WorldWideScience

Sample records for medium sized industries

  1. STRATEGIES FOR SMALL- AND MEDIUM-SIZED COMPANIES IN CHINESE INSURANCE INDUSTRY

    Qian, Xiaochen

    2010-01-01

    With the development of the Chinese economy, insurance industry is becoming one of the most important commercial industries in China. Currently small- and medium-sized (SME) insurance companies gain more and more important status in the insurance market, but the main problem is to find a suitable strategy to develop in a balanced way. It is very important for the SME insurance organizations to identify their core resources and competencies and cultivate their competitiveness and competitive a...

  2. Quality management for Small and Medium size enterprises. An application of SPC in a plastics industry.

    Bozatzis, Christos

    2006-01-01

    Enterprises need to develop an appropriate quality management approach in order to produce conforming products. This project deals with quality concepts and tools which are mainly adopted by small and medium size enterprises. It is widely accepted that Statistical Quality Control (SPC) involves several methods and tools that can be used in order to examine and solve a wide range of quality problems. SPC tools are implemented in a company operating in the Greek plastics industry. The chart...

  3. Energy coservation status and needs: medium-sized commercial/industrial firms

    1979-10-01

    The potential for conserving energy by Seattle City Light's commercial/industrial customers is investigated. The results of the study will help SCL and others to provide energy- and money-saving help to their medium-sized business customers. Fifty in-person interviews of firms within the SCL area and 102 mailed questionnaires from customers outside the area in Washington and Oregon were analyzed. Researchers found that many steps requiring little cost have been implemented, but instituting further hard conservation measures such as new machinery, retrofitting, or changes in machine operations are lacking. (MCW)

  4. Documentation of New Promotion Approaches in Small and Medium Sized Businesses of the Textile Industry

    Mehran Rezavani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The most important marketing activity of the owner/manager of SMEs is to concentrate on entrepreneurial promotion methods of their businesses. New and entrepreneurial promotion plays a leading role in progress and development of SMEs. There has been an emerging concentration on the concept of promotion and the role of its elements in progress of SMEs in marketing research. The purpose of this paper is to identify and document promotion methods in small and medium sized businesses of the textile industry, particularly in Iran. In order to identify the concepts and methods of promotion and to present practical results in this context, a quality research has been conducted by interviewing the owners/managers of SMEs.

  5. Documentation of New Promotion Approaches in Small and Medium Sized Businesses of the Textile Industry

    Mehran Rezvani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important marketing activity of the owner/manager of SMEs is to concentrate on entrepreneurial promotion methods of their businesses. New and entrepreneurial promotion plays a leading role in progress and development of SMEs. There has been an emerging concentration on the concept of promotion and the role of its elements in progress of SMEs in marketing research. The purpose of this paper is to identify and document promotion methods in small and medium sized businesses of the textile industry, particularly in Iran. In order to identify the concepts and methods of promotion and to present practical results in this context, a quality research has been conducted by interviewing the owners/managers of SMEs.

  6. A Bayesian Approach to International Distributor Selection for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the Software Industry

    Lui, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    Identifying appropriate international distributors for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the software industry for overseas markets can determine a firm's future endeavors in international expansion. SMEs lack the complex skills in market research and decision analysis to identify suitable partners to engage in global market entry.…

  7. Development of a Simplified Process Integration Methodology for application in Medium-Size Industries

    Bergamini, Riccardo; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Bühler, Fabian;

    2016-01-01

    tools are introduced. They are used to reduce the problem size before applying the traditional design procedure. They are based on engineering experience and simple mathematical criteria, including both thermodynamic and economic considerations. Moreover, possibility of using less accurate data or...... estimates is discussed, since data acquisition is a severely time-consuming task in retrofit projects.This novel methodology is applied to a Danish dairy factory: the results and the method itself are compared with conventional pinch analysis. The findings show that the SSP method is a tool able to simplify...... industry, especially inmedium-size industries where budgets for external consultants are generally low....

  8. Innovation in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in the Malaysian information technology (IT) industry

    The aim of this study is to examine innovative activities in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the Malaysian information technology (IT) industry. This study addresses three research questions: 1. What is the innovation pattern among SMEs in the Malaysian IT industry? 2. How significant is interactive learning between SMEs in the Malaysian IT industry and other agents in the innovation system? and 3. What is the role of the government in promoting innovation among SMEs in the Malaysian IT industry? Two approaches were taken to collect data for this study, that is, mail survey and face-to-face interviews. Based on findings from this study, the SMEs in the Malaysian IT industry were divided into four categories, namely, highly innovative, innovative, inventive, and non innovative. The patterns of knowledge acquisition and interactive learning vary among the different categories of firms, and on the whole, vertical linkages with suppliers were found to be the most significant. Finally, support through the provision of funding was considered to be among the most important roles of the government in promoting innovation in SMEs in the Malaysian IT industry. (author)

  9. Documentation of New Promotion Approaches in Small and Medium Sized Businesses of the Textile Industry

    Mehran Rezavani; Narges Khoramshahi

    2012-01-01

    The most important marketing activity of the owner/manager of SMEs is to concentrate on entrepreneurial promotion methods of their businesses. New and entrepreneurial promotion plays a leading role in progress and development of SMEs. There has been an emerging concentration on the concept of promotion and the role of its elements in progress of SMEs in marketing research. The purpose of this paper is to identify and document promotion methods in small and medium sized businesses of the texti...

  10. Eco-modernizing small en medium-sized agro-industries in Vietnam

    Pham Hong Nhat

    2007-01-01

    Following ‘Doi Moi’ (Renovation), which started in 1986, the former centrally planned economy in Vietnam is shifting to an economy where production is linked to market demand and consumption. As a result, the nation has been enjoying an unprecedentedly fast economic growth, especially in recent years: 8.4% in 2005 and 8.17% in 2006. The economic renovation also brought an expansion of the private sector, which consists mainly of small- and medium-sized enterprises, SMEs. The reform process ha...

  11. Development strategy of green energy industry for Taipei—A modern medium-sized city

    Taipei, a subtropical modern medium city, is essentially featured with high population density, scarce land, and large traffic flow. Moreover, there are abundant green energy resources reserved in Taipei. If they were fully developed, there would be 13,040 GWh electricity generated per year, resulting in a total of 9.37 million tons of carbon dioxide emissions abatement. The development of the green energy industry in this city not only can bring significant energy-saving and carbon-reducing benefits, but also may create huge derivative business opportunities. For example, the total output values of the solar PV and electric vehicles industries would be as high as 700 billion yuan. In this study, through Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis, we concluded that the top priorities for Taipei for the development of green energy industries are building energy conservation and electrified transportation, specifically, the following four items: electric vehicles, Light-Emitting Diode (LED) lighting, inverter air conditioning, and Energy Service Company (ESCO). Meanwhile, Taipei is a domestic and international key of politics, transportation, technology, commerce, and finance. Taipei is very likely to become an internationalized green energy industrial hub, achieving the “3E” goals of economic prosperousness, environmental protection, and energy security. -- Highlights: •Building energy conservation and electrified transportation are top priorities. •SWOT analysis applied to systematically conclude four green energy industrial items for Taipei. •Specifically, electric vehicles, LED lighting, inverter air conditioning, and ESCO. •13,040 GWh electricity would be generated per year from Taipei's rich renewables. •The derivative business opportunities would exceed 700 billion yuan

  12. Explaining Internationalisation of Small to Medium Sized Enterprises within the Queensland Food and Beverage Industry

    Mitchell Spowart

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of International New Ventures (INVs has increased during the past twenty years. Nevertheless,to date there has been no general consensus within the literature on an explanation as to the rapid internationalisation of some firms. Do they follow a similar process to other firms that internationalise based ona more ‘measured’ incremental sequential process of internationalisation. This paper proposes and tests an innovation diffusion model of the internationalisation of small firm INVs and others by drawing on keyinnovation diffusion models from the literature. The results of this analysis indicate that the synthesised model ofexport adoption is effective in explaining the internationalisation process of INVs and other firms within theQueensland Food and Beverage Industry. Significantly, the features of the original innovation diffusion modelsdeveloped in the consumer behaviour literature, which had limited examination within the internationalisationliterature, were confirmed. This includes the ability of firms, or specifically decision-makers, to skip stagesbased on previous experience.

  13. The Research on the Status of Small-and-Medium-Sized Enterprises of County in the Dominant Industry of Shaanxi County Economy

    2010-01-01

    The thesis analyzes the role of small-and-medium-sized enterprises of county in promoting county economy:the small-and-medium-sized enterprises of county become the material basis of developing production and boosting county economy;the small-and-medium-sized enterprises of county become the main channel of increasing farmers’ job opportunities and realizing affluent life;the development of the small-and-medium-sized enterprises of county become the propeller of development of urbanization and county economy;the development of the small-and-medium-sized enterprises of county creates excellent conditions for the construction of modern agriculture.The thesis indicates that the low level of county industrialization is the principal factor impeding the county economy of Shaanxi Province and it also analyzes the opportunities and challenges when quickening the development of county industry.The countermeasures of developing small-and-medium-sized enterprises are put forward as follows:raise the awareness and determine the concept of using industry to make county powerful;build scientific planning and outline of county enterprise development to propel the innovation of developing and operating system of county enterprise;create beneficial conditions and reinforce the degree of county enterprise support entrepreneurship;take the park construction as vehicle and reinforce the degree of attracting investments from overseas;take the autonomous innovation as the impetus and develop the recycling economy;improve and optimize the service environment so as to create an excellent investment environment for enterprise.

  14. Purchasing practice in SMEs : Practical impressions about the purchasing activities of small and medium sized enterprises in the manufacturing industry

    Kulik, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Small and medium sized companies are important to the European economy and considered as the true backbone of the European economy, being primarily responsi-ble for wealth and economic growth. Further, the purchasing function of small and medium sized companies had become more and more important to firms within the creating of competitive advantages. Additional, former research emphasizes the need of companies to engage in closer relationships in order to survive in nowadays business environm...

  15. Analysis on Profit Quality of Small and Medium-sized Agricultural Enterprises: A Case Study of YM Industrial Co., Ltd in Guang’an City of Sichuan Province

    Ling; JIANG; Huawei; LUO

    2013-01-01

    For a long time, under the influence of system and environment and other factors, some small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises in China only seek growth of profit in quantity, but neglect the growth of profit in quality, leading to low profit quality. This study reasonably defines the concept of profit quality of small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises, and expounds general characteristics of high quality profit. On the basis of general factors influencing profit quality of enterprises, it builds indicator system for evaluating the profit quality of small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises. Also, it conducts an empirical analysis on profit quality of Chinese small and medium-sized enterprises with YM Industrial Co., Ltd in Guang’an City of Sichuan Province as an example.

  16. Development of a Low NOx Medium sized Industrial Gas Turbine Operating on Hydrogen-Rich Renewable and Opportunity Fuels

    Srinivasan, Ram

    2013-07-31

    This report presents the accomplishments at the completion of the DOE sponsored project (Contract # DE-FC26-09NT05873) undertaken by Solar Turbines Incorporated. The objective of this 54-month project was to develop a low NOx combustion system for a medium sized industrial gas turbine engine operating on Hydrogen-rich renewable and opportunity Fuels. The work in this project was focused on development of a combustion system sized for 15MW Titan 130 gas turbine engine based on design analysis and rig test results. Although detailed engine evaluation of the complete system is required prior to commercial application, those tasks were beyond the scope of this DOE sponsored project. The project tasks were organized in three stages, Stages 2 through 4. In Stage 2 of this project, Solar Turbines Incorporated characterized the low emission capability of current Titan 130 SoLoNOx fuel injector while operating on a matrix of fuel blends with varying Hydrogen concentration. The mapping in this phase was performed on a fuel injector designed for natural gas operation. Favorable test results were obtained in this phase on emissions and operability. However, the resulting fuel supply pressure needed to operate the engine with the lower Wobbe Index opportunity fuels would require additional gas compression, resulting in parasitic load and reduced thermal efficiency. In Stage 3, Solar characterized the pressure loss in the fuel injector and developed modifications to the fuel injection system through detailed network analysis. In this modification, only the fuel delivery flowpath was modified and the air-side of the injector and the premixing passages were not altered. The modified injector was fabricated and tested and verified to produce similar operability and emissions as the Stage 2 results. In parallel, Solar also fabricated a dual fuel capable injector with the same air-side flowpath to improve commercialization potential. This injector was also test verified to produce 15

  17. THE ALGORITHM IMPLEMENTATION OF THE DIVERSIFICATION STRATEGY IN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES (FOR EXAMPLE, THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY

    Наталья Николаевна Масюк

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Diversification in small businesses in the general sense is an extension of business activities to new areas of business (expanding the range of products, types of services provided, etc.. Application of the strategy of diversification in the small and medium business is justified in cases where the industry does not give us opportunities for further growth or when growth opportunities outside the industry more attractive. To determine whether diversification overdue and justified, the entrepreneur must clearly define the algorithm for their actions.Purpose: To determine the algorithm implementation of the strategy of diversification.Methodology: Desk research.Results: The developed algorithm.Practical implications: Management.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-19

  18. Does Cloud Computing offer small to medium sized businesses in the Agri-Trading industry strong enough advantages to warrant adoption? A case study on Dalmark Grain

    Madelil, Nitin George

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research is to evaluate the potential of cloud computing for small to medium sized businesses in the Agri-Trading industry. The research uses Dalmark Grain as the focal point for analysis and recommendations. Dalmark Grain provides an ideal case example for the purpose of this research as its core business application – the trading platform - is dated and the management is currently contemplating a major upgrade. Given the investment associated with a typical upgrade,...

  19. The role of Christian leadership in the workplace in China ----A case study of a medium-sized enterprise in Chinese service industry

    Wang, Jing

    2013-01-01

    This article examines religious leadership in workplace. It focuses on the practice of Christian leadership in Chinese business context. It attempts to, firstly, explore why employers adopt Christian leadership and promote Christian values in workplaces, and secondly, investigate employees’ reactions and understanding of the presence of Christian leadership in their organizations. The research is based on a private medium-sized enterprise in Chinese service industry of which the leader adopts...

  20. What affects the innovation performance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the biotechnology industry? An empirical study on Korean biotech SMEs.

    Kang, Kyung-Nam; Lee, Yoon-Sik

    2008-10-01

    Research-intensive small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play a crucial role in the advancement of the biotechnology industry. This paper explored the impacts of internal and contextual variables on innovative activity in Korea and compared the results of this analysis with previous studies of other countries. Our analysis of 149 Korean biotech SMEs showed that the ratio of R&D expenditure to sales, the ratio of R&D employees to total employees, CEO characteristics, governmental support and international networking are positively correlated with a firm's innovation performance. The results may help decision makers to better foster SMEs in the Korean biotechnology industry. PMID:18506395

  1. A model of integration between knowledge management and business processes of industrial small and medium-sized enterprises

    Maha Mahmoud Talaat mustafa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research is to provide an integrated study on the subject of integration between knowledge management and business processes, to identify the needs for different aspects of necessary knowledge for the development of small and medium-sized enterprises, where young investors seek to develop their knowledge by trying to increase the sources of access to information so that they can comply with the requirements of constant change in the organizations they have, and thus the development of their institutions, where those institutions need knowledge to identify the changes occurring in each sector of production and service, whether local or foreign, which enables them to provide products or services on the level of high quality.They also must service work to develop and employ methods of conducting research targeting product, and management development of systems for promoting good products or services. Capturing knowledge can be through knowledge management by browsing of pages published by various organizations on the Internet and, recognizing everything new in the field of manufacturing or production used by various institutions, and therefore constantly developing products according to the needs of different categories of consumers.

  2. Techno-economic evaluation of commercial cogeneration plants for small and medium size companies in the Italian industrial and service sector

    The liberalization of the electricity market and the concern for energy efficiency have resulted in a surge of interest in cogeneration and distributed power generation. In this regard, companies are encouraged to evaluate the opportunity to build their own cogeneration plant. In Italy, the majority of such companies belong to the industrial or service sector; it is small or medium in size and the electric power ranges between 1 ÷ 10 MW. Commercially available gas turbines are the less expensive option for cogeneration. Particular attention has been given to the possibility of combining an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) with gas turbine, to improve the conversion efficiency. Companies have to account for both technical and economical aspects to assess viability of cogeneration. A techno-economic analysis was performed to identify, in the Italian energy market, which users can take advantage of a cogeneration plant aimed to cover at least part of their energy demand. Since electricity and thermal needs change considerably in the same sector, single product categories have been considered in the analysis. Our work shows that in the industrial sector, independent of the product category, cogeneration is a viable option form a techno-economic perspective. - Highlights: ► The best technologies for 1 ÷ 10 MW distributed generation plant are gas turbine and ORC. ► A variety of commercial cogeneration plants is available to meet user needs. ► Cogeneration is a technical and economical advantage for industrial sector companies.

  3. ITALIAN MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES AND THE FOURTH CAPITALISM

    Schilirò, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    The work addresses the issue of Italian medium-sized enterprises of the fourth capitalism. The question is whether this business model is going to last and actually represent a new model for global competition. This contribution examines the features of the model of the medium industrial enterprise. It also investigates the performance of the Italian medium-sized enterprises, comparing with large companies. The analysis of the data, albeit at a descriptive level using data published by Mediob...

  4. Business process modelling in small- to medium-sized enterprises

    Tam, ASM; Chu, LK; D. Sculli

    2001-01-01

    Data flow analysis is used in a novel context for business process modelling. A framework is presented together with its enterprise modelling concepts and the associated modelling tools. The framework was specifically developed for small- to medium-sized industries. The strengths and weaknesses of the general data flow analysis approach are discussed in terms of its suitability for Hong Kong's small- to medium-sized industries. A case example is also presented to illustrate the methodology.

  5. Products, practices and processes: exploring the innovation potential for low-carbon housing refurbishment among small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the UK construction industry

    Scenario-based studies agree that the technical potential for CO2 emissions reduction from the housing stock is large. This paper explores how a market might be developed for the refurbishment activities assumed in these scenarios, taking the existing market for repair, maintenance and improvement (RMI) as its starting point. Interviews with 16 small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the construction industry reveal the interdependence of products, practices and processes in housing renovation activities. Conservative practice as well as innovation can be understood as the outcome of multi-lateral influences on firms from other firms, clients, the material buildings and products in their working lives, and from regulations and regulators. Contractors' openness to innovation is contingent on an informal approach to risk assessment, taking account of cost, time efficiency, client demands, and installer confidence in the reliability of the resulting work. The implications of the research are discussed in relation to the need for new practices and processes on refurbishment projects, raising questions for future research on key questions of quality assurance, performance over time, the application of standards, and vocational training. -- Highlights: •Repair, maintenance and improvement works are triggers for low-carbon refurbishment. •Millions of property owners and small firms make for fragmented decision-making. •Actor-Network Theory is used to frame decision-making processes for refurbishment. •Small builders can be innovative if clients allow time and money for experimentation. •Energy policy for existing homes needs to engage with the construction sector

  6. HIRENASD Chimera medium-size grid

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Chimera medium-size grid for HIRENASD. Two files, fort.501 for grid for wing, fuselage, and 'world' zones, fort.503 for collar zone. File format is plot3d,...

  7. Developing Business Models in the Video Game Industry : An evaluation to strategic choices made by small and medium-sized development studios

    Zijlstra, Peter; Visser, Christiaan

    2012-01-01

    Digitalization has given rise to new opportunities for small and medium-sized video game development studios. No longer bound by physical products and creative restrains, the de-veloper has been empowered with independency. This qualitative study is aimed to under-stand how a development studio develops their business model and how underlying strate-gy is formulated. Additionally we evaluate the degree of innovativeness of the business model in terms of radical and incremental innovation acco...

  8. Research on the smile curve-based industry upgrade in small and medium-sized real estate enterprises%基于微笑曲线的中小房地产企业产业升级研究

    姜阵剑; 庄鸿霖; 宋贤

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the difficult conditions are analyzed which small and medium-sized real estate enterprises face, and the necessities are indicated of their industry upgrade.The smile curve theory is originally used to analyze the industry upgrade strategy of the small and medium-sized real estate enterprises, and the conclusion is drawn that the small and medium-sized real estate enterprises should invest more in the design and marketing links, reduce the production costs and upgrade the industry.Some specific measures are put forward for small and medium-sized real estate enterprises in design,marketing, cost control, comprehensive competitiveness and industry upgrade.%分析了中小房地产企业的竞争劣势和生存困境,指出其产业升级的必要性;首创性地引入微笑曲线理论分析中小房地产企业的产业升级,并得出中小房地产企业应加大设计与营销环节的投入,降低生产成本,进行 产业升级的结论;文章提出了中小房地产企业在设计环节、营销服务环节、成本控制和综合竞争力的提高等方面增强企业竞争力、进行产业升级的具体措施.

