WorldWideScience

Sample records for medium sized industries

  1. Investigating power factor compensation capacity calculation in medium sized industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are a variety of techniques developed in order to improve the efficiency of electrical systems and reduce cost of providing electricity to the consumer. This paper presents a new technique for power-factor capacity calculation in medium-sized industrial/ commercial setups. Various loads of similar nominal power-factor are categorized and demand-factor of loads is so selected that it has engineering justifications. The developed system works on the principle of low-voltage power-factor correction, which substantially reduces electricity bill and increases loading-capacity of the electrical system. It allows commercial and industrial consumers to save on their power cost appreciably. This work utilizes software, which takes few inputs and produces numerous useful results. Adoption of this system can help the user in computing compensation-capacity, system KVA (size of transformer) and cost of compensation. A feature of this system is prediction of low PF penalty. Moreover, it also suggests the tentative payback period. (author)

  2. TheWay to Internationalization for Small & Medium-sized Enterprises !a Industry Cluste

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoshui Yu; Jinsheng He

    2009-01-01

    With the globalization of the world economy, especially after China entering the WTO, it is an unavoidable trend for China!?small & medium-sized enterprises to join the international competition.According to the analysis on the advantages anddisadvantages of China!?s small & medium-sized enterprises, industrial cluster should be an efficient way for the small medium-sized enterprises to reach the target of internationalization.  By establishing and improving specialized industry ...

  3. Productivity Growth in the Medium Size Malaysian-industry Level: Primal and Dual Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Abdol Samad Nawi; Irwan Bin Ismail; Zainuddin Zakaria; Jannah Munirah Md Noor; Bashir Ahmad Bin Shabir Ahmad; Nik Fakrul Hazri; Wan Anisabanum Salleh; Mohd Tajul Hasnan Mohd Tajuddin; Nur Raihana Mohd Sallem

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the theoretical relationship between the primal and dual Total Factor Productivity (TFP) from the accounting measurement perspective and also assesses their accuracy in measuring unobserved TFP growth in the presence of market power (MP) and non constant returns to scale (NCRTS) in the case of the medium sized Malaysian industries. In support of this, this paper uses an empirical method to estimate TFP growth by using medium sized Malaysian manufacturing data at 5-digi...

  4. Productivity Growth in the Medium Size Malaysian-industry Level: Primal and Dual Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdol Samad Nawi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the theoretical relationship between the primal and dual Total Factor Productivity (TFP from the accounting measurement perspective and also assesses their accuracy in measuring unobserved TFP growth in the presence of market power (MP and non constant returns to scale (NCRTS in the case of the medium sized Malaysian industries. In support of this, this paper uses an empirical method to estimate TFP growth by using medium sized Malaysian manufacturing data at 5-digit SIC (Standard Industrial Classification level. In order to achieve this objective, this paper first tests whether the sample of medium sized Malaysian industries have constant factor shares in total revenue. T-tests have been used to examine the hypothesis stating that factor shares in total revenue are constant over time. Finally, this paper compares the estimates of TFP growth to those of primal and dual TFP accounting measures.

  5. STRATEGIES FOR SMALL- AND MEDIUM-SIZED COMPANIES IN CHINESE INSURANCE INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Xiaochen

    2010-01-01

    With the development of the Chinese economy, insurance industry is becoming one of the most important commercial industries in China. Currently small- and medium-sized (SME) insurance companies gain more and more important status in the insurance market, but the main problem is to find a suitable strategy to develop in a balanced way. It is very important for the SME insurance organizations to identify their core resources and competencies and cultivate their competitiveness and competitive a...

  6. An energy efficiency program for Swedish industrial small- and medium-sized enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Thollander, Patrik; Dotzauer, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Industrial energy programs such as energy audit programs and long-term agreements (LTAs) are one of the most common means of promoting energy efficiency in industry. As a result of the European Energy End-Use Efficiency and Energy Services Directive from 2006, the Swedish Government Bill proposed a national energy program towards industrial small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) using more than 500 MWh energy annually. The aim of this paper is to present the structure and design of the pr...

  7. Finnish medium sized manufacturing companies access to Norwegian petroleum and offshore industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norwegian petroleum and offshore industry is one of the biggest industry clusters in Northern Europe measured by the total turnover. The yearly investment level, approximately 40-50 billion NOK until the end of the century, makes this industry interesting as a potential purchasing market for various products and services. The purpose of the present report is to provide some basic information of the Norwegian petroleum and offshore industry to the Finnish medium sized manufacturing companies interested in entering this market. The objective of this report is to arouse interest in the oil and gas industry and provide up-to-date statistical data of a number of major factors characterizing the industry. In this sense the report serves as a preparatory data source book for persons who want to widen their knowledge of the offshore industry. This report strongly emphasizes practical aspects. Lists and addresses of the major authorities, oil companies and offshore manufacturing companies might help in seeking additional information. They can also be made use of contacting the potential customers. Besides the statistical and practical information, subjects like the history of the Norwegian petroleum industry, specific features of the major oil and gas fields, environmental aspects e.g. are also discussed in this report. This general knowledge might be useful when meeting Norwegian customers

  8. Schwarz Shipyards : How a Medium Sized Enterprise Struggles to Survive Disruptive Industry Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohrbeck, René; BØe-Lillegraven, Siri

    2013-01-01

    This case is designed to discuss strategy formation and strategic renewal in small and medium-sized enterprises that are challenged by external disruptive change. The case can be used to teach: external analysis, BCG-matrix, internal analysis (resources and capabilities), Porter’s-5-Forces, industry life-cycle, Porter’s generic strategies, SWOT analysis, strategy formation and business model analysis. The case builds on an in-depth case study conducted in 2011/2012. The case has been anonymized. More specifically the case describes the triumphs and challenges of a medium-sized European shipyard during the past decades. After the industry crisis in the late 80s the yard management steered through an extremely adventurous period. However, due to external and internal difficulties they ultimately faced bankruptcy. Students are asked to put themselves in the shoes of the shipyard management in 2006, a point in time where they still had the possibility to affect its destiny. The case includes an extensive set of questions that covers the most important elements of a master of science degree course in strategy. The questions are also suitable for exam or term papers.

  9. Innovation in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in the Malaysian information technology (IT) industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to examine innovative activities in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the Malaysian information technology (IT) industry. This study addresses three research questions: 1. What is the innovation pattern among SMEs in the Malaysian IT industry? 2. How significant is interactive learning between SMEs in the Malaysian IT industry and other agents in the innovation system? and 3. What is the role of the government in promoting innovation among SMEs in the Malaysian IT industry? Two approaches were taken to collect data for this study, that is, mail survey and face-to-face interviews. Based on findings from this study, the SMEs in the Malaysian IT industry were divided into four categories, namely, highly innovative, innovative, inventive, and non innovative. The patterns of knowledge acquisition and interactive learning vary among the different categories of firms, and on the whole, vertical linkages with suppliers were found to be the most significant. Finally, support through the provision of funding was considered to be among the most important roles of the government in promoting innovation in SMEs in the Malaysian IT industry. (author)

  10. Eco-modernizing small en medium-sized agro-industries in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Pham Hong Nhat

    2007-01-01

    Following ‘Doi Moi’ (Renovation), which started in 1986, the former centrally planned economy in Vietnam is shifting to an economy where production is linked to market demand and consumption. As a result, the nation has been enjoying an unprecedentedly fast economic growth, especially in recent years: 8.4% in 2005 and 8.17% in 2006. The economic renovation also brought an expansion of the private sector, which consists mainly of small- and medium-sized enterprises, SMEs. The reform process ha...

  11. Financial and Tax Management in Small and Medium Sized Industrial Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestvinová, Viera; Homokyová, Mária; Horváthová, Martina

    2012-12-01

    Target of this paper was to evaluate the importance of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in Slovakia and to determine the application of financial and tax management in this type of enterprises. The results of our findings confirm that SMEs have an important role in Slovakia, and also that especially small businesses have little or no experience with the application of financial and tax management. Therefore the paper contains recommendations for financial and tax management of SMEs.

  12. Development strategy of green energy industry for Taipei—A modern medium-sized city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taipei, a subtropical modern medium city, is essentially featured with high population density, scarce land, and large traffic flow. Moreover, there are abundant green energy resources reserved in Taipei. If they were fully developed, there would be 13,040 GWh electricity generated per year, resulting in a total of 9.37 million tons of carbon dioxide emissions abatement. The development of the green energy industry in this city not only can bring significant energy-saving and carbon-reducing benefits, but also may create huge derivative business opportunities. For example, the total output values of the solar PV and electric vehicles industries would be as high as 700 billion yuan. In this study, through Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis, we concluded that the top priorities for Taipei for the development of green energy industries are building energy conservation and electrified transportation, specifically, the following four items: electric vehicles, Light-Emitting Diode (LED) lighting, inverter air conditioning, and Energy Service Company (ESCO). Meanwhile, Taipei is a domestic and international key of politics, transportation, technology, commerce, and finance. Taipei is very likely to become an internationalized green energy industrial hub, achieving the “3E” goals of economic prosperousness, environmental protection, and energy security. -- Highlights: •Building energy conservation and electrified transportation are top priorities. •SWOT analysis applied to systematically conclude four green energy industrial items for Taipei. •Specifically, electric vehicles, LED lighting, inverter air conditioning, and ESCO. •13,040 GWh electricity would be generated per year from Taipei's rich renewables. •The derivative business opportunities would exceed 700 billion yuan

  13. Sustainability of small and medium-sized agro-industries in Northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Wattanapinyo, A.

    2006-01-01

    For many yearsThailandhas faced unexpected environmental impacts and risks from (industrial) development. In spreading over the country these impacts and risks have caused growing social conflicts around resident communities in rural areas. In investigating the (un)sustainability of agro-food processing industries inThailand, this study developed a methodology to analyze and assess the potential contributions of core actors in stimulating industrial performance into more environmentally sound...

  14. Explaining Internationalisation of Small to Medium Sized Enterprises within the Queensland Food and Beverage Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Spowart

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of International New Ventures (INVs has increased during the past twenty years. Nevertheless,to date there has been no general consensus within the literature on an explanation as to the rapid internationalisation of some firms. Do they follow a similar process to other firms that internationalise based ona more ‘measured’ incremental sequential process of internationalisation. This paper proposes and tests an innovation diffusion model of the internationalisation of small firm INVs and others by drawing on keyinnovation diffusion models from the literature. The results of this analysis indicate that the synthesised model ofexport adoption is effective in explaining the internationalisation process of INVs and other firms within theQueensland Food and Beverage Industry. Significantly, the features of the original innovation diffusion modelsdeveloped in the consumer behaviour literature, which had limited examination within the internationalisationliterature, were confirmed. This includes the ability of firms, or specifically decision-makers, to skip stagesbased on previous experience.

  15. Innovative capabilities, firm performance and foreign ownership: Empirical analysis of large and medium-sized companies form all industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Talaja

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article innovative capability, i.e. the ability of new products and markets development, is analyzed and empirically tested. The results have proven that the companies with more developed innovative capabilities achieve higher performance levels, but that there is no difference in innovative capabilities between large and medium-sized companies. On the other hand, medium-sized companies have slightly higher levels of sales growth and increase in market share. Also, companies in foreign ownership are better at development of new products and new production methods, and they have higher levels of sales growth, market share and increase in market share.

  16. Development of a Low NOx Medium sized Industrial Gas Turbine Operating on Hydrogen-Rich Renewable and Opportunity Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, Ram

    2013-07-31

    This report presents the accomplishments at the completion of the DOE sponsored project (Contract # DE-FC26-09NT05873) undertaken by Solar Turbines Incorporated. The objective of this 54-month project was to develop a low NOx combustion system for a medium sized industrial gas turbine engine operating on Hydrogen-rich renewable and opportunity Fuels. The work in this project was focused on development of a combustion system sized for 15MW Titan 130 gas turbine engine based on design analysis and rig test results. Although detailed engine evaluation of the complete system is required prior to commercial application, those tasks were beyond the scope of this DOE sponsored project. The project tasks were organized in three stages, Stages 2 through 4. In Stage 2 of this project, Solar Turbines Incorporated characterized the low emission capability of current Titan 130 SoLoNOx fuel injector while operating on a matrix of fuel blends with varying Hydrogen concentration. The mapping in this phase was performed on a fuel injector designed for natural gas operation. Favorable test results were obtained in this phase on emissions and operability. However, the resulting fuel supply pressure needed to operate the engine with the lower Wobbe Index opportunity fuels would require additional gas compression, resulting in parasitic load and reduced thermal efficiency. In Stage 3, Solar characterized the pressure loss in the fuel injector and developed modifications to the fuel injection system through detailed network analysis. In this modification, only the fuel delivery flowpath was modified and the air-side of the injector and the premixing passages were not altered. The modified injector was fabricated and tested and verified to produce similar operability and emissions as the Stage 2 results. In parallel, Solar also fabricated a dual fuel capable injector with the same air-side flowpath to improve commercialization potential. This injector was also test verified to produce 15-ppm NOx capability on high Hydrogen fuels. In Stage 4, Solar fabricated a complete set of injectors and a combustor liner to test the system capability in a full-scale atmospheric rig. Extensive high-pressure single injector rig test results show that 15-ppm NOx guarantee is achievable from 50% to 100% Load with fuel blends containing up to 65% Hydrogen. Because of safety limitations in Solar Test Facility, the atmospheric rig tests were limited to methane-based fuel blends. Further work to validate the durability and installed engine capability would require long-term engine field test.

  17. THE ALGORITHM IMPLEMENTATION OF THE DIVERSIFICATION STRATEGY IN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES (FOR EXAMPLE, THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ??????? ?????????? ?????

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Diversification in small businesses in the general sense is an extension of business activities to new areas of business (expanding the range of products, types of services provided, etc.. Application of the strategy of diversification in the small and medium business is justified in cases where the industry does not give us opportunities for further growth or when growth opportunities outside the industry more attractive. To determine whether diversification overdue and justified, the entrepreneur must clearly define the algorithm for their actions.Purpose: To determine the algorithm implementation of the strategy of diversification.Methodology: Desk research.Results: The developed algorithm.Practical implications: Management.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-19

  18. Market Entry and Priority of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the Software Industry: An Empirical Analysis of Cultural Distance, Geographical Distance, and Market Size

    OpenAIRE

    Ojala, Arto; Tyrva?inen, Pasi

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of cultural distance, geographical distance, and three market size variables to the target country preference of SMEs in the software industry. In addition, we examine the shift of priorities in SMEs’ country selection by analyzing how these factors impact the selection of the first, second, and third target countries. Empirical findings of this study suggest that almost 70% of country choices can be explained by software market size and ...

  19. Techno-economic evaluation of commercial cogeneration plants for small and medium size companies in the Italian industrial and service sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The liberalization of the electricity market and the concern for energy efficiency have resulted in a surge of interest in cogeneration and distributed power generation. In this regard, companies are encouraged to evaluate the opportunity to build their own cogeneration plant. In Italy, the majority of such companies belong to the industrial or service sector; it is small or medium in size and the electric power ranges between 1 ÷ 10 MW. Commercially available gas turbines are the less expensive option for cogeneration. Particular attention has been given to the possibility of combining an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) with gas turbine, to improve the conversion efficiency. Companies have to account for both technical and economical aspects to assess viability of cogeneration. A techno-economic analysis was performed to identify, in the Italian energy market, which users can take advantage of a cogeneration plant aimed to cover at least part of their energy demand. Since electricity and thermal needs change considerably in the same sector, single product categories have been considered in the analysis. Our work shows that in the industrial sector, independent of the product category, cogeneration is a viable option form a techno-economic perspective. - Highlights: ? The best technologies for 1 ÷ 10 MW distributed generation plant are gas turbine and ORC. ? A variety of commercial cogeneration plants is available to meet user needs. ? Cogeneration is a technical ds. ? Cogeneration is a technical and economical advantage for industrial sector companies.

  20. Medium-size nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CEA (TECHNICATOME) has developed a range of pressurized water reactors of the type ''CAS compact'' which are adapted to civil ship propulsion, or to electric power production, combined possibly with heat production, up to outputs equivalent to 125 MWe. Nuclear plants equipped with these reactors are suitable to medium-size electric networks. Among the possible realizations, two types of plants are mentioned as examples: 1) Floating electron-nuclear plants; and 2) Combined electric power and desalting plants. The report describes the design characteristics of the different parts of a 125 MWe unit floating electro-nuclear plant: nuclear steam system CAS 3 G, power generating plant, floating platform for the whole plant. The report gives attention to the different possibilities according to site conditions (the plant can be kept floating, in a natural or artificial basin, it can be put aground, ...) and to safety and environment factors. Such unit can be used in places where there is a growing demand in electric power and fresh water. The report describes how the reactor, the power generating plant and multiflash distillation units of an electric power-desalting plant can be combined: choice of the ratio water output/electric power output, thermal cycle combination, choice of the gain ratio, according to economic considerations, and to desired goal of water output. The report analyses also some technical options, such as: choice of the extraction point of steam used as heat supply of the desalting station (bleeding a condensation turbine, or recovering steam at the exhaust of a backpressure turbine), design making the system safe. Lastly, economic considerations are dealt with: combining the production of fresh water and electric power provides usually a much better energy balance and a lower cost for both products. Examples are given of some types of installations which combine medium-size reactors with fresh water stations yielding from 10000 to 120000 m3 per day

  1. Type Toyota Management Systems (MSTT) of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Mechanical and Electrical Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kluge, Stefan; Rau, Andreas; Westka?mper, Engelbert

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives an overview and considers the most recent aspects of a study, dealing with the topic of Type Toyota Management Systems. In the survey SMEs in mechanical and electrical industry have been asked. On the one hand, a questionnaire for a mass evaluation was used and on the other hand specialists have been interviewed orally for the specific evaluation. The paper shows the methodology of the survey and some of the highlights of the results. Additionally, some approaches to face fut...

  2. Identifying Factors Influencing Entry Mode Selection in Food Industry of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Haghighi Kaffash

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available As internationalization increases in today’s business society, it becomes ever more important for individual business to keep us with the development. The way a company ventures from its domestic market to new geographical markets and selecting the right entry modes are important decision that demands a lot of resources and planning. In the process of selecting entry modes a wide range of factors must be taken into consideration before making the final decision. To provide a better understanding of the impact of some internal and external factors on Iranian SMEs in food industry we chose a conceptual framework from Root and studied its variables in our sample. This model states that a target country market factors, b target country environmental factors c target country production factors and d home country factors as external factors and e country production and f company resource/commitment factors as internal factors have impact on the process of choosing entry modes. In order to collect data we use questionnaire. Our findings illustrated that all of the factors were mentioned in Root’s model had impact on selecting entry modes to a foreign country.

  3. Products, practices and processes: exploring the innovation potential for low-carbon housing refurbishment among small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the UK construction industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scenario-based studies agree that the technical potential for CO2 emissions reduction from the housing stock is large. This paper explores how a market might be developed for the refurbishment activities assumed in these scenarios, taking the existing market for repair, maintenance and improvement (RMI) as its starting point. Interviews with 16 small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the construction industry reveal the interdependence of products, practices and processes in housing renovation activities. Conservative practice as well as innovation can be understood as the outcome of multi-lateral influences on firms from other firms, clients, the material buildings and products in their working lives, and from regulations and regulators. Contractors' openness to innovation is contingent on an informal approach to risk assessment, taking account of cost, time efficiency, client demands, and installer confidence in the reliability of the resulting work. The implications of the research are discussed in relation to the need for new practices and processes on refurbishment projects, raising questions for future research on key questions of quality assurance, performance over time, the application of standards, and vocational training. -- Highlights: •Repair, maintenance and improvement works are triggers for low-carbon refurbishment. •Millions of property owners and small firms make for fragmented decision-making. •Actor-Network Theory is used to frame decision-making processes for refurbishment. •Small builders can be innovative if clients allow time and money for experimentation. •Energy policy for existing homes needs to engage with the construction sector

  4. The Study of Collaborative IP Models and Successful Factors-Taking the Small-and-Medium Sized LCD Industry as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Min Wu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available More and more enterprises conduct business strategically through strategic alliances, mergers & acquisitions, joint ventures, outsourcing, and collaborations to keep their competitive advantages in view of influences such as reduction of product lifecycles, fast changing markets, and global economics. Besides, enterprises gradually recognize that intellectual property management and plans are important. In the generation of R&D management based on innovative capabilities, it can commercialize the developed technologies and yield economic benefits through the effective management and deployment of patents. This research aims to identify how the collaborative Intellectual Property (IP model could shorten product life cycle and further make enterprises successful in the global market. This research firstly figures out the features of the small-and-medium Liquid Crystal Display (LCD industrial and challenges what this industry confronts after the competitive analysis of industry and market. Then the technological trend and patent positions were studied through patent information analysis and tools from Patent Guilder Software. This research also uses the case study methodology and selected the first company that adopted a collaborative IP model. Furthermore, this paper identifies the key performance indicators for the model and finds out the innovative business model for the company.

  5. AN INVESTIGATION INTO MEDIUM-SIZED MULTINATIONAL ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Schilirò

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an investigation of medium-sized Italian industrial enterprises that have become multinational companies. It concetrates on the set of medium and medium-large enterprises who seem to grow more in foreign markets, either through exports or through foreign direct investment. The work also offers a descriptive empirical picture of the performance of medium-sized Italian multinationals, which is compared with the performance of large corporations. From this analysis, which is based on several data sources, it is possible to outline a profile regarding the medium-size italian multinational enterprises; the aim is to understand the complex strategy towards internationalization of these companies, where the dimension of production is important and, therefore, innovation has a key role. Also the commercial dimension is crucial, because it leads to point to the direct supervision of foreign markets and to look very carefully at the customers, offering them a wide range of services. Finally, the paper highlights some critical issues that the medium sized multinational enterprises have to face for competing: namely, the stagnant productivity, the high taxation, the insufficient institutional support for internationalization, the bureaucracy and its high costs, the lack of skilled human capital available in the labor market due to inadequate policy training.

  6. Insights about Integrated Marketing Communication in Small-and-Medium-sized Italian Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Annamaria Esposito

    2013-01-01

    The paper investigates if and how integrated marketing communication (IMC) has been implemented by Italian small-and-medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Three case studies about small and-medium Italian enterprises analysis are carried out: three small and-medium enterprises in different industries through interviews and document analysis. The article highlights the fact that small-and-medium-sized Italian enterprises implement marketing communication using a flexible approach. The most widespre...

  7. Study on the Service Quality Evaluation and Improvement for Medium and Small Sized Hotels

    OpenAIRE

    Fan Chen

    2009-01-01

    The tourism industry is in the important state in the national economy, and the hotel industry is the important part of the tourism industry, and the medium and small sized hotels occupy certain market share because of the numerous quantity. Because the service qualities of medium and small sized hotels are different, so the service quality of the hotel is the nuclear content of hotel management. At present, the supply exceeds the demand in the global hotel market, and the competitions among ...

  8. Holonic Business Process Modeling in Small to Medium Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Budi Mulyono

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Holonic modeling analysis which is the application of system thinking in design, manage, and improvement, is used in a novel context for business process modeling. An approach and techniques of holon and holarchies is presented specifically for small and medium sized enterprise process modeling development. The fitness of the approach is compared with well known reductionist or task breakdown approach. The strength and weaknesses of the holonic modeling is discussed with illustrating case example in term of its suitability for an Indonesia’s small and medium sized industry. The novel ideas in this paper have great impact on the way analyst should perceive business process. Future research is applying the approach in supply chain context.

  9. Small and medium-sized nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small and medium-sized nuclear power plants have long been under discussion as possible applications of nuclear power in countries with small transmission grid systems, in threshold countries and developing countries, and under special local supply conditions. IAEA has condensed and promoted this interest and tried to establish the demand, and possibilities of meeting it, in special events and campaigns. In recent years, considerable interest was registered even in industrialized countries, but here specially for heating and process heat generation applications and for special purposes and, in medium-sized units, also for combined supplies of electricity and heat. This corresponds to special reactor and plant concepts, some of which have already been developed to a stage at which construction work could begin. The analysis presented deals with necessary preconditions on the sides of the users and the vendors, with problems of economy, infrastructure and financing and with the market prospects of small nuclear power plants. (orig./HP)

  10. Consórcio de exportação como alternativa de pequenas e médias empresas: um estudo de caso na cadeia têxtil The export consortium as a best initial alternative for small and medium sized industries: a case study in clothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Barbieri Lima

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo central deste estudo é evidenciar a grande importância e utilidade da formação de consórcios de exportação - que é a união de indústrias do mesmo segmento ou complementares para a exportação de seus produtos em conjunto - para empresas brasileiras de pequeno e médio porte, em detrimento da adoção da exportação indireta ou direta como modo de entrada no mercado internacional. Realizou-se, para isso, a revisão bibliográfica sobre Estratégias ou Modos de Entrada em Mercados Internacionais e Consórcios de Exportação (MALHOTRA, 2001. Utilizou-se o método de estudo de caso (YIN, 2001 para analisar a Associação Brasileira do Vestuário (ABRAVEST, entidade que vem se destacando na formação e consolidação de consórcios de exportação na indústria do setor vestuário, com ênfase nos seguintes tópicos: desenvolvimento do programa, compromissos setoriais e metas de exportação, aplicação dos recursos e consórcios em atividade. Como resultado, foi possível verificar que, entre as três opções analisadas no artigo (exportação direta, exportação indireta e consórcios de exportação, a terceira opção foi aceita como a melhor ou mais viável para a internacionalização de empresas de pequeno porte.The importance and value of an export consortium was investigated as a means for small and medium sized Brazilian industries to orchestrate export efforts instead of adopting indirect or direct export to enter foreign markets. An export consortium is an association of industries in the same or complementary segments for the purpose of export. Bibliography was reviewed for initial export strategies including a case study of the Brazilian Clothing Association. The consortia of this exemplary Association have emphasized program development, sector agreements, export objectives and resource application integrated with local activities. An export consortium was found to be the best and most viable alternative for initial export by small and medium sized Brazilian clothing industries in this case, when compared to indirect or direct export.

  11. Small and medium sized reactors: Status and prospects. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the early years of nuclear power deployment, the plants entering service were dominated by what are now considered small (less than 300 MW(e)) and medium (300 to 700 MW(e)) reactors. In the late 1970s, the balance shifted to larger size plants to serve the requirements of industrialized countries. However, since the early 1990s, the increased interest of developing countries in nuclear power, mainly in Asia, has resulted in intensified efforts in development of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). Also, in industrialized countries, electricity market deregulation is calling for power generation flexibility that SMRs may offer. Apart from electricity generation, SMRs are of particular interest for non-electrical applications of nuclear energy, such as desalination of seawater and district heating. In recognition of the current global interest in small and medium sized reactors this seminar was convened to provide a forum for the exchange of information by experts and policy makers from industrialized and developing countries on the technical, economic, environmental, and social aspects of SMR development and implementation in the 21st century, and to make this information available to all interested IAEA Member States. Keynote addresses also provided information on global energy demand and supply and international trends impacting the development and introduction of SMRs. Two hundred forty seven attendees from 39 countries and 5 international organizations participated in the seminar. The majority of the participants were from developing countries. The seminar not only provided valuable up to date information on SMRs, it also highlighted the importance of continued international co-operation in the development and application of nuclear power for peaceful uses throughout the world

  12. Status and prospects for small and medium sized reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Member States have evinced interest in the continued development of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) as an energy source for the future. Support for this programme was recently reaffirmed at the IAEA 1997 General Conference. Although the generation of electricity is the predominant focus of existing SMRs, there is increasing interest in using these plants for desalination, district heating and high temperature industrial process heat applications. Here is a review of SMR development within selected Member States, an overview of the IAEA's SMR programme and a discussion of selected SMR designs with emphasis on safety attributes. (author)

  13. Significance assessment of small-medium sized reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, Minoru [Japan Atomic Power Co., Research and Development Dept., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    Preliminary assessment for deployment of small-medium sized reactor (S and M reactor) as a future option has been conducted at the JAPCO (Japan Atomic Power Company) under the cooperation with the CRIERI (Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry). Significance of the S and M reactor introduction is listed as follows; lower investment cost, possible siting near demand side, enlarged freedom of siting, shorter transmission line, good compatibility with slow increase of demand and plain explanation of safety using simpler system such as integral type vessel without piping, natural convection core cooling and passive safety system. The deployment of simpler plant system, modular shop fabrication, ship-shell structured building and longer operation period can assure economics comparable with that of a large sized reactor, coping with scale-demerit. Also the S and M reactor is preferable in size for the nuclear heat utilization such as hydrogen production. (T. Tanaka)

  14. Oh&S in Small and Medium-Size Enterprises and the Issue of Cultural Diversity: Ongoing Research in the Construction Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Christophe; Pelleterat Borde, Melchior; Guarnieri, Franck; Lamm, Felicity

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings from stage one of a collaborative New Zealand and French research project on the construction industry and in particular the link between occupational health and safety (OHS), subcontracting and cultural diversity. The construction sector in France, New Zealand and elsewhere has not only one of the highest injury, illness and fatality rates but the sector also has a prevalence of small subcontracting firms and a substantial migrant labour force (CNAM, 2008; ...

  15. The Role of Industrial Incentives in Development of Small and Medium Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Rahnama

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium industries have had a significant impact on creation of new employment opportunities in recent years. In other words, in today’s modern world, small and medium industries have a significant role in variables like economic growth, competitiveness, and resolution of the ubiquitous unemployment crisis. Even though large-scale industries are still important in economic policy-making due to their economy of scale, the effect of massive production, experience, and organization, small and medium industries have some advantages including transportation, market size, regulations, choice effectiveness, and control. Accordingly, these industries have become the first choice for the production of most goods.This study investigated the role of industrial incentives in the development of small and medium industries in East Azerbaijan province. Based on the review of articles, texts, relevant sources, and comments from experts, relevant indicators were defined for each component of industrial incentives. Based on these indicators, a questionnaire was developed with 30 questions. After testing the validity and reliability of the questionnaire, it was applied to statistical samples using stratified random sampling. Then the questionnaires were collected and the obtained information was analyzed using descriptive statistics as well as inferential statistics (Spearman correlation test r and step by step Regression. The results show that there is a statistically significant relationship between the variables in this study. and obtained Results of regression Analysis shows that across 4 indicators Industrial Incentives, 2 indicators of it, that is, Financial and Customal Incentives were appropriate predicators for Development of Small and Medium Industries.

  16. From medium-sized to megawatt turbines...

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongen, W. van [NedWind bv, Rhenen (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    One of the world`s first 500 kW turbines was installed in 1989 in the Netherlands. This forerunner of the current NedWind 500 kW range also represents the earliest predesign of the NedWind megawatt turbine. After the first 500 kW turbines with steel rotor blades and rotor diameter of 34 m, several design modifications followed, e.g. the rotor diameter was increased to 35 m and a tip brake was added. Later polyester blades were introduced and the rotor diameter was increased with 5 in. The drive train was also redesigned. Improvements on the 500 kW turbine concept has resulted in decreased cost, whereas annual energy output has increased to approx. 1.3 million kWh. Wind energy can substantially contribute to electricity supply. Maximum output in kiloWatthours is the target. Further improvement of the existing technology and implementation of flexible components may well prove to be a way to increase energy output, not only in medium or large sized wind turbines. 7 figs.

  17. Diagnóstico ambiental de indústrias de fabricação de estruturas metálicas e esquadrias de metal de pequeno e médio porte / Environmental diagnosis of small and medium size manufacturing industries of metallic frames and metallic structures

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patrícia Dal, Moro; Adalberto, Pandolfo; Leila Dal, Moro; Naira Elizabete, Barbacovi; Leandro Doro, Tagliari.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O crescimento populacional na última metade do século XX, acompanhado dos avanços tecnológicos, levou ao desenvolvimento acelerado das indústrias, o que ocasionou o aumento da poluição ambiental causada pelos resíduos sólidos. Assim, a legislação tem se tornado cada vez mais exigente, o que obriga a [...] s empresas a serem cada vez mais responsáveis, no que se refere à questão ambiental em sua estratégia operacional. Diante deste fato, este trabalho buscou realizar um diagnóstico ambiental em indústrias de fabricação de estruturas metálicas e esquadrias de metal de pequeno e médio porte, a fim de verificar as formas de fabricação, gerenciamento, resíduos sólidos gerados e os programas ambientais adotados. Para a obtenção das informações, foram visitadas 18 empresas, as quais participaram da aplicação de um questionário semiestruturado. Abstract in english Population growth in the latter half of the 20th century, accompanied by technological advances, led to the accelerated development of industries, which resulted in increased environmental pollution by solid waste. Legal aspects have increased considerably, demanding companies to be more responsible [...] with regard to environmental issues in their operational strategy. Considering this fact, this study attempts to make an environmental diagnosis in small and medium-sized manufacturing industries of steel structures and frameworks in order to verify forms of manufacturing, management, solid waste generated, and environmental programs adopted. Information was collected in eighteen companies through semi-structured questionnaires.

  18. Study on the Service Quality Evaluation and Improvement for Medium and Small Sized Hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Chen

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The tourism industry is in the important state in the national economy, and the hotel industry is the important part of the tourism industry, and the medium and small sized hotels occupy certain market share because of the numerous quantity. Because the service qualities of medium and small sized hotels are different, so the service quality of the hotel is the nuclear content of hotel management. At present, the supply exceeds the demand in the global hotel market, and the competitions among hotels are very intense, and who can supply excellent service for customers, who can obtain predominance in the market and attract more customers and get good benefits, and so the service quality is the life of hotel. In China hotel industry, especially for medium and small sized hotels, their management methods are draggled and there service qualities are relatively low, so many problems exist in this industry. As viewed from customers, this article discusses the satisfactory degree measurement about medium and small sized hotels based on the SERVQUAL method put forward by Parsuraman and the domestic scholars’ opinions about hotel service research, and analyzes the service quality problem of medium and small sized hotels and puts forward the project of improvement.

  19. Small and medium size nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this appendix is to provide up-to-date technical information relevant to the deployment of small and medium reactors (SMRs). It summarizes the status of SMRs and discusses areas of relevance to their utilization, including seawater desalination; and in particular their simplicity, their flexibility for a variety of applications and the use of passive safety features as fundamental to most of these designs. In response to important commercial developments, the energy range of small and medium reactors is now taken as being up to around 700 MW(e). Detailed information on SMR designs can be found in the IAEA report on The Design and Development Status of Small and Medium Reactor Systems 1995. 5 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  20. Market Potential Estimation of a Small and Medium Size Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technically, nuclear reactors which produce energy in the form of heat can supply energy products other than electricity, including district heat, process heat, potable water etc. Currently non-civil uses of nuclear energy are very limited civil applications except for a military nuclear powered ship and an energy usage in isolated areas. However, the future global environment and an energy resources scarcity could promote a significant usage of non-electrical applications on an industrial scale. Considering these situations, this report analyzed the following: (1) Worldwide non-electrical application of a small and medium sized nuclear reactor - survey the situation of the current technical applications, - survey the global market potential estimation for various applications (2) Technical cooperation potential in several countries - identify necessary conditions for nuclear cooperation, - select candidate countries: Morocco, UAE, Indonesia, Chile and Vietnam, - survey the energy and water situation, - survey the legal and international regime infrastructure

  1. Diseño de un sistema de acumulación de costos para la micro, pequeña y mediana industria panadera / Design of a System for the Accumulation of Costs for Micro, Small And Medium Sized Bakery Industries

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marysela C, Morillo Moreno; Dianosky Yoleida, Pulido.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Las micro, pequeñas y medianas industrias (MPyMI) son fundamentos en una economía sólida, ellas deben diseñar estrategias gerenciales y de apoyo acorde a sus características que les permitan mejorar su competitividad y buscar su consolidación; de allí la necesidad de contar con sistemas de acumulaci [...] ón de costos que generen información apropiada, oportuna y detallada. Luego de un diagnóstico realizado en las industrias panaderas del municipio Barinas, estado Barinas, se constató que éstas son en su mayoría MPyMI, y que no poseen un sistema de acumulación de costos adecuado que permita calcular costos de producción precisos para la planificación, control y toma de decisiones. Por ello, se presentan los resultados de una investigación proyectiva ubicada en el nivel comprensivo, en la cual se diseña un sistema de costos adaptado a las necesidades de estas industrias, compatible con la naturaleza de sus actividades fabriles, a objeto de facilitar y difundir su uso. Se propone un Sistema de Acumulación de Costos Híbrido, a partir de la combinación del sistema de costos por proceso y del sistema de costos por operaciones, para obtener información sistemática, oportuna y confiable, de los costos de producción para la toma de decisiones, dotados a la vez de procedimientos y mecanismos de control. Abstract in english Micro, small and medium sized industries are fundamental in a solid economy, and management and support strategies according to their characteristics should be designed and that allow them to better their competitiveness and consolidation, and for this reason there is a need to account for systems o [...] f cost accumulation that generate appropriate, timely and detailed information. After the realization of a study in the bakery industries in the Barinas Municipality, Barinas State, it was found that the majority of these businesses did not have a system for the adequate accumulation of costs which allowed them to calculate precise production costs for planning, control and decision-making. For this reason we present herein the results of a projected research project on a comprehensive level in which a system of costs is designed, adapted to the needs of these industries, compatible with the nature of their productive activity, in order to facilitate and expand its use. A system of accumulation of hybrid costs is proposed based on a combination of process cost systems and operational cost systems in order to obtain systematic, timely and reliable information on production costs for decision making, and which includes control mechanisms and procedures.

  2. Dynamics of firm size in healthcare industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Hashemi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare is one of the world’s fastest growing industries consisting of broad services offered by various hospitals, physicians, nursing homes, diagnostic laboratories, pharmacies and supported by drugs, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, medical equipment, manufacturers and suppliers. The industry is highly fragmented, comprising of various ancillary sectors namely medical equipment and supplies, pharmaceutical, healthcare services, biotechnology, and alternative medicines. The present study focuses on the pharmaceutical and biotechnology segments of the healthcare industry, and presents a stochastic analysis of the evolution over time of firm size. A dynamic model is proposed that attempts to predict the evolutionary process of firm size distribution based on industry and product characteristics. A validation exercise, applying the model to pharmaceutical and the biotechnology industries finds that the predictions from the model are very close to the actual trajectories of firm size distributions within these industries at the global level. The results show interestingly, that the drivers of firm size dynamics are industry level characteristics that can be estimated from historical data with some accuracy. Specifically, it is found that firm size distributions are approaching a long-run equilibrium at a faster rate in the case of the pharmaceutical industry and that the dispersion of the distributions are shrinking over time above all for the biotechnology industry.

  3. SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES IN POLAND: FINANCIAL ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Bednarz, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the role of small and medium-sized enteprises in Polish economy. It concentrates on problems with finding necessary sources of financing for their current activity and investment and the capabilities of obtaining such means in banks.

  4. Development of medium sized ABWR (ABWR-600, ABWR-900)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitachi has been developing the Medium sized ABWR as a power source that features flexibility to various market needs, such as minimized capital risks, timely return on a capital investment, etc. Basic design policy of the Medium sized ABWR is 1) to be based on ABWR design with superior experiences in construction and operation, 2) to utilize standard BWR fuel adopting proven technology, 3) to achieve rationalized design by suitably utilizing the key components developed for large sized reactor. Development of the Medium sized ABWR has been working to proceed step by step. The first step was to design an output scale of the 600 MWe class (ABWR-600), which is appropriate for a distributed power-supply. The next step we start developing of the up-rated to an output scale of the 900 MWe class (ABWR-900) based on ABWR-600 rationalized technology for further cost saving. (author)

  5. Development of medium sized ABWRs (ABWR-600, ABWR-900)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitachi has been developing medium sized ABWRs as a power source that features flexibility to meet various market needs, such as minimizing capital risks, providing a timely return on capital investments, etc. Basic design concepts of the medium sized ABWRs are 1) using the current ABWR design which has accumulated favorable construction and operation histories as a starting point; 2) utilizing standard BWR fuels which have been fabricated by proven technology; 3) achieving a rationalized design by suitably utilizing key components developed for large sized reactors. Development of the medium sized ABWRs has proceeded in a systematic, stepwise manner. The first step was to design an output scale for the 600 MWe class reactor (ABWR-600) which is appropriate for a distributed power supply. The next step was to develop an uprating concept to extend this output scale to the 900 MWe class reactor (ABWR-900) based on the rationalized technology of the ABWR-600 for further cost savings. (author)

  6. Small and Medium Sized Enterprises In Thailand and Development of Cleaner Production

    OpenAIRE

    Nørgaard, Jens Kristian

    2003-01-01

    In the perspective of the rapid industrial development experienced over the last decades in Thailand, this report intend to contribute to the discussion about development of cleaner production (CP) among small and medium sized enterprises, as a tool to prevent degradation of the country’s natural resources. The objective is to examine the present barriers and possibilities to the low adoption of CP among the industry in Samut Prakarn and to study, which competences small firms have develope...

  7. Entry in a Psychically Distant Market: Finnish Small and Medium-sized Software Firms in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Ojala, Arto

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the market entry and entry mode choice of eight small and medium-sized Finnish software firms in the Japanese market. The findings in this study reveal that, despite of the psychic distance between Finland and Japan, most of the firms entered Japan at a very early stage of their internationalization process by using direct entry modes. This was mainly due to the market size, sophisticated industry structure, and requirements for intensive cooperation with ...

  8. Fracture mechanics characterisation of medium-size adhesive joint specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, Bent F.; Jacobsen, T.K.

    2004-01-01

    Medium-size specimens (<2 m in length), consisting of two glass-fibre beams bonded together by an adhesive layer were tested in four point bending to determine their load carrying capacity. Specimens having different thickness were tested. Except for onespecimen, the cracking occurred as cracking along the adhesive layer; initially cracking occurred along the adhesive/laminate interface, but after some crack extension the cracking took place inside the laminate (for one specimen the later part of thecracking occurred unstably along the adhesive/ laminate interface). Crack bridging by fibres was observed. The measured applied moment at steady-state crack growth was compared with predictions based on independent mixed mode fracture resistancemeasurements made on small laboratory specimens. The predicted and measured strength values of the medium-size specimens were found to be in good agreement with each other. Thus, the scaling from small specimens to medium-size specimens was successfullyachieved.

  9. Status of the CTA medium size telescope prototype

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2012-01-01

    We present here the status of the medium size prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array. The main reasons to build the prototype are the test of the steel structure, the training of various mounting operations, the test of the drive system and the test of the safety system. The essential difference between the medium size telescope prototype and a fully instrumented are that the camera is not instrumented and only a part of the mounted mirrors are optical mirrors. Insofar no high energy gamma rays can be detected by the prototype telescope. The prototype will be setup in autumn 2012 in Berlin.

  10. Workplace Health Promotion within Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ann; Parahoo, Kader; Fleming, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore managers' understanding of workplace health promotion (WHP) and experiences of WHP activity within small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in a Health and Social Care Trust area of Northern Ireland. The paper aims to focus on engagement with activities within the context of prevention of…

  11. Decay heat removal system in a medium size HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study investigates the operation of the decay heat removal system (DHR) during loss of flow (LOF) accident in which the primary flow is reduced to zero at full power operation of medium size high temperature gas reactor (HTGR). (author)

  12. Reference sources for small and medium-sized libraries

    CERN Document Server

    O'Gorman, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on new reference sources published since 2008 and reference titles that have retained their relevance, this new edition brings O'Gorman's complete and authoritative guide to the best reference sources for small and medium-sized academic and public libraries fully up to date.

  13. Problems Facing Small and Medium Size Contractors in Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Didibhuku Thwala

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the problems facing Small and Medium Size Contractors in Swaziland. The construction sector in Swaziland is not only a significant source of direct employment but also a sector which contributes, through its wide range of projects and operations. The paper will also look at the current government initiatives that had been put in place to address the challenges and problems in order to ensure that contractors are successful. There is a high failure rate among small and medium size contractors in Swaziland. These contractors fail for a variety of reasons ranging from lack of adequate capacity to handle the uniqueness, complexity and risks in contracting, lack of effective management, lack of business management, poor record keeping and inadequate technical, financial and contract managerial skills. Drawing on research on small and medium size contractors, the paper used both secondary and primary litera-ture. 100 questionnaires were distributed to different role players in the construction sector in Swaziland. The response rate was eighty seven (87 percent. The paper reveals that the most problems facing small and medium size contractors in Swaziland is lack of access to finance and late payment by government. The paper closes with recommendations and key lessons for the future.

  14. The causal effect of board size in the performance of small and medium-sized firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Morten; Kongsted, Hans Christian

    2008-01-01

    Empirical studies of large publicly traded firms have shown a robust negative relationship between board size and firm performance. The evidence on small and medium-sized firms is less clear; we show that existing work has been incomplete in analyzing the causal relationship due to weak identification strategies. Using a rich data set of almost 7000 closely held corporations we provide a causal analysis of board size effects on firm performance: We use a novel instrument given by the number of children of the chief executive officer (CEO) of the firms. First, we find a strong positive correlation between family size and board size and show this correlation to be driven by firms where the CEO's relatives serve on the board. Second, we find empirical evidence of a small adverse board size effect driven by the minority of small and medium-sized firms that are characterized by having comparatively large boards of six or more members.

  15. Development of ESCO as a tool for realising energy efficiency in small and medium sized industry; ESCO = Energy Service Company; Udvikling af ESCO som vaerktoej til realisering af energieffektivisering i smaa og mellemstore erhvervsvirksomheder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Ove Folmer (DS Haandvaerk og Industri, Odense (Denmark))

    2011-07-01

    The project carried out an advisory process in 10 different SME (small and medium-sized enterprises). The process was based on energy management and employee involvement in energy conservation activities, which has led to a wide variety of projects in companies that have focused on the initiation and solution of diverse energy-saving activities. Results of the project consist of a series of case studies that describe the processes that have been implemented in the company. The selected cases demonstrate the diversity of businesses, their energy saving potential and need for funding. It also describes and assesses the various financing possibilities, a model for qualitative advising in SMEs and a module for the training of the people involved - including installers, craftsmen and advisor. (LN)

  16. Small and medium-sized firms' competitiveness and territorial characteristics/assets: The cases of Bari, Varna and Thessaloniki

    OpenAIRE

    Metaxas, Theodore; Dimitris KALLIORAS

    2013-01-01

    The paper investigates the importance of territorial characteristics/assets (i.e. agglomeration economies, urban infrastructure, factors of labor and cost, development policies, qualitative factors, inter alia) on small- and medium-sized firms’ competitiveness. The analysis uses primary data from 374 small- and medium-sized firms located in Bari (Italy), Varna (Bulgaria) and Thessaloniki (Greece). These firms operate in the sectors of industry, commerce and services. Through the use of expl...

  17. SCOR: Simple compact reactor - An innovative medium sized PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary study for the development of innovative medium sized pressurized water reactor design SCOR (Simple Compact Reactor) is undertaken to meet the established requirements for future electricity generating reactors, such as low power cost, high level of safety, effective fuel cycle strategy, and the provisions of the European Utility Requirements (EUR). This conceptual design makes account of potential markets for medium sized reactors, reflects the intention to have a compact nuclear steam supply system, provides for the possible use of innovative fuels and for simplification of the safety demonstration through elimination of some accidents by design, incorporates many passive safety systems, and ensures low cost of generated power through optimised operation, fuel cycle and investments. The concept appears as a compact reactor with integrated pumps, pressurizer and control rods. A single steam generator is located above the reactor vessel within the reactor closure head. The decay heat is passively removed by dedicated integrated heat exchangers. (author)

  18. Female Leadership Motivation in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Lillbacka, Marjo

    2010-01-01

    Leaders need to know what motivates their employees and how they can get their employees work their best. Women leaders are said to encourage and support their employees, which is essential for leadership motivation. Motivated employees improve enterprises’ overall business performance and results. The research is based on leadership, motivation and self-motivation in small and medium-sized enterprises in Ostrobothnia. The research problem is to find out how female leaders motivate their empl...

  19. Sales strategy in small and medium-sized food companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Renate; Stacey, Julia

    2002-01-01

    All managing teams know that they have to deal with the company's strategy in handling the market. But how do they do it and on the basis of which beleifs and interpretations? A nearly completed PhD project has examined the way in which three small and medium-sized food companies define their market, their competitors and customers, and how they create the world they perceive and act in through their own actions.

  20. Utilizing Content Marketing in Small and Medium-Sized Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Parviainen, Ville

    2014-01-01

    The major objective of this study is to find out how and to what extent online content is currently utilized for marketing purposes among small and medium-sized organizations in Finland. Additionally, positive and negative future prospects concerning this type of content marketing were explored. The study is mainly qualitative by nature. The empirical part of this thesis was carried out between July 2013 and March 2014 and it consists of five semi-structured interviews with five professio...

  1. ERP system implementation in small and medium-sized enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Zach, Ondrey

    2012-01-01

    This thesis presents a study of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system implementation in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Compared to large enterprises, SMEs represent fundamentally different environments, with a number of characteristics typifying the SME context. Because of these distinguishing differences, the findings from studies of ERP implementation in large enterprises cannot be fully applied to SMEs. The purpose of this research project is to explore the influences of th...

  2. Language strategies in Finnish small and medium-sized enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Talja, Katriina

    2011-01-01

    Objectives of the Study Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) have scarcely been researched from the point of view of language strategy. The objective of the study is to identify language strategies of Finnish SMEs doing business abroad and to analyze these strategies. The objectives were met through a survey directed at Finnish SMEs and face-to-face interviews with five case companies. Summary Languages are increasing important in the globalizing world, yet few companies ha...

  3. ERP adoption in small and medium sized enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Juell-skielse, Gustaf

    2006-01-01

    Enterprise resource planning (ERP) is established among a majority of small and medium sized companies in Kista Science City and seems to have a positive effect on organizational effectiveness. Kista Science City is Sweden’s largest corporate centre, with more companies and employees in a limited area than anywhere else in Europe. This study looks at the level of adoption of ERP functions, perceived organizational effectiveness and critical success factors. The most common use of ERP is for...

  4. Cogeneration through small and medium sized gas turbines in Italy: Marketing survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Italy, the use of cogeneration systems by private industrial concerns has greatly increased in the early 90's. The successful technological development of highly efficient low and medium sized gas turbines and the successful application of cogenerated power to a number of industrial processes, favourable legislation and financial incentives on the part of the Italian Government, especially interested in promoting energy conservation and the use of natural gas as an alternative to petroleum, as well as, fast payback periods for such investments are amongst the major regions for the growing demand for this type of power system alternative in Italy

  5. Medium-sized water reactors for undeveloped regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the new century the growth of population and an increasing of energy demands together with the difficulties of fossil fuel supply are expected. It is important to find optimal ways in solving such problems without the climate warming. The nuclear power having many advantages in comparison with fossil fuel technologies could play the great role in near future. The Medium-Sized Nuclear Reactors for production of electricity, heat and fresh water are considered as a main direction of nuclear power applications in the developing world It is important to discuss the requirements to such nuclear plants for using in the Countries with Small and Medium Electricity Grids. Particularly, cost-benefit analysis of construction NPP has to include assessment of all type risks and effectiveness of plant. In the paper an attention is paid on Water Reactors designed on the basis of navy technology. Such compact PWR built on special mills and placed on special floating vessel could be used in undeveloped regions. Total plant can be transported to any point of World Ocean and return back to mill for repair or decommissioning after exhaustion of lifetime. It is expected that such reactors with innovative design approach, provision of high safety and proper economic efficiency, based on leasing procedures, could be very attractive for medium-sized and developing countries.(author)

  6. The Danish fabricated metal industry: : A competitive medium-low-tech industry in a highwage country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Teis

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to the knowledge on innovation processes in low- and medium-low-tech industries. Today, industries characterised as high-tech are perceived to be central to economic development, as the research intensity shields them from competition from low-wage countries. This is less the case for low-tech industries, but their economic importance continues to be large, however. It is thus interesting to analyse how they manage to remain competitive. The analysis focuses on a case study of the fabricated metal industry by identifying the innovation strategies followed by firms located in a part of Jutland, where this industry has experienced growth. It is found that the ability to create tailor-made solutions is central to the competitiveness of these medium-low-tech firms. Knowledge is thus highly important, yet in different ways than for high-tech industries. This illustrates the importance of industrial policies that take these differences into account.

  7. A medium sized telescope prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CTA (Cherenkov Telescope Array) is a proposed next generation instrument to observe very high energy (VHE) gamma-rays at ground level. The array will consist of 3 sizes of telescope covering a wide photon energy range: small (4m diameter) telescopes sensitive to the highest energy photons, medium sized telescopes (12 m) operating in the mid energy range, and a small number of large telescopes (24 m) with high sensitivity to low energy photons. Current Cherenkov Telescope experiments consist of up to 5 telescopes; CTA will be made up of an order of magnitude more, which will greatly enhance the number of photons that can be detected as well as increasing the number of views of each cascade, bringing significantly improved angular resolution and background suppression. The observatory is currently in the planning and development phase. A prototype CTA medium sized telescope (MST) is being built in Adlershof (Berlin). This talk focuses on plans for CTA and the design and construction of the MST prototype, as well as its operation, instrumentation and early measurement results.

  8. Micadur: Compact insulation system for medium-sized turbo generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aare, V.; Schuler, R. H.

    1981-12-01

    A high voltage, Class F, vacuum pressure impregnated insulation system for wound stator cores of the medium size turbogenerators is described. With this total impregnation technique the insulation process has been revolutionized. The excellent characteristics of this synthetic resin insulation system have made it possible to redesign the end winding support system for decisive improvement in reliability. This has been confirmed by operating experience in recent years. Test procedures were modified to suit the new insulation process and new repair procedures have been developed.

  9. Status and Prospects for Small and Medium Sized Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is considerable interest by Member States in the continued development of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) as a significant energy sources for the future. The support for this programme within the IAEA was recently reaffirmed at the 1997 General Conference. Although the generation of electricity has been predominant focus of existing SMRs, there is increasing interest in using these plants for other applications such as desalination, district heating and hydrogen production from the reforming of methane. Addressed herein is a review of ongoing SMR development activities within selected Member States, an overview of the Agency's SMR programme and a discussion of selected SMR designs with emphasis on their safety attributes. (author)

  10. The Scalability of H. Igor Ansoff's Strategic Management Principles for Small and Medium Sized Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan H Kipley

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the praxis of the multi-dimensional components of H. Igor Ansoff¹s Strategic Management Systems and the efficacy of use of each of its components relative to the formulation and implementation of corporate level strategy in for-profit, not-for-profit, small and medium sized enterprises. Based on empirically validated research and industry supported journals, substantial evidence endorse both an implicit and explicit acknowledgement of its applicability and it¹s value as a whole or in part providing increased financial performance for firms competing in turbulent environments. There is a notable variance within industry and academia concerning the asymmetry of costs incurred relative to the benefits achieved of the successful implementation of Ansoffian Strategy within Small and Medium sized enterprises. Although the principles and processes of scalability are still conceptually at an embryonic stage, this paper will illuminate those features of Ansoff’s Strategic Management Systems and conditions for optimal use. Finally, we will discuss Ansoff’s Strategic Success Paradigm and principles for use by Small and Medium Sized Enterprises, which when implemented have proven empirically to increase the firm’s probability of strategic success.

  11. Internationalization of small and medium-sized enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Paunovi?

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Highly developed countries, which are similar to Croatia by size and population, highlight the importance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs as holders of export activities and key factors in raising the competitiveness of the entire economy. In this paper authors research the concept of internationalization of SMEs. Analyzing the influence of decision makers on the process of internationalization and showing its advantages and disadvantages for the respective company and country, this research introduces the most common models on the basis of which this process is implemented in practice. A case study of a small export company from Croatia illustrates the process of internationalization to the U.S. market and provides useful information to the companies which are planning to enter new markets.

  12. Panorama 2007: Medium-Term Prospects for the Gas Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the nineties, natural gas was the fastest growing energy source in the world energy mix. However, recent developments on the energy scene, particularly in terms of prices, have strongly impacted the growth of the various energies to the detriment of natural gas. Beyond this inter-energy competition, which could intensify, medium-term prospects for the gas industry evolve in an environment beset with uncertainties. (author)

  13. Surveillance of medium-size dams; Surveillance des barrages de taille moyenne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    French hydro-power buildings belong to the government and are retroceded by the licence holder when the granting delay comes to an end. Experience has shown that less care is given by licence holders to the maintenance of medium-size dams that to big dams. For this reason, the French Ministry of Industry decided to harmonize and standardize the surveillance practices of medium-size dams. A circular was signed on May 23, 1997 which concerns the 10 to 20 m height dams with water reservoir volumes lower than the H{sup 2} x V{sup 0.5} criterion which is an evaluation of the potential risk of the dam. The surveillance modalities concern: the construction, the licence holder file, the first filling up, the operation, and the periodical safety inspections. (J.S.)

