WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Investigating power factor compensation capacity calculation in medium sized industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are a variety of techniques developed in order to improve the efficiency of electrical systems and reduce cost of providing electricity to the consumer. This paper presents a new technique for power-factor capacity calculation in medium-sized industrial/ commercial setups. Various loads of similar nominal power-factor are categorized and demand-factor of loads is so selected that it has engineering justifications. The developed system works on the principle of low-voltage power-factor correction, which substantially reduces electricity bill and increases loading-capacity of the electrical system. It allows commercial and industrial consumers to save on their power cost appreciably. This work utilizes software, which takes few inputs and produces numerous useful results. Adoption of this system can help the user in computing compensation-capacity, system KVA (size of transformer) and cost of compensation. A feature of this system is prediction of low PF penalty. Moreover, it also suggests the tentative payback period. (author)

2008-01-01

2

Schwarz Shipyards : How a Medium Sized Enterprise Struggles to Survive Disruptive Industry Change  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This case is designed to discuss strategy formation and strategic renewal in small and medium-sized enterprises that are challenged by external disruptive change. The case can be used to teach: external analysis, BCG-matrix, internal analysis (resources and capabilities), Porter’s-5-Forces, industry life-cycle, Porter’s generic strategies, SWOT analysis, strategy formation and business model analysis. The case builds on an in-depth case study conducted in 2011/2012. The case has been anonymized. More specifically the case describes the triumphs and challenges of a medium-sized European shipyard during the past decades. After the industry crisis in the late 80s the yard management steered through an extremely adventurous period. However, due to external and internal difficulties they ultimately faced bankruptcy. Students are asked to put themselves in the shoes of the shipyard management in 2006, a point in time where they still had the possibility to affect its destiny. The case includes an extensive set of questions that covers the most important elements of a master of science degree course in strategy. The questions are also suitable for exam or term papers.

Rohrbeck, René; BØe-Lillegraven, Siri

2013-01-01

3

Documentation of New Promotion Approaches in Small and Medium Sized Businesses of the Textile Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The most important marketing activity of the owner/manager of SMEs is to concentrate on entrepreneurial promotion methods of their businesses. New and entrepreneurial promotion plays a leading role in progress and development of SMEs. There has been an emerging concentration on the concept of promotion and the role of its elements in progress of SMEs in marketing research. The purpose of this paper is to identify and document promotion methods in small and medium sized businesses of the textile industry, particularly in Iran. In order to identify the concepts and methods of promotion and to present practical results in this context, a quality research has been conducted by interviewing the owners/managers of SMEs.

Mehran Rezvani; Narges Khoram Shahi

2012-01-01

4

Accidents in the Food-Manufacturing Small and Medium Sized Malaysian Industries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research tried to find out the types and causes of accidents that happen in food-manufacturing factories in small and medium-sized industries (SMIs) in Kedah and the actions taken by the employers following the occurrence of the accidents. Results showed that majority of the respondents had encountered slight injuries. The majority of the accidents were caused by human factors, and employers seldom took serious actions against those involved in workplace accidents. Small cut was identified as the commonest type of accident that occurred in the SMIs for the past two years. Findings also indicated that many of the employers were less interested in giving out incentives when their employees complied with all the safety rules and regulations while punishments were less serious for those who do not complied with safety rules and regulations.

Zaliha Hj Hussin; Kamaruzaman Jusoff; Soon Yew Ju; Lai Kuan Kong

2009-01-01

5

Evaluation of occupational health service systems in small- and medium-sized industries in Korea.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To establish a system of analytical methodology that can be used to evaluate an occupational health service system, to evaluate the performance of different types of the system in small- and medium-sized industries using the evaluation model, and to identify factors which influence the performance of an occupational health service system. METHODS: The input-output-outcome aspects of two different systems, capitation-based Group health services and fee-for-service-based Individual health services, were examined, based on a causal model. Each causal relationship in the model was tested for its statistical significance by the linear regression technique based on the ordinary least square method. Data from 16 enterprises in the Group-type, 17 enterprises in the Individual-type, and 32 enterprises in the Transitional Group-type were used in the analyses. RESULTS: In the Group model, enterprises utilized fewer resources for occupational services, their workers were provided with more services when services such as medical examinations were supplied directly by the system, and they had worse outcome measures of health and industrial injuries. The latter was the result of less input and fewer services, the supply of which was not within the direct control of the system, such as compliance with the recommendation to install machine safety devices and the proper maintenance and operation of these devices. CONCLUSIONS: Although study results revealed problem areas in the performance of the Group system, the study found a potential for an effective and efficient system in the Group-type with efforts geared to the better follow-up of work environment problems.

Park H; Cho KS; Lee SH; Lee KM; Meng K

2001-01-01

6

Innovation in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in the Malaysian information technology (IT) industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study is to examine innovative activities in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the Malaysian information technology (IT) industry. This study addresses three research questions: 1. What is the innovation pattern among SMEs in the Malaysian IT industry? 2. How significant is interactive learning between SMEs in the Malaysian IT industry and other agents in the innovation system? and 3. What is the role of the government in promoting innovation among SMEs in the Malaysian IT industry? Two approaches were taken to collect data for this study, that is, mail survey and face-to-face interviews. Based on findings from this study, the SMEs in the Malaysian IT industry were divided into four categories, namely, highly innovative, innovative, inventive, and non innovative. The patterns of knowledge acquisition and interactive learning vary among the different categories of firms, and on the whole, vertical linkages with suppliers were found to be the most significant. Finally, support through the provision of funding was considered to be among the most important roles of the government in promoting innovation in SMEs in the Malaysian IT industry. (author)

2001-01-01

7

A biological and chemical characterization strategy for small and medium-sized industries connected to municipal sewage treatment plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A cost-effective strategy for the characterization of wastewater from small and medium-sized industries is described. A mobile laboratory, equipped for performing on-site biological tests, was established near wastewater treatment facilities in two cities in Sweden for 1 week each in November 1992 and November 1993. The biological and chemical characterization was done on 24-h samples from 29 industries representing 12 types of activity with a bias toward the surface treatment and graphics industries. The biological testing program included a modified nitrification test, the Microtox test, and a modified growth inhibition test using Selenastrum capricornutum (an alga test). A Ceriodaphnia dubia (crustacean) test was also used for some industries. Different chemical assessments, aimed at indicating toxic, persistent, and bioaccumulating substances, were chosen for each industry on the basis of information they provided. Results show that sampling period and time are important factors to consider when designing a characterization strategy. Twenty-four-hour sampling is preferred to weekly sampling because highly toxic emissions of short duration that are detrimental to the biological treatment plant may occur. Variability in emissions was shown in this study but would not have been detected by a study based on weekly sampling. The strategy developed in this study was shown to be both a cost-effective and efficient tool for characterizing effluents from small and medium-sized industries.

Tarkpea, M.; Eklund, B. [Stockholm Univ., Studsvik, Nykoeping (Sweden). Inst. of Applied Environmental Research; Andren, C.; Gravenfors, E.; Kukulska, Z. [Stockholm Univ., Solna (Sweden). Inst. of Applied Environmental Research

1998-02-01

8

Use of recycling through medium size granular filters to treat small food processing industry effluents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Currently there are no suitable wastewater treatment systems for effluents from small food processing industries (dairy, cheese, wine production). Such raw sewages are characterized by high organic matter concentrations (about 10 g COD L-1) and relatively low daily volumes (about 2 m3). An adaptation of attached-growth cultures on fine media processes, known to be easy and inexpensive to use, could fit both the technical and economical context of those industries. Coarser filter particle size distributions than those normally used allow a better aeration and reduce clogging risk. The transit time of the effluent through the porous filter materials is shortened and requires recycling to increase the contact time between the biomass and the substrate. A pilot plant was built to compare the efficiency of two kinds of filter materials, gravel (2-5 mm) and pozzolana (3-7 mm). Two measurement campaigns were undertaken on a full-scale unit dealing with cheese dairy effluents. Both pilot-scale and full-scale plants show high COD removal rates (> 95%). Pilot-scale experiments show that accumulation of organic matter leads to the clogging of the recycling filter. To prevent early clogging, a better definition of feeding cycles is needed. PMID:12201106

Ménoret, C; Boutin, C; Liénard, A; Brissaud, F

2002-01-01

9

Use of recycling through medium size granular filters to treat small food processing industry effluents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Currently there are no suitable wastewater treatment systems for effluents from small food processing industries (dairy, cheese, wine production). Such raw sewages are characterized by high organic matter concentrations (about 10 g COD L-1) and relatively low daily volumes (about 2 m3). An adaptation of attached-growth cultures on fine media processes, known to be easy and inexpensive to use, could fit both the technical and economical context of those industries. Coarser filter particle size distributions than those normally used allow a better aeration and reduce clogging risk. The transit time of the effluent through the porous filter materials is shortened and requires recycling to increase the contact time between the biomass and the substrate. A pilot plant was built to compare the efficiency of two kinds of filter materials, gravel (2-5 mm) and pozzolana (3-7 mm). Two measurement campaigns were undertaken on a full-scale unit dealing with cheese dairy effluents. Both pilot-scale and full-scale plants show high COD removal rates (> 95%). Pilot-scale experiments show that accumulation of organic matter leads to the clogging of the recycling filter. To prevent early clogging, a better definition of feeding cycles is needed.

Ménoret C; Boutin C; Liénard A; Brissaud F

2002-01-01

10

Purchasing practice in SMEs : Practical impressions about the purchasing activities of small and medium sized enterprises in the manufacturing industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Small and medium sized companies are important to the European economy and considered as the true backbone of the European economy, being primarily responsi-ble for wealth and economic growth. Further, the purchasing function of small and medium sized companies had become more and more important to ...

Kulik, Stephanie

11

The importance of building downwash in assessing the need to heighten stacks of existing small and medium sized industries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This extended abstract intends to share the authors experience on the modelling of atmospheric pollutant dispersal and on the importance of building downwash considerations when assessing the need to heighten stacks of small and medium sized industrial enterprises (SME's). In order to understand the reasons that make industrial companies, especially SME's, consider stack heightening, in section 2 the existing Portuguese legislation on air quality and the stack heightening rules are briefly commented. New legislation that ought to appear soon (new Portuguese Air Act) is also commented and compared critically with the existing one. Then, section 3 characterizes Portuguese industry in terms of the ambient quality problems related to stack height. The adequacy of the stack heightening legislation to the particularities of the Portuguese case is discussed. In section 4 the authors experience in the specific study of stack heightening is presented. The methodology considered in these studies is discussed and compared with the application of existing and soon to appear legislation on stack height calculation. Finally, section 5 presents the conclusions and the need for an increased awareness on the pollutant dispersal problem is discussed. (orig.)

Gomes, J.F.P. [Centro de Tecnologias Ambientais, ISQ - Inst. de Soldadura e Qualidade, Oeiras (Portugal); Duarte, R. [Escola Superior de Tecnologia - Inst. Politecnico de Setubal (Portugal)

2004-07-01

12

Explaining Internationalisation of Small to Medium Sized Enterprises within the Queensland Food and Beverage Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The prevalence of International New Ventures (INVs) has increased during the past twenty years. Nevertheless,to date there has been no general consensus within the literature on an explanation as to the rapid internationalisation of some firms. Do they follow a similar process to other firms that internationalise based ona more ‘measured’ incremental sequential process of internationalisation. This paper proposes and tests an innovation diffusion model of the internationalisation of small firm INVs and others by drawing on keyinnovation diffusion models from the literature. The results of this analysis indicate that the synthesised model ofexport adoption is effective in explaining the internationalisation process of INVs and other firms within theQueensland Food and Beverage Industry. Significantly, the features of the original innovation diffusion modelsdeveloped in the consumer behaviour literature, which had limited examination within the internationalisationliterature, were confirmed. This includes the ability of firms, or specifically decision-makers, to skip stagesbased on previous experience.

Mitchell Spowart; Rumintha Wickramasekera

2012-01-01

13

What affects the innovation performance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the biotechnology industry? An empirical study on Korean biotech SMEs  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Research-intensive small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play a crucial role in the advancement of the biotechnology industry. This paper explored the impacts of internal and contextual variables on innovative activity in Korea and compared the results of this analysis with previous studies of other countries. Our analysis of 149 Korean biotech SMEs showed that the ratio of R&D expenditure to sales, the ratio of R&D employees to total employees, CEO characteristics, governmental support and international networking are positively correlated with a firm's innovation performance. The results may help decision makers to better foster SMEs in the Korean biotechnology industry.

Kang Kyung-Nam; Lee Yoon-Sik

2008-10-01

14

What affects the innovation performance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the biotechnology industry? An empirical study on Korean biotech SMEs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Research-intensive small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play a crucial role in the advancement of the biotechnology industry. This paper explored the impacts of internal and contextual variables on innovative activity in Korea and compared the results of this analysis with previous studies of other countries. Our analysis of 149 Korean biotech SMEs showed that the ratio of R&D expenditure to sales, the ratio of R&D employees to total employees, CEO characteristics, governmental support and international networking are positively correlated with a firm's innovation performance. The results may help decision makers to better foster SMEs in the Korean biotechnology industry.

Kang KN; Lee YS

2008-10-01

15

THE INFLUENCE IN ROMANIAN HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY OF SMALL MEDIUM-SIZED FIRMS AND THEIR SPECIFIC MEANS TO IMPROVE PERFORMANCE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available SMEs play an important role in fostering variety, self-fulfillment, and independence in society as well as essentially contributing to social and local integration. Because the tourism sector, especially the hospitality industry, in Europe is dominated by

Baltescu Codruta Adina

2009-01-01

16

Medium-size nuclear plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CEA (TECHNICATOME) has developed a range of pressurized water reactors of the type ''CAS compact'' which are adapted to civil ship propulsion, or to electric power production, combined possibly with heat production, up to outputs equivalent to 125 MWe. Nuclear plants equipped with these reactors are suitable to medium-size electric networks. Among the possible realizations, two types of plants are mentioned as examples: 1) Floating electron-nuclear plants; and 2) Combined electric power and desalting plants. The report describes the design characteristics of the different parts of a 125 MWe unit floating electro-nuclear plant: nuclear steam system CAS 3 G, power generating plant, floating platform for the whole plant. The report gives attention to the different possibilities according to site conditions (the plant can be kept floating, in a natural or artificial basin, it can be put aground, ...) and to safety and environment factors. Such unit can be used in places where there is a growing demand in electric power and fresh water. The report describes how the reactor, the power generating plant and multiflash distillation units of an electric power-desalting plant can be combined: choice of the ratio water output/electric power output, thermal cycle combination, choice of the gain ratio, according to economic considerations, and to desired goal of water output. The report analyses also some technical options, such as: choice of the extraction point of steam used as heat supply of the desalting station (bleeding a condensation turbine, or recovering steam at the exhaust of a backpressure turbine), design making the system safe. Lastly, economic considerations are dealt with: combining the production of fresh water and electric power provides usually a much better energy balance and a lower cost for both products. Examples are given of some types of installations which combine medium-size reactors with fresh water stations yielding from 10000 to 120000 m3 per day

1977-05-13

17

Techno-economic evaluation of commercial cogeneration plants for small and medium size companies in the Italian industrial and service sector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The liberalization of the electricity market and the concern for energy efficiency have resulted in a surge of interest in cogeneration and distributed power generation. In this regard, companies are encouraged to evaluate the opportunity to build their own cogeneration plant. In Italy, the majority of such companies belong to the industrial or service sector; it is small or medium in size and the electric power ranges between 1 ÷ 10 MW. Commercially available gas turbines are the less expensive option for cogeneration. Particular attention has been given to the possibility of combining an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) with gas turbine, to improve the conversion efficiency. Companies have to account for both technical and economical aspects to assess viability of cogeneration. A techno-economic analysis was performed to identify, in the Italian energy market, which users can take advantage of a cogeneration plant aimed to cover at least part of their energy demand. Since electricity and thermal needs change considerably in the same sector, single product categories have been considered in the analysis. Our work shows that in the industrial sector, independent of the product category, cogeneration is a viable option form a techno-economic perspective. - Highlights: ? The best technologies for 1 ÷ 10 MW distributed generation plant are gas turbine and ORC. ? A variety of commercial cogeneration plants is available to meet user needs. ? Cogeneration is a technical and economical advantage for industrial sector companies.

2012-12-15

18

Identifying Factors Influencing Entry Mode Selection in Food Industry of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As internationalization increases in today’s business society, it becomes ever more important for individual business to keep us with the development. The way a company ventures from its domestic market to new geographical markets and selecting the right entry modes are important decision that demands a lot of resources and planning. In the process of selecting entry modes a wide range of factors must be taken into consideration before making the final decision. To provide a better understanding of the impact of some internal and external factors on Iranian SMEs in food industry we chose a conceptual framework from Root and studied its variables in our sample. This model states that a) target country market factors, b) target country environmental factors c) target country production factors and d) home country factors as external factors and e) country production and f) company resource/commitment factors as internal factors have impact on the process of choosing entry modes. In order to collect data we use questionnaire. Our findings illustrated that all of the factors were mentioned in Root’s model had impact on selecting entry modes to a foreign country.

Mahdi Haghighi Kaffash; Maryam Haghighikhah; Hamidreza Kordlouie

2012-01-01

19

Mastery of Energy in medium and small industries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article reviews the energy characteristics of industrial companies which are small and medium sized energy consumers. It also examines the results of a survey concerning the behaviour of small companies in the energy field and suggests improvements.

Fournier, G.

1986-01-01

20

The Study of Collaborative IP Models and Successful Factors-Taking the Small-and-Medium Sized LCD Industry as an Example  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available More and more enterprises conduct business strategically through strategic alliances, mergers & acquisitions, joint ventures, outsourcing, and collaborations to keep their competitive advantages in view of influences such as reduction of product lifecycles, fast changing markets, and global economics. Besides, enterprises gradually recognize that intellectual property management and plans are important. In the generation of R&D management based on innovative capabilities, it can commercialize the developed technologies and yield economic benefits through the effective management and deployment of patents. This research aims to identify how the collaborative Intellectual Property (IP) model could shorten product life cycle and further make enterprises successful in the global market. This research firstly figures out the features of the small-and-medium Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) industrial and challenges what this industry confronts after the competitive analysis of industry and market. Then the technological trend and patent positions were studied through patent information analysis and tools from Patent Guilder Software. This research also uses the case study methodology and selected the first company that adopted a collaborative IP model. Furthermore, this paper identifies the key performance indicators for the model and finds out the innovative business model for the company.

Chun-Te Wu; Yi-Chen Lin; Li-Min Wu

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Industrial-size photobioreactors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Photosynthetic microorganisms can be engineered to produce pharmaceuticals, chemical intermediates, and clean energy (e.g., hydrogen). They also fix atmospheric carbon dioxide--an important consideration as increased levels of carbon dioxide are linked to global warming. As a first step in the photobioreactor design, the authors investigated the relative significance of the exponential and the linear growth rates during light-limited batch cultivation of photosynthetic cells using various types and sizes of photobioreactors. They also developed a mathematical model that could explain the existence of the various growth phases during the light-limited batch cultivation. Because the cost of electricity is high, use of solar energy is obviously desirable, because it is abundant and free. However, an appropriate method for harvesting the solar energy and distributing the light inside the photobioreactor is required. A light collection device consisting of Fresnel lenses is used to collect the solar light, which is then distributed inside the reactor through the optical fibers. Because the position of the sun changes continuously, the device is equipped with a light-tracking sensor so that the lenses rotate with the position of the sun. Because of diurnal and seasonal changes in the sunlight intensity, however, high volumetric productivity is difficult to achieve if only solar energy is used for reactor illumination. For maximum productivity, therefore, the solar light should be supplemented with an artificial light source at night and on cloudy days.

Ogbonna, J.C.; Tanaka, Hideo [Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

1997-07-01

22

Medium-size power plants. Economic options  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper the authors describe a method for economic evaluation of a nuclear power plant project such as advocated by the IAEA but modified through the introduction of various parameters that may affect the evaluation, i.e. the weighted evaluation rate, the annual increase in the cost of fuel, and the discount rate. The method is applied to barge-based medium-size reactors (125 MW(e)). The authors calculate the investment cost, together with the costs of administration, operation and maintenance; use is made of current assumptions regarding the price of fuel for the case of a reference nuclear plant and an oil-fired plant of the same power and in the same programme. In this way the authors derive the discounted cost of the nuclear programme and concurrent conventional programme on the basis of the following assumptions: a weighted inflation rate varying between 0 and 6% per year; an annual increase in real fuel prices ranging from 0 to 3%; and a real discount rate, equal to the real interest rate, varying between 4 and 7% per year and corresponding to nominal discount rates of up to 13.4%. The conclusion reached is that, given the real interest rates actually prevailing on the financial market, a weighted inflation rate foreseen by the majority of experts, and a rise in real fuel prices of the order of 1% per year, the medium-size nuclear power plant is more economical than a conventional plant of the same output. (author)

1978-03-10

23

Industrial Assessment Centers: A program of direct assistance for small and medium-size manufacturers. Quarterly progres report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the quarter ending March 31, 1998, the IACs in the Western Region issued assessment reports to 16 clients for the 1996-97 program period. The attached summary shows the aggregate numbers of industrial assessments performed by, reports received from, critiques completed and returned to, and implementation reports completed by each of the Western Region IACs under the 1995-96 program period through the quarter ending March 31, 1998. Table 2 shows the numbers of industrial assessments performed by, reports received from, critiques completed and returned to, and implementation reports completed by each of the Western Region IACs under the 1996-97 program period.

NONE

1998-06-17

24

Structures of medium sized tin cluster anions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The structures of medium sized tin cluster anions Sn(n)(-) (n = 16-29) were determined by a combination of density functional theory, trapped ion electron diffraction and collision induced dissociation (CID). Mostly prolate structures were found with a structural motif based on only three repeatedly appearing subunit clusters, the Sn(7) pentagonal bipyramid, the Sn(9) tricapped trigonal prism and the Sn(10) bicapped tetragonal antiprism. Sn(16)(-) and Sn(17)(-) are composed of two face connected subunits. In Sn(18)(-)-Sn(20)(-) the subunits form cluster dimers. For Sn(21)(-)-Sn(23)(-) additional tin atoms are inserted between the building blocks. Sn(24)(-) and Sn(25)(-) are composed of a Sn(9) or Sn(10) connected to a Sn(15) subunit, which closely resembles the ground state of Sn(15)(-). Finally, in the larger clusters Sn(26)(-)-Sn(29)(-) additional bridging atoms again connect the building blocks. The CID experiments reveal fission as the main fragmentation channel for all investigated cluster sizes. This rather unexpected "pearl-chain" cluster growth mode is rationalized by the extraordinary stability of the building blocks.

Wiesel A; Drebov N; Rapps T; Ahlrichs R; Schwarz U; Kelting R; Weis P; Kappes MM; Schooss D

2012-01-01

25

Compressed air efficiency services in medium sized manufacturers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the results of surveys of energy efficiency opportunities in the compressed air plants of medium-sized manufacturers in New England. The experience sheds light on the present compressed air market and a possible market in compressed air as an energy efficiency service. Compressed air services are a industrial cost center with potential energy efficiency gains if they are provided by a vendor who could internalize the energy cost and realize operating energy efficiency improvements. The paper outlines the terms of potential energy services contracts for compressed air.

Barrer, P.J.

1997-07-01

26

Significance assessment of small-medium sized reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Preliminary assessment for deployment of small-medium sized reactor (S and M reactor) as a future option has been conducted at the JAPCO (Japan Atomic Power Company) under the cooperation with the CRIERI (Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry). Significance of the S and M reactor introduction is listed as follows; lower investment cost, possible siting near demand side, enlarged freedom of siting, shorter transmission line, good compatibility with slow increase of demand and plain explanation of safety using simpler system such as integral type vessel without piping, natural convection core cooling and passive safety system. The deployment of simpler plant system, modular shop fabrication, ship-shell structured building and longer operation period can assure economics comparable with that of a large sized reactor, coping with scale-demerit. Also the S and M reactor is preferable in size for the nuclear heat utilization such as hydrogen production. (T. Tanaka)

2002-03-08

27

From medium-sized to megawatt turbines...  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the world`s first 500 kW turbines was installed in 1989 in the Netherlands. This forerunner of the current NedWind 500 kW range also represents the earliest predesign of the NedWind megawatt turbine. After the first 500 kW turbines with steel rotor blades and rotor diameter of 34 m, several design modifications followed, e.g. the rotor diameter was increased to 35 m and a tip brake was added. Later polyester blades were introduced and the rotor diameter was increased with 5 in. The drive train was also redesigned. Improvements on the 500 kW turbine concept has resulted in decreased cost, whereas annual energy output has increased to approx. 1.3 million kWh. Wind energy can substantially contribute to electricity supply. Maximum output in kiloWatthours is the target. Further improvement of the existing technology and implementation of flexible components may well prove to be a way to increase energy output, not only in medium or large sized wind turbines. 7 figs.

Dongen, W. van [NedWind bv, Rhenen (Netherlands)

1996-12-31

28

The Role of Industrial Incentives in Development of Small and Medium Industries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Small and medium industries have had a significant impact on creation of new employment opportunities in recent years. In other words, in today’s modern world, small and medium industries have a significant role in variables like economic growth, competitiveness, and resolution of the ubiquitous unemployment crisis. Even though large-scale industries are still important in economic policy-making due to their economy of scale, the effect of massive production, experience, and organization, small and medium industries have some advantages including transportation, market size, regulations, choice effectiveness, and control. Accordingly, these industries have become the first choice for the production of most goods.This study investigated the role of industrial incentives in the development of small and medium industries in East Azerbaijan province. Based on the review of articles, texts, relevant sources, and comments from experts, relevant indicators were defined for each component of industrial incentives. Based on these indicators, a questionnaire was developed with 30 questions. After testing the validity and reliability of the questionnaire, it was applied to statistical samples using stratified random sampling. Then the questionnaires were collected and the obtained information was analyzed using descriptive statistics as well as inferential statistics (Spearman correlation test r and step by step Regression). The results show that there is a statistically significant relationship between the variables in this study. and obtained Results of regression Analysis shows that across 4 indicators Industrial Incentives, 2 indicators of it, that is, Financial and Customal Incentives were appropriate predicators for Development of Small and Medium Industries.

Afshin Rahnama; Seyyed Javad Mousavian; Dariush Eshghi; Abbas Alaei

2011-01-01

29

Market Potential Estimation of a Small and Medium Size Reactor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Technically, nuclear reactors which produce energy in the form of heat can supply energy products other than electricity, including district heat, process heat, potable water etc. Currently non-civil uses of nuclear energy are very limited civil applications except for a military nuclear powered ship and an energy usage in isolated areas. However, the future global environment and an energy resources scarcity could promote a significant usage of non-electrical applications on an industrial scale. Considering these situations, this report analyzed the following: (1) Worldwide non-electrical application of a small and medium sized nuclear reactor - survey the situation of the current technical applications, - survey the global market potential estimation for various applications (2) Technical cooperation potential in several countries - identify necessary conditions for nuclear cooperation, - select candidate countries: Morocco, UAE, Indonesia, Chile and Vietnam, - survey the energy and water situation, - survey the legal and international regime infrastructure

Oh, K. B.; Yang, M. H.; Lee, M. K.; Chung, W. S.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, S. S.; Lee, B. W.; Ryu, J. S.; Juhn, P. E. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2004-12-15

30

Market Potential Estimation of a Small and Medium Size Reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Technically, nuclear reactors which produce energy in the form of heat can supply energy products other than electricity, including district heat, process heat, potable water etc. Currently non-civil uses of nuclear energy are very limited civil applications except for a military nuclear powered ship and an energy usage in isolated areas. However, the future global environment and an energy resources scarcity could promote a significant usage of non-electrical applications on an industrial scale. Considering these situations, this report analyzed the following: (1) Worldwide non-electrical application of a small and medium sized nuclear reactor - survey the situation of the current technical applications, - survey the global market potential estimation for various applications (2) Technical cooperation potential in several countries - identify necessary conditions for nuclear cooperation, - select candidate countries: Morocco, UAE, Indonesia, Chile and Vietnam, - survey the energy and water situation, - survey the legal and international regime infrastructure

2004-01-01

31

Strategic Planning in Small and Medium-Size Transit Agencies: A Discussion of Practice and Issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report provides an in-depth look at strategic planning in the transit industry, focusing on small and medium-size transit agencies. The objectives of the research are to: (1) explore the use of strategic planning in the transit industry; (2) explore t...

B. Hemily

1986-01-01

32

Dynamics of firm size in healthcare industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Healthcare is one of the world’s fastest growing industries consisting of broad services offered by various hospitals, physicians, nursing homes, diagnostic laboratories, pharmacies and supported by drugs, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, medical equipment, manufacturers and suppliers. The industry is highly fragmented, comprising of various ancillary sectors namely medical equipment and supplies, pharmaceutical, healthcare services, biotechnology, and alternative medicines. The present study focuses on the pharmaceutical and biotechnology segments of the healthcare industry, and presents a stochastic analysis of the evolution over time of firm size. A dynamic model is proposed that attempts to predict the evolutionary process of firm size distribution based on industry and product characteristics. A validation exercise, applying the model to pharmaceutical and the biotechnology industries finds that the predictions from the model are very close to the actual trajectories of firm size distributions within these industries at the global level. The results show interestingly, that the drivers of firm size dynamics are industry level characteristics that can be estimated from historical data with some accuracy. Specifically, it is found that firm size distributions are approaching a long-run equilibrium at a faster rate in the case of the pharmaceutical industry and that the dispersion of the distributions are shrinking over time above all for the biotechnology industry.

Fariba Hashemi

2012-01-01

33

Investigations of medium sized solar combi systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A large variety of solar combi systems are on the marked to day. The best performing systems are highly advanced energy systems with thermal stratification manifolds, an efficient boiler and only one control system, which controls both the boiler and the solar collector loop. However, it is still too early to draw conclusions on the design of solar combi systems. Among others, the following questions needs to be answered: Is an external domestic hot water preparation more desirable than an internal domestic hot water preparation? What is the thermal advantage by using inlet stratifiers for different solar combi systems? Is an integrated boiler more desirable than a non integrated boiler? How does the design of the space heating system influence the thermal performance of different solar combi systems? Theoretical investigations are carried out for different solar combi system types and sizes by means of the simulation program Trnsys and the multiport store model. The work is carried out within the Solar Heating and Cooling Programme of the International Energy Agency (IEA SHC), Task 32 Advanced storage concepts for solar houses and low energy buildings. (au)

Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, S. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Kgs.Lyngby (Denmark)

2006-05-04

34

A MODEL FOR SUPPORTING CONSISTENT COST MANAGEMENT IN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES: APPLICATION IN A CHEMICAL INDUSTRY COMPANY MODELO PARA APOIO A GESTÃO CONSISTENTE DE CUSTOS EM PEQUENAS E MÉDIAS EMPRESAS: APLICAÇÃO NUMA EMPRESA DO SETOR QUÍMICO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents a structured model for improving production processes in small to medium-size industrial companies. Application of the model enables acting upon a set of cost generating causes, leading in a consistent manner to cost reductions. The model is based on the principles of management through total quality and considers the fundamental aspects that make it possible to eliminate waste, reduce defect costs and improve processes, thus enabling increased efficiency and reduction of variability. The model proposed is based on the set of variable principles pointed to by authors who deal with quality as key elements in management. The fulcrum of the system consists of control of the “6m” in Ishikawa’a causeeffect diagram (raw material, machinery, labor, methods, environment and mediations), supported by the action of a set of auxiliary tools and concepts. With the objective of testing the results of the model in practice, an application of it was made in a company from the chemical sector. The work describes the main aspects of the application and shows results obtained along the years from 1996 to 2005. Analysis of results shows significant obtainment of gains in productivity, diminished variability and maintenance of positive results over time. Keywords: Cost reduction. Model for improvement. Process management. Chemical industry. O artigo apresenta um modelo estruturado para melhoria dos processos produtivos de empresas industriais de portes pequeno e médio. A aplicação do modelo possibilita atuar sobre um conjunto de causas geradoras de custos, conduzindo, de forma consistente, a reduções de custo. O modelo é baseado nos princípios da gestão pela qualidade total e considera os aspectos fundamentais que possibilitam eliminar desperdícios, reduzir custos de falhas e melhorar os processos, possibilitando, assim, aumento de eficiência e diminuição da variabilidade. O modelo proposto baseia-se no conjunto das principais variáveis apontadas pelos autores de qualidade, como elementos-chave na gestão. O fulcro do sistema consiste no controle dos “6M” do diagrama causa-efeito de Ishikawa (matéria-prima, maquinário, mão-de-obra, métodos, meio-ambiente e medições), apoiado pela ação de um conjunto de ferramentas e conceitos auxiliares. Com o objetivo de testar na prática os resultados do modelo, foi realizada a aplicação numa empresa do setor químico. O trabalho descreve os aspectos principais dessa aplicação e mostra os resultados obtidos ao longo dos anos 1996-2005. A análise dos resultados mostra significativa obtenção de ganhos de produtividade, diminuição de variabilidade e manutenção dos resultados positivos ao longo do tempo. Palavras-chave: Redução de custos. Modelo de melhoria. Gestão de processos. Indústria química.

Miguel Juan Bacic; João Batista Bortolozzo Júnior

2007-01-01

35

Experience Reference from the Financial Support Practices for Japan’s Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The government-dominant financial system in Japan has exerted significant effects on the reconstruction of economy, the realization of industrial policy goals, and the construction of independent industrial and national economic system after the war. In Japan, the government takes much count of support for small and medium-sized enterprise financing. It establishes a small and medium-sized enterprise financial system that takes non-governmental units as principal parts and government as assistant one. Different types of financial institutions coexist in the small and medium- sized financial system and complement one another, which serves as a great support for small and medium-sized enterprise. The financial support mode for Japan’s small and medium-sized enterprises and its characteristics serve as inspirations for us in the fast and healthy development of China’s small and medium-sized enterprises.

Zhaozhen Fan

2009-01-01

36

Restructuring the heat supply of a medium-size establishment by decentralization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The heat supply system of a medium-size industrial establishment was converted to steam generated in and supplied from various sources. At the same time heavy oil and light oil were replaced by natural gas. Measurements made before and after retrofitting showed substantial savings in energy consumption and a distinct reduction in pollutant discharges.

Sill, R.; Heid, P.

1987-08-01

37

Efficiency optimized control of medium-size induction motor drives  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The efficiency of a variable speed induction motor drive can be optimized by adaption of the motor flux level to the load torque. In small drives (<10 kW) this can be done without considering the relatively small converter losses, but for medium-size drives (10-1000 kW) the losses can not be disregarded without further analysis. The importance of the converter losses on efficiency optimization in medium-size drives is analyzed in this paper. Based on the experiments with a 90 kW drive it is found that it is not critical if the converter losses are neglected in the control, except that the robustness towards load disturbances may unnecessarily be reduced. Both displacement power factor and model-based efficiency optimizing control methods perform well in medium-size drives. The last strategy is also tested on a 22 kW drive with good results.

Abrahamsen, F.; Blaabjerg, Frede

2000-01-01

38

Fracture mechanics characterisation of medium-size adhesive joint specimens  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Medium-size specimens (<2 m in length), consisting of two glass-fibre beams bonded together by an adhesive layer were tested in four point bending to determine their load carrying capacity. Specimens having different thickness were tested. Except for onespecimen, the cracking occurred as cracking along the adhesive layer; initially cracking occurred along the adhesive/laminate interface, but after some crack extension the cracking took place inside the laminate (for one specimen the later part of thecracking occurred unstably along the adhesive/ laminate interface). Crack bridging by fibres was observed. The measured applied moment at steady-state crack growth was compared with predictions based on independent mixed mode fracture resistancemeasurements made on small laboratory specimens. The predicted and measured strength values of the medium-size specimens were found to be in good agreement with each other. Thus, the scaling from small specimens to medium-size specimens was successfullyachieved.

SØrensen, Bent F.; Jacobsen, T.K.

2004-01-01

39

Fracture mechanics characterisation of medium-size adhesive joint specimens  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Medium-size specimens ({approx} 2 m in length), consisting of two glass-fibre beams bonded together by an adhesive layer were tested in four point bending to determine their load carrying capacity. Specimens having different thickness were tested. Except for one specimen, the cracking occurred as cracking along the adhesive layer; initially cracking occurred along the adhesive/laminate interface, but after some crack extension the cracking took place inside the laminate (for one specimen the later part of the cracking occurred unstably along the adhesive/ laminate interface). Crack bridging by fibres was observed. The measured applied moment at steady-state crack growth was compared with predictions based on independent mixed mode fracture resistance measurements made on small laboratory specimens. The predicted and measured strength values of the medium-size specimens were found to be in good agreement with each other. Thus, the scaling from small specimens to medium-size specimens was successfully achieved. (au)

Soerensen, B.F. [Risoe National Lab., Materials Research Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Jacobsen, T.K. [LM Glasfiber A/S, Lunderskov (Denmark)

2004-03-01

40

Strategic Financial Management in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Along with the development of social economy and the progress of science and technology, Chinese enterprises are being in a stage filled with opportunities and dangers. This paper introduces the connotation and significance of strategic financial management, elaborates the problems in the financial strategies conducted by small and medium-sized enterprises together with the causes and proposes some countermeasures finally.

Zongsheng Liu

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Development of ESCO as a tool for realising energy efficiency in small and medium sized industry; ESCO = Energy Service Company; Udvikling af ESCO som vaerktoej til realisering af energieffektivisering i smaa og mellemstore erhvervsvirksomheder  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The project carried out an advisory process in 10 different SME (small and medium-sized enterprises). The process was based on energy management and employee involvement in energy conservation activities, which has led to a wide variety of projects in companies that have focused on the initiation and solution of diverse energy-saving activities. Results of the project consist of a series of case studies that describe the processes that have been implemented in the company. The selected cases demonstrate the diversity of businesses, their energy saving potential and need for funding. It also describes and assesses the various financing possibilities, a model for qualitative advising in SMEs and a module for the training of the people involved - including installers, craftsmen and advisor. (LN)

Jensen, Ove Folmer (DS Haandvaerk og Industri, Odense (Denmark))

2011-07-01

42

The causal effect of board size in the performance of small and medium-sized firms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Empirical studies of large publicly traded firms have shown a robust negative relationship between board size and firm performance. The evidence on small and medium-sized firms is less clear; we show that existing work has been incomplete in analyzing the causal relationship due to weak identification strategies. Using a rich data set of almost 7000 closely held corporations we provide a causal analysis of board size effects on firm performance: We use a novel instrument given by the number of children of the chief executive officer (CEO) of the firms. First, we find a strong positive correlation between family size and board size and show this correlation to be driven by firms where the CEO's relatives serve on the board. Second, we find empirical evidence of a small adverse board size effect driven by the minority of small and medium-sized firms that are characterized by having comparatively large boards of six or more members.

Bennedsen, Morten; Kongsted, Hans Christian

2008-01-01

43

Analysis of energy-efficiency investment decisions by small and medium-sized manufacturers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report highlights the results of a comprehensive analysis of investment decisions regarding energy-efficiency measures at small and medium-sized manufacturing plants. The analysis is based on the experiences of companies participating in the DOE Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) program. The IAC program is a network of university-based centers that provides energy and waste assessments to small and medium-sized manufacturing plants. The purposes of this report are to do the following: (1) Examine what the data collected reveal about patterns of implementation of recommended energy- efficiency measures, (2) Evaluate how various factors, such as the type of industry, the characteristics of the manufacturing plants, or the cost of the measures, appear to effect implementation rates, (3) Examine reasons why recommended energy-saving measures are accepted or rejected.

Woodruff, M.G.; Roop, J.M.; Seely, H.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Muller, M.R. [Rutgers--the State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Jones, T.W. [Alliance to Save Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Dowd, J. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1996-05-01

44

Medium-sized water reactors for undeveloped regions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the new century the growth of population and an increasing of energy demands together with the difficulties of fossil fuel supply are expected. It is important to find optimal ways in solving such problems without the climate warming. The nuclear power having many advantages in comparison with fossil fuel technologies could play the great role in near future. The Medium-Sized Nuclear Reactors for production of electricity, heat and fresh water are considered as a main direction of nuclear power applications in the developing world It is important to discuss the requirements to such nuclear plants for using in the Countries with Small and Medium Electricity Grids. Particularly, cost-benefit analysis of construction NPP has to include assessment of all type risks and effectiveness of plant. In the paper an attention is paid on Water Reactors designed on the basis of navy technology. Such compact PWR built on special mills and placed on special floating vessel could be used in undeveloped regions. Total plant can be transported to any point of World Ocean and return back to mill for repair or decommissioning after exhaustion of lifetime. It is expected that such reactors with innovative design approach, provision of high safety and proper economic efficiency, based on leasing procedures, could be very attractive for medium-sized and developing countries.(author)

2004-01-01

45

Cogeneration through small and medium sized gas turbines in Italy: Marketing survey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Italy, the use of cogeneration systems by private industrial concerns has greatly increased in the early 90's. The successful technological development of highly efficient low and medium sized gas turbines and the successful application of cogenerated power to a number of industrial processes, favourable legislation and financial incentives on the part of the Italian Government, especially interested in promoting energy conservation and the use of natural gas as an alternative to petroleum, as well as, fast payback periods for such investments are amongst the major regions for the growing demand for this type of power system alternative in Italy.

1992-01-01

46

Cogeneration through small and medium sized gas turbines in Italy: Marketing survey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Italy, the use of cogeneration systems by private industrial concerns has greatly increased in the early 90's. The successful technological development of highly efficient low and medium sized gas turbines and the successful application of cogenerated power to a number of industrial processes, favourable legislation and financial incentives on the part of the Italian Government, especially interested in promoting energy conservation and the use of natural gas as an alternative to petroleum, as well as, fast payback periods for such investments are amongst the major regions for the growing demand for this type of power system alternative in Italy.

Bianchi, A.; Schieppati, P.

1992-12-01

47

Transient analysis in medium size HTGR power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work we use then DSNP software, to study the reactivity transient in HTGR medium size power plant, initiated by a sudden rise in core reactivity followed by a scram action as a result of temperature growth. The decay heat in the core is removed from the primary loop in the steam generator. The simulation shows that during the transient the peak core gas temperature is 857 degrees C and the peak fuel temperature is 1026 degrees C, which indicate that the fuel coating integrity is not in danger. (authors) 7 refs, 12 figs

1993-01-01

48

The Danish fabricated metal industry: : A competitive medium-low-tech industry in a highwage country  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper aims to contribute to the knowledge on innovation processes in low- and medium-low-tech industries. Today, industries characterised as high-tech are perceived to be central to economic development, as the research intensity shields them from competition from low-wage countries. This is less the case for low-tech industries, but their economic importance continues to be large, however. It is thus interesting to analyse how they manage to remain competitive. The analysis focuses on a case study of the fabricated metal industry by identifying the innovation strategies followed by firms located in a part of Jutland, where this industry has experienced growth. It is found that the ability to create tailor-made solutions is central to the competitiveness of these medium-low-tech firms. Knowledge is thus highly important, yet in different ways than for high-tech industries. This illustrates the importance of industrial policies that take these differences into account.

Hansen, Teis

2010-01-01

49

Internationalization of small and medium-sized enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Highly developed countries, which are similar to Croatia by size and population, highlight the importance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) as holders of export activities and key factors in raising the competitiveness of the entire economy. In this paper authors research the concept of internationalization of SMEs. Analyzing the influence of decision makers on the process of internationalization and showing its advantages and disadvantages for the respective company and country, this research introduces the most common models on the basis of which this process is implemented in practice. A case study of a small export company from Croatia illustrates the process of internationalization to the U.S. market and provides useful information to the companies which are planning to enter new markets.

Zoran Paunovi?; Darko Prebežac

2010-01-01

50

KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION STEPS FOR INDIAN SMALL & MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents review of literature on Knowledge management (KM) in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). It focuses on the strategy, implementation, technological and performance measurement &benchmarking issues regarding KM in Indian SMEs. KM is a practical tool for any organization. So KM does not remain just a theory now but it paves the way to formulating an understanding of KM and its role within SMEs. KM has gained importance in the today’s global knowledge economy. It is important not only for big firms, but for small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) also. Indian SMEs sector is also one of the fastest growing sectors of Indian economy. So it is very important for SMEs to know what their knowledge assets are,and how to manage and make best use of these assets to get maximum return, since without proper KM approaches, SMEs are likely to have more to lose than larger enterprises. This paper tries to identify the steps regarding implementation of KM in Indian SMEs for improving competitiveness of SMEs in globalised market.

Apurva Anand; M.D.Singh

2011-01-01

51

Effective-medium theory for finite-size aggregates.  

Science.gov (United States)

We propose an effective-medium theory for random aggregates of small spherical particles that accounts for the finite size of the embedding volume. The technique is based on the identification of the first two orders of the Born series within a finite volume for the coherent field and the effective field. Although the convergence of the Born series requires a finite volume, the effective constants that are derived through this identification are shown to admit of a large-scale limit. With this approach we recover successively, and in a simple manner, some classical homogenization formulas: the Maxwell Garnett mixing rule, the effective-field approximation, and a finite-size correction to the quasi-crystalline approximation (QCA). The last formula is shown to coincide with the usual low-frequency QCA in the limit of large volumes, while bringing substantial improvements when the dimension of the embedding medium is of the order of the probing wavelength. An application to composite spheres is discussed. PMID:16477840

Guérin, Charles-Antoine; Mallet, Pierre; Sentenac, Anne

2006-02-01

52

Effective-medium theory for finite-size aggregates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We propose an effective-medium theory for random aggregates of small spherical particles that accounts for the finite size of the embedding volume. The technique is based on the identification of the first two orders of the Born series within a finite volume for the coherent field and the effective field. Although the convergence of the Born series requires a finite volume, the effective constants that are derived through this identification are shown to admit of a large-scale limit. With this approach we recover successively, and in a simple manner, some classical homogenization formulas: the Maxwell Garnett mixing rule, the effective-field approximation, and a finite-size correction to the quasi-crystalline approximation (QCA). The last formula is shown to coincide with the usual low-frequency QCA in the limit of large volumes, while bringing substantial improvements when the dimension of the embedding medium is of the order of the probing wavelength. An application to composite spheres is discussed.

Guérin CA; Mallet P; Sentenac A

2006-02-01

53

Panorama 2007: Medium-Term Prospects for the Gas Industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the nineties, natural gas was the fastest growing energy source in the world energy mix. However, recent developments on the energy scene, particularly in terms of prices, have strongly impacted the growth of the various energies to the detriment of natural gas. Beyond this inter-energy competition, which could intensify, medium-term prospects for the gas industry evolve in an environment beset with uncertainties. (author)

2007-01-01

54

The Scalability of H. Igor Ansoff's Strategic Management Principles for Small and Medium Sized Firms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the praxis of the multi-dimensional components of H. Igor Ansoff¹s Strategic Management Systems and the efficacy of use of each of its components relative to the formulation and implementation of corporate level strategy in for-profit, not-for-profit, small and medium sized enterprises. Based on empirically validated research and industry supported journals, substantial evidence endorse both an implicit and explicit acknowledgement of its applicability and it¹s value as a whole or in part providing increased financial performance for firms competing in turbulent environments. There is a notable variance within industry and academia concerning the asymmetry of costs incurred relative to the benefits achieved of the successful implementation of Ansoffian Strategy within Small and Medium sized enterprises. Although the principles and processes of scalability are still conceptually at an embryonic stage, this paper will illuminate those features of Ansoff’s Strategic Management Systems and conditions for optimal use. Finally, we will discuss Ansoff’s Strategic Success Paradigm and principles for use by Small and Medium Sized Enterprises, which when implemented have proven empirically to increase the firm’s probability of strategic success.

Dan H Kipley; Alfred O Lewis

2008-01-01

55

Incident Response Plan for a Small to Medium Sized Hospital  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most small to medium health care organizations do not have the capability to address cyber incidents within the organization.Those that do are poorly trained and ill equipped .These health care organizations are subject to various laws that address privacy concerns , proper handling of financial information, and Person ally Identifiable Information. Currently an IT staff handles responses to these incidents in an Ad Hoc manner.A properly trained, staffed,and equipped Cyber Incident Response Team is needed to quickly respond to these incidents to minimize data loss, and provide forensic data for the purpose of notification, disciplinary action, legal action, and to remove the risk vector. This paper 1 will use the proven Incident Command System model used in emergency services to show any sized agency can have an a dequate CIRT.

Charles DeVoe; Syed (Shawon) M. Rahman

2013-01-01

56

SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES IN REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper examines the role of SME sector in Moldova’s economy and its likely implications in the RD processes. There are emphasized several key features of the relationship between knowledge economy, RD and SMEs, and their effect on regional and local communities. Then, a summary of RD particular features in Moldova is presented.The role of SME sector, examined in terms of its performance by ownership and activity types, as a whole and by main firms’ categories (micro-, small, and medium-sized) is analyzed. Small enterprises have been considered as the most adequate solution forpromoting RD in general case. National-level analysis is completed by regional insight into the sector as a whole. Finally, some critical aspects of SMEs’ role in RD in Moldova are discussed.

