WorldWideScience
1

Investigating power factor compensation capacity calculation in medium sized industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are a variety of techniques developed in order to improve the efficiency of electrical systems and reduce cost of providing electricity to the consumer. This paper presents a new technique for power-factor capacity calculation in medium-sized industrial/ commercial setups. Various loads of similar nominal power-factor are categorized and demand-factor of loads is so selected that it has engineering justifications. The developed system works on the principle of low-voltage power-factor correction, which substantially reduces electricity bill and increases loading-capacity of the electrical system. It allows commercial and industrial consumers to save on their power cost appreciably. This work utilizes software, which takes few inputs and produces numerous useful results. Adoption of this system can help the user in computing compensation-capacity, system KVA (size of transformer) and cost of compensation. A feature of this system is prediction of low PF penalty. Moreover, it also suggests the tentative payback period. (author)

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Productivity Growth in the Medium Size Malaysian-industry Level: Primal and Dual Approaches  

OpenAIRE

This paper investigates the theoretical relationship between the primal and dual Total Factor Productivity (TFP) from the accounting measurement perspective and also assesses their accuracy in measuring unobserved TFP growth in the presence of market power (MP) and non constant returns to scale (NCRTS) in the case of the medium sized Malaysian industries. In support of this, this paper uses an empirical method to estimate TFP growth by using medium sized Malaysian manufacturing data at 5-digi...

Abdol Samad Nawi; Irwan Bin Ismail; Zainuddin Zakaria; Jannah Munirah Md Noor; Bashir Ahmad Bin Shabir Ahmad; Nik Fakrul Hazri; Wan Anisabanum Salleh; Mohd Tajul Hasnan Mohd Tajuddin; Nur Raihana Mohd Sallem

2012-01-01

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Productivity Growth in the Medium Size Malaysian-industry Level: Primal and Dual Approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper investigates the theoretical relationship between the primal and dual Total Factor Productivity (TFP from the accounting measurement perspective and also assesses their accuracy in measuring unobserved TFP growth in the presence of market power (MP and non constant returns to scale (NCRTS in the case of the medium sized Malaysian industries. In support of this, this paper uses an empirical method to estimate TFP growth by using medium sized Malaysian manufacturing data at 5-digit SIC (Standard Industrial Classification level. In order to achieve this objective, this paper first tests whether the sample of medium sized Malaysian industries have constant factor shares in total revenue. T-tests have been used to examine the hypothesis stating that factor shares in total revenue are constant over time. Finally, this paper compares the estimates of TFP growth to those of primal and dual TFP accounting measures.

Abdol Samad Nawi

2012-10-01

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An energy efficiency program for Swedish industrial small- and medium-sized enterprises  

OpenAIRE

Industrial energy programs such as energy audit programs and long-term agreements (LTAs) are one of the most common means of promoting energy efficiency in industry. As a result of the European Energy End-Use Efficiency and Energy Services Directive from 2006, the Swedish Government Bill proposed a national energy program towards industrial small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) using more than 500 MWh energy annually. The aim of this paper is to present the structure and design of the pr...

Thollander, Patrik; Dotzauer, Erik

2010-01-01

5

Finnish medium sized manufacturing companies access to Norwegian petroleum and offshore industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Norwegian petroleum and offshore industry is one of the biggest industry clusters in Northern Europe measured by the total turnover. The yearly investment level, approximately 40-50 billion NOK until the end of the century, makes this industry interesting as a potential purchasing market for various products and services. The purpose of the present report is to provide some basic information of the Norwegian petroleum and offshore industry to the Finnish medium sized manufacturing companies interested in entering this market. The objective of this report is to arouse interest in the oil and gas industry and provide up-to-date statistical data of a number of major factors characterizing the industry. In this sense the report serves as a preparatory data source book for persons who want to widen their knowledge of the offshore industry. This report strongly emphasizes practical aspects. Lists and addresses of the major authorities, oil companies and offshore manufacturing companies might help in seeking additional information. They can also be made use of contacting the potential customers. Besides the statistical and practical information, subjects like the history of the Norwegian petroleum industry, specific features of the major oil and gas fields, environmental aspects e.g. are also discussed in this report. This general knowledge might be useful when meeting Norwegian customers

6

Energy coservation status and needs: medium-sized commercial/industrial firms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The potential for conserving energy by Seattle City Light's commercial/industrial customers is investigated. The results of the study will help SCL and others to provide energy- and money-saving help to their medium-sized business customers. Fifty in-person interviews of firms within the SCL area and 102 mailed questionnaires from customers outside the area in Washington and Oregon were analyzed. Researchers found that many steps requiring little cost have been implemented, but instituting further hard conservation measures such as new machinery, retrofitting, or changes in machine operations are lacking. (MCW)

1979-10-01

7

Schwarz Shipyards : How a Medium Sized Enterprise Struggles to Survive Disruptive Industry Change  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This case is designed to discuss strategy formation and strategic renewal in small and medium-sized enterprises that are challenged by external disruptive change. The case can be used to teach: external analysis, BCG-matrix, internal analysis (resources and capabilities), Porter’s-5-Forces, industry life-cycle, Porter’s generic strategies, SWOT analysis, strategy formation and business model analysis. The case builds on an in-depth case study conducted in 2011/2012. The case has been anonymized. More specifically the case describes the triumphs and challenges of a medium-sized European shipyard during the past decades. After the industry crisis in the late 80s the yard management steered through an extremely adventurous period. However, due to external and internal difficulties they ultimately faced bankruptcy. Students are asked to put themselves in the shoes of the shipyard management in 2006, a point in time where they still had the possibility to affect its destiny. The case includes an extensive set of questions that covers the most important elements of a master of science degree course in strategy. The questions are also suitable for exam or term papers.

Rohrbeck, René; BØe-Lillegraven, Siri

2013-01-01

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Innovation in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in the Malaysian information technology (IT) industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study is to examine innovative activities in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the Malaysian information technology (IT) industry. This study addresses three research questions: 1. What is the innovation pattern among SMEs in the Malaysian IT industry? 2. How significant is interactive learning between SMEs in the Malaysian IT industry and other agents in the innovation system? and 3. What is the role of the government in promoting innovation among SMEs in the Malaysian IT industry? Two approaches were taken to collect data for this study, that is, mail survey and face-to-face interviews. Based on findings from this study, the SMEs in the Malaysian IT industry were divided into four categories, namely, highly innovative, innovative, inventive, and non innovative. The patterns of knowledge acquisition and interactive learning vary among the different categories of firms, and on the whole, vertical linkages with suppliers were found to be the most significant. Finally, support through the provision of funding was considered to be among the most important roles of the government in promoting innovation in SMEs in the Malaysian IT industry. (author)

9

Explaining Internationalisation of Small to Medium Sized Enterprises within the Queensland Food and Beverage Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The prevalence of International New Ventures (INVs has increased during the past twenty years. Nevertheless,to date there has been no general consensus within the literature on an explanation as to the rapid internationalisation of some firms. Do they follow a similar process to other firms that internationalise based ona more ‘measured’ incremental sequential process of internationalisation. This paper proposes and tests an innovation diffusion model of the internationalisation of small firm INVs and others by drawing on keyinnovation diffusion models from the literature. The results of this analysis indicate that the synthesised model ofexport adoption is effective in explaining the internationalisation process of INVs and other firms within theQueensland Food and Beverage Industry. Significantly, the features of the original innovation diffusion modelsdeveloped in the consumer behaviour literature, which had limited examination within the internationalisationliterature, were confirmed. This includes the ability of firms, or specifically decision-makers, to skip stagesbased on previous experience.

Mitchell Spowart

2012-03-01

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Purchasing practice in SMEs : Practical impressions about the purchasing activities of small and medium sized enterprises in the manufacturing industry  

OpenAIRE

Small and medium sized companies are important to the European economy and considered as the true backbone of the European economy, being primarily responsi-ble for wealth and economic growth. Further, the purchasing function of small and medium sized companies had become more and more important to firms within the creating of competitive advantages. Additional, former research emphasizes the need of companies to engage in closer relationships in order to survive in nowadays business environm...

Kulik, Stephanie

2010-01-01

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A model of integration between knowledge management and business processes of industrial small and medium-sized enterprises  

OpenAIRE

The objectives of this research is to provide an integrated study on the subject of integration between knowledge management and business processes, to identify the needs for different aspects of necessary knowledge for the development of small and medium-sized enterprises, where young investors seek to develop their knowledge by trying to increase the sources of access to information so that they can comply with the requirements of constant change in the organizations they have, and thus the...

Maha Mahmoud Talaat mustafa

2012-01-01

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THE ALGORITHM IMPLEMENTATION OF THE DIVERSIFICATION STRATEGY IN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES (FOR EXAMPLE, THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Diversification in small businesses in the general sense is an extension of business activities to new areas of business (expanding the range of products, types of services provided, etc.. Application of the strategy of diversification in the small and medium business is justified in cases where the industry does not give us opportunities for further growth or when growth opportunities outside the industry more attractive. To determine whether diversification overdue and justified, the entrepreneur must clearly define the algorithm for their actions.Purpose: To determine the algorithm implementation of the strategy of diversification.Methodology: Desk research.Results: The developed algorithm.Practical implications: Management.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-19

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2013-09-01

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What affects the innovation performance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the biotechnology industry? An empirical study on Korean biotech SMEs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research-intensive small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play a crucial role in the advancement of the biotechnology industry. This paper explored the impacts of internal and contextual variables on innovative activity in Korea and compared the results of this analysis with previous studies of other countries. Our analysis of 149 Korean biotech SMEs showed that the ratio of R&D expenditure to sales, the ratio of R&D employees to total employees, CEO characteristics, governmental support and international networking are positively correlated with a firm's innovation performance. The results may help decision makers to better foster SMEs in the Korean biotechnology industry. PMID:18506395

Kang, Kyung-Nam; Lee, Yoon-Sik

2008-10-01

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A model of integration between knowledge management and business processes of industrial small and medium-sized enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objectives of this research is to provide an integrated study on the subject of integration between knowledge management and business processes, to identify the needs for different aspects of necessary knowledge for the development of small and medium-sized enterprises, where young investors seek to develop their knowledge by trying to increase the sources of access to information so that they can comply with the requirements of constant change in the organizations they have, and thus the development of their institutions, where those institutions need knowledge to identify the changes occurring in each sector of production and service, whether local or foreign, which enables them to provide products or services on the level of high quality.They also must service work to develop and employ methods of conducting research targeting product, and management development of systems for promoting good products or services. Capturing knowledge can be through knowledge management by browsing of pages published by various organizations on the Internet and, recognizing everything new in the field of manufacturing or production used by various institutions, and therefore constantly developing products according to the needs of different categories of consumers.

Maha Mahmoud Talaat mustafa

2012-09-01

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An investigation into medium-sized multinational enterprises  

OpenAIRE

The paper provides an investigation of medium-sized Italian industrial enterprises that have become multinational companies. It concetrates on the set of medium and medium-large enterprises who seem to grow more in foreign markets, either through exports or through foreign direct investment. The work also offers a descriptive empirical picture of the performance of medium-sized Italian multinationals, which is compared with the performance of large corporations. From this analysis, which is ...

Daniele Schilirò; Maria Musca

2012-01-01

16

Techno-economic evaluation of commercial cogeneration plants for small and medium size companies in the Italian industrial and service sector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The liberalization of the electricity market and the concern for energy efficiency have resulted in a surge of interest in cogeneration and distributed power generation. In this regard, companies are encouraged to evaluate the opportunity to build their own cogeneration plant. In Italy, the majority of such companies belong to the industrial or service sector; it is small or medium in size and the electric power ranges between 1 ÷ 10 MW. Commercially available gas turbines are the less expensive option for cogeneration. Particular attention has been given to the possibility of combining an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) with gas turbine, to improve the conversion efficiency. Companies have to account for both technical and economical aspects to assess viability of cogeneration. A techno-economic analysis was performed to identify, in the Italian energy market, which users can take advantage of a cogeneration plant aimed to cover at least part of their energy demand. Since electricity and thermal needs change considerably in the same sector, single product categories have been considered in the analysis. Our work shows that in the industrial sector, independent of the product category, cogeneration is a viable option form a techno-economic perspective. - Highlights: ? The best technologies for 1 ÷ 10 MW distributed generation plant are gas turbine and ORC. ? A variety of commercial cogeneration plants is available to meet user needs. ? Cogeneration is a technical ds. ? Cogeneration is a technical and economical advantage for industrial sector companies.

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Identifying Factors Influencing Entry Mode Selection in Food Industry of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As internationalization increases in today’s business society, it becomes ever more important for individual business to keep us with the development. The way a company ventures from its domestic market to new geographical markets and selecting the right entry modes are important decision that demands a lot of resources and planning. In the process of selecting entry modes a wide range of factors must be taken into consideration before making the final decision. To provide a better understanding of the impact of some internal and external factors on Iranian SMEs in food industry we chose a conceptual framework from Root and studied its variables in our sample. This model states that a target country market factors, b target country environmental factors c target country production factors and d home country factors as external factors and e country production and f company resource/commitment factors as internal factors have impact on the process of choosing entry modes. In order to collect data we use questionnaire. Our findings illustrated that all of the factors were mentioned in Root’s model had impact on selecting entry modes to a foreign country.

Mahdi Haghighi Kaffash

2012-09-01

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Understanding the adoption and use of information systems/information technology in small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises : a study in Portuguese industry.  

OpenAIRE

This research analysed factors and sets of factors that affect and explain the varying levels of success in the adoption and use of IS/IT (Information Systems/Information Technology) in Portuguese manufacturing SMEs (Small and Medium-sized Enterprises). The study set out to fill a gap in knowledge not covered by previous research into the area of IS/IT in SMEs. Existing work was found to be of limited relevance or was out-of-date, due to the rapid evolution of IS/IT, and did no...

Caldeira, Mario

1998-01-01

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The Study of Collaborative IP Models and Successful Factors-Taking the Small-and-Medium Sized LCD Industry as an Example  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available More and more enterprises conduct business strategically through strategic alliances, mergers & acquisitions, joint ventures, outsourcing, and collaborations to keep their competitive advantages in view of influences such as reduction of product lifecycles, fast changing markets, and global economics. Besides, enterprises gradually recognize that intellectual property management and plans are important. In the generation of R&D management based on innovative capabilities, it can commercialize the developed technologies and yield economic benefits through the effective management and deployment of patents. This research aims to identify how the collaborative Intellectual Property (IP model could shorten product life cycle and further make enterprises successful in the global market. This research firstly figures out the features of the small-and-medium Liquid Crystal Display (LCD industrial and challenges what this industry confronts after the competitive analysis of industry and market. Then the technological trend and patent positions were studied through patent information analysis and tools from Patent Guilder Software. This research also uses the case study methodology and selected the first company that adopted a collaborative IP model. Furthermore, this paper identifies the key performance indicators for the model and finds out the innovative business model for the company.

Li-Min Wu

2013-03-01

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SCIENCE MATTERS (White) Hooded Sweatshirt (Size: Medium)  

Science.gov (United States)

White, heavy duty 9.3 oz. 50/50 blend, double-lined hood and pockets. Sweatshirt is printed with Science Matters logo on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large.

1900-01-01

21

AN INVESTIGATION INTO MEDIUM-SIZED MULTINATIONAL ENTERPRISES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper provides an investigation of medium-sized Italian industrial enterprises that have become multinational companies. It concetrates on the set of medium and medium-large enterprises who seem to grow more in foreign markets, either through exports or through foreign direct investment. The work also offers a descriptive empirical picture of the performance of medium-sized Italian multinationals, which is compared with the performance of large corporations. From this analysis, which is based on several data sources, it is possible to outline a profile regarding the medium-size italian multinational enterprises; the aim is to understand the complex strategy towards internationalization of these companies, where the dimension of production is important and, therefore, innovation has a key role. Also the commercial dimension is crucial, because it leads to point to the direct supervision of foreign markets and to look very carefully at the customers, offering them a wide range of services. Finally, the paper highlights some critical issues that the medium sized multinational enterprises have to face for competing: namely, the stagnant productivity, the high taxation, the insufficient institutional support for internationalization, the bureaucracy and its high costs, the lack of skilled human capital available in the labor market due to inadequate policy training.

Daniele Schilirò

2013-09-01

22

MEDIUM SIZED LOCAL AREA NETWORK DESIGN  

OpenAIRE

In this doploma work we introduce the design of a small to medium size local area network, which was designed and configured in Cisco Packet Tracer (PT). PT emulates actual networking devices and the network. The goal was to design a network for a new company. As the company grows and becomes bigger everyday and employ more and more people and more sections, so their network has to be upgrated. We included a router, access switches, multilayer switches and end devices in the network. In the e...

Sekavc?nik, Mitja

2011-01-01

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Holonic Business Process Modeling in Small to Medium Sized Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Holonic modeling analysis which is the application of system thinking in design, manage, and improvement, is used in a novel context for business process modeling. An approach and techniques of holon and holarchies is presented specifically for small and medium sized enterprise process modeling development. The fitness of the approach is compared with well known reductionist or task breakdown approach. The strength and weaknesses of the holonic modeling is discussed with illustrating case example in term of its suitability for an Indonesia’s small and medium sized industry. The novel ideas in this paper have great impact on the way analyst should perceive business process. Future research is applying the approach in supply chain context.

Nur Budi Mulyono

2009-06-01

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Oh&S in Small and Medium-Size Enterprises and the Issue of Cultural Diversity: Ongoing Research in the Construction Industry  

OpenAIRE

This paper reports on the findings from stage one of a collaborative New Zealand and French research project on the construction industry and in particular the link between occupational health and safety (OHS), subcontracting and cultural diversity. The construction sector in France, New Zealand and elsewhere has not only one of the highest injury, illness and fatality rates but the sector also has a prevalence of small subcontracting firms and a substantial migrant labour force (CNAM, 2008; ...

Martin, Christophe; Pelleterat Borde, Melchior; Guarnieri, Franck; Lamm, Felicity

2010-01-01

25

PME-PMI : quel accès à l'information ? Small- and Medium-Sized Firms and Industries: What Access to Information?  

OpenAIRE

Le contact quotidien avec les PME-PMI nous amène à penser que des intermédiaires expérimentés sont indispensables pour permettre à ces sociétés d'accéder aux nouveaux outils documentaires. Daily contact with small and middle size enterprises makes us think that skilful intermediaries are necessary to help these companies in accessing to the new information tools.

Debackere M. C.; Roussel M.

2006-01-01

26

Small and medium sized reactors: Status and prospects. Proceedings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the early years of nuclear power deployment, the plants entering service were dominated by what are now considered small (less than 300 MW(e)) and medium (300 to 700 MW(e)) reactors. In the late 1970s, the balance shifted to larger size plants to serve the requirements of industrialized countries. However, since the early 1990s, the increased interest of developing countries in nuclear power, mainly in Asia, has resulted in intensified efforts in development of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). Also, in industrialized countries, electricity market deregulation is calling for power generation flexibility that SMRs may offer. Apart from electricity generation, SMRs are of particular interest for non-electrical applications of nuclear energy, such as desalination of seawater and district heating. In recognition of the current global interest in small and medium sized reactors this seminar was convened to provide a forum for the exchange of information by experts and policy makers from industrialized and developing countries on the technical, economic, environmental, and social aspects of SMR development and implementation in the 21st century, and to make this information available to all interested IAEA Member States. Keynote addresses also provided information on global energy demand and supply and international trends impacting the development and introduction of SMRs. Two hundred forty seven attendees from 39 countries and 5 international organizations participated in the seminar. The majority of the participants were from developing countries. The seminar not only provided valuable up to date information on SMRs, it also highlighted the importance of continued international co-operation in the development and application of nuclear power for peaceful uses throughout the world

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Study on the Service Quality Evaluation and Improvement for Medium and Small Sized Hotels  

OpenAIRE

The tourism industry is in the important state in the national economy, and the hotel industry is the important part of the tourism industry, and the medium and small sized hotels occupy certain market share because of the numerous quantity. Because the se...

Fan Chen

2009-01-01

28

Status and prospects for small and medium sized reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Member States have evinced interest in the continued development of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) as an energy source for the future. Support for this programme was recently reaffirmed at the IAEA 1997 General Conference. Although the generation of electricity is the predominant focus of existing SMRs, there is increasing interest in using these plants for desalination, district heating and high temperature industrial process heat applications. Here is a review of SMR development within selected Member States, an overview of the IAEA's SMR programme and a discussion of selected SMR designs with emphasis on safety attributes. (author)

29

From medium-sized to megawatt turbines...  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the world`s first 500 kW turbines was installed in 1989 in the Netherlands. This forerunner of the current NedWind 500 kW range also represents the earliest predesign of the NedWind megawatt turbine. After the first 500 kW turbines with steel rotor blades and rotor diameter of 34 m, several design modifications followed, e.g. the rotor diameter was increased to 35 m and a tip brake was added. Later polyester blades were introduced and the rotor diameter was increased with 5 in. The drive train was also redesigned. Improvements on the 500 kW turbine concept has resulted in decreased cost, whereas annual energy output has increased to approx. 1.3 million kWh. Wind energy can substantially contribute to electricity supply. Maximum output in kiloWatthours is the target. Further improvement of the existing technology and implementation of flexible components may well prove to be a way to increase energy output, not only in medium or large sized wind turbines. 7 figs.

Dongen, W. van [NedWind bv, Rhenen (Netherlands)

1996-12-31

30

Small and medium size nuclear reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this appendix is to provide up-to-date technical information relevant to the deployment of small and medium reactors (SMRs). It summarizes the status of SMRs and discusses areas of relevance to their utilization, including seawater desalination; and in particular their simplicity, their flexibility for a variety of applications and the use of passive safety features as fundamental to most of these designs. In response to important commercial developments, the energy range of small and medium reactors is now taken as being up to around 700 MW(e). Detailed information on SMR designs can be found in the IAEA report on The Design and Development Status of Small and Medium Reactor Systems 1995. 5 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

31

Study on the Service Quality Evaluation and Improvement for Medium and Small Sized Hotels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The tourism industry is in the important state in the national economy, and the hotel industry is the important part of the tourism industry, and the medium and small sized hotels occupy certain market share because of the numerous quantity. Because the service qualities of medium and small sized hotels are different, so the service quality of the hotel is the nuclear content of hotel management. At present, the supply exceeds the demand in the global hotel market, and the competitions among hotels are very intense, and who can supply excellent service for customers, who can obtain predominance in the market and attract more customers and get good benefits, and so the service quality is the life of hotel. In China hotel industry, especially for medium and small sized hotels, their management methods are draggled and there service qualities are relatively low, so many problems exist in this industry. As viewed from customers, this article discusses the satisfactory degree measurement about medium and small sized hotels based on the SERVQUAL method put forward by Parsuraman and the domestic scholars’ opinions about hotel service research, and analyzes the service quality problem of medium and small sized hotels and puts forward the project of improvement.

Fan Chen

2009-02-01

32

Dynamics of firm size in healthcare industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Healthcare is one of the world’s fastest growing industries consisting of broad services offered by various hospitals, physicians, nursing homes, diagnostic laboratories, pharmacies and supported by drugs, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, medical equipment, manufacturers and suppliers. The industry is highly fragmented, comprising of various ancillary sectors namely medical equipment and supplies, pharmaceutical, healthcare services, biotechnology, and alternative medicines. The present study focuses on the pharmaceutical and biotechnology segments of the healthcare industry, and presents a stochastic analysis of the evolution over time of firm size. A dynamic model is proposed that attempts to predict the evolutionary process of firm size distribution based on industry and product characteristics. A validation exercise, applying the model to pharmaceutical and the biotechnology industries finds that the predictions from the model are very close to the actual trajectories of firm size distributions within these industries at the global level. The results show interestingly, that the drivers of firm size dynamics are industry level characteristics that can be estimated from historical data with some accuracy. Specifically, it is found that firm size distributions are approaching a long-run equilibrium at a faster rate in the case of the pharmaceutical industry and that the dispersion of the distributions are shrinking over time above all for the biotechnology industry.

Fariba Hashemi

2012-03-01

33

Diseño de un sistema de acumulación de costos para la micro, pequeña y mediana industria panadera / Design of a System for the Accumulation of Costs for Micro, Small And Medium Sized Bakery Industries  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las micro, pequeñas y medianas industrias (MPyMI) son fundamentos en una economía sólida, ellas deben diseñar estrategias gerenciales y de apoyo acorde a sus características que les permitan mejorar su competitividad y buscar su consolidación; de allí la necesidad de contar con sistemas de acumulaci [...] ón de costos que generen información apropiada, oportuna y detallada. Luego de un diagnóstico realizado en las industrias panaderas del municipio Barinas, estado Barinas, se constató que éstas son en su mayoría MPyMI, y que no poseen un sistema de acumulación de costos adecuado que permita calcular costos de producción precisos para la planificación, control y toma de decisiones. Por ello, se presentan los resultados de una investigación proyectiva ubicada en el nivel comprensivo, en la cual se diseña un sistema de costos adaptado a las necesidades de estas industrias, compatible con la naturaleza de sus actividades fabriles, a objeto de facilitar y difundir su uso. Se propone un Sistema de Acumulación de Costos Híbrido, a partir de la combinación del sistema de costos por proceso y del sistema de costos por operaciones, para obtener información sistemática, oportuna y confiable, de los costos de producción para la toma de decisiones, dotados a la vez de procedimientos y mecanismos de control. Abstract in english Micro, small and medium sized industries are fundamental in a solid economy, and management and support strategies according to their characteristics should be designed and that allow them to better their competitiveness and consolidation, and for this reason there is a need to account for systems o [...] f cost accumulation that generate appropriate, timely and detailed information. After the realization of a study in the bakery industries in the Barinas Municipality, Barinas State, it was found that the majority of these businesses did not have a system for the adequate accumulation of costs which allowed them to calculate precise production costs for planning, control and decision-making. For this reason we present herein the results of a projected research project on a comprehensive level in which a system of costs is designed, adapted to the needs of these industries, compatible with the nature of their productive activity, in order to facilitate and expand its use. A system of accumulation of hybrid costs is proposed based on a combination of process cost systems and operational cost systems in order to obtain systematic, timely and reliable information on production costs for decision making, and which includes control mechanisms and procedures.

Marysela C, Morillo Moreno; Dianosky Yoleida, Pulido.

2006-08-01

34

Market Potential Estimation of a Small and Medium Size Reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Technically, nuclear reactors which produce energy in the form of heat can supply energy products other than electricity, including district heat, process heat, potable water etc. Currently non-civil uses of nuclear energy are very limited civil applications except for a military nuclear powered ship and an energy usage in isolated areas. However, the future global environment and an energy resources scarcity could promote a significant usage of non-electrical applications on an industrial scale. Considering these situations, this report analyzed the following: (1) Worldwide non-electrical application of a small and medium sized nuclear reactor - survey the situation of the current technical applications, - survey the global market potential estimation for various applications (2) Technical cooperation potential in several countries - identify necessary conditions for nuclear cooperation, - select candidate countries: Morocco, UAE, Indonesia, Chile and Vietnam, - survey the energy and water situation, - survey the legal and international regime infrastructure

35

How AACR2 Will Affect a Medium Sized Library.  

Science.gov (United States)

Measures the impact of AACR2 on the catalog of a medium sized college library, using data collected from the Library of Congress announced changes. How to deal with these changes and estimate their costs is discussed. (Author/RAA)

Pang, Isabel S.

1980-01-01

36

SPATIAL CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR IN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED TOWNS  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Small and medium-sized towns are often recognized as important components of the rural economy. In this article, we focus on the current function of small and medium-sized towns in providing retail services to local households in five European countries. Furthermore, we analyse the spatial shopping behaviour of these households. It appears that towns are still important places for shopping: more than half of the purchases of households living in town or the direct hinterla...

Leeuwen, Eveline S.; Rietveld, Piet

2010-01-01

37

Development of medium sized ABWRs (ABWR-600, ABWR-900)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hitachi has been developing medium sized ABWRs as a power source that features flexibility to meet various market needs, such as minimizing capital risks, providing a timely return on capital investments, etc. Basic design concepts of the medium sized ABWRs are 1) using the current ABWR design which has accumulated favorable construction and operation histories as a starting point; 2) utilizing standard BWR fuels which have been fabricated by proven technology; 3) achieving a rationalized design by suitably utilizing key components developed for large sized reactors. Development of the medium sized ABWRs has proceeded in a systematic, stepwise manner. The first step was to design an output scale for the 600 MWe class reactor (ABWR-600) which is appropriate for a distributed power supply. The next step was to develop an uprating concept to extend this output scale to the 900 MWe class reactor (ABWR-900) based on the rationalized technology of the ABWR-600 for further cost savings. (author)

38

Development of medium sized ABWR (ABWR-600, ABWR-900)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hitachi has been developing the Medium sized ABWR as a power source that features flexibility to various market needs, such as minimized capital risks, timely return on a capital investment, etc. Basic design policy of the Medium sized ABWR is 1) to be based on ABWR design with superior experiences in construction and operation, 2) to utilize standard BWR fuel adopting proven technology, 3) to achieve rationalized design by suitably utilizing the key components developed for large sized reactor. Development of the Medium sized ABWR has been working to proceed step by step. The first step was to design an output scale of the 600 MWe class (ABWR-600), which is appropriate for a distributed power-supply. The next step we start developing of the up-rated to an output scale of the 900 MWe class (ABWR-900) based on ABWR-600 rationalized technology for further cost saving. (author)

39

Fracture mechanics characterisation of medium-size adhesive joint specimens  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Medium-size specimens (<2 m in length), consisting of two glass-fibre beams bonded together by an adhesive layer were tested in four point bending to determine their load carrying capacity. Specimens having different thickness were tested. Except for onespecimen, the cracking occurred as cracking along the adhesive layer; initially cracking occurred along the adhesive/laminate interface, but after some crack extension the cracking took place inside the laminate (for one specimen the later part of thecracking occurred unstably along the adhesive/ laminate interface). Crack bridging by fibres was observed. The measured applied moment at steady-state crack growth was compared with predictions based on independent mixed mode fracture resistancemeasurements made on small laboratory specimens. The predicted and measured strength values of the medium-size specimens were found to be in good agreement with each other. Thus, the scaling from small specimens to medium-size specimens was successfullyachieved.

SØrensen, Bent F.; Jacobsen, T.K.

2004-01-01

40

Internationalization of small and medium-sized enterprises  

OpenAIRE

Highly developed countries, which are similar to Croatia by size and population, highlight the importance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) as holders of export activities and key factors in raising the competitiveness of the entire economy. In this paper authors research the concept of internationalization of SMEs. Analyzing the influence of decision makers on the process of internationalization and showing its advantages and disadvantages for the respective company and country, t...

Zoran Paunovi?; Darko Prebežac

2010-01-01

41

Strategic Financial Management in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Along with the development of social economy and the progress of science and technology, Chinese enterprises are being in a stage filled with opportunities and dangers. This paper introduces the connotation and significance of strategic financial management, elaborates the problems in the financial strategies conducted by small and medium-sized enterprises together with the causes and proposes some countermeasures finally.

Zongsheng Liu

2010-01-01

42

Cavity solitons in a medium-size VCSEL  

Science.gov (United States)

We consider a broad area vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) subject to optical injection. We experimentally investigate the spontaneous formation of a Cavity Soliton (CS) in a medium size (80?m diameter) VSCEL. CSs are generated and erased when sweeping optical injection power and proper frequency detuning between the master laser and the VCSEL is set.

Averlant, Etienne; Panajotov, Krassimir; Ackemann, Thorsten; Tlidi, Mustapha

2014-05-01

43

Problems Facing Small and Medium Size Contractors in Swaziland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper explores the problems facing Small and Medium Size Contractors in Swaziland. The construction sector in Swaziland is not only a significant source of direct employment but also a sector which contributes, through its wide range of projects and operations. The paper will also look at the current government initiatives that had been put in place to address the challenges and problems in order to ensure that contractors are successful. There is a high failure rate among small and medium size contractors in Swaziland. These contractors fail for a variety of reasons ranging from lack of adequate capacity to handle the uniqueness, complexity and risks in contracting, lack of effective management, lack of business management, poor record keeping and inadequate technical, financial and contract managerial skills. Drawing on research on small and medium size contractors, the paper used both secondary and primary litera-ture. 100 questionnaires were distributed to different role players in the construction sector in Swaziland. The response rate was eighty seven (87 percent. The paper reveals that the most problems facing small and medium size contractors in Swaziland is lack of access to finance and late payment by government. The paper closes with recommendations and key lessons for the future.

Wellington Didibhuku Thwala

2009-12-01

44

I LOVE SCIENCE (Gray) Hooded Sweatshirt (Size: Medium)  

Science.gov (United States)

Gray, heavy duty 9.3 oz. 50/50 blend, double-lined hood and pockets. Sweatshirt is printed with I Love Science on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large.

1900-01-01

45

SCIENCE MATTERS (Gray) Hooded Sweat Shirt (Size: Medium)  

Science.gov (United States)

Gray, heavy 9.3 oz. 50/50 blend, double-lined hood and pockets. Sweatshirt is printed with Science Matters logo on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, and XXX Large.

1900-01-01

46

I LOVE SCIENCE (Black) Hooded Sweatshirt (Size: Medium)  

Science.gov (United States)

Black, heavy duty 9.3 oz. 50/50 blend, double-lined hood and pockets. Sweatshirt is printed with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large.

1900-01-01

47

JOHN GLENN CENTER (Gray) Hooded Sweat (Size: Medium)  

Science.gov (United States)

Gray, heavy 9.3 oz. 50/50 blend, double-lined hood and pockets. Sweatshirt is printed with John Glenn Center for Science Education logo on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, and XXX Large.

1900-01-01

48

Development of ESCO as a tool for realising energy efficiency in small and medium sized industry; ESCO = Energy Service Company; Udvikling af ESCO som vaerktoej til realisering af energieffektivisering i smaa og mellemstore erhvervsvirksomheder  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The project carried out an advisory process in 10 different SME (small and medium-sized enterprises). The process was based on energy management and employee involvement in energy conservation activities, which has led to a wide variety of projects in companies that have focused on the initiation and solution of diverse energy-saving activities. Results of the project consist of a series of case studies that describe the processes that have been implemented in the company. The selected cases demonstrate the diversity of businesses, their energy saving potential and need for funding. It also describes and assesses the various financing possibilities, a model for qualitative advising in SMEs and a module for the training of the people involved - including installers, craftsmen and advisor. (LN)

Jensen, Ove Folmer (DS Haandvaerk og Industri, Odense (Denmark))

2011-07-01

49

Medium-sized telescopes for the Cherenkov Telescope Array  

Science.gov (United States)

CTA, the Cherenkov Telescope Array, is the next generation ground-based observatory for gamma-ray astronomy in the energy range from 20 GeV to 300 TeV. The sensitivity in the core energy range will be dominated by up to 40 Medium- Sized Telescopes. These telescopes, of Davies-Cotton type with a reflector with a diameter of 12 m, are currently in the prototype phase. A full-size mechanical prototype with drive system has been constructed in Berlin. Different prototype mirrors have been developed, tested and are mounted on the prototype. Two camera types are designed and prototyped. Demonstrator cameras were built and are tested; the integration of these cameras on the prototype is prepared. A report on all aspects of the design, commissioning and performance of the Medium-Sized Telescopes and their main components will be given.

Schlenstedt, Stefan

2014-07-01

50

Angiographic examinations with the medium size technique (70 mm films)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The applicability of medium-size technique was tested in angiographic examinations of thoracic and abdominal organs. By means of full-size image intensifiers it is possible to carry out organ angiography, and by means of a pace control mechanism for the patient transport, the angiography of the extremities can be realized. Examples are given illustrate the informational value in cases where the arial and venous vascular systems of organs and extremities are concerned. The particular advantages for functional analyses of organ circulatory systems in cases of angiography are described. Two factors of importance are pointed out: the reduction of the exposure to irradiation for the patient on the one hand, and the increasing film prices on the other hand. The authors demand to overcome the psychological problems arising in the medical working groups where the medium-size technique shall be introduced into routine diagnostics. (orig./APR)

51

SCOR: Simple compact reactor - An innovative medium sized PWR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A preliminary study for the development of innovative medium sized pressurized water reactor design SCOR (Simple Compact Reactor) is undertaken to meet the established requirements for future electricity generating reactors, such as low power cost, high level of safety, effective fuel cycle strategy, and the provisions of the European Utility Requirements (EUR). This conceptual design makes account of potential markets for medium sized reactors, reflects the intention to have a compact nuclear steam supply system, provides for the possible use of innovative fuels and for simplification of the safety demonstration through elimination of some accidents by design, incorporates many passive safety systems, and ensures low cost of generated power through optimised operation, fuel cycle and investments. The concept appears as a compact reactor with integrated pumps, pressurizer and control rods. A single steam generator is located above the reactor vessel within the reactor closure head. The decay heat is passively removed by dedicated integrated heat exchangers. (author)

52

Female Leadership Motivation in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises  

OpenAIRE

Leaders need to know what motivates their employees and how they can get their employees work their best. Women leaders are said to encourage and support their employees, which is essential for leadership motivation. Motivated employees improve enterprises’ overall business performance and results. The research is based on leadership, motivation and self-motivation in small and medium-sized enterprises in Ostrobothnia. The research problem is to find out how female leaders motivate their em...

Lillbacka, Marjo

2010-01-01

53

A governance indicator for small and medium-sized enterprises  

OpenAIRE

A governance indicator for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) is presented. The indicator adopts stakeholder theory in selecting its elements, which also include a few general governance principles as well as board features. The paper reviews main governance indicators treated in the literature, which are mostly applied to publicly traded firms. It then proposes a specific indicator for SMEs which, in general, are private. The indicator takes into account - in its structure - the evalu...

Yacuzzi, Enrique

2008-01-01

54

Health and safety management in small and medium sized enterprises  

OpenAIRE

Studies on occupational health and safety performance in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) are quite recent (mostly dating from the period after the 1990s). Although they are highly heterogeneous for they considerably vary in the approaches and the methods used, they all put into emphasis the vulnerability of these organisations when dealing with occupational health and safety issues. Enterprises of less than 50 employees are indeed more particularly exposed to such risks. An internat...

Martin, Christophe

2008-01-01

55

Powertrain System Design of Medium-sized Hybrid Electric Tractor  

OpenAIRE

The environment issue has been more and more serious than ever before along with the increasing numbers of tractors. Different from pure electric tractors, medium-sized tractor more widely adopt hybrid power driver according to the machine structure and operation characteristics. The Hybrid Electric Tractor (HET) is capable of enabling the diesel works in an optimal area by controlling the output torque of engine and electronic motor to achieve fuel economy and emission reduction. Designing t...

Xie Bin; Li Hao; Song Zheng-He; Mao En-Rong

2013-01-01

56

IAEA activities for innovative small and medium sized reactors (SMRS)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The renewed interest in many Member States in the development and application of Small and Medium Sized Reactors (SMRs) is reflected in the increased activities of the IAEA's Nuclear Power Technology Development Section (NPTDS) for this trend. The paper gives an overview, summarizes intermediate results, and presents major findings of the NPTDS activities for innovative SMRs, including the preparation of new Status Report on Innovative SMR Designs and Coordinated Research Project for the Development of Small Reactors without On-Site Refuelling. (authors)

57

ERP adoption in small and medium sized enterprises  

OpenAIRE

Enterprise resource planning (ERP) is established among a majority of small and medium sized companies in Kista Science City and seems to have a positive effect on organizational effectiveness. Kista Science City is Sweden’s largest corporate centre, with more companies and employees in a limited area than anywhere else in Europe. This study looks at the level of adoption of ERP functions, perceived organizational effectiveness and critical success factors. The most common use of ERP is for...

Juell-skielse, Gustaf

2006-01-01

58

KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION STEPS FOR INDIAN SMALL & MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents review of literature on Knowledge management (KM) in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). It focuses on the strategy, implementation, technological and performance measurement &benchmarking issues regarding KM in Indian SMEs. KM is a practical tool for any organization. So KM does not remain just a theory now but it paves the way to formulating an understanding of KM and its role within SMEs. KM has gained importance in the today’s global knowledge economy. It is i...

Apurva Anand; Singh, M. D.

2011-01-01

59

Imperfect information and labor market bias against small and medium-sized enterprises: a Korean case  

OpenAIRE

We examine the labor market’s bias against small and medium-sized enterprises focusing on the Seoul Digital Industrial Complex case. We adopt Heckman’s approach to control selection bias, and use primary data from questionnaire surveys conducted at both firm and employee levels. We find that conventional firm-specific factors, such as wages, fringe benefits, and weekly work hours, primarily explain the labor market bias, but imperfect information is also positively associated with the bia...

Park, Soonae; Kim, Byung-yeon; Jang, Wonchang; Nam, Kyung-min

2014-01-01

60

Cogeneration through small and medium sized gas turbines in Italy: Marketing survey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Italy, the use of cogeneration systems by private industrial concerns has greatly increased in the early 90's. The successful technological development of highly efficient low and medium sized gas turbines and the successful application of cogenerated power to a number of industrial processes, favourable legislation and financial incentives on the part of the Italian Government, especially interested in promoting energy conservation and the use of natural gas as an alternative to petroleum, as well as, fast payback periods for such investments are amongst the major regions for the growing demand for this type of power system alternative in Italy

61

Panorama 2007: Medium-Term Prospects for the Gas Industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the nineties, natural gas was the fastest growing energy source in the world energy mix. However, recent developments on the energy scene, particularly in terms of prices, have strongly impacted the growth of the various energies to the detriment of natural gas. Beyond this inter-energy competition, which could intensify, medium-term prospects for the gas industry evolve in an environment beset with uncertainties. (author)

62

Medium-sized water reactors for undeveloped regions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the new century the growth of population and an increasing of energy demands together with the difficulties of fossil fuel supply are expected. It is important to find optimal ways in solving such problems without the climate warming. The nuclear power having many advantages in comparison with fossil fuel technologies could play the great role in near future. The Medium-Sized Nuclear Reactors for production of electricity, heat and fresh water are considered as a main direction of nuclear power applications in the developing world It is important to discuss the requirements to such nuclear plants for using in the Countries with Small and Medium Electricity Grids. Particularly, cost-benefit analysis of construction NPP has to include assessment of all type risks and effectiveness of plant. In the paper an attention is paid on Water Reactors designed on the basis of navy technology. Such compact PWR built on special mills and placed on special floating vessel could be used in undeveloped regions. Total plant can be transported to any point of World Ocean and return back to mill for repair or decommissioning after exhaustion of lifetime. It is expected that such reactors with innovative design approach, provision of high safety and proper economic efficiency, based on leasing procedures, could be very attractive for medium-sized and developing countries.(author)

63

A medium sized telescope prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The CTA (Cherenkov Telescope Array) is a proposed next generation instrument to observe very high energy (VHE) gamma-rays at ground level. The array will consist of 3 sizes of telescope covering a wide photon energy range: small (4m diameter) telescopes sensitive to the highest energy photons, medium sized telescopes (12 m) operating in the mid energy range, and a small number of large telescopes (24 m) with high sensitivity to low energy photons. Current Cherenkov Telescope experiments consist of up to 5 telescopes; CTA will be made up of an order of magnitude more, which will greatly enhance the number of photons that can be detected as well as increasing the number of views of each cascade, bringing significantly improved angular resolution and background suppression. The observatory is currently in the planning and development phase. A prototype CTA medium sized telescope (MST) is being built in Adlershof (Berlin). This talk focuses on plans for CTA and the design and construction of the MST prototype, as well as its operation, instrumentation and early measurement results.

64

Status and Prospects for Small and Medium Sized Reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is considerable interest by Member States in the continued development of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) as a significant energy sources for the future. The support for this programme within the IAEA was recently reaffirmed at the 1997 General Conference. Although the generation of electricity has been predominant focus of existing SMRs, there is increasing interest in using these plants for other applications such as desalination, district heating and hydrogen production from the reforming of methane. Addressed herein is a review of ongoing SMR development activities within selected Member States, an overview of the Agency's SMR programme and a discussion of selected SMR designs with emphasis on their safety attributes. (author)

65

Internationalization of small and medium-sized enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Highly developed countries, which are similar to Croatia by size and population, highlight the importance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs as holders of export activities and key factors in raising the competitiveness of the entire economy. In this paper authors research the concept of internationalization of SMEs. Analyzing the influence of decision makers on the process of internationalization and showing its advantages and disadvantages for the respective company and country, this research introduces the most common models on the basis of which this process is implemented in practice. A case study of a small export company from Croatia illustrates the process of internationalization to the U.S. market and provides useful information to the companies which are planning to enter new markets.

Zoran Paunovi?

2010-06-01

66

Structure and conformation of the medium-sized chlorophosphazene rings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Medium-sized cyclic oligomeric phosphazenes [PCl2N]m (where m = 5-9) that were prepared from the reaction of PCl5 and NH4Cl in refluxing chlorobenzene have been isolated by a combination of sublimation/extraction and column chromatography from the predominant products [PCl2N]3 and [PCl2N]4. The medium-sized rings [PCl2N]m have been characterized by electrospray ionization-mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS), their (31)P chemical shifts have been reassigned, and their T1 relaxation times have been obtained. Crystallographic data has been recollected for [PCl2N]5, and the crystal structures of [PCl2N]6, and [PCl2N]8 are reported. Halogen-bonding interactions were observed in all the crystal structures of cyclic [PCl2N]m (m = 3-5, 6, 8). The crystal structures of [P(OPh)2N]7 and [P(OPh)2N]8, which are derivatives of the respective [PCl2N]m, are also reported. Comparisons of the intermolecular forces and torsion angles of [PCl2N]8 and [P(OPh)2N]8 with those of three other octameric rings are described. The comparisons show that chlorophosphazenes should not be considered prototypical, in terms of solid-state structure, because of the strong influence of halogen bonding. PMID:25111009

Bowers, David J; Wright, Brian D; Scionti, Vincenzo; Schultz, Anthony; Panzner, Matthew J; Twum, Eric B; Li, Lin-Lin; Katzenmeyer, Bryan C; Thome, Benjamin S; Rinaldi, Peter L; Wesdemiotis, Chrys; Youngs, Wiley J; Tessier, Claire A

2014-09-01

67

CANDU 6 - the highly successful medium sized reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The CANDU 6 Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor system, featuring horizontal fuel channels and heavy water moderator continues to evolve, supported by AECL's strong commitment to comprehensive R and D programs. The initial CANDU 6 design started in the 1970's. The first plants went into service in 1983, and the latest version of the plant is under construction in China. With each plant the technology has evolved giving the dual advantages of proveness and modern technology. CANDU 6 delivers important advantages of the CANDU system with benefit to small and medium-sized grids. This technology has been successfully adopted by, and localized to varying extents in, each of the CANDU 6 markets. For example, all CANDU owners obtain their fuel from domestic suppliers. Progressive CANDU development continues at AECL to enhance this medium size product CANDU 6. There are three key CANDU development strategic thrusts: improved economics, fuel cycle flexibility, and enhanced safety. The CANDU 6 product is also enhanced by incorporating improvements and advanced features that will be arising from our CANDU Technology R and D programs in areas such as heavy water and tritium, control and instrumentation, fuel and fuel cycles, systems and equipment and safety and constructability. (author)

68

Small and medium-sized companies; Smaa og mellomstore bedrifter  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Topics discussed are (1) Competitive advantages, (2) How to compete with other actors about resources and contracts, (3) Development towards structures that kill initiatives. Some of the advantages possessed by small and medium-sized companies are: close contact between supplier and customer provides cheaper deliveries, changes can be made simpler and cheaper, less cost overruns, less time delays, deliveries create values, deliveries imply safer contracts and greater flexibility. However, the small and medium-sized companies have been pushed away from direct communication with the oil companies and often have a problematic relation to the main contractor, despite previous well-done work they are experiencing that they are not even given the opportunity of bidding. Under the present external conditions, the author advises: explore your company's competitive advantages, strengthen them and use them explicitly in advertising and sales work. Development is not towards structures that kill the initiative, but the focus on the initiative should shift from the role as ''supplier to the main contractor'' to the role as ''special supplier directly to the operator companies''.

