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1

Investigating power factor compensation capacity calculation in medium sized industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are a variety of techniques developed in order to improve the efficiency of electrical systems and reduce cost of providing electricity to the consumer. This paper presents a new technique for power-factor capacity calculation in medium-sized industrial/ commercial setups. Various loads of similar nominal power-factor are categorized and demand-factor of loads is so selected that it has engineering justifications. The developed system works on the principle of low-voltage power-factor correction, which substantially reduces electricity bill and increases loading-capacity of the electrical system. It allows commercial and industrial consumers to save on their power cost appreciably. This work utilizes software, which takes few inputs and produces numerous useful results. Adoption of this system can help the user in computing compensation-capacity, system KVA (size of transformer) and cost of compensation. A feature of this system is prediction of low PF penalty. Moreover, it also suggests the tentative payback period. (author)

2

TheWay to Internationalization for Small & Medium-sized Enterprises !a Industry Cluste  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the globalization of the world economy, especially after China entering the WTO, it is an unavoidable trend for China!?small & medium-sized enterprises to join the international competition.According to the analysis on the advantages anddisadvantages of China!?s small & medium-sized enterprises, industrial cluster should be an efficient way for the small medium-sized enterprises to reach the target of internationalization.  By establishing and improving specialized industry clusters with regional uniqueness, China!?s small & medium-sized enterprises could have formed their core competing powe in global competition and carry out their strategy of internationalization.

Xiaoshui Yu

2009-02-01

3

Productivity Growth in the Medium Size Malaysian-industry Level: Primal and Dual Approaches  

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Full Text Available This paper investigates the theoretical relationship between the primal and dual Total Factor Productivity (TFP from the accounting measurement perspective and also assesses their accuracy in measuring unobserved TFP growth in the presence of market power (MP and non constant returns to scale (NCRTS in the case of the medium sized Malaysian industries. In support of this, this paper uses an empirical method to estimate TFP growth by using medium sized Malaysian manufacturing data at 5-digit SIC (Standard Industrial Classification level. In order to achieve this objective, this paper first tests whether the sample of medium sized Malaysian industries have constant factor shares in total revenue. T-tests have been used to examine the hypothesis stating that factor shares in total revenue are constant over time. Finally, this paper compares the estimates of TFP growth to those of primal and dual TFP accounting measures.

Abdol Samad Nawi

2012-10-01

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STRATEGIES FOR SMALL- AND MEDIUM-SIZED COMPANIES IN CHINESE INSURANCE INDUSTRY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the development of the Chinese economy, insurance industry is becoming one of the most important commercial industries in China. Currently small- and medium-sized (SME) insurance companies gain more and more important status in the insurance market, but the main problem is to find a suitable strategy to develop in a balanced way. It is very important for the SME insurance organizations to identify their core resources and competencies and cultivate their competitiveness and competitive a...

Qian, Xiaochen

2010-01-01

5

Documentation of New Promotion Approaches in Small and Medium Sized Businesses of the Textile Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The most important marketing activity of the owner/manager of SMEs is to concentrate on entrepreneurial promotion methods of their businesses. New and entrepreneurial promotion plays a leading role in progress and development of SMEs. There has been an emerging concentration on the concept of promotion and the role of its elements in progress of SMEs in marketing research. The purpose of this paper is to identify and document promotion methods in small and medium sized businesses of the textile industry, particularly in Iran. In order to identify the concepts and methods of promotion and to present practical results in this context, a quality research has been conducted by interviewing the owners/managers of SMEs.

Mehran Rezvani

2012-01-01

6

Energy management of small and medium sized industry (SMI). PKT-yritysten energiatutkimus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report deals with the energy management of the small and medium-sized industry (later referred as SMI) in 1981-1983. The difference in fuel consumption are scrutinized between the whole industy and the SMI. The biggest difference are in the consumption of fuel oils and black and sulfite liquor. In 1983 the whole industry consumed significantly less light fuel oil (4.6%) and heavy fuel oil (28.8%) than the SMI (15.1%) and 37.5% respectively). Mainly the big companies in the forest industry consume large quantities of black and sulfite liquor (23.1% of the total fuel consumption in 1983), which share of the consumption in the SMI is less than 5%. The development of fuel and electricity consumption in the SMI during 1981-1983 is also dealt with in chapter two. The areal price and acquisition differences of energy are dealt with in chapter four. The provincial energy consumption and the various factors affecting the costs (the means of transportation, transportation distances, the means of production ect.) are studied. Transportation distance has the biggest influence on the areal differences of energy price. In the acquisition of electricity the energy price variation is mainly caused by the differences in power plant size and distribution circumstances. The remarkable share the energy costs constitute of the gross production earnings has to be taken into consideration when optimizing company's energy acquisition. THe importance of energy conservation and its direct influence on the profitability isn't always acknowledged. In the energy management the meaning of preliminary planning and accurate investment calculations still has to be emphasized.

Fogelholm, C.-J.; Halme, J.; Seppaelae, R.; Aahman, T.

1986-01-01

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Use of the helium medium for preparation of nano-sized powder materials by the example of industrial cement  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the phenomenon of the mechanodynamic diffusion of particles of the external medium in solids, a new in principle method has been proposed for the first time for producing nano-sized powder materials using industrial cement milled in a helium medium as an example. The temperature dependences of the extraction rate and the amount of helium in powders upon their heating in a temperature range of 20-1200°C have been obtained using mass spectrometry. It has been shown that milling of the cement powder of the M-400 brand using an MK-1 laboratory mill in helium leads to a considerable shift of its extraction curve towards lower temperatures compared with the air medium. The particle sizes of the powder milled in helium lie in a range of 5-10 nm, which is smaller than the powder size (˜500 nm) after milling in the air medium by a factor of 100. The compression strength of cement samples obtained from the powders milled in helium increased by a factor of 2 compared with the strength of the samples from the initial material. The activation energies of helium extraction from the cement powders milled in helium and in air have been analyzed. The obtained results indicate a high efficiency of the method for producing nano-sized powder materials in the helium medium. The method can be used in the industrial scale based on the existing mill equipment with its minimal modernization.

Klyavin, O. V.; Aruev, N. N.; Boltenkov, B. S.; Pozdnyakov, A. O.; Chernov, Yu. M.; Shpeizman, V. V.

2014-02-01

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Innovation in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in the Malaysian information technology (IT) industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study is to examine innovative activities in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the Malaysian information technology (IT) industry. This study addresses three research questions: 1. What is the innovation pattern among SMEs in the Malaysian IT industry? 2. How significant is interactive learning between SMEs in the Malaysian IT industry and other agents in the innovation system? and 3. What is the role of the government in promoting innovation among SMEs in the Malaysian IT industry? Two approaches were taken to collect data for this study, that is, mail survey and face-to-face interviews. Based on findings from this study, the SMEs in the Malaysian IT industry were divided into four categories, namely, highly innovative, innovative, inventive, and non innovative. The patterns of knowledge acquisition and interactive learning vary among the different categories of firms, and on the whole, vertical linkages with suppliers were found to be the most significant. Finally, support through the provision of funding was considered to be among the most important roles of the government in promoting innovation in SMEs in the Malaysian IT industry. (author)

9

Documentation of New Promotion Approaches in Small and Medium Sized Businesses of the Textile Industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The most important marketing activity of the owner/manager of SMEs is to concentrate on entrepreneurial promotion methods of their businesses. New and entrepreneurial promotion plays a leading role in progress and development of SMEs. There has been an emerging concentration on the concept of promotion and the role of its elements in progress of SMEs in marketing research. The purpose of this paper is to identify and document promotion methods in small and medium sized businesses of the texti...

Mehran Rezvani; Narges Khoram Shahi

2012-01-01

10

Use of recycling through medium size granular filters to treat small food processing industry effluents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Currently there are no suitable wastewater treatment systems for effluents from small food processing industries (dairy, cheese, wine production). Such raw sewages are characterized by high organic matter concentrations (about 10 g COD L-1) and relatively low daily volumes (about 2 m3). An adaptation of attached-growth cultures on fine media processes, known to be easy and inexpensive to use, could fit both the technical and economical context of those industries. Coarser filter particle size distributions than those normally used allow a better aeration and reduce clogging risk. The transit time of the effluent through the porous filter materials is shortened and requires recycling to increase the contact time between the biomass and the substrate. A pilot plant was built to compare the efficiency of two kinds of filter materials, gravel (2-5 mm) and pozzolana (3-7 mm). Two measurement campaigns were undertaken on a full-scale unit dealing with cheese dairy effluents. Both pilot-scale and full-scale plants show high COD removal rates (> 95%). Pilot-scale experiments show that accumulation of organic matter leads to the clogging of the recycling filter. To prevent early clogging, a better definition of feeding cycles is needed. PMID:12201106

Ménoret, C; Boutin, C; Liénard, A; Brissaud, F

2002-01-01

11

Report on the 2nd European conference on computer-aided design (CAD) in small- and medium-size industries (MICAD 82)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A summary is presented of the 2nd European conference on computer aided design (CAD) in small- and medium-size industries (MICAD82) held in Paris, France, September 21-23, 1982. The conference emphasized applications of CAD in industries with limited investment resources and which are forced to innovate in order to sustain competition.

Magnuson, W.G. Jr.

1982-10-01

12

Development of a Low NOx Medium sized Industrial Gas Turbine Operating on Hydrogen-Rich Renewable and Opportunity Fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents the accomplishments at the completion of the DOE sponsored project (Contract # DE-FC26-09NT05873) undertaken by Solar Turbines Incorporated. The objective of this 54-month project was to develop a low NOx combustion system for a medium sized industrial gas turbine engine operating on Hydrogen-rich renewable and opportunity Fuels. The work in this project was focused on development of a combustion system sized for 15MW Titan 130 gas turbine engine based on design analysis and rig test results. Although detailed engine evaluation of the complete system is required prior to commercial application, those tasks were beyond the scope of this DOE sponsored project. The project tasks were organized in three stages, Stages 2 through 4. In Stage 2 of this project, Solar Turbines Incorporated characterized the low emission capability of current Titan 130 SoLoNOx fuel injector while operating on a matrix of fuel blends with varying Hydrogen concentration. The mapping in this phase was performed on a fuel injector designed for natural gas operation. Favorable test results were obtained in this phase on emissions and operability. However, the resulting fuel supply pressure needed to operate the engine with the lower Wobbe Index opportunity fuels would require additional gas compression, resulting in parasitic load and reduced thermal efficiency. In Stage 3, Solar characterized the pressure loss in the fuel injector and developed modifications to the fuel injection system through detailed network analysis. In this modification, only the fuel delivery flowpath was modified and the air-side of the injector and the premixing passages were not altered. The modified injector was fabricated and tested and verified to produce similar operability and emissions as the Stage 2 results. In parallel, Solar also fabricated a dual fuel capable injector with the same air-side flowpath to improve commercialization potential. This injector was also test verified to produce 15-ppm NOx capability on high Hydrogen fuels. In Stage 4, Solar fabricated a complete set of injectors and a combustor liner to test the system capability in a full-scale atmospheric rig. Extensive high-pressure single injector rig test results show that 15-ppm NOx guarantee is achievable from 50% to 100% Load with fuel blends containing up to 65% Hydrogen. Because of safety limitations in Solar Test Facility, the atmospheric rig tests were limited to methane-based fuel blends. Further work to validate the durability and installed engine capability would require long-term engine field test.

Srinivasan, Ram

2013-07-31

13

THE ALGORITHM IMPLEMENTATION OF THE DIVERSIFICATION STRATEGY IN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES (FOR EXAMPLE, THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY  

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Full Text Available Diversification in small businesses in the general sense is an extension of business activities to new areas of business (expanding the range of products, types of services provided, etc.. Application of the strategy of diversification in the small and medium business is justified in cases where the industry does not give us opportunities for further growth or when growth opportunities outside the industry more attractive. To determine whether diversification overdue and justified, the entrepreneur must clearly define the algorithm for their actions.Purpose: To determine the algorithm implementation of the strategy of diversification.Methodology: Desk research.Results: The developed algorithm.Practical implications: Management.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-19

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2013-09-01

14

THE INFLUENCE IN ROMANIAN HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY OF SMALL MEDIUM-SIZED FIRMS AND THEIR SPECIFIC MEANS TO IMPROVE PERFORMANCE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

SMEs play an important role in fostering variety, self-fulfillment, and independence in society as well as essentially contributing to social and local integration. Because the tourism sector, especially the hospitality industry, in Europe is dominated by

Baltescu Codruta Adina

2009-01-01

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Consumption and conservation of energy in small and medium-size business, trade, and the service industry; Energieverbrauch und Einsparung in Gewerbe, Handel und Dienstleistung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The book presents a wealth of information and topical findings compiled in a database, relating to energy consumption by small and medium-sized business in Germany, describing energy consumption patterns in a crosscut survey of business activities characterized by a great technological variety. Based on results obtained from investigations performed in selected enterprises, a questionnaire has been formulated and distributed to almost 3 000 establishments, collecting information on their energy consumption, their installed energy technology, and their activities and equipment for energy conservation. The book presents entirely new information on energy consumption patterns of small and medium-sized business not considered so far by relevant research activities, and gives detailed information and extrapolated results permitting a comparative analysis of particular branches of business, as e.g. the motor vehicle trade, the baker's trade, agriculture, retail trade, hotels, public administration. The latest available survey on energy consumption patterns of small and the medium-sized industry dates back to 1982, and did not consider energy conservation measures or technology. (orig./CB) [German] Eine Fuelle von Ergebnissen und Erkenntnissen zum Energieverbrauch und zur Aufschluesselung nach Energietraegern und Verwendungszwecken in dem technologisch sehr vielfaeltigen und in der Forschung bisher vernachlaessigten Sektor 'Kleinverbrauch' auf einer aktuellen Datenbasis liegt jetzt mit diesem Buch vor. Dazu wurden, nach vorangegangenen betrieblichen Einzeluntersuchungen, knapp 3.000 Betriebe zum Energieverbrauch, zum Stand der energietechnischen Ausstattung und ihrer Energiesparaktivitaeten befragt. Das Buch stellt die auf den Sektor hochgerechneten Ergebnisse im Branchenvergleich und detailliert fuer die einzelnen Untersuchungsbereiche dar, z.B. fuer Kfz-Gewerbe, Baeckereien, Landwirtschaft, Einzelhandel, Hotels, Oeffentliche Verwaltungen. Daten zu Energieverbrauch und Verwendungszwecken im Kleinverbrauch waren zuvor letztmals 1982 erhoben worden, wobei keine energiesparenden Massnahmen thematisiert wurden. (orig.)

Geiger, B. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energiewirtschaft und Kraftwerkstechnik; Gruber, E. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Megele, W. [Forschungsstelle fuer Energiewirtschaft, Muenchen (Germany)

1999-07-01

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THE INFLUENCE IN ROMANIAN HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY OF SMALL MEDIUM-SIZED FIRMS AND THEIR SPECIFIC MEANS TO IMPROVE PERFORMANCE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available SMEs play an important role in fostering variety, self-fulfillment, and independence in society as well as essentially contributing to social and local integration. Because the tourism sector, especially the hospitality industry, in Europe is dominated by

Baltescu Codruta Adina

2009-05-01

17

Application of the Life Change Unit model for the prevention of accident proneness among small to medium sized industries in Korea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Behavior models have provided an accident proneness concept based on life change unit (LCU) factors. This paper describes the development of a Korean Life Change Unit (KLCU) model for workers and managers in fatal accident areas, as well as an evaluation of its application. Results suggest that death of parents is the highest stress-giving factor for employees of small and medium sized industries a rational finding the viewpoint of Korean culture. The next stress-giving factors were shown to be the death of a spouse or loved ones, followed by the death of close family members, the death of close friends, changes of family members' health, unemployment, and jail terms. It turned out that these factors have a serious effect on industrial accidents and work-related diseases. The death of parents and close friends are ranked higher in the KLCU model than that of Western society. Crucial information for industrial accident prevention in real fields will be provided and the provided information will be useful for safety management programs related to accident prevention. PMID:18840937

Kang, Youngsig; Hahm, Hyojoon; Yang, Sunghwan; Kim, Taegu

2008-10-01

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Techno-economic evaluation of commercial cogeneration plants for small and medium size companies in the Italian industrial and service sector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The liberalization of the electricity market and the concern for energy efficiency have resulted in a surge of interest in cogeneration and distributed power generation. In this regard, companies are encouraged to evaluate the opportunity to build their own cogeneration plant. In Italy, the majority of such companies belong to the industrial or service sector; it is small or medium in size and the electric power ranges between 1 ÷ 10 MW. Commercially available gas turbines are the less expensive option for cogeneration. Particular attention has been given to the possibility of combining an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) with gas turbine, to improve the conversion efficiency. Companies have to account for both technical and economical aspects to assess viability of cogeneration. A techno-economic analysis was performed to identify, in the Italian energy market, which users can take advantage of a cogeneration plant aimed to cover at least part of their energy demand. Since electricity and thermal needs change considerably in the same sector, single product categories have been considered in the analysis. Our work shows that in the industrial sector, independent of the product category, cogeneration is a viable option form a techno-economic perspective. - Highlights: ? The best technologies for 1 ÷ 10 MW distributed generation plant are gas turbine and ORC. ? A variety of commercial cogeneration plants is available to meet user needs. ? Cogeneration is a technical and economical advantage for industrial sector companies.

19

Identifying Factors Influencing Entry Mode Selection in Food Industry of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As internationalization increases in today’s business society, it becomes ever more important for individual business to keep us with the development. The way a company ventures from its domestic market to new geographical markets and selecting the right entry modes are important decision that demands a lot of resources and planning. In the process of selecting entry modes a wide range of factors must be taken into consideration before making the final decision. To provide a better understanding of the impact of some internal and external factors on Iranian SMEs in food industry we chose a conceptual framework from Root and studied its variables in our sample. This model states that a target country market factors, b target country environmental factors c target country production factors and d home country factors as external factors and e country production and f company resource/commitment factors as internal factors have impact on the process of choosing entry modes. In order to collect data we use questionnaire. Our findings illustrated that all of the factors were mentioned in Root’s model had impact on selecting entry modes to a foreign country.

Mahdi Haghighi Kaffash

2012-09-01

20

The Study of Collaborative IP Models and Successful Factors-Taking the Small-and-Medium Sized LCD Industry as an Example  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available More and more enterprises conduct business strategically through strategic alliances, mergers & acquisitions, joint ventures, outsourcing, and collaborations to keep their competitive advantages in view of influences such as reduction of product lifecycles, fast changing markets, and global economics. Besides, enterprises gradually recognize that intellectual property management and plans are important. In the generation of R&D management based on innovative capabilities, it can commercialize the developed technologies and yield economic benefits through the effective management and deployment of patents. This research aims to identify how the collaborative Intellectual Property (IP model could shorten product life cycle and further make enterprises successful in the global market. This research firstly figures out the features of the small-and-medium Liquid Crystal Display (LCD industrial and challenges what this industry confronts after the competitive analysis of industry and market. Then the technological trend and patent positions were studied through patent information analysis and tools from Patent Guilder Software. This research also uses the case study methodology and selected the first company that adopted a collaborative IP model. Furthermore, this paper identifies the key performance indicators for the model and finds out the innovative business model for the company.

Li-Min Wu

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
21

Industrial-size photobioreactors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Photosynthetic microorganisms can be engineered to produce pharmaceuticals, chemical intermediates, and clean energy (e.g., hydrogen). They also fix atmospheric carbon dioxide--an important consideration as increased levels of carbon dioxide are linked to global warming. As a first step in the photobioreactor design, the authors investigated the relative significance of the exponential and the linear growth rates during light-limited batch cultivation of photosynthetic cells using various types and sizes of photobioreactors. They also developed a mathematical model that could explain the existence of the various growth phases during the light-limited batch cultivation. Because the cost of electricity is high, use of solar energy is obviously desirable, because it is abundant and free. However, an appropriate method for harvesting the solar energy and distributing the light inside the photobioreactor is required. A light collection device consisting of Fresnel lenses is used to collect the solar light, which is then distributed inside the reactor through the optical fibers. Because the position of the sun changes continuously, the device is equipped with a light-tracking sensor so that the lenses rotate with the position of the sun. Because of diurnal and seasonal changes in the sunlight intensity, however, high volumetric productivity is difficult to achieve if only solar energy is used for reactor illumination. For maximum productivity, therefore, the solar light should be supplemented with an artificial light source at night and on cloudy days.

Ogbonna, J.C.; Tanaka, Hideo [Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

1997-07-01

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AN INVESTIGATION INTO MEDIUM-SIZED MULTINATIONAL ENTERPRISES  

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Full Text Available The paper provides an investigation of medium-sized Italian industrial enterprises that have become multinational companies. It concetrates on the set of medium and medium-large enterprises who seem to grow more in foreign markets, either through exports or through foreign direct investment. The work also offers a descriptive empirical picture of the performance of medium-sized Italian multinationals, which is compared with the performance of large corporations. From this analysis, which is based on several data sources, it is possible to outline a profile regarding the medium-size italian multinational enterprises; the aim is to understand the complex strategy towards internationalization of these companies, where the dimension of production is important and, therefore, innovation has a key role. Also the commercial dimension is crucial, because it leads to point to the direct supervision of foreign markets and to look very carefully at the customers, offering them a wide range of services. Finally, the paper highlights some critical issues that the medium sized multinational enterprises have to face for competing: namely, the stagnant productivity, the high taxation, the insufficient institutional support for internationalization, the bureaucracy and its high costs, the lack of skilled human capital available in the labor market due to inadequate policy training.

Daniele Schilirò

2013-09-01

23

JAIF report on small- and medium-size LWRs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Ministry of International Trade and Industry has made a report on the results of the study on the utilization of small and medium size LWRs. The Japan Atomic Industrial Forum undertook this research work by the commission of the Ministry. It studied six cases of PWRs and BWRs with thermal output power ranging from 20 MWt to 700 MWt as the hypothetical design for their siting conditions, reactor capacity and the examples of utilization of the corresponding steam output. A large housing estate of 5,000 units, a local core city with population of 100,000, industrial utilization for petrochemical plants and paper and pulp plants and the combined utilization for a factory and a housing estate of 5,000 units were examined. The report said that a city with population of 100,000 would be the best object to supply heat from a nuclear reactor, and it is important to develop the nuclear reactors with 200 MWt capacity. This type is versatile in the siting conditions, and can be constructed near a city, accordingly, it offers the possibility of extensive utilization. The significance of small and medium size LWRs as the alternative energy for oil, the regional development accompanying the use of small and medium size LWRs, the technical development toward scale reduction, easy operation and versatile utilization, the economical evaluation of the utilization models and the tasks for the future are reported. (Kako, I.)

24

Insights about Integrated Marketing Communication in Small-and-Medium-sized Italian Enterprises  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper investigates if and how integrated marketing communication (IMC) has been implemented by Italian small-and-medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Three case studies about small and-medium Italian enterprises analysis are carried out: three small and-medium enterprises in different industries through interviews and document analysis. The article highlights the fact that small-and-medium-sized Italian enterprises implement marketing communication using a flexible approach. The most widespre...

Annamaria Esposito

2013-01-01

25

Small and medium-sized nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Small and medium-sized nuclear power plants have long been under discussion as possible applications of nuclear power in countries with small transmission grid systems, in threshold countries and developing countries, and under special local supply conditions. IAEA has condensed and promoted this interest and tried to establish the demand, and possibilities of meeting it, in special events and campaigns. In recent years, considerable interest was registered even in industrialized countries, but here specially for heating and process heat generation applications and for special purposes and, in medium-sized units, also for combined supplies of electricity and heat. This corresponds to special reactor and plant concepts, some of which have already been developed to a stage at which construction work could begin. The analysis presented deals with necessary preconditions on the sides of the users and the vendors, with problems of economy, infrastructure and financing and with the market prospects of small nuclear power plants. (orig./HP)

26

Holonic Business Process Modeling in Small to Medium Sized Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Holonic modeling analysis which is the application of system thinking in design, manage, and improvement, is used in a novel context for business process modeling. An approach and techniques of holon and holarchies is presented specifically for small and medium sized enterprise process modeling development. The fitness of the approach is compared with well known reductionist or task breakdown approach. The strength and weaknesses of the holonic modeling is discussed with illustrating case example in term of its suitability for an Indonesia’s small and medium sized industry. The novel ideas in this paper have great impact on the way analyst should perceive business process. Future research is applying the approach in supply chain context.

Nur Budi Mulyono

2009-06-01

27

CAS medium-size nuclear plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CEA has developed a range of pressurized water reactors of the type CAS Compact, which are adapted to civil ship propulsion, or to electric power production, combined possibly with heat production, up to outputs equivalent to 125MW(e). Nuclear plants equipped with these reactors are suitable for medium-size electric networks, especially in developing countries, because they are easily adaptable, owing to their flexibility; they can be installed and used in a variety of ways (on land, floating installation, combination of electric power and other production, etc.); they can be used as training reactors by countries wishing to limit their investment plans before undertaking a wider nuclear development. Examples of two possible realizations are presented: as a floating plant, and as a combined electric and desalting plant. (author)

28

Small and medium sized reactors: Status and prospects. Proceedings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the early years of nuclear power deployment, the plants entering service were dominated by what are now considered small (less than 300 MW(e)) and medium (300 to 700 MW(e)) reactors. In the late 1970s, the balance shifted to larger size plants to serve the requirements of industrialized countries. However, since the early 1990s, the increased interest of developing countries in nuclear power, mainly in Asia, has resulted in intensified efforts in development of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). Also, in industrialized countries, electricity market deregulation is calling for power generation flexibility that SMRs may offer. Apart from electricity generation, SMRs are of particular interest for non-electrical applications of nuclear energy, such as desalination of seawater and district heating. In recognition of the current global interest in small and medium sized reactors this seminar was convened to provide a forum for the exchange of information by experts and policy makers from industrialized and developing countries on the technical, economic, environmental, and social aspects of SMR development and implementation in the 21st century, and to make this information available to all interested IAEA Member States. Keynote addresses also provided information on global energy demand and supply and international trends impacting the development and introduction of SMRs. Two hundred forty seven attendees from 39 countries and 5 international organizations participated in the seminar. The majority of the participants were from developing countries. The seminar not only provided valuable up to date information on SMRs, it also highlighted the importance of continued international co-operation in the development and application of nuclear power for peaceful uses throughout the world

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PME-PMI : quel accès à l'information ? Small- and Medium-Sized Firms and Industries: What Access to Information?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Le contact quotidien avec les PME-PMI nous amène à penser que des intermédiaires expérimentés sont indispensables pour permettre à ces sociétés d'accéder aux nouveaux outils documentaires. Daily contact with small and middle size enterprises makes us think that skilful intermediaries are necessary to help these companies in accessing to the new information tools.

Debackere M. C.

2006-11-01

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From medium-sized to megawatt turbines...  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the world`s first 500 kW turbines was installed in 1989 in the Netherlands. This forerunner of the current NedWind 500 kW range also represents the earliest predesign of the NedWind megawatt turbine. After the first 500 kW turbines with steel rotor blades and rotor diameter of 34 m, several design modifications followed, e.g. the rotor diameter was increased to 35 m and a tip brake was added. Later polyester blades were introduced and the rotor diameter was increased with 5 in. The drive train was also redesigned. Improvements on the 500 kW turbine concept has resulted in decreased cost, whereas annual energy output has increased to approx. 1.3 million kWh. Wind energy can substantially contribute to electricity supply. Maximum output in kiloWatthours is the target. Further improvement of the existing technology and implementation of flexible components may well prove to be a way to increase energy output, not only in medium or large sized wind turbines. 7 figs.

Dongen, W. van [NedWind bv, Rhenen (Netherlands)

1996-12-31

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Market Potential Estimation of a Small and Medium Size Reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Technically, nuclear reactors which produce energy in the form of heat can supply energy products other than electricity, including district heat, process heat, potable water etc. Currently non-civil uses of nuclear energy are very limited civil applications except for a military nuclear powered ship and an energy usage in isolated areas. However, the future global environment and an energy resources scarcity could promote a significant usage of non-electrical applications on an industrial scale. Considering these situations, this report analyzed the following: (1) Worldwide non-electrical application of a small and medium sized nuclear reactor - survey the situation of the current technical applications, - survey the global market potential estimation for various applications (2) Technical cooperation potential in several countries - identify necessary conditions for nuclear cooperation, - select candidate countries: Morocco, UAE, Indonesia, Chile and Vietnam, - survey the energy and water situation, - survey the legal and international regime infrastructure

32

Diseño de un sistema de acumulación de costos para la micro, pequeña y mediana industria panadera / Design of a System for the Accumulation of Costs for Micro, Small And Medium Sized Bakery Industries  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las micro, pequeñas y medianas industrias (MPyMI) son fundamentos en una economía sólida, ellas deben diseñar estrategias gerenciales y de apoyo acorde a sus características que les permitan mejorar su competitividad y buscar su consolidación; de allí la necesidad de contar con sistemas de acumulaci [...] ón de costos que generen información apropiada, oportuna y detallada. Luego de un diagnóstico realizado en las industrias panaderas del municipio Barinas, estado Barinas, se constató que éstas son en su mayoría MPyMI, y que no poseen un sistema de acumulación de costos adecuado que permita calcular costos de producción precisos para la planificación, control y toma de decisiones. Por ello, se presentan los resultados de una investigación proyectiva ubicada en el nivel comprensivo, en la cual se diseña un sistema de costos adaptado a las necesidades de estas industrias, compatible con la naturaleza de sus actividades fabriles, a objeto de facilitar y difundir su uso. Se propone un Sistema de Acumulación de Costos Híbrido, a partir de la combinación del sistema de costos por proceso y del sistema de costos por operaciones, para obtener información sistemática, oportuna y confiable, de los costos de producción para la toma de decisiones, dotados a la vez de procedimientos y mecanismos de control. Abstract in english Micro, small and medium sized industries are fundamental in a solid economy, and management and support strategies according to their characteristics should be designed and that allow them to better their competitiveness and consolidation, and for this reason there is a need to account for systems o [...] f cost accumulation that generate appropriate, timely and detailed information. After the realization of a study in the bakery industries in the Barinas Municipality, Barinas State, it was found that the majority of these businesses did not have a system for the adequate accumulation of costs which allowed them to calculate precise production costs for planning, control and decision-making. For this reason we present herein the results of a projected research project on a comprehensive level in which a system of costs is designed, adapted to the needs of these industries, compatible with the nature of their productive activity, in order to facilitate and expand its use. A system of accumulation of hybrid costs is proposed based on a combination of process cost systems and operational cost systems in order to obtain systematic, timely and reliable information on production costs for decision making, and which includes control mechanisms and procedures.

Marysela C, Morillo Moreno; Dianosky Yoleida, Pulido.

33

Experience Reference from the Financial Support Practices for Japan’s Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The government-dominant financial system in Japan has exerted significant effects on the reconstruction of economy, the realization of industrial policy goals, and the construction of independent industrial and national economic system after the war. In Japan, the government takes much count of support for small and medium-sized enterprise financing. It establishes a small and medium-sized enterprise financial system that takes non-governmental units as principal parts and government as assistant one. Different types of financial institutions coexist in the small and medium- sized financial system and complement one another, which serves as a great support for small and medium-sized enterprise. The financial support mode for Japan’s small and medium-sized enterprises and its characteristics serve as inspirations for us in the fast and healthy development of China’s small and medium-sized enterprises.

Zhaozhen Fan

2009-02-01

34

A MODEL FOR SUPPORTING CONSISTENT COST MANAGEMENT IN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES: APPLICATION IN A CHEMICAL INDUSTRY COMPANY MODELO PARA APOIO A GESTÃO CONSISTENTE DE CUSTOS EM PEQUENAS E MÉDIAS EMPRESAS: APLICAÇÃO NUMA EMPRESA DO SETOR QUÍMICO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents a structured model for improving production processes in small to medium-size industrial companies. Application of the model enables acting upon a set of cost generating causes, leading in a consistent manner to cost reductions. The model is based on the principles of management through total quality and considers the fundamental aspects that make it possible to eliminate waste, reduce defect costs and improve processes, thus enabling increased efficiency and reduction of variability. The model proposed is based on the set of variable principles pointed to by authors who deal with quality as key elements in management. The fulcrum of the system consists of control of the “6m” in Ishikawa’a causeeffect diagram (raw material, machinery, labor, methods, environment and mediations, supported by the action of a set of auxiliary tools and concepts. With the objective of testing the results of the model in practice, an application of it was made in a company from the chemical sector. The work describes the main aspects of the application and shows results obtained along the years from 1996 to 2005. Analysis of results shows significant obtainment of gains in productivity, diminished variability and maintenance of positive results over time. Keywords: Cost reduction. Model for improvement. Process management. Chemical industry. O artigo apresenta um modelo estruturado para melhoria dos processos produtivos de empresas industriais de portes pequeno e médio. A aplicação do modelo possibilita atuar sobre um conjunto de causas geradoras de custos, conduzindo, de forma consistente, a reduções de custo. O modelo é baseado nos princípios da gestão pela qualidade total e considera os aspectos fundamentais que possibilitam eliminar desperdícios, reduzir custos de falhas e melhorar os processos, possibilitando, assim, aumento de eficiência e diminuição da variabilidade. O modelo proposto baseia-se no conjunto das principais variáveis apontadas pelos autores de qualidade, como elementos-chave na gestão. O fulcro do sistema consiste no controle dos “6M” do diagrama causa-efeito de Ishikawa (matéria-prima, maquinário, mão-de-obra, métodos, meio-ambiente e medições, apoiado pela ação de um conjunto de ferramentas e conceitos auxiliares. Com o objetivo de testar na prática os resultados do modelo, foi realizada a aplicação numa empresa do setor químico. O trabalho descreve os aspectos principais dessa aplicação e mostra os resultados obtidos ao longo dos anos 1996-2005. A análise dos resultados mostra significativa obtenção de ganhos de produtividade, diminuição de variabilidade e manutenção dos resultados positivos ao longo do tempo. Palavras-chave: Redução de custos. Modelo de melhoria. Gestão de processos. Indústria química.

Miguel Juan Bacic

2007-10-01

35

Development of medium sized ABWRs (ABWR-600, ABWR-900)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hitachi has been developing medium sized ABWRs as a power source that features flexibility to meet various market needs, such as minimizing capital risks, providing a timely return on capital investments, etc. Basic design concepts of the medium sized ABWRs are 1) using the current ABWR design which has accumulated favorable construction and operation histories as a starting point; 2) utilizing standard BWR fuels which have been fabricated by proven technology; 3) achieving a rationalized design by suitably utilizing key components developed for large sized reactors. Development of the medium sized ABWRs has proceeded in a systematic, stepwise manner. The first step was to design an output scale for the 600 MWe class reactor (ABWR-600) which is appropriate for a distributed power supply. The next step was to develop an uprating concept to extend this output scale to the 900 MWe class reactor (ABWR-900) based on the rationalized technology of the ABWR-600 for further cost savings. (author)

36

Development of medium sized ABWR (ABWR-600, ABWR-900)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hitachi has been developing the Medium sized ABWR as a power source that features flexibility to various market needs, such as minimized capital risks, timely return on a capital investment, etc. Basic design policy of the Medium sized ABWR is 1) to be based on ABWR design with superior experiences in construction and operation, 2) to utilize standard BWR fuel adopting proven technology, 3) to achieve rationalized design by suitably utilizing the key components developed for large sized reactor. Development of the Medium sized ABWR has been working to proceed step by step. The first step was to design an output scale of the 600 MWe class (ABWR-600), which is appropriate for a distributed power-supply. The next step we start developing of the up-rated to an output scale of the 900 MWe class (ABWR-900) based on ABWR-600 rationalized technology for further cost saving. (author)

37

Small and Medium Sized Enterprises In Thailand and Development of Cleaner Production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the perspective of the rapid industrial development experienced over the last decades in Thailand, this report intend to contribute to the discussion about development of cleaner production (CP) among small and medium sized enterprises, as a tool to prevent degradation of the country’s natural resources. The objective is to examine the present barriers and possibilities to the low adoption of CP among the industry in Samut Prakarn and to study, which competences small firms have develope...

Nørgaard, Jens Kristian

2003-01-01

38

Efficiency optimized control of medium-size induction motor drives  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The efficiency of a variable speed induction motor drive can be optimized by adaption of the motor flux level to the load torque. In small drives (<10 kW) this can be done without considering the relatively small converter losses, but for medium-size drives (10-1000 kW) the losses can not be disregarded without further analysis. The importance of the converter losses on efficiency optimization in medium-size drives is analyzed in this paper. Based on the experiments with a 90 kW drive it is found that it is not critical if the converter losses are neglected in the control, except that the robustness towards load disturbances may unnecessarily be reduced. Both displacement power factor and model-based efficiency optimizing control methods perform well in medium-size drives. The last strategy is also tested on a 22 kW drive with good results.

Abrahamsen, F.; Blaabjerg, Frede

2000-01-01

39

The economics of medium-sized reactors in deregulated markets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The prospects for the deployment of small and medium reactors in deregulated markets is crucially dependent on demonstrating that such reactors are economically competitive with alternative power sources. Other factors, such as safety, reliability, waste arisings, environmental impact etc are also important to get right, but unless the economics are competitive, private investment is unlikely to be available for any reactor system. This paper examines the economics of the Westinghouse AP-600, which is the only medium-sized evolutionary PWR in the world today which has achieved regulatory approval. The paper presents an economic analysis of an AP-600 which shows that medium-sized systems can be economic in a competitive market and identifies the economic barriers that need to be overcome for their deployment to become a reality. The paper shows how sensitive the overall generating cost can be to the perceived financial risk, which helps to highlight where attention most needs to be focused. (author)

40

Reference sources for small and medium-sized libraries  

CERN Document Server

Focusing on new reference sources published since 2008 and reference titles that have retained their relevance, this new edition brings O'Gorman's complete and authoritative guide to the best reference sources for small and medium-sized academic and public libraries fully up to date.

O'Gorman, Jack

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Angiographic examinations with the medium size technique (70 mm films)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The applicability of medium-size technique was tested in angiographic examinations of thoracic and abdominal organs. By means of full-size image intensifiers it is possible to carry out organ angiography, and by means of a pace control mechanism for the patient transport, the angiography of the extremities can be realized. Examples are given illustrate the informational value in cases where the arial and venous vascular systems of organs and extremities are concerned. The particular advantages for functional analyses of organ circulatory systems in cases of angiography are described. Two factors of importance are pointed out: the reduction of the exposure to irradiation for the patient on the one hand, and the increasing film prices on the other hand. The authors demand to overcome the psychological problems arising in the medical working groups where the medium-size technique shall be introduced into routine diagnostics. (orig./APR)

42

Industrial nutrient medium use for yeast selenium preparation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper presents the preparation of selenium yeast from spent brewer’s yeast by using industrial nutrient medium (malt wort and sparge water). The chemical treatment of the yeast biomass was done with sodium-selenite solution. The preparation of selenium – enriched Saccharomyces uvarum in different conditions of temperature, time, yeast biomass proportion and sodium-selenite concentration of the medium was analysed. Using a culture mediumsupplemented with 30–180 ?g/ ml sodium-selenit...

GINA MARINESCU; ANTONETA GABRIELA STOICESCU; LILIANA TEODOROF

2011-01-01

43

The causal effect of board size in the performance of small and medium-sized firms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Empirical studies of large publicly traded firms have shown a robust negative relationship between board size and firm performance. The evidence on small and medium-sized firms is less clear; we show that existing work has been incomplete in analyzing the causal relationship due to weak identification strategies. Using a rich data set of almost 7000 closely held corporations we provide a causal analysis of board size effects on firm performance: We use a novel instrument given by the number of children of the chief executive officer (CEO) of the firms. First, we find a strong positive correlation between family size and board size and show this correlation to be driven by firms where the CEO's relatives serve on the board. Second, we find empirical evidence of a small adverse board size effect driven by the minority of small and medium-sized firms that are characterized by having comparatively large boards of six or more members.

Bennedsen, Morten; Kongsted, Hans Christian

2008-01-01

44

Imperfect information and labor market bias against small and medium-sized enterprises: a Korean case  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We examine the labor market’s bias against small and medium-sized enterprises focusing on the Seoul Digital Industrial Complex case. We adopt Heckman’s approach to control selection bias, and use primary data from questionnaire surveys conducted at both firm and employee levels. We find that conventional firm-specific factors, such as wages, fringe benefits, and weekly work hours, primarily explain the labor market bias, but imperfect information is also positively associated with the bia...

Park, Soonae; Kim, Byung-yeon; Jang, Wonchang; Nam, Kyung-min

2014-01-01

45

Medium-sized water reactors for undeveloped regions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the new century the growth of population and an increasing of energy demands together with the difficulties of fossil fuel supply are expected. It is important to find optimal ways in solving such problems without the climate warming. The nuclear power having many advantages in comparison with fossil fuel technologies could play the great role in near future. The Medium-Sized Nuclear Reactors for production of electricity, heat and fresh water are considered as a main direction of nuclear power applications in the developing world It is important to discuss the requirements to such nuclear plants for using in the Countries with Small and Medium Electricity Grids. Particularly, cost-benefit analysis of construction NPP has to include assessment of all type risks and effectiveness of plant. In the paper an attention is paid on Water Reactors designed on the basis of navy technology. Such compact PWR built on special mills and placed on special floating vessel could be used in undeveloped regions. Total plant can be transported to any point of World Ocean and return back to mill for repair or decommissioning after exhaustion of lifetime. It is expected that such reactors with innovative design approach, provision of high safety and proper economic efficiency, based on leasing procedures, could be very attractive for medium-sized and developing countries.(author)

46

Cogeneration through small and medium sized gas turbines in Italy: Marketing survey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Italy, the use of cogeneration systems by private industrial concerns has greatly increased in the early 90's. The successful technological development of highly efficient low and medium sized gas turbines and the successful application of cogenerated power to a number of industrial processes, favourable legislation and financial incentives on the part of the Italian Government, especially interested in promoting energy conservation and the use of natural gas as an alternative to petroleum, as well as, fast payback periods for such investments are amongst the major regions for the growing demand for this type of power system alternative in Italy

47

Status and Prospects for Small and Medium Sized Reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is considerable interest by Member States in the continued development of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) as a significant energy sources for the future. The support for this programme within the IAEA was recently reaffirmed at the 1997 General Conference. Although the generation of electricity has been predominant focus of existing SMRs, there is increasing interest in using these plants for other applications such as desalination, district heating and hydrogen production from the reforming of methane. Addressed herein is a review of ongoing SMR development activities within selected Member States, an overview of the Agency's SMR programme and a discussion of selected SMR designs with emphasis on their safety attributes. (author)

48

Micadur: Compact insulation system for medium-sized turbo generators  

Science.gov (United States)

A high voltage, Class F, vacuum pressure impregnated insulation system for wound stator cores of the medium size turbogenerators is described. With this total impregnation technique the insulation process has been revolutionized. The excellent characteristics of this synthetic resin insulation system have made it possible to redesign the end winding support system for decisive improvement in reliability. This has been confirmed by operating experience in recent years. Test procedures were modified to suit the new insulation process and new repair procedures have been developed.

Aare, V.; Schuler, R. H.

1981-12-01

49

Panorama 2007: Medium-Term Prospects for the Gas Industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the nineties, natural gas was the fastest growing energy source in the world energy mix. However, recent developments on the energy scene, particularly in terms of prices, have strongly impacted the growth of the various energies to the detriment of natural gas. Beyond this inter-energy competition, which could intensify, medium-term prospects for the gas industry evolve in an environment beset with uncertainties. (author)

50

Internationalization of small and medium-sized enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Highly developed countries, which are similar to Croatia by size and population, highlight the importance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs as holders of export activities and key factors in raising the competitiveness of the entire economy. In this paper authors research the concept of internationalization of SMEs. Analyzing the influence of decision makers on the process of internationalization and showing its advantages and disadvantages for the respective company and country, this research introduces the most common models on the basis of which this process is implemented in practice. A case study of a small export company from Croatia illustrates the process of internationalization to the U.S. market and provides useful information to the companies which are planning to enter new markets.

Zoran Paunovi?

2010-06-01

51

Dipole polarizabilities of medium-sized gold clusters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dipole polarizabilities of two families of low-lying structures, cage, and space filling, of the medium-sized AuN (N=32,38,44,50,56) clusters are studied using gradient-corrected density functional theory and finite field method. Both dipole moments and polarizabilities exhibit clear shape-dependent features and the cage structures have systematically smaller dipole moments and larger polarizabilities than the space-filling isomers. The mean polarizability per atom increases with cluster size for the cage structures, but it decreases slowly and tends to approach a constant for the space-filling structures. A linearly correlation between polarizability and cluster volume is noted, complying with the jellium model prediction for spherical metal clusters. The electronic effects including HOMO-LUMO gap and ionization energy on polarizabilities are also explored. The geometric effects play a dominant role on the determination of the polarizability of the cluster over the electronic effects

52

The Scalability of H. Igor Ansoff's Strategic Management Principles for Small and Medium Sized Firms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the praxis of the multi-dimensional components of H. Igor Ansoff¹s Strategic Management Systems and the efficacy of use of each of its components relative to the formulation and implementation of corporate level strategy in for-profit, not-for-profit, small and medium sized enterprises. Based on empirically validated research and industry supported journals, substantial evidence endorse both an implicit and explicit acknowledgement of its applicability and it¹s value as a whole or in part providing increased financial performance for firms competing in turbulent environments. There is a notable variance within industry and academia concerning the asymmetry of costs incurred relative to the benefits achieved of the successful implementation of Ansoffian Strategy within Small and Medium sized enterprises. Although the principles and processes of scalability are still conceptually at an embryonic stage, this paper will illuminate those features of Ansoff’s Strategic Management Systems and conditions for optimal use. Finally, we will discuss Ansoff’s Strategic Success Paradigm and principles for use by Small and Medium Sized Enterprises, which when implemented have proven empirically to increase the firm’s probability of strategic success.