  9. Holonic Business Process Modeling in Small to Medium Sized Enterprises

    Nur Budi Mulyono

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Holonic modeling analysis which is the application of system thinking in design, manage, and improvement, is used in a novel context for business process modeling. An approach and techniques of holon and holarchies is presented specifically for small and medium sized enterprise process modeling development. The fitness of the approach is compared with well known reductionist or task breakdown approach. The strength and weaknesses of the holonic modeling is discussed with illustrating case example in term of its suitability for an Indonesia’s small and medium sized industry. The novel ideas in this paper have great impact on the way analyst should perceive business process. Future research is applying the approach in supply chain context.Key words: Business process, holonic modeling, operations management, small to medium sized enterprise

  10. AN INVESTIGATION INTO MEDIUM-SIZED MULTINATIONAL ENTERPRISES

    Daniele Schilirò

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an investigation of medium-sized Italian industrial enterprises that have become multinational companies. It concetrates on the set of medium and medium-large enterprises who seem to grow more in foreign markets, either through exports or through foreign direct investment. The work also offers a descriptive empirical picture of the performance of medium-sized Italian multinationals, which is compared with the performance of large corporations. From this analysis, which is based on several data sources, it is possible to outline a profile regarding the medium-size italian multinational enterprises; the aim is to understand the complex strategy towards internationalization of these companies, where the dimension of production is important and, therefore, innovation has a key role. Also the commercial dimension is crucial, because it leads to point to the direct supervision of foreign markets and to look very carefully at the customers, offering them a wide range of services. Finally, the paper highlights some critical issues that the medium sized multinational enterprises have to face for competing: namely, the stagnant productivity, the high taxation, the insufficient institutional support for internationalization, the bureaucracy and its high costs, the lack of skilled human capital available in the labor market due to inadequate policy training.

  11. Small and Medium-Sized City: The Main Battle Field of the New Urbanization Construction

    2015-01-01

    Small and medium-sized cities have played important roles in China¡¯s new urbanization strategies. Small and medium-sized cities can not only help large cities avert over-concentration of population, but also avoid excessively decentralizing rural industrialization in small towns. To develop small and medium-sized cities, characteristic industries and vocational education are required so that people can get employed in the cities and become residents easily. City infrastructure and public ser...

  12. Efficiency of Innovative Resource Allocation for Regional Large and Medium-size Industrial Enterprises in China%地域大中型工业企业创新资源配置效率研究

    华海岭; 吴和成

    2011-01-01

    Using recent data, the allocation efficiency of innovative resource for regional large and medium-size industrial enterprises in China is studied.This paper measures innovation efficiency of large and medium-size industrial enterprises of 30 regions in China using improved DEA model, and analyzes utilization of innovative resource.The geographical classification is given based on the DEA efficiency.There are lower allocation efficiency of innovative resource about 80% of the areas in China, and utilization of innovative resources is generally low.This paper gives some policy proposals to improve allocation efficiency of innovative resource for large and medium-sized industrial enterprises in China, based on the results of quantitative analysis.%利用2000-2007年数据,对我国地域大中型工业企业创新资源配置效率进行评价.运用改进的DEA模型,对我国30个地区的大中型工业企业的创新投入效率进行测度,并基于测度结果,对各地区大中型工业企业的创新投入资源利用率进行分析;并给出了基于DEA的地域分类.结果显示,我国有80%的地区其创新资源未能得到有效配置,且创新资源的利用率普遍较低.基于定量分析结果,给出了提高地域大中型工业企业创新资源配置效率的政策建议.

  13. Medium Size Pharmaceutical Firms in Italy: Strategies, Performance and Prospects

    Spandonaro Federico

    2007-01-01

    In the pharmaceutical industry, large-scale research and innovation have been broadly recognized as the major drivers of performance. While this paradigm is still valid, owing to the need to increase firms dimension in order to cope with the high risks related with innovation processes, it would seem that is no longer the only feasible strategy. Empirical research point to a poor corporate performance after mergers and acquisitions. Even in Italy small and medium- size firms prove to be more ...

  14. Evaluating Strategic Alliances in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Cem Canel; Stacy Mitchell

    2013-01-01

    The ability of firms to carry out operational strategies such as differentiation, cost leadership or focused strategies can depend on their ability to integrate technological advances relevant to their industry. Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SME), in particular, have many reasons to use strategic alliances as a way to counteract the market power and financial resources possessed by many large firms. This research intends to offer guidance to SMEs through the development of a hybrid mode...

  15. Perspective on small and medium size reactors

    There has been renewed interests in the United States in small and medium size nuclear power plants (600 MWe or less). The reasons for this include: (1) there is a large uncertainty in load growth projections. Small to medium size nuclear power plants may be better suited to meet uncertain load growth projections. (2) It has been argued that a large economy of scale exists because of the nature of nuclear power installations. A recent examination of the French program shows that no economy of scale exists between the 900 MWe and 1300 MWe plants. Others have suggested that it is possible to reduce the economy of scale so it is not a prohibitive factor. (3) In the past in the United States, it has been customary for several smaller utilities to share the output of a large nuclear plant to take advantage of the perceived economy of scale. Difficulties have been encountered by some of these enterprises. (4) An examination of capacity factors for the United States shows that plants of smaller output appear to operate more reliably and economically than larger plants

  16. Medium-size power plants. Economic options

    In this paper the authors describe a method for economic evaluation of a nuclear power plant project such as advocated by the IAEA but modified through the introduction of various parameters that may affect the evaluation, i.e. the weighted evaluation rate, the annual increase in the cost of fuel, and the discount rate. The method is applied to barge-based medium-size reactors (125 MW(e)). The authors calculate the investment cost, together with the costs of administration, operation and maintenance; use is made of current assumptions regarding the price of fuel for the case of a reference nuclear plant and an oil-fired plant of the same power and in the same programme. In this way the authors derive the discounted cost of the nuclear programme and concurrent conventional programme on the basis of the following assumptions: a weighted inflation rate varying between 0 and 6% per year; an annual increase in real fuel prices ranging from 0 to 3%; and a real discount rate, equal to the real interest rate, varying between 4 and 7% per year and corresponding to nominal discount rates of up to 13.4%. The conclusion reached is that, given the real interest rates actually prevailing on the financial market, a weighted inflation rate foreseen by the majority of experts, and a rise in real fuel prices of the order of 1% per year, the medium-size nuclear power plant is more economical than a conventional plant of the same output. (author)

  17. 安徽大中型工业企业区域创新能力评价研究%Evaluation for Large and Medium-Sized Industrial Enterprises′Regional Innovation Capability in Anhui Province

    彭良玉

    2015-01-01

    在国家创新调查的背景下,企业作为国家和地区创新的主体,而大中型工业企业又是企业发展的主导力量。在分析安徽省大中型工业企业数据的基础上,利用因子分析法建立了安徽省大中型工业企业区域创新能力的评价模型,找出了地区之间影响企业创新能力的关键因素即:创新实力、创新绩效和创新投入强度。%In the context of the national innovation surveys,enterprise was the main innovational body of countries and regions,and the large and medium-sized industrial enterprises is the leading force in the de-velopment of enterprises.The indicators on the evaluation of large and medium-sized industrial enterpri-ses′regional innovation capabilities were advanced on the basis of the data in Anhui province,and a model based on factor analysis method was established.The key factors which were the most relative with the en-terprises innovation were found out to be innovative strength,innovative efficiency and innovative input in-tensity.

  18. Insights about Integrated Marketing Communication in Small-and-Medium-sized Italian Enterprises

    Annamaria Esposito

    2013-01-01

    The paper investigates if and how integrated marketing communication (IMC) has been implemented by Italian small-and-medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Three case studies about small and-medium Italian enterprises analysis are carried out: three small and-medium enterprises in different industries through interviews and document analysis. The article highlights the fact that small-and-medium-sized Italian enterprises implement marketing communication using a flexible approach. The most widespre...

  19. Assessing the potential for Construction Collaboration Technologies (CCTs) in Small to Medium sized Enterprises (SMEs) involved in project management in the Irish Construction Industry

    Duffy, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    This research focused on the actual and potential use of Construction Collaboration Technologies (CCTs) in Small to Medium Enterprises (SMEs) for project management purposes. The adoption of CCTs has been posited as a solution to the poor levels of communication and information exchange between organisations in the construction process, the vast majority of who are SMEs.

  20. Small and medium sized reactors: Status and prospects. Proceedings

    During the early years of nuclear power deployment, the plants entering service were dominated by what are now considered small (less than 300 MW(e)) and medium (300 to 700 MW(e)) reactors. In the late 1970s, the balance shifted to larger size plants to serve the requirements of industrialized countries. However, since the early 1990s, the increased interest of developing countries in nuclear power, mainly in Asia, has resulted in intensified efforts in development of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). Also, in industrialized countries, electricity market deregulation is calling for power generation flexibility that SMRs may offer. Apart from electricity generation, SMRs are of particular interest for non-electrical applications of nuclear energy, such as desalination of seawater and district heating. In recognition of the current global interest in small and medium sized reactors this seminar was convened to provide a forum for the exchange of information by experts and policy makers from industrialized and developing countries on the technical, economic, environmental, and social aspects of SMR development and implementation in the 21st century, and to make this information available to all interested IAEA Member States. Keynote addresses also provided information on global energy demand and supply and international trends impacting the development and introduction of SMRs. Two hundred forty seven attendees from 39 countries and 5 international organizations participated in the seminar. The majority of the participants were from developing countries. The seminar not only provided valuable up to date information on SMRs, it also highlighted the importance of continued international co-operation in the development and application of nuclear power for peaceful uses throughout the world

  1. From medium-sized to megawatt turbines...

    Dongen, W. van [NedWind bv, Rhenen (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    One of the world`s first 500 kW turbines was installed in 1989 in the Netherlands. This forerunner of the current NedWind 500 kW range also represents the earliest predesign of the NedWind megawatt turbine. After the first 500 kW turbines with steel rotor blades and rotor diameter of 34 m, several design modifications followed, e.g. the rotor diameter was increased to 35 m and a tip brake was added. Later polyester blades were introduced and the rotor diameter was increased with 5 in. The drive train was also redesigned. Improvements on the 500 kW turbine concept has resulted in decreased cost, whereas annual energy output has increased to approx. 1.3 million kWh. Wind energy can substantially contribute to electricity supply. Maximum output in kiloWatthours is the target. Further improvement of the existing technology and implementation of flexible components may well prove to be a way to increase energy output, not only in medium or large sized wind turbines. 7 figs.

  2. Status and prospects for small and medium sized reactors

    Member States have evinced interest in the continued development of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) as an energy source for the future. Support for this programme was recently reaffirmed at the IAEA 1997 General Conference. Although the generation of electricity is the predominant focus of existing SMRs, there is increasing interest in using these plants for desalination, district heating and high temperature industrial process heat applications. Here is a review of SMR development within selected Member States, an overview of the IAEA's SMR programme and a discussion of selected SMR designs with emphasis on safety attributes. (author)

  3. The role of small and medium-sized reactors

    The second half of the twentieth century has seen nuclear power evolve from the research and development environment to an industry that supplies 17% of the world's electricity. The past decade, however, has seen stagnation in nuclear power plant construction in the Western industrialized world, slow nuclear power growth in Eastern Europe and expansion only in East Asia. But the turn of the century is potentially a turning-point for nuclear power because of: increasing world energy consumption, with nuclear power's contribution to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, nuclear fuel resources sustainability, and improvements in operation of current nuclear power plants; advanced reactor designs that will improve economics and availability, and further enhance safety; and continued strengthening of the nuclear power safeguards system. This paper looks at the role that small and medium-sized reactors can play in an increasingly competitive global energy market, particularly with regard to maintaining a sustainable mix of energy sources. (author)

  4. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Concern

    2008-01-01

    @@ A common concern The outer environment At present,small and medium-sized enterprises are faced with many serious challenges.Since most of the large-sized enterprises ln China are state-owned ones,small and medium-sized enterprises in this article are referred mainly to those in the private sector.

  5. Analysis on Profit Quality of Small and Medium-sized Agricultural Enterprises: A Case Study of YM Industrial Co., Ltd in Guang’an City of Sichuan Province

    Ling JIANG; Luo, Huawei

    2013-01-01

    For a long time, under the influence of system and environment and other factors, some small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises in China only seek growth of profit in quantity, but neglect the growth of profit in quality, leading to low profit quality. This study reasonably defines the concept of profit quality of small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises, and expounds general characteristics of high quality profit. On the basis of general factors influencing profit quality of en...

  6. Quality Assurance - a Chance for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

    Ion IONITA; Cosmin DOBRIN; Mihai MIEILA

    2006-01-01

    In this mateial some of the most important aspects related to the quality assurance for their bussiness plan, sma;; and medium sized enterprises are pointed out the functional processual approach, the modely of the implementation of the quality management system for the small and medium sized enterprises.

  7. Market Potential Estimation of a Small and Medium Size Reactor

    Technically, nuclear reactors which produce energy in the form of heat can supply energy products other than electricity, including district heat, process heat, potable water etc. Currently non-civil uses of nuclear energy are very limited civil applications except for a military nuclear powered ship and an energy usage in isolated areas. However, the future global environment and an energy resources scarcity could promote a significant usage of non-electrical applications on an industrial scale. Considering these situations, this report analyzed the following: (1) Worldwide non-electrical application of a small and medium sized nuclear reactor - survey the situation of the current technical applications, - survey the global market potential estimation for various applications (2) Technical cooperation potential in several countries - identify necessary conditions for nuclear cooperation, - select candidate countries: Morocco, UAE, Indonesia, Chile and Vietnam, - survey the energy and water situation, - survey the legal and international regime infrastructure

  8. SMALL- AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES: DATA SOURCES IN AUSTRALIA

    Mariya Yesseleva

    2012-01-01

    Small- and medium-sized enterprises constitute a significant sector in any economy. Academic research studies, which analyze various dimensions of small- and medium-sized sector in Australia, reiterate the importance of availability and reliability of data sources regarding these firms. Any research study has to be supported with reliable data sources that provide comprehensive, consistent and timely information, enhancing the significance of research results. This article provides informatio...

  9. SPATIAL CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR IN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED TOWNS

    Leeuwen, Eveline S. van; Rietveld, Piet

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Small and medium-sized towns are often recognized as important components of the rural economy. In this article, we focus on the current function of small and medium-sized towns in providing retail services to local households in five European countries. Furthermore, we analyse the spatial shopping behaviour of these households. It appears that towns are still important places for shopping: more than half of the purchases of households living in town or the direct hinterla...

  10. Information Security in Small and Medium-Sized Companies

    David Kral

    2011-01-01

    Information security doesn’t involve only large organizations. Small and medium-sized companies must closely examine this issue too, because they are increasingly threatened by cyber attacks. Many of them mistakenly believe, that security of their valuable data is sufficient, or that the attackers are not interested in them. Existing standards and methodologies for implementation and management of information security are often hard to transfer to the environment of small and medium-sized bus...

  11. Development of medium sized ABWRs (ABWR-600, ABWR-900)

    Hitachi has been developing medium sized ABWRs as a power source that features flexibility to meet various market needs, such as minimizing capital risks, providing a timely return on capital investments, etc. Basic design concepts of the medium sized ABWRs are 1) using the current ABWR design which has accumulated favorable construction and operation histories as a starting point; 2) utilizing standard BWR fuels which have been fabricated by proven technology; 3) achieving a rationalized design by suitably utilizing key components developed for large sized reactors. Development of the medium sized ABWRs has proceeded in a systematic, stepwise manner. The first step was to design an output scale for the 600 MWe class reactor (ABWR-600) which is appropriate for a distributed power supply. The next step was to develop an uprating concept to extend this output scale to the 900 MWe class reactor (ABWR-900) based on the rationalized technology of the ABWR-600 for further cost savings. (author)

  12. Development of medium sized ABWR (ABWR-600, ABWR-900)

    Hitachi has been developing the Medium sized ABWR as a power source that features flexibility to various market needs, such as minimized capital risks, timely return on a capital investment, etc. Basic design policy of the Medium sized ABWR is 1) to be based on ABWR design with superior experiences in construction and operation, 2) to utilize standard BWR fuel adopting proven technology, 3) to achieve rationalized design by suitably utilizing the key components developed for large sized reactor. Development of the Medium sized ABWR has been working to proceed step by step. The first step was to design an output scale of the 600 MWe class (ABWR-600), which is appropriate for a distributed power-supply. The next step we start developing of the up-rated to an output scale of the 900 MWe class (ABWR-900) based on ABWR-600 rationalized technology for further cost saving. (author)

  13. Small and Medium-Sized Information Technology Firms: Assessment of Non-Local Partnership Facilitators

    Findikoglu, Melike Nur

    2012-01-01

    A two-phased qualitative study was conducted to explore the facilitators of non-local (i.e. domestic or international) partnerships formed by small- and medium-sized firms (SME). Rooted in trust, proximity and dynamic capabilities lenses, the study focused on behaviors of SMEs performing in dynamic, competitive and highly interlinked industry, the…

  14. The economics of medium-sized reactors in deregulated markets

    The prospects for the deployment of small and medium reactors in deregulated markets is crucially dependent on demonstrating that such reactors are economically competitive with alternative power sources. Other factors, such as safety, reliability, waste arisings, environmental impact etc are also important to get right, but unless the economics are competitive, private investment is unlikely to be available for any reactor system. This paper examines the economics of the Westinghouse AP-600, which is the only medium-sized evolutionary PWR in the world today which has achieved regulatory approval. The paper presents an economic analysis of an AP-600 which shows that medium-sized systems can be economic in a competitive market and identifies the economic barriers that need to be overcome for their deployment to become a reality. The paper shows how sensitive the overall generating cost can be to the perceived financial risk, which helps to highlight where attention most needs to be focused. (author)

  15. Decay heat removal system in a medium size HTGR

    The present study investigates the operation of the decay heat removal system (DHR) during loss of flow (LOF) accident in which the primary flow is reduced to zero at full power operation of medium size high temperature gas reactor (HTGR). (author)

  16. Efficiency optimized control of medium-size induction motor drives

    Abrahamsen, F.; Blaabjerg, Frede; Pedersen, John Kim;

    2000-01-01

    The efficiency of a variable speed induction motor drive can be optimized by adaption of the motor flux level to the load torque. In small drives (<10 kW) this can be done without considering the relatively small converter losses, but for medium-size drives (10-1000 kW) the losses can not be disr...... robustness towards load disturbances may unnecessarily be reduced. Both displacement power factor and model-based efficiency optimizing control methods perform well in medium-size drives. The last strategy is also tested on a 22 kW drive with good results.......The efficiency of a variable speed induction motor drive can be optimized by adaption of the motor flux level to the load torque. In small drives (<10 kW) this can be done without considering the relatively small converter losses, but for medium-size drives (10-1000 kW) the losses can not be...... disregarded without further analysis. The importance of the converter losses on efficiency optimization in medium-size drives is analyzed in this paper. Based on the experiments with a 90 kW drive it is found that it is not critical if the converter losses are neglected in the control, except that the...

  17. Small- and Medium-Size Enterprise Financing in Eastern Europe

    Leora F. Klapper; Sarria-Allende, Virginia; Sulla, Victor

    2002-01-01

    There is currently a large interest in understanding firms' access to finance, particularly in the financing of small- and medium-size enterprises (SMEs). But the financing patterns of SMEs across countries is not well understood. For example, little is known about the relative importance of equity, debt, and inter-firm financing for SMEs across countries. The authors use the Amadeus datab...

  18. Sales strategy in small and medium-sized food companies

    Nielsen, Renate; Stacey, Julia; Andersen, Lone Merete Schreiber

    2002-01-01

    All managing teams know that they have to deal with the company's strategy in handling the market. But how do they do it and on the basis of which beleifs and interpretations? A nearly completed PhD project has examined the way in which three small and medium-sized food companies define their...

  19. Experience Reference from the Financial Support Practices for Japan’s Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Zhaozhen Fan

    2009-01-01

    The government-dominant financial system in Japan has exerted significant effects on the reconstruction of economy, the realization of industrial policy goals, and the construction of independent industrial and national economic system after the war. In Japan, the government takes much count of support for small and medium-sized enterprise financing. It establishes a small and medium-sized enterprise financial system that takes non-governmental units as principal parts and government as assis...

  20. Sustainable manufacturing for Indonesian small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs): The case of remanufactured alternators

    Fatimah, Yun; Biswas, Wahidul; Mazhar, Ilyas; Islam, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Achieving sustainability is a great challenge for most of the Indonesian manufacturing small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Remanufacturing has been considered to be a key strategy to attain sustainable manufacturing by maximising the use of old components and minimising landfill size and energy usage. However, SMEs, which are undoubtedly the engine of the Indonesian manufacturing industry, do not have adequate experience, skill, resource, technology and financial support in the remanu...

  1. Online Marketing in Small and Medium sized companies

    Mehra, Vikram

    2009-01-01

    Online marketing plays a significant role in business and the World Wide Web has proven to become a platform for success for many enterprises and industries. The advantages that comes with the use of the internet platform for the marketing goods and services makes it imperative for Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) to adopt, in order to stay competitive in the fast changing global market. The main objective of this study is to explore the dynamics of the Internet in connection with (SMEs). ...

