate for reactors of smaller capacity; the economy of mass production of multiple prefabricated modules; the option of incremental capacity increase, with possible benefits resulting from accelerated learning; sharing of common equipment and facilities; shorter construction periods, unit timing (spread of investments over time); and, possibly, greater involvement of local industry and local labour. The effectiveness of all of these approaches to SMR design and deployment depends on the application and on market variables, such as interest rates, and needs to be assessed and demonstrated for specific cases. Upon the advice and with the support of IAEA Member States, the IAEA provides a forum for the exchange of information by experts and policy makers from industrialized and developing countries on the technical, economic, environmental and social aspects of SMR development and implementation in the twenty-first century, and makes this information available to all interested Member States by producing status reports and other publications dedicated to advances in SMR design and technology development. This report was prepared to assist existing and potential stakeholders in Member States in understanding the economic competitiveness of SMR technologies compared to other energy sources and large reactors (LRs); to provide information on available approaches and frameworks to assess the economic competitiveness of advanced SMRs and LRs under specific conditions of their application; and to share knowledge on positive experiences of several Member States that are introducing SMRs into their energy mix. The report is intended for a variety of stakeholders including: design organizations involved in SMR development programmes; investors and potential users of innovative SMRs; and officers in the ministries or atomic energy commissions in Member States responsible for implementing nuclear technology development programmes or evaluating nuclear power deployment options in the near, medium and longer term. The main sections of this report highlight the experience with and future plans for SMRs in several Member States, and present the available methodological options to assist design organizations and guide potential users on the economic performance and investment attractiveness of SMRs. The report also provides recommendations on how to

2013-12-01

136

ECO-FRIENDLY TECHNOLOGY IN SMALL AND MEDIUM TEXTILE WET PROCESSING INDUSTRIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Small and Medium wet processing industries in India contribute more to industrial development and trade and at the same time, they create environmental issues related to water pollution. This article attempts to analyse the main challenges of wet processing industries in adoption of cleaner technology options in reducing water pollution. Irreversible nature of water resource alarms the overall sustainability of environment. Traditional technology management concepts followed in SMIs will not help the industries to maintain the water quality parameters in the emission. So, effective approach towards innovative technology is to be identified and implemented. The present study examines the possibilities of implementing cleaner production technology in textile wet processing industries inTirupur, Tamilnadu. The main focus of the study is on technological choice and strength and weakness of SMIs to implement the Better Available technology (BAT. SWOT model is discussed to apprehend the adoption of technologies available.

FATIMA BABY

2013-05-01

137

Attractive and climate-friendly medium-sized cities; Attraktive og klimavennlige mellomstore byer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ministry of the Environment (MD) wanted an overview of current knowledge of climate-friendly and attractive urban development in medium-sized cities (10 - 50 000 inhabitants). This report presents and discusses knowledge between major cities' situation and challenges of land use and transport development to reduce car traffic and greenhouse gas emissions and on urban development for more attractive cities. A main conclusion is that there are major gaps in knowledge and opportunities for improvement. If those covered will be far better opportunities for planners, local authorities and others may be able to contribute to more climate-friendly and attractive medium-sized cities.The report is part of the project Comprehensive information pack for the status of knowledge from research on urban development. The project has also prepared a report entitled Planning for attractive urban environment. The reports are intended to complement each other and should be seen in context.(eb)

Tennoey, Aud

2012-07-01

138

Teaching Medium-Sized ERP Systems - A Problem-Based Learning Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to increase the diversity in IS education, we discuss an approach for teaching medium-sized ERP systems in master courses. Many of today's IS curricula are biased toward large ERP packages. Nevertheless, these ERP systems are only a part of the ERP market. Hence, this chapter describes a course outline for a course on medium-sized ERP systems. Students had to study, analyze, and compare five different ERP systems during a semester. The chapter introduces a procedure model and scenario for setting up similar courses at other universities. Furthermore, it describes some of the students' outcomes and evaluates the contribution of the course with regard to a practical but also academic IS education.

Winkelmann, Axel; Matzner, Martin

139

The role of independent intermediaries. The case of small and medium-sized exporters  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The article examines how small and medium-sized exporters collaborate with intermediaries in foreign markets by studying the level of control, i.e. the delegation of decisions rights and task solution. It goes one step further than previous research, since it examines degrees of control and participation rather than just discrete types of intermediary modes (agents, importers, dealers, etc.). Associations with performance as well as the role of product and distributor characteristics are analyzed. Empirical data based on a sample of product-market ventures in 227 small and medium-sized Norwegian export firms are analysed by a structural equation modelling approach. The article provides empirical evidence that managers keep control of decision making to an extent that may have a negative impact on export performance. The empirical study indicates that firms should participate more in task solution but less in decision making in their collaboration with foreign intermediaries

Madsen, Tage Koed; Moen, Ã?ystein

2012-01-01

140

Services Supporting Knowledge Maturing in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises  

Science.gov (United States)

The hype around Web 2.0 has again sparked tremendous interest in IT-supported knowledge management and technology-enhanced learning in organizations. Although there has been abundant evidence of how to benefit from Web 2.0 technologies, information on how to go about deploying these in small and medium-sized enterprises in a coordinated manner are scarce. Based on the findings of an empirical study and an ethnographically informed study on knowledge maturing, this paper suggests a set of knowledge services to support a series of knowledge actions chained with the help of the knowledge maturing model. This set of services can be used by small and medium-sized enterprises for analyzing IT tools and systems which currently support their employees’ knowledge maturing activities, to foster knowledge cooperation with customers, suppliers and partners in their business environment and to find gaps which can be filled particularly by consuming services over the Web.

Maier, Ronald

 
 
 
 
141

Hybridoma growth and productivity: effects of conditioned medium and of inoculum size  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Apart from gas concentrations, temperature, and pH, generally only the initial conditions can be manipulated in batch culture. Inoculum size and initial conditioned medium concentration represent two important considerations for optimal batch production. Two hybridoma cell lines were used to assess the impact of these initial conditions on population growth and monoclonal antibody productivity in suspension batch culture. Varying initial cell concentration over the range of 1.0 × 105 cells m...

1999-01-01

142

What Drives Innovation? Findings from Medium Sized Plastic firms in Chile  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The research objective was to understand the main reasons that would impel firms to innovate. The firms analyzed in this study were medium-size firms of the plastic manufacturing sector in Chile. After the analysis of the theory related to technological innovation, a model of the drivers for technological innovation was developed and a set of hypotheses was proposed. A questionnaire was designed covering several factors that could influence the tendency of firms to engage in technological inn...

2013-01-01

143

New Balancing Equipment for Mass Production of Small and Medium-Sized Electrical Machines  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The level of vibration and noise is an important feature. It is good practice to explain the significance of the indicators of the quality of electrical machines. The mass production of small and medium-sized electrical machines demands speed (short typical measurement time), reliability of measurement, easy use and low cost. This paper proposes a new low cost equipment able to provide required performances.

Argeseanu, Alin; Ritchie, Ewen

2010-01-01

144

Empirical analysis of alternative employment forms in Hungarian small and medium sized enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available While reacting to globalization and ongoing crisis organizations face numerous decisions about handling workforce. They should realize the gathering ground of flexibility in employment with regards to costs, and have to deal with alternative forms in order to be able more adaptive to the changing customer needs as well. The scope of this present research work is to explore the status of flexible employment forms in Hungarian Small and Medium Sized Enterprises and to investigate the factors influencing its applicability.

Henrietta Finna

2010-06-01

145

Hedging Behavior in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises: The Role of Unobserved Heterogeneity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract We investigate factors that drive derivative usage in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The influence of these factors on hedging behavior cannot a priori be assumed equal for all SMEs. To address this heterogeneity, a generalized mixture regression model is used which classifies firms into segments, so that the hedging response to the determinants of derivative usage is the same within each segment. Using a unique data set of 415 SMEs, containing both accounting and experim...

Pennings, J. M. E.; Garcia, P.

2004-01-01

146

The Research of External Financing Options of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since the reform and opening up, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in China developed rapidly, which have become an important part of China’s economic and social development. However, the financing difficulties of SMEs have become increasingly prominent during recent years, and it hinders the healthy development of SMEs in China. This paper analyzes the current financing situation of SMEs in China, and conducts a deeply comparative analysis for several common external finan...

Li, Hongyu; Liu, Meiyue

2012-01-01

147

NEW APPROACHES TO CUSTOMER BASE SEGMENTATION FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The primary purpose of this paper is to explore current praxis and theory related to customer segmentation and to offer an approach which is best suited for small and medium sized enterprises. The proposed solution is the result of an exploratory research aiming to recognize the main variables which influence the practice of segmenting the customer base and to study the most applied alternatives available for all types of enterprises. The research has been performed by studying a large set of...

Meleancă Raluca-Cristina

2012-01-01

148

Based on the AHP Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise Supply Chain Supplier Evaluation Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we have a research of the small and medium-sized enterprise supply chain supplier based on the AHP. For supply chain management issues in the supplier evaluation establishes the evaluation index system and then uses AHP decide the weight of each evaluation index. Moreover, it uses Linear Weighting Method to study supplier performance from perspective of quantitative research and gives the measurement process. In our empirical research, the applied method is scientific and feasible.

Xianwu Hu

2013-05-01

149

The Construction of Human Resource Management System in Small and Medium-sized Private Enterprises  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The small and medium-sized private enterprises (SMEs) play an increasingly important role in creating output value and providing new employment opportunities, but there are a lot of problems with human resources in SMEs, such as poor quality of business owners, lack of strategic planning on human resources, etc. It’s necessary, therefore, for SMEs to strengthen the setup of human resource management system. This paper puts forward some implementation details according to "human resource eva...

Jieyun Zhang; Juhong Gong

2009-01-01

150

On Key Points of Financial Cost Management in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chinese small and medium-sized enterprises (SME), accounting for 99.3% of all Chinese corporations, create
enormous economic fortune and employment opportunity. However, most of SMEs are lack of capital, with
simple equipments and improper management, so they are incapable to withstand risks and easy to be involved
in difficulty. Therefore, we should properly guide SMEs to enhance financing, investment management and the
management of other value ch...

Xingwu Yu; Weixing Wang

2010-01-01

151

Obstacles and Drivers for Sustainable Innovation Development and Implementation in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play a vital role in the economic development and provide most of new jobs. At the same time, SMEs are contributing factors in environmental degradation due to their high numbers and their cumulative effect. In this context, broad application of sustainable innovations to SMEs becomes a priority task.

The article presents results of a study conducted in Lithuania seeking to analyse obstacles and drivers for implementation of sustain...

Laura Vasilenko; Valdas Arba?iauskas

2012-01-01

152

A Social Media Marketing Plan for a Medium-sized Consumer Goods Company  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study is to develop a social media marketing plan for the case com-pany to integrate it into its existing marketing communications. The case company of this study is a medium-sized consumer goods producing company that advertises its brand and products using traditional methods of advertising (radio, television, flyers and event promotion). At the moment, these methods seem to be lacking in efficiency and effective-ness caused by the saturation of marketing information w...

Okolie, Emeka

2013-01-01

153

Managerial ownership and firm performance in German small and medium-sized enterprises  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper studies the effect of managerial ownership on performance and the determinants of managerial ownership for small and medium-sized private companies. We use a panel of around 1300 firms in the German business-related service sector for the years 1997-2000. Managerial ownership up to around 80 per cent has a positive impact on firm performance (incentive effect); for higher shares the effect becomes negative (entrenchment effect). Moreover, risk-aversion of managers and signalling of...

Mueller, Elisabeth; Spitz, Alexandra

2002-01-01

154

The challenges of Iranian small and medium-sized enterprises through process of internationalization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of globalization and attracting new market increase the attitude of firms toward foreign market incrementally .This thesis was conducted to introduce a comprehensive framework of internationalization process in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Iran as well as monitoring challenges that firms will face in foreign market operation. Take a glance at the literature of internationalization, Iran`s economic situation and entry modes. The aim of this research was encouraging other st...

Amirkhani, Kianoosh

2012-01-01

155

Motivational Factors for Growth in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) : Information Technology Perspective  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Small and Medium Size Enterprises (SMEs) constitute the backbone of many economies in the world today. This is because they are creating new jobs and contributing positively to their respective economies in which Sweden is not an exception and par-ticularly the municipality of Jonkoping. SMEs invest in IT to gain access to integration of transactions oriented data and business processes. This thesis, motivational factors for growth in SMEs – (IT perspective) give an overview of how SMEs gro...

2007-01-01

156

Implementing Lean Procurement : Opportunities, methods and hinders for medium sized enterprises - a case study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis describes how lean procurement can be implemented in a medium sized enterprise, focusing on opportunities in the process, methods to achieve the opportunities, and hinders that need to be handled. A literature study has been conducted to identify these aspects, organized by six implied implementation stages of lean procurement. To challenge the findings, an empirical study was conducted at Isaberg Rapid, in order to confirm or discard identified important concepts. In order to con...

Hagstro?m, Mikael; Wollner, Michael

2011-01-01

157

Process improvement and organisational learning: evidence from engineering-oriented small and medium-sized enterprises  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Process improvement has been identified as a central topic of operations management, being relevant to the different functional areas and assisting in providing the benefits operations management aims to realise. While extensive research has been conducted on specific process improvement methodologies, high resource requirement of specific process improvement methodologies make them inappropriate for many Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs). Compared to specific improvement methodologie...

2013-01-01

158

Medium-sized deletion in the BRCA1 gene: limitations of Sanger sequencing and MLPA analyses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We describe a family with a history of breast and ovarian cancer in which MLPA analysis of the BRCA1 gene pointed to a deletion including a part of exon 11. Further characterization confirmed a loss of 374 bp in a region completely covered by conventional sequencing which had not revealed the deletion. Because this alteration was only detected serendipitously with an MLPA probe, we calculated the probabilities of detecting medium-sized deletions in large exons by methods including initial PCR...

2012-01-01

159

Medium-sized deletion in the BRCA1 gene: Limitations of Sanger sequencing and MLPA analyses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We describe a family with a history of breast and ovarian cancer in which MLPA analysis of the BRCA1 gene pointed to a deletion including a part of exon 11. Further characterization confirmed a loss of 374 bp in a region completely covered by conventional sequencing which had not revealed the deletion. Because this alteration was only detected serendipitously with an MLPA probe, we calculated the probabilities of detecting medium-sized deletions in large exons by methods including initial PCR...

2012-01-01

160

Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in international business: A survey of recent literature  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is often argued that the process of globalization has mainly favoured large-scale multinational companies which are able to organize their business efficiently within internal hierarchies. However, globalization has not only pushed cross-border intra-finn transactions but also other arrangements among firms such as licensing or subcontracting that fall short of ownership involvements. This opens up new opportunities for small and medium sized enterprises, too. The paper provides a general ...

Schmidt, Klaus-dieter

1996-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Assessing Incorrect Household Waste Sorting in a Medium-Sized Swedish City  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Source separation is a common method for dealing with the increasing problem of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in society. The citizens are then responsible for separating waste fractions produced in their home. If the consumers fail to sort the waste according to the source separation scheme, it will lead to an ineffective system. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the environmental, economic and social aspects of incorrect waste sorting in a medium sized Swedish city that has established ...

Kamran Rousta; Ekstro?m, Karin M.

2013-01-01

162

Small and Medium Sized Enterprises Development under Trade Liberalisation: A Survey of Nigerian Experience  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study reviews the policies implemented by the Nigerian government over the years to assist the development of manufacturing small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in Nigeria following the implementation of Trade liberalisation policy in 1986. The aim of the liberalise trade policy was to encourage competition and improve efficiency in the use of local resources; yet most Nigerian SMEs still find it difficult to compete and merely struggle to survive the liberalised economic environmen...

2009-01-01

163

THE PREMISES OF STRATEGIC MARKETING PLANNING IMPLEMENTATION WITHIN SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main purpose of the present paper is to identify the framework and the necessary conditions for the small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) to be able to adopt the strategic marketing planning. Also, the paper aims to underline the importance of the strategic marketing planning and the manner in which the SMEs can adopt, implement and operationalize the strategic marketing planning instruments, whose correct understanding and usage ensure the capacity to generate competitive advantage, ...

Curmei Catalin Valeriu; Ionescu Florin Tudor; Popescu Andrei

2011-01-01

164

Government funding of small and medium-sized enterprises in Finland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Not unlike elsewhere, the government in Finland has been keen to provide funding to Finnish firms, especially to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). In this paper we review, in the light of the economic rationales for public efforts to finance SMEs, all of the government institutions providing SME funding in Finland and the objectives and tasks assigned to them. Using recently collected data on SMEs, we then explore what kinds of SMEs apply for and receive government funding in Finland...

Hyytinen, Ari; Va?a?na?nen, Lotta

2002-01-01

165

Accounting and Financial Reporting Guidelines for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEGA) – Level 3 guidance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Intergovernmental Working Group of Experts on International Standards of Accounting and Reporting (ISAR) issued the publication Accounting and Financial Reporting Guidelines for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEGA) – Level 3 Guidance after deliberations during its seventeenth and eighteenth sessions. At its twenty-third session, ISAR requested the UNCTAD secretariat to reconvene a consultative group to, inter alia, update the SMEGA Level 3 Guidance. Accordingly, ...

Eberle, Reto; et al., ...

2008-01-01

166

Unions in small and medium sized enterprises: A family factor perspective  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Trade unions are commonly weak in small- and medium-sized enterprises, which constitute a majority of European firms and are often family-owned. We investigate the influence of family ownership on employee membership, perceptions and experience with unions in Danish and Italian firms in the textile and clothing sector. Family ownership reduces union membership; and within family firms, the number of family members employed is negatively associated with unionization rates and employee perceptions of unions.

Holten, Ann-Louise

2014-01-01

167

Transfer of pruduction knowledge to small and medium-size enterprises : a suggested model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The work that this thesis is a result of has the ambition to suggest a model forknowledge transfer to small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs). The knowledge in focus here is competitive production methods such as: leanproduction, six sigma, continuous improvement, total quality management ortotal productivity maintenance.To invest in research in the SMEs, that often are the larger company’ssuppliers, gives effects in the entire supply chain. Another point of view is thatbigger companies ar...

Von Axelson, Jens

2005-01-01

168

Calculation of axial optical forces exerted on medium-sized particles by optical trap  

Science.gov (United States)

Optical trapping has become an efficient technique of trapping and manipulating micrometer and sub-micrometer dimension particles. Particles in the range between the applicable regime of ray optics theory (ROT) and the Rayleigh regime (so-called medium-sized particles) are focused on. By using ROT and the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory (GLMT), axial optical forces and their dependences on particle sizes and beam waists are presented. Furthermore, by comparing the numerical results of these two theories, the applicability of the GLMT to particles of arbitrary size and the limit of ROT in the region of small particles are analyzed. A new criterion of the applicable region of ROT is obtained, i.e. the relative particle size ?=2?a/??20, where a is the particle radius and ? is the wavelength of light. The theoretical results will be of great help to the design and optimization of the most efficient optical trap.

Mao, Fang-Lin; Xing, Qi-Rong; Wang, Kai; Lang, Li-Ying; Chai, Lu; Wang, Qing-Yue

2007-02-01

169

US soybean processing industry: optimal size, number and location  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US dominates world soybean production and trade. The soybean industry is confronted with organizing facilties to minimize the costs of assembly, processing, and distribution of the final products. A transshipment model was constructed to minimize the combined costs of assemblying and processing soybeans, and distributing the co-products - meal and oil - to demand centers. Four solutions are presented, one each for the years 1977, 1981, 1990, and 2000. Trends of supply and utilization data indicate that the growth of exports would be such that future export demand could be fully satisfied only if some degree of domestic use of soybeans for meal and oil were sacrificed. Trucks were the dominant mode of domestic soybean and soybean meal shipments. Rail dominated soybean oil shipments. When regional processsing constraints are eliminated, substantial savings in total costs result. This indicates that the potential exists for significant future cost reductions on a national basis, if processing transshipment points can be more optimally sized and located.

D' Souza, G.E.; Phillips, T.D.; Free, W.J.

1986-01-01

170

THE EVOLUTION OF FINANCIAL STANDARDS FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM- SIZED ENTITIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to the growing need for more comparable accounting standards, the beginnings of International Financial Reporting Standards for small and medium sized entities (IFRS for SMEs can be found in the year 2004. IFRS for SMEs represents for the first time an accounting standard for small and medium-sized companies that can be used globally. The paper aims to examine the historical development of IFRS, the principal institutions linked to their adoption and the harmonization process of standards within the European Union. The main contribution of the paper refers to the evolution of IFRS for SMEs and the main differences between the full IFRS in use and the IFRS for SMEs.The results of the comparative analysis demonstrate that several differences exist between them. Although the aim of the new standard is to assure comparable financial statements for small and medium-sized entities, the presented disadvantages demonstrate that not necessarily its implementation will assure more benefits than the cost that will occur.

Gordana IVANKOVI?

2011-01-01

171

Voluntary disclosing cash flow statement in non-listed medium sized companies.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In Denmark, like some other EU Member States, medium-sized companies are requested to present a cash flow statement, but there are exemption rules similar to those for subgroupsâ?? exemption to their presentation of consolidated financial statements. In a sample consisting of the paper versions of annual reports from 385 Danish non-listed medium-sized companies who were disclosing a cash flow statement as part of their annual report, we found that in a few cases, the companies were exempted to presentation of consolidated financial statements, but disclosing the cash flow statement voluntarily! Since there has been some debate between IASB and the EU Commission whether the cash flow statement should be a mandatory part of the annual reporting for non-listed medium-sized companies, we found it interesting to directly ask these voluntary disclosing companies as to their motivation. For this reason we conducted a multiple-case study, where we formulated a structured questionnaire and made partly open-ended interview with each one of the case-companiesâ?? accountably responsible persons, i.e. one of the guys who signed the annual report. Among the majority of the answers we found a common understanding on presenting the cash flow statement because of some tradition, and not because of some clear intention of fulfilling user needs. However, do we really get a better annual report if a cash flow statement is included?

Schøler, Finn

172

Innovation, adaptability, and collaboration: Keys to success for small and medium sized reactors. Cairo, 27 May 2001  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Small and medium sized reactors, within a power output of less than 700 MW(e), are receiving increased consideration in the effort to meet changing market requirements. Smaller plants allow a more incremental investment, which can be used to hedge against demand uncertainty. They are more suitable for standardization and prefabrication, which in turn encourages enhanced quality control and stimulates rapid development of expertise and shorter construction schedules. They provide a better match to grid capacity in developing countries. And they are more easily adapted to a broad range of industrial settings and applications, such as district heating, heavy oil recovery, or the production of hydrogen and other chemical fuels. Sea water desalination is an application for which smaller reactors hold a particular advantage. Nuclear powered desalination is a proven technology. Clearly, we live in an era in which our society faces many difficult economic, environmental and social issues associated with sustainable development and energy demand. Against that backdrop, nuclear power is a mature technology that deserves careful consideration as a contributor to solving some of these issues. The development of innovative small and medium sized reactors will play a key role in helping to match state-of-the-art technology to user needs. An exchange of information and ideas is a step towards further progress

2001-05-27

173

Difficult framework conditions hinder free competition. On the current situtation of medium-sized petroleum companies; Schwierige Rahmenbedingungen behindern den Wettbewerb. Zur aktuellen Situation der mittelstaendischen Mineraloelunternehmen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The UNITI, German association of medium-sized petroleum companies, held its annual meeting 1998 on May 26 in Berlin, with prominent representatives from industry and politics attending the meeting. The article here presents a shortened version of the welcome address of the president of the UNITI association, which deals in particular with the difficult framework conditions challenging the medium-sized petroleum industry in a shrinking market characterized by correspondingly fierce competition. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Der Vorsitzende des UNITI Bundesverbandes mittelstaendischer Mineraloelunternehmen e.V. konnte anlaesslich der diesjaehrigen Mitgliederversammlung am 26. Mai im Berliner Hilton Hotel wieder prominente Vertreter aus Politik und Wirtschaft begruessen. Der Beitrag gibt eine leicht gekuerzte Fassung der einleitenden Ausfuehrungen des UNITI-Vorsitzenden wieder, in denen er inbesondere auf die schwierigen Rahmenbedingungen einging, mit denen sich die mittelstaendischen Mineraloelunternehmen in einem schrumpfenden Markt bei dementsprechend hartem Wettbewerb auseinandersetzen muessen. (orig./RHM)

Anon.

1998-06-01

174

The Role of Higher Education in the Effective Delivery of Multimedia Management Training to Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The UK government's University for Industry (UfI initiative heralds an era for change in further and higher education. It is part of the government's policies on lifelong learning and the problem of many small and medium -sized enterprises (SMEs that carry out limited training is of particular importance. One proposed solution is to develop multimedia management courseware in the higher and further education sectors which can then be transferred to SMEs in order to meet their training needs. However twenty interviews with key SME training informants reveal that a simple transfer of material is unlikely to prove adequate; the peculiarities of the SME learning environment represent a major challenge to the design and delivery of effective multimedia management training for this sector.

James Carr

1999-04-01

175

Environmental management and educational needs of the small and medium-sized businesses of the metallurgical sector in the south region of Madrid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, the environmental management and needs of the small and medium-sized businesses of the metallurgical industry in the south region of Madrid were analysed. Information was obtained through a telephone questionnaire distributed to more than 170 companies. Although most of the respondent employees do not consider environmental training one of their priorities, they expressed their interest in implementing Environmental Management Systems, waste minimization and higher knowledge of the specific legal aspects. (Author) 7 refs

2004-01-01

176

Knowledge-based trade, technical change and location environment: the case of small and medium sized enterprises engaged in advanced producer software services in the South East region  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Technical change is the driving force behind modern economic competitiveness and the evolution of enterprise and industry. The process, however, is not insular; in particular the location environment is regarded as a key component of how technical change is derived, implemented and diffused. This research study explores this assumption in relation to knowledge-based trade via small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) engaged in the development of advanced producer service (APS) software in th...

Rahman, J.

2005-01-01

177

Incentive System for supporting Small and Medium Industry related to Energy Facilities and Equipments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Small and Medium industry started to undergo sufferings ever since last financial crisis in 1998. Also the energy related small and medium enterprises could not be an exception. Although korean economy went through a slump due to a financial crisis and recovered after all, now it is also experiencing very difficult economical situation due to a continuous recession of advanced countries like USA. Especially, as the wretched priced energy related equipment from China is coming into the domestic market, the domestic energy related equipment industries are in a deep depression and bankrupt frequently. Nevertheless, we cannot even think of our life without energy as it is not only our life necessity, but also a motive power to drive the industrial productivity. However, the problem occurs where the energy needs some kind of conductive equipment or facility to complete combustion rather than by itself alone. As a matter of fact, the production of energy equipment is closely related to energy consumption as well as the construction market and other given economy condition. The development and growth of those related industries should be influenced on stable supply and rational utilization of energy through renewable energy production and energy conservation. After all, those industries are contributed to attain sustainable development by energy security, environmental reservation, and economic growth. At this point of time, a powerful incentive policy, which will result in stopping the bankruptcy of domestic energy related small and medium companies and improving competitive energy efficiency against that of advanced countries, is required. This research suggests the realization and differentiation of guarantee ratio for credit guarantee system improvement, creation of green energy venture fund, favourable bank loan with low interest, rational improvement of taxation, flexible coordination of group option contract, adoption of separated order system which benefits small and medium enterprises for upbringing energy related equipment industries. Korea energy related equipment industry at the present state of things has a characteristic that it is comprised of small and medium companies. IT, BT, NT, and etc are taken up as promising industry arena of 21st century, but in our actual circumstance considering our economic capacity and level of the technological know-how, the most competitive industry which also represents the energy saving equipment and the replaceable energy equipment and environmental equipment is ET (Environment Technology). If this ET industry were to be activated, not only the new jobs and higher employment are created, but also an improvement of domestic production rate of energy related equipment products, which derives from a keynote of the stable supply of energy and utilization rationalization business, can be attempted. By doing so, the improvement of international trade and the internal tax revenue can be secured. There is also a great opportunity of finding a market in East-Asian countries as an international trading industry. At that significance, a motive policy needs to be made by the government for the fundamentals of active market cultivation and also for those energy-related equipments in the market not to be dead during this slack season. Especially, in order to overcome the slack season, energy related equipment industries need to improve cooperative system among industries, government, academies, and research group. (author). 15 refs., 4 figs., 47 tabs.

Kim, Z.O. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

2001-11-01

178

University-Industry Research Collaborations of Small-Medium Enterprises - An Insight from Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The intensity and extent of university-industry research collaborations (UIRCs are important for the support of small-medium enterprises (SMEs and the activities of economy since the rate of SMEs is high in the regional area such as Niigata except in the urban area in Japan. In this paper, Niigata, one of the areas in which SMEs are almost occupied, the joint research projects between the university and industry in Niigata University, schemes to joint research projects, and successful cases are discussed.

Kawasaki Kazumasa

2009-01-01

179

The Perspective of Small and Medium Size Nuclear Power Reactors in the Brazilian Isolated Electricity Grids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a consequence of the international crisis that has shaken the nuclear industry almost all over the world during the late 1980s, new academic contributions, which could settle a new basis for the nuclear energy in Brazil, have been scarce. This paper aims to partially fulfill this gap. We discuss some perspectives for the nuclear option to regain some prominence in the Brazilian energy matrix. Recent developments in the nuclear industry, including advances in plant design, have been opening interesting markets for small and medium nuclear power reactors (SMNPRs). We access the suitability and feasibility of such new technology in the Brazilian isolated electricity grids. We conclude by saying that, although the difficulties are still huge, SMNPRs may be a good strategy for Brazil to revitalize its nuclear policy. (author)

1998-06-15

180

The ABC-paradox: is Time Driven ABC relevant for small and Medium sized enterprises (SME)?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Several articles suggest that Activity Based Costing (ABC) has failed to succeed in practical use. It is even argued that we have an ABC-paradox. Activity Based Costing has won theoretically in nu-merous articles in journals, through books, being included in all major Business Accounting text-books and in curriculum at most business schools. But ABC is not used very much by the compa-nies. Especially in small and medium enterprises ABC is rarely implemented. This is primarily due to two things: First, the ABC model is too difficult to implement. Second, the data foundation for the model is not available in the required quality in the ERP systems used by the businesses. In this article we will explore ways of overcoming these two related problems. We will explore these issues particularly in relation to small and medium enterprises. Through a theoretical analysis and practical implementation in a medium sized manufacturing company we will analyse whether it is possible to create a satisfactory decision making foundation using a TDABC as a less complex cost model in the company. We have analysed our way to the conclusion that compared to ABC, the TDABC model provides the management with a number of pragmatic solutions that can be used in small and medium enter-prises.