Dan H Kipley

2008-12-01

53

CANDU 6 - the highly successful medium sized reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The CANDU 6 Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor system, featuring horizontal fuel channels and heavy water moderator continues to evolve, supported by AECL's strong commitment to comprehensive R and D programs. The initial CANDU 6 design started in the 1970's. The first plants went into service in 1983, and the latest version of the plant is under construction in China. With each plant the technology has evolved giving the dual advantages of proveness and modern technology. CANDU 6 delivers important advantages of the CANDU system with benefit to small and medium-sized grids. This technology has been successfully adopted by, and localized to varying extents in, each of the CANDU 6 markets. For example, all CANDU owners obtain their fuel from domestic suppliers. Progressive CANDU development continues at AECL to enhance this medium size product CANDU 6. There are three key CANDU development strategic thrusts: improved economics, fuel cycle flexibility, and enhanced safety. The CANDU 6 product is also enhanced by incorporating improvements and advanced features that will be arising from our CANDU Technology R and D programs in areas such as heavy water and tritium, control and instrumentation, fuel and fuel cycles, systems and equipment and safety and constructability. (author)

54

Medium-size high-temperature gas-cooled reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarizes high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) experience for the 40-MW(e) Peach Bottom Nuclear Generating Station of Philadelphia Electric Company and the 330-MW(e) Fort St. Vrain Nuclear Generating Station of the Public Service Company of Colorado. Both reactors are graphite moderated and helium cooled, operating at approx. 7600C (14000F) and using the uranium/thorium fuel cycle. The plants have demonstrated the inherent safety characteristics, the low activation of components, and the high efficiency associated with the HTGR concept. This experience has been translated into the conceptual design of a medium-sized 1170-MW(t) HTGR for generation of 450 MW of electric power. The concept incorporates inherent HTGR safety characteristics [a multiply redundant prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV), a graphite core, and an inert single-phase coolant] and engineered safety features

55

Prospects of small and medium sized power reactors in Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To alleviate power shortages already being experienced and the impending crisis in the coming years, Pakistan is making all out efforts to harness the conventional sources of power production. However, the anticipated increase in generating capacity by the turn of this century shall not be sufficient to meet the moderately rising demand of power. Under these circumstances the only option is to get more power from nuclear plants. In this paper the existing electric power situation in Pakistan as well as the future requirements are briefly described. Suggestions are made to cope with the situation and the prospects of nuclear power in general, and of small and medium sized power reactors in particular, are discussed. (orig.)

56

SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES IN REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper examines the role of SME sector in Moldova’s economy and its likely implications in the RD processes. There are emphasized several key features of the relationship between knowledge economy, RD and SMEs, and their effect on regional and local communities. Then, a summary of RD particular features in Moldova is presented.The role of SME sector, examined in terms of its performance by ownership and activity types, as a whole and by main firms’ categories (micro-, small, and medium-sized is analyzed. Small enterprises have been considered as the most adequate solution forpromoting RD in general case. National-level analysis is completed by regional insight into the sector as a whole. Finally, some critical aspects of SMEs’ role in RD in Moldova are discussed.

Igor G. SÎRODOEV

2009-12-01

57

Incident Response Plan for a Small to Medium Sized Hospital  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most small to medium health care organizations do not have the capability to address cyber incidents within the organization.Those that do are poorly trained and ill equipped .These health care organizations are subject to various laws that address privacy concerns , proper handling of financial information, and Person ally Identifiable Information. Currently an IT staff handles responses to these incidents in an Ad Hoc manner.A properly trained, staffed,and equipped Cyber Incident Response Team is needed to quickly respond to these incidents to minimize data loss, and provide forensic data for the purpose of notification, disciplinary action, legal action, and to remove the risk vector. This paper 1 will use the proven Incident Command System model used in emergency services to show any sized agency can have an a dequate CIRT.

Charles DeVoe

2013-04-01

58

Final stage of convection in medium-sized icy satellites  

Science.gov (United States)

Convection in some medium-sized icy satellites of Saturn and Uranus are probable ceased to operate billions years ago. We investigate transition from the convective to the static state of the satellites interior. The loss of initial thermal energy and low rate of the radiogenic heating lead to decreasing of the Rayleigh number in time. If Rayleigh number is below its critical value, the convection could slow down and eventually stops. Another scenario is a subcritical convection, that could operate even for subcritical values of the Rayleigh number. We investigate both possibilities. We have found that the final stage of convection has limited role for tectonic and thermal evolution of the body unless some specific situations occur.

Czechowski, Leszek

59

Can small and medium sized reactors be competitive?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cost is an important attribute for the future development of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). This paper addresses the target costs necessary for SMRs to be competitive in the markets of the 21st century and ways and means that designers are considering to meet these targets. It briefly reviews the impacts on nuclear energy competitiveness of economic globalisation, market deregulation, privatisation of the power sector and policy measures aiming at sustainable development and highlights new challenges and opportunities that are created for nuclear power plants as a result of the changing policy making framework in the electricity sector. Recognising the importance of capital cost (60% or more of nuclear electricity generation cost) the paper elaborates on technical (e.g. simplified design and factory building) and managerial (e.g. series order) measures aiming at capital cost reduction. The impacts of deregulation of the electricity market and privatisation of the sector on the competitiveness of SMRs are addressed. The paper stresses the importance of internalisation of social and environmental costs and sustainable development objectives for the competitiveness of nuclear energy and in particular of SMRs that are adapted to decentralised electricity supply and co-generation. Finally, it presents some findings and conclusions, drawn from the NEA analyses, on the prospects for enhancing the economics of small and medium reactors and their potential contributiom reactors and their potential contribution to sustainable energy mixes. (author)

60

Insights about Integrated Marketing Communication in Small-and-Medium-sized Italian Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper investigates if and how integrated marketing communication (IMC has been implemented by Italian small-and-medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. Three case studies about small and-medium Italian enterprises analysis are carried out: three small and-medium enterprises in different industries through interviews and document analysis. The article highlights the fact that small-and-medium-sized Italian enterprises implement marketing communication using a flexible approach. The most widespread communication purpose is to activate dialogues and new connections with their stakeholders and the most used communication tools are participation in fairs, sponsorships and events, but the very emerging tool is online communication: digital and social media. Despite the small number of cases included, the paper is to be considered as a starting point for a further quantitative investigation on this topic. The research shows that SMEs managers tend to adapt IMC in order to grasp opportunities on the market, rather than planning and communicating the values related to the product in an integrated way. This point ought to be taken into account to start an exchange of practices between managers and professionals in the marketing communication field..

Annamaria Esposito

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
61

Challenges and Considerations for Innovative Small and Medium Sized Reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is an ongoing interest in Member States in the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). In the near term, most new NPPs are likely to be evolutionary water cooled reactor designs building on proven systems while incorporating technological advances and often the economics of scale, resulting from the reactor outputs of up to 1600 MW(e). For a longer term, the focus is on innovative designs aiming to provide increased benefits in the areas of safety and security, non-proliferation, waste management, resource utilization and economy, as well as to offer a variety of energy products and flexibility in design, siting and fuel cycle options. Many innovative designs are reactors within the SMR range, having an equivalent electric power less than 700 MW(e) or even less than 300 MW(e). It is important that small or medium sized reactor does not necessarily mean small or medium sized nuclear power plant. The majority of innovative SMR concepts and designs provide for power station configurations with several units at a site or for NPP configurations with 2 or more reactor modules. In most cases, the units or modules could be added incrementally. Innovative SMRs are in many cases intended for markets different from those in which large nuclear power plants operate, i.e., markets that value more distributed electrical supplies, a better match between supply increments and investment capability or demand growth, more flexible siting or greater product variety. SMRs cannot compete with larger capacity plants on an economy of scale basis. However, they could be competitive via employing alternative design strategies, taking advantage of smaller reactor size resulting in a less complex design and operation and maintenance or in an increased overall energy conversion efficiency, and by relying on alternative deployment strategies, taking advantage of multiple unit factors and learning curve, and shorter construction schedule and 'exact' unit timing factors. Because many innovative SMRs are not water cooled, licensing approaches focussed on current light water reactors may need adjustments toward a technology-neutral approach. And most of the innovative SMR concepts rely broadly on passive safety systems, the reliability of which needs to be proven to enable risk-informed qualification and licensing. In addition, many potential applications of SMRs, such as district heat, potable water or hydrogen production, may require them to be located close to customers or a chemical plant. Based on the outputs of IAEA activities for innovative SMRs, it is possible to identify common approaches that could help the potential vendors to meet the expectations of many users and the international community. The paper will provide details on such considerations, with a link to various subject areas and categories of stake holders.(author)

62

Understanding the production and consumption of design expertise by small medium-sized firms :some evidence from Norway  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper explores the ways in which industrial design services are organised, produced, and consumed by Norwegian small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). This includes exploring the geographies of this performance in terms of how consumers and producers of design expertise organize their activities. The paper also identifies different ways in which client firms utilize industrial design to develop or retain competitive advantage. The paper combines empirical data with the development of ...

Rusten, Grete; Bryson, John R.

2005-01-01

63

Theory of flotation of small and medium-size particles  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper describes a theory of flotation of small and medium-size particles less than 50? in radius) when their precipitation on a bubble surface depends more on surface forces than on inertia forces, and deformation of the bubble due to collisions with the particles may be neglected. The approach of the mineral particle to the bubble surface is regarded as taking place in three stages corresponding to movement of the particles through zones 1, 2 and 3. Zone 3 is a liquid wetting layer of such thickness that a positive or negative disjoining pressure arises in this intervening layer between the particle and the bubble. By zone 2 is meant the diffusional boundary layer of the bubble. In zone 1, which comprises the entire liquid outside zone 2, there are no surface forces. Precipitation of the particles is calculated by considering the forces acting in zones 1, 2 and 3. The particles move through zone 1 under the action of gravity and inertia. Analysis of the movement of the particles under the action of these forces gives the critical particle size, below which contact with the bubble surface is impossible, if the surface forces acting in zones 2 and 3 be neglected. The forces acting in zone 2 are ‘diffusio-phoretic’ forces due to the concentration gradient in the diffusional boundary layer. The concentration and electric field intensity distribution in zone 2 is calculated, taking into account ion diffusion to the deformed bubble surface. An examination is made of the ‘equilibrium’ surface forces acting in zone 3 independent of whether the bubble is at rest or in motion. These forces, which determine the behaviour of the thin wetting intervening layer between the bubble and the mineral particle and the height of the force barrier against its rupture, may be represented as results of the disjoining pressure forces acting on various parts of the film. The main components of the disjoining pressure are van der Waals forces, forces of an iono-electrostatic nature and forces related to structural changes in the boundary layers. A quantitative examination of the first two kinds of forces makes it possible (by neglecting the forces of the third kind) to obtain the condition of disappearance of the force barrier, i.e. of unhindered rupture of the wetting film and formation of a wetting perimeter. When this condition is fulfilled the kinetics of flotation recovery depends only on stages 1 and 2. Calculation of the forces acting in zone 2 and of their influence on the velocity of precipitation of the particles is given separately for small particles, the size of which does not exceed the thickness of the diffusional boundary layer, and for relatively large (‘medium’) particles, whose size is greater than the thickness of the diffusional boundary layer. The possibility and rate of precipitation of small particles are determined by diffusio-phoretic relationships in the concentration and electric fields of the diffusional boundary layer. A formula is derived for the resultant velocity of precipitation of small particles on a bubble surface under the action of gravity and diffusio-phoretic forces (in the absence of a force barrier in zone 3), and this serves as a basis for calculating the effectiveness of precipitation and the critical particle size below which contact is impossible at certain values of the cationic and anionic components of the ?-potential (even for hydrophobic particles). The paper then deals with the specific forces of a diffusio-electric nature, which arise when the particle acquires or surpasses the ‘average’ size of zone 2, in the process of desorption of the flotation reagent from its surface, its diffusion to the bubble surface and adsorption on it. It is shown that these forces favour thinning of the liquid layer between the bubble and particle surfaces, the viscous resistance of which in their absence cannot be overcome in a number of cases during the ‘contact’ time. ‘Medium’-sized particles, and under certain conditions small particles as well, pass through stage 2 ‘unhindered

Derjaguin, B. V.; Dukhin, S. S.

1993-08-01

64

Powertrain System Design of Medium-sized Hybrid Electric Tractor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The environment issue has been more and more serious than ever before along with the increasing numbers of tractors. Different from pure electric tractors, medium-sized tractor more widely adopt hybrid power driver according to the machine structure and operation characteristics. The Hybrid Electric Tractor (HET is capable of enabling the diesel works in an optimal area by controlling the output torque of engine and electronic motor to achieve fuel economy and emission reduction. Designing the parallel hybrid tractor transmission system and control method are put forward in a 66kW off-road tractor based on the plowing operation cycle condition. The overall power should meet the maximum power of the plowing operation with the power balance equation. The control strategies are established by road transport modes and field operating modes, respectively. A logic fuzzy control system to Degree of Hybridization (DOH on account of the output torque and State of Charge (SOC is introduced. Aiming at the fuel economy parameter, the optimization design shows that the hybrid tractor can improve 19.2% of fuel economy between SOC 0.4~0.7 compared with the traditional tractor.

Xie Bin

2013-01-01

65

Motives behind Strategic Alliance Formation among Medium-Sized Manufacturing Firms in Tanzania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research on strategic alliance motives has attracted a great attention as firms strive to become market leaders. One critical area is to assess the contribution of these motives to strategic alliance formation. Most studies on alliance motives concentrate on international strategic alliances that involve large or multinational corporations from developed economies. Little research has been done on Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs, particularly Medium-Sized Enterprises (MEs from the manufacturing industry in least developed economies like Tanzania. This study reveals the contribution of alliance motives to strategic alliance formation. It seeks to find factors that would be taken into consideration by Tanzania’s medium-sized manufacturing firms before forming strategic alliances. The study finds firms’ views on the motives that would drive their decisions regarding strategic alliance formation. A cross-sectional survey design and multistage probability sampling technique enabled the participation of 398 CEOs from three zones of Tanzania whose views were collected through questionnaires. Through multiple regression analysis, motives related to resource accessibility, competitive advantage, firm’s improvements as well as cost and risk reduction are revealed and found influencing firms’ willingness to form strategic alliances. In order to become market leaders through strategic alliances, manufacturing MEs should consider motives that would influence rivals and other players to collaborate in order to make effective decisions regarding strategic alliances. Nevertheless, competitive business environments must be created by all manufacturing and alliance stakeholders in Tanzania in order to foster effective strategic alliances among manufacturing MEs.

Kafigi Jeje

2014-08-01

66

Small and Medium Sized Reactors: Driving Forces and Technology Development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There will be growing demands for energy in the coming decades. One aspect of particular importance is that prospects for nuclear energy will to a considerable extent be influenced by developing countries. Since population growth will occur primarily in developing countries nuclear energy cannot play a significant global role without being a viable option in these countries. Since new power plants to be built will have to be compatible with regional electricity grids, this may result in a greater focus on plants in the small and medium range, defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to produce up to 700 Megawatt of electrical power. This paper first examines the driving forces that could influence the development of nuclear energy in general and of Small and Medium Sized Reactors (SMRs) in particular in the next decades and identifies key factors in that process. Concerns over climate change may to a certain extent influence the discussion on future energy options. Other factors of equal importance for the future of nuclear are a continued emphasis on maintaining high safety standards, the implementation of acceptable solutions for spent fuel and radioactive waste disposal and a globally accepted non-proliferation regime, factors that may in turn have an impact on public acceptance. Economic competitiveness of nuclear energy is an additional important factor, and without being commercially viable, no energy source can in the long run represent a major rce can in the long run represent a major and stable component in a competitive energy sector. The introduction of SMRs in developing countries poses additional challenges, such as investment limitations. Technology development plays an important role in keeping the nuclear option open for countries wishing to use nuclear reactors to meet their energy needs, and advances in reactor design will be important to enable a significant nuclear component in developing countries. This paper considers the contribution that nuclear science and technology can make towards meeting those needs and discusses the role of the IAEA in the nuclear technology area. The activities of the IAEA encompass the broad areas of nuclear technology, safety and safeguards, together with outreach activities which seek to provide information to decision makers, civil society and the public. (authors)

67

US market potential for small and medium-sized nuclear reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the results of on-site interviews with representatives of 23 investor-owned utilities and 3 publicly-owned utilities. The purpose of the interviews was to obtain information on utilities' attitudes toward small and medium-sized power plants and towards building new nuclear plants in general. Most of the utilities interviewed preferred power plants smaller than the ones currently being offered, as long as the smaller plants did not incur a major economic penalty. However, according to the utilities interviewed, without changes in the current environment it is unlikely that there will be a significant market for new nuclear plants of any size. A trend in the utility industry towards generating companies appears to be a positive step. (author)

68

Approaches to Assess Competitiveness of Small and Medium Sized Reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is continuing interest in Member States concerning the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs), i.e., reactors with the equivalent electric power of less than 700 MW. Currently, developed SMRs are in most cases intended for markets different than those in which large nuclear power plants operate. Such markets have essentially different investment requirements, siting flexibility, grid connections and infrastructure restrictions. Therefore, economic factors affecting the competitiveness or competition of SMRs in such markets would also be different from those observed in established markets for electricity production. For example, investment capability may be limited, which would favour capacity addition in smaller increments; grids may be small or weak, which would favour capacities exactly matching the demand; infrastructure and human resource may be insufficient, which would favour less complex operation and maintenance requirements; and non-electrical energy products, such as potable water, may be in demand, which would favour reasonably close plant location to the customer. In practice it is futile to compare a single SMR needs to a single larger capacity plant on an economy of scale basis because SMRs are suitable for those locations that might not be appropriate for larger plants. However, a series of SMRs could be considered comparable to fewer larger plants to achieve the same overall power station capacity. In this case, SMRs have a potential to be competitive by employing alternative design strategies, taking advantage of smaller reactor size, offering a less complex design and operation and maintenance, relying on deployment-in-series approaches, taking an advantage of the accelerated learning, multiple unit factors and shorter construction duration. Reflecting on developments in member states, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is finalizing the preparation of a report highlighting the economics and investment related factors affecting SMR competitiveness, as well as the tools available to assess these factors. In parallel with this, IAEA is conducting a series of case studies on SMR competitive deployment and application, making use of these tools and fostering their further development. The case studies that would highlight comparative benefits and disadvantages of SMRs versus larger reactors for different deployment strategies and application conditions, will be finalized in the end of 2009, and their final results are not yet available Therefore, the present paper summarizes the major outputs of the report titled 'Approaches to Assess Competitiveness of SMRs' and discusses approaches that need to be taken into account in the assessment rather than the results of their application. However, several illustrations of the application of such approaches are provided. (author)

69

Innovation and Innovativeness in Medium-Low Tech/Low-Tech Industries – Wood Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In today’s modern business world, development of innovations and innovation activities is considered as a key driver of business success of an individual entity, specific industry sector, as well as the overall economy of a country. However, industries of low and/or medium-low technology, where wood industry belongs, are extremely important and they represent by far the largest part of the manufacturing sector in OECD countries. They show an excellent stability and employ a high share of the population. Wood industry, especially furniture industry, is a successful export-oriented European industry. Innovative companies and innovation as a result of innovativeness can be attached to a number of internal and external company factors. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to clarify the connection between concepts of innovation and innovativeness of certain internal and external company factors that have/could have an impact on company innovativeness and innovation development, and that have been established and researched in studies of a large number of scientists / authors.

Andreja Pirc Bar?i?

2013-09-01

70

Small and medium sized reactors with special emphasis on non-power applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper examines the possible role of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) for world energy supply based on recent studies by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), the IAEA, the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD and papers presented at a seminar on SMRs held in New Delhi, in August 191. It notes that nuclear power appears to be receiving more favourable consideration as the environmental effects of fossil fuels and renewable energy sources become more evident, and that SMRs are generating particular interest, especially in the USA, because of their passive safety features and reduced financial risk. Although larger reactors will be preferred for electricity generation in most developed countries, unless SMRs are cheaper or offer other benefits, they could be used where electricity demand is too small for large reactors. Small and medium sized reactors could have a more general role in supplying district heating or process heat as they provide a better match to the energy required. However, there are many obstacles to their use at present, including public opposition, cheap gas, small system size, low load factors, lack of finance and competition from independent boilers. Current prospects for SMRs in district heating systems are poor, but the obstacles appear less serious for process heat applications, including desalination, and these could therefore offer early opportunities for SMRs to demonstrate their safety and reliability. Industrial sites also ty and reliability. Industrial sites also have more consistent demands for heat and electricity which would allow the reactors to operate more efficiently in a co-generation mode. It is concluded that the prospects for SMRs are reasonably good in the longer term. However, it is essential that one or two prototype reactors be built as soon as possible to provide experience and confirm their claimed benefits. This likely to need international co-operation and finance, which will require the selection of the most suitable national designs for further development. (author). 23 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs

71

Approaches to assess competitiveness of small and medium sized reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is continuing interest in Member States concerning the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs), i.e., reactors with the equivalent electric power of less than 700 MW. Currently, developed SMRs are in most cases intended for markets different than those in which large nuclear power plants operate. Such markets have essentially different investment requirements, siting flexibility, grid connections and infrastructure restrictions. Therefore, economic factors affecting the competitiveness or competition of SMRs in such markets would also be different from those observed in established markets for electricity production. For example, investment capability may be limited, which would favour capacity addition in smaller increments; grids may be small or weak, which would favour capacities exactly matching the demand; infrastructure and human resource may be insufficient, which would favour less complex operation and maintenance requirements; and non-electrical energy products, such as potable water, may be in demand, which would favour reasonably close plant location to the customer. In practice it is futile to compare a single SMR needs to a single larger capacity plant on an economy of scale basis because SMRs are suitable for those locations that might not be appropriate for larger plants. However, a series of SMRs could be considered comparable to fewer larger plants to achieve the same overall power station capacity. In this case, SMRs have a potential to be competitive by employing alternative design strategies, taking advantage of smaller reactor size, offering a less complex design and operation and maintenance, relying on deployment-in-series approaches, taking an advantage of the accelerated learning, multiple unit factors and shorter construction duration. Reflecting on developments in member states, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is finalizing the preparation of a report highlighting the economics and investment related factors affecting SMR competitiveness, as well as the tools available to assess these factors. Adequate comparative assessment of SMR competitiveness is a complex task that may require considering time dependent expenditure and generation profiles and interest rates to determine adequate values of levelized unit energy cost (LUEC) for deployment scenarios with several consequently built plants of different types and capacities. As private capital may play an important role in financing of the new plants, investment and revenue models need to be employed to determine time-dependent characteristics, such as investments and revenues. Uncertainty analysis needs to be incorporated to add a degree of fidelity to the overall assessment. A variety of methods and tools required to conduct comparative economic assessments would been described in this paper. Many of these tools already exist in member states or are available from international organizations. In addition to this, the IAEA coordinated the development of an open model for the analysis of SMR economic and investment opportunities, which targets bringing together all currently available state-of-the-art models for generation costs, revenues, financial costs, and external factors and risks, while 'keeping the door open' for any new approach or development once it becomes available. The open model is being developed for a specific task of comparing the deployments of SMRs versus larger reactors in liberalized energy markets. LUEC will be an important figure of merit in this model; however, provisions would be made to ensure that LEUC is calculated taking into account time-dependent expenditure and production profiles and changing interest rates. In addition models to calculate investment profiles and revenues will be included. Finally, an approach to take into account other factors potentially affecting the competitiveness of SMRs, such as energy supply security, proliferation-resistance, political posture, etc. will be developed. In parallel with the development of such model, IAEA is conducting a s

72

Enablers and Difficulties for Innovation in Chile: Perceptions from Medium Size Plastic Firm Managers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english The research objective was to understand the reasons that would impel firms to innovate. The firms analyzed in this study were medium-size firms of the plastic manufacturing sector in Chile. After the analysis of the theory related to technological innovation, a model of the drivers for technologica [...] l innovation was developed. From the model a questionnaire was prepared to test which factors could influence the tendency of firms to engage in technological innovation activities. According to the data, the most influential factors that would encourage innovation in the set of firms studied are a high degree of competition in the industry, the availability of qualified workers, and a strategic relationship with customers.

José O, Maldifassi; Patricio, Crovetto.

2013-03-01

73

What Drives Innovation? Findings from Medium Sized Plastic firms in Chile  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research objective was to understand the main reasons that would impel firms to innovate. The firms analyzed in this study were medium-size firms of the plastic manufacturing sector in Chile. After the analysis of the theory related to technological innovation, a model of the drivers for technological innovation was developed and a set of hypotheses was proposed. A questionnaire was designed covering several factors that could influence the tendency of firms to engage in technological innovation activities. According to the data, the most influential factors that would encourage innovation in the set of firms studied are a high degree of competition in the industry, the availability of qualified workers, and a strategic relationship with customers.

José O. Maldifassi

2013-03-01

74

Examples from P2 and energy assessments at small to medium size manufacturers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using engineering student-faculty teams, the U.S. Department of energy sponsored industrial assessment center (IAC) at the university of louisville does free pollution prevention and energy assessments at small to medium size manufacturers (SIC 20-39) in kentucky and indiana. Each client plant must meet three of the following four criteria: Annual energy bills less than $1, 750, 000 and more than $50, 00. Gross annual sales of less than $75 million. Less than 500 employees. Lack a dedicated energy/waste engineer. Lack of in-house staff to perform these analyses. The program criteria and assessment procedures are briefly described and summaries of assessment at a sheet fed offset (lithographic) printing plant and 2 denim jeans pre washing plants are presented. 4 figs., 8 tabs

75

Future Perspectives for Small and Medium Sized Reactors in India. Annex V  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Innovative small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) have several features that are expected to affect their future development and deployment in India. These include the: - Potential for simpler designs and reduced demands for human intervention, resulting in fewer potentially unsafe actions; - Potential for construction close to population centres, due to enhanced safety; - Potential of using the capability and capacity of local industries to enable their participation in the design and construction of such reactors, and high adaptability to the standardization and modular construction approach; - Potential to achieve low upfront capital costs. Future SMR concepts, employing increased use of passive safety features and capable of producing both electricity and high temperature process heat, may find application in specific regions of the country to supply both electricity and process heat, through distributed deployment. The following sections describe future SMR design concepts meeting the above mentioned objectives, and highlight their projected economic competitiveness

76

The study of venture capital finance and investment behaviour in small and medium-sized enterprises  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are often credited with innovative entrepreneurial practices and conceiving new market opportunities. Government has reinforced these positive economic externalities through policy programmes and designated support structures. Venture capital organisations o [...] ften galvanise innovative knowledge by entrenching and sustaining nascent businesses through value-creating funding behaviours. In this way, the venture capital industry financially supports entrepreneurial activity for economic growth and governs and nurtures the growth of the SMEs. These show that the venture capital industry embraces value-creating opportunities on the basis of rational partnerships with enterprises that have limited track records and less formal control mechanisms. The tentative factor analysis findings suggest an integrated framework for the venture capital industry from the significant intercorrelations among the variables. The most important focus of this article, however, is its attempt to examine the behavioural traits of SMEs and venture capitalists regarding systematic finance and investment for inclusivity and due diligence.

Thokozani Patmond, Mbhele.

77

The Management And Exchange of Knowledge AndInnovation in Environments of Collaborating Small and Medium Sized Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The importance of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs is today far beyond any discussion in countries all over the world - in European countries as well as in Asia and in USA, in Africa as well as in Latin America. To meet market demands in present and future global industrial world, manufacturing enterprises of any kind and any size must be flexible and agile enough to respond quickly to product demand changes. With support of artificial intelligence and modern information technology it is possible to realise modern cost-effective customer-driven design and manufacturing taking into account the importance and basic role of quality management and metrology. This will be especially possible on the basis of the innovative concept and model for modern enterprises the so-called "Multi-Functions Integrated Factory - MFIF" that makes possible an agile and optimal industrial production in any kind of industry and especially in up-to-date SMEs.

OSANNA

2009-12-01

78

SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES IN REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper examines the role of SME sector in Moldova’s economy and its likely implications in the RD processes. There are emphasized several key features of the relationship between knowledge economy, RD and SMEs, and their effect on regional and local communities. Then, a summary of RD particular features in Moldova is presented.The role of SME sector, examined in terms of its performance by ownership and activity types, as a whole and by main firms’ categories (micro-, small, and medium...

Si?rodoev, Igor G.

2009-01-01

79

Data acquisition system for small to medium size experiments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A flexible distributed data acquisition system, for use in various small to medium scale experiments has been developed. The system can use a variety of standard host computers, among them common workstations UNIX-flavor and VAX-VMS systems, and commercial real time kernels VAXELN, VxWorks and DECElx. The software system includes modules for analysis, run control and list directed read-out functions. Communications between the various processes are done via TCP/IP sockets and/or DECNET. In this contribution the structure of the host and front-end software is explained

80

Defining an Industry: What is the Size and Scope of the Australian Building and Construction Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is a reprint from Vol 1, no 1, which has not previously been available in electronic format.The analysis and understanding of the conduct and performance of an industry begins with a study of its structure. However, before analysing an industry's structure it is necessary to define the industry and identify its size, scope and scale to establish its true economic contribution. This paper discusses the size and scope of the Australian building and construction industry, firstly froma traditional industry economics approach by firm size and business characteristics using data fron three construction industry surveys done over 15 years by the ABS. Secondly, data from an industry 'cluster' perspective is shown. The objective of the paper is to compare the differences found in industry size and scope in the structure-conduct-performance approach and the alternative industry cluster approach. Each model reveals different characteristics of the industry. The conclusion finds that the building and construction industry is a case where the traditional structure-conduct-performance model cannot be easily applied. 

Gerard de Valence

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
81

Construction of Soft Power of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Enterprise soft strength is a part of core competitiveness of the enterprise, so this paper takes small and mediumsized enterprises as research object to introduces the meanings and characteristics of enterprise soft power, and it puts forward the main contents of soft power of small and medium-sized enterprises and the problems which are existing in the process of construct enterprise soft power, and then the author gives the countermeasures to improve the soft power of small and medium-sized enterprises.

Key words: Enterprise soft power; Small and medium-sized enterprises; Construction

Hongyu LI

2012-11-01

82

Safety Analysis for Medium/Small Size Integral Reactor: Evaluation of Safety Characteristics for Small and Medium Integral Reactor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Small and medium integral reactor is developed to be utilized for non-electric areas such as district heating and steam production for desalination and other industrial purposes, and then these applications may typically imply a closeness between the reactor and the user. It requires the reactor to be designed with the adoption of special functional and inherent safety features to ensure and promote a high level of safety and reliability, in comparison with the existing nuclear power plants. The objective of the present study is to establish the bases for the development of regulatory requirements and technical guides to address the special safety characteristics of the small and medium integral reactor. In addition, the study aims to identify and to propose resolutions to the possible safety concerns in the design of the small and medium integral reactor. 34 refs., 20 tabs. (author)

Kim, Hho jung; Seul, K.W.; Ahn, S.K.; Bang, Y.S.; Park, D.G.; Kim, B.K.; Kim, W.S.; Lee, J.H.; Kim, W.K.; Shim, T.M.; Choi, H.S.; Ahn, H.J.; Jung, D.W.; Kim, G.I.; Park, Y.M.; Lee, Y.J. [Korea Inst. of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

1997-07-01

83

Energy conserved and costs saved by small and medium-size manufacturers, 1988--1989  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Centers (EADCs) provided energy-conserving and cost saving assistance in 339 small and medium-size manufacturing plants nationwide during 1988-89. This report presents the results of what was recommended to those manufacturers, the record of what was implemented by them, and an analysis of the financial rewards gained by them. It also includes an accounting of the financial returns to the federal government, derived from taxes upon the cost savings, or incremental income, of the manufacturers who implement the EADCs` recommendations. EADCs collect implementation data within a year of the energy audit, and for these results that time period extended through 1990. The EADCs are located at accredited engineering departments of universities and staffed by faculty and students. At present there are 18 EADCs serving manufacturers in 37 states; of these, two were established as a result of the 1989 competition, and five more were chosen competitively in 1990. Most of the results in this report were generated by 11 EADCs (named in the Appendix); two others withdrew voluntarily after completing only 10 energy audits during 1988-89. Primary responsibility for selecting, training, evaluating, and managing the EADCs belongs to the Industrial Technology and Energy Management (ITEM) division of University City Science Center (UCSC). The Department of Energy`s Office of Industrial Technologies sponsors the EADC program through an agreement with UCSC.

Kirsch, F.W.

1991-05-01

84

Business Benefits from Enterprise Systems Implementation in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises  

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Full Text Available The market for enterprise systems (ESs continues to grow as business becomes increasingly global and competitive. Increasingly, the market focus for ES vendors is on small businesses. The purpose of this study is to provide a unique ES vendor/consultant perspective on (a the business benefits small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs expect from their ES investment and (b to examine current practices of ES implementation in SMEs through a conceptual framework that considers the organisational, process and strategic context of the implementation. This study does so with interview data collected from ES vendors, ES consultants and IT research firms, who are the key players in the New Zealand ES industry. A distinctive contribution of this research is the vendor/consultant perspective as the unit of analysis, rather than the SME perspective commonly used in similar research. The vendor/consultant perspective offers a comprehensive viewpoint that extends across numerous SMEs in a variety of industries. Findings from interviews with these professionals indicate that although many ES implementations are several years old now, SMEs have only recently started tracking benefits through analytical processes in expectation to realise business value from their ES investment. The results also identify how ES implementation practices are adapting to be more suitable to the SME sector, an important market for ES vendors given the saturation of the large enterprise market for ES implementation.

Sanjay Mathrani

2009-08-01

85

THE FINANCIAL LIQUIDITY OF THE FOOD INDUSTRY ENTERPRISES IN POLAND IN THE SYSTEM SIZE OF ENTERPRISES  

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Full Text Available The article presents the diversification of financial liquidity of food industry enterprises in Poland in 2009-2011 and indicates the main factors shaping liquidity. The study used unpublished data of Central Statistical Office, allowing for the analysis of liquidity in the system classes the food industry and the system enterprise size (small, medium, large. The analyses show, that the food industry in Poland in 2009-2011, regardless of their size and adopted ratios, have the ability to regulate the current liabilities, but kept at a low level. Analysis of the factors influencing liquidity showed, that the primary importance was turnover ratio of current liabilities, as well as ratio of financing of income through equity.

Anna Bieniasz

2013-12-01

86

Contribution of small and medium sized enterprises in development of agribusiness of Serbian Republic  

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Full Text Available The economic development of Serbian republic is more and more connected with development of small and medium sized enterprises, which represent one of the main bases of Serbian economy. The economic potential of agriculture imposes the need of analyzing the condition in area of small and medium sized entrepreneurship which should be the carrier of future development of agribusiness. By ranging and grouping of Serbian republic municipalities (by discrimination and cluster analysis according to level of development of small and medium sized entrepreneurship in agriculture, the clear view is got in current state of regional development of this agricultural sector as the possibilities of future development. By development of small and medium sized enterprises in agriculture it is possible to achieve strategic goals of Serbian republic agro development and for realization of these goals it is necessary to ensure the stable economic ambient, appropriate pre conditions as measures of support which will be stimulating for development of agribusiness.

Popovi? Blaženka

2009-01-01

87

EXTERNAL FORCES DRIVING CHANGE IN THE ROMANIAN SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES  

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Full Text Available Change is a constant in everyday life confronting organizations to continuously adapt their strategy, structure, processes, and culture in order to survive and stay competitive on the market. Implementing organizational change is one of the most important skills required for managers and in the meantime the most difficult one. The forces driving change within an organization, that can be either external or internal, are those that propel a company forward towards change and in order to identify the need for change and make the proper changes, managers have to develop a tool that allows them to analyze how does the environment influence their business activities. A vision for change will clarify the directions in which the organization needs to move, starting from its current state and taking in consideration the existing opportunities and threats from the environment that allow to move to a future desired state. The purpose of this paper is to identify the concern for change in the Romanian small and medium sized enterprises by presenting and explaining the past and present influences of the main external forces that have determined the need for change in the last 3-5 years and to make recommendations about future possible changes that have to be performed by managers for a better harmonization with the environment. The research method used for this study is the interview on a sample that contains some of the most relevant SME’s from the western side of Romania, from different industries. We analyzed the main external forces that had an impact on the small and medium sized enterprises and how were they generating the need for organizational change, in order to see which present and future changes are required.

Roiban Roxana Nadina

2012-07-01

88

Bridging “Digital Divide” in Medium and Small-sized Enterprises’Informatization  

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Full Text Available Great significance lies in the informatization of medium and small-sized enterprises in that it will convert the economic growth method and improve those enterprises’ competitive abilities at the international market. However, “digital divide” confronted in their informatization must be bridged by reinforcing the support for their informatization process, achieving the goal of informatization step by step, actively promoting “the Enterprises’ Informatization Project” and soundly carrying out the conversion of medium and small-sized enterprises’ focus.

Baozhen Chen

2009-06-01

89

Success factors of entrepreneurial small and medium sized enterprises in the Gnosjö municipality  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Date of final Seminar: June 8th, 2012 Title: Success factors of entrepreneurial small and medium sized enterprises in Gnosjö municipality Authors:    Johan Eriksson and Muyu Li Group Number: 2898 Supervisor: Michaël Le Duc Examiner: Ole Liljefors Research Question: What important factors affect the success of entrepreneurial SMEs in the Gnosjö municipality? Background: With the economic crisis and recession, the world has begun to take notice of SMEs (small and medium sized enterprises)...

Eriksson, Johan; Li, Muyu

2012-01-01

90

The role of promotional strategies for small and medium- sized entreprises in sustainable marketing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Romania, small and medium-sized enterprises manifest a certain interest in marketing activities, resulted in the existence of a specific marketing structure in half of them, as attests a survey done on a sample of 140 organizations. This research, focused on understanding the promotional strategies and tactics used by Romanian small and medium-sized enterprises, concluded that communication is oriented predominantly to quantitative objectives, not designed according to sustainable marketin...

Ioana Cecilia Popescu; Diana Maria Vrânceanu; Mihai Ioan Ro?ca

2012-01-01

91

Transformational and transactional leadership: does it work in small to medium-sized enterprises?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using a sample of 755 employees who rated 121 supervisors within 50 Dutch small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), this dissertation intends to fill in some of the existing gaps in the literature. Firstly, by investigating whether the impact of transformational and transactional leadership extends from large to small and medium-sized companies. Secondly, by studying potential mediating and moderating effects to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms by which transformational and tr...

Mesu, J. K.

2013-01-01

92

The Superbubble Size Distribution in the Interstellar Medium of Galaxies  

CERN Document Server

We use the standard, adiabatic shell evolution to predict the size distribution N(R) for populations of OB superbubbles in a uniform ISM. We derive N(R) for simple cases of superbubble creation rate and mechanical luminosity function (MLF). For R R_e it is dominated by growing objects. We also briefly investigate N(R) resulting from momentum-conserving shell evolution. We predict a peak in N(R) corresponding to individual SNRs. To estimate the MLF, we also examine evolutionary effects on the HII region luminosity function (HII LF), finding that for nebular luminosity fading as a power law in time, there is a minimum observed slope for the HII LFs. Comparison with the largely complete HI hole catalog for the SMC shows surprising agreement in the predicted and observed slope of N(R), suggesting that no other fundamental process is needed to explain the size distribution of shells in the SMC. Further comparison with largely incomplete HI data for M31, M33, and Holmberg II is also encouraging. We present expressi...

Oey, M S

1997-01-01

93

40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size...Copper § 141.81 Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size...Systems shall complete the applicable corrosion control treatment requirements...

2010-07-01

94

75 FR 9431 - Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: U.S. and EU Export Activities, and Barriers and Opportunities...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Characteristics and Performance AGENCY: United States...FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Project Leaders Justino De La Cruz (202-205-3252...Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Characteristics and Performance, by July 6,...

2010-03-02

95

Structure and growth pattern of medium-size silicon clusters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The fundamental importance of understanding the evolution of properties of atomic clusters with increasing size and the potential use of atomic clusters as building blocks of new materials have stimulated many experimental and theoretical studies, particularly on silicon clusters Sin. For n ? 7 the ground state geometries of silicon clusters are firmly established, while for 8 ? n ? 20 there are experimental data on ionic mobility and spectroscopic energies of silicon clusters that indirectly support the ground state geometries predicted by first-principles calculations. However, there are still a great variety of unexplored isomers of clusters in the range 8 ? n ? 20 that may also be consistent with the experimental data, and the experimental results themselves may be also subject to correction. An intriguing finding from the first-principles calcitonins is that the lowest energy geometries or n?11 differ greatly between clusters that differ in size by only one atom, although they mostly involve tricapped trigonal prism (TTP) units. There is no fundamental explanation for this, beyond the obvious necessity for surface atoms to minimize the number of dangling bonds. This is generally accompanied by over coordination of interior atoms of clusters, compared to bulk silicon, leading to an increase in the number of bonds and their simultaneous wreaking. The actual growth pattern of clusters by sequential addition of silicon atoms will nottion of silicon atoms will not necessarily include only the lowest energy isomers, because high barriers over requirements for large atomic displacements may prevent rearrangement of each lowest energy isomer to the lowest-energy isomer of the next larger size. Thus, from a slightly more practical point of view, regular (smooth) growth patterns of silicon clusters are of interest. However, systematic research on silicon clusters showing such smooth growth patterns for a wide range of cluster sizes has not previously been presented in the literature. This work presents one such sequence of cluster structures explored using the self-consistent non-conventional tight-binding method (NTBM) (Z.M. Khakimov. Com put. Mater. Sci. 3, 95 (1994)) and recently developed molecular dynamics simulation algorithm (Z. M. Khakimov, Comput. Phys. Comm. 147, 731 (2002)). The results obtained by NTBM are in excellent agreement with available experimental data and accurate first-principles calculation results for small silicon clusters. Certain deviations between the latter and our results, especially for larger clusters, show not only possible ways of improvement of NTBM parameterization, but also the necessity of careful examination of the first-principles calculations for silicon clusters, because such calculations have mostly been done using optimization of cluster geometries at lower levels of theory, followed by single point energy calculations with a higher level of theory. Overestimation or underestimation of bond distances (that can be eliminated only by balanced accounting for basis sets and correlations effects) and, in particular, inconsistent ratios of shortest and longest bond distances (this may be also caused by missing of true global minimum because of particular search strategy) may in principle lead to different growth patterns of clusters. This work was supported in part by CRDF (Grant No ZC1-2519-TA-03) and the Science and Technology Center of Uzbekistan (Grant No F-2.1.18)

96

IS IT NECESSARY TO REGULATE FINANCIAL REPORTING OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTITIES?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper deals with the analysis of the position of small and medium-sized entities in the Slovak Republic and with the international regulation of small and medium-sized entities’ financial reporting. It provides the business demography of economic subjects by size class category by number of employees and follows by an average number of employed persons by size classes of enterprises in persons. Due to the fact that the number of these entities represents a significant role, the regulation of their financial reporting becomes a material fact. The International Accounting Standards Board issued the International Financial Reporting Standard for Small and Medium-sized Entities (IFRS® for SMEs to achieve the international comparability of accounting and reporting information. The paper covers as well as the perspectives of the IFRS® for SMEs implementation within the European Union.

MICHAL JEŠŠ

2013-01-01

97

International seminar on status and prospects for small and medium sized reactors. Book of extended synopses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Small and medium sized reactors have been defined by IAEA in accordance with their net electrical power rating, or thermal equivalent power rating for reactors producing process heat. Within the global energy supply and demand the role of nuclear power, and specifically the role of small and medium sizes reactors, is reviewed. Some new design prospects of dual purpose power plants, namely for heat production and desalination, are presented. Some proposal for new concepts of small size power reactors are described. A special concern is devoted to economic and energy policy issues as well as to safety and non-proliferation matters

98

Measurement of Credit Risk of Small and Medium-sized S&T Enterprises in China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper mainly studies the measurement of credit risk of Chinese small and medium-sized enterprises in Science and Technology (SMEs in S&T. Starting from the characteristics of the development of S&T enterprises, this paper selects the chinext 12 Chinese small enterprises annual data as sample, and builds a first-passage-time jump-diffusion structural model to measure small and mid-sized enterprise credit risk on the basis of the traditional KMV model.At last,it concludes that the first-passage-time jump-diffusion structural model has higher accuracy on the measurement of the credit risk for it obeys to the high risk and high volatility of the small and medium-sized S&T enterprises. At the same time, it puts forward the policy proposal on the development of the small and medium-sized S&T enterprises in China.

Jia-wen Zhang

2014-06-01

99

An integrated approach for developing a technology strategy framework for small- to medium-sized furniture manufacturers to improve competitiveness  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Low-technology firms, such as those found within the furniture manufacturing industry, have no framework or methodology to guide them successfully to acquire and integrate technology that enables them to operate more competitively. The aim of this article is to illustrate the development of a techno [...] logy strategy framework for small- to medium-sized furniture manufacturers to assist them to improve their competitiveness. More specifically, this article presents an integrated technology strategy framework that enables management to integrate their business strategy with their technology requirements successfully, thus improving competitiveness.

A.S., Lourens; J.A., Jonker.

100

What Types of Small and Medium-Sized Businesses are Utilizing New Financial Products?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The increased diversification of fund rising methods among small and medium-sized businesses has been a major policy challenge in recent years, and private financial institutions are proactively striving to disseminate new financial technologies. However, this does not necessarily mean that every small and medium-sized business benefits from such technologies. It is difficult to analyze this aspect based on ready-made data. Fortunately, this paper can analyze the current status and challenges of the utilization of new financial products among small and medium-sized businesses by using unique survey questionnaires (Kansai RIETI Questionnaires. The results of responses from more than 2,000 companies showed that most companies began utilizing new financial products due to introductions by main banks, and it was seen that the diversification of fund rising methods among small and medium-sized businesses has developed as a result of efforts made by policy-making authorities and financial institutions. However, the rate of utilization of each financial method is as low as a few percentage points, and extremely small businesses or cash-strapped companies has not improved in terms of fund risings. Improved diversification was mainly found in excellent small and medium-sized businesses.

Nobuyoshi YAMORI

2009-12-01

 
 
 
 
101

Gestão do desenvolvimento de produto em empresas de pequeno e médio porte do setor de máquinas e implementos agrícolas do Estado de SP Product development process management in small and medium-sized Brazilian companies in the agricultural machinery and implement industry sector  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Para que as empresas nacionais do setor de máquinas e implementos agrícolas consigam sobreviver e ampliar sua participação nesse mercado em crescimento, do interesse econômico de companhias multinacionais e no qual essas detêm expressiva participação, elas necessitam melhorar a capacitação para desenvolver novos produtos e assim atender as novas demandas quanto a requisitos e homologação dessa produção. As empresas nacionais do setor apresentam um perfil predominante de empresas familiares, de pequeno e médio porte, e pouco se conhece sobre a realidade da gestão do Processo de Desenvolvimento de Produto (PDP nessas organizações. Este trabalho caracteriza e analisa os perfis e a maturidade da gestão do PDP em empresas de pequeno e médio porte de capital nacional do segmento de máquinas e implementos agrícolas do Estado de São Paulo. Foi realizada uma pesquisa de levantamento (survey em 40 empresas. Para a análise dos dados utilizou-se a técnica de análise multivariada de clusters. As empresas da amostra apresentam uma estrutura heterogênea com relação à gestão do PDP. Foram identificados três grupos de empresas, com diferentes perfis de maturidade do PDP: Grupo I (20% da amostra, Grupo II (50% da amostra e Grupo III (30% da amostra. Evidenciam-se diferenças na gestão do PDP principalmente entre os Grupos I (com menor nível de maturidade do PDP e III (com nível de maturidade relativamente mais elevado. Apesar das diferenças na gestão do PDP entre os grupos, comparando-se a prática com o referencial teórico (as boas práticas sobre gestão do PDP, os 3 grupos se encontram no nível geral básico, ou inicial, de maturidade do PDP. A análise e identificação do nível de maturidade em que as empresas se encontram podem auxiliar no direcionamento do processo de melhoria do PDP e na elaboração de políticas públicas que incentivem o desenvolvimento e inovação de produto nas empresas nacionais do setorThe product development process (PDP, if well-structured and managed, can become a business process that directly influences the companies' competitiveness increase. The PDP in Brazilian SMEs in the agricultural machinery and implement industry Sector (AMI is little known since most publications on product development focuses on the reality of large and multinational companies, which have a quite different structure from SMEs. The purpose of this paper is to characterize and analyze the management maturity profiles of the product development process in small and medium sized Brazilian companies in the agricultural machinery and implement industry sector located in the state of São Paulo. Therefore, the addressed actions of PDP improvements in those companies can be undertaken. A survey research was conducted in 40 companies. An in loco interview was applied to the respective individual in-charge of PDP by means of a structured questionnaire. For the data analysis, descriptive statistics and the multivariate cluster analysis techniques were used. The findings indicated that the SMEs in AMIs of the state of Sao Paulo present a heterogeneous structure with respect to PDP management. Three groups of companies were identified in the sample with different maturity PDP profiles: Group I (20% of companies in the sample, Group II (50% of the sample, and Group III (30% of the sample. Differences in the management of PDP were observed, especially among companies of Group I (smallest level of PDP maturity and Group III (highest level of PDP maturity. However, despite the differences in PDP management presented in the groups of companies, according to the literature on PDP management, all groups are in the basic (initial maturity level of PDP. The identification of the maturity level, in which these companies are, can help the determination of activities that link the internal actions to improve the PDP of these companies and the proposal of specific public policies that encourage the improvement of product development for domestic companies in this industry sector.