  14. CANDU 6 - the highly successful medium sized reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CANDU 6 Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor system, featuring horizontal fuel channels and heavy water moderator continues to evolve, supported by AECL's strong commitment to comprehensive R and D programs. The initial CANDU 6 design started in the 1970's. The first plants went into service in 1983, and the latest version of the plant is under construction in China. With each plant the technology has evolved giving the dual advantages of proveness and modern technology. CANDU 6 delivers important advantages of the CANDU system with benefit to small and medium-sized grids. This technology has been successfully adopted by, and localized to varying extents in, each of the CANDU 6 markets. For example, all CANDU owners obtain their fuel from domestic suppliers. Progressive CANDU development continues at AECL to enhance this medium size product CANDU 6. There are three key CANDU development strategic thrusts: improved economics, fuel cycle flexibility, and enhanced safety. The CANDU 6 product is also enhanced by incorporating improvements and advanced features that will be arising from our CANDU Technology R and D programs in areas such as heavy water and tritium, control and instrumentation, fuel and fuel cycles, systems and equipment and safety and constructability. (author)

  15. Tracking the Credit Collection Period of Malaysian Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasruddin Zainudin

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Profits of a company depend upon its frequency of reinvestment, or turnover, of its capital. Frequent turnover would notbe possible if collections are slow as they deny the company the use of its own capital. Credit collection period is, therefore,an important factor that may influence a company’s overall performance. Hence, this study explores the average collectionperiod profile of 279 small and medium-sized manufacturing companies in Malaysia using the companies’ financial statementsfrom 1999 through 2002. This paper also examines if different industry sector has different collection period. Then thestudy relates the average collection period to company financial performance as measured by operating profit on totalassets. Finally, the study investigates if there is any relationship between collection period and company size. Theserelationships are then examined again after taking industry sub-sector into consideration.

  16. Tidal heatin and convection within the medium size icy satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leliwa-Kopystynski, J.; Czechowski, L.

    Surface features on some medium size icy satellites indicate that these bodies are highly or at least moderately modified due to internal tectonic activity. Convection is one of the processes responsible for the evolution of the bodies of Solar System, including the evolution of icy satellites. Convection is sustained due to temperature gradient. The gradient is a result of initial temperature distribution and of the processes of heat generation. The latter are: radioactivity, gravitational differentiation, phase changes, and tidal deformations. In our previous papers (COSPAR 2000, Adv. Space. Res., in press) we studied convection driven by internal radioactivity. However, within the large and medium size satellites of the giant planets the tidal heating is probably an important source of energy. Io is the best known example but the tidal dissipation in many other satellites could be important. The tidal dissipation is specially sustained within the satellites locked in the states of orbit-orbit resonance. The medium size pairs of satellites in resonances are Enceladus-Dione and Mimas-Tethys. The surfaces of Enceladus, Dione, and Tethys are seriously modified by large scale internal activity indicating the role of convection. However, the eccentricity of the Tethys orbit is equal to zero and therefore the tidal heating does not exist. Consequently, the radioactivity remains the only heat source in Tethys. The main difference between radioactive and tidal heat sources relates to their distribution. The radioactivity is spherically symmetric. In contrary, the tidal heating is distributed nonuniformly. Its distribution is correlated with the direction from the center of a satellite to the planet. Consequently, the mantle convection and the global tectonic pattern should also be correlated. Basing on the numerical results of solid state convection we discuss the differences between convection driven by both radioactivity and by tidal heating or exclusively by radioactivity. We find also that the following parameter of "the tidal importance"= (mass of a satellite / mass of a planet) × (semi major axis of a satellite orbit / radius of a satellite)3 is correlated with the tectonic activity of the satellites. The observed activity is more pronounced for lower values of .

  17. The study of venture capital finance and investment behaviour in small and medium-sized enterprises

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Thokozani Patmond, Mbhele.

    Full Text Available Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are often credited with innovative entrepreneurial practices and conceiving new market opportunities. Government has reinforced these positive economic externalities through policy programmes and designated support structures. Venture capital organisations o [...] ften galvanise innovative knowledge by entrenching and sustaining nascent businesses through value-creating funding behaviours. In this way, the venture capital industry financially supports entrepreneurial activity for economic growth and governs and nurtures the growth of the SMEs. These show that the venture capital industry embraces value-creating opportunities on the basis of rational partnerships with enterprises that have limited track records and less formal control mechanisms. The tentative factor analysis findings suggest an integrated framework for the venture capital industry from the significant intercorrelations among the variables. The most important focus of this article, however, is its attempt to examine the behavioural traits of SMEs and venture capitalists regarding systematic finance and investment for inclusivity and due diligence.

  18. Beyond design depressurization accident in a medium sized HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential for the release of fission products during a beyond design accident in a medium size HTGR (HTGR-500) was investigated. The dynamic simulator for nuclear power plants (DSNP) modular code was employed in the simulation of a depressurization accident coupled with the failure of forced circulation in the decay heat removal systems. For such an extreme accident the maximal localized fuel temperature reaches 3050 degC, and within 100 hours from the beginning of the accident, 3.4% of the Cs137 inventory will be released from the fuel elements to the primary circuit, and 4.6*10-2% are estimated to be released to the environment. Fission products being swept from the primary circuit by the CO and helium released from the graphite matrix, prove to be an important factor. Although a severe accident scenario was assumed, the comparative consequence analysis point at a lower risk than the analogous light water reactor severe accident. (author)

  19. Can small and medium sized reactors be competitive?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cost is an important attribute for the future development of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). This paper addresses the target costs necessary for SMRs to be competitive in the markets of the 21st century and ways and means that designers are considering to meet these targets. It briefly reviews the impacts on nuclear energy competitiveness of economic globalisation, market deregulation, privatisation of the power sector and policy measures aiming at sustainable development and highlights new challenges and opportunities that are created for nuclear power plants as a result of the changing policy making framework in the electricity sector. Recognising the importance of capital cost (60% or more of nuclear electricity generation cost) the paper elaborates on technical (e.g. simplified design and factory building) and managerial (e.g. series order) measures aiming at capital cost reduction. The impacts of deregulation of the electricity market and privatisation of the sector on the competitiveness of SMRs are addressed. The paper stresses the importance of internalisation of social and environmental costs and sustainable development objectives for the competitiveness of nuclear energy and in particular of SMRs that are adapted to decentralised electricity supply and co-generation. Finally, it presents some findings and conclusions, drawn from the NEA analyses, on the prospects for enhancing the economics of small and medium reactors and their potential contributiom reactors and their potential contribution to sustainable energy mixes. (author)

  20. Insights about Integrated Marketing Communication in Small-and-Medium-sized Italian Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Esposito

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates if and how integrated marketing communication (IMC has been implemented by Italian small-and-medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. Three case studies about small and-medium Italian enterprises analysis are carried out: three small and-medium enterprises in different industries through interviews and document analysis. The article highlights the fact that small-and-medium-sized Italian enterprises implement marketing communication using a flexible approach. The most widespread communication purpose is to activate dialogues and new connections with their stakeholders and the most used communication tools are participation in fairs, sponsorships and events, but the very emerging tool is online communication: digital and social media. Despite the small number of cases included, the paper is to be considered as a starting point for a further quantitative investigation on this topic. The research shows that SMEs managers tend to adapt IMC in order to grasp opportunities on the market, rather than planning and communicating the values related to the product in an integrated way. This point ought to be taken into account to start an exchange of practices between managers and professionals in the marketing communication field..

  1. The design of a compact integral medium size PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? We model the IRIS reactor in RELAP5 and VIPRE codes. ? We use Printed Circuit Heat Exchangers and internally and externally cooled fuel pins in IRIS. ? We increase the IRIS power by 50% and demonstrate adequate safety performance. ? We show significant potential gain in economics for any integral PWR reactor design. - Abstract: Integral reactors have been proposed in recent years as a means to eliminate loss of coolant events, and reduce the number of large vessels of a nuclear power plant. In this paper the focus on how to further increase the power that can be derived from a given vessel volume. The example is applied to the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS), a medium size, light water reactor rated at 1000 MWt. The IRIS is an integral design containing all pumps and steam generators along with a traditional PWR core inside the reactor vessel. IRIS was designed with 8 Once-Through Helically Coiled Steam Generators (OTHSG), located above the core, in an annular region between the riser and the pressure vessel wall. This work examines ideas to increase its power output in the same vessel size while maintaining or improving the safety margins. The combination of Printed Circuit Heat Exchangers (PCHE) and Internally and EXternally cooled Annular Fuel (IXAF) is proposed to implement such improvement in otherwise the reference IRIS design. Safety implications of such steam generator and fuel design changes for the same reactor size ahanges for the same reactor size are examined, under both steady state and transients, using the RELAP5 and VIPRE codes. It is found that the IRIS reactor power can be increased by 50% by using the PCHE and IXAF. The proposed design is found to be less expensive per unit electric power produced, these improvements and analyses can be applied to any integral reactor design.

  2. Industrial nutrient medium use for yeast selenium preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GINA MARINESCU

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the preparation of selenium yeast from spent brewer’s yeast by using industrial nutrient medium (malt wort and sparge water. The chemical treatment of the yeast biomass was done with sodium-selenite solution. The preparation of selenium – enriched Saccharomyces uvarum in different conditions of temperature, time, yeast biomass proportion and sodium-selenite concentration of the medium was analysed. Using a culture mediumsupplemented with 30–180 ?g/ ml sodium-selenite results in total selenium accumulation in the range of 0.6–2.2 mg/g for malt wort and 0.4–1.6 mg/g for sparge water and in organic selenium accumulation in the range of 0.6–1.5 mg/g for malt wort and 0.3–0.9 mg/g for sparge water measured by ICP- MS method.

  3. Challenges and Considerations for Innovative Small and Medium Sized Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an ongoing interest in Member States in the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). In the near term, most new NPPs are likely to be evolutionary water cooled reactor designs building on proven systems while incorporating technological advances and often the economics of scale, resulting from the reactor outputs of up to 1600 MW(e). For a longer term, the focus is on innovative designs aiming to provide increased benefits in the areas of safety and security, non-proliferation, waste management, resource utilization and economy, as well as to offer a variety of energy products and flexibility in design, siting and fuel cycle options. Many innovative designs are reactors within the SMR range, having an equivalent electric power less than 700 MW(e) or even less than 300 MW(e). It is important that small or medium sized reactor does not necessarily mean small or medium sized nuclear power plant. The majority of innovative SMR concepts and designs provide for power station configurations with several units at a site or for NPP configurations with 2 or more reactor modules. In most cases, the units or modules could be added incrementally. Innovative SMRs are in many cases intended for markets different from those in which large nuclear power plants operate, i.e., markets that value more distributed electrical supplies, a better match between supply increments and investment capability or demand growth, more flexible siting or greater product variety. SMRs cannot compete with larger capacity plants on an economy of scale basis. However, they could be competitive via employing alternative design strategies, taking advantage of smaller reactor size resulting in a less complex design and operation and maintenance or in an increased overall energy conversion efficiency, and by relying on alternative deployment strategies, taking advantage of multiple unit factors and learning curve, and shorter construction schedule and 'exact' unit timing factors. Because many innovative SMRs are not water cooled, licensing approaches focussed on current light water reactors may need adjustments toward a technology-neutral approach. And most of the innovative SMR concepts rely broadly on passive safety systems, the reliability of which needs to be proven to enable risk-informed qualification and licensing. In addition, many potential applications of SMRs, such as district heat, potable water or hydrogen production, may require them to be located close to customers or a chemical plant. Based on the outputs of IAEA activities for innovative SMRs, it is possible to identify common approaches that could help the potential vendors to meet the expectations of many users and the international community. The paper will provide details on such considerations, with a link to various subject areas and categories of stake holders.(author)

  4. Market Orientation and the Performance of Small and Medium-Sized Manufacturing Enterprises in the Accra Metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Boachie-Mensah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The importance of small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises as an engine of economic growth has been widely recognized. However, despite their invaluable contribution in the Ghanaian economy, their performance has not been impressive due to the orientation of their marketing strategies. This study, therefore, sought to investigate the relationship between market orientation and the performance of small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises in the Accra metropolis of Ghana. Given the purpose and nature of this study where most of the analyses were quantitative in nature, quantitative research approach was deemed the most appropriate and, therefore, adopted. The descriptive and correlational study designs, too, were adopted for this study. Simple random sampling technique, specifically lottery method, was used to select 346 small and medium manufacturing enterprises in the Accra metropolis. Regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses postulated. It was observed from the findings that positive relationship exists between market orientation and small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises performance. This means that market orientation contribute positively to the well being of small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises. The study recommends that policy makers as well as National Board for Small Scale Industries should sensitize owners/managers of small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises about the importance of employing market orientation practices in their business operations.

  5. General trends in dissociations of medium-sized hydrocarbon dications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milko, Petr; Schröder, Detlef; Schwarz, Helmut; Roithová, Jana

    2008-11-01

    This study aims towards a rationalization and generalization of the fragmentation patterns of medium-sized hydrocarbon dications by tandem mass spectrometry. Phenanthrene (C14H10) serves as a precursor for the generation of CmHn2+ dications with m = 9-14 and n = 1-10. Four characteristic channels occur in the metastable-ion spectra: loss of a hydrogen atom, elimination of molecular hydrogen, loss of acetylene, and charge-separation fragmentation (Coulomb explosion). The first two channels dominate the spectra and their relative intensities show some regularities for ions with an even number of carbon atoms. Further, parent ions with an odd number of hydrogen atoms exhibit loss of atomic hydrogen, whereas loss of molecular hydrogen is preferred for dications with an even number of hydrogen atoms. The ions with odd number of carbon atoms do not show any evident regularity for the H and H2 losses. The channels involving CC bond cleavages occur for larger dications with m > 9, but only for some combinations of m and n without an apparent regularity.

  6. Powertrain System Design of Medium-sized Hybrid Electric Tractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Bin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The environment issue has been more and more serious than ever before along with the increasing numbers of tractors. Different from pure electric tractors, medium-sized tractor more widely adopt hybrid power driver according to the machine structure and operation characteristics. The Hybrid Electric Tractor (HET is capable of enabling the diesel works in an optimal area by controlling the output torque of engine and electronic motor to achieve fuel economy and emission reduction. Designing the parallel hybrid tractor transmission system and control method are put forward in a 66kW off-road tractor based on the plowing operation cycle condition. The overall power should meet the maximum power of the plowing operation with the power balance equation. The control strategies are established by road transport modes and field operating modes, respectively. A logic fuzzy control system to Degree of Hybridization (DOH on account of the output torque and State of Charge (SOC is introduced. Aiming at the fuel economy parameter, the optimization design shows that the hybrid tractor can improve 19.2% of fuel economy between SOC 0.4~0.7 compared with the traditional tractor.

  7. Motives behind Strategic Alliance Formation among Medium-Sized Manufacturing Firms in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kafigi Jeje

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on strategic alliance motives has attracted a great attention as firms strive to become market leaders. One critical area is to assess the contribution of these motives to strategic alliance formation. Most studies on alliance motives concentrate on international strategic alliances that involve large or multinational corporations from developed economies. Little research has been done on Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs, particularly Medium-Sized Enterprises (MEs from the manufacturing industry in least developed economies like Tanzania. This study reveals the contribution of alliance motives to strategic alliance formation. It seeks to find factors that would be taken into consideration by Tanzania’s medium-sized manufacturing firms before forming strategic alliances. The study finds firms’ views on the motives that would drive their decisions regarding strategic alliance formation. A cross-sectional survey design and multistage probability sampling technique enabled the participation of 398 CEOs from three zones of Tanzania whose views were collected through questionnaires. Through multiple regression analysis, motives related to resource accessibility, competitive advantage, firm’s improvements as well as cost and risk reduction are revealed and found influencing firms’ willingness to form strategic alliances. In order to become market leaders through strategic alliances, manufacturing MEs should consider motives that would influence rivals and other players to collaborate in order to make effective decisions regarding strategic alliances. Nevertheless, competitive business environments must be created by all manufacturing and alliance stakeholders in Tanzania in order to foster effective strategic alliances among manufacturing MEs.

  8. Dynamics of firm size in healthcare industry

    OpenAIRE

    Fariba Hashemi

    2012-01-01

    Healthcare is one of the world’s fastest growing industries consisting of broad services offered by various hospitals, physicians, nursing homes, diagnostic laboratories, pharmacies and supported by drugs, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, medical equipment, manufacturers and suppliers. The industry is highly fragmented, comprising of various ancillary sectors namely medical equipment and supplies, pharmaceutical, healthcare services, biotechnology, and alternative medicines. The present study fo...

  9. Approaches to Assess Competitiveness of Small and Medium Sized Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is continuing interest in Member States concerning the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs), i.e., reactors with the equivalent electric power of less than 700 MW. Currently, developed SMRs are in most cases intended for markets different than those in which large nuclear power plants operate. Such markets have essentially different investment requirements, siting flexibility, grid connections and infrastructure restrictions. Therefore, economic factors affecting the competitiveness or competition of SMRs in such markets would also be different from those observed in established markets for electricity production. For example, investment capability may be limited, which would favour capacity addition in smaller increments; grids may be small or weak, which would favour capacities exactly matching the demand; infrastructure and human resource may be insufficient, which would favour less complex operation and maintenance requirements; and non-electrical energy products, such as potable water, may be in demand, which would favour reasonably close plant location to the customer. In practice it is futile to compare a single SMR needs to a single larger capacity plant on an economy of scale basis because SMRs are suitable for those locations that might not be appropriate for larger plants. However, a series of SMRs could be considered comparable to fewer larger plants to achieve the same overall power station capacity. In this case, SMl power station capacity. In this case, SMRs have a potential to be competitive by employing alternative design strategies, taking advantage of smaller reactor size, offering a less complex design and operation and maintenance, relying on deployment-in-series approaches, taking an advantage of the accelerated learning, multiple unit factors and shorter construction duration. Reflecting on developments in member states, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is finalizing the preparation of a report highlighting the economics and investment related factors affecting SMR competitiveness, as well as the tools available to assess these factors. In parallel with this, IAEA is conducting a series of case studies on SMR competitive deployment and application, making use of these tools and fostering their further development. The case studies that would highlight comparative benefits and disadvantages of SMRs versus larger reactors for different deployment strategies and application conditions, will be finalized in the end of 2009, and their final results are not yet available Therefore, the present paper summarizes the major outputs of the report titled 'Approaches to Assess Competitiveness of SMRs' and discusses approaches that need to be taken into account in the assessment rather than the results of their application. However, several illustrations of the application of such approaches are provided. (author)

  10. IS IT NECESSARY TO REGULATE FINANCIAL REPORTING OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTITIES?

    OpenAIRE

    MICHAL JEŠŠ; MATEJ LEPIEŠ; DAŠA MOKOŠOVÁ

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of the position of small and medium-sized entities in the Slovak Republic and with the international regulation of small and medium-sized entities’ financial reporting. It provides the business demography of economic subjects by size class category by number of employees and follows by an average number of employed persons by size classes of enterprises in persons. Due to the fact that the number of these entities represents a significant role, the regulat...

  11. Theoretical Investigation of Trust in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentinas Navickas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The hectic pace of competition pushes the sector of small and medium enterprise to adopt sophisticated marketing ideas. In this context, customers are becoming more and more selective. However, expansion possibilities are burdened by the great variety of limitations. The current study paper aims to investigate the academic perception of trust which is treated as competitive advantage for small and medium enterprises. The object of the article is trust in small and medium enterprises. It has three objectives: to analyse small and medium enterprise characteristics through the academic perspective; to consider trust from the theoretical point of view; and to present the models that centre their attention on the trust as a construct that enhances customer satisfaction. Regarding the novelty of the current study, it brings a novel approach on a great variety of collected understandings of trust and puts an important foundation for future theory and practice investigations.

  12. Approaches to assess competitiveness of small and medium sized reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is continuing interest in Member States concerning the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs), i.e., reactors with the equivalent electric power of less than 700 MW. Currently, developed SMRs are in most cases intended for markets different than those in which large nuclear power plants operate. Such markets have essentially different investment requirements, siting flexibility, grid connections and infrastructure restrictions. Therefore, economic factors affecting the competitiveness or competition of SMRs in such markets would also be different from those observed in established markets for electricity production. For example, investment capability may be limited, which would favour capacity addition in smaller increments; grids may be small or weak, which would favour capacities exactly matching the demand; infrastructure and human resource may be insufficient, which would favour less complex operation and maintenance requirements; and non-electrical energy products, such as potable water, may be in demand, which would favour reasonably close plant location to the customer. In practice it is futile to compare a single SMR needs to a single larger capacity plant on an economy of scale basis because SMRs are suitable for those locations that might not be appropriate for larger plants. However, a series of SMRs could be considered comparable to fewer larger plants to achieve the same overall power station capacity. In this case, SMl power station capacity. In this case, SMRs have a potential to be competitive by employing alternative design strategies, taking advantage of smaller reactor size, offering a less complex design and operation and maintenance, relying on deployment-in-series approaches, taking an advantage of the accelerated learning, multiple unit factors and shorter construction duration. Reflecting on developments in member states, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is finalizing the preparation of a report highlighting the economics and investment related factors affecting SMR competitiveness, as well as the tools available to assess these factors. Adequate comparative assessment of SMR competitiveness is a complex task that may require considering time dependent expenditure and generation profiles and interest rates to determine adequate values of levelized unit energy cost (LUEC) for deployment scenarios with several consequently built plants of different types and capacities. As private capital may play an important role in financing of the new plants, investment and revenue models need to be employed to determine time-dependent characteristics, such as investments and revenues. Uncertainty analysis needs to be incorporated to add a degree of fidelity to the overall assessment. A variety of methods and tools required to conduct comparative economic assessments would been described in this paper. Many of these tools already exist in member states or are available from international organizations. In addition to this, the IAEA coordinated the development of an open model for the analysis of SMR economic and investment opportunities, which targets bringing together all currently available state-of-the-art models for generation costs, revenues, financial costs, and external factors and risks, while 'keeping the door open' for any new approach or development once it becomes available. The open model is being developed for a specific task of comparing the deployments of SMRs versus larger reactors in liberalized energy markets. LUEC will be an important figure of merit in this model; however, provisions would be made to ensure that LEUC is calculated taking into account time-dependent expenditure and production profiles and changing interest rates. In addition models to calculate investment profiles and revenues will be included. Finally, an approach to take into account other factors potentially affecting the competitiveness of SMRs, such as energy supply security, proliferation-resistance, political posture, etc. will be developed. In parallel with the develop

  13. Dressed for Success : A study of Success Factors For Small and Medium-sized Manufacturing Enterprises in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Lingega?rd, Sofia; Sandstro?m, Emma

    2008-01-01

    The business climate of today, with increasing globalization, has resulted in structural changes in the commercial and industrial sectors. As a result, many large companies have moved their production abroad. Therefore the smaller companies have become increasingly important for growth and employment nationally. Small businesses are a significant contributor to the well-being of nations and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play an important role for Sweden, both in terms of economic ...

  14. The Role of Higher Education in the Effective Delivery of Multimedia Management Training to Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    James Carr

    1999-01-01

    The UK government's University for Industry (UfI) initiative heralds an era for change in further and higher education. It is part of the government's policies on lifelong learning and the problem of many small and medium -sized enterprises (SMEs) that carry out limited training is of particular importance. One proposed solution is to develop multimedia management courseware in the higher and further education sectors which can then be transferred to SMEs in order to meet their training needs...

  15. Small-to medium-sized manufacturers in supply chains : Development of effective customer relationships and growth

    OpenAIRE

    Valsamakis, Vassilios P.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis details a study into the role of Small- to Medium- sized Manufacturers (SMMs) in supply chains and how this may affect SMMs' growth potential. The study draws upon a variety of research streams including Supply Chain Management, Industrial Marketing, and the literature on factors that affect firm growth. The objectives of the study are to: identify relationship management activities employed by SMMs and investigate the links between relationship management activi...

  16. Innovation in Food and Health: Study Into Challenges and Opportunities for Dutch Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Joop Vree-van Straten; Roodenburg, Annet J. C.

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the opportunities and challenges Dutch Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SMEs) in the food and beverage industry are facing with respect to innovation in food and health. An online questionnaire was developed to give an overview on attitudes and activities of SMEs with respect to innovation; their interest in trends, among which were health and wellbeing; and their view on logos as a possible way of communication. The questionnaire was held May 2011 with a response o...

  17. Examples from P2 and energy assessments at small to medium size manufacturers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using engineering student-faculty teams, the U.S. Department of energy sponsored industrial assessment center (IAC) at the university of louisville does free pollution prevention and energy assessments at small to medium size manufacturers (SIC 20-39) in kentucky and indiana. Each client plant must meet three of the following four criteria: Annual energy bills less than $1, 750, 000 and more than $50, 00. Gross annual sales of less than $75 million. Less than 500 employees. Lack a dedicated energy/waste engineer. Lack of in-house staff to perform these analyses. The program criteria and assessment procedures are briefly described and summaries of assessment at a sheet fed offset (lithographic) printing plant and 2 denim jeans pre washing plants are presented. 4 figs., 8 tabs

  18. Future Perspectives for Small and Medium Sized Reactors in India. Annex V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innovative small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) have several features that are expected to affect their future development and deployment in India. These include the: - Potential for simpler designs and reduced demands for human intervention, resulting in fewer potentially unsafe actions; - Potential for construction close to population centres, due to enhanced safety; - Potential of using the capability and capacity of local industries to enable their participation in the design and construction of such reactors, and high adaptability to the standardization and modular construction approach; - Potential to achieve low upfront capital costs. Future SMR concepts, employing increased use of passive safety features and capable of producing both electricity and high temperature process heat, may find application in specific regions of the country to supply both electricity and process heat, through distributed deployment. The following sections describe future SMR design concepts meeting the above mentioned objectives, and highlight their projected economic competitiveness

  19. Enablers and Difficulties for Innovation in Chile: Perceptions from Medium Size Plastic Firm Managers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José O, Maldifassi; Patricio, Crovetto.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The research objective was to understand the reasons that would impel firms to innovate. The firms analyzed in this study were medium-size firms of the plastic manufacturing sector in Chile. After the analysis of the theory related to technological innovation, a model of the drivers for technologica [...] l innovation was developed. From the model a questionnaire was prepared to test which factors could influence the tendency of firms to engage in technological innovation activities. According to the data, the most influential factors that would encourage innovation in the set of firms studied are a high degree of competition in the industry, the availability of qualified workers, and a strategic relationship with customers.

  20. SECURITY CONCERNS IN MEDIUM SIZE ENTERPRISE CLOUD COMPUTING

    OpenAIRE

    Shaik Saidhbimca, Ibrahim Gashaw

    2013-01-01

    Cloud computing in an small size enterprise infrastructure bring significant security concerns. Successful implementation of cloud computing in a small size enterprise requires proper planning and understanding of emerging risks, threats, vulnerabilities, and possible countermeasures. We believe small size enterprise should analyze the company/organization security risks, threats, and available countermeasures before adopting this technology. In this paper, we have discussed security risks an...

  1. SECURITY CONCERNS IN MEDIUM SIZE ENTERPRISE CLOUD COMPUTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAIK.SAIDHBIMCA , IBRAHIM GASHAW

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing in an small size enterprise infrastructure bring significant security concerns. Successful implementation of cloud computing in a small size enterprise requires proper planning and understanding of emerging risks, threats, vulnerabilities, and possible countermeasures. We believe small size enterprise should analyze the company/organization security risks, threats, and available countermeasures before adopting this technology. In this paper, we have discussed security risks and concerns in cloud computing and enlightened steps that a small size enterprise can take to reduce security risks and protect their resources. We have also explained cloud computing strengths/benefits, weaknesses, and applicable areas in information risk management

  2. Industry profits and market size under bilateral oligopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Naylor, Robin

    2001-01-01

    We show that, contrary to the key result of the standard Cournot-Nash oligopoly model, industry profits can increase with the number of firms if input prices are not exogenous but are determined by bargaining in bilateral oligopoly. The relationship between industry profits and market size is shown to depend on the relative bargaining power of the upstream and downstream agents.

  3. The Structure and Suggestions to Solve Problems of Small and Middle-Sized Forest Products Industry Establishments in Trabzon

    OpenAIRE

    Cindik, Hicabi

    1998-01-01

    As a results of rapid increase in population, forests which are an integral part of natural balance, have been dramatically decreasing. Thus problems associated with forestry, are in the rise. In this regard, the supply and demand conflicts and problems in small and middle-sized establishments in the forest product industry are two major issues which require close attention. The principal objective of this study is to examine the status of small and medium sized forest product industry in ...

  4. Atomic structure of metallic clusters of medium size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used Density Functional Theory and the Spherically Averaged Pseudopotential (SAPS) model to study the relative stabilities of sodium clusters with different atomic arrangements in the size range N ? 340. Starting with perfect crystalline clusters with filled atomic shells we find that small distortions of the geometry strongly enhance their stability. However, in the size range studied in this work the distorted crystalline structures are not the absolute energy minima. These are, instead, non-crystalline structures obtained by energy minimization without any structural constraints. In particular, non-crystalline clusters with a number of electrons able to give filled electronic shells are the most stable clusters. The crossover between magic numbers of electronic origin (clusters with filled electronic shells) and magic numbers of atomic origin (crystalline structures with filled atomic shells) has not yet taken place in the size range studied here and should occur for larger sizes. (author). 10 refs, 5 figs

  5. Medium-size power generation market now focus of Rolls-Royce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullins, P.

    1996-12-01

    John Rose, Rolls-Royce chief executive, explained that the focus in power generation would now be upon small- and medium-sized power applications up to 150MW using its ranges of aeroderivative gas turbines, small steam turbines and diesel engines. The company already has an established position in this area and expects to become more competitive as aeroderivative gas turbines like the marine WR21 and industrial Trent reach the market. A measure of Rolls-Royce`s broad capability in medium power generation can be seen in the company`s decision to build its own cogen power station to provide heat and power to its major aerospace manufacturing facilities at Derby in the U.K. Work has already started on preparing land adjoining the site and the 60 MW power station is scheduled to go on line in January 1998. The US$60 million project is being carried out by Derby Cogeneration, a joint venture between Rolls-Royce Power Ventures and National Power Cogen, a subsidiary of the U.K.`s largest electrical power generator. 5 figs.

  6. SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES IN REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    OpenAIRE

    Si?rodoev, Igor G.

    2009-01-01

    The paper examines the role of SME sector in Moldova’s economy and its likely implications in the RD processes. There are emphasized several key features of the relationship between knowledge economy, RD and SMEs, and their effect on regional and local communities. Then, a summary of RD particular features in Moldova is presented.The role of SME sector, examined in terms of its performance by ownership and activity types, as a whole and by main firms’ categories (micro-, small, and medium...

  7. Energy conserved and costs saved by small and medium-size manufacturers, 1988--1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirsch, F.W.

    1991-05-01

    Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Centers (EADCs) provided energy-conserving and cost saving assistance in 339 small and medium-size manufacturing plants nationwide during 1988-89. This report presents the results of what was recommended to those manufacturers, the record of what was implemented by them, and an analysis of the financial rewards gained by them. It also includes an accounting of the financial returns to the federal government, derived from taxes upon the cost savings, or incremental income, of the manufacturers who implement the EADCs` recommendations. EADCs collect implementation data within a year of the energy audit, and for these results that time period extended through 1990. The EADCs are located at accredited engineering departments of universities and staffed by faculty and students. At present there are 18 EADCs serving manufacturers in 37 states; of these, two were established as a result of the 1989 competition, and five more were chosen competitively in 1990. Most of the results in this report were generated by 11 EADCs (named in the Appendix); two others withdrew voluntarily after completing only 10 energy audits during 1988-89. Primary responsibility for selecting, training, evaluating, and managing the EADCs belongs to the Industrial Technology and Energy Management (ITEM) division of University City Science Center (UCSC). The Department of Energy`s Office of Industrial Technologies sponsors the EADC program through an agreement with UCSC.

  8. Contribution of small and medium sized enterprises in development of agribusiness of Serbian Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popovi? Blaženka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic development of Serbian republic is more and more connected with development of small and medium sized enterprises, which represent one of the main bases of Serbian economy. The economic potential of agriculture imposes the need of analyzing the condition in area of small and medium sized entrepreneurship which should be the carrier of future development of agribusiness. By ranging and grouping of Serbian republic municipalities (by discrimination and cluster analysis according to level of development of small and medium sized entrepreneurship in agriculture, the clear view is got in current state of regional development of this agricultural sector as the possibilities of future development. By development of small and medium sized enterprises in agriculture it is possible to achieve strategic goals of Serbian republic agro development and for realization of these goals it is necessary to ensure the stable economic ambient, appropriate pre conditions as measures of support which will be stimulating for development of agribusiness.

  9. THE FINANCIAL LIQUIDITY OF THE FOOD INDUSTRY ENTERPRISES IN POLAND IN THE SYSTEM SIZE OF ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bieniasz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the diversification of financial liquidity of food industry enterprises in Poland in 2009-2011 and indicates the main factors shaping liquidity. The study used unpublished data of Central Statistical Office, allowing for the analysis of liquidity in the system classes the food industry and the system enterprise size (small, medium, large. The analyses show, that the food industry in Poland in 2009-2011, regardless of their size and adopted ratios, have the ability to regulate the current liabilities, but kept at a low level. Analysis of the factors influencing liquidity showed, that the primary importance was turnover ratio of current liabilities, as well as ratio of financing of income through equity.

  10. EXTERNAL FORCES DRIVING CHANGE IN THE ROMANIAN SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roiban Roxana Nadina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Change is a constant in everyday life confronting organizations to continuously adapt their strategy, structure, processes, and culture in order to survive and stay competitive on the market. Implementing organizational change is one of the most important skills required for managers and in the meantime the most difficult one. The forces driving change within an organization, that can be either external or internal, are those that propel a company forward towards change and in order to identify the need for change and make the proper changes, managers have to develop a tool that allows them to analyze how does the environment influence their business activities. A vision for change will clarify the directions in which the organization needs to move, starting from its current state and taking in consideration the existing opportunities and threats from the environment that allow to move to a future desired state. The purpose of this paper is to identify the concern for change in the Romanian small and medium sized enterprises by presenting and explaining the past and present influences of the main external forces that have determined the need for change in the last 3-5 years and to make recommendations about future possible changes that have to be performed by managers for a better harmonization with the environment. The research method used for this study is the interview on a sample that contains some of the most relevant SME’s from the western side of Romania, from different industries. We analyzed the main external forces that had an impact on the small and medium sized enterprises and how were they generating the need for organizational change, in order to see which present and future changes are required.

  11. THE EVOLUTION OF FINANCIAL STANDARDS FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM- SIZED ENTITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Ivankovic?, Gordana; Jerman, Mateja

    2011-01-01

    According to the growing need for more comparable accounting standards, the beginnings of International Financial Reporting Standards for small and medium sized entities (IFRS for SMEs) can be found in the year 2004. IFRS for SMEs represents for the first time an accounting standard for small and medium-sized companies that can be used globally. The paper aims to examine the historical development of IFRS, the principal institutions linked to their adoption and th...

  12. UNICS - An Unified Instrument Control System for Small/Medium Sized Astronomical Observatories

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Mudit K.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Burse, Mahesh P.; Chordia, Pravin A.; Chillal, Kalpesh S.; Mestry, Vilas B.; Das, Hillol K.; Kohok, Abhay A.

    2009-01-01

    Although the astronomy community is witnessing an era of large telescopes, smaller and medium sized telescopes still maintain their utility being larger in numbers. In order to obtain better scientific outputs it is necessary to incorporate modern and advanced technologies to the back-end instruments and to their interfaces with the telescopes through various control processes. However often tight financial constraints on the smaller and medium size observatories limit the s...

  13. The role of promotional strategies for small and medium- sized entreprises in sustainable marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Ioana Cecilia Popescu; Diana Maria Vrânceanu; Mihai Ioan Ro?ca

    2012-01-01

    In Romania, small and medium-sized enterprises manifest a certain interest in marketing activities, resulted in the existence of a specific marketing structure in half of them, as attests a survey done on a sample of 140 organizations. This research, focused on understanding the promotional strategies and tactics used by Romanian small and medium-sized enterprises, concluded that communication is oriented predominantly to quantitative objectives, not designed according to sustainable marketin...

  14. THE KEY DETERMINANTS OF AND BARRIERS TO INTERNET ADOPTION IN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED HOTELS

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Kim Lian Chan

    2012-01-01

    The present paper presents qualitative empirical evidence that addresses why internet usage/adoption is low and how it can be improved in small and medium-sized hotels in Malaysia. It explores the key barriers to and influencing factors of internet adoption in a sample of 25 Malaysian small and medium-sized hotels based on a theoretical framework of the organisational innovation and resource-based view theories. Key barriers to internet usage include owner/operator characteristics, cost and i...

  15. The Importance Of Angel Investors In Financing The Growth Of Small And Medium Sized Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Veland Ramadani

    2012-01-01

    Angel investors are very important for small and medium sized enterprises because they provide more than money. They are hands-on investors and contribute their skills, expertise, knowledge and contacts in the businesses they invest in. They are wealthy persons with great business experience. They are willing to invest and offer their wealth and knowledge to owners of small and medium sized enterprises and to entrepreneurs to start or develop their businesses. One of the attributes of angel i...

  16. Using Information Systems to Enable Managerial Accounting at Small and Medium Sized Manufacturing Firms in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Lohr, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Small and medium sized companies can utillise information systems (IS) to overcome restrictions imposed by their often limited resources. This dissertation investigates which factors contribute to an IS’s success in enabling managerial accounting at small and medium sized manufacturing firms in Germany. An adaptation of the IS Success Model is used as the research model for a quantitative empirical survey among 5,831 companies. Structural equation modelling confirms the model and reveal...

  17. Customer Relationship Management system for small and medium-sized enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Liang

    2008-01-01

    This bachelor work provides a case study of small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) to analyze the general proposal criteria for customer relationship management (CRM) software selection. The selected software can help small and medium-sized enterprise to solve the marketing issues which are connected with customers to enhance customer satisfaction and loyalty to realize customer retention, customer acquisition and market share expanding.

  18. The Vital Factors for Small and Medium Sized Sport Enterprises Start-ups

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Morteza Azimzadeh; Brenda Pitts; Mohammad Ehsani; Asadollah Kordnaeij

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, the new enterprises are recognized as the main source of job creation, innovation and development. In today’s business world, new enterprises are recognized as an important source of job creation, innovation and development. Therefore, identifying influencing factors that play key roles in the start-up of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) is critical. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify critical factors for starting-up Small and Medium sized Sport Enterprises (...

  19. IS IT NECESSARY TO REGULATE FINANCIAL REPORTING OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTITIES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICHAL JEŠŠ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the analysis of the position of small and medium-sized entities in the Slovak Republic and with the international regulation of small and medium-sized entities’ financial reporting. It provides the business demography of economic subjects by size class category by number of employees and follows by an average number of employed persons by size classes of enterprises in persons. Due to the fact that the number of these entities represents a significant role, the regulation of their financial reporting becomes a material fact. The International Accounting Standards Board issued the International Financial Reporting Standard for Small and Medium-sized Entities (IFRS® for SMEs to achieve the international comparability of accounting and reporting information. The paper covers as well as the perspectives of the IFRS® for SMEs implementation within the European Union.

  20. Bridging the energy gap through small and medium sized nuclear reactors in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India is the only country in the world which is employing small sized nuclear reactors for its nuclear power programme. It has now embarked on a programme of augmenting the contribution of the nuclear power by way of employing both medium and small sized nuclear reactors in the next 15 years. This paper discusses the Indian experience and its efforts for industrial mobilisation for rapidly constructing 235/500 MWe nuclear reactor units in a period of about 8 to 9 years. The current energy situation in India and this context the near term role of nuclear power for supplementing the existing sources of commercial energy have been evaluated. Nuclear power has reached such a stage of maturity whereby it has now become a commercially viable source of electricity and it could be utilised on large scale to bridge the energy gap. At present six reactor units of 210/235 MWe capacity are in operation and eight more are in different stages of construction. While we are continuing with the construction of 235 MWe units, a programme of being pursued to construct 550 MWe capacity reactor units from midnineties onwards. This has become possible with the strengthening of regional electricity grids and simultaneous efforts undertaken for augmentation of fuel supply, heavy water production and industrial infrastructure. For a developing country like India, implementation of a sizable nuclear power programme has posed certain special challenges as major inputs are required to be made avas major inputs are required to be made available with indigeneous efforts. This paper discusses such challenges and presents the ways and means adopted to surmount them. Other developing countries with conditions comparable to those in India could benefit from Indian experience in this regard. This paper also proposes India's willingness to cooperate with other countries for exchange of information and assistance in terms of technical knowhow. (author)

  1. The role of small and medium size reactors in the future US nuclear market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses the various aspects of siting and sizing new generating facilities in the USA. Environmental and licensing issues are discussed. The economic considerations and assumptions for new plants are presented. Also, the electric transmission and distribution system characteristics and constraints are described with the potential role for several small and medium size designs summarized. (authors)

  2. Wireless Networks in Medium-sized Academic Libraries: A National Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett-ellis, Paula; Charnigo, Laurie

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the adoption and use of wirelesstechnology by medium-sized academic libraries, based onresponses from eighty-eight institutions. Results indicatethat wireless networks are already available in manymedium-sized academic libraries and that respondentsfrom these institutions feel this technology is beneficial.

  3. International seminar on status and prospects for small and medium sized reactors. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small and medium sized reactors have been defined by IAEA in accordance with their net electrical power rating, or thermal equivalent power rating for reactors producing process heat. Within the global energy supply and demand the role of nuclear power, and specifically the role of small and medium sizes reactors, is reviewed. Some new design prospects of dual purpose power plants, namely for heat production and desalination, are presented. Some proposal for new concepts of small size power reactors are described. A special concern is devoted to economic and energy policy issues as well as to safety and non-proliferation matters

  4. Measurement of Credit Risk of Small and Medium-sized S&T Enterprises in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-wen Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly studies the measurement of credit risk of Chinese small and medium-sized enterprises in Science and Technology (SMEs in S&T. Starting from the characteristics of the development of S&T enterprises, this paper selects the chinext 12 Chinese small enterprises annual data as sample, and builds a first-passage-time jump-diffusion structural model to measure small and mid-sized enterprise credit risk on the basis of the traditional KMV model.At last,it concludes that the first-passage-time jump-diffusion structural model has higher accuracy on the measurement of the credit risk for it obeys to the high risk and high volatility of the small and medium-sized S&T enterprises. At the same time, it puts forward the policy proposal on the development of the small and medium-sized S&T enterprises in China.

  5. Steady State Convection within Medium-size Icy Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leliwa-Kopystynski, J.; Czechowski, L.

    2000-10-01

    We consider the satellites of the size range from Mimas or Protheus (radii 200 km) to Titania (790 km). The lower limit is that of the smallest sphere-like bodies. The upper limit is determined by requirement that no phase transitions occurs inside the body or these transitions are only of marginal significance. Therefore, the considered bodies could be 6 satellites of Saturn, 5 of Uranus, Protheus, and Charon. Since Miranda is probably a re-accretion product and density of Protheus is unknown therefore our class of satellites contains 11 globes in total. Their densities are known and therefore the mass ratio rock/total and radioactive heat production can be estimated quite well. Two extreme models of the satellites are considered: non-differentiated (homogeneous) and fully differentiated with rocky core and icy mantle. For the first model there is a uniform distributions of radioactive sources and the convection can develop within the whole globe. For the second case, the radioactivity determines the heat flux through the boundary between rocky core and icy mantle; in this case the possibilities of convection are discussed within the icy mantle. Axially symmetric convection is considered. The model is based on the equations: Navier-Stokes, thermal conductivity, mass continuity, and on the equation of state. They involved a large set of parameters of which the viscosity is the least known and it is strongly dependent on temperature. Written in dimensionless form for constant viscosity the equations have only one parameter, the Rayleigh number Ra. Set of solutions, for different Ra, and for constant viscosity or for temperature dependent viscosity are presented. The solutions, when converted into dimensional form, are applied for interpretation of particular tectonic features on the icy satellites (e.g. Samarkand Sulci on Enceladus and Ithaca Chasma on Tethys). Correlation between tectonic features and far-near sides orientation is expected.

  6. An integrated approach for developing a technology strategy framework for small- to medium-sized furniture manufacturers to improve competitiveness

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.S., Lourens; J.A., Jonker.

    Full Text Available Low-technology firms, such as those found within the furniture manufacturing industry, have no framework or methodology to guide them successfully to acquire and integrate technology that enables them to operate more competitively. The aim of this article is to illustrate the development of a techno [...] logy strategy framework for small- to medium-sized furniture manufacturers to assist them to improve their competitiveness. More specifically, this article presents an integrated technology strategy framework that enables management to integrate their business strategy with their technology requirements successfully, thus improving competitiveness.

  7. Financing Mode of American Small and Medium-sized Enterprises and the Enlightenment to Our Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidan YOU

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of the characteristic of small and medium-sized enterprises such as small scale of assets, low transparency message and heavy uncertainty of management, the financing mode of small and medium-sized enterprises of various countries is the same basically. This paper reflect the characteristic of the financing mode of small and medium-sized enterprises of our country indirectly through studying the financing mode and characteristics of American small and medium-sized enterprises, expecting to enlighten alleviating the difficulty of financing of small and medium-sized enterprises of our country . Key words: Financing mode, Characteristic, Enlightenment Résumé : La modèle de fusion des petites et moyennes entreprises dans tous les pays existe des points communs , en raison de ses quelques caractéristiques suivantes : les capitaux de petite envergure , la transparence insuffisante des informations et l’instabilité de gestion . A travers la recherche sur la modèle de fusion des petites et moyennes entreprises aux états-unis , ce texte reflète de façon indirecte les traits de modèle de fusion des petites et moyennes entreprises en Chine dans l’espoir de donner l’inspiration à l’atténuation des difficultés de la fusion des petites et moyennes entreprises de notre pays . Mots-clés: modèle de diffusion, traits , inspiration ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????

  8. Fostering linkages between transnational corporations and small to medium-sized enterprises in Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Delane, Botelho; Milber Fernandes Morais, Bourguignon.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available When large Transnational Corporations (TNCs) enter a host country, consequent development of local Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) is expected. The public sector may play an important role by fostering Business Linkages (BL), by which TNCs establish purchasing relationships with local SMEs. This [...] article was motivated by growing attention in literature to the interaction between economic development and the ability of companies to absorb and disseminate competences. Its purpose is to understand the role of public policy programs that promote BLs for development by: (a) analyzing actions and programs developed by public and private institutions to foster BL in Brazil; (b) discovering the participants' benefits from such actions and programs; and (c) identifying opportunities for public sector promotion of BL. The research design was a multiple case study which analyzed Supplier Development Projects in five Brazilian states. Results indicate that public policies may complement overall development as well as industrial policy, which is related to capacity building, stimulating technology transfer, and, more broadly, promoting a business friendly environment able to attract investment for development, calling for a regional and sub-regional approach for a country the size of Brazil.

  9. The Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Performance Evaluation Model Based on DEA and AHP Method

    OpenAIRE

    Qiong Sun; Zhengran Gao

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, DEA model and AHP model combined with a new method to evaluate the performance of the small and medium enterprises. In this paper, mainly introduced the analytic hierarchy process?AHP?and data envelopment analysis ( DEA ), based on the existing on the small and medium-sized enterprise performance evaluation methods are analyzed, finally, through empirical analysis that the method of DEA based on AHP and has ...

  10. The Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Performance Evaluation Model Based on DEA and AHP Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Sun

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, DEA model and AHP model combined with a new method to evaluate the performance of the small and medium enterprises. In this paper, mainly introduced the analytic hierarchy process?AHP?and data envelopment analysis ( DEA , based on the existing on the small and medium-sized enterprise performance evaluation methods are analyzed, finally, through empirical analysis that the method of DEA based on AHP and has good applicability and feasibility. 

  11. Motives behind Strategic Alliance Formation among Medium-Sized Manufacturing Firms in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Kafigi Jeje

    2014-01-01

    Research on strategic alliance motives has attracted a great attention as firms strive to become market leaders. One critical area is to assess the contribution of these motives to strategic alliance formation. Most studies on alliance motives concentrate on international strategic alliances that involve large or multinational corporations from developed economies. Little research has been done on Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), particularly Medium-Sized Enterprises (MEs) from the manufa...

  12. Gestão do desenvolvimento de produto em empresas de pequeno e médio porte do setor de máquinas e implementos agrícolas do Estado de SP Product development process management in small and medium-sized Brazilian companies in the agricultural machinery and implement industry sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos de Toledo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Para que as empresas nacionais do setor de máquinas e implementos agrícolas consigam sobreviver e ampliar sua participação nesse mercado em crescimento, do interesse econômico de companhias multinacionais e no qual essas detêm expressiva participação, elas necessitam melhorar a capacitação para desenvolver novos produtos e assim atender as novas demandas quanto a requisitos e homologação dessa produção. As empresas nacionais do setor apresentam um perfil predominante de empresas familiares, de pequeno e médio porte, e pouco se conhece sobre a realidade da gestão do Processo de Desenvolvimento de Produto (PDP nessas organizações. Este trabalho caracteriza e analisa os perfis e a maturidade da gestão do PDP em empresas de pequeno e médio porte de capital nacional do segmento de máquinas e implementos agrícolas do Estado de São Paulo. Foi realizada uma pesquisa de levantamento (survey em 40 empresas. Para a análise dos dados utilizou-se a técnica de análise multivariada de clusters. As empresas da amostra apresentam uma estrutura heterogênea com relação à gestão do PDP. Foram identificados três grupos de empresas, com diferentes perfis de maturidade do PDP: Grupo I (20% da amostra, Grupo II (50% da amostra e Grupo III (30% da amostra. Evidenciam-se diferenças na gestão do PDP principalmente entre os Grupos I (com menor nível de maturidade do PDP e III (com nível de maturidade relativamente mais elevado. Apesar das diferenças na gestão do PDP entre os grupos, comparando-se a prática com o referencial teórico (as boas práticas sobre gestão do PDP, os 3 grupos se encontram no nível geral básico, ou inicial, de maturidade do PDP. A análise e identificação do nível de maturidade em que as empresas se encontram podem auxiliar no direcionamento do processo de melhoria do PDP e na elaboração de políticas públicas que incentivem o desenvolvimento e inovação de produto nas empresas nacionais do setorThe product development process (PDP, if well-structured and managed, can become a business process that directly influences the companies' competitiveness increase. The PDP in Brazilian SMEs in the agricultural machinery and implement industry Sector (AMI is little known since most publications on product development focuses on the reality of large and multinational companies, which have a quite different structure from SMEs. The purpose of this paper is to characterize and analyze the management maturity profiles of the product development process in small and medium sized Brazilian companies in the agricultural machinery and implement industry sector located in the state of São Paulo. Therefore, the addressed actions of PDP improvements in those companies can be undertaken. A survey research was conducted in 40 companies. An in loco interview was applied to the respective individual in-charge of PDP by means of a structured questionnaire. For the data analysis, descriptive statistics and the multivariate cluster analysis techniques were used. The findings indicated that the SMEs in AMIs of the state of Sao Paulo present a heterogeneous structure with respect to PDP management. Three groups of companies were identified in the sample with different maturity PDP profiles: Group I (20% of companies in the sample, Group II (50% of the sample, and Group III (30% of the sample. Differences in the management of PDP were observed, especially among companies of Group I (smallest level of PDP maturity and Group III (highest level of PDP maturity. However, despite the differences in PDP management presented in the groups of companies, according to the literature on PDP management, all groups are in the basic (initial maturity level of PDP. The identification of the maturity level, in which these companies are, can help the determination of activities that link the internal actions to improve the PDP of these companies and the proposal of specific public policies that encourage the improvement of product development for domestic companies in this industry sector.

  13. Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Target System's Design of Key Performance Assess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihui Sun

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article from the situation that the present small and medium-sized enterprises' performance assess is unable to obtain the anticipated effect to embark, through analyzing the questions which consist in the small and medium-sized enterprises' performance assess targets design, and combining with the small and medium-sized enterprises' actual situation to design a set of target system of key performance assess. In this system which carries on the omni-directional analysis to the target system's design flow, bringing forward concrete operation means in each stage. The endeavour through this kind of target's design project, providing effective instruction in distilling the performance target for enterprises in reality.

  14. SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZE ENTERPRISES AS A FORM OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bucka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In rural areas, we are now dealing with a surplus of labour in agriculture and lack of jobs for the population without land. The decreasing role of agriculture and the benefits of agricultural production as a primary source of income of the rural population makes it necessary to supplement income from other activities. Making activities in the sector of small and medium-sized enterprises can significantly be replenished. Small and medium-sized enterprises can be regarded as a manifestation of entrepreneurship in rural areas. The aim of the study is to identify the role and importance of small and medium-sized enterprises in rural activation. In this study, the statistical material available from GUS contained in the publications concerning rural areas in Poland and literature.

  15. UNICS - An Unified Instrument Control System for Small/Medium Sized Astronomical Observatories

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, Mudit K; Burse, Mahesh P; Chordia, Pravin A; Chillal, Kalpesh S; Mestry, Vilas B; Das, Hillol K; Kohok, Abhay A

    2009-01-01

    Although the astronomy community is witnessing an era of large telescopes, smaller and medium sized telescopes still maintain their utility being larger in numbers. In order to obtain better scientific outputs it is necessary to incorporate modern and advanced technologies to the back-end instruments and to their interfaces with the telescopes through various control processes. However often tight financial constraints on the smaller and medium size observatories limit the scope and utility of these systems. Most of the time for every new development on the telescope the back-end control systems are required to be built from scratch leading to high costs and efforts. Therefore a simple, low cost control system for small and medium size observatory needs to be developed to minimize the cost and efforts while going for the expansion of the observatory. Here we report on the development of a modern, multipurpose instrument control system UNICS (Unified Instrument Control System) to integrate the controls of vari...

  16. Medium-sized deletion in the BRCA1 gene: limitations of Sanger sequencing and MLPA analyses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandra, Herman; Dominic, Varga; Heidrun L., Deissler; Rolf, Kreienberg; Helmut, Deissler.

    Full Text Available We describe a family with a history of breast and ovarian cancer in which MLPA analysis of the BRCA1 gene pointed to a deletion including a part of exon 11. Further characterization confirmed a loss of 374 bp in a region completely covered by conventional sequencing which had not revealed the deleti [...] on. Because this alteration was only detected serendipitously with an MLPA probe, we calculated the probabilities of detecting medium-sized deletions in large exons by methods including initial PCR amplification. This showed that a considerable fraction of medium-sized deletions are undetectable by currently used standard methods of mutation analyses. We conclude that long, widely overlapping amplicons should be used to minimize the risk of missing medium-sized deletions. Alternatively, large exons could be completely covered by narrow-spaced MLPA probes.

  17. Medium-sized deletion in the BRCA1 gene: limitations of Sanger sequencing and MLPA analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Herman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a family with a history of breast and ovarian cancer in which MLPA analysis of the BRCA1 gene pointed to a deletion including a part of exon 11. Further characterization confirmed a loss of 374 bp in a region completely covered by conventional sequencing which had not revealed the deletion. Because this alteration was only detected serendipitously with an MLPA probe, we calculated the probabilities of detecting medium-sized deletions in large exons by methods including initial PCR amplification. This showed that a considerable fraction of medium-sized deletions are undetectable by currently used standard methods of mutation analyses. We conclude that long, widely overlapping amplicons should be used to minimize the risk of missing medium-sized deletions. Alternatively, large exons could be completely covered by narrow-spaced MLPA probes.