Igor G. SÎRODOEV

2009-01-01

57

Rotational variability in medium and large sized TNOs  

Science.gov (United States)

Trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) are considered some of the most pristine objects in the Solar System. Their surfaces display a wide range of compositions, going from surfaces covered by dark irradiation mantels, to surfaces totally covered by ices. According to models of the retention of volatiles, only TNOs with a diameter d > 1000 km are expected to retain any of their original complement of volatile ices on their surface. However, surface refreshing processes on smaller bodies (e.g., collisions, transient atmospheres and cometary activity) could bring to the surface some amount of ices that are stable at depth. When these processes affect only part of the surface they cause surface heterogeneity. The study of rotational variability of medium and large sized TNOs is important to better understand the physical processes affecting their surfaces, and if these processes are local in scale or, on the contrary, extend across the whole surface. We present rotationally resolved spectroscopy of two TNOs, (20000) Varuna and (136472) Makemake. Varuna is a medium sized TNO ( 621 km). We observed Varuna with NICS@TNG telescope, in the NIR, covering two entire rotations of the object. The analysis of the data shows a homogeneous surface composed of a mixture of complex organics, silicates and water ice. Our data also indicate an upper limit of 10% of methane ice on the surface. The Dwarf Planet Makemake is also studied in this work. The surface of this large TNO shows that, similar to Pluto and Eris, it clearly retains large amounts of volatile ices. Moreover, thermal observations indicate that Makemake has a heterogeneous surface that could be the result of volatile migration. We present new visible spectra of Makemake, obtained with ISIS@WHT telescope, covering 80% of the surface. We present a detailed study of the differences in the absorption bands across the surface that are indicative of changes in the relative abundances of ices, temperature, and/or particle size. Moreover, we collect all data available from literature, after 8 year from the discovery of Makemake, and compare with our data to investigate possible rotational and secular variations.

Lorenzi, Vania; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Licandro, J.; Emery, J. P.; Dalle Ore, C. M.

2013-10-01

58

Industrial nutrient medium use for yeast selenium preparation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents the preparation of selenium yeast from spent brewer’s yeast by using industrial nutrient medium (malt wort and sparge water). The chemical treatment of the yeast biomass was done with sodium-selenite solution. The preparation of selenium – enriched Saccharomyces uvarum in different conditions of temperature, time, yeast biomass proportion and sodium-selenite concentration of the medium was analysed. Using a culture mediumsupplemented with 30–180 ?g/ ml sodium-selenite results in total selenium accumulation in the range of 0.6–2.2 mg/g for malt wort and 0.4–1.6 mg/g for sparge water and in organic selenium accumulation in the range of 0.6–1.5 mg/g for malt wort and 0.3–0.9 mg/g for sparge water measured by ICP- MS method.

GINA MARINESCU; ANTONETA GABRIELA STOICESCU; LILIANA TEODOROF

2011-01-01

59

Insights about Integrated Marketing Communication in Small-and-Medium-sized Italian Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper investigates if and how integrated marketing communication (IMC) has been implemented by Italian small-and-medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Three case studies about small and-medium Italian enterprises analysis are carried out: three small and-medium enterprises in different industries through interviews and document analysis. The article highlights the fact that small-and-medium-sized Italian enterprises implement marketing communication using a flexible approach. The most widespread communication purpose is to activate dialogues and new connections with their stakeholders and the most used communication tools are participation in fairs, sponsorships and events, but the very emerging tool is online communication: digital and social media. Despite the small number of cases included, the paper is to be considered as a starting point for a further quantitative investigation on this topic. The research shows that SMEs managers tend to adapt IMC in order to grasp opportunities on the market, rather than planning and communicating the values related to the product in an integrated way. This point ought to be taken into account to start an exchange of practices between managers and professionals in the marketing communication field..

Annamaria Esposito

2013-01-01

60

Energy management assistance for small and medium-size manufacturers, 1989--1990  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Small and medium-size manufacturers continue to express strong confidence in and satisfaction with the energy-conserving and cost-saving services provided by the Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Centers. That conclusion is based upon in-depth interviews with 210 of the 330 manufacturers served by 11 of the EADCs during 1989-90. These interviews were conducted at the manufacturing plants by engineers from the Industrial Technology and Energy Management (ITEM) division of University City Science Center, which manages the EADC program under agreement with the Office of Industrial Technologies, U.S. Department of Energy. University engineering faculty and a mix of graduate and undergraduate students who make up the staff of each EADC perform energy audits under subcontract to the Science Center at manufacturing plants which are located within about 150 miles of the university.

Law, C.J.; Kirsch, F.W.

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Transportation issues related to high technology development in medium-size urban areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article presents a qualitative analysis of the potential role of transportation in the development of high tech industries in medium-size urban areas. Three stages in the development of high tech industries are identified, along with their associated differing spatial and locational requirements. Although transportation considerations have been virtually absent from state and local initiatives aimed at fostering high tech development, this analysis identified five principal transportation areas of concern, including air transportation for both passenger and freight demand, the special requirements of multilocational firms, the quality of highway service in providing easy access to work and recreation opportunities, and the supply of land made possible by transportation facilities. Conclusions were reached regarding the need to include transportation issues in the ongoing discussions and efforts aimed at the formation of high tech concentrations in a number of medium-size urban areas. An important role exists for transportation professionals in the concerned communities with regards to ensuring the adequacy of transportation supply for the desired economic development directions. 16 references.

Mahmassani, H.S.; Toft, G.S.

1985-04-01

62

Approaches to assess competitiveness of small and medium sized reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is continuing interest in Member States concerning the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs), i.e., reactors with the equivalent electric power of less than 700 MW. Currently, developed SMRs are in most cases intended for markets different than those in which large nuclear power plants operate. Such markets have essentially different investment requirements, siting flexibility, grid connections and infrastructure restrictions. Therefore, economic factors affecting the competitiveness or competition of SMRs in such markets would also be different from those observed in established markets for electricity production. For example, investment capability may be limited, which would favour capacity addition in smaller increments; grids may be small or weak, which would favour capacities exactly matching the demand; infrastructure and human resource may be insufficient, which would favour less complex operation and maintenance requirements; and non-electrical energy products, such as potable water, may be in demand, which would favour reasonably close plant location to the customer. In practice it is futile to compare a single SMR needs to a single larger capacity plant on an economy of scale basis because SMRs are suitable for those locations that might not be appropriate for larger plants. However, a series of SMRs could be considered comparable to fewer larger plants to achieve the same overall power station capacity. In this case, SMRs have a potential to be competitive by employing alternative design strategies, taking advantage of smaller reactor size, offering a less complex design and operation and maintenance, relying on deployment-in-series approaches, taking an advantage of the accelerated learning, multiple unit factors and shorter construction duration. Reflecting on developments in member states, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is finalizing the preparation of a report highlighting the economics and investment related factors affecting SMR competitiveness, as well as the tools available to assess these factors. Adequate comparative assessment of SMR competitiveness is a complex task that may require considering time dependent expenditure and generation profiles and interest rates to determine adequate values of levelized unit energy cost (LUEC) for deployment scenarios with several consequently built plants of different types and capacities. As private capital may play an important role in financing of the new plants, investment and revenue models need to be employed to determine time-dependent characteristics, such as investments and revenues. Uncertainty analysis needs to be incorporated to add a degree of fidelity to the overall assessment. A variety of methods and tools required to conduct comparative economic assessments would been described in this paper. Many of these tools already exist in member states or are available from international organizations. In addition to this, the IAEA coordinated the development of an open model for the analysis of SMR economic and investment opportunities, which targets bringing together all currently available state-of-the-art models for generation costs, revenues, financial costs, and external factors and risks, while 'keeping the door open' for any new approach or development once it becomes available. The open model is being developed for a specific task of comparing the deployments of SMRs versus larger reactors in liberalized energy markets. LUEC will be an important figure of merit in this model; however, provisions would be made to ensure that LEUC is calculated taking into account time-dependent expenditure and production profiles and changing interest rates. In addition models to calculate investment profiles and revenues will be included. Finally, an approach to take into account other factors potentially affecting the competitiveness of SMRs, such as energy supply security, proliferation-resistance, political posture, etc. will be developed. In parallel with the development of such model, IAEA is conducting a s

2009-01-01

63

Energy management assistance for small and medium-size manufacturers, 1988--1989  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Small and medium-size manufacturers continue to express strong confidence in and satisfaction with the energy-conserving and cost-saving services provided by the Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Centers. That conclusion is based upon in-depth interviews with 227 of the 340 manufacturers (67%) served during 1988-89 by an EADC. These interviews were conducted at the manufacturing plants by engineers from the Industrial Technology and Energy Management (ITEM) division of University City Science Center, which manages the EADC program under agreement with the Office of Industrial Programs, U.S. Department of Energy. University engineering faculty and a mix of graduate and undergraduate students who make up the staff of each EADC perform energy audits under subcontract to the Science Center at manufacturing plants which are located within about 150 miles of the university. This report presents the chief results obtained during two series of interviews with 67% of the manufacturers in 36 states served by 13 EADCs during 1988-89. These include the principal benefits derived by the manufacturers, the extent to which EADCs` recommendations are being understood and implemented, and the manufacturers` perceptions about the ways EADCs carry out their dual mission of industrial service and educational enrichment. The 227 manufacturers interviewed represent 19 different industries (2-digit SIC codes), and they collectively employed over 36,000 persons and sold more than $5.0 billion worth of products and services during the past year.

Reeder, K.M.; Kirsch, F.W.

1989-10-01

64

Energy management assistance for small and medium-size manufacturers, 1987--1988  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Small and medium-size manufacturers continue to express strong confidence in and satisfaction with the energy-conserving and cost-saving services provided by the Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Centers. That conclusion is based upon in-depth interviews with 243 of the 388 manufacturers (63%) served during 1987-88 by an EADC. These interviews were conducted at the manufacturing plants by engineers from the Industrial Technology and Energy Management (ITEM) division of University City Science Center, which manages the EADC program under agreement with the Office of Industrial Programs, U.S. Department of Energy. University engineering faculty and a mix of graduate and undergraduate students who make up the staff of each EADC perform energy audits under subcontract to the Science Center at manufacturing plants which are located within about 150 miles of the university. This report presents the chief results obtained during two series of interviews with 63% of the manufacturers in 36 states served by 13 EADCs during 1987-88. These include the principal benefits derived by the manufacturers, the extent to which EADCs` recommendations are being understood and implemented, and the manufacturers` perceptions about the ways EADCs carry out their dual mission of industrial service and educational enrichment. The 243 manufacturers interviewed represent 19 different industries (2-digit SIC codes), and they collectively employed over 39,700 persons and sold more than $4.7 billion worth of products and services during the past year.

Kirsch, F.W.

1989-01-01

65

Harmonic resonance at a medium-sized industrial plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Harmonic resonance is a concern at the plant because approximately 50% of the normal electrical load consists of computer equipment, switch mode power supplies and ac induction motor adjustable speed controllers. Due to the nonlinear characteristics of these loads, significant harmonic voltages and currents are produced on the electrical distribution system. Measurements were made with a harmonic analyzer at several locations in the electrical distribution system to quantify harmonic currents and voltages. The system impedance diagram, prepared from the system one line diagram, was used to model the electrical system and calculate power system natural frequencies. Calculations indicated harmonic resonance occurs near the seventh harmonic frequency depending on configuration of the electrical power system. The plant equivalent circuit was prepared for several harmonic frequencies to show the amplification of currents and voltages due to the effects of harmonic resonance. Calculations to determine network harmonics are presented using a simplified system representation in combination with traditional circuit reduction methods. The results of these calculations are shown to be valid by actual system measurement.

Currence, E.J. [Holabird and Root, Rochester, MN (United States); Plizga, J.E. [IBM Corp., Rochester, MN (United States); Nelson, H.N. [Industrial Design Corp., Pocatello, ID (United States)

1995-07-01

66

Customer Relationship Management system for small and medium-sized enterprise  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This bachelor work provides a case study of small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) to analyze the general proposal criteria for customer relationship management (CRM) software selection. The selected software can help small and medium-sized enterprise to solve the marketing issues which are connect...

Cao, Liang

67

Managers' Understanding of Workplace Health Promotion within Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: A Phenomenological Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: This study aimed at exploring managers' understanding of workplace health promotion and experiences of workplace health promotion activity within small and medium-sized enterprises. Design: A Heideggerian interpretive phenomenological methodology was adopted. Setting: This study was undertaken with small and medium-sized enterprise…

Moore, Ann; Parahoo, Kader; Fleming, Paul

2011-01-01

68

Defining an Industry: What is the Size and Scope of the Australian Building and Construction Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The analysis and understanding of the conduct and performance of an industry beginswith a study of its structure. However, before analysing an industry's structure it isnecessary to define the industry and identify its size, scope and scale to establish itstrue economic contribution. This paper discusses the size and scope of the Australianbuilding and construction industry, firstly, from a traditional industry economics approachby firm size and business characteristics using data from three construction industrysurveys done over 15 years by the ABS. Secondly, data from an industry 'cluster'perspective is shown. The objective of the paper is to compare the differences found inindustry size and scope in the structure-conduct-performance approach and thealternative industry cluster approach. Each model reveals different characteristics of theindustry. The conclusion finds that the building and construction industry is a casewhere the traditional structure-conduct-performance model cannot be easily applied.53

Gerard de Valence

2011-01-01

69

Enablers and Difficulties for Innovation in Chile: Perceptions from Medium Size Plastic Firm Managers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The research objective was to understand the reasons that would impel firms to innovate. The firms analyzed in this study were medium-size firms of the plastic manufacturing sector in Chile. After the analysis of the theory related to technological innovation, a model of the drivers for technological innovation was developed. From the model a questionnaire was prepared to test which factors could influence the tendency of firms to engage in technological innovation activi (more) ties. According to the data, the most influential factors that would encourage innovation in the set of firms studied are a high degree of competition in the industry, the availability of qualified workers, and a strategic relationship with customers.

Maldifassi, José O; Crovetto, Patricio

2013-03-01

70

Examples from P2 and energy assessments at small to medium size manufacturers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using engineering student-faculty teams, the U.S. Department of energy sponsored industrial assessment center (IAC) at the university of louisville does free pollution prevention and energy assessments at small to medium size manufacturers (SIC 20-39) in kentucky and indiana. Each client plant must meet three of the following four criteria: Annual energy bills less than $1, 750, 000 and more than $50, 00. Gross annual sales of less than $75 million. Less than 500 employees. Lack a dedicated energy/waste engineer. Lack of in-house staff to perform these analyses. The program criteria and assessment procedures are briefly described and summaries of assessment at a sheet fed offset (lithographic) printing plant and 2 denim jeans pre washing plants are presented. 4 figs., 8 tabs.

1996-01-01

71

Energy management assistance for small and medium-size manufacturers. An evaluation of the EADC program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Center (EADC) program has now provided technological energy assistance in the plants of more than 700 small and medium-size manufacturers. The performance of each of the 5 EADCs, which are located at Georgia Institute of Technology, Oklahoma State University, and the Universities of Dayton, Kansas, and Tennessee is evaluated periodically. This report presents an evaluation of their performance during the intermediate stage of the 1981 to 1983 phase of the EADC program. Evaluations of EADCs' performance are based upon interviews with manufacturers served by the program who are chosen to achieve a sample with diversity in the industries represented, the sizes of the plants, their mix of energy sources, and their locations. The 112 manufacturers interviewed for this evaluation represent 19 different industries (SIC codes), now employ 16,896 people, and has a total 1982 sales volume of $1551 million. The energy audit and audit report appear to have had positive impacts upon virtually all the participating firms. Asked if the energy audit and the final report had helped them to understand their energy usage, 106 of these 112 manufacturers' representatives said yes; only 6 (5% of the sample) did not feel the audit added anything new to their understanding. There were 109 (97%) who expect to achieve energy and dollar savings as a result of the EADCs' activities.

Duke, L.D.; Kirsch, F.W.

1983-06-01

72

Amax Coal's Delta Mine: medium-sized, high-sulfur operation survives markets challenges  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article describes Amax Coal Industries Inc.'s Delta Mine (Southern Illinois, USA), which is a medium-size, high sulphur coal producer. Aspects covered include: overburden removal and mining; preparation plant; reclamation; and employment and community impact. The effects of the US Clean Air Act Amendments on demand for high sulphur coal and on the Delta mine are discussed. 3 tabs., 5 photos.

Kral, S.

1993-04-01

73

Rapid hierarchical assembly of medium-size DNA cassettes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Synthetic biology applications call for efficient methods to generate large gene cassettes that encode complex gene circuits in order to avoid simultaneous delivery of multiple plasmids encoding individual genes. Multiple methods have been proposed to achieve this goal. Here, we describe a novel protocol that allows one-step cloning of up to four gene-size DNA fragments, followed by a second assembly of these concatenated sequences into large circular DNA. The protocols described here comprise a simple, cheap and fast solution for routine construction of cassettes with up to 10 gene-size components.

Schmid-Burgk JL; Xie Z; Frank S; Virreira Winter S; Mitschka S; Kolanus W; Murray A; Benenson Y

2012-07-01

74

Handbook for small-to-medium size fuelwood chipping operations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report covers all aspects of small/medium chipping operations including chipping, wood procurement, stumpage costs, skidding/forwarding, constraints on transportation and chip dumping, quality and measurement of fuelwood chips, and pricing. The information given is based on case studies of existing operations and trials conducted in Atlantic Canada and Maine during December 1987 to May 1988. These operations typically produce up to 10,000 metric green tonnes (mgt) of fuelwood chips per year; this compares to 30,000 to 50,000 or more mgt/yr for a typical, mechanized, large-scale operation. Fuelchips from small/medium operations are used in biomass burning facilities in schools, hospitals, greenhouses, factories, etc. which burn 500 to 5000 or more mgt/yr. Such installations have been build in many parts of Atlantic Canada in the past six years; they are not yet common in other parts of Canada because other lower-priced forms of energy are available. The report emphasizes that investment in harvesting/chipping equipment should be proportional with the annual chipping volume. 13 refs., 82 figs., 9 tabs.

Folkema, M.P.

1989-10-01

75

The Management And Exchange of Knowledge AndInnovation in Environments of Collaborating Small and Medium Sized Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The importance of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) is today far beyond any discussion in countries all over the world - in European countries as well as in Asia and in USA, in Africa as well as in Latin America. To meet market demands in present and future global industrial world, manufacturing enterprises of any kind and any size must be flexible and agile enough to respond quickly to product demand changes. With support of artificial intelligence and modern information technology it is possible to realise modern cost-effective customer-driven design and manufacturing taking into account the importance and basic role of quality management and metrology. This will be especially possible on the basis of the innovative concept and model for modern enterprises the so-called "Multi-Functions Integrated Factory - MFIF" that makes possible an agile and optimal industrial production in any kind of industry and especially in up-to-date SMEs.

OSANNA; N.M. DURAKBASA; L. CRISAN; J. M. BAUER

2009-01-01

76

Construction of Soft Power of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Enterprise soft strength is a part of core competitiveness of the enterprise, so this paper takes small and mediumsized enterprises as research object to introduces the meanings and characteristics of enterprise soft power, and it puts forward the main contents of soft power of small and medium-sized enterprises and the problems which are existing in the process of construct enterprise soft power, and then the author gives the countermeasures to improve the soft power of small and medium-sized enterprises.Key words: Enterprise soft power; Small and medium-sized enterprises; Construction

Hongyu LI; Meiyue LIU; Jiayi ZHAO

2012-01-01

77

Safety Analysis for Medium/Small Size Integral Reactor: Evaluation of Safety Characteristics for Small and Medium Integral Reactor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Small and medium integral reactor is developed to be utilized for non-electric areas such as district heating and steam production for desalination and other industrial purposes, and then these applications may typically imply a closeness between the reactor and the user. It requires the reactor to be designed with the adoption of special functional and inherent safety features to ensure and promote a high level of safety and reliability, in comparison with the existing nuclear power plants. The objective of the present study is to establish the bases for the development of regulatory requirements and technical guides to address the special safety characteristics of the small and medium integral reactor. In addition, the study aims to identify and to propose resolutions to the possible safety concerns in the design of the small and medium integral reactor. 34 refs., 20 tabs. (author)

Kim, Hho jung; Seul, K.W.; Ahn, S.K.; Bang, Y.S.; Park, D.G.; Kim, B.K.; Kim, W.S.; Lee, J.H.; Kim, W.K.; Shim, T.M.; Choi, H.S.; Ahn, H.J.; Jung, D.W.; Kim, G.I.; Park, Y.M.; Lee, Y.J. [Korea Inst. of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

1997-07-01

78

Fractional phase transition in medium size metal clusters  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the Riemann and Caputo definition of the fractional derivative we use the fractional extensions of the standard rotation group SO(3) to construct a higher dimensional representation of a fractional rotation group with mixed derivative types. An analytic extended symmetric rotor model is derived, which correctly predicts the sequence of magic numbers in metal clusters. It is demonstrated, that experimental data may be described by assuming a sudden change in the fractional derivative parameter ? which is interpreted as a second order phase transition in the region of cluster size with 200?N?300.

Herrmann, Richard

2010-08-01

79

The Superbubble Size Distribution in the Interstellar Medium of Galaxies  

CERN Multimedia

We use the standard, adiabatic shell evolution to predict the size distribution N(R) for populations of OB superbubbles in a uniform ISM. We derive N(R) for simple cases of superbubble creation rate and mechanical luminosity function (MLF). For R R_e it is dominated by growing objects. We also briefly investigate N(R) resulting from momentum-conserving shell evolution. We predict a peak in N(R) corresponding to individual SNRs. To estimate the MLF, we also examine evolutionary effects on the HII region luminosity function (HII LF), finding that for nebular luminosity fading as a power law in time, there is a minimum observed slope for the HII LFs. Comparison with the largely complete HI hole catalog for the SMC shows surprising agreement in the predicted and observed slope of N(R), suggesting that no other fundamental process is needed to explain the size distribution of shells in the SMC. Further comparison with largely incomplete HI data for M31, M33, and Holmberg II is also encouraging. We present expressi...

Oey, M S

1997-01-01

80

Energy conserved and costs saved by small and medium-size manufacturers, 1988--1989  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Centers (EADCs) provided energy-conserving and cost saving assistance in 339 small and medium-size manufacturing plants nationwide during 1988-89. This report presents the results of what was recommended to those manufacturers, the record of what was implemented by them, and an analysis of the financial rewards gained by them. It also includes an accounting of the financial returns to the federal government, derived from taxes upon the cost savings, or incremental income, of the manufacturers who implement the EADCs` recommendations. EADCs collect implementation data within a year of the energy audit, and for these results that time period extended through 1990. The EADCs are located at accredited engineering departments of universities and staffed by faculty and students. At present there are 18 EADCs serving manufacturers in 37 states; of these, two were established as a result of the 1989 competition, and five more were chosen competitively in 1990. Most of the results in this report were generated by 11 EADCs (named in the Appendix); two others withdrew voluntarily after completing only 10 energy audits during 1988-89. Primary responsibility for selecting, training, evaluating, and managing the EADCs belongs to the Industrial Technology and Energy Management (ITEM) division of University City Science Center (UCSC). The Department of Energy`s Office of Industrial Technologies sponsors the EADC program through an agreement with UCSC.

Kirsch, F.W.

1991-05-01

 
 
 
 
81

Defining an Industry: What is the Size and Scope of the Australian Building and Construction Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is a reprint from Vol 1, no 1, which has not previously been available in electronic format.The analysis and understanding of the conduct and performance of an industry begins with a study of its structure. However, before analysing an industry's structure it is necessary to define the industry and identify its size, scope and scale to establish its true economic contribution. This paper discusses the size and scope of the Australian building and construction industry, firstly froma traditional industry economics approach by firm size and business characteristics using data fron three construction industry surveys done over 15 years by the ABS. Secondly, data from an industry 'cluster' perspective is shown. The objective of the paper is to compare the differences found in industry size and scope in the structure-conduct-performance approach and the alternative industry cluster approach. Each model reveals different characteristics of the industry. The conclusion finds that the building and construction industry is a case where the traditional structure-conduct-performance model cannot be easily applied. 

Gerard de Valence

2010-01-01

82

Contribution of small and medium sized enterprises in development of agribusiness of Serbian Republic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The economic development of Serbian republic is more and more connected with development of small and medium sized enterprises, which represent one of the main bases of Serbian economy. The economic potential of agriculture imposes the need of analyzing the condition in area of small and medium sized entrepreneurship which should be the carrier of future development of agribusiness. By ranging and grouping of Serbian republic municipalities (by discrimination and cluster analysis) according to level of development of small and medium sized entrepreneurship in agriculture, the clear view is got in current state of regional development of this agricultural sector as the possibilities of future development. By development of small and medium sized enterprises in agriculture it is possible to achieve strategic goals of Serbian republic agro development and for realization of these goals it is necessary to ensure the stable economic ambient, appropriate pre conditions as measures of support which will be stimulating for development of agribusiness.

Popovi? Blaženka

2009-01-01

83

Small and medium size states in international relations and in European Union  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The position of small and medium size countries in international context has been studied. The main criteria of power in international relation is still the military and economic force, despite the fact that the size and resources of a country is not equivalent to its actual international influence. With the imposition of Vilsonian principles and with the creation of UN, the position of small and medium size countries has been somehow improved. It becomes even more favorable in the context of a well defined State coalition, which provides with some additional instruments of power. The European Union is the best example of a coalition providing a good framework for small and medium countries. In this article, six specifics mechanisms providing additional influence to small and medium size countries of the EU have been identified. They include the specificity of the EU legal system, decision making, the functioning of the EU bodies, the process of 'europeisation' etc.

Lopandi? Duško

2010-01-01

84

Particle size distribution of iron nanomaterials in biological medium by SR-SAXS method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A better understanding of biological effects of nanomaterials in organisms requests knowledge of the physicochemical properties of nanomaterials in biological systems. Affected by high concentration salts and proteins in biological medium, nanoparticles are much easy to agglomerate,hence the difficulties in characterizing size distribution of the nanomaterials in biological medium.In this work, synchrotron radiation small angle X-ray scattering(SR-SAXS) was used to determine size distributions of Fe, Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 nanoparticles of various concentrations in PBS and DMEM culture medium. The results show that size distributions of the nanomaterials could perfectly analyzed by SR-SAXS. The SR-SAXS data were not affected by the particle content and types of the dispersion medium.It is concluded that SR-SAXS can be used for size measurement of nanomaterials in unstable dispersion systems. (authors)

2009-01-01

85

The Activation of Technology Finance through Support for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Korea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the economy transitions to a knowledge-based paradigm, Small and medium-sized enterprises can become more competitive by securing greater technological power, coupled with excellent innovation and flexibility. Thus, the objective of this paper is to gain a better understanding of the current situations of Small and medium-sized enterprises in Korea, and to discuss on the activation of technology finance provision systems.

Ki Soon Lee; Hyung Seok Lee

2010-01-01

86

Study on information strategic planning for large and medium-sized enterprise  

Science.gov (United States)

Enterprise Information is an inevitable trend in management change for large and medium-sized enterprises and also the basic conditions for company's future business, which has become an indispensable part of the overall strategy. Based on analyzing current situation in enterprise information especially that in China, its information strategy-based factors and its existing outstanding issues in China, the paper tries to explore information strategic planning for large and medium-sized enterprises.

Chen, Min; Tan, Shaosheng

2011-10-01

87

IS IT NECESSARY TO REGULATE FINANCIAL REPORTING OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTITIES?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper deals with the analysis of the position of small and medium-sized entities in the Slovak Republic and with the international regulation of small and medium-sized entities’ financial reporting. It provides the business demography of economic subjects by size class category by number of employees and follows by an average number of employed persons by size classes of enterprises in persons. Due to the fact that the number of these entities represents a significant role, the regulation of their financial reporting becomes a material fact. The International Accounting Standards Board issued the International Financial Reporting Standard for Small and Medium-sized Entities (IFRS® for SMEs) to achieve the international comparability of accounting and reporting information. The paper covers as well as the perspectives of the IFRS® for SMEs implementation within the European Union.

MICHAL JEŠŠ; MATEJ LEPIEŠ; DAŠA MOKOŠOVÁ

2013-01-01

88

The Study of Bipolar Transurethral Resection Efficiency of Medium- and Small-Sized Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to study the efficiency and prove the choice of bipolar transurethral resection if there are indications for medium-sized benign prostatic hyperplasia surgical treatment. Materials and Methods. The research was based on the comparative analysis of surgical results of 244 patients by bipolar (n=122) and monopolar (n=122) transurethral resection, the size of prostatic hyperplasia being 40–80 cm3.Conclusion. The obtained results of surgical treatment of patients operated by the bipolar transurethral resection technique prove the efficiency of the endoscopic method and make the choice of the technique preferable in case of medium-sized benign prostatic hyperplasia.

A.A. Kamalov; F.A. Sevryukov

2012-01-01

89

Fostering Linkages between Transnational Corporations and Small to Medium-Sized Enterprises in Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available When large Transnational Corporations (TNCs) enter a host country, consequent development of local Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) is expected. The public sector may play an important role by fostering Business Linkages (BL), by which TNCs establish purchasing relationships with local SMEs. This article was motivated by growing attention in literature to the interaction between economic development and the ability of companies to absorb and disseminate competences. Its purpose is to understand the role of public policy programs that promote BLs for development by: (a) analyzing actions and programs developed by public and private institutions to foster BL in Brazil; (b) discovering the participants? benefits from such actions and programs; and (c) identifying opportunities for public sector promotion of BL. The research design was a multiple case study which analyzed Supplier Development Projects in five Brazilian states. Results indicate that public policies may complement overall development as well as industrial policy, which is related to capacity building, stimulating technology transfer, and, more broadly, promoting a business friendly environment able to attract investment for development, calling for a regional and sub-regional approach for a country the size of Brazil.

Delane Botelho; Milber Fernandes Morais Bourguignon

2011-01-01

90

Dinamismo de mercado en la pequeña y mediana industria de Colombia: el caso SuperBrix/ Market Dynamism in Small and Medium-Sized Colombian Industry: The Case of SuperBrix/ Dynamisme de Marché dans la Petite et Moyenne Industrie de Colombie: Le cas de SuperBrix/ Dinamismo de mercado na pequena e mediana indústria da Colômbia: o caso SuperBrix  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Em março de 2010 o engenheiro Mariano Ghisays, presidente executivo da Superbrix, não somente questionava-se se abranger o mercado asiático era uma opção viável, também se a mesma emergia numa cojuntura apropriada da economia e a capacidade tecnológica da sua empresa, que até aquele momento tinha sido impossível de copiar. A oportunidade de entrar em países como a China, a Coreia, a Índia, a Malásia e a Cingapura já tinha sido levado em conta pela diretoria (more) alguns anos atrás; contudo a decisão foi adiada a fim de consolidar o mercado americano, o que fora atingido depois de várias tentativas de entrada, logo depois de apurar a sua estratégia de mergulho no mesmo. Mariano se perguntava, então: de que maneira uma mediana empresa do Caribe colombiano, capitalizando a sua experiência de entrada em vários mercados internacionais, poderia com êxito atingir esses países asiáticos, onde os preços, concorrência e probabilidade de cópia dos seus produtos representavam um risco enorme para a companhia? Abstract in spanish En marzo de 2010 el ingeniero Mariano Ghisays, presidente ejecutivo de SuperBrix, no sólo se preguntaba si llegar al mercado asiático era una opción viable, sino también si ésta emergía en una coyuntura apropiada de la economía y capacidad tecnológica de su empresa, la cual, hasta el momento, no había podido ser copiada. La oportunidad de ingresar a países como China, Corea, India, Malasia y Singapur había sido tenida en cuenta por las directivas algunos años (more) atrás, pero fue pospuesta con el fin de consolidar el mercado americano, lo cual se consiguió después de varios intentos de entrada, luego de afinar su estrategia de inmersión al mismo. Mariano se preguntaba, entonces, ¿de qué manera una mediana empresa del Caribe colombiano, capitalizando su experiencia de entrada en varios mercados internacionales, podría lograr con éxito llegar a estos países asiáticos, en donde los precios, competencia y probabilidad de copia de sus productos representaban un enorme riesgo para la compañía? Abstract in english In March of 2010, engineer Mariano Ghisays, executive president of Superbrix, thought not only about whether entering the Asian market was a viable option but also if it were to happen under a favorable economic situation and with his company's technological capacity, which at that time, no one had been able to copy. The opportunity to enter countries such as China, Korea, India, Malaysia and Singapore had been in the sights of the company's directors for years, but was p (more) ostponed while they consolidated the American market. This was achieved after various attempts at entry, while also fine-tuning their immersion strategy. Marciano then thought about how a medium-sized company from the Colombian Caribbean region, capitalizing on its experience after already having entered various international markets, successfully reach these Asian countries, where prices, competition and the probability of their products being copied posed an enormous risk for the company?

Mejía Reátiga, Camilo; Juliao Esparragoza, David

2013-04-01

91

An integrated approach for developing a technology strategy framework for small- to medium-sized furniture manufacturers to improve competitiveness  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Low-technology firms, such as those found within the furniture manufacturing industry, have no framework or methodology to guide them successfully to acquire and integrate technology that enables them to operate more competitively. The aim of this article is to illustrate the development of a technology strategy framework for small- to medium-sized furniture manufacturers to assist them to improve their competitiveness. More specifically, this article presents an integrat (more) ed technology strategy framework that enables management to integrate their business strategy with their technology requirements successfully, thus improving competitiveness.

Lourens, A.S.; Jonker, J.A.

2013-01-01

92

The Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Performance Evaluation Model Based on DEA and AHP Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, DEA model and AHP model combined with a new method to evaluate the performance of the small and medium enterprises. In this paper, mainly introduced the analytic hierarchy process?AHP?and data envelopment analysis ( DEA ), based on the existing on the small and medium-sized enterprise performance evaluation methods are analyzed, finally, through empirical analysis that the method of DEA based on AHP and has good applicability and feasibility. 

Qiong Sun; Zhengran Gao

2013-01-01

93

Developing a Methodology Based on Action Learning to Facilitate the Adoption of ICT in Small and Medium-sized Companies in Costa Rica  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the thesis is to understand and explore better strategies to support the Small and Medium-sized companies sector in Costa Rica in the ICT adoption process. A strategy has been proposed which focuses on learning process and the interaction of university, industry and government (Triple Hel...

Nunez, Heilyn Camacho

94

UNICS - An Unified Instrument Control System for Small/Medium Sized Astronomical Observatories  

CERN Multimedia

Although the astronomy community is witnessing an era of large telescopes, smaller and medium sized telescopes still maintain their utility being larger in numbers. In order to obtain better scientific outputs it is necessary to incorporate modern and advanced technologies to the back-end instruments and to their interfaces with the telescopes through various control processes. However often tight financial constraints on the smaller and medium size observatories limit the scope and utility of these systems. Most of the time for every new development on the telescope the back-end control systems are required to be built from scratch leading to high costs and efforts. Therefore a simple, low cost control system for small and medium size observatory needs to be developed to minimize the cost and efforts while going for the expansion of the observatory. Here we report on the development of a modern, multipurpose instrument control system UNICS (Unified Instrument Control System) to integrate the controls of vari...

Srivastava, Mudit K; Burse, Mahesh P; Chordia, Pravin A; Chillal, Kalpesh S; Mestry, Vilas B; Das, Hillol K; Kohok, Abhay A

2009-01-01

95

Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Target System's Design of Key Performance Assess  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article from the situation that the present small and medium-sized enterprises' performance assess is unable to obtain the anticipated effect to embark, through analyzing the questions which consist in the small and medium-sized enterprises' performance assess targets design, and combining with the small and medium-sized enterprises' actual situation to design a set of target system of key performance assess. In this system which carries on the omni-directional analysis to the target system's design flow, bringing forward concrete operation means in each stage. The endeavour through this kind of target's design project, providing effective instruction in distilling the performance target for enterprises in reality.

Zhihui Sun

2009-01-01

96

Medium-sized deletion in the BRCA1 gene: limitations of Sanger sequencing and MLPA analyses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We describe a family with a history of breast and ovarian cancer in which MLPA analysis of the BRCA1 gene pointed to a deletion including a part of exon 11. Further characterization confirmed a loss of 374 bp in a region completely covered by conventional sequencing which had not revealed the deletion. Because this alteration was only detected serendipitously with an MLPA probe, we calculated the probabilities of detecting medium-sized deletions in large exons by methods including initial PCR amplification. This showed that a considerable fraction of medium-sized deletions are undetectable by currently used standard methods of mutation analyses. We conclude that long, widely overlapping amplicons should be used to minimize the risk of missing medium-sized deletions. Alternatively, large exons could be completely covered by narrow-spaced MLPA probes.

Sandra Herman; Dominic Varga; Heidrun L. Deissler; Rolf Kreienberg; Helmut Deissler

2012-01-01

97

Medium-sized deletion in the BRCA1 gene: limitations of Sanger sequencing and MLPA analyses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english We describe a family with a history of breast and ovarian cancer in which MLPA analysis of the BRCA1 gene pointed to a deletion including a part of exon 11. Further characterization confirmed a loss of 374 bp in a region completely covered by conventional sequencing which had not revealed the deletion. Because this alteration was only detected serendipitously with an MLPA probe, we calculated the probabilities of detecting medium-sized deletions in large exons by methods (more) including initial PCR amplification. This showed that a considerable fraction of medium-sized deletions are undetectable by currently used standard methods of mutation analyses. We conclude that long, widely overlapping amplicons should be used to minimize the risk of missing medium-sized deletions. Alternatively, large exons could be completely covered by narrow-spaced MLPA probes.

Herman, Sandra; Varga, Dominic; Deissler, Heidrun L.; Kreienberg, Rolf; Deissler, Helmut

2012-01-01

98

Evaluation of innovation activities of small and medium-sized businesses in Slovak Republic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the presented paper is to contribute to the discussion on innovation activities of small and medium-sized businesses of the Slovak Republic and the European Union. It is based on the results of research carried out by the National Agency for the Development of Small and Medium Enterprises (NADSME), where the focus was on the innovation capacity of small and medium firms in Slovakia. And it was complemented by the results of an analysis of firms’ innovation activities in the Banská Bystrica region carried out within the project “Regional Innovation Strategy of the Banska Bystrica Region”.

Eva Sopkova; Silvia Kostiviarova

2009-01-01

99

Modified genetic algorithms to model cluster structures in medium-size silicon clusters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the results obtained using a genetic algorithm (GA) to search for stable structures of medium size silicon clusters. In this work the GA uses a semiempirical energy function to find the best cluster structures, which are further optimized using density-functional theory. For small clusters our results agree well with previously reported structures, but for larger ones different structures appear. This is the case of Si36 where we report a different structure, with significant lower energy than those previously found using limited search approaches on common structural motifs. This demonstrates the need for global optimization schemes when searching for stable structures of medium-size silicon clusters

1452-01-00

100

The Research of External Financing Options of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the reform and opening up, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in China developed rapidly, which have become an important part of China’s economic and social development. However, the financing difficulties of SMEs have become increasingly prominent during recent years, and it hinders the healthy development of SMEs in China. This paper analyzes the current financing situation of SMEs in China, and conducts a deeply comparative analysis for several common external financing means of SMEs. In addition, this article provides some suggestions about how to solve financing difficulties if SMEs in China.Key words: Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs); External financing means; Options

Hongyu LI; Meiyue LIU

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

The role of promotional strategies for small and medium- sized entreprises in sustainable marketing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Romania, small and medium-sized enterprises manifest a certain interest in marketing activities, resulted in the existence of a specific marketing structure in half of them, as attests a survey done on a sample of 140 organizations. This research, focused on understanding the promotional strategies and tactics used by Romanian small and medium-sized enterprises, concluded that communication is oriented predominantly to quantitative objectives, not designed according to sustainable marketing principles. These organizations are less attracted by innovative communication methods, manifesting a resistance at novelty, caused by the lack of information or by prudence.

Ioana Cecilia Popescu; Diana Maria Vrânceanu; Mihai Ioan Ro?ca

2012-01-01

102

The Career Planning of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Based on Knowledge Life Cycle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article use the theory of knowledge life cycle, the small and medium-sized enterprises’ concept and the career planning, seek the joint between the career planning of enterprises and the theory of knowledge life cycle, has effectively studied the transmission mechanism in forming of the career planning of enterprises and the theory of knowledge life cycle, moreover bring forward corresponding human resource management measure, provide the cut-in point of theory for the small and medium-sized enterprises in our country to make the career planning through the theory of knowledge life cycle.

Xinbo Sun; Yang Liu

2009-01-01

103

Simplification of Process Integration Studies in Intermediate Size Industries  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

It can be argued that the largest potential for energy savings based on process integration is in the intermediate size industry. But this is also the industrial scale in which it is most difficult to make the introduction of energy saving measures economically interesting. The reasons are that the required engineering effort is too great and therefore too expensive, and that the resulting systems designs often become inordinately complex and therefore not attractive in operation. The present study describes steps that aim at reducing the magnitude of the theoretical work and engineering effort associated with a given process integration study in an intermediate size industry. This is based on the observation that the systems that eventually result from a process integration project and that are economically and operationally most interesting are also quite simple. Four steps that may be used separately or in series ahead of or simultaneously with the conventional process integration procedures (for example, the pinch point method) are described and are applied to an industrial case study. It might be feared that the use of preselections and groupings would limit the "freedom of movement' and therefore lead to non-optimal economic solutions, which may be right. But the objective of the optimisation is not to reach the best economic solution, but to relatively quickly develop the design of a simple and operationally friendly network without losing too much energy saving potential. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Dalsgård, Henrik; Petersen, P. M.

2002-01-01

104

Gestão do desenvolvimento de produto em empresas de pequeno e médio porte do setor de máquinas e implementos agrícolas do Estado de SP/ Product development process management in small and medium-sized Brazilian companies in the agricultural machinery and implement industry sector  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Para que as empresas nacionais do setor de máquinas e implementos agrícolas consigam sobreviver e ampliar sua participação nesse mercado em crescimento, do interesse econômico de companhias multinacionais e no qual essas detêm expressiva participação, elas necessitam melhorar a capacitação para desenvolver novos produtos e assim atender as novas demandas quanto a requisitos e homologação dessa produção. As empresas nacionais do setor apresentam um perfil pre (more) dominante de empresas familiares, de pequeno e médio porte, e pouco se conhece sobre a realidade da gestão do Processo de Desenvolvimento de Produto (PDP) nessas organizações. Este trabalho caracteriza e analisa os perfis e a maturidade da gestão do PDP em empresas de pequeno e médio porte de capital nacional do segmento de máquinas e implementos agrícolas do Estado de São Paulo. Foi realizada uma pesquisa de levantamento (survey) em 40 empresas. Para a análise dos dados utilizou-se a técnica de análise multivariada de clusters. As empresas da amostra apresentam uma estrutura heterogênea com relação à gestão do PDP. Foram identificados três grupos de empresas, com diferentes perfis de maturidade do PDP: Grupo I (20% da amostra), Grupo II (50% da amostra) e Grupo III (30% da amostra). Evidenciam-se diferenças na gestão do PDP principalmente entre os Grupos I (com menor nível de maturidade do PDP) e III (com nível de maturidade relativamente mais elevado). Apesar das diferenças na gestão do PDP entre os grupos, comparando-se a prática com o referencial teórico (as boas práticas sobre gestão do PDP), os 3 grupos se encontram no nível geral básico, ou inicial, de maturidade do PDP. A análise e identificação do nível de maturidade em que as empresas se encontram podem auxiliar no direcionamento do processo de melhoria do PDP e na elaboração de políticas públicas que incentivem o desenvolvimento e inovação de produto nas empresas nacionais do setor Abstract in english The product development process (PDP), if well-structured and managed, can become a business process that directly influences the companies' competitiveness increase. The PDP in Brazilian SMEs in the agricultural machinery and implement industry Sector (AMI) is little known since most publications on product development focuses on the reality of large and multinational companies, which have a quite different structure from SMEs. The purpose of this paper is to characteriz (more) e and analyze the management maturity profiles of the product development process in small and medium sized Brazilian companies in the agricultural machinery and implement industry sector located in the state of São Paulo. Therefore, the addressed actions of PDP improvements in those companies can be undertaken. A survey research was conducted in 40 companies. An in loco interview was applied to the respective individual in-charge of PDP by means of a structured questionnaire. For the data analysis, descriptive statistics and the multivariate cluster analysis techniques were used. The findings indicated that the SMEs in AMIs of the state of Sao Paulo present a heterogeneous structure with respect to PDP management. Three groups of companies were identified in the sample with different maturity PDP profiles: Group I (20% of companies in the sample), Group II (50% of the sample), and Group III (30% of the sample). Differences in the management of PDP were observed, especially among companies of Group I (smallest level of PDP maturity) and Group III (highest level of PDP maturity). However, despite the differences in PDP management presented in the groups of companies, according to the literature on PDP management, all groups are in the basic (initial) maturity level of PDP. The identification of the maturity level, in which these companies are, can help the determination of activities that link the internal actions to improve the PDP of these companies and the proposal of specific public policies that encourage the improvement of pro

Toledo, José Carlos de; Simões, Julianita Maria Scaranello

2010-01-01

105

The strategic relevance of technology-related variables to the competitiveness of small- to medium-sized furniture manufacturers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english SMMEs can make a critical and positive economic contribution to South Africa, and small- to medium-sized furniture manufacturers (SM/FMs) have the potential to contribute to economic growth, job creation, and GDP. However, the furniture industry has not stayed abreast of technological advances. To survive in an environment of increasing competition and imports, competitive strategies must be devised. One such strategy is for technology adoption and implementation that can (more) provide solutions for the furniture industry to improve speed, quality, variety, flexibility, and productivity, resulting in improved competitiveness. However, the adoption of technology means that its acquisition and application must be managed strategically, as the use of technology involves far more than simply taking it into account during the business-planning process. This paper investigates the impact of business strategy and selected technology-related variables on the competitiveness of SM/FM.

Lourens, A.S.; Jonker, J.A.

2012-01-01

106

Pressures on Green Supply Chain Management: A Study on Manufacturing Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aims to empirically investigate the pressures for adopting green supply chain management (GSCM) among Chinese small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Data is collected through the use of mail distributed questionnaires administered to participants at a national trade fair held in Suzhou and two rounds of data collection were carried out to make a more reliable result for the research. ANOVA and Factor analysis are used to analyze the data. Some key findings are found from this study. Firstly, there is indifference among the four industrial sectors in terms of facing pressures in adopting GSCM practices. Secondly, all of the pressures from environmental laws and regulations, the pressures in the process of selling the products and the pressures in the supply chain in the relation with the suppliers and customers have impacted on the decisions of SMEs to employ GSCM practices. The main limitation to this paper is the relatively small manufacturing sample of SMEs. The paper explores the GSCM pressures faced by Chinese SMEs which may be different from the findings through the studies on large enterprises in China. Key words: Supply chain management; Pressures on green supply chain management small and medium-sized enterprises; Chinese manufacturing industry

Xiangmeng HUANG; Boon Leing TAN; Dong LI

2012-01-01

107

Method and apparatus for indicating the size distribution of particles in a flowing medium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Methods and apparatus are described for determining the particle size distribution with respect to selected fraction classes in the direction of flow of a medium, such as a fracturing fluid. A number of measuring configurations are employed to pass light through the medium to be measured and to detect the transmitted light. Each measuring configuration exhibits a different resolution with respect to one another. Particle size distribution for selected fraction classes is determined as a function of measuring signals derived by each of the measuring configurations from the transmitted light detected during a run of the medium and sensitivity coefficients of the measuring signals. The sensitivity coefficients employed are dependent upon the associated measuring configuration and fraction class. Thus, rather than counting particles per se, a measure of the concentration in each fraction class is obtained. 32 claims.

Lundqvist, I.J.; Pettersson, J.G.T.; Fladda, G.H.

1982-03-02

108

On Key Points of Financial Cost Management in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chinese small and medium-sized enterprises (SME), accounting for 99.3% of all Chinese corporations, create
enormous economic fortune and employment opportunity. However, most of SMEs are lack of capital, with
simple equipments and improper management, so they are incapable to w...

Xingwu Yu; Weixing Wang

109

THE PREMISES OF STRATEGIC MARKETING PLANNING IMPLEMENTATION WITHIN SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main purpose of the present paper is to identify the framework and the necessary conditions for the small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) to be able to adopt the strategic marketing planning. Also, the paper aims to underline the importance of the strategic marketing planning and the manner ...

Curmei Catalin Valeriu; Ionescu Florin Tudor; Popescu Andrei

110

Current information technology needs of small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents recent efforts of the American Textile Partnership (AMTEX) Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Project to address needs that are characterized of small to medium sized apparel manufactures and contractors. Background on the AMTEX/DAMA project and objectives for this specific efforts are discussed.

Wipple, C.; Vosti, E.