  2. Development of ESCO as a tool for realising energy efficiency in small and medium sized industry; ESCO = Energy Service Company; Udvikling af ESCO som vaerktoej til realisering af energieffektivisering i smaa og mellemstore erhvervsvirksomheder

    Jensen, Ove Folmer (DS Haandvaerk og Industri, Odense (Denmark))

    2011-07-01

    The project carried out an advisory process in 10 different SME (small and medium-sized enterprises). The process was based on energy management and employee involvement in energy conservation activities, which has led to a wide variety of projects in companies that have focused on the initiation and solution of diverse energy-saving activities. Results of the project consist of a series of case studies that describe the processes that have been implemented in the company. The selected cases demonstrate the diversity of businesses, their energy saving potential and need for funding. It also describes and assesses the various financing possibilities, a model for qualitative advising in SMEs and a module for the training of the people involved - including installers, craftsmen and advisor. (LN)

  3. The causal effect of board size in the performance of small and medium-sized firms

    Bennedsen, Morten; Kongsted, Hans Christian; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    Empirical studies of large publicly traded firms have shown a robust negative relationship between board size and firm performance. The evidence on small and medium-sized firms is less clear; we show that existing work has been incomplete in analyzing the causal relationship due to weak...... identification strategies. Using a rich data set of almost 7000 closely held corporations we provide a causal analysis of board size effects on firm performance: We use a novel instrument given by the number of children of the chief executive officer (CEO) of the firms. First, we find a strong positive...... correlation between family size and board size and show this correlation to be driven by firms where the CEO's relatives serve on the board. Second, we find empirical evidence of a small adverse board size effect driven by the minority of small and medium-sized firms that are characterized by having...

  4. Corporate philanthropy in small and medium-sized enterprises

    Skřičková, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to evaluate the current situation of corporate philanthropy in small and medium-sized enterprises in the Czech Republic. Theoretical background of the bachelor thesis is done by using relevant literature. The evaluation of the current situation is accomplished by creation of PESTEL analysis, quantitative and qualitative research and EFE matrix. Based on the results, several recommendations will be suggested in terms of corporate philanthropy.

  5. Utilizing Content Marketing in Small and Medium-Sized Organizations

    Parviainen, Ville

    2014-01-01

    The major objective of this study is to find out how and to what extent online content is currently utilized for marketing purposes among small and medium-sized organizations in Finland. Additionally, positive and negative future prospects concerning this type of content marketing were explored. The study is mainly qualitative by nature. The empirical part of this thesis was carried out between July 2013 and March 2014 and it consists of five semi-structured interviews with five professio...

  6. Female Leadership Motivation in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Lillbacka, Marjo

    2010-01-01

    Leaders need to know what motivates their employees and how they can get their employees work their best. Women leaders are said to encourage and support their employees, which is essential for leadership motivation. Motivated employees improve enterprises’ overall business performance and results. The research is based on leadership, motivation and self-motivation in small and medium-sized enterprises in Ostrobothnia. The research problem is to find out how female leaders motivate their empl...

  7. Social responsible activities of small and medium sized enterprises

    Pavlína Dalíková; Darja Holátová

    2011-01-01

    The article deals with corporate social responsibility in specific area of small and medium sized enterprises. Corporate social responsibility as a way of global advocated sustainable development can be characterised as an integration of not only economical aspects but also social and environmental ones to the corporate decision making. The aim of the article is to analytically describe motivate factors related with engagement to the corporate social responsibility and especially to analyse t...

  8. Unions in small and medium-sized enterprises

    Holten, Ann-Louise; Crouch, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Trade unions are commonly weak in small- and medium-sized enterprises, which constitute a majority of European firms and are often family-owned. We investigate the influence of family ownership on employee membership, perceptions and experience with unions in Danish and Italian firms in the textile...... and clothing sector. Family ownership reduces union membership; and within family firms, the number of family members employed is negatively associated with unionization rates and employee perceptions of unions....

  9. Sales Forecasting in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Haataja, Timo

    2016-01-01

    This thesis examined the use of sales forecasting in the small and medium-sized enterprises (SME), which provide software services and applications to their business customers. Sales forecasting is important, because it directs planning and decision making in the companies. However, SMEs may not have proper tools and resources assigned to sales forecasting. The theoretical framework of the thesis focused on two essential components; sales forecasting processes in SMEs and forecasting tool...

  10. ERP system implementation in small and medium-sized enterprises

    Zach, Ondrey

    2012-01-01

    This thesis presents a study of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system implementation in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Compared to large enterprises, SMEs represent fundamentally different environments, with a number of characteristics typifying the SME context. Because of these distinguishing differences, the findings from studies of ERP implementation in large enterprises cannot be fully applied to SMEs. The purpose of this research project is to explore the i...

  11. Internal Control in Swedish Small and Medium Size Enterprises

    Gebramicheal, Zelalem Berhanu; Habtegiorgis, Tsegahiwot Teketel

    2009-01-01

    Small and medium size enterprises are currently the major part of economic activities through out the world. Nowadays, they represent about 99% of all types of enterprises in Sweden, with providing high job opportunities to its labour force as these enterprises need focus in their development; the internal control mechanism is a means and a way of directing, monitoring and measuring the SMEs resources. It plays an important role in preventing and detecting fraud and protecting the physical an...

  12. Entrepreneurial Orientation vs. Innovativeness of Small and Medium Size Enterprises

    Joanna Ejdys

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the role of entrepreneurial orientation (entrepreneurship orientation) in innovation level among Small and Medium Size Enterprises (SMEs). A questionnaire survey was conducted among 137 firms in the Podlaskie Region. Three hypotheses related to entrepreneurial orientation and innovativeness level were examined by Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The relation between two constructs of entrepreneurial orientation and innovativeness, that is proactiveness and risk t...

  13. Application of RCM to a medium scale industry

    The factors which are assuming considerable importance in cost effective decision making of operation of any industrial enterprise are in the order of significance liability, safety and environmental conditions. Hence, preventive maintenance (PM) optimisation is providing wide opportunities and challenges to everyone involved in all aspects of operation of industrial enterprise. Reliability centred maintenance (RCM) methodology offers the best available strategy for PM optimisation. It incorporates a new understanding of the ways in which equipment fails. In this paper, the concept of RCM has been applied to steel melting shop of a medium scale steel industry. By systematically applying the RCM methodology, failures, failure causes and effects on the system are analysed. To preserve the system function, PM categories are suggested for various failure modes in the components such as (1) time directed (2) condition directed (3) failure finding (4) run to failure. Features of predictive maintenance of a medium scale steel industry are deduced through this paper in a rather generalised form

  14. The Role of Industrial Incentives in Development of Small and Medium Industries

    Afshin Rahnama; Seyyed Javad Mousavian; Dariush Eshghi; Abbas Alaei

    2011-01-01

    Small and medium industries have had a significant impact on creation of new employment opportunities in recent years. In other words, in today¡¯s modern world, small and medium industries have a significant role in variables like economic growth, competitiveness, and resolution of the ubiquitous unemployment crisis. Even though large-scale industries are still important in economic policy-making due to their economy of scale, the effect of massive production, experience, and organization, sm...

  15. Managerial Efficiency and Firm Size: An Assessment of the Strategic Potential of Italian Manufacturing Industries

    Erbetta Fabrizio; Fraquelli Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of the study is to examine the relationship between firm size and efficiency in Italian manufacturing industries. Although the literature has sometimes underlined the intrinsic weakness of an excessive fragmentation in industry organization, some authors have recently emphasized the role of medium-sized firms, as potentially benefitting from a mix of «structure» and «flexibility». Using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) on a sample of medium and large firms, the study disentangles ...

  16. Medium-sized water reactors for undeveloped regions

    In the new century the growth of population and an increasing of energy demands together with the difficulties of fossil fuel supply are expected. It is important to find optimal ways in solving such problems without the climate warming. The nuclear power having many advantages in comparison with fossil fuel technologies could play the great role in near future. The Medium-Sized Nuclear Reactors for production of electricity, heat and fresh water are considered as a main direction of nuclear power applications in the developing world It is important to discuss the requirements to such nuclear plants for using in the Countries with Small and Medium Electricity Grids. Particularly, cost-benefit analysis of construction NPP has to include assessment of all type risks and effectiveness of plant. In the paper an attention is paid on Water Reactors designed on the basis of navy technology. Such compact PWR built on special mills and placed on special floating vessel could be used in undeveloped regions. Total plant can be transported to any point of World Ocean and return back to mill for repair or decommissioning after exhaustion of lifetime. It is expected that such reactors with innovative design approach, provision of high safety and proper economic efficiency, based on leasing procedures, could be very attractive for medium-sized and developing countries.(author)

  17. Analysis of energy-efficiency investment decisions by small and medium-sized manufacturers

    Woodruff, M.G.; Roop, J.M.; Seely, H.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Muller, M.R. [Rutgers--the State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Jones, T.W. [Alliance to Save Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Dowd, J. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This report highlights the results of a comprehensive analysis of investment decisions regarding energy-efficiency measures at small and medium-sized manufacturing plants. The analysis is based on the experiences of companies participating in the DOE Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) program. The IAC program is a network of university-based centers that provides energy and waste assessments to small and medium-sized manufacturing plants. The purposes of this report are to do the following: (1) Examine what the data collected reveal about patterns of implementation of recommended energy- efficiency measures, (2) Evaluate how various factors, such as the type of industry, the characteristics of the manufacturing plants, or the cost of the measures, appear to effect implementation rates, (3) Examine reasons why recommended energy-saving measures are accepted or rejected.

  18. Beyond the Product – Enabling design services in small and medium sized enterprises

    Eneberg, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    While the design industry is moving into new domains, it seems that potential customers do not always understand how the designer can contribute beyond the aesthetically appealing product. The overall purpose of this thesis is to expand our understanding of design as an enabling service in the context of small and medium sized enterprises. Enabling design services have the potential to result in organizational learning and change. The co-creation of new knowledge and competencies can in turn ...

  19. Small and Medium Sized Firms’ Competitiveness and Territorial Characteristics by using a MLR approach

    Metaxas, Theodore; Duquenne, Marie Noelle

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the importance of territorial characteristics on small and medium-sized firms’ (SMEs) competitiveness. The analysis is based on primary data collected through questionnaires from 374 firms located in Bari (Italy), Varna (Bulgaria) and Thessaloniki (Greece). These firms operate in the sectors of industry, commerce and services. Through Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA), the contribution of a large set of territorial characteristics has been assessed allowing us to extra...

  20. Foreign Markets Entry Mode Decision for Italian Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Fabio Musso; Barbara Francioni

    2011-01-01

    Using a resource-based view model, this paper examines the main factors influencing Small and Medium-SizedEnterprise (SME) international entry mode selection. In addition, a possible relationship between firmsbelonging to industrial districts and the entry mode choice has been verified. Data for the analysis of this studywere collected interviewing 221 owners/managers of SMEs in Italy. Results showed that entry mode decisionsare mainly influenced by firm specific factors. Furthermore, the stu...

  1. A medium sized telescope prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    The CTA (Cherenkov Telescope Array) is a proposed next generation instrument to observe very high energy (VHE) gamma-rays at ground level. The array will consist of 3 sizes of telescope covering a wide photon energy range: small (4m diameter) telescopes sensitive to the highest energy photons, medium sized telescopes (12 m) operating in the mid energy range, and a small number of large telescopes (24 m) with high sensitivity to low energy photons. Current Cherenkov Telescope experiments consist of up to 5 telescopes; CTA will be made up of an order of magnitude more, which will greatly enhance the number of photons that can be detected as well as increasing the number of views of each cascade, bringing significantly improved angular resolution and background suppression. The observatory is currently in the planning and development phase. A prototype CTA medium sized telescope (MST) is being built in Adlershof (Berlin). This talk focuses on plans for CTA and the design and construction of the MST prototype, as well as its operation, instrumentation and early measurement results.

  2. Transient analysis in medium size HTGR power plant

    In this work we use then DSNP software, to study the reactivity transient in HTGR medium size power plant, initiated by a sudden rise in core reactivity followed by a scram action as a result of temperature growth. The decay heat in the core is removed from the primary loop in the steam generator. The simulation shows that during the transient the peak core gas temperature is 857 degrees C and the peak fuel temperature is 1026 degrees C, which indicate that the fuel coating integrity is not in danger. (authors) 7 refs, 12 figs

  3. Micadur: Compact insulation system for medium-sized turbo generators

    Aare, V.; Schuler, R. H.

    1981-12-01

    A high voltage, Class F, vacuum pressure impregnated insulation system for wound stator cores of the medium size turbogenerators is described. With this total impregnation technique the insulation process has been revolutionized. The excellent characteristics of this synthetic resin insulation system have made it possible to redesign the end winding support system for decisive improvement in reliability. This has been confirmed by operating experience in recent years. Test procedures were modified to suit the new insulation process and new repair procedures have been developed.

  4. Status and Prospects for Small and Medium Sized Reactors

    There is considerable interest by Member States in the continued development of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) as a significant energy sources for the future. The support for this programme within the IAEA was recently reaffirmed at the 1997 General Conference. Although the generation of electricity has been predominant focus of existing SMRs, there is increasing interest in using these plants for other applications such as desalination, district heating and hydrogen production from the reforming of methane. Addressed herein is a review of ongoing SMR development activities within selected Member States, an overview of the Agency's SMR programme and a discussion of selected SMR designs with emphasis on their safety attributes. (author)

  5. Fracture mechanics characterisation of medium-size adhesive joint specimens

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Jacobsen, T.K.

    2004-01-01

    Medium-size specimens (<2 m in length), consisting of two glass-fibre beams bonded together by an adhesive layer were tested in four point bending to determine their load carrying capacity. Specimens having different thickness were tested. Except for onespecimen, the cracking occurred as cracking...... along the adhesive layer; initially cracking occurred along the adhesive/laminate interface, but after some crack extension the cracking took place inside the laminate (for one specimen the later part of thecracking occurred unstably along the adhesive/ laminate interface). Crack bridging by fibres was...

  6. Relationship marketing of small to medium sized textile retailers in the Northwest Province / Fred Angels Amulike Musika

    Musika, Fred Angels Amulike

    2002-01-01

    This study concentrated on the concept of relationship marketing and its implementation by small and medium sized textile retailers in the Northwest province of South Africa. This study addressed the gap between the relationship marketing theory and its implementation by small and medium sized textile retailers in the textile industry of the Northwest province. Researchers in relationship marketing have started to realise that there is a definite need for detailed empirical ...

  7. Internationalization of small and medium-sized enterprises

    Zoran Paunović

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Highly developed countries, which are similar to Croatia by size and population, highlight the importance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs as holders of export activities and key factors in raising the competitiveness of the entire economy. In this paper authors research the concept of internationalization of SMEs. Analyzing the influence of decision makers on the process of internationalization and showing its advantages and disadvantages for the respective company and country, this research introduces the most common models on the basis of which this process is implemented in practice. A case study of a small export company from Croatia illustrates the process of internationalization to the U.S. market and provides useful information to the companies which are planning to enter new markets.

  8. Cogeneration through small and medium sized gas turbines in Italy: Marketing survey

    In Italy, the use of cogeneration systems by private industrial concerns has greatly increased in the early 90's. The successful technological development of highly efficient low and medium sized gas turbines and the successful application of cogenerated power to a number of industrial processes, favourable legislation and financial incentives on the part of the Italian Government, especially interested in promoting energy conservation and the use of natural gas as an alternative to petroleum, as well as, fast payback periods for such investments are amongst the major regions for the growing demand for this type of power system alternative in Italy

  9. CANDU 6 - the highly successful medium sized reactor

    The CANDU 6 Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor system, featuring horizontal fuel channels and heavy water moderator continues to evolve, supported by AECL's strong commitment to comprehensive R and D programs. The initial CANDU 6 design started in the 1970's. The first plants went into service in 1983, and the latest version of the plant is under construction in China. With each plant the technology has evolved giving the dual advantages of proveness and modern technology. CANDU 6 delivers important advantages of the CANDU system with benefit to small and medium-sized grids. This technology has been successfully adopted by, and localized to varying extents in, each of the CANDU 6 markets. For example, all CANDU owners obtain their fuel from domestic suppliers. Progressive CANDU development continues at AECL to enhance this medium size product CANDU 6. There are three key CANDU development strategic thrusts: improved economics, fuel cycle flexibility, and enhanced safety. The CANDU 6 product is also enhanced by incorporating improvements and advanced features that will be arising from our CANDU Technology R and D programs in areas such as heavy water and tritium, control and instrumentation, fuel and fuel cycles, systems and equipment and safety and constructability. (author)

  10. Can small and medium sized reactors be competitive?

    Cost is an important attribute for the future development of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). This paper addresses the target costs necessary for SMRs to be competitive in the markets of the 21st century and ways and means that designers are considering to meet these targets. It briefly reviews the impacts on nuclear energy competitiveness of economic globalisation, market deregulation, privatisation of the power sector and policy measures aiming at sustainable development and highlights new challenges and opportunities that are created for nuclear power plants as a result of the changing policy making framework in the electricity sector. Recognising the importance of capital cost (60% or more of nuclear electricity generation cost) the paper elaborates on technical (e.g. simplified design and factory building) and managerial (e.g. series order) measures aiming at capital cost reduction. The impacts of deregulation of the electricity market and privatisation of the sector on the competitiveness of SMRs are addressed. The paper stresses the importance of internalisation of social and environmental costs and sustainable development objectives for the competitiveness of nuclear energy and in particular of SMRs that are adapted to decentralised electricity supply and co-generation. Finally, it presents some findings and conclusions, drawn from the NEA analyses, on the prospects for enhancing the economics of small and medium reactors and their potential contribution to sustainable energy mixes. (author)

  11. Variability management challenges in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs

    Tuomas Ihme

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Variability has become important means to provide customer specific products fast to the market. This paper presents findings from a literature study and questionnaire designed to find out the current variability management practices, challenges and needs in small and medium sized companies (SMEs. The literature study was carried out first, and based on its findings questionnaire study was designed and carried out. Transparency of variability and design decisions between R and D and business and customer interfaces and transparency of variability and design decisions within R and D were the most important and challenging variability areas in the studied organisations. The most frequently used architecture design issue was the use of known architectural styles and patterns to handle variability. The findings of the most challenging and important variability management topics, as well as the important improvement goals can be used to direct future research, and efforts to support companies in variability management.

  12. Incident Response Plan for a Small to Medium Sized Hospital

    Charles DeVoe

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Most small to medium health care organizations do not have the capability to address cyber incidents within the organization.Those that do are poorly trained and ill equipped .These health care organizations are subject to various laws that address privacy concerns , proper handling of financial information, and Person ally Identifiable Information. Currently an IT staff handles responses to these incidents in an Ad Hoc manner.A properly trained, staffed,and equipped Cyber Incident Response Team is needed to quickly respond to these incidents to minimize data loss, and provide forensic data for the purpose of notification, disciplinary action, legal action, and to remove the risk vector. This paper 1 will use the proven Incident Command System model used in emergency services to show any sized agency can have an a dequate CIRT.

  13. Medium-size high-temperature gas-cooled reactor

    This report summarizes high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) experience for the 40-MW(e) Peach Bottom Nuclear Generating Station of Philadelphia Electric Company and the 330-MW(e) Fort St. Vrain Nuclear Generating Station of the Public Service Company of Colorado. Both reactors are graphite moderated and helium cooled, operating at approx. 7600C (14000F) and using the uranium/thorium fuel cycle. The plants have demonstrated the inherent safety characteristics, the low activation of components, and the high efficiency associated with the HTGR concept. This experience has been translated into the conceptual design of a medium-sized 1170-MW(t) HTGR for generation of 450 MW of electric power. The concept incorporates inherent HTGR safety characteristics [a multiply redundant prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV), a graphite core, and an inert single-phase coolant] and engineered safety features

  14. Entrepreneurial Orientation vs. Innovativeness of Small and Medium Size Enterprises

    Joanna Ejdys

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the role of entrepreneurial orientation (entrepreneurship orientation in innovation level among Small and Medium Size Enterprises (SMEs. A questionnaire survey was conducted among 137 firms in the Podlaskie Region. Three hypotheses related to entrepreneurial orientation and innovativeness level were examined by Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The relation between two constructs of entrepreneurial orientation and innovativeness, that is proactiveness and risk taking were analyzed. The research results show that proactiveness has a significant positive total effect on improving innovativeness. The findings suggest, in contrast to the strategic orientation literature, that risk taking deters enterprises from organizational innovation. The results confirmed the significantly higher impact of the risk taking as an intermediate variable on the innovation through the mediator of proactivity. This work examines the relations between entrepreneurial orientation and innovativeness, thus contributes to the strategic orientation literature.