Braaten, Thorolf A.

1998-07-01

69

KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION STEPS FOR INDIAN SMALL & MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents review of literature on Knowledge management (KM in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs. It focuses on the strategy, implementation, technological and performance measurement &benchmarking issues regarding KM in Indian SMEs. KM is a practical tool for any organization. So KM does not remain just a theory now but it paves the way to formulating an understanding of KM and its role within SMEs. KM has gained importance in the today’s global knowledge economy. It is important not only for big firms, but for small and medium size enterprises (SMEs also. Indian SMEs sector is also one of the fastest growing sectors of Indian economy. So it is very important for SMEs to know what their knowledge assets are,and how to manage and make best use of these assets to get maximum return, since without proper KM approaches, SMEs are likely to have more to lose than larger enterprises. This paper tries to identify the steps regarding implementation of KM in Indian SMEs for improving competitiveness of SMEs in globalised market.

Apurva Anand

2011-12-01

70

Surveillance of medium-size dams; Surveillance des barrages de taille moyenne  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

French hydro-power buildings belong to the government and are retroceded by the licence holder when the granting delay comes to an end. Experience has shown that less care is given by licence holders to the maintenance of medium-size dams that to big dams. For this reason, the French Ministry of Industry decided to harmonize and standardize the surveillance practices of medium-size dams. A circular was signed on May 23, 1997 which concerns the 10 to 20 m height dams with water reservoir volumes lower than the H{sup 2} x V{sup 0.5} criterion which is an evaluation of the potential risk of the dam. The surveillance modalities concern: the construction, the licence holder file, the first filling up, the operation, and the periodical safety inspections. (J.S.)

NONE

1997-12-31

71

Incident Response Plan for a Small to Medium Sized Hospital  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most small to medium health care organizations do not have the capability to address cyber incidents within the organization.Those that do are poorly trained and ill equipped .These health care organizations are subject to various laws that address privacy concerns , proper handling of financial information, and Person ally Identifiable Information. Currently an IT staff handles responses to these incidents in an Ad Hoc manner.A properly trained, staffed,and equipped Cyber Incident Response Team is needed to quickly respond to these incidents to minimize data loss, and provide forensic data for the purpose of notification, disciplinary action, legal action, and to remove the risk vector. This paper 1 will use the proven Incident Command System model used in emergency services to show any sized agency can have an a dequate CIRT.

Charles DeVoe

2013-04-01

72

SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES IN REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper examines the role of SME sector in Moldova’s economy and its likely implications in the RD processes. There are emphasized several key features of the relationship between knowledge economy, RD and SMEs, and their effect on regional and local communities. Then, a summary of RD particular features in Moldova is presented.The role of SME sector, examined in terms of its performance by ownership and activity types, as a whole and by main firms’ categories (micro-, small, and medium-sized is analyzed. Small enterprises have been considered as the most adequate solution forpromoting RD in general case. National-level analysis is completed by regional insight into the sector as a whole. Finally, some critical aspects of SMEs’ role in RD in Moldova are discussed.

Igor G. SÎRODOEV

2009-12-01

73

Medium-size high-temperature gas-cooled reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarizes high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) experience for the 40-MW(e) Peach Bottom Nuclear Generating Station of Philadelphia Electric Company and the 330-MW(e) Fort St. Vrain Nuclear Generating Station of the Public Service Company of Colorado. Both reactors are graphite moderated and helium cooled, operating at approx. 7600C (14000F) and using the uranium/thorium fuel cycle. The plants have demonstrated the inherent safety characteristics, the low activation of components, and the high efficiency associated with the HTGR concept. This experience has been translated into the conceptual design of a medium-sized 1170-MW(t) HTGR for generation of 450 MW of electric power. The concept incorporates inherent HTGR safety characteristics [a multiply redundant prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV), a graphite core, and an inert single-phase coolant] and engineered safety features

74

Can small and medium sized reactors be competitive?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cost is an important attribute for the future development of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). This paper addresses the target costs necessary for SMRs to be competitive in the markets of the 21st century and ways and means that designers are considering to meet these targets. It briefly reviews the impacts on nuclear energy competitiveness of economic globalisation, market deregulation, privatisation of the power sector and policy measures aiming at sustainable development and highlights new challenges and opportunities that are created for nuclear power plants as a result of the changing policy making framework in the electricity sector. Recognising the importance of capital cost (60% or more of nuclear electricity generation cost) the paper elaborates on technical (e.g. simplified design and factory building) and managerial (e.g. series order) measures aiming at capital cost reduction. The impacts of deregulation of the electricity market and privatisation of the sector on the competitiveness of SMRs are addressed. The paper stresses the importance of internalisation of social and environmental costs and sustainable development objectives for the competitiveness of nuclear energy and in particular of SMRs that are adapted to decentralised electricity supply and co-generation. Finally, it presents some findings and conclusions, drawn from the NEA analyses, on the prospects for enhancing the economics of small and medium reactors and their potential contributiom reactors and their potential contribution to sustainable energy mixes. (author)

75

Stereotactic radiation therapy by medium fraction size for lung tumor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stereotactic radiation therapy by medium fraction size (SRTm) was applied for lung tumor, we investigated to effectiveness and CT image change by treatment. Thirteen patients with lung tumor were treated with SRTm between September, 2003 and June, 2004. Nine cases were consisted as primary lung cancer, and 4 as metastatic lung cancers. Total 13 lesions were treated in 13 cases. Tumor diameter ranged from 1 cm to 4 cm, and the median was 2 cm. Body Fix was applied for patient's immobilization. The treatment planning was performed with CT simulator, X-ray simulator, and ECLIPSE. Fraction dose was escalated from 4 Gy to 7 Gy, of which contents were as follows 4 Gy/f x 10 f (one) 4 Gy/fx 12 f (one), 4 Gy/fx 15 f (one), 5 Gy/fx 10 f (3) 5 Gy/f x 12 f (3), 6 Gy x 10 f (3), and 7 Gy/f x 10 f (one). Total dose by LQ model were estimated as 56-119 in BEDacute (?/?=10), and 120-315 in BEDlate (?/?=3). V20 ranged from 2.52-10.24% (average 5.84). In the initial response, 8 lesions were achieved as CR, 2 as PR and 3 as SD. Among 13 lesions, no lesion had re-growth. Radiation-induced pulmonary complications greater than National Cancer Institute (NCI)-CTC criteria Grade 2 was noted one only. In change of CT image, slight increase in opacity was noted 3 cases within 3 month after treatment. Pachy consolidation was noted 10 cases between 3 month and 12 month after treatment. Stereotactic radiation therapy by medium fraction size for lung tumor was considered as effective and safer was considered as effective and safety. (author)

76

The design of a compact integral medium size PWR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? We model the IRIS reactor in RELAP5 and VIPRE codes. ? We use Printed Circuit Heat Exchangers and internally and externally cooled fuel pins in IRIS. ? We increase the IRIS power by 50% and demonstrate adequate safety performance. ? We show significant potential gain in economics for any integral PWR reactor design. - Abstract: Integral reactors have been proposed in recent years as a means to eliminate loss of coolant events, and reduce the number of large vessels of a nuclear power plant. In this paper the focus on how to further increase the power that can be derived from a given vessel volume. The example is applied to the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS), a medium size, light water reactor rated at 1000 MWt. The IRIS is an integral design containing all pumps and steam generators along with a traditional PWR core inside the reactor vessel. IRIS was designed with 8 Once-Through Helically Coiled Steam Generators (OTHSG), located above the core, in an annular region between the riser and the pressure vessel wall. This work examines ideas to increase its power output in the same vessel size while maintaining or improving the safety margins. The combination of Printed Circuit Heat Exchangers (PCHE) and Internally and EXternally cooled Annular Fuel (IXAF) is proposed to implement such improvement in otherwise the reference IRIS design. Safety implications of such steam generator and fuel design changes for the same reactor size ahanges for the same reactor size are examined, under both steady state and transients, using the RELAP5 and VIPRE codes. It is found that the IRIS reactor power can be increased by 50% by using the PCHE and IXAF. The proposed design is found to be less expensive per unit electric power produced, these improvements and analyses can be applied to any integral reactor design.

77

Dynamics of firm size in healthcare industry  

OpenAIRE

Healthcare is one of the world’s fastest growing industries consisting of broad services offered by various hospitals, physicians, nursing homes, diagnostic laboratories, pharmacies and supported by drugs, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, medical equipment, manufacturers and suppliers. The industry is highly fragmented, comprising of various ancillary sectors namely medical equipment and supplies, pharmaceutical, healthcare services, biotechnology, and alternative medicines. The present study fo...

Fariba Hashemi

2012-01-01

78

The design of a compact integral medium size PWR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model the IRIS reactor in RELAP5 and VIPRE codes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use Printed Circuit Heat Exchangers and internally and externally cooled fuel pins in IRIS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We increase the IRIS power by 50% and demonstrate adequate safety performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show significant potential gain in economics for any integral PWR reactor design. - Abstract: Integral reactors have been proposed in recent years as a means to eliminate loss of coolant events, and reduce the number of large vessels of a nuclear power plant. In this paper the focus on how to further increase the power that can be derived from a given vessel volume. The example is applied to the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS), a medium size, light water reactor rated at 1000 MWt. The IRIS is an integral design containing all pumps and steam generators along with a traditional PWR core inside the reactor vessel. IRIS was designed with 8 Once-Through Helically Coiled Steam Generators (OTHSG), located above the core, in an annular region between the riser and the pressure vessel wall. This work examines ideas to increase its power output in the same vessel size while maintaining or improving the safety margins. The combination of Printed Circuit Heat Exchangers (PCHE) and Internally and EXternally cooled Annular Fuel (IXAF) is proposed to implement such improvement in otherwise the reference IRIS design. Safety implications of such steam generator and fuel design changes for the same reactor size are examined, under both steady state and transients, using the RELAP5 and VIPRE codes. It is found that the IRIS reactor power can be increased by 50% by using the PCHE and IXAF. The proposed design is found to be less expensive per unit electric power produced, these improvements and analyses can be applied to any integral reactor design.

Shirvan, Koroush, E-mail: kshirvan@mit.edu [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Hejzlar, Pavel [TerraPower, LLC, Bellevue, WA (United States); Kazimi, Mujid S. [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

2012-02-15

79

Powertrain System Design of Medium-sized Hybrid Electric Tractor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The environment issue has been more and more serious than ever before along with the increasing numbers of tractors. Different from pure electric tractors, medium-sized tractor more widely adopt hybrid power driver according to the machine structure and operation characteristics. The Hybrid Electric Tractor (HET is capable of enabling the diesel works in an optimal area by controlling the output torque of engine and electronic motor to achieve fuel economy and emission reduction. Designing the parallel hybrid tractor transmission system and control method are put forward in a 66kW off-road tractor based on the plowing operation cycle condition. The overall power should meet the maximum power of the plowing operation with the power balance equation. The control strategies are established by road transport modes and field operating modes, respectively. A logic fuzzy control system to Degree of Hybridization (DOH on account of the output torque and State of Charge (SOC is introduced. Aiming at the fuel economy parameter, the optimization design shows that the hybrid tractor can improve 19.2% of fuel economy between SOC 0.4~0.7 compared with the traditional tractor.

Xie Bin

2013-01-01

80

US market potential for small and medium-sized nuclear reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the results of on-site interviews with representatives of 23 investor-owned utilities and 3 publicly-owned utilities. The purpose of the interviews was to obtain information on utilities' attitudes towards small and medium-sized power plants and towards building new nuclear plants in general. Most of the utilities interviewed preferred power plants smaller than the ones currently being offered, as long as the smaller plants did not incur a major economic penalty. However, according to the utilities interviewed, without changes in the current environment it is unlikely that there will be a significant market for new nuclear plants of any size. A trend in the utility industry towards generating companies appears to be a positive step. (orig.)

81

Small and medium sized reactors with special emphasis on non-power applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper examines the possible role of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) for world energy supply based on recent studies by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), the IAEA, the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD and papers presented at a seminar on SMRs held in New Delhi, in August 191. It notes that nuclear power appears to be receiving more favourable consideration as the environmental effects of fossil fuels and renewable energy sources become more evident, and that SMRs are generating particular interest, especially in the USA, because of their passive safety features and reduced financial risk. Although larger reactors will be preferred for electricity generation in most developed countries, unless SMRs are cheaper or offer other benefits, they could be used where electricity demand is too small for large reactors. Small and medium sized reactors could have a more general role in supplying district heating or process heat as they provide a better match to the energy required. However, there are many obstacles to their use at present, including public opposition, cheap gas, small system size, low load factors, lack of finance and competition from independent boilers. Current prospects for SMRs in district heating systems are poor, but the obstacles appear less serious for process heat applications, including desalination, and these could therefore offer early opportunities for SMRs to demonstrate their safety and reliability. Industrial sites also ty and reliability. Industrial sites also have more consistent demands for heat and electricity which would allow the reactors to operate more efficiently in a co-generation mode. It is concluded that the prospects for SMRs are reasonably good in the longer term. However, it is essential that one or two prototype reactors be built as soon as possible to provide experience and confirm their claimed benefits. This likely to need international co-operation and finance, which will require the selection of the most suitable national designs for further development. (author). 23 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs

82

Industry profits and market size under bilateral oligopoly  

OpenAIRE

We show that, contrary to the key result of the standard Cournot-Nash oligopoly model, industry profits can increase with the number of firms if input prices are not exogenous but are determined by bargaining in bilateral oligopoly. The relationship between industry profits and market size is shown to depend on the relative bargaining power of the upstream and downstream agents.

Naylor, Robin

2001-01-01

83

Approaches to assess competitiveness of small and medium sized reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is continuing interest in Member States concerning the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs), i.e., reactors with the equivalent electric power of less than 700 MW. Currently, developed SMRs are in most cases intended for markets different than those in which large nuclear power plants operate. Such markets have essentially different investment requirements, siting flexibility, grid connections and infrastructure restrictions. Therefore, economic factors affecting the competitiveness or competition of SMRs in such markets would also be different from those observed in established markets for electricity production. For example, investment capability may be limited, which would favour capacity addition in smaller increments; grids may be small or weak, which would favour capacities exactly matching the demand; infrastructure and human resource may be insufficient, which would favour less complex operation and maintenance requirements; and non-electrical energy products, such as potable water, may be in demand, which would favour reasonably close plant location to the customer. In practice it is futile to compare a single SMR needs to a single larger capacity plant on an economy of scale basis because SMRs are suitable for those locations that might not be appropriate for larger plants. However, a series of SMRs could be considered comparable to fewer larger plants to achieve the same overall power station capacity. In this case, SMl power station capacity. In this case, SMRs have a potential to be competitive by employing alternative design strategies, taking advantage of smaller reactor size, offering a less complex design and operation and maintenance, relying on deployment-in-series approaches, taking an advantage of the accelerated learning, multiple unit factors and shorter construction duration. Reflecting on developments in member states, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is finalizing the preparation of a report highlighting the economics and investment related factors affecting SMR competitiveness, as well as the tools available to assess these factors. Adequate comparative assessment of SMR competitiveness is a complex task that may require considering time dependent expenditure and generation profiles and interest rates to determine adequate values of levelized unit energy cost (LUEC) for deployment scenarios with several consequently built plants of different types and capacities. As private capital may play an important role in financing of the new plants, investment and revenue models need to be employed to determine time-dependent characteristics, such as investments and revenues. Uncertainty analysis needs to be incorporated to add a degree of fidelity to the overall assessment. A variety of methods and tools required to conduct comparative economic assessments would been described in this paper. Many of these tools already exist in member states or are available from international organizations. In addition to this, the IAEA coordinated the development of an open model for the analysis of SMR economic and investment opportunities, which targets bringing together all currently available state-of-the-art models for generation costs, revenues, financial costs, and external factors and risks, while 'keeping the door open' for any new approach or development once it becomes available. The open model is being developed for a specific task of comparing the deployments of SMRs versus larger reactors in liberalized energy markets. LUEC will be an important figure of merit in this model; however, provisions would be made to ensure that LEUC is calculated taking into account time-dependent expenditure and production profiles and changing interest rates. In addition models to calculate investment profiles and revenues will be included. Finally, an approach to take into account other factors potentially affecting the competitiveness of SMRs, such as energy supply security, proliferation-resistance, political posture, etc. will be developed. In parallel with the develop

84

Small-to medium-sized manufacturers in supply chains : Development of effective customer relationships and growth  

OpenAIRE

This thesis details a study into the role of Small- to Medium- sized Manufacturers (SMMs) in supply chains and how this may affect SMMs' growth potential. The study draws upon a variety of research streams including Supply Chain Management, Industrial Marketing, and the literature on factors that affect firm growth. The objectives of the study are to: identify relationship management activities employed by SMMs and investigate the links between relationship management activi...

Valsamakis, Vassilios P.

1999-01-01

85

Dressed for Success : A study of Success Factors For Small and Medium-sized Manufacturing Enterprises in Sweden  

OpenAIRE

The business climate of today, with increasing globalization, has resulted in structural changes in the commercial and industrial sectors. As a result, many large companies have moved their production abroad. Therefore the smaller companies have become increasingly important for growth and employment nationally. Small businesses are a significant contributor to the well-being of nations and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play an important role for Sweden, both in terms of economic ...

Lingega?rd, Sofia; Sandstro?m, Emma

2008-01-01

86

Analyses of the realization of rational use of energy in small and medium sized enterprises in the commercial and tertiary sector  

OpenAIRE

Considerable unused energy (cost) saving potentials exist in the commercial and tertiary sector with its small and medium sized enterprises. Small enterprises mostly need external assistance to improve their energy efficiency, which presents options for services like energy consulting. However those industrial sectors consisting of small and medium sized enterprises have as yet rarely been investigated in regard to opportunities and problems in realizing energy saving measures so that necessa...

Hermes, Hans Dieter

2000-01-01

87

Managers' Understanding of Workplace Health Promotion within Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: A Phenomenological Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: This study aimed at exploring managers' understanding of workplace health promotion and experiences of workplace health promotion activity within small and medium-sized enterprises. Design: A Heideggerian interpretive phenomenological methodology was adopted. Setting: This study was undertaken with small and medium-sized enterprise…

Moore, Ann; Parahoo, Kader; Fleming, Paul

2011-01-01

88

Examples from P2 and energy assessments at small to medium size manufacturers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using engineering student-faculty teams, the U.S. Department of energy sponsored industrial assessment center (IAC) at the university of louisville does free pollution prevention and energy assessments at small to medium size manufacturers (SIC 20-39) in kentucky and indiana. Each client plant must meet three of the following four criteria: Annual energy bills less than $1, 750, 000 and more than $50, 00. Gross annual sales of less than $75 million. Less than 500 employees. Lack a dedicated energy/waste engineer. Lack of in-house staff to perform these analyses. The program criteria and assessment procedures are briefly described and summaries of assessment at a sheet fed offset (lithographic) printing plant and 2 denim jeans pre washing plants are presented. 4 figs., 8 tabs

89

Enablers and Difficulties for Innovation in Chile: Perceptions from Medium Size Plastic Firm Managers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english The research objective was to understand the reasons that would impel firms to innovate. The firms analyzed in this study were medium-size firms of the plastic manufacturing sector in Chile. After the analysis of the theory related to technological innovation, a model of the drivers for technologica [...] l innovation was developed. From the model a questionnaire was prepared to test which factors could influence the tendency of firms to engage in technological innovation activities. According to the data, the most influential factors that would encourage innovation in the set of firms studied are a high degree of competition in the industry, the availability of qualified workers, and a strategic relationship with customers.

José O, Maldifassi; Patricio, Crovetto.

2013-03-01

90

The study of venture capital finance and investment behaviour in small and medium-sized enterprises  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are often credited with innovative entrepreneurial practices and conceiving new market opportunities. Government has reinforced these positive economic externalities through policy programmes and designated support structures. Venture capital organisations o [...] ften galvanise innovative knowledge by entrenching and sustaining nascent businesses through value-creating funding behaviours. In this way, the venture capital industry financially supports entrepreneurial activity for economic growth and governs and nurtures the growth of the SMEs. These show that the venture capital industry embraces value-creating opportunities on the basis of rational partnerships with enterprises that have limited track records and less formal control mechanisms. The tentative factor analysis findings suggest an integrated framework for the venture capital industry from the significant intercorrelations among the variables. The most important focus of this article, however, is its attempt to examine the behavioural traits of SMEs and venture capitalists regarding systematic finance and investment for inclusivity and due diligence.

Thokozani Patmond, Mbhele.

91

SECURITY CONCERNS IN MEDIUM SIZE ENTERPRISE CLOUD COMPUTING  

OpenAIRE

Cloud computing in an small size enterprise infrastructure bring significant security concerns. Successful implementation of cloud computing in a small size enterprise requires proper planning and understanding of emerging risks, threats, vulnerabilities, and possible countermeasures. We believe small size enterprise should analyze the company/organization security risks, threats, and available countermeasures before adopting this technology. In this paper, we have discussed security risks an...

Shaik Saidhbimca, Ibrahim Gashaw

2013-01-01

92

The Management And Exchange of Knowledge AndInnovation in Environments of Collaborating Small and Medium Sized Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The importance of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs is today far beyond any discussion in countries all over the world - in European countries as well as in Asia and in USA, in Africa as well as in Latin America. To meet market demands in present and future global industrial world, manufacturing enterprises of any kind and any size must be flexible and agile enough to respond quickly to product demand changes. With support of artificial intelligence and modern information technology it is possible to realise modern cost-effective customer-driven design and manufacturing taking into account the importance and basic role of quality management and metrology. This will be especially possible on the basis of the innovative concept and model for modern enterprises the so-called "Multi-Functions Integrated Factory - MFIF" that makes possible an agile and optimal industrial production in any kind of industry and especially in up-to-date SMEs.

OSANNA

2009-12-01

93

In hunt for size: merger formation in the oil industry  

OpenAIRE

This paper analyzes the recent mergers in the oil industry. Oil is assumed to be a homogeneous good which is produced by a small number of firms with different unit costs. Merger formation is endogenously explained as a result of cooperative decisions. We show that the mergers are amongst very asymmetric firms if initial size differences are moderate. If size differences are large, however, the more efficient firms participate in the mergers, while the least efficient firms are not attractive...

Neubecker, Leslie; Stadler, Manfred

2003-01-01

94

EXTERNAL FORCES DRIVING CHANGE IN THE ROMANIAN SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Change is a constant in everyday life confronting organizations to continuously adapt their strategy, structure, processes, and culture in order to survive and stay competitive on the market. Implementing organizational change is one of the most important skills required for managers and in the meantime the most difficult one. The forces driving change within an organization, that can be either external or internal, are those that propel a company forward towards change and in order to identify the need for change and make the proper changes, managers have to develop a tool that allows them to analyze how does the environment influence their business activities. A vision for change will clarify the directions in which the organization needs to move, starting from its current state and taking in consideration the existing opportunities and threats from the environment that allow to move to a future desired state. The purpose of this paper is to identify the concern for change in the Romanian small and medium sized enterprises by presenting and explaining the past and present influences of the main external forces that have determined the need for change in the last 3-5 years and to make recommendations about future possible changes that have to be performed by managers for a better harmonization with the environment. The research method used for this study is the interview on a sample that contains some of the most relevant SME’s from the western side of Romania, from different industries. We analyzed the main external forces that had an impact on the small and medium sized enterprises and how were they generating the need for organizational change, in order to see which present and future changes are required.

Roiban Roxana Nadina

2012-07-01

95

Contribution of small and medium sized enterprises in development of agribusiness of Serbian Republic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The economic development of Serbian republic is more and more connected with development of small and medium sized enterprises, which represent one of the main bases of Serbian economy. The economic potential of agriculture imposes the need of analyzing the condition in area of small and medium sized entrepreneurship which should be the carrier of future development of agribusiness. By ranging and grouping of Serbian republic municipalities (by discrimination and cluster analysis according to level of development of small and medium sized entrepreneurship in agriculture, the clear view is got in current state of regional development of this agricultural sector as the possibilities of future development. By development of small and medium sized enterprises in agriculture it is possible to achieve strategic goals of Serbian republic agro development and for realization of these goals it is necessary to ensure the stable economic ambient, appropriate pre conditions as measures of support which will be stimulating for development of agribusiness.

Popovi? Blaženka

2009-01-01

96

Customer Relationship Management system for small and medium-sized enterprise  

OpenAIRE

This bachelor work provides a case study of small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) to analyze the general proposal criteria for customer relationship management (CRM) software selection. The selected software can help small and medium-sized enterprise to solve the marketing issues which are connected with customers to enhance customer satisfaction and loyalty to realize customer retention, customer acquisition and market share expanding.

Cao, Liang

2008-01-01

97

Analysis of Trip Attraction Characteristics of Commercial Land Use in Medium Sized Towns in Kerala  

OpenAIRE

Travel demand forecasting is vital for the design of transportation facilities and services, and also for the future development of a town. The study aims to provide a trip attraction model using multiple regression, that is able to predict the trip attracted to any commercial nodes in the medium sized towns in Kerala. This paper also presents an analysis of trip attraction characteristics of the commercial nodes in medium sized towns of Kerala. Using questionnaire survey, the characteristics...

Prof. Gymmy Joseph Kattor,; Mr. K.V Abdul Malik,; Ms. Pretina George,

2013-01-01

98

Design study of medium size lead-bismuth cooled core  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 'Feasibility Studies on Commercialized Fast Breeder Reactor Cycle System (FS)', various types of fast breeder reactor using different coolant are studied, in which lead-bismuth is one of the subject. In JFY 2003 study of FS phase-II, design studies of medium scale forced/natural circulation nitride fuel core (FC/NC core) were carried out considering DDI (duct-duct interaction) which was not considered in JFY 2001 studies. The prospect of satisfying a design target of the core performance was acquired by improved design. By comparing properties of FC core (750MWe) and NC core (550MWe), we recommended the FC core as a hopeful one to design. The FC core was superior to the NC core in the following points, (1) Larger average burn-up (core and blanket) (2) Less Pu-fissile loaded weight (3) Smaller core equivalent diameter in spite of larger generating power (4) The NC core has much problems form the viewpoint of earthquake-resistant design. A design target of high burn-up of 150 GWd/t was satisfied, but fast fluence on clad is over the development target of ODS steel and PNC-FMS steel (5 x 1023n/cm2, E>0.1MeV). Cores in which fast fluence was restricted to less than the target were also designed. MOX fuel and metal fuel cores were studied, and the effect of composition of TRU fuel recovered from LWR to core performance was also investigated to show flexibility and diversity in the lead-bismuth cooled core. In recent studies, it is becoming clear thIn recent studies, it is becoming clear that the present evaluation for the clad corrosion in lead-bismuth gives non-conservative result and lowering the highest clad temperature will be required in core design. The lowering of temperature was permissible according to preliminary analysis using the present corrosion correlation. (author)

99

Structure and growth pattern of medium-size silicon clusters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The fundamental importance of understanding the evolution of properties of atomic clusters with increasing size and the potential use of atomic clusters as building blocks of new materials have stimulated many experimental and theoretical studies, particularly on silicon clusters Sin. For n ? 7 the ground state geometries of silicon clusters are firmly established, while for 8 ? n ? 20 there are experimental data on ionic mobility and spectroscopic energies of silicon clusters that indirectly support the ground state geometries predicted by first-principles calculations. However, there are still a great variety of unexplored isomers of clusters in the range 8 ? n ? 20 that may also be consistent with the experimental data, and the experimental results themselves may be also subject to correction. An intriguing finding from the first-principles calcitonins is that the lowest energy geometries or n?11 differ greatly between clusters that differ in size by only one atom, although they mostly involve tricapped trigonal prism (TTP) units. There is no fundamental explanation for this, beyond the obvious necessity for surface atoms to minimize the number of dangling bonds. This is generally accompanied by over coordination of interior atoms of clusters, compared to bulk silicon, leading to an increase in the number of bonds and their simultaneous wreaking. The actual growth pattern of clusters by sequential addition of silicon atoms will nottion of silicon atoms will not necessarily include only the lowest energy isomers, because high barriers over requirements for large atomic displacements may prevent rearrangement of each lowest energy isomer to the lowest-energy isomer of the next larger size. Thus, from a slightly more practical point of view, regular (smooth) growth patterns of silicon clusters are of interest. However, systematic research on silicon clusters showing such smooth growth patterns for a wide range of cluster sizes has not previously been presented in the literature. This work presents one such sequence of cluster structures explored using the self-consistent non-conventional tight-binding method (NTBM) (Z.M. Khakimov. Com put. Mater. Sci. 3, 95 (1994)) and recently developed molecular dynamics simulation algorithm (Z. M. Khakimov, Comput. Phys. Comm. 147, 731 (2002)). The results obtained by NTBM are in excellent agreement with available experimental data and accurate first-principles calculation results for small silicon clusters. Certain deviations between the latter and our results, especially for larger clusters, show not only possible ways of improvement of NTBM parameterization, but also the necessity of careful examination of the first-principles calculations for silicon clusters, because such calculations have mostly been done using optimization of cluster geometries at lower levels of theory, followed by single point energy calculations with a higher level of theory. Overestimation or underestimation of bond distances (that can be eliminated only by balanced accounting for basis sets and correlations effects) and, in particular, inconsistent ratios of shortest and longest bond distances (this may be also caused by missing of true global minimum because of particular search strategy) may in principle lead to different growth patterns of clusters. This work was supported in part by CRDF (Grant No ZC1-2519-TA-03) and the Science and Technology Center of Uzbekistan (Grant No F-2.1.18)

100

Medium- and large-size cogeneration projects in Spain  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cogeneration technology nowadays is not only an ideal system for the rational use of energy but is also a strategic investment that will allow various parts of Spanish industry to face the challenge of the European single market in conditions of acceptable competitiveness. These important advantages can be added to the favourable situation existing in Spain since its electricity generating capacity must be increased over the short term. These considerations, together with a constantly growing concern to protect the environment, have given rise to a significant increase in the utilization of this type of installation. It is significant to see how virtually all the electricity utilities in Spain are taking part in some of these new cogeneration projects since they fit in well with some of the other new targets the electricity sector has set, essentially in terms of diversification, image and customer service. There follows a brief summary of the recent history of cogeneration in Spain, its current situation and its utilization prospects for the near future. Comments are also given on aspects related to the legislation and funding system which IDAE proposes for carrying out this type of project. (Author)

Olmedo, D.C. (IDAE, Madrid (Spain))

1993-02-01

101

Flue gas desulfurization in medium-scale industrial furnaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Sulgen milk powder plant has recently been starting to operate the first waste water-free industrial flue gas desulfurization plant of its kind in Switzerland. The plant is considered one of the important advanced developments in the field of flue gas purification systems designed for heavy oil-fired plants. It reaches a rough 90 per cent reduction of sulfur dioxide emissions by means of separation in a waste water-free wet scrubbing system. The gypseous byproducts, when dry, may be disposed of without causing any damage to the environment or may be used by the cement industry.

Hauri, H.

1985-01-01

102

Dinamismo de mercado en la pequeña y mediana industria de Colombia: el caso SuperBrix / Dynamisme de Marché dans la Petite et Moyenne Industrie de Colombie: Le cas de SuperBrix / Market Dynamism in Small and Medium-Sized Colombian Industry: The Case of SuperBrix / Dinamismo de mercado na pequena e mediana indústria da Colômbia: o caso SuperBrix  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Em março de 2010 o engenheiro Mariano Ghisays, presidente executivo da Superbrix, não somente questionava-se se abranger o mercado asiático era uma opção viável, também se a mesma emergia numa cojuntura apropriada da economia e a capacidade tecnológica da sua empresa, que até aquele momento tinha si [...] do impossível de copiar. A oportunidade de entrar em países como a China, a Coreia, a Índia, a Malásia e a Cingapura já tinha sido levado em conta pela diretoria alguns anos atrás; contudo a decisão foi adiada a fim de consolidar o mercado americano, o que fora atingido depois de várias tentativas de entrada, logo depois de apurar a sua estratégia de mergulho no mesmo. Mariano se perguntava, então: de que maneira uma mediana empresa do Caribe colombiano, capitalizando a sua experiência de entrada em vários mercados internacionais, poderia com êxito atingir esses países asiáticos, onde os preços, concorrência e probabilidade de cópia dos seus produtos representavam um risco enorme para a companhia? Abstract in spanish En marzo de 2010 el ingeniero Mariano Ghisays, presidente ejecutivo de SuperBrix, no sólo se preguntaba si llegar al mercado asiático era una opción viable, sino también si ésta emergía en una coyuntura apropiada de la economía y capacidad tecnológica de su empresa, la cual, hasta el momento, no hab [...] ía podido ser copiada. La oportunidad de ingresar a países como China, Corea, India, Malasia y Singapur había sido tenida en cuenta por las directivas algunos años atrás, pero fue pospuesta con el fin de consolidar el mercado americano, lo cual se consiguió después de varios intentos de entrada, luego de afinar su estrategia de inmersión al mismo. Mariano se preguntaba, entonces, ¿de qué manera una mediana empresa del Caribe colombiano, capitalizando su experiencia de entrada en varios mercados internacionales, podría lograr con éxito llegar a estos países asiáticos, en donde los precios, competencia y probabilidad de copia de sus productos representaban un enorme riesgo para la compañía? Abstract in english In March of 2010, engineer Mariano Ghisays, executive president of Superbrix, thought not only about whether entering the Asian market was a viable option but also if it were to happen under a favorable economic situation and with his company's technological capacity, which at that time, no one had [...] been able to copy. The opportunity to enter countries such as China, Korea, India, Malaysia and Singapore had been in the sights of the company's directors for years, but was postponed while they consolidated the American market. This was achieved after various attempts at entry, while also fine-tuning their immersion strategy. Marciano then thought about how a medium-sized company from the Colombian Caribbean region, capitalizing on its experience after already having entered various international markets, successfully reach these Asian countries, where prices, competition and the probability of their products being copied posed an enormous risk for the company?

Camilo, Mejía Reátiga; David, Juliao Esparragoza.

2013-04-01

103

The role of small and medium size reactors in the future US nuclear market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper addresses the various aspects of siting and sizing new generating facilities in the USA. Environmental and licensing issues are discussed. The economic considerations and assumptions for new plants are presented. Also, the electric transmission and distribution system characteristics and constraints are described with the potential role for several small and medium size designs summarized. (authors)

104

ECO-FRIENDLY TECHNOLOGY IN SMALL AND MEDIUM TEXTILE WET PROCESSING INDUSTRIES  

OpenAIRE

The Small and Medium wet processing industries in India contribute more to industrial development and trade and at the same time, they create environmental issues related to water pollution. This article attempts to analyse the main challenges of wet processing industries in adoption of cleaner technology options in reducing water pollution. Irreversible nature of water resource alarms the overall sustainability of environment. Traditional technology management concepts followed in SMIs will ...

FATIMA BABY; Thamilarasi, S. M.

2013-01-01

105

Simplification of Process Integration Studies in Intermediate Size Industries  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

It can be argued that the largest potential for energy savings based on process integration is in the intermediate size industry. But this is also the industrial scale in which it is most difficult to make the introduction of energy saving measures economically interesting. The reasons are that the required engineering effort is too great and therefore too expensive, and that the resulting systems designs often become inordinately complex and therefore not attractive in operation. The present study describes steps that aim at reducing the magnitude of the theoretical work and engineering effort associated with a given process integration study in an intermediate size industry. This is based on the observation that the systems that eventually result from a process integration project and that are economically and operationally most interesting are also quite simple. Four steps that may be used separately or in series ahead of or simultaneously with the conventional process integration procedures (for example, the pinch point method) are described and are applied to an industrial case study. It might be feared that the use of preselections and groupings would limit the "freedom of movement' and therefore lead to non-optimal economic solutions, which may be right. But the objective of the optimisation is not to reach the best economic solution, but to relatively quickly develop the design of a simple and operationally friendly network without losing too much energy saving potential. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Dalsgård, Henrik; Petersen, P. M.

2002-01-01

106

An integrated approach for developing a technology strategy framework for small- to medium-sized furniture manufacturers to improve competitiveness  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Low-technology firms, such as those found within the furniture manufacturing industry, have no framework or methodology to guide them successfully to acquire and integrate technology that enables them to operate more competitively. The aim of this article is to illustrate the development of a techno [...] logy strategy framework for small- to medium-sized furniture manufacturers to assist them to improve their competitiveness. More specifically, this article presents an integrated technology strategy framework that enables management to integrate their business strategy with their technology requirements successfully, thus improving competitiveness.

A.S., Lourens; J.A., Jonker.

107

Feasibility of a medium-size central cogenerated energy facility, energy management memorandum  

Science.gov (United States)

The thermal-economic feasibility was studied of a medium-size central cogenerated energy facility designed to serve five varied industries. Generation options included one dual-fuel diesel and one gas turbine, both with waste heat boilers, and five fired boilers. Fuels included natural gas, and for the fired-boiler cases, also low-sulphur coal and municipal refuse. The fired-boiler cogeneration systems employed back-pressure steam turbines. For coal and refuse, the option of steam only without cogeneration was also assessed. The refuse-fired cases utilized modular incinerators. The options provided for a wide range of steam and electrical capacities. Deficient steam was assumed generated independently in existing equipment. Excess electrical power over that which could be displaced was assumed sold to Commonwealth Edison Company under PURPA (Public Utility Regulator Policies Act). The facility was assumed operated by a mutually owned corporation formed by the cogenerated power users. The economic analysis was predicted on currently applicable energy-investment tax credits and accelerated depreciation for a January 1985 startup date. Based on 100% equity financing, the results indicated that the best alternative was the modular-incinerator cogeneration system.

Porter, R. W.

1982-09-01

108

The Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Performance Evaluation Model Based on DEA and AHP Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, DEA model and AHP model combined with a new method to evaluate the performance of the small and medium enterprises. In this paper, mainly introduced the analytic hierarchy process?AHP?and data envelopment analysis ( DEA , based on the existing on the small and medium-sized enterprise performance evaluation methods are analyzed, finally, through empirical analysis that the method of DEA based on AHP and has good applicability and feasibility. 

Qiong Sun

2013-11-01

109

Gestão do desenvolvimento de produto em empresas de pequeno e médio porte do setor de máquinas e implementos agrícolas do Estado de SP / Product development process management in small and medium-sized Brazilian companies in the agricultural machinery and implement industry sector  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Para que as empresas nacionais do setor de máquinas e implementos agrícolas consigam sobreviver e ampliar sua participação nesse mercado em crescimento, do interesse econômico de companhias multinacionais e no qual essas detêm expressiva participação, elas necessitam melhorar a capacitação para dese [...] nvolver novos produtos e assim atender as novas demandas quanto a requisitos e homologação dessa produção. As empresas nacionais do setor apresentam um perfil predominante de empresas familiares, de pequeno e médio porte, e pouco se conhece sobre a realidade da gestão do Processo de Desenvolvimento de Produto (PDP) nessas organizações. Este trabalho caracteriza e analisa os perfis e a maturidade da gestão do PDP em empresas de pequeno e médio porte de capital nacional do segmento de máquinas e implementos agrícolas do Estado de São Paulo. Foi realizada uma pesquisa de levantamento (survey) em 40 empresas. Para a análise dos dados utilizou-se a técnica de análise multivariada de clusters. As empresas da amostra apresentam uma estrutura heterogênea com relação à gestão do PDP. Foram identificados três grupos de empresas, com diferentes perfis de maturidade do PDP: Grupo I (20% da amostra), Grupo II (50% da amostra) e Grupo III (30% da amostra). Evidenciam-se diferenças na gestão do PDP principalmente entre os Grupos I (com menor nível de maturidade do PDP) e III (com nível de maturidade relativamente mais elevado). Apesar das diferenças na gestão do PDP entre os grupos, comparando-se a prática com o referencial teórico (as boas práticas sobre gestão do PDP), os 3 grupos se encontram no nível geral básico, ou inicial, de maturidade do PDP. A análise e identificação do nível de maturidade em que as empresas se encontram podem auxiliar no direcionamento do processo de melhoria do PDP e na elaboração de políticas públicas que incentivem o desenvolvimento e inovação de produto nas empresas nacionais do setor Abstract in english The product development process (PDP), if well-structured and managed, can become a business process that directly influences the companies' competitiveness increase. The PDP in Brazilian SMEs in the agricultural machinery and implement industry Sector (AMI) is little known since most publications o [...] n product development focuses on the reality of large and multinational companies, which have a quite different structure from SMEs. The purpose of this paper is to characterize and analyze the management maturity profiles of the product development process in small and medium sized Brazilian companies in the agricultural machinery and implement industry sector located in the state of São Paulo. Therefore, the addressed actions of PDP improvements in those companies can be undertaken. A survey research was conducted in 40 companies. An in loco interview was applied to the respective individual in-charge of PDP by means of a structured questionnaire. For the data analysis, descriptive statistics and the multivariate cluster analysis techniques were used. The findings indicated that the SMEs in AMIs of the state of Sao Paulo present a heterogeneous structure with respect to PDP management. Three groups of companies were identified in the sample with different maturity PDP profiles: Group I (20% of companies in the sample), Group II (50% of the sample), and Group III (30% of the sample). Differences in the management of PDP were observed, especially among companies of Group I (smallest level of PDP maturity) and Group III (highest level of PDP maturity). However, despite the differences in PDP management presented in the groups of companies, according to the literature on PDP management, all groups are in the basic (initial) maturity level of PDP. The identification of the maturity level, in which these companies are, can help the determination of activities that link the internal actions to improve the PDP of these companies and the proposal of specific public policies th

José Carlos de, Toledo; Julianita Maria Scaranello, Simões.

110

UNICS - An Unified Instrument Control System for Small/Medium Sized Astronomical Observatories  

CERN Document Server

Although the astronomy community is witnessing an era of large telescopes, smaller and medium sized telescopes still maintain their utility being larger in numbers. In order to obtain better scientific outputs it is necessary to incorporate modern and advanced technologies to the back-end instruments and to their interfaces with the telescopes through various control processes. However often tight financial constraints on the smaller and medium size observatories limit the scope and utility of these systems. Most of the time for every new development on the telescope the back-end control systems are required to be built from scratch leading to high costs and efforts. Therefore a simple, low cost control system for small and medium size observatory needs to be developed to minimize the cost and efforts while going for the expansion of the observatory. Here we report on the development of a modern, multipurpose instrument control system UNICS (Unified Instrument Control System) to integrate the controls of vari...

Srivastava, Mudit K; Burse, Mahesh P; Chordia, Pravin A; Chillal, Kalpesh S; Mestry, Vilas B; Das, Hillol K; Kohok, Abhay A

2009-01-01

111

Medium-sized deletion in the BRCA1 gene: limitations of Sanger sequencing and MLPA analyses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We describe a family with a history of breast and ovarian cancer in which MLPA analysis of the BRCA1 gene pointed to a deletion including a part of exon 11. Further characterization confirmed a loss of 374 bp in a region completely covered by conventional sequencing which had not revealed the deleti [...] on. Because this alteration was only detected serendipitously with an MLPA probe, we calculated the probabilities of detecting medium-sized deletions in large exons by methods including initial PCR amplification. This showed that a considerable fraction of medium-sized deletions are undetectable by currently used standard methods of mutation analyses. We conclude that long, widely overlapping amplicons should be used to minimize the risk of missing medium-sized deletions. Alternatively, large exons could be completely covered by narrow-spaced MLPA probes.

Sandra, Herman; Dominic, Varga; Heidrun L., Deissler; Rolf, Kreienberg; Helmut, Deissler.

112

Medium-sized deletion in the BRCA1 gene: limitations of Sanger sequencing and MLPA analyses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We describe a family with a history of breast and ovarian cancer in which MLPA analysis of the BRCA1 gene pointed to a deletion including a part of exon 11. Further characterization confirmed a loss of 374 bp in a region completely covered by conventional sequencing which had not revealed the deletion. Because this alteration was only detected serendipitously with an MLPA probe, we calculated the probabilities of detecting medium-sized deletions in large exons by methods including initial PCR amplification. This showed that a considerable fraction of medium-sized deletions are undetectable by currently used standard methods of mutation analyses. We conclude that long, widely overlapping amplicons should be used to minimize the risk of missing medium-sized deletions. Alternatively, large exons could be completely covered by narrow-spaced MLPA probes.

Sandra Herman

2012-01-01

113

Monte Carlo comparison of medium-size telescope designs for the Cherenkov Telescope Array  

OpenAIRE

The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a future very high energy gamma-ray observatory. CTA will be comprised of small-,medium- and large-size telescopes covering an energy range from tens of GeV to hundreds of TeV and will surpass existing telescopes in sensitivity by an order of magnitude. The aim of our study is to find the optimal design for the medium-size telescopes (MSTs), which will determine the sensitivity in the key energy range between a few hundred GeV to about ...

Jogler, T.; Wood, M. D.; Dumm, J.; Consortium, A. Bouvier For The Cta

2013-01-01

114

The Career Planning of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Based on Knowledge Life Cycle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article use the theory of knowledge life cycle, the small and medium-sized enterprises’ concept and the career planning, seek the joint between the career planning of enterprises and the theory of knowledge life cycle, has effectively studied the transmission mechanism in forming of the career planning of enterprises and the theory of knowledge life cycle, moreover bring forward corresponding human resource management measure, provide the cut-in point of theory for the small and medium-sized enterprises in our country to make the career planning through the theory of knowledge life cycle.