1997-11-01

111

What Types of Small and Medium-Sized Businesses are Utilizing New Financial Products?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The increased diversification of fund rising methods among small and medium-sized businesses has been a major policy challenge in recent years, and private financial institutions are proactively striving to disseminate new financial technologies. However, this does not necessarily mean that every sm...

Nobuyoshi YAMORI

112

Involvement of small and medium sized enterprises in the private realisation of public buildings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper explores the procurement of public buildings in local authorities in the UK under the Private Finance Initiative (PFI) and its consequences for small and medium sized enterprises. Following an outline of the development of PFI in the UK, the paper explains the peculiarities of local autho...

Heinecke, Bastian

113

Strategies for Successful Information Technology Adoption in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Information Technology (IT) adoption is an important field of study in a number of areas, which include small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Due to the numerous advantages of IT, SMEs are trying to adopt IT applications to support their businesses. IT adoption by SMEs differs from larger organ...

Morteza Ghobakhloo; Tang Sai Hong; Mohammad Sadegh Sabouri; Norzima Zulkifli

114

The Pauson-Khand reaction of medium sized trans-cycloalkenes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Medium sized trans-cycloalkenes are unusually reactive in the intermolecular Pauson-Khand reaction (PKR) with regard to typical monocyclic alkenes. This is due to the ring strain imparted by the E stereochemistry. The PKR of these alkenes offers a modular, regioselective and straightforward entry to trans fused [n.3.0] bicyclic scaffolds (n = 6-8). PMID:23462865

Lledó, Agustí; Fuster, Aida; Revés, Marc; Verdaguer, Xavier; Riera, Antoni

2013-04-14

115

Audit from Audit Exempted Small and Medium-sized Entities (SMEs) in Sweden  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are seen as backbone for economic growth because they are regarded as catalyst for entrepreneurial skills, innovation and employment. Since in Sweden approximately 99.89% of enterprises are SMEs, they take an important role in country’s economic development....

Lakhe Shrestha, Biswas Kaji; Wai, Honey Htun

116

Signaling from the Cytoplasm to the Nucleus in Striatal Medium-Sized Spiny Neurons  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Striatal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) receive massive glutamate inputs from the cerebral cortex and thalamus and are a major target of dopamine projections. Interaction between glutamate and dopamine signaling is crucial for the control of movement and reward-driven learning, and its alteration...

Matamales, Miriam; Girault, Jean-Antoine

117

ENTREPRENEURIAL BEHAVIOUR ANALYSIS IN THE INTERNATIONALISATION PROCESS OF GLOBAL BORDER TYPE SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the European and global framework, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in order to survive the intense competition must expand, meaning that internationalisation has to be an inevitable stage in their strategic evolution at a certain moment in ti

Ni#355;u-Antonie Renata; Feder Em#337;ke-Szidónia

2009-01-01

118

Rapid aggregation of heterogeneous cells and multiple-sized microspheres in methylcellulose medium.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report a method for the rapid production of cellular aggregates without electric power and cell modification. We focused on the swelling property of a solution containing a high molecular material, methylcellulose (MC), which immediately absorbs a small amount of solvent and fills the space occupied by the solvent. When 1 ?l of a suspension of 1000 animal cells in normal culture medium was injected into the 3% MC medium, the normal medium was rapidly absorbed by the surrounding MC medium. Suspended cells were simultaneously trapped on the interfaces between the normal and MC media; they were finally pulled together and held in the MC medium. This event was nearly complete within the first 10 min. Moreover, MC medium-dependent aggregation was observed when polystyrene microspheres of different sizes (diameter, 100 nm-100 ?m) were added. Furthermore, we demonstrated the stepwise fabrication of multi-layered aggregates with embedded structures. These methods for creating engineered aggregates should enhance the study of three-dimensional cultures comprising two or more cell types with well-designed structures.

Kojima N; Takeuchi S; Sakai Y

2012-06-01

119

Small- and Medium-Sized Commercial Building Monitoring and Controls Needs: A Scoping Study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Buildings consume over 40% of the total energy consumption in the U.S. A significant portion of the energy consumed in buildings is wasted because of the lack of controls or the inability to use existing building automation systems (BASs) properly. Much of the waste occurs because of our inability to manage and controls buildings efficiently. Over 90% of the buildings are either small-size (<5,000 sf) or medium-size (between 5,000 sf and 50,000 sf); these buildings currently do not use BASs to monitor and control their building systems from a central location. According to Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), about 10% of the buildings in the U.S. use BASs or central controls to manage their building system operations. Buildings that use BASs are typically large (>100,000 sf). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) were asked by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP) to identify monitoring and control needs for small- and medium-sized commercial buildings and recommend possible solutions. This study documents the needs and solutions for small- and medium-sized buildings.

Katipamula, Srinivas; Underhill, Ronald M.; Goddard, James K.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Piette, M. A.; Granderson, J.; Brown, Rich E.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; Kuruganti, T.

2012-10-31

120

Teaming up for mutual learning : A case study of merging innovation aproaches of a medium-sized company  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The focus of this paper is two-folded within the theme of collaboration between education and industry. Firstly it unfolds how learning for design-engineer students can be established and facilitated in a dynamic setting with industrial partners and secondly how industrial partners can benefit from student collaboration. The paper is based on research activities carried out in the context of a 3rd semester project at the Industrial Design Msc. program at The School of Architecture, Design & Planning at Aalborg University. Here, the teaching style is Problem Based Learning (PBL). In PBL, student’s focuses on a complex problem that does not have a single correct answer – in this case the addressed problem was concerned with the innovation approach of a medium-sized company. Traditionally innovation projects and strategic planning has emerged from top managers offices and has been based on i.a. technological an economic factors. An alternative approach has emerged, which suggests that innovation is most successfully initiated by the research and design resources with-in a company. The two approaches are denoted as respectively Top-down and Bottom-up [5]. Practicing the Top-down approach was familiar and integrated within the company, while the student introduced the Bottom-up approach during the project - the initiatives, experiences and observations are reported in this paper.

Poulsen, SØren Bolvig; Pedersen, Tanja Aabo

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

The Importance Of Angel Investors In Financing The Growth Of Small And Medium Sized Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Angel investors are very important for small and medium sized enterprises because they provide more than money. They are hands-on investors and contribute their skills, expertise, knowledge and contacts in the businesses they invest in. They are wealthy persons with great business experience. They are willing to invest and offer their wealth and knowledge to owners of small and medium sized enterprises and to entrepreneurs to start or develop their businesses. One of the attributes of angel investors is that they like to remain anonymus. Due to this attribute, a lot of ideas can not be accomplished. To eliminate this, many countries establish angel investor syndicates (groups) and networks. These syndicates (groups) and networks facilitate the process of matching entrepreneurs and angel investors.

Veland Ramadani

2012-01-01

122

Obstacles and Drivers for Sustainable Innovation Development and Implementation in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play a vital role in the economic development and provide most of new jobs. At the same time, SMEs are contributing factors in environmental degradation due to their high numbers and their cumulative effect. In this context, broad application of sustainable innovations to SMEs becomes a priority task. The article presents results of a study conducted in Lithuania seeking to analyse obstacles and drivers for implementation of sustainable innovations in small and medium sized enterprises. For analysis, enterprises have been divided in two groups: SMEs with experience in development/ implementation of sustainable innovations and SMEs without such experience. To check reliability of results and to compare SME opinions in different countries, results of the study conducted in Lithuania have been compared to those of three similar studies carried out in other countries.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.60.2.1242

Laura Vasilenko; Valdas Arba?iauskas

2012-01-01

123

The role of independent intermediaries. The case of small and medium-sized exporters  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The article examines how small and medium-sized exporters collaborate with intermediaries in foreign markets by studying the level of control, i.e. the delegation of decisions rights and task solution. It goes one step further than previous research, since it examines degrees of control and participation rather than just discrete types of intermediary modes (agents, importers, dealers, etc.). Associations with performance as well as the role of product and distributor characteristics are analyzed. Empirical data based on a sample of product-market ventures in 227 small and medium-sized Norwegian export firms are analysed by a structural equation modelling approach. The article provides empirical evidence that managers keep control of decision making to an extent that may have a negative impact on export performance. The empirical study indicates that firms should participate more in task solution but less in decision making in their collaboration with foreign intermediaries

Madsen, Tage Koed; Moen, Øystein

2012-01-01

124

Assessing the effectiveness of safeguards at a medium-sized spent-fuel reprocessing facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to evaluate carefully and systematically the effectiveness of safeguards at nuclear-fuel-cycle facilities, the International Atomic Energy Agency has adopted a safeguards effectiveness assessment methodology. The methodology has been applied to a well-characterized, medium-sized, spent-fuel reprocessing plant to understand how explicit safeguards inspection procedures would serve to expose conceivable nuclear materials diversion schemes, should such diversion occur

1983-01-01

125

On Key Points of Financial Cost Management in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chinese small and medium-sized enterprises (SME), accounting for 99.3% of all Chinese corporations, createenormous economic fortune and employment opportunity. However, most of SMEs are lack of capital, withsimple equipments and improper management, so they are incapable to withstand risks and easy to be involvedin difficulty. Therefore, we should properly guide SMEs to enhance financing, investment management and themanagement of other value chain activities, which will contribute to their survival, development, strength, andincreasing improvement of market competitiveness.

Xingwu Yu; Weixing Wang

2010-01-01

126

Empirical analysis of alternative employment forms in Hungarian small and medium sized enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available While reacting to globalization and ongoing crisis organizations face numerous decisions about handling workforce. They should realize the gathering ground of flexibility in employment with regards to costs, and have to deal with alternative forms in order to be able more adaptive to the changing customer needs as well. The scope of this present research work is to explore the status of flexible employment forms in Hungarian Small and Medium Sized Enterprises and to investigate the factors influencing its applicability.

Iren Gyoker; Henrietta Finna

2010-01-01

127

Voluntary disclosing cash flow statement in non-listed medium sized companies.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In Denmark, like some other EU Member States, medium-sized companies are requested to present a cash flow statement, but there are exemption rules similar to those for subgroups’ exemption to their presentation of consolidated financial statements. In a sample consisting of the paper versions of annual reports from 385 Danish non-listed medium-sized companies who were disclosing a cash flow statement as part of their annual report, we found that in a few cases, the companies were exempted to presentation of consolidated financial statements, but disclosing the cash flow statement voluntarily! Since there has been some debate between IASB and the EU Commission whether the cash flow statement should be a mandatory part of the annual reporting for non-listed medium-sized companies, we found it interesting to directly ask these voluntary disclosing companies as to their motivation. For this reason we conducted a multiple-case study, where we formulated a structured questionnaire and made partly open-ended interview with each one of the case-companies’ accountably responsible persons, i.e. one of the guys who signed the annual report. Among the majority of the answers we found a common understanding on presenting the cash flow statement because of some tradition, and not because of some clear intention of fulfilling user needs. However, do we really get a better annual report if a cash flow statement is included?

SchØler, Finn

128

The Creation of Small and Medium-Sized Sport Enterprises and the Environmental Factors Affecting It  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Small and medium-sized enterprises are very basic solutions for the development of a country; therefore, it is important to understand the factors involved in their creation. Hence, this study sought to examine the relationship between environmental factors and creation of Small and medium-sized sport enterprises. The research population was small and medium-sized sport enterprises (1500 companies); their owners / managers were selected as the research sample (n = 258) by simple random sampling. Data were gathered using environmental factors (?=0.77) and enterprises creation qualification (?=0.81) questionnaires. Descriptive and inferential statistics (Pearson correlation coefficient, Kolmogrof - Smirnov test, and multivariate regression analysis) with SPSS16 software was used for data analysis. The results showed that in addition to positive and significant relationship with business, environmental factors could predict 6% of the creation variance; Also, except for the political dimension, all environmental aspects established a significant relationship with enterprise creation( p<0.01). Regression analysis showed that of environmental dimensions, economics and technology dimensions could explain 7 percent of Sports enterprise creation variance. According to path analysis method, this prediction ability is presented in a model. The findings suggested a diminished role of environment and its dimensions in explaining the process of SMEs creation.

Seyed Morteza Azimzadeh; Brenda Pitts; Arash Sarvari MirAzizi

2013-01-01

129

THE EVOLUTION OF FINANCIAL STANDARDS FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM- SIZED ENTITIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to the growing need for more comparable accounting standards, the beginnings of International Financial Reporting Standards for small and medium sized entities (IFRS for SMEs) can be found in the year 2004. IFRS for SMEs represents for the first time an accounting standard for small and medium-sized companies that can be used globally. The paper aims to examine the historical development of IFRS, the principal institutions linked to their adoption and the harmonization process of standards within the European Union. The main contribution of the paper refers to the evolution of IFRS for SMEs and the main differences between the full IFRS in use and the IFRS for SMEs.The results of the comparative analysis demonstrate that several differences exist between them. Although the aim of the new standard is to assure comparable financial statements for small and medium-sized entities, the presented disadvantages demonstrate that not necessarily its implementation will assure more benefits than the cost that will occur.

Mateja JERMAN; Gordana IVANKOVI?

2011-01-01

130

Innovation, adaptability, and collaboration: Keys to success for small and medium sized reactors. Cairo, 27 May 2001  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Small and medium sized reactors, within a power output of less than 700 MW(e), are receiving increased consideration in the effort to meet changing market requirements. Smaller plants allow a more incremental investment, which can be used to hedge against demand uncertainty. They are more suitable for standardization and prefabrication, which in turn encourages enhanced quality control and stimulates rapid development of expertise and shorter construction schedules. They provide a better match to grid capacity in developing countries. And they are more easily adapted to a broad range of industrial settings and applications, such as district heating, heavy oil recovery, or the production of hydrogen and other chemical fuels. Sea water desalination is an application for which smaller reactors hold a particular advantage. Nuclear powered desalination is a proven technology. Clearly, we live in an era in which our society faces many difficult economic, environmental and social issues associated with sustainable development and energy demand. Against that backdrop, nuclear power is a mature technology that deserves careful consideration as a contributor to solving some of these issues. The development of innovative small and medium sized reactors will play a key role in helping to match state-of-the-art technology to user needs. An exchange of information and ideas is a step towards further progress

2001-05-27

131

System size and cost structure of transit industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Knowledge of the cost and production structure of transit systems can be instrumental in uncovering an array of important information regarding their operation. Optimal fleet size and pricing, average and marginal cost, and the potential for success of deregulation and privatization efforts can be addressed successfully when the cost structure of transit systems is known. Research on the cost structure of mass transit systems using panel data frequently shows conflicting results with respect to issues such as economies of scale and density, and factor substitution elasticities. In this analysis the authors extend prior research in two significant directions. First, they control for cross-sectional heterogeneity that may otherwise seriously bias the resulting parameter estimates. Second, they make an explicit effort to capture differences in the economies of scale between large, medium, and small transit systems. Based on panel data for fixed-route public transit systems, the results indicate that transit services are characterized by a nonhomothetic production function, exhibiting returns to density and scale that depend on the size of the transit firm.

Karlaftis, M.G. [Hellenic Air-Force, Athens (Greece). Corps of Engineers; McCarthy, P.S.; Sinha, K.C. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

1999-05-01

132

ECO-FRIENDLY TECHNOLOGY IN SMALL AND MEDIUM TEXTILE WET PROCESSING INDUSTRIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Small and Medium wet processing industries in India contribute more to industrial development and trade and at the same time, they create environmental issues related to water pollution. This article attempts to analyse the main challenges of wet processing industries in adoption of cleaner technology options in reducing water pollution. Irreversible nature of water resource alarms the overall sustainability of environment. Traditional technology management concepts followed in SMIs will not help the industries to maintain the water quality parameters in the emission. So, effective approach towards innovative technology is to be identified and implemented. The present study examines the possibilities of implementing cleaner production technology in textile wet processing industries inTirupur, Tamilnadu. The main focus of the study is on technological choice and strength and weakness of SMIs to implement the Better Available technology (BAT). SWOT model is discussed to apprehend the adoption of technologies available.

FATIMA BABY; S.M.THAMILARASI

2013-01-01

133

Quantum-sized ZnO nanoparticles synthesized in aqueous medium for toxic gases detection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Highlights: ? Quantum-sized ZnO nanoparticles are synthesized in aqueous medium. ? ZnO is used to detect toxic gases in the atmosphere. ? ZnO sensing material has high sensitivity to NO2 at operating temperature of 290 °C. ? ZnO based sensor exhibits high selectivity to CO and CH4. ? The intrinsic sensing of ZnO arises from stoichiometric defects. - Abstract: Quantum-sized ZnO nanoparticles have been prepared by the sol–gel method in aqueous medium using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as surface modifier to control the growth of ZnO particles and Ostwald ripening, because the majority of bioanalyses require water-stable materials. The crystal structure, grain size and optical property of the ZnO nanoparticles have been characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS). The obtained quantum-sized ZnO nanoparticles as a novel sensing material have been used to detect NO2 in environment. The sensing tests indicate that the ZnO sensing material not only has high response to NO2 but also exhibits high selectivity to CO and CH4 at optimum operating temperature of 290 °C. The sensing response depends on the calcination temperature of the ZnO precursor and operating temperature of the sensor. The intrinsic sensing property has also been exploited by photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectra.

1000-01-00

134

The Role of Higher Education in the Effective Delivery of Multimedia Management Training to Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The UK government's University for Industry (UfI) initiative heralds an era for change in further and higher education. It is part of the government's policies on lifelong learning and the problem of many small and medium -sized enterprises (SMEs) that carry out limited training is of particular importance. One proposed solution is to develop multimedia management courseware in the higher and further education sectors which can then be transferred to SMEs in order to meet their training needs. However twenty interviews with key SME training informants reveal that a simple transfer of material is unlikely to prove adequate; the peculiarities of the SME learning environment represent a major challenge to the design and delivery of effective multimedia management training for this sector.

James Carr

1999-01-01

135

US soybean processing industry: optimal size, number and location  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US dominates world soybean production and trade. The soybean industry is confronted with organizing facilties to minimize the costs of assembly, processing, and distribution of the final products. A transshipment model was constructed to minimize the combined costs of assemblying and processing soybeans, and distributing the co-products - meal and oil - to demand centers. Four solutions are presented, one each for the years 1977, 1981, 1990, and 2000. Trends of supply and utilization data indicate that the growth of exports would be such that future export demand could be fully satisfied only if some degree of domestic use of soybeans for meal and oil were sacrificed. Trucks were the dominant mode of domestic soybean and soybean meal shipments. Rail dominated soybean oil shipments. When regional processsing constraints are eliminated, substantial savings in total costs result. This indicates that the potential exists for significant future cost reductions on a national basis, if processing transshipment points can be more optimally sized and located.

D' Souza, G.E.; Phillips, T.D.; Free, W.J.

1986-01-01

136

Age-related decline in metabolic competence of small and medium-sized synaptic mitochondria  

Science.gov (United States)

A computer-assisted morphometric investigation of cytochrome oxidase (COX) activity, selectively evidenced by preferential diaminobenzidine cytochemistry, has been carried out on synaptic mitochondria in the cerebellar cortex of adult and old rats. The ratio (R) of the area of the cytochemical precipitate (CPA) to the overall area of each mitochondrion (MA) was calculated. R refers to the fraction of the inner mitochondrial membrane actively involved in cellular respiration, thus its quantitative estimation constitutes a reliable index of the mitochondrial metabolic competence (MMC). In adult rats a significant negative correlation between MA and R values was found, while in old animals there was just a positive trend. Paired-quartile comparisons of R values showed a significant age-related decrease in small and medium-sized mitochondria, whereas the lowest and not significant age-related reduction was found in oversized organelles. A paired decrease in number and increase in size is reported to be a general trend for mitochondria during aging, but oversized organelles, according to their low R value, constitute a scanty, though functional, compensating reaction. Thus, the present findings support the argument that the currently reported age-related cellular metabolic decay appears to rely both on the decline in MMC of the small and medium-sized mitochondria, and on their specific reduction in number. This novel result is of biological relevance since it is largely the small and medium-sized mitochondria that are required for the provision of adequate amounts of ATP for actual cellular performance, while the significantly enlarged organelles are thought to represent an intermediate ultrastructural feature in mitochondrial genesis and/or remodelling.

Bertoni-Freddari, Carlo; Fattoretti, Patrizia; Giorgetti, Belinda; Spazzafumo, Liana; Solazzi, Moreno; Balietti, Marta

2005-02-01

137

The Perspective of Small and Medium Size Nuclear Power Reactors in the Brazilian Isolated Electricity Grids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a consequence of the international crisis that has shaken the nuclear industry almost all over the world during the late 1980s, new academic contributions, which could settle a new basis for the nuclear energy in Brazil, have been scarce. This paper aims to partially fulfill this gap. We discuss some perspectives for the nuclear option to regain some prominence in the Brazilian energy matrix. Recent developments in the nuclear industry, including advances in plant design, have been opening interesting markets for small and medium nuclear power reactors (SMNPRs). We access the suitability and feasibility of such new technology in the Brazilian isolated electricity grids. We conclude by saying that, although the difficulties are still huge, SMNPRs may be a good strategy for Brazil to revitalize its nuclear policy. (author).

1998-01-01

138

The ABC-paradox: is Time Driven ABC relevant for small and Medium sized enterprises (SME)?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Several articles suggest that Activity Based Costing (ABC) has failed to succeed in practical use. It is even argued that we have an ABC-paradox. Activity Based Costing has won theoretically in nu-merous articles in journals, through books, being included in all major Business Accounting text-books and in curriculum at most business schools. But ABC is not used very much by the compa-nies. Especially in small and medium enterprises ABC is rarely implemented. This is primarily due to two things: First, the ABC model is too difficult to implement. Second, the data foundation for the model is not available in the required quality in the ERP systems used by the businesses. In this article we will explore ways of overcoming these two related problems. We will explore these issues particularly in relation to small and medium enterprises. Through a theoretical analysis and practical implementation in a medium sized manufacturing company we will analyse whether it is possible to create a satisfactory decision making foundation using a TDABC as a less complex cost model in the company. We have analysed our way to the conclusion that compared to ABC, the TDABC model provides the management with a number of pragmatic solutions that can be used in small and medium enter-prises.

Fladkjær, Henrik Find; Jensen, Erling

2011-01-01

139

Customer-oriented innovations in the energy market - involving small and medium-sized commercial customers in product development; Kundenorientierte Innovationen im Energiemarkt - die Einbeziehung von Gewerbekunden in die Produktentwicklung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Boon or burden? Next to large industrial customers and private customers, small and medium-sized commercial customers are an important customer group for power supply companies. Being too small for a separate contract they are usually grouped together with private customers in a single customer group. However, this manner of business fails to do justice to the special needs and the potential of small and medium-sized commercial customers. Qualitative market research methods can give valuable impulses in attempts to develop innovative approaches that are more appropriate to the specific needs and requirements of small and medium-sized commercial customers, as the example set by Augsburg utilities demonstrates.

Papesch, G. [Stadtwerke Augsburg (Germany); Holzhauer, B.; Lueers, T. [Prof. Homburg und Partner, Mannheim (Germany)

2007-06-15

140

The effect of temperature and nano-sized calcium carbonate on tensile properties of medium density polyethylene  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present work, high temperature tensile properties of medium density polyethylene and its nano composites are investigated. For this purpose medium density polyethylene reinforced with different weight percentages of nano-sized calcium (2, 5, 10) are produced by compression moulding method. Tensile tests have been carried out at different temperatures, i.e. 30, 60, 90degC using thermomechanical analysis apparatus. Besides, the fracture surface of medium density polyethylene and medium density polyethylene/CaC03 nano composites are also investigated using scanning electron microscopy. The thermomechanical analysis results indicate that the elastic modulus and yield stress have increased by addition of nano sized calcium carbonate as reinforcement for medium density polyethylene . At elevated temperature, the tensile strength is shown to be reduced in all materials including medium density polyethylene and its nano composites. The obtained results confirm that the reinforcing effect of nano-sized calcium carbonate becomes significant particularly at higher temperatures.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Compact size highly directive antennas based on the SRR metamaterial medium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, we studied the far-field properties of the microwave radiation from sources embedded inside the split-ring resonator (SRR) metamaterial medium. Our results showed that the emitted power near the resonance frequency of the SRR structure was confined to a narrow angular region in the far field. The measured radiation patterns showed half-power beamwidths around 140. The highly directive radiation is obtained with a smaller radiation surface area when compared to the previous results obtained by using photonic crystals. The reduction in the surface area is ten-fold in the case of the SRR metamaterial medium when compared to the photonic crystals. Our results provide means to create compact size highly directive antennas.

2005-01-01

142

Current information technology needs of small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents recent efforts of the American Textile Partnership (AMTEX{sup TM}) Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Project to identify opportunities for cost effective enhanced information technology use by small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors. Background on the AMTEX/DAMA project and objectives for the specific DAMA Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) effort are discussed in this section. The approach used to gather information about current opportunities or needs is outlined in Section 2 Approach, and relevant findings are identified and a brief analysis of the information gathered is presented in Section 3 Findings. Recommendations based on the analysis, are offered in Section 4 Recommendations, and plans are suggested for DAMA follow-on in Section 5 Future Plans. Trip reports for each of the companies visited are contained in Appendix E - Company Trip Reports. These individual reports contain the data upon which the analysis presented in Section 3 Findings is based.

Wimple, C., LLNL

1998-04-01

143

New types of tourism in a medium-sized historic city: present state and ternds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the article, the development of Murom’s tourism industry as a whole, and different types of tourism in particular, is analysed. Besides, modern approaches to tourism classification are examined, the author’s concept is offered, and some types of tourism (existing ones in the middle-sized historic city under investigation and new ones for it) are defined by the author.

Lebedev A.R.

2011-01-01

144

Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation with Multiple Electrodes for Medium-Sized Hepatocellular Carcinomas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To prospectively evaluate the safety and short-term therapeutic efficacy of switching monopolar radiofrequency ablation (RFA) with multiple electrodes to treat medium-sized (3.1-5.0 cm), hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). In this prospective study, 30 patients with single medium-sized HCCs (mean, 3.5 cm; range, 3.1-4.4 cm) were enrolled. The patients were treated under ultrasonographic guidance by percutaneous switching monopolar RFA with a multichannel RF generator and two or three internally cooled electrodes. Contrast-enhanced CT scans were obtained immediately after RFA, and the diameters and volume of the ablation zones were then measured. Follow-up CT scans were performed at the first month after ablation and every three months thereafter. Technical effectiveness, local progression and remote recurrence of HCCs were determined. There were no major immediate or periprocedural complications. However, there was one bile duct stricture during the follow-up period. Technical effectiveness was achieved in 29 of 30 patients (97%). The total ablation time of the procedures was 25.4 {+-} 8.9 minutes. The mean ablation volume was 73.8 {+-} 56.4 cm3 and the minimum diameter was 4.1 {+-} 7.3 cm. During the follow-up period (mean, 12.5 months), local tumor progression occurred in three of 29 patients (10%) with technical effectiveness, while new HCCs were detected in six of 29 patients (21%). Switching monopolar RFA with multiple electrodes in order to achieve a sufficient ablation volume is safe and efficient. This method also showed relatively successful therapeutic effectiveness on short-term follow up for the treatment of medium-sized HCCs.

Lee, Jung; Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Se Hyung; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Seoul National University Hospita, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jung Hwan [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Eun [Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2012-01-15

145

Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation with Multiple Electrodes for Medium-Sized Hepatocellular Carcinomas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To prospectively evaluate the safety and short-term therapeutic efficacy of switching monopolar radiofrequency ablation (RFA) with multiple electrodes to treat medium-sized (3.1-5.0 cm), hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). In this prospective study, 30 patients with single medium-sized HCCs (mean, 3.5 cm; range, 3.1-4.4 cm) were enrolled. The patients were treated under ultrasonographic guidance by percutaneous switching monopolar RFA with a multichannel RF generator and two or three internally cooled electrodes. Contrast-enhanced CT scans were obtained immediately after RFA, and the diameters and volume of the ablation zones were then measured. Follow-up CT scans were performed at the first month after ablation and every three months thereafter. Technical effectiveness, local progression and remote recurrence of HCCs were determined. There were no major immediate or periprocedural complications. However, there was one bile duct stricture during the follow-up period. Technical effectiveness was achieved in 29 of 30 patients (97%). The total ablation time of the procedures was 25.4 ± 8.9 minutes. The mean ablation volume was 73.8 ± 56.4 cm3 and the minimum diameter was 4.1 ± 7.3 cm. During the follow-up period (mean, 12.5 months), local tumor progression occurred in three of 29 patients (10%) with technical effectiveness, while new HCCs were detected in six of 29 patients (21%). Switching monopolar RFA with multiple electrodes in order to achieve a sufficient ablation volume is safe and efficient. This method also showed relatively successful therapeutic effectiveness on short-term follow up for the treatment of medium-sized HCCs.

2012-01-01

146

The Size Distribution of Chinese Manufacturing Firms: From the Perspective of Industry Life Cycle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Using panel data of Chinese manufacturing firms between 2003 and 2008, this paper aims to examine the evolution of firm size distribution (FSD) as the industry goes through its life-cycle. The results reveal that during the life-cycle process, China’s manufacturing firms’ average size becomes larger then shrinks, and the degree of firm size heterogeneity and industry concentration increases all the time. Empirical results also indicate that the change rate of FSD is affected by firms’ net entry rate into industry. When net entry rate is higher, average firm size’s growth rate is smaller, while size heterogeneity and industry concentration rises more dramatically.

Yanying CHEN; Li WANG; Gaofeng TIAN

2012-01-01

147

Incentive System for supporting Small and Medium Industry related to Energy Facilities and Equipments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Small and Medium industry started to undergo sufferings ever since last financial crisis in 1998. Also the energy related small and medium enterprises could not be an exception. Although korean economy went through a slump due to a financial crisis and recovered after all, now it is also experiencing very difficult economical situation due to a continuous recession of advanced countries like USA. Especially, as the wretched priced energy related equipment from China is coming into the domestic market, the domestic energy related equipment industries are in a deep depression and bankrupt frequently. Nevertheless, we cannot even think of our life without energy as it is not only our life necessity, but also a motive power to drive the industrial productivity. However, the problem occurs where the energy needs some kind of conductive equipment or facility to complete combustion rather than by itself alone. As a matter of fact, the production of energy equipment is closely related to energy consumption as well as the construction market and other given economy condition. The development and growth of those related industries should be influenced on stable supply and rational utilization of energy through renewable energy production and energy conservation. After all, those industries are contributed to attain sustainable development by energy security, environmental reservation, and economic growth. At this point of time, a powerful incentive policy, which will result in stopping the bankruptcy of domestic energy related small and medium companies and improving competitive energy efficiency against that of advanced countries, is required. This research suggests the realization and differentiation of guarantee ratio for credit guarantee system improvement, creation of green energy venture fund, favourable bank loan with low interest, rational improvement of taxation, flexible coordination of group option contract, adoption of separated order system which benefits small and medium enterprises for upbringing energy related equipment industries. Korea energy related equipment industry at the present state of things has a characteristic that it is comprised of small and medium companies. IT, BT, NT, and etc are taken up as promising industry arena of 21st century, but in our actual circumstance considering our economic capacity and level of the technological know-how, the most competitive industry which also represents the energy saving equipment and the replaceable energy equipment and environmental equipment is ET (Environment Technology). If this ET industry were to be activated, not only the new jobs and higher employment are created, but also an improvement of domestic production rate of energy related equipment products, which derives from a keynote of the stable supply of energy and utilization rationalization business, can be attempted. By doing so, the improvement of international trade and the internal tax revenue can be secured. There is also a great opportunity of finding a market in East-Asian countries as an international trading industry. At that significance, a motive policy needs to be made by the government for the fundamentals of active market cultivation and also for those energy-related equipments in the market not to be dead during this slack season. Especially, in order to overcome the slack season, energy related equipment industries need to improve cooperative system among industries, government, academies, and research group. (author). 15 refs., 4 figs., 47 tabs.

Kim, Z.O. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

2001-11-01

148

Integrated Foreign Exchange Risk Management: The Role of Import in Medium-Sized, Manufacturing Firms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as an instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role of import in medium-sized manufacturing firms in Denmark (a small, open economy). We find a strong, negative relation between import and the use of foreign exchange derivatives on the aggregate level. Our findings are consistent with the notion that firms use import to match the foreign exchange exposure created by foreign sales activities.

Aabo, Tom; HØg, Esben

2010-01-01

149

Integrated foreign exchange risk management : the role of import in medium-sized, manufacturing firms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as an instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role of import in medium-sized manufacturing firms in Denmark (a small, open economy). We find a strong, negative relation between import and the use of foreign exchange derivatives on the aggregate level. Our findings are consistent with the notion that firms use import to match the foreign exchange exposure created by foreign sales activities.

Aabo, Tom; HØg, Esben

2010-01-01

150

The Construction of Human Resource Management System in Small and Medium-sized Private Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The small and medium-sized private enterprises (SMEs) play an increasingly important role in creating output value and providing new employment opportunities, but there are a lot of problems with human resources in SMEs, such as poor quality of business owners, lack of strategic planning on human resources, etc. It’s necessary, therefore, for SMEs to strengthen the setup of human resource management system. This paper puts forward some implementation details according to "human resource evaluation, assessment, & examination methods" and "job evaluation table", and draws up the diagram on implementation of these steps, both vertically and horizontally evaluating human resource management system in SMEs.

Jieyun Zhang; Juhong Gong

2009-01-01

151

IMPACT OF VIRTUALIZATION PROCESS ON THE COMPETITIVENESS OF SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED FIRMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of the impact of virtualization process on competitiveness of small and medium sized firms. The developed methodology for measuring the level of organizational virtualness has been effectively applied to a wide range of businesses, both large and the smallest companies representing traditional and high-technology sectors. Through statistical analysis it has been confirmed that virtualization process has a positive impact on competitiveness of companies. However, not all theoretically assumed pathways of such impact have been observed. Presented results and conclusions of the examination give a new perspective for discussion about challenges of effective implementing virtual organization concept into business practice.

Marta NAJDA-JANOSZKA

2011-01-01

152

Using OD Estimation Techniques to Determine Freight Factors in a Medium Sized Community  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Developing an understanding of the socio-economic factors that can be used to generate truck trip productions and attractions in small and medium sized communities can be used to improve travel models and provide better information upon which infrastructure decisions are made. Unfortunately, it is difficult to collect this data in a timely, cost-effective manner. This paper presents a methodology that uses matrix estimation techniques from existing traffic counts to develop origin/destination pairs that can be used to statistically develop truck trip generation models. A case study is presented and a model is presented for one smaller urban community.

Michael D. Anderson; Jeffrey P. Wilson; Gregory A. Harris

2013-01-01

153

Integrated Foreign Exchange Risk Management : The Role of Import in Medium-Sized, Manufacturing Firms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for the exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as the instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role of import in medium-sized, manufacturing firms in Denmark (a small, open economy). We find a strong, negative relation between import and foreign exchange derivatives usage on the aggregate level. Our findings are consistent with the notion that firms use import to match the foreign exchange exposure created by foreign sales activities.

Aabo, Tom; HØg, Esben

154

Effectively Using the QRFM to Model Truck Trips in Medium-Sized Urban Communities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper analyses the effectiveness of applying the Quick Response Freight Manual (QRFM) to model freight transportation. Typically, freight transportation is indirectly modeled or as an after-thought. Increasing freight volumes, coupled with cost saving strategies such as just-in-time delivery systems, require that transportation policymakers analyze infrastructure needs and make investment decisions that explicitly include freight volumes as a component. This paper contains a case study using a medium sized urban area travel model and the QRFM trip generation and a distribution methodology to provide a framework for freight planning that can be used to improve resource allocation decisions.

Michael D. Anderson; Mary C. Dondapati; Gregory A. Harris

2013-01-01

155

Search for global minimum geometries for medium sized germanium clusters: Ge12-Ge20.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have performed an unbiased search for the global minimum geometries of small-to-medium sized germanium clusters Gen(12< or =n< or =18) as well as a biased search (using seeding method) for Gen(17< or =n< or =20). We employed the basin-hopping algorithm coupled with the plane-wave pseudopotential density functional calculations. For each size, we started the unbiased search with using several structurally very different initial clusters, or we started the biased search with three different seeds. Irrespective of the initial structures of clusters we found that the obtained lowest-energy clusters of the size n=12-16 and 18 are the same. Among them, the predicted global minima of Gen(12< or =n< or =16) are identical to those reported previously [Shvartsburg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 167 (1999)]. For n=17-20, we have identified two or three nearly isoenergetic low-lying isomers (for each size) that compete for the global minimum. Nearly all the low-lying clusters in the size range of 12< or =n< or =20 contain the tri-caped trigonal prism motif and are all prolate in geometry, in agreement with the experiment. PMID:15945682

Bulusu, S; Yoo, S; Zeng, X C

2005-04-22

156

MANAGEMENT OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ability to measure and manage economic efficiency in small and medium-sized enterprises is highly valued competitive advantage. Economic efficiency reveals the absolute size of indicators of efficient usage of resources employed, efficiency and effectiveness of business processes, products and services. While measuring and managing economic efficiency, it is necessary to reflect the influence of internal and external business environment and take into account the diversity of assessment of subject position. Sources of information for assessing the overall economic efficiency of enterprises with subsequent management can be derived from the financial statements of financial accounting. In the proposed plan of economic efficiency it is important for business owners and managers in the to establish appropriate indicators of economic efficiency and to follow and support the long-term strategic goals of the company.

JAN ŠT?PÁNEK

2013-01-01

157

The deregulated electric market. New opportunities for medium sized heat pumps?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The market for medium-sized heat pumps does not show the same expansion as the markets for smaller and larger heat pumps for which four causes were pointed out. However, new technology, a changing market for energy and a familiarity with new organisational concepts as {sup o}utsourcing{sup ,} and `insourcing` started to weaken those causes. New actors on the market, energy management firms and facility management firms, are changing the way how energy is bought. The reaction of energy firms is to introduce similar concepts. The deregulated market for electricity influences the market for heat pumps. New technology opens the possibility to monitor and operate a large number of heat pumps over distance. This increases the economy of scale in purchasing the electricity and maintenance and leads to new knowledge of how the energy is used. These developments can change the market for medium-sized heat pumps. This paper is an illustration of the need to redirect some of the research efforts in the energy area towards other factors that influence the usage of energy. 8 refs.

Lagergren, F. [KTH School of Industrial Management, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Lundqvist, P. [Department of Energy Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

1997-05-12

158

Infrahyoid myocutaneous flap for medium-sized head and neck defects: surgical outcome and technique modification.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the surgical outcomes associated with infrahyoid myocutaneous flaps used in the reconstruction of medium-sized defects following head and neck cancer resection, as well as to discuss a novel technique modification. STUDY DESIGN: Case series with chart review. SETTING: University cancer hospital. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 20 patients with oral or hypopharyngeal carcinoma who underwent infrahyoid myocutaneous flap reconstruction between June 2005 and December 2011 were retrospectively studied. A novel technical modification of flap harvest, preservation of the cranial portion of the anterior jugular vein, was attempted in 15 flaps and was successful in 13 flaps. Functional evaluation was performed in all patients 3 to 6 months after the operation or postoperative radiation. RESULTS: Total flap necrosis, marginal skin paddle necrosis, and total skin paddle loss were observed in 1, 2, and 1 patient(s), respectively. Pharyngocutaneous fistula without flap problem occurred in 1 patient. No flap complications occurred in 13 cases where the cranial portion of the anterior jugular vein was successfully preserved. Functional results were excellent in 16 patients, good in 3 patients, and fair in 1 patient. CONCLUSION: The infrahyoid myocutaneous flap is a reliable and convenient technique that can serve as an alternative to free flaps in the reconstruction of medium-sized defects of the oral cavity or hypopharynx. Preservation of the cranial portion of the anterior jugular vein is a novel technical modification of harvesting this flap, which may result in better venous return of the skin paddle and reduce skin paddle necrosis.

Peng H; Wang SJ; Yang X; Guo H; Liu M

2013-01-01

159

The significance of medium- or small-size devices in fusion research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The significance of medium- and small-size devices is reviewed and discussed taking the case of ITER Physics R and D. It is pointed out that the heat flux density expected in a fusioning plasma will become as large as an unexperienced high level and it is not self-evident that one could extend the present energy confinement time scaling to predict ITER performances. The confinement of fusion plasma is considered to be related to heat, momentum and mass transport problems in a nonlinear non-equilibrium system with a finite source and dissipation. Therefore, a recent progress of basic experiments and theories in fluid dynamics may greatly be referred, where series of basic experiments are unveiling various modes of heat and mass transport in the nonlinear non-equilibrium system including a scenario and conditions of transition to turbulence. In the field of plasma confinement, the more complex scenario would be expected. Therefore, a systematic and basic research along the same line is highly desired on medium- and small-size devices in order to get insight into the physics of plasma confinement which will provide us the methodology for confinement improvement. (author)

1990-01-01

160

The Vital Factors for Small and Medium Sized Sport Enterprises Start-ups  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nowadays, the new enterprises are recognized as the main source of job creation, innovation and development. In today’s business world, new enterprises are recognized as an important source of job creation, innovation and development. Therefore, identifying influencing factors that play key roles in the start-up of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) is critical. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify critical factors for starting-up Small and Medium sized Sport Enterprises (SMSEs) companies whose business is sport and developing a conceptual model that might be used by entrepreneurs in sport business. The methodology was qualitative. Interviews were conducted with 18 individuals, selected through purposive sampling, involved in sport-related SMEs. After a careful investigation of enterprise start-up models in the literature, and based on the results of experts interviews, an integrated approach was indicated as popular models were used by SMEs scholars. Then, a model was proposed in line with integration approach.The conceptual model is based on the integrative approach and shows that three important categories of factors were indicated: Individual; 2.individual factors; Environmental; and 3.environmental factors; and Financial factors.financial factors. It should be mentioned that these factors were constitude of subdimentiones.

Seyed Morteza Azimzadeh; Brenda Pitts; Mohammad Ehsani; Asadollah Kordnaeij

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Detection of Clostridium difficile in small and medium-sized wild Mammals in Southern Ontario, Canada.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We sampled 325 small and medium-sized wild mammals in Ontario, Canada in 2007 and 2010 to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Clostridium difficile in wild mammals living in proximity to captive wildlife and livestock. Clostridium difficile was isolated from five of 109 animals (4.6%) on four of 25 farms (16%), but was not isolated from any of the 216 samples from raccoons (Procyon lotor) living on the grounds of the Toronto Zoo. The positive animals included two raccoons from one beef farm, one raccoon from a different beef farm, one raccoon from a swine farm, and a shrew (Blarina brevicauda) from a dairy farm. None had evidence of gastrointestinal disease. Three of the five isolates were toxinotype variants (II, IV, and XIII) that are rarely identified in humans and domestic animals. The other two were toxinotype 0, a common toxinotype in humans and animals; however, all five isolates were of different ribotypes. None of the recovered ribotypes were recognized as ribotypes present in the authors' reference library of over 3,000 human and domestic animal C. difficile isolates. Neither the public health nor the animal health relevance of these findings is clear. It is not known whether C. difficile is a pathogen of small and medium-sized wild mammals, although the susceptibility of various laboratory species suggests it could cause disease.

Jardine CM; Reid-Smith RJ; Rousseau J; Weese JS

2013-04-01

162

Tube vibration in industrial size test heat exchanger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Tube vibration data from tests of a specially built and instrumented, industrial-type, shell-and-tube heat exchanger are reported. The heat exchanger is nominally 0.6 m (2 ft) in dia and 3.7 m (12 ft) long. Both full tube and no-tubes-in-window bundles were tested for inlet/outlet nozzles of different sizes and with the tubes supported by seven, equally-spaced, single-segmental baffles. Prior to water flow testing, natural frequencies and damping of representative tubes were measured in air and water. Flow testing was accomplished by increasing the flow rates in stepwise fashion and also by sweeping through a selected range of flow rates. The primary variables measured and reported are tube accelerations and/or displacements and pressure drop through the bundle. Tests of the full tube bundle configuration revealed tube rattling to occur at intermediate flow rates, and fluidelastic instability, with resultant tube impacting, to occur when the flow rate exceeded a threshold level; principally, the four-span tubes were involved in the regions immediately adjacent to the baffle cut. For the range of flow rates tested, fluidelastic instability was not achieved in the no-tubes-in-window bundle; in this configuration the tubes are supported by all seven baffles and are, therefore, stiffer

1980-01-01

163

Book-to-Market, Size, and Industry Effect  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to extend the paper by Saleh and Bitar (2009) by addressing whether variation in stock returns can be explained by differences in industry concentration. The paper concludes that firms operate in highly concentrated industries earn lower returns and less risk than those operate in highly competitive industries. Furthermore, the paper provides evidence to suggest that investors in Amman Stock Exchange cannot benefit from a trading strategy based on industry structure

Walid Saleh; Ayman Bitar

2011-01-01

164

Enhancing work motivation for Japanese female nurses in small to medium-sized private hospitals by analyzing job satisfaction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Proper work environments are important for nurses to feel motivated. We examined the associations between work motivation and job satisfaction among Japanese nurses to improve their motivation. In Japan, relatively small and medium-sized private hospitals play a central role in the healthcare industry. In the present study, the subjects were nurses working in 23 small and medium-sized private hospitals that had 65 to 326 beds. We analyzed 1,116 registered and licensed practical female nurses (average age, 38.3 years; standard deviation, 11.3 years). Many nurses with their specialized nursing skills dedicate themselves to patient care. However, many of these nurses may not be interested in contributing to their hospitals. Nurses may have different opinions regarding dedication to patient care and contribution to their hospitals. Therefore, concerning work motivation, we produced these two different items, "Nurses' dedication to patients" and "Nurses' contribution to their hospitals." We also produced our own original new job satisfaction questionnaire. We found 7 facets of job satisfaction: "Work as specialists," "Workplace safety," "Relationships with superiors," "Work-life balance," "Relationships among nurses," "Communications with physicians," and "Salary." Multiple linear regression analyses show that both "Nurses' dedication to patients" and "Nurses' contribution to their hospitals" were significantly associated with "Work as specialists." Nurses feel their jobs of protecting people's lives and health are valuable. They do not feel motivated only by money. They value the intrinsic nature of their jobs. Creating proper work environments is important for nurses to be able to work as specialists.

Kudo Y; Kido S; Shahzad MT; Shida K; Satoh T; Aizawa Y

2010-03-01

165

Enhancing work motivation for Japanese female nurses in small to medium-sized private hospitals by analyzing job satisfaction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proper work environments are important for nurses to feel motivated. We examined the associations between work motivation and job satisfaction among Japanese nurses to improve their motivation. In Japan, relatively small and medium-sized private hospitals play a central role in the healthcare industry. In the present study, the subjects were nurses working in 23 small and medium-sized private hospitals that had 65 to 326 beds. We analyzed 1,116 registered and licensed practical female nurses (average age, 38.3 years; standard deviation, 11.3 years). Many nurses with their specialized nursing skills dedicate themselves to patient care. However, many of these nurses may not be interested in contributing to their hospitals. Nurses may have different opinions regarding dedication to patient care and contribution to their hospitals. Therefore, concerning work motivation, we produced these two different items, "Nurses' dedication to patients" and "Nurses' contribution to their hospitals." We also produced our own original new job satisfaction questionnaire. We found 7 facets of job satisfaction: "Work as specialists," "Workplace safety," "Relationships with superiors," "Work-life balance," "Relationships among nurses," "Communications with physicians," and "Salary." Multiple linear regression analyses show that both "Nurses' dedication to patients" and "Nurses' contribution to their hospitals" were significantly associated with "Work as specialists." Nurses feel their jobs of protecting people's lives and health are valuable. They do not feel motivated only by money. They value the intrinsic nature of their jobs. Creating proper work environments is important for nurses to be able to work as specialists. PMID:20208420

Kudo, Yasushi; Kido, Shigeri; Shahzad, Machiko Taruzuka; Shida, Kyoko; Satoh, Toshihiko; Aizawa, Yoshiharu

2010-03-01

166

Urban prevalence of epilepsy: populational study in São José do Rio Preto, a medium-sized city in Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of epilepsy in the urban population of São José do Rio Preto. This is a medium-sized city of 336000 inhabitants, located in the northwest of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. METHOD: A crosssectional epidemiological investigation with a randomized sample was performed in two phases, a screening phase and a confirmation of the diagnosis phase. The gold standard was a clinical investigation and neurological examination. The chi-square test was used in analysis of the results and p-value value < 0.05 was considered significant. Prevalence was calculated with 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: The study sample size was 17293 individuals, with distributions of gender, age, and race similar to the general population. The prevalence per 1000 inhabitants of epilepsy was 18.6, of these 8.2 were active, defined as at least one seizure within the last two years. The prevalence per 1000 inhabitants for the age groups (years) was 4.9 (04), 11.7 (514), 20.3 (1564) and 32.8 (65 or over). CONCLUSION: Prevalence of both accumulated and active epilepsy was elevated, comparable to other developing nations, in particular those of Latin America. However, the prevalence of epilepsy in childhood was low, whilst in aged individuals it was high similar to industrialized nations.