  15. Stereotactic radiation therapy by medium fraction size for lung tumor

    Stereotactic radiation therapy by medium fraction size (SRTm) was applied for lung tumor, we investigated to effectiveness and CT image change by treatment. Thirteen patients with lung tumor were treated with SRTm between September, 2003 and June, 2004. Nine cases were consisted as primary lung cancer, and 4 as metastatic lung cancers. Total 13 lesions were treated in 13 cases. Tumor diameter ranged from 1 cm to 4 cm, and the median was 2 cm. Body Fix was applied for patient's immobilization. The treatment planning was performed with CT simulator, X-ray simulator, and ECLIPSE. Fraction dose was escalated from 4 Gy to 7 Gy, of which contents were as follows 4 Gy/f x 10 f (one) 4 Gy/fx 12 f (one), 4 Gy/fx 15 f (one), 5 Gy/fx 10 f (3) 5 Gy/f x 12 f (3), 6 Gy x 10 f (3), and 7 Gy/f x 10 f (one). Total dose by LQ model were estimated as 56-119 in BEDacute (α/β=10), and 120-315 in BEDlate (α/β=3). V20 ranged from 2.52-10.24% (average 5.84). In the initial response, 8 lesions were achieved as CR, 2 as PR and 3 as SD. Among 13 lesions, no lesion had re-growth. Radiation-induced pulmonary complications greater than National Cancer Institute (NCI)-CTC criteria Grade 2 was noted one only. In change of CT image, slight increase in opacity was noted 3 cases within 3 month after treatment. Pachy consolidation was noted 10 cases between 3 month and 12 month after treatment. Stereotactic radiation therapy by medium fraction size for lung tumor was considered as effective and safety. (author)

  16. Industrial computed tomography image size measurement

    As one of the most useful modern detection technologies, Industrial Computed Tomography (ICT) image size measurement can correctly non-destructively measure the size of workpieces' inner construction, and it is considered as the standard for quality assurance and reverse engineering. In view of the advantages and disadvantages compared to conventional methods, this paper improves the precision of image size measurement with a new algorithm that uses an approximate function to describe edge degradation. First, this algorithm constructs the approximate function and determines the optimal point of edge detection, based on image intensity and inflexions. Then, in order to accurately extract the image edge, this algorithm is used to revise the primary image, completing construction of the CT image. Excellent results are obtained from simulations and experiments. The experimental results indicate that the relative error is 2% for the CT image when the step evolution of the image edge is pooled. The relative error of this method is decreased by as much as 1.5% compared to wavelet transformation and ridgelet transformation. Therefore, this new algorithm demonstrates increased effectiveness in extracting an accurate measurement of the CT image edge.

  17. BTX measurements in a medium-sized European city

    Pilidis, Georgios A.; Karakitsios, Spyros P.; Kassomenos, Pavlos A.

    The BTX levels are significantly high compared to the EU directive for benzene in European cities with population around or higher one million. Since there are hundreds of towns in Europe with smaller population, it is important to know the levels of aromatics in these areas. This work presents the results of a benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) measurement campaign that took place in Ioannina, a medium-sized Greek city. As a result of traffic situation and the local meteorological conditions, pollution levels in Ioannina are unusually high, at least for a city of that size. BTX levels were measured using passive samplers placed at several points around the city, as well as across a selected street canyon using both passive and active samplers, combined with simultaneous measurements of traffic flow and wind speed. The measurement procedure was repeated in an exact manner for all four seasons and the results suggest that benzene levels, at all sampling points, exceed the limit set by EU Directive 2000/69. Benzene levels appear correlated to traffic density, while benzene/toluene/xylene ratios present a seasonal variation linked to meteorological conditions.

  18. Design, Testing, and Realisation of a Medium Size Aerostat Envelope

    A. Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The design, testing and realisation aspects during the development of a medium size aerostat envelope in the present work. The payload capacity of this aerostat is 300 kg at 1 km above mean sea level. The aerostat envelope is the aerodynamically shaped fabric enclosure part of the aerostat which generally uses helium for lifting useful payloads to a specified height. The envelope volume estimation technique is discussed which provides the basis for sizing. The design, material selection, testing and realisation aspects of this aerostat envelope are also discussed. The empirical formulas and finite element analysis are used to estimate the aerodynamic, structural and other design related parameters of the aerostat. Equilibrium studies are then explained for balancing forces and moments in static conditions. The tether profile estimation technique is discussed to estimate blow by distance and tether length. A comparison of estimated and measured performance parameters during trials has also been discussed.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 66, No. 2, March 2016, pp.93-99, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.66.9291

  19. Challenges and Considerations for Innovative Small and Medium Sized Reactors

    There is an ongoing interest in Member States in the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). In the near term, most new NPPs are likely to be evolutionary water cooled reactor designs building on proven systems while incorporating technological advances and often the economics of scale, resulting from the reactor outputs of up to 1600 MW(e). For a longer term, the focus is on innovative designs aiming to provide increased benefits in the areas of safety and security, non-proliferation, waste management, resource utilization and economy, as well as to offer a variety of energy products and flexibility in design, siting and fuel cycle options. Many innovative designs are reactors within the SMR range, having an equivalent electric power less than 700 MW(e) or even less than 300 MW(e). It is important that small or medium sized reactor does not necessarily mean small or medium sized nuclear power plant. The majority of innovative SMR concepts and designs provide for power station configurations with several units at a site or for NPP configurations with 2 or more reactor modules. In most cases, the units or modules could be added incrementally. Innovative SMRs are in many cases intended for markets different from those in which large nuclear power plants operate, i.e., markets that value more distributed electrical supplies, a better match between supply increments and investment capability or demand growth, more flexible siting or greater product variety. SMRs cannot compete with larger capacity plants on an economy of scale basis. However, they could be competitive via employing alternative design strategies, taking advantage of smaller reactor size resulting in a less complex design and operation and maintenance or in an increased overall energy conversion efficiency, and by relying on alternative deployment strategies, taking advantage of multiple unit factors and learning curve, and shorter construction schedule and 'exact' unit

  20. 基于PCA-DEA综合评价模型的大中型工业企业技术创新效率评价%Evaluation on Technological Innovation Efficiency of Large and Medium-sized Industrial Enterprise Based on PCA-DEA-Integrated Model

    刘艳春; 韩孺眉; 孙博文

    2013-01-01

    In order to overcome the problem existing in DEA method that the effective coefficient of decision making unit increases with the increasing of index set,this paper combines principal component analysis with data envelopment analysis to construct the comprehensive evaluation model.Then it applies this model to evaluate the technological innovation efficiencies of large and medium-sized industrial enterprises of 31 provinces and autonomous regions of China in 2011.And it analyzes the reasons of different evaluation results as well as the adjustment directions.The results show as follows:the technological innovation efficiency of industrial enterprises in China is not high on the whole,and the lack of innovation investment exists in large and medium-sized industrial enterprises of different regions;there is the obvious difference in the technological innovation efficiencies of regional large and medium-sized industrial enterprises Finally,it puts forward some suggestions to improve the technological innovation efficiency.%为克服DEA方法的弊端——指标集增大导致决策单元的有效性系数增大,采用主成分分析与DEA相结合的综合评价模型,对2011年我国31个省(自治区、直辖市)大中型工业企业的技术创新效率进行了综合评价,并分析了产生不同评价结果的原因以及需要调整的方向.结果表明:当前我国各地区大中型工业企业整体的技术创新效率不高,各地区的大中型工业企业普遍存在创新投入不足的问题;各地区的大中型工业企业的技术创新效率存在显著差异.最后,提出提高技术创新效率的建议.

  1. Tracking the Credit Collection Period of Malaysian Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Nasruddin Zainudin

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Profits of a company depend upon its frequency of reinvestment, or turnover, of its capital. Frequent turnover would notbe possible if collections are slow as they deny the company the use of its own capital. Credit collection period is, therefore,an important factor that may influence a company’s overall performance. Hence, this study explores the average collectionperiod profile of 279 small and medium-sized manufacturing companies in Malaysia using the companies’ financial statementsfrom 1999 through 2002. This paper also examines if different industry sector has different collection period. Then thestudy relates the average collection period to company financial performance as measured by operating profit on totalassets. Finally, the study investigates if there is any relationship between collection period and company size. Theserelationships are then examined again after taking industry sub-sector into consideration.

  2. R&D tax incentives in industry: empirical study among small and medium electronics manufacturing enterprises

    Nina Bockova

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with the topic of direct and indirect support for research and development and its use in small and medium-sized enterprises operating in the electronic industry. The Czech Republic is the geographic segment to be explored. A chapter on theoretical issues is followed by a description of the current situation in the Czech Republic and abroad and access to legal support for research and development in the business sector. Primary data collected from a survey are analysed in the ...

  3. Overview of the EUROfusion Medium Size Tokamak program

    Martin, Piero; Beurskens, Marc; Coda, Stefano; Eich, Thomas; Meyer, Hendrik; the EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2015-11-01

    As a result of the new organization of the European fusion programme, now under the umbrella of the EUROfusion Consortium, the MST (Medium Size Tokamaks) task force is in charge of executing the European science programme in the ASDEX Upgrade, TCV and MAST-U tokamaks. This paper will present an overview of the main results obtained in the 2014 campaign-where only ASDEX upgrade was operating-and the preliminary achievements of the recently started 2015/16 campaign, where also TCV will contribute. The main subjects of the experimental campaigns are (i) the development of scenarios relevant for the ITER Q=10 goal, in an all metal wall device (ii) the understanding of ELM mitigation/suppression with pellets and resonant magnetic perturbations, and in particular the effect of density versus collisionality, (iii) the understanding and optimization of methods for disruption mitigation or avoidance and runaway electrons control and (iv) the exploration of ITER and DEMO relevant scenarios with high normalized separatrix power flux, Psep / R , (Psep is the power through the separatrix, R the major radius) and tolerable target heat loads. The overview of the future programs in MST will be given. http://www.euro-fusionscipub.org/mst1

  4. Approaches to Assess Competitiveness of Small and Medium Sized Reactors

    There is continuing interest in Member States concerning the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs), i.e., reactors with the equivalent electric power of less than 700 MW. Currently, developed SMRs are in most cases intended for markets different than those in which large nuclear power plants operate. Such markets have essentially different investment requirements, siting flexibility, grid connections and infrastructure restrictions. Therefore, economic factors affecting the competitiveness or competition of SMRs in such markets would also be different from those observed in established markets for electricity production. For example, investment capability may be limited, which would favour capacity addition in smaller increments; grids may be small or weak, which would favour capacities exactly matching the demand; infrastructure and human resource may be insufficient, which would favour less complex operation and maintenance requirements; and non-electrical energy products, such as potable water, may be in demand, which would favour reasonably close plant location to the customer. In practice it is futile to compare a single SMR needs to a single larger capacity plant on an economy of scale basis because SMRs are suitable for those locations that might not be appropriate for larger plants. However, a series of SMRs could be considered comparable to fewer larger plants to achieve the same overall power station capacity. In this case, SMRs have a potential to be competitive by employing alternative design strategies, taking advantage of smaller reactor size, offering a less complex design and operation and maintenance, relying on deployment-in-series approaches, taking an advantage of the accelerated learning, multiple unit factors and shorter construction duration. Reflecting on developments in member states, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is finalizing the preparation of a report highlighting the economics and

  5. Efficiency Measuring and Spatial Correlation Analysis for R&D of Large and Medium-sized Industrial Enterprises in China%我国大中型工业企业研发效率测度及其空间相关性研究

    黄晗

    2013-01-01

    在对我国省际大中型工业企业的R&D效率测度分析的基础上,结合Moran散点图、空间聚集地图进行效率的空间相关性分析.研究结果表明:我国大中型工业企业R&D的综合效率水平还有待提高;大部分地区大中型工业企业R&D的规模收益未达到规模收益的最适阶段,政府应根据本地区的实际情况增加、减少或重新配置R&D资源;R&D的综合效率存在显著的空间聚集与地区分布不平衡现象,大中型工业企业应当加强地区间R&D的交流与合作,促进技术溢出.%Spatial correlation analysis is carried out on large and medium-sized industrial enterprises in China,combining with Moran scatter plot and LISA gather maps based on R&D efficiencies evaluation.The results show that the overall efficiency level should be improved due to the low technical efficiency level,although the scale efficiency is high.Most large and medium-sized industrial enterprises do not stay in the optimal stage of R&D scale return,and the government should allocate R&D resources according to the actual situation of the region.There are significant space gathering and area distribution imbalance of the R&D overall efficiency,and the R&D cooperation and exchange should be strengthened between regions for the promotion of technological spillover.

  6. Theory of flotation of small and medium-size particles

    Derjaguin, B. V.; Dukhin, S. S.

    1993-08-01

    The paper describes a theory of flotation of small and medium-size particles less than 50μ in radius) when their precipitation on a bubble surface depends more on surface forces than on inertia forces, and deformation of the bubble due to collisions with the particles may be neglected. The approach of the mineral particle to the bubble surface is regarded as taking place in three stages corresponding to movement of the particles through zones 1, 2 and 3. Zone 3 is a liquid wetting layer of such thickness that a positive or negative disjoining pressure arises in this intervening layer between the particle and the bubble. By zone 2 is meant the diffusional boundary layer of the bubble. In zone 1, which comprises the entire liquid outside zone 2, there are no surface forces. Precipitation of the particles is calculated by considering the forces acting in zones 1, 2 and 3. The particles move through zone 1 under the action of gravity and inertia. Analysis of the movement of the particles under the action of these forces gives the critical particle size, below which contact with the bubble surface is impossible, if the surface forces acting in zones 2 and 3 be neglected. The forces acting in zone 2 are ‘diffusio-phoretic’ forces due to the concentration gradient in the diffusional boundary layer. The concentration and electric field intensity distribution in zone 2 is calculated, taking into account ion diffusion to the deformed bubble surface. An examination is made of the ‘equilibrium’ surface forces acting in zone 3 independent of whether the bubble is at rest or in motion. These forces, which determine the behaviour of the thin wetting intervening layer between the bubble and the mineral particle and the height of the force barrier against its rupture, may be represented as results of the disjoining pressure forces acting on various parts of the film. The main components of the disjoining pressure are van der Waals forces, forces of an iono

  7. Theoretical Investigation of Trust in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

    Valentinas Navickas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The hectic pace of competition pushes the sector of small and medium enterprise to adopt sophisticated marketing ideas. In this context, customers are becoming more and more selective. However, expansion possibilities are burdened by the great variety of limitations. The current study paper aims to investigate the academic perception of trust which is treated as competitive advantage for small and medium enterprises. The object of the article is trust in small and medium enterprises. It has three objectives: to analyse small and medium enterprise characteristics through the academic perspective; to consider trust from the theoretical point of view; and to present the models that centre their attention on the trust as a construct that enhances customer satisfaction. Regarding the novelty of the current study, it brings a novel approach on a great variety of collected understandings of trust and puts an important foundation for future theory and practice investigations.

  8. Approaches to assess competitiveness of small and medium sized reactors

    There is continuing interest in Member States concerning the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs), i.e., reactors with the equivalent electric power of less than 700 MW. Currently, developed SMRs are in most cases intended for markets different than those in which large nuclear power plants operate. Such markets have essentially different investment requirements, siting flexibility, grid connections and infrastructure restrictions. Therefore, economic factors affecting the competitiveness or competition of SMRs in such markets would also be different from those observed in established markets for electricity production. For example, investment capability may be limited, which would favour capacity addition in smaller increments; grids may be small or weak, which would favour capacities exactly matching the demand; infrastructure and human resource may be insufficient, which would favour less complex operation and maintenance requirements; and non-electrical energy products, such as potable water, may be in demand, which would favour reasonably close plant location to the customer. In practice it is futile to compare a single SMR needs to a single larger capacity plant on an economy of scale basis because SMRs are suitable for those locations that might not be appropriate for larger plants. However, a series of SMRs could be considered comparable to fewer larger plants to achieve the same overall power station capacity. In this case, SMRs have a potential to be competitive by employing alternative design strategies, taking advantage of smaller reactor size, offering a less complex design and operation and maintenance, relying on deployment-in-series approaches, taking an advantage of the accelerated learning, multiple unit factors and shorter construction duration. Reflecting on developments in member states, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is finalizing the preparation of a report highlighting the economics and

  9. How the business strategies of small and medium sized enterprises are affected based on their size and business focus

    Pavlína Dalíková; Marie Duspivová

    2013-01-01

    The Current global environment requires that enterprises should have a clearly determined vision and direction, which they want to head for. This paper deals with the process management of small and medium sized enterprises according to the number of employees and business focus. The aim is to analytically describe the business strategies of surveyed small and medium sized enterprises and their differences based on company size and business focus. Furthermore, to statistically analyse and com...

  10. Use of sales and operations planning in small and medium-sized enterprises

    Michał Adamczak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing competitiveness in the market, customer expectations related to the shortening of the deadlines and the reduction of prices of products and services force companies to improve the efficiency of internal processes. The integration of planning process is one of possible ways to achieve this aim. The integration of planning processes by the use of SOP model (Sales and Operations Planning is a method to implement this idea. The study allowed to identify ways to implement the process of sales and operations planning in small and medium-sized enterprises. Material and methods: The study was conducted in companies from different industries. The research method was in-depth interviews conducted with managers of companies or persons occupying management positions in the organizational process of implementing sales and operations planning. Results: During the survey, 10 companies were asked about the use of sales and operations planning, its elements and organizational aspects of its development, by the company. Conclusions: The use of sales and operations plan is closely dependent on the size of the company and its localization in the supply chain. Small enterprises are not interested in the integration of the planning process due to the small scale of operations and the centralization of decision-making process. Medium-sized enterprises, due to the increased complexity of the processes of planning, see the benefits of their integration in the SOP model.

  11. Consórcio de exportação como alternativa de pequenas e médias empresas: um estudo de caso na cadeia têxtil The export consortium as a best initial alternative for small and medium sized industries: a case study in clothing

    Gustavo Barbieri Lima

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo central deste estudo é evidenciar a grande importância e utilidade da formação de consórcios de exportação - que é a união de indústrias do mesmo segmento ou complementares para a exportação de seus produtos em conjunto - para empresas brasileiras de pequeno e médio porte, em detrimento da adoção da exportação indireta ou direta como modo de entrada no mercado internacional. Realizou-se, para isso, a revisão bibliográfica sobre Estratégias ou Modos de Entrada em Mercados Internacionais e Consórcios de Exportação (MALHOTRA, 2001. Utilizou-se o método de estudo de caso (YIN, 2001 para analisar a Associação Brasileira do Vestuário (ABRAVEST, entidade que vem se destacando na formação e consolidação de consórcios de exportação na indústria do setor vestuário, com ênfase nos seguintes tópicos: desenvolvimento do programa, compromissos setoriais e metas de exportação, aplicação dos recursos e consórcios em atividade. Como resultado, foi possível verificar que, entre as três opções analisadas no artigo (exportação direta, exportação indireta e consórcios de exportação, a terceira opção foi aceita como a melhor ou mais viável para a internacionalização de empresas de pequeno porte.The importance and value of an export consortium was investigated as a means for small and medium sized Brazilian industries to orchestrate export efforts instead of adopting indirect or direct export to enter foreign markets. An export consortium is an association of industries in the same or complementary segments for the purpose of export. Bibliography was reviewed for initial export strategies including a case study of the Brazilian Clothing Association. The consortia of this exemplary Association have emphasized program development, sector agreements, export objectives and resource application integrated with local activities. An export consortium was found to be the best and most viable alternative for

  12. Organizational Culture Assessment of Small & Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Arshad Zaheer; Kashif ur Rehman; Abrar Ahmad

    2006-01-01

    This paper is an ethnographic study defining and assessing the organizational culture exhibited by Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). It primarily focuses on four cultural categories: clan, adhocracy, hierarchy and market-driven. These conceptual domains have been examined by the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument. Results from a sample of 162 SMEs in the Rawalpindi/Islamabad area indicate that SME culture lacks creativity, innovation, freedom and risk taking. SMEs are not looking...

  13. Incident Response Plan for a Small to Medium Sized Hospital

    Charles DeVoe; SYED (SHAWON)M. RAHMAN

    2015-01-01

    Most small to medium health care organizations do not have the capability to address cyber incidents within the organization.Those that do are poorly trained and ill equipped .These health care organizations are subject to various laws that address privacy concerns , proper handling of financial information, and Person ally Identifiable Information. Currently an IT staff handles responses to these incidents in an Ad Hoc manner.A properly trained, staffed,and equipped Cyber Incident Response T...

  14. Design and implementation of web server soft load balancing in small and medium-sized enterprise

    Yan, Liu

    2011-12-01

    With the expansion of business scale, small and medium-sized enterprises began to use information platform to improve their management and competition ability, the server becomes the core factor which restricts the enterprise's infomationization construction. This paper puts forward a suitable design scheme for small and medium-sized enterprise web server soft load balancing, and proved it effective through experiment.

  15. Predictors of organisational performance in small and medium-sized professional service firms

    Glunk, Ursula; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.

    1998-01-01

    The paper sets out our theoretical and empirical approach to delineating predictors of stakeholder performance in medium-sized computer service firms. It combines a resource-based approach with recent insights from the literature on small and medium-sized firms, professional service, and computer-se

  16. Innovation and Innovativeness in Medium-Low Tech/Low-Tech Industries – Wood Industry

    Andreja Pirc Barčić

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In today’s modern business world, development of innovations and innovation activities is considered as a key driver of business success of an individual entity, specific industry sector, as well as the overall economy of a country. However, industries of low and/or medium-low technology, where wood industry belongs, are extremely important and they represent by far the largest part of the manufacturing sector in OECD countries. They show an excellent stability and employ a high share of the population. Wood industry, especially furniture industry, is a successful export-oriented European industry. Innovative companies and innovation as a result of innovativeness can be attached to a number of internal and external company factors. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to clarify the connection between concepts of innovation and innovativeness of certain internal and external company factors that have/could have an impact on company innovativeness and innovation development, and that have been established and researched in studies of a large number of scientists / authors.

  17. [Application of health questionnaires for health management in small- and medium-sized enterprises].