  18. Dinamismo de mercado en la pequeña y mediana industria de Colombia: el caso SuperBrix / Dynamisme de Marché dans la Petite et Moyenne Industrie de Colombie: Le cas de SuperBrix / Market Dynamism in Small and Medium-Sized Colombian Industry: The Case of SuperBrix / Dinamismo de mercado na pequena e mediana indústria da Colômbia: o caso SuperBrix

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Camilo, Mejía Reátiga; David, Juliao Esparragoza.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Em março de 2010 o engenheiro Mariano Ghisays, presidente executivo da Superbrix, não somente questionava-se se abranger o mercado asiático era uma opção viável, também se a mesma emergia numa cojuntura apropriada da economia e a capacidade tecnológica da sua empresa, que até aquele momento tinha si [...] do impossível de copiar. A oportunidade de entrar em países como a China, a Coreia, a Índia, a Malásia e a Cingapura já tinha sido levado em conta pela diretoria alguns anos atrás; contudo a decisão foi adiada a fim de consolidar o mercado americano, o que fora atingido depois de várias tentativas de entrada, logo depois de apurar a sua estratégia de mergulho no mesmo. Mariano se perguntava, então: de que maneira uma mediana empresa do Caribe colombiano, capitalizando a sua experiência de entrada em vários mercados internacionais, poderia com êxito atingir esses países asiáticos, onde os preços, concorrência e probabilidade de cópia dos seus produtos representavam um risco enorme para a companhia? Abstract in spanish En marzo de 2010 el ingeniero Mariano Ghisays, presidente ejecutivo de SuperBrix, no sólo se preguntaba si llegar al mercado asiático era una opción viable, sino también si ésta emergía en una coyuntura apropiada de la economía y capacidad tecnológica de su empresa, la cual, hasta el momento, no hab [...] ía podido ser copiada. La oportunidad de ingresar a países como China, Corea, India, Malasia y Singapur había sido tenida en cuenta por las directivas algunos años atrás, pero fue pospuesta con el fin de consolidar el mercado americano, lo cual se consiguió después de varios intentos de entrada, luego de afinar su estrategia de inmersión al mismo. Mariano se preguntaba, entonces, ¿de qué manera una mediana empresa del Caribe colombiano, capitalizando su experiencia de entrada en varios mercados internacionales, podría lograr con éxito llegar a estos países asiáticos, en donde los precios, competencia y probabilidad de copia de sus productos representaban un enorme riesgo para la compañía? Abstract in english In March of 2010, engineer Mariano Ghisays, executive president of Superbrix, thought not only about whether entering the Asian market was a viable option but also if it were to happen under a favorable economic situation and with his company's technological capacity, which at that time, no one had [...] been able to copy. The opportunity to enter countries such as China, Korea, India, Malaysia and Singapore had been in the sights of the company's directors for years, but was postponed while they consolidated the American market. This was achieved after various attempts at entry, while also fine-tuning their immersion strategy. Marciano then thought about how a medium-sized company from the Colombian Caribbean region, capitalizing on its experience after already having entered various international markets, successfully reach these Asian countries, where prices, competition and the probability of their products being copied posed an enormous risk for the company?

  19. Small and medium power reactors in the Soviet power-generating industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the two decades following the introduction of industrial-scale power-generating units at the Novo Voronezh and the Beloyarsk nuclear power plants, two main lines in the development of nuclear power stations emerged in the USSR nuclear power industry, based on the use of water-cooled, water-moderated vessel-type reactors and water-cooled, graphite-moderated channel-type reactors. In 1984, Soviet nuclear power plants accounted for 9.5% of the electric power generated. Over 140,000 million kW/h were generated (a growth of 27.5% compared with 1983), which is evidence of the significant, ever-increasing role of nuclear power stations in the overall picture of the country's power production. A substantial contribution to the USSR's nuclear power generation is made by stations with reactors of small and medium size (<= 440 MW(e) gross). Reactors of the WWER type, with an output of 440 MW(e) gross are installed at the Novo Voronezh, Armenia, Rovno and Kola nuclear power plants. At the Bilibino station four low-power (EGP-6 type) are installed. The installed power utilization factors of the units of these stations are in the range of 78-90%. The main characteristics of the two types of reactors mentioned above are given. The article includes a description in broad lines of the Soviet experience in using nuclear electric power and heating plants. The rigorism of the Soviet reactor safety regulations is stressed

  20. Evaluation of innovation activities of small and medium-sized businesses in Slovak Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Kostiviarova; Eva Sopkova

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the presented paper is to contribute to the discussion on innovation activities of small and medium-sized businesses of the Slovak Republic and the European Union. It is based on the results of research carried out by the National Agency for the Development of Small and Medium Enterprises (NADSME), where the focus was on the innovation capacity of small and medium firms in Slovakia. And it was complemented by the results of an analysis of firms’ innovation activities in the Bansk...

  1. Development of Accounting and Financial Reporting For Small and Medium-Sized Businesses in Accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Klychova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This publication considers accounting procedures and financial data reporting by small and medium sizebusinesses in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS. It studies different IFRSinfluence zones in small and medium size businesses. The present study offers the following information: adefinition for “small and medium sized business”; a model of financial accounting and reporting proceduralguidelines for Russian small and medium sized businesses; approaches to creating an accounting system toprepare IFRS-based financial statements; an algorithm to transform small and medium sized businesses’accounting statements in accordance with IFRS requirements.

  2. ECO-FRIENDLY TECHNOLOGY IN SMALL AND MEDIUM TEXTILE WET PROCESSING INDUSTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    FATIMA BABY; Thamilarasi, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    The Small and Medium wet processing industries in India contribute more to industrial development and trade and at the same time, they create environmental issues related to water pollution. This article attempts to analyse the main challenges of wet processing industries in adoption of cleaner technology options in reducing water pollution. Irreversible nature of water resource alarms the overall sustainability of environment. Traditional technology management concepts followed in SMIs will ...

  3. Design features to achieve defence-in-depth in small and medium sized reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broader incorporation of inherent and passive safety design features has become a 'trademark' of many advanced reactor concepts, including several evolutionary designs and nearly all innovative small and medium sized design concepts. Ensuring adequate defence-in-depth is important for reactors of smaller output because many of them are being designed to allow more proximity to the user, specifically, when non-electrical energy products are targeted. Based on the activities recently performed by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the paper provides a summary description of the design features used to achieve defence in depth in the innovative concepts of small and medium sized reactors with fast neutron spectrum. (author)

  4. Design features to achieve defence-in-depth in small and medium sized reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broader incorporation of inherent and passive safety design features has become a 'trademark' of many advanced reactor concepts, including several evolutionary designs and nearly all innovative small and medium sized design concepts. Ensuring adequate defence-in-depth is important for reactors of smaller output because many of them are being designed to allow more proximity to the user, specifically, when non-electrical energy products are targeted. Based on the activities recently performed by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the paper provides a summary description of the design features used to achieve defence in depth in the eleven representative concepts of small and medium sized reactors. (author)

  5. China’s Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise Grass-Roots Staff Liquidity Study

    OpenAIRE

    CHI Wanrui; Chi, Ying; Meng, Yong

    2013-01-01

    China’s small and medium-sized enterprises have become an important force of social employment with a rapid growth in recent years, which made an important contribution to China’s economic and social development. At the same time, small and medium-sized enterprises have exposed the limits of growth in the process of their development. In view of human resources management, most business owners see employees as the tools of the accumulation of wealth, and they usually pay little attention ...

  6. High performance work practices in small and medium-sized firms

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Ning Liu

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on data from Workplace Employment Relations Survey 2004, this thesis assesses the uptake of High Performance Work Practices (HPWPs), the factors associated with the uptake of HPWPs and the relationship between HPWPs and performance (also termed the "HPWP-performance link") in small and medium-sized firms. The findings show that medium-sized firms have a higher uptake of HPWPs compared to small firms in general. They also show that the extent of the use of HPWPs in small firms ten...

  7. The Career Planning of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Based on Knowledge Life Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article use the theory of knowledge life cycle, the small and medium-sized enterprises’ concept and the career planning, seek the joint between the career planning of enterprises and the theory of knowledge life cycle, has effectively studied the transmission mechanism in forming of the career planning of enterprises and the theory of knowledge life cycle, moreover bring forward corresponding human resource management measure, provide the cut-in point of theory for the small and medium-sized enterprises in our country to make the career planning through the theory of knowledge life cycle.

  8. Simplification of Process Integration Studies in Intermediate Size Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgård, Henrik; Petersen, P. M.

    2002-01-01

    It can be argued that the largest potential for energy savings based on process integration is in the intermediate size industry. But this is also the industrial scale in which it is most difficult to make the introduction of energy saving measures economically interesting. The reasons are that the required engineering effort is too great and therefore too expensive, and that the resulting systems designs often become inordinately complex and therefore not attractive in operation. The present study describes steps that aim at reducing the magnitude of the theoretical work and engineering effort associated with a given process integration study in an intermediate size industry. This is based on the observation that the systems that eventually result from a process integration project and that are economically and operationally most interesting are also quite simple. Four steps that may be used separately or in series ahead of or simultaneously with the conventional process integration procedures (for example, the pinch point method) are described and are applied to an industrial case study. It might be feared that the use of preselections and groupings would limit the "freedom of movement' and therefore lead to non-optimal economic solutions, which may be right. But the objective of the optimisation is not to reach the best economic solution, but to relatively quickly develop the design of a simple and operationally friendly network without losing too much energy saving potential. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The strategic relevance of technology-related variables to the competitiveness of small- to medium-sized furniture manufacturers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.S., Lourens; J.A., Jonker.

    Full Text Available SMMEs can make a critical and positive economic contribution to South Africa, and small- to medium-sized furniture manufacturers (SM/FMs) have the potential to contribute to economic growth, job creation, and GDP. However, the furniture industry has not stayed abreast of technological advances. To s [...] urvive in an environment of increasing competition and imports, competitive strategies must be devised. One such strategy is for technology adoption and implementation that can provide solutions for the furniture industry to improve speed, quality, variety, flexibility, and productivity, resulting in improved competitiveness. However, the adoption of technology means that its acquisition and application must be managed strategically, as the use of technology involves far more than simply taking it into account during the business-planning process. This paper investigates the impact of business strategy and selected technology-related variables on the competitiveness of SM/FM.

  10. Pressures on Green Supply Chain Management: A Study on Manufacturing Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangmeng HUANG

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to empirically investigate the pressures for adopting green supply chain management (GSCM among Chinese small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. Data is collected through the use of mail distributed questionnaires administered to participants at a national trade fair held in Suzhou and two rounds of data collection were carried out to make a more reliable result for the research. ANOVA and Factor analysis are used to analyze the data. Some key findings are found from this study. Firstly, there is indifference among the four industrial sectors in terms of facing pressures in adopting GSCM practices. Secondly, all of the pressures from environmental laws and regulations, the pressures in the process of selling the products and the pressures in the supply chain in the relation with the suppliers and customers have impacted on the decisions of SMEs to employ GSCM practices. The main limitation to this paper is the relatively small manufacturing sample of SMEs. The paper explores the GSCM pressures faced by Chinese SMEs which may be different from the findings through the studies on large enterprises in China.
    Key words: Supply chain management; Pressures on green supply chain management small and medium-sized enterprises; Chinese manufacturing industry

  11. Medium Sized High Tech International Acquisitions: A Longitudinal Perspective (1990-2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier Meier; Jean-Yves Saulquin; Guillaume Schier

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the various forms and strategical options that are found and employed when merging companies of any size with medium-sized technological companies, with a view to understanding what outcomes are involved. This research paper is based on a sample consisting of 5 738 mergers and acquisitions transactions in the high-tech sector, particularly those involving innovative companies with technological interests. The aim of this research is to show how these strategic manoeuvres...

  12. Gestão do desenvolvimento de produto em empresas de pequeno e médio porte do setor de máquinas e implementos agrícolas do Estado de SP / Product development process management in small and medium-sized Brazilian companies in the agricultural machinery and implement industry sector

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Carlos de, Toledo; Julianita Maria Scaranello, Simões.

    Full Text Available Para que as empresas nacionais do setor de máquinas e implementos agrícolas consigam sobreviver e ampliar sua participação nesse mercado em crescimento, do interesse econômico de companhias multinacionais e no qual essas detêm expressiva participação, elas necessitam melhorar a capacitação para dese [...] nvolver novos produtos e assim atender as novas demandas quanto a requisitos e homologação dessa produção. As empresas nacionais do setor apresentam um perfil predominante de empresas familiares, de pequeno e médio porte, e pouco se conhece sobre a realidade da gestão do Processo de Desenvolvimento de Produto (PDP) nessas organizações. Este trabalho caracteriza e analisa os perfis e a maturidade da gestão do PDP em empresas de pequeno e médio porte de capital nacional do segmento de máquinas e implementos agrícolas do Estado de São Paulo. Foi realizada uma pesquisa de levantamento (survey) em 40 empresas. Para a análise dos dados utilizou-se a técnica de análise multivariada de clusters. As empresas da amostra apresentam uma estrutura heterogênea com relação à gestão do PDP. Foram identificados três grupos de empresas, com diferentes perfis de maturidade do PDP: Grupo I (20% da amostra), Grupo II (50% da amostra) e Grupo III (30% da amostra). Evidenciam-se diferenças na gestão do PDP principalmente entre os Grupos I (com menor nível de maturidade do PDP) e III (com nível de maturidade relativamente mais elevado). Apesar das diferenças na gestão do PDP entre os grupos, comparando-se a prática com o referencial teórico (as boas práticas sobre gestão do PDP), os 3 grupos se encontram no nível geral básico, ou inicial, de maturidade do PDP. A análise e identificação do nível de maturidade em que as empresas se encontram podem auxiliar no direcionamento do processo de melhoria do PDP e na elaboração de políticas públicas que incentivem o desenvolvimento e inovação de produto nas empresas nacionais do setor Abstract in english The product development process (PDP), if well-structured and managed, can become a business process that directly influences the companies' competitiveness increase. The PDP in Brazilian SMEs in the agricultural machinery and implement industry Sector (AMI) is little known since most publications o [...] n product development focuses on the reality of large and multinational companies, which have a quite different structure from SMEs. The purpose of this paper is to characterize and analyze the management maturity profiles of the product development process in small and medium sized Brazilian companies in the agricultural machinery and implement industry sector located in the state of São Paulo. Therefore, the addressed actions of PDP improvements in those companies can be undertaken. A survey research was conducted in 40 companies. An in loco interview was applied to the respective individual in-charge of PDP by means of a structured questionnaire. For the data analysis, descriptive statistics and the multivariate cluster analysis techniques were used. The findings indicated that the SMEs in AMIs of the state of Sao Paulo present a heterogeneous structure with respect to PDP management. Three groups of companies were identified in the sample with different maturity PDP profiles: Group I (20% of companies in the sample), Group II (50% of the sample), and Group III (30% of the sample). Differences in the management of PDP were observed, especially among companies of Group I (smallest level of PDP maturity) and Group III (highest level of PDP maturity). However, despite the differences in PDP management presented in the groups of companies, according to the literature on PDP management, all groups are in the basic (initial) maturity level of PDP. The identification of the maturity level, in which these companies are, can help the determination of activities that link the internal actions to improve the PDP of these companies and the proposal of specific public policies that encourage the improvement of product development for dome

  13. The Impact of Firm Characteristics in Access of Financing by Small and Medium-sized Enterprises in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Reuben Kira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of Small and Medium-sized Enterprise (SME sector in economic development, job creationand income generation has been recognized worldwide. However, these contributions are not effectivelyharnessed in Tanzania. The main challenge limiting the sector to contribute fully is a shortage of finance. Thisstudy examines the impact of firm characteristics in access to debt financing by Tanzanian SMEs. The equationspecified access to finance as dependent variable while firm characteristics as independent variable. Datacollection was conducted through self-administered questionnaire in a survey of 163 Tanzanian firms. Thestatistical analysis of data involved Pearson correlation and logistic regression to establish the associationbetween dependent and independent variables. The results indicate that firm’s location, industry, size, businessinformation, age, incorporation and collateral influence access to debt finance. The study recommends thatTanzanian SME operators should maintain attractive firm attributes to stimulate lenders to extend debt financingto their investments.

  14. ENTREPRENEURIAL BEHAVIOUR ANALYSIS IN THE INTERNATIONALISATION PROCESS OF GLOBAL BORDER TYPE SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feder Em#337;ke-Szidónia

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In the European and global framework, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in order to survive the intense competition must expand, meaning that internationalisation has to be an inevitable stage in their strategic evolution at a certain moment in ti

  15. Current information technology needs of small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wipple, C.; Vosti, E.

    1997-11-01

    This report documents recent efforts of the American Textile Partnership (AMTEX) Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Project to address needs that are characterized of small to medium sized apparel manufactures and contractors. Background on the AMTEX/DAMA project and objectives for this specific efforts are discussed.

  16. Successful E-Learning in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Morten Flate

    2009-01-01

    So far, e-learning has primarily been used when there are many learners involved. The up-front investments related to e-learning are relatively high, and may be perceived as prohibitive for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Some e-learning is, however, getting less expensive, and some e-learning models are more suited for small-scale…

  17. Announcement of preliminary constructional rules for medium-sized underground shelters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These constructional rules apply to planning, design, and equipment of medium-sized underground shelters for 51 to 299 people. The shelters are required to protect against: falling debris, radioactive fall-out, effects of fires, biological and chemical weapons. They must quality for long stays. The required scope of protection is ensured if these constructional rules are observed. (orig./HP)

  18. Supporting the E-Business Readiness of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Approaches and Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutla, Dawn; Bodorik, Peter; Dhaliwal, Jasbir

    2002-01-01

    Presents a conceptual model for governments in creating a climate that facilitates the national adoption of e-business. Focuses on the needs of small and medium-sized enterprises, suggests measures to assess how a country is performing in providing a positive e-business climate, and provides examples from Canada, The Netherlands, Norway, and…

  19. An Agile Methodology for Implementing Service-Oriented Architecture in Small and Medium Sized Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of Lean/Agile principles, using action research to develop and deploy new technology for Small and Medium sized enterprises. The research case was conducted at the Lapeer County Sheriff's Department and involves the initial deployment of a Service Oriented Architecture to alleviate the data…

  20. Design of hydrothermal control system in medium-sized multifunctional radon chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces a hydrothermal control system designed for an airtight medium-sized multifunctional radon chamber. Fuzzy divisional control and intelligent self-adapting are adopted in this system. We use 485 bus collecting and control hydrothermal parameters and PCII/O card driving the electrical parts in radon chamber. (authors)

  1. IMPACT OF NEW INDUSTRIAL POLICY ON MICRO, SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES (MSMES IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. BharathaJyothi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Indian small scale industries play an imperative role in the economic expansion of the country and have vast approaching for employment generation. The Increasing small scale sector also results in decentralized industrial development, better distribution of wealth and investment and entrepreunial talent. The Government has initiated several policies for the growth and development of small scale industries. The ministry of Agro and Land Rural industries and Ministry of SSI have been merged into a single, Ministry namely, Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs.

  2. Dyeing Industry Effluent System as Lipid Production Medium of Neochloris sp. for Biodiesel Feedstock Preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Vidyadharani Gopalakrishnan; Dhandapani Ramamurthy

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae lipid feedstock preparation cost was an important factor in increasing biodiesel fuel hikes. This study was conducted with the concept of implementing an effluent wastewater as lipid production medium for microalgae cultivation. In our study textile dyeing industry effluent was taken as a lipid production medium for Neochloris sp. cultivation. The changes in physicochemical analysis of effluent before and after Neochloris sp. treatment were recorded using standard procedures and AA...

  3. Design features to achieve defence in depth in small and medium sized reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a continued interest among Member States in the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). In the very near term, most new nuclear power plants (NPPs) are likely to be evolutionary water cooled reactor designs building on proven systems while incorporating technological advances and often economies of scale, resulting in outputs of up to 1600 MW(e) from the reactor. For the longer term, the focus is on innovative designs to provide increased benefits in the areas of safety and security, nonproliferation, waste management, resource utilization and economics, as well as to offer a variety of energy products and flexibility in design, siting and fuel cycle options. Many innovative designs are implemented in reactors within the small to medium size range having equivalent electric power of less than 700 MW(e) or even less than 300 MW(e). Incorporation of inherent and passive safety design features has become a 'trademark' of many advanced reactor concepts, including several evolutionary designs and nearly all innovative SMR design concepts. Ensuring adequate defence in depth is important for reactors with smaller output because many of them are being designed to allow greater proximity to the user, specifically when non-electrical energy products are targeted. The IAEA provides a forum for the exchange of information by experts and policy makers from industrialized and developing countries on the technical, economic, environmental, andhe technical, economic, environmental, and social aspects of SMR development and implementation. It makes this information available to all interested Member States by producing status reports and other publications focusing on advances in SMR design and technology development. The objective of this report is to assist developers of SMRs in Member States in defining consistent defence in depth approaches regarding the elimination of accident initiators/prevention of accident consequences through design and incorporation of inherent and passive safety features and passive systems into safety design concepts of such reactors. Another objective is to assist potential users in Member States in their evaluation of the overall technical potential of SMRs with inherent and passive safety design features, including possible implications in areas other than safety. This report is intended for different categories of stakeholders, including designers and potential users of innovative SMRs, as well as officers in ministries or atomic energy commissions in Member States responsible for implementing nuclear power development programmes or evaluating nuclear power deployment options in the near, medium, and longer term. The main sections of this report present state of the art advances in defence in depth approaches based on the incorporation of inherent and passive safety features into the design concepts of pressurized water reactors, pressurized light water cooled heavy water moderated reactors, high temperature gas cooled reactors, liquid metal cooled fast reactors, and non-conventional designs within the SMR range. They also highlight benefits and negative impacts in areas other than safety arising from the incorporation of such features. The annexes provide descriptions of the design features of 11 representative SMR concepts used to achieve defence in depth and patterned along a common format reflecting the definitions and recommendations of the IAEA safety standards. The annexes were prepared by designers of the corresponding SMRs

  4. Competitiveness of Indonesian Small and Medium Food Processing Industry: Does the Location Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhamad Najib; Akira Kiminami; Hironori Yagi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we compare the competitiveness between clustered and dispersed Small Medium Enterprises(SMEs) in Indonesian food processing industry. This study was driven by the important role of SMEs inIndonesian food processing industry for helping low income people access the low price foods. Furthermore, asIndonesian Government implements policy that support clustered SMEs, it could be expected that SMEs in thecluster area could pursue and emphasize different performance than their non cl...

  5. The Strategic Measures for the Industrial Security of Small and Medium Business

    OpenAIRE

    Chang-Moo Lee

    2014-01-01

    The competitiveness of companies increasingly depends upon whether they possess the cutting-edge or core technology. The technology should be protected from industrial espionage or leakage. A special attention needs to be given to SMB (small and medium business), furthermore, because SMB occupies most of the companies but has serious problems in terms of industrial security. The technology leakages of SMB would account for more than 2/3 of total leakages during last five years. The purpose of...

  6. Raising medium-sized livestock and hepatitis risk: A national study in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Holly Herawati

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Latar belakang: Sanitasi lingkungan, termasuk kandang pemeliharaan ternak sedang, berpengaruh terhadap penyebaran penyakit hepatitis A dan E. Tujuan penelitian ini menilai lokasi kandang pemeliharaan ternak sedang berkaitan dengan risiko gejala hepatitis di beberapa propinsi dengan prevalensi hepatitis tinggi di Indonesia. Metode: Data berasal dari sebagian hasil Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas tahun 2007 di Indonesia. Untuk penilaian ini, data yang dipakai berasal dari 12 propinsi dengan prevalensi tinggi (0,6% hepatitis di Indonesia, dan dipilih hanya subjek yang tidak memelihara ternak serta hanya yang memelihara ternak sedang. Subjek hepatitis adalah responden yang pada saat wawancara mengatakan pernah mempunyai gejala hepatitis atau pernah di diagnosis menderita hepatitis oleh dokter atau paramedik dalam kurun waktu 12 bulan terakhir. Hasil: Dari 141.291 subjek, 1.257 (0,8% menderita hepatitis. Pada umumnya yang memelihara ternak sedang berisiko 86% lebih banyak terkena hepatitis dibandingkan dengan yang tidak memelihara  ternak [rasio odds suaian (ORa=1,86; 95% interval kepercayaan (CI=1,61-2,09]. Risiko tertinggi (2 kali lipat terkena hepatitis terjadi di antara subjek yang mengandangkan ternak sedang di dalam rumah (ORa=1,98; 95% CI=1,47-2,66, sedangkan risiko terkecil (38% lebih besar terkena hepatitis terjadi di antara yang mengandangkan ternak sedangnya di luar luar rumah dibandingkan dengan tidak memelihara ternak sedang (ORa=1,38; 95% CI=1,14-1,67 dibandingkan dengan tidak memelihara ternak. Kesimpulan: Kandang di luar rumah untuk meliharaan ternak sedang yang paling kecil menyebabkan risiko hepatitis. (Health Science Indones 2011;2:14-20   Abstract Background: Environmental sanitation, among others raising medium-sized livestock, affect the spread of hepatitis A and E. This paper presents an assessment of relation between place of raising medium-sized livestock and risk of hepatitis in high prevalence endemic hepatitis provinces in Indonesia. Methods: This paper used a part data of the Basic Health Survey (Riskesdas 2007 in 33 provinces in Indonesia. For this assessment samples consisted of those who had as well as did not have medium-sized livestock in twelve provinces with Hepatitis prevalence above national average. Hepatitis subject was those who ever diagnosed hepatitis by health workers (physician or paramedic or ever had symptoms of hepatitis in the last 12 months. Results: Of 141,291subjectts, 1,257 (0.8% subjects ever had hepatitis. In general, subjects who had raising medium-sized livestock had 83% more hepatitis risk compared to who did not have raising medium-sized livestock [adjusted odds ratio (ORa= 1.83; 95% confidence interval (CI= 1.61-2.09]. The highest risk (almost 2-fold to be hepatitis occurred among who had corral inside the house for raising medium-sized livestock (ORa=1.98; 95% CI=1.47-2.66, and the least risk (38% more risk to be hepatitis occurred among who had corral outside the house for raising medium-sized livestock (ORa=1.38; 95% CI=1.14-1.67 compared with who did not have raising medium-sized livestock. Conclusion: The least risk to be hepatitis occurred among who had corral outside the house among whom raising medium-sized livestock. (Health Science Indones 2011;2:14-20

  7. Teaming up for mutual learning : A case study of merging innovation aproaches of a medium-sized company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, SØren Bolvig; Pedersen, Tanja Aabo

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this paper is two-folded within the theme of collaboration between education and industry. Firstly it unfolds how learning for design-engineer students can be established and facilitated in a dynamic setting with industrial partners and secondly how industrial partners can benefit from student collaboration. The paper is based on research activities carried out in the context of a 3rd semester project at the Industrial Design Msc. program at The School of Architecture, Design & Planning at Aalborg University. Here, the teaching style is Problem Based Learning (PBL). In PBL, student’s focuses on a complex problem that does not have a single correct answer – in this case the addressed problem was concerned with the innovation approach of a medium-sized company. Traditionally innovation projects and strategic planning has emerged from top managers offices and has been based on i.a. technological an economic factors. An alternative approach has emerged, which suggests that innovation is most successfully initiated by the research and design resources with-in a company. The two approaches are denoted as respectively Top-down and Bottom-up [5]. Practicing the Top-down approach was familiar and integrated within the company, while the student introduced the Bottom-up approach during the project - the initiatives, experiences and observations are reported in this paper.

  8. 48 CFR 19.303 - Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01...Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards...Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size...

  9. THE KEY DETERMINANTS OF AND BARRIERS TO INTERNET ADOPTION IN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED HOTELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Kim Lian Chan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents qualitative empirical evidence that addresses why internet usage/adoption is low and how it can be improved in small and medium-sized hotels in Malaysia. It explores the key barriers to and influencing factors of internet adoption in a sample of 25 Malaysian small and medium-sized hotels based on a theoretical framework of the organisational innovation and resource-based view theories. Key barriers to internet usage include owner/operator characteristics, cost and investment, firm size and internet access. Operator/user’s assessment of perceived resource readiness, perceived potential utility and perceived performance seem to be the key influencing factors. The proposed holistic internet adoption framework also serves as a novel tool and a useful guide for individuals and ICT policymakers for improving and implementing e-commerce/internet. This paper adds to the internet adoption and decision literature and advances the theoretical and practical understanding of internet usage in small and medium-sized hotels, but requires further validation in other countries.

  10. Small- and Medium-Sized Commercial Building Monitoring and Controls Needs: A Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Underhill, Ronald M.; Goddard, James K.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Piette, M. A.; Granderson, J.; Brown, Rich E.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; Kuruganti, T.

    2012-10-31

    Buildings consume over 40% of the total energy consumption in the U.S. A significant portion of the energy consumed in buildings is wasted because of the lack of controls or the inability to use existing building automation systems (BASs) properly. Much of the waste occurs because of our inability to manage and controls buildings efficiently. Over 90% of the buildings are either small-size (<5,000 sf) or medium-size (between 5,000 sf and 50,000 sf); these buildings currently do not use BASs to monitor and control their building systems from a central location. According to Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), about 10% of the buildings in the U.S. use BASs or central controls to manage their building system operations. Buildings that use BASs are typically large (>100,000 sf). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) were asked by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP) to identify monitoring and control needs for small- and medium-sized commercial buildings and recommend possible solutions. This study documents the needs and solutions for small- and medium-sized buildings.

  11. The Impact of Firm Size and E-commerce Usage on Business Performance on Hospitality Industry: A case of Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ahmed A Said

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The hospitality industry is major service sector in most of developed and developing countries in the world economy, and nowadays many hotels implemented e-commerce for their business models and gained great advantages and increase profitability. This study aims to examine the impact of firm size and e-commerce usage on business performance of hospitality industry in general and hotels in Libya in particular. A quantitative approach was applied on hotel industry in Libya, mainly those hotels that have previous practices and experience with e-commerce. The results shows that small and medium size firms in hospitality industry in Libya are facing similar challenges and obstacles to other small businesses when establishing e-commerce website, and also shows a strong relationship between e-commerce usage and business performance, and high increase in profitability when hotels implement e-commerce and start to conduct online booking.

  12. Approaches for Assessing the Economic Competitiveness of Small and Medium Sized Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world'. One way this objective is achieved is through the publication of a range of technical series. Two of these are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III.A.6 of the IAEA Statute, the safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property.' The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are written primarily in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own programmes. The principal users are the regulatory bodies in Member States and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series comprises reports designed to encourage and assist R and D on, and application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia, and government officials, among others. This information is presented in guides, reports on technology status and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series complements the IAEA Safety Standards Series. To be competitive in anticipated markets, small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) rely on design and deployment approaches that are able to offset the adverse impacts of economy of scale. Such approaches include design simplification resulting from the application of safety design features that are the most appropriate for reactors of smaller capacity; the economy of mass production of multiple prefabricated modules; the option of incremental capacity increase, with possible benefits resulting from accelerated learning; sharing of common equipment and facilities; shorter construction periods, unit timing (spread of investments over time); and, possibly, greater involvement of local industry and local labour. The effectiveness of all of these approaches to SMR design and deployment depends on the application and on market variables, such as interest rates, and needs to be assessed and demonstrated for specific cases. Upon the advice and with the support of IAEA Member States, the IAEA provides a forum for the exchange of information by experts and policy makers from industrialized and developing countries on the technical, economic, environmental and social aspects of SMR development and implementation in the twenty-first century, and makes this information available to all interested Member States by producing status reports and other publications dedicated to advances in SMR design and technology development. This report was prepared to assist existing and potential stakeholders in Member States in understanding the economic competitiveness of SMR technologies compared to other energy sources and large reactors (LRs); to provide information on available approaches and frameworks to assess the economic competitiveness of advanced SMRs and LRs under specific conditions of their application; and to share knowledge on positive experiences of several Member States that are introducing SMRs into their energy mix. The report is intended for a variety of stakeholders including: design organizations involved in SMR development programmes; investors and potential users of innovative SMRs; and officers in the ministries or atomic energy commissions in Member States responsible for implementing nuclear technology development programmes or evaluating nuclear power deployment options in the near, medium and longer term. The main sections of this report highlight the experience with and future plans for SMRs in several Member States, and present the available methodological options to assist design organizations and guide potential users on the economic performance and investment attractiveness of SMRs. The report also provides recommendations on how to

  13. Innovation, adaptability, and collaboration: Keys to success for small and medium sized reactors. Cairo, 27 May 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small and medium sized reactors, within a power output of less than 700 MW(e), are receiving increased consideration in the effort to meet changing market requirements. Smaller plants allow a more incremental investment, which can be used to hedge against demand uncertainty. They are more suitable for standardization and prefabrication, which in turn encourages enhanced quality control and stimulates rapid development of expertise and shorter construction schedules. They provide a better match to grid capacity in developing countries. And they are more easily adapted to a broad range of industrial settings and applications, such as district heating, heavy oil recovery, or the production of hydrogen and other chemical fuels. Sea water desalination is an application for which smaller reactors hold a particular advantage. Nuclear powered desalination is a proven technology. Clearly, we live in an era in which our society faces many difficult economic, environmental and social issues associated with sustainable development and energy demand. Against that backdrop, nuclear power is a mature technology that deserves careful consideration as a contributor to solving some of these issues. The development of innovative small and medium sized reactors will play a key role in helping to match state-of-the-art technology to user needs. An exchange of information and ideas is a step towards further progress

  14. The role of independent intermediaries. The case of small and medium-sized exporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tage Koed; Moen, Øystein

    2012-01-01

    The article examines how small and medium-sized exporters collaborate with intermediaries in foreign markets by studying the level of control, i.e. the delegation of decisions rights and task solution. It goes one step further than previous research, since it examines degrees of control and participation rather than just discrete types of intermediary modes (agents, importers, dealers, etc.). Associations with performance as well as the role of product and distributor characteristics are analyzed. Empirical data based on a sample of product-market ventures in 227 small and medium-sized Norwegian export firms are analysed by a structural equation modelling approach. The article provides empirical evidence that managers keep control of decision making to an extent that may have a negative impact on export performance. The empirical study indicates that firms should participate more in task solution but less in decision making in their collaboration with foreign intermediaries

  15. Attractive and climate-friendly medium-sized cities; Attraktive og klimavennlige mellomstore byer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennoey, Aud

    2012-07-01

    Ministry of the Environment (MD) wanted an overview of current knowledge of climate-friendly and attractive urban development in medium-sized cities (10 - 50 000 inhabitants). This report presents and discusses knowledge between major cities' situation and challenges of land use and transport development to reduce car traffic and greenhouse gas emissions and on urban development for more attractive cities. A main conclusion is that there are major gaps in knowledge and opportunities for improvement. If those covered will be far better opportunities for planners, local authorities and others may be able to contribute to more climate-friendly and attractive medium-sized cities.The report is part of the project Comprehensive information pack for the status of knowledge from research on urban development. The project has also prepared a report entitled Planning for attractive urban environment. The reports are intended to complement each other and should be seen in context.(eb)

  16. The Importance Of Angel Investors In Financing The Growth Of Small And Medium Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veland Ramadani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Angel investors are very important for small and medium sized enterprises because they provide more than money. They are hands-on investors and contribute their skills, expertise, knowledge and contacts in the businesses they invest in. They are wealthy persons with great business experience. They are willing to invest and offer their wealth and knowledge to owners of small and medium sized enterprises and to entrepreneurs to start or develop their businesses. One of the attributes of angel investors is that they like to remain anonymus. Due to this attribute, a lot of ideas can not be accomplished. To eliminate this, many countries establish angel investor syndicates (groups and networks. These syndicates (groups and networks facilitate the process of matching entrepreneurs and angel investors.

  17. Teaching Medium-Sized ERP Systems - A Problem-Based Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Axel; Matzner, Martin

    In order to increase the diversity in IS education, we discuss an approach for teaching medium-sized ERP systems in master courses. Many of today's IS curricula are biased toward large ERP packages. Nevertheless, these ERP systems are only a part of the ERP market. Hence, this chapter describes a course outline for a course on medium-sized ERP systems. Students had to study, analyze, and compare five different ERP systems during a semester. The chapter introduces a procedure model and scenario for setting up similar courses at other universities. Furthermore, it describes some of the students' outcomes and evaluates the contribution of the course with regard to a practical but also academic IS education.

  18. Research on the Symbiotic Relationship between Small & Medium-sized Enterprises and Banks in Jilin Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Lixia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As the market economy deepens continually, the small & medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in Jilin Province play more and more important role for the economic development of Jilin. Although the SMEs in Jilin have developed greatly in recent years, their difficulties in financing seriously hamper their development. The paper analyzes the status of the relation between the SMEs and banks in Jilin and suggests that it is necessary for the SMEs to establish symbiotic relationship with banks, we also put forward the paths for them to establish continuous reciprocal symbiotic relation with banks in order to help SMEs solve their financing problems and guide the banks to get more profit to realize win-win for both of them.
    Key words: Small & Medium-sized enterprises in Jilin Province; banks; Symbiotic relationship

  19. Services Supporting Knowledge Maturing in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Ronald

    The hype around Web 2.0 has again sparked tremendous interest in IT-supported knowledge management and technology-enhanced learning in organizations. Although there has been abundant evidence of how to benefit from Web 2.0 technologies, information on how to go about deploying these in small and medium-sized enterprises in a coordinated manner are scarce. Based on the findings of an empirical study and an ethnographically informed study on knowledge maturing, this paper suggests a set of knowledge services to support a series of knowledge actions chained with the help of the knowledge maturing model. This set of services can be used by small and medium-sized enterprises for analyzing IT tools and systems which currently support their employees’ knowledge maturing activities, to foster knowledge cooperation with customers, suppliers and partners in their business environment and to find gaps which can be filled particularly by consuming services over the Web.

  20. A software process improvement solution for small and medium-size enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo-Manzano Villalon, Jose Antonio; Cuevas Agustin, Gonzalo; San Feliu Gilabert, Tomas; Serrano Rico, Ariel Edgar; García Pacheco, Iván

    2006-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to outline the main structure of an alternative software process improvement method for small- and medium-size enterprises. This method is based on the action package concept, which helps to institutionalize the effective practices with affordable implementation costs. This paper also presents the results and lessons learned when this method was applied to three enterprises in the requirements engineering domain.

  1. ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING ON CLOUD FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED BUSINESS, s?

    OpenAIRE

    Fakeeh, Dr Khalid A.; Junaid Qayyum; Albarakati?, Aiman J.

    2014-01-01

    Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) execution letdowns are one of the most important concerns for every organization/institution bearing in mind ERP but particularly small and medium size businesses that be deficient in the proficiency to put into practice inside devoid of appointing faint/outside conferring with, or those who have slighter resources. Do the benefits of Enterprise Resource Planning prevail over the drawbacks and in which manner that influence SMB, s? We do consider the advanta...

  2. The Adoption of Management Accounting Practices in Malaysian Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Kamilah Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence on the adoption of a broad range of management accounting practices in Malaysian small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the manufacturing sector. Data collected from a postal survey of 160 accountant managers are used to facilitate the study. The results indicate that the traditional MAPs such as conventional budgeting, traditional costing and financial performance measures are widely used by the respondents. The results also show that a significan...

  3. New Balancing Equipment for Mass Production of Small and Medium-Sized Electrical Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Argeseanu, Alin; Ritchie, Ewen; Leban, Krisztina Monika

    2011-01-01

    The level of vibration and noise is an important feature. It is good practice to explain the significance of the indicators of the quality of electrical machines. The mass production of small and medium-sized electrical machines demands speed (short typical measurement time), reliability of measurement, easy use and low cost. This paper proposes a new low cost equipment able to provide required performances.

  4. Advantages of Chain Business and Countermeasures of Small- and Medium-Sized Manufacturers

    OpenAIRE

    Guoliang Luo; Ximei Liu

    2009-01-01

    Along with the development of market economy in China, chain business has been turned into a guiding ring from the last ring in the supply chain. Chain business’ economy of scale, economy of scope, and advantages of information and integration becomes more prominent. Under this condition, small- and medium-sized manufacturers can adopt more flexible production and diversified marketing strategy by means of combining with retailers directly.

  5. Fashionable Strategies : Internationalization process of small and medium sized Nordicfashion companies

    OpenAIRE

    Barwinski, Arne; Burvall, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    In our master thesis “Fashionable strategies” we analyze the internationalization processof small and medium sized Nordic Fashion companies. In our study we conducted aquantitative survey and qualitative in-depths interviews to shed light on the topic. We usehereby an iterative research strategy through the triangulation analysis method as researchapproach. The combination of methodologies and perspectives allowed us to analyze ourtheoretical framework and the research questions in a favo...

  6. SELECTED ELEMENTS OF THE INTERNATIONALIZATION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEATA GLINKOWSKA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author tried to analyze some aspects of the process of internationalization of small and medium-sized enterprises. It contains the essence and definitions related to the process of internationalization, the theoretical analysis of the skills and attributes necessary for the modern entrepreneur / manager, wishing to enter foreign markets. The author also concluded the analysis of theoretical and practical statistics compiled by the Polish Ministry of Finance on the process of internationalization of Polish enterprises.

  7. The Construction of Human Resource Management System in Small and Medium-sized Private Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Jieyun Zhang; Juhong Gong

    2009-01-01

    The small and medium-sized private enterprises (SMEs) play an increasingly important role in creating output value and providing new employment opportunities, but there are a lot of problems with human resources in SMEs, such as poor quality of business owners, lack of strategic planning on human resources, etc. It’s necessary, therefore, for SMEs to strengthen the setup of human resource management system. This paper puts forward some implementation details according to "human resource eva...

  8. Incidence of Guerrilla Marketing Practices in Small and Medium Sized Turkish Exporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Caliskan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Guerrilla Marketing is a marketing tactic designed to attract prospects’ attention and to obtain competitive advantage by utilizing low cost or no cost marketing activities. Its popularity has been increasing as markets become increasingly competitive. Small or Medium sized Turkish exporters may benefit from deploying guerrilla marketing practices in the exporting process. In this article, the implementation level of guerrilla marketing practices among different types of exporters is analyzed.

  9. Unions in small and medium-sized enterprises : A family factor perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten, Ann-Louise; Crouch, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Trade unions are commonly weak in small- and medium-sized enterprises, which constitute a majority of European firms and are often family-owned. We investigate the influence of family ownership on employee membership, perceptions and experience with unions in Danish and Italian firms in the textile and clothing sector. Family ownership reduces union membership; and within family firms, the number of family members employed is negatively associated with unionization rates and employee perceptions of unions.

  10. Barriers to energy efficiency improvement: Empirical evidence from small-and-medium sized enterprises in China

    OpenAIRE

    Kostka, Genia; Moslener, Ulf; Andreas, Jan G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes barriers for energy efficiency investments for small-and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in China. Based on a survey of 480 SMEs in Zhejiang Province, this study assesses financial, informational, and organizational barriers for energy efficiency investments in the SME sector. The conventional view has been that the lack of appropriate financing mechanisms particularly hinders SMEs to adopt cost-effective energy efficiency measures. As such, closing the financing gap for S...

  11. The Research of External Financing Options of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hongyu; Liu, Meiyue

    2012-01-01

    Since the reform and opening up, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in China developed rapidly, which have become an important part of China’s economic and social development. However, the financing difficulties of SMEs have become increasingly prominent during recent years, and it hinders the healthy development of SMEs in China. This paper analyzes the current financing situation of SMEs in China, and conducts a deeply comparative analysis for several common external finan...

  12. Manage Projects Smarter: Picking Tools for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanie Quade; Frank Habermann; Marcus Birkenkrahe

    2012-01-01

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are increasingly dealing with international projects and distributed (sometimes even virtual) teams. Consequently, they are looking for project management (PM) tools which fit their respective needs regarding communication and collaboration. Unfortunately, the majority of the PM software available in the market seems to be oversized for this purpose. Instead most project managers are requesting smart solutions that allow quick implementation without a...

  13. Hybridoma growth and productivity: effects of conditioned medium and of inoculum size

    OpenAIRE

    Dutton, Roshni L.; Scharer, Jeno M.; Moo-Young, Murray

    1999-01-01

    Apart from gas concentrations, temperature, and pH, generally only the initial conditions can be manipulated in batch culture. Inoculum size and initial conditioned medium concentration represent two important considerations for optimal batch production. Two hybridoma cell lines were used to assess the impact of these initial conditions on population growth and monoclonal antibody productivity in suspension batch culture. Varying initial cell concentration over the range of 1.0 × 105 cells m...

  14. The challenges of Iranian small and medium-sized enterprises through process of internationalization

    OpenAIRE

    Amirkhani, Kianoosh

    2012-01-01

    The effect of globalization and attracting new market increase the attitude of firms toward foreign market incrementally .This thesis was conducted to introduce a comprehensive framework of internationalization process in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Iran as well as monitoring challenges that firms will face in foreign market operation. Take a glance at the literature of internationalization, Iran`s economic situation and entry modes. The aim of this research was encouraging other st...

  15. Development of European Small and Medium Sized Enterprises for Reference in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Wen-jin; Liu, Xiaofeng

    2008-01-01

    The small and medium sized enterprises which are predominantly economic superior in the European small countries mainly produce, process, import and export advanced technical products with high added value and scientific content. They facilitate the development of the economy through technical creation, which is also benefited from the highly efficient economy system established cooperatively by government, bank, and non-government organizations. The experience in Europe provides instructive ...

  16. A Social Media Marketing Plan for a Medium-sized Consumer Goods Company

    OpenAIRE

    Okolie, Emeka

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a social media marketing plan for the case com-pany to integrate it into its existing marketing communications. The case company of this study is a medium-sized consumer goods producing company that advertises its brand and products using traditional methods of advertising (radio, television, flyers and event promotion). At the moment, these methods seem to be lacking in efficiency and effective-ness caused by the saturation of marketing information w...

  17. Financing innovative small and medium-sized enterprises in times of crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Dejan ERIC; Isidora BERAHA; Sonja DJURICIN

    2011-01-01

    Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SME) in general and particularly innovative ones are becoming an increasingly important factor on the road to achieving smart, sustainable and comprehensive development. Because of their propensity to innovative undertaking and risk, SMEs contribute significantly to economic growth but are generally less productive and pay the cost of high rates of death and lower rates of profitability. Financing SMEs is risky and uncertain and for innovative SMEs it is ev...

  18. Optimal monetary policy in an operational medium-sized DSGE model

    OpenAIRE

    Adolfson, Malin; Lase?en, Stefan; Linde?, Jesper; Svensson, Lars E. O.

    2008-01-01

    We show how to construct optimal policy projections in Ramses, the Riksbank's openeconomy medium-sized DSGE model for forecasting and policy analysis. Bayesian estimation of the parameters of the model indicates that they are relatively invariant to alternative policy assumptions and supports that the model may be regarded as structural in a stable low inflation environment. Past policy of the Riksbank until 2007:3 (the end of the sample used) is better explained as following a simple instrum...

  19. Accounting and Financial Reporting Guidelines for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEGA) – Level 3 guidance

    OpenAIRE

    Eberle, Reto; et al.

    2008-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Working Group of Experts on International Standards of Accounting and Reporting (ISAR) issued the publication Accounting and Financial Reporting Guidelines for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEGA) – Level 3 Guidance after deliberations during its seventeenth and eighteenth sessions. At its twenty-third session, ISAR requested the UNCTAD secretariat to reconvene a consultative group to, inter alia, update the SMEGA Level 3 Guidance. Accordingly, ...

  20. CRITICAL FACTORS IN OUTSOURCING OF ACCOUNTING FUNCTIONS IN MALAYSIAN SMALL MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES (SMEs)

    OpenAIRE

    Magiswary Dorasamy; Maran Marimuthu; Jayamalathi Jayabalan; Murali Raman; Maniam Kaliannan

    2010-01-01

    The challenges that business face in sustaining competitive advantage in the corporate world have become a major concern. Businesses are adopting cutting-edge technologies and best practices to cope with rapid, global changes. Various business functions are being reengineered for this purpose. Accounting functions play an important role in helping businesses to maintain competitive advantage. However, some small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) face problems handling fundamental accounting...

  1. Hausbank or Fournisseur? Bank services for small and medium sized enterprises in Germany and France

    OpenAIRE

    Quack, Sigrid; Hildebrandt, Swen

    1995-01-01

    Deregulation of financial systems, internationalisation of financial markets and globalisation of product markets have led to considerable changes in the institutional and economic environment of banks and small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). In this paper we examine the impact of these overall changes on the evolution of the exclusive "Hausbank"-relationship in Germany and the loose "fournisseur" (supplier) relationship in France. The cross-country comparison is informed by theoretical...

  2. A primer on governance and performance in small and medium-sized enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Yacuzzi, Enrique

    2005-01-01

    This paper is a primer on corporate performance, corporate governance, and their interrelationships and measurement systems, with particular focus on Small and Medium- Sized Enterprises (SMEs). This is the first report of a larger on going research project. In the domain of performance measurement the paper describes the trend from financial to non-financial measures, as well as a taxonomy of measures and the impact of the TQM movement on measurement practices. In the domain of governance, go...

  3. Audit from Audit Exempted Small and Medium-sized Entities (SMEs) in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Lakhe Shrestha, Biswas Kaji; Wai, Honey Htun

    2011-01-01

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are seen as backbone for economic growth because they are regarded as catalyst for entrepreneurial skills, innovation and employment. Since in Sweden approximately 99.89% of enterprises are SMEs, they take an important role in country’s economic development.        Most of the countries especially EU nations have abolished the statutory audit provision for (SMEs). The new Swedish legislation of statutory audit exemption came into effect on 1st...

  4. Based on the AHP Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise Supply Chain Supplier Evaluation Research

    OpenAIRE

    Xianwu Hu

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we have a research of the small and medium-sized enterprise supply chain supplier based on the AHP. For supply chain management issues in the supplier evaluation establishes the evaluation index system and then uses AHP decide the weight of each evaluation index. Moreover, it uses Linear Weighting Method to study supplier performance from perspective of quantitative research and gives the measurement process. In our empirical research, the applied method is scientific and feasi...

  5. Implementing Lean Procurement : Opportunities, methods and hinders for medium sized enterprises - a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Hagström, Mikael; Wollner, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes how lean procurement can be implemented in a medium sized enterprise, focusing on opportunities in the process, methods to achieve the opportunities, and hinders that need to be handled. A literature study has been conducted to identify these aspects, organized by six implied implementation stages of lean procurement. To challenge the findings, an empirical study was conducted at Isaberg Rapid, in order to confirm or discard identified important concepts. In order to con...

  6. Information and communication technologies and their benefits for medium and large-sized enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Tichy?, Ondr?ej

    2012-01-01

    The primary research, which is brought by this paper, focuses on medium and large-sized enterprises in sectors of information and communication technologies(ICT). It investigates their attitude to the ICT that they use. Based on these ICT, the article is looking for trends set by the companies. Then, these trends could be considered as an inspiration for companies from other sectors of business. The research results have shown that the specially developed software belongs between the most ...

  7. General implementation stages of the ABC method in the Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Ca?pus?neanu, Sorinel I.; Topor, Dan; Rof, Letit?ia Maria

    2011-01-01

    This article highlights the analysis and implementation stages of the ABC method in small and medium sized enterprises in Romania. It presents the historical development of the ABC method and its implementation issues identified in the economic entities. It stresses the importance of the ABC method to obtain relevant information to management decision-making entities. Emphasis is placed on the analysis type implementation issues: financial, behavioral, technical, informational, managerial, al...

  8. Based on the AHP Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise Supply Chain Supplier Evaluation Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianwu Hu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have a research of the small and medium-sized enterprise supply chain supplier based on the AHP. For supply chain management issues in the supplier evaluation establishes the evaluation index system and then uses AHP decide the weight of each evaluation index. Moreover, it uses Linear Weighting Method to study supplier performance from perspective of quantitative research and gives the measurement process. In our empirical research, the applied method is scientific and feasible.

  9. Environmental protection and competitive ability of small and medium size enterprises in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Kožená, Marcela

    2008-01-01

    At the present time the protection of environment is one of the global objectives of the mankind. Its realization should start at the company level where many problems begin. The aim of this article is analysis of application of sustainable development strategy in small and medium size enterprises in the Czech Republic; primarily the detection of its main problems in the process of implementation of environmental management systems (EMS) into company managements. Another objective of the rese...

  10. Regional context of small and medium-sized enterprises' development. case study of southern Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Wach, Krzysztof

    2010-01-01

    The paper verifies the existence of relations between development of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and the particular factors of regional environment as well as demographic parameters of entrepreneurs and their enterprises. SMEs localized in Southern Poland in accordance with NUTS -1 nomenclature, which is made of two voivodeships: Lesser Poland (Ma?opolska) and Silesia (?l?sk), are research subjects. The main aim of the research is indication factors of regional environment wh...

  11. Model of Thai Small and Medium Sized Enterprises’ Organizational Capabilities: Review and Verification

    OpenAIRE

    Apicha Boonpattarakan

    2012-01-01

    In today’s competitive environment, small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) must focus on strengthening their organizational capabilities, considered to be a vital ingredient for building firms’ competitiveness. A number of factors may be deemed to be the drivers of organizational capabilities. Thus, this study was aimed at investigating and discussing those dimensions and their elements associated with organizational capabilities. The review of the literature indicates that the fundame...

  12. Strategies for Successful Information Technology Adoption in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Morteza Ghobakhloo; Tang Sai Hong; Norzima Zulkifli; Mohammad Sadegh Sabouri

    2012-01-01

    Information Technology (IT) adoption is an important field of study in a number of areas, which include small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Due to the numerous advantages of IT, SMEs are trying to adopt IT applications to support their businesses. IT adoption by SMEs differs from larger organizations because of their specific characteristics, such as resources constraints. Therefore, this research aims to provide a better and clearer understanding of IT adoption within SMEs by reviewin...

  13. The Growth and Challenges of Small- and Medium-Sized Banks in China

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Qin

    2013-01-01

    1. Introduction 2. The growth of China’s SMBs and the changes of the banking market structure – a land of small- and medium-sized companies 2.1 The characteristics of China’s banking market structure 2.2 The growth of China’s SMBs 2.3 The changes of China’s banking market structure 3. The opportunities and challenges facing SMBs in China 3.1 Opportunities 3.2 Challenges 4. Conclusion

  14. Definitions of Guidelines for Introducing an Integrated Management System to Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Fassoula, Evagelia D.

    1999-01-01

    To survive and achieve to develop their activities in an increasingly competitive environment, small and medium sized enterprises have to increase their competitiveness and, progressively, reduce their operational cost. It is therefore the objective of this research project to develop a flexible and unique management system for these enterprises to use to integrate all management systems or activities related to quality, safety and environmental issues and continuously improve ...

  15. SELECTED ELEMENTS OF THE INTERNATIONALIZATION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES

    OpenAIRE

    BEATA GLINKOWSKA

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the author tried to analyze some aspects of the process of internationalization of small and medium-sized enterprises. It contains the essence and definitions related to the process of internationalization, the theoretical analysis of the skills and attributes necessary for the modern entrepreneur / manager, wishing to enter foreign markets. The author also concluded the analysis of theoretical and practical statistics compiled by the Polish Ministry of Finance on the process of...

  16. Environmental management and educational needs of the small and medium-sized businesses of the metallurgical sector in the south region of Madrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the environmental management and needs of the small and medium-sized businesses of the metallurgical industry in the south region of Madrid were analysed. Information was obtained through a telephone questionnaire distributed to more than 170 companies. Although most of the respondent employees do not consider environmental training one of their priorities, they expressed their interest in implementing Environmental Management Systems, waste minimization and higher knowledge of the specific legal aspects. (Author) 7 refs

  17. Developing a Methodology Based on Action Learning to Facilitate the Adoption of ICT in Small and Medium-sized Companies in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Nunez, Heilyn Camacho

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to understand and explore better strategies to support the Small and Medium-sized companies sector in Costa Rica in the ICT adoption process. A strategy has been proposed which focuses on learning process and the interaction of university, industry and government (Triple Helix Model) in order to support the SMEs sector. The concrete proposal of the research is to design collaborative project based on action learning approach (Revans, 1982) with partnership of the thre...