José Carlos de Toledo

2010-01-01

102

Fostering linkages between transnational corporations and small to medium-sized enterprises in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english When large Transnational Corporations (TNCs) enter a host country, consequent development of local Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) is expected. The public sector may play an important role by fostering Business Linkages (BL), by which TNCs establish purchasing relationships with local SMEs. This [...] article was motivated by growing attention in literature to the interaction between economic development and the ability of companies to absorb and disseminate competences. Its purpose is to understand the role of public policy programs that promote BLs for development by: (a) analyzing actions and programs developed by public and private institutions to foster BL in Brazil; (b) discovering the participants' benefits from such actions and programs; and (c) identifying opportunities for public sector promotion of BL. The research design was a multiple case study which analyzed Supplier Development Projects in five Brazilian states. Results indicate that public policies may complement overall development as well as industrial policy, which is related to capacity building, stimulating technology transfer, and, more broadly, promoting a business friendly environment able to attract investment for development, calling for a regional and sub-regional approach for a country the size of Brazil.

Delane, Botelho; Milber Fernandes Morais, Bourguignon.

103

Fostering Linkages between Transnational Corporations and Small to Medium-Sized Enterprises in Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available When large Transnational Corporations (TNCs enter a host country, consequent development of local Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs is expected. The public sector may play an important role by fostering Business Linkages (BL, by which TNCs establish purchasing relationships with local SMEs. This article was motivated by growing attention in literature to the interaction between economic development and the ability of companies to absorb and disseminate competences. Its purpose is to understand the role of public policy programs that promote BLs for development by: (a analyzing actions and programs developed by public and private institutions to foster BL in Brazil; (b discovering the participants? benefits from such actions and programs; and (c identifying opportunities for public sector promotion of BL. The research design was a multiple case study which analyzed Supplier Development Projects in five Brazilian states. Results indicate that public policies may complement overall development as well as industrial policy, which is related to capacity building, stimulating technology transfer, and, more broadly, promoting a business friendly environment able to attract investment for development, calling for a regional and sub-regional approach for a country the size of Brazil.

Delane Botelho

2011-07-01

104

ECO-FRIENDLY TECHNOLOGY IN SMALL AND MEDIUM TEXTILE WET PROCESSING INDUSTRIES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Small and Medium wet processing industries in India contribute more to industrial development and trade and at the same time, they create environmental issues related to water pollution. This article attempts to analyse the main challenges of wet processing industries in adoption of cleaner technology options in reducing water pollution. Irreversible nature of water resource alarms the overall sustainability of environment. Traditional technology management concepts followed in SMIs will ...

FATIMA BABY; Thamilarasi, S. M.

2013-01-01

105

The Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Performance Evaluation Model Based on DEA and AHP Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, DEA model and AHP model combined with a new method to evaluate the performance of the small and medium enterprises. In this paper, mainly introduced the analytic hierarchy process?AHP?and data envelopment analysis ( DEA , based on the existing on the small and medium-sized enterprise performance evaluation methods are analyzed, finally, through empirical analysis that the method of DEA based on AHP and has good applicability and feasibility. 

Qiong Sun

2013-11-01

106

Medium-sized deletion in the BRCA1 gene: limitations of Sanger sequencing and MLPA analyses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We describe a family with a history of breast and ovarian cancer in which MLPA analysis of the BRCA1 gene pointed to a deletion including a part of exon 11. Further characterization confirmed a loss of 374 bp in a region completely covered by conventional sequencing which had not revealed the deleti [...] on. Because this alteration was only detected serendipitously with an MLPA probe, we calculated the probabilities of detecting medium-sized deletions in large exons by methods including initial PCR amplification. This showed that a considerable fraction of medium-sized deletions are undetectable by currently used standard methods of mutation analyses. We conclude that long, widely overlapping amplicons should be used to minimize the risk of missing medium-sized deletions. Alternatively, large exons could be completely covered by narrow-spaced MLPA probes.

Sandra, Herman; Dominic, Varga; Heidrun L., Deissler; Rolf, Kreienberg; Helmut, Deissler.

107

Medium-sized deletion in the BRCA1 gene: limitations of Sanger sequencing and MLPA analyses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We describe a family with a history of breast and ovarian cancer in which MLPA analysis of the BRCA1 gene pointed to a deletion including a part of exon 11. Further characterization confirmed a loss of 374 bp in a region completely covered by conventional sequencing which had not revealed the deletion. Because this alteration was only detected serendipitously with an MLPA probe, we calculated the probabilities of detecting medium-sized deletions in large exons by methods including initial PCR amplification. This showed that a considerable fraction of medium-sized deletions are undetectable by currently used standard methods of mutation analyses. We conclude that long, widely overlapping amplicons should be used to minimize the risk of missing medium-sized deletions. Alternatively, large exons could be completely covered by narrow-spaced MLPA probes.

Sandra Herman

2012-01-01

108

Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Target System's Design of Key Performance Assess  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article from the situation that the present small and medium-sized enterprises' performance assess is unable to obtain the anticipated effect to embark, through analyzing the questions which consist in the small and medium-sized enterprises' performance assess targets design, and combining with the small and medium-sized enterprises' actual situation to design a set of target system of key performance assess. In this system which carries on the omni-directional analysis to the target system's design flow, bringing forward concrete operation means in each stage. The endeavour through this kind of target's design project, providing effective instruction in distilling the performance target for enterprises in reality.

Zhihui Sun

2009-06-01

109

UNICS - An Unified Instrument Control System for Small/Medium Sized Astronomical Observatories  

CERN Document Server

Although the astronomy community is witnessing an era of large telescopes, smaller and medium sized telescopes still maintain their utility being larger in numbers. In order to obtain better scientific outputs it is necessary to incorporate modern and advanced technologies to the back-end instruments and to their interfaces with the telescopes through various control processes. However often tight financial constraints on the smaller and medium size observatories limit the scope and utility of these systems. Most of the time for every new development on the telescope the back-end control systems are required to be built from scratch leading to high costs and efforts. Therefore a simple, low cost control system for small and medium size observatory needs to be developed to minimize the cost and efforts while going for the expansion of the observatory. Here we report on the development of a modern, multipurpose instrument control system UNICS (Unified Instrument Control System) to integrate the controls of vari...

Srivastava, Mudit K; Burse, Mahesh P; Chordia, Pravin A; Chillal, Kalpesh S; Mestry, Vilas B; Das, Hillol K; Kohok, Abhay A

2009-01-01

110

Analysis of managerial innovation flow on the small and medium it sized enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop a diagram flow of strategic decisions on small and medium-sized high-tech enterprises and explains how it can be used to transform a innovate idea into a competitive output in the market. These enterprises are characterized, by their ability to create value, employ highly skilled workers, and use high technology in their internal processes. These firms face some problems like weak strategies of IT management and limited human and financial resources. The approach suggested in this paper offers small and medium-sized firms an opportunity to innovate or create newer outputs and increase the competitive effectively with others companies. Additionally, this paper can be used as a guide to building innovation as strategic competitiveness on the small and medium IT sized enterprises, denoted SMET at this paper.

Taciana de Barros Jerônimo

2013-08-01

111

Evaluation of innovation activities of small and medium-sized businesses in Slovak Republic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the presented paper is to contribute to the discussion on innovation activities of small and medium-sized businesses of the Slovak Republic and the European Union. It is based on the results of research carried out by the National Agency for the Development of Small and Medium Enterprises (NADSME, where the focus was on the innovation capacity of small and medium firms in Slovakia. And it was complemented by the results of an analysis of firms’ innovation activities in the Banská Bystrica region carried out within the project “Regional Innovation Strategy of the Banska Bystrica Region”.

Silvia Kostiviarova

2009-12-01

112

Simplification of Process Integration Studies in Intermediate Size Industries  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

It can be argued that the largest potential for energy savings based on process integration is in the intermediate size industry. But this is also the industrial scale in which it is most difficult to make the introduction of energy saving measures economically interesting. The reasons are that the required engineering effort is too great and therefore too expensive, and that the resulting systems designs often become inordinately complex and therefore not attractive in operation. The present study describes steps that aim at reducing the magnitude of the theoretical work and engineering effort associated with a given process integration study in an intermediate size industry. This is based on the observation that the systems that eventually result from a process integration project and that are economically and operationally most interesting are also quite simple. Four steps that may be used separately or in series ahead of or simultaneously with the conventional process integration procedures (for example, the pinch point method) are described and are applied to an industrial case study. It might be feared that the use of preselections and groupings would limit the "freedom of movement' and therefore lead to non-optimal economic solutions, which may be right. But the objective of the optimisation is not to reach the best economic solution, but to relatively quickly develop the design of a simple and operationally friendly network without losing too much energy saving potential. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Dalsgård, Henrik; Qvale, Einar BjØrn

2002-01-01

113

Design features to achieve defence-in-depth in small and medium sized reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Broader incorporation of inherent and passive safety design features has become a 'trademark' of many advanced reactor concepts, including several evolutionary designs and nearly all innovative small and medium sized design concepts. Ensuring adequate defence-in-depth is important for reactors of smaller output because many of them are being designed to allow more proximity to the user, specifically, when non-electrical energy products are targeted. Based on the activities recently performed by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the paper provides a summary description of the design features used to achieve defence in depth in the innovative concepts of small and medium sized reactors with fast neutron spectrum. (author)

114

Modified genetic algorithms to model cluster structures in medium-size silicon clusters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the results obtained using a genetic algorithm (GA) to search for stable structures of medium size silicon clusters. In this work the GA uses a semiempirical energy function to find the best cluster structures, which are further optimized using density-functional theory. For small clusters our results agree well with previously reported structures, but for larger ones different structures appear. This is the case of Si36 where we report a different structure, with significant lower energy than those previously found using limited search approaches on common structural motifs. This demonstrates the need for global optimization schemes when searching for stable structures of medium-size silicon clusters

115

Design features to achieve defence-in-depth in small and medium sized reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Broader incorporation of inherent and passive safety design features has become a 'trademark' of many advanced reactor concepts, including several evolutionary designs and nearly all innovative small and medium sized design concepts. Ensuring adequate defence-in-depth is important for reactors of smaller output because many of them are being designed to allow more proximity to the user, specifically, when non-electrical energy products are targeted. Based on the activities recently performed by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the paper provides a summary description of the design features used to achieve defence in depth in the eleven representative concepts of small and medium sized reactors. (author)

116

The Career Planning of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Based on Knowledge Life Cycle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article use the theory of knowledge life cycle, the small and medium-sized enterprises’ concept and the career planning, seek the joint between the career planning of enterprises and the theory of knowledge life cycle, has effectively studied the transmission mechanism in forming of the career planning of enterprises and the theory of knowledge life cycle, moreover bring forward corresponding human resource management measure, provide the cut-in point of theory for the small and medium-sized enterprises in our country to make the career planning through the theory of knowledge life cycle.

Yang Liu

2009-06-01

117

Gestão do desenvolvimento de produto em empresas de pequeno e médio porte do setor de máquinas e implementos agrícolas do Estado de SP / Product development process management in small and medium-sized Brazilian companies in the agricultural machinery and implement industry sector  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Para que as empresas nacionais do setor de máquinas e implementos agrícolas consigam sobreviver e ampliar sua participação nesse mercado em crescimento, do interesse econômico de companhias multinacionais e no qual essas detêm expressiva participação, elas necessitam melhorar a capacitação para dese [...] nvolver novos produtos e assim atender as novas demandas quanto a requisitos e homologação dessa produção. As empresas nacionais do setor apresentam um perfil predominante de empresas familiares, de pequeno e médio porte, e pouco se conhece sobre a realidade da gestão do Processo de Desenvolvimento de Produto (PDP) nessas organizações. Este trabalho caracteriza e analisa os perfis e a maturidade da gestão do PDP em empresas de pequeno e médio porte de capital nacional do segmento de máquinas e implementos agrícolas do Estado de São Paulo. Foi realizada uma pesquisa de levantamento (survey) em 40 empresas. Para a análise dos dados utilizou-se a técnica de análise multivariada de clusters. As empresas da amostra apresentam uma estrutura heterogênea com relação à gestão do PDP. Foram identificados três grupos de empresas, com diferentes perfis de maturidade do PDP: Grupo I (20% da amostra), Grupo II (50% da amostra) e Grupo III (30% da amostra). Evidenciam-se diferenças na gestão do PDP principalmente entre os Grupos I (com menor nível de maturidade do PDP) e III (com nível de maturidade relativamente mais elevado). Apesar das diferenças na gestão do PDP entre os grupos, comparando-se a prática com o referencial teórico (as boas práticas sobre gestão do PDP), os 3 grupos se encontram no nível geral básico, ou inicial, de maturidade do PDP. A análise e identificação do nível de maturidade em que as empresas se encontram podem auxiliar no direcionamento do processo de melhoria do PDP e na elaboração de políticas públicas que incentivem o desenvolvimento e inovação de produto nas empresas nacionais do setor Abstract in english The product development process (PDP), if well-structured and managed, can become a business process that directly influences the companies' competitiveness increase. The PDP in Brazilian SMEs in the agricultural machinery and implement industry Sector (AMI) is little known since most publications o [...] n product development focuses on the reality of large and multinational companies, which have a quite different structure from SMEs. The purpose of this paper is to characterize and analyze the management maturity profiles of the product development process in small and medium sized Brazilian companies in the agricultural machinery and implement industry sector located in the state of São Paulo. Therefore, the addressed actions of PDP improvements in those companies can be undertaken. A survey research was conducted in 40 companies. An in loco interview was applied to the respective individual in-charge of PDP by means of a structured questionnaire. For the data analysis, descriptive statistics and the multivariate cluster analysis techniques were used. The findings indicated that the SMEs in AMIs of the state of Sao Paulo present a heterogeneous structure with respect to PDP management. Three groups of companies were identified in the sample with different maturity PDP profiles: Group I (20% of companies in the sample), Group II (50% of the sample), and Group III (30% of the sample). Differences in the management of PDP were observed, especially among companies of Group I (smallest level of PDP maturity) and Group III (highest level of PDP maturity). However, despite the differences in PDP management presented in the groups of companies, according to the literature on PDP management, all groups are in the basic (initial) maturity level of PDP. The identification of the maturity level, in which these companies are, can help the determination of activities that link the internal actions to improve the PDP of these companies and the proposal of specific public policies th

José Carlos de, Toledo; Julianita Maria Scaranello, Simões.

118

The strategic relevance of technology-related variables to the competitiveness of small- to medium-sized furniture manufacturers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english SMMEs can make a critical and positive economic contribution to South Africa, and small- to medium-sized furniture manufacturers (SM/FMs) have the potential to contribute to economic growth, job creation, and GDP. However, the furniture industry has not stayed abreast of technological advances. To s [...] urvive in an environment of increasing competition and imports, competitive strategies must be devised. One such strategy is for technology adoption and implementation that can provide solutions for the furniture industry to improve speed, quality, variety, flexibility, and productivity, resulting in improved competitiveness. However, the adoption of technology means that its acquisition and application must be managed strategically, as the use of technology involves far more than simply taking it into account during the business-planning process. This paper investigates the impact of business strategy and selected technology-related variables on the competitiveness of SM/FM.

A.S., Lourens; J.A., Jonker.

119

Expanding Partnerships for Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Needed: The Right Kind of Support.  

Science.gov (United States)

Focuses on the support available for small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Outlines characteristics of SMEs and types of help available to SMEs from governments and big business. Identifies two problems related to contacts in the real world and the bureaucracy surrounding minority set-asides. Discusses the kinds of assistance entrepreneurs…

Hlava, Marjorie M. K.

1999-01-01

120

Current information technology needs of small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents recent efforts of the American Textile Partnership (AMTEX) Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Project to address needs that are characterized of small to medium sized apparel manufactures and contractors. Background on the AMTEX/DAMA project and objectives for this specific efforts are discussed.

Wipple, C.; Vosti, E.

1997-11-01

 
 
 
 
121

Business Continuity Planning Resources for Small- and Medium-Sized Businesses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document/memo summarizes existing resources and guidance on business continuity planning for small- to medium-sized businesses. DTRA will share this information with large commercial businesses who identified the need to help their suppliers and other key collaborators prepare business continuity plans in order to speed recovery from a wide-area bioterrorism incident.

Judd, Kathleen S.; Lesperance, Ann M.

2010-05-14

122

Analysis of Trip Attraction Characteristics of Commercial Land Use in Medium Sized Towns in Kerala  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Travel demand forecasting is vital for the design of transportation facilities and services, and also for the future development of a town. The study aims to provide a trip attraction model using multiple regression, that is able to predict the trip attracted to any commercial nodes in the medium sized towns in Kerala. This paper also presents an analysis of trip attraction characteristics of the commercial nodes in medium sized towns of Kerala. Using questionnaire survey, the characteristics of the eight selected commercial nodes from the three medium sized towns Tirur, Perinthalmanna, and Ponnani in Kerala are found out. Socioeconomic surveys are conducted for the selected towns for obtaining the origin-destination data. Based on these surveyed data, the characteristics of the selected nodes are studied and correlation and regression analysis are performed. The study showed that the multiple regression model with the independent variables namely the number of employees and percentage of office in the commercial node with the R2 and Adjusted R2 value of 0.999 and 0.9997 respectively gives the better estimate of trip attraction. This model would be very useful for estimating the trips attracted to a new or existing commercial center in any medium sized towns in Kerala, and thus aid to assess the traffic impact of the commercial center on the geometric design of roadways in the surrounding area.

Prof. Gymmy Joseph Kattor,

2013-07-01

123

ENTREPRENEURIAL BEHAVIOUR ANALYSIS IN THE INTERNATIONALISATION PROCESS OF GLOBAL BORDER TYPE SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the European and global framework, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in order to survive the intense competition must expand, meaning that internationalisation has to be an inevitable stage in their strategic evolution at a certain moment in ti

Feder Em#337;ke-Szidónia; Ni#355;u-Antonie Renata

2009-01-01

124

Expectations, Realities, and Perceptions of Subject Specialist Librarians' Duties in Medium-Sized Academic Libraries  

Science.gov (United States)

This study surveys 138 librarians in 21 medium-sized academic libraries to identify time on tasks and value of tasks to address problems between the expectations of library administrators and the perceptions of librarians to their job descriptions. The results validate that the administration's expectations are within the norm.

McAbee, Sonja L.; Graham, John-Bauer

2005-01-01

125

Supporting the E-Business Readiness of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Approaches and Metrics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a conceptual model for governments in creating a climate that facilitates the national adoption of e-business. Focuses on the needs of small and medium-sized enterprises, suggests measures to assess how a country is performing in providing a positive e-business climate, and provides examples from Canada, The Netherlands, Norway, and…

Jutla, Dawn; Bodorik, Peter; Dhaliwal, Jasbir

2002-01-01

126

Key Influencing Factors behind Moodle Adoption in Irish Small to Medium Sized Higher Education Colleges  

Science.gov (United States)

This research investigated Irish Small to Medium Sized Educational Institutions (SMSEs) involved in Higher Education (HE) that adopted Moodle, the OSS (Open Source Software) course management system (CMS). As Moodle has only been adopted in the Irish HE sector in the last 5-7 years, this research crucially studied the attitudes of the SMSEs that…

Walker, David; Livadas, Lelia; Miles, Gail

2011-01-01

127

Continuing Education for Managers from Small and Medium Sized German Companies.  

Science.gov (United States)

An international trade school in southern Germany, which is a highly export-oriented environment, has established a vocational and professional continuing education program for personnel of small- and medium-size companies. Offerings include a graduate course in international marketing, seminars for export companies, distance education in…

Fub, Jorg

1995-01-01

128

Successful E-Learning in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises  

Science.gov (United States)

So far, e-learning has primarily been used when there are many learners involved. The up-front investments related to e-learning are relatively high, and may be perceived as prohibitive for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Some e-learning is, however, getting less expensive, and some e-learning models are more suited for small-scale…

Paulsen, Morten Flate

2009-01-01

129

Based on the AHP Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise Supply Chain Supplier Evaluation Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we establish the evaluation index system based on the AHP small and medium-sized enterprise and then use AHP decide the weight of each evaluation index. Moreover, we use Linear Weighting Method to study supplier performance from perspective of quantitative research and give the measurement process. The empirical research, to validate the method is scientific and feasible.

Xianwu Hu

2013-05-01

130

Training Provision and the Development of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises. Research Report No. 26.  

Science.gov (United States)

The literature on the training provided by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Great Britain was reviewed to determine the extent and quality of training available and the link between training provision and small business performance. Smaller firms were less likely to offer training, and the training they did provide was generally…

Westhead, Paul; Storey, David J.

131

Design features to achieve defence in depth in small and medium sized reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a continued interest among Member States in the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). In the very near term, most new nuclear power plants (NPPs) are likely to be evolutionary water cooled reactor designs building on proven systems while incorporating technological advances and often economies of scale, resulting in outputs of up to 1600 MW(e) from the reactor. For the longer term, the focus is on innovative designs to provide increased benefits in the areas of safety and security, nonproliferation, waste management, resource utilization and economics, as well as to offer a variety of energy products and flexibility in design, siting and fuel cycle options. Many innovative designs are implemented in reactors within the small to medium size range having equivalent electric power of less than 700 MW(e) or even less than 300 MW(e). Incorporation of inherent and passive safety design features has become a 'trademark' of many advanced reactor concepts, including several evolutionary designs and nearly all innovative SMR design concepts. Ensuring adequate defence in depth is important for reactors with smaller output because many of them are being designed to allow greater proximity to the user, specifically when non-electrical energy products are targeted. The IAEA provides a forum for the exchange of information by experts and policy makers from industrialized and developing countries on the technical, economic, environmental, andhe technical, economic, environmental, and social aspects of SMR development and implementation. It makes this information available to all interested Member States by producing status reports and other publications focusing on advances in SMR design and technology development. The objective of this report is to assist developers of SMRs in Member States in defining consistent defence in depth approaches regarding the elimination of accident initiators/prevention of accident consequences through design and incorporation of inherent and passive safety features and passive systems into safety design concepts of such reactors. Another objective is to assist potential users in Member States in their evaluation of the overall technical potential of SMRs with inherent and passive safety design features, including possible implications in areas other than safety. This report is intended for different categories of stakeholders, including designers and potential users of innovative SMRs, as well as officers in ministries or atomic energy commissions in Member States responsible for implementing nuclear power development programmes or evaluating nuclear power deployment options in the near, medium, and longer term. The main sections of this report present state of the art advances in defence in depth approaches based on the incorporation of inherent and passive safety features into the design concepts of pressurized water reactors, pressurized light water cooled heavy water moderated reactors, high temperature gas cooled reactors, liquid metal cooled fast reactors, and non-conventional designs within the SMR range. They also highlight benefits and negative impacts in areas other than safety arising from the incorporation of such features. The annexes provide descriptions of the design features of 11 representative SMR concepts used to achieve defence in depth and patterned along a common format reflecting the definitions and recommendations of the IAEA safety standards. The annexes were prepared by designers of the corresponding SMRs

132

Teaming up for mutual learning : A case study of merging innovation aproaches of a medium-sized company  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The focus of this paper is two-folded within the theme of collaboration between education and industry. Firstly it unfolds how learning for design-engineer students can be established and facilitated in a dynamic setting with industrial partners and secondly how industrial partners can benefit from student collaboration. The paper is based on research activities carried out in the context of a 3rd semester project at the Industrial Design Msc. program at The School of Architecture, Design & Planning at Aalborg University. Here, the teaching style is Problem Based Learning (PBL). In PBL, student’s focuses on a complex problem that does not have a single correct answer – in this case the addressed problem was concerned with the innovation approach of a medium-sized company. Traditionally innovation projects and strategic planning has emerged from top managers offices and has been based on i.a. technological an economic factors. An alternative approach has emerged, which suggests that innovation is most successfully initiated by the research and design resources with-in a company. The two approaches are denoted as respectively Top-down and Bottom-up [5]. Practicing the Top-down approach was familiar and integrated within the company, while the student introduced the Bottom-up approach during the project - the initiatives, experiences and observations are reported in this paper.

Poulsen, SØren Bolvig; Pedersen, Tanja Aabo

2011-01-01

133

Small- and Medium-Sized Commercial Building Monitoring and Controls Needs: A Scoping Study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Buildings consume over 40% of the total energy consumption in the U.S. A significant portion of the energy consumed in buildings is wasted because of the lack of controls or the inability to use existing building automation systems (BASs) properly. Much of the waste occurs because of our inability to manage and controls buildings efficiently. Over 90% of the buildings are either small-size (<5,000 sf) or medium-size (between 5,000 sf and 50,000 sf); these buildings currently do not use BASs to monitor and control their building systems from a central location. According to Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), about 10% of the buildings in the U.S. use BASs or central controls to manage their building system operations. Buildings that use BASs are typically large (>100,000 sf). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) were asked by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP) to identify monitoring and control needs for small- and medium-sized commercial buildings and recommend possible solutions. This study documents the needs and solutions for small- and medium-sized buildings.

Katipamula, Srinivas; Underhill, Ronald M.; Goddard, James K.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Piette, M. A.; Granderson, J.; Brown, Rich E.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; Kuruganti, T.

2012-10-31

134

THE KEY DETERMINANTS OF AND BARRIERS TO INTERNET ADOPTION IN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED HOTELS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper presents qualitative empirical evidence that addresses why internet usage/adoption is low and how it can be improved in small and medium-sized hotels in Malaysia. It explores the key barriers to and influencing factors of internet adoption in a sample of 25 Malaysian small and medium-sized hotels based on a theoretical framework of the organisational innovation and resource-based view theories. Key barriers to internet usage include owner/operator characteristics, cost and investment, firm size and internet access. Operator/user’s assessment of perceived resource readiness, perceived potential utility and perceived performance seem to be the key influencing factors. The proposed holistic internet adoption framework also serves as a novel tool and a useful guide for individuals and ICT policymakers for improving and implementing e-commerce/internet. This paper adds to the internet adoption and decision literature and advances the theoretical and practical understanding of internet usage in small and medium-sized hotels, but requires further validation in other countries.

Jennifer Kim Lian Chan

2012-11-01

135

Approaches for Assessing the Economic Competitiveness of Small and Medium Sized Reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world'. One way this objective is achieved is through the publication of a range of technical series. Two of these are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III.A.6 of the IAEA Statute, the safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property.' The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are written primarily in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own programmes. The principal users are the regulatory bodies in Member States and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series comprises reports designed to encourage and assist R and D on, and application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia, and government officials, among others. This information is presented in guides, reports on technology status and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series complements the IAEA Safety Standards Series. To be competitive in anticipated markets, small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) rely on design and deployment approaches that are able to offset the adverse impacts of economy of scale. Such approaches include design simplification resulting from the application of safety design features that are the most appropriate for reactors of smaller capacity; the economy of mass production of multiple prefabricated modules; the option of incremental capacity increase, with possible benefits resulting from accelerated learning; sharing of common equipment and facilities; shorter construction periods, unit timing (spread of investments over time); and, possibly, greater involvement of local industry and local labour. The effectiveness of all of these approaches to SMR design and deployment depends on the application and on market variables, such as interest rates, and needs to be assessed and demonstrated for specific cases. Upon the advice and with the support of IAEA Member States, the IAEA provides a forum for the exchange of information by experts and policy makers from industrialized and developing countries on the technical, economic, environmental and social aspects of SMR development and implementation in the twenty-first century, and makes this information available to all interested Member States by producing status reports and other publications dedicated to advances in SMR design and technology development. This report was prepared to assist existing and potential stakeholders in Member States in understanding the economic competitiveness of SMR technologies compared to other energy sources and large reactors (LRs); to provide information on available approaches and frameworks to assess the economic competitiveness of advanced SMRs and LRs under specific conditions of their application; and to share knowledge on positive experiences of several Member States that are introducing SMRs into their energy mix. The report is intended for a variety of stakeholders including: design organizations involved in SMR development programmes; investors and potential users of innovative SMRs; and officers in the ministries or atomic energy commissions in Member States responsible for implementing nuclear technology development programmes or evaluating nuclear power deployment options in the near, medium and longer term. The main sections of this report highlight the experience with and future plans for SMRs in several Member States, and present the available methodological options to assist design organizations and guide potential users on the economic performance and investment attractiveness of SMRs. The report also provides recommendations on how to

136

The Impact of Firm Size and E-commerce Usage on Business Performance on Hospitality Industry: A case of Libya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The hospitality industry is major service sector in most of developed and developing countries in the world economy, and nowadays many hotels implemented e-commerce for their business models and gained great advantages and increase profitability. This study aims to examine the impact of firm size and e-commerce usage on business performance of hospitality industry in general and hotels in Libya in particular. A quantitative approach was applied on hotel industry in Libya, mainly those hotels that have previous practices and experience with e-commerce. The results shows that small and medium size firms in hospitality industry in Libya are facing similar challenges and obstacles to other small businesses when establishing e-commerce website, and also shows a strong relationship between e-commerce usage and business performance, and high increase in profitability when hotels implement e-commerce and start to conduct online booking.

Mohamed Ahmed A Said

2014-04-01

137

ECO-FRIENDLY TECHNOLOGY IN SMALL AND MEDIUM TEXTILE WET PROCESSING INDUSTRIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Small and Medium wet processing industries in India contribute more to industrial development and trade and at the same time, they create environmental issues related to water pollution. This article attempts to analyse the main challenges of wet processing industries in adoption of cleaner technology options in reducing water pollution. Irreversible nature of water resource alarms the overall sustainability of environment. Traditional technology management concepts followed in SMIs will not help the industries to maintain the water quality parameters in the emission. So, effective approach towards innovative technology is to be identified and implemented. The present study examines the possibilities of implementing cleaner production technology in textile wet processing industries inTirupur, Tamilnadu. The main focus of the study is on technological choice and strength and weakness of SMIs to implement the Better Available technology (BAT. SWOT model is discussed to apprehend the adoption of technologies available.

FATIMA BABY

2013-05-01

138

The Importance Of Angel Investors In Financing The Growth Of Small And Medium Sized Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Angel investors are very important for small and medium sized enterprises because they provide more than money. They are hands-on investors and contribute their skills, expertise, knowledge and contacts in the businesses they invest in. They are wealthy persons with great business experience. They are willing to invest and offer their wealth and knowledge to owners of small and medium sized enterprises and to entrepreneurs to start or develop their businesses. One of the attributes of angel investors is that they like to remain anonymus. Due to this attribute, a lot of ideas can not be accomplished. To eliminate this, many countries establish angel investor syndicates (groups and networks. These syndicates (groups and networks facilitate the process of matching entrepreneurs and angel investors.

Veland Ramadani

2012-07-01

139

Attractive and climate-friendly medium-sized cities; Attraktive og klimavennlige mellomstore byer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ministry of the Environment (MD) wanted an overview of current knowledge of climate-friendly and attractive urban development in medium-sized cities (10 - 50 000 inhabitants). This report presents and discusses knowledge between major cities' situation and challenges of land use and transport development to reduce car traffic and greenhouse gas emissions and on urban development for more attractive cities. A main conclusion is that there are major gaps in knowledge and opportunities for improvement. If those covered will be far better opportunities for planners, local authorities and others may be able to contribute to more climate-friendly and attractive medium-sized cities.The report is part of the project Comprehensive information pack for the status of knowledge from research on urban development. The project has also prepared a report entitled Planning for attractive urban environment. The reports are intended to complement each other and should be seen in context.(eb)

Tennoey, Aud

2012-07-01

140

Services Supporting Knowledge Maturing in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises  

Science.gov (United States)

The hype around Web 2.0 has again sparked tremendous interest in IT-supported knowledge management and technology-enhanced learning in organizations. Although there has been abundant evidence of how to benefit from Web 2.0 technologies, information on how to go about deploying these in small and medium-sized enterprises in a coordinated manner are scarce. Based on the findings of an empirical study and an ethnographically informed study on knowledge maturing, this paper suggests a set of knowledge services to support a series of knowledge actions chained with the help of the knowledge maturing model. This set of services can be used by small and medium-sized enterprises for analyzing IT tools and systems which currently support their employees’ knowledge maturing activities, to foster knowledge cooperation with customers, suppliers and partners in their business environment and to find gaps which can be filled particularly by consuming services over the Web.

Maier, Ronald

 
 
 
 
141

The Research of External Financing Options of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Since the reform and opening up, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in China developed rapidly, which have become an important part of China’s economic and social development. However, the financing difficulties of SMEs have become increasingly prominent during recent years, and it hinders the healthy development of SMEs in China. This paper analyzes the current financing situation of SMEs in China, and conducts a deeply comparative analysis for several common external financing means of SMEs. In addition, this article provides some suggestions about how to solve financing difficulties if SMEs in China.

Key words: Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs; External financing means; Options

Hongyu LI

2012-09-01

142

Research on the Symbiotic Relationship between Small & Medium-sized Enterprises and Banks in Jilin Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the market economy deepens continually, the small & medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in Jilin Province play more and more important role for the economic development of Jilin. Although the SMEs in Jilin have developed greatly in recent years, their difficulties in financing seriously hamper their development. The paper analyzes the status of the relation between the SMEs and banks in Jilin and suggests that it is necessary for the SMEs to establish symbiotic relationship with banks, we also put forward the paths for them to establish continuous reciprocal symbiotic relation with banks in order to help SMEs solve their financing problems and guide the banks to get more profit to realize win-win for both of them. Key words: Small & Medium-sized enterprises in Jilin Province; banks; Symbiotic relationship

CHEN Lixia

2011-02-01

143

Research on the Symbiotic Relationship between Small & Medium-sized Enterprises and Banks in Jilin Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the market economy deepens continually, the small & medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in Jilin Province play more and more important role for the economic development of Jilin. Although the SMEs in Jilin have developed greatly in recent years, their difficulties in financing seriously hamper their development. The paper analyzes the status of the relation between the SMEs and banks in Jilin and suggests that it is necessary for the SMEs to establish symbiotic relationship with banks, we also put forward the paths for them to establish continuous reciprocal symbiotic relation with banks in order to help SMEs solve their financing problems and guide the banks to get more profit to realize win-win for both of them.
Key words: Small & Medium-sized enterprises in Jilin Province; banks; Symbiotic relationship

CHEN Lixia

2010-12-01

144

Innovation, adaptability, and collaboration: Keys to success for small and medium sized reactors. Cairo, 27 May 2001  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Small and medium sized reactors, within a power output of less than 700 MW(e), are receiving increased consideration in the effort to meet changing market requirements. Smaller plants allow a more incremental investment, which can be used to hedge against demand uncertainty. They are more suitable for standardization and prefabrication, which in turn encourages enhanced quality control and stimulates rapid development of expertise and shorter construction schedules. They provide a better match to grid capacity in developing countries. And they are more easily adapted to a broad range of industrial settings and applications, such as district heating, heavy oil recovery, or the production of hydrogen and other chemical fuels. Sea water desalination is an application for which smaller reactors hold a particular advantage. Nuclear powered desalination is a proven technology. Clearly, we live in an era in which our society faces many difficult economic, environmental and social issues associated with sustainable development and energy demand. Against that backdrop, nuclear power is a mature technology that deserves careful consideration as a contributor to solving some of these issues. The development of innovative small and medium sized reactors will play a key role in helping to match state-of-the-art technology to user needs. An exchange of information and ideas is a step towards further progress

145

Accounting and Financial Reporting Guidelines for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEGA) – Level 3 guidance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Intergovernmental Working Group of Experts on International Standards of Accounting and Reporting (ISAR) issued the publication Accounting and Financial Reporting Guidelines for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEGA) – Level 3 Guidance after deliberations during its seventeenth and eighteenth sessions. At its twenty-third session, ISAR requested the UNCTAD secretariat to reconvene a consultative group to, inter alia, update the SMEGA Level 3 Guidance. Accordingly, ...

Eberle, Reto; et al,

2008-01-01

146

General implementation stages of the ABC method in the Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article highlights the analysis and implementation stages of the ABC method in small and medium sized enterprises in Romania. It presents the historical development of the ABC method and its implementation issues identified in the economic entities. It stresses the importance of the ABC method to obtain relevant information to management decision-making entities. Emphasis is placed on the analysis type implementation issues: financial, behavioral, technical, informational, managerial, al...

Ca?pus?neanu, Sorinel I.; Topor, Dan; Rof, Letit?ia Maria

2011-01-01

147

Medium size gas turbine. OEM concept for continued reduction of life cycle cost  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gas turbine life cycle costs are among the most important parameters for power plant owners, as they have significant influence on power plant profitability. This is why continued reduction of gas turbine life cycle cost should be considered as an essential contribution of the Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) to improve customer power-plant profitability and competitiveness. The paper describes Siemens' strategy of continued Life Cycle Cost reduction of medium size gas turbines. (orig.)

Navrotsky, Vladimir; Santamaria, Scott [Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, Finspong (Sweden)

2011-07-01

148

Modelling of Strategic Analysis Instrumentarium at Small and Medium - sized Enterprises  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The doctoral thesis is concerned with the issues that are faced when selecting strategic analysis tools to be used in small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) in the process of strategic management. The paper comprises three parts. The first part presents a discussion on the methodology of strategic analysis and the application of its tools in SME. As a result, the taxonomy of 40 strategic analysis tools applied in business organizations (including SME) was designed. In addition, the „m...

Vaitkevic?ius, Sigitas

2006-01-01

149

Isomorphic processes in ERP adoption by Indian medium-sized firms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study adopts an institutional theory perspective of the adoption of ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) systems by medium sized firms in India. The study contributes to the understanding of the operation of the three isomorphic pressures: coercive, mimetic and normative, in the adoption of IS by moving beyond the common view of these as ‘monolithic entities’. The study is undertaken by means of nine qualitative case studies. The research makes three contributions. Firstly, the stu...

Sharma, Seema; Daniel, Elizabeth M.

2013-01-01

150

Adept – a software process appraisal method for small to medium-sized Irish software development organisations.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we describe the appraisal method that was developed by Lero (the Irish Software Engineering Research Centre) and Dundalk Institute of Technology (DkIT) to assess software processes within small to medium-sized Irish software organisations that have little or no experience of software process improvement (SPI) programmes. We developed a method, called Adept, through investigating the key factors that contribute to an effective software assessment method, reflecting the desi...

Mc Caffery, Fergal; Richardson, Ita; Coleman, Gerry

2006-01-01

151

SELECTED ELEMENTS OF THE INTERNATIONALIZATION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper the author tried to analyze some aspects of the process of internationalization of small and medium-sized enterprises. It contains the essence and definitions related to the process of internationalization, the theoretical analysis of the skills and attributes necessary for the modern entrepreneur / manager, wishing to enter foreign markets. The author also concluded the analysis of theoretical and practical statistics compiled by the Polish Ministry of Finance on the process of internationalization of Polish enterprises.

BEATA GLINKOWSKA

2013-01-01

152

Tertiary Structure Predictions on a Comprehensive Benchmark of Medium to Large Size Proteins  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We evaluate tertiary structure predictions on medium to large size proteins by TASSER, a new algorithm that assembles protein structures through rearranging the rigid fragments from threading templates guided by a reduced C? and side-chain based potential consistent with threading based tertiary restraints. Predictions were generated for 745 proteins 201–300 residues in length that cover the Protein Data Bank (PDB) at the level of 35% sequence identity. With homologous proteins excluded, i...

Zhang, Yang; Skolnick, Jeffrey

2004-01-01

153

Based on the AHP Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise Supply Chain Supplier Evaluation Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we have a research of the small and medium-sized enterprise supply chain supplier based on the AHP. For supply chain management issues in the supplier evaluation establishes the evaluation index system and then uses AHP decide the weight of each evaluation index. Moreover, it uses Linear Weighting Method to study supplier performance from perspective of quantitative research and gives the measurement process. In our empirical research, the applied method is scientific and feasible.

Xianwu Hu

2013-05-01

154

Advantages of Chain Business and Countermeasures of Small- and Medium-Sized Manufacturers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Along with the development of market economy in China, chain business has been turned into a guiding ring from the last ring in the supply chain. Chain business’ economy of scale, economy of scope, and advantages of information and integration becomes more prominent. Under this condition, small- and medium-sized manufacturers can adopt more flexible production and diversified marketing strategy by means of combining with retailers directly.

Guoliang Luo

2009-02-01

155

The Construction of Human Resource Management System in Small and Medium-sized Private Enterprises  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The small and medium-sized private enterprises (SMEs) play an increasingly important role in creating output value and providing new employment opportunities, but there are a lot of problems with human resources in SMEs, such as poor quality of business owners, lack of strategic planning on human resources, etc. It’s necessary, therefore, for SMEs to strengthen the setup of human resource management system. This paper puts forward some implementation details according to "human resource eva...

Jieyun Zhang; Juhong Gong

2009-01-01

156

Knowledge management practices at small and medium sized Oulu region enterprises  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

ABSTRACT Oulu University of Applied Sciences Degree Programme in Business Information Technology Author: Elina Seppälä Title of thesis: Knowledge management practices at small and medium sized Oulu region enterprises Supervisor: Ilkka Mikkonen Term and year when the thesis was submitted: Autumn 2010 Number of pages: 88 + 21 The commissioners for this research were Oulu University of Applied Sciences and the project Kilpailukykyä ICT-yrityksille, shor...

Seppa?la?, Elina

2010-01-01

157

Unions in small and medium sized enterprises: A family factor perspective  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Trade unions are commonly weak in small- and medium-sized enterprises, which constitute a majority of European firms and are often family-owned. We investigate the influence of family ownership on employee membership, perceptions and experience with unions in Danish and Italian firms in the textile and clothing sector. Family ownership reduces union membership; and within family firms, the number of family members employed is negatively associated with unionization rates and employee perceptions of unions.

Holten, Ann-Louise; Crouch, Colin

2014-01-01

158

The Creation of Small and Medium-Sized Sport Enterprises and the Environmental Factors Affecting It  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Small and medium-sized enterprises are very basic solutions for the development of a country; therefore, it is important to understand the factors involved in their creation. Hence, this study sought to examine the relationship between environmental factors and creation of Small and medium-sized sport enterprises. The research population was small and medium-sized sport enterprises (1500 companies; their owners / managers were selected as the research sample (n = 258 by simple random sampling. Data were gathered using environmental factors (?=0.77 and enterprises creation qualification (?=0.81 questionnaires. Descriptive and inferential statistics (Pearson correlation coefficient, Kolmogrof - Smirnov test, and multivariate regression analysis with SPSS16 software was used for data analysis. The results showed that in addition to positive and significant relationship with business, environmental factors could predict 6% of the creation variance; Also, except for the political dimension, all environmental aspects established a significant relationship with enterprise creation( p<0.01. Regression analysis showed that of environmental dimensions, economics and technology dimensions could explain 7 percent of Sports enterprise creation variance. According to path analysis method, this prediction ability is presented in a model. The findings suggested a diminished role of environment and its dimensions in explaining the process of SMEs creation.

Seyed Morteza Azimzadeh

2013-05-01

159

THE EVOLUTION OF FINANCIAL STANDARDS FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM- SIZED ENTITIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to the growing need for more comparable accounting standards, the beginnings of International Financial Reporting Standards for small and medium sized entities (IFRS for SMEs can be found in the year 2004. IFRS for SMEs represents for the first time an accounting standard for small and medium-sized companies that can be used globally. The paper aims to examine the historical development of IFRS, the principal institutions linked to their adoption and the harmonization process of standards within the European Union. The main contribution of the paper refers to the evolution of IFRS for SMEs and the main differences between the full IFRS in use and the IFRS for SMEs.The results of the comparative analysis demonstrate that several differences exist between them. Although the aim of the new standard is to assure comparable financial statements for small and medium-sized entities, the presented disadvantages demonstrate that not necessarily its implementation will assure more benefits than the cost that will occur.

Gordana IVANKOVI?