Fladkjær, Henrik Find; Jensen, Erling

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

The Size Distribution of Chinese Manufacturing Firms: From the Perspective of Industry Life Cycle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Using panel data of Chinese manufacturing firms between 2003 and 2008, this paper aims to examine the evolution of firm size distribution (FSD as the industry goes through its life-cycle. The results reveal that during the life-cycle process, China’s manufacturing firms’ average size becomes larger then shrinks, and the degree of firm size heterogeneity and industry concentration increases all the time. Empirical results also indicate that the change rate of FSD is affected by firms’ net entry rate into industry. When net entry rate is higher, average firm size’s growth rate is smaller, while size heterogeneity and industry concentration rises more dramatically.

Yanying CHEN

2012-06-01

182

Energy performance of medium-sized healthcare buildings in Victoria, Australia- a case study.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper investigates the energy performance of three medium-sized healthcare buildings in Victoria, Australia, that operate only during the daytime. The aim is to provide preliminary understanding of energy consumption in this particular typology in Australia in relation to the available benchmarks. This paper also identifies the differences of energy consumption between different functional areas within medium health facilities. Building features and operational characteristics contributing to the variations in healthcare energy performance are discussed. The total annual energy consumption data ranging from 167-306 kWh/m(2) or 42-72 kWh/m(3) were compared against international data from various climatic zones. Some of the drivers of energy consumption were determined and potentials for energy and water conservation were identified. Comparison with international standards shows a possibility to achieve lower energy consumption in Victorian healthcare buildings. PMID:24918186

Rajagopalan, Priyadarsini; Elkadi, Hisham

2014-01-01

183

Current information technology needs of small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents recent efforts of the American Textile Partnership (AMTEX{sup TM}) Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Project to identify opportunities for cost effective enhanced information technology use by small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors. Background on the AMTEX/DAMA project and objectives for the specific DAMA Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) effort are discussed in this section. The approach used to gather information about current opportunities or needs is outlined in Section 2 Approach, and relevant findings are identified and a brief analysis of the information gathered is presented in Section 3 Findings. Recommendations based on the analysis, are offered in Section 4 Recommendations, and plans are suggested for DAMA follow-on in Section 5 Future Plans. Trip reports for each of the companies visited are contained in Appendix E - Company Trip Reports. These individual reports contain the data upon which the analysis presented in Section 3 Findings is based.

Wimple, C., LLNL

1998-04-01

184

Monte Carlo comparison of medium-size telescope designs for the Cherenkov Telescope Array  

CERN Document Server

The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a future very high energy gamma-ray observatory. CTA will be comprised of small-,medium- and large-size telescopes covering an energy range from tens of GeV to hundreds of TeV and will surpass existing telescopes in sensitivity by an order of magnitude. The aim of our study is to find the optimal design for the medium-size telescopes (MSTs), which will determine the sensitivity in the key energy range between a few hundred GeV to about ten TeV. To study the effect of the telescope design parameters on the array performance, we simulated arrays of 61 MSTs with 120 m spacing and a variety of telescope configurations. We investigated the influence of the primary telescope characteristics including optical resolution, pixel size, and light collection area on the total array performance with a particular emphasis on telescope configurations with imaging performance similar to the proposed Davies-Cotton (DC) and Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) MST designs. We compare the performance...

Jogler, T; Dumm, J

2013-01-01

185

Development of European Small and Medium Sized Enterprises for Reference in China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The small and medium sized enterprises which are predominantly economic superior in the European small countries mainly produce, process, import and export advanced technical products with high added value and scientific content. They facilitate the development of the economy through technical creation, which is also benefited from the highly efficient economy system established cooperatively by government, bank, and non-government organizations. The experience in Europe provides instructive reference for the development of middle and small sized enterprises in China.
Key words: small and medium sized enterprises; economy with high efficiency; reference
Résumé: Le nombre des PME occupe une place prépondérante dans l’économie européenne. La plupart d’entre elles se spécialisent dans la production, dans la transformation et dans l'importation et l'exportation des produits de haute valeur ajoutée, ou de haute technologie. Elles s'appuient sur l'innovation technologique afin de promouvoir le développement économique. Une économie efficace fondée sur la base d’une coopération étroite entre le gouvernement, les banques, les organisations non gouvernementales a jouéégalement un rôle très important. Le succès de l'expérience européenne est une référence utile pour le développement des PME en Chine.
Mots-clés: PME; économie efficace; références
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Wen-jin WU

2008-12-01

186

Theoretical exploration of pump and probe in medium-sized Na clusters  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigate pump and probe dynamics in simple metal clusters of medium size. Test cases are Na9+ and Na41+. The initial pulse ionizes the cluster and excites ionic motion by a sudden increase of Coulomb pressure. The subsequent ionic breathing motion can be directly mapped by the probe pulses if the analysing frequency stays sufficiently below the plasmon resonance peak at all times. Pump and probe experiments could thus provide direct access to ionic dynamics in electronically excited metal clusters, in the spirit of pump and probe experiments on small molecules.

Andrae, K.; Reinhard, P.-G.; Suraud, E.

2002-10-01

187

Managing services connected to new educative technologies in a medium size university  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We aim at showing how the generalisation of the access to the Internet in a medium-size university (about 20,000 students, a faculty of 800 and some 300 technical and administrative staff) has influenced the everyday life of students and personnel. The different facilities of the University are spread out in several different sites in Nancy and its suburbs with some offshoots in other towns of the Lorraine region. The user base varies in its academic levels and computer literacy, as one may e...

Boyer, Anne; Nomine?, Brigitte

2001-01-01

188

Integrated Foreign Exchange Risk Management : The Role of Import in Medium-Sized, Manufacturing Firms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for the exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as the instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role of import in medium-sized, manufacturing firms in Denmark (a small, open economy). We find a strong, negative relation between import and foreign exchange derivatives usage on the aggregate level. Our findings are consistent with the notion that firms use import to match the foreign exchange exposure created by foreign sales activities.

Aabo, Tom; Høg, Esben

189

eLEARNING - A CHANCE FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

eLearning through its flexibility and facility of access is seen as a major enabler of lifelong learning (LLL), as a catalyst of change and a chance for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to improve their business and to integrate into European market. But so far the eLearning in the context of vocational educational training has been mainly adopted by large enterprises, while only little activity can be observed in SMEs. The question arises what the chances and challenges for SMEs are...

Hamburg, Ileana; Lindecke, Christiane; Terstriep, Judith

2005-01-01

190

Foreign Exchange Risk Management Practices : A Study of Swedish Medium- and Large-sized Companies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose: The purpose of the thesis is to describe which foreign exchange risk techniques that are used by medium- and large-sized Swedish companies within the Jönköping region, and how they as well as a bank evaluate the techniques in the current recession. Background: The reason why companies decide to expand their operations abroad is to take advantage from imperfections in other national markets. The fluctuations in currencies and exchange rates can have a huge effect on a company’s c...

Jakobsson, Catrin; Edvardsen, Daniel; Henriksson, Ola

2009-01-01

191

Integrated Foreign Exchange Risk Management: The Role of Import in Medium-Sized, Manufacturing Firms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as an instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role of import in medium-sized manufacturing firms in Denmark (a small, open economy). We find a strong, negative relation between import and the use of foreign exchange derivatives on the aggregate level. Our findings are consistent with the notion that firms use import to match the foreign exchange exposure created by foreign sales activities.

Aabo, Tom; Høg, Esben

2010-01-01

192

Integrated foreign exchange risk management : the role of import in medium-sized, manufacturing firms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as an instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role of import in medium-sized manufacturing firms in Denmark (a small, open economy). We find a strong, negative relation between import and the use of foreign exchange derivatives on the aggregate level. Our findings are consistent with the notion that firms use import to match the foreign exchange exposure created by foreign sales activities.

Aabo, Tom; Høg, Esben

2010-01-01

193

Effectively Using the QRFM to Model Truck Trips in Medium-Sized Urban Communities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper analyses the effectiveness of applying the Quick Response Freight Manual (QRFM to model freight transportation. Typically, freight transportation is indirectly modeled or as an after-thought. Increasing freight volumes, coupled with cost saving strategies such as just-in-time delivery systems, require that transportation policymakers analyze infrastructure needs and make investment decisions that explicitly include freight volumes as a component. This paper contains a case study using a medium sized urban area travel model and the QRFM trip generation and a distribution methodology to provide a framework for freight planning that can be used to improve resource allocation decisions.

Michael D. Anderson

2013-07-01

194

Adoption of internet-based marketing channels by small and medium-sized manufacturers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper analyses factors influencing manufacturersâ?? adoption of Internet-based marketing channels using models based on marketing channel and organisational innovation theory. Survey data from 1,163 Danish, Finnish, and Swedish manufacturers form the empirical basis for testing the models using LISREL analysis. The results stress that adoption of Internet-based marketing is influenced by willingness to cannibalize, by management support, by market pressure, and by a firmâ??s knowledge of IT. A willingness to cannibalize mediates the effects of future market orientation, ownership, specialized investments, and management support. This is mainly the case in small firms, as the importance of the various drivers and the adoption pattern varies among size categories. Market-pull factors have relatively more explanatory power in medium-sized and large companies.

Nielsen, Jørn Flohr; Høst, Viggo

2005-01-01

195

Autotrophic denitrification and chemical phosphate removal of agro-industrial wastewater by filtration with granular medium.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel granular medium consisting (1.5-5 mm in diameter) of inert perlite particles as nuclei and an effective surface layer containing sulfur, CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2 was developed for advanced treatment of agro-industrial wastewater. The performance of the medium was examined with a laboratory-scale down-flow fixed-bed column reactor using piggery wastewater, which had been treated by an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor and a trickling filter. The removal efficiency of NOx- -N was more than 70% with a NOx- -N loading rate of less than approximately 0.3 kg Nm(-3) d(-1); the removal efficiency dropped due to the accumulation of nitrite when the loading rate exceeded that value. A significant drop of phosphate and Mg2+ concentrations occurred when the effluent pH exceeded 7.9. Ammonium was removed with an average removal efficiency of 12.4%. These results indicated that the crystalline reaction of PO4(3-), Mg2+ and NH4+ (MAP reaction) under alkaline conditions contributed to the removal of phosphate. This medium could be useful for the simultaneous reduction of nitrogenous and phosphorus compounds in biologically treated agro-industrial wastewater. PMID:16707261

Tanaka, Yasuo; Yatagai, Atsushi; Masujima, Hiroshi; Waki, Miyoko; Yokoyama, Hiroshi

2007-03-01

196

Development of Safety Related Issues and Essential Technologies for the Small and Medium Size PWR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the study is to complement the safety related issues and their regulatory guides, deduced as a result of the review of the nuclear code and standards to being applied widely, then also is to find out and take concrete shape to the essential technologies for the small and medium size PWRs. The main activities performed in the study are listed below: - The review of the nuclear code and standards to being applied widely - The review of the safety related issues and their regulatory guides to be complemented · The review of the current developed state for advanced PWRs · The investigation of the disagreements or complements between the nuclear code and standards and the inherent characteristics for advanced PWRs - The essential technologies for the small and medium size PWRs · The essential technologies * The in-service inspection of reactor vessel assembly and steam generators * The development of comprehensive vibration assesment program * The feasibility of the test, monitoring, inspection and maintenance of components according to the extended cycle core · The publication of the ISI concept for an advanced PWR · The publication of the CVAP development for an advanced PWR · The preparation for an analysis input deck for the audit code - The evaluation for advanced PWRs to be corresponded to the nuclear code and standards

2009-01-01

197

Evolution of dust grain size distribution by shattering in the interstellar medium: robustness and uncertainty  

CERN Document Server

Shattering of dust grains in the interstellar medium is a viable mechanism of small grain production in galaxies. We examine the robustness or uncertainty in the theoretical predictions of shattering. We identify $P_1$ (the critical pressure above which the deformation destroys the original lattice structures) as the most important quantity in determining the timescale of small grain production, and confirm that the same $P_1/t$ ($t$ is the duration of shattering) gives the same grain size distribution [$n(a)$, where $a$ is the grain radius] after shattering within a factor of 3. The uncertainty in the fraction of shocked material that is eventually ejected as fragments causes uncertainties in $n(a)$ by a factor of 1.3 and 1.6 for silicate and carbonaceous dust, respectively. The size distribution of shattered fragments have minor effects as long as the power index of the fragment size distribution is less than ~ 3.5, since the slope of grain size distribution $n(a)$ continuously change by shattering and beco...

Hirashita, Hiroyuki

2013-01-01

198

Study on Technological Innovation Outsourcing in Scientific and Technological Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Based on Motives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For the time being, technological innovation outsourcing has become an important channel for enterprises, especially in scientific and technological small and medium-sized enterprises. Based on characteristics of scientific and technological small and medium-sized enterprises, this article made an analysis in the motives and the existing problems. First of all, the author analyzed the motives in four aspects. Then, the author pointed out problems existing in evaluation and selection of outsourcing business of scientific and technological small and medium-sized enterprises, evaluation and selection of outsourcing partners, control over outsourcing activities and adjustment on outsourcing activities. Findings of this article have enlightenments on improving efficiency of technological innovation outsourcing of scientific and technological small and medium-sized enterprises.

Xiaolin Li

2011-07-01

199

Evaluation of User Impacts of Transit Automatic Vehicle Location Systems in Medium and Small Size Transit Systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

This reports investigates the use of Automatic Vehicle Locations Systems (AVL) to enhance transit performance, management, and customer services in medium sized transit agencies, based on surveys conducted in Racine and Waukesha, Wisconsin before and afte...

S. Peng Y. Zhu E. Beimborn

2005-01-01

200

Innovation Gateways for SMEs: Finding the Formula for Successful Interaction between Universities and Small and Medium-Size Firms.  

Science.gov (United States)

The University of Warwick's Breakthrough Technologies program links with small and medium-sized businesses to stimulate awareness of innovations. The Manufacturing Excellence Initiative provides postgraduate training for company staff that focuses on best practices and change management. (SK)

Davies, Peter T.

1995-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Analysis of industrial markets for low and medium Btu coal gasification. [Forecasting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Low- and medium-Btu gases (LBG and MBG) can be produced from coal with a variety of 13 existing and 25 emerging processes. Historical experience and previous studies indicate a large potential market for LBG and MBG coal gasification in the manufacturing industries for fuel and feedstocks. However, present use in the US is limited, and industry has not been making substantial moves to invest in the technology. Near-term (1979-1985) market activity for LBG and MBG is highly uncertain and is complicated by a myriad of pressures on industry for energy-related investments. To assist in planning its program to accelerate the commercialization of LBG and MBG, the Department of Energy (DOE) contracted with Booz, Allen and Hamilton to characterize and forecast the 1985 industrial market for LBG and MBG coal gasification. The study draws five major conclusions: (1) There is a large technically feasible market potential in industry for commercially available equipment - exceeding 3 quadrillion Btu per year. (2) Early adopters will be principally steel, chemical, and brick companies in described areas. (3) With no additional Federal initiatives, industry commitments to LBG and MBG will increase only moderately. (4) The major barriers to further market penetration are lack of economic advantage, absence of significant operating experience in the US, uncertainty on government environmental policy, and limited credible engineering data for retrofitting industrial plants. (5) Within the context of generally accepted energy supply and price forecasts, selected government action can be a principal factor in accelerating market penetration. Each major conclusion is discussed briefly and key implications for DOE planning are identified.

1979-07-30

202

A Study on the Influences of Financing on Technological Innovation in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As the most vigorous part in the national economy, small and medium-sized enterprises exert an active role in increasing employment, training entrepreneurs, invigorating economy, cooperating with large enterprises and improving market competition and so on. What’s more, S&T enterprises of this kind also take an active role in technological innovation. In view of the poor technological innovation ability of small and medium-sized enterprises in China, such an analysis will be helpful for the...

Jingting Ma; Shumei Wang; Jian Gui

2010-01-01

203

The Roles of Government Funding in Enhancing the Competitiveness of Small and Medium-sized Enterprise in Sabah, Malaysia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was conducted in order to determine the roles of government funding in enhancing Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Sabah, Malaysia. Specifically, the study is focused on the Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Sabah, Malaysia which were funded by many government-linked agencies such as Yayasan Tekun Nasional, Amanah Ikhtiar, Koperasi Pembangunan Desa and Agro Bank. This qualitative study was carried out in the rural and urban areas in Sabah, Malaysia. The findings of this stu...

Abdol Samad Nawi; Irwan Bin Ismail; Zainuddin Zakaria; Jannah Munirah Md Noor; Bashir Ahmad Bin Shabir Ahmad; Nik Fakrul Hazri; Wan Anisabanum Salleh; Mohd Tajul Hasnan Mohd Tajuddin; Nur Raihana Mohd Sallem

2012-01-01

204

Handling of Environmental Related Requirements : Awareness and Ability to Act at Small and Medium Sized Electric and Electronic Companies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Environmental related product requirements are increasing worldwide from government authorities, customers and other stakeholders. For small and medium sized companies manufacturing electric and electronic products it is more difficult compared to bigger companies to meet new product related requirements due to smaller budget, resources and knowledge. This research studies the awareness and ability to act upon changes when small and medium sized companies in Sweden face environmental related ...

Lin, Han-hsuan

2008-01-01

205

Recruitment practices in small and medium size enterprises: An empirical study among knowledge-intensive professional service firms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The lesser degree of institutionalization and formalization of HR-practices in small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) usually leads to them being attested a severe (HR-)Management Deficit'. However, the vast majority of these empirical investigations argues from a perspective dominated by the viewpoint of large corporations. As a consequence, the highly differentiated HRM-systems of larger organizations are seen as the 'desirable ideal' for small and medium-size enterprises as well. On the ...

Behrends, Thomas

2007-01-01

206

Role of Relationship Marketing in Small and Medium-Sized Entreprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Along with marketing, small and medium enterprises (SMEs are commonly associated in literature with relationship marketing which results in marketing networks. This paper examines the specific characteristics that differentiate large companies from small and medium-sized enterprises, and the reasons that prevent SMEs from engaging in traditional marketing within the scope of marketing mix. The paper also shows that the key characteristic which distinguishes small from large companies is a prominent role of owner/managers. The owner/manager affects marketing of SMEs by creating his or her own personal networks with stakeholders in the environment, and considers it an important strategic focus and a factor that increases the performance of marketing decision-making. After a thorough review of secondary data sources this paper examines relationship marketing as a marketing framework for SMEs and, finally, proves that relationship marketing is more appropriate for SMEs than are traditional marketing concepts, that relationship marketing and network marketing create an important framework for SMEs and that there is a link between relationship marketing, personal networks and SMEs.

Ružica Butigan

2011-06-01

207

Hybrid neural intelligent system to predict business failure in small-to-medium-size enterprises.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the last years there has been a growing need of developing innovative tools that can help small to medium sized enterprises to predict business failure as well as financial crisis. In this study we present a novel hybrid intelligent system aimed at monitoring the modus operandi of the companies and predicting possible failures. This system is implemented by means of a neural-based multi-agent system that models the different actors of the companies as agents. The core of the multi-agent system is a type of agent that incorporates a case-based reasoning system and automates the business control process and failure prediction. The stages of the case-based reasoning system are implemented by means of web services: the retrieval stage uses an innovative weighted voting summarization of self-organizing maps ensembles-based method and the reuse stage is implemented by means of a radial basis function neural network. An initial prototype was developed and the results obtained related to small and medium enterprises in a real scenario are presented. PMID:21809475

Borrajo, M Lourdes; Baruque, Bruno; Corchado, Emilio; Bajo, Javier; Corchado, Juan M

2011-08-01

208

Medium polarization and finite size effects on the superfluidity of the inner crust of neutron stars  

CERN Document Server

The 1S0 pairing gap associated with the inner crust of a neutron star is calculated, taking into account the coexistence of the nuclear lattice with the sea of free neutrons (finite size effects), as well as medium polarization effects associated with the exchange of density and spin fluctuations. Both effects are found to be important and to lead to an overall quenching of the pairing gap. This result, whose quantitative value is dependent on the effective interaction used to generate the single-particle levels, is a consequence of the balance between the attractive (repulsive) induced interaction arising from the exchange of density (spin) modes, balance which in turn is influenced by the presence of the protons and depends on the single-particle structure of the system.

Baroni, S; Barranco, F; Broglia, R A; Pastore, A; Vigezzi, E

2008-01-01

209

eLEARNING - A CHANCE FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available eLearning through its flexibility and facility of access is seen as a major enabler of lifelong learning (LLL, as a catalyst of change and a chance for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs to improve their business and to integrate into European market. But so far the eLearning in the context of vocational educational training has been mainly adopted by large enterprises, while only little activity can be observed in SMEs. The question arises what the chances and challenges for SMEs are and what is the experience with its usage. In this paper after a presentation of key issues in eLearning chances and challenges of eLearning for SMEs are discussed and experiences are exemplified by three EU-funded eLearning projects. The focus lies on the ongoing project ARIEL - Analysing and Reporting the Implementation of Electronic Learning in Europe - coordinated by the Institut Arbeit und Technik (IAT.

Ileana Hamburg

2005-12-01

210

Mammals of medium and large size in Santa Rita do Sapucaí, Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The diversity of Brazilian vertebrates is regarded among the highest in the world. However, the biologicaldiversity is still mostly unknown and a good part of it is seriously threatened by human activities. This study aimed toinventory the medium and large size mammals present in the Reserva Biológica de Santa Rita do Sapucaí, an Atlanticforest reserve located in Santa Rita do Sapucaí, southeastern Brazil. Sand-plots, photographic traps and searches foranimal tracks on pre-existent trails in the area, were carried out once every two months between May 2006 andFebruary 2007. The sand-plots and tracks were inspected during five consecutive days per sampling. We obtained 108records of 15 species, mostly of carnivorans. Two confirmed species are threatened with extinction in Brazil (Callithrixaurita and Leopardus pardalis. The results suggest that the sampled reserve has high species richness and plays animportant role in conservation of mammals in this landscape, including species threatened with extinction.

Eduardo, A. A.

2009-01-01

211

Knowledge management in small and medium-sized companies; Wissensmanagement bei kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Knowledge management has now also reached the energy economy, as first branch-specific seminars show. This awakening interest is very much to be welcomed, although until now it has been more the representatives of large energy companies who have made themselves heard. Public utilities, which as a rule are subsumed under the category ''small and medium sized company'', have other possibilities as well as limitations than large corporations when it comes to knowledge management. The present article explains what knowledge management is and how public utilities and regional supply companies can identify and make practical use of opportunities available to them through knowledge management while giving due consideration to their structural characteristics.

Basu, M. [Netzwirtschaft, EWR Netz GmbH, Worms (Germany); Neises, C. [Regulierungsmanagement, regionetz GmbH, Dueren (Germany)

2008-12-15

212

Small and Medium Sized Enterprises Development under Trade Liberalisation: A Survey of Nigerian Experience  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study reviews the policies implemented by the Nigerian government over the years to assist the development of manufacturing small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs in Nigeria following the implementation of Trade liberalisation policy in 1986. The aim of the liberalise trade policy was to encourage competition and improve efficiency in the use of local resources; yet most Nigerian SMEs still find it difficult to compete and merely struggle to survive the liberalised economic environment in Nigeria. The result of the study of a sample of 500 manufacturing SMEs operating in Lagos State reveals that despite the laudable policies, the effects are not felt by most manufacturing SMEs due to improper planning and the absence of favourable investment climate necessary for these policies to be effective.

Obokoh, Lawrence Ogechukwu

2009-02-01

213

Requirements and Specifications for a Simplified, Low Pressure Medium Sized PWR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper summarises part of our on-going investigations on the possible introduction of nuclear energy in developing countries or countries with low capacity electrical grids. These investigations are principally concerned with future PWR developments and basically try to search for plausible and economic answers to the three difficult questions that each nuclear technology exporting country faces today: 1)- how to compensate the apparent loss of economic competitiveness, related to the scaling effect, of a small or medium sized reactor? 2)- how to reconcile the introduction of nuclear energy on the large scale with the two major preoccupations of nuclear safety and nuclear proliferation? 3)- how to demonstrate that the proposed concept(s) can effectively meet the safety objectives of the requirements for future reactors in Europe and in other countries?

1998-06-15

214

Examination of Theoretical and Empirical Studies on Firm’s Performance in Relation to its’ Board Size: A Study of Small and Medium Size Public Firms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research presented a review of key theoretical and empirical studies on firm’s performance and its board size.  The review included on small & medium sized and public owned firms from manufacturing to financial sectors.  The research concludes that the evidence on positive or negative correlation between board size and a firm’s performance is mixed (inconclusive) and need for further empirical investigation on this subject is warranted.  It was found that the choice o...

Jibran Sheikh; Majid Khan, M.; Waheed Iqbal; Wajid Shakeel Ahmed; Muhammad Tahir Masood

2012-01-01

215

R & D, structural change and productivity: the role of high and medium-high technology industries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper investigates the potential impact of increased R & D efforts and structural change in Portugal on labour productivity. Based on existing literature on the relation between R & D expenditures, structural change and productivity, we evaluate the contribution of R & D and hightech industries to productivity over the last 30 years. Our results confirm the importance of business R & D in the medium to high-tech sectors and of public R & D, as they stimulate productivity growth. However, we cannot support the hypothosis that productivity growth was primarily rooted in the development of medium-high technology industries.Este artigo investiga o potencial impacto do aumento deI & D e de mudanças estruturais na produtividade do trabalho em Portugal. Com base na literatura sobre a relação entre despesas emI & D, mudança estrutural e produtividade, avaliamos a contribuição daI & D e das indústrias de alta tecnologia neste cenário durante os últimos 30 anos. Os resultados obtidos confirmam a importância dos investimentos emI & D das empresas de indústrias de alta e média-alta tecnologia eI & D público no crescimento da produtividade. Não obstante, não podemos afirmar que este fenômeno tenha como esteio principal o crescente relevo destas indústrias.

Celeste Amorim Varum

2009-12-01

216

R & D, structural change and productivity: the role of high and medium-high technology industries  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este artigo investiga o potencial impacto do aumento deI & D e de mudanças estruturais na produtividade do trabalho em Portugal. Com base na literatura sobre a relação entre despesas emI & D, mudança estrutural e produtividade, avaliamos a contribuição daI & D e das indústrias de alta tecnologia nes [...] te cenário durante os últimos 30 anos. Os resultados obtidos confirmam a importância dos investimentos emI & D das empresas de indústrias de alta e média-alta tecnologia eI & D público no crescimento da produtividade. Não obstante, não podemos afirmar que este fenômeno tenha como esteio principal o crescente relevo destas indústrias. Abstract in english This paper investigates the potential impact of increased R & D efforts and structural change in Portugal on labour productivity. Based on existing literature on the relation between R & D expenditures, structural change and productivity, we evaluate the contribution of R & D and hightech industries [...] to productivity over the last 30 years. Our results confirm the importance of business R & D in the medium to high-tech sectors and of public R & D, as they stimulate productivity growth. However, we cannot support the hypothosis that productivity growth was primarily rooted in the development of medium-high technology industries.

Celeste Amorim, Varum; Bruno, Cibrão; António, Morgado; Joana, Costa.

217

Inherent safe heat removal in advanced medium-sized high-temperature reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the main points for the inherent safety of a pebble bed high temperature reactor (HTR) is to guarantee the safe removal of the after-heat in case of a break-down of all active cooling systems like heat-exchangers or liner-cooling. This will be necessary because it is well known today that graphite pebble bed fuel elements stay intact, if the accident temperature is below 1600 deg. C. Therefore the heat must be taken out of the reactor system by passive, natural law heat-transfer mechanism so that the maximum fuel temperature stays below the specified limit. Today medium-sized HTRs with a power of 750 MWth and more (TGTR-300, HTR 500) reach temperatures of more than 2400 deg. C in small parts of the core in such hypothetical accidents. A possible way to realize the inherent safe heat removal in advanced medium-sized HTRs is to change the form of the core. Instead of employing the standard cylindrical geometry a plate shaped core should be preferred, described by the proportion of width to depth of approx. 6:1, causing short distances for heat transfer to the side reflectors within the core and due to the reduction of the mean core power density less than 3 MW/m3. A further improvement of the passive heat removal in case of a failure of the liner-cooling can be achieved by adding cast iron and/or metal granulated material to the concrete of the reactor vessel increasing the thermal conductivity. In case of a total failure of the liner-cooling, heat removal within the prestressed concrete vessel is also possible using installed vertical ducts which make it possible that fresh air runs through the ducts by natural convection cooling the reactor vessel. Even the total removal of the after-heat is possible by suitable arrangement, number and shape of such ducts. (author). 4 refs, 11 figs, 1 tab

1990-04-01

218

On the Spatial Diffusion of Knowledge by Universities Located in Small and Medium Sized Towns  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many studies, provided by diverse authors and institutions, demonstrate that, at a territorial level, development is directly related to the level of education and R & D. Territories with higher development levels are, generally, those that have a higher level of education and R & D. The relationship between the acquisition of knowledge and institutional education is therefore decisive. In this area, the role of universities is fundamental. The retention of university graduates is one of the main ways that the cities and the regions can adopt to retain those endowed with higher propensity to innovation, enterprise spirit and management capacity. Given that higher education institutions, in general, and universities, in particular, are obviously crucial in the process of knowledge increase, it becomes important to analyse how can these institutions act as ways of spatial diffusion of knowledge given that their graduates may migrate to other regions of the country (or for another country. The alleged increased probability of this migration to occur when the university is located in a small or medium sized town makes that analysis also interesting from the viewpoint of the development role that this kind of cities can perform, not only in the adjacent rural areas, but also across all the urban areas of the territory. The focus of our work consists in this analysis, which complements a theoretical approach with an empirical part based upon the results that can be observed for the influence of one university located in a small/medium sized town (the University of Évora in the spatial diffusion of knowledge through its graduates.

Conceicao Rego

2010-06-01

219

Small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). Sustainable expansion of the potential for peaceful uses of nuclear energy; Small and Medium Sized Reactors (SMRs). Eine nachhaltige Erweiterung des friedlichen Nutzungspotenzials der Kernenergie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the peaceful uses of nuclear power for low-cost electricity generation, nuclear power plant technology in the 1970/80s was tailored to high-power units (> 1,000 MWe). The International Energy Agency (IEA) of the OECD in its World Energy Outlook 2012 estimates a worldwide increase in electricity consumption from approx. 21,408 TWh in 2010 to approx. 32,000 or 37,000 TWh in 2035. In this connection, there is growing interest in the nuclear community in nuclear power plant concepts of < 1,000 MWe power for variable uses. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna recognized the trend towards small and medium sized reactors as early as a few years ago and is now supporting development work along theses lines by specific initiatives to foster cooperative ventures among the member countries currently showing interest. More than fifty SMR concepts are currently under development worldwide. Most of them are modeled along the lines of operating experience gained with established reactor lines. IAEA proposes classification in small sized reactors for the range of power of < 300 MWe and medium sized reactors for the power range of 300 to approx. 700 MWe. Most of the SMR variants are designed as modular units prefabricated in factories and shipped by truck or rail for final assembly at the reactor site. In the near future, SMR plants could be used in regions with limited infrastructure and without any electricity distribution grids for powerful large power plants. In industrialized regions, SMRs offer greater flexibility in adaptation of the electricity generating capacity to local consumption rises and in replacing fossil-fired old plants. For the more remote future, plans also include SMR uses for other purposes than electricity generation, such as hydrogen production and coal liquefaction. An overview of the whole SMR spectrum is presented on the basis of some selected projects. Besides projects already completed, most SMR concepts are in the detailed design stage of development with start of construction in the near future, and in the conceptual design stage for commissioning between 2025 and 2030. (orig.)