    Kishida, K; Saito, M; Hasegawa, T; Aoki, S; Suzuki, S

    1986-01-01

    Two kinds of health questionnaires, the Todai Health Index (THI) and Cumulative Fatigue Index (CFI), were applied as a screening device for health management of workers belonging to small-medium sized enterprises. A total of 495 workers composed of 452 male workers of a glass-bottle manufacturing factory and 43 male workers of a soft-drink bottling factory were the subjects of the present study. It was found that the two kinds of health questionnaires were different from each other and have their own characteristics. Twelve scales of THI were grouped into two, the first consisting of ten scales (SUSY, RESP, EYSK, MOUT, DIGE, IMPU, MENT, DEPR, NERV, and LIFE) and the second consisting of two scales (AGGR and LISC). Nine categories of CFI were grouped into one by using principal factor analysis. It was confirmed that the twelve scale scores of THI obtained at small-medium sized factories differed from those scale scores of a reference group investigated at a large-sized enterprise. It is on the basis of the scales of aggressiveness and lies and also of the scale of mental unstability which characterizes workers, locality, job (clerical or field work), and size of industry (large or small sized) that the difference could be evaluated. Urban life characterized by a life style of staying up late at night and waking up late in the morning has been reflected on the scale of life irregularity. Irregularity of life induced by transformation of working schedule, such as two or three shifts of work and overtime, was also reflected on this scale. Two scales of THI test, i.e., many subjective symptoms and digestive organ complaints, seemed to be the representative scales indicating a close relation between work load and health level. The discriminant score for diagnosis of psychosomatic diseases is considered to be one of the most useful assessments of the individual's health condition. As mentioned above, THI is recommended as a convenient assessment method for health

  18. Future Perspectives for Small and Medium Sized Reactors in India. Annex V

    Innovative small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) have several features that are expected to affect their future development and deployment in India. These include the: - Potential for simpler designs and reduced demands for human intervention, resulting in fewer potentially unsafe actions; - Potential for construction close to population centres, due to enhanced safety; - Potential of using the capability and capacity of local industries to enable their participation in the design and construction of such reactors, and high adaptability to the standardization and modular construction approach; - Potential to achieve low upfront capital costs. Future SMR concepts, employing increased use of passive safety features and capable of producing both electricity and high temperature process heat, may find application in specific regions of the country to supply both electricity and process heat, through distributed deployment. The following sections describe future SMR design concepts meeting the above mentioned objectives, and highlight their projected economic competitiveness

  19. Glass formability in medium-sized molecular systems/pharmaceuticals. I. Thermodynamics vs. kinetics.

    Tu, Wenkang; Li, Xiangqian; Chen, Zeming; Liu, Ying Dan; Labardi, Massimiliano; Capaccioli, Simone; Paluch, M; Wang, Li-Min

    2016-05-01

    Scrutinizing critical thermodynamic and kinetic factors for glass formation and the glass stability of materials would benefit the screening of the glass formers for the industry of glassy materials. The present work aims at elucidating the factors that contribute to the glass formation by investigating medium-sized molecules of pharmaceuticals. Glass transition related thermodynamics and kinetics are performed on the pharmaceuticals using calorimetric, dielectric, and viscosity measurements. The characteristic thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of glass transition are found to reproduce the relations established for small-molecule glass formers. The systematic comparison of the thermodynamic and kinetic contributions to glass formation reveals that the melting-point viscosity is the crucial quantity for the glass formation. Of more interest is the finding of a rough correlation between the melting-point viscosity and the entropy of fusion normalized by the number of beads of the pharmaceuticals, suggesting the thermodynamics can partly manifest its contribution to glass formation via kinetics. PMID:27155640

  20. Meaningfullness for creation of growth in Small- and Medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)

    Brink, Tove; Neville, Mette

    utilizing growth opportunities. The creation of cognitive cultural meaningfulness regarding development of organisational and managerial capabilities, development of the business model and development of the financial parameters provides prioritisation of activities to the SME managers. However, these......The research in this paper reveals how meaningfulness of growth can be created in Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs). The research is conducted in a four-year period with 24 SMEs participating from different industry branches. The research is now in the late part of the 3rd. year starting...... in 2013 and finished January 2017. Preliminary findings are revealed and have been discussed with the participating SMEs. Important antecedent tensions are present in all SMEs on historical capabilities and the freedom to pursue new ideas as very important for the creation of meaningfulness for...

  1. Development of CAPP System for Small and Medium Size Apparel Enterprises

    YIN Ling; ZHANG Wen-bin

    2006-01-01

    Existing computer-aided process planning (CAPP) systems for garment manufacturing emphasize all-purpose ones, lack of specialism and availability. So, few developed is popular in the garment industries. This study is intended for developing a CAPP system, which aims at the actual condition of process planning in the small and medium size apparel enterprises (SMAs). It enables the technologists of process planning to be quicker in generating suitable plans that are similar to existing styles or new. It also automatically provides labor cost by considering the shop-flocr conditions. Process planning is achieved by adopting the Hybrid Interactive-variant process planning method. The proposed system has been realized in Borland Delphi 7 and Oracle 8. For validation of the system,the software has been implemented successfully in a firm named Jingchen in China.

  2. Examples from P2 and energy assessments at small to medium size manufacturers

    Using engineering student-faculty teams, the U.S. Department of energy sponsored industrial assessment center (IAC) at the university of louisville does free pollution prevention and energy assessments at small to medium size manufacturers (SIC 20-39) in kentucky and indiana. Each client plant must meet three of the following four criteria: Annual energy bills less than $1, 750, 000 and more than $50, 00. Gross annual sales of less than $75 million. Less than 500 employees. Lack a dedicated energy/waste engineer. Lack of in-house staff to perform these analyses. The program criteria and assessment procedures are briefly described and summaries of assessment at a sheet fed offset (lithographic) printing plant and 2 denim jeans pre washing plants are presented. 4 figs., 8 tabs

  3. Glass formability in medium-sized molecular systems/pharmaceuticals. I. Thermodynamics vs. kinetics

    Tu, Wenkang; Li, Xiangqian; Chen, Zeming; Liu, Ying Dan; Labardi, Massimiliano; Capaccioli, Simone; Paluch, M.; Wang, Li-Min

    2016-05-01

    Scrutinizing critical thermodynamic and kinetic factors for glass formation and the glass stability of materials would benefit the screening of the glass formers for the industry of glassy materials. The present work aims at elucidating the factors that contribute to the glass formation by investigating medium-sized molecules of pharmaceuticals. Glass transition related thermodynamics and kinetics are performed on the pharmaceuticals using calorimetric, dielectric, and viscosity measurements. The characteristic thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of glass transition are found to reproduce the relations established for small-molecule glass formers. The systematic comparison of the thermodynamic and kinetic contributions to glass formation reveals that the melting-point viscosity is the crucial quantity for the glass formation. Of more interest is the finding of a rough correlation between the melting-point viscosity and the entropy of fusion normalized by the number of beads of the pharmaceuticals, suggesting the thermodynamics can partly manifest its contribution to glass formation via kinetics.

  4. Culture and capital structure in small and medium sized firms

    Brian Lucey; Colm KEarney; Ciaran MacAnBhaird

    2012-01-01

    Employing 90,000 firm-level observations from 13 countries over a seven year period, and controlling for an extensive set of firm-level characteristics, industry effects and country-level institutional variables, we provide a conceptual framework and empirical analysis of how culture influences capital structure in SMEs. We document hitherto unreported effects. Uncertainty avoidance and individuality are negatively related with long-term debt, highlighting SME owners desire to avoid heightene...

  5. Small and medium sized reactors with special emphasis on non-power applications

    The paper examines the possible role of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) for world energy supply based on recent studies by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), the IAEA, the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD and papers presented at a seminar on SMRs held in New Delhi, in August 191. It notes that nuclear power appears to be receiving more favourable consideration as the environmental effects of fossil fuels and renewable energy sources become more evident, and that SMRs are generating particular interest, especially in the USA, because of their passive safety features and reduced financial risk. Although larger reactors will be preferred for electricity generation in most developed countries, unless SMRs are cheaper or offer other benefits, they could be used where electricity demand is too small for large reactors. Small and medium sized reactors could have a more general role in supplying district heating or process heat as they provide a better match to the energy required. However, there are many obstacles to their use at present, including public opposition, cheap gas, small system size, low load factors, lack of finance and competition from independent boilers. Current prospects for SMRs in district heating systems are poor, but the obstacles appear less serious for process heat applications, including desalination, and these could therefore offer early opportunities for SMRs to demonstrate their safety and reliability. Industrial sites also have more consistent demands for heat and electricity which would allow the reactors to operate more efficiently in a co-generation mode. It is concluded that the prospects for SMRs are reasonably good in the longer term. However, it is essential that one or two prototype reactors be built as soon as possible to provide experience and confirm their claimed benefits. This likely to need international co-operation and finance, which will require the selection of the most suitable national designs for

  6. Safety Analysis for Medium/Small Size Integral Reactor: Evaluation of Safety Characteristics for Small and Medium Integral Reactor

    Kim, Hho jung; Seul, K.W.; Ahn, S.K.; Bang, Y.S.; Park, D.G.; Kim, B.K.; Kim, W.S.; Lee, J.H.; Kim, W.K.; Shim, T.M.; Choi, H.S.; Ahn, H.J.; Jung, D.W.; Kim, G.I.; Park, Y.M.; Lee, Y.J. [Korea Inst. of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The Small and medium integral reactor is developed to be utilized for non-electric areas such as district heating and steam production for desalination and other industrial purposes, and then these applications may typically imply a closeness between the reactor and the user. It requires the reactor to be designed with the adoption of special functional and inherent safety features to ensure and promote a high level of safety and reliability, in comparison with the existing nuclear power plants. The objective of the present study is to establish the bases for the development of regulatory requirements and technical guides to address the special safety characteristics of the small and medium integral reactor. In addition, the study aims to identify and to propose resolutions to the possible safety concerns in the design of the small and medium integral reactor. 34 refs., 20 tabs. (author)

  7. Internal And External Environment Analysis On The Performance Of Small And Medium Industries Smes In Indonesia

    Sofyan Indris; Ina Primiana

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of internal and external environment analysis on the performance of small and medium industries SMEs in Indonesia. The theoretical results showed that internal and external environment analysis have a significant effect on the performance of small and medium industries SMEs in Indonesia.

  8. Layout design studies for medium-sized telescopes within the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Hassan, T; Nieto, D; Wood, M

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is an international project for a next-generation ground-based gamma-ray observatory. CTA, conceived as an array of tens of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, comprising small, medium and large-size telescopes, is aiming to improve on the sensitivity of current-generation experiments by an order of magnitude and provide energy coverage from 20 GeV to more than 300 TeV. In this study we explore how the medium-sized telescopes layout design and composition impacts the overall CTA performance by analyzing Monte Carlo simulations including Davies-Cotton and Schwarzschild-Couder medium-sized telescopes.

  9. Tidal River Elbe - a sediment budget for the grain size fraction of medium sand

    Winterscheid, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Human interventions have a historic and ongoing impact on estuarine sediment budgets across many estuaries worldwide. An early inference was the construction of embankments resulting in a constant loss of intertidal flats. Additionally, settlement activities and large scale land use changes in the upstream catchment areas had also an effect on sediment inflow rates. Today, the navigation channels in estuaries have been deepened for larger and more efficient vessels to reach a well-developed infrastructure of harbors and industrial areas often located far inland. In the past few years and just within the North-East Atlantic, the total annual amount of dredged sediments dumped at sea varied from 80 to 130 million tons (OSPAR Commission). In most estuaries across Europe the resulting human impact on the sediment fluxes and morphodynamics is significant. A good understanding of estuarine processes is essential for determining useful and meaningful measures to mitigate negative effects and to improve the current situation. Maintenance dredging and its environmental effects are therefore in the focus of public attention. Against this background, it is the aim of the presentation to identify and therefore to separate the particular effect that maintenance dredging has on sediment fluxes and budgets in the estuarine environment. Case study is the Tidal River Elbe in Germany, and here we set the focus on the grain size fraction of medium sand. In the past, river engineering measures forced the natural dynamics to form a concentrated stream flow along a fixed channel, except at a number of locations where side channels still exist. In addition to that, the main channel was deepened several times. The last deepening was in 1999/2000. The most significant deepening, however, took place from 1957 to 1962. Until then, an erosion-stable layer of marine clay (in German called "Klei") formed a flat bottom along most sections of the main channel. After removal of this layer of

  10. PRACTICE OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISE PERFORMANCE EVALUATION IN LATVIA

    Kotane, Inta

    2016-01-01

    The total number of small and medium-sized enterprises signifies an essential share of the national economy; SMEs’ importance is evaluated by the value added and the new jobs created. Despite the growing research interest in the small and medium business performance measurement, there is no consistent opinion among researchers regarding small and medium business performance indicators, their measurement, and methods of assessment. The research study is based on an analysis of literature and s...

  11. [Migration toward medium-sized cities. Profound regional transformations].

    Corona, R; Tuiran, R

    1994-01-01

    Significant changes have occurred over the past two decades in the volume, intensity, direction, and modalities of internal migration in Mexico. Interstate migration, for example, has increased greatly. The number of persons living in a state different from that of their birth grew from 7.5 million in 1970 to 15.4 million in 1990, equivalent to 14.5% and 18.1% of the population, respectively. The growing volume and intensity of interstate migration have been accompanied by a declining rate of migration to Mexico City and to a lesser extent Guadalajara and Monterrey. Cities of intermediate size, defined as 100,000 to one million inhabitants, have multiplied since 1970 and a few have achieved great economic and demographic dynamism. In 1970, 16.6% of the population or 33.6% of the urban population lived in 37 intermediate cities, while by 1990 nearly 23.7% of the population and 39.0% of the urban population lived in 56 intermediate sized cities. Census and survey data confirm the power of attraction of a group of intermediate cities, but also reveal a complex array of situations. 24 of the 56 intermediate cities had populations of 100,000-250,000, and 21 had populations of 250,000-500,000. Most intermediate cities are located in the Northwest, Center-North, or Gulf regions. Some states have a number of intermediate cities and some have only one that concentrates most of the urban population. 26 of the 56 had growth rates over the two decades of over 4% annually and 20 had rates varying from 3% to 4%. 1990 census data show that 35% or more of the population were in-migrants in five cities: Tijuana, Mexicali and Ensenada in the Northwest, Cuernavaca in the Center-North, and Cancun in the Yucatan peninsula. Between 20% and 34% of the population were in-migrants in 14 intermediate cities. Cancun and Tijuana had the highest proportions of recent migrants. The volume of net migration of most states generally reflected that of their intermediate cities. The economic crisis

  12. Study on Electronic Commerce Maturity of Small and Medium-sized Agricultural Enterprises

    2012-01-01

    This article advances the concept of electronic commerce maturity of small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises,and establishes the indicator system of electronic commerce maturity of small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises.This indicator system includes 4 first-level indicators(infrastructure,transaction process,operation management,and transaction safety),which are divided into 11 second-level indicators(hardware equipment,computer network,e-procurement,logistics distribution,supply chain management,customer relationship management,and payment security).We use analytic hierarchy process(AHP) to determine the weight of indicator at all levels,and establish fuzzy comprehensive evaluation mathematical model of electronic commerce maturity of small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises.Finally,through examples,we verify the rationality and reliability of evaluation method of electronic commerce maturity of small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises combining analytic hierarchy process(AHP) and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation.

  13. Contribution of small and medium sized enterprises in development of agribusiness of Serbian Republic

    Popović Blaženka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic development of Serbian republic is more and more connected with development of small and medium sized enterprises, which represent one of the main bases of Serbian economy. The economic potential of agriculture imposes the need of analyzing the condition in area of small and medium sized entrepreneurship which should be the carrier of future development of agribusiness. By ranging and grouping of Serbian republic municipalities (by discrimination and cluster analysis according to level of development of small and medium sized entrepreneurship in agriculture, the clear view is got in current state of regional development of this agricultural sector as the possibilities of future development. By development of small and medium sized enterprises in agriculture it is possible to achieve strategic goals of Serbian republic agro development and for realization of these goals it is necessary to ensure the stable economic ambient, appropriate pre conditions as measures of support which will be stimulating for development of agribusiness.

  14. Business Benefits from Enterprise Systems Implementation in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    Sanjay Mathrani

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The market for enterprise systems (ESs continues to grow as business becomes increasingly global and competitive. Increasingly, the market focus for ES vendors is on small businesses. The purpose of this study is to provide a unique ES vendor/consultant perspective on (a the business benefits small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs expect from their ES investment and (b to examine current practices of ES implementation in SMEs through a conceptual framework that considers the organisational, process and strategic context of the implementation. This study does so with interview data collected from ES vendors, ES consultants and IT research firms, who are the key players in the New Zealand ES industry. A distinctive contribution of this research is the vendor/consultant perspective as the unit of analysis, rather than the SME perspective commonly used in similar research. The vendor/consultant perspective offers a comprehensive viewpoint that extends across numerous SMEs in a variety of industries. Findings from interviews with these professionals indicate that although many ES implementations are several years old now, SMEs have only recently started tracking benefits through analytical processes in expectation to realise business value from their ES investment. The results also identify how ES implementation practices are adapting to be more suitable to the SME sector, an important market for ES vendors given the saturation of the large enterprise market for ES implementation.

  15. Enhanced Bio-Ethanol Production from Industrial Potato Waste by Statistical Medium Optimization

    Gulten Izmirlioglu; Ali Demirci

    2015-01-01

    Industrial wastes are of great interest as a substrate in production of value-added products to reduce cost, while managing the waste economically and environmentally. Bio-ethanol production from industrial wastes has gained attention because of its abundance, availability, and rich carbon and nitrogen content. In this study, industrial potato waste was used as a carbon source and a medium was optimized for ethanol production by using statistical designs. The effect of various medium componen...

  16. Transformational and transactional leadership: does it work in small to medium-sized enterprises?

    Mesu, J.K.

    2013-01-01

    Using a sample of 755 employees who rated 121 supervisors within 50 Dutch small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), this dissertation intends to fill in some of the existing gaps in the literature. Firstly, by investigating whether the impact of transformational and transactional leadership extends from large to small and medium-sized companies. Secondly, by studying potential mediating and moderating effects to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms by which transformational and tr...

  17. PROBLEMS OF DEVELOPMENT AND REGULATION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED BUSINESS IN MODERN RUSSIA

    Lyudmila Bogachkova; Andrey Usachev

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the current state of small and medium-sized business (SMB) in the Russian Federation. The authors carry out the analysis of the main problems and factors which impede the development of SMB, describe the system of state regulation of small and medium-sized enterprises in Russia. The solutions to the problems are based on the improvement of the mechanisms of resource provision and financial support to entrepreneurs, the reduction of their tax burden and facilitation of t...

  18. The role of promotional strategies for small and medium- sized entreprises in sustainable marketing

    Ioana Cecilia Popescu; Diana Maria Vrânceanu; Mihai Ioan Roșca

    2012-01-01

    In Romania, small and medium-sized enterprises manifest a certain interest in marketing activities, resulted in the existence of a specific marketing structure in half of them, as attests a survey done on a sample of 140 organizations. This research, focused on understanding the promotional strategies and tactics used by Romanian small and medium-sized enterprises, concluded that communication is oriented predominantly to quantitative objectives, not designed according to sustainable marketin...

  19. The business environment and phases of development of small and medium-sized enterprises

    Wach, Krzysztof

    2006-01-01

    The subject literature distinguishes several factors that determine the establishment, survival , operations and development of micro, small, and medium-sized enterprises in particular regions. In this article, the author presents a classification of these factors in terms of whether they are barriers or stimulators. On this basis, the author explains the influence of regional environment (meso-environment) factors on the development of small and medium-sized enterprises in various phases of ...

  20. The current situation of human resource management in small and medium-sized enterprises

    Radim Dušek

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the process of human resource management in small and medium-sized enterprises of the South Bohemian region. The most valuable asset holdings of these enterprises are undoubtedly human resources, whose development is increasingly considered as the key competitive advantage that ensures long-term survival of business in the new global environment. The aim of this research is to find out the actual status of human resource management in the analyzed small and medium-sized ...

  1. European Private Company : A solution for minority shareholders within small- and medium sized enterprises in Sweden?

    Aziz, Diden

    2011-01-01

    The Swedish companies act of 2005 regulates public and private limited companies. With these two classification shortages of rights prosper to different kinds of company structures that exist in today’s business environment. The Swedish companies act focuses on larger companies and therefore smaller companies are often neglected. Specific problems that may occur in a small- and medium sized enterprise are not solved. The problems that occur in small- and medium sized companies have rather a r...

  2. Auditor Independence: Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Knowledge of Auditor Independence Regulations

    Petersson, Camilla; Dagman, Andréa

    2012-01-01

    The large accounting scandals in the early 21st century had large impact on the future discussion regarding the importance of auditor independence. This led to stricter auditor independence rules in Sweden as well as internationally. Small and medium-sized enterprises frequently hire their auditor for consulting services. A long and close audit-client relationship is common for small and medium sized enterprises. This is considered to be a threat towards the auditor independence. The purpose ...