2011-01-01

160

Environmental management and educational needs of the small and medium-sized businesses of the metallurgical sector in the south region of Madrid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, the environmental management and needs of the small and medium-sized businesses of the metallurgical industry in the south region of Madrid were analysed. Information was obtained through a telephone questionnaire distributed to more than 170 companies. Although most of the respondent employees do not consider environmental training one of their priorities, they expressed their interest in implementing Environmental Management Systems, waste minimization and higher knowledge of the specific legal aspects. (Author) 7 refs

 
 
 
 
161

Dyeing Industry Effluent System as Lipid Production Medium of Neochloris sp. for Biodiesel Feedstock Preparation  

Science.gov (United States)

Microalgae lipid feedstock preparation cost was an important factor in increasing biodiesel fuel hikes. This study was conducted with the concept of implementing an effluent wastewater as lipid production medium for microalgae cultivation. In our study textile dyeing industry effluent was taken as a lipid production medium for Neochloris sp. cultivation. The changes in physicochemical analysis of effluent before and after Neochloris sp. treatment were recorded using standard procedures and AAS analysis. There was especially a reduction in heavy metal like lead (Pb) concentration from 0.002?ppm to 0.001?ppm after Neochloris sp. treatment. Neochloris sp. cultivated in Bold Basal Medium (BBM) (specific algal medium) produced 41.93% total lipid and 36.69% lipid was produced in effluent based cultivation. Surprisingly Neochloris sp. cultivated in effluent was found with enhanced neutral lipid content, and it was confirmed by Nile red fluorescence assay. Further the particular enrichment in oleic acid content of the cells was confirmed with thin layer chromatography (TLC) with oleic acid pure (98%) control. The overall results suggested that textile dyeing industry effluent could serve as the best lipid productive medium for Neochloris sp. biodiesel feedstock preparation. This study was found to have a significant impact on reducing the biodiesel feedstock preparation cost with simultaneous lipid induction by heavy metal stress to microalgae. PMID:25247176

Ramamurthy, Dhandapani

2014-01-01

162

Dyeing Industry Effluent System as Lipid Production Medium of Neochloris sp. for Biodiesel Feedstock Preparation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microalgae lipid feedstock preparation cost was an important factor in increasing biodiesel fuel hikes. This study was conducted with the concept of implementing an effluent wastewater as lipid production medium for microalgae cultivation. In our study textile dyeing industry effluent was taken as a lipid production medium for Neochloris sp. cultivation. The changes in physicochemical analysis of effluent before and after Neochloris sp. treatment were recorded using standard procedures and AAS analysis. There was especially a reduction in heavy metal like lead (Pb) concentration from 0.002?ppm to 0.001?ppm after Neochloris sp. treatment. Neochloris sp. cultivated in Bold Basal Medium (BBM) (specific algal medium) produced 41.93% total lipid and 36.69% lipid was produced in effluent based cultivation. Surprisingly Neochloris sp. cultivated in effluent was found with enhanced neutral lipid content, and it was confirmed by Nile red fluorescence assay. Further the particular enrichment in oleic acid content of the cells was confirmed with thin layer chromatography (TLC) with oleic acid pure (98%) control. The overall results suggested that textile dyeing industry effluent could serve as the best lipid productive medium for Neochloris sp. biodiesel feedstock preparation. This study was found to have a significant impact on reducing the biodiesel feedstock preparation cost with simultaneous lipid induction by heavy metal stress to microalgae. PMID:25247176

Gopalakrishnan, Vidyadharani; Ramamurthy, Dhandapani

2014-01-01

163

Flexible Business Process Integration for Clusters of Small-Medium Sized Enterprises in Heterogenous Environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Industry clusters-groups of geographically proximate enterprises in the same industry are a striking feature of the geography of economic activity and greatly impact the overall economic development. However, most of them are low-cost-based clusters that are composed of small-medium enterprises which needs social electronic services and flexible business process integration. In this paper, we present an on-demand information service platform for small-medium enterprise clusters and propose loosely-coupled service-oriented business process integration scheme for this platform. Several key techniques such as business application definition language and graphical representation for integration in heterogenous environment, packaging and executive strategy for integrating services, dependency set and context of integration service, and mapping translation based on synonymous semantic definition are proposed. Professional services can be provided via this platform to promote the enterprises’ innovative ability and help business to gain competitive advantages. The platform and the related techniques have been applied in realistic textile industrial clusters.

Bo Jiang

2009-06-01

164

77 FR 56755 - Small Business Size Standards; Adoption of 2012 North American Industry Classification System for...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Part 121 RIN 3245-AG47 Small Business Size Standards; Adoption of 2012 North American Industry Classification System for Size Standards; Correction AGENCY: U.S...document amended SBA's Small Business Size Regulations by incorporating the...

2012-09-14

165

Cloud Computing: The Level of Awareness Amongst Small & Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Developing Economies.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cloud computing services are being touted as a major enabler for small businesses lately. This new paradigm is seen to offer unique opportunities to small and medium enterprises (SMEs) worldwide and developing economies are no exception. It presents SMEs access to similar technologies available to their larger counterparts and those in the developed world which inherently creates innovativeness, increases competitive advantage and impacts their operations and processes. This paper seeks to determine the level of awareness and familiarity with this emerging computing paradigm. The results of the study indicated that a slight majority of the respondents were familiar with cloud computing on the individual level but the level of awareness amongst the larger SME industry was low to medium. The finding therefore recommends education and sensitization on cloud computing in order to increase awareness and knowledge about this emerging technology and its prospects. This is seen as one sure way of enhancing its uptakein developing and emerging markets.

Yeboah-Boateng, Ezer Osei; Essandoh, Kofi Asare

2013-01-01

166

Quantum-sized ZnO nanoparticles synthesized in aqueous medium for toxic gases detection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Quantum-sized ZnO nanoparticles are synthesized in aqueous medium. ? ZnO is used to detect toxic gases in the atmosphere. ? ZnO sensing material has high sensitivity to NO2 at operating temperature of 290 °C. ? ZnO based sensor exhibits high selectivity to CO and CH4. ? The intrinsic sensing of ZnO arises from stoichiometric defects. - Abstract: Quantum-sized ZnO nanoparticles have been prepared by the sol–gel method in aqueous medium using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as surface modifier to control the growth of ZnO particles and Ostwald ripening, because the majority of bioanalyses require water-stable materials. The crystal structure, grain size and optical property of the ZnO nanoparticles have been characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS). The obtained quantum-sized ZnO nanoparticles as a novel sensing material have been used to detect NO2 in environment. The sensing tests indicate that the ZnO sensing material not only has high response to NO2 but also exhibits high selectivity to CO and CH4 at optimum operating temperature of 290 °C. The sensing response depends on the calcination temperature of the ZnO precursor and operating temperature of the sensor. The intrinsic sensing property has also been exploited by photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectra.

167

The innovativeness in the food industry: A study of medium and large businesses in Southern Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article is about innovativeness in the context of entrepreneurial orientation. The aim is to present the results of an exploratory and qualitative research that sought to characterize innovativeness in food industries. A conceptual review on entrepreneurial orientation and innovativeness is presented as a base for the study. Data collection was carried out through semi-structured interviews with professionals of nine medium and large food industries from the central region of Rio Grande do Sul state. The analysis concludes with an over-view about innovative behavior, which is evidenced differently in industries surveyed. Innovation in products and services is featured in four industries, while process innovation is a priority in eight of the nine industries. There is constant investment in innovation, for a department of P&D in four industries and active participation of the supplier in innovations of the both industries. There are people dedicated to innovative activities in five industries and people involved in the other part. Creativity is especially important, although lacks systematic procedures for its development. The differentiation is especially in cases where it is possible to have innovative activities of difficult for competitors to duplicate.

Cristina Dai Prá Martens

2014-04-01

168

Size dependent stability analysis of circular ultrathin films in elastic medium with consideration of surface energies  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, analytical framework is developed for size dependent symmetric stability and self-instability of circular nanoplates including surface effects using modified Kirchhoff plate theory. The surrounding elastic medium is modeled as Winkler elastic foundation and its effect is comprehensively studied on self-instability problems. The derived explicit solutions contain Bessel functions with modified arguments reflecting the size dependency of the buckling loads. In order to check the results an inverse formulation is presented for effective Young's modulus using the buckling loads to be verified by previous experimental results for nanowires. Several numerical examples are given for two types of materials with positive and negative surface properties to show the general trends of size dependencies. Some problems and limitations are explored for consistency of results with experiments and suggestions for future works.

Assadi, Abbas; Farshi, Behrooz

2011-03-01

169

Medium Sized High Tech International Acquisitions: A Longitudinal Perspective (1990-2011  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article examines the various forms and strategical options that are found and employed when merging companies of any size with medium-sized technological companies, with a view to understanding what outcomes are involved. This research paper is based on a sample consisting of 5 738 mergers and acquisitions transactions in the high-tech sector, particularly those involving innovative companies with technological interests. The aim of this research is to show how these strategic manoeuvres operate, using a multi-criteria analysis chart that includes the size of the company, the level of participation, the nature of diversification, the duration of transactions and value ratios. In this way, the research will help to provide better understanding of the characteristics of these technological merger acquisition operations, creating a typology of operations and manoeuvres and correcting some of the beliefs commonly held.

Olivier Meier

2012-05-01

170

The effect of temperature and nano-sized calcium carbonate on tensile properties of medium density polyethylene  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present work, high temperature tensile properties of medium density polyethylene and its nano composites are investigated. For this purpose medium density polyethylene reinforced with different weight percentages of nano-sized calcium (2, 5, 10) are produced by compression moulding method. Tensile tests have been carried out at different temperatures, i.e. 30, 60, 90degC using thermomechanical analysis apparatus. Besides, the fracture surface of medium density polyethylene and medium density polyethylene/CaC03 nano composites are also investigated using scanning electron microscopy. The thermomechanical analysis results indicate that the elastic modulus and yield stress have increased by addition of nano sized calcium carbonate as reinforcement for medium density polyethylene . At elevated temperature, the tensile strength is shown to be reduced in all materials including medium density polyethylene and its nano composites. The obtained results confirm that the reinforcing effect of nano-sized calcium carbonate becomes significant particularly at higher temperatures

171

Age-related decline in metabolic competence of small and medium-sized synaptic mitochondria  

Science.gov (United States)

A computer-assisted morphometric investigation of cytochrome oxidase (COX) activity, selectively evidenced by preferential diaminobenzidine cytochemistry, has been carried out on synaptic mitochondria in the cerebellar cortex of adult and old rats. The ratio (R) of the area of the cytochemical precipitate (CPA) to the overall area of each mitochondrion (MA) was calculated. R refers to the fraction of the inner mitochondrial membrane actively involved in cellular respiration, thus its quantitative estimation constitutes a reliable index of the mitochondrial metabolic competence (MMC). In adult rats a significant negative correlation between MA and R values was found, while in old animals there was just a positive trend. Paired-quartile comparisons of R values showed a significant age-related decrease in small and medium-sized mitochondria, whereas the lowest and not significant age-related reduction was found in oversized organelles. A paired decrease in number and increase in size is reported to be a general trend for mitochondria during aging, but oversized organelles, according to their low R value, constitute a scanty, though functional, compensating reaction. Thus, the present findings support the argument that the currently reported age-related cellular metabolic decay appears to rely both on the decline in MMC of the small and medium-sized mitochondria, and on their specific reduction in number. This novel result is of biological relevance since it is largely the small and medium-sized mitochondria that are required for the provision of adequate amounts of ATP for actual cellular performance, while the significantly enlarged organelles are thought to represent an intermediate ultrastructural feature in mitochondrial genesis and/or remodelling.

Bertoni-Freddari, Carlo; Fattoretti, Patrizia; Giorgetti, Belinda; Spazzafumo, Liana; Solazzi, Moreno; Balietti, Marta

2005-02-01

172

The Perspective of Small and Medium Size Nuclear Power Reactors in the Brazilian Isolated Electricity Grids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a consequence of the international crisis that has shaken the nuclear industry almost all over the world during the late 1980s, new academic contributions, which could settle a new basis for the nuclear energy in Brazil, have been scarce. This paper aims to partially fulfill this gap. We discuss some perspectives for the nuclear option to regain some prominence in the Brazilian energy matrix. Recent developments in the nuclear industry, including advances in plant design, have been opening interesting markets for small and medium nuclear power reactors (SMNPRs). We access the suitability and feasibility of such new technology in the Brazilian isolated electricity grids. We conclude by saying that, although the difficulties are still huge, SMNPRs may be a good strategy for Brazil to revitalize its nuclear policy. (author)

173

Development of natural circulation small and medium sized boiling water reactor: HSBWR-600  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In nuclear power generation, the development of large reactors has been promoted as the main energy source in Japan. However, world economy entered low growth age, and the growth of electric power demand slowed down. Accordingly, attention has been paid to the medium and small reactors that can cope with whatever needs by serializing their types in addition to the nuclear power plants of medium output matching to electric power demand. In order to cope with these new needs, the economical efficiency of medium and small reactors must be as close as possible to that of large reactors, and as the countermeasures to the demerits due to small size, those must be made into the plants having simplified systems and the safety easily acceptable to public. Hitachi Ltd. plans to develop the natural circulation type medium and small BWRs of 600 NWe output class, HSBWR-600, on the basis of the nuclear power plant technology based on the rich results of design and operation of BWRs obtained so far, and to rank them as one of the BWR series. The target of their development design, the circumstance of their development, the core design and the thermo-hydraulic characteristics, the reactor pressure vessel and in-core structures, the safety design, system design, building layout and the evaluation are reported. (Kako, I.).

Miki, Minoru; Horiuchi, Tetsuo; Yoshimoto, Yuichiro; Sumida, Isao; Murase, Michio; Akita, Minoru; Niino, Tsuyoshi

1988-08-01

174

The ABC-paradox: is Time Driven ABC relevant for small and Medium sized enterprises (SME)?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Several articles suggest that Activity Based Costing (ABC) has failed to succeed in practical use. It is even argued that we have an ABC-paradox. Activity Based Costing has won theoretically in nu-merous articles in journals, through books, being included in all major Business Accounting text-books and in curriculum at most business schools. But ABC is not used very much by the compa-nies. Especially in small and medium enterprises ABC is rarely implemented. This is primarily due to two things: First, the ABC model is too difficult to implement. Second, the data foundation for the model is not available in the required quality in the ERP systems used by the businesses. In this article we will explore ways of overcoming these two related problems. We will explore these issues particularly in relation to small and medium enterprises. Through a theoretical analysis and practical implementation in a medium sized manufacturing company we will analyse whether it is possible to create a satisfactory decision making foundation using a TDABC as a less complex cost model in the company. We have analysed our way to the conclusion that compared to ABC, the TDABC model provides the management with a number of pragmatic solutions that can be used in small and medium enter-prises.

Fladkjær, Henrik Find; Jensen, Erling

2011-01-01

175

University-Industry Research Collaborations of Small-Medium Enterprises - An Insight from Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The intensity and extent of university-industry research collaborations (UIRCs are important for the support of small-medium enterprises (SMEs and the activities of economy since the rate of SMEs is high in the regional area such as Niigata except in the urban area in Japan. In this paper, Niigata, one of the areas in which SMEs are almost occupied, the joint research projects between the university and industry in Niigata University, schemes to joint research projects, and successful cases are discussed.

Kawasaki Kazumasa

2009-01-01

176

Application of Medium Pressure UV Lamp for Wastewater Disinfection of Milk Production Industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

UV disinfect ion has gained widespread use for municipal wastewater and more recently, interest in using UV for water reuse applications has increased too. Medium pressure lamp has emerged as a viable alternative and is beginning to gain more popularity than the conventional low-pressure lamps. This study has been performed with the objective of utilizing MP lamp for the disinfection stage of wastewater from a milk industry. The lab-scale UV submerged system used in the experiments was a sing...

Kamani, H.; Vaezi, F.; Nabizadeh, R.; Mesdaghinia, A. R.; Alimohammadi, M.

2006-01-01

177

Radioactive wastes: origin, classification and medium and long dated industrial management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Virtually all the radioactive waste is produced by the fuel cycle, the remainder comes from radioelements used in industry, in medicine, teaching and research. They are classified into low, medium and high activity. The aim of the control is to ensure the protection of individuals and the public against radiological hazards and to safeguard the environment. The production, control, treatment and storage of mining wastes and those produced by the fuel cycle are examined

178

Effects of WC particle size on the wear resistance of laser surface alloyed medium carbon steel  

Science.gov (United States)

The CO 2 laser surface alloying technique was used to form wear resistance layers on medium carbon steel with a kind of spherical WC powder. The effects of WC particle size on the abrasive wear resistance were thoroughly investigated. The results indicate that the laser alloyed layer is characterized by dendritic primary phase and ledeburite microstructure, consisting of austenite, martensite and carbides of Fe 3W 3C, W 2C and WC. The laser surface alloying with WC powder could improve the abrasive wear resistance of the medium carbon steel by over 63%. The factors such as the hardness, the amount and the distribution of WC particle determined the laser alloyed samples' wear resistance, and the laser alloyed sample with WC powder of 88-100 ?m diameter presented the best wear resistance in this study. Furthermore, the wear resistance mechanisms of the laser alloyed layers were also explored.

Tong, Xin; Li, Fu-hai; Kuang, Min; Ma, Wen-you; Chen, Xing-chi; Liu, Min

2012-01-01

179

Current information technology needs of small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents recent efforts of the American Textile Partnership (AMTEX{sup TM}) Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Project to identify opportunities for cost effective enhanced information technology use by small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors. Background on the AMTEX/DAMA project and objectives for the specific DAMA Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) effort are discussed in this section. The approach used to gather information about current opportunities or needs is outlined in Section 2 Approach, and relevant findings are identified and a brief analysis of the information gathered is presented in Section 3 Findings. Recommendations based on the analysis, are offered in Section 4 Recommendations, and plans are suggested for DAMA follow-on in Section 5 Future Plans. Trip reports for each of the companies visited are contained in Appendix E - Company Trip Reports. These individual reports contain the data upon which the analysis presented in Section 3 Findings is based.

Wimple, C., LLNL

1998-04-01

180

Monte Carlo comparison of medium-size telescope designs for the Cherenkov Telescope Array  

CERN Document Server

The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a future very high energy gamma-ray observatory. CTA will be comprised of small-,medium- and large-size telescopes covering an energy range from tens of GeV to hundreds of TeV and will surpass existing telescopes in sensitivity by an order of magnitude. The aim of our study is to find the optimal design for the medium-size telescopes (MSTs), which will determine the sensitivity in the key energy range between a few hundred GeV to about ten TeV. To study the effect of the telescope design parameters on the array performance, we simulated arrays of 61 MSTs with 120 m spacing and a variety of telescope configurations. We investigated the influence of the primary telescope characteristics including optical resolution, pixel size, and light collection area on the total array performance with a particular emphasis on telescope configurations with imaging performance similar to the proposed Davies-Cotton (DC) and Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) MST designs. We compare the performance...

Jogler, T; Dumm, J

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation with Multiple Electrodes for Medium-Sized Hepatocellular Carcinomas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To prospectively evaluate the safety and short-term therapeutic efficacy of switching monopolar radiofrequency ablation (RFA) with multiple electrodes to treat medium-sized (3.1-5.0 cm), hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). In this prospective study, 30 patients with single medium-sized HCCs (mean, 3.5 cm; range, 3.1-4.4 cm) were enrolled. The patients were treated under ultrasonographic guidance by percutaneous switching monopolar RFA with a multichannel RF generator and two or three internally cooled electrodes. Contrast-enhanced CT scans were obtained immediately after RFA, and the diameters and volume of the ablation zones were then measured. Follow-up CT scans were performed at the first month after ablation and every three months thereafter. Technical effectiveness, local progression and remote recurrence of HCCs were determined. There were no major immediate or periprocedural complications. However, there was one bile duct stricture during the follow-up period. Technical effectiveness was achieved in 29 of 30 patients (97%). The total ablation time of the procedures was 25.4 {+-} 8.9 minutes. The mean ablation volume was 73.8 {+-} 56.4 cm3 and the minimum diameter was 4.1 {+-} 7.3 cm. During the follow-up period (mean, 12.5 months), local tumor progression occurred in three of 29 patients (10%) with technical effectiveness, while new HCCs were detected in six of 29 patients (21%). Switching monopolar RFA with multiple electrodes in order to achieve a sufficient ablation volume is safe and efficient. This method also showed relatively successful therapeutic effectiveness on short-term follow up for the treatment of medium-sized HCCs.

Lee, Jung; Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Se Hyung; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Seoul National University Hospita, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jung Hwan [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Eun [Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2012-01-15

182

Tube vibration in industrial size test heat exchanger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tube vibration data from tests of a specially built and instrumented, industrial-type, shell-and-tube heat exchanger are reported. The heat exchanger is nominally 0.6 m (2 ft) in dia and 3.7 m (12 ft) long. Both full tube and no-tubes-in-window bundles were tested for inlet/outlet nozzles of different sizes and with the tubes supported by seven, equally-spaced, single-segmental baffles. Prior to water flow testing, natural frequencies and damping of representative tubes were measured in air and water. Flow testing was accomplished by increasing the flow rates in stepwise fashion and also by sweeping through a selected range of flow rates. The primary variables measured and reported are tube accelerations and/or displacements and pressure drop through the bundle. Tests of the full tube bundle configuration revealed tube rattling to occur at intermediate flow rates, and fluidelastic instability, with resultant tube impacting, to occur when the flow rate exceeded a threshold level; principally, the four-span tubes were involved in the regions immediately adjacent to the baffle cut. For the range of flow rates tested, fluidelastic instability was not achieved in the no-tubes-in-window bundle; in this configuration the tubes are supported by all seven baffles and are, therefore, stiffer

183

Integrated foreign exchange risk management : the role of import in medium-sized, manufacturing firms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as an instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role of import in medium-sized manufacturing firms in Denmark (a small, open economy). We find a strong, negative relation between import and the use of foreign exchange derivatives on the aggregate level. Our findings are consistent with the notion that firms use import to match the foreign exchange exposure created by foreign sales activities.

Aabo, Tom; HØg, Esben

2010-01-01

184

Integrated Foreign Exchange Risk Management : The Role of Import in Medium-Sized, Manufacturing Firms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for the exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as the instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role of import in medium-sized, manufacturing firms in Denmark (a small, open economy). We find a strong, negative relation between import and foreign exchange derivatives usage on the aggregate level. Our findings are consistent with the notion that firms use import to match the foreign exchange exposure created by foreign sales activities.

Aabo, Tom; HØg, Esben

185

Research on Imbalanced Multi-Classification of Performance Evaluation of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Performance evaluation of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs was the valuable problem for theresearchers and the stakeholders of SMEs, which was not only for internal managers to control over the entireorganization, but also for external stakeholders to familiar the SMEs. The author collected the data of 164 SMEsin east of China in 2011, and used two-step clustering method, k-means clustering method, system clusteringmethod, neural networks method, and amended support vector machine method to analyses this problems ofimbalanced multi-classification. The results of amended support vector machine were better than the results ofthe others.

Ying Chen

2014-03-01

186

DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES IN AGRICULTURAL SECTOR OF RURAL AREA USING ORGANIZATIONAL INNOVATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight the importance of organizational innovation in the development of small and medium sized enterprises in the rural area. In this paper, I review the existing literature on organizational  innovation and will present itsimportance in the process of sustainable development of enterprises in the SME sector. Throughout this study I intend to present the issues that the SMEs are facing  in the agricultural sector of the rural area and to present to the entrepreneur his role in the economy and the importance of his actions in the economic crisis.

Kristina Jana Drienovski

2013-05-01

187

Integrated Foreign Exchange Risk Management: The Role of Import in Medium-Sized, Manufacturing Firms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as an instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role of import in medium-sized manufacturing firms in Denmark (a small, open economy). We find a strong, negative relation between import and the use of foreign exchange derivatives on the aggregate level. Our findings are consistent with the notion that firms use import to match the foreign exchange exposure created by foreign sales activities.

Aabo, Tom; HØg, Esben

2010-01-01

188

Annulation reactions of allenyl esters: an approach to bicyclic diones and medium-sized rings.  

Science.gov (United States)

A flexible approach to construct sterically congested bicyclo-alkenedione frameworks is reported. Under the action of potassium carbonate, ?-sulphonyl cycloalkanones are added to functionalized allenyl esters, leading to a lactone intermediate that is subsequently reduced to initiate an intramolecular aldol cyclization to [3.2.1], [3.3.1], and [4.3.1] bicycles. Oxidation then affords bicyclic diones in good three-step yields. Under exceptionally mild conditions, these bicycles are converted to highly functionalized medium-sized rings through a Grob-type fragmentation. PMID:25184784

Bhat, Bilal A; Maki, Samantha L; St Germain, Elijah J; Maity, Pradip; Lepore, Salvatore D

2014-10-01

189

The Construction of Human Resource Management System in Small and Medium-sized Private Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The small and medium-sized private enterprises (SMEs play an increasingly important role in creating output value and providing new employment opportunities, but there are a lot of problems with human resources in SMEs, such as poor quality of business owners, lack of strategic planning on human resources, etc. It’s necessary, therefore, for SMEs to strengthen the setup of human resource management system. This paper puts forward some implementation details according to "human resource evaluation, assessment, & examination methods" and "job evaluation table", and draws up the diagram on implementation of these steps, both vertically and horizontally evaluating human resource management system in SMEs.

Jieyun Zhang

2009-07-01

190

Medium-sized grazing incidence high-energy X-ray telescopes employing continuously graded multilayers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors present a concept of continuously graded multilayer structures for medium-sized X-ray telescopes which is based on several material combinations. They show that the theoretical reflectivity characteristics of these structures make them very advantageous when applied to high energy X-ray grazing incidence telescopes. The authors also show that a modular array of conical telescopes (conical approximation to a Wolter-I geometry), with the same length and aperture provides similar effective areas. Energy-dispersive X-ray reflectivity data (15 - 70 keV) is presented for the first continuously graded multilayer of this kind.

Joensen, K. D.; Christensen, F. E.; Schnopper, H. W.; Gorenstein, P.; Susini, J.; Høghøj, P.; Hustache, R.; Wood, J.; Parker, K.

1993-12-01

191

Axial BP zoning for the soluble boron free operation in medium-sized PWR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Feasibility of soluble boron free operation for the medium-sized commercial reactors was investigated. Westinghouse advanced reactor, AP-600 was chosen as a design prototype. Design modification was applied for the assembly design with gadolinia burnable poison - high Gd enrichment and axial poison zoning. CASMO and NECTA-C code system checked axial offset and peaking factors as fuels burned up. A core with complex axial burnable poison zoning satisfied design goals - small excess reactivity for 18 month cycle. Therefore, critical bank positioning for three control rod banks was sought with ease. A.O. value and Fq value were kept within the safety limit

192

Entrepreneurial behaviour consequences on small and medium-sized firms’ innovation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The European framework regarding innovation is dominated by the assumed objectives of the Lisbon Strategy and by its major reviewing demarches. In this perspective, the paper is based on a proposed model for the entrepreneurial process in Romania, depending on the economical development stage and the competitiveness level of the country, according to which there are set, on the one hand, the relationships between the conditions of the entrepreneurial framework and entrepreneurship, and, on the other hand, between entrepreneurship and innovation output in the cases of small and medium-sized enterprises.

Renata Antonie NI?U

2012-07-01

193

Determinants of Profitability of Food Industry in India: A Size-Wise Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Profitability is the profit earning capacity, which is a crucial factorin contributing to the survival of firms. This paper is a maidenattempt at estimating the impact of size on profitability, consideringthe ‘size’ as the control variable. For this purpose, the selectedfirms are classified into three size categories as ‘small,’ ‘medium,’and ‘large’ based on the sales turnover. The results show that volatilityand growth are the major predictors in determining profitabilityin case of small size firms while growth is important in determiningthe profitability of medium size firms. Capital intensityhas a significant positive coefficient with the profitability of largesize firms. The overall result shows that the larger the size of thefirm, the more the investment in long lived assets has helped toincrease the profitability of the firm unlike the trend in cases ofsmall size and medium size firms.

Ramachandran Azhagaiah

2012-01-01

194

Internationalization and Networks in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: the role of ethnic ties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The international insertion of small and medium-sized enterprises (SME has attracted academic attention with the emergence of new internationalization theories based on the network approach. There is evidence that social networks based on descent ties contribute to the international integration of firms, particularly small ones. The quantitative cross-sectional study conducted with 71 SME affiliated with the Business Association of Blumenau, city marked by German immigration, sought to test the predictive role of descent ties (content of ties and strength of ties in the degree of SME internationalization. The results suggest that only the strength of ties (frequency of contacts with the country of descent contributes to explaining the degree of internationalization. Limitations of sample size require caution in generalizing the results.

Marco Antonio Seifriz

2014-05-01

195

Adoption of internet-based marketing channels by small and medium-sized manufacturers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper analyses factors influencing manufacturers’ adoption of Internet-based marketing channels using models based on marketing channel and organisational innovation theory. Survey data from 1,163 Danish, Finnish, and Swedish manufacturers form the empirical basis for testing the models using LISREL analysis. The results stress that adoption of Internet-based marketing is influenced by willingness to cannibalize, by management support, by market pressure, and by a firm’s knowledge of IT. A willingness to cannibalize mediates the effects of future market orientation, ownership, specialized investments, and management support. This is mainly the case in small firms, as the importance of the various drivers and the adoption pattern varies among size categories. Market-pull factors have relatively more explanatory power in medium-sized and large companies.

Nielsen, JØrn Flohr; HØst, Viggo

2005-01-01

196

MANAGEMENT OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ability to measure and manage economic efficiency in small and medium-sized enterprises is highly valued competitive advantage. Economic efficiency reveals the absolute size of indicators of efficient usage of resources employed, efficiency and effectiveness of business processes, products and services. While measuring and managing economic efficiency, it is necessary to reflect the influence of internal and external business environment and take into account the diversity of assessment of subject position. Sources of information for assessing the overall economic efficiency of enterprises with subsequent management can be derived from the financial statements of financial accounting. In the proposed plan of economic efficiency it is important for business owners and managers in the to establish appropriate indicators of economic efficiency and to follow and support the long-term strategic goals of the company.

JAN ŠT?PÁNEK

2013-01-01

197

The Vital Factors for Small and Medium Sized Sport Enterprises Start-ups  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nowadays, the new enterprises are recognized as the main source of job creation, innovation and development. In today’s business world, new enterprises are recognized as an important source of job creation, innovation and development. Therefore, identifying influencing factors that play key roles in the start-up of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs is critical. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify critical factors for starting-up Small and Medium sized Sport Enterprises (SMSEs companies whose business is sport and developing a conceptual model that might be used by entrepreneurs in sport business. The methodology was qualitative. Interviews were conducted with 18 individuals, selected through purposive sampling, involved in sport-related SMEs. After a careful investigation of enterprise start-up models in the literature, and based on the results of experts interviews, an integrated approach was indicated as popular models were used by SMEs scholars. Then, a model was proposed in line with integration approach.The conceptual model is based on the integrative approach and shows that three important categories of factors were indicated: Individual; 2.individual factors; Environmental; and 3.environmental factors; and Financial factors.financial factors. It should be mentioned that these factors were constitude of subdimentiones.

Seyed Morteza Azimzadeh

2013-04-01

198

Study on Technological Innovation Outsourcing in Scientific and Technological Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Based on Motives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For the time being, technological innovation outsourcing has become an important channel for enterprises, especially in scientific and technological small and medium-sized enterprises. Based on characteristics of scientific and technological small and medium-sized enterprises, this article made an analysis in the motives and the existing problems. First of all, the author analyzed the motives in four aspects. Then, the author pointed out problems existing in evaluation and selection of outsourcing business of scientific and technological small and medium-sized enterprises, evaluation and selection of outsourcing partners, control over outsourcing activities and adjustment on outsourcing activities. Findings of this article have enlightenments on improving efficiency of technological innovation outsourcing of scientific and technological small and medium-sized enterprises.

Xiaolin Li

2011-07-01

199

40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

...treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. 141.81 Section 141.81...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper...

2010-07-01

200

Autotrophic denitrification and chemical phosphate removal of agro-industrial wastewater by filtration with granular medium.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel granular medium consisting (1.5-5 mm in diameter) of inert perlite particles as nuclei and an effective surface layer containing sulfur, CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2 was developed for advanced treatment of agro-industrial wastewater. The performance of the medium was examined with a laboratory-scale down-flow fixed-bed column reactor using piggery wastewater, which had been treated by an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor and a trickling filter. The removal efficiency of NOx- -N was more than 70% with a NOx- -N loading rate of less than approximately 0.3 kg Nm(-3) d(-1); the removal efficiency dropped due to the accumulation of nitrite when the loading rate exceeded that value. A significant drop of phosphate and Mg2+ concentrations occurred when the effluent pH exceeded 7.9. Ammonium was removed with an average removal efficiency of 12.4%. These results indicated that the crystalline reaction of PO4(3-), Mg2+ and NH4+ (MAP reaction) under alkaline conditions contributed to the removal of phosphate. This medium could be useful for the simultaneous reduction of nitrogenous and phosphorus compounds in biologically treated agro-industrial wastewater. PMID:16707261

Tanaka, Yasuo; Yatagai, Atsushi; Masujima, Hiroshi; Waki, Miyoko; Yokoyama, Hiroshi

2007-03-01

 
 
 
 
201

Enhancing work motivation for Japanese female nurses in small to medium-sized private hospitals by analyzing job satisfaction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proper work environments are important for nurses to feel motivated. We examined the associations between work motivation and job satisfaction among Japanese nurses to improve their motivation. In Japan, relatively small and medium-sized private hospitals play a central role in the healthcare industry. In the present study, the subjects were nurses working in 23 small and medium-sized private hospitals that had 65 to 326 beds. We analyzed 1,116 registered and licensed practical female nurses (average age, 38.3 years; standard deviation, 11.3 years). Many nurses with their specialized nursing skills dedicate themselves to patient care. However, many of these nurses may not be interested in contributing to their hospitals. Nurses may have different opinions regarding dedication to patient care and contribution to their hospitals. Therefore, concerning work motivation, we produced these two different items, "Nurses' dedication to patients" and "Nurses' contribution to their hospitals." We also produced our own original new job satisfaction questionnaire. We found 7 facets of job satisfaction: "Work as specialists," "Workplace safety," "Relationships with superiors," "Work-life balance," "Relationships among nurses," "Communications with physicians," and "Salary." Multiple linear regression analyses show that both "Nurses' dedication to patients" and "Nurses' contribution to their hospitals" were significantly associated with "Work as specialists." Nurses feel their jobs of protecting people's lives and health are valuable. They do not feel motivated only by money. They value the intrinsic nature of their jobs. Creating proper work environments is important for nurses to be able to work as specialists. PMID:20208420

Kudo, Yasushi; Kido, Shigeri; Shahzad, Machiko Taruzuka; Shida, Kyoko; Satoh, Toshihiko; Aizawa, Yoshiharu

2010-03-01

202

The Roles of Government Funding in Enhancing the Competitiveness of Small and Medium-sized Enterprise in Sabah, Malaysia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was conducted in order to determine the roles of government funding in enhancing Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Sabah, Malaysia. Specifically, the study is focused on the Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Sabah, Malaysia which were funded by many government-linked agencies such as Yayasan Tekun Nasional, Amanah Ikhtiar, Koperasi Pembangunan Desa and Agro Bank. This qualitative study was carried out in the rural and urban areas in Sabah, Malaysia. The findings of this stu...

Abdol Samad Nawi; Irwan Bin Ismail; Zainuddin Zakaria; Jannah Munirah Md Noor; Bashir Ahmad Bin Shabir Ahmad; Nik Fakrul Hazri; Wan Anisabanum Salleh; Mohd Tajul Hasnan Mohd Tajuddin; Nur Raihana Mohd Sallem

2012-01-01

203

Rapid preparation of ceramic moulds for medium-sized superalloy castings with magnesia-phosphate-bonded bauxite-mullite investments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Phosphate-bonded investments have already been widely utilized in dental restoration and micro-casting of artistic products for its outstanding rapid setting and high strength. However, the rapid setting rate of investment slurry has up to now been a barrier to extend the use of such slurry in preparation of medium-sized ceramic moulds. This paper proposes a new process of rapid fabrication of magnesia-phosphate-bonded investment ceramic moulds for medium-sized superalloy castings utilizing b...

Li Tingzhong; Luo Jirong; Wu Shusen

2010-01-01

204

78 FR 9938 - U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement: Effects on U.S. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises; Institution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...and Medium-Sized Enterprises. DATES: February...usitc.gov). The media should contact Margaret...Agreement on U.S. small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) since entry...agreement, as well as challenges that U.S....

2013-02-12

205

Analysis of industrial markets for low and medium Btu coal gasification. [Forecasting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Low- and medium-Btu gases (LBG and MBG) can be produced from coal with a variety of 13 existing and 25 emerging processes. Historical experience and previous studies indicate a large potential market for LBG and MBG coal gasification in the manufacturing industries for fuel and feedstocks. However, present use in the US is limited, and industry has not been making substantial moves to invest in the technology. Near-term (1979-1985) market activity for LBG and MBG is highly uncertain and is complicated by a myriad of pressures on industry for energy-related investments. To assist in planning its program to accelerate the commercialization of LBG and MBG, the Department of Energy (DOE) contracted with Booz, Allen and Hamilton to characterize and forecast the 1985 industrial market for LBG and MBG coal gasification. The study draws five major conclusions: (1) There is a large technically feasible market potential in industry for commercially available equipment - exceeding 3 quadrillion Btu per year. (2) Early adopters will be principally steel, chemical, and brick companies in described areas. (3) With no additional Federal initiatives, industry commitments to LBG and MBG will increase only moderately. (4) The major barriers to further market penetration are lack of economic advantage, absence of significant operating experience in the US, uncertainty on government environmental policy, and limited credible engineering data for retrofitting industrial plants. (5) Within the context of generally accepted energy supply and price forecasts, selected government action can be a principal factor in accelerating market penetration. Each major conclusion is discussed briefly and key implications for DOE planning are identified.

1979-07-30

206

13 CFR 121.201 - What size standards has SBA identified by North American Industry Classification System codes?  

Science.gov (United States)

...identified by North American Industry Classification System codes...Business Size Standards by NAICS Industry NAICS codesNAICS U.S. industry titleSize standards in millions...0.75112210Hog and Pig Farming...

2010-01-01

207

13 CFR 121.201 - What size standards has SBA identified by North American Industry Classification System codes?  

Science.gov (United States)

...identified by North American Industry Classification System codes...Business Size Standards by NAICS Industry NAICS codesNAICS U.S. industry titleSize standards in millions...Production $0.75112340Poultry Hatcheries...

2010-01-01

208

13 CFR 121.201 - What size standards has SBA identified by North American Industry Classification System codes?  

Science.gov (United States)

...identified by North American Industry Classification System codes...Business Size Standards by NAICS Industry NAICS codesNAICS U.S. industry titleSize standards in millions...Feedlots $2.00112120Dairy Cattle and Milk...

2010-01-01

209

Procedure for calculating added value: application in the medium-voltage fuse industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a procedure to calculate the added value of a process, through a pull manufacturing approach. The procedure allows calculating the selling price, the added value for each operation and the capital required to purchase the raw material. Additionally, the procedure sets the added value of the product for each operation, analyzing its increase or decrease based on the difference between the raw material cost and the purchasing budget. Finally, the results of its application in a medium-voltage fuse industry in the Cuban Republic are shown.

Andrey Vinajera Zamora

2014-03-01

210

Concerns of European Commission for small and medium size enterprises development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available European Commission initiated development programs for small and medium size enterprises (SMEs comprised in SBA initiative. The respective programs establish measures in order tofacilitate: setting up in a short time span of SMEs, access to finance, as well as the possibility of introducing it both European Single Market and global market processed products andperformed services. A concern of European Commission consisted in recommendation made to Member States that,by means of national programs, will support the SMEs development by offering the possibility of attendance to cross-border transactions with European Single Market. European Commission’s programs were supported by European Council and approved by European Parliament, following that every Member State will establish programs and initiatives on national level. European Commission’s strategy concerning SMEs  development is the increase of their number, labour force absorption and a faster economic and financial crisis traversing.

Mircea Muntean

2009-12-01

211

eLEARNING - A CHANCE FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available eLearning through its flexibility and facility of access is seen as a major enabler of lifelong learning (LLL, as a catalyst of change and a chance for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs to improve their business and to integrate into European market. But so far the eLearning in the context of vocational educational training has been mainly adopted by large enterprises, while only little activity can be observed in SMEs. The question arises what the chances and challenges for SMEs are and what is the experience with its usage. In this paper after a presentation of key issues in eLearning chances and challenges of eLearning for SMEs are discussed and experiences are exemplified by three EU-funded eLearning projects. The focus lies on the ongoing project ARIEL - Analysing and Reporting the Implementation of Electronic Learning in Europe - coordinated by the Institut Arbeit und Technik (IAT.

Ileana Hamburg

2005-12-01

212

Requirements and Specifications for a Simplified, Low Pressure Medium Sized PWR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper summarises part of our on-going investigations on the possible introduction of nuclear energy in developing countries or countries with low capacity electrical grids. These investigations are principally concerned with future PWR developments and basically try to search for plausible and economic answers to the three difficult questions that each nuclear technology exporting country faces today: 1)- how to compensate the apparent loss of economic competitiveness, related to the scaling effect, of a small or medium sized reactor? 2)- how to reconcile the introduction of nuclear energy on the large scale with the two major preoccupations of nuclear safety and nuclear proliferation? 3)- how to demonstrate that the proposed concept(s) can effectively meet the safety objectives of the requirements for future reactors in Europe and in other countries?

213

SINGLE EURO PAYMENTS AREA AND ITS IMPLICATIONS ON THE EUROPEAN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The scope of this article is to discuss the implications of the Single Euro Payments Area from the perspective of the European SMEs. The current unpredictable and very challenging market situation has not fundamentally changed the fact that payment services need to continue modernization in order to become more flexible, agile and adapt in order to comply with its important purpose in society.SEPA is needed to ensure the new modern payment platform that can enable Europe to move beyond basic services, increase payments efficiency, embrace innovation and integrate further services in the trade process. European Small and Medium-sized Enterprises see SEPA see SEPA as an important step towards the completion of the internal market, but such a major initiative has to be well planed, must meet the practical needs of enterprises and provide, at least in the long run, positive incentives for all market participants.

Andreea Av?danei

2010-09-01

214

Small and Medium Sized Enterprises Development under Trade Liberalisation: A Survey of Nigerian Experience  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study reviews the policies implemented by the Nigerian government over the years to assist the development of manufacturing small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs in Nigeria following the implementation of Trade liberalisation policy in 1986. The aim of the liberalise trade policy was to encourage competition and improve efficiency in the use of local resources; yet most Nigerian SMEs still find it difficult to compete and merely struggle to survive the liberalised economic environment in Nigeria. The result of the study of a sample of 500 manufacturing SMEs operating in Lagos State reveals that despite the laudable policies, the effects are not felt by most manufacturing SMEs due to improper planning and the absence of favourable investment climate necessary for these policies to be effective.

Obokoh, Lawrence Ogechukwu

2009-02-01

215

B(80) and other medium-sized boron clusters: core-shell structures, not hollow cages.  

Science.gov (United States)

Unbiased search on the potential energy surface of medium-sized boron clusters, with B(80), B(74), and B(68) as representatives, was carried out using simulated annealing incorporated with first-principles molecular dynamics. These boron clusters thermodynamically prefer the B(12)-centered core-shell structures, which resemble the fragment of bulk boron solids. Though these core-shell clusters lack a descriptive symmetry and may not be the true global minima, the core-shell B(80) is about 25 meV/atom lower in energy than the widely assumed highly stable "magic" B(80) fullerene. The electronic states and photoelectron spectra of these clusters are closely correlated to the structural motif, which may be helpful for detecting the cluster configurations in experiments. PMID:20695630

Zhao, Jijun; Wang, Lu; Li, Fengyu; Chen, Zhongfang

2010-09-23

216

Mammals of medium and large size in Santa Rita do Sapucaí, Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The diversity of Brazilian vertebrates is regarded among the highest in the world. However, the biologicaldiversity is still mostly unknown and a good part of it is seriously threatened by human activities. This study aimed toinventory the medium and large size mammals present in the Reserva Biológica de Santa Rita do Sapucaí, an Atlanticforest reserve located in Santa Rita do Sapucaí, southeastern Brazil. Sand-plots, photographic traps and searches foranimal tracks on pre-existent trails in the area, were carried out once every two months between May 2006 andFebruary 2007. The sand-plots and tracks were inspected during five consecutive days per sampling. We obtained 108records of 15 species, mostly of carnivorans. Two confirmed species are threatened with extinction in Brazil (Callithrixaurita and Leopardus pardalis. The results suggest that the sampled reserve has high species richness and plays animportant role in conservation of mammals in this landscape, including species threatened with extinction.

Eduardo, A. A.

2009-01-01

217

Networked Virtual Organizations: A Chance for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises on Global Markets  

Science.gov (United States)

Networked Virtual Organizations (NVOs) are a right answer to challenges of globalized, diversified, and dynamic contemporary economy. NVOs need more than e-trade and outsourcing, namely, they need out-tasking and e-collaboration. To out-task, but retain control on the way a task is performed by an external partner, two integrations are required: (1) integration of computer management systems of enterprises cooperating within an NVO; and (2) integration of cooperating representatives of NVO member enterprises into a virtual team. NVOs provide a particular chance to Small and Medium size Enterprises (SMEs) to find their place on global markets and to play a significant role on them. Requirements for SMEs to be able to successfully join an NVO are analyzed in the paper.

Cellary, Wojciech

218

IT Governance Practices in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Recommendations from an Empirical Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Much has been learned through IT governance research about the nature of IT-related decisions, the location of decision rights for these decisions, and governance mechanisms applied to facilitate associated decision processes in large organisations. Our knowledge about IT governance structures in small and medium-sized enterprises (SME), on the other hand, is quite limited. Adopting a qualitative and inductive approach, this study examines the nature and influence of IT governance in SMEs through interviews with executives from three SMEs. Our results demonstrate that IT decision authority was centralized in all three SMEs but that senior management involvement in governance procedures and communication practices about governance policies were observed to explain differences in these organisations’ IT use. We propose recommendations based on the findings of this study.

Huang, Rui; Zmud, Robert W.; Price, R. Leon

219

Key Drivers to Developing Guanxi in China for Taiwanese Small to Medium Sized Firms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As Chinese economy has become one of the world’s economic powerhouse, research on guanxi, social or business ties in China, has been gaining ground in business research. The study is couched in the theoretical framework of social embeddedness in which the flows of information, resources, and opportunities occur across recognized members of a social network to create mutual benefits. This study empirically tests the major impetus for Taiwanese small to medium sized firms (SMEs to utilize guanxi networks with business community, local governments, and the central government in China.  The study results indicate the extent to which Tawanese firms utilize different types of guanxi differ by firm characteristics (i.e., resources, capabilities, and entry mode and market factors (i.e., market stability and competition.

Lan-Ying Huang

2009-12-01

220

Medium polarization and finite size effects on the superfluidity of the inner crust of neutron stars  

CERN Document Server

The 1S0 pairing gap associated with the inner crust of a neutron star is calculated, taking into account the coexistence of the nuclear lattice with the sea of free neutrons (finite size effects), as well as medium polarization effects associated with the exchange of density and spin fluctuations. Both effects are found to be important and to lead to an overall quenching of the pairing gap. This result, whose quantitative value is dependent on the effective interaction used to generate the single-particle levels, is a consequence of the balance between the attractive (repulsive) induced interaction arising from the exchange of density (spin) modes, balance which in turn is influenced by the presence of the protons and depends on the single-particle structure of the system.