  18. Open adrenalectomy for medium sized adrenocortical tumour: How I do it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sameh, Wael M.; Kotb, Ahmed Fouad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of our work was to report our experience in managing cases with medium-sized adrenocortical carcinoma by the high retroperitoneal extra pleural approach. Methods: During the past 2 years, 10 patients with suspected adrenocortical carcinoma were managed by our technique: the high supra 10th rib, retroperitoneal extra pleural approach. We included cases with 5 to 10 cm adrenal masses, suspected as adrenocortical carcinoma. Results: The mean patient age was 38 years (range: 26–44), the median tumour volume was 7 cm (range: 5–8). Of the 10 patients, 7 were female. Of the patients, 6 had right- and 4 had left-sided tumours. Intraoperatively, all cases had proper surgical removal, with no apparent residual tumour tissue. No single patient required a chest tube or developed respiratory problems. There were no major vascular injuries during surgery. We did not compare our findings to the standard lateral or subcostal approaches, as in our institution we adopt this high lateral approach for medium-sized tumours, while managing larger tumours with transperitoneal subcostal approach and smaller tumours laparoscopically. Conclusion: The high supra 10th lateral retroperitoneal, extra pleural approach is a safe, doable technique, allowing easy access to medium-sized suprarenal tumours and its vasculature, for cases suspected to be adrenocortical carcinoma.

  19. THE EVOLUTION OF FINANCIAL STANDARDS FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM- SIZED ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana IVANKOVI?

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the growing need for more comparable accounting standards, the beginnings of International Financial Reporting Standards for small and medium sized entities (IFRS for SMEs can be found in the year 2004. IFRS for SMEs represents for the first time an accounting standard for small and medium-sized companies that can be used globally. The paper aims to examine the historical development of IFRS, the principal institutions linked to their adoption and the harmonization process of standards within the European Union. The main contribution of the paper refers to the evolution of IFRS for SMEs and the main differences between the full IFRS in use and the IFRS for SMEs.The results of the comparative analysis demonstrate that several differences exist between them. Although the aim of the new standard is to assure comparable financial statements for small and medium-sized entities, the presented disadvantages demonstrate that not necessarily its implementation will assure more benefits than the cost that will occur.

  20. Voluntary disclosing cash flow statement in non-listed medium sized companies.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SchØler, Finn

    In Denmark, like some other EU Member States, medium-sized companies are requested to present a cash flow statement, but there are exemption rules similar to those for subgroups’ exemption to their presentation of consolidated financial statements. In a sample consisting of the paper versions of annual reports from 385 Danish non-listed medium-sized companies who were disclosing a cash flow statement as part of their annual report, we found that in a few cases, the companies were exempted to presentation of consolidated financial statements, but disclosing the cash flow statement voluntarily! Since there has been some debate between IASB and the EU Commission whether the cash flow statement should be a mandatory part of the annual reporting for non-listed medium-sized companies, we found it interesting to directly ask these voluntary disclosing companies as to their motivation. For this reason we conducted a multiple-case study, where we formulated a structured questionnaire and made partly open-ended interview with each one of the case-companies’ accountably responsible persons, i.e. one of the guys who signed the annual report. Among the majority of the answers we found a common understanding on presenting the cash flow statement because of some tradition, and not because of some clear intention of fulfilling user needs. However, do we really get a better annual report if a cash flow statement is included?

  1. The Creation of Small and Medium-Sized Sport Enterprises and the Environmental Factors Affecting It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Morteza Azimzadeh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium-sized enterprises are very basic solutions for the development of a country; therefore, it is important to understand the factors involved in their creation. Hence, this study sought to examine the relationship between environmental factors and creation of Small and medium-sized sport enterprises. The research population was small and medium-sized sport enterprises (1500 companies; their owners / managers were selected as the research sample (n = 258 by simple random sampling. Data were gathered using environmental factors (?=0.77 and enterprises creation qualification (?=0.81 questionnaires. Descriptive and inferential statistics (Pearson correlation coefficient, Kolmogrof - Smirnov test, and multivariate regression analysis with SPSS16 software was used for data analysis. The results showed that in addition to positive and significant relationship with business, environmental factors could predict 6% of the creation variance; Also, except for the political dimension, all environmental aspects established a significant relationship with enterprise creation( p<0.01. Regression analysis showed that of environmental dimensions, economics and technology dimensions could explain 7 percent of Sports enterprise creation variance. According to path analysis method, this prediction ability is presented in a model. The findings suggested a diminished role of environment and its dimensions in explaining the process of SMEs creation.

  2. Paths to Knowledge Management in Small and Medium-Sized Hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mik Kim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate what path options can facilitate small and medium-sized hotels’ knowledge management? And how the options are realised by them? In order to answer these questions, this study undertook an empirical investigation into the current status and practice of knowledge management in small and medium-sized hotels. The empirical investigation was performed through thirteen face-to-face in-depth interviews with owners and managers in small and medium-sized hotels. While the interview method is selected so as to answer the questions, secondary data are utilised to support this study such as in defining the research questions and informing the study findings. This study observed that there were four broad approaches to the way in which hotels put their paths to knowledge management. Each type of the paths is named as: Match, Combination, Divergence, and Specialisation. As arguably, knowledge management is both part of the cost of doing business and the most likely source of competitive advantage, it is as important to the sole operator as to the large corporation. By understanding the different options, hotels will be able to make better decisions in the choice of their suitable paths to knowledge management.

  3. Exploring drivers for energy efficiency within small- and medium-sized enterprises: First evidences from Italian manufacturing enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Allowances, public financing and external pressures as major external drivers. ? Ambitious decision-makers with great entrepreneurial mind as major internal drivers. ? Effect of firm’s size (even within SMEs) on drivers to industrial energy efficiency. ? Preliminary evidences of the effect of firm’s internal and external complexity. ? Preliminary evidences of the effect of firm’s innovation characteristics. - Abstract: Several studies have investigated the barriers to industrial energy efficiency, but few have focused on the most effective means (drivers) to promote the adoption of energy-efficient technologies and practices. In this respect, Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) have been completely overlooked despite interesting consequences for their overall energy consumption and their concurrent low levels of adoption of energy-efficiency measures. Starting from insights garnered from the extant literature on the drivers of industrial energy efficiency, this paper presents an empirical investigation of 71 Italian manufacturing SMEs through a multiple case-study approach. The research highlights the importance of allowances or public financing for energy efficiency interventions, as well as the importance of external pressures such as increases in energy prices and the introduction or increasing of fees on both resources consumed and on emissions of pollutants. Moreover, enterprises look favourably upon energy-efficient technologies which are able to provide long-term benefits, evidence of their willingness to adopt seemingly radical solutions when these are able to improve their long-term competitiveness. Other drivers considered as strategic for increasing energy efficiency are the presence within the company of people with great ambition and entrepreneurial mind and the management sensitivity to the issue. This paper also provides a preliminary analysis of how factors such as firm size, sector, supply chain complexity, and innovation characteristics are or might be able to significantly affect drivers toward the adoption of energy-efficient technologies

  4. Dyeing industry effluent system as lipid production medium of Neochloris sp. for biodiesel feedstock preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Vidyadharani; Ramamurthy, Dhandapani

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae lipid feedstock preparation cost was an important factor in increasing biodiesel fuel hikes. This study was conducted with the concept of implementing an effluent wastewater as lipid production medium for microalgae cultivation. In our study textile dyeing industry effluent was taken as a lipid production medium for Neochloris sp. cultivation. The changes in physicochemical analysis of effluent before and after Neochloris sp. treatment were recorded using standard procedures and AAS analysis. There was especially a reduction in heavy metal like lead (Pb) concentration from 0.002 ppm to 0.001 ppm after Neochloris sp. treatment. Neochloris sp. cultivated in Bold Basal Medium (BBM) (specific algal medium) produced 41.93% total lipid and 36.69% lipid was produced in effluent based cultivation. Surprisingly Neochloris sp. cultivated in effluent was found with enhanced neutral lipid content, and it was confirmed by Nile red fluorescence assay. Further the particular enrichment in oleic acid content of the cells was confirmed with thin layer chromatography (TLC) with oleic acid pure (98%) control. The overall results suggested that textile dyeing industry effluent could serve as the best lipid productive medium for Neochloris sp. biodiesel feedstock preparation. This study was found to have a significant impact on reducing the biodiesel feedstock preparation cost with simultaneous lipid induction by heavy metal stress to microalgae. PMID:25247176

  5. Cloud Computing: The Level of Awareness Amongst Small & Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Developing Economies.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeboah-Boateng, Ezer Osei; Essandoh, Kofi Asare

    2013-01-01

    Cloud computing services are being touted as a major enabler for small businesses lately. This new paradigm is seen to offer unique opportunities to small and medium enterprises (SMEs) worldwide and developing economies are no exception. It presents SMEs access to similar technologies available to their larger counterparts and those in the developed world which inherently creates innovativeness, increases competitive advantage and impacts their operations and processes. This paper seeks to determine the level of awareness and familiarity with this emerging computing paradigm. The results of the study indicated that a slight majority of the respondents were familiar with cloud computing on the individual level but the level of awareness amongst the larger SME industry was low to medium. The finding therefore recommends education and sensitization on cloud computing in order to increase awareness and knowledge about this emerging technology and its prospects. This is seen as one sure way of enhancing its uptakein developing and emerging markets.

  6. Medium Sized High Tech International Acquisitions: A Longitudinal Perspective (1990-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Meier

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the various forms and strategical options that are found and employed when merging companies of any size with medium-sized technological companies, with a view to understanding what outcomes are involved. This research paper is based on a sample consisting of 5 738 mergers and acquisitions transactions in the high-tech sector, particularly those involving innovative companies with technological interests. The aim of this research is to show how these strategic manoeuvres operate, using a multi-criteria analysis chart that includes the size of the company, the level of participation, the nature of diversification, the duration of transactions and value ratios. In this way, the research will help to provide better understanding of the characteristics of these technological merger acquisition operations, creating a typology of operations and manoeuvres and correcting some of the beliefs commonly held.

  7. The ABC-paradox: is Time Driven ABC relevant for small and Medium sized enterprises (SME)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fladkjær, Henrik Find; Jensen, Erling

    2011-01-01

    Several articles suggest that Activity Based Costing (ABC) has failed to succeed in practical use. It is even argued that we have an ABC-paradox. Activity Based Costing has won theoretically in nu-merous articles in journals, through books, being included in all major Business Accounting text-books and in curriculum at most business schools. But ABC is not used very much by the compa-nies. Especially in small and medium enterprises ABC is rarely implemented. This is primarily due to two things: First, the ABC model is too difficult to implement. Second, the data foundation for the model is not available in the required quality in the ERP systems used by the businesses. In this article we will explore ways of overcoming these two related problems. We will explore these issues particularly in relation to small and medium enterprises. Through a theoretical analysis and practical implementation in a medium sized manufacturing company we will analyse whether it is possible to create a satisfactory decision making foundation using a TDABC as a less complex cost model in the company. We have analysed our way to the conclusion that compared to ABC, the TDABC model provides the management with a number of pragmatic solutions that can be used in small and medium enter-prises.

  8. The Perspective of Small and Medium Size Nuclear Power Reactors in the Brazilian Isolated Electricity Grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a consequence of the international crisis that has shaken the nuclear industry almost all over the world during the late 1980s, new academic contributions, which could settle a new basis for the nuclear energy in Brazil, have been scarce. This paper aims to partially fulfill this gap. We discuss some perspectives for the nuclear option to regain some prominence in the Brazilian energy matrix. Recent developments in the nuclear industry, including advances in plant design, have been opening interesting markets for small and medium nuclear power reactors (SMNPRs). We access the suitability and feasibility of such new technology in the Brazilian isolated electricity grids. We conclude by saying that, although the difficulties are still huge, SMNPRs may be a good strategy for Brazil to revitalize its nuclear policy. (author)

  9. Compact size highly directive antennas based on the SRR metamaterial medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we studied the far-field properties of the microwave radiation from sources embedded inside the split-ring resonator (SRR) metamaterial medium. Our results showed that the emitted power near the resonance frequency of the SRR structure was confined to a narrow angular region in the far field. The measured radiation patterns showed half-power beamwidths around 140. The highly directive radiation is obtained with a smaller radiation surface area when compared to the previous results obtained by using photonic crystals. The reduction in the surface area is ten-fold in the case of the SRR metamaterial medium when compared to the photonic crystals. Our results provide means to create compact size highly directive antennas

  10. Current information technology needs of small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimple, C., LLNL

    1998-04-01

    This report documents recent efforts of the American Textile Partnership (AMTEX{sup TM}) Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Project to identify opportunities for cost effective enhanced information technology use by small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors. Background on the AMTEX/DAMA project and objectives for the specific DAMA Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) effort are discussed in this section. The approach used to gather information about current opportunities or needs is outlined in Section 2 Approach, and relevant findings are identified and a brief analysis of the information gathered is presented in Section 3 Findings. Recommendations based on the analysis, are offered in Section 4 Recommendations, and plans are suggested for DAMA follow-on in Section 5 Future Plans. Trip reports for each of the companies visited are contained in Appendix E - Company Trip Reports. These individual reports contain the data upon which the analysis presented in Section 3 Findings is based.

  11. Effective target size for the induction of bystander effects in medium transfer experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengfeng; Prestwich, William V; Stewart, Robert D; Byun, Soo Hyun; Mothersill, Carmel E; McNeill, Fiona E; Seymour, Colin B

    2007-11-01

    Although radiation-induced bystander effects are frequently observed biological phenomena, the mechanism for these effects has not been fully determined. The target-hit theory and related concepts from microdosimetry provide a convenient formalism to help identify the nature of the targets responsible for initiating the emission of diffusible factors in medium transfer experiments. We used the microdosimetric models proposed by Stewart et al. (Radiat. Res. 165, 460-469, 2006) to analyze the results of published medium transfer experiments for gamma-ray doses in the range of 0.04 mGy to 5 Gy. The analysis suggests that the effective size of the target responsible for initiating signal emission in HPV-G human keratinocyte donor cells is approximately 2 microm. PMID:17973551

  12. Monte Carlo comparison of medium-size telescope designs for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Jogler, T; Dumm, J

    2013-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a future very high energy gamma-ray observatory. CTA will be comprised of small-,medium- and large-size telescopes covering an energy range from tens of GeV to hundreds of TeV and will surpass existing telescopes in sensitivity by an order of magnitude. The aim of our study is to find the optimal design for the medium-size telescopes (MSTs), which will determine the sensitivity in the key energy range between a few hundred GeV to about ten TeV. To study the effect of the telescope design parameters on the array performance, we simulated arrays of 61 MSTs with 120 m spacing and a variety of telescope configurations. We investigated the influence of the primary telescope characteristics including optical resolution, pixel size, and light collection area on the total array performance with a particular emphasis on telescope configurations with imaging performance similar to the proposed Davies-Cotton (DC) and Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) MST designs. We compare the performance...

  13. Application of Medium Pressure UV Lamp for Wastewater Disinfection of Milk Production Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kamani, H.; Vaezi, F.; Nabizadeh, R.; Mesdaghinia, A. R.; Alimohammadi, M.

    2006-01-01

    UV disinfect ion has gained widespread use for municipal wastewater and more recently, interest in using UV for water reuse applications has increased too. Medium pressure lamp has emerged as a viable alternative and is beginning to gain more popularity than the conventional low-pressure lamps. This study has been performed with the objective of utilizing MP lamp for the disinfection stage of wastewater from a milk industry. The lab-scale UV submerged system used in the experiments was a sing...

  14. Enterprise resource planning solution selection criteria in medium-sized South African companies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Malie; N., Duffy; A.C. J, van Rensburg.

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the factors that medium-sized South African companies consider important in the acquisition of an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) solution. Through an extensive literature review, fourteen ERP selection criteria were identified. Using these fourteen criter [...] ia, a questionnaire was developed to test and rate these criteria on a 10-point scale. Results from the survey show that manufacturing and non-manufacturing companies rate reliability, compatibility, service, and support as the most important criteria when selecting an ERP solution.

  15. Foreign Exchange Risk Management Practices : A Study of Swedish Medium- and Large-sized Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Jakobsson, Catrin; Edvardsen, Daniel; Henriksson, Ola

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the thesis is to describe which foreign exchange risk techniques that are used by medium- and large-sized Swedish companies within the Jönköping region, and how they as well as a bank evaluate the techniques in the current recession. Background: The reason why companies decide to expand their operations abroad is to take advantage from imperfections in other national markets. The fluctuations in currencies and exchange rates can have a huge effect on a company’s c...

  16. IMPACT OF VIRTUALIZATION PROCESS ON THE COMPETITIVENESS OF SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta NAJDA-JANOSZKA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of the impact of virtualization process on competitiveness of small and medium sized firms. The developed methodology for measuring the level of organizational virtualness has been effectively applied to a wide range of businesses, both large and the smallest companies representing traditional and high-technology sectors. Through statistical analysis it has been confirmed that virtualization process has a positive impact on competitiveness of companies. However, not all theoretically assumed pathways of such impact have been observed. Presented results and conclusions of the examination give a new perspective for discussion about challenges of effective implementing virtual organization concept into business practice.

  17. Integrated Foreign Exchange Risk Management: The Role of Import in Medium-Sized, Manufacturing Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; HØg, Esben

    2010-01-01

    Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as an instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role of import in medium-sized manufacturing firms in Denmark (a small, open economy). We find a strong, negative relation between import and the use of foreign exchange derivatives on the aggregate level. Our findings are consistent with the notion that firms use import to match the foreign exchange exposure created by foreign sales activities.

  18. Integrated Foreign Exchange Risk Management : The Role of Import in Medium-Sized, Manufacturing Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; HØg, Esben

    Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for the exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as the instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role of import in medium-sized, manufacturing firms in Denmark (a small, open economy). We find a strong, negative relation between import and foreign exchange derivatives usage on the aggregate level. Our findings are consistent with the notion that firms use import to match the foreign exchange exposure created by foreign sales activities.

  19. Integrated foreign exchange risk management : the role of import in medium-sized, manufacturing firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; HØg, Esben

    2010-01-01

    Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as an instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role of import in medium-sized manufacturing firms in Denmark (a small, open economy). We find a strong, negative relation between import and the use of foreign exchange derivatives on the aggregate level. Our findings are consistent with the notion that firms use import to match the foreign exchange exposure created by foreign sales activities.

  20. IMPACT OF INNOVATION UPON THE DYNAMICS OF ROMANIAN SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEANINA CIUREA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is central to economic growth, as the area in which it develops takes the whole sphere of economic activities: product, process, service, organization, marketing, hence the economic effects they may cause. Creating "innovative enterprises", giving tax cuts to certain periods of time, preferential loans, creating funds 'risk capital' are just some of the measures that European countries which already apply and Romania, willing to encourage innovation. The present paper presents two ways of exposing this issue, using theoretical sources but also real official data concerning the concept of innovation and also the ways of applying it within small and medium sized enterprises.

  1. Relationship banking in Finnish small and medium-sized enterprise M&As

    OpenAIRE

    Ha?ma?la?inen, Lassi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to show whether Finnish small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) that are involved in M&A are provided bank financing with different terms than other SMEs. Another aspect is to study the rofitability of these SME M&A customers comparing them to other SME customers. Since an M&A occasion is typically a point of irregularity in the continuum of a firm’s ifecycle, firms might be willing to change their main bank at the same time. Thus, banks could have an incentiv...

  2. Knowledge Leakages and Ways to Reduce Them in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Durst

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we look into knowledge leakages and ways to address them. It is conducted from the point of view of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs, as their specific attributes create unique challenges. Based on a discussion of the relevant fields, ways are presented in order to reduce the danger of knowledge leakages. In view of practitioners, the paper’s findings may enable an increased awareness towards the areas where existing knowledge is at the mercy of “leakage”. This can assist managers of SMEs to better cope with risks related to knowledge leakage and, therefore, better exploit the (limited knowledge base available.

  3. The Need and Importance of Outsourcing for Small and Medium Sized Companies : case "PAQUS"

    OpenAIRE

    Quandt, Michal

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to enlighten the reader about the importance and profitability of outsourcing in small and medium sized enterprises. It is focused on introducing the idea of outsourcing cooperation networks into the business. Outsourcing is know to human race, in different forms, since the beginning of human kind. Peoples talents and interests made it to be a notion of hiring another person, to do certain task in which he/she excels, it is quite common in societies and cultural...

  4. Determinants of Profitability of Food Industry in India: A Size-Wise Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Azhagaiah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Profitability is the profit earning capacity, which is a crucial factorin contributing to the survival of firms. This paper is a maidenattempt at estimating the impact of size on profitability, consideringthe ‘size’ as the control variable. For this purpose, the selectedfirms are classified into three size categories as ‘small,’ ‘medium,’and ‘large’ based on the sales turnover. The results show that volatilityand growth are the major predictors in determining profitabilityin case of small size firms while growth is important in determiningthe profitability of medium size firms. Capital intensityhas a significant positive coefficient with the profitability of largesize firms. The overall result shows that the larger the size of thefirm, the more the investment in long lived assets has helped toincrease the profitability of the firm unlike the trend in cases ofsmall size and medium size firms.

  5. Internationalization and Networks in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: the role of ethnic ties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Seifriz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The international insertion of small and medium-sized enterprises (SME has attracted academic attention with the emergence of new internationalization theories based on the network approach. There is evidence that social networks based on descent ties contribute to the international integration of firms, particularly small ones. The quantitative cross-sectional study conducted with 71 SME affiliated with the Business Association of Blumenau, city marked by German immigration, sought to test the predictive role of descent ties (content of ties and strength of ties in the degree of SME internationalization. The results suggest that only the strength of ties (frequency of contacts with the country of descent contributes to explaining the degree of internationalization. Limitations of sample size require caution in generalizing the results.

  6. 40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. 141.81 Section 141.81...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper...

  7. Cash flow vs. collateral-based credit: performance of micro, small and medium-sized firms in transition economies.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cassano, F.; Joeveer, K.; Švejnar, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 21, ?. 2 (2013), s. 269-300. ISSN 0967-0750 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : micro, small and medium-sized enterprises * bank credit * firm performance Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.755, year: 2013

  8. 77 FR 56755 - Small Business Size Standards; Adoption of 2012 North American Industry Classification System for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ...2012 North American Industry Classification System for Size Standards...2012 (75 FR 49991). The document amended SBA's Small Business...the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) into its...standards. In addition, the document revised the definitions...

  9. Competitiveness of Indonesian Small and Medium Food Processing Industry: Does the Location Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhamad Najib

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we compare the competitiveness between clustered and dispersed Small Medium Enterprises(SMEs in Indonesian food processing industry. This study was driven by the important role of SMEs inIndonesian food processing industry for helping low income people access the low price foods. Furthermore, asIndonesian Government implements policy that support clustered SMEs, it could be expected that SMEs in thecluster area could pursue and emphasize different performance than their non clustered counterparts. Primarydata was collected in West Java, Indonesia. The sample includes only companies with fewer than 100 employeesand those operate in the food processing industry. We put market orientation, innovation, and businessperformance as proxy of competitiveness. Mean comparison statistics was used to compare market orientation,innovation and business performance of clustered and dispersed SMEs. The main findings were found throughdata analysis notably there was significant difference between clustered and non clustered SMEs in marketorientation, innovation and business performance.

  10. Development of Safety Related Issues and Essential Technologies for the Small and Medium Size PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the study is to complement the safety related issues and their regulatory guides, deduced as a result of the review of the nuclear code and standards to being applied widely, then also is to find out and take concrete shape to the essential technologies for the small and medium size PWRs. The main activities performed in the study are listed below: - The review of the nuclear code and standards to being applied widely - The review of the safety related issues and their regulatory guides to be complemented · The review of the current developed state for advanced PWRs · The investigation of the disagreements or complements between the nuclear code and standards and the inherent characteristics for advanced PWRs - The essential technologies for the small and medium size PWRs · The essential technologies * The in-service inspection of reactor vessel assembly and steam generators * The development of comprehensive vibration assesment program * The feasibility of the test, monitoring, inspection and maintenance of components according to the extended cycle core · The publication of the ISI concept for an advanced PWR · The publication of the CVAP development for an advanced PWR · The preparation for an analysis input deck for the audit code - The evaluation for advanced PWRs to be corresponded to the nuclear code and standards

  11. The significance of medium- or small-size devices in fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The significance of medium- and small-size devices is reviewed and discussed taking the case of ITER Physics R and D. It is pointed out that the heat flux density expected in a fusioning plasma will become as large as an unexperienced high level and it is not self-evident that one could extend the present energy confinement time scaling to predict ITER performances. The confinement of fusion plasma is considered to be related to heat, momentum and mass transport problems in a nonlinear non-equilibrium system with a finite source and dissipation. Therefore, a recent progress of basic experiments and theories in fluid dynamics may greatly be referred, where series of basic experiments are unveiling various modes of heat and mass transport in the nonlinear non-equilibrium system including a scenario and conditions of transition to turbulence. In the field of plasma confinement, the more complex scenario would be expected. Therefore, a systematic and basic research along the same line is highly desired on medium- and small-size devices in order to get insight into the physics of plasma confinement which will provide us the methodology for confinement improvement. (author)

  12. The Vital Factors for Small and Medium Sized Sport Enterprises Start-ups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Morteza Azimzadeh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the new enterprises are recognized as the main source of job creation, innovation and development. In today’s business world, new enterprises are recognized as an important source of job creation, innovation and development. Therefore, identifying influencing factors that play key roles in the start-up of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs is critical. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify critical factors for starting-up Small and Medium sized Sport Enterprises (SMSEs companies whose business is sport and developing a conceptual model that might be used by entrepreneurs in sport business. The methodology was qualitative. Interviews were conducted with 18 individuals, selected through purposive sampling, involved in sport-related SMEs. After a careful investigation of enterprise start-up models in the literature, and based on the results of experts interviews, an integrated approach was indicated as popular models were used by SMEs scholars. Then, a model was proposed in line with integration approach.The conceptual model is based on the integrative approach and shows that three important categories of factors were indicated: Individual; 2.individual factors; Environmental; and 3.environmental factors; and Financial factors.financial factors. It should be mentioned that these factors were constitude of subdimentiones.

  13. How to Improve Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Profitability by Practicing an Efficient Human Resources Management

    OpenAIRE

    García Sánchez, Antonio; POPESCU, Dan; Iulia CHIVU; Alina CIOCÂRLAN-CHITUCEA; Daniela Oana POPESCU

    2011-01-01

    In The European Union’s country members, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play an essential role in economic life, having special features that make adaptation process to the contemporary economy easier. Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) are the most dynamic and vital factor of progress in the contemporary society, main generator of economic performance and substance in any country, employment opportunity provider for most of population, major contributor to the national bu...

  14. Export Barriers for SMEs : A Case Study of Bangladeshi Small and Medium Sized Shrimp Exporting Companies to the European Market

    OpenAIRE

    Huda, Nazmul

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Exporting is very important for developing countries. Small and medium sized companies in the developing countries face several barriers when exporting their products in the developed countries. Bangladesh is a small country in the South East Asia. The shrimp exporting sector is the second biggest export sector of Bangladesh. The purpose of the thesis was to find the major export barriers faced by the small and medium sized shrimp exporting companies of Bangladesh to the European ...

  15. Critical Factors of E-SCM Adoption on Small and Medium Sized Enterprises Performance: An Empirical Study

    OpenAIRE

    She-I Chang; Yi-Feng Tsia

    2006-01-01

    Due to the gradual importance of e-Supply Chain Management (e-SCM) to the Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Taiwan, this research intended to explore the critical factors which allowed the Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Taiwan to employ e-SCM. The research further studied that under these critical factors, how the adoption of e-SCM affected their organizational achievements. In this research, the researcher organized the related literature according to Grounded Theory and ...

  16. Rapid preparation of ceramic moulds for medium-sized superalloy castings with magnesia-phosphate-bonded bauxite-mullite investments

    OpenAIRE

    Li Tingzhong; Luo Jirong; Wu Shusen

    2010-01-01

    Phosphate-bonded investments have already been widely utilized in dental restoration and micro-casting of artistic products for its outstanding rapid setting and high strength. However, the rapid setting rate of investment slurry has up to now been a barrier to extend the use of such slurry in preparation of medium-sized ceramic moulds. This paper proposes a new process of rapid fabrication of magnesia-phosphate-bonded investment ceramic moulds for medium-sized superalloy castings utilizing b...

  17. The Roles of Government Funding in Enhancing the Competitiveness of Small and Medium-sized Enterprise in Sabah, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Abdol Samad Nawi; Irwan Bin Ismail; Zainuddin Zakaria; Jannah Munirah Md Noor; Bashir Ahmad Bin Shabir Ahmad; Nik Fakrul Hazri; Wan Anisabanum Salleh; Mohd Tajul Hasnan Mohd Tajuddin; Nur Raihana Mohd Sallem

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to determine the roles of government funding in enhancing Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Sabah, Malaysia. Specifically, the study is focused on the Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Sabah, Malaysia which were funded by many government-linked agencies such as Yayasan Tekun Nasional, Amanah Ikhtiar, Koperasi Pembangunan Desa and Agro Bank. This qualitative study was carried out in the rural and urban areas in Sabah, Malaysia. The findings of this stu...

  18. Handling of Environmental Related Requirements : Awareness and Ability to Act at Small and Medium Sized Electric and Electronic Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Han-hsuan

    2008-01-01

    Environmental related product requirements are increasing worldwide from government authorities, customers and other stakeholders. For small and medium sized companies manufacturing electric and electronic products it is more difficult compared to bigger companies to meet new product related requirements due to smaller budget, resources and knowledge. This research studies the awareness and ability to act upon changes when small and medium sized companies in Sweden face environmental related ...

  19. Microchannel Anechoic Corner for Size-Selective Separation and Medium Exchange via Traveling Surface Acoustic Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destgeer, Ghulam; Ha, Byung Hang; Park, Jinsoo; Jung, Jin Ho; Alazzam, Anas; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrate a miniaturized acoustofluidic device composed of a pair of slanted interdigitated transducers (SIDTs) and a polydimethylsiloxane microchannel for achieving size-selective separation and exchange of medium around polystyrene particles in a continuous, label-free, and contactless fashion. The SIDTs, deposited parallel to each other, produce tunable traveling surface acoustic waves (TSAWs) at desired locations, which, in turn, yield an anechoic corner inside the microchannel that is used to selectively deflect particles of choice from their streamlines. The TSAWs with frequency fR originating from the right SIDT and propagating left toward the microchannel normal to the fluid flow direction, laterally deflect larger particles with diameter d1 from the hydrodynamically focused sample fluid that carries other particles as well with diameters d2 and d3, such that d1 > d2 > d3. The deflected particles (d1) are pushed into the top-left corner of the microchannel. Downstream, the TSAWs with frequency fL, such that fL > fR, disseminating from the left SIDT, deflect the medium-sized particles (d2) rightward, leaving behind the larger particles (d1) unaffected in the top-left anechoic corner and the smaller particles (d3) in the middle of the microchannel, thereby achieving particle separation. A particle not present in the anechoic corner could be deflected rightward to realize twice the medium exchange. In this work, the three-way separation of polystyrene particles with diameters of 3, 4.2, and 5 ?m and 3, 5, and 7 ?m is achieved using two separate devices. Moreover, these devices are used to demonstrate multimedium exchange around polystyrene particles ?5 ?m and 7 ?m in diameter. PMID:25800052

  20. Book-to-Market, Size, and Industry Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Walid Saleh; Ayman Bitar

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to extend the paper by Saleh and Bitar (2009) by addressing whether variation in stock returns can be explained by differences in industry concentration. The paper concludes that firms operate in highly concentrated industries earn lower returns and less risk than those operate in highly competitive industries. Furthermore, the paper provides evidence to suggest that investors in Amman Stock Exchange cannot benefit from a trading strategy based on industry structure

  1. Book-to-Market, Size, and Industry Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Saleh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to extend the paper by Saleh and Bitar (2009 by addressing whether variation in stock returns can be explained by differences in industry concentration. The paper concludes that firms operate in highly concentrated industries earn lower returns and less risk than those operate in highly competitive industries. Furthermore, the paper provides evidence to suggest that investors in Amman Stock Exchange cannot benefit from a trading strategy based on industry structure

  2. Atomic size effects on local coordination and medium range order in molten trivalent metal chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structural correlations in molten trivalent metal chlorides are evaluated as functions of the metal ion size RM across the range from LaCl3 (RM approx. 1.4 A) to AlCl3 (RM approx. 0.8 A), using a charged soft-sphere model and the hypernetted chain approximation. Main attention is given to trends in the local liquid structure (partial radial distribution functions, coordination numbers and bond lengths) and in the intermediate range order (first sharp diffraction peak in the number-number and partial structure factors). The trend towards fourfold local coordination of the metal ions, the stabilization of their first-neighbour chlorine cage and the growth of medium range order are found to proceed in parallel as the size of the metal ion is allowed to decrease at constant number density and temperature. A tendency to molecular-type local structure and liquid-vapour phase separation is found within the hypernetted chain scheme at small metal ion sizes corresponding to AlCl3 and is emphasized by decreasing the number density of the fluid. The predicted molecular units are rather strongly distorted Al2Cl6 dimers, in agreement with observation. The calculated structural trends for other trichlorides are compared with diffraction and transport data. (author). 17 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab

  3. The growth and size of the Brazilian mutual fund industry

    OpenAIRE

    Varga, Gyorgy; Wengert, Maxim

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the evolution of the Brazilian mutual fund industry, its regulatory framework, organization, types of investors and managers, economic environment and its relative growth. It shows the evolution of this industry in Brazil and its idiosyncrasies providing a deeper look into one of the largest emerging market mutual fund industries. It emphasizes the growth of independent managers with more complex assets and sophisticated strategies that resemble international hedge fund...

  4. Analysis of industrial markets for low and medium Btu coal gasification. [Forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-30

    Low- and medium-Btu gases (LBG and MBG) can be produced from coal with a variety of 13 existing and 25 emerging processes. Historical experience and previous studies indicate a large potential market for LBG and MBG coal gasification in the manufacturing industries for fuel and feedstocks. However, present use in the US is limited, and industry has not been making substantial moves to invest in the technology. Near-term (1979-1985) market activity for LBG and MBG is highly uncertain and is complicated by a myriad of pressures on industry for energy-related investments. To assist in planning its program to accelerate the commercialization of LBG and MBG, the Department of Energy (DOE) contracted with Booz, Allen and Hamilton to characterize and forecast the 1985 industrial market for LBG and MBG coal gasification. The study draws five major conclusions: (1) There is a large technically feasible market potential in industry for commercially available equipment - exceeding 3 quadrillion Btu per year. (2) Early adopters will be principally steel, chemical, and brick companies in described areas. (3) With no additional Federal initiatives, industry commitments to LBG and MBG will increase only moderately. (4) The major barriers to further market penetration are lack of economic advantage, absence of significant operating experience in the US, uncertainty on government environmental policy, and limited credible engineering data for retrofitting industrial plants. (5) Within the context of generally accepted energy supply and price forecasts, selected government action can be a principal factor in accelerating market penetration. Each major conclusion is discussed briefly and key implications for DOE planning are identified.

  5. Knowledge management in small and medium-sized companies; Wissensmanagement bei kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, M. [Netzwirtschaft, EWR Netz GmbH, Worms (Germany); Neises, C. [Regulierungsmanagement, regionetz GmbH, Dueren (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    Knowledge management has now also reached the energy economy, as first branch-specific seminars show. This awakening interest is very much to be welcomed, although until now it has been more the representatives of large energy companies who have made themselves heard. Public utilities, which as a rule are subsumed under the category ''small and medium sized company'', have other possibilities as well as limitations than large corporations when it comes to knowledge management. The present article explains what knowledge management is and how public utilities and regional supply companies can identify and make practical use of opportunities available to them through knowledge management while giving due consideration to their structural characteristics.

  6. Networked Virtual Organizations: A Chance for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises on Global Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellary, Wojciech

    Networked Virtual Organizations (NVOs) are a right answer to challenges of globalized, diversified, and dynamic contemporary economy. NVOs need more than e-trade and outsourcing, namely, they need out-tasking and e-collaboration. To out-task, but retain control on the way a task is performed by an external partner, two integrations are required: (1) integration of computer management systems of enterprises cooperating within an NVO; and (2) integration of cooperating representatives of NVO member enterprises into a virtual team. NVOs provide a particular chance to Small and Medium size Enterprises (SMEs) to find their place on global markets and to play a significant role on them. Requirements for SMEs to be able to successfully join an NVO are analyzed in the paper.

  7. Tax-saving, Innovative Incentives for Small and Medium - Sized Enterprises in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Ambrus

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The small-and medium-sized enterprises in the Hungarian economy have been playing a decisive role. Among the difficulties they face during their activities one of the most serious is to raise funds for their labour costs. They try to reduce their tax wedge burden, which is regarded one of the highest in Europe, in various ways. In order to keep the adequate workforce they can provide fringe benefits supplementing to wages and salaries. The cautious application of the referring acts enables companies to motivate workforce and reduce the tax and contribution burdens at the same time. Our research aimed to find an answer how SMEs take these advantages and what factors support or hinder the use of the system.

  8. eLEARNING - A CHANCE FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Hamburg

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available eLearning through its flexibility and facility of access is seen as a major enabler of lifelong learning (LLL, as a catalyst of change and a chance for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs to improve their business and to integrate into European market. But so far the eLearning in the context of vocational educational training has been mainly adopted by large enterprises, while only little activity can be observed in SMEs. The question arises what the chances and challenges for SMEs are and what is the experience with its usage. In this paper after a presentation of key issues in eLearning chances and challenges of eLearning for SMEs are discussed and experiences are exemplified by three EU-funded eLearning projects. The focus lies on the ongoing project ARIEL - Analysing and Reporting the Implementation of Electronic Learning in Europe - coordinated by the Institut Arbeit und Technik (IAT.

  9. Requirements and Specifications for a Simplified, Low Pressure Medium Sized PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarises part of our on-going investigations on the possible introduction of nuclear energy in developing countries or countries with low capacity electrical grids. These investigations are principally concerned with future PWR developments and basically try to search for plausible and economic answers to the three difficult questions that each nuclear technology exporting country faces today: 1)- how to compensate the apparent loss of economic competitiveness, related to the scaling effect, of a small or medium sized reactor? 2)- how to reconcile the introduction of nuclear energy on the large scale with the two major preoccupations of nuclear safety and nuclear proliferation? 3)- how to demonstrate that the proposed concept(s) can effectively meet the safety objectives of the requirements for future reactors in Europe and in other countries?

  10. Key Drivers to Developing Guanxi in China for Taiwanese Small to Medium Sized Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-Ying Huang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available As Chinese economy has become one of the world’s economic powerhouse, research on guanxi, social or business ties in China, has been gaining ground in business research. The study is couched in the theoretical framework of social embeddedness in which the flows of information, resources, and opportunities occur across recognized members of a social network to create mutual benefits. This study empirically tests the major impetus for Taiwanese small to medium sized firms (SMEs to utilize guanxi networks with business community, local governments, and the central government in China.  The study results indicate the extent to which Tawanese firms utilize different types of guanxi differ by firm characteristics (i.e., resources, capabilities, and entry mode and market factors (i.e., market stability and competition.

  11. Role of Relationship Marketing in Small and Medium-Sized Entreprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ružica Butigan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Along with marketing, small and medium enterprises (SMEs are commonly associated in literature with relationship marketing which results in marketing networks. This paper examines the specific characteristics that differentiate large companies from small and medium-sized enterprises, and the reasons that prevent SMEs from engaging in traditional marketing within the scope of marketing mix. The paper also shows that the key characteristic which distinguishes small from large companies is a prominent role of owner/managers. The owner/manager affects marketing of SMEs by creating his or her own personal networks with stakeholders in the environment, and considers it an important strategic focus and a factor that increases the performance of marketing decision-making. After a thorough review of secondary data sources this paper examines relationship marketing as a marketing framework for SMEs and, finally, proves that relationship marketing is more appropriate for SMEs than are traditional marketing concepts, that relationship marketing and network marketing create an important framework for SMEs and that there is a link between relationship marketing, personal networks and SMEs.

  12. Modeling, simulation, and concept design for hybrid-electric medium-size military trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzoni, Giorgio; Josephson, John R.; Soliman, Ahmed; Hubert, Christopher; Cantemir, Codrin-Gruie; Dembski, Nicholas; Pisu, Pierluigi; Mikesell, David; Serrao, Lorenzo; Russell, James; Carroll, Mark

    2005-05-01

    A large scale design space exploration can provide valuable insight into vehicle design tradeoffs being considered for the U.S. Army"s FMTV (Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles). Through a grant from TACOM (Tank-automotive and Armaments Command), researchers have generated detailed road, surface, and grade conditions representative of the performance criteria of this medium-sized truck and constructed a virtual powertrain simulator for both conventional and hybrid variants. The simulator incorporates the latest technology among vehicle design options, including scalable ultracapacitor and NiMH battery packs as well as a variety of generator and traction motor configurations. An energy management control strategy has also been developed to provide efficiency and performance. A design space exploration for the family of vehicles involves running a large number of simulations with systematically varied vehicle design parameters, where each variant is paced through several different mission profiles and multiple attributes of performance are measured. The resulting designs are filtered to remove dominated designs, exposing the multi-criterial surface of optimality (Pareto optimal designs), and revealing the design tradeoffs as they impact vehicle performance and economy. The results are not yet definitive because ride and drivability measures were not included, and work is not finished on fine-tuning the modeled dynamics of some powertrain components. However, the work so far completed demonstrates the effectiveness of the approach to design space exploration, and the results to date suggest the powertrain configuration best suited to the FMTV mission.

  13. Analysis of the Management System Innovation in Small and Medium Sized Family Enterprises of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengcheng LIU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The family enterprise is one of the oldest forms of enterprise organization in the development of human history. In a way, the development of modern market economy equates the history of the evolution and collaborative of family enterprises. The growth of the family enterprises has now become a unique economic landscape in such a public ownership society in China. China is transitioning from a planned economy to a market economy, and the biggest change is actually the emergence of private enterprises groups. It’s by arriving less much, by arrive infirmly strength has made them one of the most dynamic components in Chinese economy. They not only active in both the urban and rural markets, meet the needs of people’s material and cultural life, ease the employment pressure, but also lay the important foundation of China’s market-oriented reform and participation in international market competition. The general development of family enterprise and its great contribution to China’s economy show that family enterprise as an ancient business system is still active and alive in the modern market economy. Nonetheless, it is not a perfect form of business organization compared with other organizational forms. Family enterprises, especially small and medium-sized family enterprises have also encountered some bottleneck and challenge in the development process, and the only way to get rid of the dilemma is the innovation of family enterprise management system. This paper at first expatiates on the concept of family enterprises, and then based on the study of its characteristics analyzes the present situation of Chinese family enterprise management system. Finally, this paper will find out the existing problems and reasons in the innovation of management system for small and medium-sized family enterprises, in order to put forward effective countermeasures.

  14. Larval assemblages of large and medium-sized pelagic species in the Straits of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, David E.; Llopiz, Joel K.; Guigand, Cedric M.; Cowen, Robert K.

    2010-07-01

    Critical gaps in our understanding of the distributions, interactions, life histories and preferred habitats of large and medium-size pelagic fishes severely constrain the implementation of ecosystem-based, spatially structured fisheries management approaches. In particular, spawning distributions and the environmental characteristics associated with the early life stages are poorly documented. In this study, we consider the diversity, assemblages, and associated habitat of the larvae of large and medium-sized pelagic species collected during 2 years of monthly surveys across the Straits of Florida. In total, 36 taxa and 14,295 individuals were collected, with the highest diversity occurring during the summer and in the western, frontal region of the Florida Current. Only a few species (e.g. Thunnus obesus, T. alalunga, Tetrapturus pfluegeri) considered for this study were absent. Small scombrids (e.g. T. atlanticus, Katsuwonus pelamis, Auxis spp.) and gempylids dominated the catch and were orders of magnitude more abundant than many of the rare species (e.g. Thunnus thynnus,Kajikia albida). Both constrained (CCA) and unconstrained (NMDS) multivariate analyses revealed a number of species groupings including: (1) a summer Florida edge assemblage (e.g. Auxis spp., Euthynnus alleterattus, Istiophorus platypterus); (2) a summer offshore assemblage (e.g. Makaira nigricans, T. atlanticus, Ruvettus pretiosus, Lampris guttatus); (3) an ubiquitous assemblage (e.g. K. pelamis, Coryphaena hippurus, Xiphias gladius); and (4) a spring/winter assemblage that was widely dispersed in space (e.g. trachipterids). The primary environmental factors associated with these assemblages were sea-surface temperature (highest in summer-early fall), day length (highest in early summer), thermocline depth (shallowest on the Florida side) and fluorescence (highest on the Florida side). Overall, the results of this study provide insights into how a remarkable diversity of pelagic species spatially and temporally partition spawning within a region that is characterized by dynamic oceanography and strong habitat gradients.

  15. Estratégias tecnológicas e desempenhos inovadores das PMEs de equipamentos médico-hospitalares de São Carlos e Ribeirão Preto / Technology strategies and innovation performances of the small and medium-sized firms in the medical equipment industry of São Carlos and Ribeirão Preto

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Denise Luciana, Rieg; Alceu Gomes, Alves Filho.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo identificar e analisar as estratégias tecnológicas (ETs) adotadas por pequenas e médias empresas (PMEs) produtoras de equipamentos médico-hospitalares localizadas em São Carlos e em Ribeirão Preto. Procura-se verificar se há diferenças entre o grupo de empresas que al [...] cançou desempenhos inovadores (DIs) mais altos e o grupo daquelas que tiveram DIs mais baixos nos últimos anos. Para isso, foi realizado um survey, aplicando-se um questionário estruturado em trinta e nove empresas que concordaram em participar da pesquisa. Os resultados (resultados referentes a vinte e sete empresas que puderam ser classificadas como sendo de maior ou menor DI, dentre as trinta e nove empresas investigadas) mostram que as ETs adotadas pelas empresas com DIs mais altos são diferentes em muitos aspectos daquelas adotadas pelo grupo com DIs mais baixos. Foram obtidos indícios de que maiores investimentos em atividades internas de P&D&E e em fontes externas de tecnologia, maior dedicação à previsão tecnológica preliminar voltada para monitoramento do perfil de produtos e processos e o desenvolvimento de um amplo portfolio de tecnologias de produto e de processo permitem às empresas alcançarem DIs mais significativos. Abstract in english The goal of this article is to identify and to analyze the technology strategies (TSs) adopted by small and medium-sized firms of the medical equipment sector located in São Carlos and Ribeirão Preto. It seeks to verify whether there are differences between the group of firms that reached higher inn [...] ovation performances (IPs) and the one with lower (IPs) in recent years. In order to analyze that, data about TSs and IPs were collected from twenty seven medical equipment producers. The statistical analysis of the data shows that the TSs adopted by the medical equipment firms that reached higher IPs are different in many aspects from the ones adopted by those that reached lower IPs. Some indications were obtained that larger investments in internal activities of R&D&E development and in external sources of technology, larger dedication to technology forecasting, and development of a wide portfolio of product and process technologies have allowed the firms to reach higher IPs.

  16. Small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). Sustainable expansion of the potential for peaceful uses of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the peaceful uses of nuclear power for low-cost electricity generation, nuclear power plant technology in the 1970/80s was tailored to high-power units (> 1,000 MWe). The International Energy Agency (IEA) of the OECD in its World Energy Outlook 2012 estimates a worldwide increase in electricity consumption from approx. 21,408 TWh in 2010 to approx. 32,000 or 37,000 TWh in 2035. In this connection, there is growing interest in the nuclear community in nuclear power plant concepts of < 1,000 MWe power for variable uses. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna recognized the trend towards small and medium sized reactors as early as a few years ago and is now supporting development work along theses lines by specific initiatives to foster cooperative ventures among the member countries currently showing interest. More than fifty SMR concepts are currently under development worldwide. Most of them are modeled along the lines of operating experience gained with established reactor lines. IAEA proposes classification in small sized reactors for the range of power of < 300 MWe and medium sized reactors for the power range of 300 to approx. 700 MWe. Most of the SMR variants are designed as modular units prefabricated in factories and shipped by truck or rail for final assembly at the reactor site. In the near future, SMR plants could be used in regions with limited infrastructure and without any electricity distribution grids for powerful large power plaibution grids for powerful large power plants. In industrialized regions, SMRs offer greater flexibility in adaptation of the electricity generating capacity to local consumption rises and in replacing fossil-fired old plants. For the more remote future, plans also include SMR uses for other purposes than electricity generation, such as hydrogen production and coal liquefaction. An overview of the whole SMR spectrum is presented on the basis of some selected projects. Besides projects already completed, most SMR concepts are in the detailed design stage of development with start of construction in the near future, and in the conceptual design stage for commissioning between 2025 and 2030. (orig.)

  17. The strategic measures for the industrial security of small and medium business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Moo

    2014-01-01

    The competitiveness of companies increasingly depends upon whether they possess the cutting-edge or core technology. The technology should be protected from industrial espionage or leakage. A special attention needs to be given to SMB (small and medium business), furthermore, because SMB occupies most of the companies but has serious problems in terms of industrial security. The technology leakages of SMB would account for more than 2/3 of total leakages during last five years. The purpose of this study is, therefore, to analyze the problems of SMB in terms of industrial security and suggest the strategic solutions for SMB in South Korea. The low security awareness and financial difficulties, however, make it difficult for SMB to build the effective security management system which would protect the company from industrial espionage and leakage of its technology. The growing dependence of SMB on network such as internet, in addition, puts the SMB at risk of leaking its technology through hacking or similar ways. It requires new measures to confront and control such a risk. Online security control services and technology deposit system are suggested for such measures. PMID:24955414

  18. R & D, structural change and productivity: the role of high and medium-high technology industries

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Celeste Amorim, Varum; Bruno, Cibrão; António, Morgado; Joana, Costa.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo investiga o potencial impacto do aumento deI & D e de mudanças estruturais na produtividade do trabalho em Portugal. Com base na literatura sobre a relação entre despesas emI & D, mudança estrutural e produtividade, avaliamos a contribuição daI & D e das indústrias de alta tecnologia nes [...] te cenário durante os últimos 30 anos. Os resultados obtidos confirmam a importância dos investimentos emI & D das empresas de indústrias de alta e média-alta tecnologia eI & D público no crescimento da produtividade. Não obstante, não podemos afirmar que este fenômeno tenha como esteio principal o crescente relevo destas indústrias. Abstract in english This paper investigates the potential impact of increased R & D efforts and structural change in Portugal on labour productivity. Based on existing literature on the relation between R & D expenditures, structural change and productivity, we evaluate the contribution of R & D and hightech industries [...] to productivity over the last 30 years. Our results confirm the importance of business R & D in the medium to high-tech sectors and of public R & D, as they stimulate productivity growth. However, we cannot support the hypothosis that productivity growth was primarily rooted in the development of medium-high technology industries.

  19. The Adoption of Management Accounting Practices in Malaysian Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamilah Ahmad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides empirical evidence on the adoption of a broad range of management accounting practices in Malaysian small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in the manufacturing sector. Data collected from a postal survey of 160 accountant managers are used to facilitate the study. The results indicate that the traditional MAPs such as conventional budgeting, traditional costing and financial performance measures are widely used by the respondents. The results also show that a significant number of respondents have adopted one or more measures both financial and non-financial but the reliance on financial measures is greater than for non-financial measures. The main non-financial measures frequently used by respondents are on-time delivery, number of customer complaints, defect rate and manufacturing lead time. These findings suggest that respondents, who use non-financial performance measures, are more internal-process and customer focused rather than employee focused. Further the recently developed management accounting techniques such as ABC, non-financial performance measures particularly on employees-oriented measures, decision support analysis and strategic management accounting are only adopted by the minority of the respondents. The respondents also indicated a low extent of use of all investment appraisal techniques in their decision making process. The finding suggests that given the relatively small size of the responding firms and due to some constraints, it is unlikely for the SMEs to adopt a comprehensive MAP in their firms.

  20. Optimization of a commercial, medium size, reversible heat pump for use with propane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corberan, J.M. [Dept. of Applied Thermodynamics, Univ. Politecnica de Valencia (Spain); Urchueguia, J.F. [Dept. of Applied Physics, Univ. Politecnica de Valencia (Spain); Conde, M. [Manuel Conde Eng., Zuerich (Switzerland); Setaro, T. [Ente per le Nuove Tecnologie, l' Energia e l' Ambiente (ENEA), Energy Dept., S.M. di Galeria (Italy); Sartori, L.; Zorzin, A. [Alfa Laval-Artec Spa, Alonte (Italy); Granryd, E.; Palm, B. [Kungl Tekniska Hokskolan, Stockholm (Sweden); Saez, J.; Ramos, A. [Cia. Industrial de Aplicaciones Tecnicas S.A., Cordoba (Spain); Blas, J. de [Asociacion Espanola para la Diagnosis y la Investigacion en Energia (AEDIE), Madrid (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    In this paper we give a summarized description of the HEAHP/J3 project, currently running under the support of the European Commission. In the frame of this project, a medium size reversible air to water heat pump for use with propane (R290) and appropriate for south European countries - in which refrigeration is a strong demand - is currently being developed by the partners. The starting point is a 20 kW, R22, commercial heat pump from CIATESA, a major Spanish heat pump manufacturer, which will be adapted and optimized for the use of propane as refrigerant. Computer simulations are under development aiming to identify the improvements and/or modifications needed in the components to ensure safe use and high efficiency, in terms of COP, of the heat pump. The scope of these models is to assist the optimization and design of the different elements of the heat pump. To aid the adjustment of these models while generating a large database covering the behavior of propane as a refrigerant, individualized characterization experiments of all pump components will be performed. Both aspects, modeling and measurements, are issued to converge in the reduction of size of all components resulting from the use of efficient extended surfaces in the heat exchangers and (for a given refrigeration or heat capacity) in the improvement of overall efficiency through the appropriate selection or adaptation, as far as possible, of the compressor. (orig.)

  1. Size distribution of supernova remnants and the interstellar medium: the case of M33

    CERN Document Server

    Asvarov, Abdul I

    2013-01-01

    The size distribution of supernova remnants (SNRs) can help to clarify the various aspects of their evolution and interaction with the interstellar medium (ISM). Since the observed samples of SNRs are a collection of objects with very different ages and origin that evolve in different conditions of the ISM, statistical Monte Carlo methods can be used to model their statistical distributions. Based on very general assumptions on the evolution, we have modeled samples of SNRs at various initial and environmental conditions, which were then compared with observed collections of SNRs. In the evolution of SNRs the pressure of the ISM is taken into account, which determines their maximum sizes and lifetimes. When comparing the modeled and observed distributions, it is very important to have homogeneous observational data free from selection effects. We found that a recently published collection of SNRs in M33 (Long et al. 2010, ApJS,187,495) satisfies this requirement if we select the X-ray SNRs with hardness ratio...

  2. Evaluating the control software for CTA in a medium size telescope prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CTA (Cherenkov Telescope Array) is one of the largest ground-based astronomy projects being pursued and will be the largest facility for ground-based ?-ray observations ever built. CTA will consist of two arrays (one in the Northern hemisphere and one in the Southern hemisphere) composed of telescopes of several sizes. A prototype for the Medium Size Telescope (MST) of a diameter of 12 m will be installed in Berlin by the end of 2012. This MST prototype will be composed of the mechanical structure, drive system and mirror facets mounted with powered actuators to enable active control. Five Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) cameras and a weather station will allow the measurement of the performance of the instrument. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Common Software (ACS) distributed control framework is currently being considered by the CTA consortium to serve as the array control middleware. In order to evaluate the ACS software, it has been decided to implement an ACS-based readout and control system for the MST prototype. The design of the control software is following the concepts and tools under evaluation within the CTA consortium, like the use of a Unified Modeling Language (UML) based code generation framework for ACS component modeling, and the use of OPen Connectivity-Unified Architecture (OPC UA) for hardware access. In this contribution, the progress in the implementation of the control system for this CTA prototype telescope is described.his CTA prototype telescope is described.

  3. Management and organization problems of small and medium sized enterprise’s: a research on textile firms in Denizli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celalettin Serinkan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SME are important establishments for countries to evolve entrepreneurship, to refresh economy, to create employment, technological development and structural change. SME’s have to know and apply management and organization topics to continue their lifes in today’s circumstances. In today’s business environment that is intensified competition is lived, importance of investigating solution ways and taking necessary steps for management and organization problems which SME’s face is high for SME’s to survive and develop.At this investigation, it is aimed to search management and organization problems of textile enterprises which are considered as SME that is activating at Denizli Industrial Zone. For this, survey and interview method is used. By looking at investigation results; some suggestions are emphasized by gaining some findings about planning, harmonization, auditing, devolution of authority, decision making, organization related problems, institutionalization related problems, human resources related problems and education related problems that takes place in SME management and organization problems.