Borges Moacir Alves; Min Li Li; Guerreiro Carlos A.M.; Yacubian Elza M.T.; Cordeiro José A.; Tognola Waldir A.; Borges Ana Paula P.; Zanetta Dirce Maria T.

2004-01-01

167

Almanya’da Ortaboy ??letmeler ?çin Derecelendirme Sorunu = The Rating Problems in Medium-Size Companies in Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines the rating problems in medium-size companies in Germany. The rating models employed by international rating agencies are in general not applicable for medium-size companies. Therefore, ratings made by international agencies using their conventional criteria would hardly give good results for small and medium size firms.The capital needs of medium-size companies encourage the development of services of new rating agencies in Germany which consider medium size companies as the targets of their services. The need for external capital is greater and there are stronger ties between management and capital ownership in medium size companies. On the other hand, rating becomes so crucial when they plan to go public.. Rating is useful not only for investors, creditors and customers but for management as well. Rating has not yet become a popular concept in Turkey. Those firms - mostly commercial banks- that want to be rated apply to international rating agencies for their services.

Oktay TA?

2001-01-01

168

Determinants of Profitability of Food Industry in India: A Size-Wise Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Profitability is the profit earning capacity, which is a crucial factorin contributing to the survival of firms. This paper is a maidenattempt at estimating the impact of size on profitability, consideringthe ‘size’ as the control variable. For this purpose, the selectedfirms are classified into three size categories as ‘small,’ ‘medium,’and ‘large’ based on the sales turnover. The results show that volatilityand growth are the major predictors in determining profitabilityin case of small size firms while growth is important in determiningthe profitability of medium size firms. Capital intensityhas a significant positive coefficient with the profitability of largesize firms. The overall result shows that the larger the size of thefirm, the more the investment in long lived assets has helped toincrease the profitability of the firm unlike the trend in cases ofsmall size and medium size firms.

Ramachandran Azhagaiah; Raju Deepa

2012-01-01

169

77 FR 56755 - Small Business Size Standards; Adoption of 2012 North American Industry Classification System for...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards; Adoption of 2012 North American Industry Classification System for Size Standards; Correction AGENCY: U.S...2012 modifications of the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) into its table of small business...

2012-09-14

170

Atomic size effects on local coordination and medium range order in molten trivalent metal chlorides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Structural correlations in molten trivalent metal chlorides are evaluated as functions of the metal ion size RM across the range from LaCl3 (RM approx. 1.4 A) to AlCl3 (RM approx. 0.8 A), using a charged soft-sphere model and the hypernetted chain approximation. Main attention is given to trends in the local liquid structure (partial radial distribution functions, coordination numbers and bond lengths) and in the intermediate range order (first sharp diffraction peak in the number-number and partial structure factors). The trend towards fourfold local coordination of the metal ions, the stabilization of their first-neighbour chlorine cage and the growth of medium range order are found to proceed in parallel as the size of the metal ion is allowed to decrease at constant number density and temperature. A tendency to molecular-type local structure and liquid-vapour phase separation is found within the hypernetted chain scheme at small metal ion sizes corresponding to AlCl3 and is emphasized by decreasing the number density of the fluid. The predicted molecular units are rather strongly distorted Al2Cl6 dimers, in agreement with observation. The calculated structural trends for other trichlorides are compared with diffraction and transport data. (author). 17 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab

1992-01-01

171

Knowledge management in small and medium-sized companies; Wissensmanagement bei kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Knowledge management has now also reached the energy economy, as first branch-specific seminars show. This awakening interest is very much to be welcomed, although until now it has been more the representatives of large energy companies who have made themselves heard. Public utilities, which as a rule are subsumed under the category ''small and medium sized company'', have other possibilities as well as limitations than large corporations when it comes to knowledge management. The present article explains what knowledge management is and how public utilities and regional supply companies can identify and make practical use of opportunities available to them through knowledge management while giving due consideration to their structural characteristics.

Basu, M. [Netzwirtschaft, EWR Netz GmbH, Worms (Germany); Neises, C. [Regulierungsmanagement, regionetz GmbH, Dueren (Germany)

2008-12-15

172

Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) from medium-sized to large mammals in Ehime Prefecture, Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ixodid ticks were collected from medium-sized to large mammals in Ehime Prefecture, Shikoku, Japan. Ten species of ticks (Amblyomma testudinarium, Dermacentor taiwanensis, Haemaphysalis flava, H. formosensis, H. hystricis, H. longicornis, H. megaspinosa, Ixodes nipponensis, I. ovatus, and I. tanuki) were collected from a total of 29 mammals comprising 11 species. Haemaphysalis hystricis, a possible vector of Japanese spotted fever in Ehime prefecture, was collected from Canis lupus familiaris (domestic dog), Martes melampus melampus, and Sus scrofa leucomystax. This is a first report of H. hystricis from the domesticated dog in the endemic area of Japanese spotted fever. This suggests that it is necessary to pay attention to dogs as a host of the vector ticks for Japanese spotted fever control. Nyctereutes procyonoides and Ma. melampus are new hosts for A. testudinarium. Nyctereutes procyonoides, Mustela itatsi, and Lepus brachyurus are new hosts for H. formosensis. Martes melampus is a new host for H. hystricis. PMID:23242932

Yamauchi, Takeo; Yano, Shinji; Yamamoto, Takahito; Yamamoto, Eiji; Miyamoto, Taisuke

2012-12-15

173

Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) from medium-sized to large mammals in Ehime Prefecture, Japan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ixodid ticks were collected from medium-sized to large mammals in Ehime Prefecture, Shikoku, Japan. Ten species of ticks (Amblyomma testudinarium, Dermacentor taiwanensis, Haemaphysalis flava, H. formosensis, H. hystricis, H. longicornis, H. megaspinosa, Ixodes nipponensis, I. ovatus, and I. tanuki) were collected from a total of 29 mammals comprising 11 species. Haemaphysalis hystricis, a possible vector of Japanese spotted fever in Ehime prefecture, was collected from Canis lupus familiaris (domestic dog), Martes melampus melampus, and Sus scrofa leucomystax. This is a first report of H. hystricis from the domesticated dog in the endemic area of Japanese spotted fever. This suggests that it is necessary to pay attention to dogs as a host of the vector ticks for Japanese spotted fever control. Nyctereutes procyonoides and Ma. melampus are new hosts for A. testudinarium. Nyctereutes procyonoides, Mustela itatsi, and Lepus brachyurus are new hosts for H. formosensis. Martes melampus is a new host for H. hystricis.

Yamauchi T; Yano S; Yamamoto T; Yamamoto E; Miyamoto T

2013-06-01

174

Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from small and medium-sized Kansas mammals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Seven species of hard-bodied ticks were collected from 20 species of small and medium-sized mammals in Kansas; Amblyomma americanum L., Dermacentor variabilis (Say), Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (Packard), Ixodes cookei Packard, I. kingi Bishopp, I. sculptus Neumann, and I. texanus Banks. Dermacentor variabilis was found statewide, A. americanum only in the eastern one-third of the state, and the Ixodes spp. and H. leporispalustris were widely scattered. The most common tick found was D. variabilis, both by itself and in association with other ticks. Mammals that ticks were collected from included Canis latrans Say, Cynomys ludovicianus ludovicianus (Ord), Didelphis virginianus Kerr, Geomys bursarius (Shaw), Lynx rufus (Schreber), Marmota monax bunkeri Black, Mephitis mephitis (Schreber), Microtus ochrogaster (Wagner), Mus musculus L., Peromyscus leucopus (Rafinesque), P. maniculatus (Wagner), Procyon lotor hirtus Nelson and Goldman, Reithrodontomys megalotis (Baird), Sciurus niger rufiventer Geoffroy, Sigmodon hispidus texianus (Audubon and Bachman), Sylvilagus floridanus (J. A. Allen), Taxidea taxus taxus (Schreber), and Vulpes velox velox (Say).

Brillhart DB; Fox LB; Upton SJ

1994-05-01

175

eLEARNING - A CHANCE FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available eLearning through its flexibility and facility of access is seen as a major enabler of lifelong learning (LLL), as a catalyst of change and a chance for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to improve their business and to integrate into European market. But so far the eLearning in the context of vocational educational training has been mainly adopted by large enterprises, while only little activity can be observed in SMEs. The question arises what the chances and challenges for SMEs are and what is the experience with its usage. In this paper after a presentation of key issues in eLearning chances and challenges of eLearning for SMEs are discussed and experiences are exemplified by three EU-funded eLearning projects. The focus lies on the ongoing project ARIEL - Analysing and Reporting the Implementation of Electronic Learning in Europe - coordinated by the Institut Arbeit und Technik (IAT).

Ileana Hamburg; Christiane Lindecke; Judith Terstriep

2005-01-01

176

Requirements and Specifications for a Simplified, Low Pressure Medium Sized PWR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper summarises part of our on-going investigations on the possible introduction of nuclear energy in developing countries or countries with low capacity electrical grids. These investigations are principally concerned with future PWR developments and basically try to search for plausible and economic answers to the three difficult questions that each nuclear technology exporting country faces today: 1)- how to compensate the apparent loss of economic competitiveness, related to the scaling effect, of a small or medium sized reactor? 2)- how to reconcile the introduction of nuclear energy on the large scale with the two major preoccupations of nuclear safety and nuclear proliferation? 3)- how to demonstrate that the proposed concept(s) can effectively meet the safety objectives of the requirements for future reactors in Europe and in other countries?

1998-01-01

177

Concerns of European Commission for small and medium size enterprises development  

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Full Text Available European Commission initiated development programs for small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) comprised in SBA initiative. The respective programs establish measures in order tofacilitate: setting up in a short time span of SMEs, access to finance, as well as the possibility of introducing it both European Single Market and global market processed products andperformed services. A concern of European Commission consisted in recommendation made to Member States that,by means of national programs, will support the SMEs development by offering the possibility of attendance to cross-border transactions with European Single Market. European Commission’s programs were supported by European Council and approved by European Parliament, following that every Member State will establish programs and initiatives on national level. European Commission’s strategy concerning SMEs  development is the increase of their number, labour force absorption and a faster economic and financial crisis traversing.

Mircea Muntean

2009-01-01

178

Key Drivers to Developing Guanxi in China for Taiwanese Small to Medium Sized Firms  

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Full Text Available As Chinese economy has become one of the world’s economic powerhouse, research on guanxi, social or business ties in China, has been gaining ground in business research. The study is couched in the theoretical framework of social embeddedness in which the flows of information, resources, and opportunities occur across recognized members of a social network to create mutual benefits. This study empirically tests the major impetus for Taiwanese small to medium sized firms (SMEs) to utilize guanxi networks with business community, local governments, and the central government in China.  The study results indicate the extent to which Tawanese firms utilize different types of guanxi differ by firm characteristics (i.e., resources, capabilities, and entry mode) and market factors (i.e., market stability and competition).

Lan-Ying Huang; H. Young Baek; Soonhong Min

2009-01-01

179

Study Regarding the Influencing Factors of the Romanian Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises’ Internationalisation Process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the framework of the globalised and more and more integrated markets, there are accentuating new rules in the competition game. Hence, in general, internationalisation is becoming an inevitable stage in the strategic evolution of the small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), and implicitly for those from the Romanian economy. The internationalisation process is analysed from the perspective of the factors which initiate and/or potentiate it. The empirical study takes in consideration, on one hand, the identification, from a multitude of factors existing in the international business literature, of the antecedents which influence directly the internationalisation process of the SMEs in Romania, and, on the other hand, the determination of factors with the highest impact on export performance of these enterprises.

Renata ANTONIE NI?U; Em?ke-Szidónia FEDER

2010-01-01

180

Role of Relationship Marketing in Small and Medium-Sized Entreprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Along with marketing, small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are commonly associated in literature with relationship marketing which results in marketing networks. This paper examines the specific characteristics that differentiate large companies from small and medium-sized enterprises, and the reasons that prevent SMEs from engaging in traditional marketing within the scope of marketing mix. The paper also shows that the key characteristic which distinguishes small from large companies is a prominent role of owner/managers. The owner/manager affects marketing of SMEs by creating his or her own personal networks with stakeholders in the environment, and considers it an important strategic focus and a factor that increases the performance of marketing decision-making. After a thorough review of secondary data sources this paper examines relationship marketing as a marketing framework for SMEs and, finally, proves that relationship marketing is more appropriate for SMEs than are traditional marketing concepts, that relationship marketing and network marketing create an important framework for SMEs and that there is a link between relationship marketing, personal networks and SMEs.

Ružica Butigan; Ivana Mahni?

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). Sustainable expansion of the potential for peaceful uses of nuclear energy; Small and Medium Sized Reactors (SMRs). Eine nachhaltige Erweiterung des friedlichen Nutzungspotenzials der Kernenergie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the peaceful uses of nuclear power for low-cost electricity generation, nuclear power plant technology in the 1970/80s was tailored to high-power units (> 1,000 MWe). The International Energy Agency (IEA) of the OECD in its World Energy Outlook 2012 estimates a worldwide increase in electricity consumption from approx. 21,408 TWh in 2010 to approx. 32,000 or 37,000 TWh in 2035. In this connection, there is growing interest in the nuclear community in nuclear power plant concepts of < 1,000 MWe power for variable uses. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna recognized the trend towards small and medium sized reactors as early as a few years ago and is now supporting development work along theses lines by specific initiatives to foster cooperative ventures among the member countries currently showing interest. More than fifty SMR concepts are currently under development worldwide. Most of them are modeled along the lines of operating experience gained with established reactor lines. IAEA proposes classification in small sized reactors for the range of power of < 300 MWe and medium sized reactors for the power range of 300 to approx. 700 MWe. Most of the SMR variants are designed as modular units prefabricated in factories and shipped by truck or rail for final assembly at the reactor site. In the near future, SMR plants could be used in regions with limited infrastructure and without any electricity distribution grids for powerful large power plants. In industrialized regions, SMRs offer greater flexibility in adaptation of the electricity generating capacity to local consumption rises and in replacing fossil-fired old plants. For the more remote future, plans also include SMR uses for other purposes than electricity generation, such as hydrogen production and coal liquefaction. An overview of the whole SMR spectrum is presented on the basis of some selected projects. Besides projects already completed, most SMR concepts are in the detailed design stage of development with start of construction in the near future, and in the conceptual design stage for commissioning between 2025 and 2030. (orig.)

Kuczera, Bernhard

2012-12-15

182

Estratégias tecnológicas e desempenhos inovadores das PMEs de equipamentos médico-hospitalares de São Carlos e Ribeirão Preto Technology strategies and innovation performances of the small and medium-sized firms in the medical equipment industry of São Carlos and Ribeirão Preto  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo identificar e analisar as estratégias tecnológicas (ETs) adotadas por pequenas e médias empresas (PMEs) produtoras de equipamentos médico-hospitalares localizadas em São Carlos e em Ribeirão Preto. Procura-se verificar se há diferenças entre o grupo de empresas que alcançou desempenhos inovadores (DIs) mais altos e o grupo daquelas que tiveram DIs mais baixos nos últimos anos. Para isso, foi realizado um survey, aplicando-se um questionário estruturado em trinta e nove empresas que concordaram em participar da pesquisa. Os resultados (resultados referentes a vinte e sete empresas que puderam ser classificadas como sendo de maior ou menor DI, dentre as trinta e nove empresas investigadas) mostram que as ETs adotadas pelas empresas com DIs mais altos são diferentes em muitos aspectos daquelas adotadas pelo grupo com DIs mais baixos. Foram obtidos indícios de que maiores investimentos em atividades internas de P&D&E e em fontes externas de tecnologia, maior dedicação à previsão tecnológica preliminar voltada para monitoramento do perfil de produtos e processos e o desenvolvimento de um amplo portfolio de tecnologias de produto e de processo permitem às empresas alcançarem DIs mais significativos.The goal of this article is to identify and to analyze the technology strategies (TSs) adopted by small and medium-sized firms of the medical equipment sector located in São Carlos and Ribeirão Preto. It seeks to verify whether there are differences between the group of firms that reached higher innovation performances (IPs) and the one with lower (IPs) in recent years. In order to analyze that, data about TSs and IPs were collected from twenty seven medical equipment producers. The statistical analysis of the data shows that the TSs adopted by the medical equipment firms that reached higher IPs are different in many aspects from the ones adopted by those that reached lower IPs. Some indications were obtained that larger investments in internal activities of R&D&E development and in external sources of technology, larger dedication to technology forecasting, and development of a wide portfolio of product and process technologies have allowed the firms to reach higher IPs.

Denise Luciana Rieg; Alceu Gomes Alves Filho

2007-01-01

183

Volatile organic compounds in small- and medium-sized commercial buildings in California.  

Science.gov (United States)

While small- and medium-sized commercial buildings (SMCBs) make up 96% of the commercial buildings in the U.S., serving a large variety of uses, little information is available on indoor air quality (IAQ) in SMCBs. This study investigated 37 SMCBs distributed across different sizes, ages, uses, and regions of California. We report indoor concentrations and whole building emission rates of a suite of 30 VOCs and aldehydes in these buildings. There was a considerable range in the concentrations for each of the contaminants, especially for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, decamethylcyclopentasiloxane, d-limonene, 2-butoxyethanol, toluene, 2,2,4-trimethylpentanediol diisobutyrate, and diethylphthalate. The cause of higher concentrations in some building categories generally corresponded to expected sources, for example, chloroform was higher in restaurants and grocery stores, and formaldehyde was higher in retail stores and offices. Factor analysis suggests sources in SMCBs include automobile/traffic, cleaning products, occupant sources, wood products/coating, and plasticizers. The comparison to health guidelines showed that formaldehyde concentrations were above the chronic RELs required by the OEHHA (9 ?g/m³) in 86% of the buildings. Data collected in this study begins to fill the knowledge gap for IAQ in SMCBs and helps us understand the indoor sources of VOCs to further improve indoor air quality in SMCBs. PMID:21888354

Wu, Xiangmei May; Apte, Michael G; Maddalena, Randy; Bennett, Deborah H

2011-09-27

184

Volatile organic compounds in small- and medium-sized commercial buildings in California.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

While small- and medium-sized commercial buildings (SMCBs) make up 96% of the commercial buildings in the U.S., serving a large variety of uses, little information is available on indoor air quality (IAQ) in SMCBs. This study investigated 37 SMCBs distributed across different sizes, ages, uses, and regions of California. We report indoor concentrations and whole building emission rates of a suite of 30 VOCs and aldehydes in these buildings. There was a considerable range in the concentrations for each of the contaminants, especially for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, decamethylcyclopentasiloxane, d-limonene, 2-butoxyethanol, toluene, 2,2,4-trimethylpentanediol diisobutyrate, and diethylphthalate. The cause of higher concentrations in some building categories generally corresponded to expected sources, for example, chloroform was higher in restaurants and grocery stores, and formaldehyde was higher in retail stores and offices. Factor analysis suggests sources in SMCBs include automobile/traffic, cleaning products, occupant sources, wood products/coating, and plasticizers. The comparison to health guidelines showed that formaldehyde concentrations were above the chronic RELs required by the OEHHA (9 ?g/m³) in 86% of the buildings. Data collected in this study begins to fill the knowledge gap for IAQ in SMCBs and helps us understand the indoor sources of VOCs to further improve indoor air quality in SMCBs.

Wu XM; Apte MG; Maddalena R; Bennett DH

2011-10-01

185

Deep blank field catalogue for medium- and large-size telescopes  

CERN Document Server

The observation of blank fields, defined as regions of the sky that are devoid of stars down to a given threshold magnitude, constitutes one of the most relevant calibration procedures required for the proper reduction of astronomical data obtained following typical observing strategies. In this work, we have used the Delaunay triangulation to search for deep blank fields throughout the whole sky, with a minimum size of 10 arcmin in diameter and an increasing threshold magnitude from 15 to 18 in the R band of the USNO-B Catalog of the United States Naval Observatory. The result is a catalogue with the deepest blank fields known so far. A short sample of these regions has been tested with the 10.4m Gran Telescopio Canarias, and it has been shown to be extremely useful for medium and large size telescopes. Because some of the regions found could also be suitable for new extragalactic studies, we have estimated the galactic extinction in the direction of each deep blank field. This catalogue is accessible throug...

Jiménez-Esteban, F M; Cardiel, N; Alacid, J M

2012-01-01

186

R & D, structural change and productivity: the role of high and medium-high technology industries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper investigates the potential impact of increased R & D efforts and structural change in Portugal on labour productivity. Based on existing literature on the relation between R & D expenditures, structural change and productivity, we evaluate the contribution of R & D and hightech industries to productivity over the last 30 years. Our results confirm the importance of business R & D in the medium to high-tech sectors and of public R & D, as they stimulate productivity growth. However, we cannot support the hypothosis that productivity growth was primarily rooted in the development of medium-high technology industries.Este artigo investiga o potencial impacto do aumento deI & D e de mudanças estruturais na produtividade do trabalho em Portugal. Com base na literatura sobre a relação entre despesas emI & D, mudança estrutural e produtividade, avaliamos a contribuição daI & D e das indústrias de alta tecnologia neste cenário durante os últimos 30 anos. Os resultados obtidos confirmam a importância dos investimentos emI & D das empresas de indústrias de alta e média-alta tecnologia eI & D público no crescimento da produtividade. Não obstante, não podemos afirmar que este fenômeno tenha como esteio principal o crescente relevo destas indústrias.

Celeste Amorim Varum; Bruno Cibrão; António Morgado; Joana Costa

2009-01-01

187

The Roles of Government Funding in Enhancing the Competitiveness of Small and Medium-sized Enterprise in Sabah, Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to determine the roles of government funding in enhancing Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Sabah, Malaysia. Specifically, the study is focused on the Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Sabah, Malaysia which were funded by many government-linked agencies such as Yayasan Tekun Nasional, Amanah Ikhtiar, Koperasi Pembangunan Desa and Agro Bank. This qualitative study was carried out in the rural and urban areas in Sabah, Malaysia. The findings of this study revealed that there are several main roles of government funding to enhance the competitiveness of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Sabah, Malaysia. These four main roles were namely provision of access to capital for opening and improving the business, provision of access to capital for skills and knowledge development, improvement of entrepreneurs’ relations, and promoting entrepreneurship and reducing “fear of failure”. In accordance, it can be concluded that the government funds are instrumental in the success of the efforts to enhance the competitiveness level of the so-called Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Sabah, Malaysia. Besides, it is highly recommended that state government and all parties (the stakeholders) should specifically implement efforts to fund the Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises as well as to improve their level of competitiveness.

Abdol Samad Nawi; Irwan Bin Ismail; Zainuddin Zakaria; Jannah Munirah Md Noor; Bashir Ahmad Bin Shabir Ahmad; Nik Fakrul Hazri; Wan Anisabanum Salleh; Mohd Tajul Hasnan Mohd Tajuddin; Nur Raihana Mohd Sallem

2012-01-01

188

Management and organization problems of small and medium sized enterprise’s: a research on textile firms in Denizli  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SME) are important establishments for countries to evolve entrepreneurship, to refresh economy, to create employment, technological development and structural change. SME’s have to know and apply management and organization topics to continue their lifes in today’s circumstances. In today’s business environment that is intensified competition is lived, importance of investigating solution ways and taking necessary steps for management and organization problems which SME’s face is high for SME’s to survive and develop.At this investigation, it is aimed to search management and organization problems of textile enterprises which are considered as SME that is activating at Denizli Industrial Zone. For this, survey and interview method is used. By looking at investigation results; some suggestions are emphasized by gaining some findings about planning, harmonization, auditing, devolution of authority, decision making, organization related problems, institutionalization related problems, human resources related problems and education related problems that takes place in SME management and organization problems.

Celalettin Serinkan; Hasan Cabar

2008-01-01

189

Intent to be a Socially Responsible Small or Medium-sized Enterprise: Theory of Planned Behavior and Leaders’ Actualizing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A review of the academic research in corporate social responsibility shows little work on small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in the U.S. whereas considerable work in this domain has been conducted in the European context. This study seeks to make a contribution to the research void by addressing one particular area of social responsibility in the U.S. context. Specifically, we employ Ajzen’s reasoned action approach to begin to build an understanding of what promotes leaders of SMEs to reduce waste. This study addresses several questions: What are the attitudes of owners and managers of SMEs toward waste reduction practices for their organizations? How are stakeholder interests toward waste reduction perceived? And, are leaders of SMEs influenced by their industrial environment? The authors utilized an email survey directed to owners and managers of SMEs with greater than 5, but less than 500 employees in the telephony, construction, pulp and paper products, textiles, and agriculture industries. 377 emails were opened and 104 completed surveys were obtained. The survey instrument was developed from the theoretical perspective of Isaac Ajzen’s (1991) Theory of Planned Behavior in Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, p. 179-211. Results from a partial least squares analysis of the data suggest that there is a strong and significant relationship between the normative, attitudinal, and control constructs with an individual’s intention to be a socially responsible SME. This finding suggests that efforts to influence SME owners and managers to implement waste reduction activities need focus on changing individual attitudes.

Ashley Jane Bennington; Marcel C. Minutolo

2012-01-01

190

Optimization as investment decision support in a Swedish medium-sized iron foundry - A move beyond traditional energy auditing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to increased globalisation, industries are facing greater competition that is pressing companies into decreasing their expenses in order to increase their profits. As regards Swedish industry, it has been faced with substantial increases in energy prices in recent years. Barriers to energy efficiency such as imperfect information inhibit investments in energy efficiency measures, energy audits being one means of reducing barriers and overcoming imperfect information. However, an evaluation of such energy audits in Sweden reveals that it is chiefly low-cost measures that are undertaken as a result of an audit. Moreover, these audits often tend to focus on support processes such as ventilation, lighting, air compressors etc., while measures impacting production processes are often not as extensively covered, which underlines the need for further support in addition to energy audits. Decision support is practised in a variety of different disciplines such as optimization and simulation and the aim of this paper is to explore whether investment decision support practices may be used successfully towards small and medium-sized manufacturers in Sweden when complex production-related investment decisions are taken. The optimization results from the different cases, involving a foundry's investment in a new melting unit, indicate that with no electricity price fluctuations over the day, the investment seems sound as it lowers the overall energy costs. However, with fluctuating electricity prices, there are no large differences in energy costs between the option of retaining the existing five melting furnaces at the foundry and investing in a twin furnace and removing the holding furnaces - which was the initial investment plan for the foundry in the study. It would not have been possible to achieve this outcome without the use of investment decision support such as MIND. One of the main conclusions in this paper is that investment decision support, when strategic investment decisions are to be taken, may be a means of emphasising energy efficiency for energy-intensive SMEs beyond the level of traditional energy auditing.

2009-01-01

191

Possibilities of it Audit in Small and Medium Size Companies in Lithuania IT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Information and communication technologies (ICT) have a decisive influence on the competitiveness of an organization. The efficiency of ICT management is a key factor in the process of production optimization, resource planning and management and other activities concerning the objectives of the organization. ICT like other resources have not only advantages, but also causes certain challenges for organizations. Information systems become an organic part of the organization. Thus, it is hard to imagine a contemporary organization where information and communication technologies are not used. The organizations, where activity success is based on ICT, are affecting external and internal factors as well as the ability to manage ICT and use different information systems. Success is not guaranteed by implementing a new information system or technology, because business processes should be evaluated taking into account the ability to react to potential changes. In order to prevent ICT risk, IT audit becomes extremely important within the organization. The aim of the article is to evaluate the possibilities of applying the existing IT audit methodologies (such as ITIL, CobIT, Val IT, ISO) in small and medium size organizations of Lithuania. The paper analyzes the significance and need of IT audit in small and medium size companies, identifies the features of such companies and proposes the existing IT audit methodologies. The methods of scientific literature analysis and comparison and statistical data analysis have been applied in the article.Article in LithuanianInformacin?s technologijos užima svarbi? viet? organizacijos veikloje siekiant konkurencinio pranašumo. Efektyvus IT valdymas padeda organizacijai optimizuoti darb?, teisingai valdyti resursus, tinkamai siekti užsibr?žt? tiksl?. Kaip ir visi veiklai vykdyti reikalingi ištekliai, informacin?s technologijos ne tik teikia naud?, bet kelia ir tam tikr? gr?sm?. Informacin?s sistemos tampa organine bet kurios organizacijos dalimi. Šiuolaikini? ?moni? veikla ne?sivaizduojama ir ne?manoma be naujausi? informacini? technologij?. ?moni? veikl?, grindžiam? šiuolaikin?mis IT, taip pat j? organizavim? ir valdym? veikia ne tik išorin?s aplinkos veiksniai – didel? reikšm? turi ir vidiniai organizaciniai veiksniai bei IS ir valdymo aspektai. Neužtenka tik ?sidiegti nauj? sistem?, j? b?tina suderinti su ?mon?s veiklos procesais, siekiant išnaudoti visus privalumus, b?tina vertinti poky?ius ir ? juos reaguoti. Siekiant mažinti IT rizik?, itin aktualus tampa IT auditas organizacijoje. Straipsnyje analizuojamos egzistuojan?ios IT audito metodikos, vertinamas IT audito poreikis, Lietuvos smulkaus ir vidutinio dydžio ?moni? specifika. Straipsnio tikslas – ?vertinti IT audito metodik? taikymo Lietuvos smulkaus ir vidutinio dydžio ?mon?se galimybes.Straipsnis lietuvi? kalba

Rasma Janeli?nien?; Ginta Liberyt?; Vida Davidavi?ien?

2011-01-01

192

Sexual dimorphism of medium-sized neurons with spines in human nucleus accumbens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The nucleus accumbens is a limbic nucleus, representing part of the striatum body, and together with the caudate nucleus and putamen, it lies on the septum. The aim of this study was to examine morphological sexual dimorphism in spine density and also to undertake an immunohistochemical study of expression for estrogen and progesterone receptors in the medium-sized neurons in the nucleus accumbens. The research was conducted on twenty human brains of persons of both sexes, between the age of 20-75 years. The Golgi method was applied to determine the types and subtypes of neurons, morphologies of soma, dendrites and axons, as well as the relations between the cells and glial elements. The following were quantitatively examined: the maximum diameter of the neurons, the minimal diameter of the neurons, and the total length of the dendrites. The expression of receptors for estrogen and progesterone, their distribution and intensity were defined immunohistochemically. The parameters of the bodies of neurons in the shell and core of the nucleus accumbens were studied in both men and women. No statistically significant differences were found. Examination of the spine density showed statistical significance in terms of a higher density of spines in women. Immunohistochemically, in the female brain estrogen expression is diffusely spread in a large number of neurons; it is extra nuclear, of granular appearance and high intensity. In the male brain, expression of estrogen is visible and distributed over about one half of different types of neurons; it is extra nuclear, of granular appearance, mostly of middle and low staining intensity. Expression of progesterone in the female brain was very discreet and on a very small number of neurons; it was extra nuclear and with a weak staining intensity. Expression of progesterone in the male brain was distributed on a small number of neurons. It had a granular appearance, it was extra nuclear, with a very low staining intensity. Our results show differences in the morphology as well as expression of receptors for estrogen and progesterone on medium-sized neurons with spines in the nucleus accumbens of men and women.

Sazdanovi? ????; Mitrovi? Slobodanka; Živanovi?-Ma?uži? Ivana; Jeremi? D.; Tanaskovi? Irena; Milosavljevi? Z.; Malikovi? A.; Ognjanovi? Neda; Sazdanovi? P.; Jovanovi? B.; Jovanovi? J.; Todorovi? M.; Toševski J.

2013-01-01

193

Low temperature heating boiler, particularly for medium-sized and large load ranges. Niedertemperaturheizungskessel, insbesondere fuer mittlere und grosse Leistungsbereiche  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This low temperature heating boiler intented for medium-sized and large load ranges and consists of a top case containing water with a combustion chamber and a bottom case containing water, under which the stack gas chamber is situated. The two cases provided with heat medium connections are connected together by overflow pipes. The heating gas draught pipes leading from the combustion chamber to the stack gas chamber run in the overflow pipes.

Viessmann, H.

1985-07-18

194

The Research on Software Resource Re-sharing for Small and Medium-sized Enterprise Cloud Manufacturing System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The background, significance and the related research at home and abroad of software resource re-sharing in cloud manufacturing system are introduced. The current use and system structure of software in manufacturing are analyzed, and they are Web-based, software directly sharing, based package to share software indirectly and server-based technology for common software across the internet remote sharing. The special requirements for software sharing of cloud manufacturing system are presented.  According to the feature of small and medium-sized enterprise, a re-sharing approach of cloud manufacturing software sharing scheme for small and medium-sized enterprise is proposed, and this approach is very compatible, extended, and low-cost, it is very suitable for the manufacturing cloud of small and medium-sized enterprise.

Xilong Qu

2013-01-01

195

Status of innovative small and medium sized reactor designs 2005. Reactors with conventional refuelling schemes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a renewed interest in Member States in the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). In the near term, most new NPPs are likely to be evolutionary designs building on proven systems while incorporating technological advances and often the economics of scale, resulting from the reactor outputs of up to 1600 MW(e). For the longer term, the focus is on innovative designs aiming to provide increased benefits in the areas of safety and security, non-proliferation, waste management, resource utilization and economy, as well as to offer a variety of energy products and flexibility in design, siting and fuel cycle options. Many innovative designs are reactors within the small-to-medium size range, having an equivalent electric power less than 700 MW(e) or even less than 300 MW(e). The projected timelines of readiness for deployment are generally between 2010 and 2030. The objective of this report is to provide Member States, including those just considering the initiation of nuclear power programmes, and those already having practical experience in nuclear power, with a balanced and objective information on important development trends and objectives of innovative SMRs for a variety of uses, on the achieved state-of-the-art in design and technology development for such reactors and on their design and regulatory status. The report is intended for many categories of stakeholders, including regulators, electricity producers, designers, non-electrical producers and policy makers. The main chapters of this report, addressed to all abovementioned groups of stakeholders, provide a summary of major specifications, applications and user-related special features of innovative SMRs, outline the achieved design and regulatory status and its progress since previous IAEA publications, review targeted deployment dates, fuel cycle options, design approaches used to meet design objectives in specific subject areas, enabling technologies and current research and development (R and D) programmes in Member States, and non-technical factors and arrangements that could facilitate successful development and deployment of innovative reactors within the small-to-medium power range. The annexes, intended mostly for designers and technical managers, provide detailed design descriptions of innovative SMRs under development worldwide and are patterned along a newly developed common format, which makes it possible to identify the design philosophy, objectives and approaches, as well as technical features and non-technical factors and arrangements with a potential to provide solutions in the specific areas of concern associated with future nuclear energy systems. Detailed design descriptions in this report were prepared firsthand by the designers and reviewed, updated and approved for publication by the respective vendors, research and design organizations and academic institutions in Member States. The scope of this report is limited to reactors with conventional, proven in operation refuelling schemes and does not include small reactors that could operate without reloading and shuffling of fuel for a long period, from 10 years and more, with no fresh or spent fuel being stored at the site during reactor operation. Because of a large number of inputs, such reactors would require a separate dedicated publication

2006-01-01

196

Factors associated with turnover interntion among nurses in small and medium-sized medical institutions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate factors associated with turnover intention among nurses in small and medium-sized medical institutions. METHODS: A self-administered questionaire survey was performed in 293 registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, and assistant nurses working full-time in various medical institutions. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted, with turnover intention as the dependent variable, and nurses' basic attributes and job satisfaction as independent variables. RESULTS: As for nurses' basic attributes, turnover intention was significantly associated with registered nurses, younger nurses and those with low satisfaction with sleep. As for nurses' job satisfaction, the number of nurses with turnover intention was significantly higher for those with low satisfaction with salary, low satisfaction with welfare, poor implementation of fair salary raise and poor cooperation among nurses. CONCLUSION: Turnover intention may be reduced by the enhancement of trust in the organization, giving appropriate advice to young nurses and registered nurses, and developing measures for addressing sleep disorders.

Kudo Y; Satoh T; Sinji H; Miki T; Watanabe M; Wada K; Hosoi K; Hagita K; Saito Y; Aizawa Y

2006-05-01

197

Strategies for Successful Information Technology Adoption in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Information Technology (IT) adoption is an important field of study in a number of areas, which include small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Due to the numerous advantages of IT, SMEs are trying to adopt IT applications to support their businesses. IT adoption by SMEs differs from larger organizations because of their specific characteristics, such as resources constraints. Therefore, this research aims to provide a better and clearer understanding of IT adoption within SMEs by reviewing and analyzing current IT literature. In this research, the review of literature includes theories, perspectives, empirical research and case studies related to IT adoption, in particular within SMEs from various databases such as Business Premier, Science Direct, JStor, Emerald Insight and Springer Link. The proposed model of effective IT adoption is believed to provide managers, vendors, consultants and governments with a practical synopsis of the IT adoption process in SMEs, which will in turn assist them to be successful with IT institutionalization within these businesses.

Morteza Ghobakhloo; Tang Sai Hong; Mohammad Sadegh Sabouri; Norzima Zulkifli

2012-01-01

198

THE IFRS STANDARD FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTITIES – ANOTHER CHALLENGE FOR THE ROMANIAN ACCOUNTING?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the early 2000s, the accounting has been connected to the international realities. From that moment on, we have witnessed an extraordinary dynamic of the Romanian accounting, evidenced by the many changes that have occurred in the accounting rules. Internationally, the dynamism is also the main feature of today's accounting. We witness almost annually the reconsideration of the international accounting referential. In this context of the frequent changes that occur in the accounting aria, the IASB launched the International Financial Reporting Standards for Non-Publicly Accountable Entities (formerly Small and Medium-Sized Entities), a controversial approach in the international accounting. The objectives of this paper will be followed on two levels: first, we will put forth the position of different countries on this IASB initiative and second, we will show, by the means of a positive research based on an empirical study, the attitudes of professional accountants in Romania towards the possible implementation of the IFRS for NPAEs in the Romanian accounting in the next period.

Ramona LAPTES; Adriana Florina POPA

2009-01-01

199

Determinants of the Capital Structure of Small and Medium Sized Brazilian Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research investigates the determinants of the capital structure of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) using a unique database that includes over 19,000 Brazilian firms and spans 13 years of data. The econometric analysis employs the System Generalized Method of Moments estimator (GMM-Sys) and two strong results emerge: (a) profitability is negatively related to leverage, and (b) asset growth is positively related to leverage. Both results are consistent with the pecking order theory of capital structure and suggest that SMEs tend to finance their expansion with debt only after exhausting their internal resources. Additionally, we find weaker evidence for the following: (a) size is positively related to leverage, which can be interpreted as evidence that larger firms have more access to credit markets; (b) riskier SMEs tend to be less financially leveraged, consistent with the bankruptcy cost arguments from trade-off theories; and (c) the age of the firm is negatively related to financial leverage, suggesting that older SMEs may be slightly more conservative in their financing choices. Finally, the magnitude of the coefficient of lagged leverage shows the high persistence of this variable and is compatible with the hypothesis that SMEs adjust their debt/equity ratio towards a target value, although at a low speed.

Denis Forte; Lucas Ayres Barros; Wilson Toshiro Nakamura

2013-01-01

200

IMPORTANCE OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES IN ROMANIAN ECONOMY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The market economy has reduced the number of large enterprises and has determinated the emergence ofa special class like small and medium-sized enterprises. Those companies play a special role in the nationaleconomy, especially through the fact that attract about 65% of employees in Romania, makes significantinvestments, takes approximately 30% of gross value added in the national economy, operates mainly in servicesactivity, are flexible, concerned with development and have the ability to adopt new technologies. The SMEsector has been affected by the crisis, but not in the same measure as large enterprises. This fact is demonstratedby the economic and financial indicators that I have analised, in 2011 SME beeing able to overcome the crisisand to achieve higher performance than in the years before crisis. The SME sector is considered the most activesector of the modern economy, plays a important role in the economic structure of our country, helping to ensureeconomic and social development as it is shown by the strong bond that exist between the GVA in SME sectorand total GVA added to the national economy, demonstrated in the calculations that I have made in this study.

B?L?NESCU M?D?LINA

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Financing innovative small and medium-sized enterprises in times of crisis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SME) in general and particularly innovative ones are becoming an increasingly important factor on the road to achieving smart, sustainable and comprehensive development. Because of their propensity to innovative undertaking and risk, SMEs contribute significantly to economic growth but are generally less productive and pay the cost of high rates of death and lower rates of profitability. Financing SMEs is risky and uncertain and for innovative SMEs it is even more difficult to access financing. When financing innovative activities, investors perceive high risks and it is even more emphasized in times of crisis when there is an increase in the cost of capital. Institutional support and governmental programmes have an important role in closing financial gap that innovative SMEs are faced with. Because the survival and development of SMEs is to a great extant determined by their ability to access favorable financing, the main objective of this paper is to provide policy recommendations for promoting availability of financing to innovative SMEs in order to foster economic recovery and more dynamic development of Serbia. The recommendations are to emerge from analyzes and evaluation of currently available sources of finance for innovative SMEs.

Dejan ERIC; Isidora BERAHA; Sonja DJURICIN

2011-01-01

202

Burnout and labour aspects in the nursing teams at two medium-sized hospitals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to identify the occurrence of Burnout Syndrome (BS) and assess its relationship with different labour-related aspects, among nursing professionals at two medium-sizes hospitals in the city of Cáceres. METHOD: This is a transversal and descriptive study, with a sample totalling 141 subjects. As an instrument of research, we used a questionnaire for the limitation of labour-related aspects, with the addition of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). RESULTS: Out of the 141 professional people considered, 13 had BS, according to the MBI. In relation to the different labour aspects, the professional people most affected were those with: work regime based on pay by the day, a working week of 30 hours, regularly hired, with double employment, lower graduation period, less time spent at the unit, and active in the administrative segment. CONCLUSIONS: Hence, there was the demonstration of the presence of BS within the sample, showing the need for the proposal of organisational changes within the working environment so as to reduce these factors and their interference on the health of the worker.

de França FM; Ferrari R; Ferrari DC; Alves ED

2012-09-01

203

Medium-sized grazing incidence high-energy X-ray telescopes employing continuously graded multilayers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The authors present a concept of continuously graded multilayer structures for medium-sized X-ray telescopes which is based on several material combinations. They show that the theoretical reflectivity characteristics of these structures make them very advantageous when applied to high energy X-ray grazing incidence telescopes. They consider the performance of continuously graded Ni/C multilayers in a multi-focus, Kirkpatrick-Baez, geometry and show a significant improvement when compared to standard coatings of gold. For a total length of 3.3 m, a total aperture of 48 cm by 48 cm and 64 foci, an effective area of 250 cm2 at 60 keV and a FWHM field of view of 6' is obtained. It is shown that a modular array of conical telescopes (conical approximation to a Wolter-I geometry), with the same length and aperture provides similar effective areas. Energy-dispersive X-ray reflectivity data (15-70 keV) is presented for the first continuously graded multilayer of this kind

Joensen, K. D.; Christensen, Finn Erland

1993-01-01

204

Key Supplier Relationship Management: The Case of Croatian Medium-Sized and Large Manufacturing Companies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The key supplier relationship management represents a vital organizational process. Companies should pay attention not only to managing customer relationships but also to managing relationships with suppliers in order to perform well. They should identify the extent to which a certain supplier adds value through the procurement process. In this line of reasoning, both theory and practice make a distinction between strategic (key) and non-strategic (transactional) suppliers. By employing the segmentation of the supply market, companies balance their supplier portfolio and are capable of identifying the key suppliers. They can also develop specific programs and initiatives that are aimed at preserving these relationships. In the empirical part of the paper, a survey was conducted on a sample of 123 medium-sized and large Croatian manufacturing companies. The structural model involving the relationship between the key supplier relationship management and value-oriented purchasing was tested. The results indicate that there is a statistically direct, positive and significant relationship between these two constructs. Likewise, the results stress that a theoretical conceptualization and operationalization of the key supplier relationship management construct is both valid and justified. Finally, the theoretical and practical implications and limitations of this study are offered.

Dario Mio?evi?

2011-01-01

205

Design concepts and safety concerns of the small and medium size reactors (SMR)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The small and medium size reactors (SMR) and interface facilities such as desalination plant are expected to be located near the population area because of restrictions in transporting the plant products such as fresh water to long distance area. To protect the public around the plant facility from the possible release of radioactive materials, the design development of the SMR is focusing on an enhancement of the safety and reliability as well as the economics. In this study, the major safety concepts of the SMR designs significantly different from the current PWR designs are investigated and the safety concerns applicable to the integrated SMR design of Korea (called SMART), were identified. Those safety issues include the use of proven technology, application of strengthening defense in depth, event categorization and selection, simplification of emergency planning, determination of accident source terms and so on. The efforts to resolve the safety concerns in the design stage will provide an improvement of the safety of the SMART design.

Seul, Kwang Won; Lee, Jae Hun; Kim, Hho Jung [KINS, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

1998-10-01

206

Design concepts and safety concerns of the small and medium size reactors (SMR)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The small and medium size reactors (SMR) and interface facilities such as desalination plant are expected to be located near the population area because of restrictions in transporting the plant products such as fresh water to long distance area. To protect the public around the plant facility from the possible release of radioactive materials, the design development of the SMR is focusing on an enhancement of the safety and reliability as well as the economics. In this study, the major safety concepts of the SMR designs significantly different from the current PWR designs are investigated and the safety concerns applicable to the integrated SMR design of Korea (called SMART), were identified. Those safety issues include the use of proven technology, application of strengthening defense in depth, event categorization and selection, simplification of emergency planning, determination of accident source terms and so on. The efforts to resolve the safety concerns in the design stage will provide an improvement of the safety of the SMART design

1998-01-01

207

Determinants of the capital structure of small and medium sized Brazilian enterprises  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english This research investigates the determinants of the capital structure of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) using a unique database that includes over 19,000 Brazilian firms and spans 13 years of data. The econometric analysis employs the System Generalized Method of Moments estimator (GMM-Sys) and two strong results emerge: (a) profitability is negatively related to leverage, and (b) asset growth is positively related to leverage. Both results are consistent with the pec (more) king order theory of capital structure and suggest that SMEs tend to finance their expansion with debt only after exhausting their internal resources. Additionally, we find weaker evidence for the following: (a) size is positively related to leverage, which can be interpreted as evidence that larger firms have more access to credit markets; (b) riskier SMEs tend to be less financially leveraged, consistent with the bankruptcy cost arguments from trade-off theories; and (c) the age of the firm is negatively related to financial leverage, suggesting that older SMEs may be slightly more conservative in their financing choices. Finally, the magnitude of the coefficient of lagged leverage shows the high persistence of this variable and is compatible with the hypothesis that SMEs adjust their debt/equity ratio towards a target value, although at a low speed.

Forte, Denis; Barros, Lucas Ayres; Nakamura, Wilson Toshiro

2013-09-01

208

Present status and subjects of research on safety design of medium and small size power reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report, the safety design particularly centering around heat removal of new medium and small size reactors which are developed in Europe and America and of which the concept of the reactors has preceded is described. Most of these reactors adopted the safety system having the function called passive safety. This safety function is based on simple physical laws such as the natural circulation, heat conduction, thermal expansion, gravity falling and so on of liquid and gas, and is applied to the shutdown of reactors at the time of accidents, the cooling of cores and containment vessels and so on. Further, in relation to the long term cooling after accidents, the concept of grace period is adopted. The PIUS (2010 MWt/622 MWe) proposed as an ultrasafe reactor by ABB-ATOM in Sweden, the ISER (645 MWt/210 MWe) and the SPWR (1100 MWt/350 MWe) in Japan, the AP-600 (600 MWe) of WH, the B-600 (1800 MWt/600 MWe) of B and W, the MAP (900 MWt/300 MWe) of CE, the SBWR (1800 MWt/600 MWe) of GE in USA, and the HSBWR (1800 MWt/600 MWe) and TOSBWR-900P (900 MWt/310 MWe) in Japan are described. As high temperature gas-cooled reactors, there are MRS, HTR-100 and HTR-500 of West Germany and MHTGR of USA. As FBRs, there are PRISM and SAFR of USA. As the small reactors for room heating, there are TPS of USA, SLOWPOKE of Canada and others. (K.I.)

1990-01-01

209

Information Technology Adoption in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises; An Appraisal of Two Decades Literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) account for major source of employment, technological advancements, and competitive advantages for both developed and developing countries. Owing to the intensified competitive pressure and necessity for entering to global market undergone by SMEs, these businesses are incrementally employing Information Technology (IT) to take advantage of its substantial benefits. Most of prior researches have more focused on IT adoption in large organizations. However, and with regard to the limited resources controlled by SMEs, the process of IT adoption in this business sector is considerably different. The purpose of this paper is to analyze and contrast the internal and external issues affecting the process of IT adoption in SMEs to provide clearer understanding of this process by reviewing IT adoption literature, which includes more than 20 years of empirical research and case studies from a variety of databases with high concentration on certain SME-related issues. Proposed integrated framework demonstrates the process of IT adoption in SMEs through reviewing exiting perspectives in the literature. This study will assist different parties involved with adoption process including managers, vendors, consultants, and governments to achieve a practical synopsis of the IT adoption process in SMEs, which is believed to assist them with successful adoption.