Baroni, S; Barranco, F; Broglia, R A; Pastore, A; Vigezzi, E

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Hybrid neural intelligent system to predict business failure in small-to-medium-size enterprises.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the last years there has been a growing need of developing innovative tools that can help small to medium sized enterprises to predict business failure as well as financial crisis. In this study we present a novel hybrid intelligent system aimed at monitoring the modus operandi of the companies and predicting possible failures. This system is implemented by means of a neural-based multi-agent system that models the different actors of the companies as agents. The core of the multi-agent system is a type of agent that incorporates a case-based reasoning system and automates the business control process and failure prediction. The stages of the case-based reasoning system are implemented by means of web services: the retrieval stage uses an innovative weighted voting summarization of self-organizing maps ensembles-based method and the reuse stage is implemented by means of a radial basis function neural network. An initial prototype was developed and the results obtained related to small and medium enterprises in a real scenario are presented. PMID:21809475

Borrajo, M Lourdes; Baruque, Bruno; Corchado, Emilio; Bajo, Javier; Corchado, Juan M

2011-08-01

222

Role of Relationship Marketing in Small and Medium-Sized Entreprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Along with marketing, small and medium enterprises (SMEs are commonly associated in literature with relationship marketing which results in marketing networks. This paper examines the specific characteristics that differentiate large companies from small and medium-sized enterprises, and the reasons that prevent SMEs from engaging in traditional marketing within the scope of marketing mix. The paper also shows that the key characteristic which distinguishes small from large companies is a prominent role of owner/managers. The owner/manager affects marketing of SMEs by creating his or her own personal networks with stakeholders in the environment, and considers it an important strategic focus and a factor that increases the performance of marketing decision-making. After a thorough review of secondary data sources this paper examines relationship marketing as a marketing framework for SMEs and, finally, proves that relationship marketing is more appropriate for SMEs than are traditional marketing concepts, that relationship marketing and network marketing create an important framework for SMEs and that there is a link between relationship marketing, personal networks and SMEs.

Ružica Butigan

2011-06-01

223

Modeling, simulation, and concept design for hybrid-electric medium-size military trucks  

Science.gov (United States)

A large scale design space exploration can provide valuable insight into vehicle design tradeoffs being considered for the U.S. Army"s FMTV (Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles). Through a grant from TACOM (Tank-automotive and Armaments Command), researchers have generated detailed road, surface, and grade conditions representative of the performance criteria of this medium-sized truck and constructed a virtual powertrain simulator for both conventional and hybrid variants. The simulator incorporates the latest technology among vehicle design options, including scalable ultracapacitor and NiMH battery packs as well as a variety of generator and traction motor configurations. An energy management control strategy has also been developed to provide efficiency and performance. A design space exploration for the family of vehicles involves running a large number of simulations with systematically varied vehicle design parameters, where each variant is paced through several different mission profiles and multiple attributes of performance are measured. The resulting designs are filtered to remove dominated designs, exposing the multi-criterial surface of optimality (Pareto optimal designs), and revealing the design tradeoffs as they impact vehicle performance and economy. The results are not yet definitive because ride and drivability measures were not included, and work is not finished on fine-tuning the modeled dynamics of some powertrain components. However, the work so far completed demonstrates the effectiveness of the approach to design space exploration, and the results to date suggest the powertrain configuration best suited to the FMTV mission.

Rizzoni, Giorgio; Josephson, John R.; Soliman, Ahmed; Hubert, Christopher; Cantemir, Codrin-Gruie; Dembski, Nicholas; Pisu, Pierluigi; Mikesell, David; Serrao, Lorenzo; Russell, James; Carroll, Mark

2005-05-01

224

78 FR 74154 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Size, Shape, and Other Physical Attributes of Generic Tablets and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...FDA-2013-N-1434] Draft Guidance for Industry on Size, Shape, and Other Physical Attributes...draft guidance for industry entitled ``Size, Shape, and Other Physical Attributes...guidance discusses FDA recommendations for the size, shape, and other physical...

2013-12-10

225

The Strategic Measures for the Industrial Security of Small and Medium Business  

Science.gov (United States)

The competitiveness of companies increasingly depends upon whether they possess the cutting-edge or core technology. The technology should be protected from industrial espionage or leakage. A special attention needs to be given to SMB (small and medium business), furthermore, because SMB occupies most of the companies but has serious problems in terms of industrial security. The technology leakages of SMB would account for more than 2/3 of total leakages during last five years. The purpose of this study is, therefore, to analyze the problems of SMB in terms of industrial security and suggest the strategic solutions for SMB in South Korea. The low security awareness and financial difficulties, however, make it difficult for SMB to build the effective security management system which would protect the company from industrial espionage and leakage of its technology. The growing dependence of SMB on network such as internet, in addition, puts the SMB at risk of leaking its technology through hacking or similar ways. It requires new measures to confront and control such a risk. Online security control services and technology deposit system are suggested for such measures. PMID:24955414

Lee, Chang-Moo

2014-01-01

226

The strategic measures for the industrial security of small and medium business.  

Science.gov (United States)

The competitiveness of companies increasingly depends upon whether they possess the cutting-edge or core technology. The technology should be protected from industrial espionage or leakage. A special attention needs to be given to SMB (small and medium business), furthermore, because SMB occupies most of the companies but has serious problems in terms of industrial security. The technology leakages of SMB would account for more than 2/3 of total leakages during last five years. The purpose of this study is, therefore, to analyze the problems of SMB in terms of industrial security and suggest the strategic solutions for SMB in South Korea. The low security awareness and financial difficulties, however, make it difficult for SMB to build the effective security management system which would protect the company from industrial espionage and leakage of its technology. The growing dependence of SMB on network such as internet, in addition, puts the SMB at risk of leaking its technology through hacking or similar ways. It requires new measures to confront and control such a risk. Online security control services and technology deposit system are suggested for such measures. PMID:24955414

Lee, Chang-Moo

2014-01-01

227

Dry paths effectively reduce road mortality of small and medium-sized terrestrial vertebrates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wildlife passages are widely used mitigation measures designed to reduce the adverse impacts of roads on animals. We investigated whether road kills of small and medium-sized terrestrial vertebrates can be reduced by constructing dry paths adjacent to streams that pass under road bridges. The study was carried out in southern Finland during the summer of 2008. We selected ten road bridges with dry paths and ten bridges without them, and an individual dry land reference site for each study bridge on the basis of landscape and traffic features. A total of 307 dead terrestrial vertebrates were identified during the ten-week study period. The presence of dry paths decreased the amount of road-killed terrestrial vertebrates (Poisson GLMM; p < 0.001). That was true also when considering amphibians alone (p < 0.001). The evidence on road-kills on mammals was not such clear. In the mammal model, a lack of dry paths increased the amount of carcasses (p = 0.001) whereas the number of casualties at dry path bridges was comparable with dry land reference sites. A direct comparison of the dead ratios suggests an average efficiency of 79% for the dry paths. When considering amphibians and mammals alone, the computed effectiveness was 88 and 70%, respectively. Our results demonstrate that dry paths under road bridges can effectively reduce road-kills of small and medium-sized terrestrial vertebrates, even without guiding fences. Dry paths seemed to especially benefit amphibians which are a threatened species group worldwide and known to suffer high traffic mortality. PMID:24921961

Niemi, Milla; Jääskeläinen, Niina C; Nummi, Petri; Mäkelä, Tiina; Norrdahl, Kai

2014-11-01

228

Larval assemblages of large and medium-sized pelagic species in the Straits of Florida  

Science.gov (United States)

Critical gaps in our understanding of the distributions, interactions, life histories and preferred habitats of large and medium-size pelagic fishes severely constrain the implementation of ecosystem-based, spatially structured fisheries management approaches. In particular, spawning distributions and the environmental characteristics associated with the early life stages are poorly documented. In this study, we consider the diversity, assemblages, and associated habitat of the larvae of large and medium-sized pelagic species collected during 2 years of monthly surveys across the Straits of Florida. In total, 36 taxa and 14,295 individuals were collected, with the highest diversity occurring during the summer and in the western, frontal region of the Florida Current. Only a few species (e.g. Thunnus obesus, T. alalunga, Tetrapturus pfluegeri) considered for this study were absent. Small scombrids (e.g. T. atlanticus, Katsuwonus pelamis, Auxis spp.) and gempylids dominated the catch and were orders of magnitude more abundant than many of the rare species (e.g. Thunnus thynnus,Kajikia albida). Both constrained (CCA) and unconstrained (NMDS) multivariate analyses revealed a number of species groupings including: (1) a summer Florida edge assemblage (e.g. Auxis spp., Euthynnus alleterattus, Istiophorus platypterus); (2) a summer offshore assemblage (e.g. Makaira nigricans, T. atlanticus, Ruvettus pretiosus, Lampris guttatus); (3) an ubiquitous assemblage (e.g. K. pelamis, Coryphaena hippurus, Xiphias gladius); and (4) a spring/winter assemblage that was widely dispersed in space (e.g. trachipterids). The primary environmental factors associated with these assemblages were sea-surface temperature (highest in summer-early fall), day length (highest in early summer), thermocline depth (shallowest on the Florida side) and fluorescence (highest on the Florida side). Overall, the results of this study provide insights into how a remarkable diversity of pelagic species spatially and temporally partition spawning within a region that is characterized by dynamic oceanography and strong habitat gradients.

Richardson, David E.; Llopiz, Joel K.; Guigand, Cedric M.; Cowen, Robert K.

2010-07-01

229

Analysis of the Management System Innovation in Small and Medium Sized Family Enterprises of China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The family enterprise is one of the oldest forms of enterprise organization in the development of human history. In a way, the development of modern market economy equates the history of the evolution and collaborative of family enterprises. The growth of the family enterprises has now become a unique economic landscape in such a public ownership society in China. China is transitioning from a planned economy to a market economy, and the biggest change is actually the emergence of private enterprises groups. It’s by arriving less much, by arrive infirmly strength has made them one of the most dynamic components in Chinese economy. They not only active in both the urban and rural markets, meet the needs of people’s material and cultural life, ease the employment pressure, but also lay the important foundation of China’s market-oriented reform and participation in international market competition. The general development of family enterprise and its great contribution to China’s economy show that family enterprise as an ancient business system is still active and alive in the modern market economy. Nonetheless, it is not a perfect form of business organization compared with other organizational forms. Family enterprises, especially small and medium-sized family enterprises have also encountered some bottleneck and challenge in the development process, and the only way to get rid of the dilemma is the innovation of family enterprise management system. This paper at first expatiates on the concept of family enterprises, and then based on the study of its characteristics analyzes the present situation of Chinese family enterprise management system. Finally, this paper will find out the existing problems and reasons in the innovation of management system for small and medium-sized family enterprises, in order to put forward effective countermeasures.

Chengcheng LIU

2014-08-01

230

Cogeneration in the sugarcane industry - medium plants; A cogeracao no setor sucroalcooleiro - usinas de medio porte  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work aims at to analyze the re powering of medium sized sugar and alcohol plants located in the Southeast area of Sao Paulo State. Through a study case considering a standard unit that processes ten thousand tons of sugarcane per day, simulations were made using a mathematical model denominated Modelo de Despacho Hidrotermico, which supports the decision process for the expansion of electric energy offers. As a result of these simulations, it was possible to get the standard dispatch profile for such cogeneration plants, expressed by a medium capacity factor of 89%, demonstrating, therefore, the significant participation that these units can have in the energy context. Furthermore, a brief discussion about the energy price and capital return time is introduced, emphasizing the attractiveness of this kind of enterprise. (author)

Pellegrini, Maria Cristina [Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo (CESP), SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: epg@cesp.com.br; Ramos, Dorel Soares [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica]. E-mail: dorelram@pea.usp.br

2000-07-01

231

Optical design and calibration of a medium size telescope prototype for the CTA  

Science.gov (United States)

The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is designed to make a major improvement in the sensitivity of ground based VHE (Very High Energy, defined as > 20GeV to 100s of TeV) gamma-ray telescopes. Not only will the differential-flux sensitivity be an order of magnitude better than those of the currently operating Cherenkov telescopes, but there will also be significant improvements in the energy, spectral and angular resolution. Delivering these features cost-effectively requires several telescope sizes and designs - a few large size telescopes (23m diameter) are designed for the lowest energies, a large number of small size telescopes (4-7m diameter) to increase the overall collection area which helps at the highest energies and a number of Medium Size Telescopes (MST, 9.5m or 12m diameter, depending on the mirror design) to provide the greatest sensitivity at ˜ 1 TeV. To provide complete sky coverage, CTA will have both a Northern Hemisphere and a Southern Hemisphere site. A prototype for an MST design (currently under development) will be build in Berlin by 2012. This MST prototype has a modified Davies-Cotton design with a tessellated mirror, with individual facets of ˜ 1.2m in diameter. The facets are three-point mounted on the optical support structure, having two powered actuators for alignment adjustments. In addition a number of CCD cameras will be mounted at various positions on the dis and will be used for calibration. Here we present the various optical calibration tasks - optimization of the optical point-spread-function (PSF) and the pointing of this MST prototype, along with initial results.

Behera, Bagmeet; Bähr, Jürgen; Grünewald, Sandra; Hughes, Gareth; Oya, Igor; Melkumyan, David; Schlenstedt, Stefan; Schwanke, Ullrich

2012-09-01

232

R & D, structural change and productivity: the role of high and medium-high technology industries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper investigates the potential impact of increased R & D efforts and structural change in Portugal on labour productivity. Based on existing literature on the relation between R & D expenditures, structural change and productivity, we evaluate the contribution of R & D and hightech industries to productivity over the last 30 years. Our results confirm the importance of business R & D in the medium to high-tech sectors and of public R & D, as they stimulate productivity growth. However, we cannot support the hypothosis that productivity growth was primarily rooted in the development of medium-high technology industries.Este artigo investiga o potencial impacto do aumento deI & D e de mudanças estruturais na produtividade do trabalho em Portugal. Com base na literatura sobre a relação entre despesas emI & D, mudança estrutural e produtividade, avaliamos a contribuição daI & D e das indústrias de alta tecnologia neste cenário durante os últimos 30 anos. Os resultados obtidos confirmam a importância dos investimentos emI & D das empresas de indústrias de alta e média-alta tecnologia eI & D público no crescimento da produtividade. Não obstante, não podemos afirmar que este fenômeno tenha como esteio principal o crescente relevo destas indústrias.

Celeste Amorim Varum

2009-12-01

233

Deep blank field catalogue for medium- and large-size telescopes  

CERN Document Server

The observation of blank fields, defined as regions of the sky that are devoid of stars down to a given threshold magnitude, constitutes one of the most relevant calibration procedures required for the proper reduction of astronomical data obtained following typical observing strategies. In this work, we have used the Delaunay triangulation to search for deep blank fields throughout the whole sky, with a minimum size of 10 arcmin in diameter and an increasing threshold magnitude from 15 to 18 in the R band of the USNO-B Catalog of the United States Naval Observatory. The result is a catalogue with the deepest blank fields known so far. A short sample of these regions has been tested with the 10.4m Gran Telescopio Canarias, and it has been shown to be extremely useful for medium and large size telescopes. Because some of the regions found could also be suitable for new extragalactic studies, we have estimated the galactic extinction in the direction of each deep blank field. This catalogue is accessible throug...

Jiménez-Esteban, F M; Cardiel, N; Alacid, J M

2012-01-01

234

The Adoption of Management Accounting Practices in Malaysian Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper provides empirical evidence on the adoption of a broad range of management accounting practices in Malaysian small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in the manufacturing sector. Data collected from a postal survey of 160 accountant managers are used to facilitate the study. The results indicate that the traditional MAPs such as conventional budgeting, traditional costing and financial performance measures are widely used by the respondents. The results also show that a significant number of respondents have adopted one or more measures both financial and non-financial but the reliance on financial measures is greater than for non-financial measures. The main non-financial measures frequently used by respondents are on-time delivery, number of customer complaints, defect rate and manufacturing lead time. These findings suggest that respondents, who use non-financial performance measures, are more internal-process and customer focused rather than employee focused. Further the recently developed management accounting techniques such as ABC, non-financial performance measures particularly on employees-oriented measures, decision support analysis and strategic management accounting are only adopted by the minority of the respondents. The respondents also indicated a low extent of use of all investment appraisal techniques in their decision making process. The finding suggests that given the relatively small size of the responding firms and due to some constraints, it is unlikely for the SMEs to adopt a comprehensive MAP in their firms.

Kamilah Ahmad

2013-12-01

235

Size distribution of supernova remnants and the interstellar medium: the case of M33  

CERN Document Server

The size distribution of supernova remnants (SNRs) can help to clarify the various aspects of their evolution and interaction with the interstellar medium (ISM). Since the observed samples of SNRs are a collection of objects with very different ages and origin that evolve in different conditions of the ISM, statistical Monte Carlo methods can be used to model their statistical distributions. Based on very general assumptions on the evolution, we have modeled samples of SNRs at various initial and environmental conditions, which were then compared with observed collections of SNRs. In the evolution of SNRs the pressure of the ISM is taken into account, which determines their maximum sizes and lifetimes. When comparing the modeled and observed distributions, it is very important to have homogeneous observational data free from selection effects. We found that a recently published collection of SNRs in M33 (Long et al. 2010, ApJS,187,495) satisfies this requirement if we select the X-ray SNRs with hardness ratio...

Asvarov, Abdul I

2013-01-01

236

Evaluating the control software for CTA in a medium size telescope prototype  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CTA (Cherenkov Telescope Array) is one of the largest ground-based astronomy projects being pursued and will be the largest facility for ground-based ?-ray observations ever built. CTA will consist of two arrays (one in the Northern hemisphere and one in the Southern hemisphere) composed of telescopes of several sizes. A prototype for the Medium Size Telescope (MST) of a diameter of 12 m will be installed in Berlin by the end of 2012. This MST prototype will be composed of the mechanical structure, drive system and mirror facets mounted with powered actuators to enable active control. Five Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) cameras and a weather station will allow the measurement of the performance of the instrument. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Common Software (ACS) distributed control framework is currently being considered by the CTA consortium to serve as the array control middleware. In order to evaluate the ACS software, it has been decided to implement an ACS-based readout and control system for the MST prototype. The design of the control software is following the concepts and tools under evaluation within the CTA consortium, like the use of a Unified Modeling Language (UML) based code generation framework for ACS component modeling, and the use of OPen Connectivity-Unified Architecture (OPC UA) for hardware access. In this contribution, the progress in the implementation of the control system for this CTA prototype telescope is described.

237

The Roles of Government Funding in Enhancing the Competitiveness of Small and Medium-sized Enterprise in Sabah, Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to determine the roles of government funding in enhancing Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Sabah, Malaysia. Specifically, the study is focused on the Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Sabah, Malaysia which were funded by many government-linked agencies such as Yayasan Tekun Nasional, Amanah Ikhtiar, Koperasi Pembangunan Desa and Agro Bank. This qualitative study was carried out in the rural and urban areas in Sabah, Malaysia. The findings of this study revealed that there are several main roles of government funding to enhance the competitiveness of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Sabah, Malaysia. These four main roles were namely provision of access to capital for opening and improving the business, provision of access to capital for skills and knowledge development, improvement of entrepreneurs’ relations, and promoting entrepreneurship and reducing “fear of failure”. In accordance, it can be concluded that the government funds are instrumental in the success of the efforts to enhance the competitiveness level of the so-called Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Sabah, Malaysia. Besides, it is highly recommended that state government and all parties (the stakeholders should specifically implement efforts to fund the Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises as well as to improve their level of competitiveness.

Abdol Samad Nawi

2012-12-01

238

Size and profitability in the international oil- and gas industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many industrial sectors have gone through a series of mergers and acquisitions. In the international oil- and gas industry this has produced new companies such as ExxonMobil and TotalFinaElf. BP and Amoco merged and then subjugated Atlantic Richfield (ARCO). ChevronTexaco has been established and ConocoPhillips are currently working on the same thing. Saga was previously acquired by Norsk Hydro and Statoil, and Shell recently bought Enterprise and Pennzoil-Quaker. Taking the stock market's principles for corporate analysis and valuation as a starting point, this article discusses the forces behind this consolidation process

239

Management and organization problems of small and medium sized enterprise’s: a research on textile firms in Denizli  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SME are important establishments for countries to evolve entrepreneurship, to refresh economy, to create employment, technological development and structural change. SME’s have to know and apply management and organization topics to continue their lifes in today’s circumstances. In today’s business environment that is intensified competition is lived, importance of investigating solution ways and taking necessary steps for management and organization problems which SME’s face is high for SME’s to survive and develop.At this investigation, it is aimed to search management and organization problems of textile enterprises which are considered as SME that is activating at Denizli Industrial Zone. For this, survey and interview method is used. By looking at investigation results; some suggestions are emphasized by gaining some findings about planning, harmonization, auditing, devolution of authority, decision making, organization related problems, institutionalization related problems, human resources related problems and education related problems that takes place in SME management and organization problems.

Celalettin Serinkan

2008-05-01

240

Study on wind condition for medium/small sized wind power generation. Chusho furyoku hatsuden fukyo chosa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to promote installation of medium/small sized wind power generation in Japan, the observation on wind condition and evaluation of wind energy was conducted for seven months since September, 1988 to March, 1989, at Itoshiki area, Okinawa prefecture, selected from the candidacy sites in the 1987, by Chiyoda Dames and Moore Co., Ltd., being consigned by New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization. Windmill type wind direction and anemometer was used as observation equipment, and observed height were two regions of 10 and 20 meters above ground, items to be observed were wind direction, average wind speed for 10 minutes together with instantenious one. By the results of the observation and its evaluation, it was shown that monthly mean wind speed was from five to eight m/s at a height of 20 meters, required wind energy was 1209 kWh/m{sup 2} in total period, and it was understood that 100kW class windmill was completely feasible. As to the problems in the future, it seems to be in need that the observation on wind condition for promising area and feasibility study suitable to select the area are to be conducted. 51 figs, 41 tabs.

1989-03-01

 
 
 
 
241

Impact of carbon tax on internal combustion engine size selection in a medium scale CHP system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? We study sizing of internal combustion engines as the prime movers of a CHP system. ? We study carbon tax impact on the economics of the system. ? Diesel engine based systems is not economical regardless of the operational mode. ? HDF is the only mode in which gas engine based systems is uneconomical. ? Carbon price considerably affects the system payback period. -- Abstract: Combined heat and power (CHP) systems due to their high efficiency compared to the conventional power generation systems have received considerable attention as they have less harmful impact on the environment. Recently, the serious concern with reducing the greenhouse gas emissions has focussed the attention on the possibility of a carbon tax in some countries. Here, we address the impact of such tax on the sizing and economics of a CHP system. Optimum sizing of CHP systems is of great importance to maximize the benefits of these systems. To select the optimum prime mover of a CHP system, performance characteristics of engine as well as economic parameters should be taken into consideration. A general thermo-economic approach to optimum sizing of internal combustion engines as the prime movers (any type and size) of a medium scale CHP system (500-5000 kW) and planning their operational strategy is developed. Net Annual Cost (NAC) as the criterion for making decision is introduced and appropriate equations for estimating thermodynamic and economic parameters as well as greenhouse gas emissions are presented. We consider three modes of operation: one-way connection (OWC) mode, two-way connection (TWC) mode, and heat demand following (HDF) mode. The proposed method has been used for a case study where data is available in the literature and the optimum nominal powers using gas engines are 3.3 MW, 3.2 MW, and 1.2 MW and in the case of using diesel engines are 3.4 MW, 3.4 MW, and 1.4 MW for TWC, OWC, and HDF modes, respectively. To determine the sensitivity of results to input parameters (e.g. electricity price) a comprehensive parametric study was conducted.

242

Intent to be a Socially Responsible Small or Medium-sized Enterprise: Theory of Planned Behavior and Leaders’ Actualizing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A review of the academic research in corporate social responsibility shows little work on small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs in the U.S. whereas considerable work in this domain has been conducted in the European context. This study seeks to make a contribution to the research void by addressing one particular area of social responsibility in the U.S. context. Specifically, we employ Ajzen’s reasoned action approach to begin to build an understanding of what promotes leaders of SMEs to reduce waste. This study addresses several questions: What are the attitudes of owners and managers of SMEs toward waste reduction practices for their organizations? How are stakeholder interests toward waste reduction perceived? And, are leaders of SMEs influenced by their industrial environment? The authors utilized an email survey directed to owners and managers of SMEs with greater than 5, but less than 500 employees in the telephony, construction, pulp and paper products, textiles, and agriculture industries. 377 emails were opened and 104 completed surveys were obtained. The survey instrument was developed from the theoretical perspective of Isaac Ajzen’s (1991 Theory of Planned Behavior in Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, p. 179-211. Results from a partial least squares analysis of the data suggest that there is a strong and significant relationship between the normative, attitudinal, and control constructs with an individual’s intention to be a socially responsible SME. This finding suggests that efforts to influence SME owners and managers to implement waste reduction activities need focus on changing individual attitudes.

Ashley Jane Bennington

2012-10-01

243

Harmonization process in defining small and medium-sized enterprises. Arguments for a quantitative definition versus a qualitative one  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Harmonization process of the definition and financial reporting of small and medium-sized enterprises is still a challenge for European and international organizations and institutions. Analysing the definitions of SMEs issued by European Commission, World Bank, OECD, the definitions used within a couple of countries and other studies regarding this aspect, it concluded that is not yet a consensus regarding the definition of the small and medium-sized enterprises. The various criteria used to classify the enterprises in the category of SMEs, different thresholds, the economic activity and economic context of each country are the main factors which interfere with the existence of one international available quantitative definition for small and medium-sized enterprises.

Maria-M?d?lina BUCULESCU (COSTIC?

2013-09-01

244

Studies of various single phase natural circulation systems for small and medium sized reactor design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: • SMRs and passive safety systems in single phase systems are reviewed. • Simple loop analysis has been done for gas, single phase water, and liquid metals. • Gas systems have a greater tendency to fall into DTHT regime. • SMR and large LWR reactors can differ in operating heat transfer regime. -- Abstract: Passive safety is a primary motive behind the development of small and medium sized reactors of various coolants. After the Fukushima accident, there is an increased interest in a nuclear reactor's reliance on passive safety systems. Most of the existing passive systems, regardless of the reactor type, utilize buoyancy force to drive the cooling flow. Hence, it is essential to evaluate if the naturally developed cooling flow is sufficient to maintain the heated surface temperature of the fuel elements below the design limit. Evaluating passively driven flows can be quite a challenging task in both two phase natural circulation systems and also in single phase natural circulation systems. Previous research works have found that single phase heat transfer can be deteriorated and becomes uncertain when the driving force of a system is shifted from external force (forced convection) to self generated buoyancy force or a combination of both (natural or mixed convection). In this paper, single phase gas, water, and liquid metal reactors with passive systems are reviewed briefly. A simple theoretical analysis of each reactor type is performed to find the tendency of the shift in the operating heat transfer regime into the deteriorated region. The analysis results show that single phase water system can maintain operation within the forced convection regime but the operating regime gets closer to the deteriorating heat transfer regime as the system's physical size reduces from a large nuclear power plant to the small and medium reactor scale. The gas cooled system has a high tendency to operate in the deteriorated heat transfer regime when the driving force changes from forced to natural. Meanwhile the liquid metal system demonstrates more margins to operate outside from the deteriorated heat transfer region compared to the two other fluid systems. However further studies are needed to clearly identify the boundaries of the deteriorated heat transfer regime for each coolant since the deterioration greatly depends on the thermophysical properties variation of the coolant and the near-wall flow behavior of the coolant with respect to temperature change.

Wibisono, Andhika Feri, E-mail: feri.wibisono@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Yoonhan, E-mail: yh.ahn@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Williams, Wesley C., E-mail: wcw@phd-engineering.com [PHD Engineering, LLC, 11828 Villa Avenue, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Addad, Yacine, E-mail: yacine.addad@kustar.ac.ae [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research (KUSTAR), P.O. Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Lee, Jeong Ik, E-mail: jeongiklee@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-09-15

245

CAN THE BUSINESS MODEL OF HANDELSBANKEN BE AN ARCHETYPE FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED BANKS? A COMPARATIVE CASE STUDY  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Danish Banking sector faces increasing requirements regarding regulation and profitability, which especially threatens small- and medium sized banks. This study analyzes whether the successful business model of Handelsbanken (‘The Handelsbanken Way’) to banking in regard to the needed strengthening of the financial and non-financial position can serve as a blueprint for small- and medium sized banks. We conduct a comparative case study by interviewing Handelsbanken and the disguised ‘Danish Local Bank’ (DLB), where the DLB is a representative example of a small- and medium sized Danish bank. This study is structured according to the frameworks from Business Model implementations and from implied organizational structures. Using the notion of Osterwalder and Pigneur (2010), this study reveals only minor differences in the Business Models of Handelsbanken and DLB. Despite the supposedly obvious advantages of ‘The Handelsbanken Way’, this study suggests that the financially troubled small- and medium sizedbanks in Denmark will not necessarily benefit from the tactical choice of decentralization unless they incorporate specific adjustments. This study contribute to the existing theory concerning Handelsbanken’s approach to banking in regard to the appropriateness as a part of the solution to financial troubled small- and medium sized banks in Denmark.

Schmaltz, Christian; Lueg, Rainer

2014-01-01

246

Energy conservation for medium industry by retrofitting H.T. distribution system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electrical energy consumption pattern is a non-constant nature, which varies considerably between 30% and 40% of the maximum peak demand as per system load parameters. Some suggested new design components are projected, which are basically of retrofitting nature to suit the industrial units with high tension (HT) distribution systems. This has a view to achieve energy conservation as well as reduction in kW, kWH, kVA, kVAH and kVARH. These equipment are of short, medium and long term application to without much financial involvement. These are all immediate fruit bearing successful achievements for the state of Orissa which is in a power hungry zone of the country. There is a central government comprehensive policy decision for application of energy conservation. (author). 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab., 1 ill

247

The importance of financial consulting in the development of small and medium-sized enterprises in the European Union  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During much of the past decade, SMEs have seen an impressive growth. Since the onset of the financial crisis, this trend seems to have been interrupted, even though there are indications that show that, at least in the early stages of the crisis, Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the European Union have proven to be comparatively resilient. Under these circumstances, the financial advisory may be a key to the future development of small and medium-sized enterprises in the European Union.

Nicolae, C. M.

2011-01-01

248

13 CFR 121.201 - What size standards has SBA identified by North American Industry Classification System codes?  

Science.gov (United States)

...1 2010-01-012010-01-01false What size standards has SBA identified by North American Industry...AssistanceSMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATIONSMALL BUSINESS SIZE REGULATIONS Size Eligibility Provisions and StandardsSize...

2010-01-01

249

The electricity supply industry in England and Wales. Medium term development plan 1986-93  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objective of the Electricity Supply Industry in England and Wales is to develop and maintain electricity supplies to meet customers' needs as cheaply as possible. Over the medium term, 1986 - 1993, the goal is to reduce the real average price per kWh sold, whilst maintaining high standards of service and meeting financial obligations. The strategy set out comprises reducing controllable costs per kWh sold to 1992/3, pursuing a vigorous and selective marketing strategy so that an expected sales increase of 10% is achieved, securing a long term supply of coal at minimum cost by developing the commercial relationship with British Coal, increasing the proportion of electrical energy supplied by nuclear energy to 25% by 1992/3 and being environmentally concerned. The introduction outlines the medium term business, energy and economic environment, financial targets and price prospects. Plans to support the strategy outlined are presented. Each section sets out the objectives and the plans to achieve these. The strategy for new power stations is to develop fossil-fueled and nuclear as well as to develop alternative technologies. (UK)

250

Status of innovative small and medium sized reactor designs 2005. Reactors with conventional refuelling schemes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a renewed interest in Member States in the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). In the near term, most new NPPs are likely to be evolutionary designs building on proven systems while incorporating technological advances and often the economics of scale, resulting from the reactor outputs of up to 1600 MW(e). For the longer term, the focus is on innovative designs aiming to provide increased benefits in the areas of safety and security, non-proliferation, waste management, resource utilization and economy, as well as to offer a variety of energy products and flexibility in design, siting and fuel cycle options. Many innovative designs are reactors within the small-to-medium size range, having an equivalent electric power less than 700 MW(e) or even less than 300 MW(e). The projected timelines of readiness for deployment are generally between 2010 and 2030. The objective of this report is to provide Member States, including those just considering the initiation of nuclear power programmes, and those already having practical experience in nuclear power, with a balanced and objective information on important development trends and objectives of innovative SMRs for a variety of uses, on the achieved state-of-the-art in design and technology development for such reactors and on their design and regulatory status. The report is intended for many categories of stakeholders, including regulators, electricity producers, designers, non-electrical producers and policy makers. The main chapters of this report, addressed to all abovementioned groups of stakeholders, provide a summary of major specifications, applications and user-related special features of innovative SMRs, outline the achieved design and regulatory status and its progress since previous IAEA publications, review targeted deployment dates, fuel cycle options, design approaches used to meet design objectives in specific subject areas, enabling technologies and current research and development (R and D) programmes in Member States, and non-technical factors and arrangements that could facilitate successful development and deployment of innovative reactors within the small-to-medium power range. The annexes, intended mostly for designers and technical managers, provide detailed design descriptions of innovative SMRs under development worldwide and are patterned along a newly developed common format, which makes it possible to identify the design philosophy, objectives and approaches, as well as technical features and non-technical factors and arrangements with a potential to provide solutions in the specific areas of concern associated with future nuclear energy systems. Detailed design descriptions in this report were prepared firsthand by the designers and reviewed, updated and approved for publication by the respective vendors, research and design organizations and academic institutions in Member States. The scope of this report is limited to reactors with conventional, proven in operation refuelling schemes and does not include small reactors that could operate without reloading and shuffling of fuel for a long period, from 10 years and more, with no fresh or spent fuel being stored at the site during reactor operation. Because of a large number of inputs, such reactors would require a separate dedicated publication

251

Service Pyramid Concept of Knowledge Intensive Business Services in the Small and Medium Sized Enterprises Sector  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The activity of service companies is more complex today than before the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT became widespread in business. Fewer service companies can be found on the market based solely on physical customer interaction; however, they have been replaced with standardized and automated services. This structural change can be observed particularly among Knowledge Intensive Business Services (KIBS companies where the use of ICT is not simply a market requirement, but a competition tool, as well. Without the application of any ICT instrument, a KIBS company could not meet market expectations, and furthermore, business developments are mainly ICT-based. On the other hand, companies need to develop their businesses more and more, as KIBS companies which are not able to differentiate themselves as trustworthy on the business services market will disappear. ‘Just another business service company’ cannot really sell today. This is applicable to a greater extent to Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SME, where ICT has opened market opportunities that have never existed for them before. The aim of this paper is to highlight the new features of KIBS business activities in the SME sector and the related research questions.

Sándor Nagy

2013-12-01

252

Conceptual design of synchrotron light source of medium size and high performance  

CERN Document Server

Medium size and high performance synchrotron light source is designed to make a center of synchrotron radiation in the area of many users. About 8nm-rad low emittance is realized by 1.8GeV beam energy and 160cm circumference by combined-function type bending electromagnet and non-achromatic electron beam optics. We secured 10 lines of 6m straight sections were able to set 5m undulator and 10 lines of 1.6m straight sections could set short undulator and multipole wiggler. Dynamic aperture is large. Five straight sections are used by operation, for examples, injection, beam control and rf acceleration. Fifteen lines are used by insertion devices. The highest level vacuum ultraviolet and soft X-ray high brilliance light source are produced by 7 lines of 5m class undulators. High flux X-ray light source covered until 30keV is realized by 5 multipole wigglers with 1m length and 2T magnetic field. 1m in-vacuum short period undulator generates high brilliance undulator light in the soft X-ray field. (S.Y.)

Katoh, M; Suzuki, S

2002-01-01

253

Pointing Calibration for the Cherenkov Telescope Array Medium Size Telescope Prototype  

CERN Document Server

Pointing calibration is an offline correction applied in order to obtain the true pointing direction of a telescope. The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) aims to have the precision to determine the position of point-like as well as slightly extended sources, with the goal of systematic errors less than 7 arc seconds in space angle. This poster describes the pointing calibration concept being developed for the CTA Medium Size Telescope (MST) prototype at Berlin-Adlershof, showing test results and preliminary measurements. The MST pointing calibration method uses two CCD cameras, mounted on the telescope dish, to determine the true pointing of the telescope. The "Lid CCD" is aligned to the optical axis of the telescope, calibrated with LEDs on the dummy gamma-camera lid; the "Sky CCD" is pre-aligned to the Lid CCD and the transformation between the Sky and Lid CCD camera fields of view is precisely modelled with images from special pointing runs which are also used to determine the pointing model. During source ...

Oakes, Louise; Baehr, Juergen; Gruenewald, Sandra; Raeck, Tobias; Schlenstedt, Stefan; Schubert, Anja; Schwanke, Ullrich

2013-01-01

254

Change Management – Condition of Organizational Sustainability in IT&C Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present research aims to establish and outline strategies for promoting change in the context of organizational learning, in order to maintain deeply active and creative human resources, while capable of achieving economic sustainability. This is becoming more obvious now as the changes take place in a dynamic world where human resources are the only key factors able to provide the design and implementation of routine changes and procedures, in the present and not in the future. Furthermore, to highlight strengths and weaknesses of approaches regarding the sustainability and organizational change, our topic of research was conducted as an empirical study on the IT&C Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs, especially in the context of sustainability tending to become even more a value of modern, dynamic and powerful organizations. The main objective of the article is to outline some potential ways to implement the change management in the IT&C Romanian SMEs environment and their perception manner concerning the rationality and operationality of change, to ensure the viability and the organizational sustainability.

Dan Popescu

2012-06-01

255

Design features to achieve defence-in-depth in small and medium sized reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to the categorization adopted by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), small and medium sized reactors are those with the equivalent electric output less than 700 MW. In most of the cases, deployment potential of SMRs is supported by their ability to fill niches in which they would address market situations different from those of currently operated large-capacity nuclear power plants. Ensuring adequate defence-in-depth (DID) is important for reactors of smaller output because many of them are being designed to allow more proximity to the user, specifically, when non-electrical energy products are targeted. Based on the activities recently performed by IAEA, the paper provides a summary description of the design features used to achieve DID in the eleven representative concepts of SMRs. The SMRs considered included reactors of different types - pressurized water reactors, pressurized boiling light water cooled heavy water moderated reactors, high temperature gas cooled reactors, fast reactors,and non conventional very high temperature designs. The design descriptions were structured to follow the definitions and recommendations of the IAEA safety standardNS-R-1 'Safety of the Nuclear Power Plants: Design Requirements'. The focus of this paper would be on sodium cooled and lead cooled fast reactors -the 4S-LMR (Japan) and the SSTAR and the STAR-LM (USA)

256

IMPORTANCE OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES IN ROMANIAN ECONOMY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The market economy has reduced the number of large enterprises and has determinated the emergence ofa special class like small and medium-sized enterprises. Those companies play a special role in the nationaleconomy, especially through the fact that attract about 65% of employees in Romania, makes significantinvestments, takes approximately 30% of gross value added in the national economy, operates mainly in servicesactivity, are flexible, concerned with development and have the ability to adopt new technologies. The SMEsector has been affected by the crisis, but not in the same measure as large enterprises. This fact is demonstratedby the economic and financial indicators that I have analised, in 2011 SME beeing able to overcome the crisisand to achieve higher performance than in the years before crisis. The SME sector is considered the most activesector of the modern economy, plays a important role in the economic structure of our country, helping to ensureeconomic and social development as it is shown by the strong bond that exist between the GVA in SME sectorand total GVA added to the national economy, demonstrated in the calculations that I have made in this study.

B?L?NESCU M?D?LINA

2013-08-01

257

Open Model for the Evaluation of Economic Attractiveness of Small and Medium Sized Reactors. Annex VI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This annex describes the development of an open model for simulation and evaluation of the economic features of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs), being undertaken by the Politecnico di Milano in Italy. The model aims at establishing a comparative assessment of SMRs versus large reactors (LRs) as its final output. The model will allow assessment of the competitiveness of SMRs under different deployment and application conditions. The distinctive attributes of SMRs such as replication, scalability, reversibility and standardization are briefly described below. The features of SMRs impacting the domains of generation costs (co-siting economies, learning economies, technical economies, mass production and factory fabrication economies), deployment conditions (market matching, market suitability, reduced entry barriers) and financial costs (lower financial distress, reduced risk premium) are addressed before explaining the model architecture. Other state of the art models in this regard are also discussed, along with their respective attributes. The special features of the SMR model being developed are discussed. At the current stage of research, selected elements of the generation costs are modelled analytically. Provisions for adapting financial and external costs from other contemporary models and integrating the same into the main framework are being established. The model has been realized as a code, and the updated version of this code is used in the case studies of SMR competitiveness in different applications, carried out within the IAEA project Common Technology and Issues for SMRs

258

Determinants of the Capital Structure of Small and Medium Sized Brazilian Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research investigates the determinants of the capital structure of small and medium enterprises (SMEs using a unique database that includes over 19,000 Brazilian firms and spans 13 years of data. The econometric analysis employs the System Generalized Method of Moments estimator (GMM-Sys and two strong results emerge: (a profitability is negatively related to leverage, and (b asset growth is positively related to leverage. Both results are consistent with the pecking order theory of capital structure and suggest that SMEs tend to finance their expansion with debt only after exhausting their internal resources. Additionally, we find weaker evidence for the following: (a size is positively related to leverage, which can be interpreted as evidence that larger firms have more access to credit markets; (b riskier SMEs tend to be less financially leveraged, consistent with the bankruptcy cost arguments from trade-off theories; and (c the age of the firm is negatively related to financial leverage, suggesting that older SMEs may be slightly more conservative in their financing choices. Finally, the magnitude of the coefficient of lagged leverage shows the high persistence of this variable and is compatible with the hypothesis that SMEs adjust their debt/equity ratio towards a target value, although at a low speed.

Wilson Toshiro Nakamura

2013-07-01

259

CRITICAL FACTORS IN OUTSOURCING OF ACCOUNTING FUNCTIONS IN MALAYSIAN SMALL MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES (SMEs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The challenges that business face in sustaining competitive advantage in the corporate world have become a major concern. Businesses are adopting cutting-edge technologies and best practices to cope with rapid, global changes. Various business functions are being reengineered for this purpose. Accounting functions play an important role in helping businesses to maintain competitive advantage. However, some small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs face problems handling fundamental accounting functions. This is predominantly because of their lack of expertise; accounting functions require not only knowledge of generally accepted accounting rules or tax regulations but also the expertise needed to apply the rules in a given business environment (Everaert, Sarens and Rommel, 2006. This paper offers some insight on the outsourcing of accounting functions as there is paucity of data in this area in the context of Malaysia. Essentially, it presents empirical evidence regarding Malaysian SMEs' accounting outsourcing practices. A survey of SMEs was conducted to identify the overall outsourcing landscape as it relates to accounting and third-party organisations. The factors that contribute to the decision to outsource accounting functions are analysed. The study reveals a significant relationship between outsourcing accounting functions and two contributing factors, risks and operation management.

Magiswary Dorasamy

2010-01-01

260

Experimental testing of centrifugal pump: small and medium sized enterprise product  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports the experimental testing for centrifugal pump for fisherman ship, manufactured by small and medium sized enterprises in Central Java Province, Indonesia. The research covers material analysis, component observation, endurance and vibration test. Six centrifugal pumps are tested and three main pump components are discussed: shaft, bearings and seals. The results show that the material of the shaft is predicted to support and transmit the load from the engine to impeller. The problem found in the tolerance and geometry accuracy of the shaft which causes difficulties during assembling process, excessive wear and leakage during testing. From the endurance and vibration test, the ball bearings fail and lock the shaft due to the fatigue on the rolling elements and raceways. The oil seal and water seal also fail in maintaining the oil and water in the chamber and induce the unlubricated system for the ball bearings. Some suggestions are delivered to improve the product quality of the centrifugal pump. A good quality of the centrifugal pump for fishermen ship and long life span is expected to be produced by local SMEs to win the free trade competition in the Indonesian market.

Ismail, R.; Paddiyatu, F.; Khafidh, M.; Nugroho, S.; Sugiyanto, S.; Jamari, J.

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
261

Assessing Incorrect Household Waste Sorting in a Medium-Sized Swedish City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Source separation is a common method for dealing with the increasing problem of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW in society. The citizens are then responsible for separating waste fractions produced in their home. If the consumers fail to sort the waste according to the source separation scheme, it will lead to an ineffective system. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the environmental, economic and social aspects of incorrect waste sorting in a medium sized Swedish city that has established a source separation system. In order to determine the extent to which citizens correctly sort their waste, food waste (black bags and combustible fraction (white bags, were collected randomly from a residential area and categorized in different waste fractions. The results show that approximately 68 wt% of the waste in the white and 29 wt% in the black bags were not sorted correctly. This incorrect sorting accrues over 13 million SEK per year cost for this community. In order to improve the inhabitants’ participation in the waste management system, it is necessary to change different factors such as convenience and easy access to the recycling stations in the local MSW management systems as well as to review current regulation and policy.

Kamran Rousta

2013-10-01

262

Quantitative evaluation of waste prevention on the level of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Waste prevention is a principle means of achieving the goals of waste management and a key element for developing sustainable economies. Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) contribute substantially to environmental degradation, often not even being aware of their environmental effects. Therefore, several initiatives have been launched in Austria aimed at supporting waste prevention measures on the level of SMEs. To promote the most efficient projects, they have to be evaluated with respect to their contribution to the goals of waste management. It is the aim of this paper to develop a methodology for evaluating waste prevention measures in SMEs based on their goal orientation. At first, conceptual problems of defining and delineating waste prevention activities are briefly discussed. Then an approach to evaluate waste prevention activities with respect to their environmental performance is presented and benchmarks which allow for an efficient use of the available funds are developed. Finally the evaluation method is applied to a number of former projects and the calculated results are analysed with respect to shortcomings and limitations of the model. It is found that the developed methodology can provide a tool for a more objective and comprehensible evaluation of waste prevention measures

263

Adoption of Profitable Energy Efficiency Related Process Improvements in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We investigate the adoption and non-adoption of energy efficiency initiatives using a database of over 100,000 recommendations provided to more than 13,000 small and medium sized manufacturing firms. Even though the average payback across all recommendations is just over one year, many of these profitable opportunities are not implemented. Using a probit instrumental variable model, we identify four biases in the adoption of these recommendations. First, managers are myopic as they miss out on many profitable opportunities. Second, managers are more influenced by upfront costs than by net benefits when evaluating such initiatives. Third, adoption of a recommendation depends not only on its characteristics but also on the sequence in which the recommendations are presented. Adoption rates are higher for initiatives appearing early in a list of recommendations. Finally, adoption is not influenced by the number of options provided to decision makers. This contributes to the debate about whether or not choice overload occurs. We highlight decision biases previously unobserved in the Operations Management literature using field data rather than experimental data. We draw implications for enhancing adoption of energy efficiency initiatives and for other decision contexts where a collection of process improvement recommendations are made to firms. Keywords: Process Improvement, Energy Efficiency, Decision Bias, Adoption, Behavioral Operations.