  4. The Size Distribution of Chinese Manufacturing Firms: From the Perspective of Industry Life Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yanying; Wang, Li; Tian, Gaofeng

    2012-01-01

    Using panel data of Chinese manufacturing firms between 2003 and 2008, this paper aims to examine the evolution of firm size distribution (FSD) as the industry goes through its life-cycle. The results reveal that during the life-cycle process, China’s manufacturing firms’ average size becomes larger then shrinks, and the degree of firm size heterogeneity and industry concentration increases all the time. Empirical results also indicate that the change rate of FSD is affected by firms’ n...

  5. Intent to be a Socially Responsible Small or Medium-sized Enterprise: Theory of Planned Behavior and Leaders’ Actualizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Jane Bennington

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A review of the academic research in corporate social responsibility shows little work on small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs in the U.S. whereas considerable work in this domain has been conducted in the European context. This study seeks to make a contribution to the research void by addressing one particular area of social responsibility in the U.S. context. Specifically, we employ Ajzen’s reasoned action approach to begin to build an understanding of what promotes leaders of SMEs to reduce waste. This study addresses several questions: What are the attitudes of owners and managers of SMEs toward waste reduction practices for their organizations? How are stakeholder interests toward waste reduction perceived? And, are leaders of SMEs influenced by their industrial environment? The authors utilized an email survey directed to owners and managers of SMEs with greater than 5, but less than 500 employees in the telephony, construction, pulp and paper products, textiles, and agriculture industries. 377 emails were opened and 104 completed surveys were obtained. The survey instrument was developed from the theoretical perspective of Isaac Ajzen’s (1991 Theory of Planned Behavior in Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, p. 179-211. Results from a partial least squares analysis of the data suggest that there is a strong and significant relationship between the normative, attitudinal, and control constructs with an individual’s intention to be a socially responsible SME. This finding suggests that efforts to influence SME owners and managers to implement waste reduction activities need focus on changing individual attitudes.

  6. Impact of carbon tax on internal combustion engine size selection in a medium scale CHP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? We study sizing of internal combustion engines as the prime movers of a CHP system. ? We study carbon tax impact on the economics of the system. ? Diesel engine based systems is not economical regardless of the operational mode. ? HDF is the only mode in which gas engine based systems is uneconomical. ? Carbon price considerably affects the system payback period. -- Abstract: Combined heat and power (CHP) systems due to their high efficiency compared to the conventional power generation systems have received considerable attention as they have less harmful impact on the environment. Recently, the serious concern with reducing the greenhouse gas emissions has focussed the attention on the possibility of a carbon tax in some countries. Here, we address the impact of such tax on the sizing and economics of a CHP system. Optimum sizing of CHP systems is of great importance to maximize the benefits of these systems. To select the optimum prime mover of a CHP system, performance characteristics of engine as well as economic parameters should be taken into consideration. A general thermo-economic approach to optimum sizing of internal combustion engines as the prime movers (any type and size) of a medium scale CHP system (500-5000 kW) and planning their operational strategy is developed. Net Annual Cost (NAC) as the criterion for making decision is introduced and appropriate equations for estimating thermodynamic and economic parameters as well as greenhouse gas emissions are presented. We consider three modes of operation: one-way connection (OWC) mode, two-way connection (TWC) mode, and heat demand following (HDF) mode. The proposed method has been used for a case study where data is available in the literature and the optimum nominal powers using gas engines are 3.3 MW, 3.2 MW, and 1.2 MW and in the case of using diesel engines are 3.4 MW, 3.4 MW, and 1.4 MW for TWC, OWC, and HDF modes, respectively. To determine the sensitivity of results to input parameters (e.g. electricity price) a comprehensive parametric study was conducted.

  7. 75 FR 61604 - Small Business Size Standards; Accommodation and Food Services Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ...had proposed to increase size standards, about 2...analyses indicated a lower size standard as appropriate...firms in those industries defined as small under the current...percent under the current size standards to nearly 50...would accrue to three groups: (1) Businesses...

  8. Can the business model of Handelsbanken be an archetype for small and medium sized banks? A comparative case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousgaard Larsen, Morten; Lange Nissen, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    The Danish Banking sector faces increasing requirements regarding regulation and profitability, which especially threatens small- and medium sized banks. This study analyzes whether the successful business model of Handelsbanken (‘The Handelsbanken Way’) to banking in regard to the needed strengthening of the financial and non-financial position can serve as a blueprint for small- and medium sized banks. We conduct a comparative case study by interviewing Handelsbanken and the disguised ‘Danish Local Bank’ (DLB), where the DLB is a representative example of a small- and medium sized Danish bank. This study is structured according to the frameworks from Business Model implementations and from implied organizational structures. Using the notion of Osterwalder and Pigneur (2010), this study reveals only minor differences in the Business Models of Handelsbanken and DLB. Despite the supposedly obvious advantages of ‘The Handelsbanken Way’, this study suggests that the financially troubled small- and medium sizedbanks in Denmark will not necessarily benefit from the tactical choice of decentralization unless they incorporate specific adjustments. This study contribute to the existing theory concerning Handelsbanken’s approach to banking in regard to the appropriateness as a part of the solution to financial troubled small- and medium sized banks in Denmark.

  9. Can the business model of Handelsbanken be an archetype for small and medium sized banks? : A comparative case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmaltz, Christian; Lueg, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    The Danish Banking sector faces increasing requirements regarding regulation and profitability, which especially threatens small- and medium sized banks. This study analyzes whether the successful business model of Handelsbanken (‘The Handelsbanken Way’) to banking in regard to the needed strengthening of the financial and non-financial position can serve as a blueprint for small- and medium sized banks. We conduct a comparative case study by interviewing Handelsbanken and the disguised ‘Danish Local Bank’ (DLB), where the DLB is a representative example of a small- and medium sized Danish bank. This study is structured according to the frameworks from Business Model implementations and from implied organizational structures. Using the notion of Osterwalder and Pigneur (2010), this study reveals only minor differences in the Business Models of Handelsbanken and DLB. Despite the supposedly obvious advantages of ‘The Handelsbanken Way’, this study suggests that the financially troubled small- and medium sizedbanks in Denmark will not necessarily benefit from the tactical choice of decentralization unless they incorporate specific adjustments. This study contribute to the existing theory concerning Handelsbanken’s approach to banking in regard to the appropriateness as a part of the solution to financial troubled small- and medium sized banks in Denmark.

  10. Size and profitability in the international oil- and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many industrial sectors have gone through a series of mergers and acquisitions. In the international oil- and gas industry this has produced new companies such as ExxonMobil and TotalFinaElf. BP and Amoco merged and then subjugated Atlantic Richfield (ARCO). ChevronTexaco has been established and ConocoPhillips are currently working on the same thing. Saga was previously acquired by Norsk Hydro and Statoil, and Shell recently bought Enterprise and Pennzoil-Quaker. Taking the stock market's principles for corporate analysis and valuation as a starting point, this article discusses the forces behind this consolidation process

  11. Size and liquidity effects in Nigeria: an industrial sector study

    OpenAIRE

    Hearn, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    This study estimates liquidity premiums using the recently developed Liu (2006) measure within a multifactor capital asset pricing model (CAPM) including size premiums and a time varying parameter model for the West African emerging market of Nigeria. The evidence suggests that liquidity factors are relevant only for financial and basic materials sector stocks while size factor is more generally relevant in explaining the cross section of stock returns in the Nigerian domestic equity market....

  12. Sexual dimorphism of medium-sized neurons with spines in human nucleus accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazdanovi? ????

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The nucleus accumbens is a limbic nucleus, representing part of the striatum body, and together with the caudate nucleus and putamen, it lies on the septum. The aim of this study was to examine morphological sexual dimorphism in spine density and also to undertake an immunohistochemical study of expression for estrogen and progesterone receptors in the medium-sized neurons in the nucleus accumbens. The research was conducted on twenty human brains of persons of both sexes, between the age of 20-75 years. The Golgi method was applied to determine the types and subtypes of neurons, morphologies of soma, dendrites and axons, as well as the relations between the cells and glial elements. The following were quantitatively examined: the maximum diameter of the neurons, the minimal diameter of the neurons, and the total length of the dendrites. The expression of receptors for estrogen and progesterone, their distribution and intensity were defined immunohistochemically. The parameters of the bodies of neurons in the shell and core of the nucleus accumbens were studied in both men and women. No statistically significant differences were found. Examination of the spine density showed statistical significance in terms of a higher density of spines in women. Immunohistochemically, in the female brain estrogen expression is diffusely spread in a large number of neurons; it is extra nuclear, of granular appearance and high intensity. In the male brain, expression of estrogen is visible and distributed over about one half of different types of neurons; it is extra nuclear, of granular appearance, mostly of middle and low staining intensity. Expression of progesterone in the female brain was very discreet and on a very small number of neurons; it was extra nuclear and with a weak staining intensity. Expression of progesterone in the male brain was distributed on a small number of neurons. It had a granular appearance, it was extra nuclear, with a very low staining intensity. Our results show differences in the morphology as well as expression of receptors for estrogen and progesterone on medium-sized neurons with spines in the nucleus accumbens of men and women.

  13. Studies of various single phase natural circulation systems for small and medium sized reactor design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wibisono, Andhika Feri, E-mail: feri.wibisono@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Yoonhan, E-mail: yh.ahn@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Williams, Wesley C., E-mail: wcw@phd-engineering.com [PHD Engineering, LLC, 11828 Villa Avenue, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Addad, Yacine, E-mail: yacine.addad@kustar.ac.ae [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research (KUSTAR), P.O. Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Lee, Jeong Ik, E-mail: jeongiklee@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • SMRs and passive safety systems in single phase systems are reviewed. • Simple loop analysis has been done for gas, single phase water, and liquid metals. • Gas systems have a greater tendency to fall into DTHT regime. • SMR and large LWR reactors can differ in operating heat transfer regime. -- Abstract: Passive safety is a primary motive behind the development of small and medium sized reactors of various coolants. After the Fukushima accident, there is an increased interest in a nuclear reactor's reliance on passive safety systems. Most of the existing passive systems, regardless of the reactor type, utilize buoyancy force to drive the cooling flow. Hence, it is essential to evaluate if the naturally developed cooling flow is sufficient to maintain the heated surface temperature of the fuel elements below the design limit. Evaluating passively driven flows can be quite a challenging task in both two phase natural circulation systems and also in single phase natural circulation systems. Previous research works have found that single phase heat transfer can be deteriorated and becomes uncertain when the driving force of a system is shifted from external force (forced convection) to self generated buoyancy force or a combination of both (natural or mixed convection). In this paper, single phase gas, water, and liquid metal reactors with passive systems are reviewed briefly. A simple theoretical analysis of each reactor type is performed to find the tendency of the shift in the operating heat transfer regime into the deteriorated region. The analysis results show that single phase water system can maintain operation within the forced convection regime but the operating regime gets closer to the deteriorating heat transfer regime as the system's physical size reduces from a large nuclear power plant to the small and medium reactor scale. The gas cooled system has a high tendency to operate in the deteriorated heat transfer regime when the driving force changes from forced to natural. Meanwhile the liquid metal system demonstrates more margins to operate outside from the deteriorated heat transfer region compared to the two other fluid systems. However further studies are needed to clearly identify the boundaries of the deteriorated heat transfer regime for each coolant since the deterioration greatly depends on the thermophysical properties variation of the coolant and the near-wall flow behavior of the coolant with respect to temperature change.

  14. Studies of various single phase natural circulation systems for small and medium sized reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • SMRs and passive safety systems in single phase systems are reviewed. • Simple loop analysis has been done for gas, single phase water, and liquid metals. • Gas systems have a greater tendency to fall into DTHT regime. • SMR and large LWR reactors can differ in operating heat transfer regime. -- Abstract: Passive safety is a primary motive behind the development of small and medium sized reactors of various coolants. After the Fukushima accident, there is an increased interest in a nuclear reactor's reliance on passive safety systems. Most of the existing passive systems, regardless of the reactor type, utilize buoyancy force to drive the cooling flow. Hence, it is essential to evaluate if the naturally developed cooling flow is sufficient to maintain the heated surface temperature of the fuel elements below the design limit. Evaluating passively driven flows can be quite a challenging task in both two phase natural circulation systems and also in single phase natural circulation systems. Previous research works have found that single phase heat transfer can be deteriorated and becomes uncertain when the driving force of a system is shifted from external force (forced convection) to self generated buoyancy force or a combination of both (natural or mixed convection). In this paper, single phase gas, water, and liquid metal reactors with passive systems are reviewed briefly. A simple theoretical analysis of each reactor type is performed to find the tendency of the shift in the operating heat transfer regime into the deteriorated region. The analysis results show that single phase water system can maintain operation within the forced convection regime but the operating regime gets closer to the deteriorating heat transfer regime as the system's physical size reduces from a large nuclear power plant to the small and medium reactor scale. The gas cooled system has a high tendency to operate in the deteriorated heat transfer regime when the driving force changes from forced to natural. Meanwhile the liquid metal system demonstrates more margins to operate outside from the deteriorated heat transfer region compared to the two other fluid systems. However further studies are needed to clearly identify the boundaries of the deteriorated heat transfer regime for each coolant since the deterioration greatly depends on the thermophysical properties variation of the coolant and the near-wall flow behavior of the coolant with respect to temperature change

  15. The importance of financial consulting in the development of small and medium-sized enterprises in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolae, C. M.; Constantinescu, L. A.

    2011-01-01

    During much of the past decade, SMEs have seen an impressive growth. Since the onset of the financial crisis, this trend seems to have been interrupted, even though there are indications that show that, at least in the early stages of the crisis, Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the European Union have proven to be comparatively resilient. Under these circumstances, the financial advisory may be a key to the future development of small and medium-sized enterprises in the European Union.

  16. Effects of Socio-Cultural Realities on the Nigerian Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs): Case of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Lagos State

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Felicia O.; Olusoji George; Oluwakemi Owoyemi; Mofope Adegboye

    2013-01-01

    Socio-cultural realities are importance components in the Nigerian business environment. There is a shortage ofliterature and studies that linked socio-cultural realities to business development and performance.Small-Medium Enterprises (SMEs) constitutes over 70 per cent of the Nigerian businesses and characteristicallyinformal. The objectives of this paper are in two-folds, namely (i) identify socio-cultural realities in the SMEbusiness environment in Nigeria and; (ii) examine the impact of ...

  17. The regional industry-size distribution: an analysis of all types of industries in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Brenner, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies the frequency of observing a certain number of firms or employees in a region for a given industry. Various predictions for these frequencies are deduced from theoretical considerations. Then, the empirical distributions of 198 industries in Germany are analysed. It is found that different kinds of industries show quite different distributions.

  18. Status of innovative small and medium sized reactor designs 2005. Reactors with conventional refuelling schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a renewed interest in Member States in the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). In the near term, most new NPPs are likely to be evolutionary designs building on proven systems while incorporating technological advances and often the economics of scale, resulting from the reactor outputs of up to 1600 MW(e). For the longer term, the focus is on innovative designs aiming to provide increased benefits in the areas of safety and security, non-proliferation, waste management, resource utilization and economy, as well as to offer a variety of energy products and flexibility in design, siting and fuel cycle options. Many innovative designs are reactors within the small-to-medium size range, having an equivalent electric power less than 700 MW(e) or even less than 300 MW(e). The projected timelines of readiness for deployment are generally between 2010 and 2030. The objective of this report is to provide Member States, including those just considering the initiation of nuclear power programmes, and those already having practical experience in nuclear power, with a balanced and objective information on important development trends and objectives of innovative SMRs for a variety of uses, on the achieved state-of-the-art in design and technology development for such reactors and on their design and regulatory status. The report is intended for many categories of stakeholders, including regulators, electricity producers, designers, non-electrical producers and policy makers. The main chapters of this report, addressed to all abovementioned groups of stakeholders, provide a summary of major specifications, applications and user-related special features of innovative SMRs, outline the achieved design and regulatory status and its progress since previous IAEA publications, review targeted deployment dates, fuel cycle options, design approaches used to meet design objectives in specific subject areas, enabling technologies and current research and development (R and D) programmes in Member States, and non-technical factors and arrangements that could facilitate successful development and deployment of innovative reactors within the small-to-medium power range. The annexes, intended mostly for designers and technical managers, provide detailed design descriptions of innovative SMRs under development worldwide and are patterned along a newly developed common format, which makes it possible to identify the design philosophy, objectives and approaches, as well as technical features and non-technical factors and arrangements with a potential to provide solutions in the specific areas of concern associated with future nuclear energy systems. Detailed design descriptions in this report were prepared firsthand by the designers and reviewed, updated and approved for publication by the respective vendors, research and design organizations and academic institutions in Member States. The scope of this report is limited to reactors with conventional, proven in operation refuelling schemes and does not include small reactors that could operate without reloading and shuffling of fuel for a long period, from 10 years and more, with no fresh or spent fuel being stored at the site during reactor operation. Because of a large number of inputs, such reactors would require a separate dedicated publication

  19. ADVANTAGES OF CROWDFUNDING AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE OF FINANCING OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Goli?

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The lack of funding, and limited access to it are the basic problems faced by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. Given the great role and importance of SMEs in every national economy, any progress in solving these problems in terms of creating and finding alternative sources of funding should attract great attention in both professional and scientific and the wider socio-political communities. Crowdfunding is an innovative and relatively new concept that connects entrepreneurs and investors through the Internet. This method allows the entrepreneurs to collect funds through the Internet by "open invitation" to finance their projects/ventures and thus raise the necessary funds by relatively small contributions of a relatively large number of investors. As such, crowdfunding is a fast-growing model increasingly debated of in academic circles and the European institutions. This paper will consider crowdfunding as an alternative means of financing SMEs and try to give different aspects of crowdfunding - and explain how it works, what are the advantages of using it for SMEs and thus expand the knowledge on the topic.

  20. Quantitative evaluation of waste prevention on the level of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste prevention is a principle means of achieving the goals of waste management and a key element for developing sustainable economies. Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) contribute substantially to environmental degradation, often not even being aware of their environmental effects. Therefore, several initiatives have been launched in Austria aimed at supporting waste prevention measures on the level of SMEs. To promote the most efficient projects, they have to be evaluated with respect to their contribution to the goals of waste management. It is the aim of this paper to develop a methodology for evaluating waste prevention measures in SMEs based on their goal orientation. At first, conceptual problems of defining and delineating waste prevention activities are briefly discussed. Then an approach to evaluate waste prevention activities with respect to their environmental performance is presented and benchmarks which allow for an efficient use of the available funds are developed. Finally the evaluation method is applied to a number of former projects and the calculated results are analysed with respect to shortcomings and limitations of the model. It is found that the developed methodology can provide a tool for a more objective and comprehensible evaluation of waste prevention measures

  1. Determinants of the capital structure of small and medium sized Brazilian enterprises

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Denis, Forte; Lucas Ayres, Barros; Wilson Toshiro, Nakamura.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the determinants of the capital structure of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) using a unique database that includes over 19,000 Brazilian firms and spans 13 years of data. The econometric analysis employs the System Generalized Method of Moments estimator (GMM-Sys) and [...] two strong results emerge: (a) profitability is negatively related to leverage, and (b) asset growth is positively related to leverage. Both results are consistent with the pecking order theory of capital structure and suggest that SMEs tend to finance their expansion with debt only after exhausting their internal resources. Additionally, we find weaker evidence for the following: (a) size is positively related to leverage, which can be interpreted as evidence that larger firms have more access to credit markets; (b) riskier SMEs tend to be less financially leveraged, consistent with the bankruptcy cost arguments from trade-off theories; and (c) the age of the firm is negatively related to financial leverage, suggesting that older SMEs may be slightly more conservative in their financing choices. Finally, the magnitude of the coefficient of lagged leverage shows the high persistence of this variable and is compatible with the hypothesis that SMEs adjust their debt/equity ratio towards a target value, although at a low speed.

  2. Design features to achieve defence-in-depth in small and medium sized reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the categorization adopted by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), small and medium sized reactors are those with the equivalent electric output less than 700 MW. In most of the cases, deployment potential of SMRs is supported by their ability to fill niches in which they would address market situations different from those of currently operated large-capacity nuclear power plants. Ensuring adequate defence-in-depth (DID) is important for reactors of smaller output because many of them are being designed to allow more proximity to the user, specifically, when non-electrical energy products are targeted. Based on the activities recently performed by IAEA, the paper provides a summary description of the design features used to achieve DID in the eleven representative concepts of SMRs. The SMRs considered included reactors of different types - pressurized water reactors, pressurized boiling light water cooled heavy water moderated reactors, high temperature gas cooled reactors, fast reactors,and non conventional very high temperature designs. The design descriptions were structured to follow the definitions and recommendations of the IAEA safety standardNS-R-1 'Safety of the Nuclear Power Plants: Design Requirements'. The focus of this paper would be on sodium cooled and lead cooled fast reactors -the 4S-LMR (Japan) and the SSTAR and the STAR-LM (USA)

  3. TELICS—A Telescope Instrument Control System for Small/Medium Sized Astronomical Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Mudit K.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Burse, Mahesh P.; Chordia, Pravin A.; Chillal, Kalpesh S.; Mestry, Vilas B.; Das, Hillol K.; Kohok, Abhay A.

    2009-10-01

    For any modern astronomical observatory, it is essential to have an efficient interface between the telescope and its back-end instruments. However, for small and medium-sized observatories, this requirement is often limited by tight financial constraints. Therefore a simple yet versatile and low-cost control system is required for such observatories to minimize cost and effort. Here we report the development of a modern, multipurpose instrument control system TELICS (Telescope Instrument Control System) to integrate the controls of various instruments and devices mounted on the telescope. TELICS consists of an embedded hardware unit known as a common control unit (CCU) in combination with Linux-based data acquisition and user interface. The hardware of the CCU is built around the ATmega 128 microcontroller (Atmel Corp.) and is designed with a backplane, master-slave architecture. A Qt-based graphical user interface (GUI) has been developed and the back-end application software is based on C/C++. TELICS provides feedback mechanisms that give the operator good visibility and a quick-look display of the status and modes of instruments as well as data. TELICS has been used for regular science observations since 2008 March on the 2 m, f/10 IUCAA Telescope located at Girawali in Pune, India.

  4. Conditioned medium from human amniotic mesenchymal stromal cells limits infarct size and enhances angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danieli, Patrizia; Malpasso, Giuseppe; Ciuffreda, Maria Chiara; Cervio, Elisabetta; Calvillo, Laura; Copes, Francesco; Pisano, Federica; Mura, Manuela; Kleijn, Lennaert; de Boer, Rudolf A; Viarengo, Gianluca; Rosti, Vittorio; Spinillo, Arsenio; Roccio, Marianna; Gnecchi, Massimiliano

    2015-05-01

    The paracrine properties of human amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMCs) have not been fully elucidated. The goal of the present study was to elucidate whether hAMCs can exert beneficial paracrine effects on infarcted rat hearts, in particular through cardioprotection and angiogenesis. Moreover, we aimed to identify the putative active paracrine mediators. hAMCs were isolated, expanded, and characterized. In vitro, conditioned medium from hAMC (hAMC-CM) exhibited cytoprotective and proangiogenic properties. In vivo, injection of hAMC-CM into infarcted rat hearts limited the infarct size, reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and ventricular remodeling, and strongly promoted capillary formation at the infarct border zone. Gene array analysis led to the identification of 32 genes encoding for the secreted factors overexpressed by hAMCs. Among these, midkine and secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine were also upregulated at the protein level. Furthermore, high amounts of several proangiogenic factors were detected in hAMC-CM by cytokine array. Our results strongly support the concept that the administration of hAMC-CM favors the repair process after acute myocardial infarction. PMID:25824141

  5. Sustainability indices as a tool for urban managers, evidence from four medium-sized Chinese cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research in four medium-sized Chinese cities aims at measuring urban sustainability in China and focuses on three issues. First, the situation in these four cities with regard to urban sustainability is evaluated. Secondly, a number of relations between different aspects of urban sustainability is explored. Finally, it is indicated how urban managers can improve with sustainability indices as tools currently ineffective urban management practices. Although all four cities are moving towards sustainable development, the current situation shows still weak sustainability in three, and even non-sustainability in one city. The social and, in particular, the economic dimensions of urban sustainability make significant positive contributions to overall urban sustainability. However, the decline of natural resources and environmental degradation are influencing it negatively. It is therefore suggested that more priority should be assigned to urban environmental protection and management in China. The fundamental reason for environmental degradation is believed to be inefficient urban management. To implement effective urban management in China, there is an urgent need to redefine the role of local government, reform local organizational structure, enhance local participatory institutional capacity, properly distribute the urban welfare, and thus integrate economic, social and environmental objectives local strategic and action plansans

  6. Signaling from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in striatal medium-sized spiny neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-AntoineGirault

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Striatal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs receive massive glutamate inputs from the cerebral cortex and thalamus and are a major target of dopamine projections. Interaction between glutamate and dopamine signaling is crucial for the control of movement and reward-driven learning, and its alterations are implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders including Parkinson’s disease and drug addiction. Long-lasting forms of synaptic plasticity are thought to depend on transcription of gene products that alter the structure and/or function of neurons. Although multiple signal transduction pathways regulate transcription, little is known about signal transmission between the cytoplasm and the nucleus of striatal neurons and its regulation. Here we review the current knowledge of the signaling cascades that target the nucleus of MSNs, most of which are activated by cAMP and/or Ca2+. We outline the mechanisms by which signals originating at the plasma membrane and amplified in the cytoplasm are relayed to the nucleus, through the regulation of several protein kinases and phosphatases and transport through the nuclear pore. We also summarize the identified mechanisms of transcription regulation and chromatin remodeling in MSNs that appear to be important for behavioral adaptations, and discuss their relationships with epigenetic regulation.

  7. The spatiotemporal trajectory of a dengue epidemic in a medium-sized city

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniela G, Morato; Florisneide R, Barreto; José U, Braga; Marcio S, Natividade; Maria da Conceição N, Costa; Vanessa, Morato; Maria da Glória Lima Cruz, Teixeira.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases is important to allow for improvements of control measures. To investigate the spatiotemporal pattern of an epidemic dengue occurred at a medium-sized city in the Northeast Region of Brazil in 2009, we conducted an ecological study of th [...] e notified dengue cases georeferenced according to epidemiological week (EW) and home address. Kernel density estimation and space-time interaction were analysed using the Knox method. The evolution of the epidemic was analysed using an animated projection technique. The dengue incidence was 6.918.7/100,000 inhabitants; the peak of the epidemic occurred from 8 February-1 March, EWs 6-9 (828.7/100,000 inhabitants). There were cases throughout the city and was identified space-time interaction. Three epicenters were responsible for spreading the disease in an expansion and relocation diffusion pattern. If the health services could detect in real time the epicenters and apply nimbly control measures, may possibly reduce the magnitude of dengue epidemics.

  8. Assessing Incorrect Household Waste Sorting in a Medium-Sized Swedish City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Rousta

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Source separation is a common method for dealing with the increasing problem of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW in society. The citizens are then responsible for separating waste fractions produced in their home. If the consumers fail to sort the waste according to the source separation scheme, it will lead to an ineffective system. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the environmental, economic and social aspects of incorrect waste sorting in a medium sized Swedish city that has established a source separation system. In order to determine the extent to which citizens correctly sort their waste, food waste (black bags and combustible fraction (white bags, were collected randomly from a residential area and categorized in different waste fractions. The results show that approximately 68 wt% of the waste in the white and 29 wt% in the black bags were not sorted correctly. This incorrect sorting accrues over 13 million SEK per year cost for this community. In order to improve the inhabitants’ participation in the waste management system, it is necessary to change different factors such as convenience and easy access to the recycling stations in the local MSW management systems as well as to review current regulation and policy.

  9. The CTA medium size telescope prototype, a test bench for the array control software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CTA (Cherenkov Telescope Array) will be the largest ground-based gamma-ray observatory ever built. Two arrays are foreseen to be build, one in the Southern and one in the Northern hemisphere. A prototype for the Medium Size Telescope (MST) type (diameter: 12 m) will be installed in Berlin in early 2012. This MST prototype will be composed of the mechanical structure, drive system and mirror facets with an active mirror control system. The stability of the mechanical structure will be investigated with CCD cameras and a weather station. Furthermore the ALMA Common Software (ACS) distributed control framework will used as readout and control system for the MST, allowing to evaluate the software with the future use for the whole CTA array in mind. The design of the control software is following the concepts and tools under evaluation within the CTA consortium, like the use of a UML based code generation framework for ACS component modeling, and the use of OPC Unified Architecture (OPC UA) for hardware access. In this contribution the progress in the implementation of the control system for this CTA prototype telescope is described.

  10. Improved Continuing Losses Estimation Using Initial Loss-Continuing Loss Model for Medium Sized Rural Catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbub Ilahee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The rainfall based design flood estimation techniques are commonly adopted in hydrological design and require a number of inputs including information on soil loss characteristics. Approach: A conceptual loss model known as the ?Initial Loss-Continuing Loss (IL-CL model? is widely used in Australia. Results: The Initial Loss (IL occurs at the beginning of the rainfall event, prior to the commencement of surface runoff and the Continuing Loss (CL is the average rate of loss throughout the remainder of the storm. The currently recommended design loss values depicted in ?Australian Rainfall and Runoff Vol. 1? for Queensland (Australia has some basic limitations. This study investigated how more accurate CL values can be estimated and derived for medium sized tropical Queensland catchments using long term rainfall and streamflow data. Accuracy in CL estimation has got significant implications in the estimation of design floods. Conclusion/Recommendations: The results showed that CL value is not fixed and constant through out the duration of the storm but the CL value decays with the duration of the storm.

  11. Adaptive Traffic Control Systems in a medium-sized Scandinavian city : – effects and experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; Olesen, Anne Vingaard

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Traffic Control Systems (ATCS) are aimed at reducing congestion. ATCS adapt to approaching traffic to continuously optimise the traffic flows in question. ATCS have been implemented in many locations, including the Scandinavian countries, with various effects. Due to congestion problems, ATCS were installed in the eight signalised intersections of a 1.7 km stretch of the ring road in the medium-sized Danish city of Aalborg. To measure the effect of ATCS a with/without study was carried out. GPS data from a car following the traffic, recorded transportation times for buses in service, and GPS data from a range of cars driving on the ring road formed the basis for the study. The result of ATCS implementation was a significant 17% reduction in transportation time on the ring road in the most congested period, the afternoon peak. Less significant effects were found regarding the morning peak and midday off-peak. The effect on crossing and turning traffic was slight, and while reduced transportation time was found in one part of the ring road in another part transportation time was seen to increase. The benefit to the ring road was partly gained at the cost of slightly increased transportation time for crossing traffic.

  12. Resource efficiency and culture--workplace training for small and medium-sized enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliesner, Anna; Liedtke, Christa; Rohn, Holger

    2014-05-15

    Although there are already some qualification offers available for enterprises to support resource efficiency innovations, the high potentials that can be identified especially for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) have not been activated until now. As successful change lies in the hands of humans, the main aim of vocational education has to be the promotion of organisational and cultural changes in the enterprises. As there is already a small but increasing number of enterprises that perform very well in resource efficiency innovations one question arises: What are typical characteristics of those enterprises? Leaning on a good-practice approach, the project "ResourceCulture" is going to prove or falsify the hypothesis that enterprises being successful with resource efficiency innovations have a specific culture of trust, which substantially contributes to innovation processes, or even initially enables them. Detailed empirical field research will light up which correlations between resource efficiency, innovation and cultures of trust can be found and will offer important aspects for the improvement of management instruments and qualification concepts for workplace training. The project seizes qualification needs that were likewise mentioned by enterprises and consultants, regarding the implementation of resource efficiency. This article - based on first empirical field research results - derives preliminary indications for the design of the qualification module for the target groups resource efficiency consultants and managers. On this basis and in order to implement "ResourceCulture" conceptual and methodological starting points for workplace training are outlined. PMID:24364995

  13. Manage Projects Smarter: Picking Tools for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Quade

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs are increasingly dealing with international projects and distributed (sometimes even virtual teams. Consequently, they are looking for project management (PM tools which fit their respective needs regarding communication and collaboration. Unfortunately, the majority of the PM software available in the market seems to be oversized for this purpose. Instead most project managers are requesting smart solutions that allow quick implementation without any significant organisational or technical change. Within the research project InterComp SME 2.0 we combine theoretical research and real business to develop hands-on solutions for SMEs. This paper describes an effective approach for a “PM Toolbox” that allows finding the right project tool for a specific project need. The toolbox has been developed in due consideration of user stories gained from business practice, a more detailed SME business survey, a theoretical PM meta model and a market of PM tools. Since the business survey revealed that the readiness to use and test a “toolbox” is highly dependent on the type of user and his or her technical background, we designed the system based on use cases and user typology. As a result, we suggest a framework of open, freely available, easy-to-install, single and multi purpose PM software tools which can be selected solely on a need basis. With this free platform we want to guide practitioners through the tool jungle with the potential to grow into a lively community.

  14. CRITICAL FACTORS IN OUTSOURCING OF ACCOUNTING FUNCTIONS IN MALAYSIAN SMALL MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES (SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magiswary Dorasamy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenges that business face in sustaining competitive advantage in the corporate world have become a major concern. Businesses are adopting cutting-edge technologies and best practices to cope with rapid, global changes. Various business functions are being reengineered for this purpose. Accounting functions play an important role in helping businesses to maintain competitive advantage. However, some small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs face problems handling fundamental accounting functions. This is predominantly because of their lack of expertise; accounting functions require not only knowledge of generally accepted accounting rules or tax regulations but also the expertise needed to apply the rules in a given business environment (Everaert, Sarens and Rommel, 2006. This paper offers some insight on the outsourcing of accounting functions as there is paucity of data in this area in the context of Malaysia. Essentially, it presents empirical evidence regarding Malaysian SMEs' accounting outsourcing practices. A survey of SMEs was conducted to identify the overall outsourcing landscape as it relates to accounting and third-party organisations. The factors that contribute to the decision to outsource accounting functions are analysed. The study reveals a significant relationship between outsourcing accounting functions and two contributing factors, risks and operation management.

  15. Model of Thai Small and Medium Sized Enterprises’ Organizational Capabilities: Review and Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apicha Boonpattarakan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In today’s competitive environment, small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs must focus on strengthening their organizational capabilities, considered to be a vital ingredient for building firms’ competitiveness. A number of factors may be deemed to be the drivers of organizational capabilities. Thus, this study was aimed at investigating and discussing those dimensions and their elements associated with organizational capabilities. The review of the literature indicates that the fundamental approach to build organizational capabilities rest heavily on organizational resources, organizational architecture, and organizational quality. The initial model was developed and proposed. Then, in-depth interviews with twenty Thai SMEs were carried out to verify the proposed model. Based on the in-depth interview results, key modifications were made to adjust the model and make it more practical. Financial resource, marketing resource, operational resource, and human resource are considered to be key elements of organizational resources whereas planning system, information system, compensation system, empowerment structure, learning culture, and teamwork culture are deemed to be key elements of organizational architecture. Finally, quality of the company and quality of products or services are believed to be key elements of organizational quality. Firms who can effectively and efficiently manage these elements of organizational capabilities will be able to compete and succeed in the market in the long run. 

  16. The spatiotemporal trajectory of a dengue epidemic in a medium-sized city

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniela G, Morato; Florisneide R, Barreto; José U, Braga; Marcio S, Natividade; Maria da Conceição N, Costa; Vanessa, Morato; Maria da Glória Lima Cruz, Teixeira.

    Full Text Available Understanding the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases is important to allow for improvements of control measures. To investigate the spatiotemporal pattern of an epidemic dengue occurred at a medium-sized city in the Northeast Region of Brazil in 2009, we conducted an ecological study of th [...] e notified dengue cases georeferenced according to epidemiological week (EW) and home address. Kernel density estimation and space-time interaction were analysed using the Knox method. The evolution of the epidemic was analysed using an animated projection technique. The dengue incidence was 6.918.7/100,000 inhabitants; the peak of the epidemic occurred from 8 February-1 March, EWs 6-9 (828.7/100,000 inhabitants). There were cases throughout the city and was identified space-time interaction. Three epicenters were responsible for spreading the disease in an expansion and relocation diffusion pattern. If the health services could detect in real time the epicenters and apply nimbly control measures, may possibly reduce the magnitude of dengue epidemics.

  17. Service Pyramid Concept of Knowledge Intensive Business Services in the Small and Medium Sized Enterprises Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sándor Nagy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The activity of service companies is more complex today than before the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT became widespread in business. Fewer service companies can be found on the market based solely on physical customer interaction; however, they have been replaced with standardized and automated services. This structural change can be observed particularly among Knowledge Intensive Business Services (KIBS companies where the use of ICT is not simply a market requirement, but a competition tool, as well. Without the application of any ICT instrument, a KIBS company could not meet market expectations, and furthermore, business developments are mainly ICT-based. On the other hand, companies need to develop their businesses more and more, as KIBS companies which are not able to differentiate themselves as trustworthy on the business services market will disappear. ‘Just another business service company’ cannot really sell today. This is applicable to a greater extent to Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SME, where ICT has opened market opportunities that have never existed for them before. The aim of this paper is to highlight the new features of KIBS business activities in the SME sector and the related research questions.

  18. Determinants of the Capital Structure of Small and Medium Sized Brazilian Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Toshiro Nakamura

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the determinants of the capital structure of small and medium enterprises (SMEs using a unique database that includes over 19,000 Brazilian firms and spans 13 years of data. The econometric analysis employs the System Generalized Method of Moments estimator (GMM-Sys and two strong results emerge: (a profitability is negatively related to leverage, and (b asset growth is positively related to leverage. Both results are consistent with the pecking order theory of capital structure and suggest that SMEs tend to finance their expansion with debt only after exhausting their internal resources. Additionally, we find weaker evidence for the following: (a size is positively related to leverage, which can be interpreted as evidence that larger firms have more access to credit markets; (b riskier SMEs tend to be less financially leveraged, consistent with the bankruptcy cost arguments from trade-off theories; and (c the age of the firm is negatively related to financial leverage, suggesting that older SMEs may be slightly more conservative in their financing choices. Finally, the magnitude of the coefficient of lagged leverage shows the high persistence of this variable and is compatible with the hypothesis that SMEs adjust their debt/equity ratio towards a target value, although at a low speed.

  19. Open Model for the Evaluation of Economic Attractiveness of Small and Medium Sized Reactors. Annex VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annex describes the development of an open model for simulation and evaluation of the economic features of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs), being undertaken by the Politecnico di Milano in Italy. The model aims at establishing a comparative assessment of SMRs versus large reactors (LRs) as its final output. The model will allow assessment of the competitiveness of SMRs under different deployment and application conditions. The distinctive attributes of SMRs such as replication, scalability, reversibility and standardization are briefly described below. The features of SMRs impacting the domains of generation costs (co-siting economies, learning economies, technical economies, mass production and factory fabrication economies), deployment conditions (market matching, market suitability, reduced entry barriers) and financial costs (lower financial distress, reduced risk premium) are addressed before explaining the model architecture. Other state of the art models in this regard are also discussed, along with their respective attributes. The special features of the SMR model being developed are discussed. At the current stage of research, selected elements of the generation costs are modelled analytically. Provisions for adapting financial and external costs from other contemporary models and integrating the same into the main framework are being established. The model has been realized as a code, and the updated version of this code is used in the case studies of SMR competitiveness in different applications, carried out within the IAEA project Common Technology and Issues for SMRs

  20. Information Technology Adoption in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises; An Appraisal of Two Decades Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Ghobakhloo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs account for major source of employment, technological advancements, and competitive advantages for both developed and developing countries. Owing to the intensified competitive pressure and necessity for entering to global market undergone by SMEs, these businesses are incrementally employing Information Technology (IT to take advantage of its substantial benefits. Most of prior researches have more focused on IT adoption in large organizations. However, and with regard to the limited resources controlled by SMEs, the process of IT adoption in this business sector is considerably different. The purpose of this paper is to analyze and contrast the internal and external issues affecting the process of IT adoption in SMEs to provide clearer understanding of this process by reviewing IT adoption literature, which includes more than 20 years of empirical research and case studies from a variety of databases with high concentration on certain SME-related issues. Proposed integrated framework demonstrates the process of IT adoption in SMEs through reviewing exiting perspectives in the literature. This study will assist different parties involved with adoption process including managers, vendors, consultants, and governments to achieve a practical synopsis of the IT adoption process in SMEs, which is believed to assist them with successful adoption.

  1. Experimental testing of centrifugal pump: small and medium sized enterprise product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, R.; Paddiyatu, F.; Khafidh, M.; Nugroho, S.; Sugiyanto, S.; Jamari, J.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports the experimental testing for centrifugal pump for fisherman ship, manufactured by small and medium sized enterprises in Central Java Province, Indonesia. The research covers material analysis, component observation, endurance and vibration test. Six centrifugal pumps are tested and three main pump components are discussed: shaft, bearings and seals. The results show that the material of the shaft is predicted to support and transmit the load from the engine to impeller. The problem found in the tolerance and geometry accuracy of the shaft which causes difficulties during assembling process, excessive wear and leakage during testing. From the endurance and vibration test, the ball bearings fail and lock the shaft due to the fatigue on the rolling elements and raceways. The oil seal and water seal also fail in maintaining the oil and water in the chamber and induce the unlubricated system for the ball bearings. Some suggestions are delivered to improve the product quality of the centrifugal pump. A good quality of the centrifugal pump for fishermen ship and long life span is expected to be produced by local SMEs to win the free trade competition in the Indonesian market.

  2. Key Supplier Relationship Management: The Case of Croatian Medium-Sized and Large Manufacturing Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Mio?evi?

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The key supplier relationship management represents a vital organizational process. Companies should pay attention not only to managing customer relationships but also to managing relationships with suppliers in order to perform well. They should identify the extent to which a certain supplier adds value through the procurement process. In this line of reasoning, both theory and practice make a distinction between strategic (key and non-strategic (transactional suppliers. By employing the segmentation of the supply market, companies balance their supplier portfolio and are capable of identifying the key suppliers. They can also develop specific programs and initiatives that are aimed at preserving these relationships. In the empirical part of the paper, a survey was conducted on a sample of 123 medium-sized and large Croatian manufacturing companies. The structural model involving the relationship between the key supplier relationship management and value-oriented purchasing was tested. The results indicate that there is a statistically direct, positive and significant relationship between these two constructs. Likewise, the results stress that a theoretical conceptualization and operationalization of the key supplier relationship management construct is both valid and justified. Finally, the theoretical and practical implications and limitations of this study are offered.

  3. Sustainable Product Service Systems in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs: Opportunities in the Leather Manufacturing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo J. Hernández Pardo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach to identify opportunities to develop sustainable Product Service Systems (PSS involving Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs. The purpose of the research is to build understanding of how the integration of product and service design and the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT can contribute to identify opportunities to develop sustainable PSS involving SMEs. In order to develop the approach, research with 16 Colombian Manufacturing SMEs was carried out. A reference model and four generic types of PSS according to the relationships between product and service design and ICT are used to analyse the data. Finally, the possibility of extending the approach into a general framework to work with other industries is discussed.

  4. SMALL AND MEDIUM INDUSTRY FOR SUSTAINING MADRASA IN GLOBAL CHANGE (Study at Darul Ma’rifat Modern Islamic Boarding School in East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prima Aswirna

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Any types and size of industry is required for the sustainable development of a Boarding School (Madrasa.  Current study at Darul Ma’rifat Modern Islamic Boarding School in East Java is directed to describe: (1 the size and function of industry at Darul Ma’rifat Modern Islamic Boarding School; (2 the life-skill and the enterprenourships capability of the students; and (3 the effect of life-skills and the enterprenourships capability towards self-fulfilment attitude of students. All of the sixth grade students population (542 pupils were randomly taken to get 226 students sample by using Slovin  formula : n = N / 1 + N. e2. ( n = sample size, 1 = constanta variable, N = population, e = standard error / 0,05. Data were collected through observation, psychological scale and interview. They were then analyzed using regression supported by Statistical Package of Social Science programme. The results show that: (1 There were thirty unit small and medium industry at Darul Ma’rifat Modern Islamic Boarding School. (2 Life-skills and the enterprenourships capability of the students were taught through practice like; working in bread industry and mini market etc. (3 The mean scored of life-skills and the enterprenourships of the students were 82% categorized high.Copyright © 2013 by Al-Ta'lim All right reservedDOI: 10.15548/jt.v20i3.48

  5. Analyzing the efficiency of small and medium-sized enterprises of a national technology innovation research and development program

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sungmin

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the efficiency of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) of a national technology innovation research and development (R&D) program. In particular, an empirical analysis is presented that aims to answer the following question: “Is there a difference in the efficiency between R&D collaboration types and between government R&D subsidy sizes?” Methodologically, the efficiency of a government-sponsored R&D project (i.e., GSP) is measured by Data Envelopment Analysis (DE...

  6. The electricity supply industry in England and Wales. Medium term development plan 1986-93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the Electricity Supply Industry in England and Wales is to develop and maintain electricity supplies to meet customers' needs as cheaply as possible. Over the medium term, 1986 - 1993, the goal is to reduce the real average price per kWh sold, whilst maintaining high standards of service and meeting financial obligations. The strategy set out comprises reducing controllable costs per kWh sold to 1992/3, pursuing a vigorous and selective marketing strategy so that an expected sales increase of 10% is achieved, securing a long term supply of coal at minimum cost by developing the commercial relationship with British Coal, increasing the proportion of electrical energy supplied by nuclear energy to 25% by 1992/3 and being environmentally concerned. The introduction outlines the medium term business, energy and economic environment, financial targets and price prospects. Plans to support the strategy outlined are presented. Each section sets out the objectives and the plans to achieve these. The strategy for new power stations is to develop fossil-fueled and nuclear as well as to develop alternative technologies. (UK)

  7. Population size drives industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcoholic fermentation and is under genetic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertin, Warren; Marullo, Philippe; Aigle, Michel; Dillmann, Christine; de Vienne, Dominique; Bely, Marina; Sicard, Delphine

    2011-04-01

    Alcoholic fermentation (AF) conducted by Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been exploited for millennia in three important human food processes: beer and wine production and bread leavening. Most of the efforts to understand and improve AF have been made separately for each process, with strains that are supposedly well adapted. In this work, we propose a first comparison of yeast AFs in three synthetic media mimicking the dough/wort/grape must found in baking, brewing, and wine making. The fermentative behaviors of nine food-processing strains were evaluated in these media, at the cellular, populational, and biotechnological levels. A large variation in the measured traits was observed, with medium effects usually being greater than the strain effects. The results suggest that human selection targeted the ability to complete fermentation for wine strains and trehalose content for beer strains. Apart from these features, the food origin of the strains did not significantly affect AF, suggesting that an improvement program for a specific food processing industry could exploit the variability of strains used in other industries. Glucose utilization was analyzed, revealing plastic but also genetic variation in fermentation products and indicating that artificial selection could be used to modify the production of glycerol, acetate, etc. The major result was that the overall maximum CO(2) production rate (V(max)) was not related to the maximum CO(2) production rate per cell. Instead, a highly significant correlation between V(max) and the maximum population size was observed in all three media, indicating that human selection targeted the efficiency of cellular reproduction rather than metabolic efficiency. This result opens the way to new strategies for yeast improvement. PMID:21357433

  8. Entrepreneurial Training for the Growth of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Lessons from Central and Eastern Europe. Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This report brings together a number of principles as to best practice in supporting, through training, growth of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Central and Eastern Europe. Chapter 2 identifies key principles to be drawn from the West through a literature review. Chapter 3 reviews the "practice" of entrepreneurial training in Central…

  9. The Anonymity of Catalan and the Authenticity of Estonian: Two Paths for the Development of Medium-Sized Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Catalan and Estonian can be considered "medium-sized" languages with some key common features that allow us to analyze the evolution of the two cases comparatively. Firstly, other formerly hegemonic languages (Spanish and Russian, respectively) have historically minoritized them. Secondly, the political equilibrium has now changed in such a way…

  10. Analysis of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises’ E-Commerce Development Status in China in the New Economy Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng ZHANG

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce has become a new operation model in the new economy ear and the growth point of national economy. Since 1990s, e-commerce has risen and developed rapidly in the entire world, and been changing the original economic pattern as well as the original operation model and economic level. E-commerce has facilitated the development of new economy and become the prerequisite for economic globalization, made e-commerce an important symbol of economic globalization and promoted sustainable development of social economy. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs play a proactive role in China’s economic development. E-commerce can not only reduce operation cost and enhance economic benefits of small and medium-sized enterprises but also provide them with opportunities for competing with large enterprise and wider market space. However, they inevitably encounter varied barriers in the process. This paper proposed some solutions for problems existing in the development of small and medium-sized enterprises in the hope of making small and medium-sized enterprises further conduct e-commerce in a scientific and reasonable way in the new economy era.

  11. Revenue-Based Financial Modeling: A Sustainable Model for Medium-Size, Private, Mission-Based Schools of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbouk, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the implementation and assessment of revenue-based budgeting at a medium-size, private, mission-based graduate school of education (SOE), under the pseudonym Peter Claver University (PCU). Additionally, two other similar schools were included in the study because they used revenue-based budgeting for a period of 10 years or…

  12. Cash flow vs. collateral-based credit: performance of micro, small and medium-sized firms in transition economies.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cassano, F.; Joeveer, K.; Švejnar, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 21, ?. 2 (2013), s. 269-300. ISSN 0967-0750 R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP402/10/2130 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : micro, small and medium-sized enterprises * bank credit * firm performance Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.755, year: 2013

  13. Using Computer-Based Continuing Professional Education of Training Staff to Develop Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sooraksa, Nanta

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a career development program for staff involved in providing training for small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Thailand. Most of these staff were professional vocational teachers in schools. The program uses information communication technology (ICT), and its main objective is to teach Moodle software as a tool for…

  14. Managing cooperation in supply network structures and small or medium-sized enterprises main criteria and tools for managers

    CERN Document Server

    Villa, Agostino

    2011-01-01

    Offers a simple methodology to networks managers to enable them to evaluate the organisational efficiency and robustness of their network Displays different approaches to the analysis of the organisation of small- or medium-sized enterprises in Europe Enables managers to understand when and why becoming a partner in a cluster can be profitable for their enterprise

  15. The Research on Enterprise Management Innovation --- Based on the Study of Small and Medium Sized Family Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Luo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The small and medium sized family enterprises in China have developed rapidly since the reform and opening up.Numerous facts show that the family management is reasonable and proper in the early development of small and medium-sized family enterprise. However, with the further development of family enterprise, the shortcomings of family management are exposed and have become obstacles which restrict the development of enterprise, as a result, the research and analysis in the management problems of small and medium sized family enterprises has become one of the most important research projects to solve the problem of the sustainable development of family enterprises in China. Based on the above considerations, this article puts forward a "person" as the core, takes concept innovation, strategic innovation, cultural innovation, institutional innovation and organizational innovation as the main content of management innovation idea, and brings forward the correspondingly appropriate countermeasures in solving the existing family management problems in small and medium-sized family enterprises.

  16. Distribution and compartmental organization of GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons in the mouse Nucleus Accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GiuseppeGangarossa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The nucleus accumbens (NAc is a critical brain region involved in many reward-related behaviors. The NAc comprises major compartments the core and the shell, which encompass several subterritories. GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs constitute the output neurons of the NAc core and shell. While the functional organization of the NAc core outputs resembles the one described for the dorsal striatum, a simple classification of the NAc shell neurons has been difficult to define due to the complexity of the compartmental segregation of cells. We used a variety of BAC transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescence (EGFP or the Cre-recombinase (Cre under the control of the promoter of dopamine D1, D2, and D3 receptors and of adenosine A2a receptor to dissect the microanatomy of the NAc. Moreover, using various immunological markers we characterized in detail the distribution of MSNs in the mouse NAc. In addition, cell-type specific ERK phosphorylation in the NAc subterritories was analyzed following acute administration of SKF81297 (a D1R-like agonist, quinpirole (a D2R-like agonist, apomorphine (a non-selective DA receptor agonist, raclopride (a D2R-like antagonist, and psychostimulant drugs, including cocaine and d-amphetamine. Each drug generated a unique topography and cell-type specific activation of ERK in the NAc. Our results show the existence of marked differences in the receptor expression pattern and functional activation of MSNs within the shell subterritories. This study emphasizes the anatomical and functional heterogeneity of the NAc, which will have to be considered in its further study.

  17. THE PREMISES OF STRATEGIC MARKETING PLANNING IMPLEMENTATION WITHIN SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popescu Andrei

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present paper is to identify the framework and the necessary conditions for the small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs to be able to adopt the strategic marketing planning. Also, the paper aims to underline the importance of the strategic marketing planning and the manner in which the SMEs can adopt, implement and operationalize the strategic marketing planning instruments, whose correct understanding and usage ensure the capacity to generate competitive advantage, the key element both from the perspective of the fierce competition and the perspective of the future development of the SMEs. Within SMEs the implementation of marketing becomes an evident requirment, mostly due to the relationship that these have with the market, thus, leading towards market orientation of the activities, a new approach developed by the marketing vision on managing the activities from these types of organizations. Regarded upon, from the marketing perspective, the activities from the SMEs, especially the marketing activities, cannot take place randomly. Resource allocation, a characteristic of these types of organizations, and the objectives with regards to superior customer needs satisfaction and economic efficiency maximization, claim thorough plannification and deployment of the activities in a sequence that represents the implementation of a strategy previously assumed. Within this framework, the strategic marketing planning appears as a complex process employing all scientific instruments that comprise segmentation, positioning and marketing mix. Utilizing the strategic marketing planning within SMEs depends to further extend on marketing integration; process directly related with a series of factors such as the nature of the market, development stage, product type, management quality and the influences of the marketing department of the SME. The implications onto the marketing activities from SMEs are reflected upon each strategic marketing planning instrument, where we can find, under correct understanding and application, objectives and market and penetration strategies as product, price, distribution and promotion strategies.

  18. Analysing a method for small and medium sized companies to rate oil quality during immersion frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraín Hisnardo Rojas Uribe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available  This work studied the deterioration of commercial Frytol oil in controlled frying conditions using the anisidine index (AI as standard evaluation method. The effect of temperature and time was studied at 170°C for up to 10 hours and at 200°C for up to 6 hours in the presence of factors which speeded up oil deterioration: 1% and 8% water based on the mass of oil and non-lipid material, 1% and 6% based on the mass of oil. Air flow rate was kept constant at 25 L h-1. The relationship between AI, colour and viscosity was studied to evaluate the technical viability of measuring these variables as a function of time to be used as a method for rating oil deterioration by small and medium sized enterprises (SME. Oil deterioration was higher and faster at maximum study interval values for each experimental factor, although only the effect of temperature was significant (p2=0.558 and R2=0.526, respectively, colour depending on frying temperature. Viscosity measured at 30°C had the highest coefficient of determination (R2=0.809 and was independent of frying temperature. Viscosity is thus a variable which can be used for determining frying oil deterioration in SME as a consequence of a significant change from 10 cP to 45 cP which is closer to frying oil deterioration limit (AI 156. It can facilitate determination and lower associated costs, thereby improving product quality and customer confidence in them. 