Kuczera, Bernhard

2012-12-15

220

Size distribution of supernova remnants and the interstellar medium: the case of M33  

CERN Document Server

The size distribution of supernova remnants (SNRs) can help to clarify the various aspects of their evolution and interaction with the interstellar medium (ISM). Since the observed samples of SNRs are a collection of objects with very different ages and origin that evolve in different conditions of the ISM, statistical Monte Carlo methods can be used to model their statistical distributions. Based on very general assumptions on the evolution, we have modeled samples of SNRs at various initial and environmental conditions, which were then compared with observed collections of SNRs. In the evolution of SNRs the pressure of the ISM is taken into account, which determines their maximum sizes and lifetimes. When comparing the modeled and observed distributions, it is very important to have homogeneous observational data free from selection effects. We found that a recently published collection of SNRs in M33 (Long et al. 2010, ApJS,187,495) satisfies this requirement if we select the X-ray SNRs with hardness ratio...

Asvarov, Abdul I

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Size and profitability in the international oil- and gas industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many industrial sectors have gone through a series of mergers and acquisitions. In the international oil- and gas industry this has produced new companies such as ExxonMobil and TotalFinaElf. BP and Amoco merged and then subjugated Atlantic Richfield (ARCO). ChevronTexaco has been established and ConocoPhillips are currently working on the same thing. Saga was previously acquired by Norsk Hydro and Statoil, and Shell recently bought Enterprise and Pennzoil-Quaker. Taking the stock market's principles for corporate analysis and valuation as a starting point, this article discusses the forces behind this consolidation process

2002-01-01

222

78 FR 74154 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Size, Shape, and Other Physical Attributes of Generic Tablets and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...FDA-2013-N-1434] Draft Guidance for Industry on Size, Shape, and Other Physical Attributes...draft guidance for industry entitled ``Size, Shape, and Other Physical Attributes...guidance discusses FDA recommendations for the size, shape, and other physical...

2013-12-10

223

Impact of carbon tax on internal combustion engine size selection in a medium scale CHP system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? We study sizing of internal combustion engines as the prime movers of a CHP system. ? We study carbon tax impact on the economics of the system. ? Diesel engine based systems is not economical regardless of the operational mode. ? HDF is the only mode in which gas engine based systems is uneconomical. ? Carbon price considerably affects the system payback period. -- Abstract: Combined heat and power (CHP) systems due to their high efficiency compared to the conventional power generation systems have received considerable attention as they have less harmful impact on the environment. Recently, the serious concern with reducing the greenhouse gas emissions has focussed the attention on the possibility of a carbon tax in some countries. Here, we address the impact of such tax on the sizing and economics of a CHP system. Optimum sizing of CHP systems is of great importance to maximize the benefits of these systems. To select the optimum prime mover of a CHP system, performance characteristics of engine as well as economic parameters should be taken into consideration. A general thermo-economic approach to optimum sizing of internal combustion engines as the prime movers (any type and size) of a medium scale CHP system (500-5000 kW) and planning their operational strategy is developed. Net Annual Cost (NAC) as the criterion for making decision is introduced and appropriate equations for estimating thermodynamic and economic parameters as well as greenhouse gas emissions are presented. We consider three modes of operation: one-way connection (OWC) mode, two-way connection (TWC) mode, and heat demand following (HDF) mode. The proposed method has been used for a case study where data is available in the literature and the optimum nominal powers using gas engines are 3.3 MW, 3.2 MW, and 1.2 MW and in the case of using diesel engines are 3.4 MW, 3.4 MW, and 1.4 MW for TWC, OWC, and HDF modes, respectively. To determine the sensitivity of results to input parameters (e.g. electricity price) a comprehensive parametric study was conducted.

2011-12-01

224

The Roles of Government Funding in Enhancing the Competitiveness of Small and Medium-sized Enterprise in Sabah, Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to determine the roles of government funding in enhancing Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Sabah, Malaysia. Specifically, the study is focused on the Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Sabah, Malaysia which were funded by many government-linked agencies such as Yayasan Tekun Nasional, Amanah Ikhtiar, Koperasi Pembangunan Desa and Agro Bank. This qualitative study was carried out in the rural and urban areas in Sabah, Malaysia. The findings of this study revealed that there are several main roles of government funding to enhance the competitiveness of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Sabah, Malaysia. These four main roles were namely provision of access to capital for opening and improving the business, provision of access to capital for skills and knowledge development, improvement of entrepreneurs’ relations, and promoting entrepreneurship and reducing “fear of failure”. In accordance, it can be concluded that the government funds are instrumental in the success of the efforts to enhance the competitiveness level of the so-called Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Sabah, Malaysia. Besides, it is highly recommended that state government and all parties (the stakeholders should specifically implement efforts to fund the Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises as well as to improve their level of competitiveness.

Abdol Samad Nawi

2012-12-01

225

Optimization as investment decision support in a Swedish medium-sized iron foundry - A move beyond traditional energy auditing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to increased globalisation, industries are facing greater competition that is pressing companies into decreasing their expenses in order to increase their profits. As regards Swedish industry, it has been faced with substantial increases in energy prices in recent years. Barriers to energy efficiency such as imperfect information inhibit investments in energy efficiency measures, energy audits being one means of reducing barriers and overcoming imperfect information. However, an evaluation of such energy audits in Sweden reveals that it is chiefly low-cost measures that are undertaken as a result of an audit. Moreover, these audits often tend to focus on support processes such as ventilation, lighting, air compressors etc., while measures impacting production processes are often not as extensively covered, which underlines the need for further support in addition to energy audits. Decision support is practised in a variety of different disciplines such as optimization and simulation and the aim of this paper is to explore whether investment decision support practices may be used successfully towards small and medium-sized manufacturers in Sweden when complex production-related investment decisions are taken. The optimization results from the different cases, involving a foundry's investment in a new melting unit, indicate that with no electricity price fluctuations over the day, the investment seems sound as it lowers the overall energy costs. However, with fluctuating electricity prices, there are no large differences in energy costs between the option of retaining the existing five melting furnaces at the foundry and investing in a twin furnace and removing the holding furnaces - which was the initial investment plan for the foundry in the study. It would not have been possible to achieve this outcome without the use of investment decision support such as MIND. One of the main conclusions in this paper is that investment decision support, when strategic investment decisions are to be taken, may be a means of emphasising energy efficiency for energy-intensive SMEs beyond the level of traditional energy auditing. (author)

2009-04-01

226

Energy conservation for medium industry by retrofitting H.T. distribution system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electrical energy consumption pattern is a non-constant nature, which varies considerably between 30% and 40% of the maximum peak demand as per system load parameters. Some suggested new design components are projected, which are basically of retrofitting nature to suit the industrial units with high tension (HT) distribution systems. This has a view to achieve energy conservation as well as reduction in kW, kWH, kVA, kVAH and kVARH. These equipment are of short, medium and long term application to without much financial involvement. These are all immediate fruit bearing successful achievements for the state of Orissa which is in a power hungry zone of the country. There is a central government comprehensive policy decision for application of energy conservation. (author). 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab., 1 ill

1995-08-31

227

Sustainable Product Service Systems in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs: Opportunities in the Leather Manufacturing Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an approach to identify opportunities to develop sustainable Product Service Systems (PSS involving Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs. The purpose of the research is to build understanding of how the integration of product and service design and the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT can contribute to identify opportunities to develop sustainable PSS involving SMEs. In order to develop the approach, research with 16 Colombian Manufacturing SMEs was carried out. A reference model and four generic types of PSS according to the relationships between product and service design and ICT are used to analyse the data. Finally, the possibility of extending the approach into a general framework to work with other industries is discussed.

Ricardo J. Hernández Pardo

2012-01-01

228

Industrial Fabrication of Medium-Beta SCRF Cavities for a High-Intensity Proton Linac  

CERN Document Server

During 1999, four 700-MHz, medium-beta (b = 0.64), superconducting radio frequency (SCRF) cavities for a high-intensity proton linac project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) were manufactured by industry. The SCRF cavities were designed by a LANL team in Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA, and manufactured at a CERCA plant in Romans, France. The cavities were made of 4-mm-thick, solid niobium sheets with a residual resistivity ratio (RRR) greater than 250. These niobium sheets were supplied by Wah Chang (USA), Heraeus AG (Germany), and Tokyo Denkai (Japan). The SCRF cavities were shipped to LANL for performance testing. This paper describes the experience gained during the manufacturing process at CERCA.

Kuzminski, J; Gentzlinger, R C; Maccioni, P

2000-01-01

229

Studies of various single phase natural circulation systems for small and medium sized reactor design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: • SMRs and passive safety systems in single phase systems are reviewed. • Simple loop analysis has been done for gas, single phase water, and liquid metals. • Gas systems have a greater tendency to fall into DTHT regime. • SMR and large LWR reactors can differ in operating heat transfer regime. -- Abstract: Passive safety is a primary motive behind the development of small and medium sized reactors of various coolants. After the Fukushima accident, there is an increased interest in a nuclear reactor's reliance on passive safety systems. Most of the existing passive systems, regardless of the reactor type, utilize buoyancy force to drive the cooling flow. Hence, it is essential to evaluate if the naturally developed cooling flow is sufficient to maintain the heated surface temperature of the fuel elements below the design limit. Evaluating passively driven flows can be quite a challenging task in both two phase natural circulation systems and also in single phase natural circulation systems. Previous research works have found that single phase heat transfer can be deteriorated and becomes uncertain when the driving force of a system is shifted from external force (forced convection) to self generated buoyancy force or a combination of both (natural or mixed convection). In this paper, single phase gas, water, and liquid metal reactors with passive systems are reviewed briefly. A simple theoretical analysis of each reactor type is performed to find the tendency of the shift in the operating heat transfer regime into the deteriorated region. The analysis results show that single phase water system can maintain operation within the forced convection regime but the operating regime gets closer to the deteriorating heat transfer regime as the system's physical size reduces from a large nuclear power plant to the small and medium reactor scale. The gas cooled system has a high tendency to operate in the deteriorated heat transfer regime when the driving force changes from forced to natural. Meanwhile the liquid metal system demonstrates more margins to operate outside from the deteriorated heat transfer region compared to the two other fluid systems. However further studies are needed to clearly identify the boundaries of the deteriorated heat transfer regime for each coolant since the deterioration greatly depends on the thermophysical properties variation of the coolant and the near-wall flow behavior of the coolant with respect to temperature change.

Wibisono, Andhika Feri, E-mail: feri.wibisono@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Yoonhan, E-mail: yh.ahn@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Williams, Wesley C., E-mail: wcw@phd-engineering.com [PHD Engineering, LLC, 11828 Villa Avenue, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Addad, Yacine, E-mail: yacine.addad@kustar.ac.ae [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research (KUSTAR), P.O. Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Lee, Jeong Ik, E-mail: jeongiklee@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-09-15

230

Electricity supply industry in England and Wales. Medium term development plan 1986-1993  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main objective of the Electricity Supply Industry in England and Wales is to develop and maintain electricity supplies to meet customers' needs as cheaply as possible. Over the medium term, 1986 - 1993, the goal is to reduce the real average price per kWh sold, whilst maintaining high standards of service and meeting financial obligations. The strategy set out comprises reducing controllable costs per kWh sold to 1992/3, pursuing a vigorous and selective marketing strategy so that an expected sales increase of 10% is achieved, securing a long term supply of coal at minimum cost by developing the commercial relationship with British Coal, increasing the proportion of electrical energy supplied by nuclear energy to 25% by 1992/3 and being environmentally concerned. The introduction outlines the medium term business, energy and economic environment, financial targets and price prospects. Plans to support the strategy outlined are presented. Each section sets out the objectives and the plans to achieve these. The strategy for new power stations is to develop fossil-fueled and nuclear as well as to develop alternative technologies.

1986-09-01

231

The electricity supply industry in England and Wales. Medium term development plan 1986-93  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objective of the Electricity Supply Industry in England and Wales is to develop and maintain electricity supplies to meet customers' needs as cheaply as possible. Over the medium term, 1986 - 1993, the goal is to reduce the real average price per kWh sold, whilst maintaining high standards of service and meeting financial obligations. The strategy set out comprises reducing controllable costs per kWh sold to 1992/3, pursuing a vigorous and selective marketing strategy so that an expected sales increase of 10% is achieved, securing a long term supply of coal at minimum cost by developing the commercial relationship with British Coal, increasing the proportion of electrical energy supplied by nuclear energy to 25% by 1992/3 and being environmentally concerned. The introduction outlines the medium term business, energy and economic environment, financial targets and price prospects. Plans to support the strategy outlined are presented. Each section sets out the objectives and the plans to achieve these. The strategy for new power stations is to develop fossil-fueled and nuclear as well as to develop alternative technologies. (UK)

1986-01-01

232

Effective Masses and Sizes of N(939), $\\Delta\\!\\!\\mbox{\\boldmath(1232)}$ and N(1440) in Nuclear Medium  

CERN Document Server

The effective masses and sizes of N(939), $\\Delta(1232)$ and N(1440) in nuclear medium are calculated for a model in which quarks are subjected to a confinement force quenched by the scalar part of nuclear interactions. At the nuclear matter density, the nucleon swells by 50\\% relative to the free nucleon. The masses of $\\Delta(1232)$ and N(1440) decrease in nuclear medium more than the nucleon, so that the pion requires less energy to excite them in nuclear medium than it does for a free nucleon.

Ichie, H; Suzuki, A; Kimura, M; Ichie, Hiroko; Hatashigaki, Arata; Suzuki, Akira; Kimura, Masahiro

1993-01-01

233

The Research on Software Resource Re-sharing for Small and Medium-sized Enterprise Cloud Manufacturing System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The background, significance and the related research at home and abroad of software resource re-sharing in cloud manufacturing system are introduced. The current use and system structure of software in manufacturing are analyzed, and they are Web-based, software directly sharing, based package to share software indirectly and server-based technology for common software across the internet remote sharing. The special requirements for software sharing of cloud manufacturing system are presented.  According to the feature of small and medium-sized enterprise, a re-sharing approach of cloud manufacturing software sharing scheme for small and medium-sized enterprise is proposed, and this approach is very compatible, extended, and low-cost, it is very suitable for the manufacturing cloud of small and medium-sized enterprise.

Xilong Qu

2013-07-01

234

Modified genetic algorithms to model cluster structures in medium-sized silicon clusters: Si18-Si60  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the results obtained using a genetic algorithm (GA) to search for stable structures of medium-size silicon clusters. This is the third report in which a GA coupled with the MSINDO semiempirical molecular orbital program is used to find stable atomic cluster structures. The structures selected by the GA-MSINDO method were further optimized using the density functional theory (DFT). This combination of GA-MSINDO global optimization followed by DFT local optimization proves to be very effective for searching the structures of medium-size Si clusters. For most of the clusters studied here we report different structures with significant lower energy than those previously found using limited search approaches on common structural motifs. This demonstrates the need for global optimization schemes when searching for stable structures of medium-size silicon clusters

2006-05-01

235

CAN THE BUSINESS MODEL OF HANDELSBANKEN BE AN ARCHETYPE FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED BANKS? A COMPARATIVE CASE STUDY  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Danish Banking sector faces increasing requirements regarding regulation and profitability, which especially threatens small- and medium sized banks. This study analyzes whether the successful business model of Handelsbanken (â??The Handelsbanken Wayâ??) to banking in regard to the needed strengthening of the financial and non-financial position can serve as a blueprint for small- and medium sized banks. We conduct a comparative case study by interviewing Handelsbanken and the disguised â??Danish Local Bankâ?? (DLB), where the DLB is a representative example of a small- and medium sized Danish bank. This study is structured according to the frameworks from Business Model implementations and from implied organizational structures. Using the notion of Osterwalder and Pigneur (2010), this study reveals only minor differences in the Business Models of Handelsbanken and DLB. Despite the supposedly obvious advantages of â??The Handelsbanken Wayâ??, this study suggests that the financially troubled small- and medium sizedbanks in Denmark will not necessarily benefit from the tactical choice of decentralization unless they incorporate specific adjustments. This study contribute to the existing theory concerning Handelsbankenâ??s approach to banking in regard to the appropriateness as a part of the solution to financial troubled small- and medium sized banks in Denmark.

Schmaltz, Christian; Lueg, Rainer

2014-01-01

236

U.S. Industrial R&D Performers Report Increased R&D in 1999; New Industry Coding and Size Classifications for NSF Survey  

Science.gov (United States)

... R&D in 1999; New Industry Coding and Size Classifications for NSF Survey (May 17, 2001) This Data ... the new North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) now being used for industry R&D ...

237

Status of innovative small and medium sized reactor designs 2005. Reactors with conventional refuelling schemes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a renewed interest in Member States in the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). In the near term, most new NPPs are likely to be evolutionary designs building on proven systems while incorporating technological advances and often the economics of scale, resulting from the reactor outputs of up to 1600 MW(e). For the longer term, the focus is on innovative designs aiming to provide increased benefits in the areas of safety and security, non-proliferation, waste management, resource utilization and economy, as well as to offer a variety of energy products and flexibility in design, siting and fuel cycle options. Many innovative designs are reactors within the small-to-medium size range, having an equivalent electric power less than 700 MW(e) or even less than 300 MW(e). The projected timelines of readiness for deployment are generally between 2010 and 2030. The objective of this report is to provide Member States, including those just considering the initiation of nuclear power programmes, and those already having practical experience in nuclear power, with a balanced and objective information on important development trends and objectives of innovative SMRs for a variety of uses, on the achieved state-of-the-art in design and technology development for such reactors and on their design and regulatory status. The report is intended for many categories of stakeholders, including regulators, electricity producers, designers, non-electrical producers and policy makers. The main chapters of this report, addressed to all abovementioned groups of stakeholders, provide a summary of major specifications, applications and user-related special features of innovative SMRs, outline the achieved design and regulatory status and its progress since previous IAEA publications, review targeted deployment dates, fuel cycle options, design approaches used to meet design objectives in specific subject areas, enabling technologies and current research and development (R and D) programmes in Member States, and non-technical factors and arrangements that could facilitate successful development and deployment of innovative reactors within the small-to-medium power range. The annexes, intended mostly for designers and technical managers, provide detailed design descriptions of innovative SMRs under development worldwide and are patterned along a newly developed common format, which makes it possible to identify the design philosophy, objectives and approaches, as well as technical features and non-technical factors and arrangements with a potential to provide solutions in the specific areas of concern associated with future nuclear energy systems. Detailed design descriptions in this report were prepared firsthand by the designers and reviewed, updated and approved for publication by the respective vendors, research and design organizations and academic institutions in Member States. The scope of this report is limited to reactors with conventional, proven in operation refuelling schemes and does not include small reactors that could operate without reloading and shuffling of fuel for a long period, from 10 years and more, with no fresh or spent fuel being stored at the site during reactor operation. Because of a large number of inputs, such reactors would require a separate dedicated publication

2006-01-01

238

Determinants of the capital structure of small and medium sized brazilian enterprises  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This research investigates the determinants of the capital structure of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) using a unique database that includes over 19,000 Brazilian firms and spans 13 years of data. The econometric analysis employs the System Generalized Method of Moments estimator (GMM-Sys) and [...] two strong results emerge: (a) profitability is negatively related to leverage, and (b) asset growth is positively related to leverage. Both results are consistent with the pecking order theory of capital structure and suggest that SMEs tend to finance their expansion with debt only after exhausting their internal resources. Additionally, we find weaker evidence for the following: (a) size is positively related to leverage, which can be interpreted as evidence that larger firms have more access to credit markets; (b) riskier SMEs tend to be less financially leveraged, consistent with the bankruptcy cost arguments from trade-off theories; and (c) the age of the firm is negatively related to financial leverage, suggesting that older SMEs may be slightly more conservative in their financing choices. Finally, the magnitude of the coefficient of lagged leverage shows the high persistence of this variable and is compatible with the hypothesis that SMEs adjust their debt/equity ratio towards a target value, although at a low speed.

Denis, Forte; Lucas Ayres, Barros; Wilson Toshiro, Nakamura.

239

Resource efficiency and culture - workplace training for small and medium-sized enterprises.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although there are already some qualification offers available for enterprises to support resource efficiency innovations, the high potentials that can be identified especially for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) have not been activated until now. As successful change lies in the hands of humans, the main aim of vocational education has to be the promotion of organisational and cultural changes in the enterprises. As there is already a small but increasing number of enterprises that perform very well in resource efficiency innovations one question arises: What are typical characteristics of those enterprises? Leaning on a good-practice approach, the project "ResourceCulture" is going to prove or falsify the hypothesis that enterprises being successful with resource efficiency innovations have a specific culture of trust, which substantially contributes to innovation processes, or even initially enables them. Detailed empirical field research will light up which correlations between resource efficiency, innovation and cultures of trust can be found and will offer important aspects for the improvement of management instruments and qualification concepts for workplace training. The project seizes qualification needs that were likewise mentioned by enterprises and consultants, regarding the implementation of resource efficiency. This article - based on first empirical field research results - derives preliminary indications for the design of the qualification module for the target groups resource efficiency consultants and managers. On this basis and in order to implement "ResourceCulture" conceptual and methodological starting points for workplace training are outlined. PMID:24364995

Bliesner, Anna; Liedtke, Christa; Rohn, Holger

2014-05-15

240

Quantitative evaluation of waste prevention on the level of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Waste prevention is a principle means of achieving the goals of waste management and a key element for developing sustainable economies. Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) contribute substantially to environmental degradation, often not even being aware of their environmental effects. Therefore, several initiatives have been launched in Austria aimed at supporting waste prevention measures on the level of SMEs. To promote the most efficient projects, they have to be evaluated with respect to their contribution to the goals of waste management. It is the aim of this paper to develop a methodology for evaluating waste prevention measures in SMEs based on their goal orientation. At first, conceptual problems of defining and delineating waste prevention activities are briefly discussed. Then an approach to evaluate waste prevention activities with respect to their environmental performance is presented and benchmarks which allow for an efficient use of the available funds are developed. Finally the evaluation method is applied to a number of former projects and the calculated results are analysed with respect to shortcomings and limitations of the model. It is found that the developed methodology can provide a tool for a more objective and comprehensible evaluation of waste prevention measures

2009-02-01

 
 
 
 
241

MARKETING PERFORMANCE IN ROMANIAN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES - A QUALITATIVE STUDY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Marketing performance management has been one of the most prominent streams in recent marketing research and practice. Concepts such as marketing metrics and marketing performance management systems have been advanced, together with holistic models to measuring and managing performance of the marketing process. Nevertheless, these advancements envisage predominantly large organizations, which have the strategic approach and the dedicated resources needed to conduct a proper marketing performance management process. Our paper focuses on the small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs, aiming to explore the dimensions that such organizations consider or should be considering in order to improve marketing performance. Thus, we conduct an exploratory study using the in-depth interview with 20 marketing professionals from SMEs in Romania, aiming to explore their perceptions, practices and intentions related to measuring and managing marketing performance. Our paper starts with an introduction to the topic of marketing performance management and a review of the most recent contributions in this stream of marketing literature. Further on, the qualitative research methodology is described and continued with the presentation of the findings of the qualitative interviews conducted. Finally, some conclusions and directions for further research are outlined.

Mone Sorina-Diana

2013-12-01

242

Design concepts and safety concerns of the small and medium size reactors (SMR)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The small and medium size reactors (SMR) and interface facilities such as desalination plant are expected to be located near the population area because of restrictions in transporting the plant products such as fresh water to long distance area. To protect the public around the plant facility from the possible release of radioactive materials, the design development of the SMR is focusing on an enhancement of the safety and reliability as well as the economics. In this study, the major safety concepts of the SMR designs significantly different from the current PWR designs are investigated and the safety concerns applicable to the integrated SMR design of Korea (called SMART), were identified. Those safety issues include the use of proven technology, application of strengthening defense in depth, event categorization and selection, simplification of emergency planning, determination of accident source terms and so on. The efforts to resolve the safety concerns in the design stage will provide an improvement of the safety of the SMART design

1998-10-01

243

Design concepts and safety concerns of the small and medium size reactors (SMR)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The small and medium size reactors (SMR) and interface facilities such as desalination plant are expected to be located near the population area because of restrictions in transporting the plant products such as fresh water to long distance area. To protect the public around the plant facility from the possible release of radioactive materials, the design development of the SMR is focusing on an enhancement of the safety and reliability as well as the economics. In this study, the major safety concepts of the SMR designs significantly different from the current PWR designs are investigated and the safety concerns applicable to the integrated SMR design of Korea (called SMART), were identified. Those safety issues include the use of proven technology, application of strengthening defense in depth, event categorization and selection, simplification of emergency planning, determination of accident source terms and so on. The efforts to resolve the safety concerns in the design stage will provide an improvement of the safety of the SMART design.

Seul, Kwang Won; Lee, Jae Hun; Kim, Hho Jung [KINS, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

1998-10-01

244

Model of Thai Small and Medium Sized Enterprises’ Organizational Capabilities: Review and Verification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

In today’s competitive environment, small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs must focus on strengthening their organizational capabilities, considered to be a vital ingredient for building firms’ competitiveness. A number of factors may be deemed to be the drivers of organizational capabilities. Thus, this study was aimed at investigating and discussing those dimensions and their elements associated with organizational capabilities. The review of the literature indicates that the fundamental approach to build organizational capabilities rest heavily on organizational resources, organizational architecture, and organizational quality. The initial model was developed and proposed. Then, in-depth interviews with twenty Thai SMEs were carried out to verify the proposed model. Based on the in-depth interview results, key modifications were made to adjust the model and make it more practical. Financial resource, marketing resource, operational resource, and human resource are considered to be key elements of organizational resources whereas planning system, information system, compensation system, empowerment structure, learning culture, and teamwork culture are deemed to be key elements of organizational architecture. Finally, quality of the company and quality of products or services are believed to be key elements of organizational quality. Firms who can effectively and efficiently manage these elements of organizational capabilities will be able to compete and succeed in the market in the long run.

 

Apicha Boonpattarakan

2012-04-01

245

A radiophotoluminescent glass plate system for medium-sized field dosimetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A two-dimensional radiophotoluminescent system for medium-sized field dosimetry has been developed using a silver-activated phosphate glass plate with a dimension of 120 mmx120 mmx1 mm and a readout unit comprising a UV excitation lamp and a CCD imager. A dose ranging from 0 to 400 cGy, provided by a 6 MV x-ray beam, was delivered to the glass plate oriented perpendicularly to the beam and positioned in a water phantom at a depth of 10 cm, where the center of the glass plate coincided with the linac isocenter. After the dose delivery, the glass plate was placed in the readout system. The CCD output intensity increased linearly with the applied dose. The angular dependence of response on the direction of radiation incidence was measured by rotating the glass plate in the water phantom, indicating that the output remained constant up to 75 deg. from perpendicular incident direction, followed by a steep reduction down to 85% at an angle of 90 deg. A lateral dose distribution resulting from a 60 mmx60 mm irradiation was compared between the glass plate and an x-ray film having had the same exposure, showing that the glass plate and the x-ray film led to identical dose distributions. The dose reproducibility for a glass plate and the sensitivity variation among different glass plates were also evaluated

2005-10-01

246

Information Technology Adoption in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises; An Appraisal of Two Decades Literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs account for major source of employment, technological advancements, and competitive advantages for both developed and developing countries. Owing to the intensified competitive pressure and necessity for entering to global market undergone by SMEs, these businesses are incrementally employing Information Technology (IT to take advantage of its substantial benefits. Most of prior researches have more focused on IT adoption in large organizations. However, and with regard to the limited resources controlled by SMEs, the process of IT adoption in this business sector is considerably different. The purpose of this paper is to analyze and contrast the internal and external issues affecting the process of IT adoption in SMEs to provide clearer understanding of this process by reviewing IT adoption literature, which includes more than 20 years of empirical research and case studies from a variety of databases with high concentration on certain SME-related issues. Proposed integrated framework demonstrates the process of IT adoption in SMEs through reviewing exiting perspectives in the literature. This study will assist different parties involved with adoption process including managers, vendors, consultants, and governments to achieve a practical synopsis of the IT adoption process in SMEs, which is believed to assist them with successful adoption.

Morteza Ghobakhloo

2011-10-01

247

Financing innovative small and medium-sized enterprises in times of crisis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SME in general and particularly innovative ones are becoming an increasingly important factor on the road to achieving smart, sustainable and comprehensive development. Because of their propensity to innovative undertaking and risk, SMEs contribute significantly to economic growth but are generally less productive and pay the cost of high rates of death and lower rates of profitability. Financing SMEs is risky and uncertain and for innovative SMEs it is even more difficult to access financing. When financing innovative activities, investors perceive high risks and it is even more emphasized in times of crisis when there is an increase in the cost of capital. Institutional support and governmental programmes have an important role in closing financial gap that innovative SMEs are faced with. Because the survival and development of SMEs is to a great extant determined by their ability to access favorable financing, the main objective of this paper is to provide policy recommendations for promoting availability of financing to innovative SMEs in order to foster economic recovery and more dynamic development of Serbia. The recommendations are to emerge from analyzes and evaluation of currently available sources of finance for innovative SMEs.

Dejan ERIC

2011-12-01

248

Adaptive Traffic Control Systems in a medium-sized Scandinavian city : â?? effects and experiences  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Adaptive Traffic Control Systems (ATCS) are aimed at reducing congestion. ATCS adapt to approaching traffic to continuously optimise the traffic flows in question. ATCS have been implemented in many locations, including the Scandinavian countries, with various effects. Due to congestion problems, ATCS were installed in the eight signalised intersections of a 1.7 km stretch of the ring road in the medium-sized Danish city of Aalborg. To measure the effect of ATCS a with/without study was carried out. GPS data from a car following the traffic, recorded transportation times for buses in service, and GPS data from a range of cars driving on the ring road formed the basis for the study. The result of ATCS implementation was a significant 17% reduction in transportation time on the ring road in the most congested period, the afternoon peak. Less significant effects were found regarding the morning peak and midday off-peak. The effect on crossing and turning traffic was slight, and while reduced transportation time was found in one part of the ring road in another part transportation time was seen to increase. The benefit to the ring road was partly gained at the cost of slightly increased transportation time for crossing traffic.