  3. Using Information Systems to Enable Managerial Accounting at Small and Medium Sized Manufacturing Firms in Germany

    Lohr, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Small and medium sized companies can utillise information systems (IS) to overcome restrictions imposed by their often limited resources. This dissertation investigates which factors contribute to an IS’s success in enabling managerial accounting at small and medium sized manufacturing firms in Germany. An adaptation of the IS Success Model is used as the research model for a quantitative empirical survey among 5,831 companies. Structural equation modelling confirms the model and reveals ...

  4. PERFORMANCE-DRIVEN BUSINESS PROCESS MANAGEMENT METHODOLOGY FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED-ENTERPRISES

    Tang Hongtao; Tang Renzhong

    2004-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the common limitations of business process management (BPM) methodologies and the requirements of small and medium sized-enterprises (SMEs), the importance of a "performance construct" of BPM methodologies is identified, a six-phase performance-driven BPM methodology for the production and operation processes of Chinese SMEs is developed. A case study on the process management of a medium-sized enterprise shows a successful example of running the methodology.

  5. The Evolution Of Financial Standards For Small And Medium- Sized Entities "

    Gordana IVANKOVIČ; Jerman, Mateja

    2011-01-01

    According to the growing need for more comparable accounting standards, the beginnings of International Financial Reporting Standards for small and medium sized entities (IFRS for SMEs) can be found in the year 2004. IFRS for SMEs represents for the first time an accounting standard for small and medium-sized companies that can be used globally. The paper aims to examine the historical development of IFRS, the principal institutions linked to their adoption and th...

  6. Study on the Transformation of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises in Industrial Cluster under Hyper Competitive Environment---From Perspective of the Enterprise Dynamic Capabilities%超竞争环境下产业集群内中小企业转型研究--基于企业动态能力视角

    张聪群

    2014-01-01

    产业集群是中小企业依存的区域产业组织,集群内中小企业的转型受制于集群结构与自身因素的双重影响。超竞争环境下中小企业转型的核心是战略转型,组织变革服从于企业战略转型。战略转型能够改变中小企业的成长轨迹,突破中小企业成长极限,实现中小企业的持续成长。中小企业转型既需要整合产业集群内相关主体的资源与能力,又需要培育和提升转型企业的动态能力,实现转型企业内外部资源与能力的协同效应,通过协同实现转型。基于企业动态能力视角,将中小企业置于产业集群环境下,着重探讨超竞争环境下产业集群中小企业转型的主线与方式。%The industrial cluster is the regional industrial organization of small and medium-sized enterprises,the transfor-mation subj ect to the influence of the cluster structure and its factors of SMEs in the cluster.The core of SMEs transfor-mation is the strategic transformation under the hyper competitive environment,and organizational change is subj ect to en-terprise strategic transformation.Strategic transformation can change the growth path of the SMEs,break through the growth limit of SMEs,and achieve sustained growth of SMEs.The transformation of SMEs need to integrate both within the industry cluster related body resources and capabilities,and cultivate and promote the enterprise dynamic ability,to re-alize the cooperative effect of internal and external resources and capabilities,in order to achieve the successful transforma-tion through the cooperation.

  7. 基于中小企业技术创新需求的特色产业数据库与服务体系构建--以湖南省新材料产业竞争情报服务为例*%Characteristic Industry Database and Service System Construction Based on Technological Innovation Demands of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises-Taking New Material Industry Competitive Intelligence Service in Hunan For Example

    李维思; 史敏; 肖雪葵

    2013-01-01

      中小企业由于受到人才、技术、资本等资源限制,在技术创新过程中经常产生信息不对称,情报获取困难等问题,所以难以形成核心技术与核心竞争力。文章首先对中小企业技术创新需求进行分析,然后结合湖南省新材料产业的发展情况,构建了新材料产业数据库,为新材料的中小企业提供决策支持。特色数据库建设与竞争情报服务体系在示范应用中获取了较好的社会效益,为科技情报机构服务中小企业提供了方法借鉴。%Limited by the lack of talents, technologies and capitals, the SMEs (smal and medium-sized enterprises) cannot establish core competitiveness beacause of Information asymmetry. In this paper, the demands of technology innovation in SMEs are firstly analysed. Then combined with the development of new material industry in Hunan, new material industry database and service system is constructed to support SMEs' strategy decision. In the demonstration application, the system obtains a good social benefits, and provids referable methods for Science and technology intel igence agency service for SMEs.

  8. The role of small and medium size reactors in the future US nuclear market

    This paper addresses the various aspects of siting and sizing new generating facilities in the USA. Environmental and licensing issues are discussed. The economic considerations and assumptions for new plants are presented. Also, the electric transmission and distribution system characteristics and constraints are described with the potential role for several small and medium size designs summarized. (authors)

  9. International seminar on status and prospects for small and medium sized reactors. Book of extended synopses

    Small and medium sized reactors have been defined by IAEA in accordance with their net electrical power rating, or thermal equivalent power rating for reactors producing process heat. Within the global energy supply and demand the role of nuclear power, and specifically the role of small and medium sizes reactors, is reviewed. Some new design prospects of dual purpose power plants, namely for heat production and desalination, are presented. Some proposal for new concepts of small size power reactors are described. A special concern is devoted to economic and energy policy issues as well as to safety and non-proliferation matters

  10. Virtual Commissioning of Small to Medium Scale Industry Using the Concepts of Digital Manufacturing

    Akash.M.R; Dr. B. R. Narendra Babu

    2015-01-01

    Small scale industries produce certain products depending on the type of industry they have established. If these small scale industries decide to become medium scale certain changes have to be incorporated in plant layout to meet certain requirements. Certain changes include change in layout design, introducing new machines and equipments in the industry in order to produce new component .To implement these changes in the company we have to get information regarding the new compo...

  11. The triple helix frame for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises for innovation and development of offshore wind energy

    Brink, Tove; Madsen, Svend Ole

    2016-01-01

    show that SMEs need access to market and industry stakeholders to understand, learn and select among business innovation opportunities. Universities, governmental bodies and industries can create a knowledge space for organisational reciprocal learning between SMEs and larger enterprises to enable......This research reveals how small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) can enable innovation and contribute to a reduction in the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in offshore wind farms. The research provides findings from a longitudinal qualitative study of 10 SMEs for the understanding of the impact......-term support of industry knowledge spaces for offshore wind energy. Governmental bodies would actively enhance political growth strategies regulating competition and collaboration. Universities can contribute actively towards knowledge creation and dissemination. All three helices could benefit from this...

  12. A Firm's R&D Productivity: An Analysis of Large and Medium-sized Industrial Enterprises in China based on Province-Level Panel Data%企业研发效率测度与比较——以中国各地区大中型工业企业数据为例

    傅晓霞

    2011-01-01

    研发效率的高低是影响企业研发决策和经济增长效率的重要因素.已有研究在选择分析方法的时候往往只是根据主观判断,并没有给出明确和客观的理由.而且由于在样本区间、指标选择和数据处理等方面存在较大差异,不同研究之间难以进行直接比较,其核算结果也不能作为判断哪种方法有效的依据.本文在相同的样本区间、指标选择和数据处理前提下,针对中国各地区大中型工业企业1996-2005年的面板数据样本,利用索洛剩余核算、随机前沿分析和数据包络分析等方法对中国企业的研发效率进行评价.通过不同指标和方法的分析比较,可以得到相对更为全面和准确的测度,从而对中国企业的研发行为及效率做出较为客观的评价.%A firm's R&D decisions, and a government's policy-making decisions need to take R&D productivity into consideration.Although the measurement of total factor productivity of R&D activities based on the knowledge production function is an effective and popular method, findings of other estimation methods remain inconsistent and elusive. In order to better understand the rigor of different estimation methods, we use different proxy indicators, such as the number of new product projects, the number of patent applications, and owners. Three estimation methods, including SRA, SFA and DEA, are adopted to analyze the same province-level panel data collected from medium- and large-sized industrial enterprises. These comparisons enable us to objectively evaluate R&D behaviors and efficiency of Chinese enterprises.Our analysis results show that the number of R&D personnel and new products are reliable indicators to address multi-product problems, and so is the DEA measurement of R&D productivity. The trend of changes in the total factor productivity is consistent across different provinces. Results found in different methods are highly correlated with each other. Another

  13. Relationship between financing facilities and small and medium industries: empirical evidence from ARDL bound testing approach

    Mori Kogid; Kasim Mansur; Dullah Mulok; Julian P. Sidin

    2011-01-01

    A major challenge to the competitiveness of sustainable economic development is a country's global economic position. Small and medium industries, supposed to be drivers of economic development of a country, receive much of negative impact following the global economic uncertainty environment. This includes facing increasingly critical financial facilities. This study seeks to analyze the empirical relationship between small and medium industries and the financing facilities in the short-run ...

  14. Fostering Linkages between Transnational Corporations and Small to Medium-Sized Enterprises in Brazil

    Delane Botelho

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available When large Transnational Corporations (TNCs enter a host country, consequent development of local Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs is expected. The public sector may play an important role by fostering Business Linkages (BL, by which TNCs establish purchasing relationships with local SMEs. This article was motivated by growing attention in literature to the interaction between economic development and the ability of companies to absorb and disseminate competences. Its purpose is to understand the role of public policy programs that promote BLs for development by: (a analyzing actions and programs developed by public and private institutions to foster BL in Brazil; (b discovering the participants‟ benefits from such actions and programs; and (c identifying opportunities for public sector promotion of BL. The research design was a multiple case study which analyzed Supplier Development Projects in five Brazilian states. Results indicate that public policies may complement overall development as well as industrial policy, which is related to capacity building, stimulating technology transfer, and, more broadly, promoting a business friendly environment able to attract investment for development, calling for a regional and sub-regional approach for a country the size of Brazil.

  15. Study on Electronic Commerce Maturity of Small and Medium-sized Agricultural Enterprises

    Pei, Yi-lei; Xue, Wan-xin; Yang, Chun-Yu; Su, Yong

    2012-01-01

    This article advances the concept of electronic commerce maturity of small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises, and establishes the indicator system of electronic commerce maturity of small and medium-sired agricultural enterprises. This indicator system includes 4 first-level indicators (infrastructure, transaction process, operation management, and transaction safety), which are divided into 11 second-level indicators (hardware equipment, computer network, e-procurement, logistics dis...

  16. Accounting standards for small and medium-sized entities. Evidence from Spain

    Patricia Milanés Montero; Irene Albarrán Lozano; Joaquín Texeira Quirós; Esteban Pérez Calderón

    2011-01-01

    By approving Regulation 1606/2002, the European Commission entrusts the local European Union regulators with the difficult decision as to whether making the International Accounting Standards (IAS/IFRS) extensive for their Small and Medium sized Entities or not. International Financial Reporting Standard for Small and Medium-sizzed Entities (hereinafter IFRS for SMEs) was published in 2009, and the European Commission had also decided to seek the opinion of EU stakeholders on this Standard. W...

  17. Motives behind Strategic Alliance Formation among Medium-Sized Manufacturing Firms in Tanzania

    2014-01-01

    Research on strategic alliance motives has attracted a great attention as firms strive to become market leaders. One critical area is to assess the contribution of these motives to strategic alliance formation. Most studies on alliance motives concentrate on international strategic alliances that involve large or multinational corporations from developed economies. Little research has been done on Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), particularly Medium-Sized Enterprises (MEs) from the manufa...

  18. Role of Relationship Marketing in Small and Medium-Sized Entreprises

    Ružica Butigan; Ivana Mahnić

    2011-01-01

    Along with marketing, small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are commonly associated in literature with relationship marketing which results in marketing networks. This paper examines the specific characteristics that differentiate large companies from small and medium-sized enterprises, and the reasons that prevent SMEs from engaging in traditional marketing within the scope of marketing mix. The paper also shows that the key characteristic which distinguishes small from large companies is a pr...

  19. UNICS - An Unified Instrument Control System for Small/Medium Sized Astronomical Observatories

    Srivastava, Mudit K; Burse, Mahesh P; Chordia, Pravin A; Chillal, Kalpesh S; Mestry, Vilas B; Das, Hillol K; Kohok, Abhay A

    2009-01-01

    Although the astronomy community is witnessing an era of large telescopes, smaller and medium sized telescopes still maintain their utility being larger in numbers. In order to obtain better scientific outputs it is necessary to incorporate modern and advanced technologies to the back-end instruments and to their interfaces with the telescopes through various control processes. However often tight financial constraints on the smaller and medium size observatories limit the scope and utility of these systems. Most of the time for every new development on the telescope the back-end control systems are required to be built from scratch leading to high costs and efforts. Therefore a simple, low cost control system for small and medium size observatory needs to be developed to minimize the cost and efforts while going for the expansion of the observatory. Here we report on the development of a modern, multipurpose instrument control system UNICS (Unified Instrument Control System) to integrate the controls of vari...

  20. A Medium Sized Schwarzschild-Couder Cherenkov Telescope Mechanical Design Proposed for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Byrum, K; Benbow, W; Cameron, R; Criswell, S; Errando, M; Guarino, V; Kaaret, P; Kieda, D; Mukherjee, R; Naumann, D; Nieto, D; Northrop, R; Okumura, A; Roache, E; Rousselle, J; Schlenstedt, S; Sternberger, R; Vassiliev, V; Wakely, S; Zhao, H

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is an international next-generation ground-based gamma-ray observatory. CTA will be implemented as southern and northern hemisphere arrays of tens of small, medium and large-sized imaging Cherenkov telescopes with the goal of improving the sensitivity over the current-generation experiments by an order of magnitude. CTA will provide energy coverage from ~20 GeV to more than 300 TeV. The Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) medium size (9.5m) telescopes will feature a novel aplanatic two-mirror optical design capable of accommodating a wide field-of-view with significantly improved angular resolution as compared to the traditional Davies-Cotton optical design. A full-scale prototype SC medium size telescope structure has been designed and will be constructed at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in southern Arizona during the fall of 2015. concentrate on the novel features of the design.

  1. Discrete Element Study Mixing in an Industrial Sized Mixer

    Gupta, Akash; Katterfeld, André; Soeteman, Bastiaan; Luding, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    The mixing quality as function of the operating time is one major parameter to be considered for the design of industrial sized mixers. Different mixer types with different operating principles can be found for different special tasks, and the question about the proper quantity that quantifies mixin

  2. An integrated approach for developing a technology strategy framework for small- to medium-sized furniture manufacturers to improve competitiveness

    Lourens, A.S.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Low-technology firms, such as those found within the furniture manufacturing industry, have no framework or methodology to guide them successfully to acquire and integrate technology that enables them to operate more competitively. The aim of this article is to illustrate the development of a technology strategy framework for small- to medium-sized furniture manufacturers to assist them to improve their competitiveness. More specifically, this article presents an integrated technology strategy framework that enables management to integrate their business strategy with their technology requirements successfully, thus improving competitiveness.

  3. Design features to achieve defence-in-depth in small and medium sized reactors

    Broader incorporation of inherent and passive safety design features has become a 'trademark' of many advanced reactor concepts, including several evolutionary designs and nearly all innovative small and medium sized design concepts. Ensuring adequate defence-in-depth is important for reactors of smaller output because many of them are being designed to allow more proximity to the user, specifically, when non-electrical energy products are targeted. Based on the activities recently performed by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the paper provides a summary description of the design features used to achieve defence in depth in the innovative concepts of small and medium sized reactors with fast neutron spectrum. (author)

  4. The role of independent intermediaries. The case of small and medium-sized exporters

    Madsen, Tage Koed; Moen, Øystein; Hammervold, Randi

    2012-01-01

    The article examines how small and medium-sized exporters collaborate with intermediaries in foreign markets by studying the level of control, i.e. the delegation of decisions rights and task solution. It goes one step further than previous research, since it examines degrees of control and...... participation rather than just discrete types of intermediary modes (agents, importers, dealers, etc.). Associations with performance as well as the role of product and distributor characteristics are analyzed. Empirical data based on a sample of product-market ventures in 227 small and medium-sized Norwegian...

  5. Technological Development And Internationalization Among Small And Medium-Sized Engineering Firms In The United States

    Tesar, G; Velu, R

    1986-01-01

    Taking place among large U.S. processing and/or manufacturing firms and relates those changes to technological development of small and medium-sized engineering firms that service the large firms. Based on a series of interviews with the large firms and the engineering firms, the paper concludes that if the small and medium-sized engineering firms are to compete successfully with large foreign engineering firms that have replaced them in their own traditional markets, they will have to up-gra...

  6. The Identity of Corporate Ownership in the Industrialized world: Size, industry and country effects

    Jong, E. de; Semenov, R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a new and unique dataset, which contains information about ownership, size and industry for 6668 companies in 24 industrial countries. The shares of larger firms are more often widely held or controlled by listed non-financial companies (in particular, widely held companies) and

  7. Developing a Methodology Based on Action Learning to Facilitate the Adoption of ICT in Small and Medium-sized Companies in Costa Rica

    Nunez, Heilyn Camacho

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to understand and explore better strategies to support the Small and Medium-sized companies sector in Costa Rica in the ICT adoption process. A strategy has been proposed which focuses on learning process and the interaction of university, industry and government (Triple...

  8. Energy efficiency in the US economy technical report four: Analysis of energy-efficiency investment decisions by small and medium-sized manufacturers

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This report highlights the results of a comprehensive analysis of investment decisions regarding energy-efficiency measures at small and medium-sized manufacturing plants. The analysis is based primarily on the experiences of companies participating in the US Department of Energy`s Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) program.

  9. Bank Lending to Small and Medium Sized Business: Evidence from Russia

    Oleg Gennadievich Korolev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Access of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs to external financing sources is defined in many respects by the tendencies of bank system development in different countries as well as by the possibilities and interest of commercial banks to make loans to creditworthy small- and medium-sized borrowers. In the present paper, we suggest that even in post-crisis conditions, this is small- and medium-sized Russian banks, rather than large banking institutions, that tend to issue loans to small and medium-sized enterprises. Analysis of the data available from the Russian banks gives evidence that with the growth of the bank size and with widening of the scope of the bank’s activity, bank’s lending to legal entities, in particular, to SMEs and to individual entrepreneurs, tends to become more intense. At the same time, the share of lending to SMEs and individual entrepreneurs in the legal entities loan portfolio tends to decrease.

  10. “THE ROLE OF MICRO, SMALL AND MEDIUM SCALE INDUSTRIES IN DEVELOPMENT OF AURANGABAD”

    Gajanan Dagaduba Chaudhari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Micro, Small and medium scale industries play a key role in the economic development of Aurangabad as well as country. Small and large scale industries are two legs of industriali- zation process of a country. Small scale industries have been given an important place in the development of Aurangabad since beginning. Economic development of Aurangabad depends primarily on its Small and medium scale industries. It may be regarded as powerful tool for economic develop- ment of a predomi- nantly agricultural country like India. The Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs contribute about 7-8 per cent of India’s GDP, 45 per cent of the manufacturing out put and 40 per cent of the exports

  11. ECO-FRIENDLY TECHNOLOGY IN SMALL AND MEDIUM TEXTILE WET PROCESSING INDUSTRIES

    AMRUTA.S.DUDHEDIA; J.R.BHOR

    2013-01-01

    The Small and Medium wet processing industries in India contribute more to industrial development and trade and at the same time, they create environmental issues related to water pollution. This article attempts to analyse the main challenges of wet processing industries in adoption of cleaner technology options in reducing water pollution. Irreversible nature of water resource alarms the overall sustainability of environment. Traditional technology management concepts followed in SMIs will ...

  12. Romanian Professional Accountants’ Perception on the Differential Financial Reporting for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Stefan BUNEA; Marian SACARIN; Mihaela MINU

    2012-01-01

    2009 was an important year, internationally, for the financial reporting of small and medium-sized enterprises. First of all, the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) published the International Financial Reporting Standard for the Small and Medium–Sized Entities (IFRS for SMEs). Secondly, the European Commission started the consultations over the amendment of the 4th and 7th Directives with a view to simplifying them for the small entities. Moreover, the European Commission launch...

  13. HRM implications for network collaboration of small and medium sized companies

    Kesting, Peter; Müller, Sabine; Jørgensen, Frances;

    Collaboration in innovation networks is particularly important for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) to remain competitive in a rapidly changing environment. Collaboration may however be particularly challenging for SMEs, due to their size and their inherent shortage of resources. In this paper...

  14. Barriers to Employee Training in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises: Insights and Evidences from Mauritius

    Padachi, Kesseven; Bhiwajee, Soolakshna Lukea

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Training is an important component of successful business concerns. However, although there is growing acceptance amongst scholars that small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are engines that drive economies across nations, through their contribution in terms of job creation and poverty reduction; extant research portray that these…

  15. Transformational and transactional leadership: does it work in small to medium-sized enterprises?

    Mesu, J.K.

    2013-01-01

    Using a sample of 755 employees who rated 121 supervisors within 50 Dutch small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), this dissertation intends to fill in some of the existing gaps in the literature. Firstly, by investigating whether the impact of transformational and transactional leadership extends

  16. Energetic Communities: Planning support for sustainable energy transition in small- and medium-sized communities

    Sager-Klauß, C.V.