  19. Bioluminescence imaging in a medium-sized animal by local injection of d-luciferin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luciferase is one of the most commonly used reporter enzymes in the field of molecular imaging. D-luciferin is known as the substrate for luciferase enzyme and its cost is very expensive. Therefore, the bioluminescence molecular imaging study has been allowed in small animals such as mice and rats. In this current study, we validated local injection of D-luciferin in articular capsule for bioluminescence imaging in rabbits. Chondrocytes were cultured and infected by replication-defective adenoviral vector encoding firefly luciferase. And then was performed different method of chondrocyte cell injection and transplantation into the knee of rabbits. The rabbits underwent imaging by cooled CCD camera after local injection of D-luciferin (3mg) into experimental knee joint as well as contralateral normal knee joint on days 1, 5, 7, 9. We sought whether optimal imaging signal was acquired by using cooled CCD camera after local injection of D-luciferin. We successfully visualized injected or transplanted cells in knee joint by local injection of D-luciferin. Total photon flux (7.86E+08 p/s/cm2/sr) from the knee joint transplanted with cells approximately increased 10-fold more than (9.43E+07p/s/cm2/sr) that from injected knee joints until 7 day. Imaging signal was observed in transplanted joints until day 9 after surgery while signal from injected knee was observed by day 7 after injection. We successfully carried out bioluminescence imaging study with ed out bioluminescence imaging study with medium sized animal by local injection of small amount of D-luciferin. Survival of chondrocytes were prolonged when surgically transplanted in joints than when directly injected in joint space

  20. Life cycle assessment of a medium sized PV facility in Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier University's School of Engineering has been involved in education and research in renewable energy for the past 35 years. With the aim demonstration of the viability of production of solar electricity at a high latitude location such as Edinburgh (56 degree north)the school undertook to commission a medium-sized PV electricity generation project. The installation of 32 rows of BP solar silicon panels covering a total area of 160 square metres ensures generation of 17.6kW peak (AC) power. Figure 1 presents a photograph of the facility under discussion. The project has been part (60%) financed by UK Government's PV electricity demonstration programme through the office of Energy Saving Trust. The University has plans to generate hydrogen from solar electricity that will be stored for noctumal production of electricity using fuel-cell technology, thus completing the complete cycle of generation, storage and reproduction of sustainable energy. The project that is part of Napier University's Merchiton Campus was completed on 6 April 2005 and since that date AC power has been fed into the University grid with the peak power being enough to operate up to 80 of the 500 computers at the University's Jack Kilby Computing Centre. DC power is produced from the BP solar high efficincy (17%) monocrystalline panels, each of which produces 90W of power at 22 Volts. This DC electricity is then fed into a total of four inverters hence converting to a stable AC supply. Two of thenverting to a stable AC supply. Two of the larger inverters receive current from 12 rows (4 strings x 3 rows) each, while the smaller inverters take power in from 4 rows (2 strings x 2 rows) each. The PV facility is fully instrumented with both input (incident solar energy) and PV electrical energy output recorded at a frequency of 15 minutes. This article will present the energetic, environmental and monetary life cycle assessment (LCA) of the above facility.(Author)

  1. Deciphering the presence of wastewater in a medium-sized Mediterranean catchment using a multitracer approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of wastewater disposal on the water resource in a medium-sized Mediterranean watershed, the Herault River basin, has been studied using a multitracer approach including NO3-,Cl-,B concentrations and the Gd anomaly. The Herault watershed supplies drinking water to approximately 300,000 inhabitants and receives the effluents of 96 sewage treatment plants. The geological context is heterogeneous with 4 main lithologies: a Palaeozoic basement in the north, a karstified Mesozoic cover in the middle, an evaporite layer in the western part of the basin and alluvial deposits in the southern plain. The concentration of major (Ca2+,Cl-,NO3-) and trace elements (B, Sr and rare earth elements) has been monitored in streams, aquifers and sewage treatment plant effluents. Because of the particularly heterogeneous and rich geological context of the Herault basin, the challenge of using NO3-,Cl-andB as wastewater tracers was to distinguish their natural and anthropogenic origins. Indeed, none of these wastewater borne elements can be considered as a highly reliable tracer by itself because they are ubiquitous in water where they can be supplied by both natural (evaporite dissolution, rainfall) and anthropogenic sources (wastewater or agriculture). However, the respective contributions of different sources of candidate tracers, NO3-,Cl-3-,Cl-andB could be roughly assessed using Sr/Ca, B/Sr and Cl-/B ratios which, combined with the information provided by each tracer, allowed the ascertainment of the presence of wastewater in two tributaries of the Herault River and in a few wells tapped for drinking water in the alluvial plain

  2. Innovation in Food and Health: Study Into Challenges and Opportunities for Dutch Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joop Vree-van Straten

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the opportunities and challenges Dutch Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SMEs in the food and beverage industry are facing with respect to innovation in food and health. An online questionnaire was developed to give an overview on attitudes and activities of SMEs with respect to innovation; their interest in trends, among which were health and wellbeing; and their view on logos as a possible way of communication. The questionnaire was held May 2011 with a response of n = 110. Results show that innovation is important for SMEs: over 80% of the SMEs are innovating in products and over 60% in processes. The most appealing trends are: Health and wellbeing, ‘Puur en Eerlijk’ (Note 1 and sustainability. Of the SMEs 70-80% indicate to have a current, and 85% a future interest in these trends. Furthermore 43% used the health logo on part of their product portfolio. Logos that communicate health and sustainability are most popular; 23% of the SMEs indicated not to be interested in the use of logos in general. In conclusion, the identified opportunities for innovation in food and health are: a large willingness to innovate and the increasing interest in the already appealing trend of nutrition and health. There is a moderate interest in (health logos. Challenges are time, costs, knowledge on innovation in general and lack of specific knowledge on nutrition and health, and unclarities around use and added value (informative and increasing sales of logos. Also, taste is considered as important as health and cannot be compromised.

  3. A passive DOAS instrument for trace gas measurements on medium sized UAS: Instrumental design and first measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horbanski, Martin; Pöhler, Denis; Mahr, Tobias; Wagner, Thomas; Keleshis, Christos; Ioannou, Stelios; Lange, Manfred A.; Lelieveld, Jos; Platt, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are a new powerful tool for observations in the atmospheric boundary layer. Recent developments in measuring technology allow the construction of compact and sensitive active and passive DOAS instruments which can fit the space and weight constraints on UAS. This opens new possibilities for trace gas measurements in the lower troposphere, especially in areas which are not accessible to manned aviation e.g. volcanic plumes or which should be monitored regularly (e.g. industrial emissions of a stack). We present a new developed passive DOAS instrument for the APAESO Platform of the Cyprus Institute, a medium size UAS. It is equipped with two telescopes for observations in downward (nadir) and horizontal (limb) viewing direction, respectively. Thus it allows determining height profiles and the horizontal distribution of trace gases. This is accomplished by analyzing the radiation collected by the telescopes with compact spectrometers, which cover the UV-blue spectral range allowing to measure a broad variety of atmospheric trace gases (e.g. NO2, SO2, BrO, IO, H2O ...) as well as aerosol properties via O4 absorption. Additionally, the nadir direction is equipped with a VIS-NIR spectrometer. It is used to measure reflection spectra of different types of vegetation. These will serve as references for satellite measurements to create global maps. First measurements on the APAESO platform were performed in October 2012 on Cyprus in a rural area south of Nicosia. The instrument is shown to work reliably and was able to detect NO2, H2O and O4 at atmospheric column densities. The instrumental design and first measurements will be presented and discussed.

  4. Optimization as investment decision support in a Swedish medium-sized iron foundry - A move beyond traditional energy auditing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to increased globalisation, industries are facing greater competition that is pressing companies into decreasing their expenses in order to increase their profits. As regards Swedish industry, it has been faced with substantial increases in energy prices in recent years. Barriers to energy efficiency such as imperfect information inhibit investments in energy efficiency measures, energy audits being one means of reducing barriers and overcoming imperfect information. However, an evaluation of such energy audits in Sweden reveals that it is chiefly low-cost measures that are undertaken as a result of an audit. Moreover, these audits often tend to focus on support processes such as ventilation, lighting, air compressors etc., while measures impacting production processes are often not as extensively covered, which underlines the need for further support in addition to energy audits. Decision support is practised in a variety of different disciplines such as optimization and simulation and the aim of this paper is to explore whether investment decision support practices may be used successfully towards small and medium-sized manufacturers in Sweden when complex production-related investment decisions are taken. The optimization results from the different cases, involving a foundry's investment in a new melting unit, indicate that with no electricity price fluctuations over the day, the investment seems sound as it lowers the overall energy costs. However, with fluctuoverall energy costs. However, with fluctuating electricity prices, there are no large differences in energy costs between the option of retaining the existing five melting furnaces at the foundry and investing in a twin furnace and removing the holding furnaces - which was the initial investment plan for the foundry in the study. It would not have been possible to achieve this outcome without the use of investment decision support such as MIND. One of the main conclusions in this paper is that investment decision support, when strategic investment decisions are to be taken, may be a means of emphasising energy efficiency for energy-intensive SMEs beyond the level of traditional energy auditing

  5. Optimization as investment decision support in a Swedish medium-sized iron foundry - A move beyond traditional energy auditing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to increased globalisation, industries are facing greater competition that is pressing companies into decreasing their expenses in order to increase their profits. As regards Swedish industry, it has been faced with substantial increases in energy prices in recent years. Barriers to energy efficiency such as imperfect information inhibit investments in energy efficiency measures, energy audits being one means of reducing barriers and overcoming imperfect information. However, an evaluation of such energy audits in Sweden reveals that it is chiefly low-cost measures that are undertaken as a result of an audit. Moreover, these audits often tend to focus on support processes such as ventilation, lighting, air compressors etc., while measures impacting production processes are often not as extensively covered, which underlines the need for further support in addition to energy audits. Decision support is practised in a variety of different disciplines such as optimization and simulation and the aim of this paper is to explore whether investment decision support practices may be used successfully towards small and medium-sized manufacturers in Sweden when complex production-related investment decisions are taken. The optimization results from the different cases, involving a foundry's investment in a new melting unit, indicate that with no electricity price fluctuations over the day, the investment seems sound as it lowers the overall energy costs. However, with fluctuoverall energy costs. However, with fluctuating electricity prices, there are no large differences in energy costs between the option of retaining the existing five melting furnaces at the foundry and investing in a twin furnace and removing the holding furnaces - which was the initial investment plan for the foundry in the study. It would not have been possible to achieve this outcome without the use of investment decision support such as MIND. One of the main conclusions in this paper is that investment decision support, when strategic investment decisions are to be taken, may be a means of emphasising energy efficiency for energy-intensive SMEs beyond the level of traditional energy auditing. (author)

  6. Particle size, size distribution and morphological evaluation of glass fiber reinforced plastic (GRP) industrial by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoli, Alida; Moriconi, Giacomo

    2014-12-01

    The waste management of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GRP) materials, in particular those made with thermosetting resins, is a critical issue for the composites industry because these materials cannot be reprocessed. Therefore, most thermosetting GRP waste is presently sent to landfill, in spite of the significant environmental impact caused by their disposal in this way. The limited GRP waste recycling worldwide is mostly due to its intrinsic thermosetting properties, lack of characterization data and unavailability of viable recycling and recovery routes. One of the possibility for re-using GRP industrial by-product is in form of powder as a partial aggregate replacement or filler addition in cement based composites for applications in sustainable construction materials and technologies. However, the feasibility of this kind of reutilization strongly depends on the morphology and particle size distribution of a powder made up of polymer granules and glass fibers. In the present study, the use of image analysis method, based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ImageJ processing program, is proposed in order to evaluate the morphology of the particles and measure the particle size and size distribution of fine GRP waste powder. The obtained results show a great potential of such a method in order to be considered as a standardized method of measurement and analysis in order to characterize the grain size and size distribution of GRP particles before exploiting any compatibility issue for its recycling management. PMID:25195092

  7. Effective Factors in Green Supply Chain Management and Natural Environment Developed in Iran Tourism Industry:The Case of Small and Medium Tour Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Gilaninia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourism for all citizens of the world and the vital is to provide sustainable employment. In this regard, most attention of governments and their management resources to the tourism and pristine natural environment or green has been focused on other aspects of the industry, although also Country managers see gone away, but to protect and maintain environmental capacity most important challenges the countries in this field covers. Although the structure of the tourism sector crumbled a key challenge in order to reach a consensus on coherent development theory sustainability left is involved. But evidence from theoretical studies indicate that supply chain strategies as a logical time for nature online tourism industry in all its dimensions seem appropriate, limited debate in tourism research related to the acceptance there. Present paper advance knowledge of how sustainable tourism can be more public acceptance in practice of supply chain management in the tourism environment (ESCMT by medium and small brokers in small and medium-sized tour operating in Iran deals. The results show that in the absence of regulatory pressures and cost savings, acceptance (ESCMT in small and medium tourist enterprises will be very effective. Result of research for government executives and managers tourism agencies appropriate guidelines to be drawn.

  8. The power of Alberta business : the impact of electricity deregulation on Alberta small and medium-sized business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deregulation of the electricity market came into effect on January 1, 2001 in Alberta. This deregulation affects the retail and generation fields of electricity. The intention was to introduce competition and apply downward pressure on electricity prices, but the reverse effect was witnessed: power prices increased. It resulted in a period of anxiety on the part of businesses, caused by the volatility of electricity prices. A survey of Canadian Federation of Independent Business (CFIB) members was conducted in May and June 2001 to better understand the impacts of electricity deregulation on small and medium-sized businesses. A broad range of businesses provided responses (951 responses) covering all sectors of industry and regions in Alberta. A large proportion of respondents were dissatisfied with deregulation, caused in part by the confusion created by the flurry of rebate and credit announcements designed to ease the transition. Small firms were faced with significant increases in electricity prices, and several could not estimate the size of the increase as it was too difficult to measure. Responses varied from a low of 5 per cent increase to a high of 400 per cent in power rates. Most respondents also indicated that the increases had an impact on their business. The impact of power rate increases by sector was examined. Another consequence of deregulation was the fact that billing moved from a single invoice received to the requirement to actively manage energy uhe requirement to actively manage energy usage. It was discovered that a lack of information on electricity cost and consumption management impeded the the ability to make business decisions. The CFIB asked respondents to indicate the measures being considered to address management of electricity costs. Incorporating energy-saving devices and/or methods had been considered by slightly more than 40 per cent of respondents. Negotiating with power retailers represented another option under consideration by some. It was felt that government must still play an important role in the electricity business. The recommendations touched on the stimulation of retail competition, providing transitional/long-term price relief, and provide businesses with adequate information. 15 figs

  9. NEW APPROACHES TO CUSTOMER BASE SEGMENTATION FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meleancă Raluca-Cristina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this paper is to explore current praxis and theory related to customer segmentation and to offer an approach which is best suited for small and medium sized enterprises. The proposed solution is the result of an exploratory research aiming to recognize the main variables which influence the practice of segmenting the customer base and to study the most applied alternatives available for all types of enterprises. The research has been performed by studying a large set of secondary data, scientific literature and case studies regarding smaller companies from the European Union. The result of the research consists in an original approach to customer base segmentation, which combines aspects belonging to different well spread practices and applies them to the specific needs of a small or medium company, which typically has limited marketing resources in general and targeted marketing resources in particular. The significance of the proposed customer base segmentation approach lies in the fact that, even though smaller enterprises are in most economies the greatest in number compared to large companies, most of the literature on targeting practices has focused primarily on big companies dealing with a very large clientele, while the case of the smaller companies has been to some extent unfairly neglected. Targeted marketing is becoming more and more important for all types of companies nowadays, as a result of technology advances which make targeted communication easier and less expensive than in the past and also due to the fact that broad-based media have decreased their impact over the years. For a very large proportion of smaller companies, directing their marketing budgets towards targeted campaigns is a clever initiative, as broad based approaches are in many cases less effective and much more expensive. Targeted marketing stratagems are generally related to high tech domains such as artificial intelligence, data mining and marketing analytics and presuppose the availability of sophisticated computer software and specialized personnel. The methodology proposed in this paper takes into consideration the fact that, due to financial and time-related constrains, smaller companies need a more practical and straightforward solution for segmenting their customer base. The simplicity of the solution, however, should not come at the expense of its efficiency. The original contribution of this paper resides precisely in the fact that it aims to offer the best of two worlds: the simplicity and cost-effectiveness of plain methods which can be used without the aid of specialized software and the high return on investment given by the use of artificial intelligence algorithms such as clustering. The main implications of this paper relate to the fact that it draws attention to how targeted marketing can be performed successfully by companies with restricted budgets by providing an actionable set of guidelines which can be put into practice by smaller enterprises using limited efforts and resources.

  10. SWR 1000: An Advanced, Medium-Sized Boiling Water Reactor, Ready for Deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The latest developments in nuclear power generation technology mainly concern large-capacity plants in the 1550 -1600 MW range, or very small plants (100 - 350 MW). The SWR 1000 boiling water reactor (BWR), by contrast, offers all of the advantages of an advanced plant design, with excellent safety performance and competitive power generation costs, in the medium-capacity range (1000 - 1250 MW). The SWR 1000 is particularly suitable for countries whose power systems are not designed for large-capacity generating facilities. The economic efficiency of this medium-sized plant in comparison with large-capacity designs is achieved by deploying very simple passive safety equipment, simplified systems for plant operation, and a very simple plant configuration in which systems engineering is optimized and dependence on electrical and instrumentation and control (I and C) systems is reduced. In addition, systems and components that require protection against natural and external man-made hazards are accommodated in such a way that as few buildings as possible have to be designed to withstand the loads from such events. The fuel assemblies to be deployed in the SWR 1000 core, meanwhile, have been enlarged from a 10 x 10 rod array to a 12 x 12 array. This reduces the total number of fuel assemblies in the core and thus also the number of control rods and control rod drives, as well as in-core neutron flux monitors. The design owes its competitiveness to the fact that investmentompetitiveness to the fact that investment costs, maintenance costs and fuel cycle costs are all lower. In addition, refueling outages are shorter, thanks to the reduced scope of outage activities. The larger fuel assemblies have been extensively and successfully tested, as have all of the other new components and systems incorporated into the plant design. As in existing plants, the forced coolant circulation method is deployed, ensuring problem-free startup, and enabling plant operators to adjust power rapidly in the high power range (70%-100%) without moving the control rods, as well as allowing spectral-shift and stretch-out operation. The considerable gains provided by forced coolant circulation in terms of operational flexibility and fuel utilization mean that the investment and maintenance costs of the pumps are covered after several years of service. The plant safety concept is based on a combination of passive safety systems and a reduced number of active safety systems. All postulated accidents can be controlled using passive systems alone. Control of a postulated core melt accident is assured with considerable safety margins thanks to passive flooding of the containment for in-vessel melt retention. The SWR 1000 is compliant with international nuclear codes and standards, and is also designed to withstand the effects of an aircraft crash involving a military aircraft or a large passenger airliner. (authors)

  11. The Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises Office (SME Office) at the European Medicines Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, M

    2010-01-01

    On 15 December 2005, the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) launched an "SME Office" to provide financial and administrative assistance to micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), with the aim of promoting innovation and the development of new human and veterinary medicinal products by SMEs. According to current EU definition of an SME, companies with fewer than 250 employees, and an annual turnover of not more than 50 million euro or an annual balance sheet total of not more than 43 million euro, are eligible for assistance from the SME Office. Incentives available from the EMEA for SMEs, include: Administrative and procedural assistance from SME Office within the Agency; Fee reductions (90%) for scientific advice and inspections; Fee exemptions for certain administrative services (excluding parallel distribution); Deferral of the fee payable for an application for marketing authorisation or related inspection until after the grant of the marketing authorisation; Conditional fee exemption where scientific advice followed and marketing application is unsuccessful; Assistance with translations of the product information documents. At the end of May 2009, more than 380 companies from 21 countries across the European Economic Area (EEA) had SME status assigned by the EMEA. The large majority of companies are developing medicinal products for human use, 16 are veterinary companies, 15 companies are developing products for both human and veterinary use and 38 are regulatory consultants. Since the SME initiative started the Agency has processed more than 130 requests for scientific advice with fee reductions totalling of 6.9 million euro. Regulatory assistance has been provided to more than 170 companies and 12 companies have benefited from the SME translation service. Stakeholders have acknowledged the significant role the SME Office now plays as a service provider. In the period between January 2006 and June 2009, 34 applications for marketing authorization from SME applicants were filed for medicinal products for human use. Current analysis shows SMEs to have a lower success rate compared to non-SME companies. Major objections for SMEs are particularly high in the area of quality. Although the SME initiative is still at an early stage, it is apparent from the experience gained with applications for marketing authorisation to date that it is important for companies to open up an early dialogue with the EMEA. Scientific advice should be sought early, proactively and comprehensively on key issues in development (quality, non-clinical, clinical) and follow-up advice should be sought as development proceeds. For advanced therapy medicinal products, the assistance available to SMEs will be reinforced in 2009, with the introduction of the certification process. PMID:20101799

  12. An Innovative Farm Scale Biogas/Composting Facility for a Sustainable Medium Size Dairy Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel E. Ghaly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Approach: The amount of energy related costs as a portion of the total farm operating cost can be as high as 29% and the continuing increase of the real cost of energy related farm input has been one of the major factors impacting the cost of agricultural production. However, agricultural has the potential of replacing some of the purchased energy in the form of fossil fuels, commercial fertilizer and field production of animal feed with bioenergy and organic fertilizer from onsite renewable biomass such as animal manure in order to economically and environmentally sustain it. The aim of this study was to develop an innovative energy efficient pilot scale anaerobic digester composting facility. Methodology: A solid/liquid manure separator farm scale anaerobic digester and composting facility for a medium sized dairy farm were designed, constructed and tested. In order to make the anaerobic digestion economically viable under Canadian climatic conditions, the design, installation and operation of the system were based on advantages gained from the digester as a component of the total farm management system. In addition to the biogas production, benefits related to manure handling and storage, environmental quality improvement through odor control and water pollution reduction, fertilizer recovery and water recycling, were considered. Results: The layout of the farm was modified to provide solutions for four environmental problems related to: disposal of milkhouse wastes and overflow from the manure storage facility into the fire pond. The system possesses high energy conversion efficiency at relatively low capital cost and reduced labour requirement and has indirect energy ramifications through the production of organic fertilizer (compost to replace expensive and energy consuming commercial fertilizer as well as the production of bioenergy (biogas which will reduce the demand for energy. The overflow from the system (purified water can be recycled for cleaning the barn, thereby reducing the costs of water use and manure storage facilities on one hand and eliminating pollution problems associated with manure storage and disposal on the other hand. Conclusion: The use of dairy waste as a source of energy and fertilizer resulted in a saving of 6289 kg of fertilizer at a cost of $17 925 annually and additional saving of $20 547 on energy use.

  13. Knowledge Management Acceptance: Success Factors amongst Small and Medium-Size Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine N.L.  TAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The value and importance of knowledge, as seen by numerous organisations today, does without a doubt play a crucial role in the current ever-challenging and aggressive business environment. As a result, businesses that aspire to be labelled as being successful and competitive need to seek and find better ways to improve their firms? performance. Hence, Knowledge Management (KM, which is viewed as a source of sustainable competitive advantage, has attracted the attention of various companies all over the business world, including Small and Medium-Size Enterprises (SMEs in Malaysia. With the realisation of KM, the systematic management of organisation knowledge - a strategic corporate asset not to be taken lightly; can thus be created, transferred, shared and, utilised, in pushing for greater organisational competitiveness, innovativeness and, productivity. This research examined the success factors that help to increase the business performance of SMEs in Malaysia. Besides, it also highlighted the importance and contribution of KM amongst SMEs. Therefore, the reason behind this study is to understand and recognised the acceptance of KM and therefore further classified the success factors that contributed to the business performance outcome amongst SMEs in Malaysia. With this, the success factors observed in this research; culture; leadership; employee participation; Information and Communications Technology (ICT; organisational structure; are thoroughly investigated to explore on whether these factors have an impact on knowledge creation; knowledge transfer; knowledge sharing and knowledge utilisation; of KM processes among SMEs in Malaysia. Approach: This study aids to determined and examined the success factors; culture; leadership; employee participation; Information and Communications Technology (ICT; organisational structure; of SMEs that further influences KM processes; knowledge creation, transfer, sharing, utilisation. Results: It is hoped that SMEs with the help of this study, are able apply the success factors and KM processes as a guideline in achieving successful KM acceptance. It is anticipated that the factors proposed in this study could help businesses especially SMEs to better organise their KM initiatives, as well as to assists Malaysia in producing a superior and highly acclaimed knowledgeable society. Conclusion: The findings may be used as recommendations to SMEs that are keen in accepting and adopting KM in their daily operations. Furthermore, this study may also serve as a basis for future quantitative research studies among researchers, practitioners and professionals alike, in gaining a profound understanding of KM in sectors other than SMEs.

  14. Application of Medium Pressure UV Lamp for Wastewater Disinfection of Milk Production Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kamani

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available UV disinfect ion has gained widespread use for municipal wastewater and more recently, interest in using UV for water reuse applications has increased too. Medium pressure lamp has emerged as a viable alternative and is beginning to gain more popularity than the conventional low-pressure lamps. This study has been performed with the objective of utilizing MP lamp for the disinfection stage of wastewater from a milk industry. The lab-scale UV submerged system used in the experiments was a single-lamp reactor with 3 L volume, which was operated at two contact times. Two MP lamps of 300 and 400 W had been used separately. Results indicated that for disinfection of all the samples with different %T, meeting the goal of 1000 MPN /100 mL or less was always possible. Besides, for 95% of these samples, the MPN of irradiated effluents had reached to less than 240/100 mL. Another conclusion is that by use of 400 W lamp, all the samples are well disinfected to 100 total coli forms or less per 100 mL and so are become ready for most applications of water reuse programs.

  15. Using Medium Resolution Earth Observation Data to Monitor Sensitive Industrial Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraete, M. M.; Hunt, L. A.; Gonçalves, J.

    2008-12-01

    Space-borne Earth Observation (EO) techniques have been used for decades to monitor climate and environmental processes, but the application of these tools to quantitatively characterize sensitive industrial complexes and especially to monitor safety - or security - related sites is still in its infancy. Photo- interpretation of very high spatial resolution imagery (from 1 to 10 m sampling frequency) for specific, pre- defined sites by specially-trained operators remains the main (or only) approach so far. This paper shows that medium resolution EO sensors (spatial sampling of the order of 250 m) and modern physically-based techniques of data analysis may prove complementary to these traditional techniques, as the radiometric, spatial, temporal, spectral and directional signatures of targets of interest can help characterize their nature, properties and structure, and differentiate them from ambient background. The re-processing of existing archives will be shown to be useful for the documentation of events, and possibly processes, that have remained hitherto unknown. The preliminary results that will be presented concern the construction time-line of an alleged (undeclared) nuclear facility. Comparing the performance of the MISR and MODIS sensors that implement quite different technologies leads to suggestions concerning the specifications of future EO sensors.

  16. Potential role of the Romanian research and industry on the small and medium reactors market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need of diversifying the energy sources, independence from foreign supplies and modernization of economy have constituted the major factors in implementation of nuclear energy in Romania. The choice of the heavy water reactor CANDU-600 was made on grounds of advanced safety features, proven efficient economic operation as well as on the technologic feasibility for manufacturing of components, equipment, instrumentation, heavy water and natural uranium fuel in Romania. Unlike turn-key acquisition approaches, the Romanian option provided an active national participation in construction the Cernavoda NPP. As consequence, important support was being given to development of the industries involved in the nuclear fuel cycle, manufacturing of equipment and nuclear materials, construction-montage, engineering, consulting, services, etc. This was done based on technology transfer, implementation of advanced design and execution standards, quality assurance procedures and modern nuclear safety requirements at international level. The efforts materialized in an important national participation in the construction of the Cernavoda NPP and all related programs are successful. Now, Romanian firms are also involved in supplying components, equipment and services to NPP's in other eastern and central Europeans countries. The paper presents the achievements of the Romanian economy in this field and the effort of the Romanian companies on the small and medium power reactors market. Lists with main R and D institutes, nuclear fuel cycle facilities as well as potential equipment suppliers are attached. (author)

  17. Ventilation in medium-sized and large boiler houses; Ventilation i medelstora och stoerre pannhus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grotherus, Dan [AaF Installation AB, Oerebro (Sweden); Larsson, Tord [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Technology

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to exemplify and clarify the need for ventilation in medium-sized and large boiler houses. We will furthermore present some recommendations, guidelines and advice for the design and construction of a boiler house ventilation system to the plant owners and suppliers of equipment. Boiler house ventilation can be performed in different ways using mechanical or natural ventilation. The solution to be chosen depends on the following factors: Working environment requirements and a necessity to control temperature and pressure in the boiler house; The design of the boiler plant and house; The need for combustion air; The investment expenditure as well as operation and maintenance costs. Mechanical ventilation should be chosen if the aim is a controllable 'climate'. The mechanical ventilation can be either centrally situated or distributed with many aggregates in the boiler house. Centrally situated ventilation equipment will give a higher accessibility and lower maintenance costs than a distributed ventilation system. If the boiler house is designed with natural ventilation the air and flue gas fans will be the only ones installed. In this case temperature and pressure inside the boiler house will be difficult to control. The design factor for the ventilation plant in a boiler house is in most cases the demand to cool the air inside the boiler house to approximately 45 deg C. This is the highest temperature allowed by the Occupational Safety and Health Act in a work environment where the boiler operator is working alone. The air flow which is required for the combustion is normally less than the air flow needed to cool the air in the boiler house. The supply air which is cooling the air inside the boiler house should be supplied on several different levels to attain an efficient cooling. If the combustion air is taken from the heated indoor air the boiler house will work as a heat reclaimer. The difference between outdoor and indoor pressure in the lower part of the boiler house should not exceed approximately 40 Pa. This is to minimize problems with inleaking of odours and particles into the boiler house and to facilitate the evacuation of the staff from the boiler house. Issues concerning boiler house ventilation will appear in different stages at new construction and conversion projects. During the feasibility study the ventilation requirements are investigated and possible solutions are outlined. The planning stage involves the establishing of the ventilation requirements, technical solutions and the investment needs. Investment expenditure for the installation of a mechanized ventilation system varies depending on the size of the boiler, the choice of ventilation solution etc. Experiences from three recently built plants show that capital expenditure for the ventilation systems in these plants amounts to approximately SEK 140,000/MW (about 18,000 USD/MW) for a boiler effect of approximately 50 MW.

  18. Small, medium, large or supersize? The development and evaluation of interventions targeted at portion size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, W M; Steenhuis, I H M; Poelman, M P

    2014-07-01

    In the past decades, portion sizes of high-caloric foods and drinks have increased and can be considered an important environmental obesogenic factor. This paper describes a research project in which the feasibility and effectiveness of environmental interventions targeted at portion size was evaluated. The studies that we conducted revealed that portion size labeling, offering a larger variety of portion sizes, and proportional pricing (that is, a comparable price per unit regardless of the size) were considered feasible to implement according to both consumers and point-of-purchase representatives. Studies into the effectiveness of these interventions demonstrated that the impact of portion size labeling on the (intended) consumption of soft drinks was, at most, modest. Furthermore, the introduction of smaller portion sizes of hot meals in worksite cafeterias in addition to the existing size stimulated a moderate number of consumers to replace their large meals by a small meal. Elaborating on these findings, we advocate further research into communication and marketing strategies related to portion size interventions; the development of environmental portion size interventions as well as educational interventions that improve people's ability to deal with a 'super-sized' environment; the implementation of regulation with respect to portion size labeling, and the use of nudges to stimulate consumers to select healthier portion sizes. PMID:25033959

  19. Optimal Sizing of Battery Storage Systems for Industrial Applications when Uncertainties Exist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Carpinelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Demand response (DR can be very useful for an industrial facility, since it allows noticeable reductions in the electricity bill due to the significant value of energy demand. Although most industrial processes have stringent constraints in terms of hourly active power, DR only becomes attractive when performed with the contemporaneous use of battery energy storage systems (BESSs. When this option is used, an optimal sizing of BESSs is desirable, because the investment costs can be significant. This paper deals with the optimal sizing of a BESS installed in an industrial facility to reduce electricity costs. A four-step procedure, based on Decision Theory, was used to obtain a good solution for the sizing problem, even when facing uncertainties; in fact, we think that the sizing procedure must properly take into account the unavoidable uncertainties introduced by the cost of electricity and the load demands of industrial facilities. Three approaches provided by Decision Theory were applied, and they were based on: (1 the minimization of expected cost; (2 the regret felt by the sizing engineer; and (3 a mix of (1 and (2. The numerical applications performed on an actual industrial facility provided evidence of the effectiveness of the proposed procedure.

  20. Are the determinants of markup size industry-specific? The case of Slovenian manufacturing firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponikvar Nina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify factors that affect the pricing policy in Slovenian manufacturing firms in terms of the markup size and, most of all, to explicitly account for the possibility of differences in pricing procedures among manufacturing industries. Accordingly, the analysis of the dynamic panel is carried out on an industry-by-industry basis, allowing the coefficients on the markup determinants to vary across industries. We find that the oligopoly theory of markup determination for the most part holds for the manufacturing sector as a whole, although large variability in markup determinants exists across industries within the Slovenian manufacturing. Our main conclusion is that each industry should be investigated separately in detail in order to assess the precise role of markup factors in the markup-determination process.

  1. How medium-size resurgent calderas work: the case of Pantelleria, Ischia and the unrest Campi Flegrei structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, Giovanni; Civetta, Lucia; Arienzo, Ilenia; Carandente, Antonio; D'Antonio, Massimo; de Vita, Sandro; di Renzo, Valeria; di Vito, Mauro; Marotta, Enrica; Belviso, Pasquale

    2010-05-01

    Assessment of time and space relationships among magmatism, volcanism, and resurgence of medium-size calderas is a necessary tool to formulate a general model for their dynamics which also permits to forecast their evolution. To define a general hypothesis for the Campi Flegrei caldera, in a persistent state of unrest, the Ischia and Pantelleria medium-size resurgent structures, in variable stages of evolution, have been investigated. In particular some parameters such as the structural and volcanological evolution, with emphasis on resurgence dynamics and coeval volcanism, and the evolution, present state and role of the magmatic system in resurgence, have been defined. For the Campi Flegrei caldera, the data collected during unrest episodes have also been taken into account. This innovative approach adds a time-perspective on how resurgent calderas behave. The proposed general hypothesis will help in long- and short-term volcanic hazards assessment and will support Civil Defence Authorities in elaborating actions devoted to volcanic risk reduction.

  2. 78 FR 66950 - Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ...Investigation No. 332-541] Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-Sized...prepare a report that catalogs trade barriers that U.S. small and medium-sized...transatlantic trade and to address trade barriers that may disproportionately...

  3. 78 FR 51746 - Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ...Investigation No. 332-541] Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-sized...hearing in Inv. No. 332-541, Trade Barriers that U.S. Small and Medium-sized...prepare a report that catalogs trade barriers that U.S. small and...

  4. What can companies do to support HIV-positive workers? Recommendations for medium- and large-sized African workplaces

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Kerry; Campbell, Catherine; Skovdal, Morten; Madanhire, Claudius; Nyamukapa, Constance; Gregson, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose : To provide recommendations for medium and large sized workplaces on how to supportHIV-positive employees. Supporting HIV-positive workers is an issue of social responsibility and aneconomic necessity for employers. HIV-positive workers can remain productive and healthy formany years if able to access appropriate HIV management support. Approach : Recent (2000 - 2010) academic and grey literature on HIV workplace management wasreviewed and a qualitative study of nine workers receivin...

  5. SUCCESS EVALUATION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES IN TERMS OF THEIR PARTICIPATION IN THE INTERNATIONALIZATION PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Lea, Kubi?c?kova?; Lenka, Procha?zkova?

    2012-01-01

    In context of discussionsabout the Czech foreign trade development, questions of the Czech enterprises’ability to participate in the internationalization processare often considered. The main aim of this article is to present various points of view on the globalization and enterprise internationalization processwith a special accent on the analysis of the specifics in the internationalization process of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Those enterprises represent a significant pa...

  6. Evaluation of the COSHH Essentials Model with a Mixture of Organic Chemicals at a Medium-Sized Paint Producer

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eun Gyung; Slaven, James; Bowen, Russell B.; Harper, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Essentials model was evaluated using full-shift exposure measurements of five chemical components in a mixture [acetone, ethylbenzene, methyl ethyl ketone, toluene, and xylenes] at a medium-sized plant producing paint materials. Two tasks, batch-making and bucket-washing, were examined. Varying levels of control were already established in both tasks and the average exposures of individual chemicals were considerably lower than the regulat...

  7. An investigation into the suitability of younger generation successors in small and medium-sized family businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Merwe, Stephanus Petrus

    2011-01-01

    This study highlighted the importance of the suitability of the younger generation family members in small and medium-sized family businesses to successfully manage the business after management succession. Data from 270 questionnaires linked to 77 family businesses were collected and analysed. An Oblimin oblique rotation was performed on the principal components of the exploratory factor analysis. Five factors with eigen-values greater than one, explaining 65,78% of the variance, were extrac...

  8. Internationalisation of small and medium-sized firms : the role of the host country?s institutional context

    OpenAIRE

    Eiche, Julia

    2010-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis is to contribute to a deeper understanding of the way that institutions impact the internationalisation of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). To address this aim I examine different aspects of SME internationalisation decisions. Based on empirical methods, I analyse two different datasets regarding an SME?s entry mode choice, its establishment mode choice, its location choice and its entry timing. The thesis comprises six chapters. Chapter 1 introd...

  9. Investigation and Assessment of Critical Success Factors of Knowledge Management Implementation in Iranian Small-to-Medium Sized Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Changiz Valmohammadi

    2010-01-01

    Based on an in-depth review and comparative study of existing studies on Critical Success Factors (CSFs) of Knowledge Management (KM) and by considering the characteristics of small to medium sized enterprises (SMEs), twelve CSFs were identified, namely management leadership and support, organizational culture, information systems, KM strategy, performance measurement, organizational infrastructure, processes and activities, rewarding and motivation, training and education, removal of resourc...

  10. Quantum chemical study of the electronic properties of an Iridium-based photosensitizer bound to medium-sized silver clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Bokareva, Olga S.; Ku?hn, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The equilibrium structures and electronic excitation spectra of the Ir(III) photosensitizer Ir(ppy)$_2$(bpy)]$^+$ bound to medium-sized silver clusters Ag$_n$ ($n=$19, 20) are investigated using time-dependent density functional theory. The long-range corrected LC-BLYP approach is used with a system-specific range separation parameter. The weak physisorption of the hybrid complexes yield only small changes in the broadened absorption spectra of the hybrid system as compared ...

  11. Collaborative e-Business Process Modelling: A Holistic Analysis Framework focused on Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Volker Hoyer; Oliver Christ

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we propose a holistic analysis framework for collaborative e-Business process modelling approaches that takes into account the specific challenges small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) are facing with regard to modelling inter-organizational processes. Based on concepts of the management approach Balanced Scorecard (BSC) four different perspectives are derived from empirical studies, conceptual research results and completed with modelling experiences of an EU-funded proje...

  12. Management and organization problems of small and medium sized enterprise’s: a research on textile firms in Denizli

    OpenAIRE

    Celalettin Serinkan; Hasan Cabar

    2008-01-01

    Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SME) are important establishments for countries to evolve entrepreneurship, to refresh economy, to create employment, technological development and structural change. SME’s have to know and apply management and organization topics to continue their lifes in today’s circumstances. In today’s business environment that is intensified competition is lived, importance of investigating solution ways and taking necessary steps for management and organization...

  13. Optimisation of fuel pin diameter for oxide and carbide fuels for a medium sized fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of fuel pin diameter on neutronic and economic performance of a medium sized fast reactor is analysed. Optimum fuel pin diameter and the corresponding minimum doubling time and fuel cycle costs are calculated both for oxide and carbide fuels. Consequence of fuel cycle data uncertainties on the above reactor performance parameters is also evaluated. Feasibility of change over from one pin diameter to another to suit the future conditions if required is discussed. (author)

  14. Pressures on Green Supply Chain Management: A Study on Manufacturing Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiangmeng HUANG; Boon Leing TAN; li, Dong

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to empirically investigate the pressures for adopting green supply chain management (GSCM) among Chinese small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Data is collected through the use of mail distributed questionnaires administered to participants at a national trade fair held in Suzhou and two rounds of data collection were carried out to make a more reliable result for the research. ANOVA and Factor analysis are used to analyze the data. Some key findings are found from this s...

  15. An Empirical Study of IT Innovation Adoption Among Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Klang Valley, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Wenjie Zhao; Noor A. Mohd Salleh; Sedigheh Moghavvemi; Fatemeh Hakimian

    2011-01-01

    Purpose—The purpose of this research is to use and validate the Entrepreneurial Event model as a base model to investigate SME owners’ perception toward IT innovation adoption and use. This paper also attempts to investigate the key determinants of the adoption of IT innovation among small and medium sized enterprises in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This study revised and validated the Entrepreneurial Event Model in a new context and tried to examine the effect of perceived desirability, prope...

  16. Information and knowledge sharing trends of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Western Cape, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Faeda Mohsam; Brakel, Pieter A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), especially in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, are currently facing various financial and other obstacles, which may threaten their survival. Globalisation, the lowering of trade barriers and the reduction of import tariffs have resulted in increased international competition. Businesses are thus forced to undertake continuous improvements and innovation in order to survive, to keep abreast of change...

  17. The role of small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) in the socio-economic stability of Karachi

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Javed; Herani, Gobind M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify the core constraints in financing of SMEs in Karachi that impede their growth and even undermine their liquidity and financial position. Literature review: The problems and constraints are faced by small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) in Karachi with regard to access to financing. Along with Karachi, the other cities and areas in Pakistan are facing alike problems. Methods: This study is exploratory in nature and includes quantitative and...

  18. An investigation into the winner-loser and momentum anomalies in four medium-sized European markets

    OpenAIRE

    O Keeffe, Cormac

    2013-01-01

    The allocative efficiency of financial markets is of central importance to academics, investors, and regulators. However, there is a dearth of research relating to the efficiency of medium-sized European markets. This thesis addresses this research gap by examining the winner-loser and momentum anomalies in Ireland, Greece, Norway, and Denmark. The profitability of contrarian and strength rule strategies is examined using a variety of models and rank and holding periods of differing lengths. ...

  19. An investigation into selected determinants of family harmony in small and medium-sized family farms in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Merwe, Stephanus Petrus

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to empirically explore the determinants of family harmony in small and medium-sized family farms. Data from 244 questionnaires from 36 family farms were collected and analysed. Three factors with eigen-values greater than one were extracted, explaining 63.56% of the variance, describing the theoretical dimensions of the dependent variable family harmony and the independent variables existence of family forums and conflict management. The impact of the e...

  20. Electronic spectroscopy of medium-sized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Implications for the carriers of the 2175 {\\AA} UV bump

    CERN Document Server

    Steglich, M; Rouillé, G; Huisken, F; Mutschke, H; Henning, Th

    2010-01-01

    Mixtures of polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been produced by means of laser pyrolysis. The main fraction of the extracted PAHs were primarily medium-sized, up to a maximum size of 38 carbon atoms per molecule. The use of different extraction solvents and subsequent chromatographic fractionation provided mixtures of different size distributions. UV-VIS absorption spectra have been measured at low temperature by matrix isolation spectroscopy and at room temperature with PAHs as film-like deposits on transparent substrates. In accordance with semi-empirical calculations, our findings suggest that large PAHs with sizes around 50 to 60 carbon atoms per molecule could be responsible for the interstellar UV bump at 217.5 nm.

  1. ELECTRONIC SPECTROSCOPY OF MEDIUM-SIZED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE CARRIERS OF THE 2175 A UV BUMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been produced by means of laser pyrolysis. The main fraction of the extracted PAHs was primarily medium-sized, up to a maximum size of 38 carbon atoms per molecule. The use of different extraction solvents and subsequent chromatographic fractionation provided mixtures of different size distributions. UV-VIS absorption spectra have been measured at low temperature by matrix isolation spectroscopy and at room temperature with PAHs as film-like deposits on transparent substrates. In accordance with semi-empirical calculations, our findings suggest that large PAHs with sizes around 50-60 carbon atoms per molecule could be responsible for the interstellar UV bump at 217.5 nm.

  2. Report: Maximizing recycling participation to reduce waste to landfill: a study of small to medium-sized enterprises in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Sam; Kriwoken, Lorne K

    2010-05-01

    Small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia face many barriers to recycling participation. This study first investigated the volumes and types of waste produced by SMEs. Significant barriers were then identified and key motivators to recycle examined. Using the Australia New Zealand Standard of Industrial Classification, stratified sampling of SMEs (n = 436) was undertaken. Inadequate storage space, paucity of readily available information on recycling services and the lack of staff allocated to sort and recycle were identified as major barriers. Cardboard, paper and plastic waste were produced in large volumes with only a small percentage being recycled and these were identified as target areas for local government. Recommendations include the appointment of a dedicated recycling officer to maximize recycling participation for the reduction of waste to landfill and to undertake further research on minimizing recycling costs. PMID:19423601

  3. Developing a Methodology Based on Action Learning to Facilitate the Adoption of ICT in Small and Medium-sized Companies in Costa Rica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunez, Heilyn Camacho

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to understand and explore better strategies to support the Small and Medium-sized companies sector in Costa Rica in the ICT adoption process. A strategy has been proposed which focuses on learning process and the interaction of university, industry and government (Triple Helix Model) in order to support the SMEs sector. The concrete proposal of the research is to design collaborative project based on action learning approach (Revans, 1982) with partnership of the three sectors in order to address concrete ICT projects in SMEs. The project was carried out in the action research context, considering a holistic approach needed in the SMEs and fostering the multi learning perspective claimed in the triple helix model (Etzkowitz, 2008).

  4. Methodologies and Decision Criteria for Demonstrating Competitiveness of Small and Medium Sized Reactors - Present Value Capital Cost Model. Annex VIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smaller size reactors are required to fulfil the growing energy needs of developing countries and emerging markets, as well as niche markets in developed countries. Grid appropriate reactors have been identified within the United States Department of Energy Global Nuclear Energy Partnership initiative as one of the key elements required to enable worldwide expansion of the peaceful use of nuclear power. In a speech at a conference in Algiers on 9 January 2007, the former IAEA Director General, Mohamed El Baradei, discussed the interest in new small and medium-size reactor designs which allow a more incremental investment than is required for a big reactor, and provide a better match to grid capacity in many developing countries'. Smaller size reactors (IAEA defines as 'small' those reactors with a power <300 MW(e) and 'medium' with a power <700 MW(e)) are the logical choice for smaller countries or those with a limited electrical grid. In fact, smaller reactors are now in different stages of development throughout the world, and interest in their deployment has also been expressed. With regards to decisions on the addition of power plant capacity, small reactors have many attractive characteristics, namely size, simplicity, enhanced safety, cost savings and lower financial resource requirements. On the downside, the specific costs of some components and systems of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) may be higher as a result of economy of scale effects. This annex explores some of the factors affecting decisions on power plant capacity addition in world markets, focusing particularly on many of the characteristics of SMRs

  5. Absenteeism at a Medium Size Philanthropic Hospital Absenteísmo em Hospital Filantrópico de Médio Porte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilidia Terezinha Martelli Takahashi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The absenteeism is a complex administrative problem for organizations. In hospitals, it becomes even more complicated as the patient care can not be interrupted. The term absenteeism - disease, refers to the time off work due to health problems. It is intended to analyze the absence of workers due to health problems is related to age, sex, length of employment at the institution, part work shift and functional category. This is a retrospective, descriptive and documentary study. Data was collected from medical certificates submitted in the period from 01 July 2007 to 30 June 2008 to the sector of human resources of a medium-sized philanthropic hospital. The analysis results show that the number of certificates is greater in females (90.80% and staff that work less time in the institution (61.19%. It was found that the number of certificates is higher in workers who make the rotation between morning and afternoon shifts. It was also noted that workers aged over 48 years, had lower number of certificates than the younger ones. The nursing technicians assistant were the professional categories that had presented more certificates (46.05%. The results identify several factors related to absenteeism and provide subsidies to strengthen actions to monitor the health of workers and also the implementation of actions aimed at improving the quality of life at work. O absenteísmo é um complexo problema administrativo para as organizações. Nos hospitais, torna-se ainda mais complicado, pois o cuidado ao cliente não pode ser interrompido. Entende-se por absenteísmo-doença, as faltas ao trabalho por problemas de saúde. Tem-se como objetivo analisar as faltas dos trabalhadores por causas de saúde relacionando-as com idade, sexo, tempo de trabalho na instituição, turno de trabalho e categoria funcional. Trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo, descritivo edocumental. Os dados foram coletados dos atestados de saúde apresentados no período de 01 julho de 2007 a 30 de junho de 2008 ao setor de recursos humanos de um hospital filantrópico de médio porte. As análises dos resultados demonstraram que o número de atestados apresentados é maior no sexo feminino (90,80% e em funcionários com menor tempo de trabalho na instituição (61,19%. Verificou-se que onúmero de atestados é mais elevado nos trabalhadores que fazem revezamento entre os turnos matutino e vespertino. Também foi observado que os trabalhadores com idade acima de 48 anos, apresentaram menor número de atestados que os mais jovens. Os auxiliares e técnicos de enfermagem foram as categorias profissionais que mais apresentaram atestados (46,05%. Os dados encontrados permitem identificar vários fatores relacionados ao absenteísmo e fornecem subsídios para reforçar ações que acompanhem as questões de saúde dos trabalhadores e também a implantação de ações que visem à melhoria da qualidade de vida no trabalho.

  6. Firm size and productivity. Evidence from the electricity distribution industry in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we apply Stochastic Frontier Analysis through a distance function to investigate the impact of firm size on productivity development in electricity distribution. We use a sample of seventeen Brazilian firms from 1998 to 2005 and decompose productivity into technical efficiency, scale efficiency and technical change. Moreover, a further step is to decompose the technical change measurement into several components. The results indicate that firm size is important for industry's productivity, and therefore a key aspect to consider when making decisions that affect the market structure in the electricity distribution industry. (author)

  7. Firm size and productivity. Evidence from the electricity distribution industry in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tovar, Beatriz [Departmento de Analisis Economico Aplicado y EIT, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Javier Ramos-Real, Francisco [Departamento de Analisis Economico, Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Campus de Guajara, Universidad de La Laguna, La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife, Espana (Spain); De Almeida, Edmar Fagundes [IE-UFRJ (Instituto de Economia-Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro) (Brazil)

    2011-02-15

    In this paper we apply Stochastic Frontier Analysis through a distance function to investigate the impact of firm size on productivity development in electricity distribution. We use a sample of seventeen Brazilian firms from 1998 to 2005 and decompose productivity into technical efficiency, scale efficiency and technical change. Moreover, a further step is to decompose the technical change measurement into several components. The results indicate that firm size is important for industry's productivity, and therefore a key aspect to consider when making decisions that affect the market structure in the electricity distribution industry. (author)

  8. Strategy Analysis of Real Estate Company Property Development in Medium Size City in China

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Yiping

    2011-01-01

    Real estate industry is a new economic growth point and main industry in Chinese gross domestic product nowadays. This paper analyzes the trend of Chinese real estate market development to help investors to understand the current situation of Chinese real estate markets and policies better, so as to make better real estate investment decisions in China in the future. Because of oversaturated with investment and higher cost of investment there are more and more limitations in investing in big ...

  9. Image Analysis of Pellet Size for a Control System in Industrial Feed Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungqvist, Martin Georg; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    2011-01-01

    When producing aquaculture fish feed pellets, the size of the output product is of immense importance. As the production method cannot produce pellets of constant and uniform size using constant machine settings, there is a demand for size control. Fish fed with feed pellets of improper size are prone to not grow as expected, which is undesirable to the aquaculture industry. In this paper an image analysis method is proposed for automatic size-monitoring of pellets. This is called granulometry and the method used here is based on the mathematical morphological opening operation. In the proposed method, no image object segmentation is needed. The results show that it is possible to extract a general size distribution from an image of piled disordered pellets representing both length and diameter of the pellets in combination as an area.

  10. Comparing capture-recapture methods for estimation of the size of small and medium-sized populations using empirical data on commercial turkey farms in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Allaki, Farouk; Christensen, Jette; Vallières, André

    2015-06-01

    The study objectives were (1) to conduct a systematic review of the performance of capture-recapture methods; (2) to use empirical data to estimate population size in a small-sized population (turkey breeder farms) and a medium-sized population (meat turkey farms) by applying two-source capture-recapture methods (the Lincoln-Petersen, the Chapman, and Chao's lower-bound estimators) and multi-source capture-recapture methods (the log-linear modeling and sample coverage approaches); and (3) to compare the performance of these methods in predicting the true population sizes (2007 data). Our set-up was unique in that we knew the population sizes for turkey breeder farms (99) and meat turkey farms (592) in Canada in 2007, which we applied as our true population sizes, and had surveillance data from the Canadian Notifiable Avian Influenza Surveillance System (2008-2012). We defined each calendar year of sampling as a data source. We confirmed that the two-source capture-recapture methods were sensitive to the violation of the local independence assumption. The log-linear modeling and sample coverage approaches yielded estimates that were closer to the true population sizes than were the estimates provided by the two-source methods for both populations. The performance of both multi-source capture-recapture methods depended on the number of data sources analyzed and the size of the population. Simulation studies are recommended to better understand the limits of each multi-source capture-recapture method. PMID:25542525

  11. Examination of Theoretical and Empirical Studies on Firm’s Performance in Relation to its’ Board Size: A Study of Small and Medium Size Public Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibran Sheikh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This research presented a review of key theoretical and empirical studies on firm’s performance and its board size.  The review included on small & medium sized and public owned firms from manufacturing to financial sectors.  The research concludes that the evidence on positive or negative correlation between board size and a firm’s performance is mixed (inconclusive and need for further empirical investigation on this subject is warranted.  It was found that the choice of optimal board size can vary in one firm to other, depending on nature of business operations, i.e. for high debt-financed firms with high advisory requirements may require large board to advise CEO on complex matters, as does the banking and saving & loans holding companies where more of expert advice, diversified opinions, professional skills are needed.  Also, the firms with poor operating performance may increase their board size as one of their strategy to improve profitability given that new board members will contribute in the form of increased networking, skills, opinion and expert advice. 

  12. Determinants of the Capital Structure of Small and Medium Sized Brazilian Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Denis Forte; Lucas Ayres Barros; Wilson Toshiro Nakamura

    2013-01-01

    This research investigates the determinants of the capital structure of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) using a unique database that includes over 19,000 Brazilian firms and spans 13 years of data. The econometric analysis employs the System Generalized Method of Moments estimator (GMM-Sys) and two strong results emerge: (a) profitability is negatively related to leverage, and (b) asset growth is positively related to leverage. Both results are consistent with the pecking order theory of ...

  13. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Financing: A Review of Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulsaleh, Abdulaziz M.; Worthington, Andrew C.

    2013-01-01

    There is no doubt that access to finance is of crucial importance for the ongoing and sustainable growth andprofitability of small and medium enterprises sector (SMEs) through its role in facilitating the creation of newbusinesses and nurturing the innovation process as well as promoting the growth and development of existingbusinesses, which in turn, boost national economic growth. The main motive of this paper is that SMEssignificantly differ from large firms in terms of their financial dec...

  14. Mean force on a finite-sized spherical particle due to an acoustic field in a viscous compressible medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annamalai, Subramanian; Balachandar, S; Parmar, Manoj K

    2014-05-01

    An analytical expression to evaluate the second-order mean force (acoustic radiation force) on a finite-sized, rigid, spherical particle due to an acoustic wave is presented. The medium in which the particle is situated is taken to be both viscous and compressible. A far-field derivation approach has been used in determining the force, which is a function of the particle size, acoustic wavelength, and viscous boundary-layer thickness. It is assumed that the viscous length scale is negligibly small compared to the acoustic wavelength. The force expression presented here (i) reduces to the correct inviscid behavior (for both small- and finite-sized particles) and (ii) is identical to recent viscous results [M. Settnes and H. Bruus, Phys. Rev. E 85, 016327 (2012)] for small-sized particles. Further, the computed force qualitatively matches the computational fluid dynamics (finite-element) results [D. Foresti, M. Nabavi, and D. Poulikakos, J. Fluid Mech. 709, 581 (2012)] for finite-sized particles. Additionally, the mean force is interpreted in terms of a multipole expansion. Subsequently, considering the fact that the force expansion is an infinite series, the number of terms that are required or adequate to capture the force to a specified accuracy is also provided as a function of the particle size to acoustic wavelength ratio. The dependence of the force on particle density, kinematic viscosity, and bulk viscosity of the fluid is also investigated. Here, both traveling and standing waves are considered. PMID:25353881

  15. Growth phase?associated changes in the proteome and transcriptome of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in industrial?type whey medium

    OpenAIRE

    Laakso, Kati; Koskenniemi, Kerttu; Koponen, Johanna; Kankainen, Matti; Surakka, Anu; Salusja?rvi, Tuomas; Auvinen, Petri; Savijoki, Kirsi; Nyman, Tuula A.; Kalkkinen, Nisse; Tynkkynen, Soile; Varmanen, Pekka

    2011-01-01

    The growth phase during which probiotic bacteria are harvested and consumed can strongly influence their performance as health?promoting agents. In this study, global transcriptomic and proteomic changes were studied in the widely used probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG during growth in industrial?type whey medium under strictly defined bioreactor conditions. The expression of 636 genes (P???0.01) and 116 proteins (P?