Agerholm, Niels; Olesen, Anne Vingaard

2014-01-01

249

Influence of different charge and discharge strategies on the performance of medium-sized solar combisystems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The influence of thermal stratification in the storage tank on the performance of medium-sized solar combisystems was investigated. Combisystems for single family houses with a storage volume of 3 m{sup 3} and a collector area of 20 m{sup 2} were taken into account. Annual system simulations were carried out with the simulation tool TRNSYS. In order to enhance thermal stratification in the storage tank, it was assumed that the water of each loop is able to enter the store in two different heights, instead of having just one fixed inlet position for each loop. Thus one valve each is needed for the collector loop and the space heating loop. It was found that the impact of these valves on the fractional energy savings f{sub sav,ext} of the investigated systems is relatively small. Depending on the reference conditions, f{sub sav,ext} could be increased by up to 0.8 %-points. (orig.)

Zass, K.; Wilhelms, C.; Jordan, U.; Vajen, K. [Univ. Kassel, Inst. fuer Thermische Energietechnik (Germany)

2008-07-01

250

Manage Projects Smarter: Picking Tools for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs are increasingly dealing with international projects and distributed (sometimes even virtual teams. Consequently, they are looking for project management (PM tools which fit their respective needs regarding communication and collaboration. Unfortunately, the majority of the PM software available in the market seems to be oversized for this purpose. Instead most project managers are requesting smart solutions that allow quick implementation without any significant organisational or technical change. Within the research project InterComp SME 2.0 we combine theoretical research and real business to develop hands-on solutions for SMEs. This paper describes an effective approach for a “PM Toolbox” that allows finding the right project tool for a specific project need. The toolbox has been developed in due consideration of user stories gained from business practice, a more detailed SME business survey, a theoretical PM meta model and a market of PM tools. Since the business survey revealed that the readiness to use and test a “toolbox” is highly dependent on the type of user and his or her technical background, we designed the system based on use cases and user typology. As a result, we suggest a framework of open, freely available, easy-to-install, single and multi purpose PM software tools which can be selected solely on a need basis. With this free platform we want to guide practitioners through the tool jungle with the potential to grow into a lively community.

Stefanie Quade

2012-08-01

251

Conceptual design of synchrotron light source of medium size and high performance  

CERN Document Server

Medium size and high performance synchrotron light source is designed to make a center of synchrotron radiation in the area of many users. About 8nm-rad low emittance is realized by 1.8GeV beam energy and 160cm circumference by combined-function type bending electromagnet and non-achromatic electron beam optics. We secured 10 lines of 6m straight sections were able to set 5m undulator and 10 lines of 1.6m straight sections could set short undulator and multipole wiggler. Dynamic aperture is large. Five straight sections are used by operation, for examples, injection, beam control and rf acceleration. Fifteen lines are used by insertion devices. The highest level vacuum ultraviolet and soft X-ray high brilliance light source are produced by 7 lines of 5m class undulators. High flux X-ray light source covered until 30keV is realized by 5 multipole wigglers with 1m length and 2T magnetic field. 1m in-vacuum short period undulator generates high brilliance undulator light in the soft X-ray field. (S.Y.)

Katoh, M; Suzuki, S

2002-01-01

252

Adoption of Profitable Energy Efficiency Related Process Improvements in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We investigate the adoption and non-adoption of energy efficiency initiatives using a database of over 100,000 recommendations provided to more than 13,000 small and medium sized manufacturing firms. Even though the average payback across all recommendations is just over one year, many of these profitable opportunities are not implemented. Using a probit instrumental variable model, we identify four biases in the adoption of these recommendations. First, managers are myopic as they miss out on many profitable opportunities. Second, managers are more influenced by upfront costs than by net benefits when evaluating such initiatives. Third, adoption of a recommendation depends not only on its characteristics but also on the sequence in which the recommendations are presented. Adoption rates are higher for initiatives appearing early in a list of recommendations. Finally, adoption is not influenced by the number of options provided to decision makers. This contributes to the debate about whether or not choice overload occurs. We highlight decision biases previously unobserved in the Operations Management literature using field data rather than experimental data. We draw implications for enhancing adoption of energy efficiency initiatives and for other decision contexts where a collection of process improvement recommendations are made to firms. Keywords: Process Improvement, Energy Efficiency, Decision Bias, Adoption, Behavioral Operations.

Muthulingam, Suresh; Corbett, Charles J.; Benartzi, Shlomo [University of California, (USA); Oppenheim, Bohdan [Loyola Marymount University (USA)

2009-07-01

253

Signaling from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in striatal medium-sized spiny neurons  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Striatal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs receive massive glutamate inputs from the cerebral cortex and thalamus and are a major target of dopamine projections. Interaction between glutamate and dopamine signaling is crucial for the control of movement and reward-driven learning, and its alterations are implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders including Parkinson’s disease and drug addiction. Long-lasting forms of synaptic plasticity are thought to depend on transcription of gene products that alter the structure and/or function of neurons. Although multiple signal transduction pathways regulate transcription, little is known about signal transmission between the cytoplasm and the nucleus of striatal neurons and its regulation. Here we review the current knowledge of the signaling cascades that target the nucleus of MSNs, most of which are activated by cAMP and/or Ca2+. We outline the mechanisms by which signals originating at the plasma membrane and amplified in the cytoplasm are relayed to the nucleus, through the regulation of several protein kinases and phosphatases and transport through the nuclear pore. We also summarize the identified mechanisms of transcription regulation and chromatin remodeling in MSNs that appear to be important for behavioral adaptations, and discuss their relationships with epigenetic regulation.

Jean-AntoineGirault

2011-07-01

254

Open Model for the Evaluation of Economic Attractiveness of Small and Medium Sized Reactors. Annex VI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This annex describes the development of an open model for simulation and evaluation of the economic features of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs), being undertaken by the Politecnico di Milano in Italy. The model aims at establishing a comparative assessment of SMRs versus large reactors (LRs) as its final output. The model will allow assessment of the competitiveness of SMRs under different deployment and application conditions. The distinctive attributes of SMRs such as replication, scalability, reversibility and standardization are briefly described below. The features of SMRs impacting the domains of generation costs (co-siting economies, learning economies, technical economies, mass production and factory fabrication economies), deployment conditions (market matching, market suitability, reduced entry barriers) and financial costs (lower financial distress, reduced risk premium) are addressed before explaining the model architecture. Other state of the art models in this regard are also discussed, along with their respective attributes. The special features of the SMR model being developed are discussed. At the current stage of research, selected elements of the generation costs are modelled analytically. Provisions for adapting financial and external costs from other contemporary models and integrating the same into the main framework are being established. The model has been realized as a code, and the updated version of this code is used in the case studies of SMR competitiveness in different applications, carried out within the IAEA project Common Technology and Issues for SMRs

2013-12-01

255

Generation of antitumor active neutral medium-sized alpha-glycan in apple vinegar fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The physiologically active substances in apple vinegar have not yet been chemically characterized. We studied the biological functions of apple vinegar produced from crushed apples, and found that the constituent neutral medium-sized alpha-glycan (NMalphaG) acts as an antitumor agent against experimental mouse tumors. NMalphaG is a homoglycan composed of glucose having a molecular weight of about 10,000 and a branched structure bearing alpha (1-4,6) linkages. In this study, we clarified the origin of NMalphaG in apple vinegar by examination of its content in alcohol and acetic acid fermentation products sequentially. We found that NMalphaG appeared in acetic acid fermentation, but not in alcohol fermentation. Furthermore we investigated NMalphaG origin using acetic acid fermentation from alcohol fortifiied apple without alcohol fermentation and from raw material with varying amounts of pomace. The results indicate that NMalphaG originated in the apple fruit body and that its production requires both fermentation processes. PMID:17827702

Abe, Kaoru; Kushibiki, Toshisada; Matsue, Hajime; Furukawa, Ken-Ichi; Motomura, Shigeru

2007-09-01

256

Gamma knife radiosurgery in medium-sized arteriovenous malformations. Preliminary report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Six patients with medium-sized arteriovenous malformation (AVM), treated by gamma knife radiosurgery without preceding embolization, are reported. Total AVM coverage at the time or dose planning was feasible in four patients, the selected dose at the periphery of the nidus was limited to 7.2-14.0 Gy. The two remaining patients had only partial coverage; the part or the nidus adjacent to the major feeding artery was covered and a dose of 21.0-25.0 Gy was given within this limited area, although the remaining part of the nidus was irradiated with a dose of 5.0-7.0 Gy or less. Neither hemorrhage nor significant radiation-induced complications occurred in any of the six cases during the postradiosurgical follow-up period which ranged from 18 to 85 months. Complete nidus obliteration was angiographically confirmed 38 months after radiosurgery in one case, more than 90% obliteration of the treated nidus, respectively, 36 and 70 months after radiosurgery, in two cases. MR angiography demonstrated disappearance of the nidus in one case and remarkably decreased nidus volume in one, respectively, 30 and 18 months after radiosurgery. In the one remaining case, MR imaging obtained at 24 months after treatment showed a significantly diminished flow signal void, as well as the appearance of a gadolinium enhanced area within the treated nidus. In addition, a T2-weighted image showed hyperintense edema surrounding the AVM. (K.H.)

1996-11-01

257

Assessing Incorrect Household Waste Sorting in a Medium-Sized Swedish City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Source separation is a common method for dealing with the increasing problem of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW in society. The citizens are then responsible for separating waste fractions produced in their home. If the consumers fail to sort the waste according to the source separation scheme, it will lead to an ineffective system. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the environmental, economic and social aspects of incorrect waste sorting in a medium sized Swedish city that has established a source separation system. In order to determine the extent to which citizens correctly sort their waste, food waste (black bags and combustible fraction (white bags, were collected randomly from a residential area and categorized in different waste fractions. The results show that approximately 68 wt% of the waste in the white and 29 wt% in the black bags were not sorted correctly. This incorrect sorting accrues over 13 million SEK per year cost for this community. In order to improve the inhabitants’ participation in the waste management system, it is necessary to change different factors such as convenience and easy access to the recycling stations in the local MSW management systems as well as to review current regulation and policy.

Kamran Rousta

2013-10-01

258

The CTA medium size telescope prototype, a test bench for the array control software  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CTA (Cherenkov Telescope Array) will be the largest ground-based gamma-ray observatory ever built. Two arrays are foreseen to be build, one in the Southern and one in the Northern hemisphere. A prototype for the Medium Size Telescope (MST) type (diameter: 12 m) will be installed in Berlin in early 2012. This MST prototype will be composed of the mechanical structure, drive system and mirror facets with an active mirror control system. The stability of the mechanical structure will be investigated with CCD cameras and a weather station. Furthermore the ALMA Common Software (ACS) distributed control framework will used as readout and control system for the MST, allowing to evaluate the software with the future use for the whole CTA array in mind. The design of the control software is following the concepts and tools under evaluation within the CTA consortium, like the use of a UML based code generation framework for ACS component modeling, and the use of OPC Unified Architecture (OPC UA) for hardware access. In this contribution the progress in the implementation of the control system for this CTA prototype telescope is described.

2012-03-02

259

Computerization of radiology departmental management using the personal computer: application in medium sized hospital  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author developed a computer program for use in registration, monthly statistics, printing of reports, data storage and retrieval in the Radiology department. This program has been used in the Department of Radiology, MoonHwa Hospital since November 1990. This program was written in FoxBASE language, consisted of two independent subprograms, one installed in a registration computer without a printer and another in a reporting computer with a printer. The subprograms were designed to link their data by floppy disk. Each computer's hard disk contained permanent files for retrieval and temporary files for data input. All permanent files were indexed on several keywords including the patient's identification data. 1. Registration was performed easily and rapidly. 2. A monthly statistic was obtained simply. 3. Retrieval of the results of previous radiologic studies, printing of report, storage and indexing of data were achieved automatically. This program had merits of simple operation, large storage capacity, rapid retrieval speed, relative low price, easy adjustment for other hospitals. Therefore this program is considered to be an economic substitute for computerization of radiology departmental management in medium sized hospitals

1992-05-01

260

Determinants of the Capital Structure of Small and Medium Sized Brazilian Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research investigates the determinants of the capital structure of small and medium enterprises (SMEs using a unique database that includes over 19,000 Brazilian firms and spans 13 years of data. The econometric analysis employs the System Generalized Method of Moments estimator (GMM-Sys and two strong results emerge: (a profitability is negatively related to leverage, and (b asset growth is positively related to leverage. Both results are consistent with the pecking order theory of capital structure and suggest that SMEs tend to finance their expansion with debt only after exhausting their internal resources. Additionally, we find weaker evidence for the following: (a size is positively related to leverage, which can be interpreted as evidence that larger firms have more access to credit markets; (b riskier SMEs tend to be less financially leveraged, consistent with the bankruptcy cost arguments from trade-off theories; and (c the age of the firm is negatively related to financial leverage, suggesting that older SMEs may be slightly more conservative in their financing choices. Finally, the magnitude of the coefficient of lagged leverage shows the high persistence of this variable and is compatible with the hypothesis that SMEs adjust their debt/equity ratio towards a target value, although at a low speed.

Wilson Toshiro Nakamura

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
261

Key Supplier Relationship Management: The Case of Croatian Medium-Sized and Large Manufacturing Companies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The key supplier relationship management represents a vital organizational process. Companies should pay attention not only to managing customer relationships but also to managing relationships with suppliers in order to perform well. They should identify the extent to which a certain supplier adds value through the procurement process. In this line of reasoning, both theory and practice make a distinction between strategic (key and non-strategic (transactional suppliers. By employing the segmentation of the supply market, companies balance their supplier portfolio and are capable of identifying the key suppliers. They can also develop specific programs and initiatives that are aimed at preserving these relationships. In the empirical part of the paper, a survey was conducted on a sample of 123 medium-sized and large Croatian manufacturing companies. The structural model involving the relationship between the key supplier relationship management and value-oriented purchasing was tested. The results indicate that there is a statistically direct, positive and significant relationship between these two constructs. Likewise, the results stress that a theoretical conceptualization and operationalization of the key supplier relationship management construct is both valid and justified. Finally, the theoretical and practical implications and limitations of this study are offered.

Dario Mio?evi?

2011-06-01

262

The CTA medium size telescope prototype, a test bench for the array control software  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

CTA (Cherenkov Telescope Array) will be the largest ground-based gamma-ray observatory ever built. Two arrays are foreseen to be build, one in the Southern and one in the Northern hemisphere. A prototype for the Medium Size Telescope (MST) type (diameter: 12 m) will be installed in Berlin in early 2012. This MST prototype will be composed of the mechanical structure, drive system and mirror facets with an active mirror control system. The stability of the mechanical structure will be investigated with CCD cameras and a weather station. Furthermore the ALMA Common Software (ACS) distributed control framework will used as readout and control system for the MST, allowing to evaluate the software with the future use for the whole CTA array in mind. The design of the control software is following the concepts and tools under evaluation within the CTA consortium, like the use of a UML based code generation framework for ACS component modeling, and the use of OPC Unified Architecture (OPC UA) for hardware access. In this contribution the progress in the implementation of the control system for this CTA prototype telescope is described.

Birsin, Emrah; Oya, Igor; Schwanke, Ullrich [Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin (Germany); Behera, Bagmeet; Koeppel, Hendryk; Melkumyan, David; Schmidt, Torsten; Wegner, Peter; Wiesand, Stephan; Winde, Michael [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Zeuthen (Germany)

2012-07-01

263

Pointing Calibration for the Cherenkov Telescope Array Medium Size Telescope Prototype  

CERN Document Server

Pointing calibration is an offline correction applied in order to obtain the true pointing direction of a telescope. The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) aims to have the precision to determine the position of point-like as well as slightly extended sources, with the goal of systematic errors less than 7 arc seconds in space angle. This poster describes the pointing calibration concept being developed for the CTA Medium Size Telescope (MST) prototype at Berlin-Adlershof, showing test results and preliminary measurements. The MST pointing calibration method uses two CCD cameras, mounted on the telescope dish, to determine the true pointing of the telescope. The "Lid CCD" is aligned to the optical axis of the telescope, calibrated with LEDs on the dummy gamma-camera lid; the "Sky CCD" is pre-aligned to the Lid CCD and the transformation between the Sky and Lid CCD camera fields of view is precisely modelled with images from special pointing runs which are also used to determine the pointing model. During source ...

Oakes, Louise; Baehr, Juergen; Gruenewald, Sandra; Raeck, Tobias; Schlenstedt, Stefan; Schubert, Anja; Schwanke, Ullrich

2013-01-01

264

The efficiency of working capital management and its impact on the profitability of small, medium and large enterprises of the food industry in Poland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents the results of the efficiency of working capital management in small, medium and large enterprises of the food industry in Poland years in 2005- -2009. The efficiency of working capital management has been evaluated by using the in-ventory cycle, receivables, liabilities and cash conversion cycle and by its relation to rate of return on non-financial assets. Studies have shown that the effectiveness of working capital was differentiated by size of enterprises and in industries where working capital cycles are the shortest, a relatively higher rate of return on assets was achieved. In the national food industry the highest efficiency, measured by cash conversion cycle and assets profitability, was characteristic for large companies. The beneficial effect of shortening the cycle of working capital on the profitability of assets also verified the regression analysis.

Zbigniew Go?a?

2011-01-01

265

THE PREMISES OF STRATEGIC MARKETING PLANNING IMPLEMENTATION WITHIN SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main purpose of the present paper is to identify the framework and the necessary conditions for the small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs to be able to adopt the strategic marketing planning. Also, the paper aims to underline the importance of the strategic marketing planning and the manner in which the SMEs can adopt, implement and operationalize the strategic marketing planning instruments, whose correct understanding and usage ensure the capacity to generate competitive advantage, the key element both from the perspective of the fierce competition and the perspective of the future development of the SMEs. Within SMEs the implementation of marketing becomes an evident requirment, mostly due to the relationship that these have with the market, thus, leading towards market orientation of the activities, a new approach developed by the marketing vision on managing the activities from these types of organizations. Regarded upon, from the marketing perspective, the activities from the SMEs, especially the marketing activities, cannot take place randomly. Resource allocation, a characteristic of these types of organizations, and the objectives with regards to superior customer needs satisfaction and economic efficiency maximization, claim thorough plannification and deployment of the activities in a sequence that represents the implementation of a strategy previously assumed. Within this framework, the strategic marketing planning appears as a complex process employing all scientific instruments that comprise segmentation, positioning and marketing mix. Utilizing the strategic marketing planning within SMEs depends to further extend on marketing integration; process directly related with a series of factors such as the nature of the market, development stage, product type, management quality and the influences of the marketing department of the SME. The implications onto the marketing activities from SMEs are reflected upon each strategic marketing planning instrument, where we can find, under correct understanding and application, objectives and market and penetration strategies as product, price, distribution and promotion strategies.

Popescu Andrei

2011-07-01

266

Bioluminescence imaging in a medium-sized animal by local injection of d-luciferin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Luciferase is one of the most commonly used reporter enzymes in the field of molecular imaging. D-luciferin is known as the substrate for luciferase enzyme and its cost is very expensive. Therefore, the bioluminescence molecular imaging study has been allowed in small animals such as mice and rats. In this current study, we validated local injection of D-luciferin in articular capsule for bioluminescence imaging in rabbits. Chondrocytes were cultured and infected by replication-defective adenoviral vector encoding firefly luciferase. And then was performed different method of chondrocyte cell injection and transplantation into the knee of rabbits. The rabbits underwent imaging by cooled CCD camera after local injection of D-luciferin (3mg) into experimental knee joint as well as contralateral normal knee joint on days 1, 5, 7, 9. We sought whether optimal imaging signal was acquired by using cooled CCD camera after local injection of D-luciferin. We successfully visualized injected or transplanted cells in knee joint by local injection of D-luciferin. Total photon flux (7.86E+08 p/s/cm{sup 2}/sr) from the knee joint transplanted with cells approximately increased 10-fold more than (9.43E+07p/s/cm{sup 2}/sr) that from injected knee joints until 7 day. Imaging signal was observed in transplanted joints until day 9 after surgery while signal from injected knee was observed by day 7 after injection. We successfully carried out bioluminescence imaging study with medium sized animal by local injection of small amount of D-luciferin. Survival of chondrocytes were prolonged when surgically transplanted in joints than when directly injected in joint space.

Moon, Sung Min; Min, Jung Joon; Kim, Sung Mi; Bom, Hee Seung [Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Suk Jung; Kang, Han Saem; Kim, Kwang Yoon [ECOBIO INC., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Ho [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

2005-07-01

267

Bioluminescence imaging in a medium-sized animal by local injection of d-luciferin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Luciferase is one of the most commonly used reporter enzymes in the field of molecular imaging. D-luciferin is known as the substrate for luciferase enzyme and its cost is very expensive. Therefore, the bioluminescence molecular imaging study has been allowed in small animals such as mice and rats. In this current study, we validated local injection of D-luciferin in articular capsule for bioluminescence imaging in rabbits. Chondrocytes were cultured and infected by replication-defective adenoviral vector encoding firefly luciferase. And then was performed different method of chondrocyte cell injection and transplantation into the knee of rabbits. The rabbits underwent imaging by cooled CCD camera after local injection of D-luciferin (3mg) into experimental knee joint as well as contralateral normal knee joint on days 1, 5, 7, 9. We sought whether optimal imaging signal was acquired by using cooled CCD camera after local injection of D-luciferin. We successfully visualized injected or transplanted cells in knee joint by local injection of D-luciferin. Total photon flux (7.86E+08 p/s/cm2/sr) from the knee joint transplanted with cells approximately increased 10-fold more than (9.43E+07p/s/cm2/sr) that from injected knee joints until 7 day. Imaging signal was observed in transplanted joints until day 9 after surgery while signal from injected knee was observed by day 7 after injection. We successfully carried out bioluminescence imaging study with medium sized animal by local injection of small amount of D-luciferin. Survival of chondrocytes were prolonged when surgically transplanted in joints than when directly injected in joint space

2005-11-18

268

Fox baiting against Echinococcus multilocularis: contrasted achievements among two medium size cities.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Europe, most cities are currently colonized by red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), which are considered to be the main definitive host of the zoonotic cestode Echinococcus multilocularis. The risk of transmission to humans is of particular concern where high fox populations overlap with high human populations. The distribution of baits containing praziquantel has successfully reduced the infection pressure in rural areas and in small plots within large cities. The purpose of this study was to assess its efficiency in two medium size cities (less than 100,000 inhabitants) in areas of high human alveolar echinococcosis incidence. From August 2006 to March 2009, 14 baiting campaigns of praziquantel treatment were run in Annemasse and Pontarlier (Eastern France), each of which encompassed 33 km(2), with a density of 40 baits/km(2). The bait consumption appeared to be lower in strictly urban context compared to suburban areas (78.9% vs. 93.4%) and lower in Annemasse than in Pontarlier (82.2% vs. 89.5%). During our study, the prevalence of E. multilocularis, as assessed by EM-ELISA on fox faeces collected in the field in Annemasse, was lower within the treated area than in the rural control area. A "before/during" treatment comparison revealed a significant decrease of spring prevalence from 13.3% to 2.2%. No significant change in prevalence was detected in Pontarlier (stable prevalence: 9.1%) where the contamination of the treated area followed the temporal trend observed in the control area. There, a greater resilience of the parasite's life cycle, probably due to a strong pressure of recontamination from outside the treated area, may have counteracted the prophylaxis treatment. These contrasted outcomes suggest that the frequency of fox anthelmintic treatment should be adapted to the local situation. PMID:23642656

Comte, S; Raton, V; Raoul, F; Hegglin, D; Giraudoux, P; Deplazes, P; Favier, S; Gottschek, D; Umhang, G; Boué, F; Combes, B

2013-08-01

269

Life cycle assessment of a medium sized PV facility in Scotland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Napier University's School of Engineering has been involved in education and research in renewable energy for the past 35 years. With the aim demonstration of the viability of production of solar electricity at a high latitude location such as Edinburgh (56 degree north)the school undertook to commission a medium-sized PV electricity generation project. The installation of 32 rows of BP solar silicon panels covering a total area of 160 square metres ensures generation of 17.6kW peak (AC) power. Figure 1 presents a photograph of the facility under discussion. The project has been part (60%) financed by UK Government's PV electricity demonstration programme through the office of Energy Saving Trust. The University has plans to generate hydrogen from solar electricity that will be stored for noctumal production of electricity using fuel-cell technology, thus completing the complete cycle of generation, storage and reproduction of sustainable energy. The project that is part of Napier University's Merchiton Campus was completed on 6 April 2005 and since that date AC power has been fed into the University grid with the peak power being enough to operate up to 80 of the 500 computers at the University's Jack Kilby Computing Centre. DC power is produced from the BP solar high efficincy (17%) monocrystalline panels, each of which produces 90W of power at 22 Volts. This DC electricity is then fed into a total of four inverters hence converting to a stable AC supply. Two of the larger inverters receive current from 12 rows (4 strings x 3 rows) each, while the smaller inverters take power in from 4 rows (2 strings x 2 rows) each. The PV facility is fully instrumented with both input (incident solar energy) and PV electrical energy output recorded at a frequency of 15 minutes. This article will present the energetic, environmental and monetary life cycle assessment (LCA) of the above facility.(Author)

2006-01-01

270

The Research on Enterprise Management Innovation --- Based on the Study of Small and Medium Sized Family Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The small and medium sized family enterprises in China have developed rapidly since the reform and opening up.Numerous facts show that the family management is reasonable and proper in the early development of small and medium-sized family enterprise. However, with the further development of family enterprise, the shortcomings of family management are exposed and have become obstacles which restrict the development of enterprise, as a result, the research and analysis in the management problems of small and medium sized family enterprises has become one of the most important research projects to solve the problem of the sustainable development of family enterprises in China. Based on the above considerations, this article puts forward a "person" as the core, takes concept innovation, strategic innovation, cultural innovation, institutional innovation and organizational innovation as the main content of management innovation idea, and brings forward the correspondingly appropriate countermeasures in solving the existing family management problems in small and medium-sized family enterprises.

Qian Luo

2014-02-01

271

Collaborative e-Business Process Modelling: A Holistic Analysis Framework focused on Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this work, we propose a holistic analysis framework for collaborative e-Business process modelling approaches that takes into account the specific challenges small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) are facing with regard to modelling inter-organizational processes. Based on concepts of the management approach Balanced Scorecard (BSC)

Volker Hoyer; Oliver Christ

2007-01-01

272

Indoor Enviromental Quality and Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning Survey of Small and Medium Size Commercial Buildings. Field study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ninety-six percent of commercial buildings in the United States are small- to medium-sized, use nearly 18 percent of the country's energy, and shelter a large proportion of population, thus underlining the importance of understanding the relationship betw...

A. Trout D. Bennett D. Faulkner D. Sullivan M. Apte R. Maddalena X. Wu

2011-01-01

273

Flexible Business Process Integration for Clusters of Small-Medium Sized Enterprises in Heterogenous Environment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Industry clusters-groups of geographically proximate enterprises in the same industry are a striking feature of the geography of economic activity and greatly impact the overall economic development. However, most of them are low-cost-based clust...

Bo Jiang; Yun Ling

2009-01-01

274

A plume rise algorithm for industrial-sized point sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As the price differential between oil and coal increases and the coming years see decontrol of natural gas prices, boilers that formerly burned natural gas and oil will most likely be converted to coal. Coal conversions can save money and allow precious gas and oil to be used for other purposes. However, coal is a dirtier fuel than either gas or oil and can pose severe air pollution problems, especially in terms of the major pollutants associated with coal -- sulfur dioxide, suspended particulates, and trace elements. Many of the anticipated fuel conversions will involve small industrial and institutional boilers, which are located in highly populated areas. Such sources may also have short stacks with low stack exit gas velocities and, therefore, be subject to stack or building aerodynamic effects (i.e., downwash). The so-called ''2/3's Law'' has been successfully used in the past to develop approximations of stack plume rise from large sources. However, small point sources often come under the influence of certain phenomena which the ''2/3's Law'' is not capable of handling successfully. These phenomena have the potential to decrease plume rise and subsequently increase ground level air pollution impacts. The most important of these phenomena are stack tip downwash, building downwash, and mechanical turbulence induced by wind sheer near ground level. The purpose of this paper is to outline a procedure which provides a reasonable approximation of plume rise from small sources which may undergo stack tip downwash and limited plume rise due to mechanical turbulence.

D' Auben, D.R.; Lawler, D.A.

1983-06-01

275

A small size continuous run industrial gamma irradiator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new small size gamma irradiator is being set up at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Brazil, with a revolutionary design. The developed technology for this facility consists of continuous tote box transport system, comprising a single concrete vault, where the automated transport system of products inside and outside of the irradiator utilizes a rotating door, integrated with the shielding, avoiding the traditional maze configuration. Covering 76 m2 of floor area, the irradiator design is product overlap sources and the maximum capacity of Cobalt-60 wet sources is 37 PBq (1 MCi). The irradiator is being installed in a Governmental Institution and it will be used as a demonstration facility for manufacturers, who need an economic and logistic in-house irradiation system alternative. Also, it will be useful for supporting the local scientific community on development of products and process using gamma radiation, assisting the traditional and potential users on process validation, training and qualification of operators and radioprotection officers

2003-09-07

276

Innovation in Food and Health: Study Into Challenges and Opportunities for Dutch Small and Medium Sized Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article focuses on the opportunities and challenges Dutch Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SMEs in the food and beverage industry are facing with respect to innovation in food and health. An online questionnaire was developed to give an overview on attitudes and activities of SMEs with respect to innovation; their interest in trends, among which were health and wellbeing; and their view on logos as a possible way of communication. The questionnaire was held May 2011 with a response of n = 110. Results show that innovation is important for SMEs: over 80% of the SMEs are innovating in products and over 60% in processes. The most appealing trends are: Health and wellbeing, ‘Puur en Eerlijk’ (Note 1 and sustainability. Of the SMEs 70-80% indicate to have a current, and 85% a future interest in these trends. Furthermore 43% used the health logo on part of their product portfolio. Logos that communicate health and sustainability are most popular; 23% of the SMEs indicated not to be interested in the use of logos in general. In conclusion, the identified opportunities for innovation in food and health are: a large willingness to innovate and the increasing interest in the already appealing trend of nutrition and health. There is a moderate interest in (health logos. Challenges are time, costs, knowledge on innovation in general and lack of specific knowledge on nutrition and health, and unclarities around use and added value (informative and increasing sales of logos. Also, taste is considered as important as health and cannot be compromised.