Yang Liu

2009-06-01

115

Design features to achieve defence-in-depth in small and medium sized reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Broader incorporation of inherent and passive safety design features has become a 'trademark' of many advanced reactor concepts, including several evolutionary designs and nearly all innovative small and medium sized design concepts. Ensuring adequate defence-in-depth is important for reactors of smaller output because many of them are being designed to allow more proximity to the user, specifically, when non-electrical energy products are targeted. Based on the activities recently performed by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the paper provides a summary description of the design features used to achieve defence in depth in the innovative concepts of small and medium sized reactors with fast neutron spectrum. (author)

116

Design features to achieve defence-in-depth in small and medium sized reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Broader incorporation of inherent and passive safety design features has become a 'trademark' of many advanced reactor concepts, including several evolutionary designs and nearly all innovative small and medium sized design concepts. Ensuring adequate defence-in-depth is important for reactors of smaller output because many of them are being designed to allow more proximity to the user, specifically, when non-electrical energy products are targeted. Based on the activities recently performed by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the paper provides a summary description of the design features used to achieve defence in depth in the eleven representative concepts of small and medium sized reactors. (author)

117

Training Strategies in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises from the Perspective of Technology Innovation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It’s very important to know the training needs of enterprise's past and present demand, training activities planning often starting to solve problems of the past and present. Based on technical innovation training, training analysis is ascending into the strategic level, standing in a new height. Through the analysis of the role which enterprise training plays in technology innovation, based on the enterprise development strategy, job analysis and technical requirements; propose technical processes in small and medium-sized enterprises. From the Angle of enterprise technology innovation, put forward the enterprise training strategies which should be adopted in small and medium-sized enterprises.

AiYing Li

2011-03-01

118

The strategic relevance of technology-related variables to the competitiveness of small- to medium-sized furniture manufacturers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english SMMEs can make a critical and positive economic contribution to South Africa, and small- to medium-sized furniture manufacturers (SM/FMs) have the potential to contribute to economic growth, job creation, and GDP. However, the furniture industry has not stayed abreast of technological advances. To s [...] urvive in an environment of increasing competition and imports, competitive strategies must be devised. One such strategy is for technology adoption and implementation that can provide solutions for the furniture industry to improve speed, quality, variety, flexibility, and productivity, resulting in improved competitiveness. However, the adoption of technology means that its acquisition and application must be managed strategically, as the use of technology involves far more than simply taking it into account during the business-planning process. This paper investigates the impact of business strategy and selected technology-related variables on the competitiveness of SM/FM.

A.S., Lourens; J.A., Jonker.

119

Pressures on Green Supply Chain Management: A Study on Manufacturing Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aims to empirically investigate the pressures for adopting green supply chain management (GSCM among Chinese small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. Data is collected through the use of mail distributed questionnaires administered to participants at a national trade fair held in Suzhou and two rounds of data collection were carried out to make a more reliable result for the research. ANOVA and Factor analysis are used to analyze the data. Some key findings are found from this study. Firstly, there is indifference among the four industrial sectors in terms of facing pressures in adopting GSCM practices. Secondly, all of the pressures from environmental laws and regulations, the pressures in the process of selling the products and the pressures in the supply chain in the relation with the suppliers and customers have impacted on the decisions of SMEs to employ GSCM practices. The main limitation to this paper is the relatively small manufacturing sample of SMEs. The paper explores the GSCM pressures faced by Chinese SMEs which may be different from the findings through the studies on large enterprises in China.
Key words: Supply chain management; Pressures on green supply chain management small and medium-sized enterprises; Chinese manufacturing industry

Xiangmeng HUANG

2012-03-01

120

The Strategic Measures for the Industrial Security of Small and Medium Business  

OpenAIRE

The competitiveness of companies increasingly depends upon whether they possess the cutting-edge or core technology. The technology should be protected from industrial espionage or leakage. A special attention needs to be given to SMB (small and medium business), furthermore, because SMB occupies most of the companies but has serious problems in terms of industrial security. The technology leakages of SMB would account for more than 2/3 of total leakages during last five years. The purpose of...

Chang-Moo Lee

2014-01-01

121

The Impact of Firm Characteristics in Access of Financing by Small and Medium-sized Enterprises in Tanzania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The contribution of Small and Medium-sized Enterprise (SME sector in economic development, job creationand income generation has been recognized worldwide. However, these contributions are not effectivelyharnessed in Tanzania. The main challenge limiting the sector to contribute fully is a shortage of finance. Thisstudy examines the impact of firm characteristics in access to debt financing by Tanzanian SMEs. The equationspecified access to finance as dependent variable while firm characteristics as independent variable. Datacollection was conducted through self-administered questionnaire in a survey of 163 Tanzanian firms. Thestatistical analysis of data involved Pearson correlation and logistic regression to establish the associationbetween dependent and independent variables. The results indicate that firm’s location, industry, size, businessinformation, age, incorporation and collateral influence access to debt finance. The study recommends thatTanzanian SME operators should maintain attractive firm attributes to stimulate lenders to extend debt financingto their investments.

Alex Reuben Kira

2012-11-01

122

Successful E-Learning in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises  

Science.gov (United States)

So far, e-learning has primarily been used when there are many learners involved. The up-front investments related to e-learning are relatively high, and may be perceived as prohibitive for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Some e-learning is, however, getting less expensive, and some e-learning models are more suited for small-scale…

Paulsen, Morten Flate

2009-01-01

123

Heteroatom-embedded Medium-Sized Cycloalkynes: Concise Synthesis, Structural Analysis, and Reactions.  

Science.gov (United States)

A variety of medium-sized cycloalkynes were efficiently synthesized by the double Nicholas reaction of cobalt complex and bis(hetero)substituted acyclic compound. The alkyne moiety within the ring has a unique bent structure and high reactivity toward cycloaddition reactions. Furthermore, preparation of multifunctionalized alkynes was achieved by embedding the cycloalkyne within a peptide chain. PMID:25470001

Ni, Runyan; Mitsuda, Naoto; Kashiwagi, Takeru; Igawa, Kazunobu; Tomooka, Katsuhiko

2015-01-19

124

Based on the AHP Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise Supply Chain Supplier Evaluation Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we establish the evaluation index system based on the AHP small and medium-sized enterprise and then use AHP decide the weight of each evaluation index. Moreover, we use Linear Weighting Method to study supplier performance from perspective of quantitative research and give the measurement process. The empirical research, to validate the method is scientific and feasible.

Xianwu Hu

2013-05-01

125

Analysis of Trip Attraction Characteristics of Commercial Land Use in Medium Sized Towns in Kerala  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Travel demand forecasting is vital for the design of transportation facilities and services, and also for the future development of a town. The study aims to provide a trip attraction model using multiple regression, that is able to predict the trip attracted to any commercial nodes in the medium sized towns in Kerala. This paper also presents an analysis of trip attraction characteristics of the commercial nodes in medium sized towns of Kerala. Using questionnaire survey, the characteristics of the eight selected commercial nodes from the three medium sized towns Tirur, Perinthalmanna, and Ponnani in Kerala are found out. Socioeconomic surveys are conducted for the selected towns for obtaining the origin-destination data. Based on these surveyed data, the characteristics of the selected nodes are studied and correlation and regression analysis are performed. The study showed that the multiple regression model with the independent variables namely the number of employees and percentage of office in the commercial node with the R2 and Adjusted R2 value of 0.999 and 0.9997 respectively gives the better estimate of trip attraction. This model would be very useful for estimating the trips attracted to a new or existing commercial center in any medium sized towns in Kerala, and thus aid to assess the traffic impact of the commercial center on the geometric design of roadways in the surrounding area.

Prof. Gymmy Joseph Kattor,

2013-07-01

126

Supporting the E-Business Readiness of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Approaches and Metrics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a conceptual model for governments in creating a climate that facilitates the national adoption of e-business. Focuses on the needs of small and medium-sized enterprises, suggests measures to assess how a country is performing in providing a positive e-business climate, and provides examples from Canada, The Netherlands, Norway, and…

Jutla, Dawn; Bodorik, Peter; Dhaliwal, Jasbir

2002-01-01

127

AACR2, OCLC, and the Card Catalog in the Medium-Sized Library.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analyzes the impact of AACR2 on the card catalog in a medium-sized library using a random sample from a year's cataloging. Rates of conflict, amount of corrections, and creations of split files under different conditions are considered. Data are presented in four tables and a reference list is attached. (Author/JL)

Hostage, John

1982-01-01

128

Current information technology needs of small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents recent efforts of the American Textile Partnership (AMTEX) Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Project to address needs that are characterized of small to medium sized apparel manufactures and contractors. Background on the AMTEX/DAMA project and objectives for this specific efforts are discussed.

Wipple, C.; Vosti, E.

1997-11-01

129

Key Influencing Factors behind Moodle Adoption in Irish Small to Medium Sized Higher Education Colleges  

Science.gov (United States)

This research investigated Irish Small to Medium Sized Educational Institutions (SMSEs) involved in Higher Education (HE) that adopted Moodle, the OSS (Open Source Software) course management system (CMS). As Moodle has only been adopted in the Irish HE sector in the last 5-7 years, this research crucially studied the attitudes of the SMSEs that…

Walker, David; Livadas, Lelia; Miles, Gail

2011-01-01

130

Toward a Singleton Undergraduate Computer Graphics Course in Small and Medium-Sized Colleges  

Science.gov (United States)

This article discusses the evolution of a single undergraduate computer graphics course over five semesters, driven by a primary question: if one could offer only one undergraduate course in graphics, what would it include? This constraint is relevant to many small and medium-sized colleges that lack resources, adequate expertise, and enrollment…

Shesh, Amit

2013-01-01

131

Design features to achieve defence in depth in small and medium sized reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a continued interest among Member States in the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). In the very near term, most new nuclear power plants (NPPs) are likely to be evolutionary water cooled reactor designs building on proven systems while incorporating technological advances and often economies of scale, resulting in outputs of up to 1600 MW(e) from the reactor. For the longer term, the focus is on innovative designs to provide increased benefits in the areas of safety and security, nonproliferation, waste management, resource utilization and economics, as well as to offer a variety of energy products and flexibility in design, siting and fuel cycle options. Many innovative designs are implemented in reactors within the small to medium size range having equivalent electric power of less than 700 MW(e) or even less than 300 MW(e). Incorporation of inherent and passive safety design features has become a 'trademark' of many advanced reactor concepts, including several evolutionary designs and nearly all innovative SMR design concepts. Ensuring adequate defence in depth is important for reactors with smaller output because many of them are being designed to allow greater proximity to the user, specifically when non-electrical energy products are targeted. The IAEA provides a forum for the exchange of information by experts and policy makers from industrialized and developing countries on the technical, economic, environmental, andhe technical, economic, environmental, and social aspects of SMR development and implementation. It makes this information available to all interested Member States by producing status reports and other publications focusing on advances in SMR design and technology development. The objective of this report is to assist developers of SMRs in Member States in defining consistent defence in depth approaches regarding the elimination of accident initiators/prevention of accident consequences through design and incorporation of inherent and passive safety features and passive systems into safety design concepts of such reactors. Another objective is to assist potential users in Member States in their evaluation of the overall technical potential of SMRs with inherent and passive safety design features, including possible implications in areas other than safety. This report is intended for different categories of stakeholders, including designers and potential users of innovative SMRs, as well as officers in ministries or atomic energy commissions in Member States responsible for implementing nuclear power development programmes or evaluating nuclear power deployment options in the near, medium, and longer term. The main sections of this report present state of the art advances in defence in depth approaches based on the incorporation of inherent and passive safety features into the design concepts of pressurized water reactors, pressurized light water cooled heavy water moderated reactors, high temperature gas cooled reactors, liquid metal cooled fast reactors, and non-conventional designs within the SMR range. They also highlight benefits and negative impacts in areas other than safety arising from the incorporation of such features. The annexes provide descriptions of the design features of 11 representative SMR concepts used to achieve defence in depth and patterned along a common format reflecting the definitions and recommendations of the IAEA safety standards. The annexes were prepared by designers of the corresponding SMRs

132

The Impact of Firm Size and E-commerce Usage on Business Performance on Hospitality Industry: A case of Libya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The hospitality industry is major service sector in most of developed and developing countries in the world economy, and nowadays many hotels implemented e-commerce for their business models and gained great advantages and increase profitability. This study aims to examine the impact of firm size and e-commerce usage on business performance of hospitality industry in general and hotels in Libya in particular. A quantitative approach was applied on hotel industry in Libya, mainly those hotels that have previous practices and experience with e-commerce. The results shows that small and medium size firms in hospitality industry in Libya are facing similar challenges and obstacles to other small businesses when establishing e-commerce website, and also shows a strong relationship between e-commerce usage and business performance, and high increase in profitability when hotels implement e-commerce and start to conduct online booking.

Mohamed Ahmed A Said

2014-04-01

133

Teaming up for mutual learning : A case study of merging innovation aproaches of a medium-sized company  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The focus of this paper is two-folded within the theme of collaboration between education and industry. Firstly it unfolds how learning for design-engineer students can be established and facilitated in a dynamic setting with industrial partners and secondly how industrial partners can benefit from student collaboration. The paper is based on research activities carried out in the context of a 3rd semester project at the Industrial Design Msc. program at The School of Architecture, Design & Planning at Aalborg University. Here, the teaching style is Problem Based Learning (PBL). In PBL, student’s focuses on a complex problem that does not have a single correct answer – in this case the addressed problem was concerned with the innovation approach of a medium-sized company. Traditionally innovation projects and strategic planning has emerged from top managers offices and has been based on i.a. technological an economic factors. An alternative approach has emerged, which suggests that innovation is most successfully initiated by the research and design resources with-in a company. The two approaches are denoted as respectively Top-down and Bottom-up [5]. Practicing the Top-down approach was familiar and integrated within the company, while the student introduced the Bottom-up approach during the project - the initiatives, experiences and observations are reported in this paper.

Poulsen, SØren Bolvig; Pedersen, Tanja Aabo

2011-01-01

134

Small- and Medium-Sized Commercial Building Monitoring and Controls Needs: A Scoping Study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Buildings consume over 40% of the total energy consumption in the U.S. A significant portion of the energy consumed in buildings is wasted because of the lack of controls or the inability to use existing building automation systems (BASs) properly. Much of the waste occurs because of our inability to manage and controls buildings efficiently. Over 90% of the buildings are either small-size (<5,000 sf) or medium-size (between 5,000 sf and 50,000 sf); these buildings currently do not use BASs to monitor and control their building systems from a central location. According to Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), about 10% of the buildings in the U.S. use BASs or central controls to manage their building system operations. Buildings that use BASs are typically large (>100,000 sf). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) were asked by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP) to identify monitoring and control needs for small- and medium-sized commercial buildings and recommend possible solutions. This study documents the needs and solutions for small- and medium-sized buildings.

Katipamula, Srinivas; Underhill, Ronald M.; Goddard, James K.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Piette, M. A.; Granderson, J.; Brown, Rich E.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; Kuruganti, T.

2012-10-31

135

THE KEY DETERMINANTS OF AND BARRIERS TO INTERNET ADOPTION IN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED HOTELS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper presents qualitative empirical evidence that addresses why internet usage/adoption is low and how it can be improved in small and medium-sized hotels in Malaysia. It explores the key barriers to and influencing factors of internet adoption in a sample of 25 Malaysian small and medium-sized hotels based on a theoretical framework of the organisational innovation and resource-based view theories. Key barriers to internet usage include owner/operator characteristics, cost and investment, firm size and internet access. Operator/user’s assessment of perceived resource readiness, perceived potential utility and perceived performance seem to be the key influencing factors. The proposed holistic internet adoption framework also serves as a novel tool and a useful guide for individuals and ICT policymakers for improving and implementing e-commerce/internet. This paper adds to the internet adoption and decision literature and advances the theoretical and practical understanding of internet usage in small and medium-sized hotels, but requires further validation in other countries.

Jennifer Kim Lian Chan

2012-11-01

136

Dyeing Industry Effluent System as Lipid Production Medium of Neochloris sp. for Biodiesel Feedstock Preparation  

Science.gov (United States)

Microalgae lipid feedstock preparation cost was an important factor in increasing biodiesel fuel hikes. This study was conducted with the concept of implementing an effluent wastewater as lipid production medium for microalgae cultivation. In our study textile dyeing industry effluent was taken as a lipid production medium for Neochloris sp. cultivation. The changes in physicochemical analysis of effluent before and after Neochloris sp. treatment were recorded using standard procedures and AAS analysis. There was especially a reduction in heavy metal like lead (Pb) concentration from 0.002?ppm to 0.001?ppm after Neochloris sp. treatment. Neochloris sp. cultivated in Bold Basal Medium (BBM) (specific algal medium) produced 41.93% total lipid and 36.69% lipid was produced in effluent based cultivation. Surprisingly Neochloris sp. cultivated in effluent was found with enhanced neutral lipid content, and it was confirmed by Nile red fluorescence assay. Further the particular enrichment in oleic acid content of the cells was confirmed with thin layer chromatography (TLC) with oleic acid pure (98%) control. The overall results suggested that textile dyeing industry effluent could serve as the best lipid productive medium for Neochloris sp. biodiesel feedstock preparation. This study was found to have a significant impact on reducing the biodiesel feedstock preparation cost with simultaneous lipid induction by heavy metal stress to microalgae. PMID:25247176

Ramamurthy, Dhandapani

2014-01-01

137

Innovation, adaptability, and collaboration: Keys to success for small and medium sized reactors. Cairo, 27 May 2001  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Small and medium sized reactors, within a power output of less than 700 MW(e), are receiving increased consideration in the effort to meet changing market requirements. Smaller plants allow a more incremental investment, which can be used to hedge against demand uncertainty. They are more suitable for standardization and prefabrication, which in turn encourages enhanced quality control and stimulates rapid development of expertise and shorter construction schedules. They provide a better match to grid capacity in developing countries. And they are more easily adapted to a broad range of industrial settings and applications, such as district heating, heavy oil recovery, or the production of hydrogen and other chemical fuels. Sea water desalination is an application for which smaller reactors hold a particular advantage. Nuclear powered desalination is a proven technology. Clearly, we live in an era in which our society faces many difficult economic, environmental and social issues associated with sustainable development and energy demand. Against that backdrop, nuclear power is a mature technology that deserves careful consideration as a contributor to solving some of these issues. The development of innovative small and medium sized reactors will play a key role in helping to match state-of-the-art technology to user needs. An exchange of information and ideas is a step towards further progress

138

Attractive and climate-friendly medium-sized cities; Attraktive og klimavennlige mellomstore byer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ministry of the Environment (MD) wanted an overview of current knowledge of climate-friendly and attractive urban development in medium-sized cities (10 - 50 000 inhabitants). This report presents and discusses knowledge between major cities' situation and challenges of land use and transport development to reduce car traffic and greenhouse gas emissions and on urban development for more attractive cities. A main conclusion is that there are major gaps in knowledge and opportunities for improvement. If those covered will be far better opportunities for planners, local authorities and others may be able to contribute to more climate-friendly and attractive medium-sized cities.The report is part of the project Comprehensive information pack for the status of knowledge from research on urban development. The project has also prepared a report entitled Planning for attractive urban environment. The reports are intended to complement each other and should be seen in context.(eb)

Tennoey, Aud

2012-07-01

139

Research on the Symbiotic Relationship between Small & Medium-sized Enterprises and Banks in Jilin Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the market economy deepens continually, the small & medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in Jilin Province play more and more important role for the economic development of Jilin. Although the SMEs in Jilin have developed greatly in recent years, their difficulties in financing seriously hamper their development. The paper analyzes the status of the relation between the SMEs and banks in Jilin and suggests that it is necessary for the SMEs to establish symbiotic relationship with banks, we also put forward the paths for them to establish continuous reciprocal symbiotic relation with banks in order to help SMEs solve their financing problems and guide the banks to get more profit to realize win-win for both of them.
Key words: Small & Medium-sized enterprises in Jilin Province; banks; Symbiotic relationship

CHEN Lixia

2010-12-01

140

Hybridoma growth and productivity: effects of conditioned medium and of inoculum size  

OpenAIRE

Apart from gas concentrations, temperature, and pH, generally only the initial conditions can be manipulated in batch culture. Inoculum size and initial conditioned medium concentration represent two important considerations for optimal batch production. Two hybridoma cell lines were used to assess the impact of these initial conditions on population growth and monoclonal antibody productivity in suspension batch culture. Varying initial cell concentration over the range of 1.0 × 105 cells m...

Dutton, Roshni L.; Scharer, Jeno M.; Moo-young, Murray

1999-01-01

141

An assessment of small to medium size manufacturers practicing lean manufacturing in Indiana  

OpenAIRE

There is a lack of conceptual tools used to assess the efficacy and importance of operational improvement strategies in small to medium size manufacturing firms (SMMs) in the US. By building on past research done in this area this study sheds light on the use and adoption of lean manufacturing; an operational improvement strategy widely viewed as being important to the survival of many manufacturers worldwide. This study makes use of a survey originally developed by Shah and Ward (2007) to fi...

Mcleod, Alister Alleyne

2009-01-01

142

Optimal monetary policy in an operational medium-sized DSGE model  

OpenAIRE

We show how to construct optimal policy projections in Ramses, the Riksbank's openeconomy medium-sized DSGE model for forecasting and policy analysis. Bayesian estimation of the parameters of the model indicates that they are relatively invariant to alternative policy assumptions and supports that the model may be regarded as structural in a stable low inflation environment. Past policy of the Riksbank until 2007:3 (the end of the sample used) is better explained as following a simple instrum...

Adolfson, Malin; Lase?en, Stefan; Linde?, Jesper; Svensson, Lars E. O.

2008-01-01

143

Based on the AHP Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise Supply Chain Supplier Evaluation Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we have a research of the small and medium-sized enterprise supply chain supplier based on the AHP. For supply chain management issues in the supplier evaluation establishes the evaluation index system and then uses AHP decide the weight of each evaluation index. Moreover, it uses Linear Weighting Method to study supplier performance from perspective of quantitative research and gives the measurement process. In our empirical research, the applied method is scientific and feasible.

Xianwu Hu

2013-05-01

144

THE IMPACT OF PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS ON THE MANAGEMENT OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES  

OpenAIRE

All human beings are a product of inborn traits and the traits that are shaped by the environment. The previously mentioned traits shape us and shape our personality. We can react in a similar or in a completely different way when faced with the same circumstances. This is what actually makes us distinctive and diverse. The diploma seminar has studied personal characteristics and their influence on the management of the small or the medium sized company. Given the personality traits we ti...

Prelog, Tomaz?

2012-01-01

145

DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES IN AGRICULTURAL SECTOR OF RURAL AREA USING ORGANIZATIONAL INNOVATION  

OpenAIRE

This paper aims to highlight the importance of organizational innovation in the development of small and medium sized enterprises in the rural area. In this paper, I review the existing literature on organizational  innovation and will present itsimportance in the process of sustainable development of enterprises in the SME sector. Throughout this study I intend to present the issues that the SMEs are facing  in the agricultural sector of the rural area and to present to the entrepreneu...

Kristina Jana Drienovski

2013-01-01

146

Adept – a software process appraisal method for small to medium-sized Irish software development organisations.  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we describe the appraisal method that was developed by Lero (the Irish Software Engineering Research Centre) and Dundalk Institute of Technology (DkIT) to assess software processes within small to medium-sized Irish software organisations that have little or no experience of software process improvement (SPI) programmes. We developed a method, called Adept, through investigating the key factors that contribute to an effective software assessment method, reflecting the desi...

Mc Caffery, Fergal; Richardson, Ita; Coleman, Gerry

2006-01-01

147

CRITICAL FACTORS IN OUTSOURCING OF ACCOUNTING FUNCTIONS IN MALAYSIAN SMALL MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES (SMEs)  

OpenAIRE

The challenges that business face in sustaining competitive advantage in the corporate world have become a major concern. Businesses are adopting cutting-edge technologies and best practices to cope with rapid, global changes. Various business functions are being reengineered for this purpose. Accounting functions play an important role in helping businesses to maintain competitive advantage. However, some small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) face problems handling fundamental accounting...

Magiswary Dorasamy; Maran Marimuthu; Jayamalathi Jayabalan; Murali Raman; Maniam Kaliannan

2010-01-01

148

Audit from Audit Exempted Small and Medium-sized Entities (SMEs) in Sweden  

OpenAIRE

Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are seen as backbone for economic growth because they are regarded as catalyst for entrepreneurial skills, innovation and employment. Since in Sweden approximately 99.89% of enterprises are SMEs, they take an important role in country’s economic development.        Most of the countries especially EU nations have abolished the statutory audit provision for (SMEs). The new Swedish legislation of statutory audit exemption came into effect on 1st...

Lakhe Shrestha, Biswas Kaji; Wai, Honey Htun

2011-01-01

149

Advantages of Chain Business and Countermeasures of Small- and Medium-Sized Manufacturers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Along with the development of market economy in China, chain business has been turned into a guiding ring from the last ring in the supply chain. Chain business’ economy of scale, economy of scope, and advantages of information and integration becomes more prominent. Under this condition, small- and medium-sized manufacturers can adopt more flexible production and diversified marketing strategy by means of combining with retailers directly.

Guoliang Luo

2009-02-01

150

Overview of RRC KI proposals for nuclear energy systems with small and medium sized reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper gives an overview of the proposals from Russian Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute' (RRC KI) for the development of nuclear energy systems that would couple nuclear power plants with small and medium sized reactors to service enterprises. The problems and R and D needs associated with such systems are analyzed. A conclusion is made that institutional changes in the organization of nuclear power production are needed to make such systems viable. (author)

151

THE PREMISES OF STRATEGIC MARKETING PLANNING IMPLEMENTATION WITHIN SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES  

OpenAIRE

The main purpose of the present paper is to identify the framework and the necessary conditions for the small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) to be able to adopt the strategic marketing planning. Also, the paper aims to underline the importance of the strategic marketing planning and the manner in which the SMEs can adopt, implement and operationalize the strategic marketing planning instruments, whose correct understanding and usage ensure the capacity to generate competitive advantage, ...

Popescu Andrei; Ionescu Florin Tudor; Curmei Catalin Valeriu

2011-01-01

152

Manage Projects Smarter: Picking Tools for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises  

OpenAIRE

Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are increasingly dealing with international projects and distributed (sometimes even virtual) teams. Consequently, they are looking for project management (PM) tools which fit their respective needs regarding communication and collaboration. Unfortunately, the majority of the PM software available in the market seems to be oversized for this purpose. Instead most project managers are requesting smart solutions that allow quick implementation without a...

Stefanie Quade; Frank Habermann; Marcus Birkenkrahe

2012-01-01

153

ADVANTAGES OF CROWDFUNDING AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE OF FINANCING OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES  

OpenAIRE

The lack of funding, and limited access to it are the basic problems faced by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Given the great role and importance of SMEs in every national economy, any progress in solving these problems in terms of creating and finding alternative sources of funding should attract great attention in both professional and scientific and the wider socio-political communities. Crowdfunding is an innovative and relatively new concept that connects entrepreneurs and ...

Zorica Goli?

2014-01-01

154

Unions in small and medium sized enterprises: A family factor perspective  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Trade unions are commonly weak in small- and medium-sized enterprises, which constitute a majority of European firms and are often family-owned. We investigate the influence of family ownership on employee membership, perceptions and experience with unions in Danish and Italian firms in the textile and clothing sector. Family ownership reduces union membership; and within family firms, the number of family members employed is negatively associated with unionization rates and employee perceptions of unions.

Holten, Ann-Louise; Crouch, Colin

2014-01-01

155

Based on the AHP Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise Supply Chain Supplier Evaluation Research  

OpenAIRE

In this study, we have a research of the small and medium-sized enterprise supply chain supplier based on the AHP. For supply chain management issues in the supplier evaluation establishes the evaluation index system and then uses AHP decide the weight of each evaluation index. Moreover, it uses Linear Weighting Method to study supplier performance from perspective of quantitative research and gives the measurement process. In our empirical research, the applied method is scientific and feasi...

Xianwu Hu

2013-01-01

156

Assessing Incorrect Household Waste Sorting in a Medium-Sized Swedish City  

OpenAIRE

Source separation is a common method for dealing with the increasing problem of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in society. The citizens are then responsible for separating waste fractions produced in their home. If the consumers fail to sort the waste according to the source separation scheme, it will lead to an ineffective system. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the environmental, economic and social aspects of incorrect waste sorting in a medium sized Swedish city that has established ...

Kamran Rousta; Ekstro?m, Karin M.

2013-01-01

157

Bridging “Digital Divide” in Medium and Small-sized Enterprises’Informatization  

OpenAIRE

Great significance lies in the informatization of medium and small-sized enterprises in that it will convert the economic growth method and improve those enterprises’ competitive abilities at the international market. However, “digital divide” confronted in their informatization must be bridged by reinforcing the support for their informatization process, achieving the goal of informatization step by step, actively promoting “the Enterprises’ Informatization Project” and soundly c...

Baozhen Chen

2009-01-01

158

New Balancing Equipment for Mass Production of Small and Medium-Sized Electrical Machines  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The level of vibration and noise is an important feature. It is good practice to explain the significance of the indicators of the quality of electrical machines. The mass production of small and medium-sized electrical machines demands speed (short typical measurement time), reliability of measurement, easy use and low cost. This paper proposes a new low cost equipment able to provide required performances.

Argeseanu, Alin; Ritchie, Ewen

2010-01-01

159

NEW APPROACHES TO CUSTOMER BASE SEGMENTATION FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES  

OpenAIRE

The primary purpose of this paper is to explore current praxis and theory related to customer segmentation and to offer an approach which is best suited for small and medium sized enterprises. The proposed solution is the result of an exploratory research aiming to recognize the main variables which influence the practice of segmenting the customer base and to study the most applied alternatives available for all types of enterprises. The research has been performed by studying a large set of...

Meleancă Raluca-Cristina

2012-01-01

160

New Balancing Equipment for Mass Production of Small and Medium-Sized Electrical Machines  

OpenAIRE

The level of vibration and noise is an important feature. It is good practice to explain the significance of the indicators of the quality of electrical machines. The mass production of small and medium-sized electrical machines demands speed (short typical measurement time), reliability of measurement, easy use and low cost. This paper proposes a new low cost equipment able to provide required performances.

Argeseanu, Alin; Ritchie, Ewen; Leban, Krisztina Monika

2011-01-01

161

Knowledge-based trade, technical change and location environment: the case of small and medium sized enterprises engaged in advanced producer software services in the South East region  

OpenAIRE

Technical change is the driving force behind modern economic competitiveness and the evolution of enterprise and industry. The process, however, is not insular; in particular the location environment is regarded as a key component of how technical change is derived, implemented and diffused. This research study explores this assumption in relation to knowledge-based trade via small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) engaged in the development of advanced producer service (APS) software in th...

Rahman, J.

2005-01-01

162

THE EVOLUTION OF FINANCIAL STANDARDS FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM- SIZED ENTITIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to the growing need for more comparable accounting standards, the beginnings of International Financial Reporting Standards for small and medium sized entities (IFRS for SMEs can be found in the year 2004. IFRS for SMEs represents for the first time an accounting standard for small and medium-sized companies that can be used globally. The paper aims to examine the historical development of IFRS, the principal institutions linked to their adoption and the harmonization process of standards within the European Union. The main contribution of the paper refers to the evolution of IFRS for SMEs and the main differences between the full IFRS in use and the IFRS for SMEs.The results of the comparative analysis demonstrate that several differences exist between them. Although the aim of the new standard is to assure comparable financial statements for small and medium-sized entities, the presented disadvantages demonstrate that not necessarily its implementation will assure more benefits than the cost that will occur.

Gordana IVANKOVI?

2011-01-01

163

The Creation of Small and Medium-Sized Sport Enterprises and the Environmental Factors Affecting It  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Small and medium-sized enterprises are very basic solutions for the development of a country; therefore, it is important to understand the factors involved in their creation. Hence, this study sought to examine the relationship between environmental factors and creation of Small and medium-sized sport enterprises. The research population was small and medium-sized sport enterprises (1500 companies; their owners / managers were selected as the research sample (n = 258 by simple random sampling. Data were gathered using environmental factors (?=0.77 and enterprises creation qualification (?=0.81 questionnaires. Descriptive and inferential statistics (Pearson correlation coefficient, Kolmogrof - Smirnov test, and multivariate regression analysis with SPSS16 software was used for data analysis. The results showed that in addition to positive and significant relationship with business, environmental factors could predict 6% of the creation variance; Also, except for the political dimension, all environmental aspects established a significant relationship with enterprise creation( p<0.01. Regression analysis showed that of environmental dimensions, economics and technology dimensions could explain 7 percent of Sports enterprise creation variance. According to path analysis method, this prediction ability is presented in a model. The findings suggested a diminished role of environment and its dimensions in explaining the process of SMEs creation.

Seyed Morteza Azimzadeh

2013-05-01

164

Voluntary disclosing cash flow statement in non-listed medium sized companies.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In Denmark, like some other EU Member States, medium-sized companies are requested to present a cash flow statement, but there are exemption rules similar to those for subgroups’ exemption to their presentation of consolidated financial statements. In a sample consisting of the paper versions of annual reports from 385 Danish non-listed medium-sized companies who were disclosing a cash flow statement as part of their annual report, we found that in a few cases, the companies were exempted to presentation of consolidated financial statements, but disclosing the cash flow statement voluntarily! Since there has been some debate between IASB and the EU Commission whether the cash flow statement should be a mandatory part of the annual reporting for non-listed medium-sized companies, we found it interesting to directly ask these voluntary disclosing companies as to their motivation. For this reason we conducted a multiple-case study, where we formulated a structured questionnaire and made partly open-ended interview with each one of the case-companies’ accountably responsible persons, i.e. one of the guys who signed the annual report. Among the majority of the answers we found a common understanding on presenting the cash flow statement because of some tradition, and not because of some clear intention of fulfilling user needs. However, do we really get a better annual report if a cash flow statement is included?

SchØler, Finn

165

Exploring drivers for energy efficiency within small- and medium-sized enterprises: First evidences from Italian manufacturing enterprises  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Allowances, public financing and external pressures as major external drivers. ? Ambitious decision-makers with great entrepreneurial mind as major internal drivers. ? Effect of firm’s size (even within SMEs) on drivers to industrial energy efficiency. ? Preliminary evidences of the effect of firm’s internal and external complexity. ? Preliminary evidences of the effect of firm’s innovation characteristics. - Abstract: Several studies have investigated the barriers to industrial energy efficiency, but few have focused on the most effective means (drivers) to promote the adoption of energy-efficient technologies and practices. In this respect, Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) have been completely overlooked despite interesting consequences for their overall energy consumption and their concurrent low levels of adoption of energy-efficiency measures. Starting from insights garnered from the extant literature on the drivers of industrial energy efficiency, this paper presents an empirical investigation of 71 Italian manufacturing SMEs through a multiple case-study approach. The research highlights the importance of allowances or public financing for energy efficiency interventions, as well as the importance of external pressures such as increases in energy prices and the introduction or increasing of fees on both resources consumed and on emissions of pollutants. Moreover, enterprises look favourably upon energy-efficient technologies which are able to provide long-term benefits, evidence of their willingness to adopt seemingly radical solutions when these are able to improve their long-term competitiveness. Other drivers considered as strategic for increasing energy efficiency are the presence within the company of people with great ambition and entrepreneurial mind and the management sensitivity to the issue. This paper also provides a preliminary analysis of how factors such as firm size, sector, supply chain complexity, and innovation characteristics are or might be able to significantly affect drivers toward the adoption of energy-efficient technologies

166

Application of Medium Pressure UV Lamp for Wastewater Disinfection of Milk Production Industry  

OpenAIRE

UV disinfect ion has gained widespread use for municipal wastewater and more recently, interest in using UV for water reuse applications has increased too. Medium pressure lamp has emerged as a viable alternative and is beginning to gain more popularity than the conventional low-pressure lamps. This study has been performed with the objective of utilizing MP lamp for the disinfection stage of wastewater from a milk industry. The lab-scale UV submerged system used in the experiments was a sing...

Kamani, H.; Vaezi, F.; Nabizadeh, R.; Mesdaghinia, A. R.; Alimohammadi, M.

2006-01-01

167

Radioactive wastes: origin, classification and medium and long dated industrial management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Virtually all the radioactive waste is produced by the fuel cycle, the remainder comes from radioelements used in industry, in medicine, teaching and research. They are classified into low, medium and high activity. The aim of the control is to ensure the protection of individuals and the public against radiological hazards and to safeguard the environment. The production, control, treatment and storage of mining wastes and those produced by the fuel cycle are examined

168

Quantum-sized ZnO nanoparticles synthesized in aqueous medium for toxic gases detection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Quantum-sized ZnO nanoparticles are synthesized in aqueous medium. ? ZnO is used to detect toxic gases in the atmosphere. ? ZnO sensing material has high sensitivity to NO2 at operating temperature of 290 °C. ? ZnO based sensor exhibits high selectivity to CO and CH4. ? The intrinsic sensing of ZnO arises from stoichiometric defects. - Abstract: Quantum-sized ZnO nanoparticles have been prepared by the sol–gel method in aqueous medium using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as surface modifier to control the growth of ZnO particles and Ostwald ripening, because the majority of bioanalyses require water-stable materials. The crystal structure, grain size and optical property of the ZnO nanoparticles have been characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS). The obtained quantum-sized ZnO nanoparticles as a novel sensing material have been used to detect NO2 in environment. The sensing tests indicate that the ZnO sensing material not only has high response to NO2 but also exhibits high selectivity to CO and CH4 at optimum operating temperature of 290 °C. The sensing response depends on the calcination temperature of the ZnO precursor and operating temperature of the sensor. The intrinsic sensing property has also been exploited by photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectra.a.

169

Tube vibration in industrial size test heat exchanger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tube vibration data from tests of a specially built and instrumented, industrial-type, shell-and-tube heat exchanger are reported. The heat exchanger is nominally 0.6 m (2 ft) in dia and 3.7 m (12 ft) long. Both full tube and no-tubes-in-window bundles were tested for inlet/outlet nozzles of different sizes and with the tubes supported by seven, equally-spaced, single-segmental baffles. Prior to water flow testing, natural frequencies and damping of representative tubes were measured in air and water. Flow testing was accomplished by increasing the flow rates in stepwise fashion and also by sweeping through a selected range of flow rates. The primary variables measured and reported are tube accelerations and/or displacements and pressure drop through the bundle. Tests of the full tube bundle configuration revealed tube rattling to occur at intermediate flow rates, and fluidelastic instability, with resultant tube impacting, to occur when the flow rate exceeded a threshold level; principally, the four-span tubes were involved in the regions immediately adjacent to the baffle cut. For the range of flow rates tested, fluidelastic instability was not achieved in the no-tubes-in-window bundle; in this configuration the tubes are supported by all seven baffles and are, therefore, stiffer

170

The Perspective of Small and Medium Size Nuclear Power Reactors in the Brazilian Isolated Electricity Grids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a consequence of the international crisis that has shaken the nuclear industry almost all over the world during the late 1980s, new academic contributions, which could settle a new basis for the nuclear energy in Brazil, have been scarce. This paper aims to partially fulfill this gap. We discuss some perspectives for the nuclear option to regain some prominence in the Brazilian energy matrix. Recent developments in the nuclear industry, including advances in plant design, have been opening interesting markets for small and medium nuclear power reactors (SMNPRs). We access the suitability and feasibility of such new technology in the Brazilian isolated electricity grids. We conclude by saying that, although the difficulties are still huge, SMNPRs may be a good strategy for Brazil to revitalize its nuclear policy. (author)

171

The effect of temperature and nano-sized calcium carbonate on tensile properties of medium density polyethylene  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present work, high temperature tensile properties of medium density polyethylene and its nano composites are investigated. For this purpose medium density polyethylene reinforced with different weight percentages of nano-sized calcium (2, 5, 10) are produced by compression moulding method. Tensile tests have been carried out at different temperatures, i.e. 30, 60, 90degC using thermomechanical analysis apparatus. Besides, the fracture surface of medium density polyethylene and medium density polyethylene/CaC03 nano composites are also investigated using scanning electron microscopy. The thermomechanical analysis results indicate that the elastic modulus and yield stress have increased by addition of nano sized calcium carbonate as reinforcement for medium density polyethylene . At elevated temperature, the tensile strength is shown to be reduced in all materials including medium density polyethylene and its nano composites. The obtained results confirm that the reinforcing effect of nano-sized calcium carbonate becomes significant particularly at higher temperatures

172

Size dependent stability analysis of circular ultrathin films in elastic medium with consideration of surface energies  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, analytical framework is developed for size dependent symmetric stability and self-instability of circular nanoplates including surface effects using modified Kirchhoff plate theory. The surrounding elastic medium is modeled as Winkler elastic foundation and its effect is comprehensively studied on self-instability problems. The derived explicit solutions contain Bessel functions with modified arguments reflecting the size dependency of the buckling loads. In order to check the results an inverse formulation is presented for effective Young's modulus using the buckling loads to be verified by previous experimental results for nanowires. Several numerical examples are given for two types of materials with positive and negative surface properties to show the general trends of size dependencies. Some problems and limitations are explored for consistency of results with experiments and suggestions for future works.

Assadi, Abbas; Farshi, Behrooz

2011-03-01

173

Book-to-Market, Size, and Industry Effect  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to extend the paper by Saleh and Bitar (2009 by addressing whether variation in stock returns can be explained by differences in industry concentration. The paper concludes that firms operate in highly concentrated industries earn lower returns and less risk than those operate in highly competitive industries. Furthermore, the paper provides evidence to suggest that investors in Amman Stock Exchange cannot benefit from a trading strategy based on industry structure

Walid Saleh

2011-04-01

174

Current information technology needs of small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents recent efforts of the American Textile Partnership (AMTEX{sup TM}) Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Project to identify opportunities for cost effective enhanced information technology use by small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors. Background on the AMTEX/DAMA project and objectives for the specific DAMA Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) effort are discussed in this section. The approach used to gather information about current opportunities or needs is outlined in Section 2 Approach, and relevant findings are identified and a brief analysis of the information gathered is presented in Section 3 Findings. Recommendations based on the analysis, are offered in Section 4 Recommendations, and plans are suggested for DAMA follow-on in Section 5 Future Plans. Trip reports for each of the companies visited are contained in Appendix E - Company Trip Reports. These individual reports contain the data upon which the analysis presented in Section 3 Findings is based.

Wimple, C., LLNL

1998-04-01

175

Determinants of Profitability of Food Industry in India: A Size-Wise Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Profitability is the profit earning capacity, which is a crucial factorin contributing to the survival of firms. This paper is a maidenattempt at estimating the impact of size on profitability, consideringthe ‘size’ as the control variable. For this purpose, the selectedfirms are classified into three size categories as ‘small,’ ‘medium,’and ‘large’ based on the sales turnover. The results show that volatilityand growth are the major predictors in determining profitabilityin case of small size firms while growth is important in determiningthe profitability of medium size firms. Capital intensityhas a significant positive coefficient with the profitability of largesize firms. The overall result shows that the larger the size of thefirm, the more the investment in long lived assets has helped toincrease the profitability of the firm unlike the trend in cases ofsmall size and medium size firms.

Ramachandran Azhagaiah

2012-01-01

176

Monte Carlo comparison of medium-size telescope designs for the Cherenkov Telescope Array  

CERN Document Server

The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a future very high energy gamma-ray observatory. CTA will be comprised of small-,medium- and large-size telescopes covering an energy range from tens of GeV to hundreds of TeV and will surpass existing telescopes in sensitivity by an order of magnitude. The aim of our study is to find the optimal design for the medium-size telescopes (MSTs), which will determine the sensitivity in the key energy range between a few hundred GeV to about ten TeV. To study the effect of the telescope design parameters on the array performance, we simulated arrays of 61 MSTs with 120 m spacing and a variety of telescope configurations. We investigated the influence of the primary telescope characteristics including optical resolution, pixel size, and light collection area on the total array performance with a particular emphasis on telescope configurations with imaging performance similar to the proposed Davies-Cotton (DC) and Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) MST designs. We compare the performance...

Jogler, T; Dumm, J

2013-01-01

177

Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation with Multiple Electrodes for Medium-Sized Hepatocellular Carcinomas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To prospectively evaluate the safety and short-term therapeutic efficacy of switching monopolar radiofrequency ablation (RFA) with multiple electrodes to treat medium-sized (3.1-5.0 cm), hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). In this prospective study, 30 patients with single medium-sized HCCs (mean, 3.5 cm; range, 3.1-4.4 cm) were enrolled. The patients were treated under ultrasonographic guidance by percutaneous switching monopolar RFA with a multichannel RF generator and two or three internally cooled electrodes. Contrast-enhanced CT scans were obtained immediately after RFA, and the diameters and volume of the ablation zones were then measured. Follow-up CT scans were performed at the first month after ablation and every three months thereafter. Technical effectiveness, local progression and remote recurrence of HCCs were determined. There were no major immediate or periprocedural complications. However, there was one bile duct stricture during the follow-up period. Technical effectiveness was achieved in 29 of 30 patients (97%). The total ablation time of the procedures was 25.4 ± 8.9 minutes. The mean ablation volume was 73.8 ± 56.4 cm3 and the minimum diameter was 4.1 ± 7.3 cm. During the follow-up period (mean, 12.5 months), local tumor progression occurred in three of 29 patients (10%) with technical effectiveness, while new HCCs were detected in six of 29 patients (21%). Switching monopolar RFA with multiple electrodes in order to achieve a sufficient ablation order to achieve a sufficient ablation volume is safe and efficient. This method also showed relatively successful therapeutic effectiveness on short-term follow up for the treatment of medium-sized HCCs.

178

Integrated foreign exchange risk management : the role of import in medium-sized, manufacturing firms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as an instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role of import in medium-sized manufacturing firms in Denmark (a small, open economy). We find a strong, negative relation between import and the use of foreign exchange derivatives on the aggregate level. Our findings are consistent with the notion that firms use import to match the foreign exchange exposure created by foreign sales activities.

Aabo, Tom; HØg, Esben

2010-01-01

179

Integrated Foreign Exchange Risk Management : The Role of Import in Medium-Sized, Manufacturing Firms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for the exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as the instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role of import in medium-sized, manufacturing firms in Denmark (a small, open economy). We find a strong, negative relation between import and foreign exchange derivatives usage on the aggregate level. Our findings are consistent with the notion that firms use import to match the foreign exchange exposure created by foreign sales activities.

Aabo, Tom; HØg, Esben

180

Energetics of core disruptive accident for different fuels for a medium sized fast reactor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comparative study has been made on the mechanical energy released in a core disruptive accident resulting from an unprotected loss of flow accident (LOFA) in a medium sized liquid metal fast breeder reactor with oxide, carbide and metal fuels. The study is conducted by ignoring the passive safety features incorporated in the design so that the accident scenario culminates in an energetic disassembly of the core with large energy release. The paper further provides the salient features of the analysis and presents the results with suitable physical explanations00.