Muthulingam, Suresh; Corbett, Charles J.; Benartzi, Shlomo [University of California, (USA); Oppenheim, Bohdan [Loyola Marymount University (USA)

2009-07-01

264

Determinants of the capital structure of small and medium sized Brazilian enterprises  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This research investigates the determinants of the capital structure of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) using a unique database that includes over 19,000 Brazilian firms and spans 13 years of data. The econometric analysis employs the System Generalized Method of Moments estimator (GMM-Sys) and [...] two strong results emerge: (a) profitability is negatively related to leverage, and (b) asset growth is positively related to leverage. Both results are consistent with the pecking order theory of capital structure and suggest that SMEs tend to finance their expansion with debt only after exhausting their internal resources. Additionally, we find weaker evidence for the following: (a) size is positively related to leverage, which can be interpreted as evidence that larger firms have more access to credit markets; (b) riskier SMEs tend to be less financially leveraged, consistent with the bankruptcy cost arguments from trade-off theories; and (c) the age of the firm is negatively related to financial leverage, suggesting that older SMEs may be slightly more conservative in their financing choices. Finally, the magnitude of the coefficient of lagged leverage shows the high persistence of this variable and is compatible with the hypothesis that SMEs adjust their debt/equity ratio towards a target value, although at a low speed.

Denis, Forte; Lucas Ayres, Barros; Wilson Toshiro, Nakamura.

2013-09-01

265

Signaling from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in striatal medium-sized spiny neurons  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Striatal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs receive massive glutamate inputs from the cerebral cortex and thalamus and are a major target of dopamine projections. Interaction between glutamate and dopamine signaling is crucial for the control of movement and reward-driven learning, and its alterations are implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders including Parkinson’s disease and drug addiction. Long-lasting forms of synaptic plasticity are thought to depend on transcription of gene products that alter the structure and/or function of neurons. Although multiple signal transduction pathways regulate transcription, little is known about signal transmission between the cytoplasm and the nucleus of striatal neurons and its regulation. Here we review the current knowledge of the signaling cascades that target the nucleus of MSNs, most of which are activated by cAMP and/or Ca2+. We outline the mechanisms by which signals originating at the plasma membrane and amplified in the cytoplasm are relayed to the nucleus, through the regulation of several protein kinases and phosphatases and transport through the nuclear pore. We also summarize the identified mechanisms of transcription regulation and chromatin remodeling in MSNs that appear to be important for behavioral adaptations, and discuss their relationships with epigenetic regulation.

Jean-AntoineGirault

2011-07-01

266

Information Technology Adoption in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises; An Appraisal of Two Decades Literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs account for major source of employment, technological advancements, and competitive advantages for both developed and developing countries. Owing to the intensified competitive pressure and necessity for entering to global market undergone by SMEs, these businesses are incrementally employing Information Technology (IT to take advantage of its substantial benefits. Most of prior researches have more focused on IT adoption in large organizations. However, and with regard to the limited resources controlled by SMEs, the process of IT adoption in this business sector is considerably different. The purpose of this paper is to analyze and contrast the internal and external issues affecting the process of IT adoption in SMEs to provide clearer understanding of this process by reviewing IT adoption literature, which includes more than 20 years of empirical research and case studies from a variety of databases with high concentration on certain SME-related issues. Proposed integrated framework demonstrates the process of IT adoption in SMEs through reviewing exiting perspectives in the literature. This study will assist different parties involved with adoption process including managers, vendors, consultants, and governments to achieve a practical synopsis of the IT adoption process in SMEs, which is believed to assist them with successful adoption.

Morteza Ghobakhloo

2011-10-01

267

Strategies for Successful Information Technology Adoption in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Information Technology (IT adoption is an important field of study in a number of areas, which include small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. Due to the numerous advantages of IT, SMEs are trying to adopt IT applications to support their businesses. IT adoption by SMEs differs from larger organizations because of their specific characteristics, such as resources constraints. Therefore, this research aims to provide a better and clearer understanding of IT adoption within SMEs by reviewing and analyzing current IT literature. In this research, the review of literature includes theories, perspectives, empirical research and case studies related to IT adoption, in particular within SMEs from various databases such as Business Premier, Science Direct, JStor, Emerald Insight and Springer Link. The proposed model of effective IT adoption is believed to provide managers, vendors, consultants and governments with a practical synopsis of the IT adoption process in SMEs, which will in turn assist them to be successful with IT institutionalization within these businesses.

Morteza Ghobakhloo

2012-02-01

268

Sustainability indices as a tool for urban managers, evidence from four medium-sized Chinese cities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research in four medium-sized Chinese cities aims at measuring urban sustainability in China and focuses on three issues. First, the situation in these four cities with regard to urban sustainability is evaluated. Secondly, a number of relations between different aspects of urban sustainability is explored. Finally, it is indicated how urban managers can improve with sustainability indices as tools currently ineffective urban management practices. Although all four cities are moving towards sustainable development, the current situation shows still weak sustainability in three, and even non-sustainability in one city. The social and, in particular, the economic dimensions of urban sustainability make significant positive contributions to overall urban sustainability. However, the decline of natural resources and environmental degradation are influencing it negatively. It is therefore suggested that more priority should be assigned to urban environmental protection and management in China. The fundamental reason for environmental degradation is believed to be inefficient urban management. To implement effective urban management in China, there is an urgent need to redefine the role of local government, reform local organizational structure, enhance local participatory institutional capacity, properly distribute the urban welfare, and thus integrate economic, social and environmental objectives local strategic and action plansans

269

The CTA medium size telescope prototype, a test bench for the array control software  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

CTA (Cherenkov Telescope Array) will be the largest ground-based gamma-ray observatory ever built. Two arrays are foreseen to be build, one in the Southern and one in the Northern hemisphere. A prototype for the Medium Size Telescope (MST) type (diameter: 12 m) will be installed in Berlin in early 2012. This MST prototype will be composed of the mechanical structure, drive system and mirror facets with an active mirror control system. The stability of the mechanical structure will be investigated with CCD cameras and a weather station. Furthermore the ALMA Common Software (ACS) distributed control framework will used as readout and control system for the MST, allowing to evaluate the software with the future use for the whole CTA array in mind. The design of the control software is following the concepts and tools under evaluation within the CTA consortium, like the use of a UML based code generation framework for ACS component modeling, and the use of OPC Unified Architecture (OPC UA) for hardware access. In this contribution the progress in the implementation of the control system for this CTA prototype telescope is described.

Birsin, Emrah; Oya, Igor; Schwanke, Ullrich [Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin (Germany); Behera, Bagmeet; Koeppel, Hendryk; Melkumyan, David; Schmidt, Torsten; Wegner, Peter; Wiesand, Stephan; Winde, Michael [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Zeuthen (Germany)

2012-07-01

270

Key Supplier Relationship Management: The Case of Croatian Medium-Sized and Large Manufacturing Companies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The key supplier relationship management represents a vital organizational process. Companies should pay attention not only to managing customer relationships but also to managing relationships with suppliers in order to perform well. They should identify the extent to which a certain supplier adds value through the procurement process. In this line of reasoning, both theory and practice make a distinction between strategic (key and non-strategic (transactional suppliers. By employing the segmentation of the supply market, companies balance their supplier portfolio and are capable of identifying the key suppliers. They can also develop specific programs and initiatives that are aimed at preserving these relationships. In the empirical part of the paper, a survey was conducted on a sample of 123 medium-sized and large Croatian manufacturing companies. The structural model involving the relationship between the key supplier relationship management and value-oriented purchasing was tested. The results indicate that there is a statistically direct, positive and significant relationship between these two constructs. Likewise, the results stress that a theoretical conceptualization and operationalization of the key supplier relationship management construct is both valid and justified. Finally, the theoretical and practical implications and limitations of this study are offered.

Dario Mio?evi?

2011-06-01

271

Gastrointestinal nematodes in grazing dairy cattle from small and medium-sized farms in southern Poland.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes and the intensity of infection in grazing dairy cattle from small and medium-sized farms in southern Poland. The level of antibodies against Ostertagia ostertagi in the bulk tank milk (BTM) from the animals was also assessed. Rectal fecal samples collected from 361 cows on 20 farms were examined using Willis-Schlaaf flotation and the McMaster method. BTM samples were tested for the presence of O. ostertagi antibodies using ELISA. Multiplex PCR was used to identify the third-stage larvae (L3) of gastrointestinal nematodes derived from the culture of pooled fecal samples from sampled farms. Gastrointestinal nematode eggs were found in the samples from 18 of the 20 herds with a prevalence range from 20.4 to 94.5%. The average number of eggs excreted in the feces of the herds was 200 eggs per gram (EPG). Antibodies to O. ostertagi were found in 20 of the examined herds (100%), of which 6 had optical density ratios (ODR) greater than 0.5. PCR results showed the presence of three nematode species: Ostertagia ostertagi, Cooperia oncophora and Oesophagostomum radiatum. PMID:23958284

Piekarska, J; P?oneczka-Janeczko, K; Kantyka, M; Kuczaj, M; Gorczykowski, M; Janeczko, K

2013-11-15

272

TELICS—A Telescope Instrument Control System for Small/Medium Sized Astronomical Observatories  

Science.gov (United States)

For any modern astronomical observatory, it is essential to have an efficient interface between the telescope and its back-end instruments. However, for small and medium-sized observatories, this requirement is often limited by tight financial constraints. Therefore a simple yet versatile and low-cost control system is required for such observatories to minimize cost and effort. Here we report the development of a modern, multipurpose instrument control system TELICS (Telescope Instrument Control System) to integrate the controls of various instruments and devices mounted on the telescope. TELICS consists of an embedded hardware unit known as a common control unit (CCU) in combination with Linux-based data acquisition and user interface. The hardware of the CCU is built around the ATmega 128 microcontroller (Atmel Corp.) and is designed with a backplane, master-slave architecture. A Qt-based graphical user interface (GUI) has been developed and the back-end application software is based on C/C++. TELICS provides feedback mechanisms that give the operator good visibility and a quick-look display of the status and modes of instruments as well as data. TELICS has been used for regular science observations since 2008 March on the 2 m, f/10 IUCAA Telescope located at Girawali in Pune, India.

Srivastava, Mudit K.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Burse, Mahesh P.; Chordia, Pravin A.; Chillal, Kalpesh S.; Mestry, Vilas B.; Das, Hillol K.; Kohok, Abhay A.

2009-10-01

273

THE IFRS STANDARD FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTITIES – ANOTHER CHALLENGE FOR THE ROMANIAN ACCOUNTING?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the early 2000s, the accounting has been connected to the international realities. From that moment on, we have witnessed an extraordinary dynamic of the Romanian accounting, evidenced by the many changes that have occurred in the accounting rules. Internationally, the dynamism is also the main feature of today's accounting. We witness almost annually the reconsideration of the international accounting referential. In this context of the frequent changes that occur in the accounting aria, the IASB launched the International Financial Reporting Standards for Non-Publicly Accountable Entities (formerly Small and Medium-Sized Entities, a controversial approach in the international accounting. The objectives of this paper will be followed on two levels: first, we will put forth the position of different countries on this IASB initiative and second, we will show, by the means of a positive research based on an empirical study, the attitudes of professional accountants in Romania towards the possible implementation of the IFRS for NPAEs in the Romanian accounting in the next period.

Adriana Florina POPA

2009-01-01

274

The CTA medium size telescope prototype, a test bench for the array control software  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CTA (Cherenkov Telescope Array) will be the largest ground-based gamma-ray observatory ever built. Two arrays are foreseen to be build, one in the Southern and one in the Northern hemisphere. A prototype for the Medium Size Telescope (MST) type (diameter: 12 m) will be installed in Berlin in early 2012. This MST prototype will be composed of the mechanical structure, drive system and mirror facets with an active mirror control system. The stability of the mechanical structure will be investigated with CCD cameras and a weather station. Furthermore the ALMA Common Software (ACS) distributed control framework will used as readout and control system for the MST, allowing to evaluate the software with the future use for the whole CTA array in mind. The design of the control software is following the concepts and tools under evaluation within the CTA consortium, like the use of a UML based code generation framework for ACS component modeling, and the use of OPC Unified Architecture (OPC UA) for hardware access. In this contribution the progress in the implementation of the control system for this CTA prototype telescope is described.

275

Adaptive Traffic Control Systems in a medium-sized Scandinavian city : – effects and experiences  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Adaptive Traffic Control Systems (ATCS) are aimed at reducing congestion. ATCS adapt to approaching traffic to continuously optimise the traffic flows in question. ATCS have been implemented in many locations, including the Scandinavian countries, with various effects. Due to congestion problems, ATCS were installed in the eight signalised intersections of a 1.7 km stretch of the ring road in the medium-sized Danish city of Aalborg. To measure the effect of ATCS a with/without study was carried out. GPS data from a car following the traffic, recorded transportation times for buses in service, and GPS data from a range of cars driving on the ring road formed the basis for the study. The result of ATCS implementation was a significant 17% reduction in transportation time on the ring road in the most congested period, the afternoon peak. Less significant effects were found regarding the morning peak and midday off-peak. The effect on crossing and turning traffic was slight, and while reduced transportation time was found in one part of the ring road in another part transportation time was seen to increase. The benefit to the ring road was partly gained at the cost of slightly increased transportation time for crossing traffic.

Agerholm, Niels; Olesen, Anne Vingaard

2014-01-01

276

Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from small and medium-sized Kansas mammals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seven species of hard-bodied ticks were collected from 20 species of small and medium-sized mammals in Kansas; Amblyomma americanum L., Dermacentor variabilis (Say), Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (Packard), Ixodes cookei Packard, I. kingi Bishopp, I. sculptus Neumann, and I. texanus Banks. Dermacentor variabilis was found statewide, A. americanum only in the eastern one-third of the state, and the Ixodes spp. and H. leporispalustris were widely scattered. The most common tick found was D. variabilis, both by itself and in association with other ticks. Mammals that ticks were collected from included Canis latrans Say, Cynomys ludovicianus ludovicianus (Ord), Didelphis virginianus Kerr, Geomys bursarius (Shaw), Lynx rufus (Schreber), Marmota monax bunkeri Black, Mephitis mephitis (Schreber), Microtus ochrogaster (Wagner), Mus musculus L., Peromyscus leucopus (Rafinesque), P. maniculatus (Wagner), Procyon lotor hirtus Nelson and Goldman, Reithrodontomys megalotis (Baird), Sciurus niger rufiventer Geoffroy, Sigmodon hispidus texianus (Audubon and Bachman), Sylvilagus floridanus (J. A. Allen), Taxidea taxus taxus (Schreber), and Vulpes velox velox (Say). PMID:8057327

Brillhart, D B; Fox, L B; Upton, S J

1994-05-01

277

13 CFR 121.201 - What size standards has SBA identified by North American Industry Classification System codes?  

Science.gov (United States)

...size standards has SBA identified by North American Industry Classification System codes...size standards has SBA identified by North American Industry Classification System codes...Stationery Stores$7.0453220 Gift, Novelty and Souvenir...

2010-01-01

278

Size control of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanocrystals in the colloidal medium synthesis  

Science.gov (United States)

The strong light absorbing Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanocrystals are interesting material in photovoltaic applications owing to the abundance and non-toxicity of the material. The optoelectronic property of CZTS light absorber depends on the size of nanocrystals which confines the electronic states within it. In the complex colloidal medium it is very difficult to predict the size of the particles by only theoretical calculations. However, suitable chemical approach is able to tune the size of the particles by adjusting the chemical potential of the medium for different sizes of CZTS nanocrystal formation. Here, we reported the size control of CZTS nanocrystals which were made by a hot-injection method using organic ligands based colloidal medium. The influence of solvent systems, within following five pure and mixing solvent systems: Oleylamine, 1-Octadecene + TOPO, mixture of Oleylamine:Oleicacid (1:1,v/v%), Oleicacid + TOPO and Oleylamine:Oleicacid (1:1,v/v%) + TOPO , and composition of metal precursors were studied. The final CZTS nanoparticles showed wurtzite crystal structures, and size of the particles can be tuned through different combination ratio of metal precursors. Our results indicate that metal precursor composition ratio has a pivotal role to tune the optoelectronic properties of CZTS nanocrystals for the photovoltaic applications.

Kulendran, Anushan; Bell, John; Wang, Hongxia

2013-08-01

279

Effects of Socio-Cultural Realities on the Nigerian Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs: Case of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Lagos State  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Socio-cultural realities are importance components in the Nigerian business environment. There is a shortage ofliterature and studies that linked socio-cultural realities to business development and performance.Small-Medium Enterprises (SMEs constitutes over 70 per cent of the Nigerian businesses and characteristicallyinformal. The objectives of this paper are in two-folds, namely (i identify socio-cultural realities in the SMEbusiness environment in Nigeria and; (ii examine the impact of these factors (in i on the development of SMEs.Socio-cultural realities were measured from three major factors, namely attitude; religion and values: each ofthis factor were further categorised into several level of constructs. Responses from ten (10 SMEowners/representatives in the five (5 major districts of Lagos state identified the socio-cultural realities as keyfactors affecting their businesses. A further research is recommended to further establish whether these resultsreflect the general condition in other states of Nigeria.

Felicia O. Johnson

2013-12-01

280

Is Small Finally Becoming Beautiful? Small and Medium-Size Enterprises in the New Economy. IES Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report addresses small and medium-sized enterprises' (SMEs') role in the changing international division of labor and trade in information service activities. Chapter 2 describes the EMERGENCE project to map and measure eWork. Chapter 3 reviews literature that shows SMEs account for the overwhelming majority of companies and make a crucial…

Dejonckheere, J.; Ramioul, M.; Van Hootegem, G.

 
 
 
 
281

The Research on Enterprise Management Innovation --- Based on the Study of Small and Medium Sized Family Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The small and medium sized family enterprises in China have developed rapidly since the reform and opening up.Numerous facts show that the family management is reasonable and proper in the early development of small and medium-sized family enterprise. However, with the further development of family enterprise, the shortcomings of family management are exposed and have become obstacles which restrict the development of enterprise, as a result, the research and analysis in the management problems of small and medium sized family enterprises has become one of the most important research projects to solve the problem of the sustainable development of family enterprises in China. Based on the above considerations, this article puts forward a "person" as the core, takes concept innovation, strategic innovation, cultural innovation, institutional innovation and organizational innovation as the main content of management innovation idea, and brings forward the correspondingly appropriate countermeasures in solving the existing family management problems in small and medium-sized family enterprises.

Qian Luo

2014-02-01

282

13 CFR 121.201 - What size standards has SBA identified by North American Industry Classification System codes?  

Science.gov (United States)

...identified by North American Industry Classification System...Standards by NAICS Industry NAICS codesNAICS U.S. industry titleSize standards...112210Hog and Pig Farming $0.75...Quarrying, and Oil and Gas...

2010-01-01

283

Life cycle assessment of a medium sized PV facility in Scotland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Napier University's School of Engineering has been involved in education and research in renewable energy for the past 35 years. With the aim demonstration of the viability of production of solar electricity at a high latitude location such as Edinburgh (56 degree north)the school undertook to commission a medium-sized PV electricity generation project. The installation of 32 rows of BP solar silicon panels covering a total area of 160 square metres ensures generation of 17.6kW peak (AC) power. Figure 1 presents a photograph of the facility under discussion. The project has been part (60%) financed by UK Government's PV electricity demonstration programme through the office of Energy Saving Trust. The University has plans to generate hydrogen from solar electricity that will be stored for noctumal production of electricity using fuel-cell technology, thus completing the complete cycle of generation, storage and reproduction of sustainable energy. The project that is part of Napier University's Merchiton Campus was completed on 6 April 2005 and since that date AC power has been fed into the University grid with the peak power being enough to operate up to 80 of the 500 computers at the University's Jack Kilby Computing Centre. DC power is produced from the BP solar high efficincy (17%) monocrystalline panels, each of which produces 90W of power at 22 Volts. This DC electricity is then fed into a total of four inverters hence converting to a stable AC supply. Two of thenverting to a stable AC supply. Two of the larger inverters receive current from 12 rows (4 strings x 3 rows) each, while the smaller inverters take power in from 4 rows (2 strings x 2 rows) each. The PV facility is fully instrumented with both input (incident solar energy) and PV electrical energy output recorded at a frequency of 15 minutes. This article will present the energetic, environmental and monetary life cycle assessment (LCA) of the above facility.(Author)

284

THE PREMISES OF STRATEGIC MARKETING PLANNING IMPLEMENTATION WITHIN SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main purpose of the present paper is to identify the framework and the necessary conditions for the small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs to be able to adopt the strategic marketing planning. Also, the paper aims to underline the importance of the strategic marketing planning and the manner in which the SMEs can adopt, implement and operationalize the strategic marketing planning instruments, whose correct understanding and usage ensure the capacity to generate competitive advantage, the key element both from the perspective of the fierce competition and the perspective of the future development of the SMEs. Within SMEs the implementation of marketing becomes an evident requirment, mostly due to the relationship that these have with the market, thus, leading towards market orientation of the activities, a new approach developed by the marketing vision on managing the activities from these types of organizations. Regarded upon, from the marketing perspective, the activities from the SMEs, especially the marketing activities, cannot take place randomly. Resource allocation, a characteristic of these types of organizations, and the objectives with regards to superior customer needs satisfaction and economic efficiency maximization, claim thorough plannification and deployment of the activities in a sequence that represents the implementation of a strategy previously assumed. Within this framework, the strategic marketing planning appears as a complex process employing all scientific instruments that comprise segmentation, positioning and marketing mix. Utilizing the strategic marketing planning within SMEs depends to further extend on marketing integration; process directly related with a series of factors such as the nature of the market, development stage, product type, management quality and the influences of the marketing department of the SME. The implications onto the marketing activities from SMEs are reflected upon each strategic marketing planning instrument, where we can find, under correct understanding and application, objectives and market and penetration strategies as product, price, distribution and promotion strategies.

Popescu Andrei

2011-07-01

285

Temperature and relative humidity distributions in a medium-size administrative town in southwest Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was carried out in one of the medium-sized public administrative towns in the southwestern part of Nigeria. Its aim is to highlight the effect of spatial distribution of settlements, population, and socio-economic activities on urban air temperature and humidity in the town. Temperature and relative humidity data from 1992 to 2001 were obtained from three meteorological stations in Akure, the Administrative Capital of Ondo State, Nigeria. The stations are located within the Federal Ministry of Aviation, Akure Airport (FMA), Federal University of Technology, Akure (FUTA) and Federal School of Agriculture (SOA). Air temperature and relative humidity measurements were also obtained from 27 points, which were cited to include road junctions, markets, built up areas, etc., using sling psychrometer. The data were subsequently analysed for spatial and temporal variations using statistical packages (SPSS and Microsoft Excel) and isolines. Actual vapour pressure and dew point temperature were computed using Magnus conversion formulae. The results obtained showed that spatial variation was insignificant, in terms of the temperature and humidity variables. The annual mean temperature (Tmean) ranged between 21.9 and 30.4 degrees C while minimum (Tmin) and maximum (Tmax) temperatures varied from 13 to 26 and 21.5-39.6 degrees C, respectively. Relative humidity (RH), actual vapour pressure (Es) and dew point temperature (Td) values also varied from 39.1% to 98.2%, 19.7-20.8 gm(-3), and 17.3-17.8 degrees C, respectively. A significant relationship (p>0.6; rTmin, Es and Td was observed while the daytime 'urban heat island' intensity (UHI) ranged between 0.5 and 2.5 degrees C within the study period. The study concluded that there is influence of urban canopy on the microclimate of Akure, and hypothesizes that the urban dwellers may be subjected to some levels of weather related physiological disorderliness. PMID:17482750

Akinbode, O M; Eludoyin, A O; Fashae, O A

2008-04-01

286

Analysing a method for small and medium sized companies to rate oil quality during immersion frying  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  This work studied the deterioration of commercial Frytol oil in controlled frying conditions using the anisidine index (AI as standard evaluation method. The effect of temperature and time was studied at 170°C for up to 10 hours and at 200°C for up to 6 hours in the presence of factors which speeded up oil deterioration: 1% and 8% water based on the mass of oil and non-lipid material, 1% and 6% based on the mass of oil. Air flow rate was kept constant at 25 L h-1. The relationship between AI, colour and viscosity was studied to evaluate the technical viability of measuring these variables as a function of time to be used as a method for rating oil deterioration by small and medium sized enterprises (SME. Oil deterioration was higher and faster at maximum study interval values for each experimental factor, although only the effect of temperature was significant (p2=0.558 and R2=0.526, respectively, colour depending on frying temperature. Viscosity measured at 30°C had the highest coefficient of determination (R2=0.809 and was independent of frying temperature. Viscosity is thus a variable which can be used for determining frying oil deterioration in SME as a consequence of a significant change from 10 cP to 45 cP which is closer to frying oil deterioration limit (AI 156. It can facilitate determination and lower associated costs, thereby improving product quality and customer confidence in them. 

Efraín Hisnardo Rojas Uribe

2011-01-01

287

Distribution and compartmental organization of GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons in the mouse Nucleus Accumbens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The nucleus accumbens (NAc is a critical brain region involved in many reward-related behaviors. The NAc comprises major compartments the core and the shell, which encompass several subterritories. GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs constitute the output neurons of the NAc core and shell. While the functional organization of the NAc core outputs resembles the one described for the dorsal striatum, a simple classification of the NAc shell neurons has been difficult to define due to the complexity of the compartmental segregation of cells. We used a variety of BAC transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescence (EGFP or the Cre-recombinase (Cre under the control of the promoter of dopamine D1, D2, and D3 receptors and of adenosine A2a receptor to dissect the microanatomy of the NAc. Moreover, using various immunological markers we characterized in detail the distribution of MSNs in the mouse NAc. In addition, cell-type specific ERK phosphorylation in the NAc subterritories was analyzed following acute administration of SKF81297 (a D1R-like agonist, quinpirole (a D2R-like agonist, apomorphine (a non-selective DA receptor agonist, raclopride (a D2R-like antagonist, and psychostimulant drugs, including cocaine and d-amphetamine. Each drug generated a unique topography and cell-type specific activation of ERK in the NAc. Our results show the existence of marked differences in the receptor expression pattern and functional activation of MSNs within the shell subterritories. This study emphasizes the anatomical and functional heterogeneity of the NAc, which will have to be considered in its further study.

GiuseppeGangarossa

2013-02-01

288

The administration and the environmental behavior of the small and medium industrial companies: The case of a city of Argentina  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present article approaches the subject of the management and the environmental behavior in the industrial activity, especially in the small and medium companies, a city of Argentina. It is considers that the environmentalist strategies can be a possible exit to the socioeconomic and environmental crisis, but single for the great companies; since the rest of the companies presents/displays serious difficulties (economic, social, psychological, etc.) in order to initiate a sustainable industrial development

289

Innovation in Food and Health: Study Into Challenges and Opportunities for Dutch Small and Medium Sized Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article focuses on the opportunities and challenges Dutch Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SMEs in the food and beverage industry are facing with respect to innovation in food and health. An online questionnaire was developed to give an overview on attitudes and activities of SMEs with respect to innovation; their interest in trends, among which were health and wellbeing; and their view on logos as a possible way of communication. The questionnaire was held May 2011 with a response of n = 110. Results show that innovation is important for SMEs: over 80% of the SMEs are innovating in products and over 60% in processes. The most appealing trends are: Health and wellbeing, ‘Puur en Eerlijk’ (Note 1 and sustainability. Of the SMEs 70-80% indicate to have a current, and 85% a future interest in these trends. Furthermore 43% used the health logo on part of their product portfolio. Logos that communicate health and sustainability are most popular; 23% of the SMEs indicated not to be interested in the use of logos in general. In conclusion, the identified opportunities for innovation in food and health are: a large willingness to innovate and the increasing interest in the already appealing trend of nutrition and health. There is a moderate interest in (health logos. Challenges are time, costs, knowledge on innovation in general and lack of specific knowledge on nutrition and health, and unclarities around use and added value (informative and increasing sales of logos. Also, taste is considered as important as health and cannot be compromised.

Joop Vree-van Straten

2013-11-01

290

A passive DOAS instrument for trace gas measurements on medium sized UAS: Instrumental design and first measurements.  

Science.gov (United States)

Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are a new powerful tool for observations in the atmospheric boundary layer. Recent developments in measuring technology allow the construction of compact and sensitive active and passive DOAS instruments which can fit the space and weight constraints on UAS. This opens new possibilities for trace gas measurements in the lower troposphere, especially in areas which are not accessible to manned aviation e.g. volcanic plumes or which should be monitored regularly (e.g. industrial emissions of a stack). We present a new developed passive DOAS instrument for the APAESO Platform of the Cyprus Institute, a medium size UAS. It is equipped with two telescopes for observations in downward (nadir) and horizontal (limb) viewing direction, respectively. Thus it allows determining height profiles and the horizontal distribution of trace gases. This is accomplished by analyzing the radiation collected by the telescopes with compact spectrometers, which cover the UV-blue spectral range allowing to measure a broad variety of atmospheric trace gases (e.g. NO2, SO2, BrO, IO, H2O ...) as well as aerosol properties via O4 absorption. Additionally, the nadir direction is equipped with a VIS-NIR spectrometer. It is used to measure reflection spectra of different types of vegetation. These will serve as references for satellite measurements to create global maps. First measurements on the APAESO platform were performed in October 2012 on Cyprus in a rural area south of Nicosia. The instrument is shown to work reliably and was able to detect NO2, H2O and O4 at atmospheric column densities. The instrumental design and first measurements will be presented and discussed.

Horbanski, Martin; Pöhler, Denis; Mahr, Tobias; Wagner, Thomas; Keleshis, Christos; Ioannou, Stelios; Lange, Manfred A.; Lelieveld, Jos; Platt, Ulrich

2013-04-01

291

A small size continuous run industrial gamma irradiator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new small size gamma irradiator is being set up at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Brazil, with a revolutionary design. The developed technology for this facility consists of continuous tote box transport system, comprising a single concrete vault, where the automated transport system of products inside and outside of the irradiator utilizes a rotating door, integrated with the shielding, avoiding the traditional maze configuration. Covering 76 m2 of floor area, the irradiator design is product overlap sources and the maximum capacity of Cobalt-60 wet sources is 37 PBq (1 MCi). The irradiator is being installed in a Governmental Institution and it will be used as a demonstration facility for manufacturers, who need an economic and logistic in-house irradiation system alternative. Also, it will be useful for supporting the local scientific community on development of products and process using gamma radiation, assisting the traditional and potential users on process validation, training and qualification of operators and radioprotection officers

292

Particle size, size distribution and morphological evaluation of glass fiber reinforced plastic (GRP) industrial by-product.  

Science.gov (United States)

The waste management of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GRP) materials, in particular those made with thermosetting resins, is a critical issue for the composites industry because these materials cannot be reprocessed. Therefore, most thermosetting GRP waste is presently sent to landfill, in spite of the significant environmental impact caused by their disposal in this way. The limited GRP waste recycling worldwide is mostly due to its intrinsic thermosetting properties, lack of characterization data and unavailability of viable recycling and recovery routes. One of the possibility for re-using GRP industrial by-product is in form of powder as a partial aggregate replacement or filler addition in cement based composites for applications in sustainable construction materials and technologies. However, the feasibility of this kind of reutilization strongly depends on the morphology and particle size distribution of a powder made up of polymer granules and glass fibers. In the present study, the use of image analysis method, based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ImageJ processing program, is proposed in order to evaluate the morphology of the particles and measure the particle size and size distribution of fine GRP waste powder. The obtained results show a great potential of such a method in order to be considered as a standardized method of measurement and analysis in order to characterize the grain size and size distribution of GRP particles before exploiting any compatibility issue for its recycling management. PMID:25195092

Mazzoli, Alida; Moriconi, Giacomo

2014-12-01

293

TLD area monitoring on the small size industrial irradiator facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To complement radiological survey performed on the new small size gamma irradiator set up at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CNEN/SP-IPEN) it was positioned 12 TLD units inside the ware house that enclosure the irradiator facility and 8 units outside. During the second period of monitoring occurred arrival of two 60 Co sealed sources containers (3.4 PBq and 9.2PBq), charging of the sources in racks inside the storage pool and the irradiation of several kinds of products. CaSO4:Dy/PTFE dosimeters have been used in several facilities due to their sensibility to photons and robustness. TLD evaluation was carried out at Laboratorio de Dosimetria Termoluminescente in Centro de Metrologia das Radiacoes. Results using the dosimetric quantity exposure for photons in air show that at only one point the exposure value is higher than register level for workers and the others are close to background level. High exposure point is due to the container containing 60Co sealed sources (9.2PBq) set temporary at the backside of irradiator shielding. After the removal of the stored container, exposure will diminish probably up to background level. Using photon dose equivalent, the operational quantity used in Brazil for external individual monitoring, it can be observed that the facility safety is adequate for workers and public in normal condition of operation. It is important to emphasize that, as exposure is very low inside and nearby the facility, there is no radiolog nearby the facility, there is no radiological impact on the environment. (author)

294

Optimization as investment decision support in a Swedish medium-sized iron foundry - A move beyond traditional energy auditing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to increased globalisation, industries are facing greater competition that is pressing companies into decreasing their expenses in order to increase their profits. As regards Swedish industry, it has been faced with substantial increases in energy prices in recent years. Barriers to energy efficiency such as imperfect information inhibit investments in energy efficiency measures, energy audits being one means of reducing barriers and overcoming imperfect information. However, an evaluation of such energy audits in Sweden reveals that it is chiefly low-cost measures that are undertaken as a result of an audit. Moreover, these audits often tend to focus on support processes such as ventilation, lighting, air compressors etc., while measures impacting production processes are often not as extensively covered, which underlines the need for further support in addition to energy audits. Decision support is practised in a variety of different disciplines such as optimization and simulation and the aim of this paper is to explore whether investment decision support practices may be used successfully towards small and medium-sized manufacturers in Sweden when complex production-related investment decisions are taken. The optimization results from the different cases, involving a foundry's investment in a new melting unit, indicate that with no electricity price fluctuations over the day, the investment seems sound as it lowers the overall energy costs. However, with fluctuoverall energy costs. However, with fluctuating electricity prices, there are no large differences in energy costs between the option of retaining the existing five melting furnaces at the foundry and investing in a twin furnace and removing the holding furnaces - which was the initial investment plan for the foundry in the study. It would not have been possible to achieve this outcome without the use of investment decision support such as MIND. One of the main conclusions in this paper is that investment decision support, when strategic investment decisions are to be taken, may be a means of emphasising energy efficiency for energy-intensive SMEs beyond the level of traditional energy auditing. (author)

295

Optimization as investment decision support in a Swedish medium-sized iron foundry - A move beyond traditional energy auditing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to increased globalisation, industries are facing greater competition that is pressing companies into decreasing their expenses in order to increase their profits. As regards Swedish industry, it has been faced with substantial increases in energy prices in recent years. Barriers to energy efficiency such as imperfect information inhibit investments in energy efficiency measures, energy audits being one means of reducing barriers and overcoming imperfect information. However, an evaluation of such energy audits in Sweden reveals that it is chiefly low-cost measures that are undertaken as a result of an audit. Moreover, these audits often tend to focus on support processes such as ventilation, lighting, air compressors etc., while measures impacting production processes are often not as extensively covered, which underlines the need for further support in addition to energy audits. Decision support is practised in a variety of different disciplines such as optimization and simulation and the aim of this paper is to explore whether investment decision support practices may be used successfully towards small and medium-sized manufacturers in Sweden when complex production-related investment decisions are taken. The optimization results from the different cases, involving a foundry's investment in a new melting unit, indicate that with no electricity price fluctuations over the day, the investment seems sound as it lowers the overall energy costs. However, with fluctuoverall energy costs. However, with fluctuating electricity prices, there are no large differences in energy costs between the option of retaining the existing five melting furnaces at the foundry and investing in a twin furnace and removing the holding furnaces - which was the initial investment plan for the foundry in the study. It would not have been possible to achieve this outcome without the use of investment decision support such as MIND. One of the main conclusions in this paper is that investment decision support, when strategic investment decisions are to be taken, may be a means of emphasising energy efficiency for energy-intensive SMEs beyond the level of traditional energy auditing

296

SWR 1000: An Advanced, Medium-Sized Boiling Water Reactor, Ready for Deployment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The latest developments in nuclear power generation technology mainly concern large-capacity plants in the 1550 -1600 MW range, or very small plants (100 - 350 MW). The SWR 1000 boiling water reactor (BWR), by contrast, offers all of the advantages of an advanced plant design, with excellent safety performance and competitive power generation costs, in the medium-capacity range (1000 - 1250 MW). The SWR 1000 is particularly suitable for countries whose power systems are not designed for large-capacity generating facilities. The economic efficiency of this medium-sized plant in comparison with large-capacity designs is achieved by deploying very simple passive safety equipment, simplified systems for plant operation, and a very simple plant configuration in which systems engineering is optimized and dependence on electrical and instrumentation and control (I and C) systems is reduced. In addition, systems and components that require protection against natural and external man-made hazards are accommodated in such a way that as few buildings as possible have to be designed to withstand the loads from such events. The fuel assemblies to be deployed in the SWR 1000 core, meanwhile, have been enlarged from a 10 x 10 rod array to a 12 x 12 array. This reduces the total number of fuel assemblies in the core and thus also the number of control rods and control rod drives, as well as in-core neutron flux monitors. The design owes its competitiveness to the fact that investment costs, maintenance costs and fuel cycle costs are all lower. In addition, refueling outages are shorter, thanks to the reduced scope of outage activities. The larger fuel assemblies have been extensively and successfully tested, as have all of the other new components and systems incorporated into the plant design. As in existing plants, the forced coolant circulation method is deployed, ensuring problem-free startup, and enabling plant operators to adjust power rapidly in the high power range (70%-100%) without moving the control rods, as well as allowing spectral-shift and stretch-out operation. The considerable gains provided by forced coolant circulation in terms of operational flexibility and fuel utilization mean that the investment and maintenance costs of the pumps are covered after several years of service. The plant safety concept is based on a combination of passive safety systems and a reduced number of active safety systems. All postulated accidents can be controlled using passive systems alone. Control of a postulated core melt accident is assured with considerable safety margins thanks to passive flooding of the containment for in-vessel melt retention. The SWR 1000 is compliant with international nuclear codes and standards, and is also designed to withstand the effects of an aircraft crash involving a military aircraft or a large passenger airliner. (authors)

297

NEW APPROACHES TO CUSTOMER BASE SEGMENTATION FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The primary purpose of this paper is to explore current praxis and theory related to customer segmentation and to offer an approach which is best suited for small and medium sized enterprises. The proposed solution is the result of an exploratory research aiming to recognize the main variables which influence the practice of segmenting the customer base and to study the most applied alternatives available for all types of enterprises. The research has been performed by studying a large set of secondary data, scientific literature and case studies regarding smaller companies from the European Union. The result of the research consists in an original approach to customer base segmentation, which combines aspects belonging to different well spread practices and applies them to the specific needs of a small or medium company, which typically has limited marketing resources in general and targeted marketing resources in particular. The significance of the proposed customer base segmentation approach lies in the fact that, even though smaller enterprises are in most economies the greatest in number compared to large companies, most of the literature on targeting practices has focused primarily on big companies dealing with a very large clientele, while the case of the smaller companies has been to some extent unfairly neglected. Targeted marketing is becoming more and more important for all types of companies nowadays, as a result of technology advances which make targeted communication easier and less expensive than in the past and also due to the fact that broad-based media have decreased their impact over the years. For a very large proportion of smaller companies, directing their marketing budgets towards targeted campaigns is a clever initiative, as broad based approaches are in many cases less effective and much more expensive. Targeted marketing stratagems are generally related to high tech domains such as artificial intelligence, data mining and marketing analytics and presuppose the availability of sophisticated computer software and specialized personnel. The methodology proposed in this paper takes into consideration the fact that, due to financial and time-related constrains, smaller companies need a more practical and straightforward solution for segmenting their customer base. The simplicity of the solution, however, should not come at the expense of its efficiency. The original contribution of this paper resides precisely in the fact that it aims to offer the best of two worlds: the simplicity and cost-effectiveness of plain methods which can be used without the aid of specialized software and the high return on investment given by the use of artificial intelligence algorithms such as clustering. The main implications of this paper relate to the fact that it draws attention to how targeted marketing can be performed successfully by companies with restricted budgets by providing an actionable set of guidelines which can be put into practice by smaller enterprises using limited efforts and resources.

Meleancă Raluca-Cristina

2012-12-01

298

Medium-Pressure Hydrogen-Oxygen Combustion Turbine Systems for Utilization of Industrial Waste Heat  

Science.gov (United States)

Recovery of waste heat is an effective means of achieving energy conservation, and the total amount of industrial waste heat is still notable. However, the value of waste heat as an energy source is low (low exergy). Its utilization therefore requires larger recovery systems with increased costs. The concept of introducing a second, high-quality heat source in the form of H2-O2 combustion in order to improve the system's performance is presented here. System analysis of the combination effect (higher output from combined than from separate sources) was conducted. The investigation results show that the systems under consideration have the potential for significant merits under moderate conditions. The proposed combination of low- and high-quality heat sources also permits reductions in the system size and cost.

Furutani, Hirohide; Uzunow, Nikolaj

299

The power of Alberta business : the impact of electricity deregulation on Alberta small and medium-sized business  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Deregulation of the electricity market came into effect on January 1, 2001 in Alberta. This deregulation affects the retail and generation fields of electricity. The intention was to introduce competition and apply downward pressure on electricity prices, but the reverse effect was witnessed: power prices increased. It resulted in a period of anxiety on the part of businesses, caused by the volatility of electricity prices. A survey of Canadian Federation of Independent Business (CFIB) members was conducted in May and June 2001 to better understand the impacts of electricity deregulation on small and medium-sized businesses. A broad range of businesses provided responses (951 responses) covering all sectors of industry and regions in Alberta. A large proportion of respondents were dissatisfied with deregulation, caused in part by the confusion created by the flurry of rebate and credit announcements designed to ease the transition. Small firms were faced with significant increases in electricity prices, and several could not estimate the size of the increase as it was too difficult to measure. Responses varied from a low of 5 per cent increase to a high of 400 per cent in power rates. Most respondents also indicated that the increases had an impact on their business. The impact of power rate increases by sector was examined. Another consequence of deregulation was the fact that billing moved from a single invoice received to the requirement to actively manage energy uhe requirement to actively manage energy usage. It was discovered that a lack of information on electricity cost and consumption management impeded the the ability to make business decisions. The CFIB asked respondents to indicate the measures being considered to address management of electricity costs. Incorporating energy-saving devices and/or methods had been considered by slightly more than 40 per cent of respondents. Negotiating with power retailers represented another option under consideration by some. It was felt that government must still play an important role in the electricity business. The recommendations touched on the stimulation of retail competition, providing transitional/long-term price relief, and provide businesses with adequate information. 15 figs

300

Potential role of the Romanian research and industry on the small and medium reactors market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The need of diversifying the energy sources, independence from foreign supplies and modernization of economy have constituted the major factors in implementation of nuclear energy in Romania. The choice of the heavy water reactor CANDU-600 was made on grounds of advanced safety features, proven efficient economic operation as well as on the technologic feasibility for manufacturing of components, equipment, instrumentation, heavy water and natural uranium fuel in Romania. Unlike turn-key acquisition approaches, the Romanian option provided an active national participation in construction the Cernavoda NPP. As consequence, important support was being given to development of the industries involved in the nuclear fuel cycle, manufacturing of equipment and nuclear materials, construction-montage, engineering, consulting, services, etc. This was done based on technology transfer, implementation of advanced design and execution standards, quality assurance procedures and modern nuclear safety requirements at international level. The efforts materialized in an important national participation in the construction of the Cernavoda NPP and all related programs are successful. Now, Romanian firms are also involved in supplying components, equipment and services to NPP's in other eastern and central Europeans countries. The paper presents the achievements of the Romanian economy in this field and the effort of the Romanian companies on the small and medium power reactors market. Lists with main R and D institutes, nuclear fuel cycle facilities as well as potential equipment suppliers are attached. (author)

 
 
 
 
301

Application of Medium Pressure UV Lamp for Wastewater Disinfection of Milk Production Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available UV disinfect ion has gained widespread use for municipal wastewater and more recently, interest in using UV for water reuse applications has increased too. Medium pressure lamp has emerged as a viable alternative and is beginning to gain more popularity than the conventional low-pressure lamps. This study has been performed with the objective of utilizing MP lamp for the disinfection stage of wastewater from a milk industry. The lab-scale UV submerged system used in the experiments was a single-lamp reactor with 3 L volume, which was operated at two contact times. Two MP lamps of 300 and 400 W had been used separately. Results indicated that for disinfection of all the samples with different %T, meeting the goal of 1000 MPN /100 mL or less was always possible. Besides, for 95% of these samples, the MPN of irradiated effluents had reached to less than 240/100 mL. Another conclusion is that by use of 400 W lamp, all the samples are well disinfected to 100 total coli forms or less per 100 mL and so are become ready for most applications of water reuse programs.

H. Kamani

2006-01-01

302

Effective Factors in Green Supply Chain Management and Natural Environment Developed in Iran Tourism Industry:The Case of Small and Medium Tour Operators  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tourism for all citizens of the world and the vital is to provide sustainable employment. In this regard, most attention of governments and their management resources to the tourism and pristine natural environment or green has been focused on other aspects of the industry, although also Country managers see gone away, but to protect and maintain environmental capacity most important challenges the countries in this field covers. Although the structure of the tourism sector crumbled a key challenge in order to reach a consensus on coherent development theory sustainability left is involved. But evidence from theoretical studies indicate that supply chain strategies as a logical time for nature online tourism industry in all its dimensions seem appropriate, limited debate in tourism research related to the acceptance there. Present paper advance knowledge of how sustainable tourism can be more public acceptance in practice of supply chain management in the tourism environment (ESCMT by medium and small brokers in small and medium-sized tour operating in Iran deals. The results show that in the absence of regulatory pressures and cost savings, acceptance (ESCMT in small and medium tourist enterprises will be very effective. Result of research for government executives and managers tourism agencies appropriate guidelines to be drawn.

Shahram Gilaninia

2011-05-01

303

Knowledge Management Acceptance: Success Factors amongst Small and Medium-Size Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The value and importance of knowledge, as seen by numerous organisations today, does without a doubt play a crucial role in the current ever-challenging and aggressive business environment. As a result, businesses that aspire to be labelled as being successful and competitive need to seek and find better ways to improve their firms? performance. Hence, Knowledge Management (KM, which is viewed as a source of sustainable competitive advantage, has attracted the attention of various companies all over the business world, including Small and Medium-Size Enterprises (SMEs in Malaysia. With the realisation of KM, the systematic management of organisation knowledge - a strategic corporate asset not to be taken lightly; can thus be created, transferred, shared and, utilised, in pushing for greater organisational competitiveness, innovativeness and, productivity. This research examined the success factors that help to increase the business performance of SMEs in Malaysia. Besides, it also highlighted the importance and contribution of KM amongst SMEs. Therefore, the reason behind this study is to understand and recognised the acceptance of KM and therefore further classified the success factors that contributed to the business performance outcome amongst SMEs in Malaysia. With this, the success factors observed in this research; culture; leadership; employee participation; Information and Communications Technology (ICT; organisational structure; are thoroughly investigated to explore on whether these factors have an impact on knowledge creation; knowledge transfer; knowledge sharing and knowledge utilisation; of KM processes among SMEs in Malaysia. Approach: This study aids to determined and examined the success factors; culture; leadership; employee participation; Information and Communications Technology (ICT; organisational structure; of SMEs that further influences KM processes; knowledge creation, transfer, sharing, utilisation. Results: It is hoped that SMEs with the help of this study, are able apply the success factors and KM processes as a guideline in achieving successful KM acceptance. It is anticipated that the factors proposed in this study could help businesses especially SMEs to better organise their KM initiatives, as well as to assists Malaysia in producing a superior and highly acclaimed knowledgeable society. Conclusion: The findings may be used as recommendations to SMEs that are keen in accepting and adopting KM in their daily operations. Furthermore, this study may also serve as a basis for future quantitative research studies among researchers, practitioners and professionals alike, in gaining a profound understanding of KM in sectors other than SMEs.