Joop Vree-van Straten

2013-11-01

277

Potential role of the Romanian research and industry on the small and medium reactors market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The need of diversifying the energy sources, independence from foreign supplies and modernization of economy have constituted the major factors in implementation of nuclear energy in Romania. The choice of the heavy water reactor CANDU-600 was made on grounds of advanced safety features, proven efficient economic operation as well as on the technologic feasibility for manufacturing of components, equipment, instrumentation, heavy water and natural uranium fuel in Romania. Unlike turn-key acquisition approaches, the Romanian option provided an active national participation in construction the Cernavoda NPP. As consequence, important support was being given to development of the industries involved in the nuclear fuel cycle, manufacturing of equipment and nuclear materials, construction-montage, engineering, consulting, services, etc. This was done based on technology transfer, implementation of advanced design and execution standards, quality assurance procedures and modern nuclear safety requirements at international level. The efforts materialized in an important national participation in the construction of the Cernavoda NPP and all related programs are successful. Now, Romanian firms are also involved in supplying components, equipment and services to NPP's in other eastern and central Europeans countries. The paper presents the achievements of the Romanian economy in this field and the effort of the Romanian companies on the small and medium power reactors market. Lists with main R and D institutes, nuclear fuel cycle facilities as well as potential equipment suppliers are attached. (author)

1998-02-01

278

Application of Medium Pressure UV Lamp for Wastewater Disinfection of Milk Production Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available UV disinfect ion has gained widespread use for municipal wastewater and more recently, interest in using UV for water reuse applications has increased too. Medium pressure lamp has emerged as a viable alternative and is beginning to gain more popularity than the conventional low-pressure lamps. This study has been performed with the objective of utilizing MP lamp for the disinfection stage of wastewater from a milk industry. The lab-scale UV submerged system used in the experiments was a single-lamp reactor with 3 L volume, which was operated at two contact times. Two MP lamps of 300 and 400 W had been used separately. Results indicated that for disinfection of all the samples with different %T, meeting the goal of 1000 MPN /100 mL or less was always possible. Besides, for 95% of these samples, the MPN of irradiated effluents had reached to less than 240/100 mL. Another conclusion is that by use of 400 W lamp, all the samples are well disinfected to 100 total coli forms or less per 100 mL and so are become ready for most applications of water reuse programs.

H. Kamani

2006-01-01

279

Effect of medium composition and explant size on embryogenic calli formation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) local genotypes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important tropical crop species used for human consumption, feed and raw material for various industries. Genetic transformation through embryogenic tissues is known as an effective method for cassava genetic improvements. Objective of this study was to obtain a suitable medium and length of explants to induce embryogenic callus on friable embryogenic callus (FEC) as a target for genetic transformation. Immature leaf lobes (1-3 mm, 3-5 mm and larger th...

2006-01-01

280

SWR 1000: An Advanced, Medium-Sized Boiling Water Reactor, Ready for Deployment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The latest developments in nuclear power generation technology mainly concern large-capacity plants in the 1550 -1600 MW range, or very small plants (100 - 350 MW). The SWR 1000 boiling water reactor (BWR), by contrast, offers all of the advantages of an advanced plant design, with excellent safety performance and competitive power generation costs, in the medium-capacity range (1000 - 1250 MW). The SWR 1000 is particularly suitable for countries whose power systems are not designed for large-capacity generating facilities. The economic efficiency of this medium-sized plant in comparison with large-capacity designs is achieved by deploying very simple passive safety equipment, simplified systems for plant operation, and a very simple plant configuration in which systems engineering is optimized and dependence on electrical and instrumentation and control (I and C) systems is reduced. In addition, systems and components that require protection against natural and external man-made hazards are accommodated in such a way that as few buildings as possible have to be designed to withstand the loads from such events. The fuel assemblies to be deployed in the SWR 1000 core, meanwhile, have been enlarged from a 10 x 10 rod array to a 12 x 12 array. This reduces the total number of fuel assemblies in the core and thus also the number of control rods and control rod drives, as well as in-core neutron flux monitors. The design owes its competitiveness to the fact that investment costs, maintenance costs and fuel cycle costs are all lower. In addition, refueling outages are shorter, thanks to the reduced scope of outage activities. The larger fuel assemblies have been extensively and successfully tested, as have all of the other new components and systems incorporated into the plant design. As in existing plants, the forced coolant circulation method is deployed, ensuring problem-free startup, and enabling plant operators to adjust power rapidly in the high power range (70%-100%) without moving the control rods, as well as allowing spectral-shift and stretch-out operation. The considerable gains provided by forced coolant circulation in terms of operational flexibility and fuel utilization mean that the investment and maintenance costs of the pumps are covered after several years of service. The plant safety concept is based on a combination of passive safety systems and a reduced number of active safety systems. All postulated accidents can be controlled using passive systems alone. Control of a postulated core melt accident is assured with considerable safety margins thanks to passive flooding of the containment for in-vessel melt retention. The SWR 1000 is compliant with international nuclear codes and standards, and is also designed to withstand the effects of an aircraft crash involving a military aircraft or a large passenger airliner. (authors)

2006-06-04

 
 
 
 
281

Upper Limits to Americium Concentration in Medium Size Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fastest way to realize transmutation of minor actinides would be using existing reactor types, adding some proper modifications to allow for insertion of MA in the fuel. According to calculations by Fazio and co-workers, the consumption rate of TRU in a low conversion ratio fast reactor may reach 70-75 % of that of an ADS with uranium free fuel [1]. However, americium introduction brings a negative influence on several safety parameters such as {beta}{sub eff}, Doppler coefficient, coolant temperature coefficient and void worth. Therefore the upper limit of americium that can be included into the fuel needs to be carefully evaluated. In this paper, fast reactor fuels with various minor actinide fractions are loaded into a SAS4A model of the semi-commercial BN600 reactor. Unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) and transient over power (UTOP) accidents are modelled using safety parameters obtained from Monte Carlo simulations as well as from the deterministic calculations published by Fazio et al. Applying the latter parameters (obtained with VARI3D), the upper limit to MA concentration in the fuel of a medium sized SFR of BN-600 type appears at 12%, corresponding to 8% of americium. We note however that the Doppler constants displayed by Fazio et al for MA concentrations above 10% have a considerably larger magnitude than those obtained with MCNP. Applying the safety parameters obtained with Monte Carlo simulations and updated nuclear data evaluations, we find that the upper limit to the americium concentration allowing to survive a ULOF is about half of that inferred by the use of parameters from VARI-3D. Since such a difference has a major impact on the predicted americium transmutation capability of SFR, it is of high priority to analyse the reasons for the apparent discrepancies. We note here that the major contribution to the Doppler feedback comes from capture resonance in U-238 and Pu-240 residing below the sodium scattering resonance located at 3 keV, and that the introduction of americium very efficiently removes the neutron population in this part of the spectrum. If this fact were not properly modelled, the magnitude of the Doppler coefficient would tend to be overestimated. We therefore conclude that a careful assessment of the Doppler feedback as function of americium concentration in SFR is required before any definite conclusion on its transmutation capability can be done. References: [1] C. Fazio, M. Salvatores, W. S. Yang, Global 2007, Boise, Idaho, (2007), 443. (authors)

Zhang, Y.P.; Wallenius, J. [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), AlbaNova University Centre, S-106 91, Stockholm (Sweden)

2009-06-15

282

Knowledge Management Acceptance: Success Factors amongst Small and Medium-Size Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The value and importance of knowledge, as seen by numerous organisations today, does without a doubt play a crucial role in the current ever-challenging and aggressive business environment. As a result, businesses that aspire to be labelled as being successful and competitive need to seek and find better ways to improve their firms? performance. Hence, Knowledge Management (KM, which is viewed as a source of sustainable competitive advantage, has attracted the attention of various companies all over the business world, including Small and Medium-Size Enterprises (SMEs in Malaysia. With the realisation of KM, the systematic management of organisation knowledge - a strategic corporate asset not to be taken lightly; can thus be created, transferred, shared and, utilised, in pushing for greater organisational competitiveness, innovativeness and, productivity. This research examined the success factors that help to increase the business performance of SMEs in Malaysia. Besides, it also highlighted the importance and contribution of KM amongst SMEs. Therefore, the reason behind this study is to understand and recognised the acceptance of KM and therefore further classified the success factors that contributed to the business performance outcome amongst SMEs in Malaysia. With this, the success factors observed in this research; culture; leadership; employee participation; Information and Communications Technology (ICT; organisational structure; are thoroughly investigated to explore on whether these factors have an impact on knowledge creation; knowledge transfer; knowledge sharing and knowledge utilisation; of KM processes among SMEs in Malaysia. Approach: This study aids to determined and examined the success factors; culture; leadership; employee participation; Information and Communications Technology (ICT; organisational structure; of SMEs that further influences KM processes; knowledge creation, transfer, sharing, utilisation. Results: It is hoped that SMEs with the help of this study, are able apply the success factors and KM processes as a guideline in achieving successful KM acceptance. It is anticipated that the factors proposed in this study could help businesses especially SMEs to better organise their KM initiatives, as well as to assists Malaysia in producing a superior and highly acclaimed knowledgeable society. Conclusion: The findings may be used as recommendations to SMEs that are keen in accepting and adopting KM in their daily operations. Furthermore, this study may also serve as a basis for future quantitative research studies among researchers, practitioners and professionals alike, in gaining a profound understanding of KM in sectors other than SMEs.

Christine N.L.  TAN

2011-01-01

283

Ventilation in medium-sized and large boiler houses; Ventilation i medelstora och stoerre pannhus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to exemplify and clarify the need for ventilation in medium-sized and large boiler houses. We will furthermore present some recommendations, guidelines and advice for the design and construction of a boiler house ventilation system to the plant owners and suppliers of equipment. Boiler house ventilation can be performed in different ways using mechanical or natural ventilation. The solution to be chosen depends on the following factors: Working environment requirements and a necessity to control temperature and pressure in the boiler house; The design of the boiler plant and house; The need for combustion air; The investment expenditure as well as operation and maintenance costs. Mechanical ventilation should be chosen if the aim is a controllable 'climate'. The mechanical ventilation can be either centrally situated or distributed with many aggregates in the boiler house. Centrally situated ventilation equipment will give a higher accessibility and lower maintenance costs than a distributed ventilation system. If the boiler house is designed with natural ventilation the air and flue gas fans will be the only ones installed. In this case temperature and pressure inside the boiler house will be difficult to control. The design factor for the ventilation plant in a boiler house is in most cases the demand to cool the air inside the boiler house to approximately 45 deg C. This is the highest temperature allowed by the Occupational Safety and Health Act in a work environment where the boiler operator is working alone. The air flow which is required for the combustion is normally less than the air flow needed to cool the air in the boiler house. The supply air which is cooling the air inside the boiler house should be supplied on several different levels to attain an efficient cooling. If the combustion air is taken from the heated indoor air the boiler house will work as a heat reclaimer. The difference between outdoor and indoor pressure in the lower part of the boiler house should not exceed approximately 40 Pa. This is to minimize problems with inleaking of odours and particles into the boiler house and to facilitate the evacuation of the staff from the boiler house. Issues concerning boiler house ventilation will appear in different stages at new construction and conversion projects. During the feasibility study the ventilation requirements are investigated and possible solutions are outlined. The planning stage involves the establishing of the ventilation requirements, technical solutions and the investment needs. Investment expenditure for the installation of a mechanized ventilation system varies depending on the size of the boiler, the choice of ventilation solution etc. Experiences from three recently built plants show that capital expenditure for the ventilation systems in these plants amounts to approximately SEK 140,000/MW (about 18,000 USD/MW) for a boiler effect of approximately 50 MW.

Grotherus, Dan [AaF Installation AB, Oerebro (Sweden); Larsson, Tord [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Technology

2005-04-01

284

Effect of medium composition and explant size on embryogenic calli formation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz local genotypes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz is an important tropical crop species used for human consumption, feed and raw material for various industries. Genetic transformation through embryogenic tissues is known as an effective method for cassava genetic improvements. Objective of this study was to obtain a suitable medium and length of explants to induce embryogenic callus on friable embryogenic callus (FEC as a target for genetic transformation. Immature leaf lobes (1-3 mm, 3-5 mm and larger than 5 mm in length of local genotypes of cassava (Adira 4. Menti, Iding, Gebang, Rawi and Timtim-29 cultured in vitro were used as explants. The explants were incubated for 2 and 4 weeks on MS (Murashige-Skoog or GD (Greshooff & Doy semi solid medium containing 10 mg/L picloram, 6 mg/L NAA supplemented with 4% sucrose and 4 µM CuSO4. Results showed that the highest percentage (100% of embryogenic calli formation for 4 weeks obtained by culturing Iding of 3-5 mm length on GD semi solid medium, whereas the lowest (33% one obtained by incubation 5 mm leaf lobe of Timtim-29 on the same medium. The most suitable medium for callus induction was GD, whereas the optimum length of explants was 5 mm or larger. Further study needs to be done to obtain friable embryogenic calli (FEC by employing different concentration of picloram and varying other critical factors.

ENNY SUDARMONOWATI

2006-07-01

285

Small, medium, large or supersize? The development and evaluation of interventions targeted at portion size  

Science.gov (United States)

In the past decades, portion sizes of high-caloric foods and drinks have increased and can be considered an important environmental obesogenic factor. This paper describes a research project in which the feasibility and effectiveness of environmental interventions targeted at portion size was evaluated. The studies that we conducted revealed that portion size labeling, offering a larger variety of portion sizes, and proportional pricing (that is, a comparable price per unit regardless of the size) were considered feasible to implement according to both consumers and point-of-purchase representatives. Studies into the effectiveness of these interventions demonstrated that the impact of portion size labeling on the (intended) consumption of soft drinks was, at most, modest. Furthermore, the introduction of smaller portion sizes of hot meals in worksite cafeterias in addition to the existing size stimulated a moderate number of consumers to replace their large meals by a small meal. Elaborating on these findings, we advocate further research into communication and marketing strategies related to portion size interventions; the development of environmental portion size interventions as well as educational interventions that improve people's ability to deal with a ‘super-sized' environment; the implementation of regulation with respect to portion size labeling, and the use of nudges to stimulate consumers to select healthier portion sizes.

Vermeer, W M; Steenhuis, I H M; Poelman, M P

2014-01-01

286

Small, medium, large or supersize? The development and evaluation of interventions targeted at portion size.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the past decades, portion sizes of high-caloric foods and drinks have increased and can be considered an important environmental obesogenic factor. This paper describes a research project in which the feasibility and effectiveness of environmental interventions targeted at portion size was evaluated. The studies that we conducted revealed that portion size labeling, offering a larger variety of portion sizes, and proportional pricing (that is, a comparable price per unit regardless of the size) were considered feasible to implement according to both consumers and point-of-purchase representatives. Studies into the effectiveness of these interventions demonstrated that the impact of portion size labeling on the (intended) consumption of soft drinks was, at most, modest. Furthermore, the introduction of smaller portion sizes of hot meals in worksite cafeterias in addition to the existing size stimulated a moderate number of consumers to replace their large meals by a small meal. Elaborating on these findings, we advocate further research into communication and marketing strategies related to portion size interventions; the development of environmental portion size interventions as well as educational interventions that improve people's ability to deal with a 'super-sized' environment; the implementation of regulation with respect to portion size labeling, and the use of nudges to stimulate consumers to select healthier portion sizes. PMID:25033959

Vermeer, W M; Steenhuis, I H M; Poelman, M P

2014-07-01

287

Are the determinants of markup size industry-specific? The case of Slovenian manufacturing firms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify factors that affect the pricing policy in Slovenian manufacturing firms in terms of the markup size and, most of all, to explicitly account for the possibility of differences in pricing procedures among manufacturing industries. Accordingly, the analysis of the dynamic panel is carried out on an industry-by-industry basis, allowing the coefficients on the markup determinants to vary across industries. We find that the oligopoly theory of markup determination for the most part holds for the manufacturing sector as a whole, although large variability in markup determinants exists across industries within the Slovenian manufacturing. Our main conclusion is that each industry should be investigated separately in detail in order to assess the precise role of markup factors in the markup-determination process.

Ponikvar Nina

2011-01-01

288

Optimal Sizing of Battery Storage Systems for Industrial Applications when Uncertainties Exist  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Demand response (DR can be very useful for an industrial facility, since it allows noticeable reductions in the electricity bill due to the significant value of energy demand. Although most industrial processes have stringent constraints in terms of hourly active power, DR only becomes attractive when performed with the contemporaneous use of battery energy storage systems (BESSs. When this option is used, an optimal sizing of BESSs is desirable, because the investment costs can be significant. This paper deals with the optimal sizing of a BESS installed in an industrial facility to reduce electricity costs. A four-step procedure, based on Decision Theory, was used to obtain a good solution for the sizing problem, even when facing uncertainties; in fact, we think that the sizing procedure must properly take into account the unavoidable uncertainties introduced by the cost of electricity and the load demands of industrial facilities. Three approaches provided by Decision Theory were applied, and they were based on: (1 the minimization of expected cost; (2 the regret felt by the sizing engineer; and (3 a mix of (1 and (2. The numerical applications performed on an actual industrial facility provided evidence of the effectiveness of the proposed procedure.

Guido Carpinelli

2014-01-01

289

A Study Of Trade Unions In Selected Large And Medium Scale Industries In Visakhapatanam District (A.P.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is stated that the associations are the outcome of the union of two or more persons since single individual cannot do the desired work without the strength of others. With the assistance of these groups or associations the economic status of human being is improved and it leads to improvement of economic status of the whole human society. Thus it can be concluded that the unity in diversified areas of work also improves the human society as that leads to develop the economy of human society. Trade unions thus perform a very important role in protecting the interest of the workers. Trade unions are as significant as the management of an industry. There are 32 large and medium industries in Visakhapatanam District with an investment of Rs. 51113 lakhs by providing employment opportunity to 36,161 persons with Rs. 1.41 lakhs per capita investment on employment. The industrial development in the district occupies a significant importance in the country with establishment of Visakha Steel Plant in 1970. The growth of large and medium scale industries in the district observed at faster rate compared to other districts in the state. Normally, the faster growth rate of industrialization, results in faster growth of trade unions. Hence, the said study assumes significance in view of rapid growth of industries in this district.

Ramakrishna Mohan Rao Munaga

2013-08-01

290

Determinants of small and medium sized fast growing enterprises in central and eastern Europe: a panel data analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the main determinants of growth in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs in central and eastern Europe. The important role played by SMEs in the economic development of central and eastern European (CEE countries has attracted the recent attention of academics and policymakers but remains relatively unexplored. Empirical research has suggested that firm growth is determined not only by the traditional characteristics of size and age but also by other firm-specific factors such as indebtedness, internal financing, future growth opportunities, process and product innovation, and organisational changes. Although growth in manufacturing and service SMEs in transition economies is well explained by the traditional firm characteristics of size and age, there is no empirical evidence concerning what other specific factors may be associated with SME growth and performance in these countries. Using a panel dataset of 560 fast growing small and medium enterprises from six transition economies we find that firm size when measured by firm total assets can explain to a large extent the growth in SMEs in these countries. When size is proxied by a firm’s number of employees the observed effect is marginal. Firm specific characteristics such as leverage, current liquidity, future growth opportunities, internally generated funds, and factor productivity are found to be important factors in determining a firm’s growth and performance. Age and ownership do not seem to be able to explain firm growth. The results of our empirical study have also some policy implications: we argue that governments in transition economies need to pay an increased attention to small and medium sized enterprises and try to create a business environment that will be beneficial for SME development.

Miroslav Mateev

2010-09-01

291

A Neurocomputational Method for Fully Automated 3D Dendritic Spine Detection and Segmentation of Medium-sized Spiny Neurons  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Acquisition and quantitative analysis of high resolution images of dendritic spines are challenging tasks but are necessary for the study of animal models of neurological and psychiatric diseases. Currently available methods for automated dendritic spine detection are for the most part customized for 2D image slices, not volumetric 3D images. In this work, a fully automated method is proposed to detect and segment dendritic spines from 3D confocal microscopy images of medium-sized spiny neuro...

2010-01-01

292

Evaluating the impact of environmental factors on the international competitiveness of Small and Medium sized Enterprises in the Western Balkans  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) with an export potential face significant obstacles in gaining international competitiveness, due to the highly dynamic environment in which they operate. This study evaluates the impact of environmental factors on international competitiveness of the Western Balkans SMEs by identifying the key pairs of environmental factors and factors of international competitiveness, which facilitate an increase in international competitiveness of these firms. The ...

Andzelic, Goran; Dzakovic, Vladimir; Lalic?, Bojan; Zrnic, Danica; Palc?ic?, Iztok

2012-01-01

293

IFRS IN THE SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTITIES. DIFICULTIES AND OPPORTUNITIES OF THE IFRS FOR SMES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

IFRS IN THE SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTITIES. DIFICULTIES AND OPPORTUNITIES OF THE IFRS FOR SMEs PhD Student Mo? Ioana, West University of Timi?oara, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, România Doctoral programme - Accounting Scientific coordonator – Prof. Univ. Dr. Mate? Dorel Abstract: Over the years, the accounting have to meet a series of transformations and adaptations to the new trend by globalization, harmonisation and integration, trying to unfold transf...

Mo? Ioana

2013-01-01

294

An investigation into the suitability of younger generation successors in small and medium-sized family businesses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study highlighted the importance of the suitability of the younger generation family members in small and medium-sized family businesses to successfully manage the business after management succession. Data from 270 questionnaires linked to 77 family businesses were collected and analysed. An Oblimin oblique rotation was performed on the principal components of the exploratory factor analysis. Five factors with eigen-values greater than one, explaining 65,78% of the variance, were extrac...

Merwe, Stephanus Petrus

2011-01-01

295

Beyond the limits of accountants as ‘trusted advisors’ for small and medium sized enterprises:environmental sustainability advice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present emerging research on the potential of small accounting practices as advisors on environmental sustainability for their small and medium sized clients (SMEs). Enabling this resource could have substantial implications to improve sustainability because SMEs are notoriously difficult to reach and influence, but their most ‘trusted advisor’ is consistently their accountant. Using Habermas’ notion of steering, we present research data primarily from interviews with ...

Spence, Laura; Agyemang, Gloria; Rinaldi, Leonardo

2012-01-01

296

Pressures on Green Supply Chain Management: A Study on Manufacturing Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aims to empirically investigate the pressures for adopting green supply chain management (GSCM) among Chinese small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Data is collected through the use of mail distributed questionnaires administered to participants at a national trade fair held in Suzhou and two rounds of data collection were carried out to make a more reliable result for the research. ANOVA and Factor analysis are used to analyze the data. Some key findings are found from this s...

Huang, Xiangmeng; Tan, Boon Leing; Li, Dong

2012-01-01

297

Optimisation of fuel pin diameter for oxide and carbide fuels for a medium sized fast breeder reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of fuel pin diameter on neutronic and economic performance of a medium sized fast reactor is analysed. Optimum fuel pin diameter and the corresponding minimum doubling time and fuel cycle costs are calculated both for oxide and carbide fuels. Consequence of fuel cycle data uncertainties on the above reactor performance parameters is also evaluated. Feasibility of change over from one pin diameter to another to suit the future conditions if required is discussed. (author)

1982-01-01

298

Striatal Medium-Sized Spiny Neurons: Identification by Nuclear Staining and Study of Neuronal Subpopulations in BAC Transgenic Mice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Precise identification of neuronal populations is a major challenge in neuroscience. In the striatum, more than 95% of neurons are GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs), which form two intermingled populations distinguished by their projections and protein content. Those expressing dopamine D1-receptors (D1Rs) project preferentially to the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), whereas those expressing dopamine D2- receptors (D2Rs) project preferentially to the lateral part of the glob...

Matamales, Miriam; Bertran-gonzalez, Jesus; Salomon, Lucas; Degos, Bertrand; Deniau, Jean-michel; Valjent, Emmanuel; Herve?, Denis; Girault, Jean-antoine

2009-01-01

299

Evaluation of the COSHH Essentials Model with a Mixture of Organic Chemicals at a Medium-Sized Paint Producer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Essentials model was evaluated using full-shift exposure measurements of five chemical components in a mixture [acetone, ethylbenzene, methyl ethyl ketone, toluene, and xylenes] at a medium-sized plant producing paint materials. Two tasks, batch-making and bucket-washing, were examined. Varying levels of control were already established in both tasks and the average exposures of individual chemicals were considerably lower than the regulat...

Lee, Eun Gyung; Slaven, James; Bowen, Russell B.; Harper, Martin

2011-01-01

300

Development of a tool for consistent assessment of resource efficiency in small and medium-sized enterprises  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Resource efficiency has become an important topic due to dramatic increase of world-population and globalization. A company that is not able to efficiently utilize its resources is less sustainable. It produces at higher cost as well as with higher environmental impact. Especially small and medium-sized enterprises are mostly not able to deal with these kinds of issues in addition to their daily business. Their characteristics differentiate them from large companies and require approaches tha...

Lieder, Michael

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Product Related Environmental Work in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Thailand, Developing and Manufacturing Electrical and Electronic Products  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Thailand that develop and manufacture electrical and electronic products are among other SMEs in the world meeting increasingly stringent legal and customer requirements related to environmental issues. Obstacles for the SMEs around the world to meet these requirements are almost the same in form of lack of knowledge, budget and resources. The differences between SMEs in Thailand and SMEs in the EU, Japan or even Korea are that these countries have...

Jonsson, Fredrik

2007-01-01

302

Information and knowledge sharing trends of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Western Cape, South Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), especially in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, are currently facing various financial and other obstacles, which may threaten their survival. Globalisation, the lowering of trade barriers and the reduction of import tariffs have resulted in increased international competition. Businesses are thus forced to undertake continuous improvements and innovation in order to survive, to keep abreast of change and to exce...

Faeda Mohsam; Brakel, Pieter A.

2011-01-01

303

Information and knowledge sharing trends of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Western Cape, South Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), especially in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, are currently facing various financial and other obstacles, which may threaten their survival. Globalisation, the lowering of trade barriers and the reduction of import tariffs have resulted in increased international competition. Businesses are thus forced to undertake continuous improvements and innovation in order to survive, to keep abreast of change...

Faeda Mohsam; Brakel, Pieter A.

2011-01-01

304

Investigation and Assessment of Critical Success Factors of Knowledge Management Implementation in Iranian Small-to-Medium Sized Enterprises  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Based on an in-depth review and comparative study of existing studies on Critical Success Factors (CSFs) of Knowledge Management (KM) and by considering the characteristics of small to medium sized enterprises (SMEs), twelve CSFs were identified, namely management leadership and support, organizational culture, information systems, KM strategy, performance measurement, organizational infrastructure, processes and activities, rewarding and motivation, training and education, removal of resourc...

Changiz Valmohammadi

2010-01-01

305

Risk determinants of small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises (SMEs): An exploratory study in New Zealand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The smooth running of small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises (SMEs) presents a significant challenge irrespective of the technological and human resources they may have at their disposal. SMEs continuously encounter daily internal and external undesirable events and unwanted setbacks to their operations that detract from their business performance. These are referred to as 'disturbances' in our research study. Among the disturbances, some are likely to create risks to the enterprise...

Islam, Ariful; Tedford, Des

2012-01-01

306

The Impact of Firm Characteristics in Access of Financing by Small and Medium-sized Enterprises in Tanzania  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

size: small;">

The contribution of Small and Medium-sized Enterprise (SME) sector in economic development, job creation
and income generation has been recognized worldwide. However, these contributions are not effectively

Alex Reuben Kira; Zhongzhi He

2012-01-01

307

Electronic spectroscopy of medium-sized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Implications for the carriers of the 2175 {\\AA} UV bump  

CERN Multimedia

Mixtures of polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been produced by means of laser pyrolysis. The main fraction of the extracted PAHs were primarily medium-sized, up to a maximum size of 38 carbon atoms per molecule. The use of different extraction solvents and subsequent chromatographic fractionation provided mixtures of different size distributions. UV-VIS absorption spectra have been measured at low temperature by matrix isolation spectroscopy and at room temperature with PAHs as film-like deposits on transparent substrates. In accordance with semi-empirical calculations, our findings suggest that large PAHs with sizes around 50 to 60 carbon atoms per molecule could be responsible for the interstellar UV bump at 217.5 nm.

Steglich, M; Rouillé, G; Huisken, F; Mutschke, H; Henning, Th

2010-01-01

308

Strategy Analysis of Real Estate Company Property Development in Medium Size City in China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Real estate industry is a new economic growth point and main industry in Chinese gross domestic product nowadays. This paper analyzes the trend of Chinese real estate market development to help investors to understand the current situation of Chinese real estate markets and policies better, so as to make better real estate investment decisions in China in the future. Because of oversaturated with investment and higher cost of investment there are more and more limitations in investing in big ...

Ji, Yiping

2011-01-01

309

Pay-for-Performance and Public Reporting Program Participation and Administrative Challenges Among Small- and Medium-Sized Physician Practices.  

Science.gov (United States)

A key component of efforts to improve the quality of care in the United States is the use of public reporting and pay-for-performance programs. Little is known, however, about the extent to which small- and medium-sized physician practices are participating in these programs. This study examined the participation of small- and medium-sized physician practices in pay-for-performance and public reporting programs and the characteristics of the participating practices. Using cross-sectional data from a national sample of 1,734 small- and medium-sized physician practices throughout the United States, we found that many practices (61.2%) were participating in at least one program, while far fewer (19.2%) were participating in multiple programs. Among practices participating in multiple programs, relatively few (21.9%) reported high levels of administrative problems due to a lack of standardization on performance measures. The study also suggests that some structural features are associated with participation and may provide leverage points for fostering participation. PMID:24263052

Hearld, Larry R; Alexander, Jeffrey A; Shi, Yunfeng; Casalino, Lawrence P

2014-06-01

310

Methodologies and Decision Criteria for Demonstrating Competitiveness of Small and Medium Sized Reactors - Present Value Capital Cost Model. Annex VIII  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Smaller size reactors are required to fulfil the growing energy needs of developing countries and emerging markets, as well as niche markets in developed countries. Grid appropriate reactors have been identified within the United States Department of Energy Global Nuclear Energy Partnership initiative as one of the key elements required to enable worldwide expansion of the peaceful use of nuclear power. In a speech at a conference in Algiers on 9 January 2007, the former IAEA Director General, Mohamed El Baradei, discussed the interest in new small and medium-size reactor designs which allow a more incremental investment than is required for a big reactor, and provide a better match to grid capacity in many developing countries'. Smaller size reactors (IAEA defines as 'small' those reactors with a power <300 MW(e) and 'medium' with a power <700 MW(e)) are the logical choice for smaller countries or those with a limited electrical grid. In fact, smaller reactors are now in different stages of development throughout the world, and interest in their deployment has also been expressed. With regards to decisions on the addition of power plant capacity, small reactors have many attractive characteristics, namely size, simplicity, enhanced safety, cost savings and lower financial resource requirements. On the downside, the specific costs of some components and systems of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) may be higher as a result of economy of scale effects. This annex explores some of the factors affecting decisions on power plant capacity addition in world markets, focusing particularly on many of the characteristics of SMRs

2013-12-01

311

Predation selectively culls medium-sized species from island mammal faunas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Globally, elevated extinction risk in mammals is strongly associated with large body size. However, in regions where introduced predators exert strong top-down pressure on mammal populations, the selectivity of extinctions may be skewed towards species of intermediate body size, leading to a hump-shaped relationship between size and extinction risk. The existence of this kind of extinction pattern, and its link to predation, has been contentious and difficult to demonstrate. Here, we test the hypothesis of a hump-shaped body size-extinction relationship, using a database of 927 island mammal populations. We show that the size-selectivity of extinctions on many islands has exceeded that expected under null models. On islands with introduced predators, extinctions are biased towards intermediate body sizes, but this bias does not occur on islands without predators. Hence, on islands with a large-bodied mammal fauna, predators are selectively culling species from the lower end of the size distribution, and on islands with a small-bodied fauna they are culling species from the upper end. These findings suggest that it will be difficult to use predictable generalizations about extinction patterns, such as a positive body size-extinction risk association, to anticipate future species declines and plan conservation strategies accordingly. PMID:24694691

Hanna, Emily; Cardillo, Marcel

2014-01-01

312

Organizational Learning, Innovation and Performance: A Study of Malaysian Small and Medium Sized Enterprises  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This empirical study attempts to investigate the effect of organizational learning on innovation as well as the
impact of innovation on company performance. Based on the literature review, two hypotheses are proposed to
guide the study: the positive impact of organizational learning on innovation and the positive relationship
between innovation and performance. Data was collected via electronic survey from 320 small and medium
enterprises o...