  16. Firm size and productivity. Evidence from the electricity distribution industry in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we apply Stochastic Frontier Analysis through a distance function to investigate the impact of firm size on productivity development in electricity distribution. We use a sample of seventeen Brazilian firms from 1998 to 2005 and decompose productivity into technical efficiency, scale efficiency and technical change. Moreover, a further step is to decompose the technical change measurement into several components. The results indicate that firm size is important for industry's productivity, and therefore a key aspect to consider when making decisions that affect the market structure in the electricity distribution industry. - Research Highlights: ?We apply Stochastic Frontier Analysis through a distance function to investigate the impact of firm's size on productivity development in electricity distribution using a sample of eighteen Brazilian firms from 1998 to 2005. ?Productivity is decomposed into technical efficiency, scale-efficiency and technical change. ?Firm size is important for the industry's productivity, and therefore a key aspect to consider when making decisions that affect the market structure in the electricity distribution industry.

  17. Mapping trends of large and medium size carnivores of conservation interest in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Mihai Cristian Adamescu; Constantin Cazacu; Ovidiu Ionescu; Georgeta Ionescu; Ramon Jurj; Marius Popa; Roxana Cazacu; Ancuta Cotovelea

    2014-01-01

    We analysed yearly estimates of population size data during 2001-2012 for five carnivores species of conservation interest (Ursus arctos, Canis lupus, Lynx lynx, Felis silvestris and Canis aureus). Population size estimations were done by the game management authorities and integrated by the competent authorities on the Ministry of Environment and Climate Change. Trends in data were detected using non-parametric Mann-Kendall test. This test was chosen considering the short length of data seri...

  18. A Comprehensive, Competency-Based Education Framework Using Medium-Sized ERP Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtz, Brenda; Cilliers, Charmain; Calitz, Andre

    2012-01-01

    Graduates with industry-relevant ERP competencies are highly sought after. This requirement is due to a dominance of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems and the positive affect which good quality ERP specialists have on the success rate of ERP system implementation projects. Universities are therefore increasingly pressurised to supply…

  19. Explaining Internationalisation of Small to Medium Sized Enterprises within the Queensland Food and Beverage Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell Spowart; Rumintha Wickramasekera

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of International New Ventures (INVs) has increased during the past twenty years. Nevertheless,to date there has been no general consensus within the literature on an explanation as to the rapid internationalisation of some firms. Do they follow a similar process to other firms that internationalise based ona more ‘measured’ incremental sequential process of internationalisation. This paper proposes and tests an innovation diffusion model of the internationalisation of small...

  20. Top management and the adoption of energy efficiency practices: Evidence from small and medium-sized manufacturing firms in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriers to energy efficiency have been extensively discussed in the energy literature, but little is known about positive drivers. This paper investigates the role of top managers and more specifically of top operations managers on the adoption of energy-efficiency practices, based on 5779 energy efficiency recommendations made to 752 small and medium-sized manufacturing firms under the US Department of Energy's IACs (Industrial Assessment Centers) Program, through which teams of students and faculty from engineering schools provide free energy assessments. Top operations managers possess knowledge of production processes, for maximizing the effective manufacture and distribution of goods. We find that their involvement significantly increases the adoption of energy-efficiency initiatives, while involvement of general top managers without an operational role has little or no effect. Involvement of top operations managers increases the percentage of recommended energy savings that are implemented by 13.4% on average and increases the probability of adoption of more disruptive individual recommendations related to process and equipment change from 31% to 44%. Our findings imply that, in order to advance energy efficiency in SMEs (Small and Medium Enterprises), it may be advisable to target managers who are sufficiently senior but still in a clearly operationally-focused position. - Highlights: • We examine how top managers influence the adoption of energy-efficiency practices. • Top operations managers implement 13.4% more of recommended savings. • Involvement of top managers without an operational role has little or no effect. • Top operations managers enhance adoption of recommendations that are disruptive

  1. Increasing Returns to Scale, Dynamics of Industrial Structure and Size Distribution of Firms

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Y; Di, Z; Fan, Ying; Li, Menghui; Di, Zengru

    2004-01-01

    A model is presented of the market dynamics to emphasis the effects of increasing returns to scale, including the description of the born and death of the adaptive producers. The evolution of market structure and its behavior with the technological shocks are discussed. Its dynamics is in good agreement with some empirical stylized facts of industrial evolution. Together with the diversities of demand and adaptive growth strategies of firms, the generalized model has reproduced the power-law distribution of firm size. Three factors mainly determine the competitive dynamics and the skewed size distributions of firms: 1. Self-reinforcing mechanism; 2. Adaptive firm grows strategies; 3. Demand diversities or widespread heterogeneity in the technological capabilities of different firms. Key words: Econophysics, Increasing returns, Industry dynamics, Size distribution of firms

  2. Small and medium-sized hydropower projects in competitive markets: the case of Rio Piedras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article describes the case of the Rio Piedras Hydropower Project, a first private hydropower generation initiative in Colombia, within the new regulatory framework for the provision of public services and electric generation under laws 142 and 143, passed in 1994. Reference is made in this article to the background and characteristics of the Project, and some obstacles, challenges and risks encountered are described, as well as the way in which they are being controlled. The investment and commercialization modules developed in analyzing the project are also presented. Finally, some reflections are given as to the medium and long term prospects for electric generation projects in Colombia. (The author)

  3. Intent to be a Socially Responsible Small or Medium-sized Enterprise: Theory of Planned Behavior and Leaders’ Actualizing

    OpenAIRE

    Ashley Jane Bennington; Minutolo, Marcel C.

    2012-01-01

    A review of the academic research in corporate social responsibility shows little work on small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in the U.S. whereas considerable work in this domain has been conducted in the European context. This study seeks to make a contribution to the research void by addressing one particular area of social responsibility in the U.S. context. Specifically, we employ Ajzen’s reasoned action approach to begin to build an understanding of what promotes leaders of SMEs ...

  4. Cooling rate and size effects on the medium-range structure of multicomponent oxide glasses simulated by molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilocca, Antonio [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom)

    2013-09-21

    A set of molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the effect of cooling rate and system size on the medium-range structure of melt-derived multicomponent silicate glasses, represented by the quaternary 45S5 Bioglass composition. Given the significant impact of the glass degradation on applications of these materials in biomedicine and nuclear waste disposal, bulk structural features which directly affect the glass dissolution process are of particular interest. Connectivity of the silicate matrix, ion clustering and nanosegregation, distribution of ring and chain structural patterns represent critical features in this context, which can be directly extracted from the models. A key issue is represented by the effect of the computational approach on the corresponding glass models, especially in light of recent indications questioning the suitability of conventional MD approaches (that is, involving melt-and-quench of systems containing ?10{sup 3} atoms at cooling rates of 5-10 K/ps) when applied to model these glasses. The analysis presented here compares MD models obtained with conventional and nonconventional cooling rates and system sizes, highlighting the trend and range of convergence of specific structural features in the medium range. The present results show that time-consuming computational approaches involving much lower cooling rates and/or significantly larger system sizes are in most cases not necessary in order to obtain a reliable description of the medium-range structure of multicomponent glasses. We identify the convergence range for specific properties and use them to discuss models of several glass compositions for which a possible influence of cooling-rate or size effects had been previously hypothesized. The trends highlighted here represent an important reference to obtain reliable models of multicomponent glasses and extract converged medium-range structural features which affect the glass degradation and thus their application in different fields. In addition, as a first application of the present findings, the fully converged structure of the 45S5 glass was further analyzed to shed new light on several dissolution-related features whose interpretation has been rather controversial in the past.

  5. Cooling rate and size effects on the medium-range structure of multicomponent oxide glasses simulated by molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the effect of cooling rate and system size on the medium-range structure of melt-derived multicomponent silicate glasses, represented by the quaternary 45S5 Bioglass composition. Given the significant impact of the glass degradation on applications of these materials in biomedicine and nuclear waste disposal, bulk structural features which directly affect the glass dissolution process are of particular interest. Connectivity of the silicate matrix, ion clustering and nanosegregation, distribution of ring and chain structural patterns represent critical features in this context, which can be directly extracted from the models. A key issue is represented by the effect of the computational approach on the corresponding glass models, especially in light of recent indications questioning the suitability of conventional MD approaches (that is, involving melt-and-quench of systems containing ?103 atoms at cooling rates of 5-10 K/ps) when applied to model these glasses. The analysis presented here compares MD models obtained with conventional and nonconventional cooling rates and system sizes, highlighting the trend and range of convergence of specific structural features in the medium range. The present results show that time-consuming computational approaches involving much lower cooling rates and/or significantly larger system sizes are in most cases not necessary in order to obtain a reliable description of the medium-range structure of multicomponent glasses. We identify the convergence range for specific properties and use them to discuss models of several glass compositions for which a possible influence of cooling-rate or size effects had been previously hypothesized. The trends highlighted here represent an important reference to obtain reliable models of multicomponent glasses and extract converged medium-range structural features which affect the glass degradation and thus their application in different fields. In addition, as a first application of the present findings, the fully converged structure of the 45S5 glass was further analyzed to shed new light on several dissolution-related features whose interpretation has been rather controversial in the past

  6. The competitiveness of small and medium-sized companies in the provision of services.

    OpenAIRE

    S?tverkova?, Hana; Humlova?, Vlasta; Kr?ibi?kova?, Pavli?na

    2011-01-01

    The topic deals with SMEs in the Czech Republic in terms of provision of services in the catering industry within the current social, economic and technological change. The topic is focused on the competitiveness of SMEs in the service. The potential to increase the competitiveness of SMEs is derived mainly from an increase in the quality offered and in services, but also in developing new services.

  7. Organizational Learning, Innovation and Performance: A Study of Malaysian Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Islam Mohamed Salim; Mohamed Sulaiman

    2011-01-01

    This empirical study attempts to investigate the effect of organizational learning on innovation as well as theimpact of innovation on company performance. Based on the literature review, two hypotheses are proposed toguide the study: the positive impact of organizational learning on innovation and the positive relationshipbetween innovation and performance. Data was collected via electronic survey from 320 small and mediumenterprises operating in the ICT industry in Malaysia. Findings from t...

  8. Understanding and Supporting Cloud Computing Adoption in Irish Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs)

    OpenAIRE

    Carcary, Marian; Doherty, Eileen; Conway, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    Cloud Computing adoption has experienced a considerable rate of growth since its emergence in 2006. In 2011, it had become the top technology priority for organizations worldwide and according to some leading industry reports the cloud computing market is estimated to reach $241 billion by 2020. Reasons for adoption are multi?fold, including for example the expected realisation of benefits pertaining to cost reduction, improved scalability, improved resource utilization, worker ...

  9. Understanding and Supporting Cloud Computing Adoption in Irish Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Carcary, Marian; Doherty, Eileen; Conway, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    Cloud Computing adoption has experienced a considerable rate of growth since its emergence in 2006. In 2011, it had become the top technology priority for organizations worldwide and according to some leading industry reports the cloud computing market is estimated to reach $241 billion by 2020. Reasons for adoption are multi-fold, including for example the expected realisation of benefits pertaining to cost reduction, improved scalability, improved resource utilizatio...

  10. Engaging with economic evaluation methods: insights from small and medium enterprises in the UK medical devices industry after training workshops

    OpenAIRE

    Craven Michael P; Allsop Matthew J; Morgan Stephen P; Martin Jennifer L

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background With increased governmental interest in value assessment of technologies and where medical device manufacturers are finding it increasingly necessary to become more familiar with economic evaluation methods, the study sought to explore the levels of health economics knowledge within small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and to scope strategies they employ to demonstrate the value of their products to purchasers. Methods A short questionnaire was completed by participan...

  11. Effect of Basal Medium, Explants Size and Density on the In Vitro Proliferation and Growth of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. Cultivar ‘16-bis’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouaad Amine MAZRI

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of basal medium, explant size and density on shoot multiplication, growth, rooting and acclimatization of date palm cv. ‘16-bis’ was evaluated. Bud clusters of different sizes (2, 3, 4 and 5 buds per cluster were cultured at density of 1, 2, 3 and 4 clusters on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS, woody plant medium (WPM and Nitsch medium (NM supplemented with 0.5 mg/L 2-naphthoxyacetic acid and 0.5 mg/L kinetin for three months (multiplication phase. Separated shoots of different sizes (<3 cm; 3 to 4.5 cm and 4.5 to 6 cm were cultured at density of 1, 2, 3 and 4 shoots on hormone free MS medium, WPM or NM for three months (Elongation-rooting phase. The proliferation and development of shoots were affected by the basal medium, explant size and density. The optimal shoot proliferation (18.1 was observed when 4 buds clusters were cultured at the density of 2 clusters per jar in MS medium. Separated shoots of 4.5 to 6 cm length exhibited the optimal in vitro development in terms of leaf length and greening, and root number and length when cultured on MS medium. In addition, these shoots reached the highest acclimation frequency with 80%. Our results would be utilized for an efficient propagation of plantlets of cv. ‘16-bis’, a selected date palm cultivar resistant to the bayoud disease.

  12. 78 FR 45969 - Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ...Investigation No. 332-541] Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-Sized...investigation No. 332-541, Trade Barriers that U.S. Small and Medium...transatlantic trade, and to address trade barriers that may disproportionately...

  13. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Financing: A Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz M. Abdulsaleh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that access to finance is of crucial importance for the ongoing and sustainable growth andprofitability of small and medium enterprises sector (SMEs through its role in facilitating the creation of newbusinesses and nurturing the innovation process as well as promoting the growth and development of existingbusinesses, which in turn, boost national economic growth. The main motive of this paper is that SMEssignificantly differ from large firms in terms of their financial decisions and behaviour. Hence, the purpose ofthis paper is to review the literature on the various financing sources of SMEs taking into account the effects ofboth SME characteristics and those of the owner–managers on SME financial behaviour.

  14. Implementing a Functional ISO 9001 Quality Management System in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Sousa-Poza

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This conceptual paper provides guidance for the implementation of a functionalISO 9001 quality management system (QMS in small and medium-sizedenterprises (SMEs. To help a SME understand its starting point, four initialstates for QMS implementation are defined. Five paths for moving the QMS fromthe initial state to the desired state are described. To support the transition fromthe initial to the desired state, some key considerations in implementing a QMSin SMEs are discussed. The paper is based on site visits and implementationassistance the authors have provided to several SMEs. It is anticipated the paperwill help managers in SMEs understand the process of implementing ISO 9001and help them avoid the development of a paper-driven QMS that provideslimited value.

  15. Permeability and pore size distribution in medium strength self-compacting concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Cánovas, M.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of self-compacting concrete (SCC has been on the rise in recent years. Research on this type of concrete has focused primarily on determining optimal dosage, while durability, particularly for medium strength SCC, has received much less attention. The present study explored the permeability of a number of medium strength (characteristic strength, 30 MPa self-compacting concretes, including SCCs made with common cement, in pursuit of a balance between performance and cost. Pressurised water and mercury intrusion porosimetry tests were conducted to determine concrete behaviour when exposed to aggressive agents. The findings showed that the capillary networks of these concretes are essentially impermeable to aggressive agents.

    El hormigón autocompactante ha experimentado un amplio desarrollo en los últimos años. Los estudios sobre este hormigón se han centrado en obtener dosificaciones óptimas, mientras los relativos a su durabilidad son escasos, especialmente en el caso de hormigones de resistencia moderada. Este trabajo se centra en el estudio de la permeabilidad de distintos hormigones autocompactantes de resistencia moderada (resistencia característica 30 MPa. El estudio incluye hormigones fabricados con cementos comunes, en los que se ha buscado un equilibrio entre prestaciones y precio. Con el fin de estudiar su comportamiento frente a la penetración de agentes agresivos, se han realizado los ensayos de permeabilidad al agua bajo presión y estudio de la porosimetría por intrusión de mercurio. Los resultados de los ensayos ponen de manifiesto el buen comportamiento de estos hormigones frente a la posible penetración de agentes agresivos por la red capilar.

  16. Human resource management in small and medium-sized vineyards in Chile / Administración de recursos humanos en pequeñas y medianas viñas en Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gregorio, Pérez Arrau; Felipe, Muñoz Medina.

    Full Text Available G. Pérez Arrau y F. Muñoz Medina.2014. Administración de recursos humanos en pequeñas y medianas viñas en Chile. Cien. Inv. Agr. 42(2): 141-151. El objetivo de este artículo es la búsqueda de prácticas de gestión de recursos humanos en pequeñas y medianas viñas en Chile, identificando agentes y grup [...] os relevantes que permitan una mejor comprensión de cómo estas empresas gestionan sus recursos humanos. La investigación se basa en 22 entrevistas realizadas a directores de personal e informantes claves de un total de 16 viñas productoras de vino entre los años 2009 y 2012. Se incluye la recolección y análisis de literatura especializada sobre gestión de recursos humanos en PYMES. La investigación muestra características evidentes, problemas y desafíos con el objetivo de mejorar la producción, la innovación y la sostenibilidad a largo plazo. A pesar de que la industria del vino es un área económica emblemática de Chile, la forma en que administra sus recursos humanos es desconocida, por lo que esta investigación se centra en esta área poco conocida tan importante para la productividad. Abstract in english G. Pérez Arrau, and F. Muñoz Medina. 2014. Human resource management in small and medium-sized vineyards in Chile. Cien. Inv. Agr. 41(2): 141-151. The focus of this paper is the identification of human resource management practices in small and medium-sized vineyards in Chile, identifying agents and [...] relevant groups that allow a better understanding of how these companies manage their human resources. The research is based on 22 interviews held with personnel managers and key informants from a total of 16 wine-producing vineyards between 2009 and 2012. The research involved collecting studies and analyzing the specialized literature on human resource management in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The research highlights the features, relevant problems and challenges of human resources management with the aim of improving production, innovation and long-term sustainability. Although the wine industry is an emblematic economic area of Chile, how it manages its human resources is unknown, so this research focuses on this little-known area that is so important to productivity.

  17. Organizational Learning, Innovation and Performance: A Study of Malaysian Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Mohamed Salim

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This empirical study attempts to investigate the effect of organizational learning on innovation as well as theimpact of innovation on company performance. Based on the literature review, two hypotheses are proposed toguide the study: the positive impact of organizational learning on innovation and the positive relationshipbetween innovation and performance. Data was collected via electronic survey from 320 small and mediumenterprises operating in the ICT industry in Malaysia. Findings from the study support both the two hypothesesthus providing further evidence that organizational learning contributes to innovation capability, and thatinnovation is positively related to firm performance. Several guidelines and practical implications from the studyare also discussed.

  18. How to Improve Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Profitability by Practicing an Efficient Human Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio GARCÍA SÁNCHEZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In The European Union’s country members, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs play an essential role in economic life, having special features that make adaptation process to the contemporary economy easier. Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs are the most dynamic and vital factor of progress in the contemporary society, main generator of economic performance and substance in any country, employment opportunity provider for most of population, major contributor to the national budget, and engine to improve the living standard of the population. SMEs represent 99% from all enterprises, drawing up the main human resources aglomeration. In the contemporary economic context, SMEs should act as learning entities, by developing the most important resources they own: the human resources. Human resource development (HRD has gained a permanent role within SMEs, agencies and nations, increasingly not only as an academic discipline, but as a central theme in development area. Being a combination of training and education, in a broad context of adequate human resource policies, HRD ensures the continual improvement and growth of both individual and organization.

  19. Randomized clinical trial of mast cell inhibition in patients with a medium-sized abdominal aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, H; Eldrup, N

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is thought to develop as a result of inflammatory processes in the aortic wall. In particular, mast cells are believed to play a central role. The AORTA trial was undertaken to investigate whether the mast cell inhibitor, pemirolast, could retard the growth of medium-sized AAAs. In preclinical and clinical trials, pemirolast has been shown to inhibit antigen-induced allergic reactions. METHODS: Inclusion criteria for the trial were patients with an AAA of 39-49?mm in diameter on ultrasound imaging. Among exclusion criteria were previous aortic surgery, diabetes mellitus, and severe concomitant disease with a life expectancy of less than 2?years. Included patients were treated with 10, 25 or 40?mg pemirolast, or matching placebo for 52?weeks. The primary endpoint was change in aortic diameter as measured from leading edge adventitia at the anterior wall to leading edge adventitia at the posterior wall in systole. All ultrasound scans were read in a central imaging laboratory. RESULTS: Some 326 patients (mean age 70·8?years; 88·0 per cent men) were included in the trial. The overall mean growth rate was 2·42?mm during the 12-month study. There was no statistically significant difference in growth between patients receiving placebo and those in the three dose groups of pemirolast. Similarly, there were no differences in adverse events. CONCLUSION: Treatment with pemirolast did not retard the growth of medium-sized AAAs. Registration number: NCT01354184 (https://www.clinicaltrials.gov).

  20. Pharmaceutical Enterprises' R&D Strategic Alliance—— the Road for Small and Medium Sized Pharmaceutical Enterprises' R&D in China

    OpenAIRE

    Shuzhen Chu; Chunmei Sun

    2009-01-01

    Based on analyzing the status of small and medium-sized pharmaceutical enterprises in China, the paper explores the problems of these enterprises; Then it provided several feasible  development strategies which are building pharmaceutical enterprises' R&D strategic alliance, starting from the corporate strategic view and combining with the R&D characteristics of small and medium sized pharmaceutical companies; Finally in order to ensure the Effectiveness of R & D alliance, we point out some ...

  1. How Banks Deal with the Financial Information of Medium Sized Firms in the Credit Assessment Process : A study of banks in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Chohan, Kashif Ali; Rahaman, K.M. Abdur

    2011-01-01

    Financial information of a firm helps the users of the financial information to understand the financial standing of the firm. Banks as lenders to Medium Sized firms use the financial information in the credit assessment process. The availability and quality of the financial information depends on the information environment of the country. We have conducted a quantitative study where we examined 80 loan applications of the Medium Sized firms to the Big4 private banks inPakistan. We collected...

  2. Monte Carlo Studies of medium-size telescope designs for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, M; Dumm, J; Funk, S

    2015-01-01

    We present studies for optimizing the next generation of ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). Results focus on mid-sized telescopes (MSTs) for CTA, detecting very high energy gamma rays in the energy range from a few hundred GeV to a few tens of TeV. We describe a novel, flexible detector Monte Carlo package, FAST (FAst Simulation for imaging air cherenkov Telescopes), that we use to simulate different array and telescope designs. The simulation is somewhat simplified to allow for efficient exploration over a large telescope design parameter space. We investigate a wide range of telescope performance parameters including optical resolution, camera pixel size, and light collection area. In order to ensure a comparison of the arrays at their maximum sensitivity, we analyze the simulations with the most sensitive techniques used in the field, such as maximum likelihood template reconstruction and boosted decision trees for background rejection. Choosing telescope design parameters repre...

  3. Meeting increased logistical demands : Developing as a small- and medium-sized system supplier

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, Inga-Lill

    2009-01-01

    Many subcontractors choose to implement a strategy of “system supply” in order to meetincreasing global competition. They are then confronted with increased demands to take agreater overall responsibility in this role. It is important to investigate the implications of theseresponsibilities before investing in developing the organization, especially for a small- ormedium-sized subcontractor with limited resources. The customer’s view of different demandsdoes not necessarily correspond to how ...

  4. Market entry decisions of US small and medium-sized software firms

    OpenAIRE

    Ojala, Arto; Tyrva?inen, Pasi

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper investigates market entry decisions of the U.S. software SMEs by analyzing the impact of the most obvious factors (cultural distance, geographical distance, country risk, and three market size variables) in traditional internationalization theories to target country selection. By investigating the influence of these commonly cited macro-level factors, this study proposes the best indicator for market entry decisions of the U.S. small and mediumsized software...

  5. Evaluation of the Decree on Emission Regulations for Medium-sized Combustion Installations; Evaluatie Besluit emissie-eisen middelgrote stookinstallaties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroon, P.; Plomp, A.J. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Van Berkel, L.; Burgers, W.; Hermans, L.; Groot, M.; Simonse, W. [Kenniscentrum InfoMil, Rijkswaterstaat Water, Verkeer en Leefomgeving, Den Haag (Netherlands); Kruithof, P.; Taal, M.; Van Bergen, J.; Walthaus, H. [Ministerie van Infrastructuur en Milieu IenM, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    In April 2010 the Dutch decree on emission limit values (ELVs) on medium-sized combustion installations entered into force. Bems sets ELVs for NOx, SO2, PM and CxHy. In 2013 the Bems legislation was transferred to the Activities Decree (In Dutch: Ab - Activiteitenbesluit). At the same time the Industrial Emissions Directive (IED) was implemented in the Ab. At the time Bems entered into force, it was decided to evaluate this legislation in 2014. Due to incorporation of Bems and the implementation of the IED in the Ab, it was decided to perform this evaluation a year earlier, thereby enabling the consideration of several stakeholders' comments on these implementations. This report presents the main conclusions of this evaluation. In Bems, combustion installations smaller than 50 MWth have to comply with ELVs based on Best Available Technology (BAT). Five possible ELVs have been discussed but not implemented in Bems, due to a lack of knowledge. These ELVs have been included in this evaluation. For gas engines < 2.5 MWth the NOx ELV could be more stringent, namely 140 mg/Nm{sup 3} instead of 340 mg/Nm{sup 3}; all ELVs are set at dry conditions in the flue gas and 3% O2. For biogas engines, introduction of the same ELV might be postponed until a comparable ELV enters into force in 2016 in a Californian region. Both the Californian ELV and this ELV need a gas cleaning technology. For (bio)diesel engines the dust ELV could be more stringent, namely 15 mg PM/Nm{sup 3} instead of 50 mg PM/Nm{sup 3}, while for NOx the ELV can be tightened from 450 mg/Nm{sup 3} to 250 mg/Nm{sup 3}. Both ELVs may be postponed until Tier 4 limits in the USA enter into force in the period 2014-2017. The Netherlands is one of the very few countries with CxHy ELVs for gas engines. The current CxHy ELV of 1500 mg C/Nm{sup 3} may be tightened to 1200 mg C/Nm{sup 3}. Other issues and changes, directly related to the Dutch legislation, have been discussed as well. These include exemption rules for installations running less than 500 full-load hours per year and the reintroduction of an inspection prior to commissioning. Moreover, maximum ELVs for furnaces <50 MWth of 80 mg NOx/Nm{sup 3} for gas firing and 120 mg NOx/Nm{sup 3} for oil firing have been discussed. As a result of this evaluation, the Ab has been changed; for example, ELVs for combustion of non-standard fuels are now set by the licensing authority. Finally, several chapters in this report are devoted to biomass firing and potential restrictions of ELVs for new installations [Dutch] Dit rapport betreft een evaluatie van het Besluit emissie-eisen middelgrote stookinstallaties milieubeheer (Bems). Het besluit geeft milieuregels voor bedrijven die energie (warmte, elektriciteit, mechanische energie) opwekken door het verbranden van brandstoffen in stookinstallaties, zoals verwarmingsketels, motoren en gasturbines.

  6. An Empirical Study of IT Innovation Adoption Among Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Klang Valley, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Zhao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—The purpose of this research is to use and validate the Entrepreneurial Event model as a base model to investigate SME owners’ perception toward IT innovation adoption and use. This paper also attempts to investigate the key determinants of the adoption of IT innovation among small and medium sized enterprises in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This study revised and validated the Entrepreneurial Event Model in a new context and tried to examine the effect of perceived desirability, propensity to act and performance expectancy on behavior intention to adopt and use IT innovation in SMEs companies.Design/ methodology/ approach—Based on the research model the questionnaire was developed using previous work in the areas of entrepreneurship (Entrepreneurial Event Model and technology acceptance (UTAUT. The data used to test the hypothesis is collectedfrom various spectrums of Malaysian industries in Kuala Lumpur. A total of 1,000 businesses were identified and 412 completed questionnaires were available in this study. The research model was applied using the structural equation modelling technique.Finding—The results of this study indicated that perceived desirability, propensity to act and performance expectancy have a significant positive influence on behavioral intention, and explained a significant amount of the variance in predicting a SMEs owners intention to adopt IT innovation. Propensity to act is the strongest determinant of intention to use IT innovations among Malaysian SME owners follow by perceived desirability and performance expectancy. The results suggest that attractiveness of IT innovation is an important determinant towards the intention to adopt IT innovation. The result revealed that SME owners are more willing to use IT innovation, which is more attractive. Perceived usefulness (performance expectancy of IT innovation is the third most important factor that SME owners consider when they want to adopt and use new technology in their jobs. The results also revealed that experience moderated the relationship between determinants and behavior intention.Research Limitations/implications—The number of male and female SMEsowners is not equal and our respondents were mostly men compared to women. This study measure intention to use IT innovation, and did not measure use behavior.Practical implications—This study extends to knowledge on IS adoption behavior research by using entrepreneurial event models in the context of technology acceptance.Furthermore, from the SME owners’ points of view, this study has shed some light on the adoption and use behavior and clarified the situation for SME owners when they want to adopt and use IT innovation to be successful in their job and market.Originality/value—This study is one of the first to utilize the Entrepreneurial Event Model (EPM to the technology acceptance domain. It also provides a broader view of the IT innovation adoption decision and sheds some additional light on individual technology usage behavior.

  7. An Empirical Study of IT Innovation Adoption Among Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Klang Valley, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Moghavvemi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—The purpose of this research is to use and validate the Entrepreneurial Event model as a base model to investigate SME owners’ perception toward IT innovation adoption and use. This paper also attempts to investigate the key determinants of the adoption of IT innovation among small and medium sized enterprises in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This study revised and validated the Entrepreneurial Event Model in a new context and tried to examine the effect of perceived desirability, propensity to act and performance expectancy on behavior intention to adopt and use IT innovation in SMEs companies. Design/ methodology/ approach—Based on the research model the questionnaire was developed using previous work in the areas of entrepreneurship (Entrepreneurial Event Model and technology acceptance (UTAUT. The data used to test the hypothesis is collected from various spectrums of Malaysian industries in Kuala Lumpur. A total of 1,000 businesses were identified and 412 completed questionnaires were available in this study. The research model was applied using the structural equation modelling technique. Finding—The results of this study indicated that perceived desirability, propensity to act and performance expectancy have a significant positive influence on behavioral intention, and explained a significant amount of the variance in predicting a SMEs owners intention to adopt IT innovation. Propensity to act is the strongest determinant of intention to use IT innovations among Malaysian SME owners follow by perceived desirability and performance expectancy. The results suggest that attractiveness of IT innovation is an important determinant towards the intention to adopt IT innovation. The result revealed that SME owners are more willing to use IT innovation, which is more attractive. Perceived usefulness (performance expectancy of IT innovation is the third most important factor that SME owners consider when they want to adopt and use new technology in their jobs. The results also revealed that experience moderated the relationship between determinants and behavior intention. Research Limitations/implications—The number of male and female SMEs owners is not equal and our respondents were mostly men compared to women. This study measure intention to use IT innovation, and did not measure use behavior. Practical implications—This study extends to knowledge on IS adoption behavior research by using entrepreneurial event models in the context of technology acceptance. Furthermore, from the SME owners’ points of view, this study has shed some light on the adoption and use behavior and clarified the situation for SME owners when they want to adopt and use IT innovation to be successful in their job and market. Originality/value—This study is one of the first to utilize the Entrepreneurial Event Model (EPM to the technology acceptance domain. It also provides a broader view of the IT innovation adoption decision and sheds some additional light on individual technology usage behavior.

  8. Estimation of the New Agile XP Process Model for Medium-Scale Projects Using Industrial Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rizwan Jameel Qureshi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Agile is one of the terms with which software professionals are quite familiar. Agile models promote fast development to develop high quality software. XP process model is one of the most widely used and most documented agile models. XP model is meant for small-scale projects. Since XP model is a good model, therefore there is need of its extension for the development of medium and large-scale projects. XP model has certain drawbacks such as weak documentation and poor performance while adapting it for the development of medium and large-scale projects having large teams. A new XP model is proposed in this paper to cater the needs of software development companies for medium-scale projects having large teams. This research may prove to be step forward for adaptation of the proposed new XP model for the development of large-scale projects. Two independent industrial case studies are conducted to validate the proposed new XP model handling for small and medium scale software projects, one case study for each type of project.

  9. Corporate Social Responsibility in Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in Nigeria: An Example from the Hotel Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eme Joel Efiong

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility (CSR is the promise by business organizations to behave in a way that is ethicallyacceptable and at the same time contributing to the economic development and improvement of the livingconditions of the employees, the catchment community and the larger society. Small and medium scale enterprises(SMEs can serve as the engine room for corporate social responsibility in developing countries, like Nigeria, sincea high proportion of economic activity is generated through them. Hotel industry, belonging to this group hasexpanded rapidly since the return to democratic rule in 1999 primarily due to government’s interest in tourismdevelopment. Such expansion of the hotel industry calls for an enquiry into how socially responsible its activitiesare. Hence, this study explored the corporate social responsibility of the hotel industry in Nigeria. Primarily, thestudy made use of quantitative data obtained though questionnaire administered on the management officers inthese hotels. It was found out that corporate social responsibility practices are minimal and at an informal level. Itis recommended that corporate social responsibility should be embraced by the small and medium scale enterprisesin order to fast track the country’s overall development.

  10. Small and medium-sized firms top management teams’ decision making in global acquisitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Kiessling

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The new global marketplace has caused changes in some organizations’/industries’ forms and execution of strategy and reliance on international personnel. Entry and success through the accumulation of knowledge in the global marketplace have become the impetus for sustainable competitive/developmental advantage for many corporations. Many organizations choose a strategy focusing on international acquisitions in foreign markets to compete effectively in the current ever-changing dynamic competitive landscape. After acquisition, the monitoring of the operations of the new international subsidiary by US firms typically is an ethnocentric example of applying home-country standards and controls. We suggest that the top management team (TMT of a firm is a valuable resource, needs to be retained and that ethnocentric monitoring must be reconsidered. This research focuses on the TMT and their value to the firm to help explain the variation in acquisition success. Thus post-acquisition integration and monitoring must account for this valuable asset.

  11. Contamination and risk assessment of metals in road-deposited sediments in a medium-sized city of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Bo; Lin, Cheng; Wu, Hai suo

    2015-02-01

    Road-deposited sediment (RDS) is a valuable environmental medium for characterizing contamination of metals in urban areas and the associated risks to human health. A total of 62 RDS samples were collected for metal test in four urban areas in a medium size city in eastern China. The areas that represented different land uses consisted of intense traffic area (ITA), commercial area (CA), residential area (RA), and riverside park area (RPA). The effects of particle size and different land uses on metal contamination and health risk were the major focus in this study. The test results showed that RDS in ITA appeared to have higher metal content, enrichment factor (EF), ecological risk index (RI), and the non-cancer and cancer risks than in the other areas. The metal contamination and health risk increased inversely with particle size. The particles less than 63 ?m were found to be most critical in development of metal contamination and health risk. The EF was measured to be greater than 2.0 in the four areas, indicating a moderate enrichment. The measured RI ranged between 50 and 200, indicating considerable to moderate risks. The non-cancer risk for children was high in the four areas but was low for adults in all test areas except in ITA. The cancer risk of Cr for children was high in all test areas. Based on the test results, the contamination control and management for metals in RDS shall focus on the effects from such factors as particles (<63 ?m) and the land use for intense traffic (ITA). PMID:25463858

  12. The Influence of Size on Corporate Culture and Organizational Effectiveness in the Nigerian Banking Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Edwinah Amah; Nwuche, C. A.

    2013-01-01

    The paper examined the effect of size on corporate culture and organizational effectiveness in the Nigerian banking industry. A total of 388 managers were randomly drawn from a population of 13,339 managers of all the 24 banks in Nigeria. The instruments used for data collection were questionnaire and oral interview. A total of 320 copies of the questionnaire were retrieved and analyzed. Spearman’s Rank Correlation Statistical tool was used to test the hypotheses. The findings revealed that...

  13. Sizing and dynamic analyses of a micro-grid supplying a harbor industrial area

    OpenAIRE

    Kreckelbergh, Stephane; Vechiu, Ionel

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the first results of the OptimaGRID project which focuses on the design of a microgrid used for industrial area, namely the Tarnos area of the Bayonne harbor. The objective is to size the electrical sources of the micro-grid according with the harbor needs and test its dynamic operation. For these analyses, HOMER® and EUROSTAG® software have been used.

  14. Mapping trends of large and medium size carnivores of conservation interest in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Cristian Adamescu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We analysed yearly estimates of population size data during 2001-2012 for five carnivores species of conservation interest (Ursus arctos, Canis lupus, Lynx lynx, Felis silvestris and Canis aureus. Population size estimations were done by the game management authorities and integrated by the competent authorities on the Ministry of Environment and Climate Change. Trends in data were detected using non-parametric Mann-Kendall test. This test was chosen considering the short length of data series and its usefulness for non-normal distributed data. The trend was tested at three spatial scales: game management units (n=1565, biogeographical region (n=5 and national. Trends depicted for each game management unit were plotted using ArcGIS, resulting species trend distribution maps. For the studied period increasing population trends were observed for Ursus arctos, Canis lupus, Canis aureus and Lynx lynx, while for Felis silvestris there was no trend recorded. Such an analysis in especially useful for conservation proposes, game management and reporting obligations under article 17 of the EC Habitat Directive, using population trend as a proxy for population dynamics. We conclude that the status of the five carnivore species is favourable during the study period.

  15. Radioactive waste industrial management in France for medium- and long-term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The context within which the industrial scale management of radioactive wastes takes place is briefly outlined. The regulations already in force or envisaged in France in this field are exposed. Emphasis is given to the activities of the National Agency for the management of radioactive wastes (ANDRA). The reasons why this organization was created are discussed together with the type of work conferred to it, its present workload, the industrial management concepts it applies, its present and future potential, the costs envisaged for waste disposal and the financial solutions adopted. The industrial technical assistance policy of ANDRA is presented

  16. Size properties of colloidal nanoparticles produced by nanosecond pulsed laser ablation and studying the effects of liquid medium and laser fluence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdieh, Mohammad Hossein; Fattahi, Behzad

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, pulsed laser ablation method was used for synthesis of colloidal nanoparticles of aluminum and titanium targets in distilled water, ethanol, and acetone as liquid environments. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectrophotometer and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used for characterization of produced nanoparticles. Using image processing technique and analyzing the SEM images, nanoparticles' mean size and size distribution were achieved. The results show that liquid medium has strong effect on size properties of produced nanoparticles. From the results, it was found that ablation of both metal targets in ethanol medium leads to formation of smaller size nanoparticles with narrower size distributions. The influence of laser fluence was also investigated. According to the results, higher laser fluence produces larger mean size nanoparticles with broader size distribution.

  17. Recent advances in gyrokinetic full-f particle simulation of medium sized Tokamaks with ELMFIRE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janhunen, S.J.; Kiviniemi, T.P.; Korpio, T.; Leerink, S.; Nora, M. [Helsinki University of Technology, Euratom-Tekes Association, Espoo (Finland); Heikkinen, J.A. [VTT, Euratom-Tekes Association, Espoo (Finland); Ogando, F. [Helsinki University of Technology, Euratom-Tekes Association, Espoo (Finland); Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    Large-scale kinetic simulations of toroidal plasmas based on first principles are called for in studies of transition from low to high confinement mode and internal transport barrier formation in the core plasma. Such processes are best observed and diagnosed in detached plasma conditions in mid-sized tokamaks, so gyrokinetic simulations for these conditions are warranted. A first principles test-particle based kinetic model ELMFIRE[1] has been developed and used in interpretation[1,2] of FT-2 and DIII-D experiments. In this work we summarize progress in Cyclone (DIII-D core) and ASDEX Upgrade pedestal region simulations, and show that in simulations the choice of adiabatic electrons results in quenching of turbulence (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Effect of sodium nitrite-borax blend on the corrosion rate of low carbon steel in industrial water medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of sodium nitrite-borax blend on low carbon steel corrosion in industrial water medium at various temperatures, various inhibitors concentration of sodium nitrite and borax and at various rotational speeds of the specimens have been studied by gravimetric and polarization measurements. Optimization of the three variables was made and correlating the results obtained by using Box-Wilson statistical method. The process was considered as adsorption of inhibitor ions in oxide layer which form a passive film on the metal surface. The Langmuir isotherm was found to be the best description for the adsorption process. Thermodynamic parameters were evaluated and discussed

  19. Computed tomography of a medium size Roman bronze statue of Cupid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettuzzi, M.; Casali, F.; Morigi, M. P.; Brancaccio, R.; Carson, D.; Chiari, G.; Maish, J.

    2015-03-01

    Diagnostics based on X-ray computed tomography (CT) are becoming increasingly important, not only in the medical field but in industry and cultural heritage. CT devices typical for medical applications, however, can seldom be used on art objects because both they are not easily transportable and they often present high X-ray absorption. It is therefore necessary to make use of portable instrumentation and/or to develop tomographic systems optimized to the characteristics of the objects under examination. This work describes the computed tomography of a first century A.D. Roman bronze statue of Cupid (96.AB.53) in the collection of the J. Paul Getty Museum, within the collaborative framework between the Getty Conservation Institute and the Department of Physics and Astronomy (DIFA) of the University of Bologna (Italy). The tomography performed at the Getty facilities employed a 450 kV X-ray tube and a detection system developed at DIFA. The study highlighted the casting and construction techniques used by Roman foundry workers and provided information on the status of conservation of the statue. A 3D virtual reconstruction allowed the user to define different cross-sections enabling the study of the internal features.

  20. Computed tomography of a medium size Roman bronze statue of Cupid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettuzzi, M.; Brancaccio, R. [University of Bologna, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bologna (Italy); Casali, F.; Morigi, M.P. [University of Bologna, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bologna (Italy); Centro Fermi, Rome (Italy); Carson, D.; Chiari, G. [Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Maish, J. [The J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-01-14

    Diagnostics based on X-ray computed tomography (CT) are becoming increasingly important, not only in the medical field but in industry and cultural heritage. CT devices typical for medical applications, however, can seldom be used on art objects because both they are not easily transportable and they often present high X-ray absorption. It is therefore necessary to make use of portable instrumentation and/or to develop tomographic systems optimized to the characteristics of the objects under examination. This work describes the computed tomography of a first century A.D. Roman bronze statue of Cupid (96.AB.53) in the collection of the J. Paul Getty Museum, within the collaborative framework between the Getty Conservation Institute and the Department of Physics and Astronomy (DIFA) of the University of Bologna (Italy). The tomography performed at the Getty facilities employed a 450 kV X-ray tube and a detection system developed at DIFA. The study highlighted the casting and construction techniques used by Roman foundry workers and provided information on the status of conservation of the statue. A 3D virtual reconstruction allowed the user to define different cross-sections enabling the study of the internal features. (orig.)

  1. Analysis of hybrid waste-to-energy for medium-sized cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban centers have a huge demand for electricity and the growing problem of the solid waste management generated by their population, a relevant social and administrative problem. The correct disposal of the municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in cities is one of the most complex engineering problems that involves logistics, safety, environmental and energetic aspects for its adequate management. Due to a national policy of solid wastes recently promulgated, Brazilian cities are evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of incinerating the non-recyclable waste. São José dos Campos, a São Paulo State industrialized city, is considering the composting of organic waste for biogas production and mass incineration of non-recyclable waste. This paper presents a waste-to-energy system based on the integration of gas turbines to a MSW incinerator for producing thermal and electric energy as an alternative solution for the solid waste disposal in São José dos Campos, SP. A technical and economic feasibility study for the hybrid combined cycle plant is presented and revealed to be attractive when carbon credit and waste tax are included in the project income. - Highlights: ? We model a hybrid waste-to-energy cogeneration system for the disposal of MSW. ? Reference model for MSW treatment consists of biogas burning and composting. ? Hybrid cogeneration solution is superior to the biogas burning reference model. ? Carbon credit and waste tax increase the attractiveness of the proposed solution

  2. Computed tomography of a medium size Roman bronze statue of Cupid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnostics based on X-ray computed tomography (CT) are becoming increasingly important, not only in the medical field but in industry and cultural heritage. CT devices typical for medical applications, however, can seldom be used on art objects because both they are not easily transportable and they often present high X-ray absorption. It is therefore necessary to make use of portable instrumentation and/or to develop tomographic systems optimized to the characteristics of the objects under examination. This work describes the computed tomography of a first century A.D. Roman bronze statue of Cupid (96.AB.53) in the collection of the J. Paul Getty Museum, within the collaborative framework between the Getty Conservation Institute and the Department of Physics and Astronomy (DIFA) of the University of Bologna (Italy). The tomography performed at the Getty facilities employed a 450 kV X-ray tube and a detection system developed at DIFA. The study highlighted the casting and construction techniques used by Roman foundry workers and provided information on the status of conservation of the statue. A 3D virtual reconstruction allowed the user to define different cross-sections enabling the study of the internal features. (orig.)

  3. An assessment of acoustic emission techniques on medium-sized pressure vessels tested to failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Location analysis has been used to examine acoustic emission from a partial thickness slit in a test vessel during pressurization. Preliminary invesigations showed that sharp emission pulses at a source would propagate as sharp pulses to a sensor several metres distant and that intrinsic material attenuation was negligible at the 165 kHz operating frequency. Pulse arrival times at three sensors were used to locate emission sources and the requirement for near-coincidence in arrival time at all sensors reduced background noise to very low levels. The slit was clearly delineated by its emission. Emission activity moved from the centre to the ends of the slit as the stress on the slit increased, suggesting that emissions were generated during the initial yielding of the steel. This indication was strengthened by the fact that the emission count appeared to be directly proportional to the volume of plastically yielded material associated with the defect, based on a simple model for the increase in plastic zone size with pressure. Application of acoustic emission techniques to structural validation is discussed in terms of the measured amplitude spectrum of the detected acoustic emissions. A relationship is derived between the detected emission count, the threshold amplitude for detection, the sensor spacing and the created plastic volume for the steel studied. (Auth.)

  4. Quantum chemical study of the electronic properties of an Iridium-based photosensitizer bound to medium-sized silver clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Bokareva, Olga S

    2015-01-01

    The equilibrium structures and electronic excitation spectra of the Ir(III) photosensitizer Ir(ppy)$_2$(bpy)]$^+$ bound to medium-sized silver clusters Ag$_n$ ($n=$19, 20) are investigated using time-dependent density functional theory. The long-range corrected LC-BLYP approach is used with a system-specific range separation parameter. The weak physisorption of the hybrid complexes yield only small changes in the broadened absorption spectra of the hybrid system as compared with its constituents. However, the density of states as well as the fine structure of the spectra is strongly modified upon complexation. It is shown that the standard range separation parameter (0.47 bohr$^{-1}$) cannot predict these properties correctly and the optimized value of 0.16 bohr$^{-1}$ should be used instead.

  5. Performance Measurement in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises - Literature Review and Results from a German Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Kreusel, N.

    2008-01-01

    A literature review of Performance Measurement Systems (PMS) in Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) shows that the main contributions focus on the development of theoretical models, but not on guidelines for practical implementation. In this context, an important neglected aspect is the general fitness or readiness of a SME to implement a PMS. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to determine critical prerequisites for a successful PMS implementation in SMEs. For this purpose, a case study in a German SME was conducted. The findings indicate that the existence of specific contingency factors – Corporate Strategy, software-based Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) and Activity Based Costing (ABC) – strongly supports the successful implementation of a PMS and its later use. Hence, further research shall include these prerequisites as new variables determining the PMS process. Based on that, researchers and managers of SMEs can develop individual indicators to identify their own PMS readiness.

  6. THE LIMITS OF THE EXTENDED HÜCKEL THEORY TO CALCULATE THE TOTAL DENSITY OF STATES OF MEDIUM-SIZED MOLECULES

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JUAN SEBASTIÁN, GÓMEZ-JERIA.

    1061-10-01

    Full Text Available Two medium-sized molecular systems X60 (X=C,N) were analyzed using Extended Hückel, Density Functional and ab initio Hartree-Fock methods. The aim of the work was to test the reliability of the EHT methodology to calculate the total Density of States distribution curve. The Extended Hückel method is [...] only reliable in the cases of the first valence and conduction bands of these systems. For the rest of the Density of States distribution curve EHT performs badly. The sources of error of EHT, come from the non-inclusion of the electron-electron interaction and from incorrect results regarding the relative ordering of the MO degeneracies. Both sources of error should disappear when the occupied and empty molecular orbitals become very similar in energy over a certain range, forming an almost continuous band, as happens in bigger molecular systems

  7. Innovation incubators – entities of support of small and medium-sized enterprises’ competitiveness in the Modern economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maier Lidia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Innovation incubators are entities of the infrastructure network of support of small and medium-sized enterprises. At the stage of SMEs’ maximum vulnerability, they improve the survival of innovative businesses through the range of services and facilities provided. They are designed to mitigate the problems faced by SMEs, which develop and implement innovations, ensuring sustainability and competitiveness. Along with promoting the entrepreneurial spirit, innovation incubators play an essential role in promoting knowledge and innovation transfer, introduction of the research results into economic circuit, creating links between businesses, universities, research institutions, etc., links between people, talents and resources.In this article, we will focus on innovation incubators, their role in the development of SMEs in the world and in the Republic of Moldova, making an accent in the creation and development of the country's first Innovation Incubator „Inovatorul”.

  8. The evolution of size and cost of a hydrogen delivery infrastructure in Europe in the medium and long term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzimas, E.; Castello, P.; Peteves, S. [European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy, P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG, Petten (Netherlands)

    2007-07-15

    The successful deployment of a hydrogen delivery (transmission and distribution) infrastructure will be critical for the widespread use of hydrogen. Estimates based on three scenarios that vary in the degree of hydrogen penetration in the European energy system indicate that between 1 and 4 million km of distribution pipelines, and up to 35 000 km of high-pressure transmission and 400 000 km of medium pressure sub-transmission pipelines may be needed by 2050. A truck fleet for the supply of liquefied hydrogen may reach the size of 3000-8000 vehicles. The cumulative capital necessary to build this infrastructure by 2050 may range between 700 and 2200 thousand million euros for the most optimistic scenario and is significantly lower for the other scenarios. Most of this will be needed for the development of the distribution network. These costs however represent a relatively small fraction (7.5-22%) of the annual gross value added of the energy sector. (author)

  9. Sustainable Product Service Systems in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs): Opportunities in the Leather Manufacturing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Herna?ndez Pardo, Ricardo J.; Tracy Bhamra; Ran Bhamra

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to identify opportunities to develop sustainable Product Service Systems (PSS) involving Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). The purpose of the research is to build understanding of how the integration of product and service design and the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) can contribute to identify opportunities to develop sustainable PSS involving SMEs. In order to develop the approach, research with 16 Colombian Manufacturing SMEs was ...

  10. Use of radiation vulcanized natural rubber latex in small and medium scale industries in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The latex based industry is fast growing with the setting up of several units to produce household and examination gloves. Production of rubberized coir using concentrated latex is also growing rapidly while more and more small scale industries have been set up. There is also a growth in the large scale sector in the dipped goods manufacture. Use of irradiated latex in the manufacture of dipped products has good potential as the efficiency of production is enhanced in the case of latex containing less additives. (author)

  11. Measurement of size error in industrial CT system with Calotte cube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, DaoDang; Chen, XiXi; Wang, FuMin; Shi, YuShu; Kong, Ming; Zhao, Jun

    2015-02-01

    A measurement method with calotte cube was proposed to realize the high-precision calibration of size error in industrial computer tomography (CT) system. Using the traceability of calotte cube, the measurement of the repeatability error, probing error and length measurement error of industrial CT system was carried out to increase the acceptance of CT as a metrological method. The main error factors, including the material absorption, projection number and integration time and so on, had been studied in detail. Experimental results show that the proposed measurement method provides a feasible way to measure the size error of industrial CT system. Compared with the measurement results with invar 27- sphere gauge, a high accuracy in the order of microns is realized with the proposed method based on calotte cube. Differing from the invar 27-sphere gauge method, the material particularity of calotte cube (material of metallic titanium) could introduce beam hardening effect, the study on the influence of material absorption and structural specificity on the measurement, which provides significant reference for the measurement of metallic samples, is necessary.

  12. Green oriented urban development for urban ecosystem services provision in a medium sized city in southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinico F

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In southern Italy many cities are characterized by a lack of public urban greenspaces. Non-urbanized areas in these cities are suffering from surrounding urbanization pressures. These areas still provide important ecosystem services even if they are limited in size, highly fragmented and often neglected by local planning. New planning strategies are needed in order to protect and enhance the provision of ecosystem services delivered by existing Non-Urbanized areas, but municipalities usually have limited funds for acquiring public green areas via land expropriations. At the same time, requests for new urban development are still considerable. Consequently, it is not realistic to propose strategies for green areas that do not include new developments. The paper illustrates a strategy for a Green Oriented Urban Development (GOUD that has been applied for the Master Plan of Catania, a medium sized city in Sicily (southern Italy. The strategy includes a limited amount of developments as well as new greenspaces in selected areas (Resource Zones, through the transfer of property and development rights between the municipality and developers. The strategy will allow to enhance the provision of ecosystem services, especially cultural services (thanks to a dramatic increase of accessibility to new greenspaces, regulating services (through climate regulation by new green land covers and provisioning services such as urban agricultural products. Results show that it is possible to improve urban ecosystem services creating a more liveable and healthy urban environment at reduced cost for the municipal administrations.

  13. Development of the ACS+OPC UA based control system for a CTA medium size telescope prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Bagmeet; Oya, Igor; Birsin, Emrah; Köppel, Hendryk; Melkumyan, David; Schlenstedt, Stefan; Schmidt, Torsten; Schwanke, Ullrich; Wegner, Peter; Wiesand, Stephan; Winde, Michael

    2012-09-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the next generation Very High Energy (VHE, defined as > 50GeV to several 100TeV) telescope facility, currently in the design and prototyping phase, and expected to come on-line around 2016. The array would have both a Northern and Southern hemisphere site, together delivering nearly complete sky coverage. The CTA array is planned to have ~100 telescopes of several different sizes to fulfill the sensitivity and energy coverage needs. Each telescope has a number of subsystems with varied hardware and control mechanisms; a drive system that gets commands and inputs via OPC UA (OPC Unified Architecture), mirror alignment systems based on XBee/ZigBee protocol and/or CAN bus, weather monitor accessed via serial/Ethernet ports, CCD cameras for calibration, Cherenkov camera, and the data read out electronics, etc. Integrating the control and data-acquisitions of such a distributed heterogeneous system calls for a framework that can handle such a multi-platform, multi-protocol scenario. The CORBA based ALMA Common software satisfies these needs very well and is currently being evaluated as the base software for developing the control system for CTA. A prototype for a Medium Size Telescope (MST, ~12m) is being developed and will be deployed in Berlin, by end of 2012. We present the development being carried out to integrate and control the various hardware subsystems of this MST prototype using ACS.

  14. Results from an exploratory study to identify the factors that contribute to success for UK medical device small- and medium-sized enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourd, P C; Williams, D J

    2008-07-01

    This paper reports the results from an exploratory study that sets out to identify and compare the strategic approaches and patterns of business practice employed by 14 UK small- and medium-sized enterprises to achieve success in the medical device sector of the health-care industry. An interview-based survey was used to construct individual case studies of the medical device technology (MDT) companies. A cross-case analysis was performed to search for patterns and themes that cut across these individual cases. Exploratory results revealed the heterogeneity of MDT companies and the distinctive features of the MDT innovation process that emphasize the importance of a strategic approach for achieving milestones in the product development and exploitation process and for creating value for the company and its stakeholders. Recognizing the heterogeneity of MDT companies, these exploratory findings call for further investigation to understand better the influence of components of the MDT innovation process on the commercialization life cycle and value trajectory. This is required to assist start-up or spin-out MDT companies in the UK and worldwide to navigate the critical transitions that determine access to financial and consumer markets and enhance the potential to build a successful business. This will be important not only for bioscience-based companies but also for engineering-based companies aiming to convert their activities into medical devices and the health- and social-care market. PMID:18756690

  15. Vendor development program among small and medium industries (SMIS: A Malaysian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Bakar Abdul Hamid

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The supplier-buyer relationship has been increasingly undertaken in recent years, by academics, consultants and operations management. Present and especially future development strongly urge for more systematic and transparent decision-making. Developing longer-term relationships and using longer-term contracts, are additional ways to manage, develop and improve supplier performance (Monczka et.al 1998 who, often becomes partner with the purchaser. This paper investigates the supplier development programme initiated by the government of Malaysia to stimulate the economic growth through SMIs sector in co-operation with the large firms (LFs. The economic and industrialisation development propelled by the goverment has encouraged the development of SMIs working closely with large firms (LFs. This programme was seccussfully implemented when the goverment introduced it in the heavy industrial program - the manufacturing of national car PROTON in 1988. The success story of PROTON has initiated the government to disseminate this programme into other industries. Empirical findings from a survey of 15 SMIs and 6LFs (from 4 different industrial sectors within the Klang valley in the supplier development programme indicated that the success rate is not encouraging. Suppliers lack skills and financing to make the necessary indicated that the success rate is not encouraging. Suppliers lack skills and financing to make the necessary investments in training, new technology, research and development to make an effective partnership with final producers.