Christine N.L.  TAN

2011-01-01

304

An Innovative Farm Scale Biogas/Composting Facility for a Sustainable Medium Size Dairy Farm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Approach: The amount of energy related costs as a portion of the total farm operating cost can be as high as 29% and the continuing increase of the real cost of energy related farm input has been one of the major factors impacting the cost of agricultural production. However, agricultural has the potential of replacing some of the purchased energy in the form of fossil fuels, commercial fertilizer and field production of animal feed with bioenergy and organic fertilizer from onsite renewable biomass such as animal manure in order to economically and environmentally sustain it. The aim of this study was to develop an innovative energy efficient pilot scale anaerobic digester composting facility. Methodology: A solid/liquid manure separator farm scale anaerobic digester and composting facility for a medium sized dairy farm were designed, constructed and tested. In order to make the anaerobic digestion economically viable under Canadian climatic conditions, the design, installation and operation of the system were based on advantages gained from the digester as a component of the total farm management system. In addition to the biogas production, benefits related to manure handling and storage, environmental quality improvement through odor control and water pollution reduction, fertilizer recovery and water recycling, were considered. Results: The layout of the farm was modified to provide solutions for four environmental problems related to: disposal of milkhouse wastes and overflow from the manure storage facility into the fire pond. The system possesses high energy conversion efficiency at relatively low capital cost and reduced labour requirement and has indirect energy ramifications through the production of organic fertilizer (compost to replace expensive and energy consuming commercial fertilizer as well as the production of bioenergy (biogas which will reduce the demand for energy. The overflow from the system (purified water can be recycled for cleaning the barn, thereby reducing the costs of water use and manure storage facilities on one hand and eliminating pollution problems associated with manure storage and disposal on the other hand. Conclusion: The use of dairy waste as a source of energy and fertilizer resulted in a saving of 6289 kg of fertilizer at a cost of $17 925 annually and additional saving of $20 547 on energy use.

Abdel E. Ghaly

2012-01-01

305

Reverse facial artery flap to reconstruct the medium-sized defects in the middle facial region following cancer ablation.  

Science.gov (United States)

This retrospective clinical study assessed the reliability of the reverse facial artery flap to reconstruct the medium-sized defects in the middle facial region following cancer ablation.Fifteen medium-sized defects were repaired with reversed facial artery flap following cancer surgery. The ages of the patients ranged from 2 to 69 years; 9 were male and 6 were female. The primary lesions included palate (5 cases), maxillary gingival (6 cases), cheek or buccal mucosa (3 case), and upper lip (1 case). The size of the skin paddle varied from 4.0 cm × 6.0 cm to 5.0 cm × 10.0 cm. Direct closure was achieved at all donor sites. Fourteen of the 15 flaps survived. No donor-site problems occurred. Two patients appeared to have temporary injury of facial nerve after operation. The follow-up period ranged from 8 to 36 months; 1 patient died as a result of local recurrence and 1 patient developed cervical recurrence.Consequently, it has been demonstrated that the reversed facial artery flap had reliable blood supply and can reliably and conveniently be used for reconstruction of the medium-sized defects, especially in the middle third of oral and maxillofacial region. PMID:24220410

Zhao, Xiao-peng; Zhang, Hong; Yu, Xin; Wang, Jian-guang; Zhang, Bin; Pan, Chao-bin

2013-11-01

306

Are the determinants of markup size industry-specific? The case of Slovenian manufacturing firms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify factors that affect the pricing policy in Slovenian manufacturing firms in terms of the markup size and, most of all, to explicitly account for the possibility of differences in pricing procedures among manufacturing industries. Accordingly, the analysis of the dynamic panel is carried out on an industry-by-industry basis, allowing the coefficients on the markup determinants to vary across industries. We find that the oligopoly theory of markup determination for the most part holds for the manufacturing sector as a whole, although large variability in markup determinants exists across industries within the Slovenian manufacturing. Our main conclusion is that each industry should be investigated separately in detail in order to assess the precise role of markup factors in the markup-determination process.

Ponikvar Nina

2011-01-01

307

Ventilation in medium-sized and large boiler houses; Ventilation i medelstora och stoerre pannhus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to exemplify and clarify the need for ventilation in medium-sized and large boiler houses. We will furthermore present some recommendations, guidelines and advice for the design and construction of a boiler house ventilation system to the plant owners and suppliers of equipment. Boiler house ventilation can be performed in different ways using mechanical or natural ventilation. The solution to be chosen depends on the following factors: Working environment requirements and a necessity to control temperature and pressure in the boiler house; The design of the boiler plant and house; The need for combustion air; The investment expenditure as well as operation and maintenance costs. Mechanical ventilation should be chosen if the aim is a controllable 'climate'. The mechanical ventilation can be either centrally situated or distributed with many aggregates in the boiler house. Centrally situated ventilation equipment will give a higher accessibility and lower maintenance costs than a distributed ventilation system. If the boiler house is designed with natural ventilation the air and flue gas fans will be the only ones installed. In this case temperature and pressure inside the boiler house will be difficult to control. The design factor for the ventilation plant in a boiler house is in most cases the demand to cool the air inside the boiler house to approximately 45 deg C. This is the highest temperature allowed by the Occupational Safety and Health Act in a work environment where the boiler operator is working alone. The air flow which is required for the combustion is normally less than the air flow needed to cool the air in the boiler house. The supply air which is cooling the air inside the boiler house should be supplied on several different levels to attain an efficient cooling. If the combustion air is taken from the heated indoor air the boiler house will work as a heat reclaimer. The difference between outdoor and indoor pressure in the lower part of the boiler house should not exceed approximately 40 Pa. This is to minimize problems with inleaking of odours and particles into the boiler house and to facilitate the evacuation of the staff from the boiler house. Issues concerning boiler house ventilation will appear in different stages at new construction and conversion projects. During the feasibility study the ventilation requirements are investigated and possible solutions are outlined. The planning stage involves the establishing of the ventilation requirements, technical solutions and the investment needs. Investment expenditure for the installation of a mechanized ventilation system varies depending on the size of the boiler, the choice of ventilation solution etc. Experiences from three recently built plants show that capital expenditure for the ventilation systems in these plants amounts to approximately SEK 140,000/MW (about 18,000 USD/MW) for a boiler effect of approximately 50 MW.

Grotherus, Dan [AaF Installation AB, Oerebro (Sweden); Larsson, Tord [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Technology

2005-04-01

308

Small, medium, large or supersize? The development and evaluation of interventions targeted at portion size  

Science.gov (United States)

In the past decades, portion sizes of high-caloric foods and drinks have increased and can be considered an important environmental obesogenic factor. This paper describes a research project in which the feasibility and effectiveness of environmental interventions targeted at portion size was evaluated. The studies that we conducted revealed that portion size labeling, offering a larger variety of portion sizes, and proportional pricing (that is, a comparable price per unit regardless of the size) were considered feasible to implement according to both consumers and point-of-purchase representatives. Studies into the effectiveness of these interventions demonstrated that the impact of portion size labeling on the (intended) consumption of soft drinks was, at most, modest. Furthermore, the introduction of smaller portion sizes of hot meals in worksite cafeterias in addition to the existing size stimulated a moderate number of consumers to replace their large meals by a small meal. Elaborating on these findings, we advocate further research into communication and marketing strategies related to portion size interventions; the development of environmental portion size interventions as well as educational interventions that improve people's ability to deal with a ‘super-sized' environment; the implementation of regulation with respect to portion size labeling, and the use of nudges to stimulate consumers to select healthier portion sizes. PMID:25033959

Vermeer, W M; Steenhuis, I H M; Poelman, M P

2014-01-01

309

Small, medium, large or supersize? The development and evaluation of interventions targeted at portion size.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the past decades, portion sizes of high-caloric foods and drinks have increased and can be considered an important environmental obesogenic factor. This paper describes a research project in which the feasibility and effectiveness of environmental interventions targeted at portion size was evaluated. The studies that we conducted revealed that portion size labeling, offering a larger variety of portion sizes, and proportional pricing (that is, a comparable price per unit regardless of the size) were considered feasible to implement according to both consumers and point-of-purchase representatives. Studies into the effectiveness of these interventions demonstrated that the impact of portion size labeling on the (intended) consumption of soft drinks was, at most, modest. Furthermore, the introduction of smaller portion sizes of hot meals in worksite cafeterias in addition to the existing size stimulated a moderate number of consumers to replace their large meals by a small meal. Elaborating on these findings, we advocate further research into communication and marketing strategies related to portion size interventions; the development of environmental portion size interventions as well as educational interventions that improve people's ability to deal with a 'super-sized' environment; the implementation of regulation with respect to portion size labeling, and the use of nudges to stimulate consumers to select healthier portion sizes. PMID:25033959

Vermeer, W M; Steenhuis, I H M; Poelman, M P

2014-07-01

310

Determinants of small and medium sized fast growing enterprises in central and eastern Europe: a panel data analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the main determinants of growth in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs in central and eastern Europe. The important role played by SMEs in the economic development of central and eastern European (CEE countries has attracted the recent attention of academics and policymakers but remains relatively unexplored. Empirical research has suggested that firm growth is determined not only by the traditional characteristics of size and age but also by other firm-specific factors such as indebtedness, internal financing, future growth opportunities, process and product innovation, and organisational changes. Although growth in manufacturing and service SMEs in transition economies is well explained by the traditional firm characteristics of size and age, there is no empirical evidence concerning what other specific factors may be associated with SME growth and performance in these countries. Using a panel dataset of 560 fast growing small and medium enterprises from six transition economies we find that firm size when measured by firm total assets can explain to a large extent the growth in SMEs in these countries. When size is proxied by a firm’s number of employees the observed effect is marginal. Firm specific characteristics such as leverage, current liquidity, future growth opportunities, internally generated funds, and factor productivity are found to be important factors in determining a firm’s growth and performance. Age and ownership do not seem to be able to explain firm growth. The results of our empirical study have also some policy implications: we argue that governments in transition economies need to pay an increased attention to small and medium sized enterprises and try to create a business environment that will be beneficial for SME development.

Miroslav Mateev

2010-09-01

311

Cortical and thalamic innervation of direct and indirect pathway medium-sized spiny neurons in mouse striatum.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The striatum receives major excitatory inputs from the cortex and thalamus that predominantly target the spines of medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs). We aimed to determine whether there is any selectivity of these two excitatory afferents in their innervation of direct and indirect pathway MSNs. To address this, we used bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic mice, in which enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reports the presence of D(1) or D(2) dopamine receptor subtypes, markers of...

Doig, Nm; Moss, J.; Bolam, Jp

2010-01-01

312

THE ROLE OF ENTREPRENEURIAL BEHAVIOUR OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTREPRISE’S IN THEIR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONFIGURATION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In European and global context, to survive the intense competition, small and medium-sized enterprise’s (SME) must expand, so that internationalisation becomes the inevitable stage in their strategic evolution. The phenomenon is analysed from the perspective of complementarities of different internationalisation theories, the integration of entrepreneurial orientation in that context, in order to enhance resources, exploit opportunities and create value, through innovation, proactive and ri...

RENATA NI?U ANTONIE; EMOKE-SZIDONIA FEDER

2009-01-01

313

Means and ways to secure raw material supply - exemplified by a medium-sized exploration and mining company  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Urangesellschaft mbH (UG) is a medium-sized exploration and mining company. Activities to secure uranium supply have been undertaken since 1968. Besides exploration in the strict sense of the word, UG developed and carried out activities in project acquisition and new technologies with a view to securing raw materials supply. - The adjustment of these activities to market conditions as well as results are presented. (orig.)

314

Management and organization problems of small and medium sized enterprise’s: a research on textile firms in Denizli  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SME) are important establishments for countries to evolve entrepreneurship, to refresh economy, to create employment, technological development and structural change. SME’s have to know and apply management and organization topics to continue their lifes in today’s circumstances. In today’s business environment that is intensified competition is lived, importance of investigating solution ways and taking necessary steps for management and organization...

Celalettin Serinkan; Hasan Cabar

2008-01-01

315

An Empirical Study of IT Innovation Adoption Among Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Klang Valley, Malaysia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose—The purpose of this research is to use and validate the Entrepreneurial Event model as a base model to investigate SME owners’ perception toward IT innovation adoption and use. This paper also attempts to investigate the key determinants of the adoption of IT innovation among small and medium sized enterprises in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This study revised and validated the Entrepreneurial Event Model in a new context and tried to examine the effect of perceived desirability, prope...

Wenjie Zhao; Mohd Salleh, Noor A.; Sedigheh Moghavvemi; Fatemeh Hakimian

2011-01-01

316

Pressures on Green Supply Chain Management: A Study on Manufacturing Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aims to empirically investigate the pressures for adopting green supply chain management (GSCM) among Chinese small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Data is collected through the use of mail distributed questionnaires administered to participants at a national trade fair held in Suzhou and two rounds of data collection were carried out to make a more reliable result for the research. ANOVA and Factor analysis are used to analyze the data. Some key findings are found from this s...

Huang, Xiangmeng; Tan, Boon Leing; Li, Dong

2012-01-01

317

Optimisation of fuel pin diameter for oxide and carbide fuels for a medium sized fast breeder reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of fuel pin diameter on neutronic and economic performance of a medium sized fast reactor is analysed. Optimum fuel pin diameter and the corresponding minimum doubling time and fuel cycle costs are calculated both for oxide and carbide fuels. Consequence of fuel cycle data uncertainties on the above reactor performance parameters is also evaluated. Feasibility of change over from one pin diameter to another to suit the future conditions if required is discussed. (author)

318

Collaborative e-Business Process Modelling: A Holistic Analysis Framework focused on Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this work, we propose a holistic analysis framework for collaborative e-Business process modelling approaches that takes into account the specific challenges small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) are facing with regard to modelling inter-organizational processes. Based on concepts of the management approach Balanced Scorecard (BSC) four different perspectives are derived from empirical studies, conceptual research results and completed with modelling experiences of an EU-funded proje...

Volker Hoyer; Oliver Christ

2007-01-01

319

THE ROLE OF ENTREPRENEURIAL BEHAVIOUR OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTREPRISE’S IN THEIR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONFIGURATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In European and global context, to survive the intense competition, small and medium-sized enterprise’s (SME must expand, so that internationalisation becomes the inevitable stage in their strategic evolution. The phenomenon is analysed from the perspective of complementarities of different internationalisation theories, the integration of entrepreneurial orientation in that context, in order to enhance resources, exploit opportunities and create value, through innovation, proactive and risk-seeking activities.

RENATA NI?U ANTONIE

2009-05-01

320

IFRS IN THE SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTITIES. DIFICULTIES AND OPPORTUNITIES OF THE IFRS FOR SMES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

IFRS IN THE SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTITIES. DIFICULTIES AND OPPORTUNITIES OF THE IFRS FOR SMEs PhD Student Mo? Ioana, West University of Timi?oara, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, România Doctoral programme - Accounting Scientific coordonator – Prof. Univ. Dr. Mate? Dorel Abstract: Over the years, the accounting have to meet a series of transformations and adaptations to the new trend by globalization, harmonisation and integration, trying to unfold transf...

Mo? Ioana

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Electronic spectroscopy of medium-sized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Implications for the carriers of the 2175 {\\AA} UV bump  

CERN Document Server

Mixtures of polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been produced by means of laser pyrolysis. The main fraction of the extracted PAHs were primarily medium-sized, up to a maximum size of 38 carbon atoms per molecule. The use of different extraction solvents and subsequent chromatographic fractionation provided mixtures of different size distributions. UV-VIS absorption spectra have been measured at low temperature by matrix isolation spectroscopy and at room temperature with PAHs as film-like deposits on transparent substrates. In accordance with semi-empirical calculations, our findings suggest that large PAHs with sizes around 50 to 60 carbon atoms per molecule could be responsible for the interstellar UV bump at 217.5 nm.

Steglich, M; Rouillé, G; Huisken, F; Mutschke, H; Henning, Th

2010-01-01

322

A Study Of Trade Unions In Selected Large And Medium Scale Industries In Visakhapatanam District (A.P.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is stated that the associations are the outcome of the union of two or more persons since single individual cannot do the desired work without the strength of others. With the assistance of these groups or associations the economic status of human being is improved and it leads to improvement of economic status of the whole human society. Thus it can be concluded that the unity in diversified areas of work also improves the human society as that leads to develop the economy of human society. Trade unions thus perform a very important role in protecting the interest of the workers. Trade unions are as significant as the management of an industry. There are 32 large and medium industries in Visakhapatanam District with an investment of Rs. 51113 lakhs by providing employment opportunity to 36,161 persons with Rs. 1.41 lakhs per capita investment on employment. The industrial development in the district occupies a significant importance in the country with establishment of Visakha Steel Plant in 1970. The growth of large and medium scale industries in the district observed at faster rate compared to other districts in the state. Normally, the faster growth rate of industrialization, results in faster growth of trade unions. Hence, the said study assumes significance in view of rapid growth of industries in this district.

Ramakrishna Mohan Rao Munaga

2013-08-01

323

Absenteeism at a Medium Size Philanthropic Hospital Absenteísmo em Hospital Filantrópico de Médio Porte  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The absenteeism is a complex administrative problem for organizations. In hospitals, it becomes even more complicated as the patient care can not be interrupted. The term absenteeism - disease, refers to the time off work due to health problems. It is intended to analyze the absence of workers due to health problems is related to age, sex, length of employment at the institution, part work shift and functional category. This is a retrospective, descriptive and documentary study. Data was collected from medical certificates submitted in the period from 01 July 2007 to 30 June 2008 to the sector of human resources of a medium-sized philanthropic hospital. The analysis results show that the number of certificates is greater in females (90.80% and staff that work less time in the institution (61.19%. It was found that the number of certificates is higher in workers who make the rotation between morning and afternoon shifts. It was also noted that workers aged over 48 years, had lower number of certificates than the younger ones. The nursing technicians assistant were the professional categories that had presented more certificates (46.05%. The results identify several factors related to absenteeism and provide subsidies to strengthen actions to monitor the health of workers and also the implementation of actions aimed at improving the quality of life at work. O absenteísmo é um complexo problema administrativo para as organizações. Nos hospitais, torna-se ainda mais complicado, pois o cuidado ao cliente não pode ser interrompido. Entende-se por absenteísmo-doença, as faltas ao trabalho por problemas de saúde. Tem-se como objetivo analisar as faltas dos trabalhadores por causas de saúde relacionando-as com idade, sexo, tempo de trabalho na instituição, turno de trabalho e categoria funcional. Trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo, descritivo edocumental. Os dados foram coletados dos atestados de saúde apresentados no período de 01 julho de 2007 a 30 de junho de 2008 ao setor de recursos humanos de um hospital filantrópico de médio porte. As análises dos resultados demonstraram que o número de atestados apresentados é maior no sexo feminino (90,80% e em funcionários com menor tempo de trabalho na instituição (61,19%. Verificou-se que onúmero de atestados é mais elevado nos trabalhadores que fazem revezamento entre os turnos matutino e vespertino. Também foi observado que os trabalhadores com idade acima de 48 anos, apresentaram menor número de atestados que os mais jovens. Os auxiliares e técnicos de enfermagem foram as categorias profissionais que mais apresentaram atestados (46,05%. Os dados encontrados permitem identificar vários fatores relacionados ao absenteísmo e fornecem subsídios para reforçar ações que acompanhem as questões de saúde dos trabalhadores e também a implantação de ações que visem à melhoria da qualidade de vida no trabalho.

Ilidia Terezinha Martelli Takahashi

2011-06-01

324

An empirical study on the effects of industrial clusters on small and medium enterprises  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tendency to industrial clustering at the end of the twentieth century was a turning point in industrial development programs in most countries of the world. Industrial clustering is a model of industrial organization, which has entered industrial literature as a new development strategy. Clustering has provided utilization of efficiencies of scale and aggregation as well as efficiencies of collective efforts by creating conditions for competitiveness advantage, economical growth and export de...

Zeinab Armoun; MohammadAli Astanbous; Ahmad tavangar; Mojtaba Javidnia

2012-01-01

325

Methodologies and Decision Criteria for Demonstrating Competitiveness of Small and Medium Sized Reactors - Present Value Capital Cost Model. Annex VIII  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Smaller size reactors are required to fulfil the growing energy needs of developing countries and emerging markets, as well as niche markets in developed countries. Grid appropriate reactors have been identified within the United States Department of Energy Global Nuclear Energy Partnership initiative as one of the key elements required to enable worldwide expansion of the peaceful use of nuclear power. In a speech at a conference in Algiers on 9 January 2007, the former IAEA Director General, Mohamed El Baradei, discussed the interest in new small and medium-size reactor designs which allow a more incremental investment than is required for a big reactor, and provide a better match to grid capacity in many developing countries'. Smaller size reactors (IAEA defines as 'small' those reactors with a power <300 MW(e) and 'medium' with a power <700 MW(e)) are the logical choice for smaller countries or those with a limited electrical grid. In fact, smaller reactors are now in different stages of development throughout the world, and interest in their deployment has also been expressed. With regards to decisions on the addition of power plant capacity, small reactors have many attractive characteristics, namely size, simplicity, enhanced safety, cost savings and lower financial resource requirements. On the downside, the specific costs of some components and systems of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) may be higher as a result of economy of scale effects. This annex explores some of the factors affecting decisions on power plant capacity addition in world markets, focusing particularly on many of the characteristics of SMRs

326

Strategy Analysis of Real Estate Company Property Development in Medium Size City in China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Real estate industry is a new economic growth point and main industry in Chinese gross domestic product nowadays. This paper analyzes the trend of Chinese real estate market development to help investors to understand the current situation of Chinese real estate markets and policies better, so as to make better real estate investment decisions in China in the future. Because of oversaturated with investment and higher cost of investment there are more and more limitations in investing in big ...

Ji, Yiping

2011-01-01

327

Developing a Methodology Based on Action Learning to Facilitate the Adoption of ICT in Small and Medium-sized Companies in Costa Rica  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of the thesis is to understand and explore better strategies to support the Small and Medium-sized companies sector in Costa Rica in the ICT adoption process. A strategy has been proposed which focuses on learning process and the interaction of university, industry and government (Triple Helix Model) in order to support the SMEs sector. The concrete proposal of the research is to design collaborative project based on action learning approach (Revans, 1982) with partnership of the three sectors in order to address concrete ICT projects in SMEs. The project was carried out in the action research context, considering a holistic approach needed in the SMEs and fostering the multi learning perspective claimed in the triple helix model (Etzkowitz, 2008).

Nunez, Heilyn Camacho

2010-01-01

328

Explaining National Differences in the Size and Industrial Distribution of Employment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

What factors determine national differences in the size and industry distribution of employment? This study stresses the role of business taxation, employment security laws, credit market policies, wage-setting institutions and the size of the public sector. We characterize these aspects of the economic policy environment in Sweden prior to 1990-91 and compare them to the situation in other European countries and the United States. Our characterization and international comparisons show that ...

Davis, Steven J.; Henrekson, Magnus

1997-01-01

329

Image Analysis of Pellet Size for a Control System in Industrial Feed Production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

When producing aquaculture fish feed pellets, the size of the output product is of immense importance. As the production method cannot produce pellets of constant and uniform size using constant machine settings, there is a demand for size control. Fish fed with feed pellets of improper size are prone to not grow as expected, which is undesirable to the aquaculture industry. In this paper an image analysis method is proposed for automatic size-monitoring of pellets. This is called granulometry and the method used here is based on the mathematical morphological opening operation. In the proposed method, no image object segmentation is needed. The results show that it is possible to extract a general size distribution from an image of piled disordered pellets representing both length and diameter of the pellets in combination as an area.

Ljungqvist, Martin Georg; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

2011-01-01

330

Re-Strategising for Effective Health and Safety Standards in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Poor health and safety record impact on the image/reputation and operational capabilities of businesses, especially those within the small and medium enterprise (SME) sector. Given the role of SMEs in the economy, this paper attempts to highlight the issue of poor health and safety performance of the SME sector and suggest a strategy for improving the level of performance. To this end, survey questionnaires were distributed to assess the overall awareness of people about health and safety iss...

Diugwu, Ikechukwu A.

2011-01-01

331

EFFICIENT MANAGEMENT OF SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES FOR A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present  paper presents aspects of the management of small and medium enterprises in agriculture and services, in order to create a concrete analysis framework for sustainable development in rural areas. Socio - economic analysis based on current data and future forecasts are the basis for drawing conclusions on the possibilities of encouraging a sustainable entrepreneurship in less developed regions and also for economic revitalization.

Suzana Demyen

2013-05-01

332

Implementing a Functional ISO 9001 Quality Management System in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This conceptual paper provides guidance for the implementation of a functionalISO 9001 quality management system (QMS) in small and medium-sizedenterprises (SMEs). To help a SME understand its starting point, four initialstates for QMS implementation are defined. Five paths for moving the QMS fromthe initial state to the desired state are described. To support the transition fromthe initial to the desired state, some key considerations in implementing a QMSin SMEs are discussed. The paper is ...

Andres Sousa-Poza; Mert Altinkilinc; Cory Searcy

2009-01-01

333

Cloud Computing: The Level of Awareness Amongst Small & Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Developing Economies.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cloud computing services are being touted as a major enabler for small businesses lately. This new paradigm is seen to offer unique opportunities to small and medium enterprises (SMEs) worldwide and developing economies are no exception. It presents SMEs access to similar technologies available to their larger counterparts and those in the developed world which inherently creates innovativeness, increases competitive advantage and impacts their operations and processes. This paper seeks to de...

Yeboah-boateng, Ezer Osei; Essandoh, Kofi Asare

2013-01-01

334

Examination of Theoretical and Empirical Studies on Firm’s Performance in Relation to its’ Board Size: A Study of Small and Medium Size Public Firms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

This research presented a review of key theoretical and empirical studies on firm’s performance and its board size.  The review included on small & medium sized and public owned firms from manufacturing to financial sectors.  The research concludes that the evidence on positive or negative correlation between board size and a firm’s performance is mixed (inconclusive and need for further empirical investigation on this subject is warranted.  It was found that the choice of optimal board size can vary in one firm to other, depending on nature of business operations, i.e. for high debt-financed firms with high advisory requirements may require large board to advise CEO on complex matters, as does the banking and saving & loans holding companies where more of expert advice, diversified opinions, professional skills are needed.  Also, the firms with poor operating performance may increase their board size as one of their strategy to improve profitability given that new board members will contribute in the form of increased networking, skills, opinion and expert advice.

 

Wajid Shakeel Ahmed

2012-02-01

335

Costs of Urban Infrastructure for Industry as Related to City Size in Developing Countries. India Case Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The document provides the details of a study which was designed to measure the direct costs of equipping cities of different size for industrial development, including the costs of social infrastructure for new urban industrial employees and their familie...

O. P. Mathur, R. Morse, M. C. K. Swamy

1968-01-01

336

Rapid preparation of ceramic moulds for medium-sized superalloy castings with magnesia-phosphate-bonded bauxite-mullite investments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phosphate-bonded investments have already been widely utilized in dental restoration and micro-casting of artistic products for its outstanding rapid setting and high strength. However, the rapid setting rate of investment slurry has up to now been a barrier to extend the use of such slurry in preparation of medium-sized ceramic moulds. This paper proposes a new process of rapid fabrication of magnesia-phosphate-bonded investment ceramic moulds for medium-sized superalloy castings utilizing bauxite and mullite as refractory aggregates. In order to determine the properties of magnesia-phosphate-bonded bauxite-mullite investments (MPBBMI, a series of experiments were conducted, including modification of the workable time of slurry by liquid(mL/powder(g(L/P ratio and addition of boric acid as retard agent and sodium tri-polyphosphate (STP as strengthening agent, and adjustment of bauxite (g/mullite(g(B/M ratio for mechanical strength. Mechanical vibration was applied to improve initial setting time and fluidity when pouring investment slurry; then an intermediate size ceramic mould for superalloy castings was manufactured by means of this rapid preparing process with MPBBMI material. The results showed that the MPBBMI slurry exhibits proper initial setting time and excellent fluidity when the L/P ratio is 0.64 and the boric acid content is 0.88wt.%. The fired specimens made from the MPBBMI material demonstrated adequate compression strength to withstand impact force of molten metal when the B/M ratio is 0.89 and the STP content is 0.92wt.%. The experimental results confirmed the feasibility of the proposed rapid fabricating process for medium-sized ceramic moulds with MPBBMI material by appropriate measures.

Li Tingzhong

2010-11-01

337

SIZE SPECIFIC PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS FOR INDUSTRIAL AND RURAL ROADS: SOURCE CATEGORY REPORT  

Science.gov (United States)

The report gives results of a study to derive size-specific particulate emission factors for industrial paved and unpaved roads and for rural unpaved roads from an existing field testing data base. Regression analysis was used to develop predictive emission factor equations which...

338

Firm size and productivity. Evidence from the electricity distribution industry in Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we apply Stochastic Frontier Analysis through a distance function to investigate the impact of firm size on productivity development in electricity distribution. We use a sample of seventeen Brazilian firms from 1998 to 2005 and decompose productivity into technical efficiency, scale efficiency and technical change. Moreover, a further step is to decompose the technical change measurement into several components. The results indicate that firm size is important for industry's productivity, and therefore a key aspect to consider when making decisions that affect the market structure in the electricity distribution industry. - Research Highlights: ?We apply Stochastic Frontier Analysis through a distance function to investigate the impact of firm's size on productivity development in electricity distribution using a sample of eighteen Brazilian firms from 1998 to 2005. ?Productivity is decomposed into technical efficiency, scale-efficiency and technical change. ?Firm size is important for the industry's productivity, and therefore a key aspect to consider when making decisions that affect the market structure in the electricity distribution industry.

339

Size distribution of aerosol particles: comparison between agricultural and industrial areas in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mie theory has been used in this work to obtain a theoretical calculation of the size distribution of aerosol particles by using tabulated mean of the Angstrom wavelength exponent ?o. Comparison was done between an industrial polluted area (Helwan, which is a neighbor to Cairo city), and an agricultural relatively unpolluted area (Mansoura, about 140 km from Cairo). The results show that the size distribution obeys the Junge power law. The size of particles in the polluted area is larger than that in the unpolluted area. (Author)

340

A Comprehensive, Competency-Based Education Framework Using Medium-Sized ERP Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Graduates with industry-relevant ERP competencies are highly sought after. This requirement is due to a dominance of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems and the positive affect which good quality ERP specialists have on the success rate of ERP system implementation projects. Universities are therefore increasingly pressurised to supply…

Scholtz, Brenda; Cilliers, Charmain; Calitz, Andre

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Development of laboratory and process sensors to monitor particle size distribution of industrial slurries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper we present a novel measurement technique for monitoring particle size distributions of industrial colloidal slurries based on ultrasonic spectroscopy and mathematical deconvolution. An on-line sensor prototype has been developed and tested extensively in laboratory and production settings using mineral pigment slurries. Evaluation to date shows that the sensor is capable of providing particle size distributions, without any assumptions regarding their functional form, over diameters ranging from 0.1 to 100 micrometers in slurries with particle concentrations of 10 to 50 volume percents. The newly developed on-line sensor allows one to obtain particle size distributions of commonly encountered inorganic pigment slurries under industrial processing conditions without dilution.

Pendse, H.P.

1992-10-01

342

Simulation of Supply-Chain Networks: A Source of Innovation and Competitive Advantage for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available On a daily basis, enterprises of all sizes cope with the turbulence and volatility of market demands, cost variability, and severe pressure from globally distributed competitors. Managing uncertainty about future demand requirements and volumes in supply-chain networks has become a priority. One of the ways to deal with uncertainty is the utilization of simulation techniques and tools, which provide greater predictability of decision-making outcomes. For example, simulation has been widely applied in decision-making processes related to global logistics and production networks at the strategic, tactical, and operational levels, where it is used to predict the impact of decisions before their implementation in complex and uncertain environments. Large enterprises are inclined to use simulation tools whereas small and medium-sized enterprises seem to underestimate its advantages. The objective of this article is to emphasize the relevance of simulation for the design and management of supply-chain networks from the perspective of small and medium-sized firms.

Giacomo Liotta

2012-11-01

343

Technical trend of small and medium size hydraulic power generation machinery. Chusho suiryoku hatsuden kiki no gijutsu doko  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

First as for the trend outside Japan, the small and medium size hydraulic power generation is being mainly developed with a decelerated development of large size one due to the excess of obligations and other economic problems in the countries under development. The machinery produced to measure Meidensha Corporation with the above trend was introduced in concrete description together with briefing its future trend. Because the small and medium size hydraulic power stations generally tend to be constructed in many places, low in economical performance, the standardization and simplification are needed of machinery in order to lower the cost for construction. The cross-flow water turbine being fixed regular to discharge water for the agricultural and fishery purpose, and river maintenance, the technical points to be developed in the future will comprise the heightening in both head and efficiency, maintenance power saving, operational simplification and digitization in control unit. For the machinery, they will do, among others, the heightening in all capacity, performance and head of cross-flow water turbine, amplification in capacity range of air-cooled bearing, and heightening in capacity of electrically driven servo. Of the maintenance and other control units, they will do the heightening in function and integration of anomaly monitoring. Also in the operational phase, they will do the introduction of sub water turbine as stand-by, elimination of spillway, etc. 1 fig.

Sanada, T. (Meidensha Electric Mfg. Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

1991-11-20

344

Improvement of environmental management incentives for small and medium-sized enterprises  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The developed countries have been prepared the national innovation for sustainable development for a long time. The international advanced enterprises, such as multinational enterprises, are enhancing the active and strategic environmental management. However, in spite of such changes in the world, small and middle-sized enterprises do not show any substantial changes. It is true that most of enterprises do not recognize the need of environmental management. Although they have intention for environmental improvement, it is also true that they do not have any strength to maintain effective management. Moreover, with over 99% of small and middle-sized enterprises among entire enterprises in Korea, it is hardly possible to establish an effective regulation system. The purpose of this study is to make a policy plan to induce the development of environmental friendly small and middle-sized enterprises under the recognition of such problems. 138 refs., 4 figs., 195 tabs.

Chang, Kee Bok; Lee, Seung Kyu; Lim, Chae Woon; Chung, Ho Sun [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

1998-12-01

345

13 CFR 121.201 - What size standards has SBA identified by North American Industry Classification System codes?  

Science.gov (United States)

...of dollars Size standards in... 212322Industrial Sand Mining... 221310Water Supply and...221320Sewage Treatment Facilities...Electronic Markets and Agents...Electronic Markets 100425120...nonmanufacturer size standard...442291 Window Treatment...

2010-01-01

346

Re-Strategising for Effective Health and Safety Standards in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Poor health and safety record impact on the image/reputation and operational capabilities of businesses, especially those within the small and medium enterprise (SME sector. Given the role of SMEs in the economy, this paper attempts to highlight the issue of poor health and safety performance of the SME sector and suggest a strategy for improving the level of performance. To this end, survey questionnaires were distributed to assess the overall awareness of people about health and safety issues, motivations and constraints, vis-a-viz supply chain improvement initiatives. Based on the findings (responses from questionnaires and existing literature, the unique characteristics of the supply chain network makes it a suitable medium through which health and safety improvement in small and mediumsized enterprises can be realised. Additionally, the findings show that good health and safety management culture enhances image, lowers costs, and improves the overall competitiveness of organisations. To complement the efforts/desires of health and safety regulators, there is need to leverage on the relationships that exist in supply chains, shown in this exercise to have a major influence on the activities of organisations.

Ikechukwu A. Diugwu

2011-12-01

347

Integration of “QES” systems on the small and medium size foundry companies in Portugal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents the present situation concerning the integration of the quality, environment and safety systems on industrial companies. A case study performed by the authors on the Portuguese foundry is presented. The present situation of this activity sector, on what concerns the application of the quality, environment and safety (QES) systems, is characterized, and the short time needs, procedures and initiatives that are being taken, or will be taken in a near future, to accomplish...

Santos, Gilberto; Barbosa, J.; Pedro, Claudia

2004-01-01

348

Critical Factors of E-SCM Adoption on Small and Medium Sized Enterprises Performance: An Empirical Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the gradual importance of e-Supply Chain Management (e-SCM to the Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs in Taiwan, this research intended to explore the critical factors which allowed the Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Taiwan to employ e-SCM. The research further studied that under these critical factors, how the adoption of e-SCM affected their organizational achievements. In this research, the researcher organized the related literature according to Grounded Theory and by distributing the questionnaires to the experts; the researcher initially confirmed the aspects and variables which affected Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises’ adoption of e-SCM. Subsequently, the researcher distributed the enterprise questionnaire to the companies of automobile parts, explored the critical factors and the influence of the variables under each aspect upon the organizational effect through regression analysis. Via Discriminant analysis, the research found that “supporting capacity of system supplier”, “relative advantage of e-SCM”, “organizational scale”, “fundamental construction of interior informational technology” were the critical factors which affected SMEs’ application of e-SCM. Upon the regression analysis, the research found that employing e-SCM when the system suppliers’ supporting capacity was better and when e-SCM brought better benefits to the enterprise would prominently upgrade organizational effect. The research finding can be the reference for the SMEs when they apply new information technology in the future, offer the related units government the suggestion for establishing guiding and regulation and allow the system suppliers to propose more appropriate products and service.

She-I Chang

2006-03-01

349

Cooling rate and size effects on the medium-range structure of multicomponent oxide glasses simulated by molecular dynamics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A set of molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the effect of cooling rate and system size on the medium-range structure of melt-derived multicomponent silicate glasses, represented by the quaternary 45S5 Bioglass composition. Given the significant impact of the glass degradation on applications of these materials in biomedicine and nuclear waste disposal, bulk structural features which directly affect the glass dissolution process are of particular interest. Connectivity of the silicate matrix, ion clustering and nanosegregation, distribution of ring and chain structural patterns represent critical features in this context, which can be directly extracted from the models. A key issue is represented by the effect of the computational approach on the corresponding glass models, especially in light of recent indications questioning the suitability of conventional MD approaches (that is, involving melt-and-quench of systems containing ?10{sup 3} atoms at cooling rates of 5-10 K/ps) when applied to model these glasses. The analysis presented here compares MD models obtained with conventional and nonconventional cooling rates and system sizes, highlighting the trend and range of convergence of specific structural features in the medium range. The present results show that time-consuming computational approaches involving much lower cooling rates and/or significantly larger system sizes are in most cases not necessary in order to obtain a reliable description of the medium-range structure of multicomponent glasses. We identify the convergence range for specific properties and use them to discuss models of several glass compositions for which a possible influence of cooling-rate or size effects had been previously hypothesized. The trends highlighted here represent an important reference to obtain reliable models of multicomponent glasses and extract converged medium-range structural features which affect the glass degradation and thus their application in different fields. In addition, as a first application of the present findings, the fully converged structure of the 45S5 glass was further analyzed to shed new light on several dissolution-related features whose interpretation has been rather controversial in the past.

Tilocca, Antonio [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom)

2013-09-21

350

Key Drivers to Developing Guanxi in China for Taiwanese Small to Medium Sized Firms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As Chinese economy has become one of the world’s economic powerhouse, research on guanxi, social or business ties in China, has been gaining ground in business research.size: 10pt; font-family: "Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-ansi-languag...

Soonhong Min; Young Baek, H.; Lan-Ying Huang

2009-01-01

351

Implementing a Functional ISO 9001 Quality Management System in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This conceptual paper provides guidance for the implementation of a functionalISO 9001 quality management system (QMS in small and medium-sizedenterprises (SMEs. To help a SME understand its starting point, four initialstates for QMS implementation are defined. Five paths for moving the QMS fromthe initial state to the desired state are described. To support the transition fromthe initial to the desired state, some key considerations in implementing a QMSin SMEs are discussed. The paper is based on site visits and implementationassistance the authors have provided to several SMEs. It is anticipated the paperwill help managers in SMEs understand the process of implementing ISO 9001and help them avoid the development of a paper-driven QMS that provideslimited value.

Andres Sousa-Poza

2009-03-01

352

Permeability and pore size distribution in medium strength self-compacting concrete  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of self-compacting concrete (SCC has been on the rise in recent years. Research on this type of concrete has focused primarily on determining optimal dosage, while durability, particularly for medium strength SCC, has received much less attention. The present study explored the permeability of a number of medium strength (characteristic strength, 30 MPa self-compacting concretes, including SCCs made with common cement, in pursuit of a balance between performance and cost. Pressurised water and mercury intrusion porosimetry tests were conducted to determine concrete behaviour when exposed to aggressive agents. The findings showed that the capillary networks of these concretes are essentially impermeable to aggressive agents.

El hormigón autocompactante ha experimentado un amplio desarrollo en los últimos años. Los estudios sobre este hormigón se han centrado en obtener dosificaciones óptimas, mientras los relativos a su durabilidad son escasos, especialmente en el caso de hormigones de resistencia moderada. Este trabajo se centra en el estudio de la permeabilidad de distintos hormigones autocompactantes de resistencia moderada (resistencia característica 30 MPa. El estudio incluye hormigones fabricados con cementos comunes, en los que se ha buscado un equilibrio entre prestaciones y precio. Con el fin de estudiar su comportamiento frente a la penetración de agentes agresivos, se han realizado los ensayos de permeabilidad al agua bajo presión y estudio de la porosimetría por intrusión de mercurio. Los resultados de los ensayos ponen de manifiesto el buen comportamiento de estos hormigones frente a la posible penetración de agentes agresivos por la red capilar.

Fernández Cánovas, M.

2010-09-01

353

Design propositions for top reflectors in high temperature gas cooled reactors of medium size, based on the HTR-500  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several concepts for top reflectors in medium size high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGCR's) are investigated. The HTR-500 serves as an example for reactors of this size. The main concern of the investigation is structural strength at high temperatures. The conventional design contains metallic structural parts which are not stable at very high temperatures and might fail during hypothetical accidents. The failing of the support structure would cause the top reflector to fall down on top of the pebble bed core. Closer to the core, it would be more effective, thus it would lead to an increase in reactivity. The thesis contains the results of calculations for two different concepts, one of them being an arch construction, the other one a beam construction. The feasibility of both concepts is evaluated regarding their respective mechanical properties. The arch-based construction shows advantages in its safety and it is easier to build under the given conditions. (orig.)

354

An empirical study on the effects of industrial clusters on small and medium enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tendency to industrial clustering at the end of the twentieth century was a turning point in industrial development programs in most countries of the world. Industrial clustering is a model of industrial organization, which has entered industrial literature as a new development strategy. Clustering has provided utilization of efficiencies of scale and aggregation as well as efficiencies of collective efforts by creating conditions for competitiveness advantage, economical growth and export development in the international environment. Today, industrial clustering has been considered as a fundamental strategy for economic development and growth in almost all countries of the world including Iran. This paper aims to assess and to explain important factors affecting the competitiveness of industrial clusters. It also shows the relationship among these factors together. The proposed study uses fuzzy DEMATEL technique; hence, the affecting factors of competitiveness of industrial clusters in the automotive cluster in one of the provinces of Iran is investigated and the importance of each of these factors and their relationships are identified.

Zeinab Armoun

2012-10-01

355

The Influence of Size on Corporate Culture and Organizational Effectiveness in the Nigerian Banking Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper examined the effect of size on corporate culture and organizational effectiveness in the Nigerian banking industry. A total of 388 managers were randomly drawn from a population of 13,339 managers of all the 24 banks in Nigeria. The instruments used for data collection were questionnaire and oral interview. A total of 320 copies of the questionnaire were retrieved and analyzed. Spearman’s Rank Correlation Statistical tool was used to test the hypotheses. The findings revealed that size is significantly related to corporate culture and organizational effectiveness. Based on the findings we concluded that size have significant effect on corporate culture and organizational effectiveness. The study therefore recommends that Organizations should have a “big company/small company hybrid” that combines a large corporation’s resources and reach with a small company’s simplicity and flexibility. Size should be managed effectively to empower workers and improve the competitiveness of organizations.

Edwinah Amah

2013-09-01

356

Influence of grain size on chalcopyrite ore leaching in acidic medium  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work presents an investigation of column leaching of a chalcopyrite ore using sulphuric acid where dissolved oxygen and iron(III ions play the role of oxidants. The investigations were carried out in PVC columns, diameter 110 mm and height 1000 mm, by percolation of the leaching solution through the ore layer. The influence of ore grain size on the degree of leaching and acid consumption was examined. The formation of gypsum on limestone results in the comminution of the initial raw material during leaching. The grain size of chalcopyrite was found to have no important influence on the leaching rate of copper. A higher consumption of sulphuric acid was found for the fractions (–3+1 mm, (?5+0 mm and (?5+3 mm than for the fractions (?10+5 mm, (?20+10 mm and (?20+0 mm.

M. M. ANTONIJEVIC

2007-08-01

357

Magic number behavior for heat capacities of medium sized classical Lennard-Jones clusters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Monte Carlo methods were used to calculate heat capacities as functions of temperature for classical atomic clusters of aggregate sizes $25 \\leq N \\leq 60$ that were bound by pairwise Lennard-Jones potentials. The parallel tempering method was used to overcome convergence difficulties due to quasiergodicity in the solid-liquid phase-change regions. All of the clusters studied had pronounced peaks in their heat capacity curves, most of which corresponded to their solid-liquid...

Frantz, D. D.

2001-01-01

358

The Role of Knowledge Management in Enhancing the Competitiveness of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Knowledge is one of the enterprise’s most important assets that influence its competitiveness. One way to capture an enterprise’s knowledge and make it available to all its members is through the use of knowledge management practices. This paper discusses the importance of knowledge management (KM in Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs and presents a framework to deal with knowledge management in order to enhance their competitiveness. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs are known for too much implicit knowledge, limited resources, insufficiently shared between managers and other employees. So, in the context of SMEs, KM can be used to capture knowledge and experience generated during their operations, activities, and processes. This research paper addresses a new way of thinking about the role of KM in SMEs through developing a framework that combines five phases of the KM lifecycle (capture, creation, codification, communication, and capitalization. This framework is called “A Five C’s Knowledge Management Framework”. The application of this framework will improve the success rate and competitiveness of SMEs.