Morteza Ghobakhloo; Mohammad Sadegh Sabouri; Tang Sai Hong; Norzima Zulkifli

2011-01-01

210

Adaptive Traffic Control Systems in a medium-sized Scandinavian city : – effects and experiences  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Adaptive Traffic Control Systems (ATCS) are aimed at reducing congestion. ATCS adapt to approaching traffic to continuously optimise the traffic flows in question. ATCS have been implemented in many locations, including the Scandinavian countries, with various effects. Due to congestion problems, ATCS were installed in the eight signalised intersections of a 1.7 km stretch of the ring road in the medium-sized Danish city of Aalborg. To measure the effect of ATCS a with/without study was carried out. GPS data from a car following the traffic, recorded transportation times for buses in service, and GPS data from a range of cars driving on the ring road formed the basis for the study. The result of ATCS implementation was a significant 17% reduction in transportation time on the ring road in the most congested period, the afternoon peak. Less significant effects were found regarding the morning peak and midday off-peak. The effect on crossing and turning traffic was slight, and while reduced transportation time was found in one part of the ring road in another part transportation time was seen to increase. The benefit to the ring road was partly gained at the cost of slightly increased transportation time for crossing traffic.

Agerholm, Niels

2013-01-01

211

Improved Continuing Losses Estimation Using Initial Loss-Continuing Loss Model for Medium Sized Rural Catchments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The rainfall based design flood estimation techniques are commonly adopted in hydrological design and require a number of inputs including information on soil loss characteristics. Approach: A conceptual loss model known as the ?Initial Loss-Continuing Loss (IL-CL) model? is widely used in Australia. Results: The Initial Loss (IL) occurs at the beginning of the rainfall event, prior to the commencement of surface runoff and the Continuing Loss (CL) is the average rate of loss throughout the remainder of the storm. The currently recommended design loss values depicted in ?Australian Rainfall and Runoff Vol. 1? for Queensland (Australia) has some basic limitations. This study investigated how more accurate CL values can be estimated and derived for medium sized tropical Queensland catchments using long term rainfall and streamflow data. Accuracy in CL estimation has got significant implications in the estimation of design floods. Conclusion/Recommendations: The results showed that CL value is not fixed and constant through out the duration of the storm but the CL value decays with the duration of the storm.

Mahbub Ilahee; Monzur A. Imteaz

2009-01-01

212

Adoption of Profitable Energy Efficiency Related Process Improvements in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We investigate the adoption and non-adoption of energy efficiency initiatives using a database of over 100,000 recommendations provided to more than 13,000 small and medium sized manufacturing firms. Even though the average payback across all recommendations is just over one year, many of these profitable opportunities are not implemented. Using a probit instrumental variable model, we identify four biases in the adoption of these recommendations. First, managers are myopic as they miss out on many profitable opportunities. Second, managers are more influenced by upfront costs than by net benefits when evaluating such initiatives. Third, adoption of a recommendation depends not only on its characteristics but also on the sequence in which the recommendations are presented. Adoption rates are higher for initiatives appearing early in a list of recommendations. Finally, adoption is not influenced by the number of options provided to decision makers. This contributes to the debate about whether or not choice overload occurs. We highlight decision biases previously unobserved in the Operations Management literature using field data rather than experimental data. We draw implications for enhancing adoption of energy efficiency initiatives and for other decision contexts where a collection of process improvement recommendations are made to firms. Keywords: Process Improvement, Energy Efficiency, Decision Bias, Adoption, Behavioral Operations.

Muthulingam, Suresh; Corbett, Charles J.; Benartzi, Shlomo [University of California, (USA); Oppenheim, Bohdan [Loyola Marymount University (USA)

2009-07-01

213

CRITICAL FACTORS IN OUTSOURCING OF ACCOUNTING FUNCTIONS IN MALAYSIAN SMALL MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES (SMEs)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The challenges that business face in sustaining competitive advantage in the corporate world have become a major concern. Businesses are adopting cutting-edge technologies and best practices to cope with rapid, global changes. Various business functions are being reengineered for this purpose. Accounting functions play an important role in helping businesses to maintain competitive advantage. However, some small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) face problems handling fundamental accounting functions. This is predominantly because of their lack of expertise; accounting functions require not only knowledge of generally accepted accounting rules or tax regulations but also the expertise needed to apply the rules in a given business environment (Everaert, Sarens and Rommel, 2006). This paper offers some insight on the outsourcing of accounting functions as there is paucity of data in this area in the context of Malaysia. Essentially, it presents empirical evidence regarding Malaysian SMEs' accounting outsourcing practices. A survey of SMEs was conducted to identify the overall outsourcing landscape as it relates to accounting and third-party organisations. The factors that contribute to the decision to outsource accounting functions are analysed. The study reveals a significant relationship between outsourcing accounting functions and two contributing factors, risks and operation management.

Magiswary Dorasamy; Maran Marimuthu; Jayamalathi Jayabalan; Murali Raman; Maniam Kaliannan

2010-01-01

214

Transmutation of americium in a medium size sodium cooled fast reactor design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We have performed transient analysis of a medium size sodium cooled reactor loaded with different fractions of americium in the fuel. Unprotected Loss of Flow (ULOF) and Unprotected Transient over Power (UTOP) accidents were simulated in a geometrical model of BN600, using safety parameters obtained with the SERPENT Monte Carlo code. For the reference case of MOX fuel, with 1 wt.% Am concentration at BOL and EOEC, the margin to melt following a design basis condition UTOP is about 100 K for a maximum linear rating of 37 kW/m. Introducing Am, the maximum fuel temperature increases by 50 K per percent Am in the fuel. In order to maintain a margin of 100 K to fuel failure, the linear rating has to be reduced by ?6% for each percent Am added to the fuel. Hence, an Am concentration of 2-3 wt.% in the fuel would lead to a power penalty of 6-13%, permitting a consumption rate of 1.7-3.4 kg Am/TWhth.

2010-01-01

215

Influence of different charge and discharge strategies on the performance of medium-sized solar combisystems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The influence of thermal stratification in the storage tank on the performance of medium-sized solar combisystems was investigated. Combisystems for single family houses with a storage volume of 3 m{sup 3} and a collector area of 20 m{sup 2} were taken into account. Annual system simulations were carried out with the simulation tool TRNSYS. In order to enhance thermal stratification in the storage tank, it was assumed that the water of each loop is able to enter the store in two different heights, instead of having just one fixed inlet position for each loop. Thus one valve each is needed for the collector loop and the space heating loop. It was found that the impact of these valves on the fractional energy savings f{sub sav,ext} of the investigated systems is relatively small. Depending on the reference conditions, f{sub sav,ext} could be increased by up to 0.8 %-points. (orig.)

Zass, K.; Wilhelms, C.; Jordan, U.; Vajen, K. [Univ. Kassel, Inst. fuer Thermische Energietechnik (Germany)

2008-07-01

216

The Impact of Firm Size on Dividend Behaviour: A Study With Reference to Corporate Firms across Industries in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to examine the association between the Corporate Leverage (CL) and the Dividend Policy (DP) of firms across industries in India in respect of Size of Corporate Firms. The investigation is conducted on a panel sample of 73 firms across industries [Cement, Chemical and Fertilizer, IT, Oil and Gas, Pharmaceutical, Shipping, and Textiles], which listed their shares in National Stock Exchange (NSE) in India for the period 1996–2007. The impacts of Capital Structure (CS) variables (leverage) on DP measures – dividend payout (Net dividend paid/net income) in the presence of some basic fundamental variables are considered to be the determinants of DP, using the Multiple Regression Technique (OLS method). The results of the cross-sectional ols Model for the selected sample firms under various sectors show that there is a significant effect of selected independent variables. Therefore, this study proves that the DP of Small Size, Medium Size, Large Size, and Overall Corporate Firms across industries in India is dependent on the level of debt in CS.

Azhagaiah Ramachandran; Veeramuthu Packkirisamy

2010-01-01

217

The importance of financial consulting in the development of small and medium-sized enterprises in the European Union  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During much of the past decade, SMEs have seen an impressive growth. Since the onset of the financial crisis, this trend seems to have been interrupted, even though there are indications that show that, at least in the early stages of the crisis, Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the European Union have proven to be comparatively resilient. Under these circumstances, the financial advisory may be a key to the future development of small and medium-sized enterprises in the European Union.

Nicolae, C. M.; Constantinescu, L. A.

2011-01-01

218

A Study on the Influences of Financing on Technological Innovation in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the most vigorous part in the national economy, small and medium-sized enterprises exert an active role in increasing employment, training entrepreneurs, invigorating economy, cooperating with large enterprises and improving market competition and so on. What’s more, S&T enterprises of this kind also take an active role in technological innovation. In view of the poor technological innovation ability of small and medium-sized enterprises in China, such an analysis will be helpful for their sound development.

Jingting Ma; Shumei Wang; Jian Gui

2010-01-01

219

Industrial Fabrication of Medium-Beta SCRF Cavities for a High-Intensity Proton Linac  

CERN Document Server

During 1999, four 700-MHz, medium-beta (b = 0.64), superconducting radio frequency (SCRF) cavities for a high-intensity proton linac project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) were manufactured by industry. The SCRF cavities were designed by a LANL team in Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA, and manufactured at a CERCA plant in Romans, France. The cavities were made of 4-mm-thick, solid niobium sheets with a residual resistivity ratio (RRR) greater than 250. These niobium sheets were supplied by Wah Chang (USA), Heraeus AG (Germany), and Tokyo Denkai (Japan). The SCRF cavities were shipped to LANL for performance testing. This paper describes the experience gained during the manufacturing process at CERCA.

Kuzminski, J; Gentzlinger, R C; Maccioni, P

2000-01-01

220

The electricity supply industry in England and Wales. Medium term development plan 1986-93  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objective of the Electricity Supply Industry in England and Wales is to develop and maintain electricity supplies to meet customers' needs as cheaply as possible. Over the medium term, 1986 - 1993, the goal is to reduce the real average price per kWh sold, whilst maintaining high standards of service and meeting financial obligations. The strategy set out comprises reducing controllable costs per kWh sold to 1992/3, pursuing a vigorous and selective marketing strategy so that an expected sales increase of 10% is achieved, securing a long term supply of coal at minimum cost by developing the commercial relationship with British Coal, increasing the proportion of electrical energy supplied by nuclear energy to 25% by 1992/3 and being environmentally concerned. The introduction outlines the medium term business, energy and economic environment, financial targets and price prospects. Plans to support the strategy outlined are presented. Each section sets out the objectives and the plans to achieve these. The strategy for new power stations is to develop fossil-fueled and nuclear as well as to develop alternative technologies. (UK)

1986-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Electricity supply industry in England and Wales. Medium term development plan 1986-1993  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main objective of the Electricity Supply Industry in England and Wales is to develop and maintain electricity supplies to meet customers' needs as cheaply as possible. Over the medium term, 1986 - 1993, the goal is to reduce the real average price per kWh sold, whilst maintaining high standards of service and meeting financial obligations. The strategy set out comprises reducing controllable costs per kWh sold to 1992/3, pursuing a vigorous and selective marketing strategy so that an expected sales increase of 10% is achieved, securing a long term supply of coal at minimum cost by developing the commercial relationship with British Coal, increasing the proportion of electrical energy supplied by nuclear energy to 25% by 1992/3 and being environmentally concerned. The introduction outlines the medium term business, energy and economic environment, financial targets and price prospects. Plans to support the strategy outlined are presented. Each section sets out the objectives and the plans to achieve these. The strategy for new power stations is to develop fossil-fueled and nuclear as well as to develop alternative technologies.

1986-09-01

222

Size control of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanocrystals in the colloidal medium synthesis  

Science.gov (United States)

The strong light absorbing Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanocrystals are interesting material in photovoltaic applications owing to the abundance and non-toxicity of the material. The optoelectronic property of CZTS light absorber depends on the size of nanocrystals which confines the electronic states within it. In the complex colloidal medium it is very difficult to predict the size of the particles by only theoretical calculations. However, suitable chemical approach is able to tune the size of the particles by adjusting the chemical potential of the medium for different sizes of CZTS nanocrystal formation. Here, we reported the size control of CZTS nanocrystals which were made by a hot-injection method using organic ligands based colloidal medium. The influence of solvent systems, within following five pure and mixing solvent systems: Oleylamine, 1-Octadecene + TOPO, mixture of Oleylamine:Oleicacid (1:1,v/v%), Oleicacid + TOPO and Oleylamine:Oleicacid (1:1,v/v%) + TOPO , and composition of metal precursors were studied. The final CZTS nanoparticles showed wurtzite crystal structures, and size of the particles can be tuned through different combination ratio of metal precursors. Our results indicate that metal precursor composition ratio has a pivotal role to tune the optoelectronic properties of CZTS nanocrystals for the photovoltaic applications.

Kulendran, Anushan; Bell, John; Wang, Hongxia

2013-08-01

223

Fox baiting against Echinococcus multilocularis: contrasted achievements among two medium size cities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In Europe, most cities are currently colonized by red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), which are considered to be the main definitive host of the zoonotic cestode Echinococcus multilocularis. The risk of transmission to humans is of particular concern where high fox populations overlap with high human populations. The distribution of baits containing praziquantel has successfully reduced the infection pressure in rural areas and in small plots within large cities. The purpose of this study was to assess its efficiency in two medium size cities (less than 100,000 inhabitants) in areas of high human alveolar echinococcosis incidence. From August 2006 to March 2009, 14 baiting campaigns of praziquantel treatment were run in Annemasse and Pontarlier (Eastern France), each of which encompassed 33 km(2), with a density of 40 baits/km(2). The bait consumption appeared to be lower in strictly urban context compared to suburban areas (78.9% vs. 93.4%) and lower in Annemasse than in Pontarlier (82.2% vs. 89.5%). During our study, the prevalence of E. multilocularis, as assessed by EM-ELISA on fox faeces collected in the field in Annemasse, was lower within the treated area than in the rural control area. A "before/during" treatment comparison revealed a significant decrease of spring prevalence from 13.3% to 2.2%. No significant change in prevalence was detected in Pontarlier (stable prevalence: 9.1%) where the contamination of the treated area followed the temporal trend observed in the control area. There, a greater resilience of the parasite's life cycle, probably due to a strong pressure of recontamination from outside the treated area, may have counteracted the prophylaxis treatment. These contrasted outcomes suggest that the frequency of fox anthelmintic treatment should be adapted to the local situation.

Comte S; Raton V; Raoul F; Hegglin D; Giraudoux P; Deplazes P; Favier S; Gottschek D; Umhang G; Boué F; Combes B

2013-08-01

224

Bioluminescence imaging in a medium-sized animal by local injection of d-luciferin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Luciferase is one of the most commonly used reporter enzymes in the field of molecular imaging. D-luciferin is known as the substrate for luciferase enzyme and its cost is very expensive. Therefore, the bioluminescence molecular imaging study has been allowed in small animals such as mice and rats. In this current study, we validated local injection of D-luciferin in articular capsule for bioluminescence imaging in rabbits. Chondrocytes were cultured and infected by replication-defective adenoviral vector encoding firefly luciferase. And then was performed different method of chondrocyte cell injection and transplantation into the knee of rabbits. The rabbits underwent imaging by cooled CCD camera after local injection of D-luciferin (3mg) into experimental knee joint as well as contralateral normal knee joint on days 1, 5, 7, 9. We sought whether optimal imaging signal was acquired by using cooled CCD camera after local injection of D-luciferin. We successfully visualized injected or transplanted cells in knee joint by local injection of D-luciferin. Total photon flux (7.86E+08 p/s/cm{sup 2}/sr) from the knee joint transplanted with cells approximately increased 10-fold more than (9.43E+07p/s/cm{sup 2}/sr) that from injected knee joints until 7 day. Imaging signal was observed in transplanted joints until day 9 after surgery while signal from injected knee was observed by day 7 after injection. We successfully carried out bioluminescence imaging study with medium sized animal by local injection of small amount of D-luciferin. Survival of chondrocytes were prolonged when surgically transplanted in joints than when directly injected in joint space.

Moon, Sung Min; Min, Jung Joon; Kim, Sung Mi; Bom, Hee Seung [Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Suk Jung; Kang, Han Saem; Kim, Kwang Yoon [ECOBIO INC., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Ho [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

2005-07-01

225

Distribution and compartmental organization of GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons in the mouse nucleus accumbens  

Science.gov (United States)

The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a critical brain region involved in many reward-related behaviors. The NAc comprises major compartments the core and the shell, which encompass several subterritories. GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) constitute the output neurons of the NAc core and shell. While the functional organization of the NAc core outputs resembles the one described for the dorsal striatum, a simple classification of the NAc shell neurons has been difficult to define due to the complexity of the compartmental segregation of cells. We used a variety of BAC transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescence (EGFP) or the Cre-recombinase (Cre) under the control of the promoter of dopamine D1, D2, and D3 receptors and of adenosine A2a receptor to dissect the microanatomy of the NAc. Moreover, using various immunological markers we characterized in detail the distribution of MSNs in the mouse NAc. In addition, cell-type specific extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation in the NAc subterritories was analyzed following acute administration of SKF81297 (a D1R-like agonist), quinpirole (a D2 receptors (D2R)-like agonist), apomorphine (a non-selective DA receptor agonist), raclopride (a D2R-like antagonist), and psychostimulant drugs, including cocaine and d-amphetamine. Each drug generated a unique topography and cell-type specific activation of ERK in the NAc. Our results show the existence of marked differences in the receptor expression pattern and functional activation of MSNs within the shell subterritories. This study emphasizes the anatomical and functional heterogeneity of the NAc, which will have to be considered in its further study.

Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Espallergues, Julie; de Kerchove d'Exaerde, Alban; El Mestikawy, Salah; Gerfen, Charles R.; Herve, Denis; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Valjent, Emmanuel

2012-01-01

226

Distribution and compartmental organization of GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons in the mouse nucleus accumbens.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a critical brain region involved in many reward-related behaviors. The NAc comprises major compartments the core and the shell, which encompass several subterritories. GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) constitute the output neurons of the NAc core and shell. While the functional organization of the NAc core outputs resembles the one described for the dorsal striatum, a simple classification of the NAc shell neurons has been difficult to define due to the complexity of the compartmental segregation of cells. We used a variety of BAC transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescence (EGFP) or the Cre-recombinase (Cre) under the control of the promoter of dopamine D1, D2, and D3 receptors and of adenosine A2a receptor to dissect the microanatomy of the NAc. Moreover, using various immunological markers we characterized in detail the distribution of MSNs in the mouse NAc. In addition, cell-type specific extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation in the NAc subterritories was analyzed following acute administration of SKF81297 (a D1R-like agonist), quinpirole (a D2 receptors (D2R)-like agonist), apomorphine (a non-selective DA receptor agonist), raclopride (a D2R-like antagonist), and psychostimulant drugs, including cocaine and d-amphetamine. Each drug generated a unique topography and cell-type specific activation of ERK in the NAc. Our results show the existence of marked differences in the receptor expression pattern and functional activation of MSNs within the shell subterritories. This study emphasizes the anatomical and functional heterogeneity of the NAc, which will have to be considered in its further study.

Gangarossa G; Espallergues J; de Kerchove d'Exaerde A; El Mestikawy S; Gerfen CR; Hervé D; Girault JA; Valjent E

2013-01-01

227

THE PREMISES OF STRATEGIC MARKETING PLANNING IMPLEMENTATION WITHIN SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main purpose of the present paper is to identify the framework and the necessary conditions for the small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) to be able to adopt the strategic marketing planning. Also, the paper aims to underline the importance of the strategic marketing planning and the manner in which the SMEs can adopt, implement and operationalize the strategic marketing planning instruments, whose correct understanding and usage ensure the capacity to generate competitive advantage, the key element both from the perspective of the fierce competition and the perspective of the future development of the SMEs. Within SMEs the implementation of marketing becomes an evident requirment, mostly due to the relationship that these have with the market, thus, leading towards market orientation of the activities, a new approach developed by the marketing vision on managing the activities from these types of organizations. Regarded upon, from the marketing perspective, the activities from the SMEs, especially the marketing activities, cannot take place randomly. Resource allocation, a characteristic of these types of organizations, and the objectives with regards to superior customer needs satisfaction and economic efficiency maximization, claim thorough plannification and deployment of the activities in a sequence that represents the implementation of a strategy previously assumed. Within this framework, the strategic marketing planning appears as a complex process employing all scientific instruments that comprise segmentation, positioning and marketing mix. Utilizing the strategic marketing planning within SMEs depends to further extend on marketing integration; process directly related with a series of factors such as the nature of the market, development stage, product type, management quality and the influences of the marketing department of the SME. The implications onto the marketing activities from SMEs are reflected upon each strategic marketing planning instrument, where we can find, under correct understanding and application, objectives and market and penetration strategies as product, price, distribution and promotion strategies.

Curmei Catalin Valeriu; Ionescu Florin Tudor; Popescu Andrei

2011-01-01

228

Life cycle assessment of a medium sized PV facility in Scotland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Napier University's School of Engineering has been involved in education and research in renewable energy for the past 35 years. With the aim demonstration of the viability of production of solar electricity at a high latitude location such as Edinburgh (56 degree north)the school undertook to commission a medium-sized PV electricity generation project. The installation of 32 rows of BP solar silicon panels covering a total area of 160 square metres ensures generation of 17.6kW peak (AC) power. Figure 1 presents a photograph of the facility under discussion. The project has been part (60%) financed by UK Government's PV electricity demonstration programme through the office of Energy Saving Trust. The University has plans to generate hydrogen from solar electricity that will be stored for noctumal production of electricity using fuel-cell technology, thus completing the complete cycle of generation, storage and reproduction of sustainable energy. The project that is part of Napier University's Merchiton Campus was completed on 6 April 2005 and since that date AC power has been fed into the University grid with the peak power being enough to operate up to 80 of the 500 computers at the University's Jack Kilby Computing Centre. DC power is produced from the BP solar high efficincy (17%) monocrystalline panels, each of which produces 90W of power at 22 Volts. This DC electricity is then fed into a total of four inverters hence converting to a stable AC supply. Two of the larger inverters receive current from 12 rows (4 strings x 3 rows) each, while the smaller inverters take power in from 4 rows (2 strings x 2 rows) each. The PV facility is fully instrumented with both input (incident solar energy) and PV electrical energy output recorded at a frequency of 15 minutes. This article will present the energetic, environmental and monetary life cycle assessment (LCA) of the above facility.(Author)

2005-04-06

229

Fox baiting against Echinococcus multilocularis: contrasted achievements among two medium size cities.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Europe, most cities are currently colonized by red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), which are considered to be the main definitive host of the zoonotic cestode Echinococcus multilocularis. The risk of transmission to humans is of particular concern where high fox populations overlap with high human populations. The distribution of baits containing praziquantel has successfully reduced the infection pressure in rural areas and in small plots within large cities. The purpose of this study was to assess its efficiency in two medium size cities (less than 100,000 inhabitants) in areas of high human alveolar echinococcosis incidence. From August 2006 to March 2009, 14 baiting campaigns of praziquantel treatment were run in Annemasse and Pontarlier (Eastern France), each of which encompassed 33 km(2), with a density of 40 baits/km(2). The bait consumption appeared to be lower in strictly urban context compared to suburban areas (78.9% vs. 93.4%) and lower in Annemasse than in Pontarlier (82.2% vs. 89.5%). During our study, the prevalence of E. multilocularis, as assessed by EM-ELISA on fox faeces collected in the field in Annemasse, was lower within the treated area than in the rural control area. A "before/during" treatment comparison revealed a significant decrease of spring prevalence from 13.3% to 2.2%. No significant change in prevalence was detected in Pontarlier (stable prevalence: 9.1%) where the contamination of the treated area followed the temporal trend observed in the control area. There, a greater resilience of the parasite's life cycle, probably due to a strong pressure of recontamination from outside the treated area, may have counteracted the prophylaxis treatment. These contrasted outcomes suggest that the frequency of fox anthelmintic treatment should be adapted to the local situation. PMID:23642656

Comte, S; Raton, V; Raoul, F; Hegglin, D; Giraudoux, P; Deplazes, P; Favier, S; Gottschek, D; Umhang, G; Boué, F; Combes, B

2013-04-30

230

Distribution and compartmental organization of GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons in the mouse nucleus accumbens.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a critical brain region involved in many reward-related behaviors. The NAc comprises major compartments the core and the shell, which encompass several subterritories. GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) constitute the output neurons of the NAc core and shell. While the functional organization of the NAc core outputs resembles the one described for the dorsal striatum, a simple classification of the NAc shell neurons has been difficult to define due to the complexity of the compartmental segregation of cells. We used a variety of BAC transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescence (EGFP) or the Cre-recombinase (Cre) under the control of the promoter of dopamine D1, D2, and D3 receptors and of adenosine A2a receptor to dissect the microanatomy of the NAc. Moreover, using various immunological markers we characterized in detail the distribution of MSNs in the mouse NAc. In addition, cell-type specific extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation in the NAc subterritories was analyzed following acute administration of SKF81297 (a D1R-like agonist), quinpirole (a D2 receptors (D2R)-like agonist), apomorphine (a non-selective DA receptor agonist), raclopride (a D2R-like antagonist), and psychostimulant drugs, including cocaine and d-amphetamine. Each drug generated a unique topography and cell-type specific activation of ERK in the NAc. Our results show the existence of marked differences in the receptor expression pattern and functional activation of MSNs within the shell subterritories. This study emphasizes the anatomical and functional heterogeneity of the NAc, which will have to be considered in its further study. PMID:23423476

Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Espallergues, Julie; de Kerchove d'Exaerde, Alban; El Mestikawy, Salah; Gerfen, Charles R; Hervé, Denis; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Valjent, Emmanuel

2013-02-19

231

Karyotypes of some medium-sized Dytiscidae (Agabinae and Colymbetinae) (Coleoptera)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An account is given of the karyotypes of 29 species of medium sized Dytiscidae (Coleoptera). Of the 20 species of Agabus Leach, 1817, 18 have karyotypes comprising 21 pairs of autosomes and sex chromosomes which are either X0(?) or XX (?). These species are A. serricornis (Paykull, 1799), A. labiatus (Brahm, 1791), A. congener (Thunberg, 1794), A. lapponicus (Thomson, 1867), A. thomsoni (J. Sahlberg, 1871), A. confinis (Gyllenhal, 1808), A. sturmii (Gyllenhal, 1808), A. bipustulatus (Linnaeus, 1767), A. nevadensis Håkan Lindberg, 1939, A. wollastoni Sharp, 1882, A. melanarius Aubé, 1837, A. biguttatus (Olivier, 1795), A. binotatus Aubé, 1837, A. affinis (Paykull, 1798), A. unguicularis (Thomson, 1867), A. ramblae Millan & Ribera, 2001, A. conspersus (Marsham, 1802) and A. nebulosus (Forster, 1771). However two species, A. infuscatus Aubé, 1838 and A. adpressus Aubé, 1837, have developed a neo-XY system, with karyotypes comprising 21 pairs of autosomes and XY sex chromosomes (?). No chromosomal differences have been detected between typical A. bipustulatus and A. bipustulatus var. solieri Aubé, 1837, nor have any been found between the three species of the A. bipustulatus complex (A. bipustulatus, A. nevadensis and A. wollastoni). The four species of Colymbetes Clairville, 1806, C. fuscus (Linnaeus, 1758), C. paykulli Erichson, 1837, C. piceus Klug, 1834 and C. striatus (Linnaeus, 1758) have karyotypes comprising 20 pairs of autosomes and sex chromosomes which are X0 (?), XX (?). Two of the species of Rhantus Dejean, 1833, R. exsoletus (Forster, 1771) and R. suturellus (Harris, 1828) have karyotypes comprising 20 pairs of autosomes and X0/XX sex chromosomes, but the other three species, R. grapii (Gyllenhal, 1808), R. frontalis (Marsham, 1802) and R. suturalis (Macleay, 1825) have 22 pairs of autosomes and X0/XX sex chromosomes. Agabus congener and Rhantus suturellus may have one B-chromosome. Nine of the species have previously published karyotype data but for seven of these the data are wrong and are here corrected.

Robert Angus; Molly Clery; Jodie Carter; Daniel Wenczek

2013-01-01

232

The State Support for small and Medium Sized Companies: General and Practical Aspects of Lithuania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify development possibilities of small and medium sized business in Lithuania.The analysis includes the discussion of the peculiari-ties of state financial support in Lithuania. The major forms of state support, such as tax exemptions; financial support: credits on easy terms, total or partial covering of interest rate, guarantee reassurance and sponsion, credit insurance, risk venture capital investments in SME, com-pensation of some expenditures (such as firm establish-ment, researches, guarantee taxes, credit insurance fees, quality certification and etc.), subsidies for the creation of workplaces; easy term consultations, trainings, qualifica-tion improvement and re-skilling for firms owners and em-ployees and employers; business incubators, business cen-ters, technological parks and their offered services: INVEGA (SCS Investment and business Guarantees), SME Development Funds are presented. Some other national, county and municipal support forms are defined.As the opportunities of this paper are rather limited and don’t allow to evaluate SMEs position on Lithuanian level, Kaunas county was selected with the hope that through the survey results it could be possible to under-stand the common tendencies for SMEs in Lithuania. The next section presents the research of Kaunas district SME, which helped to identify the main problems of this sector and allow foreseeing some possible methods for the current situation improvement.The last part is devoted to the project of intensifica-tion of SME development possibilities. The major atten-tion was devoted to SME development promoting meas-ures that does not require large financial investments and satisfy SME need presented in the survey.

R?ta Adamonien?; Jekaterina Trifonova

2007-01-01

233

Temperature and relative humidity distributions in a medium-size administrative town in southwest Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was carried out in one of the medium-sized public administrative towns in the southwestern part of Nigeria. Its aim is to highlight the effect of spatial distribution of settlements, population, and socio-economic activities on urban air temperature and humidity in the town. Temperature and relative humidity data from 1992 to 2001 were obtained from three meteorological stations in Akure, the Administrative Capital of Ondo State, Nigeria. The stations are located within the Federal Ministry of Aviation, Akure Airport (FMA), Federal University of Technology, Akure (FUTA) and Federal School of Agriculture (SOA). Air temperature and relative humidity measurements were also obtained from 27 points, which were cited to include road junctions, markets, built up areas, etc., using sling psychrometer. The data were subsequently analysed for spatial and temporal variations using statistical packages (SPSS and Microsoft Excel) and isolines. Actual vapour pressure and dew point temperature were computed using Magnus conversion formulae. The results obtained showed that spatial variation was insignificant, in terms of the temperature and humidity variables. The annual mean temperature (Tmean) ranged between 21.9 and 30.4 degrees C while minimum (Tmin) and maximum (Tmax) temperatures varied from 13 to 26 and 21.5-39.6 degrees C, respectively. Relative humidity (RH), actual vapour pressure (Es) and dew point temperature (Td) values also varied from 39.1% to 98.2%, 19.7-20.8 gm(-3), and 17.3-17.8 degrees C, respectively. A significant relationship (p>0.6; r<0.05) between Tmin, Es and Td was observed while the daytime 'urban heat island' intensity (UHI) ranged between 0.5 and 2.5 degrees C within the study period. The study concluded that there is influence of urban canopy on the microclimate of Akure, and hypothesizes that the urban dwellers may be subjected to some levels of weather related physiological disorderliness.

Akinbode OM; Eludoyin AO; Fashae OA

2008-04-01

234

In-plant analyses of materials and energy flow. Execution and evaluation of seven case studies in five medium-sized enterprises. In-plant environmental audits as an instrument of ecological and economic optimization with selected examples from the chemicals industry. Final project report; Betriebliche Stoff- und Energieflussanalysen. Durchfuehrung und Auswertung von 7 Fallstudien in 5 mittelstaendischen Unternehmen. Abschliessender Bericht zum Projekt: Betriebliche Oekobilanzen als Instrument der oekologischen und oekonomischen Optimierung an ausgewaehlten Beispielen der Chemischen Industrie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the study was to carry out in-plant analyses of the flow of materials and energy. To do so, the basic concept of environmental audits was employed. Their scope was reduced in order to fit in-plant applications. The contents of materials and energy flow analyses were delimited; for each of these, a detailed flow chart for project management and data compilation was drawn up. On that basis, seven case studies in five medium-sized enterprises were conducted. To test the validity of the presented concept, the data material obtained during the case studies was first of all analysed. In addition, interviews with all persons essentially involved in the projects were held. The practical applicability of the flow charts for project management and materials and energy flow, as well as the parts played by the involved persons in the project execution could thus be evaluated. As a major result it was recognized that projects need to be comprehensively prepared. Most problems encountered originated in this project management step. A related point of comparable significance is the communication between the persons participating in the project; communication is indispensable already during the stage of project preparation. On the whole, the benefits of analyses of the flow of materials and energy for in-house applications were corroborated. This was confirmed by all interviewed parties; however, measures at plant level were not taken. Learning about how to conduct case studies was rated as equally important as their technical results. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Ziel der Arbeit war die Durchfuehrung betrieblicher Stoff- und Energieflussanalysen (SEFA). Dafuer wurde der konzeptionelle Rahmen von Oekobilanzen genutzt. Auf dieser Basis wurde der Umfang von Oekobilanzen reduziert, um zu betrieblichen Anwendungen zu passen. Dies fuehrte zu einer inhaltlichen Abgrenzung fuer Stoff- und Energieflussanalysen, fuer die ein detailliertes Schema fuer Projektmanagement und Datenzusammenstellung portraetiert wurde. Auf dieser Basis wurden insgesamt sieben Fallstudien in fuenf mittelstaendischen Unternehmen erstellt. Fuer die Evaluation des vorgestellten Konzepts bildete eine Dokumentenanalyse der Fallstudienberichte einen ersten Schritt. Weitergehend wurden Interviews mit allen wesentlich an den Projekten beteiligten Personen durchgefuehrt. Dies erlaubte sowohl die praktische Anwendbarkeit des Projektmanagement- und Sachbilanzierungsschemas, als auch die Rollenverteilung der beteiligten Personen im Projektablauf zu hinterfragen. Ein bedeutendes Ergebnis war die Feststellung der Notwendigkeit, die Projekte umfassend vorzubereiten. Die meisten Probleme, die beobachtet wurden, waren diesem Schritt des Projektmanagements zuzurechnen. Ein verwandter Punkt vergleichbarer Bedeutung stellt die Kommunikation zwischen den am Projekt beteiligten Personen dar, die bereits in der Vorbereitungsphase des Projektes sichergestellt werden muss. Insgesamt konnte der Nutzen von SEFA-Fallstudien fuer betriebliche Anwendungen dargelegt werden. Dies wurde von allen Interviewpartnern bestaetigt, was allerdings nicht zu betrieblichen Umsetzungen fuehrte. So wurde das Lernen am Prozess der Fallstudienerstellung als ebenso wichtig eingestuft wie die technischen Ergebnisse der Fallstudien. (orig.)

Sietz, M.; Seuring, S.

1998-05-01

235

Analytical Hierarchy Process Applied to Vendor Selection Problem: Small Scale, Medium Scale and Large Scale Industries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vendor selection is an important process for an effective inventory management. This paper deals with a brief review of the literature regarding AHP technique and its relevancy to its application in vendor selection process. Vendor selection is a complicated process. This process needs evaluation of multiple criteria and various constraints associated with them. This paper has been developed based upon the views of various experts. A well researched methodology has been adopted for the synthesis of priorities and the measurement of consistencies. A consistency ratio has also been calculated. Industries has been classifies into small scale, medium scale and large scale. Various criteria for vendor selection process as received from the expert have been identified. These criteria have been compared using average matrix, priority matrix and overall priority matrix. After analysis of the results we found that for large scale industries, vendor reliability, product quality and vendor experience are the top three vendor selection problems that needs to be taken up on priority for effective vendor selection.

Sanjay Kumar; Neeraj Parashar; Dr. Abid Haleem

2009-01-01

236

IFRS IN THE SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTITIES. DIFICULTIES AND OPPORTUNITIES OF THE IFRS FOR SMES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

IFRS IN THE SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTITIES. DIFICULTIES AND OPPORTUNITIES OF THE IFRS FOR SMEs PhD Student Mo? Ioana, West University of Timi?oara, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, România Doctoral programme - Accounting Scientific coordonator – Prof. Univ. Dr. Mate?...

Mo? Ioana

237

Using the Critical Incident Technique to Research Decision Making regarding Access to Training and Development in Medium-Sized Enterprises  

Science.gov (United States)

Employees in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) form part of a "disadvantaged" group within the workforce that receives less access to training and development (T&D) than employees in large firms. Prior research into reasons for the relatively low levels of employee participation in training and development has typically involved surveys of…

Coetzer, Alan; Redmond, Janice; Sharafizad, Jalleh

2012-01-01

238

An investigation into the suitability of younger generation successors in small and medium-sized family businesses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study highlighted the importance of the suitability of the younger generation family members in small and medium-sized family businesses to successfully manage the business after management succession. Data from 270 questionnaires linked to 77 family businesses were collected and analysed. An O...

Van der Merwe, Stephanus Petrus

239

Product Related Environmental Work in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Thailand, Developing and Manufacturing Electrical and Electronic Products  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Thailand that develop and manufacture electrical and electronic products are among other SMEs in the world meeting increasingly stringent legal and customer requirements related to environmental issues. Obstacles for the SMEs around the world to meet thes...

Jonsson, Fredrik

240

Striatal Medium-Sized Spiny Neurons: Identification by Nuclear Staining and Study of Neuronal Subpopulations in BAC Transgenic Mice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Precise identification of neuronal populations is a major challenge in neuroscience. In the striatum, more than 95% of neurons are GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs), which form two intermingled populations distinguished by their projections and protein content. Those expressing dopamine D1...

Matamales, Miriam; Bertran-Gonzalez, Jesus; Salomon, Lucas; Degos, Bertrand; Deniau, Jean-Michel; Valjent, Emmanuel

 
 
 
 
241

The efficiency of working capital management and its impact on the profitability of small, medium and large enterprises of the food industry in Poland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents the results of the efficiency of working capital management in small, medium and large enterprises of the food industry in Poland years in 2005- -2009. The efficiency of working capital management has been evaluated by using the in-ventory cycle, receivables, liabilities and cash conversion cycle and by its relation to rate of return on non-financial assets. Studies have shown that the effectiveness of working capital was differentiated by size of enterprises and in industries where working capital cycles are the shortest, a relatively higher rate of return on assets was achieved. In the national food industry the highest efficiency, measured by cash conversion cycle and assets profitability, was characteristic for large companies. The beneficial effect of shortening the cycle of working capital on the profitability of assets also verified the regression analysis.

Anna Bieniasz; Zbigniew Go?a?

2011-01-01

242

NEW APPROACHES TO CUSTOMER BASE SEGMENTATION FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The primary purpose of this paper is to explore current praxis and theory related to customer segmentation and to offer an approach which is best suited for small and medium sized enterprises. The proposed solution is the result of an exploratory research aiming to recognize the main variables which influence the practice of segmenting the customer base and to study the most applied alternatives available for all types of enterprises. The research has been performed by studying a large set of secondary data, scientific literature and case studies regarding smaller companies from the European Union. The result of the research consists in an original approach to customer base segmentation, which combines aspects belonging to different well spread practices and applies them to the specific needs of a small or medium company, which typically has limited marketing resources in general and targeted marketing resources in particular. The significance of the proposed customer base segmentation approach lies in the fact that, even though smaller enterprises are in most economies the greatest in number compared to large companies, most of the literature on targeting practices has focused primarily on big companies dealing with a very large clientele, while the case of the smaller companies has been to some extent unfairly neglected. Targeted marketing is becoming more and more important for all types of companies nowadays, as a result of technology advances which make targeted communication easier and less expensive than in the past and also due to the fact that broad-based media have decreased their impact over the years. For a very large proportion of smaller companies, directing their marketing budgets towards targeted campaigns is a clever initiative, as broad based approaches are in many cases less effective and much more expensive. Targeted marketing stratagems are generally related to high tech domains such as artificial intelligence, data mining and marketing analytics and presuppose the availability of sophisticated computer software and specialized personnel. The methodology proposed in this paper takes into consideration the fact that, due to financial and time-related constrains, smaller companies need a more practical and straightforward solution for segmenting their customer base. The simplicity of the solution, however, should not come at the expense of its efficiency. The original contribution of this paper resides precisely in the fact that it aims to offer the best of two worlds: the simplicity and cost-effectiveness of plain methods which can be used without the aid of specialized software and the high return on investment given by the use of artificial intelligence algorithms such as clustering. The main implications of this paper relate to the fact that it draws attention to how targeted marketing can be performed successfully by companies with restricted budgets by providing an actionable set of guidelines which can be put into practice by smaller enterprises using limited efforts and resources.

Meleancă Raluca-Cristina

2012-01-01

243

Optimal Sizing of Industrial Structural Mechanics Problems Using Automatic Differentiation  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We consider minimizing the mass of the frame of an injectionmoulding machine as an example of optimal sizing. The deformation of theframe is described by a generalized plane stress state with an elasticitymodulus scaled by the thickness. The resulting constrained nonlinear optimizationproblem is solved by sequential quadratic programming (SQP),which requires gradients of the objective and the constraints with respectto the design parameters. As long as the number of design parameters issmall, nite dierences may be used. For several hundreds of varying thicknessparameters, we use the reverse mode of automatic dierentiation (AD).AD works ne but requires huge memory and disk capabilities and limitsthe use of iterative solvers for the governing state equations. Therefore,we combine AD with the adjoint method to get a fast and exible hybridgradient evaluation procedure. Numerical results show the potential of thisapproach and imply that this method can also be...

Gundolf Haase; Ulrich Langer

244

Upper Limits to Americium Concentration in Medium Size Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fastest way to realize transmutation of minor actinides would be using existing reactor types, adding some proper modifications to allow for insertion of MA in the fuel. According to calculations by Fazio and co-workers, the consumption rate of TRU in a low conversion ratio fast reactor may reach 70-75 % of that of an ADS with uranium free fuel [1]. However, americium introduction brings a negative influence on several safety parameters such as ?eff, Doppler coefficient, coolant temperature coefficient and void worth. Therefore the upper limit of americium that can be included into the fuel needs to be carefully evaluated. In this paper, fast reactor fuels with various minor actinide fractions are loaded into a SAS4A model of the semi-commercial BN600 reactor. Unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) and transient over power (UTOP) accidents are modelled using safety parameters obtained from Monte Carlo simulations as well as from the deterministic calculations published by Fazio et al. Applying the latter parameters (obtained with VARI3D), the upper limit to MA concentration in the fuel of a medium sized SFR of BN-600 type appears at 12%, corresponding to 8% of americium. We note however that the Doppler constants displayed by Fazio et al for MA concentrations above 10% have a considerably larger magnitude than those obtained with MCNP. Applying the safety parameters obtained with Monte Carlo simulations and updated nuclear data evaluations, we find that the upper limit to the americium concentration allowing to survive a ULOF is about half of that inferred by the use of parameters from VARI-3D. Since such a difference has a major impact on the predicted americium transmutation capability of SFR, it is of high priority to analyse the reasons for the apparent discrepancies. We note here that the major contribution to the Doppler feedback comes from capture resonance in U-238 and Pu-240 residing below the sodium scattering resonance located at 3 keV, and that the introduction of americium very efficiently removes the neutron population in this part of the spectrum. If this fact were not properly modelled, the magnitude of the Doppler coefficient would tend to be overestimated. We therefore conclude that a careful assessment of the Doppler feedback as function of americium concentration in SFR is required before any definite conclusion on its transmutation capability can be done. References: [1] C. Fazio, M. Salvatores, W. S. Yang, Global 2007, Boise, Idaho, (2007), 443. (authors)

2009-01-01

245

Audit office size, audit quality and audit pricing:evidence from small- and medium-sized enterprises  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using Swedish data we investigate how audit quality and audit pricing vary with audit firm and office size. In contrast to prior studies, we use disciplinary sanctions issued against auditors not meeting the quality requirement as the measure of audit quality. We find no significant differences in t...

Sundgren, Stefan; Svanström, Tobias

246

Ventilation in medium-sized and large boiler houses; Ventilation i medelstora och stoerre pannhus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to exemplify and clarify the need for ventilation in medium-sized and large boiler houses. We will furthermore present some recommendations, guidelines and advice for the design and construction of a boiler house ventilation system to the plant owners and suppliers of equipment. Boiler house ventilation can be performed in different ways using mechanical or natural ventilation. The solution to be chosen depends on the following factors: Working environment requirements and a necessity to control temperature and pressure in the boiler house; The design of the boiler plant and house; The need for combustion air; The investment expenditure as well as operation and maintenance costs. Mechanical ventilation should be chosen if the aim is a controllable 'climate'. The mechanical ventilation can be either centrally situated or distributed with many aggregates in the boiler house. Centrally situated ventilation equipment will give a higher accessibility and lower maintenance costs than a distributed ventilation system. If the boiler house is designed with natural ventilation the air and flue gas fans will be the only ones installed. In this case temperature and pressure inside the boiler house will be difficult to control. The design factor for the ventilation plant in a boiler house is in most cases the demand to cool the air inside the boiler house to approximately 45 deg C. This is the highest temperature allowed by the Occupational Safety and Health Act in a work environment where the boiler operator is working alone. The air flow which is required for the combustion is normally less than the air flow needed to cool the air in the boiler house. The supply air which is cooling the air inside the boiler house should be supplied on several different levels to attain an efficient cooling. If the combustion air is taken from the heated indoor air the boiler house will work as a heat reclaimer. The difference between outdoor and indoor pressure in the lower part of the boiler house should not exceed approximately 40 Pa. This is to minimize problems with inleaking of odours and particles into the boiler house and to facilitate the evacuation of the staff from the boiler house. Issues concerning boiler house ventilation will appear in different stages at new construction and conversion projects. During the feasibility study the ventilation requirements are investigated and possible solutions are outlined. The planning stage involves the establishing of the ventilation requirements, technical solutions and the investment needs. Investment expenditure for the installation of a mechanized ventilation system varies depending on the size of the boiler, the choice of ventilation solution etc. Experiences from three recently built plants show that capital expenditure for the ventilation systems in these plants amounts to approximately SEK 140,000/MW (about 18,000 USD/MW) for a boiler effect of approximately 50 MW.

Grotherus, Dan [AaF Installation AB, Oerebro (Sweden); Larsson, Tord [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Technology

2005-04-01

247

A small size continuous run industrial gamma irradiator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A new small size gamma irradiator is being set up at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Brazil, with a revolutionary design. The developed technology for this facility consists of continuous tote box transport system, comprising a single concrete vault, where the automated transport system of products inside and outside of the irradiator utilizes a rotating door, integrated with the shielding, avoiding the traditional maze configuration. Covering 76 m2 of floor area, the irradiator design is product overlap sources and the maximum capacity of Cobalt-60 wet sources is 37 PBq (1 MCi). The irradiator is being installed in a Governmental Institution and it will be used as a demonstration facility for manufacturers, who need an economic and logistic in-house irradiation system alternative. Also, it will be useful for supporting the local scientific community on development of products and process using gamma radiation, assisting the traditional and potential users on process validation, training and qualification of operators and radioprotection officers

2004-01-01

248

TLD area monitoring on the small size industrial irradiator facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] To complement radiological survey performed on the new small size gamma irradiator set up at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CNEN/SP-IPEN) it was positioned 12 TLD units inside the ware house that enclosure the irradiator facility and 8 units outside. During the second period of monitoring occurred arrival of two 60 Co sealed sources containers (3.4 PBq and 9.2PBq), charging of the sources in racks inside the storage pool and the irradiation of several kinds of products. CaSO4:Dy/PTFE dosimeters have been used in several facilities due to their sensibility to photons and robustness. TLD evaluation was carried out at Laboratorio de Dosimetria Termoluminescente in Centro de Metrologia das Radiacoes. Results using the dosimetric quantity exposure for photons in air show that at only one point the exposure value is higher than register level for workers and the others are close to background level. High exposure point is due to the container containing 60Co sealed sources (9.2PBq) set temporary at the backside of irradiator shielding. After the removal of the stored container, exposure will diminish probably up to background level. Using photon dose equivalent, the operational quantity used in Brazil for external individual monitoring, it can be observed that the facility safety is adequate for workers and public in normal condition of operation. It is important to emphasize that, as exposure is very low inside and nearby the facility, there is no radiological impact on the environment. (author)

2005-09-02

249

Effect of medium composition and explant size on embryogenic calli formation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) local genotypes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important tropical crop species used for human consumption, feed and raw material for various industries. Genetic transformation through embryogenic tissues is known as an effective method for cassava genetic improvements. Objective of this study was to obtain a suitable medium and length of explants to induce embryogenic callus on friable embryogenic callus (FEC) as a target for genetic transformation. Immature leaf lobes (1-3 mm, 3-5 mm and larger than 5 mm in length) of local genotypes of cassava (Adira 4. Menti, Iding, Gebang, Rawi and Timtim-29) cultured in vitro were used as explants. The explants were incubated for 2 and 4 weeks on MS (Murashige-Skoog) or GD (Greshooff & Doy) semi solid medium containing 10 mg/L picloram, 6 mg/L NAA supplemented with 4% sucrose and 4 µM CuSO4. Results showed that the highest percentage (100%) of embryogenic calli formation for 4 weeks obtained by culturing Iding of 3-5 mm length on GD semi solid medium, whereas the lowest (33%) one obtained by incubation 5 mm leaf lobe of Timtim-29 on the same medium. The most suitable medium for callus induction was GD, whereas the optimum length of explants was 5 mm or larger. Further study needs to be done to obtain friable embryogenic calli (FEC) by employing different concentration of picloram and varying other critical factors.