    2016-01-01

    Small- and medium-sized communities might prove to be game-changers in the overall energy transition because many problems have to be solved within their ambit. Urban planning is dealing with the numerous processes of urban change. Energy is a fairly new task to be addressed and many stakeholders la

  17. Financial Sector Policy Note : Financing Small and Medium-Sized Businesses in Burkina Faso

    Soubeiga, Sidiki; Strauss, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    As in other Sub-Saharan African countries, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) represent the vast majority of firms operating in the private sector in Burkina Faso. Private sector-led growth is a major element of Burkina Faso's poverty reduction strategy, la strategie de croissance accelere et le developpement durable. Unfortunately, many characteristics of Burkina Faso's business en...

  18. Supporting the E-Business Readiness of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Approaches and Metrics.

    Jutla, Dawn; Bodorik, Peter; Dhaliwal, Jasbir

    2002-01-01

    Presents a conceptual model for governments in creating a climate that facilitates the national adoption of e-business. Focuses on the needs of small and medium-sized enterprises, suggests measures to assess how a country is performing in providing a positive e-business climate, and provides examples from Canada, The Netherlands, Norway, and…

  19. Hedging Behavior in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises: The Role of Unobserved Heterogeneity

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Garcia, P.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract We investigate factors that drive derivative usage in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The influence of these factors on hedging behavior cannot a priori be assumed equal for all SMEs. To address this heterogeneity, a generalized mixture regression model is used which classifies f

  20. Toward a Singleton Undergraduate Computer Graphics Course in Small and Medium-Sized Colleges

    Shesh, Amit

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the evolution of a single undergraduate computer graphics course over five semesters, driven by a primary question: if one could offer only one undergraduate course in graphics, what would it include? This constraint is relevant to many small and medium-sized colleges that lack resources, adequate expertise, and enrollment…

  1. An Agile Methodology for Implementing Service-Oriented Architecture in Small and Medium Sized Organizations

    Laidlaw, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of Lean/Agile principles, using action research to develop and deploy new technology for Small and Medium sized enterprises. The research case was conducted at the Lapeer County Sheriff's Department and involves the initial deployment of a Service Oriented Architecture to alleviate the data…

  2. Successful E-Learning in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Paulsen, Morten Flate

    2009-01-01

    So far, e-learning has primarily been used when there are many learners involved. The up-front investments related to e-learning are relatively high, and may be perceived as prohibitive for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Some e-learning is, however, getting less expensive, and some e-learning models are more suited for small-scale…

  3. Current information technology needs of small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors

    Wipple, C.; Vosti, E.

    1997-11-01

    This report documents recent efforts of the American Textile Partnership (AMTEX) Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Project to address needs that are characterized of small to medium sized apparel manufactures and contractors. Background on the AMTEX/DAMA project and objectives for this specific efforts are discussed.

  4. A compentence-based approach for small and medium-sized enterprises

    Brancatisano, Germano; Jurriëns, Jan; Verburg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of empirical research, a competence-based model of the internationalization process of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) is developed. The model focuses on so-called International Market-Entry Core Competencies (IMECC), which are global management competences considered crucial

  5. EVALUATION OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Edyta Kulej-Dudek

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the study which analysed knowledge management in small and medium-sized enterprises in the Czêstochowa powiat. A Model of Stages in Employee Knowledge Growth was developed as an evaluation tool. The activities and behaviours of employees concerning management of knowledge resources were also characterized in the context of current knowledge-based processes.

  6. Personnel role by implementing anti-crisis programs in small and medium-size enterprises

    Pak Andrey Borisovitch

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available To recover from crisis, small and medium-size enterprises have to develop anti-crisis plans and programs and to monitor the implementation process. The implementation efficiency is provided by the personnel which needs appraisal, motivation and development.

  7. MANUFACTURING AND CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT PERFORMANCE LEVEL IN PLANTS OF MEXICO; A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS AMONG LARGE AND MEDIUM SIZE PLANTS

    Carlos Monge

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A random and statistically significant sample of 40 medium (12 and large (28 manufacturing plants of Apodaca, Mexico were surveyed using a structured and validated questionnaire to investigate the level of implementation of lean manufacturing, sustainable manufacturing, continuous improvement and operational efficiency and environmental responsibility in them, it is important to mention it was found that performance in the mentioned philosophies, on the two categories of plants is low, however large plants show a better performance than medium plants. In both cases, it is worrying that in the highly industrialized municipality of Apodaca,  Mexico are not decisively adopting the philosophies mentioned, as this compromises in a global world, in the medium and long term the viability of the plants, particularly the medium size plants. Finally this article shows the results of the answers to the items of questionnaire for the plants managers, and this can be useful to the management of the plants to identify and to define specific improvement actions towards priority areas.

  8. THE STRATEGIC RELEVANCE OF TECHNOLOGY-RELATED VARIABLES TO THE COMPETITIVENESS OF SMALL - TO MEDIUM-SIZED FURNITURE MANUFACTURERS

    Lourens, A. S.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available SMMEs can make a critical and positive economic contribution to South Africa, and small- to medium-sized furniture manufacturers (SM/FMs have the potential to contribute to economic growth, job creation, and GDP. However, the furniture industry has not stayed abreast of technological advances. To survive in an environment of increasing competition and imports, competitive strategies must be devised. One such strategy is for technology adoption and implementation that can provide solutions for the furniture industry to improve speed, quality, variety, flexibility, and productivity, resulting in improved competitiveness. However, the adoption of technology means that its acquisition and application must be managed strategically, as the use of technology involves far more than simply taking it into account during the business-plan

  9. Regulation of Small and Medium-Sized Business Development in Russia: Problems and Solutions

    Lyudmila Yuryevna Bogachkova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors prove that despite the active state policy carried out since the second half of the 2000s and aimed at supporting small and medium-sized business in the Russian Federation, the current level of development of this economic sector is insufficient. The present paper characterizes the modern structure of small and medium-sized business. The authors show that the main problems hindering its growth are conditioned by low market demand, large tax deductions, numerous administrative barriers, lack of funding and state support. On the basis of the official data of Russian Federal State Statistics Service on theresults of annual surveys of entrepreneurs, the authors revealed the factors that prevented innovation situation in the country have stable negative impact on MSB, while the impact of such factors as imperfect legal and regulatory framework, investment risks, low profitability and inadequate state of technological infrastructure is relatively nonsignificant. The authors describe systemwide and resource measures of state regulation of small and medium-sized business. The system-wide measures include preferential access to production facilities and equipment, special tax regimes, administrative control. The measures of resource support to entrepreneurs consist in subsidizing the lease payments and interest rates on loans for the modernization of production; grant support, the establishment of microfinance organizations and guarantee funds, the development of business support infrastructure. The authors describe the forms of these measures implementation in 2013 and the main directions of improving the state regulation of small and medium-sized business, including the reduction of tax burden and facilitation of taxation procedures, the reduction of administrative barriers and ensuring access of small and medium-sized enterprises to government orders and technological infrastructure.

  10. Simplification of Process Integration Studies in Intermediate Size Industries

    Dalsgård, Henrik; Petersen, P. M.; Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    2002-01-01

    ' and therefore lead to non-optimal economic solutions, which may be right. But the objective of the optimisation is not to reach the best economic solution, but to relatively quickly develop the design of a simple and operationally friendly network without losing too much energy saving potential. (C) 2002......It can be argued that the largest potential for energy savings based on process integration is in the intermediate size industry. But this is also the industrial scale in which it is most difficult to make the introduction of energy saving measures economically interesting. The reasons...... separately or in series ahead of or simultaneously with the conventional process integration procedures (for example, the pinch point method) are described and are applied to an industrial case study. It might be feared that the use of preselections and groupings would limit the "freedom of movement...

  11. Dyeing Industry Effluent System as Lipid Production Medium of Neochloris sp. for Biodiesel Feedstock Preparation

    Vidyadharani Gopalakrishnan; Dhandapani Ramamurthy

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae lipid feedstock preparation cost was an important factor in increasing biodiesel fuel hikes. This study was conducted with the concept of implementing an effluent wastewater as lipid production medium for microalgae cultivation. In our study textile dyeing industry effluent was taken as a lipid production medium for Neochloris sp. cultivation. The changes in physicochemical analysis of effluent before and after Neochloris sp. treatment were recorded using standard procedures and AA...

  12. THE SUCCESS FACTORS OF FOOD SMALL MEDIUM ENTREPRENEURS UNDER THE ONE DISTRICT ONE INDUSTRY PROGRAMME: A CASE ON FOOD MANUFACTURING ENTREPRENEURS IN MELAKA

    Othman Aman; Md Nor Hayati Tahir; Izaidin Abdul Majid; Nor Azah Abdul Aziz; Filda Rahmiati

    2011-01-01

    The nurturing of Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SMEs) has been given a high priority in Malaysia and has been the backbone of economic growth. One of the Malaysia government initiatives to coordinate and monitor the development of small medium enterprises is the One District One Industry (ODOI) Programme. The ODOI Programme is a strategic approach that can improve the wellbeing of rural population in Malaysia. This research attempts to study the internal and external performance indicato...

  13. Small- and Medium-Sized Commercial Building Monitoring and Controls Needs: A Scoping Study

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Underhill, Ronald M.; Goddard, James K.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Piette, M. A.; Granderson, J.; Brown, Rich E.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; Kuruganti, T.

    2012-10-31

    Buildings consume over 40% of the total energy consumption in the U.S. A significant portion of the energy consumed in buildings is wasted because of the lack of controls or the inability to use existing building automation systems (BASs) properly. Much of the waste occurs because of our inability to manage and controls buildings efficiently. Over 90% of the buildings are either small-size (<5,000 sf) or medium-size (between 5,000 sf and 50,000 sf); these buildings currently do not use BASs to monitor and control their building systems from a central location. According to Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), about 10% of the buildings in the U.S. use BASs or central controls to manage their building system operations. Buildings that use BASs are typically large (>100,000 sf). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) were asked by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP) to identify monitoring and control needs for small- and medium-sized commercial buildings and recommend possible solutions. This study documents the needs and solutions for small- and medium-sized buildings.

  14. Utilization of industrial dairy waste as microalgae cultivation medium : a potential study for sustainable energy resources

    Nurmayani, S.; Sugiarti, Y.; Putra, R. H.

    2016-04-01

    Microalgae is one of biodiesel resources and call as third generation biofuel. Biodiesel is one alternative energy that being developed. So study about resource of biodiesel need a development, for the example is development the basic material such as microalgae. In this paper we explain the potential use of dairy waste from industry as a cultivation medium of microalgae for biodiesel production. Dairy waste from dairy industry contains 34.98% protein, 4.42% lactose, 9.77% fiber, 11.04% fat, 2.33% calcium, 1.05% phosfor, and 0.4 % magnesium, meaning that the dairy waste from dairy industry has a relatively high nutrient content and complete from a source of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus as macro nutrients. The method in this paper is literature review to resulting a new conclusion about the potency of waste water from dairy industry as microalgae cultivation medium. Based on the study, the dairy waste from dairy industry has potency to be used as cultivation medium of Botryococcus braunii in the production of biodiesel, replacing the conventional cultivation medium.

  15. Approaches for Assessing the Economic Competitiveness of Small and Medium Sized Reactors

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world'. One way this objective is achieved is through the publication of a range of technical series. Two of these are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III.A.6 of the IAEA Statute, the safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property.' The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are written primarily in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own programmes. The principal users are the regulatory bodies in Member States and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series comprises reports designed to encourage and assist R and D on, and application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia, and government officials, among others. This information is presented in guides, reports on technology status and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series complements the IAEA Safety Standards Series. To be competitive in anticipated markets, small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) rely on design and deployment approaches that are able to offset the adverse impacts of economy of scale. Such approaches include design simplification resulting from the application of safety design features that are the most appropriate for reactors of smaller capacity; the economy of mass production of multiple prefabricated modules; the option of incremental capacity increase, with possible benefits resulting from accelerated learning; sharing of common equipment and facilities; shorter construction

  16. Gestão do desenvolvimento de produto em empresas de pequeno e médio porte do setor de máquinas e implementos agrícolas do Estado de SP Product development process management in small and medium-sized Brazilian companies in the agricultural machinery and implement industry sector

    José Carlos de Toledo

    2010-01-01

    The product development process (PDP, if well-structured and managed, can become a business process that directly influences the companies' competitiveness increase. The PDP in Brazilian SMEs in the agricultural machinery and implement industry Sector (AMI is little known since most publications on product development focuses on the reality of large and multinational companies, which have a quite different structure from SMEs. The purpose of this paper is to characterize and analyze the management maturity profiles of the product development process in small and medium sized Brazilian companies in the agricultural machinery and implement industry sector located in the state of São Paulo. Therefore, the addressed actions of PDP improvements in those companies can be undertaken. A survey research was conducted in 40 companies. An in loco interview was applied to the respective individual in-charge of PDP by means of a structured questionnaire. For the data analysis, descriptive statistics and the multivariate cluster analysis techniques were used. The findings indicated that the SMEs in AMIs of the state of Sao Paulo present a heterogeneous structure with respect to PDP management. Three groups of companies were identified in the sample with different maturity PDP profiles: Group I (20% of companies in the sample, Group II (50% of the sample, and Group III (30% of the sample. Differences in the management of PDP were observed, especially among companies of Group I (smallest level of PDP maturity and Group III (highest level of PDP maturity. However, despite the differences in PDP management presented in the groups of companies, according to the literature on PDP management, all groups are in the basic (initial maturity level of PDP. The identification of the maturity level, in which these companies are, can help the determination of activities that link the internal actions to improve the PDP of these companies and the proposal of specific public policies that encourage the

  17. Voluntary disclosing cash flow statement in non-listed medium sized companies

    Schøler, Finn

    2012-01-01

    annual reports from 385 Danish non-listed medium-sized companies who were disclosing a cash flow statement as part of their annual report, we found that in a few cases, the companies were exempted to presentation of consolidated financial statements, but disclosing the cash flow statement voluntarily...... reason we conducted a multiple-case study, where we formulated a structured questionnaire and made partly open-ended interview with each one of the case-companies’ accountably responsible persons, i.e. one of the guys who signed the annual report. Among the majority of the answers we found a common......In Denmark, like some other EU Member States, medium-sized companies are requested to present a cash flow statement, but there are exemption rules similar to those for subgroups’ exemption to their presentation of consolidated financial statements. In a sample consisting of the paper versions of...

  18. Attractive and climate-friendly medium-sized cities; Attraktive og klimavennlige mellomstore byer

    Tennoey, Aud

    2012-07-01

    Ministry of the Environment (MD) wanted an overview of current knowledge of climate-friendly and attractive urban development in medium-sized cities (10 - 50 000 inhabitants). This report presents and discusses knowledge between major cities' situation and challenges of land use and transport development to reduce car traffic and greenhouse gas emissions and on urban development for more attractive cities. A main conclusion is that there are major gaps in knowledge and opportunities for improvement. If those covered will be far better opportunities for planners, local authorities and others may be able to contribute to more climate-friendly and attractive medium-sized cities.The report is part of the project Comprehensive information pack for the status of knowledge from research on urban development. The project has also prepared a report entitled Planning for attractive urban environment. The reports are intended to complement each other and should be seen in context.(eb)

  19. The Importance Of Angel Investors In Financing The Growth Of Small And Medium Sized Enterprises

    Veland Ramadani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Angel investors are very important for small and medium sized enterprises because they provide more than money. They are hands-on investors and contribute their skills, expertise, knowledge and contacts in the businesses they invest in. They are wealthy persons with great business experience. They are willing to invest and offer their wealth and knowledge to owners of small and medium sized enterprises and to entrepreneurs to start or develop their businesses. One of the attributes of angel investors is that they like to remain anonymus. Due to this attribute, a lot of ideas can not be accomplished. To eliminate this, many countries establish angel investor syndicates (groups and networks. These syndicates (groups and networks facilitate the process of matching entrepreneurs and angel investors.

  20. Process improvement and organisational learning: evidence from engineering-oriented small and medium-sized enterprises

    Matthews, Rupert Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Process improvement has been identified as a central topic of operations management, being relevant to the different functional areas and assisting in providing the benefits operations management aims to realise. While extensive research has been conducted on specific process improvement methodologies, high resource requirement of specific process improvement methodologies make them inappropriate for many Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs). Compared to specific improvement methodologie...

  1. CHOOSE: Towards a Metamodel for Enterprise Architecture in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    Bernaert, Maxime; Poels, Geert; Snoeck, Monique; De Backer, Manu

    2013-01-01

    Enterprise architecture (EA) is a coherent whole of principles, methods, and models that are used in the design and realization of an enterprise’s organizational structure, business processes, information systems, and IT infrastructure. Recent research indicates the need for EA in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), important drivers of the economy, as they struggle with problems related to a lack of structure and overview of their business. However, existing EA frameworks are perceive...

  2. PERCEIVED COMPETITION AND INNOVATIVE INTENTIONS IN DUTCH SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES

    De Jong, Jeroen P. J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the complex relationship between competition and innovation by analyzing survey data of 2,281 small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the Netherlands. We develop and test hypotheses on the relationships between three dimensions of perceived competition (internal rivalry, supplier power and buyer power) and firms' intentions to engage in product and process innovation. Moreover, we analyze if firms' strategic attention for innovation is a moderating variable. We find t...

  3. The relationship between culture, leadership, strategic planning and performance in small and medium sized enterprises.

    O'Regan, Nicholas

    2000-01-01

    The importance of manufacturing Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) to the economy is well documented. Most research on SMEs focuses on efficiency-related measures. The literature suggests that a significant amount of efficiency based initiatives have been directed at SMEs and that the time is now opportune to consider a more strategic approach. The literature survey indicates a dearth of empirical research on strategic planning in SMEs. In addition, the literature implies that strategi...

  4. Small and medium-size enterprises in economic development : possiblities for research and policy

    Winter, Sidney G.

    1995-01-01

    The World Bank's most important long-term advantage in promoting development, says the author, may lie in opportunities to address related obstacles simultaneously. It could mount concurrent efforts to address the problems of small and medium-size enterprises in a particular sector, region, or economy, for example. It could address the conditions of founding new firms, providing finance or technical assistance, developing mutual support institutions, resolving disputes, and perhaps reducing c...

  5. Knowledge management practices at small and medium sized Oulu region enterprises

    Seppälä, Elina

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oulu University of Applied Sciences Degree Programme in Business Information Technology Author: Elina Seppälä Title of thesis: Knowledge management practices at small and medium sized Oulu region enterprises Supervisor: Ilkka Mikkonen Term and year when the thesis was submitted: Autumn 2010 Number of pages: 88 + 21 The commissioners for this research were Oulu University of Applied Sciences and the project Kilpailukykyä ICT-yrityksille, shortly...

  6. Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in international business: A survey of recent literature

    Schmidt, Klaus-Dieter

    1996-01-01

    It is often argued that the process of globalization has mainly favoured large-scale multinational companies which are able to organize their business efficiently within internal hierarchies. However, globalization has not only pushed cross-border intra-finn transactions but also other arrangements among firms such as licensing or subcontracting that fall short of ownership involvements. This opens up new opportunities for small and medium sized enterprises, too. The paper provides a general ...

  7. Sustainable business – a success story for small and medium sized enterprises?

    Drenk, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    In the last years not only large companies orientated themselves towards the goal of sustainable development - which is called sustainable business in the economic field. More and more small and medium sized enterprises (SME's) discovered the field of sustainable business hoping to achieve economic advantages compared to their competitors. In order to become a company according to the principles of sustainable business, many businesses in Germany applied for an "ÖKOPROFIT”-certification. The ...

  8. A software process improvement solution for small and medium-size enterprises

    Calvo-Manzano Villalon, Jose Antonio; Cuevas Agustin, Gonzalo; San Feliu Gilabert, Tomas; Serrano Rico, Ariel Edgar; García Pacheco, Iván

    2006-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to outline the main structure of an alternative software process improvement method for small- and medium-size enterprises. This method is based on the action package concept, which helps to institutionalize the effective practices with affordable implementation costs. This paper also presents the results and lessons learned when this method was applied to three enterprises in the requirements engineering domain.

  9. How small and medium sized enterprises learn to compete effectively on international markets

    Doole, Isobel

    2000-01-01

    This thesis seeks to develop insights into the nature of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) that are effective in competing internationally, over the longer term. It therefore aims to provide a better understanding of the behaviour that engenders this capability. Its contributory value lies in the development of the new perspectives which emerged from inductive theory development grounded in longitudinal data collected between1996-1999. Traditionally explanations for the success of...

  10. Succession planning for small and medium-sized family advertising agencies in Cyprus

    Flourentzou, Evangelia

    2014-01-01

    Leadership succession is not a single measure, but rather a complex process (Sharma et al., 2001) that is necessary to ensure continuity of effective managerial control and engagement in a business entity (Charan et al., 2001). Thus, the aim of this work-based project involves addressing and examining the question of succession planning in family-owned and managed small and medium-size Cypriot advertising agencies, as well as developing a feasible model of leadership succession for such agenc...

  11. CRITICAL FACTORS IN OUTSOURCING OF ACCOUNTING FUNCTIONS IN MALAYSIAN SMALL MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES (SMEs)

    Magiswary Dorasamy; Maran Marimuthu; Jayamalathi Jayabalan; Murali Raman; Maniam Kaliannan

    2010-01-01

    The challenges that business face in sustaining competitive advantage in the corporate world have become a major concern. Businesses are adopting cutting-edge technologies and best practices to cope with rapid, global changes. Various business functions are being reengineered for this purpose. Accounting functions play an important role in helping businesses to maintain competitive advantage. However, some small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) face problems handling fundamental accounting...