  16. Solid waste from leather industry as adsorbent of organic dyes in aqueous-medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luiz C.A. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, Depto. de Quimica, Caixa Postal 37, CEP 37200.000, Lavras-MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: luizoliveira@ufla.br; Goncalves, Maraisa [Universidade Federal de Lavras, Depto. de Quimica, Caixa Postal 37, CEP 37200.000, Lavras-MG (Brazil); Oliveira, Diana Q.L. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, Depto. de Quimica, Caixa Postal 37, CEP 37200.000, Lavras-MG (Brazil); Guerreiro, Mario C. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, Depto. de Quimica, Caixa Postal 37, CEP 37200.000, Lavras-MG (Brazil); Guilherme, Luiz R.G. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, Depto. de Ciencia do solo, CEP 37200.000, Lavras-MG (Brazil); Dallago, Rogerio M. [URI-Campus Erechim, Av. 7 Setembro 1621, Centro, CEP 99700-000, Depto de Quimica, Erechim-RS (Brazil)

    2007-03-06

    The industrial tanning of leather usually produces considerable amounts of chromium-containing solid waste and liquid effluents and raises many concerns on its environmental effect as well as on escalating landfill costs. Actually, these shortcomings are becoming increasingly a limiting factor to this industrial activity that claims for alternative methods of residue disposals. In this work, it is proposed a novel alternative destination of the solid waste, based on the removal of organic contaminants from the out coming aqueous-residue. The adsorption isotherm pattern for the wet blue leather from the Aurea tanning industry in Erechim-RS (Brazil) showed that these materials present high activity on adsorbing the reactive red textile dye as well as other compounds. The adsorbent materials were characterized by IR spectroscopy and SEM and tested for the dye adsorption (reactive textile and methylene blue dyes). The concentrations of dyes were measured by UV-vis spectrophotometry and the chromium extraction from leather waste was realized by basic hydrolysis and determined by atomic absorption. As a low cost abundant adsorbent material with high adsorption ability on removing dye methylene blue (80 mg g{sup -1}) and textile dye reactive red (163 mg g{sup -1}), the leather waste is revealed to be a interesting alternative relatively to more costly adsorbent materials.

  17. Solid waste from leather industry as adsorbent of organic dyes in aqueous-medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The industrial tanning of leather usually produces considerable amounts of chromium-containing solid waste and liquid effluents and raises many concerns on its environmental effect as well as on escalating landfill costs. Actually, these shortcomings are becoming increasingly a limiting factor to this industrial activity that claims for alternative methods of residue disposals. In this work, it is proposed a novel alternative destination of the solid waste, based on the removal of organic contaminants from the out coming aqueous-residue. The adsorption isotherm pattern for the wet blue leather from the Aurea tanning industry in Erechim-RS (Brazil) showed that these materials present high activity on adsorbing the reactive red textile dye as well as other compounds. The adsorbent materials were characterized by IR spectroscopy and SEM and tested for the dye adsorption (reactive textile and methylene blue dyes). The concentrations of dyes were measured by UV-vis spectrophotometry and the chromium extraction from leather waste was realized by basic hydrolysis and determined by atomic absorption. As a low cost abundant adsorbent material with high adsorption ability on removing dye methylene blue (80 mg g-1) and textile dye reactive red (163 mg g-1), the leather waste is revealed to be a interesting alternative relatively to more costly adsorbent materials

  18. Potential advantages of coupling supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle to water cooled small and medium size reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? S-CO2 cycle as candidate for SMS. ? MATLAB code used for S-CO2 cycle analysis. ? Pressure ratio and split ratio comparison analyzed. - Abstract: The supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO2) Brayton cycle is being considered as a favorable candidate for the next generation nuclear reactors power conversion systems. Major benefits of the S-CO2 Brayton cycle compared to other Brayton cycles are: (1) high thermal efficiency in relatively low turbine inlet temperature, (2) compactness of the turbomachineries and heat exchangers and (3) simpler cycle layout at an equivalent or superior thermal efficiency. However, these benefits can be still utilized even in the water-cooled reactor technologies under special circumstances. A small and medium size water-cooled nuclear reactor (SMR) has been gaining interest due to its wide range of application such as electricity generation, seawater desalination, district heating and propulsion. Another key advantage of a SMR is that it can be transported from one place to another mostly by maritime transport due to its small size, and sometimes even through a railway system. Therefore, the combination of a S-CO2 Brayton cycle with a SMR can reinforce any advantages coming from its small size if the S-CO2 Brayton cycle has much smaller size components, and simpler cycle layout compared to the currently considered steam Rankine cycle. In this paper, SMART (Sysine cycle. In this paper, SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor), a 330 MWth integral reactor developed by KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Institute) for multipurpose utilization, is considered as a potential candidate for applying the S-CO2 Brayton cycle and advantages and disadvantages of the proposed system will be discussed in detail. In consideration of SMART condition, the turbine inlet pressure and size of heat exchangers are analyzed by using in-house code developed by KAIST–Khalifa University joint research team. According to the cycle evaluation, the maximum cycle efficiency under 310 °C is 30.05% at 22 MPa of the compressor outlet pressure and 36% of flow split ratio (FSR) with 82 m3 of total heat exchanger volume while the upper bound of the total cycle efficiency is 37% with ideal components within 310 °C. The total volume of turbomachinery which can afford 330 MWth of SMR is less than 1.4 m3 without casing. All the obtained results are compared to the existing SMART system along with its implication to other existing or conceptual SMRs in terms of overall performance in detail.

  19. Effect of the plantation age on the use of Eucalyptus stands by medium to large-sized wild mammals in south-eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo TPC

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In São Paulo State, in Southeastern Brazil, the Eucalyptus plantations have been replacing large areas which were formerly occupied by pastures used for livestock production. Such land use change may affect the habitat use by wildlife in these anthropic landscapes. In this region, the commercial Eucalyptus plantations of the paper and cellulose industry usually take from 6 to 7 years to be harvested. During its production cycle, the Eucalyptus stands vary from an open savanna-like environment just after plantation, when plants still resemble bushes, to a forest-like environment with densely distributed 18-meter high trees. Previous studies show that the Eucalyptus plantations in Southeastern Brazil are used by generalist species including medium and large sized mammals. However, the possible influence of such dramatic temporal environmental heterogeneity on the wildlife habitat use in Eucalyptus plantations is still unknown. In this study, which follows a classic stratified design, we evaluate the influence of the Eucalyptus stand age on the local patterns of distribution and abundance of middle to large-sized wild mammals. Our results show an increase not only in their species richness, but also in their frequency of occurrences along the commercial cycle of the Eucalyptus plantations with a steep decline in both before harvest. This pattern may be related to weed control practices which significantly reduce the understory vegetation, in especial at the end of the commercial cycle while preparing for harvest. Future studies should prioritize the possible variation on the trophic structure in the Eucalyptus plantations along commercial cycles as a response of wildlife friendly silvicultural/agricultural management practices.

  20. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of industrial mitigation for sustainable development is discussed in Section 7.7. Section 7.8 discusses the sector's vulnerability to climate change and options for adaptation. A number of policies have been designed either to encourage voluntary GHG emission reductions from the industrial sector or to mandate such reductions. Section 7.9 describes these policies and the experience gained to date. Co-benefits of reducing GHG emissions from the industrial sector are discussed in Section 7.10. Development of new technology is key to the cost-effective control of industrial GHG emissions. Section 7.11 discusses research, development, deployment and diffusion in the industrial sector and Section 7.12, the long-term (post-2030) technologies for GHG emissions reduction from the industrial sector. Section 7.13 summarizes gaps in knowledge.

  1. Open source customer relationship management solutions potential for an impact of open source CRM solutions on small- and medium sized enterprises

    CERN Document Server

    Vogt, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    The book reveals the overall importance of a customer relationship management system especially for small and medium-sized enterprises. In addition to the topic of CRM, the increasing importance and possibilities of open source software is revealed.The main research question consists of the idea if open source customer relationship management systems are able to fulfill the requirements of a CRM software.In order to be able to answer this question, the following analysis made use of the literature available on the topics CRM, special requirements of small and medium-sized enterprises, and the

  2. Pharmaceutical Enterprises' R&D Strategic Alliance—— the Road for Small and Medium Sized Pharmaceutical Enterprises' R&D in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuzhen Chu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on analyzing the status of small and medium-sized pharmaceutical enterprises in China, the paper explores the problems of these enterprises; Then it provided several feasible  development strategies which are building pharmaceutical enterprises' R&D strategic alliance, starting from the corporate strategic view and combining with the R&D characteristics of small and medium sized pharmaceutical companies; Finally in order to ensure the Effectiveness of R & D alliance, we point out some points of what should be noted in the process.

  3. Oestrogenicity and chemical target analysis of water from small-sized industries in Pretoria, South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    SI, Mahomed; KVV, Voyi; NH, Aneck-Hahn; C, de Jager.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing concern about endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and their effects on humans, animals and the environment resulted in this study being conducted. Water from 7 sites in the Pretoria West area (South Africa), with significant numbers of small-sized industries, was screened for oestrogeni [...] city, using the Recombinant Yeast Cell Bioassay (RCBA). Target chemical analyses were carried out to establish the presence of EDCs, including p-nonylphenol (p-NP), bisphenol A (BPA), phthalate esters, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and various organochlorine pesticides, including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). p-NP, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides were detected using LECO Pegasus II MSTOF and BPA and phthalates were detected using the GC-MS method. Oestrogenic activity was detected in all the samples collected from these sites. Lindane, an organochlorine pesticide, was detected at one site. p-NP, PCBs and phthalate esters were detected at some of the other sites. Small-size industries were found to contribute to EDC pollution of water in the Pretoria West area.

  4. The Effect of Founder Family Influence on Hedging and Speculation : Evidence from Danish, Medium-Sized, Manufacturing Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Kuhn, Jochen

    We investigate the effect of founder family influence in the form of managers, board of directors, and/or ownership on hedging and speculation in medium-sized, manufacturing firms in Denmark. On a crude measure of use / non-use of derivatives we find only a weak indication of differences between founder family firms and other firms in relation to their management of foreign exchange rate, interest rate, and commodity price exposures. Digging deeper into a subsample of users of foreign exchange derivatives and debt denominated in foreign currency, we find that founder family firms not only tend to hedge more extensively, they also tend to speculate more often than other firms. While the former result on hedging is in line with founder families' lack of monetary diversification and their non-pecuniary investment in the firm, the latter result on speculation is surprising and can only be explained by Adam Smith's observation that men - in this case members of the founder family - tend to overestimate their own abilities and good fortune. The results of the study are important 1) because the interaction between founder family influence and risk management has received limited attention in the literature (in contrast to the attention given to the interaction between founder family influence and corporate performance) and 2) because the founders or the founders' families or heirs control most of the firms in the world.

  5. Estructura y temporalidad urbana de las ciudades intermedias en México / Urban structure and time in Medium-Sized mexican cities

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Guillermo, Álvarez de la Torre.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo exploratorio pretende aplicar y estudiar esquemas espaciales monocéntricos de ciudades a partir del análisis espacial sobre el gradiente de densidad, estructura de edad de la población y tenencia de la vivienda en 32 ciudades intermedias mexicanas. Los modelos cuantitativos de estructur [...] a urbana toman como referencia la distancia al centro de negocios de la ciudad como un elemento, determinante en el comportamiento de ciertos fenómenos. En el presente estudio vemos cómo el factor del período histórico al que pertenece el espacio urbano permite encontrar patrones espaciales consistentes en la estructura de las ciudades intermedias mexicanas. Abstract in english The internal structure of cities has been examined through various disciplines such as economic spatial models, ecological structures and land use. This paper seeks to study centrality in urban structure models for medium-sized Mexican cities through the spatial analysis of population density, popul [...] ation age structure and housing in 32 Mexican cities. Quantitative urban structure models use distance to the central business district as a basic aspect for determining the behavior of certain phenomena. This study shows that the historical period to which urban space belongs enables one to identify consistent spatial patterns in the structure of intermediate Mexican cities.

  6. Market potential of small and medium-size nuclear reactors as combined heat and power plants in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Study has been launched and supported by the Commission of the European Communities to assess the potential market of small and medium size nuclear reactors through EC Countries and to identify those factors which may play a dominant role in this respect. In its first phase, the Study addresses to modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors that would be installed to produce low-temperature heat and power. Federal Republic of Germany, Italy and France are the countries for which the investigation has been either completed or is under way. The time span of interest is up to the year 2020. Referring to this horizon an appraisal has been made of the number of nuclear units which could come on line to cope with energy demand and their timing. Through the Study a distinction is made between technical potential, economic potential, and effective market potential. It is understood indeed that both economic competitiveness towards other energy sources and institutional or organizational factors may restrict the market which could be covered by this class of nuclear reactors. (author)

  7. The impact of corporate social responsibility factors on the competitiveness of small and medium-sized enterprises

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Peter, Turyakira; Elmarie, Venter; Elroy, Smith.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has become increasingly important to the competitiveness of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). A positive relationship between the CSR activities of SMEs and their enhanced competitiveness exists, at least if a long-term perspective is adopted (European [...] Competitiveness Report, 2008:106; Mandl & Dorr, 2007:2). Despite the widespread practical and academic interest in CSR and its impact on the competitiveness of SMEs, few theoretical and empirical contributions could be found. The primary objective of this study was to identify and empirically test the CSR factors influencing the competitiveness of SMEs in Uganda. The outcomes of this study will assist SMEs to effectively and responsibly manage their activities to increase their competitiveness. A structured, self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 750 potential SME respondents. The respondents were identified by means of a purposive sampling technique, and the data were collected from 383 usable questionnaires. An exploratory factor analysis was carried out, and Cronbach's alpha coefficients calculated to determine the discriminant validity and reliability of the measuring instrument. Correlations were assessed using structural equation modeling. The empirical results of this study indicate that workforce-oriented CSR activities, society-oriented CSR activities, market-oriented CSR activities and regulated CSR activities significantly influence the competitiveness of SMEs.

  8. Defining the Role Engagement of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin James Inyang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility (CSR discourse, academic research, public policy and media commentaries, which have burgeoned in the past few decades in response to the desire to define the nexus between business and society tended to focus mainly on large corporate organizations which are expected to behave responsibly. The big businesses have for years attracted large volume of literature on CSR. Very little literature is currently available to enhance our understanding about the engagement of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in CSR. The SMEs, often defined variously, in terms of turnover, gross asset value, ownership structure and the number of employees, is a significant sector worldwide in terms of economic, environmental and the social impact they make. This paper attempted to bridge this apparent research gulf, defined the nature of SMEs, the aggregate contributions of the sector to economies of both developed and developing nations and their role engagement in CSR. The study adopted qualitative literature survey method. A review of the paltry literature provided insight and defined the direction of research in this important and underexplored area of study. SMEs were found to perform roles associated with community development, employee initiatives, consumerism, environmental actions and supply chain requirements. To overcome the constraints confronting SMEs engagement in CSR initiatives the paper recommended increased resources, training programmes, development of SMEs-oriented tools and standards to guide adoption and implementation, and government intervention strategies to create the necessary incentives and support services for effective engagement.

  9. Risk determinants of small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises (SMEs) - an exploratory study in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Ariful; Tedford, Des

    2012-08-01

    The smooth running of small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises (SMEs) presents a significant challenge irrespective of the technological and human resources they may have at their disposal. SMEs continuously encounter daily internal and external undesirable events and unwanted setbacks to their operations that detract from their business performance. These are referred to as `disturbances' in our research study. Among the disturbances, some are likely to create risks to the enterprises in terms of loss of production, manufacturing capability, human resource, market share, and, of course, economic losses. These are finally referred to as `risk determinant' on the basis of their correlation with some risk indicators, which are linked to operational, occupational, and economic risks. To deal with these risk determinants effectively, SMEs need a systematic method of approach to identify and treat their potential effects along with an appropriate set of tools. However, initially, a strategic approach is required to identify typical risk determinants and their linkage with potential business risks. In this connection, we conducted this study to explore the answer to the research question: what are the typical risk determinants encountered by SMEs? We carried out an empirical investigation with a multi-method research approach (a combination of a questionnaire-based mail survey involving 212 SMEs and five in-depth case studies) in New Zealand. This paper presents a set of typical internal and external risk determinants, which need special attention to be dealt with to minimize operational risks of an SME.

  10. Mexico and emerging carbon markets : investment opportunities for small and medium-size companies and the global climate agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides information to the financial services sector on major environmental issues in North America in an effort to identify potential financial opportunities in Mexico regarding the climate change agenda and those coming from possible carbon offset projects. As a non-Annex 1 country, Mexico is not obliged to meet domestic GHG emission reduction targets, but given the strong economic links between Mexico, Canada and the United States it is suggested that investment transfer links to climate change should follow existing international investment and trade patterns. This report examined three sectors in Mexico, including electric power generation, steel production and land-use change and forestry, in an effort to evaluate their potential for carbon reduction. The report identifies carbon-related opportunities involving small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) in particular because large companies are already better positioned to examine opportunities associated with the international climate agenda. SMEs, however, face many challenges in taking advantage of climate-related projects and associated investment opportunities, including higher entry and transaction costs, difficulty in accessing capital markets, and difficulty in estimating individual baselines and inventories. The report showed that the main carbon-related opportunity in Mexico's electricity sector are closely related to the planned expansion of natural gas use. This study also suggests that th gas use. This study also suggests that the climate agenda can contribute to changing Mexican forests from their current state of being a net source of greenhouse gas emissions, to becoming a significant carbon sink. tabs., figs

  11. FIRST-based survey of Compact Steep Spectrum sources, II. MERLIN and VLA observations of Medium-sized Symmetric Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Kunert-Bajraszewska, M; Thomasson, P; Spencer, R E; Kunert-Bajraszewska, Magdalena; Marecki, Andrzej; Thomasson, Peter; Spencer, Ralph E.

    2005-01-01

    A new sample of candidate Compact Steep Spectrum (CSS) sources that are much weaker than the CSS source prototypes has been selected from the VLA FIRST catalogue. MERLIN `snapshot' observations of the sources at 5 GHz indicate that six of them have an FR II-like morphology, but are not edge-brightened as is normal for Medium-sized Symmetric Objects (MSOs) and FR IIs. Further observations of these six sources with the VLA at 4.9 GHz and MERLIN at 1.7 GHz, as well as subsequent full-track observations with MERLIN at 5 GHz of what appeared to be the two sources of greatest interest are presented. The results are discussed with reference to the established evolutionary model of CSS sources being young but in which not all of them evolve to become old objects with extended radio structures. A lack of stable fuelling in some of them may result in an early transition to a so-called coasting phase so that they fade away instead of growing to become large-scale objects. It is possible that one of the six sources (1542...

  12. An Influence of Strategic Awareness on Management Control: Evidence from Polish Micro, Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Dyczkowska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper investigates whether employees’ strategic awareness influences the shape of management control systems (MCSs in Polish micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (mSMEs. Methodology: The study is based on data obtained from 223 companies between November 2010 and January 2012. The quantitative analysis used a set of variables which depicted MCSs: ‘goalsetting process’, ‘control framework’ and ‘organisation of control’. Strategic awareness was considered an independent variable. Findings: The results showed positive correlations between strategic awareness and considered variables. Regression models developed by the authors proved statistically valid. The study evidences, that increasing employees’ strategic awareness stimulates their participation in goal-setting, contributes to the development of more comprehensive MCSs, or may even imply formalisation of management control. Research limitations: The study does not include an analysis of the extent to which employees find MCSs useful in their work. This will be considered in future research. Another possible extension of the project is to identify factors which enable the capturing of the dynamic character of MCSs and their changes over time. Practical implications: The knowledge of MCSs does not explain whether or not the strategic orientation of a company stimulates a need for MCS. Such knowledge may be important to managers who have to face Polish employees’ general aversion to control. Originality: The study contributes to the limited body of knowledge in a scope of relations between employees’ strategic awareness and control mechanisms in Polish mSMEs.

  13. Development of 3D Visualization Technology for Medium-and Large-sized Radioactive Metal Wastes from Decommissioning Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most important point of decommissioning nuclear facilities and nuclear power plants is to spend less money and do this process safely. In order to perform a better decommissioning nuclear facilities and nuclear power plants, a data base of radioactive waste from decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities should be constructed. This data base is described herein, from the radioactive nuclide to the shape of component of nuclear facilities, and representative results of the status and analysis are presented. With the increase in number of nuclear facilities at the end of their useful life, the demand of decommissioning technologies will continue to grow for years to come. This analysis of medium-and large-sized radioactive metal wastes and 3D visualization technology of the radioactive metal wastes using the 3D-SCAN are planned to be used for constructing data bases. The data bases are expected to be used on development of the basic technologies for decommissioning nuclear facilities 4 session

  14. Designing and Validating a Model for Measuring Sustainability of Overall Innovation Capability of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Nizam Ab Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The business environment is currently characterized by intensified competition at both the national and firm levels. Many studies have shown that innovation positively affect firms in enhancing their competitiveness. Innovation is a dynamic process that requires a continuous, evolving, and mastered management. Evaluating the sustainability of overall innovation capability of a business is a major means of determining how well this firm effectively and efficiently manages its innovation process. A psychometrically valid scale of evaluating the sustainability of overall innovation capability of a firm is still insufficient in the current innovation literature. Thus, this study developed a reliable and valid scale of measuring the sustainability of overall innovation capability construct. The unidimensionality, reliability, and several validity components of the developed scale were tested using the data collected from 175 small and medium-sized enterprises in Iran. A series of systematic statistical analyses were performed. Results of the reliability measures, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, and several components of validity tests strongly supported an eight-dimensional (8D scale of measuring the sustainability of overall innovation capability construct. The dimensions of the scale were strategic management, supportive culture and structure, resource allocation, communication and networking, knowledge and technology management, idea management, project development, and commercialization capabilities.

  15. As dificuldades de capitalização das pequenas e médias empresas brasileiras / Capitalization difficulties for the brazilian small and medium size companies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wagner Cezar, Lucato; Milton, Vieira Júnior.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O propósito central deste artigo é discutir as dificuldades enfrentadas pelas pequenas e médias empresas brasileiras (PMEs) para a aquisição dos bens de capital necessários à atualização de sua base tecnológica. Como parte dessa discussão, foram realizados estudos de caso envolvendo 15 empresas com [...] o objetivo de levantar evidências que possibilitaram estabelecer a seguinte hipótese: as maiores dificuldades enfrentadas pelas PMEs brasileiras para adquirir bens de capital estariam diretamente relacionadas a práticas administrativas incorretas desenvolvidas pelos seus proprietários-gestores e não associadas à indisponibilidade de créditos ou outros fatores relacionados aos mercados onde atuam. Abstract in english The purpose of this paper is to discuss the difficulties of the Brazilian small and medium size companies (SMSC) to acquire the capital goods required to update their technological base. A case study comprising 15 SMSC was developed in order to collect evidences that enabled to raise the following h [...] ypothesis: the major difficulties faced by the SMSC to acquire capital goods is directly related to a series of mismanagement actions performed by their owner-managers when running their business, and not a result of lack of credit or other market / economic environment driven factor.

  16. Air pollution and cardiovascular hospital admissions in a medium-sized city in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L.F.C., Nascimento.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to estimate the contribution of environmental pollutants to hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease. A time series ecological study was conducted on subjects aged over 60 years and living in São José dos Campos, Brazil, with a population near 700,000 inh [...] abitants. Hospital admission data of public health patients (SUS) were obtained from DATASUS for the period between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2006, according to the ICD-10 diagnoses I20 to I22 and I24. Particulate matter with less than 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter, sulfur dioxide and ozone were the pollutants examined, and the control variables were mean temperature and relative humidity. Data on pollutants were obtained from the São Paulo State Sanitary Agency. The generalized linear model Poisson regression with lags of up to 5 days was used. There were 1303 hospital admissions during the period. Exposure to particulate matter was significantly associated with hospitalization for cardiovascular disease 3 days after exposure (RR = 1.006; 95%CI = 1.000 to 1.010) and an increase of 16 µg/m³ was associated with a 10% increase in risk of hospitalization; other pollutants were not associated with hospitalization. Thus, it was possible to identify the role of exposure to particulate matter as an environmental pollutant in hospitalization for cardiovascular disease in a medium-sized city inSoutheastern Brazil.

  17. Air pollution and cardiovascular hospital admissions in a medium-sized city in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F.C. Nascimento

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to estimate the contribution of environmental pollutants to hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease. A time series ecological study was conducted on subjects aged over 60 years and living in São José dos Campos, Brazil, with a population near 700,000 inhabitants. Hospital admission data of public health patients (SUS were obtained from DATASUS for the period between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2006, according to the ICD-10 diagnoses I20 to I22 and I24. Particulate matter with less than 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter, sulfur dioxide and ozone were the pollutants examined, and the control variables were mean temperature and relative humidity. Data on pollutants were obtained from the São Paulo State Sanitary Agency. The generalized linear model Poisson regression with lags of up to 5 days was used. There were 1303 hospital admissions during the period. Exposure to particulate matter was significantly associated with hospitalization for cardiovascular disease 3 days after exposure (RR = 1.006; 95%CI = 1.000 to 1.010 and an increase of 16 µg/m³ was associated with a 10% increase in risk of hospitalization; other pollutants were not associated with hospitalization. Thus, it was possible to identify the role of exposure to particulate matter as an environmental pollutant in hospitalization for cardiovascular disease in a medium-sized city inSoutheastern Brazil.

  18. Software-as-a-Service and Cloud Computing, a solution for small and medium-sized companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajenaru, A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium-sized companies are an important part of today’s world economy, for their ability to offer new jobs but also for their capacity of innovation. At the same time, they are in a constant struggle with larger companies that take advantage of their negotiating power to impose their way of doing business to the SMEs. In an ICT enabled world, most large companies being intense ICT users, the lag of ICT adoption in SMEs may create a strong barrier between SMEs and large companies, promoting an over growing digital divide, the SMEs being in danger of being left out in some economic sectors. This paper aims at finding a possible solution in the Software-as-a-Service and Cloud Computing model, a rather new solution, yet more and more sought off by SMEs but also larger companies, especially considering the global financial and economic crisis, as well as evaluating the European Union’s main views and policies regarding the SAAS – Cloud model.

  19. Occupational exposure in small and medium scale industry with specific reference to heat and noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lakhwinder Pal; Bhardwaj, Arvind; Deepak, Kishore Kumar

    2010-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess heat and noise exposure and occupational safety practices in small and medium scale casting and forging units (SMEs) of Northern India. We conducted personal interviews of 350 male workers of these units through a comprehensive questionnaire and collected information on heat and noise exposure, use of protective equipment, sweat loss and water intake, working hour. The ambient wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT index) was measured using quest temp 34/36o area heat stress monitor. A-weighted Leq ambient noise was measured using a quest sound level meter "ANSI SI. 43-1997 (R 2002) type-1 model SOUNDPRO SE/DL". We also incorporated OSHA norms for hearing conservation which include - an exchange rate of 5dB(A), criterion level at 90dB(A), criterion time of eight hours, threshold level is equal to 80dB(A), upper limit is equal to 140dB(A) and with F/S response rate. Results of the study revealed that occupational heat exposure in melting, casting, forging and punching sections is high compared to ACGIH/NIOSH norms. Ambience noise in various sections like casting / molding, drop forging, cutting presses, punching, grinding and barreling process was found to be more than 90dB(A). About 95% of the workers suffered speech interference where as high noise annoyance was reported by only 20%. Overall, 68% workers were not using any personal protective equipment (PPE). The study concluded that the proportion of SME workers exposed to high level heat stress and noise (60 - 72 hrs/week) is high. The workers engaged in forging and grinding sections are more prone to noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) at higher frequencies as compared to workers of other sections. It is recommended that there is a strong need to implement the standard of working hours as well as heat stress and noise control measures. PMID:20160389

  20. Fundamentos de un sistema de gestión humana por competencias para soportar la estrategia organizacional en una pyme del sector de la industria de las artes gráficas en Cali (Colombia) / Fundamentals of a competency-based human resource management system that supports the organizational strategy of a medium-sized company in the graphic arts industry in Cali (Colombia) / Fundamentos de um sistema de gestão humana por competências para apoiar a estratégia organizacional de uma pequema e média empresa do setor da indústria de artes gráficas em Cali (Colômbia)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    AIDA FLORENCIA, MEDINA LORZA; ANA MARÍA, DELGADO ORTEGA; PAOLA ANDREA, LAVADO ALVARADO.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A competitividade é um fator-chave para melhorar a posição sócio-econômica das organizações, para a qual é necessário alinhar o recurso humano à estratégia da empresa. O objetivo desta investigação é desenvolver os fundamentos de um sistema de gestão humana por competências para apoiar a estratégia [...] organizacional de uma empresa mediana do setor de artes gráficas em Cali, Colômbia, para a qual se levou em conta um estudo descritivo e qualitativo, analisou- -se a estratégia da empresa utilizando o modelo analítico de Beer (2001), estabeleceram-se as competências organizacionais e distintas dos cargos críticos para o sucesso da estratégia e estabeleceram-se diretrizes para criar os subsistemas de gestão humana. Abstract in spanish La competitividad es un factor clave para mejorar la posición socioeconómica de las organizaciones, para lo cual es necesario alinear el recurso humano a la estrategia de la empresa. El objetivo de esta investigación es desarrollar los fundamentos de un sistema de gestión humana por competencias par [...] a soportar la estrategia organizacional en una empresa mediana del sector de las artes gráficas en Cali (Colombia), para lo cual se llevó a cabo un estudio descriptivo y cualitativo, se analizó la estrategia de la empresa utilizando el modelo analítico de Beer (2001), se establecieron las competencias organizacionales y distintivas de los cargos críticos para el logro de la estrategia, y se plantearon los lineamientos para diseñar los subsistemas de gestión humana. Abstract in english Competitiveness is a key factor for improving the socioeconomic status of organizations. Consequently, there is a need to align human resources with company strategies. The objective of this research was to develop the foundations of a competency-based human management system that supports the organ [...] izational strategy of a medium-sized company in the graphic arts industry in Cali, Colombia. To this end, a qualitative and descriptive study was carried out which involved analyzing the company strategies using Beer's (2001) analytical model, establishing and defining organizational competencies of critical positions to accomplish the strategy, and providing the design guidelines for human resource management subsystems.

  1. Impact of Top Management Team on Firm Performance in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Adopting Commercial Open-Source Enterprise Resource Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cereola, Sandra J.; Wier, Benson; Norman, Carolyn Strand

    2012-01-01

    Based on the large number of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the United States, their increasing interest in enterprise-wide software systems and their impact on the US economy, it is important to understand the determinants that can facilitate the successful implementation and assimilation of such technology into these firms' daily…

  2. Financing problems and use of bank credits of small and medium sized enterprises in Turkey: evaluation of a survey implemented on SMEs operating in Istanbul

    OpenAIRE

    Guzeldere, Harun; Sarioglu, Serra Eren

    2014-01-01

       Small   and   Medium   Sized   Enterprises   (SMEs)   operating   in   Turkey   have   a   crucial   role   in  economic  and  social  development  of  the  country.  SMEs  are  one  of  the  vital  players  of  the  economic   life   by   making   contributions   to   the   production,   investment,   export   and  employment  figures  of  Turkey.  Besides,  SMEs  have  an  important  function  in  the  regional  progress  as  they...

  3. Towards a Service-Oriented Enterprise: The Design of a Cloud Business Integration Platform in a Medium-Sized Manufacturing Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamas, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    This case study research followed the two-year transition of a medium-sized manufacturing firm towards a service-oriented enterprise. A service-oriented enterprise is an emerging architecture of the firm that leverages the paradigm of services computing to integrate the capabilities of the firm with the complementary competencies of business…

  4. Primary cutaneous CD8(+) small- to medium-sized lymphoproliferative disorder in extrafacial sites: clinicopathologic features and concept on their classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Werner; Kazakov, Dmitry V; Cozzio, Antonio; Kamarashev, Jivko; Kerl, Katrin; Plaza, Tobias; Metze, Dieter

    2013-04-01

    Three cases with CD8+ small- to medium-sized lymphoproliferations in the skin at extrafacial sites are described. Clinically, the patients presented with papulonodular or plaque-like lesions without preceding patches. Histopathologically, nonepidermotropic nodular or diffuse infiltrates were composed of small- to medium-sized pleomorphic lymphocytes, which expressed CD8 (more than 80% of the cells) and granzyme B (60%-70% of the cells), but were negative for CD4, CD30, and CD56. There was no association with Epstein-Barr virus. A clonal T-cell population was detected in 2 patients. Staging examinations did not reveal extracutaneous involvement. The 2 patients with solitary lesions underwent complete remission after radiation therapy, whereas 1 patient developed multifocal lesions and several recurrences. These CD8+ small- to medium-sized lymphoproliferations of the skin at extrafacial sites may belong to a spectrum of phenotypically and prognostically heterogeneous cutaneous small- to medium-sized lymphoid proliferations, which are characterized by an indolent course in most patients. PMID:22885550

  5. The impact of ICT investments on the relative demand for high-medium-, and low-skilled workers: Industry versus country analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Dorothee

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I analyze the effects of information and communication technology (ICT) on compensation shares of high-, medium-, and low-skilled workers. Com- pared to other studies, I investigate this question using a considerably richer data set with respect to the length of time series, set of countries and industries, and information on ICT. Next to investigating the influence of ICT in 14 countries, I concentrate on the analysis in 23 separate industries. The results I find show that the ...

  6. The Role of Remote Sensing for Sustainable Elephant Management in South Africa. Four Medium Sized Game Reserves as Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordaan, M.

    2012-07-01

    Loxodonta africana (African Elephant) are running out of living space so the protection of what space they have is essential. Existing areas of suitable elephant habitat need to be protected not only from human development but from the elephants themselves. As most elephant populations in South Africa are enclosed and multiplying, there is some increasing cause for concern as the damage caused will escalate and could reach unsustainable proportions. This study examined the utilization of satellite images for the detection of elephant induced ecosystem modification. A pilot study was conducted on four medium sized Game Reserves (each ±30 000 ha) in South Africa. The aim was to ascertain the feasibility of using image analysis as instrument by which Game Reserve managers could assess biodiversity richness, habitat loss, and population-habitat viability. NDVI as indicator of primary production in vegetation is one of the instruments used to evaluate whether the carrying capacity for elephants of each Game Reserve has been reached and to compare the current biomass with those of previous years. The study also looked at the use of the woody canopy cover as target for change detection analysis. Spectral characteristics of specific trees species which are known for being preferred by elephants were used to conduct a temporal analysis on satellite images starting from the period when the elephants were re-introduced into each Game Reserve, thus attempting to identify possible impact on the biodiversity of the respective Game Reserves. Images from satellites such as Landsat, SPOT, Quickbird and SumbandilaSAT provided the needed data and maps.

  7. Association of sulfur dioxide exposure with circulatory system deaths in a medium-sized city in Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C.T., Amancio; L.F.C., Nascimento.

    1080-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a demonstrable association between exposure to air pollutants and deaths due to cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of exposure to sulfur dioxide on mortality due to circulatory diseases in individuals 50 years of age or older residing in São Jos [...] é dos Campos, SP. This was a time-series ecological study for the years 2003 to 2007 using information on deaths due to circulatory disease obtained from Datasus reports. Data on daily levels of pollutants, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone, temperature, and humidity were obtained from the São Paulo State Environmental Agency. Moving average models for 2 to 7 days were calculated by Poisson regression using the R software. Exposure to SO2 was analyzed using a unipollutant, bipollutant or multipollutant model adjusted for mean temperature and humidity. The relative risks with 95%CI were obtained and the percent decrease in risk was calculated. There were 1928 deaths with a daily mean (± SD) of 1.05 ± 1.03 (range: 0-6). Exposure to SO2 was significantly associated with mortality due to circulatory disease: RR = 1.04 (95%CI = 1.01 to 1.06) in the 7-day moving average, after adjusting for ozone. There was an 8.5% decrease in risk in the multipollutant model, proportional to a decrease of SO2 concentrations. The results of this study suggest that residents of medium-sized Brazilian cities with characteristics similar to those of São José dos Campos probably have health problems due to exposure to air pollutants.

  8. Investigation and Assessment of Critical Success Factors of Knowledge Management Implementation in Iranian Small-to-Medium Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changiz Valmohammadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on an in-depth review and comparative study of existing studies on Critical Success Factors (CSFs of Knowledge Management (KM and by considering the characteristics of small to medium sized enterprises (SMEs, twelve CSFs were identified, namely management leadership and support, organizational culture, information systems, KM strategy, performance measurement, organizational infrastructure, processes and activities, rewarding and motivation, training and education, removal of resources constraints, human resources management and benchmarking which is believed to be suitable for SMEs. The importance of the proposed CSFs was theoretically discussed and justified. An instrument, which consists of all CSFs and their related elements, was developed to evaluate the appropriateness of the proposed CSFs from experts’ point of view. The experts were asked to express their views and perceptions on the extent of appropriateness of the CSFs and their related elements for Iranian SMEs using a six-point Likert scale, ranging from not successful to extremely successful. This scale was then grouped into three levels-poor, satisfactory and good. The overall results from this assessment show that experts endorsed the proposed CSFs and their related elements as being at least eighty percent satisfactory for their intended purpose. The set of CSFs can act as a list of items for organizations, particularly for SMEs to address when implementing KM. This helps to ensure that essential issues and factors are covered when planning and developing KM. Also, it can provide a basis for them to evaluate their KM practices. For academics; it provides a common language for the discussion and study of factors underpinning the success of KM in SMEs.

  9. MDCT abnormalities of small- and medium-sized bronchus in active tuberculosis: a new angle on an old disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The incidence and findings of tuberculous invasion of the peripheral bronchus have not been fully investigated with MDCT. Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence and findings of MDCT abnormalities of small- and medium-sized bronchus (SMB) in active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Material and Methods: Using multiplanar reformation, 35 consecutive MDCT scans (follow-up exams available in 14 patients with a mean interval of 8.1 months) were assessed for following abnormalities of SMB: bronchial impaction (BI), wall thickening, dilatation, peribronchial cuff of soft tissue, and bronchocavitary fistula. It was also assessed whether tree-in-buds (TIB) have a tendency to distribute in the territories of diseased SMB, and whether SMB abnormalities are present in patients with relatively mild disease. Results: SMB abnormalities were observed in 23 (65.7%) patients with active TB. The most frequent finding was wall thickening (n=18, 51.4%), followed by BI (n=13, 37.1%; zigzag-shaped in four), dilatation (n =11, 31.4%), amputated appearance of air column (n=11, 31.4%), peribronchial cuff of soft tissue (n=10, 28.6%), and bronchocavitary fistula (n=8, 22.9%). TIB (n=29; absent in two patients with SMB) was mainly within (n=14) or close to (n=4) the territory of diseased SMB. Follow-up CT frequently showed improvement of wall thickening (11/12) and persistence of bronchial dilatation (11/13). SMB abnormality was present in all of six patients with mild disease. Conclusion: M patients with mild disease. Conclusion: MDCT shows that tuberculous invasion of the peripheral bronchus may be more frequent than previously thought, of which findings include wall thickening, BI, dilatation, amputated appearance of air column, peribronchial cuff of soft tissue and bronchocavitary fistula

  10. Association of sulfur dioxide exposure with circulatory system deaths in a medium-sized city in Brazil

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    C.T. Amancio

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a demonstrable association between exposure to air pollutants and deaths due to cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of exposure to sulfur dioxide on mortality due to circulatory diseases in individuals 50 years of age or older residing in São José dos Campos, SP. This was a time-series ecological study for the years 2003 to 2007 using information on deaths due to circulatory disease obtained from Datasus reports. Data on daily levels of pollutants, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide (SO2, ozone, temperature, and humidity were obtained from the São Paulo State Environmental Agency. Moving average models for 2 to 7 days were calculated by Poisson regression using the R software. Exposure to SO2 was analyzed using a unipollutant, bipollutant or multipollutant model adjusted for mean temperature and humidity. The relative risks with 95%CI were obtained and the percent decrease in risk was calculated. There were 1928 deaths with a daily mean (± SD of 1.05 ± 1.03 (range: 0-6. Exposure to SO2 was significantly associated with mortality due to circulatory disease: RR = 1.04 (95%CI = 1.01 to 1.06 in the 7-day moving average, after adjusting for ozone. There was an 8.5% decrease in risk in the multipollutant model, proportional to a decrease of SO2 concentrations. The results of this study suggest that residents of medium-sized Brazilian cities with characteristics similar to those of São José dos Campos probably have health problems due to exposure to air pollutants.

  11. MDCT abnormalities of small- and medium-sized bronchus in active tuberculosis: a new angle on an old disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jin Kyoung; Ahn, Myeong Im; Jung, Jung Im; Han, Dae Hee (Dept. of Radiology, Seoul St Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)), email: lepolder@gmail.com; Kim, Young Kyoon (Dept. of Internal Medicine, Seoul St Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Oh, Eun-Jee; Park, Yeon-Joon (Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Seoul St Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of))

    2011-02-15

    Background: The incidence and findings of tuberculous invasion of the peripheral bronchus have not been fully investigated with MDCT. Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence and findings of MDCT abnormalities of small- and medium-sized bronchus (SMB) in active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Material and Methods: Using multiplanar reformation, 35 consecutive MDCT scans (follow-up exams available in 14 patients with a mean interval of 8.1 months) were assessed for following abnormalities of SMB: bronchial impaction (BI), wall thickening, dilatation, peribronchial cuff of soft tissue, and bronchocavitary fistula. It was also assessed whether tree-in-buds (TIB) have a tendency to distribute in the territories of diseased SMB, and whether SMB abnormalities are present in patients with relatively mild disease. Results: SMB abnormalities were observed in 23 (65.7%) patients with active TB. The most frequent finding was wall thickening (n=18, 51.4%), followed by BI (n=13, 37.1%; zigzag-shaped in four), dilatation (n =11, 31.4%), amputated appearance of air column (n=11, 31.4%), peribronchial cuff of soft tissue (n=10, 28.6%), and bronchocavitary fistula (n=8, 22.9%). TIB (n=29; absent in two patients with SMB) was mainly within (n=14) or close to (n=4) the territory of diseased SMB. Follow-up CT frequently showed improvement of wall thickening (11/12) and persistence of bronchial dilatation (11/13). SMB abnormality was present in all of six patients with mild disease. Conclusion: MDCT shows that tuberculous invasion of the peripheral bronchus may be more frequent than previously thought, of which findings include wall thickening, BI, dilatation, amputated appearance of air column, peribronchial cuff of soft tissue and bronchocavitary fistula

  12. Impact of local urban design and traffic restrictions on air quality in a medium-sized town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acero, J A; Simon, A; Padro, A; Santa Coloma, O

    2012-01-01

    Traffic is the major air pollution source in most urban areas. Nowadays, most of the strategies carried out to improve urban air quality are focused on reducing traffic emissions. Nevertheless, acting locally on urban design can also reduce levels of air pollutants. In this paper, both strategies are studied in several scenarios for a medium-sized town of the Basque Country (Spain). Two main actions are analysed in order to reduce traffic emissions: (1) minor extension ofa pre-existing low emission zone (LEZ); (2) substitution of 10% of passenger cars that are older than 5 years by hybrid and electric vehicles. Regarding local urban design, three alternatives for the development of one side of a street canyon are considered: (1) a park with trees; (2) an open space without obstacles; (3) a building. Two different urban traffic dispersion models are used to calculate the air quality scenarios: PROKAS (Gaussian&box) to analyse the reduction of traffic emissions in the whole urban area and WinMISKAM (CFD) to evaluate specific urban designs. The results show the effectiveness of the analysed actions. On one hand, the definition of a small LEZ, as well as the introduction in 2015 of vehicles with new technology (hybrid and electric), results in minor impacts on PM10 and NO2 ambient concentrations. On the other hand, local urban design can cause significant variation in spatial distribution ofpollutant concentrations emitted inside street canyons. Consequently, urban planners should consider all these aspects when dealing with urban air pollution control. PMID:23393990

  13. A sustainable slashing industry using biodegradable sizes from modified soy protein to replace petro-based poly(vinyl alcohol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi; Zhao, Yuzhu; Xu, Helan; Yang, Yiqi

    2015-02-17

    Biodegradable sizing agents from triethanolamine (TEA) modified soy protein could substitute poly(vinyl alcohol)(PVA) sizes for high-speed weaving of polyester and polyester/cotton yarns to substantially decrease environmental pollution and impel sustainability of textile industry. Nonbiodegradable PVA sizes are widely used and mainly contribute to high chemical oxygen demand (COD) in textile effluents. It has not been possible to effectively degrade, reuse or replace PVA sizes so far. Soy protein with good biodegradability showed potential as warp sizes in our previous studies. However, soy protein sizes lacked film flexibility and adhesion for required high-speed weaving. Additives with multiple hydroxyl groups, nonlinear molecule, and electric charge could physically modify secondary structure of soy protein and lead to about 23.6% and 43.3% improvement in size adhesion and ability of hair coverage comparing to unmodified soy protein. Industrial weaving results showed TEA-soy protein had relative weaving efficiency 3% and 10% higher than PVA and chemically modified starch sizes on polyester/cotton fabrics, and had relative weaving efficiency similar to PVA on polyester fabrics, although with 3- 6% lower add-on. In addition, TEA-soy sizes had a BOD5/COD ratio of 0.44, much higher than 0.03 for PVA, indicating that TEA-soy sizes were easily biodegradable in activated sludge. PMID:25687520

  14. Determinants of Financing Pattern and Access to Formal -Informal Credit: The Case of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Viet Nam

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    Nhung Nguyen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate factors from firm side that determine their financing pattern for new investment projects and their decision to choose formal, informal credit, or both. For financing pattern of new investment project, we use Random-effect model while Unordered-Multinomial Logistic is used to estimate probability of choosing any of four choices to access to finance, say, formal credit, informal credit, both of them, or none of them. Our analysis is based on a panel of around 2200 small and medium sized enterprises with 7900 observations extracted from the “Survey of small and medium scale manufacturing enterprises in Viet Nam” in 2005, 2007, and 2009.

  15. Contribution to the integration methodology of environment in the small and medium enterprises or industries: evaluation of environmental performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The integration of environmental criteria into industrial plants working is nowadays an obligation for companies. Implementation of an Environmental Management System (EMS) is a mean to integrate these criteria, and the system registration (by ISO 14001 or EMAS standards) enables companies to demonstrate the validity of their environmental behaviour to interested parties. Our experience in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) has allowed us to note the inadequacy between their environmental integration level and EMS requirements. In addition to that, we have observed that environmental assessment methods, which could enable SMEs to make up for lost time, were not adapted to their specificities. However, two recent approaches are innovative: the first one is based on a progressive processes, the second one on an environmental information system, based on indicators construction. On the basis of existing methods study, improved with our SMEs experience, our approach consists of developing an environmental integration method, joining the progressive aspect (construction of a 'multi-phases' method) and the information treatment (exploitation of environmental data by indicators construction). We propose a four phases method, - environmental performance evaluation, internal and external results exploitation, process perpetuation -, setting up an information treatment system, by means of compliance, progress and monitoring indicators. Leading to implementation of an environmental performance continuous improvement cycle, this process enables companies to step forward EMS implementation. (author)

  16. SIZE ENTERPRISES’ INFLUENCE FOR INNOVATION ACTIVITY IN REGIONAL INDUSTRIAL SYSTEM IN POMORSKIE REGION IN 2009-2011

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    Arkadiusz ?wiadek

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In transition countries, company’s size has a big impact on economy processes, including innovation activity in industry. The main objective of the study was to search for the impact of class size of enterprises on their innovation activity within the regional industrial system in Pomorskie region, and consequently determine the boundary conditions for the model structure of regional innovation networks, which take into account the specificity of region, allowing a skillful creation of innovation policy. Methodological part of the study was based on probit modeling (probability theory.

  17. Information and knowledge sharing trends of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Western Cape, South Africa

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    Faeda Mohsam

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs, especially in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, are currently facing various financial and other obstacles, which may threaten their survival. Globalisation, the lowering of trade barriers and the reduction of import tariffs have resulted in increased international competition. Businesses are thus forced to undertake continuous improvements and innovation in order to survive, to keep abreast of change and to excel.Objectives: Effective knowledge sharing and consequent knowledge management (KM have been identified as definite approaches to enhancing competitive advantage. The research therefore aimed to establish to what extent small enterprises embrace their knowledge sharing activities and whether their knowledge sharing activities are managed at all. Furthermore, it examined how their knowledge sharing can contribute to their competitive advantage.Method: A case study approach was followed for this research. Selected SMEs from the engineering sector were the subject of the case study and SME owners, directors and managers of consulting civil engineering firms were interviewed to determine whether there are mechanisms in place to ensure better knowledge sharing within SMEs.Results: In general, respondents had stated that they possessed special factors that set them above their competitors:• The company strategy and good reputation of completing projects within the required timeframe. In other words, they were well known for their track record in terms of service delivery. • Their specialty in terms of different focus areas, namely structural and civil engineering, water supply and storm water design, transportation, sewer design and storm water traffic. • The fact that they operated in silos. This means that the specialists in their specific fields operated independently in groups, separately from everyone else in the company. • Their good relationship with local authorities and other companies in the field. • Their multidisciplinary approach in incorporating all spheres of civil engineering, which gave them a niche in the market. • The vast knowledge and experience of the owners and directors.Conclusion: Each of the companies interviewed had unique skills that they can apply to their advantage. They were also found to be implementing KM processes such as sharing, creating and leveraging of information and knowledge, albeit in the absence of formal policies. It was therefore deduced that SME successes depend on how well they share their tacit and explicit knowledge; this will determine whether they would excel above their competitors.

  18. Inclusion of potential vorticity uncertainties into a hydrometeorological forecasting chain: application to a medium size basin of Mediterranean Spain

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    A. Amengual

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of the short- and mid-range numerical runoff forecasts over the flood-prone Spanish Mediterranean area is a challenging issue. This work analyses four intense precipitation events which produced floods of different magnitude over the Llobregat river basin, a medium size catchment located in Catalonia, north-eastern Spain. One of them was a devasting flash flood – known as the "Montserrat" event – which produced 5 fatalities and material losses estimated at about 65 million euros. The characterization of the Llobregat basin's hydrological response to these floods is first assessed by using rain-gauge data and the Hydrologic Engineering Center's Hydrological Modeling System (HEC-HMS runoff model. In second place, the non-hydrostatic fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University/NCAR mesoscale model (MM5 is nested within the ECMWF large-scale forecast fields in a set of 54 h period simulations to provide quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs for each hydrometeorological episode. The hydrological model is forced with these QPFs to evaluate the reliability of the resulting discharge forecasts, while an ensemble prediction system (EPS based on perturbed atmospheric initial and boundary conditions has been designed to test the value of a probabilistic strategy versus the previous deterministic approach. Specifically, a Potential Vorticity (PV Inversion technique has been used to perturb the MM5 model initial and boundary states (i.e. ECMWF forecast fields. For that purpose, a PV error climatology has been previously derived in order to introduce realistic PV perturbations in the EPS. Results show the benefits of using a probabilistic approach in those cases where the deterministic QPF presents significant deficiencies over the Llobregat river basin in terms of the rainfall amounts, timing and localization. These deficiences in precipitation fields have a major impact on flood forecasts. Our ensemble strategy has been found useful to reduce the biases at different hydrometric sections along the watershed. Therefore, in an operational context, the devised methodology could be useful to expand the lead times associated with the prediction of similar future floods, helping to alleviate their possible hazardous consequences.

  19. Experimental and computational studies on the natural circulation characteristics of a small- and medium-sized reactor, REX-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rapid economic development in many countries has led to a growing need for energy. To meet the demand, the nuclear power generation is emerging as a viable alternative because it emits much smaller amount of carbon dioxide as compared to conventional fossil fuel plant produces high power density energy. Because of the latter attractiveness, many large-sized nuclear reactors (?1000 MWe/unit) for electricity generation have been constructed around the world. Recently, small- and medium-sized nuclear reactors (SMRs) receive attention because of its effective adaptability to diversified energy demands. Several attractiveness of the SMR is worth to report here. First, the SMR is a viable alternative for the developing countries that have inferior electricity grids. Second, the SMR may effectively prevent the Large-Break Loss of Coolant Accident (LBLOCA) as it adopts the integral-type reactor. Finally, the SMR is used for various applications - desalination, district heating, small-scale power generation, ship propulsion, to mention a few. These attractiveness provides reasonable justification to construct the SMRs such as SMART, IRIS, CAREM, and KLT-40S. As such, the Regional Energy Research Institute for Next Generation (RERI) has been developing a SMR for regional energy supply, REX-10 since 2005. The REX-10 is the integral-type reactor and relies on natural circulation to improve passive safety. In this study, the natural circulation behavior and capability of therculation behavior and capability of the REX-10 is investigated experimentally as well as numerically. To evaluate the thermal-hydraulics of the REX-10, two experimental facilities . RTF and NACTER . were designed and fabricated using the scaling laws proposed by Ishii et al. Both experimental facilities consist of main components of the core, heat exchanger, hot legs, pressurizer, and chillers; however, both experimental facilities have different heat exchanger systems because two types of the heat exchanger are being considered. To obtain key experimental data, thermocouples, turbine flowmeters, and pressure transducer were installed in the proper location of the experimental facilities. The experiments were performed in two categories steady-state and transient experiment. From the steady-state experiment, it was confirmed that the natural circulation flow can be established successfully in both experimental facilities. With regards to the test on the effect of heater power, the heater power is very likely to influence the natural circulation behavior and thereby the mass flow rate tends to follow the natural circulation model proposed by Zvirin et al well. However, it is observed that the feedwater flow rate affects the temperature distribution of the primary system slightly. On the basis of the steady-state experiments, various transient experiments were conducted. The transient experiments showed that two experimental facilities reached new steady-state conditions due to the changes in the heater power and feedwater flow rate. In the case of RTF, the chiller trip experiment was conducted by stopping the feedwater flow. This chiller trip experiment showed that the RTF has the ability to remove the decay heat if the RHRS is normally operated. In NACTER experiment, loss of the feedwater flow rate was tested. This test showed that the NACTER is capable of removing the primary heat of 10kWt despite breakdown of the two pumps. Various transient tests demonstrated that two experimental facilities have the ability to deal with any emergency. To validate MARS, the MARS simulation was conducted. MARS was in good agreement with both steady-state and transient experiments except for two cases . chiller trip in the RTF and loss of the feedwater flow rate in the NACTER. In case of the chiller trip, MARS reached the trip point faster than the experiment and generated the earlier fluctuation of the primary mass flow rate. The reason may be attributed to two facts. First, MARS ignores heat loss to ambient and therefore more heat is likely to be deposited in the working

  20. Influence of the grain size on the effective absorption cross-section of thermal neutrons in a medium containing highly absorbing centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal neutron absorption is considered in a medium which contains highly absorbing grains. The theoretical approach is based on a definition of the effective macroscopic absorption cross-section for such a medium. The parameter of the grain effect is defined as the ratio of the effective cross-section to the cross-section of a corresponding homogeneous material. It is generally obtained as a function of the ratio of the absorption cross-sections of components, of the grain size, and of the contributions of the components. A further analysis is performed for the grain size effect when the two other parameters are fixed. The presented approach is applied to an interpretation of experiments on Plexiglas models containing silver grains. A good agreement of the experimental and theoretical results is obtained when relevant effective energy-dependent cross-sections are weighted by the thermal neutron energy distribution