DODY PRIADI; ENNY SUDARMONOWATI

2006-01-01

250

Study of distribution systems for small to medium scale industrial coal users in central Canada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study estimates the size and geographical distribution of the demand in Quebec and Ontario for solid thermal coal as a fuel for industrial, commercial, and other markets, from 1980-2000, and reviews the capability of current and potential coal distribution systems to transport the coal required. Environmental regulations enacted by all levels of government in the two provinces that could affect the use of coal are examined and the effects of these regulations are taken into account by factoring in the costs of conversion and possible reductions in use. Coal from Canada and from the U.S. are compared to estimate which could be expected to have the lowest delivered cost per BTU. The methodology used includes the conversion of existing equipment and the construction of new facilities. Life cycle costs and benefits of converting to coal operation are examined, including the cost of conversion, alternate fuel costs, costs of coal distribution, and additional operating costs if any. Distribution costs include the costs of rail haulage, handling and stockpiling, and trans-shipment. Coal price is assumed to increase at 1%/year faster than the general level of inflation. Competing fuels are natural gas and residual fuel oil. Six industries form the basis of the study, accounting for 58% of the 1978 heavy fuel oil and natural gas consumption in Ontario and Quebec. The iron mining, smelting and refining, pulp and paper, and cement industries are identified as candidates for coal substitution. The market is estimated with the low end of the range based upon a 3-year payback and natural gas as a competing fuel, while the high end is based on a 5-year payback and residual oil as a competing fuel. Policy tools that could be used by the government are also examined to encourage coal substitution. 2 figs., 97 tabs.

1981-01-01

251

Potential role of the Romanian research and industry on the small and medium reactors market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The need of diversifying the energy sources, independence from foreign supplies and modernization of economy have constituted the major factors in implementation of nuclear energy in Romania. The choice of the heavy water reactor CANDU-600 was made on grounds of advanced safety features, proven efficient economic operation as well as on the technologic feasibility for manufacturing of components, equipment, instrumentation, heavy water and natural uranium fuel in Romania. Unlike turn-key acquisition approaches, the Romanian option provided an active national participation in construction the Cernavoda NPP. As consequence, important support was being given to development of the industries involved in the nuclear fuel cycle, manufacturing of equipment and nuclear materials, construction-montage, engineering, consulting, services, etc. This was done based on technology transfer, implementation of advanced design and execution standards, quality assurance procedures and modern nuclear safety requirements at international level. The efforts materialized in an important national participation in the construction of the Cernavoda NPP and all related programs are successful. Now, Romanian firms are also involved in supplying components, equipment and services to NPP's in other eastern and central Europeans countries. The paper presents the achievements of the Romanian economy in this field and the effort of the Romanian companies on the small and medium power reactors market. Lists with main R and D institutes, nuclear fuel cycle facilities as well as potential equipment suppliers are attached. (author)

1998-01-01

252

[Company integration management in small and medium-sized companies. Legal requirements and prerequisites for successful implementation].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: The article is based on the results of the project “Company integration management in small and medium-sized companies. Legal requirements and prerequisites for a successful implementation” (01 January 2009-31 August 2010). BACKGROUND: Since 2004 all employers have been legally bound to offer company integration management (BEM, Betriebliches Eingliederungsmanagement) for all employees who have been incapacitated for work for more than 6 weeks within a year (Section 84 SGB IX, Book 9 of the German Social Code). Objective of this law is to ensure ongoing employment. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the requirements companies, rehabilitation centres and services as well as social insurance institutions are faced with according to Section 84 SGB IX. Prerequisites for an effective implementation of BEM in small and medium-sized enterprises were analyzed. METHOD: Protocol-based interviews with experts were adopted. A total of 38 interviews with experts were carried out. The experts interviewed were either willing to give information by interest (concernment) or were named by law as an initiator or co-operator in the process of integration. A substantial literature research was performed in advance of the interviews. RESULTS: The awareness level of BEM is still very low even 7 years after its introduction. Small and medium-sized enterprises do not have any significant experiential knowledge of long-term incapacity for work and, hence, about BEM. Due to a lack of workers representation in many small and medium companies, management does not receive initiatives or support in implementation of BEM from employees' side. Employers prefer a central contact point providing them with the information and help needed, the common service units, however, being widely unknown in this context. Cost comparisons suggest that a company integration management might be more cost-effective than dismissing employees who are incapacitated for some fields of work. These findings might even hold true for small and medium-sized companies. Social insurance institutions are aware of company integration management; however there is a substantial lack of experience. There is some evidence that incentives and bonuses according to Section 84, 3 SGB IX would not have any significant impact on the implementation of company integration management in small and medium-sized enterprises. POLICY RECOMMENDATION: All relevant actors in the field of company integration management should reassess their possibilities to advocate integration management. Not only employees but also employers and social security institutions will benefit from comprehensive implementation of company integration management.

Ramm D; Mahnke C; Tauscher A; Welti F; Seider H; Shafaei R

2012-01-01

253

Determinants of small and medium sized fast growing enterprises in central and eastern Europe: a panel data analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the main determinants of growth in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in central and eastern Europe. The important role played by SMEs in the economic development of central and eastern European (CEE) countries has attracted the recent attention of academics and policymakers but remains relatively unexplored. Empirical research has suggested that firm growth is determined not only by the traditional characteristics of size and age but also by other firm-specific factors such as indebtedness, internal financing, future growth opportunities, process and product innovation, and organisational changes. Although growth in manufacturing and service SMEs in transition economies is well explained by the traditional firm characteristics of size and age, there is no empirical evidence concerning what other specific factors may be associated with SME growth and performance in these countries. Using a panel dataset of 560 fast growing small and medium enterprises from six transition economies we find that firm size when measured by firm total assets can explain to a large extent the growth in SMEs in these countries. When size is proxied by a firm’s number of employees the observed effect is marginal. Firm specific characteristics such as leverage, current liquidity, future growth opportunities, internally generated funds, and factor productivity are found to be important factors in determining a firm’s growth and performance. Age and ownership do not seem to be able to explain firm growth. The results of our empirical study have also some policy implications: we argue that governments in transition economies need to pay an increased attention to small and medium sized enterprises and try to create a business environment that will be beneficial for SME development.

Miroslav Mateev; Yanko Anastasov

2010-01-01

254

Absenteeism at a Medium Size Philanthropic Hospital Absenteísmo em Hospital Filantrópico de Médio Porte  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The absenteeism is a complex administrative problem for organizations. In hospitals, it becomes even more complicated as the patient care can not be interrupted. The term absenteeism - disease, refers to the time off work due to health problems. It is intended to analyze the absence of workers due to health problems is related to age, sex, length of employment at the institution, part work shift and functional category. This is a retrospective, descriptive and documentary study. Data was collected from medical certificates submitted in the period from 01 July 2007 to 30 June 2008 to the sector of human resources of a medium-sized philanthropic hospital. The analysis results show that the number of certificates is greater in females (90.80%) and staff that work less time in the institution (61.19%). It was found that the number of certificates is higher in workers who make the rotation between morning and afternoon shifts. It was also noted that workers aged over 48 years, had lower number of certificates than the younger ones. The nursing technicians assistant were the professional categories that had presented more certificates (46.05%). The results identify several factors related to absenteeism and provide subsidies to strengthen actions to monitor the health of workers and also the implementation of actions aimed at improving the quality of life at work. O absenteísmo é um complexo problema administrativo para as organizações. Nos hospitais, torna-se ainda mais complicado, pois o cuidado ao cliente não pode ser interrompido. Entende-se por absenteísmo-doença, as faltas ao trabalho por problemas de saúde. Tem-se como objetivo analisar as faltas dos trabalhadores por causas de saúde relacionando-as com idade, sexo, tempo de trabalho na instituição, turno de trabalho e categoria funcional. Trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo, descritivo edocumental. Os dados foram coletados dos atestados de saúde apresentados no período de 01 julho de 2007 a 30 de junho de 2008 ao setor de recursos humanos de um hospital filantrópico de médio porte. As análises dos resultados demonstraram que o número de atestados apresentados é maior no sexo feminino (90,80%) e em funcionários com menor tempo de trabalho na instituição (61,19%). Verificou-se que onúmero de atestados é mais elevado nos trabalhadores que fazem revezamento entre os turnos matutino e vespertino. Também foi observado que os trabalhadores com idade acima de 48 anos, apresentaram menor número de atestados que os mais jovens. Os auxiliares e técnicos de enfermagem foram as categorias profissionais que mais apresentaram atestados (46,05%). Os dados encontrados permitem identificar vários fatores relacionados ao absenteísmo e fornecem subsídios para reforçar ações que acompanhem as questões de saúde dos trabalhadores e também a implantação de ações que visem à melhoria da qualidade de vida no trabalho.

Roseli Landgraf Fernandes; Maria do Carmo Lourenço Haddad; Adriana Estela Pinesso Morais; Ilidia Terezinha Martelli Takahashi

2011-01-01

255

Electronic spectroscopy of medium-sized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Implications for the carriers of the 2175 {\\AA} UV bump  

CERN Multimedia

Mixtures of polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been produced by means of laser pyrolysis. The main fraction of the extracted PAHs were primarily medium-sized, up to a maximum size of 38 carbon atoms per molecule. The use of different extraction solvents and subsequent chromatographic fractionation provided mixtures of different size distributions. UV-VIS absorption spectra have been measured at low temperature by matrix isolation spectroscopy and at room temperature with PAHs as film-like deposits on transparent substrates. In accordance with semi-empirical calculations, our findings suggest that large PAHs with sizes around 50 to 60 carbon atoms per molecule could be responsible for the interstellar UV bump at 217.5 nm.

Steglich, M; Rouillé, G; Huisken, F; Mutschke, H; Henning, Th

2010-01-01

256

THE ROLE OF ENTREPRENEURIAL BEHAVIOUR OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTREPRISE’S IN THEIR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONFIGURATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In European and global context, to survive the intense competition, small and medium-sized enterprise’s (SME) must expand, so that internationalisation becomes the inevitable stage in their strategic evolution. The phenomenon is analysed from the perspective of complementarities of different internationalisation theories, the integration of entrepreneurial orientation in that context, in order to enhance resources, exploit opportunities and create value, through innovation, proactive and risk-seeking activities.

RENATA NI?U ANTONIE; EMOKE-SZIDONIA FEDER

2009-01-01

257

Environmental education for small- and medium-sized enterprises: methodology and e-learning experience in the Valencian region.  

Science.gov (United States)

The last decades have shown an increasing social demand for environmental awareness, which firms are inevitably required to adapt to. More and more, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are finding it necessary to train their staff in environmental issues if they wish to survive in a market where it is no longer sufficient to excel in price competitiveness exclusively, but where quality, service and environmental standards also play an important role. PMID:17395365

Cloquell-Ballester, Vicente-Agustín; Monterde-Díaz, Rafael; Cloquell-Ballester, Víctor-Andrés; Torres-Sibille, Ana Del Carmen

2007-03-28

258

Environmental education for small- and medium-sized enterprises: methodology and e-learning experience in the Valencian region.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The last decades have shown an increasing social demand for environmental awareness, which firms are inevitably required to adapt to. More and more, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are finding it necessary to train their staff in environmental issues if they wish to survive in a market where it is no longer sufficient to excel in price competitiveness exclusively, but where quality, service and environmental standards also play an important role.

Cloquell-Ballester VA; Monterde-Díaz R; Cloquell-Ballester VA; Torres-Sibille Adel C

2008-05-01

259

A program of direct assistance for small and medium-size manufacturers. Quarterly progress report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the quarter ending March 31, 1997, the IACs in the Western Region performed a total of 97 industrial assessments under the contract continuation beginning October 1, 1996. Industrial assessments reports were issued to 43 clients for the 1995-96 program period and 57 clients for the 1996-97 program period. The attached summary shows the aggregate number of audits performed by, number of reports received from, number of critiques completed and returned to, and implementation reports completed by each of the Western Region EADCs/IACs under the 1994-95 program period through the quarter ending March 31, 1997. Also shown are the number of industrial assessments performed by, reports completed by each of the Western Region IACs under the 1994-95 program period. Also shown is the information for industrial assessments for the 1995-96 program period and the information for the 1996-97 program period.

NONE

1997-03-01

260

Barriers to innovation amongst small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Portugal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The importance of innovation on the survival and competitiveness of organizations is an undeniable fact. Small and Medium enterprises (SMEs) represent 99,99% of all Portuguese firms. This reality is shared by other European countries and therefore it is relevant to study their innovative behaviour a...

Cordeiro, Ana; Vieira, Filipa Dionísio

 
 
 
 
261

Developing a Methodology Based on Action Learning to Facilitate the Adoption of ICT in Small and Medium-sized Companies in Costa Rica  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of the thesis is to understand and explore better strategies to support the Small and Medium-sized companies sector in Costa Rica in the ICT adoption process. A strategy has been proposed which focuses on learning process and the interaction of university, industry and government (Triple Helix Model) in order to support the SMEs sector. The concrete proposal of the research is to design collaborative project based on action learning approach (Revans, 1982) with partnership of the three sectors in order to address concrete ICT projects in SMEs. The project was carried out in the action research context, considering a holistic approach needed in the SMEs and fostering the multi learning perspective claimed in the triple helix model (Etzkowitz, 2008).

Nunez, Heilyn Camacho

2010-01-01

262

Firm size and productivity. Evidence from the electricity distribution industry in Brazil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper we apply Stochastic Frontier Analysis through a distance function to investigate the impact of firm size on productivity development in electricity distribution. We use a sample of seventeen Brazilian firms from 1998 to 2005 and decompose productivity into technical efficiency, scale efficiency and technical change. Moreover, a further step is to decompose the technical change measurement into several components. The results indicate that firm size is important for industry's productivity, and therefore a key aspect to consider when making decisions that affect the market structure in the electricity distribution industry. (author)

Tovar, Beatriz [Departmento de Analisis Economico Aplicado y EIT, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Javier Ramos-Real, Francisco [Departamento de Analisis Economico, Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Campus de Guajara, Universidad de La Laguna, La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife, Espana (Spain); De Almeida, Edmar Fagundes [IE-UFRJ (Instituto de Economia-Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro) (Brazil)

2011-02-15

263

Explaining Internationalisation of Small to Medium Sized Enterprises within the Queensland Food and Beverage Industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The prevalence of International New Ventures (INVs) has increased during the past twenty years. Nevertheless,
to date there has been no general consensus within the literature on an explanation as to the rapid internationalisation of some firms. Do they follow a similar process t...

Mitchell Spowart; Rumintha Wickramasekera

264

On the measures for reclamation of waste land at large and medium size coal mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based on experience from abroad and the implementation of China`s `Land Reclamation Rules`, it is pointed out that land reclamation is not merely a technical problem, but is a complex engineering system which combines the three aspects of `scientific and technological capability, the regulatory approach by the state, and the participation of the people`. The series of management problems as a result of ensuring implementation of technology in land reclamation by medium and large coal mines in China are discussed, and the solutions and suggestions are presented for practical reference. 5 refs.

Wang, B.; Bai, Z. [Shanxi Agricultural University (China). Department of Soil Chemistry

1997-01-01

265

Role of imaging in the diagnosis of large and medium-sized vessel vasculitis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In large-vessel vasculitis, imaging studies are useful to document temporal artery involvement and crucial to show large-vessel involvement. Color Doppler sonography, magnetic resonance, and computed tomography show early vasculitic lesions. Angiography delineates later vascular complications well. Color Doppler sonography, magnetic resonance angiography, and computed tomography angiography can also be used to show vascular luminal changes. Positron emission tomography is very sensitive in detecting large-vessel inflammation. Imaging procedures can also be used to monitor the course of large-vessel vasculitis. In medium-vessel vasculitis, imaging studies can be used to show both vascular changes and internal organ changes.

Pipitone N; Versari A; Hunder GG; Salvarani C

2013-08-01

266

Small and medium-sized hydropower projects in competitive markets: the case of Rio Piedras  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article describes the case of the Rio Piedras Hydropower Project, a first private hydropower generation initiative in Colombia, within the new regulatory framework for the provision of public services and electric generation under laws 142 and 143, passed in 1994. Reference is made in this article to the background and characteristics of the Project, and some obstacles, challenges and risks encountered are described, as well as the way in which they are being controlled. The investment and commercialization modules developed in analyzing the project are also presented. Finally, some reflections are given as to the medium and long term prospects for electric generation projects in Colombia. (The author).

1999-01-01

267

Optical diffraction granulometry in the context of traditional particle size analysis methods in the cement industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty years ago, CILAS has developed its first laser granulometer for the French cement industry. This analysis technique is compared to other grain size methods. This comparison is based on CEPROCIM's experience in this domain and the results of worldwide interlaboratory tests lasting many years. The theoretical principles, basic granulometry and granulomorphology concepts, a classification of grain size analysis methods and some critical aspects are presented. (Author)

1993-01-01

268

Re-Strategising for Effective Health and Safety Standards in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Poor health and safety record impact on the image/reputation and operational capabilities of businesses, especially those within the small and medium enterprise (SME) sector. Given the role of SMEs in the economy, this paper attempts to highlight the issue of poor health and safety performance of the SME sector and suggest a strategy for improving the level of performance. To this end, survey questionnaires were distributed to assess the overall awareness of people about health and safety issues, motivations and constraints, vis-a-viz supply chain improvement initiatives. Based on the findings (responses from questionnaires) and existing literature, the unique characteristics of the supply chain network makes it a suitable medium through which health and safety improvement in small and mediumsized enterprises can be realised. Additionally, the findings show that good health and safety management culture enhances image, lowers costs, and improves the overall competitiveness of organisations. To complement the efforts/desires of health and safety regulators, there is need to leverage on the relationships that exist in supply chains, shown in this exercise to have a major influence on the activities of organisations.

Ikechukwu A. Diugwu

2011-01-01

269

Simulation of Supply-Chain Networks: A Source of Innovation and Competitive Advantage for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available On a daily basis, enterprises of all sizes cope with the turbulence and volatility of market demands, cost variability, and severe pressure from globally distributed competitors. Managing uncertainty about future demand requirements and volumes in supply-chain networks has become a priority. One of the ways to deal with uncertainty is the utilization of simulation techniques and tools, which provide greater predictability of decision-making outcomes. For example, simulation has been widely applied in decision-making processes related to global logistics and production networks at the strategic, tactical, and operational levels, where it is used to predict the impact of decisions before their implementation in complex and uncertain environments. Large enterprises are inclined to use simulation tools whereas small and medium-sized enterprises seem to underestimate its advantages. The objective of this article is to emphasize the relevance of simulation for the design and management of supply-chain networks from the perspective of small and medium-sized firms.

Giacomo Liotta

2012-01-01

270

Medium and finite nuclear size effects in relativistic two-body currents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We study the effects of medium modifications on the contribution of relativistic two-body meson exchange and isobar currents and real-pion production currents to the transverse response function of nuclei. In particular the consequences of rescattering of the [Delta] isobar, effective masses, and realistic momentum distributions are considered. It is found that the two-body isobar and real-pion production current account for most of the observed strength in the dip region. Our results do not support a large modification of the [Delta]-isobar mass. We compare our model with the [Delta]-hole model and in doing so confirm the microscopic picture of several of its phenomenological ingredients. Finally, the use of more realistic momentum distributions, obtained from relativistic mean field single-particle wave functions gives rise to results that are not much different from those obtained in the Fermi-gas model and compare fairly well with the data.

Dekker, M.J.; Brussaard, P.J. (R.J. Van de Graaff Laboratory, University of Utrecht, P.O. Box 80.000. 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands)); Tjon, J.A. (Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Utrecht, P.O. Box 80.000. 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands))

1995-03-01

271

Organizational Learning, Innovation and Performance: A Study of Malaysian Small and Medium Sized Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This empirical study attempts to investigate the effect of organizational learning on innovation as well as theimpact of innovation on company performance. Based on the literature review, two hypotheses are proposed toguide the study: the positive impact of organizational learning on innovation and the positive relationshipbetween innovation and performance. Data was collected via electronic survey from 320 small and mediumenterprises operating in the ICT industry in Malaysia. Findings from the study support both the two hypothesesthus providing further evidence that organizational learning contributes to innovation capability, and thatinnovation is positively related to firm performance. Several guidelines and practical implications from the studyare also discussed.

Islam Mohamed Salim; Mohamed Sulaiman

2011-01-01

272

SIZE SPECIFIC PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS FOR INDUSTRIAL AND RURAL ROADS: SOURCE CATEGORY REPORT  

Science.gov (United States)

The report gives results of a study to derive size-specific particulate emission factors for industrial paved and unpaved roads and for rural unpaved roads from an existing field testing data base. Regression analysis was used to develop predictive emission factor equations which...

273

Firm size and productivity. Evidence from the electricity distribution industry in Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In this paper we apply Stochastic Frontier Analysis through a distance function to investigate the impact of firm size on productivity development in electricity distribution. We use a sample of seventeen Brazilian firms from 1998 to 2005 and decompose productivity into technical efficiency, scale efficiency and technical change. Moreover, a further step is to decompose the technical change measurement into several components. The results indicate that firm size is important for industry's productivity, and therefore a key aspect to consider when making decisions that affect the market structure in the electricity distribution industry. - Research Highlights: ?We apply Stochastic Frontier Analysis through a distance function to investigate the impact of firm's size on productivity development in electricity distribution using a sample of eighteen Brazilian firms from 1998 to 2005. ?Productivity is decomposed into technical efficiency, scale-efficiency and technical change. ?Firm size is important for the industry's productivity, and therefore a key aspect to consider when making decisions that affect the market structure in the electricity distribution industry.

2009-08-28

274

Oestrogenicity and chemical target analysis of water from small-sized industries in Pretoria, South Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Increasing concern about endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and their effects on humans, animals and the environment resulted in this study being conducted. Water from 7 sites in the Pretoria West area (South Africa), with significant numbers of small-sized industries, was screened for oestrogeni...

Mahomed, S.I.; Voyi, Kuku V.V.; Aneck-Hahn, Natalie H.; De Jager, Christiaan

275

Fabrication of carbon nanotubes/carbon fiber hybrid fiber in industrial scale by sizing process  

Science.gov (United States)

We disclosed an easy and efficient method for fabrication of carbon nanotube (CNT)/carbon fiber (CF) hybrid fiber in industrial scale. It was achieved by sizing CF tow with a sizing agent containing CNTs. To get better dispersion in the sizing agent, CNT was functioned by the chemical modification with an amine monomer. The hybrid fiber showed a uniform distribution of CNT on the surface of CF. Interfacial shear strength of CF reinforced epoxy composite was significantly improved by integrating CNTs at the interface. Such a facile method in preparing CNT/CF hybrid fiber provides great commercial potential for CF manufacturer.

Liu, Wenbo; Zhang, Shu; Hao, Lifeng; Yang, Fan; Jiao, Weicheng; Li, Xiaoqin; Wang, Rongguo

2013-11-01

276

Influence of grain size on chalcopyrite ore leaching in acidic medium  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work presents an investigation of column leaching of a chalcopyrite ore using sulphuric acid where dissolved oxygen and iron(III) ions play the role of oxidants. The investigations were carried out in PVC columns, diameter 110 mm and height 1000 mm, by percolation of the leaching solution through the ore layer. The influence of ore grain size on the degree of leaching and acid consumption was examined. The formation of gypsum on limestone results in the comminution of the initial raw material during leaching. The grain size of chalcopyrite was found to have no important influence on the leaching rate of copper. A higher consumption of sulphuric acid was found for the fractions (–3+1) mm, (?5+0) mm and (?5+3) mm than for the fractions (?10+5) mm, (?20+10) mm and (?20+0) mm.

M. M. ANTONIJEVIC; G. D. BOGDANOVIC; S. M. SERBULA; S. M. MILIC

2007-01-01

277

The Ubiquity of Micrometer-Sized Dust Grains in the Dense Interstellar Medium  

CERN Document Server

Cold molecular clouds are the birthplaces of stars and planets, where dense cores of gas collapse to form protostars. The dust mixed in these clouds is thought to be made of grains of an average size of 0.1 micrometer. We report the widespread detection of the coreshine effect as a direct sign of the existence of grown, micrometer-sized dust grains. This effect is seen in half of the cores we have analyzed in our survey, spanning all Galactic longitudes, and is dominated by changes in the internal properties and local environment of the cores, implying that the coreshine effect can be used to constrain fundamental core properties such as the three-dimensional density structure and ages and also the grain characteristics themselves.

Pagani, Laurent; Bacmann, Aurore; Stutz, Amelia; Henning, Thomas; 10.1126/SCIENCE.1193211

2011-01-01

278

A finite size analysis of the heavy quark potential in a deconfining medium  

Science.gov (United States)

From lattice studies of Polyakov loop correlations, we determine the potential for a static quark-antiquark pair in a thermal SU(2) gauge field system above the deconfinement temperature. We perform a high statistics, finite size analysis of the heavy quark potential. We investigate the functional form of the potential at intermediate distances and compare it to continuum perturbation theory predictions. Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA.

Engels, J.; Karsch, F.; Satz, H.

1989-03-01

279

Culture medium optimization of ?-amylase producing organism Mocur spp. using the variable size-simplex algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effects of different culture conditions on growth and production of amylase by Mucor sp, using the variable size - simplex design, was investigated. The results showed that the optimum condition are pH of 5.5 -7, temperature of 23.8- 25 oC, shaking rate of 126 -155 rpm, starch at the concentration of 5.6 - 8 g/L and arginin at the concentration of 4.3 - 5.7 g/L.

Hossein Vahidi; Bijan Shafagi; Zahra Mirzabeigi

2005-01-01

280

Increasing Returns to Scale, Dynamics of Industrial Structure and Size Distribution of Firms  

CERN Document Server

A model is presented of the market dynamics to emphasis the effects of increasing returns to scale, including the description of the born and death of the adaptive producers. The evolution of market structure and its behavior with the technological shocks are discussed. Its dynamics is in good agreement with some empirical stylized facts of industrial evolution. Together with the diversities of demand and adaptive growth strategies of firms, the generalized model has reproduced the power-law distribution of firm size. Three factors mainly determine the competitive dynamics and the skewed size distributions of firms: 1. Self-reinforcing mechanism; 2. Adaptive firm grows strategies; 3. Demand diversities or widespread heterogeneity in the technological capabilities of different firms. Key words: Econophysics, Increasing returns, Industry dynamics, Size distribution of firms

Fan, Y; Di, Z; Fan, Ying; Li, Menghui; Di, Zengru

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Small and medium-sized firms top management teams’ decision making in global acquisitions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The new global marketplace has caused changes in some organizations’/industries’ forms and execution of strategy and reliance on international personnel. Entry and success through the accumulation of knowledge in the global marketplace have become the impetus for sustainable competitive/developmental advantage for many corporations. Many organizations choose a strategy focusing on international acquisitions in foreign markets to compete effectively in the current ever-changing dynamic competitive landscape. After acquisition, the monitoring of the operations of the new international subsidiary by US firms typically is an ethnocentric example of applying home-country standards and controls. We suggest that the top management team (TMT) of a firm is a valuable resource, needs to be retained and that ethnocentric monitoring must be reconsidered. This research focuses on the TMT and their value to the firm to help explain the variation in acquisition success. Thus post-acquisition integration and monitoring must account for this valuable asset.

Timothy Kiessling; Michael Harvey; Miriam Moeller

2009-01-01

282

How to Improve Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Profitability by Practicing an Efficient Human Resources Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In The European Union’s country members, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play an essential role in economic life, having special features that make adaptation process to the contemporary economy easier. Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) are the most dynamic and vital factor of progress in the contemporary society, main generator of economic performance and substance in any country, employment opportunity provider for most of population, major contributor to the national budget, and engine to improve the living standard of the population. SMEs represent 99% from all enterprises, drawing up the main human resources aglomeration. In the contemporary economic context, SMEs should act as learning entities, by developing the most important resources they own: the human resources. Human resource development (HRD) has gained a permanent role within SMEs, agencies and nations, increasingly not only as an academic discipline, but as a central theme in development area. Being a combination of training and education, in a broad context of adequate human resource policies, HRD ensures the continual improvement and growth of both individual and organization.

Antonio GARCÍA SÁNCHEZ; Dan POPESCU; Iulia CHIVU; Alina CIOCÂRLAN-CHITUCEA; Daniela Oana POPESCU

2011-01-01

283

The Role of Knowledge Management in Enhancing the Competitiveness of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Knowledge is one of the enterprise’s most important assets that influence its competitiveness. One way to capture an enterprise’s knowledge and make it available to all its members is through the use of knowledge management practices. This paper discusses the importance of knowledge management (KM) in Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and presents a framework to deal with knowledge management in order to enhance their competitiveness. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are known for too much implicit knowledge, limited resources, insufficiently shared between managers and other employees. So, in the context of SMEs, KM can be used to capture knowledge and experience generated during their operations, activities, and processes. This research paper addresses a new way of thinking about the role of KM in SMEs through developing a framework that combines five phases of the KM lifecycle (capture, creation, codification, communication, and capitalization). This framework is called “A Five C’s Knowledge Management Framework”. The application of this framework will improve the success rate and competitiveness of SMEs.

Ali A. Alawneh; Amer Abuali; Tamara Y. Almarabeh

2009-01-01

284

An empirical study on the effects of industrial clusters on small and medium enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tendency to industrial clustering at the end of the twentieth century was a turning point in industrial development programs in most countries of the world. Industrial clustering is a model of industrial organization, which has entered industrial literature as a new development strategy. Clustering has provided utilization of efficiencies of scale and aggregation as well as efficiencies of collective efforts by creating conditions for competitiveness advantage, economical growth and export development in the international environment. Today, industrial clustering has been considered as a fundamental strategy for economic development and growth in almost all countries of the world including Iran. This paper aims to assess and to explain important factors affecting the competitiveness of industrial clusters. It also shows the relationship among these factors together. The proposed study uses fuzzy DEMATEL technique; hence, the affecting factors of competitiveness of industrial clusters in the automotive cluster in one of the provinces of Iran is investigated and the importance of each of these factors and their relationships are identified.

Mojtaba Javidnia; Ahmad tavangar; MohammadAli Astanbous; Zeinab Armoun

2012-01-01

285

Synthesis of quantum-sized ZnO nanoparticles in different medium and their application to NO2 sensors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Quantum-sized ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized using zinc acetate dihydrate through a sol-gel process in different mediums: water, ethanol and methanol. Three types of modifiers: tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and oleic acid (OA) were added to control the growth of the ZnO nanoparticles and inhibit Ostwald ripening. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analyses revealed that ZnO have a hexagonal crystal structure, the estimated average crystallite sizes of modified ZnO are in the range of 4.5-10 nm, while the crystallite sizes of non-modified ZnO are large than 20 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses obtained the surface composition and chemical states of the products of ZnO. In this paper, the obtained quantum-sized ZnO nanoparticles as a novel sensing material were used to detect NO2 in environment. The sensing tests indicated that the ZnO based sensors not only have high response to NO2 but also exhibited high selectivity to CO and CH4 at low operating temperature of 290 degrees C.

Bai S; Hu J; Li D; Luo R; Chen A

2013-02-01

286

Synthesis of quantum-sized ZnO nanoparticles in different medium and their application to NO2 sensors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Quantum-sized ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized using zinc acetate dihydrate through a sol-gel process in different mediums: water, ethanol and methanol. Three types of modifiers: tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and oleic acid (OA) were added to control the growth of the ZnO nanoparticles and inhibit Ostwald ripening. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analyses revealed that ZnO have a hexagonal crystal structure, the estimated average crystallite sizes of modified ZnO are in the range of 4.5-10 nm, while the crystallite sizes of non-modified ZnO are large than 20 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses obtained the surface composition and chemical states of the products of ZnO. In this paper, the obtained quantum-sized ZnO nanoparticles as a novel sensing material were used to detect NO2 in environment. The sensing tests indicated that the ZnO based sensors not only have high response to NO2 but also exhibited high selectivity to CO and CH4 at low operating temperature of 290 degrees C. PMID:23646554

Bai, Shouli; Hu, Jingwei; Li, Dianqing; Luo, Ruixian; Chen, Aifan

2013-02-01

287

An Empirical Study of IT Innovation Adoption Among Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Klang Valley, Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose—The purpose of this research is to use and validate the Entrepreneurial Event model as a base model to investigate SME owners’ perception toward IT innovation adoption and use. This paper also attempts to investigate the key determinants of the adoption of IT innovation among small and medium sized enterprises in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This study revised and validated the Entrepreneurial Event Model in a new context and tried to examine the effect of perceived desirability, propensity to act and performance expectancy on behavior intention to adopt and use IT innovation in SMEs companies.Design/ methodology/ approach—Based on the research model the questionnaire was developed using previous work in the areas of entrepreneurship (Entrepreneurial Event Model) and technology acceptance (UTAUT). The data used to test the hypothesis is collectedfrom various spectrums of Malaysian industries in Kuala Lumpur. A total of 1,000 businesses were identified and 412 completed questionnaires were available in this study. The research model was applied using the structural equation modelling technique.Finding—The results of this study indicated that perceived desirability, propensity to act and performance expectancy have a significant positive influence on behavioral intention, and explained a significant amount of the variance in predicting a SMEs owners intention to adopt IT innovation. Propensity to act is the strongest determinant of intention to use IT innovations among Malaysian SME owners follow by perceived desirability and performance expectancy. The results suggest that attractiveness of IT innovation is an important determinant towards the intention to adopt IT innovation. The result revealed that SME owners are more willing to use IT innovation, which is more attractive. Perceived usefulness (performance expectancy) of IT innovation is the third most important factor that SME owners consider when they want to adopt and use new technology in their jobs. The results also revealed that experience moderated the relationship between determinants and behavior intention.Research Limitations/implications—The number of male and female SMEsowners is not equal and our respondents were mostly men compared to women. This study measure intention to use IT innovation, and did not measure use behavior.Practical implications—This study extends to knowledge on IS adoption behavior research by using entrepreneurial event models in the context of technology acceptance.Furthermore, from the SME owners’ points of view, this study has shed some light on the adoption and use behavior and clarified the situation for SME owners when they want to adopt and use IT innovation to be successful in their job and market.Originality/value—This study is one of the first to utilize the Entrepreneurial Event Model (EPM) to the technology acceptance domain. It also provides a broader view of the IT innovation adoption decision and sheds some additional light on individual technology usage behavior.

Sedigheh Moghavvemi; Noor A. Mohd Salleh; Wenjie Zhao; Fatemeh Hakimian

2011-01-01

288

Evaluation of the Decree on Emission Regulations for Medium-sized Combustion Installations; Evaluatie Besluit emissie-eisen middelgrote stookinstallaties  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In April 2010 the Dutch decree on emission limit values (ELVs) on medium-sized combustion installations entered into force. Bems sets ELVs for NOx, SO2, PM and CxHy. In 2013 the Bems legislation was transferred to the Activities Decree (In Dutch: Ab - Activiteitenbesluit). At the same time the Industrial Emissions Directive (IED) was implemented in the Ab. At the time Bems entered into force, it was decided to evaluate this legislation in 2014. Due to incorporation of Bems and the implementation of the IED in the Ab, it was decided to perform this evaluation a year earlier, thereby enabling the consideration of several stakeholders' comments on these implementations. This report presents the main conclusions of this evaluation. In Bems, combustion installations smaller than 50 MWth have to comply with ELVs based on Best Available Technology (BAT). Five possible ELVs have been discussed but not implemented in Bems, due to a lack of knowledge. These ELVs have been included in this evaluation. For gas engines < 2.5 MWth the NOx ELV could be more stringent, namely 140 mg/Nm{sup 3} instead of 340 mg/Nm{sup 3}; all ELVs are set at dry conditions in the flue gas and 3% O2. For biogas engines, introduction of the same ELV might be postponed until a comparable ELV enters into force in 2016 in a Californian region. Both the Californian ELV and this ELV need a gas cleaning technology. For (bio)diesel engines the dust ELV could be more stringent, namely 15 mg PM/Nm{sup 3} instead of 50 mg PM/Nm{sup 3}, while for NOx the ELV can be tightened from 450 mg/Nm{sup 3} to 250 mg/Nm{sup 3}. Both ELVs may be postponed until Tier 4 limits in the USA enter into force in the period 2014-2017. The Netherlands is one of the very few countries with CxHy ELVs for gas engines. The current CxHy ELV of 1500 mg C/Nm{sup 3} may be tightened to 1200 mg C/Nm{sup 3}. Other issues and changes, directly related to the Dutch legislation, have been discussed as well. These include exemption rules for installations running less than 500 full-load hours per year and the reintroduction of an inspection prior to commissioning. Moreover, maximum ELVs for furnaces <50 MWth of 80 mg NOx/Nm{sup 3} for gas firing and 120 mg NOx/Nm{sup 3} for oil firing have been discussed. As a result of this evaluation, the Ab has been changed; for example, ELVs for combustion of non-standard fuels are now set by the licensing authority. Finally, several chapters in this report are devoted to biomass firing and potential restrictions of ELVs for new installations [Dutch] Dit rapport betreft een evaluatie van het Besluit emissie-eisen middelgrote stookinstallaties milieubeheer (Bems). Het besluit geeft milieuregels voor bedrijven die energie (warmte, elektriciteit, mechanische energie) opwekken door het verbranden van brandstoffen in stookinstallaties, zoals verwarmingsketels, motoren en gasturbines.

Kroon, P.; Plomp, A.J. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Van Berkel, L.; Burgers, W.; Hermans, L.; Groot, M.; Simonse, W. [Kenniscentrum InfoMil, Rijkswaterstaat Water, Verkeer en Leefomgeving, Den Haag (Netherlands); Kruithof, P.; Taal, M.; Van Bergen, J.; Walthaus, H. [Ministerie van Infrastructuur en Milieu IenM, Den Haag (Netherlands)

2013-05-15

289

Miniature data loggers for remote measurement of body temperature in medium-sized rodents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have investigated the use of miniature temperature data loggers for the recording of abdominal temperature in laboratory animals, using the guinea pig as a model. The data loggers, which are small (16cm(3)), light (20g) and have a battery life of +/-5 years, recorded both the normal abdominal temperature of guinea pigs, and their febrile response to an intramuscular injection of 50µg/kg lipopolysaccharide (E. coli) every 5min for the duration of the experiment (21 days), to a resolution of at least 0.05 degrees C. No calibration shifts or loss of data occurred during the study period. However, despite their small size and versatility, we found that the loggers were suited for use only in guinea pigs with a body mass of approximately 600g or greater. In smaller animals, the loggers caused peritonitis.

Kamerman PR; Di Zio LC; Fuller A

2001-06-01

290

Development of the safety systems for a simplified, low pressure, medium sized PWR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Within the framework of studies on the cost reduction of the kW.h, we examine the possibilities offered by the decrease in operating pressure and temperature of Pressurized Water Reactors. One of the simplifications studied is that of the safety systems, especially the safety injection system. The study is conducted on a reactor with a primary pressure of 7.6 MPa and a secondary pressure of 3.2 MPa. A parametric study on the different sizes of the breaks in the primary circuit shows that it is possible to eliminate the high pressure injection and the accumulators. In order to reduce the flow rate of the low pressure safety injection, a prospective study is made by placing, in the annular space at the level of the inlet nozzles a device limiting the inverse flow rate. This passive system playing the part of primary hydraulic diode, might divide by two the safety injection flow rate. (author)

1999-01-01

291

Development of the safety systems for a simplified, low pressure, medium sized PWR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the framework of studies on the cost reduction of the kW.h, we examine the possibilities offered by the decrease in operating pressure and temperature of Pressurized Water Reactors. One of the simplifications studied is that of the safety systems, especially the safety injection system. The study is conducted on a reactor with a primary pressure of 7.6 MPa and a secondary pressure of 3.2 MPa. A parametric study on the different sizes of the breaks in the primary circuit shows that it is possible to eliminate the high pressure injection and the accumulators. In order to reduce the flow rate of the low pressure safety injection, a prospective study is made by placing, in the annular space at the level of the inlet nozzles a device limiting the inverse flow rate. This passive system playing the part of primary hydraulic diode, might divide by two the safety injection flow rate. (author)

Gautier, G-M.; Pignatel, J-F.; Beraud, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires, DRN/DER, Cadarache, Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

1999-07-01

292

Carboxymethyl cellulase and cellobiase production by Clostridiumacetobutylicum in an industrial fermentation medium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The production of a carboxymethyl cellulase and a cellobiase by Clostridium acetobutylicum was demonstrated. In liquid medium the carboxymethyl cellulase was induced by molasses, and it was not repressed by glucose. Optimum carboxymethyl cellulase activity occurred at pH 4.6 and 37 degrees C. (Refs. 12).

Allcock, E.R.; Woods, D.R.

1981-02-01

293

Carboxymethyl cellulase and cellobiase production by Clostridium acetobutylicum in an industrial fermentation medium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The production of a carboxymethyl cellulase and a cellobiase by Clostridium acetobutylicum was demonstrated. In liquid medium the carboxymethyl cellulase was induced by molasses, and it was not repressed by glucose. Optimum carboxymethyl cellulase activity occurred at pH 4.6 and 37/sup 0/C.

Allock, E.R.; Woods, D.R.

1981-02-01

294

Lumbar vertebral body bone microstructural scaling in small to medium-sized strepsirhines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bone mass, architecture, and tissue mineral density contribute to bone strength. As body mass (BM) increases any one or combination of these properties could change to maintain structural integrity. To better understand the structural origins of vertebral fragility and gain insight into the mechanisms that govern bone adaptation, we conducted an integrative analysis of bone mass and microarchitecture in the last lumbar vertebral body from nine strepsirhine species, ranging in size from 42 g (Microcebus rufus) to 2,440 g (Eulemur macaco). Bone mass and architecture were assessed via µCT for the whole body and spherical volumes of interest (VOI). Allometric equations were estimated and compared with predictions for geometric scaling, assuming axial compression as the dominant loading regime. Bone mass, microarchitectural, and vertebral body geometric variables predominantly scaled isometrically. Among structural variables, the degree of anisotropy (Tb.DA) was the only parameter independent of BM and other trabecular architectural variables. Tb.DA was related to positional behavior. Orthograde primates had higher average Tb.DA (1.60) and more craniocaudally oriented trabeculae while lorisines had the lowest Tb.DA (1.25), as well as variably oriented trabeculae. Finally, lorisines had the highest ratio of trabecular bone volume to cortical shell volume (?3x) and while there appears to be flexibility in this ratio, the total bone volume (trabecular + cortical) scales isometrically (BM(1.23) , r(2) = 0.93) and appears tightly constrained. The common pattern of isometry in our measurements leaves open the question of how vertebral bodies in strepsirhine species compensate for increased BM.

Fajardo RJ; Desilva JM; Manoharan RK; Schmitz JE; Maclatchy LM; Bouxsein ML

2013-02-01

295

Lumbar vertebral body bone microstructural scaling in small to medium-sized strepsirhines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bone mass, architecture, and tissue mineral density contribute to bone strength. As body mass (BM) increases any one or combination of these properties could change to maintain structural integrity. To better understand the structural origins of vertebral fragility and gain insight into the mechanisms that govern bone adaptation, we conducted an integrative analysis of bone mass and microarchitecture in the last lumbar vertebral body from nine strepsirhine species, ranging in size from 42 g (Microcebus rufus) to 2,440 g (Eulemur macaco). Bone mass and architecture were assessed via µCT for the whole body and spherical volumes of interest (VOI). Allometric equations were estimated and compared with predictions for geometric scaling, assuming axial compression as the dominant loading regime. Bone mass, microarchitectural, and vertebral body geometric variables predominantly scaled isometrically. Among structural variables, the degree of anisotropy (Tb.DA) was the only parameter independent of BM and other trabecular architectural variables. Tb.DA was related to positional behavior. Orthograde primates had higher average Tb.DA (1.60) and more craniocaudally oriented trabeculae while lorisines had the lowest Tb.DA (1.25), as well as variably oriented trabeculae. Finally, lorisines had the highest ratio of trabecular bone volume to cortical shell volume (?3x) and while there appears to be flexibility in this ratio, the total bone volume (trabecular + cortical) scales isometrically (BM(1.23) , r(2) = 0.93) and appears tightly constrained. The common pattern of isometry in our measurements leaves open the question of how vertebral bodies in strepsirhine species compensate for increased BM. PMID:23355518

Fajardo, Roberto J; Desilva, Jeremy M; Manoharan, Rajaram K; Schmitz, James E; Maclatchy, Laura M; Bouxsein, Mary L

2013-02-01

296

IFRS IN THE SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTITIES. DIFICULTIES AND OPPORTUNITIES OF THE IFRS FOR SMES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available IFRS IN THE SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTITIES. DIFICULTIES AND OPPORTUNITIES OF THE IFRS FOR SMEs PhD Student Mo? Ioana, West University of Timi?oara, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, România Doctoral programme - Accounting Scientific coordonator – Prof. Univ. Dr. Mate? Dorel Abstract: Over the years, the accounting have to meet a series of transformations and adaptations to the new trend by globalization, harmonisation and integration, trying to unfold transformations carried out at European and international level. In the same way and SMEs have undergone a series of changes, moreover SMEs shall draw up financial statements often use only owner-managers or use only tax authorities or other government authorities. Financial statements elaborated only for these purposes are not necessarily financial statements general purpose. IASB (International Acounting Standard Board) has developed and published a separate standard devised to apply financial statements with general purpose and other financial reporting of the small and medium-sized entities (SMEs), entities private and public entities without liability, called IFRS for SMEs (The International Financial Reporting Standard for Small and Medium-sized entities). The International Financial Reporting Standard for SMEs has become an issue of wide interest and for Romania. Through the contents OMPF 3055/2009 is a harmonisation with European Directives and International Standards, fundamental purpose being upgrade the comparability of financial statements of the economic entity. In an effort to reduce the workload of SMEs has been provided the fact that IFRS for SMEs should be reviewed every three years and may be implemented by any entity, whether adopted or not full set of IFRS. We believe that IFRS for SMEs is different than the full set of IFRS, due simplification, which allows flexibility provisions and showing accounting required information for this class of entities, but in applying the standard simplified scheme for SMEs has revealed a series of opportunities and challenges. IFRS for SMEs allows a particular accounting policies on recognition and measurement principles, offers greater flexibility in developing their accounting rules than provisions of full IFRSs. Having regard to theoretical concepts discussed above, we carry out a case study, which shows the comparable presentation by applying of financial statements OMPF 3055/2009 and IFRS for SMEs in reporting financial assistence in Romania. According to studies, rules used in the preparation and presentation of financial statements present a yawning abyss regarding accounting standards and those applying them in practice, due to the existence of multiple accounting regulations, confusing and permanently changing. Through this article it soughts to point out the accounting rules used by entities in Romania, in financial statements presentation. Keywords: financial statements, standard, SMEs, IFRS for SMEs, harmonization, performance. JEL classification: M41

Mo? Ioana

2013-01-01

297

Synthesis of PHB nanoparticles from optimized medium utilizing dairy industrial waste using Brevibacterium casei SRKP2: a green chemistry approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are natural, biodegradable polymers accumulated by bacteria under nutritional exhausted condition where carbon source is in excess. A gram positive bacterium (designated strain SRKP2) that potentially accumulated polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) was isolated from dairy industrial waste. From its morphological and physiological properties and nucleotide sequence of its 16S rRNA, it was suggested that strain SRKP2 was similar to Brevibacterium casei. PHAs were synthesized from a medium containing dairy waste, yeast extract and sea water. The synthesized PHAs were characterized by FT-IR as Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). Response surface methodology was applied to optimize the production of PHB. From the optimized medium the yield of PHB was found to be 2.940 g/L. Here we report the direct use of dairy waste and sea water as potential sources for the production of PHB. Produced PHB was used to synthesize nanoparticles using solvent displacement technique. PMID:19700268

Ram Kumar Pandian, Sureshbabu; Deepak, Venkatraman; Kalishwaralal, Kalimuthu; Muniyandi, Jeyaraj; Rameshkumar, Neelamegam; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

2009-07-30

298

Synthesis of PHB nanoparticles from optimized medium utilizing dairy industrial waste using Brevibacterium casei SRKP2: a green chemistry approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are natural, biodegradable polymers accumulated by bacteria under nutritional exhausted condition where carbon source is in excess. A gram positive bacterium (designated strain SRKP2) that potentially accumulated polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) was isolated from dairy industrial waste. From its morphological and physiological properties and nucleotide sequence of its 16S rRNA, it was suggested that strain SRKP2 was similar to Brevibacterium casei. PHAs were synthesized from a medium containing dairy waste, yeast extract and sea water. The synthesized PHAs were characterized by FT-IR as Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). Response surface methodology was applied to optimize the production of PHB. From the optimized medium the yield of PHB was found to be 2.940 g/L. Here we report the direct use of dairy waste and sea water as potential sources for the production of PHB. Produced PHB was used to synthesize nanoparticles using solvent displacement technique.