Singh, O.P.; Harish, R. E-mail: harish@igcar.ernet.in

2002-04-01

181

DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES IN AGRICULTURAL SECTOR OF RURAL AREA USING ORGANIZATIONAL INNOVATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight the importance of organizational innovation in the development of small and medium sized enterprises in the rural area. In this paper, I review the existing literature on organizational  innovation and will present itsimportance in the process of sustainable development of enterprises in the SME sector. Throughout this study I intend to present the issues that the SMEs are facing  in the agricultural sector of the rural area and to present to the entrepreneur his role in the economy and the importance of his actions in the economic crisis.

Kristina Jana Drienovski

2013-05-01

182

Knowledge Leakages and Ways to Reduce Them in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we look into knowledge leakages and ways to address them. It is conducted from the point of view of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs, as their specific attributes create unique challenges. Based on a discussion of the relevant fields, ways are presented in order to reduce the danger of knowledge leakages. In view of practitioners, the paper’s findings may enable an increased awareness towards the areas where existing knowledge is at the mercy of “leakage”. This can assist managers of SMEs to better cope with risks related to knowledge leakage and, therefore, better exploit the (limited knowledge base available.

Susanne Durst

2014-09-01

183

IMPACT OF VIRTUALIZATION PROCESS ON THE COMPETITIVENESS OF SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED FIRMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of the impact of virtualization process on competitiveness of small and medium sized firms. The developed methodology for measuring the level of organizational virtualness has been effectively applied to a wide range of businesses, both large and the smallest companies representing traditional and high-technology sectors. Through statistical analysis it has been confirmed that virtualization process has a positive impact on competitiveness of companies. However, not all theoretically assumed pathways of such impact have been observed. Presented results and conclusions of the examination give a new perspective for discussion about challenges of effective implementing virtual organization concept into business practice.

Marta NAJDA-JANOSZKA

2011-01-01

184

Annulation reactions of allenyl esters: an approach to bicyclic diones and medium-sized rings.  

Science.gov (United States)

A flexible approach to construct sterically congested bicyclo-alkenedione frameworks is reported. Under the action of potassium carbonate, ?-sulphonyl cycloalkanones are added to functionalized allenyl esters, leading to a lactone intermediate that is subsequently reduced to initiate an intramolecular aldol cyclization to [3.2.1], [3.3.1], and [4.3.1] bicycles. Oxidation then affords bicyclic diones in good three-step yields. Under exceptionally mild conditions, these bicycles are converted to highly functionalized medium-sized rings through a Grob-type fragmentation. PMID:25184784

Bhat, Bilal A; Maki, Samantha L; St Germain, Elijah J; Maity, Pradip; Lepore, Salvatore D

2014-10-01

185

The growth and size of the Brazilian mutual fund industry  

OpenAIRE

This article describes the evolution of the Brazilian mutual fund industry, its regulatory framework, organization, types of investors and managers, economic environment and its relative growth. It shows the evolution of this industry in Brazil and its idiosyncrasies providing a deeper look into one of the largest emerging market mutual fund industries. It emphasizes the growth of independent managers with more complex assets and sophisticated strategies that resemble international hedge fund...

Varga, Gyorgy; Wengert, Maxim

2010-01-01

186

Utilization of sugarcane industrial residues as animal food and probiotic medium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugar production from sugarcane generates residual products, currently, many of which are waste products. At the same time, introduction of probiotic bacteria to food animals needs an economical production medium. Fermentation of sugarcane blunting, an industrial residue, inoculated with ruminant probiotic bacteria was investigated. Fermentation was carried out using native flora (NF) alone, NF plus a goat probiotic lactic acid bacterium (LAB), and NF plus goat probiotic co-inoculated with two LAB isolated from sugarcane. Survival of microorganisms and metabolite produce were monitored. In the inoculated samples, pH was lower, dry matter was >30%, and Enterobacteriaceae and fungus decreased when compared to natural fermentation. The LAB inoculated grew and multiplied during fermentation. All beneficial changes were more quickly in the co-inoculated samples. The results presented indicate that sugarcane blunting can be used as a medium for introduction of ruminant probiotic bacteria. Fermentation of blunting can prolong shelf life and increase microbiological safety. PMID:19000612

Apás, Ana Lidia; Arena, Mario Eduardo; Draksler, Diana; González, Silvia Nelina

2008-10-01

187

Analysis of industrial markets for low and medium Btu coal gasification. [Forecasting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Low- and medium-Btu gases (LBG and MBG) can be produced from coal with a variety of 13 existing and 25 emerging processes. Historical experience and previous studies indicate a large potential market for LBG and MBG coal gasification in the manufacturing industries for fuel and feedstocks. However, present use in the US is limited, and industry has not been making substantial moves to invest in the technology. Near-term (1979-1985) market activity for LBG and MBG is highly uncertain and is complicated by a myriad of pressures on industry for energy-related investments. To assist in planning its program to accelerate the commercialization of LBG and MBG, the Department of Energy (DOE) contracted with Booz, Allen and Hamilton to characterize and forecast the 1985 industrial market for LBG and MBG coal gasification. The study draws five major conclusions: (1) There is a large technically feasible market potential in industry for commercially available equipment - exceeding 3 quadrillion Btu per year. (2) Early adopters will be principally steel, chemical, and brick companies in described areas. (3) With no additional Federal initiatives, industry commitments to LBG and MBG will increase only moderately. (4) The major barriers to further market penetration are lack of economic advantage, absence of significant operating experience in the US, uncertainty on government environmental policy, and limited credible engineering data for retrofitting industrial plants. (5) Within the context of generally accepted energy supply and price forecasts, selected government action can be a principal factor in accelerating market penetration. Each major conclusion is discussed briefly and key implications for DOE planning are identified.

1979-07-30

188

Quantum-sized ZnO nanoparticles synthesized in aqueous medium for toxic gases detection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantum-sized ZnO nanoparticles are synthesized in aqueous medium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnO is used to detect toxic gases in the atmosphere. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnO sensing material has high sensitivity to NO{sub 2} at operating temperature of 290 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnO based sensor exhibits high selectivity to CO and CH{sub 4}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The intrinsic sensing of ZnO arises from stoichiometric defects. - Abstract: Quantum-sized ZnO nanoparticles have been prepared by the sol-gel method in aqueous medium using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as surface modifier to control the growth of ZnO particles and Ostwald ripening, because the majority of bioanalyses require water-stable materials. The crystal structure, grain size and optical property of the ZnO nanoparticles have been characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS). The obtained quantum-sized ZnO nanoparticles as a novel sensing material have been used to detect NO{sub 2} in environment. The sensing tests indicate that the ZnO sensing material not only has high response to NO{sub 2} but also exhibits high selectivity to CO and CH{sub 4} at optimum operating temperature of 290 Degree-Sign C. The sensing response depends on the calcination temperature of the ZnO precursor and operating temperature of the sensor. The intrinsic sensing property has also been exploited by photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectra.

Li Dianqing [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Hu Jingwei [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Beijing Institute of Aerospace Testing Technology, Beijing 100074 (China); Fan Faying [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Bai Shouli, E-mail: slbai@mail.buct.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Luo Ruixian; Chen Aifan [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Liu Chungchiun [Department of Chemical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

2012-10-25

189

Development of Safety Related Issues and Essential Technologies for the Small and Medium Size PWR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the study is to complement the safety related issues and their regulatory guides, deduced as a result of the review of the nuclear code and standards to being applied widely, then also is to find out and take concrete shape to the essential technologies for the small and medium size PWRs. The main activities performed in the study are listed below: - The review of the nuclear code and standards to being applied widely - The review of the safety related issues and their regulatory guides to be complemented · The review of the current developed state for advanced PWRs · The investigation of the disagreements or complements between the nuclear code and standards and the inherent characteristics for advanced PWRs - The essential technologies for the small and medium size PWRs · The essential technologies * The in-service inspection of reactor vessel assembly and steam generators * The development of comprehensive vibration assesment program * The feasibility of the test, monitoring, inspection and maintenance of components according to the extended cycle core · The publication of the ISI concept for an advanced PWR · The publication of the CVAP development for an advanced PWR · The preparation for an analysis input deck for the audit code - The evaluation for advanced PWRs to be corresponded to the nuclear code and standards

190

The significance of medium- or small-size devices in fusion research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The significance of medium- and small-size devices is reviewed and discussed taking the case of ITER Physics R and D. It is pointed out that the heat flux density expected in a fusioning plasma will become as large as an unexperienced high level and it is not self-evident that one could extend the present energy confinement time scaling to predict ITER performances. The confinement of fusion plasma is considered to be related to heat, momentum and mass transport problems in a nonlinear non-equilibrium system with a finite source and dissipation. Therefore, a recent progress of basic experiments and theories in fluid dynamics may greatly be referred, where series of basic experiments are unveiling various modes of heat and mass transport in the nonlinear non-equilibrium system including a scenario and conditions of transition to turbulence. In the field of plasma confinement, the more complex scenario would be expected. Therefore, a systematic and basic research along the same line is highly desired on medium- and small-size devices in order to get insight into the physics of plasma confinement which will provide us the methodology for confinement improvement. (author)

191

40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

...treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. 141.81 Section 141.81...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper...

2010-07-01

192

40 CFR 428.60 - Applicability; description of the medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber Plants Subcategory ...extruded, and fabricated rubber plants subcategory...applicable to process waste water discharges resulting...extruded, and fabricated rubber products, foam rubber...goods, and retreaded tires by medium-sized...

2010-07-01

193

How to Improve Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Profitability by Practicing an Efficient Human Resources Management  

OpenAIRE

In The European Union’s country members, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play an essential role in economic life, having special features that make adaptation process to the contemporary economy easier. Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) are the most dynamic and vital factor of progress in the contemporary society, main generator of economic performance and substance in any country, employment opportunity provider for most of population, major contributor to the national bu...

Garci?a Sa?nchez, Antonio; Popescu, Dan; Chivu, Iulia; Cioca?rlan-chitucea, Alina; Popescu, Daniela Oana

2011-01-01

194

The Roles of Government Funding in Enhancing the Competitiveness of Small and Medium-sized Enterprise in Sabah, Malaysia  

OpenAIRE

This study was conducted in order to determine the roles of government funding in enhancing Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Sabah, Malaysia. Specifically, the study is focused on the Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Sabah, Malaysia which were funded by many government-linked agencies such as Yayasan Tekun Nasional, Amanah Ikhtiar, Koperasi Pembangunan Desa and Agro Bank. This qualitative study was carried out in the rural and urban areas in Sabah, Malaysia. The findings of this stu...

Abdol Samad Nawi; Irwan Bin Ismail; Zainuddin Zakaria; Jannah Munirah Md Noor; Bashir Ahmad Bin Shabir Ahmad; Nik Fakrul Hazri; Wan Anisabanum Salleh; Mohd Tajul Hasnan Mohd Tajuddin; Nur Raihana Mohd Sallem

2012-01-01

195

The Research on Enterprise Management Innovation --- Based on the Study of Small and Medium Sized Family Enterprises  

OpenAIRE

The small and medium sized family enterprises in China have developed rapidly since the reform and opening up.Numerous facts show that the family management is reasonable and proper in the early development of small and medium-sized family enterprise. However, with the further development of family enterprise, the shortcomings of family management are exposed and have become obstacles which restrict the development of enterprise, as a result, the research and analysis in the management proble...

Qian Luo; Xilin Liu

2014-01-01

196

Emotion work and well-being of client service workers within small and medium-sized enterprises  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this study was to assess emotion work, emotional intelligence, and social support as predictors of well-being in client service workers within small and medium-sized enterprises. Across-sectional survey design was used. The study population (n = 145) consisted of client-service workers in small and medium-sized enterprises in the Mpumalanga Province. The Greek Emotional Intelligence Scale (GEIS), the Frankfurt Emotion Work Scales (FEWS), the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWE...

Jonker, Catharina S.; Joubert, Sonja

2009-01-01

197

Critical Factors of E-SCM Adoption on Small and Medium Sized Enterprises Performance: An Empirical Study  

OpenAIRE

Due to the gradual importance of e-Supply Chain Management (e-SCM) to the Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Taiwan, this research intended to explore the critical factors which allowed the Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Taiwan to employ e-SCM. The research further studied that under these critical factors, how the adoption of e-SCM affected their organizational achievements. In this research, the researcher organized the related literature according to Grounded Theory and ...

She-I Chang; Yi-Feng Tsia

2006-01-01

198

Almanya’da Ortaboy ??letmeler ?çin Derecelendirme Sorunu = The Rating Problems in Medium-Size Companies in Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines the rating problems in medium-size companies in Germany. The rating models employed by international rating agencies are in general not applicable for medium-size companies. Therefore, ratings made by international agencies using their conventional criteria would hardly give good results for small and medium size firms.The capital needs of medium-size companies encourage the development of services of new rating agencies in Germany which consider medium size companies as the targets of their services. The need for external capital is greater and there are stronger ties between management and capital ownership in medium size companies. On the other hand, rating becomes so crucial when they plan to go public.. Rating is useful not only for investors, creditors and customers but for management as well. Rating has not yet become a popular concept in Turkey. Those firms - mostly commercial banks- that want to be rated apply to international rating agencies for their services.

Oktay TA?

2001-01-01

199

The Impact of Firm Size on Dividend Behaviour: A Study With Reference to Corporate Firms across Industries in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to examine the association between the Corporate Leverage (CL and the Dividend Policy (DP of firms across industries in India in respect of Size of Corporate Firms. The investigation is conducted on a panel sample of 73 firms across industries [Cement, Chemical and Fertilizer, IT, Oil and Gas, Pharmaceutical, Shipping, and Textiles], which listed their shares in National Stock Exchange (NSE in India for the period 1996–2007. The impacts of Capital Structure (CS variables (leverage on DP measures – dividend payout (Net dividend paid/net income in the presence of some basic fundamental variables are considered to be the determinants of DP, using the Multiple Regression Technique (OLS method. The results of the cross-sectional ols Model for the selected sample firms under various sectors show that there is a significant effect of selected independent variables. Therefore, this study proves that the DP of Small Size, Medium Size, Large Size, and Overall Corporate Firms across industries in India is dependent on the level of debt in CS.

Azhagaiah Ramachandran

2010-03-01

200

Testing urbanization economies in manufacturing industries: urban diversity or urban size?  

OpenAIRE

Whether urbanization economies are caused by urban diversity or urban scale is not clear in regional and urban economics literature. Many empirical studies have used either city population size or urban industrial diversity to measure urbanization economies and have reached different conclusions. This paper argues that city size mainly captures the pure scale economies of urban public goods, and may generate net diseconomies when a city size is too large. Urban industrial diversity can also e...

Fu, Shihe; Hong, Junjie

2008-01-01

201

Small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). Sustainable expansion of the potential for peaceful uses of nuclear energy; Small and Medium Sized Reactors (SMRs). Eine nachhaltige Erweiterung des friedlichen Nutzungspotenzials der Kernenergie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the peaceful uses of nuclear power for low-cost electricity generation, nuclear power plant technology in the 1970/80s was tailored to high-power units (> 1,000 MWe). The International Energy Agency (IEA) of the OECD in its World Energy Outlook 2012 estimates a worldwide increase in electricity consumption from approx. 21,408 TWh in 2010 to approx. 32,000 or 37,000 TWh in 2035. In this connection, there is growing interest in the nuclear community in nuclear power plant concepts of < 1,000 MWe power for variable uses. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna recognized the trend towards small and medium sized reactors as early as a few years ago and is now supporting development work along theses lines by specific initiatives to foster cooperative ventures among the member countries currently showing interest. More than fifty SMR concepts are currently under development worldwide. Most of them are modeled along the lines of operating experience gained with established reactor lines. IAEA proposes classification in small sized reactors for the range of power of < 300 MWe and medium sized reactors for the power range of 300 to approx. 700 MWe. Most of the SMR variants are designed as modular units prefabricated in factories and shipped by truck or rail for final assembly at the reactor site. In the near future, SMR plants could be used in regions with limited infrastructure and without any electricity distribution grids for powerful large power plants. In industrialized regions, SMRs offer greater flexibility in adaptation of the electricity generating capacity to local consumption rises and in replacing fossil-fired old plants. For the more remote future, plans also include SMR uses for other purposes than electricity generation, such as hydrogen production and coal liquefaction. An overview of the whole SMR spectrum is presented on the basis of some selected projects. Besides projects already completed, most SMR concepts are in the detailed design stage of development with start of construction in the near future, and in the conceptual design stage for commissioning between 2025 and 2030. (orig.)

Kuczera, Bernhard

2012-12-15

202

Requirements and Specifications for a Simplified, Low Pressure Medium Sized PWR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper summarises part of our on-going investigations on the possible introduction of nuclear energy in developing countries or countries with low capacity electrical grids. These investigations are principally concerned with future PWR developments and basically try to search for plausible and economic answers to the three difficult questions that each nuclear technology exporting country faces today: 1)- how to compensate the apparent loss of economic competitiveness, related to the scaling effect, of a small or medium sized reactor? 2)- how to reconcile the introduction of nuclear energy on the large scale with the two major preoccupations of nuclear safety and nuclear proliferation? 3)- how to demonstrate that the proposed concept(s) can effectively meet the safety objectives of the requirements for future reactors in Europe and in other countries?

203

[Intra-articular injections in arthrosis of the small and medium size joints].  

Science.gov (United States)

Intraarticular injections into small and medium-size osteoarthritic joints may play an important role in the therapeutic plan. However, they are merely indicated if synovitis (with or without effusion) is present. Apart from irritating factors such as detritus or proteases, calcium pyrophosphate and hydroxyapatite are important pathogenetic factors in arthritis, i.e. activated osteoarthritis (2). The extent of the resulting pain and functional impairment in the mostly elderly patients often demands a rapid and efficient therapeutic action. An adequate indication provided, intraarticular administration of injectable corticosteroid preparations can afford quick relief. Although the progression of osteoarthritis will hardly be stopped, a persisting relief of pain can be achieved (13). Each intraarticular injection has to be considered a minor operation, so all its risks and possible complications have to be taken into account. PMID:7597811

Siegmeth, W; Krepelka, M; Supper, A

1995-01-01

204

Knowledge management in small and medium-sized companies; Wissensmanagement bei kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Knowledge management has now also reached the energy economy, as first branch-specific seminars show. This awakening interest is very much to be welcomed, although until now it has been more the representatives of large energy companies who have made themselves heard. Public utilities, which as a rule are subsumed under the category ''small and medium sized company'', have other possibilities as well as limitations than large corporations when it comes to knowledge management. The present article explains what knowledge management is and how public utilities and regional supply companies can identify and make practical use of opportunities available to them through knowledge management while giving due consideration to their structural characteristics.

Basu, M. [Netzwirtschaft, EWR Netz GmbH, Worms (Germany); Neises, C. [Regulierungsmanagement, regionetz GmbH, Dueren (Germany)

2008-12-15

205

Key Drivers to Developing Guanxi in China for Taiwanese Small to Medium Sized Firms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As Chinese economy has become one of the world’s economic powerhouse, research on guanxi, social or business ties in China, has been gaining ground in business research. The study is couched in the theoretical framework of social embeddedness in which the flows of information, resources, and opportunities occur across recognized members of a social network to create mutual benefits. This study empirically tests the major impetus for Taiwanese small to medium sized firms (SMEs to utilize guanxi networks with business community, local governments, and the central government in China.  The study results indicate the extent to which Tawanese firms utilize different types of guanxi differ by firm characteristics (i.e., resources, capabilities, and entry mode and market factors (i.e., market stability and competition.

Lan-Ying Huang

2009-12-01

206

Modeling, simulation, and concept design for hybrid-electric medium-size military trucks  

Science.gov (United States)

A large scale design space exploration can provide valuable insight into vehicle design tradeoffs being considered for the U.S. Army"s FMTV (Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles). Through a grant from TACOM (Tank-automotive and Armaments Command), researchers have generated detailed road, surface, and grade conditions representative of the performance criteria of this medium-sized truck and constructed a virtual powertrain simulator for both conventional and hybrid variants. The simulator incorporates the latest technology among vehicle design options, including scalable ultracapacitor and NiMH battery packs as well as a variety of generator and traction motor configurations. An energy management control strategy has also been developed to provide efficiency and performance. A design space exploration for the family of vehicles involves running a large number of simulations with systematically varied vehicle design parameters, where each variant is paced through several different mission profiles and multiple attributes of performance are measured. The resulting designs are filtered to remove dominated designs, exposing the multi-criterial surface of optimality (Pareto optimal designs), and revealing the design tradeoffs as they impact vehicle performance and economy. The results are not yet definitive because ride and drivability measures were not included, and work is not finished on fine-tuning the modeled dynamics of some powertrain components. However, the work so far completed demonstrates the effectiveness of the approach to design space exploration, and the results to date suggest the powertrain configuration best suited to the FMTV mission.

Rizzoni, Giorgio; Josephson, John R.; Soliman, Ahmed; Hubert, Christopher; Cantemir, Codrin-Gruie; Dembski, Nicholas; Pisu, Pierluigi; Mikesell, David; Serrao, Lorenzo; Russell, James; Carroll, Mark

2005-05-01

207

Hybrid neural intelligent system to predict business failure in small-to-medium-size enterprises.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the last years there has been a growing need of developing innovative tools that can help small to medium sized enterprises to predict business failure as well as financial crisis. In this study we present a novel hybrid intelligent system aimed at monitoring the modus operandi of the companies and predicting possible failures. This system is implemented by means of a neural-based multi-agent system that models the different actors of the companies as agents. The core of the multi-agent system is a type of agent that incorporates a case-based reasoning system and automates the business control process and failure prediction. The stages of the case-based reasoning system are implemented by means of web services: the retrieval stage uses an innovative weighted voting summarization of self-organizing maps ensembles-based method and the reuse stage is implemented by means of a radial basis function neural network. An initial prototype was developed and the results obtained related to small and medium enterprises in a real scenario are presented. PMID:21809475

Borrajo, M Lourdes; Baruque, Bruno; Corchado, Emilio; Bajo, Javier; Corchado, Juan M

2011-08-01

208

Role of Relationship Marketing in Small and Medium-Sized Entreprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Along with marketing, small and medium enterprises (SMEs are commonly associated in literature with relationship marketing which results in marketing networks. This paper examines the specific characteristics that differentiate large companies from small and medium-sized enterprises, and the reasons that prevent SMEs from engaging in traditional marketing within the scope of marketing mix. The paper also shows that the key characteristic which distinguishes small from large companies is a prominent role of owner/managers. The owner/manager affects marketing of SMEs by creating his or her own personal networks with stakeholders in the environment, and considers it an important strategic focus and a factor that increases the performance of marketing decision-making. After a thorough review of secondary data sources this paper examines relationship marketing as a marketing framework for SMEs and, finally, proves that relationship marketing is more appropriate for SMEs than are traditional marketing concepts, that relationship marketing and network marketing create an important framework for SMEs and that there is a link between relationship marketing, personal networks and SMEs.

Ružica Butigan

2011-06-01

209

Analysis of the Management System Innovation in Small and Medium Sized Family Enterprises of China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The family enterprise is one of the oldest forms of enterprise organization in the development of human history. In a way, the development of modern market economy equates the history of the evolution and collaborative of family enterprises. The growth of the family enterprises has now become a unique economic landscape in such a public ownership society in China. China is transitioning from a planned economy to a market economy, and the biggest change is actually the emergence of private enterprises groups. It’s by arriving less much, by arrive infirmly strength has made them one of the most dynamic components in Chinese economy. They not only active in both the urban and rural markets, meet the needs of people’s material and cultural life, ease the employment pressure, but also lay the important foundation of China’s market-oriented reform and participation in international market competition. The general development of family enterprise and its great contribution to China’s economy show that family enterprise as an ancient business system is still active and alive in the modern market economy. Nonetheless, it is not a perfect form of business organization compared with other organizational forms. Family enterprises, especially small and medium-sized family enterprises have also encountered some bottleneck and challenge in the development process, and the only way to get rid of the dilemma is the innovation of family enterprise management system. This paper at first expatiates on the concept of family enterprises, and then based on the study of its characteristics analyzes the present situation of Chinese family enterprise management system. Finally, this paper will find out the existing problems and reasons in the innovation of management system for small and medium-sized family enterprises, in order to put forward effective countermeasures.

Chengcheng LIU

2014-08-01

210

Sustainable infrastructure provision through awareness in selected medium-sized towns in Kwara State  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Infrastructure is a basic structure required for sustainable socio-economic and physical development of any human settlement. The issue of sustainable development has recently been linked to infrastructure sustainability. Required to achieve this is the acquisition of appropriate education. Different skills, understanding the complexities that threaten the survival of our system, critical and systematic thinking, building capacity and partnership in decision-making, which are essential tools for Education for Sustainable Development (ESD, are required to provide adequate, appropriate and functional infrastructure. This study therefore examines the awareness/knowledge with reference to various skills employed in the provision of infrastructure through communal efforts in ten selected medium-sized towns in Kwara State. These towns are with a population of between 5,000 and 20,000. A total of 400 household heads were sampled systematically through the administration of a questionnaire in the ten selected medium-sized towns. Tabulations, cross tabulations, percentages and chi-square analysis were employed to analyse the gathered data. The findings revealed a significant relationship between awareness/knowledge and the provision of infrastructure with a calculated value of 219.23 greater than the tabulated value 34.41 at alpha level 0.05. Indigenous knowledge coupled with the ideas brought home by indigenes that have travelled far from their immediate communities and some professional skills acquired through community participation in infrastructure provision were employed to provide basic infrastructure required for socio-economic and physical development. Among the infrastructure provided are water, roads, health centres and electricity. The study recommends the improvement of basic education, a review and re-orientation of our educational system to address sustainability for proper collaboration of community efforts with the Community Development division of various local governments. This could be through training of the local communities and promotion of partnership zeal with Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs in infrastructure provision.

Afolayan Ganiyu Popoola

2014-09-01

211

Larval assemblages of large and medium-sized pelagic species in the Straits of Florida  

Science.gov (United States)

Critical gaps in our understanding of the distributions, interactions, life histories and preferred habitats of large and medium-size pelagic fishes severely constrain the implementation of ecosystem-based, spatially structured fisheries management approaches. In particular, spawning distributions and the environmental characteristics associated with the early life stages are poorly documented. In this study, we consider the diversity, assemblages, and associated habitat of the larvae of large and medium-sized pelagic species collected during 2 years of monthly surveys across the Straits of Florida. In total, 36 taxa and 14,295 individuals were collected, with the highest diversity occurring during the summer and in the western, frontal region of the Florida Current. Only a few species (e.g. Thunnus obesus, T. alalunga, Tetrapturus pfluegeri) considered for this study were absent. Small scombrids (e.g. T. atlanticus, Katsuwonus pelamis, Auxis spp.) and gempylids dominated the catch and were orders of magnitude more abundant than many of the rare species (e.g. Thunnus thynnus,Kajikia albida). Both constrained (CCA) and unconstrained (NMDS) multivariate analyses revealed a number of species groupings including: (1) a summer Florida edge assemblage (e.g. Auxis spp., Euthynnus alleterattus, Istiophorus platypterus); (2) a summer offshore assemblage (e.g. Makaira nigricans, T. atlanticus, Ruvettus pretiosus, Lampris guttatus); (3) an ubiquitous assemblage (e.g. K. pelamis, Coryphaena hippurus, Xiphias gladius); and (4) a spring/winter assemblage that was widely dispersed in space (e.g. trachipterids). The primary environmental factors associated with these assemblages were sea-surface temperature (highest in summer-early fall), day length (highest in early summer), thermocline depth (shallowest on the Florida side) and fluorescence (highest on the Florida side). Overall, the results of this study provide insights into how a remarkable diversity of pelagic species spatially and temporally partition spawning within a region that is characterized by dynamic oceanography and strong habitat gradients.

Richardson, David E.; Llopiz, Joel K.; Guigand, Cedric M.; Cowen, Robert K.

2010-07-01

212

Electronic spectroscopy of medium-sized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Implications for the carriers of the 2175 {\\AA} UV bump  

OpenAIRE

Mixtures of polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been produced by means of laser pyrolysis. The main fraction of the extracted PAHs were primarily medium-sized, up to a maximum size of 38 carbon atoms per molecule. The use of different extraction solvents and subsequent chromatographic fractionation provided mixtures of different size distributions. UV-VIS absorption spectra have been measured at low temperature by matrix isolation spectroscopy and at room temperature...

Steglich, M.; Ja?ger, C.; Rouille?, G.; Huisken, F.; Mutschke, H.; Henning, Th

2010-01-01

213

Evaluating the control software for CTA in a medium size telescope prototype  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CTA (Cherenkov Telescope Array) is one of the largest ground-based astronomy projects being pursued and will be the largest facility for ground-based ?-ray observations ever built. CTA will consist of two arrays (one in the Northern hemisphere and one in the Southern hemisphere) composed of telescopes of several sizes. A prototype for the Medium Size Telescope (MST) of a diameter of 12 m will be installed in Berlin by the end of 2012. This MST prototype will be composed of the mechanical structure, drive system and mirror facets mounted with powered actuators to enable active control. Five Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) cameras and a weather station will allow the measurement of the performance of the instrument. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Common Software (ACS) distributed control framework is currently being considered by the CTA consortium to serve as the array control middleware. In order to evaluate the ACS software, it has been decided to implement an ACS-based readout and control system for the MST prototype. The design of the control software is following the concepts and tools under evaluation within the CTA consortium, like the use of a Unified Modeling Language (UML) based code generation framework for ACS component modeling, and the use of OPen Connectivity-Unified Architecture (OPC UA) for hardware access. In this contribution, the progress in the implementation of the control system for this CTA prototype telescope is described.his CTA prototype telescope is described.

214

Volatile organic compounds in small- and medium-sized commercial buildings in California.  

Science.gov (United States)

While small- and medium-sized commercial buildings (SMCBs) make up 96% of the commercial buildings in the U.S., serving a large variety of uses, little information is available on indoor air quality (IAQ) in SMCBs. This study investigated 37 SMCBs distributed across different sizes, ages, uses, and regions of California. We report indoor concentrations and whole building emission rates of a suite of 30 VOCs and aldehydes in these buildings. There was a considerable range in the concentrations for each of the contaminants, especially for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, decamethylcyclopentasiloxane, d-limonene, 2-butoxyethanol, toluene, 2,2,4-trimethylpentanediol diisobutyrate, and diethylphthalate. The cause of higher concentrations in some building categories generally corresponded to expected sources, for example, chloroform was higher in restaurants and grocery stores, and formaldehyde was higher in retail stores and offices. Factor analysis suggests sources in SMCBs include automobile/traffic, cleaning products, occupant sources, wood products/coating, and plasticizers. The comparison to health guidelines showed that formaldehyde concentrations were above the chronic RELs required by the OEHHA (9 ?g/m³) in 86% of the buildings. Data collected in this study begins to fill the knowledge gap for IAQ in SMCBs and helps us understand the indoor sources of VOCs to further improve indoor air quality in SMCBs. PMID:21888354

Wu, Xiangmei May; Apte, Michael G; Maddalena, Randy; Bennett, Deborah H

2011-10-15

215

Size distribution of supernova remnants and the interstellar medium: the case of M33  

CERN Document Server

The size distribution of supernova remnants (SNRs) can help to clarify the various aspects of their evolution and interaction with the interstellar medium (ISM). Since the observed samples of SNRs are a collection of objects with very different ages and origin that evolve in different conditions of the ISM, statistical Monte Carlo methods can be used to model their statistical distributions. Based on very general assumptions on the evolution, we have modeled samples of SNRs at various initial and environmental conditions, which were then compared with observed collections of SNRs. In the evolution of SNRs the pressure of the ISM is taken into account, which determines their maximum sizes and lifetimes. When comparing the modeled and observed distributions, it is very important to have homogeneous observational data free from selection effects. We found that a recently published collection of SNRs in M33 (Long et al. 2010, ApJS,187,495) satisfies this requirement if we select the X-ray SNRs with hardness ratio...

Asvarov, Abdul I

2013-01-01

216

Evaluating the control software for CTA in a medium size telescope prototype  

Science.gov (United States)

CTA (Cherenkov Telescope Array) is one of the largest ground-based astronomy projects being pursued and will be the largest facility for ground-based ?-ray observations ever built. CTA will consist of two arrays (one in the Northern hemisphere and one in the Southern hemisphere) composed of telescopes of several sizes. A prototype for the Medium Size Telescope (MST) of a diameter of 12 m will be installed in Berlin by the end of 2012. This MST prototype will be composed of the mechanical structure, drive system and mirror facets mounted with powered actuators to enable active control. Five Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) cameras and a weather station will allow the measurement of the performance of the instrument. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Common Software (ACS) distributed control framework is currently being considered by the CTA consortium to serve as the array control middleware. In order to evaluate the ACS software, it has been decided to implement an ACS-based readout and control system for the MST prototype. The design of the control software is following the concepts and tools under evaluation within the CTA consortium, like the use of a Unified Modeling Language (UML) based code generation framework for ACS component modeling, and the use of OPen Connectivity-Unified Architecture (OPC UA) for hardware access. In this contribution, the progress in the implementation of the control system for this CTA prototype telescope is described.

Oya, I.; Behera, B.; Birsin, E.; Koeppel, H.; Melkumyan, D.; Schmidt, T.; Schwanke, U.; Wegner, P.; Wiesand, S.; Winde, M.; Consortium, CTA

2012-12-01

217

The Roles of Government Funding in Enhancing the Competitiveness of Small and Medium-sized Enterprise in Sabah, Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to determine the roles of government funding in enhancing Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Sabah, Malaysia. Specifically, the study is focused on the Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Sabah, Malaysia which were funded by many government-linked agencies such as Yayasan Tekun Nasional, Amanah Ikhtiar, Koperasi Pembangunan Desa and Agro Bank. This qualitative study was carried out in the rural and urban areas in Sabah, Malaysia. The findings of this study revealed that there are several main roles of government funding to enhance the competitiveness of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Sabah, Malaysia. These four main roles were namely provision of access to capital for opening and improving the business, provision of access to capital for skills and knowledge development, improvement of entrepreneurs’ relations, and promoting entrepreneurship and reducing “fear of failure”. In accordance, it can be concluded that the government funds are instrumental in the success of the efforts to enhance the competitiveness level of the so-called Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Sabah, Malaysia. Besides, it is highly recommended that state government and all parties (the stakeholders should specifically implement efforts to fund the Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises as well as to improve their level of competitiveness.

Abdol Samad Nawi

2012-12-01

218

Intent to be a Socially Responsible Small or Medium-sized Enterprise: Theory of Planned Behavior and Leaders’ Actualizing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A review of the academic research in corporate social responsibility shows little work on small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs in the U.S. whereas considerable work in this domain has been conducted in the European context. This study seeks to make a contribution to the research void by addressing one particular area of social responsibility in the U.S. context. Specifically, we employ Ajzen’s reasoned action approach to begin to build an understanding of what promotes leaders of SMEs to reduce waste. This study addresses several questions: What are the attitudes of owners and managers of SMEs toward waste reduction practices for their organizations? How are stakeholder interests toward waste reduction perceived? And, are leaders of SMEs influenced by their industrial environment? The authors utilized an email survey directed to owners and managers of SMEs with greater than 5, but less than 500 employees in the telephony, construction, pulp and paper products, textiles, and agriculture industries. 377 emails were opened and 104 completed surveys were obtained. The survey instrument was developed from the theoretical perspective of Isaac Ajzen’s (1991 Theory of Planned Behavior in Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, p. 179-211. Results from a partial least squares analysis of the data suggest that there is a strong and significant relationship between the normative, attitudinal, and control constructs with an individual’s intention to be a socially responsible SME. This finding suggests that efforts to influence SME owners and managers to implement waste reduction activities need focus on changing individual attitudes.

Ashley Jane Bennington

2012-10-01

219

Industrial Fabrication of Medium-Beta SCRF Cavities for a High-Intensity Proton Linac  

CERN Document Server

During 1999, four 700-MHz, medium-beta (b = 0.64), superconducting radio frequency (SCRF) cavities for a high-intensity proton linac project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) were manufactured by industry. The SCRF cavities were designed by a LANL team in Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA, and manufactured at a CERCA plant in Romans, France. The cavities were made of 4-mm-thick, solid niobium sheets with a residual resistivity ratio (RRR) greater than 250. These niobium sheets were supplied by Wah Chang (USA), Heraeus AG (Germany), and Tokyo Denkai (Japan). The SCRF cavities were shipped to LANL for performance testing. This paper describes the experience gained during the manufacturing process at CERCA.

Kuzminski, J; Gentzlinger, R C; Maccioni, P

2000-01-01

220

Energy conservation for medium industry by retrofitting H.T. distribution system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electrical energy consumption pattern is a non-constant nature, which varies considerably between 30% and 40% of the maximum peak demand as per system load parameters. Some suggested new design components are projected, which are basically of retrofitting nature to suit the industrial units with high tension (HT) distribution systems. This has a view to achieve energy conservation as well as reduction in kW, kWH, kVA, kVAH and kVARH. These equipment are of short, medium and long term application to without much financial involvement. These are all immediate fruit bearing successful achievements for the state of Orissa which is in a power hungry zone of the country. There is a central government comprehensive policy decision for application of energy conservation. (author). 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab., 1 ill

221

Impact of carbon tax on internal combustion engine size selection in a medium scale CHP system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? We study sizing of internal combustion engines as the prime movers of a CHP system. ? We study carbon tax impact on the economics of the system. ? Diesel engine based systems is not economical regardless of the operational mode. ? HDF is the only mode in which gas engine based systems is uneconomical. ? Carbon price considerably affects the system payback period. -- Abstract: Combined heat and power (CHP) systems due to their high efficiency compared to the conventional power generation systems have received considerable attention as they have less harmful impact on the environment. Recently, the serious concern with reducing the greenhouse gas emissions has focussed the attention on the possibility of a carbon tax in some countries. Here, we address the impact of such tax on the sizing and economics of a CHP system. Optimum sizing of CHP systems is of great importance to maximize the benefits of these systems. To select the optimum prime mover of a CHP system, performance characteristics of engine as well as economic parameters should be taken into consideration. A general thermo-economic approach to optimum sizing of internal combustion engines as the prime movers (any type and size) of a medium scale CHP system (500-5000 kW) and planning their operational strategy is developed. Net Annual Cost (NAC) as the criterion for making decision is introduced and appropriate equations for estimating thermodynamic and economic parameters as well as greenhouse gas emissions are presented. We consider three modes of operation: one-way connection (OWC) mode, two-way connection (TWC) mode, and heat demand following (HDF) mode. The proposed method has been used for a case study where data is available in the literature and the optimum nominal powers using gas engines are 3.3 MW, 3.2 MW, and 1.2 MW and in the case of using diesel engines are 3.4 MW, 3.4 MW, and 1.4 MW for TWC, OWC, and HDF modes, respectively. To determine the sensitivity of results to input parameters (e.g. electricity price) a comprehensive parametric study was conducted.

222

The electricity supply industry in England and Wales. Medium term development plan 1986-93  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objective of the Electricity Supply Industry in England and Wales is to develop and maintain electricity supplies to meet customers' needs as cheaply as possible. Over the medium term, 1986 - 1993, the goal is to reduce the real average price per kWh sold, whilst maintaining high standards of service and meeting financial obligations. The strategy set out comprises reducing controllable costs per kWh sold to 1992/3, pursuing a vigorous and selective marketing strategy so that an expected sales increase of 10% is achieved, securing a long term supply of coal at minimum cost by developing the commercial relationship with British Coal, increasing the proportion of electrical energy supplied by nuclear energy to 25% by 1992/3 and being environmentally concerned. The introduction outlines the medium term business, energy and economic environment, financial targets and price prospects. Plans to support the strategy outlined are presented. Each section sets out the objectives and the plans to achieve these. The strategy for new power stations is to develop fossil-fueled and nuclear as well as to develop alternative technologies. (UK)

223

Treponema amylovorum sp. nov., a saccharolytic spirochete of medium size isolated from an advanced human periodontal lesion.  

OpenAIRE

A highly motile, medium-size, saccharolytic spirochete was isolated from an advanced human periodontal lesion in medium OMIZ-Pat supplemented with 1% human serum. The growth of this organism is dependent on either glucose, maltose, starch, or glycogen. The cells contain six endoflagella, three per pole, which overlap in the central region of the cell body. On the basis of its cell morphology and enzyme activities, as well as its sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protei...

Wyss, C.; Choi, B. K.; Schu?pbach, P.; Guggenheim, B.; Go?bel, U. B.

1997-01-01

224

Modified genetic algorithms to model cluster structures in medium-sized silicon clusters: Si18-Si60  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the results obtained using a genetic algorithm (GA) to search for stable structures of medium-size silicon clusters. This is the third report in which a GA coupled with the MSINDO semiempirical molecular orbital program is used to find stable atomic cluster structures. The structures selected by the GA-MSINDO method were further optimized using the density functional theory (DFT). This combination of GA-MSINDO global optimization followed by DFT local optimization proves to be very effective for searching the structures of medium-size Si clusters. For most of the clusters studied here we report different structures with significant lower energy than those previously found using limited search approaches on common structural motifs. This demonstrates the need for global optimization schemes when searching for stable structures of medium-size silicon clusters

225

The Research on Software Resource Re-sharing for Small and Medium-sized Enterprise Cloud Manufacturing System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The background, significance and the related research at home and abroad of software resource re-sharing in cloud manufacturing system are introduced. The current use and system structure of software in manufacturing are analyzed, and they are Web-based, software directly sharing, based package to share software indirectly and server-based technology for common software across the internet remote sharing. The special requirements for software sharing of cloud manufacturing system are presented.  According to the feature of small and medium-sized enterprise, a re-sharing approach of cloud manufacturing software sharing scheme for small and medium-sized enterprise is proposed, and this approach is very compatible, extended, and low-cost, it is very suitable for the manufacturing cloud of small and medium-sized enterprise.

Xilong Qu

2013-07-01

226

Analytical Hierarchy Process Applied to Vendor Selection Problem: Small Scale, Medium Scale and Large Scale Industries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vendor selection is an important process for an effective inventory management. This paper deals with a brief review of the literature regarding AHP technique and its relevancy to its application in vendor selection process. Vendor selection is a complicated process. This process needs evaluation of multiple criteria and various constraints associated with them. This paper has been developed based upon the views of various experts. A well researched methodology has been adopted for the synthesis of priorities and the measurement of consistencies. A consistency ratio has also been calculated. Industries has been classifies into small scale, medium scale and large scale. Various criteria for vendor selection process as received from the expert have been identified. These criteria have been compared using average matrix, priority matrix and overall priority matrix. After analysis of the results we found that for large scale industries, vendor reliability, product quality and vendor experience are the top three vendor selection problems that needs to be taken up on priority for effective vendor selection.

Dr. Abid Haleem

2009-08-01

227

Studies of various single phase natural circulation systems for small and medium sized reactor design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • SMRs and passive safety systems in single phase systems are reviewed. • Simple loop analysis has been done for gas, single phase water, and liquid metals. • Gas systems have a greater tendency to fall into DTHT regime. • SMR and large LWR reactors can differ in operating heat transfer regime. -- Abstract: Passive safety is a primary motive behind the development of small and medium sized reactors of various coolants. After the Fukushima accident, there is an increased interest in a nuclear reactor's reliance on passive safety systems. Most of the existing passive systems, regardless of the reactor type, utilize buoyancy force to drive the cooling flow. Hence, it is essential to evaluate if the naturally developed cooling flow is sufficient to maintain the heated surface temperature of the fuel elements below the design limit. Evaluating passively driven flows can be quite a challenging task in both two phase natural circulation systems and also in single phase natural circulation systems. Previous research works have found that single phase heat transfer can be deteriorated and becomes uncertain when the driving force of a system is shifted from external force (forced convection) to self generated buoyancy force or a combination of both (natural or mixed convection). In this paper, single phase gas, water, and liquid metal reactors with passive systems are reviewed briefly. A simple theoretical analysis of each reactor type is performed to find the tendency of the shift in the operating heat transfer regime into the deteriorated region. The analysis results show that single phase water system can maintain operation within the forced convection regime but the operating regime gets closer to the deteriorating heat transfer regime as the system's physical size reduces from a large nuclear power plant to the small and medium reactor scale. The gas cooled system has a high tendency to operate in the deteriorated heat transfer regime when the driving force changes from forced to natural. Meanwhile the liquid metal system demonstrates more margins to operate outside from the deteriorated heat transfer region compared to the two other fluid systems. However further studies are needed to clearly identify the boundaries of the deteriorated heat transfer regime for each coolant since the deterioration greatly depends on the thermophysical properties variation of the coolant and the near-wall flow behavior of the coolant with respect to temperature change

228

Studies of various single phase natural circulation systems for small and medium sized reactor design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: • SMRs and passive safety systems in single phase systems are reviewed. • Simple loop analysis has been done for gas, single phase water, and liquid metals. • Gas systems have a greater tendency to fall into DTHT regime. • SMR and large LWR reactors can differ in operating heat transfer regime. -- Abstract: Passive safety is a primary motive behind the development of small and medium sized reactors of various coolants. After the Fukushima accident, there is an increased interest in a nuclear reactor's reliance on passive safety systems. Most of the existing passive systems, regardless of the reactor type, utilize buoyancy force to drive the cooling flow. Hence, it is essential to evaluate if the naturally developed cooling flow is sufficient to maintain the heated surface temperature of the fuel elements below the design limit. Evaluating passively driven flows can be quite a challenging task in both two phase natural circulation systems and also in single phase natural circulation systems. Previous research works have found that single phase heat transfer can be deteriorated and becomes uncertain when the driving force of a system is shifted from external force (forced convection) to self generated buoyancy force or a combination of both (natural or mixed convection). In this paper, single phase gas, water, and liquid metal reactors with passive systems are reviewed briefly. A simple theoretical analysis of each reactor type is performed to find the tendency of the shift in the operating heat transfer regime into the deteriorated region. The analysis results show that single phase water system can maintain operation within the forced convection regime but the operating regime gets closer to the deteriorating heat transfer regime as the system's physical size reduces from a large nuclear power plant to the small and medium reactor scale. The gas cooled system has a high tendency to operate in the deteriorated heat transfer regime when the driving force changes from forced to natural. Meanwhile the liquid metal system demonstrates more margins to operate outside from the deteriorated heat transfer region compared to the two other fluid systems. However further studies are needed to clearly identify the boundaries of the deteriorated heat transfer regime for each coolant since the deterioration greatly depends on the thermophysical properties variation of the coolant and the near-wall flow behavior of the coolant with respect to temperature change.