Ali A. Alawneh

2009-12-01

359

Occupational Health and Safety(OHS in Small and Medium Size Enterprises (SMEs: A Primary Review1 SANTE ET SECURITE  

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Full Text Available
Problems of occupational health and safety(OHS in small and medium size enterprises(SMEs in that mainly are private enterprises, are severe in China where as, the corresponding theoretical study are lagged behind regretfully. This paper summarizes the representative progress in this discipline simply. The exploratory results will be used to make an initial evaluation of SMEs needs, and will help orient future research.
Key words: Occupational health and safety, Small and Medium Size Enterprises, review
Résumé: Les problèmes de Santé et sécurité professionnelles(OHS dans les petites et moyennes entreprises(PME sont principalement ceux dans les entreprises privées et sont graves partout en Chine. La recherche théorique correspondante est largement et malheureusement arriérée. Cette thèse fait un résumé sur le progrès représentatif dans cette seule discipline. Les résultats exploratoires seront utilisés pour faire une évaluation initiale des demandes des PMEs et nous aideront l’orientation des recherches futures.
Mots-clés: Santé et sécurité professionnelles, les petites et moyennes entreprises, revue

Ping-qing LIU

2006-03-01

360

Ceramic Membrane Fabrication from Industrial Waste: Effect of Particle Size Distribution on the Porosity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Industrial waste from sanitary company is chosen in this study as a precursor to fabricate ceramic membrane. It has been reported that enormous rejects being generated every year by this company. A preliminary characterization of this industrial waste shows the presence of quartz mineral, which is one of the main and suitable elements for the formation of ceramic products. Extrusion method was applied in fabricating tubular type ceramic membrane. In this present study, the effect of three different particle size distribution of the powder waste on the porosity is presented. The characterization of the porosity was performed in order to gain the insights in preparing ceramic membrane with good permeability. Results show that almost 40% porosity is able to be obtained using higher particle size distribution. However, further improvements in working conditions should be optimized in order to have a ceramic membrane with good physical properties.

I. Norliza

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Corporate Social Responsibility in Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in Nigeria: An Example from the Hotel Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility (CSR is the promise by business organizations to behave in a way that is ethicallyacceptable and at the same time contributing to the economic development and improvement of the livingconditions of the employees, the catchment community and the larger society. Small and medium scale enterprises(SMEs can serve as the engine room for corporate social responsibility in developing countries, like Nigeria, sincea high proportion of economic activity is generated through them. Hotel industry, belonging to this group hasexpanded rapidly since the return to democratic rule in 1999 primarily due to government’s interest in tourismdevelopment. Such expansion of the hotel industry calls for an enquiry into how socially responsible its activitiesare. Hence, this study explored the corporate social responsibility of the hotel industry in Nigeria. Primarily, thestudy made use of quantitative data obtained though questionnaire administered on the management officers inthese hotels. It was found out that corporate social responsibility practices are minimal and at an informal level. Itis recommended that corporate social responsibility should be embraced by the small and medium scale enterprisesin order to fast track the country’s overall development.

Eme Joel Efiong

2013-06-01

362

Human resource management in small and medium-sized vineyards in Chile / Administración de recursos humanos en pequeñas y medianas viñas en Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish G. Pérez Arrau y F. Muñoz Medina.2014. Administración de recursos humanos en pequeñas y medianas viñas en Chile. Cien. Inv. Agr. 42(2): 141-151. El objetivo de este artículo es la búsqueda de prácticas de gestión de recursos humanos en pequeñas y medianas viñas en Chile, identificando agentes y grup [...] os relevantes que permitan una mejor comprensión de cómo estas empresas gestionan sus recursos humanos. La investigación se basa en 22 entrevistas realizadas a directores de personal e informantes claves de un total de 16 viñas productoras de vino entre los años 2009 y 2012. Se incluye la recolección y análisis de literatura especializada sobre gestión de recursos humanos en PYMES. La investigación muestra características evidentes, problemas y desafíos con el objetivo de mejorar la producción, la innovación y la sostenibilidad a largo plazo. A pesar de que la industria del vino es un área económica emblemática de Chile, la forma en que administra sus recursos humanos es desconocida, por lo que esta investigación se centra en esta área poco conocida tan importante para la productividad. Abstract in english G. Pérez Arrau, and F. Muñoz Medina. 2014. Human resource management in small and medium-sized vineyards in Chile. Cien. Inv. Agr. 41(2): 141-151. The focus of this paper is the identification of human resource management practices in small and medium-sized vineyards in Chile, identifying agents and [...] relevant groups that allow a better understanding of how these companies manage their human resources. The research is based on 22 interviews held with personnel managers and key informants from a total of 16 wine-producing vineyards between 2009 and 2012. The research involved collecting studies and analyzing the specialized literature on human resource management in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The research highlights the features, relevant problems and challenges of human resources management with the aim of improving production, innovation and long-term sustainability. Although the wine industry is an emblematic economic area of Chile, how it manages its human resources is unknown, so this research focuses on this little-known area that is so important to productivity.

Gregorio, Pérez Arrau; Felipe, Muñoz Medina.

363

Small and medium-sized firms top management teams’ decision making in global acquisitions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The new global marketplace has caused changes in some organizations’/industries’ forms and execution of strategy and reliance on international personnel. Entry and success through the accumulation of knowledge in the global marketplace have become the impetus for sustainable competitive/developmental advantage for many corporations. Many organizations choose a strategy focusing on international acquisitions in foreign markets to compete effectively in the current ever-changing dynamic competitive landscape. After acquisition, the monitoring of the operations of the new international subsidiary by US firms typically is an ethnocentric example of applying home-country standards and controls. We suggest that the top management team (TMT of a firm is a valuable resource, needs to be retained and that ethnocentric monitoring must be reconsidered. This research focuses on the TMT and their value to the firm to help explain the variation in acquisition success. Thus post-acquisition integration and monitoring must account for this valuable asset.

Timothy Kiessling

2009-07-01

364

Radioactive waste industrial management in France for medium- and long-term  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The context within which the industrial scale management of radioactive wastes takes place is briefly outlined. The regulations already in force or envisaged in France in this field are exposed. Emphasis is given to the activities of the National Agency for the management of radioactive wastes (ANDRA). The reasons why this organization was created are discussed together with the type of work conferred to it, its present workload, the industrial management concepts it applies, its present and future potential, the costs envisaged for waste disposal and the financial solutions adopted. The industrial technical assistance policy of ANDRA is presented

365

The 'island rule' in birds: medium body size and its ecological explanation.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Do birds show a different pattern of insular evolution from mammals? Mammals follow the 'island rule', with large-bodied species getting smaller on islands and small-bodied species getting bigger. By contrast, the traditional view on birds is that they follow no general island rule for body size, but that there is an insular trend for large bills. Insular shifts in feeding ecology are, therefore, widely assumed to be the primary cause of divergence in island birds. We use a comparative approa...

Clegg, Sonya M.; Owens, Ian P. F.

2002-01-01

366

An Empirical Study of IT Innovation Adoption Among Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Klang Valley, Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose—The purpose of this research is to use and validate the Entrepreneurial Event model as a base model to investigate SME owners’ perception toward IT innovation adoption and use. This paper also attempts to investigate the key determinants of the adoption of IT innovation among small and medium sized enterprises in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This study revised and validated the Entrepreneurial Event Model in a new context and tried to examine the effect of perceived desirability, propensity to act and performance expectancy on behavior intention to adopt and use IT innovation in SMEs companies.Design/ methodology/ approach—Based on the research model the questionnaire was developed using previous work in the areas of entrepreneurship (Entrepreneurial Event Model and technology acceptance (UTAUT. The data used to test the hypothesis is collectedfrom various spectrums of Malaysian industries in Kuala Lumpur. A total of 1,000 businesses were identified and 412 completed questionnaires were available in this study. The research model was applied using the structural equation modelling technique.Finding—The results of this study indicated that perceived desirability, propensity to act and performance expectancy have a significant positive influence on behavioral intention, and explained a significant amount of the variance in predicting a SMEs owners intention to adopt IT innovation. Propensity to act is the strongest determinant of intention to use IT innovations among Malaysian SME owners follow by perceived desirability and performance expectancy. The results suggest that attractiveness of IT innovation is an important determinant towards the intention to adopt IT innovation. The result revealed that SME owners are more willing to use IT innovation, which is more attractive. Perceived usefulness (performance expectancy of IT innovation is the third most important factor that SME owners consider when they want to adopt and use new technology in their jobs. The results also revealed that experience moderated the relationship between determinants and behavior intention.Research Limitations/implications—The number of male and female SMEsowners is not equal and our respondents were mostly men compared to women. This study measure intention to use IT innovation, and did not measure use behavior.Practical implications—This study extends to knowledge on IS adoption behavior research by using entrepreneurial event models in the context of technology acceptance.Furthermore, from the SME owners’ points of view, this study has shed some light on the adoption and use behavior and clarified the situation for SME owners when they want to adopt and use IT innovation to be successful in their job and market.Originality/value—This study is one of the first to utilize the Entrepreneurial Event Model (EPM to the technology acceptance domain. It also provides a broader view of the IT innovation adoption decision and sheds some additional light on individual technology usage behavior.

Wenjie Zhao

2011-12-01

367

Impact of industrialization on the small-sized town of Jubail, Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study investigates the impact of a government-sponsored industrial complex on the small-sized town of Jubail, a town on the Arabian Gulf coast of Saudi Arabia. The population of the area increased from 8000 to 81,000 in the decade between 1973 and 1983. Findings of the research indicate that both physical and cultural landscapes have changed considerably. As a result, Jubail has been transformed from a small rural fishing town into a growing industrial center. Industrial development has led to increases in employment, population, and businesses. Not only have there been increases in numbers; there have also been changes in employment, population, business, and ethnic makeup. In addition, the educational level and standard of living have been raised.

Al-Jarallah, A.J.

1983-01-01

368

Sizing and dynamic analyses of a micro-grid supplying a harbor industrial area  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents the first results of the OptimaGRID project which focuses on the design of a microgrid used for industrial area, namely the Tarnos area of the Bayonne harbor. The objective is to size the electrical sources of the micro-grid according with the harbor needs and test its dynamic operation. For these analyses, HOMER® and EUROSTAG® software have been used.

Kreckelbergh, Stephane; Vechiu, Ionel

2012-01-01

369

The Influence of Size on Corporate Culture and Organizational Effectiveness in the Nigerian Banking Industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper examined the effect of size on corporate culture and organizational effectiveness in the Nigerian banking industry. A total of 388 managers were randomly drawn from a population of 13,339 managers of all the 24 banks in Nigeria. The instruments used for data collection were questionnaire and oral interview. A total of 320 copies of the questionnaire were retrieved and analyzed. Spearman’s Rank Correlation Statistical tool was used to test the hypotheses. The findings revealed that...

Edwinah Amah; Nwuche, C. A.

2013-01-01

370

Synthesis of PHB nanoparticles from optimized medium utilizing dairy industrial waste using Brevibacterium casei SRKP2: a green chemistry approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are natural, biodegradable polymers accumulated by bacteria under nutritional exhausted condition where carbon source is in excess. A gram positive bacterium (designated strain SRKP2) that potentially accumulated polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) was isolated from dairy industrial waste. From its morphological and physiological properties and nucleotide sequence of its 16S rRNA, it was suggested that strain SRKP2 was similar to Brevibacterium casei. PHAs were synthesized from a medium containing dairy waste, yeast extract and sea water. The synthesized PHAs were characterized by FT-IR as Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). Response surface methodology was applied to optimize the production of PHB. From the optimized medium the yield of PHB was found to be 2.940 g/L. Here we report the direct use of dairy waste and sea water as potential sources for the production of PHB. Produced PHB was used to synthesize nanoparticles using solvent displacement technique. PMID:19700268

Ram Kumar Pandian, Sureshbabu; Deepak, Venkatraman; Kalishwaralal, Kalimuthu; Muniyandi, Jeyaraj; Rameshkumar, Neelamegam; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

2009-11-01

371

Development of medium-size half-mask facepiece for male workers at a shipyard and its fit performance in Korea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ten years ago, three differently sized half-mask facepiece prototypes were constructed from silicon using computer graphics and statistical analysis to fit them according to Korean facial dimensions. The purpose of this study was to complete the medium-size half-mask respirator based on the prototype, which would provide an adequate fit performance for male workers at a shipyard, Hyundai Samho Heavy Industry Co., in Korea. The complete respirator--the hardness 55--was manufactured with existing accessories such as a filter, exhalation valve, and strap attached. The fit performance test was conducted by performing a quantitative fit-test on 48 male subjects: workers who usually wear half-mask respirators (Dobulife Tech Co., Model DM-911, Gwangju, Gyeonggi-do, Korea). The results showed that the hardness 55 provided male subject workers with much better fit performance than the existing mask constructed by the same company. Because softness of the material of the facepiece, in particular the inner part, influenced faceseal leakage, further research on developing better-fit respirator facepieces should consider carefully the fine control of material softness. PMID:24467771

Han, Don-Hee; Kim, David

2014-01-01

372

Mapping trends of large and medium size carnivores of conservation interest in Romania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We analysed yearly estimates of population size data during 2001-2012 for five carnivores species of conservation interest (Ursus arctos, Canis lupus, Lynx lynx, Felis silvestris and Canis aureus. Population size estimations were done by the game management authorities and integrated by the competent authorities on the Ministry of Environment and Climate Change. Trends in data were detected using non-parametric Mann-Kendall test. This test was chosen considering the short length of data series and its usefulness for non-normal distributed data. The trend was tested at three spatial scales: game management units (n=1565, biogeographical region (n=5 and national. Trends depicted for each game management unit were plotted using ArcGIS, resulting species trend distribution maps. For the studied period increasing population trends were observed for Ursus arctos, Canis lupus, Canis aureus and Lynx lynx, while for Felis silvestris there was no trend recorded. Such an analysis in especially useful for conservation proposes, game management and reporting obligations under article 17 of the EC Habitat Directive, using population trend as a proxy for population dynamics. We conclude that the status of the five carnivore species is favourable during the study period.

Mihai Cristian Adamescu

2014-07-01

373

The medium-sized charged YbSin± (n = 7-13) clusters: A relativistic computational investigation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Graphical abstract: The geometries and electronic properties of the medium-sized YbSin± (n = 7-13) clusters are investigated systematically by using relativistic density functional method. The medium-sized YbSin± clusters with n = 8, 9, 10, and 13 significantly deform their neutral geometries, which are confirmed by the calculated AIP and VIP values. The relative stabilities in terms of the calculated fragmentation energies exhibit that the YbSin+ (n = 8, 10, 13) and YbSin- (n = 8, 10, 12) clusters have stronger abundances than their corresponding neighbors; the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gaps of the charged clusters are increased generally as the cluster size going from n = 7 to 13; the large HOMO-LUMO gaps of charged clusters indicate that their chemical activities are weaker than those of their neutral counterparts, especially for n = 7, 10, and 13 clusters. Generally, the obtained or removed charge influences electronic and geometrical structures of the charged clusters. Research highlights: ? Most of the charged YbSin (n = 7-13) clusters keep frameworks as the neutrals, and the geometries of 8a+, 9a+, 10a+, and 13a+ are significant deformed, which are reflected from the calculated VIPs and AIPs values. The charged YbSi8 cluster is actually the mosub>8 cluster is actually the most stable isomer. ? According to the calculated HOMO-LUMO gaps of the clusters, one finds that the HOMO-LUMO gaps for the charged YbSin (n = 7-13) clusters are smaller than those of the neutrals, reflecting that the removed or obtained charge influences the HOMO-LUMO gaps of neutral clusters. ? The calculated results show that the YbSin (n = 7-13) clusters are the nonmagnetic structures because the f orbitals are filled completely, which are not involved in the chemical bonding. - Abstract: The geometries and electronic properties of the medium-sized YbSin± (n = 7-13) clusters are investigated systematically by using relativistic density functional method. The medium-sized YbSin± clusters with n = 8, 9, 10, and 13 significantly deform their neutral geometries, which are confirmed by the calculated AIP and VIP values. The relative stabilities in terms of the calculated fragmentation energies exhibit that the YbSin+ (n = 8, 10, 13) and YbSin- (n = 8, 10, 12) clusters have stronger abundances than their corresponding neighbors; the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gaps of the charged clusters are increased generally as the cluster size going from n = 7 to 13; the large HOMO-LUMO gaps of charged clusters indicate that their chemical activities are weaker than those of their neutral counterparts, especially for n = 7, 10, and 13 clusters. Generally, the obtained or removed charge influences electronic and geometrical structures of the charged clusters.

374

Hepatic contrast medium enhancement at computed tomography and its correlation with various body size measures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background. When the same dose of iodine is given to all patients when performing abdominal computed tomography (CT) there may be a wide inter-individual variation in contrast medium (CM) enhancement of the liver. Purpose. To evaluate if any of the measures body height (BH), body mass index (BMI), lean body mass (LBM), ideal body weight (IBW), and body surface area (BSA) correlated better than body weight (BW) with hepatic enhancement, and to compare the enhancement when using iodixanol and iomeprol. Material and Methods. One hundred patients referred for standard three-phase CT examination of abdomen were enrolled. Body weight and height were measured at the time of the CT examination. Forty grams of iodine (iodixanol 320 mg I/mL or iomeprol 400 mg I/mL) was injected at a rate of 1.6 g-I/s, followed by a 50 mL saline flush. The late arterial phase was determined by using a semi-automatic smart prep technique with a scan delay of 20 s. The hepatic parenchymal phase started automatically 25 s after the late arterial phase. CM concentration was estimated by placement of regions of interest in aorta (native and late arterial phase) and in liver (native and parenchymal phase). Results. BW (r -0.51 and -0.64), LBM (r = -0.54 and -0.59), and BSA (r -0.54 and -0.65) showed the best correlation coefficients with aortic and hepatic parenchymal enhancement, respectively, without any significant differences between the measures. Comparing iodixanol and iomeprol there was no significant difference in aortic enhancement. The liver enhancement was significantly higher (P < 0.05) using iodixanol than iomeprol. Conclusion. To achieve a consistent hepatic enhancement, CM dose may simply be adjusted to body weight instead of using more complicated calculated parameters based on both weight and height

375

Effects of equivolume isometric training programs comprising medium or high resistance on muscle size and strength.  

Science.gov (United States)

Isometric unilateral elbow extension training was conducted for 10 weeks (3 times per week) on 12 young adult men to investigate the effects of equivolume exercise programs with different combinations of intensity and duration on the morphological and functional aspects of the triceps brachii muscle. One group of 6 subjects trained by developing maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) for 6 s per set with 12 sets per session (100%G), while the other group of 6 subjects trained at 60% of MVC for 30 s per set with 4 sets per session (60%G). Training significantly increased the muscle volume ( V(m)), fascicle pennation angle of the triceps brachii, and torque output during concentric and eccentric elbow extensions at three constant velocities of 0.52, 1.57, and 3.14 rad.s(-1) as well as under the training condition, with no significant differences in the relative gains between the two programs. However, 100%G showed significantly greater V(m) than 60%G after training, when V(m) before training was normalized. Thus, only 60%G significantly increased the ratio of torque to V(m) developed in the eccentric actions at the three velocities and concentric action at 1.57 rad.s(-1). The present results indicate that isometric training programs of medium resistance/long duration and high resistance/short duration produce different effects on V(m) and dynamic strength relative to V(m), even if the training volume is equalized between the two protocols. PMID:12070620

Kanehisa, H; Nagareda, H; Kawakami, Y; Akima, H; Masani, K; Kouzaki, M; Fukunaga, T

2002-06-01

376

Hepatic contrast medium enhancement at computed tomography and its correlation with various body size measures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Background. When the same dose of iodine is given to all patients when performing abdominal computed tomography (CT) there may be a wide inter-individual variation in contrast medium (CM) enhancement of the liver. Purpose. To evaluate if any of the measures body height (BH), body mass index (BMI), lean body mass (LBM), ideal body weight (IBW), and body surface area (BSA) correlated better than body weight (BW) with hepatic enhancement, and to compare the enhancement when using iodixanol and iomeprol. Material and Methods. One hundred patients referred for standard three-phase CT examination of abdomen were enrolled. Body weight and height were measured at the time of the CT examination. Forty grams of iodine (iodixanol 320 mg I/mL or iomeprol 400 mg I/mL) was injected at a rate of 1.6 g-I/s, followed by a 50 mL saline flush. The late arterial phase was determined by using a semi-automatic smart prep technique with a scan delay of 20 s. The hepatic parenchymal phase started automatically 25 s after the late arterial phase. CM concentration was estimated by placement of regions of interest in aorta (native and late arterial phase) and in liver (native and parenchymal phase). Results. BW (r -0.51 and -0.64), LBM (r = -0.54 and -0.59), and BSA (r -0.54 and -0.65) showed the best correlation coefficients with aortic and hepatic parenchymal enhancement, respectively, without any significant differences between the measures. Comparing iodixanol and iomeprol there was no significant difference in aortic enhancement. The liver enhancement was significantly higher (P < 0.05) using iodixanol than iomeprol. Conclusion. To achieve a consistent hepatic enhancement, CM dose may simply be adjusted to body weight instead of using more complicated calculated parameters based on both weight and height.

Svensson, Anders; Nouhad, Jallo; Cederlund, Kerstin; Aspelin, Peter; Torkel, Brismar B., E-mail: anders.svensson@karolinska.se [Dept. of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology at Karolinska Inst., Div. of Medical Imaging and Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); (Dept. of Radiology, Karolinska Univ. Hospital, Huddinge, Stockholm (Sweden)); Nyman, Ulf (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Lasarettet Trelleborg, Univ. of Lund, Trelleborg (Sweden)); Bjoerk, Jonas (Competence Centre for Clinical Research, Skaane Univ. Hospital, Lund (Sweden)

2012-07-15

377

Effect of sodium nitrite-borax blend on the corrosion rate of low carbon steel in industrial water medium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effects of sodium nitrite-borax blend on low carbon steel corrosion in industrial water medium at various temperatures, various inhibitors concentration of sodium nitrite and borax and at various rotational speeds of the specimens have been studied by gravimetric and polarization measurements. Optimization of the three variables was made and correlating the results obtained by using Box-Wilson statistical method. The process was considered as adsorption of inhibitor ions in oxide layer which form a passive film on the metal surface. The Langmuir isotherm was found to be the best description for the adsorption process. Thermodynamic parameters were evaluated and discussed

378

Ozone perturbation from medium-size asteroid impacts in the ocean  

Science.gov (United States)

We present results of an investigation aimed at characterizing the effects of oceanic impacts of 500 m and 1 km diameter asteroids on the lower and middle atmosphere, estimating ozone loss and potential danger from UV radiation at the Earth's surface. Little work has been done so far to assess the atmospheric perturbation from the impact of objects in this size range, even though their sizes are close to the threshold for causing global environmental effects. In particular, at the Earth's surface oceanic impacts are twice more likely to occur than land impacts. This work represents the first attempt at combining impact simulations with a three-dimensional shock physics code (SOVA), and atmospheric simulations using the general circulation model with interactive chemistry WACCM. SOVA simulations provided an estimate of the amount and state of material ejected into the atmosphere by the impacts. Estimated water vapor in the upper atmosphere was then introduced in the initial conditions for the WACCM simulations that modeled the subsequent perturbation of atmospheric chemistry Final estimates of the change over time in UV flux at the surface due to the impact-induced ozone change are then carried out using the TUV radiative transfer model. The results suggest that mid-latitude oceanic impacts of 1 km asteroids can produce a significant, global perturbation of upper atmospheric chemistry, including multi-year global ozone depletion comparable to ozone hole records registered in the mid-1990 s. Asteroids 500 m in diameter cause limited perturbations of upper atmospheric chemistry with significant ozone depletion confined to the hemisphere in which the impact occurred. Impact-induced ozone depletion affects UV irradiance at the Earth's surface, resulting in levels of UV-B irradiance that can be dangerous for living organisms, and, in the tropics and initial midlatitude summers, far exceed levels currently experienced anywhere on Earth.

Pierazzo, E.; Garcia, R. R.; Kinnison, D. E.; Marsh, D. R.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Crutzen, P. J.

2010-11-01

379

Size Distribution of Inorganic Species and Their Inhaled Dose in a Detergent Industrial Workplace  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aerosol particles in the workplace of a detergent industry were sampled during July 2005 by a Berner low-pressure impactor. The samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry and ion chromatography in order to determine the size distribution of metallic elements and water-soluble inorganic ions. The size distributions of some characteristic metallic elements (Cu, Fe, Al) were unimodal with their maximum found in coarse particles. Among the water-soluble aerosol components SO4+, NO3-, Cl-, NH4+ and Ca++ were the major contributors to total particle mass. The lung deposition resulting from the partially hygroscopic aerosol is estimated. The calculated lung deposition reveals the impact of separate chemical aerosol compounds on the levels of the inhaled dose. The differences observed between the total and regional deposition of the different compounds appear mainly due to their different size distributions

380

Public relations agencies in the UK travel industry: Does size matter?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The relationship between an agency and its client has a limited time scale. Thus far,research has primarily focused on the relationship between advertising agencies and their clients. Based on a study of the existing literature, most of which is advertising based,this article explores the agency-client relationship for public relations agencies in the UK travel industry. Our model concentrates on the four phases of client-agency relationships:agency selection; successful relationships;failing relationships; and agency switching.Several factors influence these four phases, but this article focuses specifically on an under-examined factor: whether the size of a client's public relations agency might influence the nature of the relationship between a client and agency. UK travel companies with different sized public relations agencies were interviewed to test the model and assess the impact of agency size. We found evidence to suggest that agencies should be aware of how their size may influence client perception during the selection process. Agencies similarly should be conscious that their size might act as an indication of how clients perceive their ability, and indeed may influence their client-agency relationship on an ongoing basis. Attention to size-related perceptions may help prevent clients switching agencies.

Lucy Mart

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Medium-Voltage Cables in Nuclear Plant Applications - State of Industry and Conditioning Monitoring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

OAK-B135 This report reviews the types of medium-voltage (MV) cables in use in nuclear power plants and the techniques that are currently available to assess the condition of MV cable systems. The project identified the types of cable systems in nuclear plants and their operating conditions and then assessed the aging and failure mechanisms of these cables and suitable diagnostic test techniques. In addition, ways to alleviate conditions that cause the most severe aging were identified.

J.M. Braun

2003-10-01

382

Use of radiation vulcanized natural rubber latex in small and medium scale industries in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The latex based industry is fast growing with the setting up of several units to produce household and examination gloves. Production of rubberized coir using concentrated latex is also growing rapidly while more and more small scale industries have been set up. There is also a growth in the large scale sector in the dipped goods manufacture. Use of irradiated latex in the manufacture of dipped products has good potential as the efficiency of production is enhanced in the case of latex containing less additives. (author)

383

THE LIMITS OF THE EXTENDED HÜCKEL THEORY TO CALCULATE THE TOTAL DENSITY OF STATES OF MEDIUM-SIZED MOLECULES  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Two medium-sized molecular systems X60 (X=C,N) were analyzed using Extended Hückel, Density Functional and ab initio Hartree-Fock methods. The aim of the work was to test the reliability of the EHT methodology to calculate the total Density of States distribution curve. The Extended Hückel method is [...] only reliable in the cases of the first valence and conduction bands of these systems. For the rest of the Density of States distribution curve EHT performs badly. The sources of error of EHT, come from the non-inclusion of the electron-electron interaction and from incorrect results regarding the relative ordering of the MO degeneracies. Both sources of error should disappear when the occupied and empty molecular orbitals become very similar in energy over a certain range, forming an almost continuous band, as happens in bigger molecular systems

JUAN SEBASTIÁN, GÓMEZ-JERIA.

384

THE LIMITS OF THE EXTENDED HÜCKEL THEORY TO CALCULATE THE TOTAL DENSITY OF STATES OF MEDIUM-SIZED MOLECULES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two medium-sized molecular systems X60 (X=C,N were analyzed using Extended Hückel, Density Functional and ab initio Hartree-Fock methods. The aim of the work was to test the reliability of the EHT methodology to calculate the total Density of States distribution curve. The Extended Hückel method is only reliable in the cases of the first valence and conduction bands of these systems. For the rest of the Density of States distribution curve EHT performs badly. The sources of error of EHT, come from the non-inclusion of the electron-electron interaction and from incorrect results regarding the relative ordering of the MO degeneracies. Both sources of error should disappear when the occupied and empty molecular orbitals become very similar in energy over a certain range, forming an almost continuous band, as happens in bigger molecular systems

JUAN SEBASTIÁN GÓMEZ-JERIA

2006-12-01

385

Performance Measurement in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises - Literature Review and Results from a German Case Study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A literature review of Performance Measurement Systems (PMS) in Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) shows that the main contributions focus on the development of theoretical models, but not on guidelines for practical implementation. In this context, an important neglected aspect is the general fitness or readiness of a SME to implement a PMS. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to determine critical prerequisites for a successful PMS implementation in SMEs. For this purpose, a case study in a German SME was conducted. The findings indicate that the existence of specific contingency factors – Corporate Strategy, software-based Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) and Activity Based Costing (ABC) – strongly supports the successful implementation of a PMS and its later use. Hence, further research shall include these prerequisites as new variables determining the PMS process. Based on that, researchers and managers of SMEs can develop individual indicators to identify their own PMS readiness.

Brem, Alexander; Kreusel, N.

2008-01-01

386

Environmental management in small and medium-sized companies: an analysis from the perspective of the theory of planned behavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the business context, concern for the environment began to develop when pressure from the public administration and environmental awareness groups raised the specific requirements for companies. The Theory of Planned Behavior considers that people's conduct is determined by the intention of carrying out a certain behavior. Thus, the individual's intent is determined by three factors related to the desired outcome of the behavior: the Personal Attitude toward the Results, the Perceived Social Norms, and the Perceived Behavioral Control over the action. Therefore, the objectives of this paper are to clarify the attitudes of the managers of Canarian small and medium-sized companies about taking environmental measures, and try to demonstrate whether there is a relationship between the proposed factors and the intention to take these measures. PMID:24533094

Sánchez-Medina, Agustín J; Romero-Quintero, Leonardo; Sosa-Cabrera, Silvia

2014-01-01

387

Innovation incubators – entities of support of small and medium-sized enterprises’ competitiveness in the Modern economy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Innovation incubators are entities of the infrastructure network of support of small and medium-sized enterprises. At the stage of SMEs’ maximum vulnerability, they improve the survival of innovative businesses through the range of services and facilities provided. They are designed to mitigate the problems faced by SMEs, which develop and implement innovations, ensuring sustainability and competitiveness. Along with promoting the entrepreneurial spirit, innovation incubators play an essential role in promoting knowledge and innovation transfer, introduction of the research results into economic circuit, creating links between businesses, universities, research institutions, etc., links between people, talents and resources.In this article, we will focus on innovation incubators, their role in the development of SMEs in the world and in the Republic of Moldova, making an accent in the creation and development of the country's first Innovation Incubator „Inovatorul”.

Maier Lidia

2013-02-01

388

Proposal for the CEA/DRN activity on small and medium size reactors research on threshold effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The discussion on Small and Medium Size Reactors - SMR is difficult considering the presumptions, justified or not, that affect the debate. Nevertheless, within this context, the CEA/DRN/DER generic objective is the achievement of an exhaustive identification and assessment of the problems that are specific for the SMR. The paper shows the proposals for the activities that are actually under discussion at the CEA/DRN. Among these activities, the research on threshold effects is an essential stage in the assessment of the choices in innovative concepts. This research, as well as the assessment itself, must cover, in an exploratory way, the aspects of operation, safety, economy, fuel cycle, etc. Before starting or, in some cases, continuing this research work, it seems interesting to define a general outline which, by systematising the approach, provides a helpful tool to the designer. The document is a potential starting point (among others) for the discussions. (author)

389

INNOVATION INCUBATORS – ENTITIES OF SUPPORT OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES’ COMPETITIVENESS IN THE MODERN ECONOMY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Innovation incubators are entities of the infrastructure network of support of small and medium-sized enterprises. At the stage of SMEs’ maximum vulnerability, they improve the survival of innovative businesses through the range of services and facilities provided. They are designed to mitigate the problems faced by SMEs, which develop and implement innovations, ensuring sustainability and competitiveness. Along with promoting the entrepreneurial spirit, innovation incubators play an essential role in promoting knowledge and innovation transfer, introduction of the research results into economic circuit, creating links between businesses, universities, research institutions, etc., links between people, talents and resources. In this article, we will focus on innovation incubators, their role in the development of SMEs in the world and in the Republic of Moldova, making an accent in the creation and development of the country's first Innovation Incubator „Inovatorul”.

Lidia MAIER

2013-02-01

390

Status of medium-sized ungulate populations in 2010, at the Nazinga Game Ranch, Burkina Faso (Western Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study consists of analyzing the raw data collected from the annual line-transect foot count of medium-sized ungulates, carried out at the Nazinga Game Ranch (NGR, Burkina Faso (Western Africa, in both 2001 and 2010. The annual census focused on the seven main medium-sized ungulates, namely (in alphabetical order, the Bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus, the Common Warthog (Phacochoerus africanus, the Defassa Waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus, the Grimm's Duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia, the Oribi (Ourebia ourebi, the Roan Antelope (Hippotragus equinus and the Western Hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus. The census also focused on illegal anthropogenic activities. The wildlife populations were quantitatively analyzed through an estimation of their absolute density via the distance sampling method and through their evolution over the last decade using two relative density indexes, namely the Kilometric Abundance Index (KAI and a spatial distribution index. These indexes were also used to measure the evolution of illegal activities over the same period. Both the wildlife observations and the anthropogenic observations were mapped using the Kernel method. Following an increasing trend in their population between 2001 and 2010, both the Roan Antelope and the Western Hartebeest reached an estimated density of 4.7 individuals per km², while the Defassa Waterbuck reached 2.4 individuals per km². Following an inverse trend over the same period, the Bushbuck, the Grimm's Duiker and the Oribi reached an estimated density of 0.4 individuals per km². As for the Common Warthog, its estimated density of 2.5 individuals per km² seemed to remain unchanged during that decade. A comparison between wildlife observations and anthropogenic observations reveals a high decrease in animal densities in the north, east and west peripheral borders of the NGR and a flagrant extension of the proportion of the ranch being subjected to illegal activities (poaching, cattle herding, etc..

Yaméogo, D.

2012-01-01

391

Analysis of Strategic Management in Small and Medium Business Organizations in Graphic Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Graphic industry as a field of work and a field of study offers ability for economic growth of every country or region. The increase in competition and the development of the market method of prediction, increase the need for business organizations to continuously observe their own position. Faced with a variable, turbulent and complex environment, the business organizations adopt strategic management, and modern managers, especially those in top management, have to possess knowledge and skills of the concepts and application of strategic management.In this paper the case method, as a method used in strategic management, will be applied as a general approach of strategic analysis in creating strategy map for businesses in graphic industry.

Ilija Jolevski

2013-06-01

392

Analysis of Strategic Management in Small and Medium Business Organizations in Graphic Industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Graphic industry as a field of work and a field of study offers ability for economic growth of every country or region. The increase in competition and the development of the market method of prediction, increase the need for business organizations to continuously observe their own position. Faced with a variable, turbulent and complex environment, the business organizations adopt strategic management, and modern managers, especially those in top management, have to possess knowledge and skil...

Ilija Jolevski; Lili Boshevska

2013-01-01

393

[Study on the types and water pollution driving forces of the typical and medium-small-sized cities in the southern China based on the analysis of water environment].  

Science.gov (United States)

According to the major pollution sources of urban water environment, 10 indexes such as industrial sewage quantity were closen to establish evaluation indexes system about the types and influencing factors of the typical and medium-small-sized cities in the southern China. Case studies of 16 typical and medium-small-sized cities were taken in Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Hubei and Anhui provinces. Combined with SPSS 11.0 cluster analysis results, city types were divided in reference to the values of water resources comprehensive pollution indexes and economical development indexes. The driving forces about city water environment pollution were studied by principal component analysis method. The result indicates that the 16 cities belong to two categories and four sub-categories, which are rich economy as well as light pollution of water environment and poor economy as well as heavy pollution of water environment. The influencing factors of water environment pollution are in sequence of industrial water pollution, agricultural no-point source pollution and urban domestic water pollution. The main factors of water environment pollution influenced I category cities, II as well as IV category cities and III category cities are industrial water pollution, urban domestic pollution and agricultural no-point source pollution respectively. PMID:19774980

Jiao, Shi-Xing; Wang, La-Chun; Huo, Yu; Chen, Chang-Chun; Teng, Juan

2009-07-15

394

Vendor development program among small and medium industries (SMIS: A Malaysian experience  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The supplier-buyer relationship has been increasingly undertaken in recent years, by academics, consultants and operations management. Present and especially future development strongly urge for more systematic and transparent decision-making. Developing longer-term relationships and using longer-term contracts, are additional ways to manage, develop and improve supplier performance (Monczka et.al 1998 who, often becomes partner with the purchaser. This paper investigates the supplier development programme initiated by the government of Malaysia to stimulate the economic growth through SMIs sector in co-operation with the large firms (LFs. The economic and industrialisation development propelled by the goverment has encouraged the development of SMIs working closely with large firms (LFs. This programme was seccussfully implemented when the goverment introduced it in the heavy industrial program - the manufacturing of national car PROTON in 1988. The success story of PROTON has initiated the government to disseminate this programme into other industries. Empirical findings from a survey of 15 SMIs and 6LFs (from 4 different industrial sectors within the Klang valley in the supplier development programme indicated that the success rate is not encouraging. Suppliers lack skills and financing to make the necessary indicated that the success rate is not encouraging. Suppliers lack skills and financing to make the necessary investments in training, new technology, research and development to make an effective partnership with final producers.

Abu Bakar Abdul Hamid

2003-12-01

395

Solid waste from leather industry as adsorbent of organic dyes in aqueous-medium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The industrial tanning of leather usually produces considerable amounts of chromium-containing solid waste and liquid effluents and raises many concerns on its environmental effect as well as on escalating landfill costs. Actually, these shortcomings are becoming increasingly a limiting factor to this industrial activity that claims for alternative methods of residue disposals. In this work, it is proposed a novel alternative destination of the solid waste, based on the removal of organic contaminants from the out coming aqueous-residue. The adsorption isotherm pattern for the wet blue leather from the Aurea tanning industry in Erechim-RS (Brazil) showed that these materials present high activity on adsorbing the reactive red textile dye as well as other compounds. The adsorbent materials were characterized by IR spectroscopy and SEM and tested for the dye adsorption (reactive textile and methylene blue dyes). The concentrations of dyes were measured by UV-vis spectrophotometry and the chromium extraction from leather waste was realized by basic hydrolysis and determined by atomic absorption. As a low cost abundant adsorbent material with high adsorption ability on removing dye methylene blue (80 mg g{sup -1}) and textile dye reactive red (163 mg g{sup -1}), the leather waste is revealed to be a interesting alternative relatively to more costly adsorbent materials.

Oliveira, Luiz C.A. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, Depto. de Quimica, Caixa Postal 37, CEP 37200.000, Lavras-MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: luizoliveira@ufla.br; Goncalves, Maraisa [Universidade Federal de Lavras, Depto. de Quimica, Caixa Postal 37, CEP 37200.000, Lavras-MG (Brazil); Oliveira, Diana Q.L. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, Depto. de Quimica, Caixa Postal 37, CEP 37200.000, Lavras-MG (Brazil); Guerreiro, Mario C. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, Depto. de Quimica, Caixa Postal 37, CEP 37200.000, Lavras-MG (Brazil); Guilherme, Luiz R.G. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, Depto. de Ciencia do solo, CEP 37200.000, Lavras-MG (Brazil); Dallago, Rogerio M. [URI-Campus Erechim, Av. 7 Setembro 1621, Centro, CEP 99700-000, Depto de Quimica, Erechim-RS (Brazil)

2007-03-06

396

Solid waste from leather industry as adsorbent of organic dyes in aqueous-medium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The industrial tanning of leather usually produces considerable amounts of chromium-containing solid waste and liquid effluents and raises many concerns on its environmental effect as well as on escalating landfill costs. Actually, these shortcomings are becoming increasingly a limiting factor to this industrial activity that claims for alternative methods of residue disposals. In this work, it is proposed a novel alternative destination of the solid waste, based on the removal of organic contaminants from the out coming aqueous-residue. The adsorption isotherm pattern for the wet blue leather from the Aurea tanning industry in Erechim-RS (Brazil) showed that these materials present high activity on adsorbing the reactive red textile dye as well as other compounds. The adsorbent materials were characterized by IR spectroscopy and SEM and tested for the dye adsorption (reactive textile and methylene blue dyes). The concentrations of dyes were measured by UV-vis spectrophotometry and the chromium extraction from leather waste was realized by basic hydrolysis and determined by atomic absorption. As a low cost abundant adsorbent material with high adsorption ability on removing dye methylene blue (80 mg g-1) and textile dye reactive red (163 mg g-1), the leather waste is revealed to be a interesting alternative relatively to more costly adsorbent materials

397

Search for global-minimum geometries of medium-sized germanium clusters. II. Motif-based low-lying clusters Ge21-Ge29.  

Science.gov (United States)

We performed a constrained search for the geometries of low-lying neutral germanium clusters Ge(N) in the size range of 21 Ge10. The low-lying clusters obtained are all prolate in shape and their energies are appreciably lower than the near-spherical low-energy clusters. This result is consistent with the ion-mobility measurement in that medium-sized germanium clusters detected are all prolate in shape until the size N approximately 65. PMID:16709108

Yoo, S; Zeng, X C

2006-05-14

398

Green oriented urban development for urban ecosystem services provision in a medium sized city in southern Italy  

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Full Text Available In southern Italy many cities are characterized by a lack of public urban greenspaces. Non-urbanized areas in these cities are suffering from surrounding urbanization pressures. These areas still provide important ecosystem services even if they are limited in size, highly fragmented and often neglected by local planning. New planning strategies are needed in order to protect and enhance the provision of ecosystem services delivered by existing Non-Urbanized areas, but municipalities usually have limited funds for acquiring public green areas via land expropriations. At the same time, requests for new urban development are still considerable. Consequently, it is not realistic to propose strategies for green areas that do not include new developments. The paper illustrates a strategy for a Green Oriented Urban Development (GOUD that has been applied for the Master Plan of Catania, a medium sized city in Sicily (southern Italy. The strategy includes a limited amount of developments as well as new greenspaces in selected areas (Resource Zones, through the transfer of property and development rights between the municipality and developers. The strategy will allow to enhance the provision of ecosystem services, especially cultural services (thanks to a dramatic increase of accessibility to new greenspaces, regulating services (through climate regulation by new green land covers and provisioning services such as urban agricultural products. Results show that it is possible to improve urban ecosystem services creating a more liveable and healthy urban environment at reduced cost for the municipal administrations.

Martinico F

2014-12-01

399

Industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of industrial mitigation for sustainable development is discussed in Section 7.7. Section 7.8 discusses the sector's vulnerability to climate change and options for adaptation. A number of policies have been designed either to encourage voluntary GHG emission reductions from the industrial sector or to mandate such reductions. Section 7.9 describes these policies and the experience gained to date. Co-benefits of reducing GHG emissions from the industrial sector are discussed in Section 7.10. Development of new technology is key to the cost-effective control of industrial GHG emissions. Section 7.11 discusses research, development, deployment and diffusion in the industrial sector and Section 7.12, the long-term (post-2030) technologies for GHG emissions reduction from the industrial sector. Section 7.13 summarizes gaps in knowledge.

Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

2007-12-01

400

CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE USE OF MODERN MANAGEMENT METHODS IN PLANNING THE MARKETING ACTIVITY WITHIN THE SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES  

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Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight, from a marketing perspective, the manner and conditions in which small and medium-sized enterprises can use modern management methods in planning the marketing activity. Using modern methods of management are particularly important for managers of these organizations and especially for marketers. Thus, the following methods play a significant role within the marketing activitiesn#8217; development for marketing specialists, namely: management by objectives, management by budgets, management by projects, and management by product. The high degree of understanding and using the above methods is, in the current economic environment, one of the determinants of the market success of small and medium-sized enterprises. In the current context, the adoption of the management by objectives is not a facultative option for the small and medium-sized enterprises, but rather a binding one in the context of adopting and practicing an efficient marketing with significant results on the development of marketing programs comprised within them. Similarly to the management by objectives, the use of the management by budgets within the small and medium-sized enterprises has a series of features required by their smaller size, features that should be considered by marketers. Regarding the use of management by projects, this method has to constitute the foundation for the elaboration of marketing programs developed within the small and medium-sized enterprises, thereby allowing shaping an action that can be accompanied by success in achieving the goals comprised within the marketing programs. Finally, the role of the management by product is extremely important in the marketing activity within the small and medium-sized enterprises, especially in the operationalization of concepts such as strategic marketing and tactical marketing. This paper thus outlines from a marketing point of view the main issues aiming at understanding and using modern management methods in the marketing activity planning process within SMEs.

Olteanu Valerica

2012-07-01

 
 
 
 
401

Oestrogenicity and chemical target analysis of water from small-sized industries in Pretoria, South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Increasing concern about endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and their effects on humans, animals and the environment resulted in this study being conducted. Water from 7 sites in the Pretoria West area (South Africa), with significant numbers of small-sized industries, was screened for oestrogeni [...] city, using the Recombinant Yeast Cell Bioassay (RCBA). Target chemical analyses were carried out to establish the presence of EDCs, including p-nonylphenol (p-NP), bisphenol A (BPA), phthalate esters, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and various organochlorine pesticides, including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). p-NP, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides were detected using LECO Pegasus II MSTOF and BPA and phthalates were detected using the GC-MS method. Oestrogenic activity was detected in all the samples collected from these sites. Lindane, an organochlorine pesticide, was detected at one site. p-NP, PCBs and phthalate esters were detected at some of the other sites. Small-size industries were found to contribute to EDC pollution of water in the Pretoria West area.

SI, Mahomed; KVV, Voyi; NH, Aneck-Hahn; C, de Jager.

2008-03-01

402

Research on Multi-Classification of Credit Rating of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Growth Enterprises Board Based on Fuzzy Ordinal Regression Support Vector Machine  

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Full Text Available It is necessary to classify credit rating of small and medium-sized companies in Chinese growth enterprises board. We selected the data of 90 small and medium-sized companies, used fuzzy theory to calculate the qualitative variables, and reformulated support vector machine for ordinal regression method so that different input points can make different contributions to decide hyper plane, to analyze multi-classification of credit rating problem, and divided them into four different categories and demonstrated the good performance. The effectiveness of this improved method is verified in multi-classification of credit rating of small and medium-sized logistical companies; the experiment results show that our method is promising and can be used to other multi-classification problems.

Ying CHEN

2012-02-01

403