Ram Kumar Pandian S; Deepak V; Kalishwaralal K; Muniyandi J; Rameshkumar N; Gurunathan S

2009-11-01

299

Development of dielectric spectrometer probe for charge and size analysis of industrial slurries. Final technical report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The project involved the design of a small robust remote probe to measure the dielectric spectra of colloidal dispersions (suspensions and emulsions) and the computation of both the particle size and zeta potential of these systems from the measured spectra. An extensive literature review on non-equilibrium electric surface phenomena relevant to colloidal dispersions was done. Test were performed on both model and industrial colloids to evaluate the probes.

Goetz, Philip J.

2003-01-01

300

Effect of sodium nitrite-borax blend on the corrosion rate of low carbon steel in industrial water medium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effects of sodium nitrite-borax blend on low carbon steel corrosion in industrial water medium at various temperatures, various inhibitors concentration of sodium nitrite and borax and at various rotational speeds of the specimens have been studied by gravimetric and polarization measurements. Optimization of the three variables was made and correlating the results obtained by using Box-Wilson statistical method. The process was considered as adsorption of inhibitor ions in oxide layer which form a passive film on the metal surface. The Langmuir isotherm was found to be the best description for the adsorption process. Thermodynamic parameters were evaluated and discussed.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Numerical study of turbulent recirculating flow in a medium-sized vertical flow air-conditioning unit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper a numerical study of the complex three-dimensional turbulent flow with recirculation through a packaged air-conditioning system is presented. The system is a complete medium-sized vertical-flow unit and comprises a twin-coiled inclined heat exchanger fitted with condensate trays and two centrifugal fans. The mathematical model formulated is based on the three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations to calculate the mean flow, together with a two-equation {kappa}-{var_epsilon} model to describe the turbulence. Special modeling techniques are developed to account for the presence of numerous fins and tubes in the flow field due to heat exchanger coils and the Coriolis force due to rotation of the fan impellers. The influence of the internal design on the performance of the unit is demonstrated.

Xu, Z.G. [Silsoe Research Institute, Bedfordshire (United Kingdom). Process Engineering Division; Gotham, D.H.T.; Collins, M.W. [City Univ., London (United Kingdom). Thermo-Fluids Engineering Research Centre

1994-12-31

302

Variable strategy toward carbasugars and relatives. 5.(1) Focus on preparation of chiral nonracemic medium-sized carbocycles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The feasibility of sequential vinylogous aldol (intermolecular)/silylative aldol (intramolecular) addition reactions involving furan- and pyrrole-based dienoxysilanes, 6 and 12, in the synthesis of carbasugar frameworks is illustrated by the preparation of the scantily investigated carbaseptanose and carbaoctanose representatives of this class of compounds. The target compounds, 1, 2, 3, ent-2, ent-3, and 4, were obtained from readily available carbohydrate precursors (5 and 19) in yields of 21-30% over 8-12 steps. The irreversible silylative ring-closing aldolisation of gamma-substituted dihydro-5H-furan-2-one and pyrrolidin-2-one aldehydes (9, 16, ent-16, and 22) driven by the TBSOTf/Pr(i)(2)EtN Lewis acid-Lewis base couple was shown to be a practical, diastereoselective maneuver to forge the densely functionalized, medium-sized core carbocycles.

Rassu G; Auzzas L; Pinna L; Zambrano V; Zanardi F; Battistini L; Gaetani E; Curti C; Casiraghi G

2003-07-01

303

Variable strategy toward carbasugars and relatives. 5.(1) Focus on preparation of chiral nonracemic medium-sized carbocycles.  

Science.gov (United States)

The feasibility of sequential vinylogous aldol (intermolecular)/silylative aldol (intramolecular) addition reactions involving furan- and pyrrole-based dienoxysilanes, 6 and 12, in the synthesis of carbasugar frameworks is illustrated by the preparation of the scantily investigated carbaseptanose and carbaoctanose representatives of this class of compounds. The target compounds, 1, 2, 3, ent-2, ent-3, and 4, were obtained from readily available carbohydrate precursors (5 and 19) in yields of 21-30% over 8-12 steps. The irreversible silylative ring-closing aldolisation of gamma-substituted dihydro-5H-furan-2-one and pyrrolidin-2-one aldehydes (9, 16, ent-16, and 22) driven by the TBSOTf/Pr(i)(2)EtN Lewis acid-Lewis base couple was shown to be a practical, diastereoselective maneuver to forge the densely functionalized, medium-sized core carbocycles. PMID:12868921

Rassu, Gloria; Auzzas, Luciana; Pinna, Luigi; Zambrano, Vincenzo; Zanardi, Franca; Battistini, Lucia; Gaetani, Enrico; Curti, Claudio; Casiraghi, Giovanni

2003-07-25

304

Social participation among older adults living in medium-sized cities in Belgium: the role of neighbourhood perceptions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examines the associations between neighbourhood perceptions and social participation in a sample of older adults living in medium-sized cities in Flanders, Belgium. Strong evidence of the influence of place on older people's physical and mental health exists. However, the question of how neighbourhoods promote or hinder social participation remains under-explored in social gerontology. Using data generated from the Belgian Ageing Studies, a multivariate regression model (n = 1877) is tested, with personal characteristics, subjective neighbourhood assessments and objective city-level measures as independent variables, and two indicators of social participation as dependent variables: social activity and formal participation. Positive predictors included neighbourhood involvement, frequent contact with neighbours and availability of activities for older people. However, the predictive role of neighbourhood perceptions is stronger for formal participation than for social activity, which is explained more by individual characteristics. The article concludes by discussing the implications of the findings for research and practice pertaining to health promotion interventions.

Buffel T; de Donder L; Phillipson C; Dury S; de Witte N; Verté D

2013-03-01

305

Innovation incubators – entities of support of small and medium-sized enterprises’ competitiveness in the modern economy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Innovation incubators are entities of the infrastructure network of support of small and medium-sized enterprises. At the stage of SMEs’ maximum vulnerability, they improve the survival of innovative businesses through the range of services and facilities provided. They are designed to mitigate the problems faced by SMEs, which develop and implement innovations, ensuring sustainability and competitiveness. Along with promoting the entrepreneurial spirit, innovation incubators play an essential role in promoting knowledge and innovation transfer, introduction of the research results into economic circuit, creating links between businesses, universities, research institutions, etc., links between people, talents and resources.In this article, we will focus on innovation incubators, their role in the development of SMEs in the world and in the Republic of Moldova, making an accent in the creation and development of the country's first Innovation Incubator „Inovatorul”.

Maier Lidia

2013-01-01

306

THE LIMITS OF THE EXTENDED HÜCKEL THEORY TO CALCULATE THE TOTAL DENSITY OF STATES OF MEDIUM-SIZED MOLECULES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two medium-sized molecular systems X60 (X=C,N) were analyzed using Extended Hückel, Density Functional and ab initio Hartree-Fock methods. The aim of the work was to test the reliability of the EHT methodology to calculate the total Density of States distribution curve. The Extended Hückel method is only reliable in the cases of the first valence and conduction bands of these systems. For the rest of the Density of States distribution curve EHT performs badly. The sources of error of EHT, come from the non-inclusion of the electron-electron interaction and from incorrect results regarding the relative ordering of the MO degeneracies. Both sources of error should disappear when the occupied and empty molecular orbitals become very similar in energy over a certain range, forming an almost continuous band, as happens in bigger molecular systems

JUAN SEBASTIÁN GÓMEZ-JERIA

2006-01-01

307

Simultaneous kissing stents (SKS) technique for treating bifurcation lesions in medium-to-large size coronary arteries.  

Science.gov (United States)

The treatment of bifurcation lesions (BLs) is associated with high procedural complication and restenosis rates. Two techniques of BL interventions were compared: the simultaneous kissing stents (SKS) technique, involving 2 stents, 1 in the main vessel and 1 in the side branch (n = 100), and the conventional stent strategy (CSS) technique, involving a stent in the main vessel and provisional stenting for the side branch (n = 100). In-hospital and 30-day major adverse cardiac events were greater in the CSS group, with significantly less procedure time with the SKS technique. The incidence of target lesion revascularization was 5% in the SKS group and 18% in the CSS group (p = 0.007). Therefore, the SKS technique seems to be rapid, safe, and effective for the treatment of medium- to large-size BLs, with a trend toward fewer acute complications and promising mid-term results. PMID:15464676

Sharma, Samin K; Choudhury, Ahsan; Lee, Johnny; Kim, Michael C; Fisher, Edward; Steinheimer, Angelica M; Kini, Annapoorna S

2004-10-01

308

SOCIAL CAPITAL FOR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT: THE CASE OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article proposes a conceptual framework that explains that the social capital of a community shapes the innovation performance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) through knowledge management within the firm. The study's significance stems from the unprecedented effort in explaining how community social capital matters in the innovation performance of SMEs, a departure from previous studies that have typically examined market-related or hierarchical social capital in the form of formal networks and directly linked them to a firm's innovation performance without due regard for knowledge management within the firm as an antecedent of organisational innovation performance. The aim is to stimulate further thinking and empirical research on the subject of social capital of a community in the SME and/or entrepreneurial context.

Banjo G. Roxas

2008-01-01

309

Use of radiation vulcanized natural rubber latex in small and medium scale industries in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The latex based industry is fast growing with the setting up of several units to produce household and examination gloves. Production of rubberized coir using concentrated latex is also growing rapidly while more and more small scale industries have been set up. There is also a growth in the large scale sector in the dipped goods manufacture. Use of irradiated latex in the manufacture of dipped products has good potential as the efficiency of production is enhanced in the case of latex containing less additives. (author)

1990-01-01

310

A plan for the medium-sized building with large space, using engineered wood and insulation panels and its instance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A summary is included of the plan and an evaluation of the construction of a medium-sized wooden church building with a panelized outer wall and roof. The church has engineered wood in its main frames and special joint hardware. Assembled frames were used to define the large space of the church and to accentuate the wood design. To improve the design image there are 4 different kinds of frames, and the frame pitch is 2.7 m. The frames connect tightly to the main frames using special J-connectors to the sub-beams. The insulation panels were fixed to the outside frame and roof, and those panels were located outside the main frame. Some details of construction and cost are cited. The building of the main frames took two days. The installation of the panels for the roof required 16.6 square m/mandays, and the outside walls 10.0 square m/mandays. The construction of a similar sized building without use of insulation panels would have required an additional month. The total construction cost was $420,000. The main frames and connecting hardware accounted for 32% and the panels and their installation for 10%.

Tezuka, J. [J. Architecture System Inc., Hokkaido, (Japan); Iida, M.; Kikuchi, H. [Hokkaido Inst. of Tech., Hokkaido, (Japan); Endo, J. [OPS Architecture Design Inc., (Japan)

1999-11-01

311

Analysis of Strategic Management in Small and Medium Business Organizations in Graphic Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Graphic industry as a field of work and a field of study offers ability for economic growth of every country or region. The increase in competition and the development of the market method of prediction, increase the need for business organizations to continuously observe their own position. Faced with a variable, turbulent and complex environment, the business organizations adopt strategic management, and modern managers, especially those in top management, have to possess knowledge and skills of the concepts and application of strategic management.In this paper the case method, as a method used in strategic management, will be applied as a general approach of strategic analysis in creating strategy map for businesses in graphic industry.

Lili Boshevska; Ilija Jolevski

2013-01-01

312

Radioactive waste industrial management in France for medium- and long-term  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The context within which the industrial scale management of radioactive wastes takes place is briefly outlined. The regulations already in force or envisaged in France in this field are exposed. Emphasis is given to the activities of the National Agency for the management of radioactive wastes (ANDRA). The reasons why this organization was created are discussed together with the type of work conferred to it, its present workload, the industrial management concepts it applies, its present and future potential, the costs envisaged for waste disposal and the financial solutions adopted. The industrial technical assistance policy of ANDRA is presented[fr] L'objet de cet expose est de presenter, apres une breve description du cadre dans lequel s'inscrit la gestion industrielle a long terme des dechets radioactifs, les dispositions mises en place ou prevues en France pour assurer cette gestion et en particulier l'Agence Nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs (ANDRA), les motivations de sa creation, ses missions, son plan de charge, les concepts de gestion industrielle, les moyens actuels ou prevus, le cout previsible de l'elimination des dechets et les solutions de financement retenues ainsi que la politique d'assistance industrielle de l'ANDRA

1981-01-01

313

Vendor development program among small and medium industries (SMIS): A Malaysian experience  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The supplier-buyer relationship has been increasingly undertaken in recent years, by academics, consultants and operations management. Present and especially future development strongly urge for more systematic and transparent decision-making. Developing longer-term relationships and using longer-term contracts, are additional ways to manage, develop and improve supplier performance (Monczka et.al 1998) who, often becomes partner with the purchaser. This paper investigates the supplier development programme initiated by the government of Malaysia to stimulate the economic growth through SMIs sector in co-operation with the large firms (LFs). The economic and industrialisation development propelled by the goverment has encouraged the development of SMIs working closely with large firms (LFs). This programme was seccussfully implemented when the goverment introduced it in the heavy industrial program - the manufacturing of national car PROTON in 1988. The success story of PROTON has initiated the government to disseminate this programme into other industries. Empirical findings from a survey of 15 SMIs and 6LFs (from 4 different industrial sectors) within the Klang valley in the supplier development programme indicated that the success rate is not encouraging. Suppliers lack skills and financing to make the necessary indicated that the success rate is not encouraging. Suppliers lack skills and financing to make the necessary investments in training, new technology, research and development to make an effective partnership with final producers.

Abu Bakar Abdul Hamid

2003-01-01

314

Results from an exploratory study to identify the factors that contribute to success for UK medical device small- and medium-sized enterprises.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper reports the results from an exploratory study that sets out to identify and compare the strategic approaches and patterns of business practice employed by 14 UK small- and medium-sized enterprises to achieve success in the medical device sector of the health-care industry. An interview-based survey was used to construct individual case studies of the medical device technology (MDT) companies. A cross-case analysis was performed to search for patterns and themes that cut across these individual cases. Exploratory results revealed the heterogeneity of MDT companies and the distinctive features of the MDT innovation process that emphasize the importance of a strategic approach for achieving milestones in the product development and exploitation process and for creating value for the company and its stakeholders. Recognizing the heterogeneity of MDT companies, these exploratory findings call for further investigation to understand better the influence of components of the MDT innovation process on the commercialization life cycle and value trajectory. This is required to assist start-up or spin-out MDT companies in the UK and worldwide to navigate the critical transitions that determine access to financial and consumer markets and enhance the potential to build a successful business. This will be important not only for bioscience-based companies but also for engineering-based companies aiming to convert their activities into medical devices and the health- and social-care market.

Hourd PC; Williams DJ

2008-07-01

315

Possibilities and hindrances for prevention of intimate partner violence: perceptions among professionals and decision makers in a Swedish medium-sized town.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem, but few evidence-based prevention programs have yet been implemented. PURPOSE: This study explored the perceptions and beliefs of local-level decision makers, social and health-care professionals, and representatives from the police force regarding the possibilities and hindrances for prevention of IPV. METHOD: An explorative qualitative approach was used, and participants were strategically selected for focus group discussions. The participants, 19 men and 23 women, were professionals or decision makers within health-care services, social welfare, municipal administration, the police force, local industry, and local politicians in a Swedish town of 54,000 inhabitants. The focus group discussions were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and thematically analyzed. A manifest content analysis was performed on the text. RESULTS: Preschools, schools, sports associations, workplaces, and the mass media were suggested as possible arenas for prevention measures. The proposed activities included norm building and improved social support structures. Hindrances were conceptualized as societal beliefs and attitudes, shame, silence, gender inequality, the counteracting influence of the media, and lack of resources. The participants demonstrated closeness and distance to IPV, expressed as acceptance or referral of responsibility to others regarding where and by whom prevention measures should be executed. CONCLUSION: This study gave new insights in the prevailing perceptions of professionals and decision makers of a medium-sized Swedish town, which can be a useful knowledge in future preventive work and contribute to bridge the gap between research and practice.

Jakobsson A; von Borgstede C; Krantz G; Spak F; Hensing G

2013-09-01

316

CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE USE OF MODERN MANAGEMENT METHODS IN PLANNING THE MARKETING ACTIVITY WITHIN THE SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight, from a marketing perspective, the manner and conditions in which small and medium-sized enterprises can use modern management methods in planning the marketing activity. Using modern methods of management are particularly important for managers of these organizations and especially for marketers. Thus, the following methods play a significant role within the marketing activitiesn#8217; development for marketing specialists, namely: management by objectives, management by budgets, management by projects, and management by product. The high degree of understanding and using the above methods is, in the current economic environment, one of the determinants of the market success of small and medium-sized enterprises. In the current context, the adoption of the management by objectives is not a facultative option for the small and medium-sized enterprises, but rather a binding one in the context of adopting and practicing an efficient marketing with significant results on the development of marketing programs comprised within them. Similarly to the management by objectives, the use of the management by budgets within the small and medium-sized enterprises has a series of features required by their smaller size, features that should be considered by marketers. Regarding the use of management by projects, this method has to constitute the foundation for the elaboration of marketing programs developed within the small and medium-sized enterprises, thereby allowing shaping an action that can be accompanied by success in achieving the goals comprised within the marketing programs. Finally, the role of the management by product is extremely important in the marketing activity within the small and medium-sized enterprises, especially in the operationalization of concepts such as strategic marketing and tactical marketing. This paper thus outlines from a marketing point of view the main issues aiming at understanding and using modern management methods in the marketing activity planning process within SMEs.

Olteanu Valerica; Curmei Catalin Valeriu

2012-01-01

317

A survey of size-fractionated dust levels in the U.S. wood processing industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey of size-fractionated dust exposure was carried out in 10 wood processing plants across the United States as part of a 5-year longitudinal respiratory health study. The facilities included a sawmill, plywood assembly plants, secondary wood milling operations, and factories producing finished wood products such as wood furniture and cabinets. Size-fractionated dust exposures were determined using the RespiCon Personal Particle Sampler. There were 2430 valid sets of respirable, thoracic, and inhalable dust samples collected. Overall, geometric mean (geometric standard deviation) exposure levels were found to be 1.44 (2.67), 0.35 (2.65), and 0.18 (2.54) mg/m, for the inhalable, thoracic, and respirable fractions, respectively. Averaged across all samples, the respirable fraction accounted for 16.7% of the inhalable dust mass, whereas the corresponding figure for thoracic fraction as a percentage of the inhalable fraction was 28.7%. Exposures in the furniture manufacturing plants were significantly higher than those in sawmill and plywood assembly plants, wood milling plants, and cabinet manufacturing plants, whereas the sawmill and plywood assembly plants exhibited significantly lower dust levels than the other industry segments. Among work activities, cleaning with compressed air and sanding processes produced the highest size-fractionated dust exposures, whereas forklift drivers demonstrated the lowest respirable and inhalable dust fractions and shipping processes produced the lowest thoracic dust fraction. Other common work activities such as sawing, milling, and clamping exhibited intermediate exposure levels, but there were significant differences in relative ranking of these across the various industry segments. Processing of hardwood and mixed woods generally were associated with higher exposures than were softwood and plywood, although these results were confounded with industry segment also. PMID:18569517

Kalliny, Medhat I; Brisolara, Joseph A; Glindmeyer, Henry; Rando, Roy

2008-08-01

318

Information and knowledge sharing trends of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Western Cape, South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), especially in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, are currently facing various financial and other obstacles, which may threaten their survival. Globalisation, the lowering of trade barriers and the reduction of import tariffs have resulted in increased international competition. Businesses are thus forced to undertake continuous improvements and innovation in order to survive, to keep abreast of change and to excel.Objectives: Effective knowledge sharing and consequent knowledge management (KM) have been identified as definite approaches to enhancing competitive advantage. The research therefore aimed to establish to what extent small enterprises embrace their knowledge sharing activities and whether their knowledge sharing activities are managed at all. Furthermore, it examined how their knowledge sharing can contribute to their competitive advantage.Method: A case study approach was followed for this research. Selected SMEs from the engineering sector were the subject of the case study and SME owners, directors and managers of consulting civil engineering firms were interviewed to determine whether there are mechanisms in place to ensure better knowledge sharing within SMEs.Results: In general, respondents had stated that they possessed special factors that set them above their competitors:• The company strategy and good reputation of completing projects within the required timeframe. In other words, they were well known for their track record in terms of service delivery. • Their specialty in terms of different focus areas, namely structural and civil engineering, water supply and storm water design, transportation, sewer design and storm water traffic. • The fact that they operated in silos. This means that the specialists in their specific fields operated independently in groups, separately from everyone else in the company. • Their good relationship with local authorities and other companies in the field. • Their multidisciplinary approach in incorporating all spheres of civil engineering, which gave them a niche in the market. • The vast knowledge and experience of the owners and directors.Conclusion: Each of the companies interviewed had unique skills that they can apply to their advantage. They were also found to be implementing KM processes such as sharing, creating and leveraging of information and knowledge, albeit in the absence of formal policies. It was therefore deduced that SME successes depend on how well they share their tacit and explicit knowledge; this will determine whether they would excel above their competitors.How to cite this article: Mohsam, F. & Van Brakel, P.A., 2011, ‘Information and knowledge sharing trends of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Western Cape, South Africa’, SA Journal of Information Management 13(1), Art. #462, 10 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajim.v13i1.462

Faeda Mohsam; Pieter A. Van Brakel

2011-01-01

319

Advanced ceramic powder and nano-sized ceramic powders: An industry and market overview  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Advanced ceramic materials constitute an emerging technology with a very broad base of current and potential applications and an ever growing list of material compositions. Ceramic powder is a necessary ingredient for most structural ceramics, ceramic composites, electronic ceramics and ceramic coatings. For most advanced ceramic components, starting powder is usually of critical importance. In the last few years, several new powder synthesis techniques have been developed as alternatives to established methods. A recent development is the availability of nano-sized powders. This paper analyzes the industry and focuses on the current and emerging applications, major issues, current and future markets.

Abraham, T. [Business Communications Co., Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States)

1996-06-01

320

Industrial applications of photon density wave spectroscopy for in-line particle sizing [Invited].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Optical spectroscopy in highly turbid liquid material is often restricted by simultaneous occurrence of absorption and scattering of light. Photon Density Wave (PDW) spectroscopy is one of the very few, yet widely unknown, technologies for the independent quantification of these two optical processes. Here, a concise overview about modern PDW spectroscopy is given, including all necessary equations concerning the optical description of the investigated material, dependent light scattering, particle sizing, and PDW spectroscopy itself. Additionally, it is shown how the ambiguity in particle sizing, arising from Mie theory, can be correctly solved. Due to its high temporal resolution, its applicability to highest particle concentrations, and its purely fiber-optical probe, PDW spectroscopy possesses all fundamental characteristics for optical in-line process analysis. Several application examples from the chemical industry are presented.

Hass R; Münzberg M; Bressel L; Reich O

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
321

Research on Multi-Classification of Credit Rating of Small and Medium-Sized Logistics Companies Based on Ordinal Regression Support Vector Machine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Small and medium-sized logistics companies are playing an increasingly important part in social life. Weselected the data of small and medium-sized logistical companies in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou,reformulated ordinal regression support vector machine method so that different input points could makedifferent contributions to decide hyper plane, to analyze multi-classification of credit rating problem, and dividedthem into four different categories to demonstrate the good performance. The effectiveness of this improvedmethod is verified in multi-classification of credit rating of small and medium-sized logistical companies and theresults show that our method is promising and can be used to other multi-classification problems.     

Ying Chen; Hong Chen

2012-01-01

322

Research on Multi-Classification of Credit Rating of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Growth Enterprises Board Based on Fuzzy Ordinal Regression Support Vector Machine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is necessary to classify credit rating of small and medium-sized companies in Chinese growth enterprises board. We selected the data of 90 small and medium-sized companies, used fuzzy theory to calculate the qualitative variables, and reformulated support vector machine for ordinal regression method so that different input points can make different contributions to decide hyper plane, to analyze multi-classification of credit rating problem, and divided them into four different categories and demonstrated the good performance. The effectiveness of this improved method is verified in multi-classification of credit rating of small and medium-sized logistical companies; the experiment results show that our method is promising and can be used to other multi-classification problems.

Ying CHEN

2012-01-01

323

Study of corrosion-erosion behaviour of stainless alloys in industrial phosphoric acid medium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The corrosion and corrosion-abrasion resistance of some stainless steels in industrial phosphoric acid 30% P{sub 2}O{sub 5} has been studied using electrochemical techniques. The corrosion rate of materials increases with the increase of temperature. Alloys which contain chromium, molybdenum and nitrogen in sufficient quantities present the best behaviour. In the abrasion-corrosion conditions, the experimental device set up allowed to follow continually samples electrochemical behaviour. Under dynamic conditions and without solid particles, the increase of acid projection speed has no effect on the alloys corrosion behaviour. The adding of abrasive leads to a general increase of corrosion rate and to a decrease of material resistance. Under these conditions, materials attack is controlled by synergistic effect between the abrasion and the impurities. The cast 30% Cr shows good resistance according to his high chromium content.

Guenbour, Abdellah [Laboratory of Electrochemistry-Corrosion, Av. Ibn Batouta, BP1014-Faculty of Science, Rabat (Morocco)]. E-mail: guenbour@fsr.ac.ma; Hajji, Mohamed-Adil [Group Corrosion and Protection of Materials, ENIM, Rabat (Morocco); Jallouli, El Miloudi [Group Corrosion and Protection of Materials, ENIM, Rabat (Morocco); Bachir, Ali Ben [Laboratory of Electrochemistry-Corrosion, Av. Ibn Batouta, BP1014-Faculty of Science, Rabat (Morocco)

2006-12-30

324

Study of corrosion-erosion behaviour of stainless alloys in industrial phosphoric acid medium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The corrosion and corrosion-abrasion resistance of some stainless steels in industrial phosphoric acid 30% P2O5 has been studied using electrochemical techniques. The corrosion rate of materials increases with the increase of temperature. Alloys which contain chromium, molybdenum and nitrogen in sufficient quantities present the best behaviour. In the abrasion-corrosion conditions, the experimental device set up allowed to follow continually samples electrochemical behaviour. Under dynamic conditions and without solid particles, the increase of acid projection speed has no effect on the alloys corrosion behaviour. The adding of abrasive leads to a general increase of corrosion rate and to a decrease of material resistance. Under these conditions, materials attack is controlled by synergistic effect between the abrasion and the impurities. The cast 30% Cr shows good resistance according to his high chromium content.

2006-12-30

325

THE SIZE AND ORIGIN OF METAL-ENRICHED REGIONS IN THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM FROM SPECTRA OF BINARY QUASARS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present tomography of the circum-galactic metal distribution at redshift 1.7-4.5 derived from echellete spectroscopy of binary quasars. We find C IV systems at similar redshifts in paired sightlines more often than expected for sightline-independent redshifts. As the separation of the sightlines increases from 36 kpc to 907 kpc, the amplitude of this clustering decreases. At the largest separations, the C IV systems cluster similar to the Lyman-break galaxies studied by Adelberger et al. in 2005. The C IV systems are significantly less correlated than these galaxies, however, at separations less than R1 ? 0.42 ± 0.15 h -1 comoving Mpc. Measured in real space, i.e., transverse to the sightlines, this length scale is significantly smaller than the break scale estimated previously from the line-of-sight correlation function in redshift space by Scannapieco et al. in 2006. Using a simple model, we interpret the new real-space measurement as an indication of the typical physical size of enriched regions. We adopt this size for enriched regions and fit the redshift-space distortion in the line-of-sight correlation function. The fitted velocity kick is consistent with the peculiar velocity of galaxies as determined by the underlying mass distribution and places an upper limit on the average outflow (or inflow) speed of metals. The implied timescale for dispersing metals is larger than the typical stellar ages of Lyman-break galaxies, and we argue that enrichment by galaxies at z ? 4.3 played a greater role in dispersing metals. To further constrain the growth of enriched regions, we discuss empirical constraints on the evolution of the C IV correlation function with cosmic time. This study demonstrates the potential of tomography for measuring the metal enrichment history of the circum-galactic medium.

2010-09-20

326

Medium-size droplets of methyl ricinoleate are reduced by cell-surface activity in the gamma-decalactone production by Yarrowia lipolytica.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Size of methyl ricinoleate droplets during biotransformation into gamma-decalactone by Yarrowia lipolytica was measured in both homogenized and non-homogenized media. In non-homogenized but shaken medium, droplets had an average volume surface diameter d32 of 2.5 microm whereas it was 0.7 microm in homogenized and shaken medium. But as soon as yeast cells were inoculated, both diameters became similar at about 0.7 microm and did not vary significantly until the end of the culture. The growth of Y. lipolytica in both media was very similar except for the lag phase which was lowered in homogenized medium conditions.

Waché Y; Bergmark K; Courthaudon JL; Aguedo M; Nicaud JM; Belin JM

2000-03-01

327

Medium-size droplets of methyl ricinoleate are reduced by cell-surface activity in the gamma-decalactone production by Yarrowia lipolytica.  

Science.gov (United States)

Size of methyl ricinoleate droplets during biotransformation into gamma-decalactone by Yarrowia lipolytica was measured in both homogenized and non-homogenized media. In non-homogenized but shaken medium, droplets had an average volume surface diameter d32 of 2.5 microm whereas it was 0.7 microm in homogenized and shaken medium. But as soon as yeast cells were inoculated, both diameters became similar at about 0.7 microm and did not vary significantly until the end of the culture. The growth of Y. lipolytica in both media was very similar except for the lag phase which was lowered in homogenized medium conditions. PMID:10747247

Waché, Y; Bergmark, K; Courthaudon, J L; Aguedo, M; Nicaud, J M; Belin, J M

2000-03-01

328

Phospholipid Metabolism in an Industry Microalga Chlorella sorokiniana: The Impact of Inoculum Sizes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chlorella sorokiniana is an important industry microalga potential for biofuel production. Inoculum size is one of the important factors in algal large-scale culture, and has great effects on the growth, lipid accumulation and metabolism of microalgae. As the first barrier of cell contents, membrane plays a vital role in algal inoculum-related metabolism. The knowledge of phospholipids, the main membrane component and high accumulation of phospholipids as the major content of total lipids mass in some microalgae, is necessary to understand the role of membrane in cell growth and metabolism under different inoculum density. Profiling of C. sorokiniana phospholipids with LC-MS led to the identification of 119 phospholipid species. To discover the phospholipid molecules most related to change of inoculum sizes, Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) was employed and the results revealed that inoculum sizes significantly affected phospholipid profiling. Phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidyl- ethanolamine (PE) and several phosphatidylcholine (PC) species might play an important role under our experimental conditions. Further analysis of these biomarkers indicated that cell membrane status of C. sorokiniana might play an important role in the adaption to the inoculum sizes. And the culture with inoculum size of 1×10(6) cells mL(-1) presented the best membrane status with the highest content of PC and PG, and the lowest content of PE. We discovered that the inoculum size of 1×10(6) cells mL(-1) might provide the best growth condition for C. sorokiniana. Also we proposed that PG, PE and several PC may play an important role in inoculum-related metabolism in C. sorokiniana, which may work through thylakoid membrane and photosynthetic pathway. Thus this study would provide more potential targets for metabolic engineering to improve biofuel production and productivity in microalgae.

Lu S; Wang J; Ma Q; Yang J; Li X; Yuan YJ

2013-01-01

329

Phospholipid Metabolism in an Industry Microalga Chlorella sorokiniana: The Impact of Inoculum Sizes  

Science.gov (United States)

Chlorella sorokiniana is an important industry microalga potential for biofuel production. Inoculum size is one of the important factors in algal large-scale culture, and has great effects on the growth, lipid accumulation and metabolism of microalgae. As the first barrier of cell contents, membrane plays a vital role in algal inoculum-related metabolism. The knowledge of phospholipids, the main membrane component and high accumulation of phospholipids as the major content of total lipids mass in some microalgae, is necessary to understand the role of membrane in cell growth and metabolism under different inoculum density. Profiling of C. sorokiniana phospholipids with LC-MS led to the identification of 119 phospholipid species. To discover the phospholipid molecules most related to change of inoculum sizes, Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) was employed and the results revealed that inoculum sizes significantly affected phospholipid profiling. Phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidyl- ethanolamine (PE) and several phosphatidylcholine (PC) species might play an important role under our experimental conditions. Further analysis of these biomarkers indicated that cell membrane status of C. sorokiniana might play an important role in the adaption to the inoculum sizes. And the culture with inoculum size of 1×106 cells mL?1 presented the best membrane status with the highest content of PC and PG, and the lowest content of PE. We discovered that the inoculum size of 1×106 cells mL?1 might provide the best growth condition for C. sorokiniana. Also we proposed that PG, PE and several PC may play an important role in inoculum-related metabolism in C. sorokiniana, which may work through thylakoid membrane and photosynthetic pathway. Thus this study would provide more potential targets for metabolic engineering to improve biofuel production and productivity in microalgae.

Lu, Shuhuan; Wang, Jiangxin; Ma, Qian; Yang, Jie; Li, Xia; Yuan, Ying-Jin

2013-01-01

330

Air pollution and cardiovascular hospital admissions in a medium-sized city in São Paulo State, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to estimate the contribution of environmental pollutants to hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease. A time series ecological study was conducted on subjects aged over 60 years and living in São José dos Campos, Brazil, with a population near 700,000 inhabitants. Hospital admission data of public health patients (SUS) were obtained from DATASUS for the period between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2006, according to the IC (more) D-10 diagnoses I20 to I22 and I24. Particulate matter with less than 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter, sulfur dioxide and ozone were the pollutants examined, and the control variables were mean temperature and relative humidity. Data on pollutants were obtained from the São Paulo State Sanitary Agency. The generalized linear model Poisson regression with lags of up to 5 days was used. There were 1303 hospital admissions during the period. Exposure to particulate matter was significantly associated with hospitalization for cardiovascular disease 3 days after exposure (RR = 1.006; 95%CI = 1.000 to 1.010) and an increase of 16 µg/m³ was associated with a 10% increase in risk of hospitalization; other pollutants were not associated with hospitalization. Thus, it was possible to identify the role of exposure to particulate matter as an environmental pollutant in hospitalization for cardiovascular disease in a medium-sized city inSoutheastern Brazil.

Nascimento, L.F.C.

2011-07-01

331

Estructura y temporalidad urbana de las ciudades intermedias en México/ Urban structure and time in Medium-Sized mexican cities  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Este trabajo exploratorio pretende aplicar y estudiar esquemas espaciales monocéntricos de ciudades a partir del análisis espacial sobre el gradiente de densidad, estructura de edad de la población y tenencia de la vivienda en 32 ciudades intermedias mexicanas. Los modelos cuantitativos de estructura urbana toman como referencia la distancia al centro de negocios de la ciudad como un elemento, determinante en el comportamiento de ciertos fenómenos. En el presente estu (more) dio vemos cómo el factor del período histórico al que pertenece el espacio urbano permite encontrar patrones espaciales consistentes en la estructura de las ciudades intermedias mexicanas. Abstract in english The internal structure of cities has been examined through various disciplines such as economic spatial models, ecological structures and land use. This paper seeks to study centrality in urban structure models for medium-sized Mexican cities through the spatial analysis of population density, population age structure and housing in 32 Mexican cities. Quantitative urban structure models use distance to the central business district as a basic aspect for determining the be (more) havior of certain phenomena. This study shows that the historical period to which urban space belongs enables one to identify consistent spatial patterns in the structure of intermediate Mexican cities.

Álvarez de la Torre, Guillermo

2011-12-01

332

REDEFINIÇÃO DA CENTRALIDADE URBANA EM CIDADES MÉDIAS / Redefinition of the urban centrality in medium-sized cities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The presented article realizes one effort reflective whose main objective is to analyze the processes ofdecentralization and recentralization in medium-sized cities that, conjugated, result in new centralitiesand the redefinition of the urban centrality in these cities. The new centralities express the saturation ofthe traditional urban centers for the necessities impelled for the new forms contemporaries ofreproduction and accumulation of the capital, beyond the imposition of (new) hegemonic times. Thus,new space forms are created and inserted in the urban space that favors the capitalist reproduction ofthe space: the space as social product urged by the accumulation of the capital. Of this form, it isinferred that the alterations in the economic dynamics determine that the city possess new centralitiesbecause the traditional urban centers are not more functional to the reproduction and accumulation ofthe capital, as well as the shelter of new capitals that if they space decentralize for the spaces thateconomically are presented as more propitious and income-producing.

Gilberto Alves de Oliveira Júnior

2008-01-01

333

Software-as-a-Service and Cloud Computing, a solution for small and medium-sized companies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Small and medium-sized companies are an important part of today’s world economy, for their ability to offer new jobs but also for their capacity of innovation. At the same time, they are in a constant struggle with larger companies that take advantage of their negotiating power to impose their way of doing business to the SMEs. In an ICT enabled world, most large companies being intense ICT users, the lag of ICT adoption in SMEs may create a strong barrier between SMEs and large companies, promoting an over growing digital divide, the SMEs being in danger of being left out in some economic sectors. This paper aims at finding a possible solution in the Software-as-a-Service and Cloud Computing model, a rather new solution, yet more and more sought off by SMEs but also larger companies, especially considering the global financial and economic crisis, as well as evaluating the European Union’s main views and policies regarding the SAAS – Cloud model.

Bajenaru, A.

2010-01-01

334

Defining the Role Engagement of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility (CSR) discourse, academic research, public policy and media commentaries, which have burgeoned in the past few decades in response to the desire to define the nexus between business and society tended to focus mainly on large corporate organizations which are expected to behave responsibly. The big businesses have for years attracted large volume of literature on CSR. Very little literature is currently available to enhance our understanding about the engagement of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in CSR. The SMEs, often defined variously, in terms of turnover, gross asset value, ownership structure and the number of employees, is a significant sector worldwide in terms of economic, environmental and the social impact they make. This paper attempted to bridge this apparent research gulf, defined the nature of SMEs, the aggregate contributions of the sector to economies of both developed and developing nations and their role engagement in CSR. The study adopted qualitative literature survey method. A review of the paltry literature provided insight and defined the direction of research in this important and underexplored area of study. SMEs were found to perform roles associated with community development, employee initiatives, consumerism, environmental actions and supply chain requirements. To overcome the constraints confronting SMEs engagement in CSR initiatives the paper recommended increased resources, training programmes, development of SMEs-oriented tools and standards to guide adoption and implementation, and government intervention strategies to create the necessary incentives and support services for effective engagement.

Benjamin James Inyang

2013-01-01

335

The Corporate Social Responsibility Model in Romania: A Theoretical and Practical Approach for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the context of Romania’s accession to the European Union, theimplementation of corporate social responsibility (CSR) into day-to-day business decisions has become one of the main pillars of the economic and social development. Although CSR was initially considered an attribute of large companies, especially international and multinational ones, in the last years the importance of the concept application was also demonstrated for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). This particular importance is based on thestrategic advantages and positive stakeholders’ implication that CSR usually brings on for the responsible companies. Considering the above mentioned premises, the purpose of the present research paper is to emphasize the main characteristics of CSR in Romania for all types of companies, but especially for SMEs. First part of the paper aims to synthesize the CSR models considering the specialized literature and the European requirements in the field. Second part of the paper is devoted to CSR model identification for the Romanian businessenvironment based on theoretical and practical evidence. Finally, third part of the research aims to highlight the main advances in the domain of SMEs’ CSR in Romania – what was done, as well as other necessary measures – what should be done, in order to transform this type of implication into strategic business actions developed according to the European and national requirements. Examples ofbest practices and relevant case studies would be analyzed for strongly confirming the theoretical framework and also an optimal model could be emphasized for SMEs in Romania.

Irina-Eugenia Iamandi; Laura-Gabriela Constantin

2011-01-01

336

Molecular size characterization and kinetics studies on hydrolysis of pullulan by pullulanase in an entangled alginate medium.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The behavior of a hydrolytic enzyme (pullulanase) toward its substrate (pullulan) in the presence of a nonsubstrate (alginate), both below and above the critical entanglement concentration (C*), was studied. The hydrolysis kinetics were studied with the enzyme and alginate concentrations varied using two main methods: a colorimetric assay of the reducing extremities (RE), which allowed the number-average molar masses (Mn) of the oligosaccharides to be determined, and size exclusion chromatography with on-line, multiangle light scattering, viscometer, and differential refractive index detectors, which allowed the average molar masses, Mn and Mw, of the oligosaccharides during hydrolysis to be determined. Free pullulanase acts via an "endo" process. The presence of alginate slows the hydrolysis kinetics, particularly when the alginate concentration is greater than the C*. These results were confirmed by the evolution of the kinetic parameters (KM, Vmax) obtained via isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The amount of oligosaccharides produced is not dependent on the alginate concentration, and the endo enzyme behavior is not modified by the entanglement in the medium. These observations were also confirmed by ITC analysis in the presence of degraded alginate (without entanglement). Our results correlated with the substrate diffusion in entangled media. The pullulanase reaction in the presence of alginate is shown to be diffusion-dependent.

Ali G; Rihouey C; Larreta-Garde V; Le Cerf D; Picton L

2013-07-01

337

Air pollution and cardiovascular hospital admissions in a medium-sized city in São Paulo State, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to estimate the contribution of environmental pollutants to hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease. A time series ecological study was conducted on subjects aged over 60 years and living in São José dos Campos, Brazil, with a population near 700,000 inhabitants. Hospital admission data of public health patients (SUS) were obtained from DATASUS for the period between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2006, according to the ICD-10 diagnoses I20 to I22 and I24. Particulate matter with less than 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter, sulfur dioxide and ozone were the pollutants examined, and the control variables were mean temperature and relative humidity. Data on pollutants were obtained from the São Paulo State Sanitary Agency. The generalized linear model Poisson regression with lags of up to 5 days was used. There were 1303 hospital admissions during the period. Exposure to particulate matter was significantly associated with hospitalization for cardiovascular disease 3 days after exposure (RR = 1.006; 95%CI = 1.000 to 1.010) and an increase of 16 µg/m³ was associated with a 10% increase in risk of hospitalization; other pollutants were not associated with hospitalization. Thus, it was possible to identify the role of exposure to particulate matter as an environmental pollutant in hospitalization for cardiovascular disease in a medium-sized city inSoutheastern Brazil.

L.F.C. Nascimento

2011-01-01

338

The Effect of Founder Family Influence on Hedging and Speculation : Evidence from Danish, Medium-Sized, Manufacturing Firms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We investigate the effect of founder family influence in the form of managers, board of directors, and/or ownership on hedging and speculation in medium-sized, manufacturing firms in Denmark. On a crude measure of use / non-use of derivatives we find only a weak indication of differences between founder family firms and other firms in relation to their management of foreign exchange rate, interest rate, and commodity price exposures. Digging deeper into a subsample of users of foreign exchange derivatives and debt denominated in foreign currency, we find that founder family firms not only tend to hedge more extensively, they also tend to speculate more often than other firms. While the former result on hedging is in line with founder families' lack of monetary diversification and their non-pecuniary investment in the firm, the latter result on speculation is surprising and can only be explained by Adam Smith's observation that men - in this case members of the founder family - tend to overestimate their own abilities and good fortune. The results of the study are important 1) because the interaction between founder family influence and risk management has received limited attention in the literature (in contrast to the attention given to the interaction between founder family influence and corporate performance) and 2) because the founders or the founders' families or heirs control most of the firms in the world.

Aabo, Tom; Kuhn, Jochen

339

Deriving default dermal exposure values for use in a risk assessment toolkit for small and medium-sized enterprises.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper describes the derivation of default task-based dermal exposure values for use in a risk assessment toolkit for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). A set of separately determined dermal exposure modifiers have been applied to published studies of dermal exposure to obtain 'normalized' dermal exposure data sets. These data sets are grouped according to task and then further subdivided by making a distinction between processes involving solid and liquid products. For each of the resulting 12 groups, two default exposure rates are required: potential exposure rate to the hands and potential exposure rate to the body. Default values for risk assessment are then derived by taking a weighted average of the 75th percentiles of these normalized exposure distributions. In addition, a measure of peak surface concentration is required to take into account the risk of local skin effects. The higher of the (modified) hand and body exposure rates after applying the relevant penetration factors for clothing and gloves is used. Usually this will be the hand exposure rate. These default values serve as robust initial exposure estimates in a risk assessment toolkit for SMEs.

Warren N; Goede HA; Tijssen SC; Oppl R; Schipper HJ; van Hemmen JJ

2003-11-01

340

Urban farming and malaria risk factors in a medium-sized town in Cote d'Ivoire.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urbanization occurs at a rapid pace across Africa and Asia and affects people's health and well-being. A typical feature in urban settings of Africa is the maintenance of traditional livelihoods, including agriculture. The purpose of this study was to investigate malaria risk factors in urban farming communities in a medium-sized town in Côte d'Ivoire. Two cross-sectional surveys were carried out among 112 households from six agricultural zones. First, the heads of households were interviewed on agricultural land use, farming practices, water storage, sanitation facilities, and socioeconomic status. Second, a finger prick blood sample was taken from all household members and examined for the occurrence and density of Plasmodia. Geographic coordinates of houses, farming plots, and potential mosquito breeding sites were recorded and integrated into a geographic information system. Predictors of Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia were assessed using non-random and random effects Bayesian regression models. The overall prevalence of P. falciparum was 32.1%. In children < 15 years of age, risk factors for a P. falciparum infection included living in a specific agricultural zone, close proximity to permanent ponds and fish ponds, periodic stays overnight in temporary farm huts, and low socioeconomic status. Our findings indicate that specific crop systems and specific agricultural practices may increase the risk of malaria in urban settings of tropical Africa. PMID:17172397

Matthys, Barbara; Vounatsou, Penelope; Raso, Giovanna; Tschannen, Andres B; Becket, Emmanuel Gbede; Gosoniu, Laura; Cissé, Gueladio; Tanner, Marcel; N'goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg

2006-12-01

 
 
 
 
341

Urban farming and malaria risk factors in a medium-sized town in Cote d'Ivoire.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Urbanization occurs at a rapid pace across Africa and Asia and affects people's health and well-being. A typical feature in urban settings of Africa is the maintenance of traditional livelihoods, including agriculture. The purpose of this study was to investigate malaria risk factors in urban farming communities in a medium-sized town in Côte d'Ivoire. Two cross-sectional surveys were carried out among 112 households from six agricultural zones. First, the heads of households were interviewed on agricultural land use, farming practices, water storage, sanitation facilities, and socioeconomic status. Second, a finger prick blood sample was taken from all household members and examined for the occurrence and density of Plasmodia. Geographic coordinates of houses, farming plots, and potential mosquito breeding sites were recorded and integrated into a geographic information system. Predictors of Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia were assessed using non-random and random effects Bayesian regression models. The overall prevalence of P. falciparum was 32.1%. In children < 15 years of age, risk factors for a P. falciparum infection included living in a specific agricultural zone, close proximity to permanent ponds and fish ponds, periodic stays overnight in temporary farm huts, and low socioeconomic status. Our findings indicate that specific crop systems and specific agricultural practices may increase the risk of malaria in urban settings of tropical Africa.