Wibisono, Andhika Feri, E-mail: feri.wibisono@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Yoonhan, E-mail: yh.ahn@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Williams, Wesley C., E-mail: wcw@phd-engineering.com [PHD Engineering, LLC, 11828 Villa Avenue, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Addad, Yacine, E-mail: yacine.addad@kustar.ac.ae [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research (KUSTAR), P.O. Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Lee, Jeong Ik, E-mail: jeongiklee@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-09-15

229

Inherent safe heat removal in advanced medium-sized high-temperature reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the main points for the inherent safety of a pebble bed high temperature reactor (HTR) is to guarantee the safe removal of the after-heat in case of a break-down of all active cooling systems like heat-exchangers or liner-cooling. This will be necessary because it is well known today that graphite pebble bed fuel elements stay intact, if the accident temperature is below 1600 deg. C. Therefore the heat must be taken out of the reactor system by passive, natural law heat-transfer mechanism so that the maximum fuel temperature stays below the specified limit. Today medium-sized HTRs with a power of 750 MWth and more (TGTR-300, HTR 500) reach temperatures of more than 2400 deg. C in small parts of the core in such hypothetical accidents. A possible way to realize the inherent safe heat removal in advanced medium-sized HTRs is to change the form of the core. Instead of employing the standard cylindrical geometry a plate shaped core should be preferred, described by the proportion of width to depth of approx. 6:1, causing short distances for heat transfer to the side reflectors within the core and due to the reduction of the mean core power density less than 3 MW/m3. A further improvement of the passive heat removal in case of a failure of the liner-cooling can be achieved by adding cast iron and/or metal granulated material to the concrete of the reactor vessel increasing the thermal conductivity. In case of a total failure of the liner-coolinase of a total failure of the liner-cooling, heat removal within the prestressed concrete vessel is also possible using installed vertical ducts which make it possible that fresh air runs through the ducts by natural convection cooling the reactor vessel. Even the total removal of the after-heat is possible by suitable arrangement, number and shape of such ducts. (author). 4 refs, 11 figs, 1 tab

230

Effects of Socio-Cultural Realities on the Nigerian Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs): Case of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Lagos State  

OpenAIRE

Socio-cultural realities are importance components in the Nigerian business environment. There is a shortage ofliterature and studies that linked socio-cultural realities to business development and performance.Small-Medium Enterprises (SMEs) constitutes over 70 per cent of the Nigerian businesses and characteristicallyinformal. The objectives of this paper are in two-folds, namely (i) identify socio-cultural realities in the SMEbusiness environment in Nigeria and; (ii) examine the impact of ...

Johnson, Felicia O.; Olusoji George; Oluwakemi Owoyemi; Mofope Adegboye

2013-01-01

231

Can the business model of Handelsbanken be an archetype for small and medium sized banks? : A comparative case study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Danish Banking sector faces increasing requirements regarding regulation and profitability, which especially threatens small- and medium sized banks. This study analyzes whether the successful business model of Handelsbanken (‘The Handelsbanken Way’) to banking in regard to the needed strengthening of the financial and non-financial position can serve as a blueprint for small- and medium sized banks. We conduct a comparative case study by interviewing Handelsbanken and the disguised ‘Danish Local Bank’ (DLB), where the DLB is a representative example of a small- and medium sized Danish bank. This study is structured according to the frameworks from Business Model implementations and from implied organizational structures. Using the notion of Osterwalder and Pigneur (2010), this study reveals only minor differences in the Business Models of Handelsbanken and DLB. Despite the supposedly obvious advantages of ‘The Handelsbanken Way’, this study suggests that the financially troubled small- and medium sizedbanks in Denmark will not necessarily benefit from the tactical choice of decentralization unless they incorporate specific adjustments. This study contribute to the existing theory concerning Handelsbanken’s approach to banking in regard to the appropriateness as a part of the solution to financial troubled small- and medium sized banks in Denmark.

Schmaltz, Christian; Lueg, Rainer

2014-01-01

232

Think locally, act locally: Detection of small, medium-sized, and large communities in large networks  

Science.gov (United States)

It is common in the study of networks to investigate intermediate-sized (or "meso-scale") features to try to gain an understanding of network structure and function. For example, numerous algorithms have been developed to try to identify "communities," which are typically construed as sets of nodes with denser connections internally than with the remainder of a network. In this paper, we adopt a complementary perspective that communities are associated with bottlenecks of locally biased dynamical processes that begin at seed sets of nodes, and we employ several different community-identification procedures (using diffusion-based and geodesic-based dynamics) to investigate community quality as a function of community size. Using several empirical and synthetic networks, we identify several distinct scenarios for "size-resolved community structure" that can arise in real (and realistic) networks: (1) the best small groups of nodes can be better than the best large groups (for a given formulation of the idea of a good community); (2) the best small groups can have a quality that is comparable to the best medium-sized and large groups; and (3) the best small groups of nodes can be worse than the best large groups. As we discuss in detail, which of these three cases holds for a given network can make an enormous difference when investigating and making claims about network community structure, and it is important to take this into account to obtain reliable downstream conclusions. Depending on which scenario holds, one may or may not be able to successfully identify "good" communities in a given network (and good communities might not even exist for a given community quality measure), the manner in which different small communities fit together to form meso-scale network structures can be very different, and processes such as viral propagation and information diffusion can exhibit very different dynamics. In addition, our results suggest that, for many large realistic networks, the output of locally biased methods that focus on communities that are centered around a given seed node (or set of seed nodes) might have better conceptual grounding and greater practical utility than the output of global community-detection methods. They also illustrate structural properties that are important to consider in the development of better benchmark networks to test methods for community detection.

Jeub, Lucas G. S.; Balachandran, Prakash; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.; Mahoney, Michael W.

2015-01-01

233

Status of innovative small and medium sized reactor designs 2005. Reactors with conventional refuelling schemes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a renewed interest in Member States in the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). In the near term, most new NPPs are likely to be evolutionary designs building on proven systems while incorporating technological advances and often the economics of scale, resulting from the reactor outputs of up to 1600 MW(e). For the longer term, the focus is on innovative designs aiming to provide increased benefits in the areas of safety and security, non-proliferation, waste management, resource utilization and economy, as well as to offer a variety of energy products and flexibility in design, siting and fuel cycle options. Many innovative designs are reactors within the small-to-medium size range, having an equivalent electric power less than 700 MW(e) or even less than 300 MW(e). The projected timelines of readiness for deployment are generally between 2010 and 2030. The objective of this report is to provide Member States, including those just considering the initiation of nuclear power programmes, and those already having practical experience in nuclear power, with a balanced and objective information on important development trends and objectives of innovative SMRs for a variety of uses, on the achieved state-of-the-art in design and technology development for such reactors and on their design and regulatory status. The report is intended for many categories of stakeholders, including regulators, electricity producers, designers, non-electrical producers and policy makers. The main chapters of this report, addressed to all abovementioned groups of stakeholders, provide a summary of major specifications, applications and user-related special features of innovative SMRs, outline the achieved design and regulatory status and its progress since previous IAEA publications, review targeted deployment dates, fuel cycle options, design approaches used to meet design objectives in specific subject areas, enabling technologies and current research and development (R and D) programmes in Member States, and non-technical factors and arrangements that could facilitate successful development and deployment of innovative reactors within the small-to-medium power range. The annexes, intended mostly for designers and technical managers, provide detailed design descriptions of innovative SMRs under development worldwide and are patterned along a newly developed common format, which makes it possible to identify the design philosophy, objectives and approaches, as well as technical features and non-technical factors and arrangements with a potential to provide solutions in the specific areas of concern associated with future nuclear energy systems. Detailed design descriptions in this report were prepared firsthand by the designers and reviewed, updated and approved for publication by the respective vendors, research and design organizations and academic institutions in Member States. The scope of this report is limited to reactors with conventional, proven in operation refuelling schemes and does not include small reactors that could operate without reloading and shuffling of fuel for a long period, from 10 years and more, with no fresh or spent fuel being stored at the site during reactor operation. Because of a large number of inputs, such reactors would require a separate dedicated publication

234

The CTA medium size telescope prototype, a test bench for the array control software  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CTA (Cherenkov Telescope Array) will be the largest ground-based gamma-ray observatory ever built. Two arrays are foreseen to be build, one in the Southern and one in the Northern hemisphere. A prototype for the Medium Size Telescope (MST) type (diameter: 12 m) will be installed in Berlin in early 2012. This MST prototype will be composed of the mechanical structure, drive system and mirror facets with an active mirror control system. The stability of the mechanical structure will be investigated with CCD cameras and a weather station. Furthermore the ALMA Common Software (ACS) distributed control framework will used as readout and control system for the MST, allowing to evaluate the software with the future use for the whole CTA array in mind. The design of the control software is following the concepts and tools under evaluation within the CTA consortium, like the use of a UML based code generation framework for ACS component modeling, and the use of OPC Unified Architecture (OPC UA) for hardware access. In this contribution the progress in the implementation of the control system for this CTA prototype telescope is described.

235

Resource efficiency and culture--workplace training for small and medium-sized enterprises.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although there are already some qualification offers available for enterprises to support resource efficiency innovations, the high potentials that can be identified especially for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) have not been activated until now. As successful change lies in the hands of humans, the main aim of vocational education has to be the promotion of organisational and cultural changes in the enterprises. As there is already a small but increasing number of enterprises that perform very well in resource efficiency innovations one question arises: What are typical characteristics of those enterprises? Leaning on a good-practice approach, the project "ResourceCulture" is going to prove or falsify the hypothesis that enterprises being successful with resource efficiency innovations have a specific culture of trust, which substantially contributes to innovation processes, or even initially enables them. Detailed empirical field research will light up which correlations between resource efficiency, innovation and cultures of trust can be found and will offer important aspects for the improvement of management instruments and qualification concepts for workplace training. The project seizes qualification needs that were likewise mentioned by enterprises and consultants, regarding the implementation of resource efficiency. This article - based on first empirical field research results - derives preliminary indications for the design of the qualification module for the target groups resource efficiency consultants and managers. On this basis and in order to implement "ResourceCulture" conceptual and methodological starting points for workplace training are outlined. PMID:24364995

Bliesner, Anna; Liedtke, Christa; Rohn, Holger

2014-05-15

236

A radiophotoluminescent glass plate system for medium-sized field dosimetry  

Science.gov (United States)

A two-dimensional radiophotoluminescent system for medium-sized field dosimetry has been developed using a silver-activated phosphate glass plate with a dimension of 120mm×120mm×1mm and a readout unit comprising a UV excitation lamp and a CCD imager. A dose ranging from 0 to 400 cGy, provided by a 6 MV x-ray beam, was delivered to the glass plate oriented perpendicularly to the beam and positioned in a water phantom at a depth of 10 cm, where the center of the glass plate coincided with the linac isocenter. After the dose delivery, the glass plate was placed in the readout system. The CCD output intensity increased linearly with the applied dose. The angular dependence of response on the direction of radiation incidence was measured by rotating the glass plate in the water phantom, indicating that the output remained constant up to 75° from perpendicular incident direction, followed by a steep reduction down to 85% at an angle of 90°. A lateral dose distribution resulting from a 60mm×60mm irradiation was compared between the glass plate and an x-ray film having had the same exposure, showing that the glass plate and the x-ray film led to identical dose distributions. The dose reproducibility for a glass plate and the sensitivity variation among different glass plates were also evaluated.

Nakagawa, Keiichi; Koyanagi, Hiroki; Shiraki, Takashi; Saegusa, Shigeki; Sasaki, Katsutake; Oritate, Takashi; Mima, Kazuo; Miyazawa, Masanori; Ishidoya, Tatsuyo; Ohtomo, Kuni; Yoda, Kiyoshi

2005-10-01

237

Quantitative evaluation of waste prevention on the level of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Waste prevention is a principle means of achieving the goals of waste management and a key element for developing sustainable economies. Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) contribute substantially to environmental degradation, often not even being aware of their environmental effects. Therefore, several initiatives have been launched in Austria aimed at supporting waste prevention measures on the level of SMEs. To promote the most efficient projects, they have to be evaluated with respect to their contribution to the goals of waste management. It is the aim of this paper to develop a methodology for evaluating waste prevention measures in SMEs based on their goal orientation. At first, conceptual problems of defining and delineating waste prevention activities are briefly discussed. Then an approach to evaluate waste prevention activities with respect to their environmental performance is presented and benchmarks which allow for an efficient use of the available funds are developed. Finally the evaluation method is applied to a number of former projects and the calculated results are analysed with respect to shortcomings and limitations of the model. It is found that the developed methodology can provide a tool for a more objective and comprehensible evaluation of waste prevention measures

238

Home treatment of patients with small to medium sized acute pulmonary embolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) are still treated as inpatients. This is a retrospective cohort study of patients with acute PE, diagnosed using V/P SPECT between 2007 and 2011. Patients were treated at home if they were hemodynamically stable, did not require oxygen or parenteral analgetics, had no contraindications to anticoagulant treatment and V/P SPECT showed an extension of the PE of less than 40 %. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of home treatment with our algorithm. During the study period 416 outpatients were diagnosed with acute symptomatic PE of whom in total 260 (62.5 %) were discharged home from the emergency unit and another 47 (11 %) within 24 h from admission. During 3 months follow-up one (0.3 %) patient had a recurrent thrombotic event. Eleven (3.6 %) patients had a major or clinically relevant bleed and the overall mortality was 2 % (n = 6). There were no PE-related mortality. Home treatment should be considered and is safe in the majority of hemodynamically stable outpatients with small to medium size PE, quantified using V/P SPECT. PMID:24942995

Elf, J E; Jögi, J; Bajc, M

2015-02-01

239

Adaptive Traffic Control Systems in a medium-sized Scandinavian city : – effects and experiences  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Adaptive Traffic Control Systems (ATCS) are aimed at reducing congestion. ATCS adapt to approaching traffic to continuously optimise the traffic flows in question. ATCS have been implemented in many locations, including the Scandinavian countries, with various effects. Due to congestion problems, ATCS were installed in the eight signalised intersections of a 1.7 km stretch of the ring road in the medium-sized Danish city of Aalborg. To measure the effect of ATCS a with/without study was carried out. GPS data from a car following the traffic, recorded transportation times for buses in service, and GPS data from a range of cars driving on the ring road formed the basis for the study. The result of ATCS implementation was a significant 17% reduction in transportation time on the ring road in the most congested period, the afternoon peak. Less significant effects were found regarding the morning peak and midday off-peak. The effect on crossing and turning traffic was slight, and while reduced transportation time was found in one part of the ring road in another part transportation time was seen to increase. The benefit to the ring road was partly gained at the cost of slightly increased transportation time for crossing traffic.

Agerholm, Niels; Olesen, Anne Vingaard

2014-01-01

240

TELICS—A Telescope Instrument Control System for Small/Medium Sized Astronomical Observatories  

Science.gov (United States)

For any modern astronomical observatory, it is essential to have an efficient interface between the telescope and its back-end instruments. However, for small and medium-sized observatories, this requirement is often limited by tight financial constraints. Therefore a simple yet versatile and low-cost control system is required for such observatories to minimize cost and effort. Here we report the development of a modern, multipurpose instrument control system TELICS (Telescope Instrument Control System) to integrate the controls of various instruments and devices mounted on the telescope. TELICS consists of an embedded hardware unit known as a common control unit (CCU) in combination with Linux-based data acquisition and user interface. The hardware of the CCU is built around the ATmega 128 microcontroller (Atmel Corp.) and is designed with a backplane, master-slave architecture. A Qt-based graphical user interface (GUI) has been developed and the back-end application software is based on C/C++. TELICS provides feedback mechanisms that give the operator good visibility and a quick-look display of the status and modes of instruments as well as data. TELICS has been used for regular science observations since 2008 March on the 2 m, f/10 IUCAA Telescope located at Girawali in Pune, India.

Srivastava, Mudit K.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Burse, Mahesh P.; Chordia, Pravin A.; Chillal, Kalpesh S.; Mestry, Vilas B.; Das, Hillol K.; Kohok, Abhay A.

2009-10-01

241

THE IFRS STANDARD FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTITIES – ANOTHER CHALLENGE FOR THE ROMANIAN ACCOUNTING?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the early 2000s, the accounting has been connected to the international realities. From that moment on, we have witnessed an extraordinary dynamic of the Romanian accounting, evidenced by the many changes that have occurred in the accounting rules. Internationally, the dynamism is also the main feature of today's accounting. We witness almost annually the reconsideration of the international accounting referential. In this context of the frequent changes that occur in the accounting aria, the IASB launched the International Financial Reporting Standards for Non-Publicly Accountable Entities (formerly Small and Medium-Sized Entities, a controversial approach in the international accounting. The objectives of this paper will be followed on two levels: first, we will put forth the position of different countries on this IASB initiative and second, we will show, by the means of a positive research based on an empirical study, the attitudes of professional accountants in Romania towards the possible implementation of the IFRS for NPAEs in the Romanian accounting in the next period.

Adriana Florina POPA

2009-01-01

242

Conceptual design of synchrotron light source of medium size and high performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Medium size and high performance synchrotron light source is designed to make a center of synchrotron radiation in the area of many users. About 8nm-rad low emittance is realized by 1.8GeV beam energy and 160cm circumference by combined-function type bending electromagnet and non-achromatic electron beam optics. We secured 10 lines of 6m straight sections were able to set 5m undulator and 10 lines of 1.6m straight sections could set short undulator and multipole wiggler. Dynamic aperture is large. Five straight sections are used by operation, for examples, injection, beam control and rf acceleration. Fifteen lines are used by insertion devices. The highest level vacuum ultraviolet and soft X-ray high brilliance light source are produced by 7 lines of 5m class undulators. High flux X-ray light source covered until 30keV is realized by 5 multipole wigglers with 1m length and 2T magnetic field. 1m in-vacuum short period undulator generates high brilliance undulator light in the soft X-ray field. (S.Y.)

243

Design concepts and safety concerns of the small and medium size reactors (SMR)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The small and medium size reactors (SMR) and interface facilities such as desalination plant are expected to be located near the population area because of restrictions in transporting the plant products such as fresh water to long distance area. To protect the public around the plant facility from the possible release of radioactive materials, the design development of the SMR is focusing on an enhancement of the safety and reliability as well as the economics. In this study, the major safety concepts of the SMR designs significantly different from the current PWR designs are investigated and the safety concerns applicable to the integrated SMR design of Korea (called SMART), were identified. Those safety issues include the use of proven technology, application of strengthening defense in depth, event categorization and selection, simplification of emergency planning, determination of accident source terms and so on. The efforts to resolve the safety concerns in the design stage will provide an improvement of the safety of the SMART design

244

Model of Thai Small and Medium Sized Enterprises’ Organizational Capabilities: Review and Verification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In today’s competitive environment, small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs must focus on strengthening their organizational capabilities, considered to be a vital ingredient for building firms’ competitiveness. A number of factors may be deemed to be the drivers of organizational capabilities. Thus, this study was aimed at investigating and discussing those dimensions and their elements associated with organizational capabilities. The review of the literature indicates that the fundamental approach to build organizational capabilities rest heavily on organizational resources, organizational architecture, and organizational quality. The initial model was developed and proposed. Then, in-depth interviews with twenty Thai SMEs were carried out to verify the proposed model. Based on the in-depth interview results, key modifications were made to adjust the model and make it more practical. Financial resource, marketing resource, operational resource, and human resource are considered to be key elements of organizational resources whereas planning system, information system, compensation system, empowerment structure, learning culture, and teamwork culture are deemed to be key elements of organizational architecture. Finally, quality of the company and quality of products or services are believed to be key elements of organizational quality. Firms who can effectively and efficiently manage these elements of organizational capabilities will be able to compete and succeed in the market in the long run. 

Apicha Boonpattarakan

2012-04-01

245

Manage Projects Smarter: Picking Tools for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs are increasingly dealing with international projects and distributed (sometimes even virtual teams. Consequently, they are looking for project management (PM tools which fit their respective needs regarding communication and collaboration. Unfortunately, the majority of the PM software available in the market seems to be oversized for this purpose. Instead most project managers are requesting smart solutions that allow quick implementation without any significant organisational or technical change. Within the research project InterComp SME 2.0 we combine theoretical research and real business to develop hands-on solutions for SMEs. This paper describes an effective approach for a “PM Toolbox” that allows finding the right project tool for a specific project need. The toolbox has been developed in due consideration of user stories gained from business practice, a more detailed SME business survey, a theoretical PM meta model and a market of PM tools. Since the business survey revealed that the readiness to use and test a “toolbox” is highly dependent on the type of user and his or her technical background, we designed the system based on use cases and user typology. As a result, we suggest a framework of open, freely available, easy-to-install, single and multi purpose PM software tools which can be selected solely on a need basis. With this free platform we want to guide practitioners through the tool jungle with the potential to grow into a lively community.

Stefanie Quade

2012-08-01

246

Design features to achieve defence-in-depth in small and medium sized reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to the categorization adopted by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), small and medium sized reactors are those with the equivalent electric output less than 700 MW. In most of the cases, deployment potential of SMRs is supported by their ability to fill niches in which they would address market situations different from those of currently operated large-capacity nuclear power plants. Ensuring adequate defence-in-depth (DID) is important for reactors of smaller output because many of them are being designed to allow more proximity to the user, specifically, when non-electrical energy products are targeted. Based on the activities recently performed by IAEA, the paper provides a summary description of the design features used to achieve DID in the eleven representative concepts of SMRs. The SMRs considered included reactors of different types - pressurized water reactors, pressurized boiling light water cooled heavy water moderated reactors, high temperature gas cooled reactors, fast reactors,and non conventional very high temperature designs. The design descriptions were structured to follow the definitions and recommendations of the IAEA safety standardNS-R-1 'Safety of the Nuclear Power Plants: Design Requirements'. The focus of this paper would be on sodium cooled and lead cooled fast reactors -the 4S-LMR (Japan) and the SSTAR and the STAR-LM (USA)

247

Service Pyramid Concept of Knowledge Intensive Business Services in the Small and Medium Sized Enterprises Sector  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The activity of service companies is more complex today than before the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT became widespread in business. Fewer service companies can be found on the market based solely on physical customer interaction; however, they have been replaced with standardized and automated services. This structural change can be observed particularly among Knowledge Intensive Business Services (KIBS companies where the use of ICT is not simply a market requirement, but a competition tool, as well. Without the application of any ICT instrument, a KIBS company could not meet market expectations, and furthermore, business developments are mainly ICT-based. On the other hand, companies need to develop their businesses more and more, as KIBS companies which are not able to differentiate themselves as trustworthy on the business services market will disappear. ‘Just another business service company’ cannot really sell today. This is applicable to a greater extent to Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SME, where ICT has opened market opportunities that have never existed for them before. The aim of this paper is to highlight the new features of KIBS business activities in the SME sector and the related research questions.

Sándor Nagy

2013-12-01

248

Signaling from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in striatal medium-sized spiny neurons  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Striatal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs receive massive glutamate inputs from the cerebral cortex and thalamus and are a major target of dopamine projections. Interaction between glutamate and dopamine signaling is crucial for the control of movement and reward-driven learning, and its alterations are implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders including Parkinson’s disease and drug addiction. Long-lasting forms of synaptic plasticity are thought to depend on transcription of gene products that alter the structure and/or function of neurons. Although multiple signal transduction pathways regulate transcription, little is known about signal transmission between the cytoplasm and the nucleus of striatal neurons and its regulation. Here we review the current knowledge of the signaling cascades that target the nucleus of MSNs, most of which are activated by cAMP and/or Ca2+. We outline the mechanisms by which signals originating at the plasma membrane and amplified in the cytoplasm are relayed to the nucleus, through the regulation of several protein kinases and phosphatases and transport through the nuclear pore. We also summarize the identified mechanisms of transcription regulation and chromatin remodeling in MSNs that appear to be important for behavioral adaptations, and discuss their relationships with epigenetic regulation.

Jean-AntoineGirault

2011-07-01

249

Determinants of the capital structure of small and medium sized Brazilian enterprises  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This research investigates the determinants of the capital structure of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) using a unique database that includes over 19,000 Brazilian firms and spans 13 years of data. The econometric analysis employs the System Generalized Method of Moments estimator (GMM-Sys) and [...] two strong results emerge: (a) profitability is negatively related to leverage, and (b) asset growth is positively related to leverage. Both results are consistent with the pecking order theory of capital structure and suggest that SMEs tend to finance their expansion with debt only after exhausting their internal resources. Additionally, we find weaker evidence for the following: (a) size is positively related to leverage, which can be interpreted as evidence that larger firms have more access to credit markets; (b) riskier SMEs tend to be less financially leveraged, consistent with the bankruptcy cost arguments from trade-off theories; and (c) the age of the firm is negatively related to financial leverage, suggesting that older SMEs may be slightly more conservative in their financing choices. Finally, the magnitude of the coefficient of lagged leverage shows the high persistence of this variable and is compatible with the hypothesis that SMEs adjust their debt/equity ratio towards a target value, although at a low speed.

Denis, Forte; Lucas Ayres, Barros; Wilson Toshiro, Nakamura.

2013-09-01

250

Microfinance: Diagnosis of the micro-business, medium-sized business and its financial technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research work shows how the financing for micro and small businesses in Peru has increased and has greatlyexpanded in the last few years, not only in institutions specialized in this field, focused their efforts in giving financialservices to businesspeople of micro and medium-sized business, but most of the so-called traditional banks havefocused their attention to this emerging sector using the know-how of microfinance lending technology, banking seekto work with people of low income sectors, that were not subject for credit opportunities to develop their business andas a consequence not able to improve their quality of life .Throughout this investigation, we make a diagnosis of macro and micro environment of the microfinance field, itsdevelopment and expectations for a strong presence in the Peruvian financial market. We consider the development oflending technology, where the analysis of the ability and willingness to pay are the fundamental basis for the evaluationof credits in specialized companies in this sector.

Emerson Toledo Concha

2009-12-01

251

The CTA medium size telescope prototype, a test bench for the array control software  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

CTA (Cherenkov Telescope Array) will be the largest ground-based gamma-ray observatory ever built. Two arrays are foreseen to be build, one in the Southern and one in the Northern hemisphere. A prototype for the Medium Size Telescope (MST) type (diameter: 12 m) will be installed in Berlin in early 2012. This MST prototype will be composed of the mechanical structure, drive system and mirror facets with an active mirror control system. The stability of the mechanical structure will be investigated with CCD cameras and a weather station. Furthermore the ALMA Common Software (ACS) distributed control framework will used as readout and control system for the MST, allowing to evaluate the software with the future use for the whole CTA array in mind. The design of the control software is following the concepts and tools under evaluation within the CTA consortium, like the use of a UML based code generation framework for ACS component modeling, and the use of OPC Unified Architecture (OPC UA) for hardware access. In this contribution the progress in the implementation of the control system for this CTA prototype telescope is described.

Birsin, Emrah; Oya, Igor; Schwanke, Ullrich [Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin (Germany); Behera, Bagmeet; Koeppel, Hendryk; Melkumyan, David; Schmidt, Torsten; Wegner, Peter; Wiesand, Stephan; Winde, Michael [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Zeuthen (Germany)

2012-07-01

252

Medium-sized grazing incidence high-energy X-ray telescopes employing continuously graded multilayers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The authors present a concept of continuously graded multilayer structures for medium-sized X-ray telescopes which is based on several material combinations. They show that the theoretical reflectivity characteristics of these structures make them very advantageous when applied to high energy X-ray grazing incidence telescopes. They consider the performance of continuously graded Ni/C multilayers in a multi-focus, Kirkpatrick-Baez, geometry and show a significant improvement when compared to standard coatings of gold. For a total length of 3.3 m, a total aperture of 48 cm by 48 cm and 64 foci, an effective area of 250 cm2 at 60 keV and a FWHM field of view of 6' is obtained. It is shown that a modular array of conical telescopes (conical approximation to a Wolter-I geometry), with the same length and aperture provides similar effective areas. Energy-dispersive X-ray reflectivity data (15-70 keV) is presented for the first continuously graded multilayer of this kind

Joensen, K. D.; Christensen, Finn Erland

1993-01-01

253

Pointing Calibration for the Cherenkov Telescope Array Medium Size Telescope Prototype  

CERN Document Server

Pointing calibration is an offline correction applied in order to obtain the true pointing direction of a telescope. The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) aims to have the precision to determine the position of point-like as well as slightly extended sources, with the goal of systematic errors less than 7 arc seconds in space angle. This poster describes the pointing calibration concept being developed for the CTA Medium Size Telescope (MST) prototype at Berlin-Adlershof, showing test results and preliminary measurements. The MST pointing calibration method uses two CCD cameras, mounted on the telescope dish, to determine the true pointing of the telescope. The "Lid CCD" is aligned to the optical axis of the telescope, calibrated with LEDs on the dummy gamma-camera lid; the "Sky CCD" is pre-aligned to the Lid CCD and the transformation between the Sky and Lid CCD camera fields of view is precisely modelled with images from special pointing runs which are also used to determine the pointing model. During source ...

Oakes, Louise; Baehr, Juergen; Gruenewald, Sandra; Raeck, Tobias; Schlenstedt, Stefan; Schubert, Anja; Schwanke, Ullrich

2013-01-01

254

Open Model for the Evaluation of Economic Attractiveness of Small and Medium Sized Reactors. Annex VI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This annex describes the development of an open model for simulation and evaluation of the economic features of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs), being undertaken by the Politecnico di Milano in Italy. The model aims at establishing a comparative assessment of SMRs versus large reactors (LRs) as its final output. The model will allow assessment of the competitiveness of SMRs under different deployment and application conditions. The distinctive attributes of SMRs such as replication, scalability, reversibility and standardization are briefly described below. The features of SMRs impacting the domains of generation costs (co-siting economies, learning economies, technical economies, mass production and factory fabrication economies), deployment conditions (market matching, market suitability, reduced entry barriers) and financial costs (lower financial distress, reduced risk premium) are addressed before explaining the model architecture. Other state of the art models in this regard are also discussed, along with their respective attributes. The special features of the SMR model being developed are discussed. At the current stage of research, selected elements of the generation costs are modelled analytically. Provisions for adapting financial and external costs from other contemporary models and integrating the same into the main framework are being established. The model has been realized as a code, and the updated version of this code is used in the case studies of SMR competitiveness in different applications, carried out within the IAEA project Common Technology and Issues for SMRs

255

Experimental testing of centrifugal pump: small and medium sized enterprise product  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports the experimental testing for centrifugal pump for fisherman ship, manufactured by small and medium sized enterprises in Central Java Province, Indonesia. The research covers material analysis, component observation, endurance and vibration test. Six centrifugal pumps are tested and three main pump components are discussed: shaft, bearings and seals. The results show that the material of the shaft is predicted to support and transmit the load from the engine to impeller. The problem found in the tolerance and geometry accuracy of the shaft which causes difficulties during assembling process, excessive wear and leakage during testing. From the endurance and vibration test, the ball bearings fail and lock the shaft due to the fatigue on the rolling elements and raceways. The oil seal and water seal also fail in maintaining the oil and water in the chamber and induce the unlubricated system for the ball bearings. Some suggestions are delivered to improve the product quality of the centrifugal pump. A good quality of the centrifugal pump for fishermen ship and long life span is expected to be produced by local SMEs to win the free trade competition in the Indonesian market.

Ismail, R.; Paddiyatu, F.; Khafidh, M.; Nugroho, S.; Sugiyanto, S.; Jamari, J.

2014-06-01

256

ADVANTAGES OF CROWDFUNDING AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE OF FINANCING OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The lack of funding, and limited access to it are the basic problems faced by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. Given the great role and importance of SMEs in every national economy, any progress in solving these problems in terms of creating and finding alternative sources of funding should attract great attention in both professional and scientific and the wider socio-political communities. Crowdfunding is an innovative and relatively new concept that connects entrepreneurs and investors through the Internet. This method allows the entrepreneurs to collect funds through the Internet by "open invitation" to finance their projects/ventures and thus raise the necessary funds by relatively small contributions of a relatively large number of investors. As such, crowdfunding is a fast-growing model increasingly debated of in academic circles and the European institutions. This paper will consider crowdfunding as an alternative means of financing SMEs and try to give different aspects of crowdfunding - and explain how it works, what are the advantages of using it for SMEs and thus expand the knowledge on the topic.

Zorica Goli?

2014-08-01

257

Sustainability indices as a tool for urban managers, evidence from four medium-sized Chinese cities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research in four medium-sized Chinese cities aims at measuring urban sustainability in China and focuses on three issues. First, the situation in these four cities with regard to urban sustainability is evaluated. Secondly, a number of relations between different aspects of urban sustainability is explored. Finally, it is indicated how urban managers can improve with sustainability indices as tools currently ineffective urban management practices. Although all four cities are moving towards sustainable development, the current situation shows still weak sustainability in three, and even non-sustainability in one city. The social and, in particular, the economic dimensions of urban sustainability make significant positive contributions to overall urban sustainability. However, the decline of natural resources and environmental degradation are influencing it negatively. It is therefore suggested that more priority should be assigned to urban environmental protection and management in China. The fundamental reason for environmental degradation is believed to be inefficient urban management. To implement effective urban management in China, there is an urgent need to redefine the role of local government, reform local organizational structure, enhance local participatory institutional capacity, properly distribute the urban welfare, and thus integrate economic, social and environmental objectives local strategic and action plansans

258

Improved Continuing Losses Estimation Using Initial Loss-Continuing Loss Model for Medium Sized Rural Catchments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The rainfall based design flood estimation techniques are commonly adopted in hydrological design and require a number of inputs including information on soil loss characteristics. Approach: A conceptual loss model known as the ?Initial Loss-Continuing Loss (IL-CL model? is widely used in Australia. Results: The Initial Loss (IL occurs at the beginning of the rainfall event, prior to the commencement of surface runoff and the Continuing Loss (CL is the average rate of loss throughout the remainder of the storm. The currently recommended design loss values depicted in ?Australian Rainfall and Runoff Vol. 1? for Queensland (Australia has some basic limitations. This study investigated how more accurate CL values can be estimated and derived for medium sized tropical Queensland catchments using long term rainfall and streamflow data. Accuracy in CL estimation has got significant implications in the estimation of design floods. Conclusion/Recommendations: The results showed that CL value is not fixed and constant through out the duration of the storm but the CL value decays with the duration of the storm.

Mahbub Ilahee

2009-01-01

259

Information Technology Adoption in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises; An Appraisal of Two Decades Literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs account for major source of employment, technological advancements, and competitive advantages for both developed and developing countries. Owing to the intensified competitive pressure and necessity for entering to global market undergone by SMEs, these businesses are incrementally employing Information Technology (IT to take advantage of its substantial benefits. Most of prior researches have more focused on IT adoption in large organizations. However, and with regard to the limited resources controlled by SMEs, the process of IT adoption in this business sector is considerably different. The purpose of this paper is to analyze and contrast the internal and external issues affecting the process of IT adoption in SMEs to provide clearer understanding of this process by reviewing IT adoption literature, which includes more than 20 years of empirical research and case studies from a variety of databases with high concentration on certain SME-related issues. Proposed integrated framework demonstrates the process of IT adoption in SMEs through reviewing exiting perspectives in the literature. This study will assist different parties involved with adoption process including managers, vendors, consultants, and governments to achieve a practical synopsis of the IT adoption process in SMEs, which is believed to assist them with successful adoption.

Morteza Ghobakhloo

2011-10-01

260

The administration and the environmental behavior of the small and medium industrial companies: The case of a city of Argentina  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present article approaches the subject of the management and the environmental behavior in the industrial activity, especially in the small and medium companies, a city of Argentina. It is considers that the environmentalist strategies can be a possible exit to the socioeconomic and environmental crisis, but single for the great companies; since the rest of the companies presents/displays serious difficulties (economic, social, psychological, etc.) in order to initiate a sustainable industrial development

261

Effects of Socio-Cultural Realities on the Nigerian Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs: Case of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Lagos State  

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Full Text Available Socio-cultural realities are importance components in the Nigerian business environment. There is a shortage ofliterature and studies that linked socio-cultural realities to business development and performance.Small-Medium Enterprises (SMEs constitutes over 70 per cent of the Nigerian businesses and characteristicallyinformal. The objectives of this paper are in two-folds, namely (i identify socio-cultural realities in the SMEbusiness environment in Nigeria and; (ii examine the impact of these factors (in i on the development of SMEs.Socio-cultural realities were measured from three major factors, namely attitude; religion and values: each ofthis factor were further categorised into several level of constructs. Responses from ten (10 SMEowners/representatives in the five (5 major districts of Lagos state identified the socio-cultural realities as keyfactors affecting their businesses. A further research is recommended to further establish whether these resultsreflect the general condition in other states of Nigeria.

Felicia O. Johnson

2013-12-01

262

Distribution and compartmental organization of GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons in the mouse nucleus accumbens.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a critical brain region involved in many reward-related behaviors. The NAc comprises major compartments the core and the shell, which encompass several subterritories. GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) constitute the output neurons of the NAc core and shell. While the functional organization of the NAc core outputs resembles the one described for the dorsal striatum, a simple classification of the NAc shell neurons has been difficult to define due to the complexity of the compartmental segregation of cells. We used a variety of BAC transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescence (EGFP) or the Cre-recombinase (Cre) under the control of the promoter of dopamine D1, D2, and D3 receptors and of adenosine A2a receptor to dissect the microanatomy of the NAc. Moreover, using various immunological markers we characterized in detail the distribution of MSNs in the mouse NAc. In addition, cell-type specific extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation in the NAc subterritories was analyzed following acute administration of SKF81297 (a D1R-like agonist), quinpirole (a D2 receptors (D2R)-like agonist), apomorphine (a non-selective DA receptor agonist), raclopride (a D2R-like antagonist), and psychostimulant drugs, including cocaine and d-amphetamine. Each drug generated a unique topography and cell-type specific activation of ERK in the NAc. Our results show the existence of marked differences in the receptor expression pattern and functional activation of MSNs within the shell subterritories. This study emphasizes the anatomical and functional heterogeneity of the NAc, which will have to be considered in its further study. PMID:23423476

Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Espallergues, Julie; de Kerchove d'Exaerde, Alban; El Mestikawy, Salah; Gerfen, Charles R; Hervé, Denis; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Valjent, Emmanuel

2013-01-01

263

THE PREMISES OF STRATEGIC MARKETING PLANNING IMPLEMENTATION WITHIN SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES  

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Full Text Available The main purpose of the present paper is to identify the framework and the necessary conditions for the small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs to be able to adopt the strategic marketing planning. Also, the paper aims to underline the importance of the strategic marketing planning and the manner in which the SMEs can adopt, implement and operationalize the strategic marketing planning instruments, whose correct understanding and usage ensure the capacity to generate competitive advantage, the key element both from the perspective of the fierce competition and the perspective of the future development of the SMEs. Within SMEs the implementation of marketing becomes an evident requirment, mostly due to the relationship that these have with the market, thus, leading towards market orientation of the activities, a new approach developed by the marketing vision on managing the activities from these types of organizations. Regarded upon, from the marketing perspective, the activities from the SMEs, especially the marketing activities, cannot take place randomly. Resource allocation, a characteristic of these types of organizations, and the objectives with regards to superior customer needs satisfaction and economic efficiency maximization, claim thorough plannification and deployment of the activities in a sequence that represents the implementation of a strategy previously assumed. Within this framework, the strategic marketing planning appears as a complex process employing all scientific instruments that comprise segmentation, positioning and marketing mix. Utilizing the strategic marketing planning within SMEs depends to further extend on marketing integration; process directly related with a series of factors such as the nature of the market, development stage, product type, management quality and the influences of the marketing department of the SME. The implications onto the marketing activities from SMEs are reflected upon each strategic marketing planning instrument, where we can find, under correct understanding and application, objectives and market and penetration strategies as product, price, distribution and promotion strategies.

Popescu Andrei

2011-07-01

264

Karyotypes of some medium-sized Dytiscidae (Agabinae and Colymbetinae (Coleoptera  

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Full Text Available An account is given of the karyotypes of 29 species of medium sized Dytiscidae (Coleoptera. Of the 20 species of Agabus Leach, 1817, 18 have karyotypes comprising 21 pairs of autosomes and sex chromosomes which are either X0(? or XX (?. These species are A. serricornis (Paykull, 1799, A. labiatus (Brahm, 1791, A. congener (Thunberg, 1794, A. lapponicus (Thomson, 1867, A. thomsoni (J. Sahlberg, 1871, A. confinis (Gyllenhal, 1808, A. sturmii (Gyllenhal, 1808, A. bipustulatus (Linnaeus, 1767, A. nevadensis Håkan Lindberg, 1939, A. wollastoni Sharp, 1882, A. melanarius Aubé, 1837, A. biguttatus (Olivier, 1795, A. binotatus Aubé, 1837, A. affinis (Paykull, 1798, A. unguicularis (Thomson, 1867, A. ramblae Millan & Ribera, 2001, A. conspersus (Marsham, 1802 and A. nebulosus (Forster, 1771. However two species, A. infuscatus Aubé, 1838 and A. adpressus Aubé, 1837, have developed a neo-XY system, with karyotypes comprising 21 pairs of autosomes and XY sex chromosomes (?. No chromosomal differences have been detected between typical A. bipustulatus and A. bipustulatus var. solieri Aubé, 1837, nor have any been found between the three species of the A. bipustulatus complex (A. bipustulatus, A. nevadensis and A. wollastoni. The four species of Colymbetes Clairville, 1806, C. fuscus (Linnaeus, 1758, C. paykulli Erichson, 1837, C. piceus Klug, 1834 and C. striatus (Linnaeus, 1758 have karyotypes comprising 20 pairs of autosomes and sex chromosomes which are X0 (?, XX (?. Two of the species of Rhantus Dejean, 1833, R. exsoletus (Forster, 1771 and R. suturellus (Harris, 1828 have karyotypes comprising 20 pairs of autosomes and X0/XX sex chromosomes, but the other three species, R. grapii (Gyllenhal, 1808, R. frontalis (Marsham, 1802 and R. suturalis (Macleay, 1825 have 22 pairs of autosomes and X0/XX sex chromosomes. Agabus congener and Rhantus suturellus may have one B-chromosome. Nine of the species have previously published karyotype data but for seven of these the data are wrong and are here corrected.

Robert Angus

2013-06-01

265

Temperature and relative humidity distributions in a medium-size administrative town in southwest Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was carried out in one of the medium-sized public administrative towns in the southwestern part of Nigeria. Its aim is to highlight the effect of spatial distribution of settlements, population, and socio-economic activities on urban air temperature and humidity in the town. Temperature and relative humidity data from 1992 to 2001 were obtained from three meteorological stations in Akure, the Administrative Capital of Ondo State, Nigeria. The stations are located within the Federal Ministry of Aviation, Akure Airport (FMA), Federal University of Technology, Akure (FUTA) and Federal School of Agriculture (SOA). Air temperature and relative humidity measurements were also obtained from 27 points, which were cited to include road junctions, markets, built up areas, etc., using sling psychrometer. The data were subsequently analysed for spatial and temporal variations using statistical packages (SPSS and Microsoft Excel) and isolines. Actual vapour pressure and dew point temperature were computed using Magnus conversion formulae. The results obtained showed that spatial variation was insignificant, in terms of the temperature and humidity variables. The annual mean temperature (Tmean) ranged between 21.9 and 30.4 degrees C while minimum (Tmin) and maximum (Tmax) temperatures varied from 13 to 26 and 21.5-39.6 degrees C, respectively. Relative humidity (RH), actual vapour pressure (Es) and dew point temperature (Td) values also varied from 39.1% to 98.2%, 19.7-20.8 gm(-3), and 17.3-17.8 degrees C, respectively. A significant relationship (p>0.6; r<0.05) between Tmin, Es and Td was observed while the daytime 'urban heat island' intensity (UHI) ranged between 0.5 and 2.5 degrees C within the study period. The study concluded that there is influence of urban canopy on the microclimate of Akure, and hypothesizes that the urban dwellers may be subjected to some levels of weather related physiological disorderliness. PMID:17482750

Akinbode, O M; Eludoyin, A O; Fashae, O A

2008-04-01

266

Distribution and compartmental organization of GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons in the mouse Nucleus Accumbens  

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Full Text Available The nucleus accumbens (NAc is a critical brain region involved in many reward-related behaviors. The NAc comprises major compartments the core and the shell, which encompass several subterritories. GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs constitute the output neurons of the NAc core and shell. While the functional organization of the NAc core outputs resembles the one described for the dorsal striatum, a simple classification of the NAc shell neurons has been difficult to define due to the complexity of the compartmental segregation of cells. We used a variety of BAC transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescence (EGFP or the Cre-recombinase (Cre under the control of the promoter of dopamine D1, D2, and D3 receptors and of adenosine A2a receptor to dissect the microanatomy of the NAc. Moreover, using various immunological markers we characterized in detail the distribution of MSNs in the mouse NAc. In addition, cell-type specific ERK phosphorylation in the NAc subterritories was analyzed following acute administration of SKF81297 (a D1R-like agonist, quinpirole (a D2R-like agonist, apomorphine (a non-selective DA receptor agonist, raclopride (a D2R-like antagonist, and psychostimulant drugs, including cocaine and d-amphetamine. Each drug generated a unique topography and cell-type specific activation of ERK in the NAc. Our results show the existence of marked differences in the receptor expression pattern and functional activation of MSNs within the shell subterritories. This study emphasizes the anatomical and functional heterogeneity of the NAc, which will have to be considered in its further study.