  12. Colombia's small and medium-size exporters and their support systems

    Berry, Albert; Escandon, Jose

    1994-01-01

    The authors evaluate the role of dynamic small and medium-size manufacturing enterprises and entrepreneurs (SMEs) in Colombia's development. They also evaluate SME policy in Colombia, especially as it affects the country's export potential. The SME sector has received little attention from Colombia's policymakers despite its substantial weight in manufacturing, its importance as a seedbed for important future companies, and its demonstrated capacity to grow rapidly under favorable circumstanc...

  13. A Social Media Marketing Plan for a Medium-sized Consumer Goods Company

    Okolie, Emeka

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a social media marketing plan for the case com-pany to integrate it into its existing marketing communications. The case company of this study is a medium-sized consumer goods producing company that advertises its brand and products using traditional methods of advertising (radio, television, flyers and event promotion). At the moment, these methods seem to be lacking in efficiency and effective-ness caused by the saturation of marketing information w...

  14. Assessing Incorrect Household Waste Sorting in a Medium-Sized Swedish City

    Kamran Rousta; Karin M. Ekström

    2013-01-01

    Source separation is a common method for dealing with the increasing problem of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in society. The citizens are then responsible for separating waste fractions produced in their home. If the consumers fail to sort the waste according to the source separation scheme, it will lead to an ineffective system. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the environmental, economic and social aspects of incorrect waste sorting in a medium sized Swedish city that has established ...

  15. THE PREMISES OF STRATEGIC MARKETING PLANNING IMPLEMENTATION WITHIN SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Popescu Andrei; Ionescu Florin Tudor; Curmei Catalin Valeriu

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of the present paper is to identify the framework and the necessary conditions for the small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) to be able to adopt the strategic marketing planning. Also, the paper aims to underline the importance of the strategic marketing planning and the manner in which the SMEs can adopt, implement and operationalize the strategic marketing planning instruments, whose correct understanding and usage ensure the capacity to generate competitive advantage, ...

  16. Management strategies for using business intelligence solution imbedded in ERP system in medium sized companies

    Bobek, Samo; Sternad, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Being mature and more sophisticated management reporting, analysis and decision support integrated in business intelligent require different strategies how it should be implemented as successful support for managers and to add value to the business and to the company. In the article strategies for business intelligence in medium size companies are discussed. Some findings connected to management reporting associated with ERP solutions use are presented. One research study was focused into ERP...

  17. Inter-firm networking propensity in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)

    Nkongolo-Bakenda, Jean-Marie

    2002-01-01

    In the past decade, market globalization has not only been a threat for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), but also an opportunity to expand their activities in many countries (Murphy and al., 1991). In fact, some of SMEs are worldwide leaders in their sectors (Simon, 1990; Entreprise, 1995). Moreover, few of these worldwide SME leaders started businesses directly on an international level (Christensen, 1991; Brush, 1992; McDougall and al., 1994). This suggests that these SMEs use man...

  18. Human Capital Development and Innovation: The Case of Training in Small and Medium Sized Firms

    Johnson, Joanne; Baldwin, John R.

    1995-01-01

    This study examines the characteristics of small and medium-sized firms that perform training. It uses data taken from a recent Statistics Canada survey that permit firms' training decisions to be analyzed within the broader context of their many activities and strategies. The study finds strong evidence for the hypothesis that human capital development facilitated by training is complementary to innovation and technological change. Training incidence is found to be closely related to the imp...

  19. Bank Financing to Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Colombia

    Stephanou, Constantinos; Rodriguez, Camila

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to shed light on current trends and policy challenges in the financing of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) by banks in Colombia. The paper is motivated by the well-documented financing gap for SMEs, whose causes are complex and multi-dimensional. Based on data collection and interviews with the authorities, a representative sample of banks, and othe...

  20. Financing innovative small and medium-sized enterprises in times of crisis

    Dejan ERIC; Isidora BERAHA; Sonja DJURICIN

    2011-01-01

    Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SME) in general and particularly innovative ones are becoming an increasingly important factor on the road to achieving smart, sustainable and comprehensive development. Because of their propensity to innovative undertaking and risk, SMEs contribute significantly to economic growth but are generally less productive and pay the cost of high rates of death and lower rates of profitability. Financing SMEs is risky and uncertain and for innovative SMEs it is ev...

  1. Working Capital Financing Preferences: The Case of Mauritian Manufacturing Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs)

    Kesseven Padachi; Carole Howorth; Narasimhan, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the approach of small- to medium-sized Mauritian manufacturing firms to working capital finance using a survey-based approach and case studies. Financing has been cited as one of the most common problems faced by SMEs and is often viewed as one of their main barriers to growth. Using parametric and non-parametric techniques, the important variables that affect the demand for financing are examined. Interestingly, it is observed that the sample firms adopted more inform...

  2. Small and medium sized enterprise marketing to foreign consumers in Seoul, South Korea

    David A. English

    2015-01-01

    A qualitative case study was used to examine the experiences and perceptions of foreigners during interactions with small- and medium-sized enterprises in the Seoul Metropolitan Area. Two constructs, intercultural communications and consumer language, were used to identify difficulties that foreigners experienced during service encounters. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 participants based on a purposive sampling frame of 62 foreign professors. The transcripts were entered into MAX...

  3. Performance Measurements for Social Enterprises : With focus on Small and Medium sized Social Enterprises

    van Rijn, Micha; Jansen, David

    2015-01-01

    As the field of Social Enterprises has strongly grown over two decades, the importance of Social Enterprises for the society has also grown and still developing, more and more to a third economic segment between the private and public economy. Within this study we explain how “Small and Medium sized Social Enterprises” (SMSEs) can face the increasing pressure to measure and demonstrate their impact to society and their stakeholders. We especially address the limitations in skill and resource ...

  4. Implementation considerations of IPsec VPN for small and medium-sized companies

    Hossain, A.S.M. MIR

    2015-01-01

    Security threats threaten online networks. The threats are targeting enterprise networks, personal networks or other networks by accessing or altering important data. Secure-less networks give authorization of access to data in a network. Network administrators need strong network security for preventing unauthorized access, misuse or modification, of the network’s accessible resources. Mostly small or medium-sized enterprises use a firewall, antivirus and anti-spam software for network ...

  5. A Study of People Management in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in China

    Cunningham, L.X.

    2007-01-01

    China's rapid economic development and the emergence of its large firms have had much attention and commentary, but the important role of small businesses has received less focus. Therefore, the main objective of this thesis is to explore small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in China, with specific attention to people management. It examines the nature of people management in SMEs in China by assessing the extent to which human resource management (HRM) practices are appIfed in the organ...

  6. Involvement of small and medium sized enterprises in the private realisation of public buildings

    Heinecke, Bastian

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores the procurement of public buildings in local authorities in the UK under the Private Finance Initiative (PFI) and its consequences for small and medium sized enterprises. Following an outline of the development of PFI in the UK, the paper explains the peculiarities of local authorities' involvement. Opportunities and problems of smaller constructors in such PFI projects are then analysed. Three case studies of smaller PFI schemes are reviewed including procurement process,...

  7. Motivational Factors for Growth in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) : Information Technology Perspective

    Kfutwa, Fukah

    2007-01-01

    Small and Medium Size Enterprises (SMEs) constitute the backbone of many economies in the world today. This is because they are creating new jobs and contributing positively to their respective economies in which Sweden is not an exception and par-ticularly the municipality of Jonkoping. SMEs invest in IT to gain access to integration of transactions oriented data and business processes. This thesis, motivational factors for growth in SMEs – (IT perspective) give an overview of how SMEs grow ...

  8. SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES’ SATISFACTION WITH BANKS’ BUSINESS-ORIENTED SERVICES

    Viktorija Skvarciany

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – the purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of quality, variety, accessibility and price of banking services on small and medium-sized companies’ satisfaction with banks’ business-oriented services. This paper presents a regression equation of SMEs satisfaction with banks’ services, indicating the weight of each statistically significant factor in the overall SMEs satisfaction with the commercial banks’ services for business. Design/methodology/approach – an empirical study, investigating the influence of quality, variety, accessibility and price of banking services on SMEs’ satisfaction with business-oriented services, was conducted. A sample of 405 small and medium-sized companies’ employees was used for the survey. Findings – the results of the research show that price, accessibility and quality of banking services have a direct positive influence on the satisfaction of SMEs with commercial banks’ business-oriented services. However, the variety of banking services is not a statistically significant element and did not have an impact on the SMEs’ satisfaction with banks’ services for business. Moreover, it was found that the price and accessibility of banking services have a positive relationship with the quality of banking services. Research limitations/implications – this research was conducted in small and medium-sized companies’ sector and the results of the survey cannot be used to interpret the satisfaction of other business sectors with banking services. Practical implications – the findings suggest that banks can create SMEs’ satisfaction with business-oriented services through improving accessibility, quality and price of banking services in the way that best meets customers’ needs. Originality/Value – satisfaction with the banking services concerning SMEs is an important factor influencing the success of commercial banking activities. The present study provides useful

  9. Overview of RRC KI proposals for nuclear energy systems with small and medium sized reactors

    The paper gives an overview of the proposals from Russian Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute' (RRC KI) for the development of nuclear energy systems that would couple nuclear power plants with small and medium sized reactors to service enterprises. The problems and R and D needs associated with such systems are analyzed. A conclusion is made that institutional changes in the organization of nuclear power production are needed to make such systems viable. (author)

  10. The ownership-performance puzzle: agency issues in small and medium-sized family firms

    STEIJVERS, Tensie; Voordeckers, Wim; VANDEMAELE, Sigrid

    2007-01-01

    1. The purpose / topic of the research During the last decade, the discussion about the relationship between ownership structure and performance has seen important evolutions on a theoretical as well as empirical level. Especially family ownership in public firms drew the attention of researchers. In this paper, we explore the relationship between family ownership and financial performance for small and medium-sized private family firms and extend the results by recent studies of Anderson...

  11. Based on the AHP Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise Supply Chain Supplier Evaluation Research

    Xianwu Hu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have a research of the small and medium-sized enterprise supply chain supplier based on the AHP. For supply chain management issues in the supplier evaluation establishes the evaluation index system and then uses AHP decide the weight of each evaluation index. Moreover, it uses Linear Weighting Method to study supplier performance from perspective of quantitative research and gives the measurement process. In our empirical research, the applied method is scientific and feasible.

  12. Adaptability of the internal business environment of small and medium-sized enterprises in Slovakia

    Misunova Hudakova, Ivana; Misun, Juraj

    2014-01-01

    Companies that are exposed to an uncertain changing business environment must be able to adapt and change in order to achieve some compliance with the subject of business carried out and the objectives with the ambient conditions. Also these conditions can be a source of threats for small and medium-sized enterprises. In this context, we emphasize the adaptability of the enterprise. It is the active joining of resolving the conflict between the business entity and its environment. Signs of th...

  13. Regional context of small and medium-sized enterprises' development. case study of southern Poland

    Wach, Krzysztof

    2010-01-01

    The paper verifies the existence of relations between development of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and the particular factors of regional environment as well as demographic parameters of entrepreneurs and their enterprises. SMEs localized in Southern Poland in accordance with NUTS -1 nomenclature, which is made of two voivodeships: Lesser Poland (Małopolska) and Silesia (Śląsk), are research subjects. The main aim of the research is indication factors of regional environment which...

  14. From competitive advantage to dynamic capabilities: small and medium-sized multinationals in Asia

    Tattara, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Italian firms have recently engaged in direct investment abroad through the establishment of production facilities in China and India. Using data gathered from interviews conducted in those countries in 2009 with 16 Italian predominantly small and medium-sized firms, this article explores: the motivations behind Italian parent companies’ decisions to create subsidiaries in Asia; relations between the newly established production facilities and their local suppliers and markets; any subsequent...

  15. The Effective Use of Facebook by Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Operating in Slovakia

    František Pollák; Peter Dorčák

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this study was to identify and then interpret the basic preconditions for effective use of the social networking site Facebook as a marketing communication platform for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) operating in a selected Central European market. Design/Methodology/Approach – In order to achieve the objective, as well as partial targets, this contribution can be seen as a summary of two autonomous and extensive analyses. The context necessary for the fulf...

  16. The challenges of Iranian small and medium-sized enterprises through process of internationalization

    Amirkhani, Kianoosh

    2012-01-01

    The effect of globalization and attracting new market increase the attitude of firms toward foreign market incrementally .This thesis was conducted to introduce a comprehensive framework of internationalization process in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Iran as well as monitoring challenges that firms will face in foreign market operation. Take a glance at the literature of internationalization, Iran`s economic situation and entry modes. The aim of this research was encouraging other st...

  17. Determinants of capital structure in small and medium sized enterprises in Malaysia

    Mat Nawi, Hafizah

    2015-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London This study aims to investigate the determinants of capital structure in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Malaysia and their effect on firms’ performance. The study addresses the following primary question: What are the factors that influence the capital structure of SMEs in Malaysia? The sample of this research is SMEs in the east coast region of Malaysia. Adopting a posi...

  18. The Republic of Korea's small and medium size enterprises and their support systems

    Linsu Kim; Nugent, Jeffrey B.

    1994-01-01

    The authors evaluate the effectiveness of private and collective technical, marketing, and financial support systems for the Republic of Korea's small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) and entrepreneurs. Their report draws on a survey of 122 SMEs that make woven textiles (42 firms), auto parts (20 firms), electronic parts (20 firms), and factory-automation products (40 firms). Although Korea has a dense network of public technology-support institutions, Korean SMEs tend to turn to private so...

  19. MICRO, SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED BUSINESSES IN JALISCO: THEIR EVOLUTION, AND STRATEGIC CHALLENGES

    Carlos Fong Reynoso; Moisés Alejandro Alarcón Osuna; Luis Ernesto Ocampo Figueroa

    2014-01-01

    The business structure in Jalisco, Mexico is primarily composed of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Thus, it is fundamentally necessary to understand the dynamics, evolution and above all, the strategic challenges of this sector in order to understand the state’s economic performance and the possibilities for future development in Jalisco. As a result, this study analyzes the evolution of the SMEs (known as PyME, in Spanish) in Mexico and Jalisco by using data from the Econom...

  20. Fashionable Strategies : Internationalization process of small and medium sized Nordicfashion companies

    Barwinski, Arne; Burvall, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    In our master thesis “Fashionable strategies” we analyze the internationalization processof small and medium sized Nordic Fashion companies. In our study we conducted aquantitative survey and qualitative in-depths interviews to shed light on the topic. We usehereby an iterative research strategy through the triangulation analysis method as researchapproach. The combination of methodologies and perspectives allowed us to analyze ourtheoretical framework and the research questions in a favorabl...

  1. Information support for the internationalization of small and medium-size enterprises in North Karelia region

    Vorobyeva, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to analyze how small and medium-size enterprises receive support from service organizations in the North Karelia Region to expand their businesses abroad. The theoretical section of the thesis provides the main aspects of internationalization theory. It explains the relevant findings of the Uppsala model of internationalization and presents four stages in companies’ internationalization. It provides an overview of national and regional service organizations that p...

  2. Strategies for Successful Information Technology Adoption in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    Morteza Ghobakhloo; Tang Sai Hong; Norzima Zulkifli; Mohammad Sadegh Sabouri

    2012-01-01

    Information Technology (IT) adoption is an important field of study in a number of areas, which include small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Due to the numerous advantages of IT, SMEs are trying to adopt IT applications to support their businesses. IT adoption by SMEs differs from larger organizations because of their specific characteristics, such as resources constraints. Therefore, this research aims to provide a better and clearer understanding of IT adoption within SMEs by reviewin...

  3. Tracking the Credit Collection Period of Malaysian Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Nasruddin Zainudin

    2009-01-01

    Profits of a company depend upon its frequency of reinvestment, or turnover, of its capital. Frequent turnover would notbe possible if collections are slow as they deny the company the use of its own capital. Credit collection period is, therefore,an important factor that may influence a company’s overall performance. Hence, this study explores the average collectionperiod profile of 279 small and medium-sized manufacturing companies in Malaysia using the companies’ financial statementsfrom 1...

  4. The application of TQM within small and medium sized construction related organisations

    Chileshe, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    In order to probe the application of TQM within Small and Medium Sized UK Construction-Related Organisations, a study was conducted on 63 SMEs; 20 (31.7%) of these reported implementation of TQM on their management system. For this purpose, a monitoring and assessment tool was developed, incorporating within it the TQM implementation quality features or techniques, grouped in 10 sub principles. The rate of TQM commitment and advancement was then measured for each organisation. The study was d...

  5. A compentence-based approach for small and medium-sized enterprises

    Brancatisano, Germano; Jurriëns, Jan; Verburg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of empirical research, a competence-based model of the internationalization process of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) is developed. The model focuses on so-called International Market-Entry Core Competencies (IMECC), which are global management competences considered crucial during the formulation of a market-entry strategy. This article aims to emphasize the relevance of international managerial competencies as fundamental resources for the internationalization of SME...

  6. Impact of Female Leadership on Employee engagement in German small and medium-sized Family Companies

    Rittinger, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    Due to the demographic change, German small and medium-sized family companies lack skilled employees. As a high level of employee engagement (EE) can help retaining skilled employees, engaging leaders are needed. The aim of this thesis was to analyse, if women are able to have a positive impact on employee engagement due to their leadership style. Qualitative theoretic information was gathered from academic literature. Latest professional journals and studies were used to give an insight ...

  7. An assessment of selected family business values in small and medium-sized family businesses

    Van der Merwe, S.P.; Venter, E.; Farrington, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study highlights the influence of selected business family values on the success of small and medium-sized family businesses. Success, for the purpose of this study, is measured using two variables, namely Harmonious family relationships and Perceived future continuity. The primary objective of this study is twofold: firstly, to identify the potential influence of selected business family values on the success of family businesses and secondly, to make practical recommendations on action...

  8. The Creation of Small and Medium-Sized Sport Enterprises and the Environmental Factors Affecting It

    Seyed Morteza Azimzadeh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium-sized enterprises are very basic solutions for the development of a country; therefore, it is important to understand the factors involved in their creation. Hence, this study sought to examine the relationship between environmental factors and creation of Small and medium-sized sport enterprises. The research population was small and medium-sized sport enterprises (1500 companies; their owners / managers were selected as the research sample (n = 258 by simple random sampling. Data were gathered using environmental factors (α=0.77 and enterprises creation qualification (α=0.81 questionnaires. Descriptive and inferential statistics (Pearson correlation coefficient, Kolmogrof - Smirnov test, and multivariate regression analysis with SPSS16 software was used for data analysis. The results showed that in addition to positive and significant relationship with business, environmental factors could predict 6% of the creation variance; Also, except for the political dimension, all environmental aspects established a significant relationship with enterprise creation( p<0.01. Regression analysis showed that of environmental dimensions, economics and technology dimensions could explain 7 percent of Sports enterprise creation variance. According to path analysis method, this prediction ability is presented in a model. The findings suggested a diminished role of environment and its dimensions in explaining the process of SMEs creation.

  9. Consultant-Client Relationship and Knowledge Transfer in Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises Change Processes.

    Martinez, Luis F; Ferreira, Aristides I; Can, Amina B

    2016-04-01

    Based on Szulanski's knowledge transfer model, this study examined how the communicational, motivational, and sharing of understanding variables influenced knowledge transfer and change processes in small- and medium-sized enterprises, particularly under projects developed by funded programs. The sample comprised 144 entrepreneurs, mostly male (65.3%) and mostly ages 35 to 45 years (40.3%), who filled an online questionnaire measuring the variables of "sharing of understanding," "motivation," "communication encoding competencies," "source credibility," "knowledge transfer," and "organizational change." Data were collected between 2011 and 2012 and measured the relationship between clients and consultants working in a Portuguese small- and medium-sized enterprise-oriented action learning program. To test the hypotheses, structural equation modeling was conducted to identify the antecedents of sharing of understanding, motivational, and communicational variables, which were positively correlated with the knowledge transfer between consultants and clients. This transfer was also positively correlated with organizational change. Overall, the study provides important considerations for practitioners and academicians and establishes new avenues for future studies concerning the issues of consultant-client relationship and the efficacy of Government-funded programs designed to improve performance of small- and medium-sized enterprises. PMID:27154382

  10. THE EVOLUTION OF FINANCIAL STANDARDS FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM- SIZED ENTITIES

    Gordana IVANKOVIČ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the growing need for more comparable accounting standards, the beginnings of International Financial Reporting Standards for small and medium sized entities (IFRS for SMEs can be found in the year 2004. IFRS for SMEs represents for the first time an accounting standard for small and medium-sized companies that can be used globally. The paper aims to examine the historical development of IFRS, the principal institutions linked to their adoption and the harmonization process of standards within the European Union. The main contribution of the paper refers to the evolution of IFRS for SMEs and the main differences between the full IFRS in use and the IFRS for SMEs.The results of the comparative analysis demonstrate that several differences exist between them. Although the aim of the new standard is to assure comparable financial statements for small and medium-sized entities, the presented disadvantages demonstrate that not necessarily its implementation will assure more benefits than the cost that will occur.