Matthys B; Vounatsou P; Raso G; Tschannen AB; Becket EG; Gosoniu L; Cissé G; Tanner M; N'goran EK; Utzinger J

2006-12-01

342

Occupational exposure in small and medium scale industry with specific reference to heat and noise.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was undertaken to assess heat and noise exposure and occupational safety practices in small and medium scale casting and forging units (SMEs) of Northern India. We conducted personal interviews of 350 male workers of these units through a comprehensive questionnaire and collected information on heat and noise exposure, use of protective equipment, sweat loss and water intake, working hour. The ambient wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT index) was measured using quest temp 34/36o area heat stress monitor. A-weighted Leq ambient noise was measured using a quest sound level meter "ANSI SI. 43-1997 (R 2002) type-1 model SOUNDPRO SE/DL". We also incorporated OSHA norms for hearing conservation which include - an exchange rate of 5dB(A), criterion level at 90dB(A), criterion time of eight hours, threshold level is equal to 80dB(A), upper limit is equal to 140dB(A) and with F/S response rate. Results of the study revealed that occupational heat exposure in melting, casting, forging and punching sections is high compared to ACGIH/NIOSH norms. Ambience noise in various sections like casting / molding, drop forging, cutting presses, punching, grinding and barreling process was found to be more than 90dB(A). About 95% of the workers suffered speech interference where as high noise annoyance was reported by only 20%. Overall, 68% workers were not using any personal protective equipment (PPE). The study concluded that the proportion of SME workers exposed to high level heat stress and noise (60 - 72 hrs/week) is high. The workers engaged in forging and grinding sections are more prone to noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) at higher frequencies as compared to workers of other sections. It is recommended that there is a strong need to implement the standard of working hours as well as heat stress and noise control measures. PMID:20160389

Singh, Lakhwinder Pal; Bhardwaj, Arvind; Deepak, Kishore Kumar

343

Occupational exposure in small and medium scale industry with specific reference to heat and noise.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was undertaken to assess heat and noise exposure and occupational safety practices in small and medium scale casting and forging units (SMEs) of Northern India. We conducted personal interviews of 350 male workers of these units through a comprehensive questionnaire and collected information on heat and noise exposure, use of protective equipment, sweat loss and water intake, working hour. The ambient wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT index) was measured using quest temp 34/36o area heat stress monitor. A-weighted Leq ambient noise was measured using a quest sound level meter "ANSI SI. 43-1997 (R 2002) type-1 model SOUNDPRO SE/DL". We also incorporated OSHA norms for hearing conservation which include - an exchange rate of 5dB(A), criterion level at 90dB(A), criterion time of eight hours, threshold level is equal to 80dB(A), upper limit is equal to 140dB(A) and with F/S response rate. Results of the study revealed that occupational heat exposure in melting, casting, forging and punching sections is high compared to ACGIH/NIOSH norms. Ambience noise in various sections like casting / molding, drop forging, cutting presses, punching, grinding and barreling process was found to be more than 90dB(A). About 95% of the workers suffered speech interference where as high noise annoyance was reported by only 20%. Overall, 68% workers were not using any personal protective equipment (PPE). The study concluded that the proportion of SME workers exposed to high level heat stress and noise (60 - 72 hrs/week) is high. The workers engaged in forging and grinding sections are more prone to noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) at higher frequencies as compared to workers of other sections. It is recommended that there is a strong need to implement the standard of working hours as well as heat stress and noise control measures.

Singh LP; Bhardwaj A; Deepak KK

2010-01-01

344

The comparative analysis of safety and economic competitiveness of the advanced medium sized reactor projects of NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In spite of the fact that medium sized reactors are less economic favourable in comparison to large sized reactors, they have a greater safety, low capital investments, shorter terms of construction, relative constructive simplicity, are well combined with rather small electrical distributive systems. For power of Kazakhstan these circumstances are important. The comparative analysis results of the safety and economic competitiveness of the seven advanced medium sized reactors projects (100-700 MW) are submitted in that report: WWER-640 (V-407), Atomenergoproject/Gidropress Russian Federation; Candu 6, Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd; AC-600, China National Nuclear Corporation, China; AP600, Westinghouse, USA; HSBWR, Hitachi, Japan; MS-600, Mitsubishi, Japan; SBWR, General Electric, USA. According to the economic competitiveness of listed compared power reactors the 14 criteria of safety have been accepted. These criteria: 1. Features of the barrier system of 'defence-in-depth'. 2. The self-security of a reactor under increase of power and reactivity of a reactor, decrease of the expense and phase transformations of the reactor core coolant (presence of negative feedbacks). 3. Presence of the reactor shutdown systems responding principles of a variety, independence and reservation. Presence of the passive means of initiation and operation of the emergency protection. 4. The emergency cooling of the core of reactor. A presence of the passive means of cooling. Presence of the water reservation for the water supply of the different safety systems. 5. The emergency electrical supply, its reliability and degree of reservation. 6. The prevention measures of the heavy accident with the melt core. The decrease of the heavy accident probability. 7. The account of the heavy accident under development of the levels of protection. 8. The protection levels of NPP, the technological criteria of efficiency of the each safety barriers and the limiting radiation criteria for the each level of protection , in particular for the design-basis and beyond-design-basis accidents. 9. The measures for reduction of the heavy accident consequences. The management by the beyond-design-basis accidents. 10. The NPP protection against the external impacts (earthquake, explosion of shells and rockets, fall of plane). 11. The probability analysis results of safety, their conformity the modern requirements. 12. The test checks of the safety means (principles, elements, technical decisions) in the operating conditions, the former experience or the tests. 13. The measures of the cost reduction of construction, equipment, materials and OM of NPP. The economic parameters. 14. The additional distinctive features of a power reactor. The following conclusions have been accepted from comparative consideration of reactors: 1. All considered reactors correspond the modern requirements of safety. 2. The reactor Candu-6, AP-600, WWER-640 are more preferable under position of safety, adaptability to manufacture and economic competitiveness among the considered reactors

2002-01-01

345

Industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of industrial mitigation for sustainable development is discussed in Section 7.7. Section 7.8 discusses the sector's vulnerability to climate change and options for adaptation. A number of policies have been designed either to encourage voluntary GHG emission reductions from the industrial sector or to mandate such reductions. Section 7.9 describes these policies and the experience gained to date. Co-benefits of reducing GHG emissions from the industrial sector are discussed in Section 7.10. Development of new technology is key to the cost-effective control of industrial GHG emissions. Section 7.11 discusses research, development, deployment and diffusion in the industrial sector and Section 7.12, the long-term (post-2030) technologies for GHG emissions reduction from the industrial sector. Section 7.13 summarizes gaps in knowledge.

Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

2007-12-01

346

Association of sulfur dioxide exposure with circulatory system deaths in a medium-sized city in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english There is a demonstrable association between exposure to air pollutants and deaths due to cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of exposure to sulfur dioxide on mortality due to circulatory diseases in individuals 50 years of age or older residing in São José dos Campos, SP. This was a time-series ecological study for the years 2003 to 2007 using information on deaths due to circulatory disease obtained from Datasus reports. Dat (more) a on daily levels of pollutants, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone, temperature, and humidity were obtained from the São Paulo State Environmental Agency. Moving average models for 2 to 7 days were calculated by Poisson regression using the R software. Exposure to SO2 was analyzed using a unipollutant, bipollutant or multipollutant model adjusted for mean temperature and humidity. The relative risks with 95%CI were obtained and the percent decrease in risk was calculated. There were 1928 deaths with a daily mean (± SD) of 1.05 ± 1.03 (range: 0-6). Exposure to SO2 was significantly associated with mortality due to circulatory disease: RR = 1.04 (95%CI = 1.01 to 1.06) in the 7-day moving average, after adjusting for ozone. There was an 8.5% decrease in risk in the multipollutant model, proportional to a decrease of SO2 concentrations. The results of this study suggest that residents of medium-sized Brazilian cities with characteristics similar to those of São José dos Campos probably have health problems due to exposure to air pollutants.

Amancio, C.T.; Nascimento, L.F.C.

2012-11-01

347

Association of sulfur dioxide exposure with circulatory system deaths in a medium-sized city in Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a demonstrable association between exposure to air pollutants and deaths due to cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of exposure to sulfur dioxide on mortality due to circulatory diseases in individuals 50 years of age or older residing in São José dos Campos, SP. This was a time-series ecological study for the years 2003 to 2007 using information on deaths due to circulatory disease obtained from Datasus reports. Data on daily levels of pollutants, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone, temperature, and humidity were obtained from the São Paulo State Environmental Agency. Moving average models for 2 to 7 days were calculated by Poisson regression using the R software. Exposure to SO2 was analyzed using a unipollutant, bipollutant or multipollutant model adjusted for mean temperature and humidity. The relative risks with 95%CI were obtained and the percent decrease in risk was calculated. There were 1928 deaths with a daily mean (± SD) of 1.05 ± 1.03 (range: 0-6). Exposure to SO2 was significantly associated with mortality due to circulatory disease: RR = 1.04 (95%CI = 1.01 to 1.06) in the 7-day moving average, after adjusting for ozone. There was an 8.5% decrease in risk in the multipollutant model, proportional to a decrease of SO2 concentrations. The results of this study suggest that residents of medium-sized Brazilian cities with characteristics similar to those of São José dos Campos probably have health problems due to exposure to air pollutants.

C.T. Amancio; L.F.C. Nascimento

2012-01-01

348

Investigation and Assessment of Critical Success Factors of Knowledge Management Implementation in Iranian Small-to-Medium Sized Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on an in-depth review and comparative study of existing studies on Critical Success Factors (CSFs) of Knowledge Management (KM) and by considering the characteristics of small to medium sized enterprises (SMEs), twelve CSFs were identified, namely management leadership and support, organizational culture, information systems, KM strategy, performance measurement, organizational infrastructure, processes and activities, rewarding and motivation, training and education, removal of resources constraints, human resources management and benchmarking which is believed to be suitable for SMEs. The importance of the proposed CSFs was theoretically discussed and justified. An instrument, which consists of all CSFs and their related elements, was developed to evaluate the appropriateness of the proposed CSFs from experts’ point of view. The experts were asked to express their views and perceptions on the extent of appropriateness of the CSFs and their related elements for Iranian SMEs using a six-point Likert scale, ranging from not successful to extremely successful. This scale was then grouped into three levels-poor, satisfactory and good. The overall results from this assessment show that experts endorsed the proposed CSFs and their related elements as being at least eighty percent satisfactory for their intended purpose. The set of CSFs can act as a list of items for organizations, particularly for SMEs to address when implementing KM. This helps to ensure that essential issues and factors are covered when planning and developing KM. Also, it can provide a basis for them to evaluate their KM practices. For academics; it provides a common language for the discussion and study of factors underpinning the success of KM in SMEs.

Changiz Valmohammadi

2010-01-01

349

Fundamentos de un sistema de gestión humana por competencias para soportar la estrategia organizacional en una pyme del sector de la industria de las artes gráficas en Cali (Colombia)/ Fundamentals of a competency-based human resource management system that supports the organizational strategy of a medium-sized company in the graphic arts industry in Cali (Colombia)/ Fundamentos de um sistema de gestão humana por competências para apoiar a estratégia organizacional de uma pequema e média empresa do setor da indústria de artes gráficas em Cali (Colômbia)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A competitividade é um fator-chave para melhorar a posição sócio-econômica das organizações, para a qual é necessário alinhar o recurso humano à estratégia da empresa. O objetivo desta investigação é desenvolver os fundamentos de um sistema de gestão humana por competências para apoiar a estratégia organizacional de uma empresa mediana do setor de artes gráficas em Cali, Colômbia, para a qual se levou em conta um estudo descritivo e qualitativo, analiso (more) u- -se a estratégia da empresa utilizando o modelo analítico de Beer (2001), estabeleceram-se as competências organizacionais e distintas dos cargos críticos para o sucesso da estratégia e estabeleceram-se diretrizes para criar os subsistemas de gestão humana. Abstract in spanish La competitividad es un factor clave para mejorar la posición socioeconómica de las organizaciones, para lo cual es necesario alinear el recurso humano a la estrategia de la empresa. El objetivo de esta investigación es desarrollar los fundamentos de un sistema de gestión humana por competencias para soportar la estrategia organizacional en una empresa mediana del sector de las artes gráficas en Cali (Colombia), para lo cual se llevó a cabo un estudio descriptivo y (more) cualitativo, se analizó la estrategia de la empresa utilizando el modelo analítico de Beer (2001), se establecieron las competencias organizacionales y distintivas de los cargos críticos para el logro de la estrategia, y se plantearon los lineamientos para diseñar los subsistemas de gestión humana. Abstract in english Competitiveness is a key factor for improving the socioeconomic status of organizations. Consequently, there is a need to align human resources with company strategies. The objective of this research was to develop the foundations of a competency-based human management system that supports the organizational strategy of a medium-sized company in the graphic arts industry in Cali, Colombia. To this end, a qualitative and descriptive study was carried out which involved ana (more) lyzing the company strategies using Beer's (2001) analytical model, establishing and defining organizational competencies of critical positions to accomplish the strategy, and providing the design guidelines for human resource management subsystems.

MEDINA LORZA, AIDA FLORENCIA; DELGADO ORTEGA, ANA MARÍA; LAVADO ALVARADO, PAOLA ANDREA

2012-03-01

350

Primary cutaneous CD8(+) small- to medium-sized lymphoproliferative disorder in extrafacial sites: clinicopathologic features and concept on their classification.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three cases with CD8+ small- to medium-sized lymphoproliferations in the skin at extrafacial sites are described. Clinically, the patients presented with papulonodular or plaque-like lesions without preceding patches. Histopathologically, nonepidermotropic nodular or diffuse infiltrates were composed of small- to medium-sized pleomorphic lymphocytes, which expressed CD8 (more than 80% of the cells) and granzyme B (60%-70% of the cells), but were negative for CD4, CD30, and CD56. There was no association with Epstein-Barr virus. A clonal T-cell population was detected in 2 patients. Staging examinations did not reveal extracutaneous involvement. The 2 patients with solitary lesions underwent complete remission after radiation therapy, whereas 1 patient developed multifocal lesions and several recurrences. These CD8+ small- to medium-sized lymphoproliferations of the skin at extrafacial sites may belong to a spectrum of phenotypically and prognostically heterogeneous cutaneous small- to medium-sized lymphoid proliferations, which are characterized by an indolent course in most patients. PMID:22885550

Kempf, Werner; Kazakov, Dmitry V; Cozzio, Antonio; Kamarashev, Jivko; Kerl, Katrin; Plaza, Tobias; Metze, Dieter

2013-04-01

351

Primary cutaneous CD8(+) small- to medium-sized lymphoproliferative disorder in extrafacial sites: clinicopathologic features and concept on their classification.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Three cases with CD8+ small- to medium-sized lymphoproliferations in the skin at extrafacial sites are described. Clinically, the patients presented with papulonodular or plaque-like lesions without preceding patches. Histopathologically, nonepidermotropic nodular or diffuse infiltrates were composed of small- to medium-sized pleomorphic lymphocytes, which expressed CD8 (more than 80% of the cells) and granzyme B (60%-70% of the cells), but were negative for CD4, CD30, and CD56. There was no association with Epstein-Barr virus. A clonal T-cell population was detected in 2 patients. Staging examinations did not reveal extracutaneous involvement. The 2 patients with solitary lesions underwent complete remission after radiation therapy, whereas 1 patient developed multifocal lesions and several recurrences. These CD8+ small- to medium-sized lymphoproliferations of the skin at extrafacial sites may belong to a spectrum of phenotypically and prognostically heterogeneous cutaneous small- to medium-sized lymphoid proliferations, which are characterized by an indolent course in most patients.

Kempf W; Kazakov DV; Cozzio A; Kamarashev J; Kerl K; Plaza T; Metze D

2013-04-01

352

Talent management: Myth or Reality in Today's SMEs : A study into the importance and use of talent management within small and medium-sized enterprises  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This individual research paper is exploring the use of talent management in small and medium size enterprises (SMEs), the goal being to identify whether it is widely practiced and how important it is for the business. SMEs constitute the largest part of markets and thus are very important for countr...

Baublyte, Daiva

353

Impact of Top Management Team on Firm Performance in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Adopting Commercial Open-Source Enterprise Resource Planning  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the large number of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the United States, their increasing interest in enterprise-wide software systems and their impact on the US economy, it is important to understand the determinants that can facilitate the successful implementation and assimilation of such technology into these firms' daily…

Cereola, Sandra J.; Wier, Benson; Norman, Carolyn Strand

2012-01-01

354

Building service management for small and medium-sized enterprises: Modular system suitable for extension. Leittechnik fuer kleinere und mittlere Unternehmen: Ausbaufaehiges Modularsystem  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The increasing number and variety of building services forces also small and medium-sized enterprises to use management systems. The demands of these customers can be best met with modular systems which are suited for extension. This article goes into the extendibility of modular management systems. Questions of economy and integration are particularly taken into account. (BWI)

Zobrist, R. (Zettler AG, Naefels/GL (Switzerland))

1994-07-15

355

Development of a method for sizing industrial horizontal vacuum belt filters using leaf test data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Horizontal vacuum belt filters (HBFs) are becoming metallurgists` preferred filters for dewatering fine coal slurries. These filters have beneficial effects on circuit design, plant availability and throughput. The absence of accepted means for selecting and optimizing HBFs creates the need for the development of such tools. This paper discusses the potential of a leaf test apparatus, the Single Leaf Filter Test (SLFT), as a HBF selection tool. The outputs of the SLFT are compared with in situ HBF performance, and shown to be comparable. Eventually, a method is derived that permits HBF selection based on dewatering information obtained with the SLFT. The results, which are compared with an existing dewatering circuit, confirm that industrial vacuum belt filters can be accurately sized using leaf test data. 8 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Bourgeois, F.S.; Pollack, J.A.; Graham, J.N. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). Mining Minerals and Materials Engineering

1998-12-31

356

Particle Size Distribution and Purification of Red Clay for Industrial Use  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study is to purify red soil from Indah Permai (IP) for industrial applications. Particle size distribution of IP soil was studied and impurities of clay was removed. A series of methods for the extraction of iron oxides from soil and clay was tested with using dithionite (Na2S2O4) as reducing agent at varied pH. Theoretically, the oxidation potential of dithionite increases with increase in pH. A buffer was used in method 1 to maintain the pH at the optimum level (alkalinity). NaHCO3 is served as the buffer. HCl was used in method 2 to provide its acidic environment. However, method 3 reacts in neither acidic nor base environment. Results showed that different methods have different removal efficiency.

R. Sarbatly; C.P. Yee; T.S. Fong; D. Krishnaiah

2009-01-01

357

Evaluation of the COSHH Essentials model with a mixture of organic chemicals at a medium-sized paint producer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Essentials model was evaluated using full-shift exposure measurements of five chemical components in a mixture [acetone, ethylbenzene, methyl ethyl ketone, toluene, and xylenes] at a medium-sized plant producing paint materials. Two tasks, batch-making and bucket-washing, were examined. Varying levels of control were already established in both tasks and the average exposures of individual chemicals were considerably lower than the regulatory and advisory 8-h standards. The average exposure fractions using the additive mixture formula were also less than unity (batch-making: 0.25, bucket-washing: 0.56) indicating the mixture of chemicals did not exceed the combined occupational exposure limit (OEL). The paper version of the COSHH Essentials model was used to calculate a predicted exposure range (PER) for each chemical according to different levels of control. The estimated PERs of the tested chemicals for both tasks did not show consistent agreement with exposure measurements when the comparison was made for each control method and this is believed to be because of the considerably different volatilities of the chemicals. Given the combination of health hazard and exposure potential components, the COSHH Essentials model recommended a control approach 'special advice' for both tasks, based on the potential reproductive hazard ascribed to toluene. This would not have been the same conclusion if some other chemical had been substituted (for example styrene, which has the same threshold limit value as toluene). Nevertheless, it was special advice, which had led to the combination of hygienic procedures in place at this plant. The probability of the combined exposure fractions exceeding unity was 0.0002 for the batch-making task indicating that the employees performing this task were most likely well protected below the OELs. Although the employees involved in the bucket-washing task had greater potential to exceed the threshold limit value of the mixture (P > 1 = 0.2375), the expected personal exposure after adjusting for the assigned protection factor for the respirators in use would be considerably lower (P > 1 = 0.0161). Thus, our findings suggested that the COSHH essentials model worked reasonably well for the volatile organic chemicals at the plant. However, it was difficult to override the reproductive hazard even though it was meant to be possible in principle. Further, it became apparent that an input of existing controls, which is not possible in the web-based model, may have allowed the model be more widely applicable. The experience of using the web-based COSHH Essentials model generated some suggestions to provide a more user-friendly tool to the model users who do not have expertise in occupational hygiene.

Lee EG; Slaven J; Bowen RB; Harper M

2011-01-01

358

Inclusion of potential vorticity uncertainties into a hydrometeorological forecasting chain: application to a medium size basin of Mediterranean Spain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The improvement of the short- and mid-range numerical runoff forecasts over the flood-prone Spanish Mediterranean area is a challenging issue. This work analyses four intense precipitation events which produced floods of different magnitude over the Llobregat river basin, a medium size catchment located in Catalonia, north-eastern Spain. One of them was a devasting flash flood – known as the "Montserrat" event – which produced 5 fatalities and material losses estimated at about 65 million euros. The characterization of the Llobregat basin's hydrological response to these floods is first assessed by using rain-gauge data and the Hydrologic Engineering Center's Hydrological Modeling System (HEC-HMS) runoff model. In second place, the non-hydrostatic fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University/NCAR mesoscale model (MM5) is nested within the ECMWF large-scale forecast fields in a set of 54 h period simulations to provide quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs) for each hydrometeorological episode. The hydrological model is forced with these QPFs to evaluate the reliability of the resulting discharge forecasts, while an ensemble prediction system (EPS) based on perturbed atmospheric initial and boundary conditions has been designed to test the value of a probabilistic strategy versus the previous deterministic approach. Specifically, a Potential Vorticity (PV) Inversion technique has been used to perturb the MM5 model initial and boundary states (i.e. ECMWF forecast fields). For that purpose, a PV error climatology has been previously derived in order to introduce realistic PV perturbations in the EPS. Results show the benefits of using a probabilistic approach in those cases where the deterministic QPF presents significant deficiencies over the Llobregat river basin in terms of the rainfall amounts, timing and localization. These deficiences in precipitation fields have a major impact on flood forecasts. Our ensemble strategy has been found useful to reduce the biases at different hydrometric sections along the watershed. Therefore, in an operational context, the devised methodology could be useful to expand the lead times associated with the prediction of similar future floods, helping to alleviate their possible hazardous consequences.

A. Amengual; R. Romero; M. Vich; S. Alonso

2009-01-01

359

Information and knowledge sharing trends of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Western Cape, South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), especially in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, are currently facing various financial and other obstacles, which may threaten their survival. Globalisation, the lowering of trade barriers and the reduction of import tariffs have resulted in increased international competition. Businesses are thus forced to undertake continuous improvements and innovation in order to survive, to keep abreast of change and to excel.Objectives: Effective knowledge sharing and consequent knowledge management (KM) have been identified as definite approaches to enhancing competitive advantage. The research therefore aimed to establish to what extent small enterprises embrace their knowledge sharing activities and whether their knowledge sharing activities are managed at all. Furthermore, it examined how their knowledge sharing can contribute to their competitive advantage.Method: A case study approach was followed for this research. Selected SMEs from the engineering sector were the subject of the case study and SME owners, directors and managers of consulting civil engineering firms were interviewed to determine whether there are mechanisms in place to ensure better knowledge sharing within SMEs.Results: In general, respondents had stated that they possessed special factors that set them above their competitors:• The company strategy and good reputation of completing projects within the required timeframe. In other words, they were well known for their track record in terms of service delivery. • Their specialty in terms of different focus areas, namely structural and civil engineering, water supply and storm water design, transportation, sewer design and storm water traffic. • The fact that they operated in silos. This means that the specialists in their specific fields operated independently in groups, separately from everyone else in the company. • Their good relationship with local authorities and other companies in the field. • Their multidisciplinary approach in incorporating all spheres of civil engineering, which gave them a niche in the market. • The vast knowledge and experience of the owners and directors.Conclusion: Each of the companies interviewed had unique skills that they can apply to their advantage. They were also found to be implementing KM processes such as sharing, creating and leveraging of information and knowledge, albeit in the absence of formal policies. It was therefore deduced that SME successes depend on how well they share their tacit and explicit knowledge; this will determine whether they would excel above their competitors.

Faeda Mohsam; Pieter A. Van Brakel

2011-01-01

360

Experimental and computational studies on the natural circulation characteristics of a small- and medium-sized reactor, REX-10  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rapid economic development in many countries has led to a growing need for energy. To meet the demand, the nuclear power generation is emerging as a viable alternative because it emits much smaller amount of carbon dioxide as compared to conventional fossil fuel plant produces high power density energy. Because of the latter attractiveness, many large-sized nuclear reactors (?1000 MWe/unit) for electricity generation have been constructed around the world. Recently, small- and medium-sized nuclear reactors (SMRs) receive attention because of its effective adaptability to diversified energy demands. Several attractiveness of the SMR is worth to report here. First, the SMR is a viable alternative for the developing countries that have inferior electricity grids. Second, the SMR may effectively prevent the Large-Break Loss of Coolant Accident (LBLOCA) as it adopts the integral-type reactor. Finally, the SMR is used for various applications - desalination, district heating, small-scale power generation, ship propulsion, to mention a few. These attractiveness provides reasonable justification to construct the SMRs such as SMART, IRIS, CAREM, and KLT-40S. As such, the Regional Energy Research Institute for Next Generation (RERI) has been developing a SMR for regional energy supply, REX-10 since 2005. The REX-10 is the integral-type reactor and relies on natural circulation to improve passive safety. In this study, the natural circulation behavior and capability of the REX-10 is investigated experimentally as well as numerically. To evaluate the thermal-hydraulics of the REX-10, two experimental facilities . RTF and NACTER . were designed and fabricated using the scaling laws proposed by Ishii et al. Both experimental facilities consist of main components of the core, heat exchanger, hot legs, pressurizer, and chillers; however, both experimental facilities have different heat exchanger systems because two types of the heat exchanger are being considered. To obtain key experimental data, thermocouples, turbine flowmeters, and pressure transducer were installed in the proper location of the experimental facilities. The experiments were performed in two categories steady-state and transient experiment. From the steady-state experiment, it was confirmed that the natural circulation flow can be established successfully in both experimental facilities. With regards to the test on the effect of heater power, the heater power is very likely to influence the natural circulation behavior and thereby the mass flow rate tends to follow the natural circulation model proposed by Zvirin et al well. However, it is observed that the feedwater flow rate affects the temperature distribution of the primary system slightly. On the basis of the steady-state experiments, various transient experiments were conducted. The transient experiments showed that two experimental facilities reached new steady-state conditions due to the changes in the heater power and feedwater flow rate. In the case of RTF, the chiller trip experiment was conducted by stopping the feedwater flow. This chiller trip experiment showed that the RTF has the ability to remove the decay heat if the RHRS is normally operated. In NACTER experiment, loss of the feedwater flow rate was tested. This test showed that the NACTER is capable of removing the primary heat of 10kWt despite breakdown of the two pumps. Various transient tests demonstrated that two experimental facilities have the ability to deal with any emergency. To validate MARS, the MARS simulation was conducted. MARS was in good agreement with both steady-state and transient experiments except for two cases . chiller trip in the RTF and loss of the feedwater flow rate in the NACTER. In case of the chiller trip, MARS reached the trip point faster than the experiment and generated the earlier fluctuation of the primary mass flow rate. The reason may be attributed to two facts. First, MARS ignores heat loss to ambient and therefore more heat is likely to be deposited in the working fluid. Second, the helical coil is mode

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

The influence pattern of key factors affecting the purpose of organizational excellence consulting on the efficiency of businesses consulting services (A case study of small and medium-size food enterprises in Tehran province)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Consulting helps managers or other people find appropriate solutions for challenges they face in their businesses. Most of the losses incurred by the people and the society could be prevented using appropriate consultation. Consultation, also, refers to people's participation in decision making. Despite dramatic development in management consulting industry in the world during the last three decades, consulting industry in Iran has faced numerous challenges. This study aims to examine the factors affecting the efficiency of management consulting services in small and medium-sized businesses and it focuses on food industries in Tehran as a real-world case study. The necessary suggestions regarding the hiring of a consultant and increasing the efficiency of management consulting services in business have been offered in this study. Some recommendations deal with the way that management consultants should respond to the managers' needs, act as a reliable and efficient adviser in public or private businesses and find their position in the Iranian market. The conceptual model of this study shows the influence of key factors affecting the purpose of consulting on the efficiency of management consulting services. To do the research, 90 people are selected as the sample size in a descriptive study with random sampling of the managers of aforementioned companies using a questionnaire. Cronbach’s alpha method was used to assess the reliability of the questionnaire. For assessing the validity of the questionnaire, we use standard questionnaire, which has already been used.

Mansour Ezati Jivan

2012-01-01

362

Contribution to the integration methodology of environment in the small and medium enterprises or industries: evaluation of environmental performances  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The integration of environmental criteria into industrial plants working is nowadays an obligation for companies. Implementation of an Environmental Management System (EMS) is a mean to integrate these criteria, and the system registration (by ISO 14001 or EMAS standards) enables companies to demonstrate the validity of their environmental behaviour to interested parties. Our experience in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) has allowed us to note the inadequacy between their environmental integration level and EMS requirements. In addition to that, we have observed that environmental assessment methods, which could enable SMEs to make up for lost time, were not adapted to their specificities. However, two recent approaches are innovative: the first one is based on a progressive processes, the second one on an environmental information system, based on indicators construction. On the basis of existing methods study, improved with our SMEs experience, our approach consists of developing an environmental integration method, joining the progressive aspect (construction of a 'multi-phases' method) and the information treatment (exploitation of environmental data by indicators construction). We propose a four phases method, - environmental performance evaluation, internal and external results exploitation, process perpetuation -, setting up an information treatment system, by means of compliance, progress and monitoring indicators. Leading to implementation of an environmental performance continuous improvement cycle, this process enables companies to step forward EMS implementation. (author)

1998-01-01

363

Optimization as investment decision supportin a Swedish medium-sized iron foundry : a move beyond traditional energy auditing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Due to increased globalisation, industries are facing greater competition that is pressing companies into decreasing their expenses in order to increase their profits. As regards Swedish industry, it has been faced with substantial increases in energy prices in recent years. Barriers to energy effic...

Thollander, Patrik; Nawzad, Mardan; Karlsson, Magnus

364

Laboratory Bioassay of Three Doses of Deltamethrin +Triazophos (Deltaphos 10+350 EC) on Field Collected Medium to Large Sized Helicoverpa Sp. Larvae Infesting Gram Pods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In lab bioassay experiment, field collected medium to large sized (3rd, 4th and 5th instar) larvae were tested to the three concentrations (low 11.25 ppm, medium 22.50 ppm and high 33.75 ppm) of Deltaphos. In all sets of experiments untreated check gave significantly lower mortality than all the concentrations of insecticides. In topical treatment experiment, higher (33.75 ppm) and medium (22.50 ppm) concentrations resulted in higher mortality of test insects than lower concentration (11.35 ppm). Similarly results were obtained in stomach poisoning experiment; however, contact poisoning experiment gave an equal mortality percentage (60 percent) in all concentration tested. Deltaphos 10+350 EC proved as an active insecticide.

Khalid Abdullah; Masood K. Khattak; Wahid Munir

2001-01-01

365

Problems and Opportunities of an International Financial Reporting Standard for Small and Medium-sized Entities. The EAA FRSC's Comment on the IASB's Discussion Paper  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In June 2004 the IASB issued the Discussion Paper "Preliminary Views on Accounting Standards for Small and Medium-Sized Entities". This invited comments on the central question of whether the IASB should develop separate standards for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), and on further issues and questions arising from this. This paper briefly introduces the background to the publication of the Discussion Paper. This is followed by a review of prior litterature on SME financial reporting implications, prepared by the European Accountin Association's Financial Reporting Standards Committee as the basis of its response to the Discussion Paper. The paper concludes with a brief summary of events and issues arising since the end of the consultation period.

Thinggaard, Frank; Evans, Lisa

2005-01-01

366

[Evaluation of a guidance method for reducing lifestyle-related diseases by the self-monitoring of blood collection in small- and medium-sized enterprises].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As a method of reducing lifestyle-related diseases and guidance in small- and medium-sized enterprises where blood examination by blood collection from the upper arm cannot be performed, we developed a program for reducing lifestyle-related diseases by blood analysis using a fingertip collection kit and a small centrifuge, and evaluated this program in small- and medium-sized enterprises. During a 6-month period, a total of 7 interviews and a total of 3 own blood collections were performed by workers showing abnormalities in items associated with lifestyle-related diseases, such as lipids and glucose, in a periodic medical examination. Many of the participants in this program showed improvement in blood analysis data (triglyceride), abdominal circumference, and body weight. The cost of the examination was low. This self-monitoring method, which is based on objective data and can be readily and easily performed in the workplace, may be useful for reducing lifestyle-related diseases.

Kamaura M; Ohono H; Takahashi M; Takahashi T; Tochikubo O

2007-05-01

367

Delayed diagnosis of Kawasaki syndrome and thrombosis of a medium-sized aneurysm of the anterior descending coronary artery: case report and literature review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 7-year-old child was first admitted for persistent fever of 15-day duration and suspected meningitis. Kawasaki syndrome was lately diagnosed upon the recognition of an extensive diffuse coronary artery damage characterized by medium-sized aneurysms of the epicardial vessels. An eccentric thrombus along the inferior wall of the left anterior descending artery suspected at transthoracic echocardiography was confirmed by coronary computed tomography angiography scan, without significant segmental stenosis. Strict cardiac surveillance and anticoagulant therapy were maintained, and no ischemic complications occurred at a short-term follow-up. This report emphasizes that thrombosis can be observed even in medium-sized aneurysms when the diagnosis of Kawasaki syndrome is delayed.

De Rosa G; Cefalo MG; Marano R; Piastra M; Delogu AB; Rigante D

2012-03-01

368

Evaluation of the COSHH Essentials model with a mixture of organic chemicals at a medium-sized paint producer.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Essentials model was evaluated using full-shift exposure measurements of five chemical components in a mixture [acetone, ethylbenzene, methyl ethyl ketone, toluene, and xylenes] at a medium-sized plant producing paint materials. Two tasks, batch-making and bucket-washing, were examined. Varying levels of control were already established in both tasks and the average exposures of individual chemicals were considerably lower than the regulatory and advisory 8-h standards. The average exposure fractions using the additive mixture formula were also less than unity (batch-making: 0.25, bucket-washing: 0.56) indicating the mixture of chemicals did not exceed the combined occupational exposure limit (OEL). The paper version of the COSHH Essentials model was used to calculate a predicted exposure range (PER) for each chemical according to different levels of control. The estimated PERs of the tested chemicals for both tasks did not show consistent agreement with exposure measurements when the comparison was made for each control method and this is believed to be because of the considerably different volatilities of the chemicals. Given the combination of health hazard and exposure potential components, the COSHH Essentials model recommended a control approach 'special advice' for both tasks, based on the potential reproductive hazard ascribed to toluene. This would not have been the same conclusion if some other chemical had been substituted (for example styrene, which has the same threshold limit value as toluene). Nevertheless, it was special advice, which had led to the combination of hygienic procedures in place at this plant. The probability of the combined exposure fractions exceeding unity was 0.0002 for the batch-making task indicating that the employees performing this task were most likely well protected below the OELs. Although the employees involved in the bucket-washing task had greater potential to exceed the threshold limit value of the mixture (P > 1 = 0.2375), the expected personal exposure after adjusting for the assigned protection factor for the respirators in use would be considerably lower (P > 1 = 0.0161). Thus, our findings suggested that the COSHH essentials model worked reasonably well for the volatile organic chemicals at the plant. However, it was difficult to override the reproductive hazard even though it was meant to be possible in principle. Further, it became apparent that an input of existing controls, which is not possible in the web-based model, may have allowed the model be more widely applicable. The experience of using the web-based COSHH Essentials model generated some suggestions to provide a more user-friendly tool to the model users who do not have expertise in occupational hygiene. PMID:21047985

Lee, Eun Gyung; Slaven, James; Bowen, Russell B; Harper, Martin

2010-11-03

369

A hydrometeorological model intercomparison as a tool to quantify the forecast uncertainty in a medium size basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the framework of AMPHORE, an INTERREG III B EU project devoted to the hydrometeorological modeling study of heavy precipitation episodes resulting in flood events and the improvement of the operational hydrometeorological forecasts for the prediction and prevention of flood risks in the Western Mediterranean area, a hydrometeorological model intercomparison has been carried out, in order to estimate the uncertainties associated with the discharge predictions. The analysis is performed for an intense precipitation event selected as a case study within the project, which affected northern Italy and caused a flood event in the upper Reno river basin, a medium size catchment in the Emilia-Romagna Region. Two different hydrological models have been implemented over the basin: HEC-HMS and TOPKAPI which are driven in two ways. Firstly, stream-flow simulations obtained by using precipitation observations as input data are evaluated, in order to be aware of the performance of the two hydrological models. Secondly, the rainfall-runoff models have been forced with rainfall forecast fields provided by mesoscale atmospheric model simulations in order to evaluate the reliability of the discharge forecasts resulting by the one-way coupling. The quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs) are provided by the numerical mesoscale models COSMO and MM5. Furthermore, different configurations of COSMO and MM5 have been adopted, trying to improve the description of the phenomena determining the precipitation amounts. In particular, the impacts of using different initial and boundary conditions, different mesoscale models and of increasing the horizontal model resolutions are investigated. The accuracy of QPFs is assessed in a threefold procedure. First, these are checked against the observed spatial rainfall accumulations over northern Italy. Second, the spatial and temporal simulated distributions are also examined over the catchment of interest. And finally, the discharge simulations resulting from the one-way coupling with HEC-HMS and TOPKAPI are evaluated against the rain-gauge driven simulated flows, thus employing the hydrological models as a validation tool. The different scenarios of the simulated river flows – provided by an independent implementation of the two hydrological models each one forced with both COSMO and MM5 – enable a quantification of the uncertainties of the precipitation outputs, and therefore, of the discharge simulations. Results permit to highlight some hydrological and meteorological modeling factors which could help to enhance the hydrometeorological modeling of such hazardous events. Main conclusions are: (1) deficiencies in precipitation forecasts have a major impact on flood forecasts; (2) large-scale shift errors in precipitation patterns are not improved by only enhancing the mesoscale model resolution; and (3) weak differences in flood forecasting performance are found by using either a distributed continuous or a semi-distributed event-based hydrological model for this catchment.

A. Amengual; T. Diomede; C. Marsigli; A. Martín; A. Morgillo; R. Romero; P. Papetti; S. Alonso

2008-01-01

370

Field Performance of Three Stock Sizes of Douglas-fir Container Seedlings Grown with Slow-release Fertilizer in the Nursery Growing Medium  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Containerized coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings were grown with conventional soluble fertilizer and supplemented with one of four slow-release fertilizers (SRF treatments) or unsupplemented (control treatment). Seedlings were outplanted to two sites in 1998. At the time of outplanting, SRF incorporated into the growing medium resulted in larger seedlings with higher foliar nutrient concentrations as compared to conventionally fertilized seedlings. After four growing seasons, SRF-amended seedlings at both sites had significantly greater height, basal stem diameter, and stem volume, with increases up to 19, 21, and 73%, respectively, as compared to conventionally fertilized seedlings. Additionally, three stock sizes were compared at one of the sites. Increasing stock size resulted in increased growth during the first two seasons, enabling larger stock to maintain their size advantage. Seedling responses to SRF are attributed to larger initial size, increased internal nutrient reserves at planting, and continued fertilization after planting.

Haase DL; Rose R; Trobaugh J

2006-01-01

371

Companies on their Paths to Justice: How Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the Netherlands Deal with Potential Legal Problems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article presents the results of a recently completed study into the serious and potential legal problems that Dutch small and medium-sized enterprises face, the opponents they encounter and the legal service providers that they engage to deal with these problems. The study is based on two surveys among the 2,300 members of the SME panel of the EIM Business & Policy Research.

Marnix T. Croes

2012-01-01

372

Gaseous release acting as driving force to sweep fission products from the primary circuit following core heat-up accident in medium sized HTGRs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gaseous release from the various ceramic graphites following depressurization and core heat-up accident in medium sized HTGRs can significantly contribute to the driving force of sweeping fission products from the primary circuit. The retention characteristic of the ceramic graphites might also be affected. This preliminary analysis shows the possible significance of the gaseous release in sweeping the fission products from the primary circuit.

1989-03-13

373

Petroleum emergency preparedness study. Report on the macroeconomic consequences of a medium-sized oil-supply disruption with a market-based policy response and tax rebates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report discusses the 3-year impact on the US economy of a temporary, medium-sized disruption in world oil supplies beginning on January 1, 1982. Results of the analysis suggest that significant adverse effects can be expected in the short term on real GNP, unemployment, and inflation. A discussion on policy implications and tax rebates is presented. The Data Resource model of the US economy was used to predict economic impacts. (DMC)

McClain, D.S.

1981-02-09

374

A predictive model of the export behaviour of small and medium sized firms: an application to the case of Castilla-La Mancha  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on an extensive theoretical review, the aim of this paper is to carry out a closer examination of the differences between exporters according to their commitment to the international market. Once the main disparities are identified by means of a non-parametric test, a logistic analysis based upon data collected from small and medium sized manufacturing firms is conducted in order to construct a classificatory model.

María Jesús Ruiz-Fuensanta

2011-01-01

375

Use of care management practices in small- and medium-sized physician groups: do public reporting of physician quality and financial incentives matter?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of public reporting (PR) and financial incentives tied to quality performance on the use of care management practices (CMPs) among small- and medium-sized physician groups. DATA: Survey data from The National Study of Small and Medium-sized Physician Practices were used. Primary data collection was also conducted to assess community-level PR activities. The final sample included 643 practices engaged in quality reporting; about half of these practices were subject to PR. STUDY DESIGN: We used a treatment effects model. The instrumental variables were the community-level variables that capture the level of PR activity in each community in which the practices operate. FINDINGS: (1) PR is associated with increased use of CMPs, but the estimate is not statistically significant; (2) financial incentives are associated with greater use of CMPs; (3) practices' awareness/sensitivity to quality reports is positively related to their use of CMPs; and (4) combined PR and financial incentives jointly affect CMP use to a greater degree than either of these factors alone. CONCLUSION: Small- to medium-sized practices appear to respond to PR and financial incentives by greater use of CMPs. Future research needs to investigate the appropriate mix and type of incentive arrangements and quality reporting.

Alexander JA; Maeng D; Casalino LP; Rittenhouse D

2013-04-01

376

Prospective evaluation of the functional and anatomical results of arthroscopic repair in small and medium-sized full-thickness tears of the supraspinatus tendon.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relation between tendon integrity and functional results following the arthroscopic treatment of small- and medium-sized rotator cuff tears. METHODS: Arthroscopic repair was performed on 26 consecutive patients (21 women, 5 men;mean age: 55.9 years; range: 33-72 years) with small- and medium-sized tears of the supraspinatus tendon. Patients were postoperatively evaluated at 12 and 24 months using the Constant and UCLA functional outcome scores and ultrasound examinations. RESULTS: The supraspinatus tendon did not heal in nine patients (34.6%) and was partially healed in three (11%), 12 months after surgery. Mean postoperative Constant and UCLA scores of these patients were 73.1 and 27.8, respectively, which were not significantly different from those with an intact tendon on the final follow-up (Constant: 78 and UCLA: 30; p=0.107 and p=0.164). Both rating systems reflected significant improvement with treatment (p<0.01). The mean age of patients with a re-tear was 66.8 years, which was significantly higher than those with an intact repair (54 years; p<0.01). CONCLUSION: The arthroscopic repair of small and medium-sized supraspinatus tendon tears yields good long-term results independent of tendon integrity. Healing potential may be decreased with increased age.

Akp?nar S; Uysal M; Pourbagher MA; Ozalay M; Cesur N; Hersekli MA

2011-07-01

377

Small and Medium-size Towns as the Basis of Polycentric Urban Development : Majhna in srednje velika mesta kot ogrodje policentri?nega urbanega razvoja  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of small and mediumsize towns in the polycentric settlement network of Slovenia. The roles of settlements in a network are affected not only by the number of inhabitants in asettlement or region, but also by several other factors. The paper, therefore, focuses especially on the set of indicators that would delineate the difference between large, medium-size and small settlements in Slovenia as well as in comparison to other European countries. The research approach to the topic is introduced,including the design of an analytical model, whereby the findings of previous studies are used on a comparative basis. The most significant results of a survey on the role of the settlements in a network are presented. The study was performed in two parts. Inthe first part, a quantitative analysis at the national scale was performed, based on the defined indicators, and in the second part a qualitative analysis of the survey was performed. Having used thirteen indicators, we first distinguished between the settlements to be considered as towns and between other kinds of settlements in the territory of Slovenia. The same indicators were further used to distinguish between large, medium-size and small towns. Based on theanalysis, an assessment of the role of individual small and medium-size towns in different regions is given. The qualitative approach also gave certain answers regarding the actual and potential connection of urban settlements into conurbations, which have been partly defined in the national legislation.

Alma Zavodnik Lamovšek; Samo Drobne; Tadej Žaucer

2008-01-01

378

Engaging with economic evaluation methods: insights from small and medium enterprises in the UK medical devices industry after training workshops  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background With increased governmental interest in value assessment of technologies and where medical device manufacturers are finding it increasingly necessary to become more familiar with economic evaluation methods, the study sought to explore the levels of health economics knowledge within small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and to scope strategies they employ to demonstrate the value of their products to purchasers. Methods A short questionnaire was completed by participants attending one of five workshops on product development in the medical device sector that took place in England between 2007 and 2011. From all responses obtained, a large proportion of participants were based in SMEs (N?=?43), and these responses were used for the analysis. Statistical analysis using non-parametric tests was performed on questions with approximately interval scales. Qualitative data from participant responses were analysed to reveal emerging themes. Results The questionnaire results revealed that 60% of SME participants (mostly company directors or managers, including product or project managers) rated themselves as having low or no knowledge of health economics prior to the workshops but the rest professed at least medium knowledge. Clinical trials and cost analyses or cost-effectiveness studies were the most highly cited means by which SMEs aim to demonstrate value of products to purchasers. Purchasers were perceived to place most importance on factors of safety, expert opinion, cost-effectiveness and price. However many companies did not utilise formal decision-making tools to prioritise these factors. There was no significant dependence of the use of decision-making tools in general with respect to professed knowledge of health economics methods. SMEs did not state a preference for any particular aspect of potential value when deciding whether to develop a product. A majority of SMEs stated they would use a health economics tool. Research and development teams or marketing and sales departments would most likely use one. Conclusion This study points to the need for further research into the education requirements of SMEs in the area of Health Technology Assessment (HTA) and also for investigation into how SMEs engage with existing HTA processes as required by assessors such as NICE.

Craven Michael P; Allsop Matthew J; Morgan Stephen P; Martin Jennifer L

2012-01-01

379

Engaging with economic evaluation methods: insights from small and medium enterprises in the UK medical devices industry after training workshops.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: With increased governmental interest in value assessment of technologies and where medical device manufacturers are finding it increasingly necessary to become more familiar with economic evaluation methods, the study sought to explore the levels of health economics knowledge within small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and to scope strategies they employ to demonstrate the value of their products to purchasers. METHODS: A short questionnaire was completed by participants attending one of five workshops on product development in the medical device sector that took place in England between 2007 and 2011. From all responses obtained, a large proportion of participants were based in SMEs (N?=?43), and these responses were used for the analysis. Statistical analysis using non-parametric tests was performed on questions with approximately interval scales. Qualitative data from participant responses were analysed to reveal emerging themes. RESULTS: The questionnaire results revealed that 60% of SME participants (mostly company directors or managers, including product or project managers) rated themselves as having low or no knowledge of health economics prior to the workshops but the rest professed at least medium knowledge. Clinical trials and cost analyses or cost-effectiveness studies were the most highly cited means by which SMEs aim to demonstrate value of products to purchasers. Purchasers were perceived to place most importance on factors of safety, expert opinion, cost-effectiveness and price. However many companies did not utilise formal decision-making tools to prioritise these factors. There was no significant dependence of the use of decision-making tools in general with respect to professed knowledge of health economics methods. SMEs did not state a preference for any particular aspect of potential value when deciding whether to develop a product. A majority of SMEs stated they would use a health economics tool. Research and development teams or marketing and sales departments would most likely use one. CONCLUSION: This study points to the need for further research into the education requirements of SMEs in the area of Health Technology Assessment (HTA) and also for investigation into how SMEs engage with existing HTA processes as required by assessors such as NICE.

Craven MP; Allsop MJ; Morgan SP; Martin JL

2012-01-01

380

Evaluation of natural zeolite as microorganism support medium in nitrifying batch reactors: influence of zeolite particle size.  

Science.gov (United States)

An evaluation of natural zeolite as a microorganism carrier in nitrifying reactors operated in batch mode was carried out. Specifically, the influence of zeolite particle sizes of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mm in diameter on microorganism adherence to zeolite, ammonium adsorption capacity and the identification of microbial populations were assessed. The greatest amount of total biomass adhered was observed for a zeolite particle size of 1 mm (0.289 g) which was achieved on the 12th day of operation. The highest ammonium adsorption capacity was observed for a zeolite particle size of 0.5 mm, which was 64% and 31% higher than that observed for particle sizes of 1.0 and 2.0 mm, respectively. The maximum de-sorption values were also found for a zeolite particle size of 0.5 mm, although when equilibrium was reached the ammonium concentrations were similar to those observed for a zeolite particle size of 1.0 mm. It was also found that the experimental data on ammonium adsorption fitted very well to the Freundlich isotherm for the three particle sizes studied. Finally, the nitrifying reactors showed similar microbial populations independently of the particle size used as microorganism carrier. The dominant bacterial community was Gammaproteobacteria making up 80% of the total population found. Betaproteobacteria were also identified and made up 12% approx. of the total population. Ammonium Oxidant Betaproteobacteria and Nitrobacter were also detected. PMID:22320694

Mery, C; Guerrero, L; Alonso-Gutiérrez, J; Figueroa, M; Lema, J M; Montalvo, S; Borja, R

2012-01-01