GiuseppeGangarossa

2013-02-01

267

Deciphering the presence of wastewater in a medium-sized Mediterranean catchment using a multitracer approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The impact of wastewater disposal on the water resource in a medium-sized Mediterranean watershed, the Herault River basin, has been studied using a multitracer approach including NO3-,Cl-,B concentrations and the Gd anomaly. The Herault watershed supplies drinking water to approximately 300,000 inhabitants and receives the effluents of 96 sewage treatment plants. The geological context is heterogeneous with 4 main lithologies: a Palaeozoic basement in the north, a karstified Mesozoic cover in the middle, an evaporite layer in the western part of the basin and alluvial deposits in the southern plain. The concentration of major (Ca2+,Cl-,NO3-) and trace elements (B, Sr and rare earth elements) has been monitored in streams, aquifers and sewage treatment plant effluents. Because of the particularly heterogeneous and rich geological context of the Herault basin, the challenge of using NO3-,Cl-andB as wastewater tracers was to distinguish their natural and anthropogenic origins. Indeed, none of these wastewater borne elements can be considered as a highly reliable tracer by itself because they are ubiquitous in water where they can be supplied by both natural (evaporite dissolution, rainfall) and anthropogenic sources (wastewater or agriculture). However, the respective contributions of different sources of candidate tracers, NO3-,Cl-3-,Cl-andB could be roughly assessed using Sr/Ca, B/Sr and Cl-/B ratios which, combined with the information provided by each tracer, allowed the ascertainment of the presence of wastewater in two tributaries of the Herault River and in a few wells tapped for drinking water in the alluvial plain

268

Bioluminescence imaging in a medium-sized animal by local injection of d-luciferin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Luciferase is one of the most commonly used reporter enzymes in the field of molecular imaging. D-luciferin is known as the substrate for luciferase enzyme and its cost is very expensive. Therefore, the bioluminescence molecular imaging study has been allowed in small animals such as mice and rats. In this current study, we validated local injection of D-luciferin in articular capsule for bioluminescence imaging in rabbits. Chondrocytes were cultured and infected by replication-defective adenoviral vector encoding firefly luciferase. And then was performed different method of chondrocyte cell injection and transplantation into the knee of rabbits. The rabbits underwent imaging by cooled CCD camera after local injection of D-luciferin (3mg) into experimental knee joint as well as contralateral normal knee joint on days 1, 5, 7, 9. We sought whether optimal imaging signal was acquired by using cooled CCD camera after local injection of D-luciferin. We successfully visualized injected or transplanted cells in knee joint by local injection of D-luciferin. Total photon flux (7.86E+08 p/s/cm2/sr) from the knee joint transplanted with cells approximately increased 10-fold more than (9.43E+07p/s/cm2/sr) that from injected knee joints until 7 day. Imaging signal was observed in transplanted joints until day 9 after surgery while signal from injected knee was observed by day 7 after injection. We successfully carried out bioluminescence imaging study with ed out bioluminescence imaging study with medium sized animal by local injection of small amount of D-luciferin. Survival of chondrocytes were prolonged when surgically transplanted in joints than when directly injected in joint space

269

Innovation in Food and Health: Study Into Challenges and Opportunities for Dutch Small and Medium Sized Enterprises  

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Full Text Available This article focuses on the opportunities and challenges Dutch Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SMEs in the food and beverage industry are facing with respect to innovation in food and health. An online questionnaire was developed to give an overview on attitudes and activities of SMEs with respect to innovation; their interest in trends, among which were health and wellbeing; and their view on logos as a possible way of communication. The questionnaire was held May 2011 with a response of n = 110. Results show that innovation is important for SMEs: over 80% of the SMEs are innovating in products and over 60% in processes. The most appealing trends are: Health and wellbeing, ‘Puur en Eerlijk’ (Note 1 and sustainability. Of the SMEs 70-80% indicate to have a current, and 85% a future interest in these trends. Furthermore 43% used the health logo on part of their product portfolio. Logos that communicate health and sustainability are most popular; 23% of the SMEs indicated not to be interested in the use of logos in general. In conclusion, the identified opportunities for innovation in food and health are: a large willingness to innovate and the increasing interest in the already appealing trend of nutrition and health. There is a moderate interest in (health logos. Challenges are time, costs, knowledge on innovation in general and lack of specific knowledge on nutrition and health, and unclarities around use and added value (informative and increasing sales of logos. Also, taste is considered as important as health and cannot be compromised.

Joop Vree-van Straten

2013-11-01

270

Potential role of the Romanian research and industry on the small and medium reactors market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The need of diversifying the energy sources, independence from foreign supplies and modernization of economy have constituted the major factors in implementation of nuclear energy in Romania. The choice of the heavy water reactor CANDU-600 was made on grounds of advanced safety features, proven efficient economic operation as well as on the technologic feasibility for manufacturing of components, equipment, instrumentation, heavy water and natural uranium fuel in Romania. Unlike turn-key acquisition approaches, the Romanian option provided an active national participation in construction the Cernavoda NPP. As consequence, important support was being given to development of the industries involved in the nuclear fuel cycle, manufacturing of equipment and nuclear materials, construction-montage, engineering, consulting, services, etc. This was done based on technology transfer, implementation of advanced design and execution standards, quality assurance procedures and modern nuclear safety requirements at international level. The efforts materialized in an important national participation in the construction of the Cernavoda NPP and all related programs are successful. Now, Romanian firms are also involved in supplying components, equipment and services to NPP's in other eastern and central Europeans countries. The paper presents the achievements of the Romanian economy in this field and the effort of the Romanian companies on the small and medium power reactors market. Lists with main R and D institutes, nuclear fuel cycle facilities as well as potential equipment suppliers are attached. (author)

271

Application of Medium Pressure UV Lamp for Wastewater Disinfection of Milk Production Industry  

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Full Text Available UV disinfect ion has gained widespread use for municipal wastewater and more recently, interest in using UV for water reuse applications has increased too. Medium pressure lamp has emerged as a viable alternative and is beginning to gain more popularity than the conventional low-pressure lamps. This study has been performed with the objective of utilizing MP lamp for the disinfection stage of wastewater from a milk industry. The lab-scale UV submerged system used in the experiments was a single-lamp reactor with 3 L volume, which was operated at two contact times. Two MP lamps of 300 and 400 W had been used separately. Results indicated that for disinfection of all the samples with different %T, meeting the goal of 1000 MPN /100 mL or less was always possible. Besides, for 95% of these samples, the MPN of irradiated effluents had reached to less than 240/100 mL. Another conclusion is that by use of 400 W lamp, all the samples are well disinfected to 100 total coli forms or less per 100 mL and so are become ready for most applications of water reuse programs.

H. Kamani

2006-01-01

272

Are the determinants of markup size industry-specific? The case of Slovenian manufacturing firms  

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Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify factors that affect the pricing policy in Slovenian manufacturing firms in terms of the markup size and, most of all, to explicitly account for the possibility of differences in pricing procedures among manufacturing industries. Accordingly, the analysis of the dynamic panel is carried out on an industry-by-industry basis, allowing the coefficients on the markup determinants to vary across industries. We find that the oligopoly theory of markup determination for the most part holds for the manufacturing sector as a whole, although large variability in markup determinants exists across industries within the Slovenian manufacturing. Our main conclusion is that each industry should be investigated separately in detail in order to assess the precise role of markup factors in the markup-determination process.

Ponikvar Nina

2011-01-01

273

Optimization as investment decision support in a Swedish medium-sized iron foundry - A move beyond traditional energy auditing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to increased globalisation, industries are facing greater competition that is pressing companies into decreasing their expenses in order to increase their profits. As regards Swedish industry, it has been faced with substantial increases in energy prices in recent years. Barriers to energy efficiency such as imperfect information inhibit investments in energy efficiency measures, energy audits being one means of reducing barriers and overcoming imperfect information. However, an evaluation of such energy audits in Sweden reveals that it is chiefly low-cost measures that are undertaken as a result of an audit. Moreover, these audits often tend to focus on support processes such as ventilation, lighting, air compressors etc., while measures impacting production processes are often not as extensively covered, which underlines the need for further support in addition to energy audits. Decision support is practised in a variety of different disciplines such as optimization and simulation and the aim of this paper is to explore whether investment decision support practices may be used successfully towards small and medium-sized manufacturers in Sweden when complex production-related investment decisions are taken. The optimization results from the different cases, involving a foundry's investment in a new melting unit, indicate that with no electricity price fluctuations over the day, the investment seems sound as it lowers the overall energy costs. However, with fluctuoverall energy costs. However, with fluctuating electricity prices, there are no large differences in energy costs between the option of retaining the existing five melting furnaces at the foundry and investing in a twin furnace and removing the holding furnaces - which was the initial investment plan for the foundry in the study. It would not have been possible to achieve this outcome without the use of investment decision support such as MIND. One of the main conclusions in this paper is that investment decision support, when strategic investment decisions are to be taken, may be a means of emphasising energy efficiency for energy-intensive SMEs beyond the level of traditional energy auditing. (author)

274

Optimization as investment decision support in a Swedish medium-sized iron foundry - A move beyond traditional energy auditing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to increased globalisation, industries are facing greater competition that is pressing companies into decreasing their expenses in order to increase their profits. As regards Swedish industry, it has been faced with substantial increases in energy prices in recent years. Barriers to energy efficiency such as imperfect information inhibit investments in energy efficiency measures, energy audits being one means of reducing barriers and overcoming imperfect information. However, an evaluation of such energy audits in Sweden reveals that it is chiefly low-cost measures that are undertaken as a result of an audit. Moreover, these audits often tend to focus on support processes such as ventilation, lighting, air compressors etc., while measures impacting production processes are often not as extensively covered, which underlines the need for further support in addition to energy audits. Decision support is practised in a variety of different disciplines such as optimization and simulation and the aim of this paper is to explore whether investment decision support practices may be used successfully towards small and medium-sized manufacturers in Sweden when complex production-related investment decisions are taken. The optimization results from the different cases, involving a foundry's investment in a new melting unit, indicate that with no electricity price fluctuations over the day, the investment seems sound as it lowers the overall energy costs. However, with fluctuoverall energy costs. However, with fluctuating electricity prices, there are no large differences in energy costs between the option of retaining the existing five melting furnaces at the foundry and investing in a twin furnace and removing the holding furnaces - which was the initial investment plan for the foundry in the study. It would not have been possible to achieve this outcome without the use of investment decision support such as MIND. One of the main conclusions in this paper is that investment decision support, when strategic investment decisions are to be taken, may be a means of emphasising energy efficiency for energy-intensive SMEs beyond the level of traditional energy auditing

275

NEW APPROACHES TO CUSTOMER BASE SEGMENTATION FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES  

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Full Text Available The primary purpose of this paper is to explore current praxis and theory related to customer segmentation and to offer an approach which is best suited for small and medium sized enterprises. The proposed solution is the result of an exploratory research aiming to recognize the main variables which influence the practice of segmenting the customer base and to study the most applied alternatives available for all types of enterprises. The research has been performed by studying a large set of secondary data, scientific literature and case studies regarding smaller companies from the European Union. The result of the research consists in an original approach to customer base segmentation, which combines aspects belonging to different well spread practices and applies them to the specific needs of a small or medium company, which typically has limited marketing resources in general and targeted marketing resources in particular. The significance of the proposed customer base segmentation approach lies in the fact that, even though smaller enterprises are in most economies the greatest in number compared to large companies, most of the literature on targeting practices has focused primarily on big companies dealing with a very large clientele, while the case of the smaller companies has been to some extent unfairly neglected. Targeted marketing is becoming more and more important for all types of companies nowadays, as a result of technology advances which make targeted communication easier and less expensive than in the past and also due to the fact that broad-based media have decreased their impact over the years. For a very large proportion of smaller companies, directing their marketing budgets towards targeted campaigns is a clever initiative, as broad based approaches are in many cases less effective and much more expensive. Targeted marketing stratagems are generally related to high tech domains such as artificial intelligence, data mining and marketing analytics and presuppose the availability of sophisticated computer software and specialized personnel. The methodology proposed in this paper takes into consideration the fact that, due to financial and time-related constrains, smaller companies need a more practical and straightforward solution for segmenting their customer base. The simplicity of the solution, however, should not come at the expense of its efficiency. The original contribution of this paper resides precisely in the fact that it aims to offer the best of two worlds: the simplicity and cost-effectiveness of plain methods which can be used without the aid of specialized software and the high return on investment given by the use of artificial intelligence algorithms such as clustering. The main implications of this paper relate to the fact that it draws attention to how targeted marketing can be performed successfully by companies with restricted budgets by providing an actionable set of guidelines which can be put into practice by smaller enterprises using limited efforts and resources.

Meleancă Raluca-Cristina

2012-12-01

276

The power of Alberta business : the impact of electricity deregulation on Alberta small and medium-sized business  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Deregulation of the electricity market came into effect on January 1, 2001 in Alberta. This deregulation affects the retail and generation fields of electricity. The intention was to introduce competition and apply downward pressure on electricity prices, but the reverse effect was witnessed: power prices increased. It resulted in a period of anxiety on the part of businesses, caused by the volatility of electricity prices. A survey of Canadian Federation of Independent Business (CFIB) members was conducted in May and June 2001 to better understand the impacts of electricity deregulation on small and medium-sized businesses. A broad range of businesses provided responses (951 responses) covering all sectors of industry and regions in Alberta. A large proportion of respondents were dissatisfied with deregulation, caused in part by the confusion created by the flurry of rebate and credit announcements designed to ease the transition. Small firms were faced with significant increases in electricity prices, and several could not estimate the size of the increase as it was too difficult to measure. Responses varied from a low of 5 per cent increase to a high of 400 per cent in power rates. Most respondents also indicated that the increases had an impact on their business. The impact of power rate increases by sector was examined. Another consequence of deregulation was the fact that billing moved from a single invoice received to the requirement to actively manage energy uhe requirement to actively manage energy usage. It was discovered that a lack of information on electricity cost and consumption management impeded the the ability to make business decisions. The CFIB asked respondents to indicate the measures being considered to address management of electricity costs. Incorporating energy-saving devices and/or methods had been considered by slightly more than 40 per cent of respondents. Negotiating with power retailers represented another option under consideration by some. It was felt that government must still play an important role in the electricity business. The recommendations touched on the stimulation of retail competition, providing transitional/long-term price relief, and provide businesses with adequate information. 15 figs

277

Effect of medium composition and explant size on embryogenic calli formation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz local genotypes  

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Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz is an important tropical crop species used for human consumption, feed and raw material for various industries. Genetic transformation through embryogenic tissues is known as an effective method for cassava genetic improvements. Objective of this study was to obtain a suitable medium and length of explants to induce embryogenic callus on friable embryogenic callus (FEC as a target for genetic transformation. Immature leaf lobes (1-3 mm, 3-5 mm and larger than 5 mm in length of local genotypes of cassava (Adira 4. Menti, Iding, Gebang, Rawi and Timtim-29 cultured in vitro were used as explants. The explants were incubated for 2 and 4 weeks on MS (Murashige-Skoog or GD (Greshooff & Doy semi solid medium containing 10 mg/L picloram, 6 mg/L NAA supplemented with 4% sucrose and 4 µM CuSO4. Results showed that the highest percentage (100% of embryogenic calli formation for 4 weeks obtained by culturing Iding of 3-5 mm length on GD semi solid medium, whereas the lowest (33% one obtained by incubation 5 mm leaf lobe of Timtim-29 on the same medium. The most suitable medium for callus induction was GD, whereas the optimum length of explants was 5 mm or larger. Further study needs to be done to obtain friable embryogenic calli (FEC by employing different concentration of picloram and varying other critical factors.

ENNY SUDARMONOWATI

2006-07-01

278

Knowledge Management Acceptance: Success Factors amongst Small and Medium-Size Enterprises  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: The value and importance of knowledge, as seen by numerous organisations today, does without a doubt play a crucial role in the current ever-challenging and aggressive business environment. As a result, businesses that aspire to be labelled as being successful and competitive need to seek and find better ways to improve their firms? performance. Hence, Knowledge Management (KM, which is viewed as a source of sustainable competitive advantage, has attracted the attention of various companies all over the business world, including Small and Medium-Size Enterprises (SMEs in Malaysia. With the realisation of KM, the systematic management of organisation knowledge - a strategic corporate asset not to be taken lightly; can thus be created, transferred, shared and, utilised, in pushing for greater organisational competitiveness, innovativeness and, productivity. This research examined the success factors that help to increase the business performance of SMEs in Malaysia. Besides, it also highlighted the importance and contribution of KM amongst SMEs. Therefore, the reason behind this study is to understand and recognised the acceptance of KM and therefore further classified the success factors that contributed to the business performance outcome amongst SMEs in Malaysia. With this, the success factors observed in this research; culture; leadership; employee participation; Information and Communications Technology (ICT; organisational structure; are thoroughly investigated to explore on whether these factors have an impact on knowledge creation; knowledge transfer; knowledge sharing and knowledge utilisation; of KM processes among SMEs in Malaysia. Approach: This study aids to determined and examined the success factors; culture; leadership; employee participation; Information and Communications Technology (ICT; organisational structure; of SMEs that further influences KM processes; knowledge creation, transfer, sharing, utilisation. Results: It is hoped that SMEs with the help of this study, are able apply the success factors and KM processes as a guideline in achieving successful KM acceptance. It is anticipated that the factors proposed in this study could help businesses especially SMEs to better organise their KM initiatives, as well as to assists Malaysia in producing a superior and highly acclaimed knowledgeable society. Conclusion: The findings may be used as recommendations to SMEs that are keen in accepting and adopting KM in their daily operations. Furthermore, this study may also serve as a basis for future quantitative research studies among researchers, practitioners and professionals alike, in gaining a profound understanding of KM in sectors other than SMEs.

Christine N.L.  TAN

2011-01-01

279

Climate change impact on medium and small sized river catchments in Germany: An ensemble assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the impact of climate change on three small to medium sized river catchments in Germany using a high-resolution RCM ensemble of seven kilometers spatial resolution. The three catchments represent the characteristic hydrology of the alpine Southern Germany (Ammer) and more sub-mountainous regions in the Eastern (Mulde) and Western (Ruhr) parts. Possible changes in discharge characteristics and flood risk for the near future are examined. The ensemble approach in this project additionally allows the evaluation of the uncertainties in the future projections. With two global climate models (ECHAM5, CCCma3), three realisations of ECHAM5, two regional climate models (CLM, WRF) and three hydrological models (PRMS, SWIM and WaSiM-ETH), discharge of the three catchments is simulated and analyzed. Thereby, each catchment is simulated by two different hydrological models. Both global climate models (GCMs) are driven by the emission scenario A1B and the simulation period includes the years 1971-2000 as control period and 2021-2050 for the scenario. The results project that only the Ruhr catchment in the West of Germany will be subjected to higher flood hazard. The simulated significant future increases of the mean monthly maximum discharges are up to 20% in winter and summer. In spring and autumn, increase of flood hazard is less pronounced. For the other two catchments in the East and South of Germany, the flood hazard is projected to stay at the current level. The Ammer catchment shows statistical non-significant increasing flooding risks in winter and decreasing tendencies in summer. There are also no statistically significant changes projected for the Mulde catchment, although small increases can be seen in summer and autumn. The ensemble approach with different GCMs, high-resolution regional climate models (RCMs) and hydrological models allows the analysis of uncertainties and their attribution within the flood risk predictions. Major uncertainties of the model chain are revealed for the summer half-year, primarily due to the different results of the RCMs. During the winter season, the GCMs and the different realisations, representing natural variability, cause most uncertainty in the future projections. The impact of the hydrological models is comparable with the RCMs in winter and GCMs in summer.

Ott, I.; Düthmann, D.; Liebert, J.; Berg, P.; Feldmann, H.; Ihringer, J.; Kunstmann, H.; Merz, B.; Schädler, G.; Wagner, S.

2012-04-01

280

An Innovative Farm Scale Biogas/Composting Facility for a Sustainable Medium Size Dairy Farm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Approach: The amount of energy related costs as a portion of the total farm operating cost can be as high as 29% and the continuing increase of the real cost of energy related farm input has been one of the major factors impacting the cost of agricultural production. However, agricultural has the potential of replacing some of the purchased energy in the form of fossil fuels, commercial fertilizer and field production of animal feed with bioenergy and organic fertilizer from onsite renewable biomass such as animal manure in order to economically and environmentally sustain it. The aim of this study was to develop an innovative energy efficient pilot scale anaerobic digester composting facility. Methodology: A solid/liquid manure separator farm scale anaerobic digester and composting facility for a medium sized dairy farm were designed, constructed and tested. In order to make the anaerobic digestion economically viable under Canadian climatic conditions, the design, installation and operation of the system were based on advantages gained from the digester as a component of the total farm management system. In addition to the biogas production, benefits related to manure handling and storage, environmental quality improvement through odor control and water pollution reduction, fertilizer recovery and water recycling, were considered. Results: The layout of the farm was modified to provide solutions for four environmental problems related to: disposal of milkhouse wastes and overflow from the manure storage facility into the fire pond. The system possesses high energy conversion efficiency at relatively low capital cost and reduced labour requirement and has indirect energy ramifications through the production of organic fertilizer (compost to replace expensive and energy consuming commercial fertilizer as well as the production of bioenergy (biogas which will reduce the demand for energy. The overflow from the system (purified water can be recycled for cleaning the barn, thereby reducing the costs of water use and manure storage facilities on one hand and eliminating pollution problems associated with manure storage and disposal on the other hand. Conclusion: The use of dairy waste as a source of energy and fertilizer resulted in a saving of 6289 kg of fertilizer at a cost of $17 925 annually and additional saving of $20 547 on energy use.

Abdel E. Ghaly

2012-01-01

281

Ventilation in medium-sized and large boiler houses; Ventilation i medelstora och stoerre pannhus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to exemplify and clarify the need for ventilation in medium-sized and large boiler houses. We will furthermore present some recommendations, guidelines and advice for the design and construction of a boiler house ventilation system to the plant owners and suppliers of equipment. Boiler house ventilation can be performed in different ways using mechanical or natural ventilation. The solution to be chosen depends on the following factors: Working environment requirements and a necessity to control temperature and pressure in the boiler house; The design of the boiler plant and house; The need for combustion air; The investment expenditure as well as operation and maintenance costs. Mechanical ventilation should be chosen if the aim is a controllable 'climate'. The mechanical ventilation can be either centrally situated or distributed with many aggregates in the boiler house. Centrally situated ventilation equipment will give a higher accessibility and lower maintenance costs than a distributed ventilation system. If the boiler house is designed with natural ventilation the air and flue gas fans will be the only ones installed. In this case temperature and pressure inside the boiler house will be difficult to control. The design factor for the ventilation plant in a boiler house is in most cases the demand to cool the air inside the boiler house to approximately 45 deg C. This is the highest temperature allowed by the Occupational Safety and Health Act in a work environment where the boiler operator is working alone. The air flow which is required for the combustion is normally less than the air flow needed to cool the air in the boiler house. The supply air which is cooling the air inside the boiler house should be supplied on several different levels to attain an efficient cooling. If the combustion air is taken from the heated indoor air the boiler house will work as a heat reclaimer. The difference between outdoor and indoor pressure in the lower part of the boiler house should not exceed approximately 40 Pa. This is to minimize problems with inleaking of odours and particles into the boiler house and to facilitate the evacuation of the staff from the boiler house. Issues concerning boiler house ventilation will appear in different stages at new construction and conversion projects. During the feasibility study the ventilation requirements are investigated and possible solutions are outlined. The planning stage involves the establishing of the ventilation requirements, technical solutions and the investment needs. Investment expenditure for the installation of a mechanized ventilation system varies depending on the size of the boiler, the choice of ventilation solution etc. Experiences from three recently built plants show that capital expenditure for the ventilation systems in these plants amounts to approximately SEK 140,000/MW (about 18,000 USD/MW) for a boiler effect of approximately 50 MW.

Grotherus, Dan [AaF Installation AB, Oerebro (Sweden); Larsson, Tord [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Technology

2005-04-01

282

Image Analysis of Pellet Size for a Control System in Industrial Feed Production  

Science.gov (United States)

When producing aquaculture fish feed pellets, the size of the output product is of immense importance. As the production method cannot produce pellets of constant and uniform size using constant machine settings, there is a demand for size control. Fish fed with feed pellets of improper size are prone to not grow as expected, which is undesirable to the aquaculture industry. In this paper an image analysis method is proposed for automatic size-monitoring of pellets. This is called granulometry and the method used here is based on the mathematical morphological opening operation. In the proposed method, no image object segmentation is needed. The results show that it is possible to extract a general size distribution from an image of piled disordered pellets representing both length and diameter of the pellets in combination as an area. PMID:22031836

Ljungqvist, Martin Georg; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Frosch, Stina

2011-01-01

283

Image Analysis of Pellet Size for a Control System in Industrial Feed Production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

When producing aquaculture fish feed pellets, the size of the output product is of immense importance. As the production method cannot produce pellets of constant and uniform size using constant machine settings, there is a demand for size control. Fish fed with feed pellets of improper size are prone to not grow as expected, which is undesirable to the aquaculture industry. In this paper an image analysis method is proposed for automatic size-monitoring of pellets. This is called granulometry and the method used here is based on the mathematical morphological opening operation. In the proposed method, no image object segmentation is needed. The results show that it is possible to extract a general size distribution from an image of piled disordered pellets representing both length and diameter of the pellets in combination as an area.

Ljungqvist, Martin Georg; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

2011-01-01

284

77 FR 12311 - Guidance for Industry on Size of Beads in Drug Products Labeled for Sprinkle; Availability  

Science.gov (United States)

...industry entitled ``Size of Beads in Drug Products...thinking on appropriate size ranges for beads in drug...FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Laurie Muldowney...industry entitled ``Size of Beads in Drug Products...III. The Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 This...

2012-02-29

285

76 FR 3144 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Size of Beads in Drug Products Labeled for Sprinkle; Availability  

Science.gov (United States)

...industry entitled ``Size of Beads in Drug Products...thinking on appropriate size ranges for beads in drug...FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Laurie Muldowney...industry entitled ``Size of Beads in Drug Products...III. The Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 This...

2011-01-19

286

How medium-size resurgent calderas work: the case of Pantelleria, Ischia and the unrest Campi Flegrei structures  

Science.gov (United States)

Assessment of time and space relationships among magmatism, volcanism, and resurgence of medium-size calderas is a necessary tool to formulate a general model for their dynamics which also permits to forecast their evolution. To define a general hypothesis for the Campi Flegrei caldera, in a persistent state of unrest, the Ischia and Pantelleria medium-size resurgent structures, in variable stages of evolution, have been investigated. In particular some parameters such as the structural and volcanological evolution, with emphasis on resurgence dynamics and coeval volcanism, and the evolution, present state and role of the magmatic system in resurgence, have been defined. For the Campi Flegrei caldera, the data collected during unrest episodes have also been taken into account. This innovative approach adds a time-perspective on how resurgent calderas behave. The proposed general hypothesis will help in long- and short-term volcanic hazards assessment and will support Civil Defence Authorities in elaborating actions devoted to volcanic risk reduction.

Orsi, Giovanni; Civetta, Lucia; Arienzo, Ilenia; Carandente, Antonio; D'Antonio, Massimo; de Vita, Sandro; di Renzo, Valeria; di Vito, Mauro; Marotta, Enrica; Belviso, Pasquale

2010-05-01

287

Audit office size, audit quality and audit pricing:evidence from small- and medium-sized enterprises  

OpenAIRE

Using Swedish data we investigate how audit quality and audit pricing vary with audit firm and office size. In contrast to prior studies, we use disciplinary sanctions issued against auditors not meeting the quality requirement as the measure of audit quality. We find no significant differences in the likelihood of sanctions between Big 4 audit firms and the fifth and sixth largest audit firms in Sweden (Grant Thornton and BDO). We refer to these collectively as ‘Top 6’. However, we find ...

Sundgren, Stefan; Svanstro?m, Tobias

2013-01-01

288

Striatal Medium-Sized Spiny Neurons: Identification by Nuclear Staining and Study of Neuronal Subpopulations in BAC Transgenic Mice  

OpenAIRE

Precise identification of neuronal populations is a major challenge in neuroscience. In the striatum, more than 95% of neurons are GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs), which form two intermingled populations distinguished by their projections and protein content. Those expressing dopamine D1-receptors (D1Rs) project preferentially to the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), whereas those expressing dopamine D2- receptors (D2Rs) project preferentially to the lateral part of the glob...

Matamales, Miriam; Bertran-gonzalez, Jesus; Salomon, Lucas; Degos, Bertrand; Deniau, Jean-michel; Valjent, Emmanuel; Herve?, Denis; Girault, Jean-antoine

2009-01-01

289

SUPPORTING SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTREPRENEURS - A DESCRIPTION OF THE PROVISIONS OF THE BUSINESS ACTIVITY LAW AND THEIR IMPLEMENTATION  

OpenAIRE

On the basis o f the European Commission recommendations the Polish Business Activity Law Act introduced new notions into the economic legislation. The notions of small and medium-sized entrepreneur were introduced in order for the entrepreneurs to be treated in a special way, namely, new legal regulations will be addressed to them and other actions will be taken for their benefit. This special treatment would consist in creating new favourable conditions, in which small and mediu...

Popowska, Boz?ena

2002-01-01

290

THE ROLE OF ENTREPRENEURIAL BEHAVIOUR OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTREPRISE’S IN THEIR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONFIGURATION  

OpenAIRE

In European and global context, to survive the intense competition, small and medium-sized enterprise’s (SME) must expand, so that internationalisation becomes the inevitable stage in their strategic evolution. The phenomenon is analysed from the perspective of complementarities of different internationalisation theories, the integration of entrepreneurial orientation in that context, in order to enhance resources, exploit opportunities and create value, through innovation, proactive and ri...

RENATA NI?U ANTONIE; EMOKE-SZIDONIA FEDER

2009-01-01

291

THE ROLE OF ENTREPRENEURIAL BEHAVIOUR OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTREPRISE’S IN THEIR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONFIGURATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In European and global context, to survive the intense competition, small and medium-sized enterprise’s (SME must expand, so that internationalisation becomes the inevitable stage in their strategic evolution. The phenomenon is analysed from the perspective of complementarities of different internationalisation theories, the integration of entrepreneurial orientation in that context, in order to enhance resources, exploit opportunities and create value, through innovation, proactive and risk-seeking activities.

RENATA NI?U ANTONIE

2009-05-01

292

An Empirical Study of IT Innovation Adoption Among Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Klang Valley, Malaysia  

OpenAIRE

Purpose—The purpose of this research is to use and validate the Entrepreneurial Event model as a base model to investigate SME owners’ perception toward IT innovation adoption and use. This paper also attempts to investigate the key determinants of the adoption of IT innovation among small and medium sized enterprises in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This study revised and validated the Entrepreneurial Event Model in a new context and tried to examine the effect of perceived desirability, prope...

Wenjie Zhao; Mohd Salleh, Noor A.; Sedigheh Moghavvemi; Fatemeh Hakimian

2011-01-01

293

IFRS IN THE SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTITIES. DIFICULTIES AND OPPORTUNITIES OF THE IFRS FOR SMES  

OpenAIRE

IFRS IN THE SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTITIES. DIFICULTIES AND OPPORTUNITIES OF THE IFRS FOR SMEs PhD Student Mo? Ioana, West University of Timi?oara, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, România Doctoral programme - Accounting Scientific coordonator – Prof. Univ. Dr. Mate? Dorel Abstract: Over the years, the accounting have to meet a series of transformations and adaptations to the new trend by globalization, harmonisation and integration, trying to un...

Mo? Ioana

2013-01-01

294

Product Related Environmental Work in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Thailand, Developing and Manufacturing Electrical and Electronic Products  

OpenAIRE

Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Thailand that develop and manufacture electrical and electronic products are among other SMEs in the world meeting increasingly stringent legal and customer requirements related to environmental issues. Obstacles for the SMEs around the world to meet these requirements are almost the same in form of lack of knowledge, budget and resources. The differences between SMEs in Thailand and SMEs in the EU, Japan or even Korea are that these countries have...

Jonsson, Fredrik

2007-01-01

295

ELECTRONIC SPECTROSCOPY OF MEDIUM-SIZED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE CARRIERS OF THE 2175 A UV BUMP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been produced by means of laser pyrolysis. The main fraction of the extracted PAHs was primarily medium-sized, up to a maximum size of 38 carbon atoms per molecule. The use of different extraction solvents and subsequent chromatographic fractionation provided mixtures of different size distributions. UV-VIS absorption spectra have been measured at low temperature by matrix isolation spectroscopy and at room temperature with PAHs as film-like deposits on transparent substrates. In accordance with semi-empirical calculations, our findings suggest that large PAHs with sizes around 50-60 carbon atoms per molecule could be responsible for the interstellar UV bump at 217.5 nm.

296

Electronic spectroscopy of medium-sized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Implications for the carriers of the 2175 {\\AA} UV bump  

CERN Document Server

Mixtures of polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been produced by means of laser pyrolysis. The main fraction of the extracted PAHs were primarily medium-sized, up to a maximum size of 38 carbon atoms per molecule. The use of different extraction solvents and subsequent chromatographic fractionation provided mixtures of different size distributions. UV-VIS absorption spectra have been measured at low temperature by matrix isolation spectroscopy and at room temperature with PAHs as film-like deposits on transparent substrates. In accordance with semi-empirical calculations, our findings suggest that large PAHs with sizes around 50 to 60 carbon atoms per molecule could be responsible for the interstellar UV bump at 217.5 nm.

Steglich, M; Rouillé, G; Huisken, F; Mutschke, H; Henning, Th

2010-01-01

297

Developing a Methodology Based on Action Learning to Facilitate the Adoption of ICT in Small and Medium-sized Companies in Costa Rica  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of the thesis is to understand and explore better strategies to support the Small and Medium-sized companies sector in Costa Rica in the ICT adoption process. A strategy has been proposed which focuses on learning process and the interaction of university, industry and government (Triple Helix Model) in order to support the SMEs sector. The concrete proposal of the research is to design collaborative project based on action learning approach (Revans, 1982) with partnership of the three sectors in order to address concrete ICT projects in SMEs. The project was carried out in the action research context, considering a holistic approach needed in the SMEs and fostering the multi learning perspective claimed in the triple helix model (Etzkowitz, 2008).

Nunez, Heilyn Camacho

2010-01-01

298

Report: Maximizing recycling participation to reduce waste to landfill: a study of small to medium-sized enterprises in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia face many barriers to recycling participation. This study first investigated the volumes and types of waste produced by SMEs. Significant barriers were then identified and key motivators to recycle examined. Using the Australia New Zealand Standard of Industrial Classification, stratified sampling of SMEs (n = 436) was undertaken. Inadequate storage space, paucity of readily available information on recycling services and the lack of staff allocated to sort and recycle were identified as major barriers. Cardboard, paper and plastic waste were produced in large volumes with only a small percentage being recycled and these were identified as target areas for local government. Recommendations include the appointment of a dedicated recycling officer to maximize recycling participation for the reduction of waste to landfill and to undertake further research on minimizing recycling costs. PMID:19423601

Parsons, Sam; Kriwoken, Lorne K

2010-05-01

299

Strategy Analysis of Real Estate Company Property Development in Medium Size City in China  

OpenAIRE

Real estate industry is a new economic growth point and main industry in Chinese gross domestic product nowadays. This paper analyzes the trend of Chinese real estate market development to help investors to understand the current situation of Chinese real estate markets and policies better, so as to make better real estate investment decisions in China in the future. Because of oversaturated with investment and higher cost of investment there are more and more limitations in investing in big ...

Ji, Yiping

2011-01-01

300

EFFICIENT MANAGEMENT OF SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES FOR A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP  

OpenAIRE

The present  paper presents aspects of the management of small and medium enterprises in agriculture and services, in order to create a concrete analysis framework for sustainable development in rural areas. Socio - economic analysis based on current data and future forecasts are the basis for drawing conclusions on the possibilities of encouraging a sustainable entrepreneurship in less developed regions and also for economic revitalization.

Suzana Demyen; Iulia Nicolae

2013-01-01

301

A qualitative study of pandemic influenza preparedness among small and medium-sized businesses in New York City.  

Science.gov (United States)

Small businesses need to engage in continuity planning to assure delivery of goods and services and to sustain the economy during an influenza pandemic. This is especially true in New York City, where 98 per cent of businesses have fewer than 100 employees. It was an objective therefore, to determine pandemic influenza business continuity practices and strategies suitable for small and medium-sized NYC businesses. The study design used focus groups, and the participants were owners and managers of businesses with fewer than 500 employees in New York City. The main outcome measures looked for were the degree of pandemic preparedness, and the feasibility of currently proposed business continuity strategies. Most participants reported that their businesses had no pandemic influenza plan. Agreement with feasibility of specific business continuity strategies was influenced by the type of business represented, cost of the strategy, and business size. It was concluded that recommendations for pandemic-related business continuity plans for small and medium-sized businesses should be tailored to the type and size of business and should highlight the broad utility of the proposed strategies to address a range of business stressors. PMID:22308579

Burton, Deron C; Confield, Evan; Gasner, Mary Rose; Weisfuse, Isaac

2011-10-01

302

Policy options to promote energy efficient and environmentally sound technologies in small- and medium-scale industries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rapid industrialization of Asian developing countries has pushed the need for more energy at the cost of environmental degradation. Though large industries are targeted for energy conservation and pollution prevention, small and medium scale industries (SMI) also contribute to significant pollution. This paper discusses the role of SMI in the economy, its energy consumption and impact on the environment. An overview of the energy and environment policies of China, India, Sri Lanka, the Philippines and Vietnam, and the role of energy efficient and environmentally sound technologies (E3ST) as a viable means to meet these modern challenges in SMI is discussed. The barriers faced in adopting these technologies have been identified and an analysis has been done of the various strategies and policy options available to governments to promote E3ST in SMI. Examples and illustrations of such successful efforts have also been highlighted

303

Re-Strategising for Effective Health and Safety Standards in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises  

OpenAIRE

Poor health and safety record impact on the image/reputation and operational capabilities of businesses, especially those within the small and medium enterprise (SME) sector. Given the role of SMEs in the economy, this paper attempts to highlight the issue of poor health and safety performance of the SME sector and suggest a strategy for improving the level of performance. To this end, survey questionnaires were distributed to assess the overall awareness of people about health and safety iss...

Diugwu, Ikechukwu A.

2011-01-01

304

Fostering Linkages between Transnational Corporations and Small to Medium-Sized Enterprises in Brazil  

OpenAIRE

When large Transnational Corporations (TNCs) enter a host country, consequent development of local Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) is expected. The public sector may play an important role by fostering Business Linkages (BL), by which TNCs establish purchasing relationships with local SMEs. This article was motivated by growing attention in literature to the interaction between economic development and the ability of companies to absorb and disseminate competences. Its purpose is to under...

Delane Botelho; Milber Fernandes Morais Bourguignon

2011-01-01

305

Rapid preparation of ceramic moulds for medium-sized superalloy castings with magnesia-phosphate-bonded bauxite-mullite investments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phosphate-bonded investments have already been widely utilized in dental restoration and micro-casting of artistic products for its outstanding rapid setting and high strength. However, the rapid setting rate of investment slurry has up to now been a barrier to extend the use of such slurry in preparation of medium-sized ceramic moulds. This paper proposes a new process of rapid fabrication of magnesia-phosphate-bonded investment ceramic moulds for medium-sized superalloy castings utilizing bauxite and mullite as refractory aggregates. In order to determine the properties of magnesia-phosphate-bonded bauxite-mullite investments (MPBBMI, a series of experiments were conducted, including modification of the workable time of slurry by liquid(mL/powder(g(L/P ratio and addition of boric acid as retard agent and sodium tri-polyphosphate (STP as strengthening agent, and adjustment of bauxite (g/mullite(g(B/M ratio for mechanical strength. Mechanical vibration was applied to improve initial setting time and fluidity when pouring investment slurry; then an intermediate size ceramic mould for superalloy castings was manufactured by means of this rapid preparing process with MPBBMI material. The results showed that the MPBBMI slurry exhibits proper initial setting time and excellent fluidity when the L/P ratio is 0.64 and the boric acid content is 0.88wt.%. The fired specimens made from the MPBBMI material demonstrated adequate compression strength to withstand impact force of molten metal when the B/M ratio is 0.89 and the STP content is 0.92wt.%. The experimental results confirmed the feasibility of the proposed rapid fabricating process for medium-sized ceramic moulds with MPBBMI material by appropriate measures.

Li Tingzhong

2010-11-01

306

Short- and medium-term grain size changes in deltaic beaches (Ebro Delta, NW Mediterranean)  

Science.gov (United States)

The beach sediment of the Ebro Delta shows significant temporal grain size changes unrelated with seasonal processes. The evolution of the grain size during the 1988-1991 period shows coarsening and fining variations, with a general coarsening trend which ranges from 2.10 to 1.96 phi (about 8 · 10 -3 mm/year). This low-magnitude grain size change is considered significant because it is indicated by both mean values from the data set (textural zones) and individualized sampling points. The coarsening trend of the beach sediment in the Ebro Delta is mainly caused by the sedimentary deficit affecting the Ebro coast. The finer sand fractions of the sediment are progressively winnowed from the initial beach deposit without being replaced by new river sediment supplies. Superimposed on the general coarsening trend there exist grain size variations that may be related with processes of a shorter period such as changes in the sediment supplied from the river into the nearshore zone, variations in the wave energy affecting the beach, and man-induced actions, such as beach nourishment. The mean grain size of beach sediment sampled 20 years ago indicates that the coarsening gradient measured during the study period cannot be extrapolated to longer periods of time (decades). This work shows that processes of a different temporal scale but a similar magnitude must be integrated in order to explain the evolution of sediment grain size in deltaic beaches.

Guillén, Jorge; Palanques, Albert

1996-01-01

307

Effect of Basal Medium, Explants Size and Density on the In Vitro Proliferation and Growth of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Cultivar ‘16-bis’  

OpenAIRE

The effect of basal medium, explant size and density on shoot multiplication, growth, rooting and acclimatization of date palm cv. ‘16-bis’ was evaluated. Bud clusters of different sizes (2, 3, 4 and 5 buds per cluster) were cultured at density of 1, 2, 3 and 4 clusters on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS), woody plant medium (WPM) and Nitsch medium (NM) supplemented with 0.5 mg/L 2-naphthoxyacetic acid and 0.5 mg/L kinetin for three months (multiplication phase). Separated shoots of differ...

Mazri, Mouaad Amine

2013-01-01

308

Safety analysis of core cooling incidents in small- and medium-sized HTRs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pebble-bed high-temperature reactors of small and medium output being planned meanwhile in the Federal Republic of Germany distinguish themselves moreover by outstanding safety properties of which the partial aspect of core cooling incidents is presented. For the two concepts HTR-module and HTR-500 the authors explain the expected courses of temperature in the core in the case of failure of the forced cooling systems and the mechanisms of the activity release. The inherent safety properties of the two concepts exclude catastrophic effects of accidents. (orig.)

309

Argentinian Experience and Perspectives for Small and Medium Sized Reactors. Annex I  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) was created on 31 May 1950. It was responsible for all nuclear activities in the country until 1994. In 1994, the regulatory body and the operational activities of nuclear power plants were separated. A utility named Nucleoelectrica Argentina (NASA) was created. The present missions of the CNEA are: - To assist the national Government in nuclear policy; - To provide research and development in nuclear areas, including nuclear power plants, research reactors and nuclear fuel cycles; - To provide spent fuel and radioactive waste management, decommissioning of nuclear and radioactive installations, and environmental remediation; - By itself or through related companies, to provide radioisotopes for medicine and industry, and provide services to nuclear power plants and conventional industries. Development of human resources is yet another important objective of CNEA activities

310

Integration of “QES” systems on the small and medium size foundry companies in Portugal  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents the present situation concerning the integration of the quality, environment and safety systems on industrial companies. A case study performed by the authors on the Portuguese foundry is presented. The present situation of this activity sector, on what concerns the application of the quality, environment and safety (QES) systems, is characterized, and the short time needs, procedures and initiatives that are being taken, or will be taken in a near future, to accomplish...

Santos, Gilberto; Barbosa, J.; Pedro, Claudia

2004-01-01

311

Ceramic Membrane Fabrication from Industrial Waste: Effect of Particle Size Distribution on the Porosity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Industrial waste from sanitary company is chosen in this study as a precursor to fabricate ceramic membrane. It has been reported that enormous rejects being generated every year by this company. A preliminary characterization of this industrial waste shows the presence of quartz mineral, which is one of the main and suitable elements for the formation of ceramic products. Extrusion method was applied in fabricating tubular type ceramic membrane. In this present study, the effect of three different particle size distribution of the powder waste on the porosity is presented. The characterization of the porosity was performed in order to gain the insights in preparing ceramic membrane with good permeability. Results show that almost 40% porosity is able to be obtained using higher particle size distribution. However, further improvements in working conditions should be optimized in order to have a ceramic membrane with good physical properties.

I. Norliza

2009-01-01

312

Re-Strategising for Effective Health and Safety Standards in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Poor health and safety record impact on the image/reputation and operational capabilities of businesses, especially those within the small and medium enterprise (SME sector. Given the role of SMEs in the economy, this paper attempts to highlight the issue of poor health and safety performance of the SME sector and suggest a strategy for improving the level of performance. To this end, survey questionnaires were distributed to assess the overall awareness of people about health and safety issues, motivations and constraints, vis-a-viz supply chain improvement initiatives. Based on the findings (responses from questionnaires and existing literature, the unique characteristics of the supply chain network makes it a suitable medium through which health and safety improvement in small and mediumsized enterprises can be realised. Additionally, the findings show that good health and safety management culture enhances image, lowers costs, and improves the overall competitiveness of organisations. To complement the efforts/desires of health and safety regulators, there is need to leverage on the relationships that exist in supply chains, shown in this exercise to have a major influence on the activities of organisations.

Ikechukwu A. Diugwu

2011-12-01

313

Critical Factors of E-SCM Adoption on Small and Medium Sized Enterprises Performance: An Empirical Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the gradual importance of e-Supply Chain Management (e-SCM to the Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs in Taiwan, this research intended to explore the critical factors which allowed the Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Taiwan to employ e-SCM. The research further studied that under these critical factors, how the adoption of e-SCM affected their organizational achievements. In this research, the researcher organized the related literature according to Grounded Theory and by distributing the questionnaires to the experts; the researcher initially confirmed the aspects and variables which affected Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises’ adoption of e-SCM. Subsequently, the researcher distributed the enterprise questionnaire to the companies of automobile parts, explored the critical factors and the influence of the variables under each aspect upon the organizational effect through regression analysis. Via Discriminant analysis, the research found that “supporting capacity of system supplier”, “relative advantage of e-SCM”, “organizational scale”, “fundamental construction of interior informational technology” were the critical factors which affected SMEs’ application of e-SCM. Upon the regression analysis, the research found that employing e-SCM when the system suppliers’ supporting capacity was better and when e-SCM brought better benefits to the enterprise would prominently upgrade organizational effect. The research finding can be the reference for the SMEs when they apply new information technology in the future, offer the related units government the suggestion for establishing guiding and regulation and allow the system suppliers to propose more appropriate products and service.

She-I Chang

2006-03-01

314

Radioactive waste industrial management in France for medium- and long-term  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The context within which the industrial scale management of radioactive wastes takes place is briefly outlined. The regulations already in force or envisaged in France in this field are exposed. Emphasis is given to the activities of the National Agency for the management of radioactive wastes (ANDRA). The reasons why this organization was created are discussed together with the type of work conferred to it, its present workload, the industrial management concepts it applies, its present and future potential, the costs envisaged for waste disposal and the financial solutions adopted. The industrial technical assistance policy of ANDRA is presented

315

Analysis of passive shutdown capability for a loss of flow accident in a medium sized liquid metal fast breeder reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The passive shutdown capability of a medium sized (500 MWe) liquid-metal fast breeder reactor with oxide, carbide and metal fuels has been analysed for a loss of flow accident using static and dynamic analysis methods. The carbide fuel is assumed to be He-bonded as well as Na-bonded. The dependence of the passive safety on the flow halving time constant of the loss of flow incident and the feedback components, like radial core expansion due to subassembly spacer pad heating and differential control rod expansion due to heating of the control rod suspension mechanism, is highlighted. (author)

316

Cooling rate and size effects on the medium-range structure of multicomponent oxide glasses simulated by molecular dynamics.  