Islam Mohamed Salim; Mohamed Sulaiman

2011-01-01

313

Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Financing: A Review of Literature  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is no doubt that access to finance is of crucial importance for the ongoing and sustainable growth andprofitability of small and medium enterprises sector (SMEs) through its role in facilitating the creation of newbusinesses and nurturing the innovation process as well as promoting the growth and development of existingbusinesses, which in turn, boost national economic growth. The main motive of this paper is that SMEssignificantly differ from large firms in t...

Abdulsaleh, Abdulaziz M.; Worthington, Andrew C.

2013-01-01

314

Re-Strategising for Effective Health and Safety Standards in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Poor health and safety record impact on the image/reputation and operational capabilities of businesses, especially those within the small and medium enterprise (SME) sector. Given the role of SMEs in the economy, this paper attempts to highlight the issue of poor health and safety performance of the SME sector and suggest a strategy for improving the level of performance. To this end, survey questionnaires were distributed to assess the overall awareness of people about health and safety iss...

Diugwu, Ikechukwu A.

2011-01-01

315

Explaining Internationalisation of Small to Medium Sized Enterprises within the Queensland Food and Beverage Industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The prevalence of International New Ventures (INVs) has increased during the past twenty years. Nevertheless,
to date there has been no general consensus within the literature on an explanation as to the rapid internationalisation of some firms. Do they follow a similar process to other firms that internationalise based on
a more ‘measured’ incremental sequential process of internationalisation. This paper proposes and tests an innovation diffusion model of ...

2012-01-01

316

Developing a Methodology Based on Action Learning to Facilitate the Adoption of ICT in Small and Medium-sized Companies in Costa Rica  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of the thesis is to understand and explore better strategies to support the Small and Medium-sized companies sector in Costa Rica in the ICT adoption process. A strategy has been proposed which focuses on learning process and the interaction of university, industry and government (Triple Helix Model) in order to support the SMEs sector. The concrete proposal of the research is to design collaborative project based on action learning approach (Revans, 1982) with partnership of the three sectors in order to address concrete ICT projects in SMEs. The project was carried out in the action research context, considering a holistic approach needed in the SMEs and fostering the multi learning perspective claimed in the triple helix model (Etzkowitz, 2008).

Nunez, Heilyn Camacho

2010-01-01

317

Image Analysis of Pellet Size for a Control System in Industrial Feed Production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

When producing aquaculture fish feed pellets, the size of the output product is of immense importance. As the production method cannot produce pellets of constant and uniform size using constant machine settings, there is a demand for size control. Fish fed with feed pellets of improper size are prone to not grow as expected, which is undesirable to the aquaculture industry. In this paper an image analysis method is proposed for automatic size-monitoring of pellets. This is called granulometry and the method used here is based on the mathematical morphological opening operation. In the proposed method, no image object segmentation is needed. The results show that it is possible to extract a general size distribution from an image of piled disordered pellets representing both length and diameter of the pellets in combination as an area.

Ljungqvist, Martin Georg; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

2011-01-01

318

A Comprehensive, Competency-Based Education Framework Using Medium-Sized ERP Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Graduates with industry-relevant ERP competencies are highly sought after. This requirement is due to a dominance of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems and the positive affect which good quality ERP specialists have on the success rate of ERP system implementation projects. Universities are therefore increasingly pressurised to supply…

Scholtz, Brenda; Cilliers, Charmain; Calitz, Andre

2012-01-01

319

Rapid preparation of ceramic moulds for medium-sized superalloy castings with magnesia-phosphate-bonded bauxite-mullite investments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phosphate-bonded investments have already been widely utilized in dental restoration and micro-casting of artistic products for its outstanding rapid setting and high strength. However, the rapid setting rate of investment slurry has up to now been a barrier to extend the use of such slurry in preparation of medium-sized ceramic moulds. This paper proposes a new process of rapid fabrication of magnesia-phosphate-bonded investment ceramic moulds for medium-sized superalloy castings utilizing bauxite and mullite as refractory aggregates. In order to determine the properties of magnesia-phosphate-bonded bauxite-mullite investments (MPBBMI, a series of experiments were conducted, including modification of the workable time of slurry by liquid(mL/powder(g(L/P ratio and addition of boric acid as retard agent and sodium tri-polyphosphate (STP as strengthening agent, and adjustment of bauxite (g/mullite(g(B/M ratio for mechanical strength. Mechanical vibration was applied to improve initial setting time and fluidity when pouring investment slurry; then an intermediate size ceramic mould for superalloy castings was manufactured by means of this rapid preparing process with MPBBMI material. The results showed that the MPBBMI slurry exhibits proper initial setting time and excellent fluidity when the L/P ratio is 0.64 and the boric acid content is 0.88wt.%. The fired specimens made from the MPBBMI material demonstrated adequate compression strength to withstand impact force of molten metal when the B/M ratio is 0.89 and the STP content is 0.92wt.%. The experimental results confirmed the feasibility of the proposed rapid fabricating process for medium-sized ceramic moulds with MPBBMI material by appropriate measures.

Li Tingzhong

2010-11-01

320

Firm size and productivity. Evidence from the electricity distribution industry in Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we apply Stochastic Frontier Analysis through a distance function to investigate the impact of firm size on productivity development in electricity distribution. We use a sample of seventeen Brazilian firms from 1998 to 2005 and decompose productivity into technical efficiency, scale efficiency and technical change. Moreover, a further step is to decompose the technical change measurement into several components. The results indicate that firm size is important for industry's productivity, and therefore a key aspect to consider when making decisions that affect the market structure in the electricity distribution industry. - Research Highlights: ?We apply Stochastic Frontier Analysis through a distance function to investigate the impact of firm's size on productivity development in electricity distribution using a sample of eighteen Brazilian firms from 1998 to 2005. ?Productivity is decomposed into technical efficiency, scale-efficiency and technical change. ?Firm size is important for the industry's productivity, and therefore a key aspect to consider when making decisions that affect the market structure in the electricity distribution industry.

2011-02-01

 
 
 
 
321

Integration of “QES” systems on the small and medium size foundry companies in Portugal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents the present situation concerning the integration of the quality, environment and safety systems on industrial companies. A case study performed by the authors on the Portuguese foundry is presented. The present situation of this activity sector, on what concerns the application of the quality, environment and safety (QES) systems, is characterized, and the short time needs, procedures and initiatives that are being taken, or will be taken in a near future, to accomplish...

Santos, Gilberto; Barbosa, J.; Pedro, Claudia

2004-01-01

322

"Small cities blues": Looking for growth factors in small and medium-sized cities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this exploratory study is to attempt to identify particular public policies which have the potential to increase the economic viability of smaller metropolitan areas and cities. We identify characteristics associated with smaller metro areas that performed better-than-expected (winners) and worse-than-expected (losers) during the 1990s, given their resources, industrial mix, and location as of 1990. Once these characteristics have been identified, we look for evidence that publ...

Erickcek, George A.; Mckinney, Hannah

2004-01-01

323

Small and medium-sized firms top management teams’ decision making in global acquisitions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The new global marketplace has caused changes in some organizations’/industries’ forms and execution of strategy and reliance on international personnel. Entry and success through the accumulation of knowledge in the global marketplace have become the impetus for sustainable competitive/developmental advantage for many corporations. Many organizations choose a strategy focusing on international acquisitions in foreign markets to compete effectively in the current ever-changing dynamic com...

2009-01-01

324

Improvement of environmental management incentives for small and medium-sized enterprises  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The developed countries have been prepared the national innovation for sustainable development for a long time. The international advanced enterprises, such as multinational enterprises, are enhancing the active and strategic environmental management. However, in spite of such changes in the world, small and middle-sized enterprises do not show any substantial changes. It is true that most of enterprises do not recognize the need of environmental management. Although they have intention for environmental improvement, it is also true that they do not have any strength to maintain effective management. Moreover, with over 99% of small and middle-sized enterprises among entire enterprises in Korea, it is hardly possible to establish an effective regulation system. The purpose of this study is to make a policy plan to induce the development of environmental friendly small and middle-sized enterprises under the recognition of such problems. 138 refs., 4 figs., 195 tabs.

Chang, Kee Bok; Lee, Seung Kyu; Lim, Chae Woon; Chung, Ho Sun [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

1998-12-01

325

Key Drivers to Developing Guanxi in China for Taiwanese Small to Medium Sized Firms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

size: 10pt; font-family: "Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family: Batang; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: KO; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-no-proof: yes;" lang="EN-US">As Chinese economy has become one of the world’s economic powerhouse, research on guanxi, social or business ties in China, has been gaining ground in business research.size: 10pt; font-family: "Times New Roman...

2009-01-01

326

Development of laboratory and process sensors to monitor particle size distribution of industrial slurries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper we present a novel measurement technique for monitoring particle size distributions of industrial colloidal slurries based on ultrasonic spectroscopy and mathematical deconvolution. An on-line sensor prototype has been developed and tested extensively in laboratory and production settings using mineral pigment slurries. Evaluation to date shows that the sensor is capable of providing particle size distributions, without any assumptions regarding their functional form, over diameters ranging from 0.1 to 100 micrometers in slurries with particle concentrations of 10 to 50 volume percents. The newly developed on-line sensor allows one to obtain particle size distributions of commonly encountered inorganic pigment slurries under industrial processing conditions without dilution.

Pendse, H.P.

1992-10-01

327

Critical Factors of E-SCM Adoption on Small and Medium Sized Enterprises Performance: An Empirical Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the gradual importance of e-Supply Chain Management (e-SCM to the Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs in Taiwan, this research intended to explore the critical factors which allowed the Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Taiwan to employ e-SCM. The research further studied that under these critical factors, how the adoption of e-SCM affected their organizational achievements. In this research, the researcher organized the related literature according to Grounded Theory and by distributing the questionnaires to the experts; the researcher initially confirmed the aspects and variables which affected Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises’ adoption of e-SCM. Subsequently, the researcher distributed the enterprise questionnaire to the companies of automobile parts, explored the critical factors and the influence of the variables under each aspect upon the organizational effect through regression analysis. Via Discriminant analysis, the research found that “supporting capacity of system supplier”, “relative advantage of e-SCM”, “organizational scale”, “fundamental construction of interior informational technology” were the critical factors which affected SMEs’ application of e-SCM. Upon the regression analysis, the research found that employing e-SCM when the system suppliers’ supporting capacity was better and when e-SCM brought better benefits to the enterprise would prominently upgrade organizational effect. The research finding can be the reference for the SMEs when they apply new information technology in the future, offer the related units government the suggestion for establishing guiding and regulation and allow the system suppliers to propose more appropriate products and service.

She-I Chang

2006-03-01

328

An empirical study on the effects of industrial clusters on small and medium enterprises  

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Full Text Available Tendency to industrial clustering at the end of the twentieth century was a turning point in industrial development programs in most countries of the world. Industrial clustering is a model of industrial organization, which has entered industrial literature as a new development strategy. Clustering has provided utilization of efficiencies of scale and aggregation as well as efficiencies of collective efforts by creating conditions for competitiveness advantage, economical growth and export development in the international environment. Today, industrial clustering has been considered as a fundamental strategy for economic development and growth in almost all countries of the world including Iran. This paper aims to assess and to explain important factors affecting the competitiveness of industrial clusters. It also shows the relationship among these factors together. The proposed study uses fuzzy DEMATEL technique; hence, the affecting factors of competitiveness of industrial clusters in the automotive cluster in one of the provinces of Iran is investigated and the importance of each of these factors and their relationships are identified.

Zeinab Armoun

2012-10-01

329

Cooling rate and size effects on the medium-range structure of multicomponent oxide glasses simulated by molecular dynamics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A set of molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the effect of cooling rate and system size on the medium-range structure of melt-derived multicomponent silicate glasses, represented by the quaternary 45S5 Bioglass composition. Given the significant impact of the glass degradation on applications of these materials in biomedicine and nuclear waste disposal, bulk structural features which directly affect the glass dissolution process are of particular interest. Connectivity of the silicate matrix, ion clustering and nanosegregation, distribution of ring and chain structural patterns represent critical features in this context, which can be directly extracted from the models. A key issue is represented by the effect of the computational approach on the corresponding glass models, especially in light of recent indications questioning the suitability of conventional MD approaches (that is, involving melt-and-quench of systems containing ?10{sup 3} atoms at cooling rates of 5-10 K/ps) when applied to model these glasses. The analysis presented here compares MD models obtained with conventional and nonconventional cooling rates and system sizes, highlighting the trend and range of convergence of specific structural features in the medium range. The present results show that time-consuming computational approaches involving much lower cooling rates and/or significantly larger system sizes are in most cases not necessary in order to obtain a reliable description of the medium-range structure of multicomponent glasses. We identify the convergence range for specific properties and use them to discuss models of several glass compositions for which a possible influence of cooling-rate or size effects had been previously hypothesized. The trends highlighted here represent an important reference to obtain reliable models of multicomponent glasses and extract converged medium-range structural features which affect the glass degradation and thus their application in different fields. In addition, as a first application of the present findings, the fully converged structure of the 45S5 glass was further analyzed to shed new light on several dissolution-related features whose interpretation has been rather controversial in the past.

Tilocca, Antonio [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom)

2013-09-21

330

Intent to be a Socially Responsible Small or Medium-sized Enterprise: Theory of Planned Behavior and Leaders’ Actualizing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A review of the academic research in corporate social responsibility shows little work on small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in the U.S. whereas considerable work in this domain has been conducted in the European context. This study seeks to make a contribution to the research void by addressing one particular area of social responsibility in the U.S. context. Specifically, we employ Ajzen’s reasoned action approach to begin to build an understanding of what promotes leaders of SM...

2012-01-01

331

Organizational Learning, Innovation and Performance: A Study of Malaysian Small and Medium Sized Enterprises  

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Full Text Available This empirical study attempts to investigate the effect of organizational learning on innovation as well as theimpact of innovation on company performance. Based on the literature review, two hypotheses are proposed toguide the study: the positive impact of organizational learning on innovation and the positive relationshipbetween innovation and performance. Data was collected via electronic survey from 320 small and mediumenterprises operating in the ICT industry in Malaysia. Findings from the study support both the two hypothesesthus providing further evidence that organizational learning contributes to innovation capability, and thatinnovation is positively related to firm performance. Several guidelines and practical implications from the studyare also discussed.

Islam Mohamed Salim

2011-11-01

332

Meeting increased logistical demands : Developing as a small- and medium-sized system supplier  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many subcontractors choose to implement a strategy of “system supply” in order to meetincreasing global competition. They are then confronted with increased demands to take agreater overall responsibility in this role. It is important to investigate the implications of theseresponsibilities before investing in developing the organization, especially for a small- ormedium-sized subcontractor with limited resources. The customer’s view of different demandsdoes not necessarily correspond t...

Carlsson, Inga-lill

2009-01-01

333

Risk Identification in Offshore Out-sourcing of Services in Small and Medium sized Enterprises  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Development of technologies and worldwide reductions of trade barriers during the last decades increased competition and the need to offer high-quality prod-ucts and services for a reasonable price. Particularly, the service sector increased in size and variety of outputs. The development of the information technology segment has de-termined the market environment. To be able to compete in this global market offshore outsourcing of IT functions can be a valuable tool if handled in...

Schulz, Christian; Volianska, Oleksandra

2011-01-01

334

Magic number behavior for heat capacities of medium sized classical Lennard-Jones clusters  

CERN Multimedia

Monte Carlo methods were used to calculate heat capacities as functions of temperature for classical atomic clusters of aggregate sizes $25 \\leq N \\leq 60$ that were bound by pairwise Lennard-Jones potentials. The parallel tempering method was used to overcome convergence difficulties due to quasiergodicity in the solid-liquid phase-change regions. All of the clusters studied had pronounced peaks in their heat capacity curves, most of which corresponded to their solid-liquid phase-change regions. The heat capacity peak height and location exhibited two general trends as functions of cluster size: for $N = 25$ to 36, the peak temperature slowly increased, while the peak height slowly decreased, disappearing by $N = 37$; for $N = 30$, a very small secondary peak at very low temperature emerged and quickly increased in size and temperature as $N$ increased, becoming the dominant peak by $N = 36$. Superimposed on these general trends were smaller fluctuations in the peak heights that corresponded to ``magic numbe...

Frantz, D D

2001-01-01

335

Molecular (global) and atom-in-cluster (local) polarizabilities of medium-size gold nanoclusters: isomer structure effects  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, we extend our recent study [J.I. Rodríguez, J. Autschbach, F.L. Castillo-Alvarado, M.I. Baltazar-Méndez, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 034109 (2011)] to quantify the isomer structure effects on the atom-in-cluster polarizabilities of medium size gold clusters Au ( n = 6, 12, 20, 34, 54). For three isomers for each cluster size, a density functional perturbation theory calculation was performed to compute the cluster polarizability and the polarizability of each atom in the cluster using Bader's "quantum theory of atoms in molecules" formalism. The cluster polarizability tensor is expressed as a sum of the atom-in-cluster atomic tensors. We found that the strong quadratic correlation ( R 2 = 0.98) in the isotropic polarizability of atoms in the cluster and their distance to the cluster center of mass reported before holds independently of the cluster structure.

Rodríguez, Juan I.; Baltazar-Méndez, Maria I.; Autschbach, Jochen; Castillo-Alvarado, F. L.

2013-06-01

336

Small and medium-sized firms top management teams’ decision making in global acquisitions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The new global marketplace has caused changes in some organizations’/industries’ forms and execution of strategy and reliance on international personnel. Entry and success through the accumulation of knowledge in the global marketplace have become the impetus for sustainable competitive/developmental advantage for many corporations. Many organizations choose a strategy focusing on international acquisitions in foreign markets to compete effectively in the current ever-changing dynamic competitive landscape. After acquisition, the monitoring of the operations of the new international subsidiary by US firms typically is an ethnocentric example of applying home-country standards and controls. We suggest that the top management team (TMT of a firm is a valuable resource, needs to be retained and that ethnocentric monitoring must be reconsidered. This research focuses on the TMT and their value to the firm to help explain the variation in acquisition success. Thus post-acquisition integration and monitoring must account for this valuable asset.

Timothy Kiessling

2009-07-01

337

Estimation of the New Agile XP Process Model for Medium-Scale Projects Using Industrial Case Studies  

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Full Text Available Agile is one of the terms with which software professionals are quite familiar. Agile models promote fast development to develop high quality software. XP process model is one of the most widely used and most documented agile models. XP model is meant for small-scale projects. Since XP model is a good model, therefore there is need of its extension for the development of medium and large-scale projects. XP model has certain drawbacks such as weak documentation and poor performance while adapting it for the development of medium and large-scale projects having large teams. A new XP model is proposed in this paper to cater the needs of software development companies for medium-scale projects having large teams. This research may prove to be step forward for adaptation of the proposed new XP model for the development of large-scale projects. Two independent industrial case studies are conducted to validate the proposed new XP model handling for small and medium scale software projects, one case study for each type of project.

M. Rizwan Jameel Qureshi

2013-10-01

338

Sales Organization & Tactics : Solutions for improving the sales function in medium sized B-2-B companies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The thesis is a work summarizing the most important obstacles in the sales function in a mid-sized B-2-B company. It suggests solutions to the problems on both an organizational and a tactical level. Practical knowledge and case studies are intertwined in the theory for the reader to quickly grasp the vital points of both organizational and tactical issues. It then provides a guide for applying the suggested solutions in practice. The thesis is helpful to any company or start-up aiming to imp...

Aller, Rick Johan

2010-01-01

339

Synthesis of PHB nanoparticles from optimized medium utilizing dairy industrial waste using Brevibacterium casei SRKP2: a green chemistry approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are natural, biodegradable polymers accumulated by bacteria under nutritional exhausted condition where carbon source is in excess. A gram positive bacterium (designated strain SRKP2) that potentially accumulated polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) was isolated from dairy industrial waste. From its morphological and physiological properties and nucleotide sequence of its 16S rRNA, it was suggested that strain SRKP2 was similar to Brevibacterium casei. PHAs were synthesized from a medium containing dairy waste, yeast extract and sea water. The synthesized PHAs were characterized by FT-IR as Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). Response surface methodology was applied to optimize the production of PHB. From the optimized medium the yield of PHB was found to be 2.940 g/L. Here we report the direct use of dairy waste and sea water as potential sources for the production of PHB. Produced PHB was used to synthesize nanoparticles using solvent displacement technique. PMID:19700268

Ram Kumar Pandian, Sureshbabu; Deepak, Venkatraman; Kalishwaralal, Kalimuthu; Muniyandi, Jeyaraj; Rameshkumar, Neelamegam; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

2009-11-01

340

How to Improve Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Profitability by Practicing an Efficient Human Resources Management  

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Full Text Available In The European Union’s country members, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs play an essential role in economic life, having special features that make adaptation process to the contemporary economy easier. Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs are the most dynamic and vital factor of progress in the contemporary society, main generator of economic performance and substance in any country, employment opportunity provider for most of population, major contributor to the national budget, and engine to improve the living standard of the population. SMEs represent 99% from all enterprises, drawing up the main human resources aglomeration. In the contemporary economic context, SMEs should act as learning entities, by developing the most important resources they own: the human resources. Human resource development (HRD has gained a permanent role within SMEs, agencies and nations, increasingly not only as an academic discipline, but as a central theme in development area. Being a combination of training and education, in a broad context of adequate human resource policies, HRD ensures the continual improvement and growth of both individual and organization.

Antonio GARCÍA SÁNCHEZ

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Hepatic contrast medium enhancement at computed tomography and its correlation with various body size measures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background. When the same dose of iodine is given to all patients when performing abdominal computed tomography (CT) there may be a wide inter-individual variation in contrast medium (CM) enhancement of the liver. Purpose. To evaluate if any of the measures body height (BH), body mass index (BMI), lean body mass (LBM), ideal body weight (IBW), and body surface area (BSA) correlated better than body weight (BW) with hepatic enhancement, and to compare the enhancement when using iodixanol and iomeprol. Material and Methods. One hundred patients referred for standard three-phase CT examination of abdomen were enrolled. Body weight and height were measured at the time of the CT examination. Forty grams of iodine (iodixanol 320 mg I/mL or iomeprol 400 mg I/mL) was injected at a rate of 1.6 g-I/s, followed by a 50 mL saline flush. The late arterial phase was determined by using a semi-automatic smart prep technique with a scan delay of 20 s. The hepatic parenchymal phase started automatically 25 s after the late arterial phase. CM concentration was estimated by placement of regions of interest in aorta (native and late arterial phase) and in liver (native and parenchymal phase). Results. BW (r -0.51 and -0.64), LBM (r = -0.54 and -0.59), and BSA (r -0.54 and -0.65) showed the best correlation coefficients with aortic and hepatic parenchymal enhancement, respectively, without any significant differences between the measures. Comparing iodixanol and iomeprol there was no significant difference in aortic enhancement. The liver enhancement was significantly higher (P < 0.05) using iodixanol than iomeprol. Conclusion. To achieve a consistent hepatic enhancement, CM dose may simply be adjusted to body weight instead of using more complicated calculated parameters based on both weight and height

2012-07-01

342

Design features and safety of advanced medium size VVER-type reactor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An advanced medium power reactor with a power up to 640 MWe and heat output up to 250 gcal/h for district heating is being developed in Russia. This reactor named VVER-640 is being designed based on the experience of construction and operation of the Soviet VVER-440 and 1000 reactors. The significant safety enhancement is reached by reasonable combination of the passive and active safety systems, reduction in core power density, use of the double containment, etc. The NPP with the VVER-640 can be located in high-seismic areas. The basic design version is calculated for 9.5 MSK-64 scale number (ground acceleration 0,5 g). The VVER-640 core and vessel have the same dimensions at the VVER-1000 reactors. The average burnup of the discharged fuel is 42 MW.day/t U with the initial enrichment of 3,6%. The control rod worth is sufficient to compensate the power and temperature effects as well as the xenon-135 depoisoning effect without charging additional liquid absorbers into the coolant. Under normal operation conditions the NPP contribution to the equivalent irradiation dose is about 0,1% of the background values. The NPPs with the VVER-640 reactor have the specific consumption of metal and concrete by 1,5-2,0 times lower than of the VVER-440 - based NPPs and other considerably improved economic indices. The construction of the first power unit of the VVER-640 NPP is planed to be completed in the year 2001. (author). 8 figs, 2 tabs.

Voznessenski, V. [Russian Scientific Centrum Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kuhtevitsh, I. [Institute Atomenergoprojekt, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Fil, N. [Experimental and Design Bureau Gidropress, Podolsk (Russian Federation)

1995-12-31

343

Hepatic contrast medium enhancement at computed tomography and its correlation with various body size measures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Background. When the same dose of iodine is given to all patients when performing abdominal computed tomography (CT) there may be a wide inter-individual variation in contrast medium (CM) enhancement of the liver. Purpose. To evaluate if any of the measures body height (BH), body mass index (BMI), lean body mass (LBM), ideal body weight (IBW), and body surface area (BSA) correlated better than body weight (BW) with hepatic enhancement, and to compare the enhancement when using iodixanol and iomeprol. Material and Methods. One hundred patients referred for standard three-phase CT examination of abdomen were enrolled. Body weight and height were measured at the time of the CT examination. Forty grams of iodine (iodixanol 320 mg I/mL or iomeprol 400 mg I/mL) was injected at a rate of 1.6 g-I/s, followed by a 50 mL saline flush. The late arterial phase was determined by using a semi-automatic smart prep technique with a scan delay of 20 s. The hepatic parenchymal phase started automatically 25 s after the late arterial phase. CM concentration was estimated by placement of regions of interest in aorta (native and late arterial phase) and in liver (native and parenchymal phase). Results. BW (r -0.51 and -0.64), LBM (r = -0.54 and -0.59), and BSA (r -0.54 and -0.65) showed the best correlation coefficients with aortic and hepatic parenchymal enhancement, respectively, without any significant differences between the measures. Comparing iodixanol and iomeprol there was no significant difference in aortic enhancement. The liver enhancement was significantly higher (P < 0.05) using iodixanol than iomeprol. Conclusion. To achieve a consistent hepatic enhancement, CM dose may simply be adjusted to body weight instead of using more complicated calculated parameters based on both weight and height.

Svensson, Anders; Nouhad, Jallo; Cederlund, Kerstin; Aspelin, Peter; Torkel, Brismar B., E-mail: anders.svensson@karolinska.se [Dept. of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology at Karolinska Inst., Div. of Medical Imaging and Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); (Dept. of Radiology, Karolinska Univ. Hospital, Huddinge, Stockholm (Sweden)); Nyman, Ulf (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Lasarettet Trelleborg, Univ. of Lund, Trelleborg (Sweden)); Bjoerk, Jonas (Competence Centre for Clinical Research, Skaane Univ. Hospital, Lund (Sweden)

2012-07-15

344

An Empirical Study of IT Innovation Adoption Among Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Klang Valley, Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose—The purpose of this research is to use and validate the Entrepreneurial Event model as a base model to investigate SME owners’ perception toward IT innovation adoption and use. This paper also attempts to investigate the key determinants of the adoption of IT innovation among small and medium sized enterprises in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This study revised and validated the Entrepreneurial Event Model in a new context and tried to examine the effect of perceived desirability, propensity to act and performance expectancy on behavior intention to adopt and use IT innovation in SMEs companies.Design/ methodology/ approach—Based on the research model the questionnaire was developed using previous work in the areas of entrepreneurship (Entrepreneurial Event Model and technology acceptance (UTAUT. The data used to test the hypothesis is collectedfrom various spectrums of Malaysian industries in Kuala Lumpur. A total of 1,000 businesses were identified and 412 completed questionnaires were available in this study. The research model was applied using the structural equation modelling technique.Finding—The results of this study indicated that perceived desirability, propensity to act and performance expectancy have a significant positive influence on behavioral intention, and explained a significant amount of the variance in predicting a SMEs owners intention to adopt IT innovation. Propensity to act is the strongest determinant of intention to use IT innovations among Malaysian SME owners follow by perceived desirability and performance expectancy. The results suggest that attractiveness of IT innovation is an important determinant towards the intention to adopt IT innovation. The result revealed that SME owners are more willing to use IT innovation, which is more attractive. Perceived usefulness (performance expectancy of IT innovation is the third most important factor that SME owners consider when they want to adopt and use new technology in their jobs. The results also revealed that experience moderated the relationship between determinants and behavior intention.Research Limitations/implications—The number of male and female SMEsowners is not equal and our respondents were mostly men compared to women. This study measure intention to use IT innovation, and did not measure use behavior.Practical implications—This study extends to knowledge on IS adoption behavior research by using entrepreneurial event models in the context of technology acceptance.Furthermore, from the SME owners’ points of view, this study has shed some light on the adoption and use behavior and clarified the situation for SME owners when they want to adopt and use IT innovation to be successful in their job and market.Originality/value—This study is one of the first to utilize the Entrepreneurial Event Model (EPM to the technology acceptance domain. It also provides a broader view of the IT innovation adoption decision and sheds some additional light on individual technology usage behavior.