Science.gov (United States)

A set of molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the effect of cooling rate and system size on the medium-range structure of melt-derived multicomponent silicate glasses, represented by the quaternary 45S5 Bioglass composition. Given the significant impact of the glass degradation on applications of these materials in biomedicine and nuclear waste disposal, bulk structural features which directly affect the glass dissolution process are of particular interest. Connectivity of the silicate matrix, ion clustering and nanosegregation, distribution of ring and chain structural patterns represent critical features in this context, which can be directly extracted from the models. A key issue is represented by the effect of the computational approach on the corresponding glass models, especially in light of recent indications questioning the suitability of conventional MD approaches (that is, involving melt-and-quench of systems containing ~10(3) atoms at cooling rates of 5-10 K/ps) when applied to model these glasses. The analysis presented here compares MD models obtained with conventional and nonconventional cooling rates and system sizes, highlighting the trend and range of convergence of specific structural features in the medium range. The present results show that time-consuming computational approaches involving much lower cooling rates and/or significantly larger system sizes are in most cases not necessary in order to obtain a reliable description of the medium-range structure of multicomponent glasses. We identify the convergence range for specific properties and use them to discuss models of several glass compositions for which a possible influence of cooling-rate or size effects had been previously hypothesized. The trends highlighted here represent an important reference to obtain reliable models of multicomponent glasses and extract converged medium-range structural features which affect the glass degradation and thus their application in different fields. In addition, as a first application of the present findings, the fully converged structure of the 45S5 glass was further analyzed to shed new light on several dissolution-related features whose interpretation has been rather controversial in the past. PMID:24070291

Tilocca, Antonio

2013-09-21

317

THE LIMITS OF THE EXTENDED HÜCKEL THEORY TO CALCULATE THE TOTAL DENSITY OF STATES OF MEDIUM-SIZED MOLECULES  

OpenAIRE

Two medium-sized molecular systems X60 (X=C,N) were analyzed using Extended Hückel, Density Functional and ab initio Hartree-Fock methods. The aim of the work was to test the reliability of the EHT methodology to calculate the total Density of States distribution curve. The Extended Hückel method is only reliable in the cases of the first valence and conduction bands of these systems. For the rest of the Density of States distribution curve EHT performs badly. The sources of error of EHT, c...

JUAN SEBASTIÁN GÓMEZ-JERIA

2006-01-01

318

Cooling rate and size effects on the medium-range structure of multicomponent oxide glasses simulated by molecular dynamics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A set of molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the effect of cooling rate and system size on the medium-range structure of melt-derived multicomponent silicate glasses, represented by the quaternary 45S5 Bioglass composition. Given the significant impact of the glass degradation on applications of these materials in biomedicine and nuclear waste disposal, bulk structural features which directly affect the glass dissolution process are of particular interest. Connectivity of the silicate matrix, ion clustering and nanosegregation, distribution of ring and chain structural patterns represent critical features in this context, which can be directly extracted from the models. A key issue is represented by the effect of the computational approach on the corresponding glass models, especially in light of recent indications questioning the suitability of conventional MD approaches (that is, involving melt-and-quench of systems containing ?10{sup 3} atoms at cooling rates of 5-10 K/ps) when applied to model these glasses. The analysis presented here compares MD models obtained with conventional and nonconventional cooling rates and system sizes, highlighting the trend and range of convergence of specific structural features in the medium range. The present results show that time-consuming computational approaches involving much lower cooling rates and/or significantly larger system sizes are in most cases not necessary in order to obtain a reliable description of the medium-range structure of multicomponent glasses. We identify the convergence range for specific properties and use them to discuss models of several glass compositions for which a possible influence of cooling-rate or size effects had been previously hypothesized. The trends highlighted here represent an important reference to obtain reliable models of multicomponent glasses and extract converged medium-range structural features which affect the glass degradation and thus their application in different fields. In addition, as a first application of the present findings, the fully converged structure of the 45S5 glass was further analyzed to shed new light on several dissolution-related features whose interpretation has been rather controversial in the past.

Tilocca, Antonio [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom)

2013-09-21

319

Influence of molecule size on its transport properties through a porous medium.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mass transfer kinetics of toluene and polystyrenes (of which the M(w) varies from 162 to 1.85 x 10(6) g mol(-1)) through columns filled with silica porous spheres were studied by inverse size exclusion chromatography. The mass transfer parameters were measured by modeling the band broadening of the chromatograms. The experimental height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP) data were analyzed using the general rate model in order to determine the effective diffusion coefficient in porous particles as a function of molecular size. The bulk molecular diffusion coefficients were experimentally determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Taylor dispersion analysis (TDA). The topological tortuosity of the porous particles was determined by electrical measurements. The effective molecular diffusion coefficient through porous particles was modeled taking into account exclusion, friction, and at last tortuosity effects. A phenomenological law is proposed to model the evolution of the tortuosity experienced by a molecule in a porous particle as a function of its size. It gives a good prediction of the evolution of effective diffusion coefficient with the molecule/pore size ratio. PMID:20184357

Wernert, Véronique; Bouchet, Renaud; Denoyel, Renaud

2010-04-01

320

Implementing a Functional ISO 9001 Quality Management System in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This conceptual paper provides guidance for the implementation of a functionalISO 9001 quality management system (QMS in small and medium-sizedenterprises (SMEs. To help a SME understand its starting point, four initialstates for QMS implementation are defined. Five paths for moving the QMS fromthe initial state to the desired state are described. To support the transition fromthe initial to the desired state, some key considerations in implementing a QMSin SMEs are discussed. The paper is based on site visits and implementationassistance the authors have provided to several SMEs. It is anticipated the paperwill help managers in SMEs understand the process of implementing ISO 9001and help them avoid the development of a paper-driven QMS that provideslimited value.

Andres Sousa-Poza

2009-03-01

321

Permeability and pore size distribution in medium strength self-compacting concrete  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of self-compacting concrete (SCC has been on the rise in recent years. Research on this type of concrete has focused primarily on determining optimal dosage, while durability, particularly for medium strength SCC, has received much less attention. The present study explored the permeability of a number of medium strength (characteristic strength, 30 MPa self-compacting concretes, including SCCs made with common cement, in pursuit of a balance between performance and cost. Pressurised water and mercury intrusion porosimetry tests were conducted to determine concrete behaviour when exposed to aggressive agents. The findings showed that the capillary networks of these concretes are essentially impermeable to aggressive agents.

El hormigón autocompactante ha experimentado un amplio desarrollo en los últimos años. Los estudios sobre este hormigón se han centrado en obtener dosificaciones óptimas, mientras los relativos a su durabilidad son escasos, especialmente en el caso de hormigones de resistencia moderada. Este trabajo se centra en el estudio de la permeabilidad de distintos hormigones autocompactantes de resistencia moderada (resistencia característica 30 MPa. El estudio incluye hormigones fabricados con cementos comunes, en los que se ha buscado un equilibrio entre prestaciones y precio. Con el fin de estudiar su comportamiento frente a la penetración de agentes agresivos, se han realizado los ensayos de permeabilidad al agua bajo presión y estudio de la porosimetría por intrusión de mercurio. Los resultados de los ensayos ponen de manifiesto el buen comportamiento de estos hormigones frente a la posible penetración de agentes agresivos por la red capilar.

Fernández Cánovas, M.

2010-09-01

322

Carboxymethyl cellulase and cellobiase production by Clostridium acetobutylicum in an industrial fermentation medium.  

OpenAIRE

The production of a carboxymethyl cellulase and a cellobiase by Clostridium acetobutylicum was demonstrated. In liquid medium the carboxymethyl cellulase was induced by molasses, and it was not repressed by glucose. Optimum carboxymethyl cellulase activity occurred at pH 4.6 and 37 degrees C.

Allcock, E. R.; Woods, D. R.

1981-01-01

323

Effect of sodium nitrite-borax blend on the corrosion rate of low carbon steel in industrial water medium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effects of sodium nitrite-borax blend on low carbon steel corrosion in industrial water medium at various temperatures, various inhibitors concentration of sodium nitrite and borax and at various rotational speeds of the specimens have been studied by gravimetric and polarization measurements. Optimization of the three variables was made and correlating the results obtained by using Box-Wilson statistical method. The process was considered as adsorption of inhibitor ions in oxide layer which form a passive film on the metal surface. The Langmuir isotherm was found to be the best description for the adsorption process. Thermodynamic parameters were evaluated and discussed

324

Influence of grain size on chalcopyrite ore leaching in acidic medium  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work presents an investigation of column leaching of a chalcopyrite ore using sulphuric acid where dissolved oxygen and iron(III ions play the role of oxidants. The investigations were carried out in PVC columns, diameter 110 mm and height 1000 mm, by percolation of the leaching solution through the ore layer. The influence of ore grain size on the degree of leaching and acid consumption was examined. The formation of gypsum on limestone results in the comminution of the initial raw material during leaching. The grain size of chalcopyrite was found to have no important influence on the leaching rate of copper. A higher consumption of sulphuric acid was found for the fractions (–3+1 mm, (?5+0 mm and (?5+3 mm than for the fractions (?10+5 mm, (?20+10 mm and (?20+0 mm.

M. M. ANTONIJEVIC

2007-08-01

325

Establishment of all the critical bolted joints in medium sized induction motors  

OpenAIRE

The purpose with this thesis is to get a compilation of all the critical bolted joints of all engines produced at LV Motors. ABB LV Motors produces induction engines with seven shaft heights. Each engine size exists several variants of components ex. standard shield and flange shield. Depending on which components the engine is equipped with arises various types of strains in the engine's parts, certain assembly ways are more favourable than other. The most critical parts in the engine from a...

Wykman, Tomas

2006-01-01

326

R&D Investment and Financing Constraints of Small and Medium-Sized Firm  

OpenAIRE

This study tests for financial constraints on R&D investment and how they differ from capital investment. To identify constraints in the access to external capital, we employ a credit rating index. Our models show that internal constraints, measured by mark-ups, are more decisive for R&D than for capital investment. For external constraints, we find a monotonic relationship between the level of constriction and firm size for both types of investment. Thus, external constraints turn out to be ...

Czarnitzki, Dirk; Binz, Hanna L.

2008-01-01

327

Magic number behavior for heat capacities of medium sized classical Lennard-Jones clusters  

CERN Document Server

Monte Carlo methods were used to calculate heat capacities as functions of temperature for classical atomic clusters of aggregate sizes $25 \\leq N \\leq 60$ that were bound by pairwise Lennard-Jones potentials. The parallel tempering method was used to overcome convergence difficulties due to quasiergodicity in the solid-liquid phase-change regions. All of the clusters studied had pronounced peaks in their heat capacity curves, most of which corresponded to their solid-liquid phase-change regions. The heat capacity peak height and location exhibited two general trends as functions of cluster size: for $N = 25$ to 36, the peak temperature slowly increased, while the peak height slowly decreased, disappearing by $N = 37$; for $N = 30$, a very small secondary peak at very low temperature emerged and quickly increased in size and temperature as $N$ increased, becoming the dominant peak by $N = 36$. Superimposed on these general trends were smaller fluctuations in the peak heights that corresponded to ``magic numbe...

Frantz, D D

2001-01-01

328

Human resource management in small and medium-sized vineyards in Chile / Administración de recursos humanos en pequeñas y medianas viñas en Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish G. Pérez Arrau y F. Muñoz Medina.2014. Administración de recursos humanos en pequeñas y medianas viñas en Chile. Cien. Inv. Agr. 42(2): 141-151. El objetivo de este artículo es la búsqueda de prácticas de gestión de recursos humanos en pequeñas y medianas viñas en Chile, identificando agentes y grup [...] os relevantes que permitan una mejor comprensión de cómo estas empresas gestionan sus recursos humanos. La investigación se basa en 22 entrevistas realizadas a directores de personal e informantes claves de un total de 16 viñas productoras de vino entre los años 2009 y 2012. Se incluye la recolección y análisis de literatura especializada sobre gestión de recursos humanos en PYMES. La investigación muestra características evidentes, problemas y desafíos con el objetivo de mejorar la producción, la innovación y la sostenibilidad a largo plazo. A pesar de que la industria del vino es un área económica emblemática de Chile, la forma en que administra sus recursos humanos es desconocida, por lo que esta investigación se centra en esta área poco conocida tan importante para la productividad. Abstract in english G. Pérez Arrau, and F. Muñoz Medina. 2014. Human resource management in small and medium-sized vineyards in Chile. Cien. Inv. Agr. 41(2): 141-151. The focus of this paper is the identification of human resource management practices in small and medium-sized vineyards in Chile, identifying agents and [...] relevant groups that allow a better understanding of how these companies manage their human resources. The research is based on 22 interviews held with personnel managers and key informants from a total of 16 wine-producing vineyards between 2009 and 2012. The research involved collecting studies and analyzing the specialized literature on human resource management in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The research highlights the features, relevant problems and challenges of human resources management with the aim of improving production, innovation and long-term sustainability. Although the wine industry is an emblematic economic area of Chile, how it manages its human resources is unknown, so this research focuses on this little-known area that is so important to productivity.

Gregorio, Pérez Arrau; Felipe, Muñoz Medina.

329

How to Improve Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Profitability by Practicing an Efficient Human Resources Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In The European Union’s country members, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs play an essential role in economic life, having special features that make adaptation process to the contemporary economy easier. Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs are the most dynamic and vital factor of progress in the contemporary society, main generator of economic performance and substance in any country, employment opportunity provider for most of population, major contributor to the national budget, and engine to improve the living standard of the population. SMEs represent 99% from all enterprises, drawing up the main human resources aglomeration. In the contemporary economic context, SMEs should act as learning entities, by developing the most important resources they own: the human resources. Human resource development (HRD has gained a permanent role within SMEs, agencies and nations, increasingly not only as an academic discipline, but as a central theme in development area. Being a combination of training and education, in a broad context of adequate human resource policies, HRD ensures the continual improvement and growth of both individual and organization.

Antonio GARCÍA SÁNCHEZ

2011-01-01

330

The Role of Knowledge Management in Enhancing the Competitiveness of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Knowledge is one of the enterprise’s most important assets that influence its competitiveness. One way to capture an enterprise’s knowledge and make it available to all its members is through the use of knowledge management practices. This paper discusses the importance of knowledge management (KM in Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs and presents a framework to deal with knowledge management in order to enhance their competitiveness. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs are known for too much implicit knowledge, limited resources, insufficiently shared between managers and other employees. So, in the context of SMEs, KM can be used to capture knowledge and experience generated during their operations, activities, and processes. This research paper addresses a new way of thinking about the role of KM in SMEs through developing a framework that combines five phases of the KM lifecycle (capture, creation, codification, communication, and capitalization. This framework is called “A Five C’s Knowledge Management Framework”. The application of this framework will improve the success rate and competitiveness of SMEs.

Ali A. Alawneh

2009-12-01

331

Public relations agencies in the UK travel industry: Does size matter?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The relationship between an agency and its client has a limited time scale. Thus far,research has primarily focused on the relationship between advertising agencies and their clients. Based on a study of the existing literature, most of which is advertising based,this article explores the agency-client relationship for public relations agencies in the UK travel industry. Our model concentrates on the four phases of client-agency relationships:agency selection; successful relationships;failing relationships; and agency switching.Several factors influence these four phases, but this article focuses specifically on an under-examined factor: whether the size of a client's public relations agency might influence the nature of the relationship between a client and agency. UK travel companies with different sized public relations agencies were interviewed to test the model and assess the impact of agency size. We found evidence to suggest that agencies should be aware of how their size may influence client perception during the selection process. Agencies similarly should be conscious that their size might act as an indication of how clients perceive their ability, and indeed may influence their client-agency relationship on an ongoing basis. Attention to size-related perceptions may help prevent clients switching agencies.

Lucy Mart

2005-01-01

332

Effect of Basal Medium, Explants Size and Density on the In Vitro Proliferation and Growth of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. Cultivar ‘16-bis’  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of basal medium, explant size and density on shoot multiplication, growth, rooting and acclimatization of date palm cv. ‘16-bis’ was evaluated. Bud clusters of different sizes (2, 3, 4 and 5 buds per cluster were cultured at density of 1, 2, 3 and 4 clusters on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS, woody plant medium (WPM and Nitsch medium (NM supplemented with 0.5 mg/L 2-naphthoxyacetic acid and 0.5 mg/L kinetin for three months (multiplication phase. Separated shoots of different sizes (<3 cm; 3 to 4.5 cm and 4.5 to 6 cm were cultured at density of 1, 2, 3 and 4 shoots on hormone free MS medium, WPM or NM for three months (Elongation-rooting phase. The proliferation and development of shoots were affected by the basal medium, explant size and density. The optimal shoot proliferation (18.1 was observed when 4 buds clusters were cultured at the density of 2 clusters per jar in MS medium. Separated shoots of 4.5 to 6 cm length exhibited the optimal in vitro development in terms of leaf length and greening, and root number and length when cultured on MS medium. In addition, these shoots reached the highest acclimation frequency with 80%. Our results would be utilized for an efficient propagation of plantlets of cv. ‘16-bis’, a selected date palm cultivar resistant to the bayoud disease.

Mouaad Amine MAZRI

2013-08-01

333

Evaluation of the Decree on Emission Regulations for Medium-sized Combustion Installations; Evaluatie Besluit emissie-eisen middelgrote stookinstallaties  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In April 2010 the Dutch decree on emission limit values (ELVs) on medium-sized combustion installations entered into force. Bems sets ELVs for NOx, SO2, PM and CxHy. In 2013 the Bems legislation was transferred to the Activities Decree (In Dutch: Ab - Activiteitenbesluit). At the same time the Industrial Emissions Directive (IED) was implemented in the Ab. At the time Bems entered into force, it was decided to evaluate this legislation in 2014. Due to incorporation of Bems and the implementation of the IED in the Ab, it was decided to perform this evaluation a year earlier, thereby enabling the consideration of several stakeholders' comments on these implementations. This report presents the main conclusions of this evaluation. In Bems, combustion installations smaller than 50 MWth have to comply with ELVs based on Best Available Technology (BAT). Five possible ELVs have been discussed but not implemented in Bems, due to a lack of knowledge. These ELVs have been included in this evaluation. For gas engines < 2.5 MWth the NOx ELV could be more stringent, namely 140 mg/Nm{sup 3} instead of 340 mg/Nm{sup 3}; all ELVs are set at dry conditions in the flue gas and 3% O2. For biogas engines, introduction of the same ELV might be postponed until a comparable ELV enters into force in 2016 in a Californian region. Both the Californian ELV and this ELV need a gas cleaning technology. For (bio)diesel engines the dust ELV could be more stringent, namely 15 mg PM/Nm{sup 3} instead of 50 mg PM/Nm{sup 3}, while for NOx the ELV can be tightened from 450 mg/Nm{sup 3} to 250 mg/Nm{sup 3}. Both ELVs may be postponed until Tier 4 limits in the USA enter into force in the period 2014-2017. The Netherlands is one of the very few countries with CxHy ELVs for gas engines. The current CxHy ELV of 1500 mg C/Nm{sup 3} may be tightened to 1200 mg C/Nm{sup 3}. Other issues and changes, directly related to the Dutch legislation, have been discussed as well. These include exemption rules for installations running less than 500 full-load hours per year and the reintroduction of an inspection prior to commissioning. Moreover, maximum ELVs for furnaces <50 MWth of 80 mg NOx/Nm{sup 3} for gas firing and 120 mg NOx/Nm{sup 3} for oil firing have been discussed. As a result of this evaluation, the Ab has been changed; for example, ELVs for combustion of non-standard fuels are now set by the licensing authority. Finally, several chapters in this report are devoted to biomass firing and potential restrictions of ELVs for new installations [Dutch] Dit rapport betreft een evaluatie van het Besluit emissie-eisen middelgrote stookinstallaties milieubeheer (Bems). Het besluit geeft milieuregels voor bedrijven die energie (warmte, elektriciteit, mechanische energie) opwekken door het verbranden van brandstoffen in stookinstallaties, zoals verwarmingsketels, motoren en gasturbines.

Kroon, P.; Plomp, A.J. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Van Berkel, L.; Burgers, W.; Hermans, L.; Groot, M.; Simonse, W. [Kenniscentrum InfoMil, Rijkswaterstaat Water, Verkeer en Leefomgeving, Den Haag (Netherlands); Kruithof, P.; Taal, M.; Van Bergen, J.; Walthaus, H. [Ministerie van Infrastructuur en Milieu IenM, Den Haag (Netherlands)

2013-05-15

334

Influence of grain size on chalcopyrite ore leaching in acidic medium  

OpenAIRE

This work presents an investigation of column leaching of a chalcopyrite ore using sulphuric acid where dissolved oxygen and iron(III) ions play the role of oxidants. The investigations were carried out in PVC columns, diameter 110 mm and height 1000 mm, by percolation of the leaching solution through the ore layer. The influence of ore grain size on the degree of leaching and acid consumption was examined. The formation of gypsum on limestone results in the comminution of the initial raw mat...

Antonijevic, M. M.; Bogdanovic, G. D.; Serbula, S. M.; Milic, S. M.

2007-01-01

335

Medium-Voltage Cables in Nuclear Plant Applications - State of Industry and Conditioning Monitoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

OAK-B135 This report reviews the types of medium-voltage (MV) cables in use in nuclear power plants and the techniques that are currently available to assess the condition of MV cable systems. The project identified the types of cable systems in nuclear plants and their operating conditions and then assessed the aging and failure mechanisms of these cables and suitable diagnostic test techniques. In addition, ways to alleviate conditions that cause the most severe aging were identified

336

Analysis of the Emerging China Green Era and Its Influence on Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Development: Review and Perspectives  

OpenAIRE

Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) play a vital role in China’s economy as generators of employment, revenue and innovation. With the unprecedented economic development of China, the increase of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) number has resulted in a massive resources and energy consumption that produces significant generation of waste by-products. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that China is facing an emerging green era. The raise of Chinese environmentalism ...

Randriamalala Jean Luc Stevens; Mijitaba Maman Moustapha; Pertiwi Evelyn; Randriamalala Jean Stevenson

2013-01-01

337

Use of radiation vulcanized natural rubber latex in small and medium scale industries in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The latex based industry is fast growing with the setting up of several units to produce household and examination gloves. Production of rubberized coir using concentrated latex is also growing rapidly while more and more small scale industries have been set up. There is also a growth in the large scale sector in the dipped goods manufacture. Use of irradiated latex in the manufacture of dipped products has good potential as the efficiency of production is enhanced in the case of latex containing less additives. (author)

338

Mapping trends of large and medium size carnivores of conservation interest in Romania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We analysed yearly estimates of population size data during 2001-2012 for five carnivores species of conservation interest (Ursus arctos, Canis lupus, Lynx lynx, Felis silvestris and Canis aureus. Population size estimations were done by the game management authorities and integrated by the competent authorities on the Ministry of Environment and Climate Change. Trends in data were detected using non-parametric Mann-Kendall test. This test was chosen considering the short length of data series and its usefulness for non-normal distributed data. The trend was tested at three spatial scales: game management units (n=1565, biogeographical region (n=5 and national. Trends depicted for each game management unit were plotted using ArcGIS, resulting species trend distribution maps. For the studied period increasing population trends were observed for Ursus arctos, Canis lupus, Canis aureus and Lynx lynx, while for Felis silvestris there was no trend recorded. Such an analysis in especially useful for conservation proposes, game management and reporting obligations under article 17 of the EC Habitat Directive, using population trend as a proxy for population dynamics. We conclude that the status of the five carnivore species is favourable during the study period.

Mihai Cristian Adamescu

2014-07-01

339

The medium-sized charged YbSin± (n = 7-13) clusters: A relativistic computational investigation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Graphical abstract: The geometries and electronic properties of the medium-sized YbSin± (n = 7-13) clusters are investigated systematically by using relativistic density functional method. The medium-sized YbSin± clusters with n = 8, 9, 10, and 13 significantly deform their neutral geometries, which are confirmed by the calculated AIP and VIP values. The relative stabilities in terms of the calculated fragmentation energies exhibit that the YbSin+ (n = 8, 10, 13) and YbSin- (n = 8, 10, 12) clusters have stronger abundances than their corresponding neighbors; the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gaps of the charged clusters are increased generally as the cluster size going from n = 7 to 13; the large HOMO-LUMO gaps of charged clusters indicate that their chemical activities are weaker than those of their neutral counterparts, especially for n = 7, 10, and 13 clusters. Generally, the obtained or removed charge influences electronic and geometrical structures of the charged clusters. Research highlights: ? Most of the charged YbSin (n = 7-13) clusters keep frameworks as the neutrals, and the geometries of 8a+, 9a+, 10a+, and 13a+ are significant deformed, which are reflected from the calculated VIPs and AIPs values. The charged YbSi8 cluster is actually the mosub>8 cluster is actually the most stable isomer. ? According to the calculated HOMO-LUMO gaps of the clusters, one finds that the HOMO-LUMO gaps for the charged YbSin (n = 7-13) clusters are smaller than those of the neutrals, reflecting that the removed or obtained charge influences the HOMO-LUMO gaps of neutral clusters. ? The calculated results show that the YbSin (n = 7-13) clusters are the nonmagnetic structures because the f orbitals are filled completely, which are not involved in the chemical bonding. - Abstract: The geometries and electronic properties of the medium-sized YbSin± (n = 7-13) clusters are investigated systematically by using relativistic density functional method. The medium-sized YbSin± clusters with n = 8, 9, 10, and 13 significantly deform their neutral geometries, which are confirmed by the calculated AIP and VIP values. The relative stabilities in terms of the calculated fragmentation energies exhibit that the YbSin+ (n = 8, 10, 13) and YbSin- (n = 8, 10, 12) clusters have stronger abundances than their corresponding neighbors; the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gaps of the charged clusters are increased generally as the cluster size going from n = 7 to 13; the large HOMO-LUMO gaps of charged clusters indicate that their chemical activities are weaker than those of their neutral counterparts, especially for n = 7, 10, and 13 clusters. Generally, the obtained or removed charge influences electronic and geometrical structures of the charged clusters.

340

Industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of industrial mitigation for sustainable development is discussed in Section 7.7. Section 7.8 discusses the sector's vulnerability to climate change and options for adaptation. A number of policies have been designed either to encourage voluntary GHG emission reductions from the industrial sector or to mandate such reductions. Section 7.9 describes these policies and the experience gained to date. Co-benefits of reducing GHG emissions from the industrial sector are discussed in Section 7.10. Development of new technology is key to the cost-effective control of industrial GHG emissions. Section 7.11 discusses research, development, deployment and diffusion in the industrial sector and Section 7.12, the long-term (post-2030) technologies for GHG emissions reduction from the industrial sector. Section 7.13 summarizes gaps in knowledge.

Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

2007-12-01

341

3D Characterization of the Magnetic Signature of a Medium Sized Impact Crater at Odessa, TX  

Science.gov (United States)

Meteorite impacts are a common occurrence throughout Earth's geologic history. Many of the surface expressions of large ancient impacts have been subsequently erased by weathering and erosion processes. The study of preserved meteorite impacts is necessary to better understand this natural hazard which has been increasingly linked to rapid climate change and mass extinctions. The 60 ka Odessa meteorite crater located in Ector Co. Texas, is unique because it is not only well-preserved, but also has been the subject of extensive geologic examination. Geologic mapping and numeric models indicate that the crater was caused by a relatively small oblique impactor. The crater rim is remarkably well exposed. Much of the ejecta blanket is present, although deeply eroded. There has been considerable site disturbance due to drilling, shaft excavation, trenching, construction of a museum, trails, and the oil/gas activity in surrounding fields. Two previous geophysical investigations have shown that our data clearly corresponds to large-scale thrust deformation. With this in mind we have performed 3D high resolution magnetic gradiometer surveys that will allow us to quantify and characterize the magnetic signature of small to medium impacts. We will tie this data set to a 3D photorealistic outcrop image provided by laser scanning with coarser-scale, below-ground geophysical information. Our geophysical imagery provides a useful constraint on numerical simulations of the impact and its immediate regional-scale environmental effects. This information can be used to identify impact sites whose surface expression has been erased by natural erosional processes, allowing for improved frequency estimates and improved geo-hazard assessment.

Robinson, A.; Soule, D.; Everett, M.; Rodman, T.; Mangue Ndong, M.; Pereira, A.; Platt, P.; Trahan, A.

2008-12-01

342

Hepatic contrast medium enhancement at computed tomography and its correlation with various body size measures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Background. When the same dose of iodine is given to all patients when performing abdominal computed tomography (CT) there may be a wide inter-individual variation in contrast medium (CM) enhancement of the liver. Purpose. To evaluate if any of the measures body height (BH), body mass index (BMI), lean body mass (LBM), ideal body weight (IBW), and body surface area (BSA) correlated better than body weight (BW) with hepatic enhancement, and to compare the enhancement when using iodixanol and iomeprol. Material and Methods. One hundred patients referred for standard three-phase CT examination of abdomen were enrolled. Body weight and height were measured at the time of the CT examination. Forty grams of iodine (iodixanol 320 mg I/mL or iomeprol 400 mg I/mL) was injected at a rate of 1.6 g-I/s, followed by a 50 mL saline flush. The late arterial phase was determined by using a semi-automatic smart prep technique with a scan delay of 20 s. The hepatic parenchymal phase started automatically 25 s after the late arterial phase. CM concentration was estimated by placement of regions of interest in aorta (native and late arterial phase) and in liver (native and parenchymal phase). Results. BW (r -0.51 and -0.64), LBM (r = -0.54 and -0.59), and BSA (r -0.54 and -0.65) showed the best correlation coefficients with aortic and hepatic parenchymal enhancement, respectively, without any significant differences between the measures. Comparing iodixanol and iomeprol there was no significant difference in aortic enhancement. The liver enhancement was significantly higher (P < 0.05) using iodixanol than iomeprol. Conclusion. To achieve a consistent hepatic enhancement, CM dose may simply be adjusted to body weight instead of using more complicated calculated parameters based on both weight and height.

Svensson, Anders; Nouhad, Jallo; Cederlund, Kerstin; Aspelin, Peter; Torkel, Brismar B., E-mail: anders.svensson@karolinska.se [Dept. of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology at Karolinska Inst., Div. of Medical Imaging and Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); (Dept. of Radiology, Karolinska Univ. Hospital, Huddinge, Stockholm (Sweden)); Nyman, Ulf (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Lasarettet Trelleborg, Univ. of Lund, Trelleborg (Sweden)); Bjoerk, Jonas (Competence Centre for Clinical Research, Skaane Univ. Hospital, Lund (Sweden)

2012-07-15

343

Hepatic contrast medium enhancement at computed tomography and its correlation with various body size measures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background. When the same dose of iodine is given to all patients when performing abdominal computed tomography (CT) there may be a wide inter-individual variation in contrast medium (CM) enhancement of the liver. Purpose. To evaluate if any of the measures body height (BH), body mass index (BMI), lean body mass (LBM), ideal body weight (IBW), and body surface area (BSA) correlated better than body weight (BW) with hepatic enhancement, and to compare the enhancement when using iodixanol and iomeprol. Material and Methods. One hundred patients referred for standard three-phase CT examination of abdomen were enrolled. Body weight and height were measured at the time of the CT examination. Forty grams of iodine (iodixanol 320 mg I/mL or iomeprol 400 mg I/mL) was injected at a rate of 1.6 g-I/s, followed by a 50 mL saline flush. The late arterial phase was determined by using a semi-automatic smart prep technique with a scan delay of 20 s. The hepatic parenchymal phase started automatically 25 s after the late arterial phase. CM concentration was estimated by placement of regions of interest in aorta (native and late arterial phase) and in liver (native and parenchymal phase). Results. BW (r -0.51 and -0.64), LBM (r = -0.54 and -0.59), and BSA (r -0.54 and -0.65) showed the best correlation coefficients with aortic and hepatic parenchymal enhancement, respectively, without any significant differences between the measures. Comparing iodixanol and iomeprol there was no signg iodixanol and iomeprol there was no significant difference in aortic enhancement. The liver enhancement was significantly higher (P < 0.05) using iodixanol than iomeprol. Conclusion. To achieve a consistent hepatic enhancement, CM dose may simply be adjusted to body weight instead of using more complicated calculated parameters based on both weight and height

344

Contamination and risk assessment of metals in road-deposited sediments in a medium-sized city of China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Road-deposited sediment (RDS) is a valuable environmental medium for characterizing contamination of metals in urban areas and the associated risks to human health. A total of 62 RDS samples were collected for metal test in four urban areas in a medium size city in eastern China. The areas that represented different land uses consisted of intense traffic area (ITA), commercial area (CA), residential area (RA), and riverside park area (RPA). The effects of particle size and different land uses on metal contamination and health risk were the major focus in this study. The test results showed that RDS in ITA appeared to have higher metal content, enrichment factor (EF), ecological risk index (RI), and the non-cancer and cancer risks than in the other areas. The metal contamination and health risk increased inversely with particle size. The particles less than 63?m were found to be most critical in development of metal contamination and health risk. The EF was measured to be greater than 2.0 in the four areas, indicating a moderate enrichment. The measured RI ranged between 50 and 200, indicating considerable to moderate risks. The non-cancer risk for children was high in the four areas but was low for adults in all test areas except in ITA. The cancer risk of Cr for children was high in all test areas. Based on the test results, the contamination control and management for metals in RDS shall focus on the effects from such factors as particles (<63?m) and the land use for intense traffic (ITA). PMID:25463858

Bian, Bo; Lin, Cheng; Wu, Hai Suo

2015-02-01

345

Recent advances in gyrokinetic full-f particle simulation of medium sized Tokamaks with ELMFIRE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Large-scale kinetic simulations of toroidal plasmas based on first principles are called for in studies of transition from low to high confinement mode and internal transport barrier formation in the core plasma. Such processes are best observed and diagnosed in detached plasma conditions in mid-sized tokamaks, so gyrokinetic simulations for these conditions are warranted. A first principles test-particle based kinetic model ELMFIRE[1] has been developed and used in interpretation[1,2] of FT-2 and DIII-D experiments. In this work we summarize progress in Cyclone (DIII-D core) and ASDEX Upgrade pedestal region simulations, and show that in simulations the choice of adiabatic electrons results in quenching of turbulence (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

Janhunen, S.J.; Kiviniemi, T.P.; Korpio, T.; Leerink, S.; Nora, M. [Helsinki University of Technology, Euratom-Tekes Association, Espoo (Finland); Heikkinen, J.A. [VTT, Euratom-Tekes Association, Espoo (Finland); Ogando, F. [Helsinki University of Technology, Euratom-Tekes Association, Espoo (Finland); Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Madrid (Spain)

2010-05-15

346

Analysis of hybrid waste-to-energy for medium-sized cities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Urban centers have a huge demand for electricity and the growing problem of the solid waste management generated by their population, a relevant social and administrative problem. The correct disposal of the municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in cities is one of the most complex engineering problems that involves logistics, safety, environmental and energetic aspects for its adequate management. Due to a national policy of solid wastes recently promulgated, Brazilian cities are evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of incinerating the non-recyclable waste. São José dos Campos, a São Paulo State industrialized city, is considering the composting of organic waste for biogas production and mass incineration of non-recyclable waste. This paper presents a waste-to-energy system based on the integration of gas turbines to a MSW incinerator for producing thermal and electric energy as an alternative solution for the solid waste disposal in São José dos Campos, SP. A technical and economic feasibility study for the hybrid combined cycle plant is presented and revealed to be attractive when carbon credit and waste tax are included in the project income. - Highlights: ? We model a hybrid waste-to-energy cogeneration system for the disposal of MSW. ? Reference model for MSW treatment consists of biogas burning and composting. ? Hybrid cogeneration solution is superior to the biogas burning reference model. ? Carbon credit and waste tax increase the attractiveness of the proposed solution

347

Computed tomography of a medium size Roman bronze statue of Cupid  

Science.gov (United States)

Diagnostics based on X-ray computed tomography (CT) are becoming increasingly important, not only in the medical field but in industry and cultural heritage. CT devices typical for medical applications, however, can seldom be used on art objects because both they are not easily transportable and they often present high X-ray absorption. It is therefore necessary to make use of portable instrumentation and/or to develop tomographic systems optimized to the characteristics of the objects under examination. This work describes the computed tomography of a first century A.D. Roman bronze statue of Cupid (96.AB.53) in the collection of the J. Paul Getty Museum, within the collaborative framework between the Getty Conservation Institute and the Department of Physics and Astronomy (DIFA) of the University of Bologna (Italy). The tomography performed at the Getty facilities employed a 450 kV X-ray tube and a detection system developed at DIFA. The study highlighted the casting and construction techniques used by Roman foundry workers and provided information on the status of conservation of the statue. A 3D virtual reconstruction allowed the user to define different cross-sections enabling the study of the internal features.

Bettuzzi, M.; Casali, F.; Morigi, M. P.; Brancaccio, R.; Carson, D.; Chiari, G.; Maish, J.

2015-01-01

348

Analysis of Strategic Management in Small and Medium Business Organizations in Graphic Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Graphic industry as a field of work and a field of study offers ability for economic growth of every country or region. The increase in competition and the development of the market method of prediction, increase the need for business organizations to continuously observe their own position. Faced with a variable, turbulent and complex environment, the business organizations adopt strategic management, and modern managers, especially those in top management, have to possess knowledge and skills of the concepts and application of strategic management.In this paper the case method, as a method used in strategic management, will be applied as a general approach of strategic analysis in creating strategy map for businesses in graphic industry.

Ilija Jolevski

2013-06-01

349

Quantum chemical study of the electronic properties of an Iridium-based photosensitizer bound to medium-sized silver clusters  

CERN Document Server

The equilibrium structures and electronic excitation spectra of the Ir(III) photosensitizer Ir(ppy)$_2$(bpy)]$^+$ bound to medium-sized silver clusters Ag$_n$ ($n=$19, 20) are investigated using time-dependent density functional theory. The long-range corrected LC-BLYP approach is used with a system-specific range separation parameter. The weak physisorption of the hybrid complexes yield only small changes in the broadened absorption spectra of the hybrid system as compared with its constituents. However, the density of states as well as the fine structure of the spectra is strongly modified upon complexation. It is shown that the standard range separation parameter (0.47 bohr$^{-1}$) cannot predict these properties correctly and the optimized value of 0.16 bohr$^{-1}$ should be used instead.

Bokareva, Olga S

2015-01-01

350

Performance Measurement in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises - Literature Review and Results from a German Case Study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A literature review of Performance Measurement Systems (PMS) in Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) shows that the main contributions focus on the development of theoretical models, but not on guidelines for practical implementation. In this context, an important neglected aspect is the general fitness or readiness of a SME to implement a PMS. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to determine critical prerequisites for a successful PMS implementation in SMEs. For this purpose, a case study in a German SME was conducted. The findings indicate that the existence of specific contingency factors – Corporate Strategy, software-based Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) and Activity Based Costing (ABC) – strongly supports the successful implementation of a PMS and its later use. Hence, further research shall include these prerequisites as new variables determining the PMS process. Based on that, researchers and managers of SMEs can develop individual indicators to identify their own PMS readiness.

Brem, Alexander; Kreusel, N.

2008-01-01

351

[Quality of data on deaths from external causes in a medium-sized city in Minas Gerais State, Brazil].  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to assess the quality of data on deaths from external causes in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from 2000 to 2009, and the completeness of the Mortality Information System (SIM). The data were obtained from the SIM of the Municipal Health Department, municipal police enquiries, and local newspaper articles, resulting in a databank with 495 deaths from external causes. The results showed a high proportion of deaths with indeterminate intent (21%) in the SIM, suggesting problems with quality of information. Comparison of data from the SIM and police department detected problems with coverage in the SIM (21%) and thus in the official statistics on mortality from accidents and violence. The results emphasize the importance of searches in other data sources to upgrade the SIM and expand its coverage, and especially the need for studies to identify and analyze problems faced by small and medium-sized cities in the production of mortality data. PMID:25317528

de Melo, Cristiane Magalhães; Bevilacqua, Paula Dias; Barletto, Marisa; França, Elisabeth Barboza

2014-09-01

352

Innovation incubators – entities of support of small and medium-sized enterprises’ competitiveness in the Modern economy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Innovation incubators are entities of the infrastructure network of support of small and medium-sized enterprises. At the stage of SMEs’ maximum vulnerability, they improve the survival of innovative businesses through the range of services and facilities provided. They are designed to mitigate the problems faced by SMEs, which develop and implement innovations, ensuring sustainability and competitiveness. Along with promoting the entrepreneurial spirit, innovation incubators play an essential role in promoting knowledge and innovation transfer, introduction of the research results into economic circuit, creating links between businesses, universities, research institutions, etc., links between people, talents and resources.In this article, we will focus on innovation incubators, their role in the development of SMEs in the world and in the Republic of Moldova, making an accent in the creation and development of the country's first Innovation Incubator „Inovatorul”.

Maier Lidia

2013-02-01

353

Oestrogenicity and chemical target analysis of water from small-sized industries in Pretoria, South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Increasing concern about endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and their effects on humans, animals and the environment resulted in this study being conducted. Water from 7 sites in the Pretoria West area (South Africa), with significant numbers of small-sized industries, was screened for oestrogeni [...] city, using the Recombinant Yeast Cell Bioassay (RCBA). Target chemical analyses were carried out to establish the presence of EDCs, including p-nonylphenol (p-NP), bisphenol A (BPA), phthalate esters, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and various organochlorine pesticides, including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). p-NP, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides were detected using LECO Pegasus II MSTOF and BPA and phthalates were detected using the GC-MS method. Oestrogenic activity was detected in all the samples collected from these sites. Lindane, an organochlorine pesticide, was detected at one site. p-NP, PCBs and phthalate esters were detected at some of the other sites. Small-size industries were found to contribute to EDC pollution of water in the Pretoria West area.

SI, Mahomed; KVV, Voyi; NH, Aneck-Hahn; C, de Jager.

2008-03-01

354

Modeling Natural Convection in Copper Electrorefining: Describing Turbulence Behavior for Industrial-Sized Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of copper electrorefining is discussed, where natural convection flow is driven by buoyancy forces caused by gradients in copper concentration at the electrodes. We provide experimental validation of the CFD model for several cases varying in size from a small laboratory scale to large industrial scale, including one that has not been compared with a CFD model. Previously, the large-scale systems have been thought to be turbulent by some workers and modeled accordingly with k-? type turbulence models, but others have not considered turbulence effects in their modeling. We find that the turbulence model does not predict turbulence exists; however, we analyze carefully the fluctuation statistics predicted for a transient model, finding that most cases considered do exhibit a type of turbulence, an instability related to the interaction between velocity and copper concentration fields. We provide a comparison of the extent of turbulence for various electrode heights, and gap widths, and we emphasize industrial-sized electrorefining cells.

Leahy, Martin J.; Phillip Schwarz, M.

2011-08-01

355

Search for global-minimum geometries of medium-sized germanium clusters. II. Motif-based low-lying clusters Ge21-Ge29.  

Science.gov (United States)

We performed a constrained search for the geometries of low-lying neutral germanium clusters Ge(N) in the size range of 21 Ge10. The low-lying clusters obtained are all prolate in shape and their energies are appreciably lower than the near-spherical low-energy clusters. This result is consistent with the ion-mobility measurement in that medium-sized germanium clusters detected are all prolate in shape until the size N approximately 65. PMID:16709108

Yoo, S; Zeng, X C

2006-05-14

356

Study of corrosion-erosion behaviour of stainless alloys in industrial phosphoric acid medium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The corrosion and corrosion-abrasion resistance of some stainless steels in industrial phosphoric acid 30% P{sub 2}O{sub 5} has been studied using electrochemical techniques. The corrosion rate of materials increases with the increase of temperature. Alloys which contain chromium, molybdenum and nitrogen in sufficient quantities present the best behaviour. In the abrasion-corrosion conditions, the experimental device set up allowed to follow continually samples electrochemical behaviour. Under dynamic conditions and without solid particles, the increase of acid projection speed has no effect on the alloys corrosion behaviour. The adding of abrasive leads to a general increase of corrosion rate and to a decrease of material resistance. Under these conditions, materials attack is controlled by synergistic effect between the abrasion and the impurities. The cast 30% Cr shows good resistance according to his high chromium content.

Guenbour, Abdellah [Laboratory of Electrochemistry-Corrosion, Av. Ibn Batouta, BP1014-Faculty of Science, Rabat (Morocco)]. E-mail: guenbour@fsr.ac.ma; Hajji, Mohamed-Adil [Group Corrosion and Protection of Materials, ENIM, Rabat (Morocco); Jallouli, El Miloudi [Group Corrosion and Protection of Materials, ENIM, Rabat (Morocco); Bachir, Ali Ben [Laboratory of Electrochemistry-Corrosion, Av. Ibn Batouta, BP1014-Faculty of Science, Rabat (Morocco)

2006-12-30

357

Study of corrosion-erosion behaviour of stainless alloys in industrial phosphoric acid medium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The corrosion and corrosion-abrasion resistance of some stainless steels in industrial phosphoric acid 30% P2O5 has been studied using electrochemical techniques. The corrosion rate of materials increases with the increase of temperature. Alloys which contain chromium, molybdenum and nitrogen in sufficient quantities present the best behaviour. In the abrasion-corrosion conditions, the experimental device set up allowed to follow continually samples electrochemical behaviour. Under dynamic conditions and without solid particles, the increase of acid projection speed has no effect on the alloys corrosion behaviour. The adding of abrasive leads to a general increase of corrosion rate and to a decrease of material resistance. Under these conditions, materials attack is controlled by synergistic effect between the abrasion and the impurities. The cast 30% Cr shows good resistance according to his high chromium content

358

Radiation quality of tritium ?-rays: microdosimetric distributions for nanometer-size targets in a medium containing tritiated water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To elucidate the characteristics of the action of tritium ?-rays, the following parameters are derived: (a) electron slowing down spectra of primary electrons (?-rays) and delta-rays in a medium containing tritiated water; and (b) frequency distributions for the microdosimetric quantity j (number of effective primary events per track per target), fsub(j), for nanometer-size targets exposed to tritiated water. Features of the radiation quality of tritium ?-rays are discussed by comparing the present results with those for 60Co ?-rays and 7 MeV electrons. It is concluded that, although tritium ?-rays, 60Co ?-rays, and 7 MeV electrons are classified as the same low l.e.t. radiation, the radiation quality of tritium ?-rays is considerably different from those of 60Co ?-rays and 7 MeV electrons, and has specific features such as a high average l.e.t., a small total electron fluence per unit absorbed dose, and a different microdosimetric distribution, fsub(j), for nanometer-size targets. (author)

359

Development of the ACS+OPC UA based control system for a CTA medium size telescope prototype  

Science.gov (United States)

The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the next generation Very High Energy (VHE, defined as > 50GeV to several 100TeV) telescope facility, currently in the design and prototyping phase, and expected to come on-line around 2016. The array would have both a Northern and Southern hemisphere site, together delivering nearly complete sky coverage. The CTA array is planned to have ~100 telescopes of several different sizes to fulfill the sensitivity and energy coverage needs. Each telescope has a number of subsystems with varied hardware and control mechanisms; a drive system that gets commands and inputs via OPC UA (OPC Unified Architecture), mirror alignment systems based on XBee/ZigBee protocol and/or CAN bus, weather monitor accessed via serial/Ethernet ports, CCD cameras for calibration, Cherenkov camera, and the data read out electronics, etc. Integrating the control and data-acquisitions of such a distributed heterogeneous system calls for a framework that can handle such a multi-platform, multi-protocol scenario. The CORBA based ALMA Common software satisfies these needs very well and is currently being evaluated as the base software for developing the control system for CTA. A prototype for a Medium Size Telescope (MST, ~12m) is being developed and will be deployed in Berlin, by end of 2012. We present the development being carried out to integrate and control the various hardware subsystems of this MST prototype using ACS.