Wenjie Zhao

2011-12-01

345

Evaluation of the Decree on Emission Regulations for Medium-sized Combustion Installations; Evaluatie Besluit emissie-eisen middelgrote stookinstallaties  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In April 2010 the Dutch decree on emission limit values (ELVs) on medium-sized combustion installations entered into force. Bems sets ELVs for NOx, SO2, PM and CxHy. In 2013 the Bems legislation was transferred to the Activities Decree (In Dutch: Ab - Activiteitenbesluit). At the same time the Industrial Emissions Directive (IED) was implemented in the Ab. At the time Bems entered into force, it was decided to evaluate this legislation in 2014. Due to incorporation of Bems and the implementation of the IED in the Ab, it was decided to perform this evaluation a year earlier, thereby enabling the consideration of several stakeholders' comments on these implementations. This report presents the main conclusions of this evaluation. In Bems, combustion installations smaller than 50 MWth have to comply with ELVs based on Best Available Technology (BAT). Five possible ELVs have been discussed but not implemented in Bems, due to a lack of knowledge. These ELVs have been included in this evaluation. For gas engines < 2.5 MWth the NOx ELV could be more stringent, namely 140 mg/Nm{sup 3} instead of 340 mg/Nm{sup 3}; all ELVs are set at dry conditions in the flue gas and 3% O2. For biogas engines, introduction of the same ELV might be postponed until a comparable ELV enters into force in 2016 in a Californian region. Both the Californian ELV and this ELV need a gas cleaning technology. For (bio)diesel engines the dust ELV could be more stringent, namely 15 mg PM/Nm{sup 3} instead of 50 mg PM/Nm{sup 3}, while for NOx the ELV can be tightened from 450 mg/Nm{sup 3} to 250 mg/Nm{sup 3}. Both ELVs may be postponed until Tier 4 limits in the USA enter into force in the period 2014-2017. The Netherlands is one of the very few countries with CxHy ELVs for gas engines. The current CxHy ELV of 1500 mg C/Nm{sup 3} may be tightened to 1200 mg C/Nm{sup 3}. Other issues and changes, directly related to the Dutch legislation, have been discussed as well. These include exemption rules for installations running less than 500 full-load hours per year and the reintroduction of an inspection prior to commissioning. Moreover, maximum ELVs for furnaces <50 MWth of 80 mg NOx/Nm{sup 3} for gas firing and 120 mg NOx/Nm{sup 3} for oil firing have been discussed. As a result of this evaluation, the Ab has been changed; for example, ELVs for combustion of non-standard fuels are now set by the licensing authority. Finally, several chapters in this report are devoted to biomass firing and potential restrictions of ELVs for new installations [Dutch] Dit rapport betreft een evaluatie van het Besluit emissie-eisen middelgrote stookinstallaties milieubeheer (Bems). Het besluit geeft milieuregels voor bedrijven die energie (warmte, elektriciteit, mechanische energie) opwekken door het verbranden van brandstoffen in stookinstallaties, zoals verwarmingsketels, motoren en gasturbines.

Kroon, P.; Plomp, A.J. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Van Berkel, L.; Burgers, W.; Hermans, L.; Groot, M.; Simonse, W. [Kenniscentrum InfoMil, Rijkswaterstaat Water, Verkeer en Leefomgeving, Den Haag (Netherlands); Kruithof, P.; Taal, M.; Van Bergen, J.; Walthaus, H. [Ministerie van Infrastructuur en Milieu IenM, Den Haag (Netherlands)

2013-05-15

346

Ceramic Membrane Fabrication from Industrial Waste: Effect of Particle Size Distribution on the Porosity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Industrial waste from sanitary company is chosen in this study as a precursor to fabricate ceramic membrane. It has been reported that enormous rejects being generated every year by this company. A preliminary characterization of this industrial waste shows the presence of quartz mineral, which is one of the main and suitable elements for the formation of ceramic products. Extrusion method was applied in fabricating tubular type ceramic membrane. In this present study, the effect of three different particle size distribution of the powder waste on the porosity is presented. The characterization of the porosity was performed in order to gain the insights in preparing ceramic membrane with good permeability. Results show that almost 40% porosity is able to be obtained using higher particle size distribution. However, further improvements in working conditions should be optimized in order to have a ceramic membrane with good physical properties.

I. Norliza

2009-01-01

347

R&D, structural change and productivity: the role of high and medium-high technology industries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper investigates the potential impact of increased R&D efforts and structural change in Portugal on labour productivity. Based on existing literature on the relation between R&D expenditures, structural change and productivity, we evaluate the contribution of R&D and hightech industries to productivity over the last 30 years. Our results confirm the importance of business R&D in the medium to high-tech sectors and of public R&D, as they stimulate productivity growth. However, we cannot...

Varum, C. A.; Cibra?o, B.; Morgado, A.; Costa, J.

2009-01-01

348

Effect of sodium nitrite-borax blend on the corrosion rate of low carbon steel in industrial water medium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effects of sodium nitrite-borax blend on low carbon steel corrosion in industrial water medium at various temperatures, various inhibitors concentration of sodium nitrite and borax and at various rotational speeds of the specimens have been studied by gravimetric and polarization measurements. Optimization of the three variables was made and correlating the results obtained by using Box-Wilson statistical method. The process was considered as adsorption of inhibitor ions in oxide layer which form a passive film on the metal surface. The Langmuir isotherm was found to be the best description for the adsorption process. Thermodynamic parameters were evaluated and discussed

2008-10-01

349

Case study: Minimization of corrosion using activated sodium bromide in a medium-size cooling tower  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The process loop cooling tower at the Albemarle Process Development Center in Baton Rouge, LA has historically used chlorine as the biocide together with industry accepted phosphorus-based corrosion/scale inhibitors. Although this regimen provided biocontrol, sludge and iron build-up was a recurring problem, especially in low-velocity, small cross-sectional areas of piping. A general clean-up of the system was performed in April, 1995. This clean-up was followed with a switch to a two-component corrosion inhibitor/dispersant package. It was decided to study alternate biocides as well at this time. Activated sodium bromide was found to be particularly effective in this tower, which operates at pH {approximately}8.4. Relative to chlorine, the use of activated sodium bromide led to a decrease in general and pitting corrosion on mild steel while maintaining prior performance on admiralty brass. The reduced corrosion appears to be due to a combination of both chemical (less attack on passivated metal surfaces) and biological factors (better control of heterotrophic and sessile bacteria). These conclusions are supported by chemical analyses, corrosion meter and coupon data, dip slides, BART (biological activity reaction test) tests, and visual observations of the tower sump and heat exchanger surfaces.

Nalepa, C.J.; Moore, R.M.; Golson, G.L. [Albemarle Corp., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Wolfe, T.W.; Puckorius, P.R. [Puckorius and Associates, Evergreen, CO (United States)

1996-10-01

350

Mean force on a finite-sized spherical particle due to an acoustic field in a viscous compressible medium  

Science.gov (United States)

An analytical expression to evaluate the second-order mean force (acoustic radiation force) on a finite-sized, rigid, spherical particle due to an acoustic wave is presented. The medium in which the particle is situated is taken to be both viscous and compressible. A far-field derivation approach has been used in determining the force, which is a function of the particle size, acoustic wavelength, and viscous boundary-layer thickness. It is assumed that the viscous length scale is negligibly small compared to the acoustic wavelength. The force expression presented here (i) reduces to the correct inviscid behavior (for both small- and finite-sized particles) and (ii) is identical to recent viscous results [M. Settnes and H. Bruus, Phys. Rev. E 85, 016327 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevE.85.016327] for small-sized particles. Further, the computed force qualitatively matches the computational fluid dynamics (finite-element) results [D. Foresti, M. Nabavi, and D. Poulikakos, J. Fluid Mech. 709, 581 (2012), 10.1017/jfm.2012.350] for finite-sized particles. Additionally, the mean force is interpreted in terms of a multipole expansion. Subsequently, considering the fact that the force expansion is an infinite series, the number of terms that are required or adequate to capture the force to a specified accuracy is also provided as a function of the particle size to acoustic wavelength ratio. The dependence of the force on particle density, kinematic viscosity, and bulk viscosity of the fluid is also investigated. Here, both traveling and standing waves are considered.

Annamalai, Subramanian; Balachandar, S.; Parmar, Manoj K.

2014-05-01

351

The Influence of Size on Corporate Culture and Organizational Effectiveness in the Nigerian Banking Industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper examined the effect of size on corporate culture and organizational effectiveness in the Nigerian banking industry. A total of 388 managers were randomly drawn from a population of 13,339 managers of all the 24 banks in Nigeria. The instruments used for data collection were questionnaire and oral interview. A total of 320 copies of the questionnaire were retrieved and analyzed. Spearman’s Rank Correlation Statistical tool was used to test the hypotheses. The findings revealed that...

Edwinah Amah; Nwuche, C. A.

2013-01-01

352

The medium-sized charged YbSin± (n = 7-13) clusters: A relativistic computational investigation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Graphical abstract: The geometries and electronic properties of the medium-sized YbSin± (n = 7-13) clusters are investigated systematically by using relativistic density functional method. The medium-sized YbSin± clusters with n = 8, 9, 10, and 13 significantly deform their neutral geometries, which are confirmed by the calculated AIP and VIP values. The relative stabilities in terms of the calculated fragmentation energies exhibit that the YbSin+ (n = 8, 10, 13) and YbSin- (n = 8, 10, 12) clusters have stronger abundances than their corresponding neighbors; the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gaps of the charged clusters are increased generally as the cluster size going from n = 7 to 13; the large HOMO-LUMO gaps of charged clusters indicate that their chemical activities are weaker than those of their neutral counterparts, especially for n = 7, 10, and 13 clusters. Generally, the obtained or removed charge influences electronic and geometrical structures of the charged clusters. Research highlights: ? Most of the charged YbSin (n = 7-13) clusters keep frameworks as the neutrals, and the geometries of 8a+, 9a+, 10a+, and 13a+ are significant deformed, which are reflected from the calculated VIPs and AIPs values. The charged YbSi8 cluster is actually the most stable isomer. ? According to the calculated HOMO-LUMO gaps of the clusters, one finds that the HOMO-LUMO gaps for the charged YbSin (n = 7-13) clusters are smaller than those of the neutrals, reflecting that the removed or obtained charge influences the HOMO-LUMO gaps of neutral clusters. ? The calculated results show that the YbSin (n = 7-13) clusters are the nonmagnetic structures because the f orbitals are filled completely, which are not involved in the chemical bonding. - Abstract: The geometries and electronic properties of the medium-sized YbSin± (n = 7-13) clusters are investigated systematically by using relativistic density functional method. The medium-sized YbSin± clusters with n = 8, 9, 10, and 13 significantly deform their neutral geometries, which are confirmed by the calculated AIP and VIP values. The relative stabilities in terms of the calculated fragmentation energies exhibit that the YbSin+ (n = 8, 10, 13) and YbSin- (n = 8, 10, 12) clusters have stronger abundances than their corresponding neighbors; the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gaps of the charged clusters are increased generally as the cluster size going from n = 7 to 13; the large HOMO-LUMO gaps of charged clusters indicate that their chemical activities are weaker than those of their neutral counterparts, especially for n = 7, 10, and 13 clusters. Generally, the obtained or removed charge influences electronic and geometrical structures of the charged clusters.

2010-12-09

353

Market Orientation: Journey from Antecedents to Business Performance in a Developing Economy A Case-Study of Botswana’s Small and Medium Size Manufacturing Firms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper aims to investigate the link between antecedents of market orientation and performance of Botswana’s Small and Medium sized Manufacturing Firms. This study is primarily centered on empirically investigating two issues : test the applicability of MARKOR Scale ( A widely used market orientation measure developed by Kholi and Jaworski (1990) ,amongst Botswana’s small and medium sized manufacturing firms, and investigating the factors (Antecedents) influencing the Botswana’s manu...

Opeda, Frederick O.; Jaiyeoba, Olumide O.; Amanze Donatus

2011-01-01

354

Analysis of the Emerging China Green Era and Its Influence on Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Development: Review and Perspectives  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) play a vital role in China’s economy as generators of employment, revenue and innovation. With the unprecedented economic development of China, the increase of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) number has resulted in a massive resources and energy consumption that produces significant generation of waste by-products. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that China is facing an emerging green era. The raise of Chinese environmentalism ...

Randriamalala Jean Luc Stevens; Mijitaba Maman Moustapha; Pertiwi Evelyn; Randriamalala Jean Stevenson

2013-01-01

355

Use of radiation vulcanized natural rubber latex in small and medium scale industries in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The latex based industry is fast growing with the setting up of several units to produce household and examination gloves. Production of rubberized coir using concentrated latex is also growing rapidly while more and more small scale industries have been set up. There is also a growth in the large scale sector in the dipped goods manufacture. Use of irradiated latex in the manufacture of dipped products has good potential as the efficiency of production is enhanced in the case of latex containing less additives. (author)

1990-01-01

356

Anisotropic finite-size scaling of an elastic string at the depinning threshold in a random-periodic medium  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We numerically study the geometry of a driven elastic string at its sample-dependent depinning threshold in random-periodic media. We find that the anisotropic finite-size scaling of the average square width $overline{w^2}$ and of its associated probability distribution are both controlled by the ratio $k=M/L^{zeta_{dep}}$, where $zeta_{dep}$ is the random-manifold depinning roughness exponent, $L$ is the longitudinal size of the string and $M$ the transverse periodicity of the random medium. The rescaled average square width $overline{w^2}/L^{2zeta_{dep}}$ displays a non-trivial single minimum for a finite value of $k$. We show that the initial decrease for small $k$ reflects the crossover at $k sim 1$ from the random-periodic to the random-manifold roughness. The increase for very large $k$ implies that the increasingly rare critical configurations, accompanying the crossover to Gumbel critical-force statistics, display anomalous roughness properties: a transverse-periodicity scaling in spite that $overline{w^2} ll M$, and subleading corrections to the standard random-manifold longitudinal-size scaling. Our results are relevant tounderstanding the dimensional crossover from interface to particle depinning. Received: 20 October 2010, Accepted: 1 December 2010; Edited by:  A. Vindigni; Reviewed by: A. A. Fedorenko, CNRS-Lab. de Physique, ENS de Lyon, France; DOI: 10.4279/PIP.020008

Sebastián Bustingorry

2010-02-01

357

Performance Measurement in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises - Literature Review and Results from a German Case Study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A literature review of Performance Measurement Systems (PMS) in Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) shows that the main contributions focus on the development of theoretical models, but not on guidelines for practical implementation. In this context, an important neglected aspect is the general fitness or readiness of a SME to implement a PMS. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to determine critical prerequisites for a successful PMS implementation in SMEs. For this purpose, a case study in a German SME was conducted. The findings indicate that the existence of specific contingency factors â?? Corporate Strategy, software-based Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) and Activity Based Costing (ABC) â?? strongly supports the successful implementation of a PMS and its later use. Hence, further research shall include these prerequisites as new variables determining the PMS process. Based on that, researchers and managers of SMEs can develop individual indicators to identify their own PMS readiness.

Brem, Alexander; Kreusel, N.

2008-01-01

358

Environmental Management in Small and Medium-Sized Companies: An Analysis from the Perspective of the Theory of Planned Behavior  

Science.gov (United States)

In the business context, concern for the environment began to develop when pressure from the public administration and environmental awareness groups raised the specific requirements for companies. The Theory of Planned Behavior considers that people's conduct is determined by the intention of carrying out a certain behavior. Thus, the individual's intent is determined by three factors related to the desired outcome of the behavior: the Personal Attitude toward the Results, the Perceived Social Norms, and the Perceived Behavioral Control over the action. Therefore, the objectives of this paper are to clarify the attitudes of the managers of Canarian small and medium-sized companies about taking environmental measures, and try to demonstrate whether there is a relationship between the proposed factors and the intention to take these measures.

Sanchez-Medina, Agustin J.; Romero-Quintero, Leonardo; Sosa-Cabrera, Silvia

2014-01-01

359

[Vasculitis in the trunk: Imaging patterns of typical organ manifestations due to primary vasculitis of small and medium sized vessels].  

Science.gov (United States)

Vasculitis of small and medium sized vessels mostly affects several organ systems and causes unspecific symptoms. The trunk, lungs, heart and the gastrointestinal and urogenital tracts are most frequently involved. Due to an unclear clinical picture imaging is part and parcel of diagnostics. The knowledge of typical and rare imaging patterns as well as knowledge of the correct imaging method is crucial for classification. Projection radiography is still the gold standard for imaging of the lungs. Using computed tomography discrete ground-glass pattern opacities, nodules and consolidations can be depicted. In the abdomen computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging can depict swelling of the intestinal wall. Digital subtraction angiography may contribute to further differentiation and reveal microaneurysms in cases of polyarteriitis nodosa. PMID:20717644

Strube, H; Becker-Gaab, C; Reiser, M; Treitl, M

2010-10-01

360

Multicenter Case Series of Indolent Small/Medium-Sized CD8+ Lymphoid Proliferations With Predilection for the Ear and Face.  

Science.gov (United States)

: We report 7 cases of a CD8 lymphoid proliferation of the ear and face with a cytotoxic T-cell phenotype, but an indolent clinical course. All patients presented with stable or slowly growing asymptomatic lesions on the ear, nose, or lower eyelid. Histopathology showed a dense diffuse dermal infiltrate of small- to medium-sized atypical lymphocytes without destructive features. The lymphocytes were positive for CD3, CD8, ?-F1, and TIA-1 and negative for CD4, CD30, CD56, granzyme B, and PD-1. Of note, the proliferation index was low in available cases. All patients remained in complete remission at median follow-up of 14 months regardless of treatment modality. Staging was negative for extracutaneous disease in all patients. The clinically indolent behavior and histopathologic phenotype together with a low proliferation index (10%-15%) emphasize the importance of accurate diagnosis and appropriate clinical management to avoid overtreatment and complications of therapy. PMID:24394306

Li, Janet Y; Guitart, Joan; Pulitzer, Melissa P; Subtil, Antonio; Sundram, Uma; Kim, Youn; Deonizio, Janyana; Myskowski, Patricia L; Moskowitz, Alison; Horwitz, Steven; Querfeld, Christiane

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
361

THE LIMITS OF THE EXTENDED HÜCKEL THEORY TO CALCULATE THE TOTAL DENSITY OF STATES OF MEDIUM-SIZED MOLECULES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two medium-sized molecular systems X60 (X=C,N were analyzed using Extended Hückel, Density Functional and ab initio Hartree-Fock methods. The aim of the work was to test the reliability of the EHT methodology to calculate the total Density of States distribution curve. The Extended Hückel method is only reliable in the cases of the first valence and conduction bands of these systems. For the rest of the Density of States distribution curve EHT performs badly. The sources of error of EHT, come from the non-inclusion of the electron-electron interaction and from incorrect results regarding the relative ordering of the MO degeneracies. Both sources of error should disappear when the occupied and empty molecular orbitals become very similar in energy over a certain range, forming an almost continuous band, as happens in bigger molecular systems

JUAN SEBASTIÁN GÓMEZ-JERIA

2006-12-01

362

Status of medium-sized ungulate populations in 2010, at the Nazinga Game Ranch, Burkina Faso (Western Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study consists of analyzing the raw data collected from the annual line-transect foot count of medium-sized ungulates, carried out at the Nazinga Game Ranch (NGR, Burkina Faso (Western Africa, in both 2001 and 2010. The annual census focused on the seven main medium-sized ungulates, namely (in alphabetical order, the Bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus, the Common Warthog (Phacochoerus africanus, the Defassa Waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus, the Grimm's Duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia, the Oribi (Ourebia ourebi, the Roan Antelope (Hippotragus equinus and the Western Hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus. The census also focused on illegal anthropogenic activities. The wildlife populations were quantitatively analyzed through an estimation of their absolute density via the distance sampling method and through their evolution over the last decade using two relative density indexes, namely the Kilometric Abundance Index (KAI and a spatial distribution index. These indexes were also used to measure the evolution of illegal activities over the same period. Both the wildlife observations and the anthropogenic observations were mapped using the Kernel method. Following an increasing trend in their population between 2001 and 2010, both the Roan Antelope and the Western Hartebeest reached an estimated density of 4.7 individuals per km², while the Defassa Waterbuck reached 2.4 individuals per km². Following an inverse trend over the same period, the Bushbuck, the Grimm's Duiker and the Oribi reached an estimated density of 0.4 individuals per km². As for the Common Warthog, its estimated density of 2.5 individuals per km² seemed to remain unchanged during that decade. A comparison between wildlife observations and anthropogenic observations reveals a high decrease in animal densities in the north, east and west peripheral borders of the NGR and a flagrant extension of the proportion of the ranch being subjected to illegal activities (poaching, cattle herding, etc..

Yaméogo, D.

2012-01-01

363

Determination of the retention efficiency of industrial air filters for particle sizes in the submicron range  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Particle size distribution up to a maximum diameter of 0.1 ?m has been produced in the presence of short-lived tracer Na-24 using an aerosol generator. Industrial air filters with a cross-section of 100 cm2 have been exposed to very high particle fluxes such that particulate breakthroughs down to 10-8 can be assessed by measuring the activity ratio of the air before and after going through the filter. This method, which involves installing an analytical filter (absolute filter) after the test filter, has a high accuracy and makes it possible to determine particle breakthrough under the same conditions of air flow velocity and pressure loss as in industrial processes. In comparison with on-the-spot-methods, e.g. the condensation nucleus counter, the above method includes passage across the entire filter area and excludes secondary aerosols. (author)

1986-01-01

364

On the variational computation of a large number of vibrational energy levels and wave functions for medium-sized molecules.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a recent publication [J. Chem. Phys. 127, 084102 (2007)], the nearly variational DEWE approach (DEWE denotes Discrete variable representation of the Watson Hamiltonian using the Eckart frame and an Exact inclusion of a potential energy surface expressed in arbitrarily chosen coordinates) was developed to compute a large number of (ro)vibrational eigenpairs for medium-sized semirigid molecules having a single well-defined minimum. In this publication, memory, CPU, and hard disk usage requirements of DEWE, and thus of any DEWE-type approach, are carefully considered, analyzed, and optimized. Particular attention is paid to the sparse matrix-vector multiplication, the most expensive part of the computation, and to rate-determining steps in the iterative Lanczos eigensolver, including spectral transformation, reorthogonalization, and restart of the iteration. Algorithmic improvements are discussed in considerable detail. Numerical results are presented for the vibrational band origins of the (12)CH(4) and (12)CH(2)D(2) isotopologues of the methane molecule. The largest matrix handled on a personal computer during these computations is of the size of (4x10(8))x(4x10(8)). The best strategy for determining vibrational eigenpairs depends largely on the actual details of the required computation. Nevertheless, for a usual scenario requiring a large number of the lowest eigenpairs of the Hamiltonian matrix the combination of the thick-restart Lanczos method, shift-fold filtering, and periodic reorthogonalization appears to result in the computationally most feasible approach. PMID:19708731

Mátyus, Edit; Simunek, Ján; Császár, Attila G

2009-08-21

365

Size-dependent transformation from Ag templates to Au-Ag nanoshells via galvanic replacement reaction in organic medium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The transformation from Ag templates to Au-Ag nanoshells via galvanic replacement reaction with HAuCl{sub 4} was systematically studied in an organic medium in the presence of oleylamine. Decahedral ({approx}43 nm in size) and triangular prism ({approx}53 nm in edge length) Ag templates transformed into equiaxed and triangular prismatic Au-Ag nanoshells, respectively. The first step involved structural and morphological changes from Ag templates to Au-Ag nanoshells with an interior cavity. In the second step, the growth of the shells continued through the deposition of Au. The shell thickness increased from {approx}5 to {approx}10 nm for the equiaxed Au-Ag nanoshells ({approx}39-nm interior cavity) and {approx}5 to {approx}8 nm for the triangular prismatic Au-Ag nanoshells ({approx}52-nm interior edge length). Oleylamine not only served as a surfactant but also removed AgCl precipitates and reduced HAuCl{sub 4}. For the nanoshells derived from the {approx}20-nm Ag decahedrons, further reaction in excess HAuCl{sub 4} collapsed the nanoshells into Au-rich solid fragments. However, the nanoshells derived from the {approx}43-nm Ag decahedrons, the nanoshell structure not only persisted in excess HAuCl{sub 4}, but its shell thickness also increased. The size-dependent transformation of these nanoshells is discussed.

Karvianto; Chow, G. M., E-mail: msecgm@nus.edu.sg [National University of Singapore, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (Singapore)

2012-10-15

366

Size-dependent transformation from Ag templates to Au–Ag nanoshells via galvanic replacement reaction in organic medium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The transformation from Ag templates to Au–Ag nanoshells via galvanic replacement reaction with HAuCl4 was systematically studied in an organic medium in the presence of oleylamine. Decahedral (?43 nm in size) and triangular prism (?53 nm in edge length) Ag templates transformed into equiaxed and triangular prismatic Au–Ag nanoshells, respectively. The first step involved structural and morphological changes from Ag templates to Au–Ag nanoshells with an interior cavity. In the second step, the growth of the shells continued through the deposition of Au. The shell thickness increased from ?5 to ?10 nm for the equiaxed Au–Ag nanoshells (?39-nm interior cavity) and ?5 to ?8 nm for the triangular prismatic Au–Ag nanoshells (?52-nm interior edge length). Oleylamine not only served as a surfactant but also removed AgCl precipitates and reduced HAuCl4. For the nanoshells derived from the ?20-nm Ag decahedrons, further reaction in excess HAuCl4 collapsed the nanoshells into Au-rich solid fragments. However, the nanoshells derived from the ?43-nm Ag decahedrons, the nanoshell structure not only persisted in excess HAuCl4, but its shell thickness also increased. The size-dependent transformation of these nanoshells is discussed.

2012-10-01

367

Radiation quality of tritium ?-rays: microdosimetric distributions for nanometer-size targets in a medium containing tritiated water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To elucidate the characteristics of the action of tritium ?-rays, the following parameters are derived: (a) electron slowing down spectra of primary electrons (?-rays) and delta-rays in a medium containing tritiated water; and (b) frequency distributions for the microdosimetric quantity j (number of effective primary events per track per target), fsub(j), for nanometer-size targets exposed to tritiated water. Features of the radiation quality of tritium ?-rays are discussed by comparing the present results with those for "6"0Co ?-rays and 7 MeV electrons. It is concluded that, although tritium ?-rays, "6"0Co ?-rays, and 7 MeV electrons are classified as the same low l.e.t. radiation, the radiation quality of tritium ?-rays is considerably different from those of "6"0Co ?-rays and 7 MeV electrons, and has specific features such as a high average l.e.t., a small total electron fluence per unit absorbed dose, and a different microdosimetric distribution, fsub(j), for nanometer-size targets. (author)

1986-01-01

368

Industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of industrial mitigation for sustainable development is discussed in Section 7.7. Section 7.8 discusses the sector's vulnerability to climate change and options for adaptation. A number of policies have been designed either to encourage voluntary GHG emission reductions from the industrial sector or to mandate such reductions. Section 7.9 describes these policies and the experience gained to date. Co-benefits of reducing GHG emissions from the industrial sector are discussed in Section 7.10. Development of new technology is key to the cost-effective control of industrial GHG emissions. Section 7.11 discusses research, development, deployment and diffusion in the industrial sector and Section 7.12, the long-term (post-2030) technologies for GHG emissions reduction from the industrial sector. Section 7.13 summarizes gaps in knowledge.

Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

2007-12-01

369

Potential advantages of coupling supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle to water cooled small and medium size reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? S-CO2 cycle as candidate for SMS. ? MATLAB code used for S-CO2 cycle analysis. ? Pressure ratio and split ratio comparison analyzed. - Abstract: The supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO2) Brayton cycle is being considered as a favorable candidate for the next generation nuclear reactors power conversion systems. Major benefits of the S-CO2 Brayton cycle compared to other Brayton cycles are: (1) high thermal efficiency in relatively low turbine inlet temperature, (2) compactness of the turbomachineries and heat exchangers and (3) simpler cycle layout at an equivalent or superior thermal efficiency. However, these benefits can be still utilized even in the water-cooled reactor technologies under special circumstances. A small and medium size water-cooled nuclear reactor (SMR) has been gaining interest due to its wide range of application such as electricity generation, seawater desalination, district heating and propulsion. Another key advantage of a SMR is that it can be transported from one place to another mostly by maritime transport due to its small size, and sometimes even through a railway system. Therefore, the combination of a S-CO2 Brayton cycle with a SMR can reinforce any advantages coming from its small size if the S-CO2 Brayton cycle has much smaller size components, and simpler cycle layout compared to the currently considered steam Rankine cycle. In this paper, SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor), a 330 MWth integral reactor developed by KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Institute) for multipurpose utilization, is considered as a potential candidate for applying the S-CO2 Brayton cycle and advantages and disadvantages of the proposed system will be discussed in detail. In consideration of SMART condition, the turbine inlet pressure and size of heat exchangers are analyzed by using in-house code developed by KAIST–Khalifa University joint research team. According to the cycle evaluation, the maximum cycle efficiency under 310 °C is 30.05% at 22 MPa of the compressor outlet pressure and 36% of flow split ratio (FSR) with 82 m3 of total heat exchanger volume while the upper bound of the total cycle efficiency is 37% with ideal components within 310 °C. The total volume of turbomachinery which can afford 330 MWth of SMR is less than 1.4 m3 without casing. All the obtained results are compared to the existing SMART system along with its implication to other existing or conceptual SMRs in terms of overall performance in detail.

2012-04-01

370

Phospholipid metabolism in an industry microalga Chlorella sorokiniana: the impact of inoculum sizes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chlorella sorokiniana is an important industry microalga potential for biofuel production. Inoculum size is one of the important factors in algal large-scale culture, and has great effects on the growth, lipid accumulation and metabolism of microalgae. As the first barrier of cell contents, membrane plays a vital role in algal inoculum-related metabolism. The knowledge of phospholipids, the main membrane component and high accumulation of phospholipids as the major content of total lipids mass in some microalgae, is necessary to understand the role of membrane in cell growth and metabolism under different inoculum density. Profiling of C. sorokiniana phospholipids with LC-MS led to the identification of 119 phospholipid species. To discover the phospholipid molecules most related to change of inoculum sizes, Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) was employed and the results revealed that inoculum sizes significantly affected phospholipid profiling. Phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidyl- ethanolamine (PE) and several phosphatidylcholine (PC) species might play an important role under our experimental conditions. Further analysis of these biomarkers indicated that cell membrane status of C. sorokiniana might play an important role in the adaption to the inoculum sizes. And the culture with inoculum size of 1 × 10(6) cells mL(-1) presented the best membrane status with the highest content of PC and PG, and the lowest content of PE. We discovered that the inoculum size of 1 × 10(6) cells mL(-1) might provide the best growth condition for C. sorokiniana. Also we proposed that PG, PE and several PC may play an important role in inoculum-related metabolism in C. sorokiniana, which may work through thylakoid membrane and photosynthetic pathway. Thus this study would provide more potential targets for metabolic engineering to improve biofuel production and productivity in microalgae. PMID:23940649

Lu, Shuhuan; Wang, Jiangxin; Ma, Qian; Yang, Jie; Li, Xia; Yuan, Ying-Jin

2013-01-01

371

Occupational exposure in small and medium scale industry with specific reference to heat and noise.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was undertaken to assess heat and noise exposure and occupational safety practices in small and medium scale casting and forging units (SMEs) of Northern India. We conducted personal interviews of 350 male workers of these units through a comprehensive questionnaire and collected information on heat and noise exposure, use of protective equipment, sweat loss and water intake, working hour. The ambient wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT index) was measured using quest temp 34/36o area heat stress monitor. A-weighted Leq ambient noise was measured using a quest sound level meter "ANSI SI. 43-1997 (R 2002) type-1 model SOUNDPRO SE/DL". We also incorporated OSHA norms for hearing conservation which include - an exchange rate of 5dB(A), criterion level at 90dB(A), criterion time of eight hours, threshold level is equal to 80dB(A), upper limit is equal to 140dB(A) and with F/S response rate. Results of the study revealed that occupational heat exposure in melting, casting, forging and punching sections is high compared to ACGIH/NIOSH norms. Ambience noise in various sections like casting / molding, drop forging, cutting presses, punching, grinding and barreling process was found to be more than 90dB(A). About 95% of the workers suffered speech interference where as high noise annoyance was reported by only 20%. Overall, 68% workers were not using any personal protective equipment (PPE). The study concluded that the proportion of SME workers exposed to high level heat stress and noise (60 - 72 hrs/week) is high. The workers engaged in forging and grinding sections are more prone to noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) at higher frequencies as compared to workers of other sections. It is recommended that there is a strong need to implement the standard of working hours as well as heat stress and noise control measures. PMID:20160389

Singh, Lakhwinder Pal; Bhardwaj, Arvind; Deepak, Kishore Kumar

2010-01-01

372

Examinations on the Meteorologic Factors of Urban Heat Island Development in Small and Medium-sized Towns of Hungary  

Science.gov (United States)

EXAMINATIONS ON THE METEOROLOGICAL FACTORS OF URBAN HEAT ISLAND DEVELOPMENT IN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED TOWNS OF HUNGARY Sandor Szegedi, Renata Gyarmati, Laszlo Kapocska and Tamas Toth University of Debrecen Department of Meteorology, 4032 Debrecen Egyetem tér 1. The thermal difference between the settlements and their environment is called urban heat island (UHI). Potential UHI intensities are mainly determined by the size, population and built-up structure of settlements. Meteorological conditions have a determinant impact on the development of the heat island at a certain moment. International and Hungarian studies usually deal with metropolises and big cities; much less attention is paid to medium-sized and small towns. Consequently this study has been focused on the development of UHI in such Hungarian urbanized areas as mentioned above. Settlements, located near the city of Debrecen (ca. 220,000 inhabitants) in East Hungary, with population of about 30000, 20000 10000 and 1000 were chosen for the research. Car-mounted digital thermometers with data loggers were used. Twenty four measurements were carried out during a one-year-long campaign in 2003-2004. Synoptic conditions, especially cloudiness, wind direction and wind speed were taken to consideration as determinant factors. Spatial characteristics of UHI have been described. Results have proved the existence of UHI even in the smallest settlement under suitable weather conditions. The non-heating season proved to be more advantageous for the development of UHI due to stronger irradiance and frequent anticyclonic synoptic conditions. Effects of cloudiness and wind speed have been revealed as well. St type clouds have proved to be most effective in preventing the formation of UHI. A 90-100% St cover could completely eliminate the thermal differences between natural and artificial surfaces. Ci type clouds had the weakest impact, they could prevent the formation of the heat island only in the smallest settlement involved in the study. In that cases when favorable synoptic conditions prevailed within 48-72 hours before the measurements, but during the measuring cloudiness reached 50%, strong UHI could not develop in any settlement, while over 75% only weak UHI could form in the big city. Over 90% there were no heat island found in any settlements involved here. Wind speed had a strong impact on the strength of the heat island, while wind directions affected its shape merely. It was found that winds of 1-1.5 m/s (measured at a height of 2 metres) could prevent the formation of an UHI in settlements with 10000 inhabitants and below. In such cases in settlements with 20000-300000 inhabitants, only medium intensity heat islands could develop, and the intensity curve became asymmetric as the heat island was pushed towards the lee side. In case of stronger 2.5-3 m/s winds, UHI could develop only in Debrecen. The intensity in such cases (2-3 °C) reached only about half of the characteristic intensity of ideal circumstances. The shape was usually drifted strongly lee wards. Over a wind speed 3 m/s, at a height of 2 m heat island could not develop in any settlements involved in the study.

Szegedi, S.; Gyarmati, R.; Kapocska, L.; Toth, T.

2010-09-01

373

CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE USE OF MODERN MANAGEMENT METHODS IN PLANNING THE MARKETING ACTIVITY WITHIN THE SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES  

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Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight, from a marketing perspective, the manner and conditions in which small and medium-sized enterprises can use modern management methods in planning the marketing activity. Using modern methods of management are particularly important for managers of these organizations and especially for marketers. Thus, the following methods play a significant role within the marketing activitiesn#8217; development for marketing specialists, namely: management by objectives, management by budgets, management by projects, and management by product. The high degree of understanding and using the above methods is, in the current economic environment, one of the determinants of the market success of small and medium-sized enterprises. In the current context, the adoption of the management by objectives is not a facultative option for the small and medium-sized enterprises, but rather a binding one in the context of adopting and practicing an efficient marketing with significant results on the development of marketing programs comprised within them. Similarly to the management by objectives, the use of the management by budgets within the small and medium-sized enterprises has a series of features required by their smaller size, features that should be considered by marketers. Regarding the use of management by projects, this method has to constitute the foundation for the elaboration of marketing programs developed within the small and medium-sized enterprises, thereby allowing shaping an action that can be accompanied by success in achieving the goals comprised within the marketing programs. Finally, the role of the management by product is extremely important in the marketing activity within the small and medium-sized enterprises, especially in the operationalization of concepts such as strategic marketing and tactical marketing. This paper thus outlines from a marketing point of view the main issues aiming at understanding and using modern management methods in the marketing activity planning process within SMEs.

Olteanu Valerica

2012-07-01

374

THE SIZE AND ORIGIN OF METAL-ENRICHED REGIONS IN THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM FROM SPECTRA OF BINARY QUASARS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present tomography of the circum-galactic metal distribution at redshift 1.7-4.5 derived from echellete spectroscopy of binary quasars. We find C IV systems at similar redshifts in paired sightlines more often than expected for sightline-independent redshifts. As the separation of the sightlines increases from 36 kpc to 907 kpc, the amplitude of this clustering decreases. At the largest separations, the C IV systems cluster similar to the Lyman-break galaxies studied by Adelberger et al. in 2005. The C IV systems are significantly less correlated than these galaxies, however, at separations less than R1 ? 0.42 ± 0.15 h -1 comoving Mpc. Measured in real space, i.e., transverse to the sightlines, this length scale is significantly smaller than the break scale estimated previously from the line-of-sight correlation function in redshift space by Scannapieco et al. in 2006. Using a simple model, we interpret the new real-space measurement as an indication of the typical physical size of enriched regions. We adopt this size for enriched regions and fit the redshift-space distortion in the line-of-sight correlation function. The fitted velocity kick is consistent with the peculiar velocity of galaxies as determined by the underlying mass distribution and places an upper limit on the average outflow (or inflow) speed of metals. The implied timescale for dispersing metals is larger than the typical stellar ages of Lyman-break galaxies, and we argue that enrichment by galaxies at z ? 4.3 played a greater role in dispersing metals. To further constrain the growth of enriched regions, we discuss empirical constraints on the evolution of the C IV correlation function with cosmic time. This study demonstrates the potential of tomography for measuring the metal enrichment history of the circum-galactic medium.

2010-09-20

375

The Corporate Social Responsibility Model in Romania: A Theoretical and Practical Approach for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises  

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Full Text Available In the context of Romania’s accession to the European Union, theimplementation of corporate social responsibility (CSR into day-to-day business decisions has become one of the main pillars of the economic and social development. Although CSR was initially considered an attribute of large companies, especially international and multinational ones, in the last years the importance of the concept application was also demonstrated for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs. This particular importance is based on thestrategic advantages and positive stakeholders’ implication that CSR usually brings on for the responsible companies. Considering the above mentioned premises, the purpose of the present research paper is to emphasize the main characteristics of CSR in Romania for all types of companies, but especially for SMEs. First part of the paper aims to synthesize the CSR models considering the specialized literature and the European requirements in the field. Second part of the paper is devoted to CSR model identification for the Romanian businessenvironment based on theoretical and practical evidence. Finally, third part of the research aims to highlight the main advances in the domain of SMEs’ CSR in Romania – what was done, as well as other necessary measures – what should be done, in order to transform this type of implication into strategic business actions developed according to the European and national requirements. Examples ofbest practices and relevant case studies would be analyzed for strongly confirming the theoretical framework and also an optimal model could be emphasized for SMEs in Romania.

Irina-Eugenia Iamandi

2011-09-01

376

Defining the Role Engagement of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR  

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Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility (CSR discourse, academic research, public policy and media commentaries, which have burgeoned in the past few decades in response to the desire to define the nexus between business and society tended to focus mainly on large corporate organizations which are expected to behave responsibly. The big businesses have for years attracted large volume of literature on CSR. Very little literature is currently available to enhance our understanding about the engagement of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in CSR. The SMEs, often defined variously, in terms of turnover, gross asset value, ownership structure and the number of employees, is a significant sector worldwide in terms of economic, environmental and the social impact they make. This paper attempted to bridge this apparent research gulf, defined the nature of SMEs, the aggregate contributions of the sector to economies of both developed and developing nations and their role engagement in CSR. The study adopted qualitative literature survey method. A review of the paltry literature provided insight and defined the direction of research in this important and underexplored area of study. SMEs were found to perform roles associated with community development, employee initiatives, consumerism, environmental actions and supply chain requirements. To overcome the constraints confronting SMEs engagement in CSR initiatives the paper recommended increased resources, training programmes, development of SMEs-oriented tools and standards to guide adoption and implementation, and government intervention strategies to create the necessary incentives and support services for effective engagement.

Benjamin James Inyang

2013-04-01

377

The impact of corporate social responsibility factors on the competitiveness of small and medium-sized enterprises  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has become increasingly important to the competitiveness of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). A positive relationship between the CSR activities of SMEs and their enhanced competitiveness exists, at least if a long-term perspective is adopted (European [...] Competitiveness Report, 2008:106; Mandl & Dorr, 2007:2). Despite the widespread practical and academic interest in CSR and its impact on the competitiveness of SMEs, few theoretical and empirical contributions could be found. The primary objective of this study was to identify and empirically test the CSR factors influencing the competitiveness of SMEs in Uganda. The outcomes of this study will assist SMEs to effectively and responsibly manage their activities to increase their competitiveness. A structured, self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 750 potential SME respondents. The respondents were identified by means of a purposive sampling technique, and the data were collected from 383 usable questionnaires. An exploratory factor analysis was carried out, and Cronbach's alpha coefficients calculated to determine the discriminant validity and reliability of the measuring instrument. Correlations were assessed using structural equation modeling. The empirical results of this study indicate that workforce-oriented CSR activities, society-oriented CSR activities, market-oriented CSR activities and regulated CSR activities significantly influence the competitiveness of SMEs.

Peter, Turyakira; Elmarie, Venter; Elroy, Smith.

378

Social participation among older adults living in medium-sized cities in Belgium: the role of neighbourhood perceptions.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the associations between neighbourhood perceptions and social participation in a sample of older adults living in medium-sized cities in Flanders, Belgium. Strong evidence of the influence of place on older people's physical and mental health exists. However, the question of how neighbourhoods promote or hinder social participation remains under-explored in social gerontology. Using data generated from the Belgian Ageing Studies, a multivariate regression model (n = 1877) is tested, with personal characteristics, subjective neighbourhood assessments and objective city-level measures as independent variables, and two indicators of social participation as dependent variables: social activity and formal participation. Positive predictors included neighbourhood involvement, frequent contact with neighbours and availability of activities for older people. However, the predictive role of neighbourhood perceptions is stronger for formal participation than for social activity, which is explained more by individual characteristics. The article concludes by discussing the implications of the findings for research and practice pertaining to health promotion interventions. PMID:23503290

Buffel, Tine; de Donder, Liesbeth; Phillipson, Chris; Dury, Sarah; de Witte, Nico; Verté, Dominique

2013-03-15

379

Air pollution and cardiovascular hospital admissions in a medium-sized city in São Paulo State, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to estimate the contribution of environmental pollutants to hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease. A time series ecological study was conducted on subjects aged over 60 years and living in São José dos Campos, Brazil, with a population near 700,000 inh [...] abitants. Hospital admission data of public health patients (SUS) were obtained from DATASUS for the period between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2006, according to the ICD-10 diagnoses I20 to I22 and I24. Particulate matter with less than 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter, sulfur dioxide and ozone were the pollutants examined, and the control variables were mean temperature and relative humidity. Data on pollutants were obtained from the São Paulo State Sanitary Agency. The generalized linear model Poisson regression with lags of up to 5 days was used. There were 1303 hospital admissions during the period. Exposure to particulate matter was significantly associated with hospitalization for cardiovascular disease 3 days after exposure (RR = 1.006; 95%CI = 1.000 to 1.010) and an increase of 16 µg/m³ was associated with a 10% increase in risk of hospitalization; other pollutants were not associated with hospitalization. Thus, it was possible to identify the role of exposure to particulate matter as an environmental pollutant in hospitalization for cardiovascular disease in a medium-sized city inSoutheastern Brazil.

L.F.C., Nascimento.

380

Air pollution and cardiovascular hospital admissions in a medium-sized city in São Paulo State, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to estimate the contribution of environmental pollutants to hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease. A time series ecological study was conducted on subjects aged over 60 years and living in São José dos Campos, Brazil, with a population near 700,000 inhabitants. Hospital admission data of public health patients (SUS were obtained from DATASUS for the period between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2006, according to the ICD-10 diagnoses I20 to I22 and I24. Particulate matter with less than 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter, sulfur dioxide and ozone were the pollutants examined, and the control variables were mean temperature and relative humidity. Data on pollutants were obtained from the São Paulo State Sanitary Agency. The generalized linear model Poisson regression with lags of up to 5 days was used. There were 1303 hospital admissions during the period. Exposure to particulate matter was significantly associated with hospitalization for cardiovascular disease 3 days after exposure (RR = 1.006; 95%CI = 1.000 to 1.010 and an increase of 16 µg/m³ was associated with a 10% increase in risk of hospitalization; other pollutants were not associated with hospitalization. Thus, it was possible to identify the role of exposure to particulate matter as an environmental pollutant in hospitalization for cardiovascular disease in a medium-sized city inSoutheastern Brazil.

L.F.C. Nascimento

2011-07-01

 
 
 
 
381

Drivers for Information and Communication Technology Adoption: A Case Study of Nigerian Small and Medium Sized Enterprises  

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Full Text Available In recent times, the current use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT in many organizationscauses some forms of revolution in their business practices. ICT is increasingly becoming related toorganizational values (Rastrict and Corner, 2010. Researchers (e.g. Rastrict and Corner, 2010; Lin and Lin,2006 and Melville et al., 2004 reveal that there is a growing support for the positive relationship between ICTand its advantages. According to Kapurubandara and Lawson (2006, ICT offers promising opportunities toorganizations in order to meet the challenges of an ever-changing environment. ICTs have a remarkable potentialto contribute to sustained competitive advantage for businesses, having been identified as key tools inmanagement processes (Ion and Andreea, 2008. Kutlu and Özturan (2009, argue that in Small and MediumSized Enterprises (SMEs, ICT can be used as a business tool to reduce costs, create stronger links withcustomers, create innovations and facilitate market niche. Ongori (2009 also states that SMEs are compelled toadopt ICT in their business processes in order to cope with the challenges in the business environment. Thus, thispaper intends to identify some drivers for ICT adoption amongst 25 SMEs in Nigeria. The paper is drawn fromon-going PhD research.

Idisemi Apulu

2011-05-01

382

The Effect of Founder Family Influence on Hedging and Speculation : Evidence from Danish, Medium-Sized, Manufacturing Firms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We investigate the effect of founder family influence in the form of managers, board of directors, and/or ownership on hedging and speculation in medium-sized, manufacturing firms in Denmark. On a crude measure of use / non-use of derivatives we find only a weak indication of differences between founder family firms and other firms in relation to their management of foreign exchange rate, interest rate, and commodity price exposures. Digging deeper into a subsample of users of foreign exchange derivatives and debt denominated in foreign currency, we find that founder family firms not only tend to hedge more extensively, they also tend to speculate more often than other firms. While the former result on hedging is in line with founder families' lack of monetary diversification and their non-pecuniary investment in the firm, the latter result on speculation is surprising and can only be explained by Adam Smith's observation that men - in this case members of the founder family - tend to overestimate their own abilities and good fortune. The results of the study are important 1) because the interaction between founder family influence and risk management has received limited attention in the literature (in contrast to the attention given to the interaction between founder family influence and corporate performance) and 2) because the founders or the founders' families or heirs control most of the firms in the world.

Aabo, Tom; Kuhn, Jochen

383

Estructura y temporalidad urbana de las ciudades intermedias en México / Urban structure and time in Medium-Sized mexican cities  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este trabajo exploratorio pretende aplicar y estudiar esquemas espaciales monocéntricos de ciudades a partir del análisis espacial sobre el gradiente de densidad, estructura de edad de la población y tenencia de la vivienda en 32 ciudades intermedias mexicanas. Los modelos cuantitativos de estructur [...] a urbana toman como referencia la distancia al centro de negocios de la ciudad como un elemento, determinante en el comportamiento de ciertos fenómenos. En el presente estudio vemos cómo el factor del período histórico al que pertenece el espacio urbano permite encontrar patrones espaciales consistentes en la estructura de las ciudades intermedias mexicanas. Abstract in english The internal structure of cities has been examined through various disciplines such as economic spatial models, ecological structures and land use. This paper seeks to study centrality in urban structure models for medium-sized Mexican cities through the spatial analysis of population density, popul [...] ation age structure and housing in 32 Mexican cities. Quantitative urban structure models use distance to the central business district as a basic aspect for determining the behavior of certain phenomena. This study shows that the historical period to which urban space belongs enables one to identify consistent spatial patterns in the structure of intermediate Mexican cities.

Álvarez de la Torre, Guillermo.

384

Mexico and emerging carbon markets : investment opportunities for small and medium-size companies and the global climate agenda  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report provides information to the financial services sector on major environmental issues in North America in an effort to identify potential financial opportunities in Mexico regarding the climate change agenda and those coming from possible carbon offset projects. As a non-Annex 1 country, Mexico is not obliged to meet domestic GHG emission reduction targets, but given the strong economic links between Mexico, Canada and the United States it is suggested that investment transfer links to climate change should follow existing international investment and trade patterns. This report examined three sectors in Mexico, including electric power generation, steel production and land-use change and forestry, in an effort to evaluate their potential for carbon reduction. The report identifies carbon-related opportunities involving small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) in particular because large companies are already better positioned to examine opportunities associated with the international climate agenda. SMEs, however, face many challenges in taking advantage of climate-related projects and associated investment opportunities, including higher entry and transaction costs, difficulty in accessing capital markets, and difficulty in estimating individual baselines and inventories. The report showed that the main carbon-related opportunity in Mexico's electricity sector are closely related to the planned expansion of natural gas use. This study also suggests that the climate agenda can contribute to changing Mexican forests from their current state of being a net source of greenhouse gas emissions, to becoming a significant carbon sink. tabs., figs

2001-01-01

385

Study on recent execution of overall evaluation bidding method in small and medium-sized regional local governments  

Science.gov (United States)

About 70% of local governments in Japan, endeavored to introduce overall evaluation bidding method for their public works in 2011 and each authority ordered one or some projects in according to the new bidding process. That is, their enforcement was an only trial level and they say that the reason why is long-term procedure and heavily administrative load of the system. The author think that such burden has relationship of human affairs of local govern ments, practical problems on kinds and price of constructions and the officers' experience on the new bidding method. The aim of this study is to analyze such problems among the officers' profession, posts and experience of administrative matter by statistical data, questionnaire and hearing to the officers. The result could indicate that a group of small local governments uses the method appropriately and that another group of medium-sized rejects to increase more contracts in according to the new bidding system because of unbalance between the stuffs' ability and order quantity of public works.

Fujishima, Hirohide; Yanase, Norihiko

386

Pharmaceutical Enterprises' R&D Strategic Alliance—— the Road for Small and Medium Sized Pharmaceutical Enterprises' R&D in China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on analyzing the status of small and medium-sized pharmaceutical enterprises in China, the paper explores the problems of these enterprises; Then it provided several feasible  development strategies which are building pharmaceutical enterprises' R&D strategic alliance, starting from the corporate strategic view and combining with the R&D characteristics of small and medium sized pharmaceutical companies; Finally in order to ensure the Effectiveness of R & D alliance, we point out some points of what should be noted in the process.

Shuzhen Chu

2009-12-01

387

Inferred Variable FeO Content in Medium-sized Lunar Pyroclastic Deposits from LRO Diviner Data  

Science.gov (United States)

Lunar pyroclastic deposits (LPDs) are low albedo features that mantle underlying terrain (Gaddis et al. 1985). They are high priority targets for science and exploration as they are believed to originate from and therefore reflect the composition of the deep lunar interior (NRC, 2011). They are also the best potential resource of oxygen out of any Apollo samples (Allen et al. 1996). Historically, LPDs have been divided into regional versus local categories (Gaddis et al. 2003). The large (>1000 km2 area) regional deposits are deeply sourced (>400 km deep) and result from fire fountaining. Small (deposits are thought to result from Vulcanian eruptions in which magma is slowly emplaced beneath the surface until enough volatiles exsolve and the high pressure causes an explosion. Bennett et al. (2013) identified a local deposit (674 km2 area) that may have resulted from both Vulcanian activity and fire fountaining. This deposit potentially represents a new intermediate class of LPDs that straddles the interface between the two formation mechanisms. The deposit also exhibits the highest inferred FeO wt.% of any known lunar glass. In this work we investigate the inferred FeO abundances of other medium-sized deposits to characterize this potential new class of deposits and understand the magnitude of variations in inferred FeO among pyroclastic deposits. We use the method of Greenhagen et al. (2010) to calculate the wavelength of the Christiansen Feature (CF) from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Diviner Lunar Radiometer instrument thermal-infrared observations for four medium-sized deposits. From the CF values, we estimate each deposit's FeO abundance using the method of Allen et al. (2012). The four LPDs that we examined (Oppenheimer South, Beer, Cleomedes, and J. Herschel) all have average CF values from 8.22-8.28 microns, corresponding to FeO abundances of approx. 10-15 wt.%. All of these values are within the range and uncertainties of FeO abundances measured in Apollo samples. As previously identified, the Oppenheimer South deposit exhibits an area of enhanced CF values (8.49 microns) that, if the methods of Allen et al. (2012) can be extrapolated, correspond to a highest observed approx. 30 wt.% FeO. Moon Mineralogy Mapper near-infrared spectra indicate that this area is glass-rich as opposed to olivine-rich. While we are still investigating the nature of the high CF wavelength in Oppenheimer South, spatially-resolved observations there and (to a smaller degree) in our other study sites, shows that FeO wt.% can vary within LPDs. Thus, obtaining only the average FeO abundance over a large area may not be adequate to understand global variation. The magnitude of Oppenheimer South's CF variability, if due to actual surface variations rather than calibration artifacts or spectral mixing, could indicate that it is a unique deposit and not part of a new mid-sized class of deposits. The higher value could be a result of its location within the South Pole Aitken Basin and exsolution of more deeply sourced magma due to the thin crust there.

Bennett, K. A.; Horgan, B.; Greenhagen, B.; Allen, C.; Bell, J. F., III

2014-01-01

388

Inferred Variable FeO Content in Medium-sized Lunar Pyroclastic Deposits from LRO Diviner Data  

Science.gov (United States)

Lunar pyroclastic deposits (LPDs) are low albedo features that mantle underlying terrain (Gaddis et al. 1985). They are high priority targets for science and exploration as they are believed to originate from and therefore reflect the composition of the deep lunar interior (NRC, 2011). They are also the best potential resource of oxygen out of any Apollo samples (Allen et al. 1996). Historically, LPDs have been divided into regional versus local categories (Gaddis et al. 2003). The large (>1000 km2 area) regional deposits are deeply sourced (>400 km deep) and result from fire fountaining. Small (<1000 km2) local deposits are thought to result from Vulcanian eruptions in which magma is slowly emplaced beneath the surface until enough volatiles exsolve and the high pressure causes an explosion. Bennett et al. (2013) identified a local deposit (674 km2 area) that may have resulted from both Vulcanian activity and fire fountaining. This deposit potentially represents a new intermediate class of LPDs that straddles the interface between the two formation mechanisms. The deposit also exhibits the highest inferred FeO wt.% of any known lunar glass. In this work we investigate the inferred FeO abundances of other medium-sized deposits to characterize this potential new class of deposits and understand the magnitude of variations in inferred FeO among pyroclastic deposits. We use the method of Greenhagen et al. (2010) to calculate the wavelength of the Christiansen Feature (CF) from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Diviner Lunar Radiometer instrument thermal-infrared observations for four medium-sized deposits. From the CF values, we estimate each deposit's FeO abundance using the method of Allen et al. (2012). The four LPDs that we examined (Oppenheimer South, Beer, Cleomedes, and J. Herschel) all have average CF values from 8.22-8.28 microns, corresponding to FeO abundances of approx. 10-15 wt.%. All of these values are within the range and uncertainties of FeO abundances measured in Apollo samples. As previously identified, the Oppenheimer South deposit exhibits an area of enhanced CF values (8.49 microns) that, if the methods of Allen et al. (2012) can be extrapolated, correspond to a highest observed approx. 30 wt.% FeO. Moon Mineralogy Mapper near-infrared spectra indicate that this area is glass-rich as opposed to olivine-rich. While we are still investigating the nature of the high CF wavelength in Oppenheimer South, spatially-resolved observations there and (to a smaller degree) in our other study sites, shows that FeO wt.% can vary within LPDs. Thus, obtaining only the average FeO abundance over a large area may not be adequate to understand global variation. The magnitude of Oppenheimer South's CF variability, if due to actual surface variations rather than calibration artifacts or spectral mixing, could indicate that it is a unique deposit and not part of a new mid-sized class of deposits. The higher value could be a result of its location within the South Pole Aitken Basin and exsolution of more deeply sourced magma due to the thin crust there.

Bennett, K. A.; Horgan, B.; Greenhagen, B.; Allen, C.; Bell, J. F., III

2014-01-01

389

Application of two-thirds law to plume rise from industrial-sized sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Plume rise measurements from industrial-sized sources (F < 100 m/sup 4/ sec/sup -3/), including those experiencing stack-tip downwash, were compared to the plume-rise predictions from the ''2/3 law.'' When stack-tip downwash was not significant, plume rises for sources having a buoyancy flux less than 100 m/sup 4/ s/sup -3/ were typically 70-75% of that predicted by the 2/3 law. Plume rises for sources experiencing severe stack-tip downwash were on the average 44% of that predicted by the 2/3 law; however, most plume rises were 12 to 50% of the predicted values, and some were negative. Reduced rise and weakened correlation of rise with buoyancy flux indicated that factors other than buoyancy flux--such as downwash, increased entrainment, and turbulence controlled termination--significantly controlled plume rise.

Rittmann, B.E.

1982-01-01

390

Tube vibration in industrial size test heat exchanger (30/sup 0/ triangular layout - six crosspass configuration)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tube vibrations in heat exchangers are being systematically studied in a series of tests performed with an industrial-size test exchanger. Results from flow tests of nine different tube bundles, in a basic 5-baffle, 6-crosspass configuration on a 30/sup 0/-triangular layout with a pitch-to-diameter ratio of 1.25, are reported. the test cases include a full tube bundle, no-tubes-in-window bundle, finned tube bundle, and several proposed field fixes. The testing focused on identification of the lowest critical flowrate to initiate fluidelastic instability (large amplitude tube motion) and the location within the bundle of the tubes which first experience instability. The threshold flowrates are determined from a combination of methods based on sensory observations, vibration amplitude data, and frequency response information. Pressure drop data are also generated and reported.

Wambsganss, M.W.; Halle, H.; Lawrence, W.P.

1981-10-01

391

Tube vibration in industrial-size test heat exchanger (90/sup 0/ square layout)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tube vibrations in heat exchangers are being systematically investigated in a series of tests performed with an industrial-size test exchanger. Results from waterflow tests of eleven different tube bundles, in six- and eight-crosspass configurations on a 90/sup 0/ square layout with a pitch-to-diameter ratio of 1.25 are reported. The test cases include full tube bundles, no-tubes-in-window bundles, finned tube bundles, and proposed field and design fixes. The testing focused on identification of the lowest critical flowrate to initiate fluidelastic instability (large amplitude tube motion) and the location within the bundle of the tubes which first experience instability. The test results are tabulated to permit comparison with results obtained from previous tests with a 30/sup 0/ triangular layout tube bundle. Instability criteria are evaluated preliminarily. Pressure drop data are also generated and reported.

Halle, H.; Wambsganss, M.W.

1983-02-01

392

The Role of Remote Sensing for Sustainable Elephant Management in South Africa. Four Medium Sized Game Reserves as Case Studies  

Science.gov (United States)

Loxodonta africana (African Elephant) are running out of living space so the protection of what space they have is essential. Existing areas of suitable elephant habitat need to be protected not only from human development but from the elephants themselves. As most elephant populations in South Africa are enclosed and multiplying, there is some increasing cause for concern as the damage caused will escalate and could reach unsustainable proportions. This study examined the utilization of satellite images for the detection of elephant induced ecosystem modification. A pilot study was conducted on four medium sized Game Reserves (each ±30 000 ha) in South Africa. The aim was to ascertain the feasibility of using image analysis as instrument by which Game Reserve managers could assess biodiversity richness, habitat loss, and population-habitat viability. NDVI as indicator of primary production in vegetation is one of the instruments used to evaluate whether the carrying capacity for elephants of each Game Reserve has been reached and to compare the current biomass with those of previous years. The study also looked at the use of the woody canopy cover as target for change detection analysis. Spectral characteristics of specific trees species which are known for being preferred by elephants were used to conduct a temporal analysis on satellite images starting from the period when the elephants were re-introduced into each Game Reserve, thus attempting to identify possible impact on the biodiversity of the respective Game Reserves. Images from satellites such as Landsat, SPOT, Quickbird and SumbandilaSAT provided the needed data and maps.

Jordaan, M.

2012-07-01

393

Impact of local urban design and traffic restrictions on air quality in a medium-sized town.  

Science.gov (United States)

Traffic is the major air pollution source in most urban areas. Nowadays, most of the strategies carried out to improve urban air quality are focused on reducing traffic emissions. Nevertheless, acting locally on urban design can also reduce levels of air pollutants. In this paper, both strategies are studied in several scenarios for a medium-sized town of the Basque Country (Spain). Two main actions are analysed in order to reduce traffic emissions: (1) minor extension ofa pre-existing low emission zone (LEZ); (2) substitution of 10% of passenger cars that are older than 5 years by hybrid and electric vehicles. Regarding local urban design, three alternatives for the development of one side of a street canyon are considered: (1) a park with trees; (2) an open space without obstacles; (3) a building. Two different urban traffic dispersion models are used to calculate the air quality scenarios: PROKAS (Gaussian&box) to analyse the reduction of traffic emissions in the whole urban area and WinMISKAM (CFD) to evaluate specific urban desi