Behera, Bagmeet; Oya, Igor; Birsin, Emrah; Köppel, Hendryk; Melkumyan, David; Schlenstedt, Stefan; Schmidt, Torsten; Schwanke, Ullrich; Wegner, Peter; Wiesand, Stephan; Winde, Michael

2012-09-01

360

Green oriented urban development for urban ecosystem services provision in a medium sized city in southern Italy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In southern Italy many cities are characterized by a lack of public urban greenspaces. Non-urbanized areas in these cities are suffering from surrounding urbanization pressures. These areas still provide important ecosystem services even if they are limited in size, highly fragmented and often neglected by local planning. New planning strategies are needed in order to protect and enhance the provision of ecosystem services delivered by existing Non-Urbanized areas, but municipalities usually have limited funds for acquiring public green areas via land expropriations. At the same time, requests for new urban development are still considerable. Consequently, it is not realistic to propose strategies for green areas that do not include new developments. The paper illustrates a strategy for a Green Oriented Urban Development (GOUD that has been applied for the Master Plan of Catania, a medium sized city in Sicily (southern Italy. The strategy includes a limited amount of developments as well as new greenspaces in selected areas (Resource Zones, through the transfer of property and development rights between the municipality and developers. The strategy will allow to enhance the provision of ecosystem services, especially cultural services (thanks to a dramatic increase of accessibility to new greenspaces, regulating services (through climate regulation by new green land covers and provisioning services such as urban agricultural products. Results show that it is possible to improve urban ecosystem services creating a more liveable and healthy urban environment at reduced cost for the municipal administrations.

Martinico F

2014-12-01

361

78 FR 69691 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Product Name Placement, Size, and Prominence in Advertising and...  

Science.gov (United States)

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Product Name Placement, Size, and Prominence in Advertising and Promotional Labeling.'' When finalized, the draft guidance will replace the guidance of the same title issued January 25, 2012. The draft guidance clarifies the requirements for product name placement, size, prominence,......

2013-11-20

362

Effect of the plantation age on the use of Eucalyptus stands by medium to large-sized wild mammals in south-eastern Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In São Paulo State, in Southeastern Brazil, the Eucalyptus plantations have been replacing large areas which were formerly occupied by pastures used for livestock production. Such land use change may affect the habitat use by wildlife in these anthropic landscapes. In this region, the commercial Eucalyptus plantations of the paper and cellulose industry usually take from 6 to 7 years to be harvested. During its production cycle, the Eucalyptus stands vary from an open savanna-like environment just after plantation, when plants still resemble bushes, to a forest-like environment with densely distributed 18-meter high trees. Previous studies show that the Eucalyptus plantations in Southeastern Brazil are used by generalist species including medium and large sized mammals. However, the possible influence of such dramatic temporal environmental heterogeneity on the wildlife habitat use in Eucalyptus plantations is still unknown. In this study, which follows a classic stratified design, we evaluate the influence of the Eucalyptus stand age on the local patterns of distribution and abundance of middle to large-sized wild mammals. Our results show an increase not only in their species richness, but also in their frequency of occurrences along the commercial cycle of the Eucalyptus plantations with a steep decline in both before harvest. This pattern may be related to weed control practices which significantly reduce the understory vegetation, in especial at the end of the commercial cycle while preparing for harvest. Future studies should prioritize the possible variation on the trophic structure in the Eucalyptus plantations along commercial cycles as a response of wildlife friendly silvicultural/agricultural management practices.

Timo TPC

2014-07-01

363

Research on Multi-Classification of Credit Rating of Small and Medium-Sized Logistics Companies Based on Ordinal Regression Support Vector Machine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Small and medium-sized logistics companies are playing an increasingly important part in social life. Weselected the data of small and medium-sized logistical companies in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou,reformulated ordinal regression support vector machine method so that different input points could makedifferent contributions to decide hyper plane, to analyze multi-classification of credit rating problem, and dividedthem into four different categories to demonstrate the good performance. The effectiveness of this improvedmethod is verified in multi-classification of credit rating of small and medium-sized logistical companies and theresults show that our method is promising and can be used to other multi-classification problems.     

Ying Chen

2012-01-01

364

Research on Multi-Classification of Credit Rating of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Growth Enterprises Board Based on Fuzzy Ordinal Regression Support Vector Machine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is necessary to classify credit rating of small and medium-sized companies in Chinese growth enterprises board. We selected the data of 90 small and medium-sized companies, used fuzzy theory to calculate the qualitative variables, and reformulated support vector machine for ordinal regression method so that different input points can make different contributions to decide hyper plane, to analyze multi-classification of credit rating problem, and divided them into four different categories and demonstrated the good performance. The effectiveness of this improved method is verified in multi-classification of credit rating of small and medium-sized logistical companies; the experiment results show that our method is promising and can be used to other multi-classification problems.

Ying CHEN

2012-02-01

365

Percutaneous Ethanol Injection of Unresectable Medium-to-Large-Sized Hepatomas Using a Multipronged Needle: Efficacy and Safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fine needles with an end hole or multiple side holes have traditionally been used for percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) of hepatomas. This study retrospectively evaluates the safety and efficacy of PEI of unresectable medium-to-large (3.5-9 cm) hepatomas using a multipronged needle and with conscious sedation. Twelve patients, eight men and four women (age 51-77 years; mean: 69) received PEI for hepatomas, mostly subcapsular or exophytic in location with average tumor size of 5.6 cm (range: 3.5-9.0 cm). Patients were consciously sedated and an 18G retractable multipronged needle (Quadrafuse needle; Rex Medical, Philadelphia, PA) was used for injection under real-time ultrasound guidance. By varying the length of the prongs and rotating the needle, the alcohol was widely distributed within the tumor. The progress of ablation was monitored by contrast-enhanced ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after each weekly injection and within a month after the final (third) injection and 3 months thereafter. An average total of 63 mL (range: 20-154 ml) of alcohol was injected per patient in an average of 2.3 sessions. Contrast-enhanced CT, ultrasound, or MRI was used to determine the degree of necrosis. Complete necrosis was noted in eight patients (67%), near-complete necrosis (90-99%) in two (16.7%), and partial success (50-89%) in two (16.7%). Follow-up in the first 9 months showed local recurrence in two patients and new lesions in anonce in two patients and new lesions in another. There was no mortality. One patient developed renal failure, liver failure, and localized perforation of the stomach. He responded to medical treatment and surgery was not required for the perforation. One patient had severe postprocedural abdominal pain and fever, and another had transient hyperbilirubinemia; both recovered with conservative treatment. PEI with a multipronged needle is a new, safe, and efficacious method in treating medium-to-large-sized hepatocellular carcinoma under conscious sedation. Its survival benefits require further investigations

366

The role of skeletal scintigraphy in nuclear oncology at a medium-sized hospital in South Korea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Skeletal scintigraphy (SS) has been a workhorse in nuclear medicine departments, whether the department is in a developed country or in a developing country. It also plays an essential role in nuclear oncology in staging or diagnosing cancers or monitoring management of cancer patients. With the availability of improved imaging modalities like positron emission tomography, the role of skeletal scintigraphy is changing accordingly. This study was performed to evaluate the role of SS in nuclear oncology at a medium-sized (900-bed) university hospital in South Korea, by reviewing hospital cases along with the statistics of recently published papers in the journal of Clinical Nuclear Medicine. The hospital does not have a PET. The study period was three years (from 2000 to 2002). The SS is requested from many specialties for various reasons. Only cancer-related cases were selected. Using PubMed database, relevant articles in the Clinical Nuclear Medicine were assessed. To retrieve the articles, the keywords 'skeletal scintigraphy' and 'bone scan' were combined by using Boolean operation. There were a total of 9707 SS out of 16429 nuclear medicine imaging cases at the hospital during the study period. The hospital had 49% of SS contributed to cancer patients, while 52% percent of the SS in the CNM dealt with cancers. During the same period, articles regarding PET were 273 of which 171 were cancer-related PET studies (62%, more often than SS). 59% of the total nu, more often than SS). 59% of the total nuclear medicine studies performed at the hospital were SS, whereas only 9% of the total articles were SS and 5% dealt with cancer-related cases. The cases of SS and cancer-related SS at the hospital increased during the period, whereas the articles in the CNM decreased. Analytic statistics were not considered necessary. In conclusion, there is an increasing demand of SS in nuclear oncology at a medium-sized hospital with non-availability of PET and the proportions of SS and cancer-related SS to the total nuclear medicine imaging cases are consistently higher than the data from the CNM. A major nuclear medicine journal continues to deal less with SS, and more with PET. (author)

367

Tube vibration in industrial-size test heat exchanger (90/sup 0/ square layout)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tube vibrations in heat exchangers are being systematically investigated in a series of tests performed with an industrial-size test exchanger. Results from waterflow tests of eleven different tube bundles, in six- and eight-crosspass configurations on a 90/sup 0/ square layout with a pitch-to-diameter ratio of 1.25 are reported. The test cases include full tube bundles, no-tubes-in-window bundles, finned tube bundles, and proposed field and design fixes. The testing focused on identification of the lowest critical flowrate to initiate fluidelastic instability (large amplitude tube motion) and the location within the bundle of the tubes which first experience instability. The test results are tabulated to permit comparison with results obtained from previous tests with a 30/sup 0/ triangular layout tube bundle. Instability criteria are evaluated preliminarily. Pressure drop data are also generated and reported.

Halle, H.; Wambsganss, M.W.

1983-02-01

368

Fundamentos de un sistema de gestión humana por competencias para soportar la estrategia organizacional en una pyme del sector de la industria de las artes gráficas en Cali (Colombia) / Fundamentals of a competency-based human resource management system that supports the organizational strategy of a medium-sized company in the graphic arts industry in Cali (Colombia) / Fundamentos de um sistema de gestão humana por competências para apoiar a estratégia organizacional de uma pequema e média empresa do setor da indústria de artes gráficas em Cali (Colômbia)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese A competitividade é um fator-chave para melhorar a posição sócio-econômica das organizações, para a qual é necessário alinhar o recurso humano à estratégia da empresa. O objetivo desta investigação é desenvolver os fundamentos de um sistema de gestão humana por competências para apoiar a estratégia [...] organizacional de uma empresa mediana do setor de artes gráficas em Cali, Colômbia, para a qual se levou em conta um estudo descritivo e qualitativo, analisou- -se a estratégia da empresa utilizando o modelo analítico de Beer (2001), estabeleceram-se as competências organizacionais e distintas dos cargos críticos para o sucesso da estratégia e estabeleceram-se diretrizes para criar os subsistemas de gestão humana. Abstract in spanish La competitividad es un factor clave para mejorar la posición socioeconómica de las organizaciones, para lo cual es necesario alinear el recurso humano a la estrategia de la empresa. El objetivo de esta investigación es desarrollar los fundamentos de un sistema de gestión humana por competencias par [...] a soportar la estrategia organizacional en una empresa mediana del sector de las artes gráficas en Cali (Colombia), para lo cual se llevó a cabo un estudio descriptivo y cualitativo, se analizó la estrategia de la empresa utilizando el modelo analítico de Beer (2001), se establecieron las competencias organizacionales y distintivas de los cargos críticos para el logro de la estrategia, y se plantearon los lineamientos para diseñar los subsistemas de gestión humana. Abstract in english Competitiveness is a key factor for improving the socioeconomic status of organizations. Consequently, there is a need to align human resources with company strategies. The objective of this research was to develop the foundations of a competency-based human management system that supports the organ [...] izational strategy of a medium-sized company in the graphic arts industry in Cali, Colombia. To this end, a qualitative and descriptive study was carried out which involved analyzing the company strategies using Beer's (2001) analytical model, establishing and defining organizational competencies of critical positions to accomplish the strategy, and providing the design guidelines for human resource management subsystems.

AIDA FLORENCIA, MEDINA LORZA; ANA MARÍA, DELGADO ORTEGA; PAOLA ANDREA, LAVADO ALVARADO.

2012-03-01

369

The impact of corporate social responsibility factors on the competitiveness of small and medium-sized enterprises  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has become increasingly important to the competitiveness of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). A positive relationship between the CSR activities of SMEs and their enhanced competitiveness exists, at least if a long-term perspective is adopted (European [...] Competitiveness Report, 2008:106; Mandl & Dorr, 2007:2). Despite the widespread practical and academic interest in CSR and its impact on the competitiveness of SMEs, few theoretical and empirical contributions could be found. The primary objective of this study was to identify and empirically test the CSR factors influencing the competitiveness of SMEs in Uganda. The outcomes of this study will assist SMEs to effectively and responsibly manage their activities to increase their competitiveness. A structured, self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 750 potential SME respondents. The respondents were identified by means of a purposive sampling technique, and the data were collected from 383 usable questionnaires. An exploratory factor analysis was carried out, and Cronbach's alpha coefficients calculated to determine the discriminant validity and reliability of the measuring instrument. Correlations were assessed using structural equation modeling. The empirical results of this study indicate that workforce-oriented CSR activities, society-oriented CSR activities, market-oriented CSR activities and regulated CSR activities significantly influence the competitiveness of SMEs.

Peter, Turyakira; Elmarie, Venter; Elroy, Smith.

2014-02-01

370

Market potential of small and medium-size nuclear reactors as combined heat and power plants in Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The preliminary results are presented concerning a study launched by the Commission of the European Communities to assess the potential market of small and medium-size nuclear reactors through EC member countries. The study was aimed at identifying those factors that may have a role in shaping the eventual deployment and diffusion of this class of nuclear reactors. In a first phase, attention focused on modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors that would be installed to produce low-temperature heat and power. Federal Republic of Germany, Italy and France are the countries for which the investigation has been completed. The time span of interest is up to the year 2020. Referring to this horizon, an appraisal has been made of the number of nuclear units which could come on line to cope with energy demand and their timing. Through the study a distinction is made between technical potential, economic potential, and effective market potential. It is understood indeed that both economic competitiveness towards other energy sources and also institutional or organizational factors may restrict the market which could become accessible and would be covered by the new nuclear plants. (orig.)

371

Designing and Validating a Model for Measuring Sustainability of Overall Innovation Capability of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The business environment is currently characterized by intensified competition at both the national and firm levels. Many studies have shown that innovation positively affect firms in enhancing their competitiveness. Innovation is a dynamic process that requires a continuous, evolving, and mastered management. Evaluating the sustainability of overall innovation capability of a business is a major means of determining how well this firm effectively and efficiently manages its innovation process. A psychometrically valid scale of evaluating the sustainability of overall innovation capability of a firm is still insufficient in the current innovation literature. Thus, this study developed a reliable and valid scale of measuring the sustainability of overall innovation capability construct. The unidimensionality, reliability, and several validity components of the developed scale were tested using the data collected from 175 small and medium-sized enterprises in Iran. A series of systematic statistical analyses were performed. Results of the reliability measures, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, and several components of validity tests strongly supported an eight-dimensional (8D scale of measuring the sustainability of overall innovation capability construct. The dimensions of the scale were strategic management, supportive culture and structure, resource allocation, communication and networking, knowledge and technology management, idea management, project development, and commercialization capabilities.

Mohd Nizam Ab Rahman

2015-01-01

372

The Effect of Founder Family Influence on Hedging and Speculation : Evidence from Danish, Medium-Sized, Manufacturing Firms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We investigate the effect of founder family influence in the form of managers, board of directors, and/or ownership on hedging and speculation in medium-sized, manufacturing firms in Denmark. On a crude measure of use / non-use of derivatives we find only a weak indication of differences between founder family firms and other firms in relation to their management of foreign exchange rate, interest rate, and commodity price exposures. Digging deeper into a subsample of users of foreign exchange derivatives and debt denominated in foreign currency, we find that founder family firms not only tend to hedge more extensively, they also tend to speculate more often than other firms. While the former result on hedging is in line with founder families' lack of monetary diversification and their non-pecuniary investment in the firm, the latter result on speculation is surprising and can only be explained by Adam Smith's observation that men - in this case members of the founder family - tend to overestimate their own abilities and good fortune. The results of the study are important 1) because the interaction between founder family influence and risk management has received limited attention in the literature (in contrast to the attention given to the interaction between founder family influence and corporate performance) and 2) because the founders or the founders' families or heirs control most of the firms in the world.

Aabo, Tom; Kuhn, Jochen

373

Developmentally coordinated extrinsic signals drive human pluripotent stem cell differentiation toward authentic DARPP-32+ medium-sized spiny neurons.  

Science.gov (United States)

Medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) are the only neostriatum projection neurons, and their degeneration underlies some of the clinical features of Huntington's disease. Using knowledge of human developmental biology and exposure to key neurodevelopmental molecules, human pluripotent stem (hPS) cells were induced to differentiate into MSNs. In a feeder-free adherent culture, ventral telencephalic specification is induced by BMP/TGF? inhibition and subsequent SHH/DKK1 treatment. The emerging FOXG1(+)/GSX2(+) telencephalic progenitors are then terminally differentiated, resulting in the systematic line-independent generation of FOXP1(+)/FOXP2(+)/CTIP2(+)/calbindin(+)/DARPP-32(+) MSNs. Similar to mature MSNs, these neurons carry dopamine and A2a receptors, elicit a typical firing pattern and show inhibitory postsynaptic currents, as well as dopamine neuromodulation and synaptic integration ability in vivo. When transplanted into the striatum of quinolinic acid-lesioned rats, hPS-derived neurons survive and differentiate into DARPP-32(+) neurons, leading to a restoration of apomorphine-induced rotation behavior. In summary, hPS cells can be efficiently driven to acquire a functional striatal fate using an ontogeny-recapitulating stepwise method that represents a platform for in vitro human developmental neurobiology studies and drug screening approaches. PMID:23250204

Delli Carri, Alessia; Onorati, Marco; Lelos, Mariah J; Castiglioni, Valentina; Faedo, Andrea; Menon, Ramesh; Camnasio, Stefano; Vuono, Romina; Spaiardi, Paolo; Talpo, Francesca; Toselli, Mauro; Martino, Gianvito; Barker, Roger A; Dunnett, Stephen B; Biella, Gerardo; Cattaneo, Elena

2013-01-15

374

Mexico and emerging carbon markets : investment opportunities for small and medium-size companies and the global climate agenda  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report provides information to the financial services sector on major environmental issues in North America in an effort to identify potential financial opportunities in Mexico regarding the climate change agenda and those coming from possible carbon offset projects. As a non-Annex 1 country, Mexico is not obliged to meet domestic GHG emission reduction targets, but given the strong economic links between Mexico, Canada and the United States it is suggested that investment transfer links to climate change should follow existing international investment and trade patterns. This report examined three sectors in Mexico, including electric power generation, steel production and land-use change and forestry, in an effort to evaluate their potential for carbon reduction. The report identifies carbon-related opportunities involving small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) in particular because large companies are already better positioned to examine opportunities associated with the international climate agenda. SMEs, however, face many challenges in taking advantage of climate-related projects and associated investment opportunities, including higher entry and transaction costs, difficulty in accessing capital markets, and difficulty in estimating individual baselines and inventories. The report showed that the main carbon-related opportunity in Mexico's electricity sector are closely related to the planned expansion of natural gas use. This study also suggests that th gas use. This study also suggests that the climate agenda can contribute to changing Mexican forests from their current state of being a net source of greenhouse gas emissions, to becoming a significant carbon sink. tabs., figs

375

Series of bursting experiments on medium size pressure vessels in the context of the American HSST Programme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The experiments on medium size pressure vessels with defined concentrated faults permit comparison of the experimentally determined bursting behaviour with the results of previously determined analytical calculations. Estimates of extension at fracture based on linear elastic fracture mechanism LEBM calculations were accurate in those cases where (1) faults were arranged in areas of high transverse restraint and (2) the fracture strength valves were so low that crack instability occurred before the whole wall region started to flow. LEBM calculations of the critical load started from fracture strength data, which were determined from small samples. When the whole wall region started to flow, the actual extensions were noticeably greater than the fracture extensions calculated using the LEBM. In these cases the strength of the vessel no longer depends on the strength in the even extension condition (elastic extension), but on the ability of the damaged area to carry the load on it stably up to the plastic flow condition. The ability of the faulty vessel to carry load up to flow of the whole wall region has important qualitative effects on the safety margin of pressure vessels. The whole flow condition occurs in LWR pressure vessels at about double the design pressure. This pressure vessel load condition is generally far above the normal and fault operation and emergency conditions which are usually supported and taken into account. (orig.)unt. (orig.)

376

Market potential of small and medium-size nuclear reactors as combined heat and power plants in Europe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The preliminary results are presented concerning a study launched by the Commission of the European Communities to assess the potential market of small and medium-size nuclear reactors through EC member countries. The study was aimed at identifying those factors that may have a role in shaping the eventual deployment and diffusion of this class of nuclear reactors. In a first phase, attention focused on modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors that would be installed to produce low-temperature heat and power. Federal Republic of Germany, Italy and France are the countries for which the investigation has been completed. The time span of interest is up to the year 2020. Referring to this horizon, an appraisal has been made of the number of nuclear units which could come on line to cope with energy demand and their timing. Through the study a distinction is made between technical potential, economic potential, and effective market potential. It is understood indeed that both economic competitiveness towards other energy sources and also institutional or organizational factors may restrict the market which could become accessible and would be covered by the new nuclear plants.

Candeli, R.; Leuchs, D.; Garribba, S.F.; Hansen, U.; Lefevre, J.C.; Schoen, R.; Vivante, C.

377

Market potential of small and medium-size nuclear reactors as combined heat and power plants in Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Study has been launched and supported by the Commission of the European Communities to assess the potential market of small and medium size nuclear reactors through EC Countries and to identify those factors which may play a dominant role in this respect. In its first phase, the Study addresses to modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors that would be installed to produce low-temperature heat and power. Federal Republic of Germany, Italy and France are the countries for which the investigation has been either completed or is under way. The time span of interest is up to the year 2020. Referring to this horizon an appraisal has been made of the number of nuclear units which could come on line to cope with energy demand and their timing. Through the Study a distinction is made between technical potential, economic potential, and effective market potential. It is understood indeed that both economic competitiveness towards other energy sources and institutional or organizational factors may restrict the market which could be covered by this class of nuclear reactors. (author)

378

Social participation among older adults living in medium-sized cities in Belgium: the role of neighbourhood perceptions.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the associations between neighbourhood perceptions and social participation in a sample of older adults living in medium-sized cities in Flanders, Belgium. Strong evidence of the influence of place on older people's physical and mental health exists. However, the question of how neighbourhoods promote or hinder social participation remains under-explored in social gerontology. Using data generated from the Belgian Ageing Studies, a multivariate regression model (n = 1877) is tested, with personal characteristics, subjective neighbourhood assessments and objective city-level measures as independent variables, and two indicators of social participation as dependent variables: social activity and formal participation. Positive predictors included neighbourhood involvement, frequent contact with neighbours and availability of activities for older people. However, the predictive role of neighbourhood perceptions is stronger for formal participation than for social activity, which is explained more by individual characteristics. The article concludes by discussing the implications of the findings for research and practice pertaining to health promotion interventions. PMID:23503290

Buffel, Tine; De Donder, Liesbeth; Phillipson, Chris; Dury, Sarah; De Witte, Nico; Verté, Dominique

2014-12-01

379

Preliminary Design Study of Medium Sized Gas Cooled Fast Reactor with Natural Uranium as Fuel Cycle Input  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study a fesibility design study of medium sized (1000 MWt) gas cooled fast reactors which can utilize natural uranium as fuel cycle input has been conducted. Gas Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) is among six types of Generation IV Nuclear Power Plants. GFR with its hard neuron spectrum is superior for closed fuel cycle, and its ability to be operated in high temperature (850° C) makes various options of utilizations become possible. To obtain the capability of consuming natural uranium as fuel cycle input, modified CANDLE burn-up scheme[1-6] is adopted this GFR system by dividing the core into 10 parts of equal volume axially. Due to the limitation of thermal hydraulic aspects, the average power density of the proposed design is selected about 70 W/cc. As an optimization results, a design of 1000 MWt reactors which can be operated 10 years without refueling and fuel shuffling and just need natural uranium as fuel cycle input is discussed. The average discharge burn-up is about 280 GWd/ton HM. Enough margin for criticallity was obtained for this reactor.

Meriyanti; Su'ud, Zaki; Rijal, K.; Zuhair; Ferhat, A.; Sekimoto, H.

2010-06-01

380

The comparative analysis of safety and economic competitiveness of the advanced medium sized reactor projects of NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In spite of the fact that medium sized reactors are less economic favourable in comparison to large sized reactors, they have a greater safety, low capital investments, shorter terms of construction, relative constructive simplicity, are well combined with rather small electrical distributive systems. For power of Kazakhstan these circumstances are important. The comparative analysis results of the safety and economic competitiveness of the seven advanced medium sized reactors projects (100-700 MW) are submitted in that report: WWER-640 (V-407), Atomenergoproject/Gidropress Russian Federation; Candu 6, Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd; AC-600, China National Nuclear Corporation, China; AP600, Westinghouse, USA; HSBWR, Hitachi, Japan; MS-600, Mitsubishi, Japan; SBWR, General Electric, USA. According to the economic competitiveness of listed compared power reactors the 14 criteria of safety have been accepted. These criteria: 1. Features of the barrier system of 'defence-in-depth'. 2. The self-security of a reactor under increase of power and reactivity of a reactor, decrease of the expense and phase transformations of the reactor core coolant (presence of negative feedbacks). 3. Presence of the reactor shutdown systems responding principles of a variety, independence and reservation. Presence of the passive means of initiation and operation of the emergency protection. 4. The emergency cooling of the core of reactor. A presence of the passive means of cooling. Presence of the passive means of cooling. Presence of the water reservation for the water supply of the different safety systems. 5. The emergency electrical supply, its reliability and degree of reservation. 6. The prevention measures of the heavy accident with the melt core. The decrease of the heavy accident probability. 7. The account of the heavy accident under development of the levels of protection. 8. The protection levels of NPP, the technological criteria of efficiency of the each safety barriers and the limiting radiation criteria for the each level of protection , in particular for the design-basis and beyond-design-basis accidents. 9. The measures for reduction of the heavy accident consequences. The management by the beyond-design-basis accidents. 10. The NPP protection against the external impacts (earthquake, explosion of shells and rockets, fall of plane). 11. The probability analysis results of safety, their conformity the modern requirements. 12. The test checks of the safety means (principles, elements, technical decisions) in the operating conditions, the former experience or the tests. 13. The measures of the cost reduction of construction, equipment, materials and OM of NPP. The economic parameters. 14. The additional distinctive features of a power reactor. The following conclusions have been accepted from comparative consideration of reactors: 1. All considered reactors correspond the modern requirements of safety. 2. The reactor Candu-6, AP-600, WWER-640 are more preferable under position of safety, adaptability to manufacture and economic competitiveness among the considered reactors

381

The Impact of Firm Size on Dividend Behaviour: A Study With Reference to Corporate Firms across Industries in India  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this paper is to examine the association between the Corporate Leverage (CL) and the Dividend Policy (DP) of firms across industries in India in respect of Size of Corporate Firms. The investigation is conducted on a panel sample of 73 firms across industries [Cement, Chemical and Fertilizer, IT, Oil and Gas, Pharmaceutical, Shipping, and Textiles], which listed their shares in National Stock Exchange (NSE) in India for the period 1996–2007. The impacts of Capital Structure...

Azhagaiah Ramachandran; Veeramuthu Packkirisamy

2010-01-01

382

The Effects of Industry Type, Company Size and Performance on Chinese Companies’ IC Disclosure: A Research Note  

OpenAIRE

This paper examines the effects of industry type, firm size and corporate performance on intellectual capital (IC) disclosure among Chinese (mainland) companies. It was found that industry type did not have a significant influence on IC reporting practices of Chinese firms; the larger firms generally reported more IC information than the relatively smaller firms; and there was a positive relationship between corporate performance and IC disclosure. This paper contributes to fairly limited lit...

Yi An; Howard Davey; Eggleton, Ian R. C.

2011-01-01

383

Impact of Top Management Team on Firm Performance in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Adopting Commercial Open-Source Enterprise Resource Planning  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the large number of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the United States, their increasing interest in enterprise-wide software systems and their impact on the US economy, it is important to understand the determinants that can facilitate the successful implementation and assimilation of such technology into these firms' daily…

Cereola, Sandra J.; Wier, Benson; Norman, Carolyn Strand

2012-01-01

384

Towards a Service-Oriented Enterprise: The Design of a Cloud Business Integration Platform in a Medium-Sized Manufacturing Enterprise  

Science.gov (United States)

This case study research followed the two-year transition of a medium-sized manufacturing firm towards a service-oriented enterprise. A service-oriented enterprise is an emerging architecture of the firm that leverages the paradigm of services computing to integrate the capabilities of the firm with the complementary competencies of business…

Stamas, Paul J.

2013-01-01

385

The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe: A Bibliographic Guide to Recommended Books for Small and Medium-Sized Libraries and School Media Centers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intended to aid librarians in small- and medium-sized libraries and media centers, this annotated bibliography lists 1,555 books focusing on the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. The book is divided into four parts: (1) "General and Interrelated Themes--Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics and Eastern European Countries"; (2) "Russian Empire…

Horak, Stephan M.

386

Growth phase-associated changes in the proteome and transcriptome of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in industrial-type whey medium.  

Science.gov (United States)

The growth phase during which probiotic bacteria are harvested and consumed can strongly influence their performance as health-promoting agents. In this study, global transcriptomic and proteomic changes were studied in the widely used probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG during growth in industrial-type whey medium under strictly defined bioreactor conditions. The expression of 636 genes (P ? 0.01) and 116 proteins (P growth phase-dependent changes occurred during the transition from the exponential to the stationary growth phase and were associated with the shift from glucose fermentation to galactose utilization and the transition from homolactic to mixed acid fermentation. Furthermore, several genes encoding proteins proposed to promote the survival and persistence of L. rhamnosus GG in the host and proteins that directly contribute to human health showed temporal changes in expression. Our results suggest that L. rhamnosus GG has a highly flexible and adaptable metabolism and that the growth stage during which bacterial cells are harvested and consumed should be taken into consideration to gain the maximal benefit from probiotic bacteria. PMID:21883975

Laakso, Kati; Koskenniemi, Kerttu; Koponen, Johanna; Kankainen, Matti; Surakka, Anu; Salusjärvi, Tuomas; Auvinen, Petri; Savijoki, Kirsi; Nyman, Tuula A; Kalkkinen, Nisse; Tynkkynen, Soile; Varmanen, Pekka

2011-11-01

387

Contribution to the integration methodology of environment in the small and medium enterprises or industries: evaluation of environmental performances  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The integration of environmental criteria into industrial plants working is nowadays an obligation for companies. Implementation of an Environmental Management System (EMS) is a mean to integrate these criteria, and the system registration (by ISO 14001 or EMAS standards) enables companies to demonstrate the validity of their environmental behaviour to interested parties. Our experience in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) has allowed us to note the inadequacy between their environmental integration level and EMS requirements. In addition to that, we have observed that environmental assessment methods, which could enable SMEs to make up for lost time, were not adapted to their specificities. However, two recent approaches are innovative: the first one is based on a progressive processes, the second one on an environmental information system, based on indicators construction. On the basis of existing methods study, improved with our SMEs experience, our approach consists of developing an environmental integration method, joining the progressive aspect (construction of a 'multi-phases' method) and the information treatment (exploitation of environmental data by indicators construction). We propose a four phases method, - environmental performance evaluation, internal and external results exploitation, process perpetuation -, setting up an information treatment system, by means of compliance, progress and monitoring indicators. Leading to implementation of an environmental performance continuous improvement cycle, this process enables companies to step forward EMS implementation. (author)

388

Policy options to promote energy efficient and environmentally sound technologies in small- and medium-scale industries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper discusses the role of small and medium scale industries (SMIs) in the economy, its energy consumption and impact on the environment. An overview of the energy and environment policies of China, India, Sri Lanka, the Philippines and Vietnam, and the role of energy efficient and environmentally sound technologies (E{sup 3}ST) as a viable means to meet these modern challenges in SMI is discussed. The energy used in the textile sector, electricity, coal and fuel oil, is quoted as an example. The barriers faced in adopting these technologies have been identified and an analysis has been done of the various strategies and policy options available to governments to promote E{sup 3}ST in SMI. Examples and illustrations of such successful efforts have also been highlighted. One such example is the enforced repositioning by the Pollution Control Board of all SMI with inefficient coal furnaces in Agra, India to outside the town to save the Taj Mahal from marble corrosion. 22 refs., 1 fig., 10 tabs.

M. Thiruchelvam; S. Kumar; C. Visvanathan [Asian Institute of Technology, Pathumthani (Thailand). School of Environment, Resources and Development

2003-08-01

389

SIZE ENTERPRISES’ INFLUENCE FOR INNOVATION ACTIVITY IN REGIONAL INDUSTRIAL SYSTEM IN POMORSKIE REGION IN 2009-2011  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In transition countries, company’s size has a big impact on economy processes, including innovation activity in industry. The main objective of the study was to search for the impact of class size of enterprises on their innovation activity within the regional industrial system in Pomorskie region, and consequently determine the boundary conditions for the model structure of regional innovation networks, which take into account the specificity of region, allowing a skillful creation of innovation policy. Methodological part of the study was based on probit modeling (probability theory.

Arkadiusz ?wiadek

2014-06-01

390

Information and knowledge sharing trends of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Western Cape, South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs, especially in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, are currently facing various financial and other obstacles, which may threaten their survival. Globalisation, the lowering of trade barriers and the reduction of import tariffs have resulted in increased international competition. Businesses are thus forced to undertake continuous improvements and innovation in order to survive, to keep abreast of change and to excel.

Objectives: Effective knowledge sharing and consequent knowledge management (KM have been identified as definite approaches to enhancing competitive advantage. The research therefore aimed to establish to what extent small enterprises embrace their knowledge sharing activities and whether their knowledge sharing activities are managed at all. Furthermore, it examined how their knowledge sharing can contribute to their competitive advantage.

Method: A case study approach was followed for this research. Selected SMEs from the engineering sector were the subject of the case study and SME owners, directors and managers of consulting civil engineering firms were interviewed to determine whether there are mechanisms in place to ensure better knowledge sharing within SMEs.

Results: In general, respondents had stated that they possessed special factors that set them above their competitors:

• The company strategy and good reputation of completing projects within the required timeframe. In other words, they were well known for their track record in terms of service delivery.
• Their specialty in terms of different focus areas, namely structural and civil engineering, water supply and storm water design, transportation, sewer design and storm water traffic.
• The fact that they operated in silos. This means that the specialists in their specific fields operated independently in groups, separately from everyone else in the company.
• Their good relationship with local authorities and other companies in the field.
• Their multidisciplinary approach in incorporating all spheres of civil engineering, which gave them a niche in the market.
• The vast knowledge and experience of the owners and directors.

Conclusion: Each of the companies interviewed had unique skills that they can apply to their advantage. They were also found to be implementing KM processes such as sharing, creating and leveraging of information and knowledge, albeit in the absence of formal policies. It was therefore deduced that SME successes depend on how well they share their tacit and explicit knowledge; this will determine whether they would excel above their competitors.

How to cite this article:
Mohsam, F. & Van Brakel, P.A., 2011, ‘Information and knowledge sharing trends of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Western Cape, South Africa’, SA Journal of Information Management 13(1, Art. #462, 10 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajim.v13i1.462

Faeda Mohsam

2011-03-01

391

Development of potential ecological niches in impact-induced hydrothermal systems: The small-to-medium size impacts  

Science.gov (United States)

Effect of meteorite impact on the biological evolution is usually considered by its catastrophic consequences. However, the impacts can create opportunity for other organisms and the structures themselves can serve as suitable ecological niches (oases) for life. In this contribution we present results of modeling of an impact-induced hydrothermal (IHT) system in a small-to-medium sized impact crater, where the development of zones habitable for primitive hydrothermal thermophilic and hypethermophilic microorganisms was studied. The impact and geothermal modeling was verified against the 4-km diameter Kärdla complex structure, Hiiumaa Island, Estonia. If there is an sufficient amount of water present in the target (e.g., sea cover, groundwater or permafrost resources) then the differential temperature fields created by the impact initiate a hydrothermal circulation system within the crater. The results of transient fluid flow and heat transfer simulations in Kärdla suggest that immediately after impact the temperatures in the central area, which contains the most hydrothermal alteration, were well above the boiling point. However, due to efficient heat loss at the groundwater vaporization front, the vapor-dominated area disappears within a few decades. In the central uplift area, the conditions favorable for thermophilic microorganisms (temperatures melting, the suitable conditions for hydrothermal microbial communities are established shortly (tens to few hundreds of years as maximum) after the impact in most parts of the crater. In the central uplift area the microbial colonization is inhibited for about a thousand years. However, this is the area, which afterwards retains the optimum temperatures (45-120 °C) needed for hydrothermal microorganisms for the longest period. Geochemical and mineralogical data suggest, in general, neutral pH 7(±1) fluid of the IHT system, which is, when compared to volcanic hydrotherms, richer in dissolved oxygen and poor in reduced compounds. This suggests the preference for sulfur-reducing microorganisms in the possible impact-induced hydrothermal communities.

Versh, Evelin; Kirsimäe, Kalle; Jõeleht, Argo

2006-12-01

392

MDCT abnormalities of small- and medium-sized bronchus in active tuberculosis: a new angle on an old disease  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Background: The incidence and findings of tuberculous invasion of the peripheral bronchus have not been fully investigated with MDCT. Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence and findings of MDCT abnormalities of small- and medium-sized bronchus (SMB) in active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Material and Methods: Using multiplanar reformation, 35 consecutive MDCT scans (follow-up exams available in 14 patients with a mean interval of 8.1 months) were assessed for following abnormalities of SMB: bronchial impaction (BI), wall thickening, dilatation, peribronchial cuff of soft tissue, and bronchocavitary fistula. It was also assessed whether tree-in-buds (TIB) have a tendency to distribute in the territories of diseased SMB, and whether SMB abnormalities are present in patients with relatively mild disease. Results: SMB abnormalities were observed in 23 (65.7%) patients with active TB. The most frequent finding was wall thickening (n=18, 51.4%), followed by BI (n=13, 37.1%; zigzag-shaped in four), dilatation (n =11, 31.4%), amputated appearance of air column (n=11, 31.4%), peribronchial cuff of soft tissue (n=10, 28.6%), and bronchocavitary fistula (n=8, 22.9%). TIB (n=29; absent in two patients with SMB) was mainly within (n=14) or close to (n=4) the territory of diseased SMB. Follow-up CT frequently showed improvement of wall thickening (11/12) and persistence of bronchial dilatation (11/13). SMB abnormality was present in all of six patients with mild disease. Conclusion: MDCT shows that tuberculous invasion of the peripheral bronchus may be more frequent than previously thought, of which findings include wall thickening, BI, dilatation, amputated appearance of air column, peribronchial cuff of soft tissue and bronchocavitary fistula

Oh, Jin Kyoung; Ahn, Myeong Im; Jung, Jung Im; Han, Dae Hee (Dept. of Radiology, Seoul St Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)), email: lepolder@gmail.com; Kim, Young Kyoon (Dept. of Internal Medicine, Seoul St Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Oh, Eun-Jee; Park, Yeon-Joon (Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Seoul St Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of))

2011-02-15

393

Association of sulfur dioxide exposure with circulatory system deaths in a medium-sized city in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english There is a demonstrable association between exposure to air pollutants and deaths due to cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of exposure to sulfur dioxide on mortality due to circulatory diseases in individuals 50 years of age or older residing in São Jos [...] é dos Campos, SP. This was a time-series ecological study for the years 2003 to 2007 using information on deaths due to circulatory disease obtained from Datasus reports. Data on daily levels of pollutants, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone, temperature, and humidity were obtained from the São Paulo State Environmental Agency. Moving average models for 2 to 7 days were calculated by Poisson regression using the R software. Exposure to SO2 was analyzed using a unipollutant, bipollutant or multipollutant model adjusted for mean temperature and humidity. The relative risks with 95%CI were obtained and the percent decrease in risk was calculated. There were 1928 deaths with a daily mean (± SD) of 1.05 ± 1.03 (range: 0-6). Exposure to SO2 was significantly associated with mortality due to circulatory disease: RR = 1.04 (95%CI = 1.01 to 1.06) in the 7-day moving average, after adjusting for ozone. There was an 8.5% decrease in risk in the multipollutant model, proportional to a decrease of SO2 concentrations. The results of this study suggest that residents of medium-sized Brazilian cities with characteristics similar to those of São José dos Campos probably have health problems due to exposure to air pollutants.

C.T., Amancio; L.F.C., Nascimento.

1080-10-01

394

Risk factors for uterine diseases on small- and medium-sized dairy farms determined by clinical, bacteriological, and cytological examinations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The involution process of the postpartum bovine uterus is usually accompanied by invasion of various bacteria. The objectives of this study were to identify the relationship between the postpartum findings as risk factors for clinical endometritis (CE) and subclinical endometritis (SE). Furthermore, the effects of CE or SE on reproductive performance in small- and medium-sized dairy herds were investigated. A total of 400 cows were examined by vaginoscopy for CE at 20 to 30 days postpartum, and samples were collected for cytological examinations for SE and for bacteriology by cytobrush technique. The vaginoscopic and cytological examinations showed that 27.3% and 21.0% of the cows were found with CE and SE, respectively. The bacterial community analyses revealed a large variety of bacteria. Overall, bacteria from the order Actinomycetales, Lactobacillales, Bacillales, Burkholderiales, Caulobacteriales Enterobacteriales, Pasteurellales, and Pseudomonadales were detected, whereas in 39.5% of the samples no bacterial growth was detectable. The uterine pathogens Escherichia coli and Trueperella pyogenes were found in 16.8% and 13.0% of the samples cultivated under aerobic conditions. Other frequently isolated bacteria were Streptococcus spp. (31.3%), Staphylococcus spp. (20.0%), Corynebacterium spp. (16.5%), and Bacillus spp. (10.5%). The infection with T. pyogenes was the most important bacteriological risk factor for the occurrence of CE (odds ratio (OR) = 5.72; 95% CI = 3.07-10.83) and had a detrimental effect on the hazard of nonpregnancy by 200 days postpartum (hazard ratio = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.12-2.46). Calving assistance (OR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.16-2.98) and farm (OR = 1.11; 95% CI = 1.02-1.20) were indicated as further risk factors for CE and SE. Effects of CE and SE on reproductive performance parameters could not be demonstrated. PMID:25066047

Prunner, Isabella; Wagener, Karen; Pothmann, Harald; Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Drillich, Marc

2014-10-01

395

The Role of Remote Sensing for Sustainable Elephant Management in South Africa. Four Medium Sized Game Reserves as Case Studies  

Science.gov (United States)

Loxodonta africana (African Elephant) are running out of living space so the protection of what space they have is essential. Existing areas of suitable elephant habitat need to be protected not only from human development but from the elephants themselves. As most elephant populations in South Africa are enclosed and multiplying, there is some increasing cause for concern as the damage caused will escalate and could reach unsustainable proportions. This study examined the utilization of satellite images for the detection of elephant induced ecosystem modification. A pilot study was conducted on four medium sized Game Reserves (each ±30 000 ha) in South Africa. The aim was to ascertain the feasibility of using image analysis as instrument by which Game Reserve managers could assess biodiversity richness, habitat loss, and population-habitat viability. NDVI as indicator of primary production in vegetation is one of the instruments used to evaluate whether the carrying capacity for elephants of each Game Reserve has been reached and to compare the current biomass with those of previous years. The study also looked at the use of the woody canopy cover as target for change detection analysis. Spectral characteristics of specific trees species which are known for being preferred by elephants were used to conduct a temporal analysis on satellite images starting from the period when the elephants were re-introduced into each Game Reserve, thus attempting to identify possible impact on the biodiversity of the respective Game Reserves. Images from satellites such as Landsat, SPOT, Quickbird and SumbandilaSAT provided the needed data and maps.

Jordaan, M.

2012-07-01

396

Subsurface oceans and deep interiors of medium-sized outer planet satellites and large trans-neptunian objects  

Science.gov (United States)

The detection of induced magnetic fields in the vicinity of the jovian satellites Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto is one of the most surprising findings of the Galileo mission to Jupiter. The observed magnetic signature cannot be generated in solid ice or in silicate rock. It rather suggests the existence of electrically conducting reservoirs of liquid water beneath the satellites' outermost icy shells that may contain even more water than all terrestrial oceans combined. The maintenance of liquid water layers is closely related to the internal structure, composition, and thermal state of the corresponding satellite interior. In this study we investigate the possibility of subsurface oceans in the medium-sized icy satellites and the largest trans-neptunian objects (TNO's). Controlling parameters for subsurface ocean formation are the radiogenic heating rate of the silicate component and the effectiveness of the heat transfer to the surface. Furthermore, the melting temperature of ice will be significantly reduced by small amounts of salts and/or incorporated volatiles such as methane and ammonia that are highly abundant in the outer Solar System. Based on the assumption that the satellites are differentiated and using an equilibrium condition between the heat production rate in the rocky cores and the heat loss through the ice shell, we find that subsurface oceans are possible on Rhea, Titania, Oberon, Triton, and Pluto and on the largest TNO's 2003 UB 313, Sedna, and 2004 DW. Subsurface oceans can even exist if only small amounts of ammonia are available. The liquid subsurface reservoirs are located deeply underneath an ice-I shell of more than 100 km thickness. However, they may be indirectly detectable by their interaction with the surrounding magnetic fields and charged particles and by the magnitude of a satellite's response to tides exerted by the primary. The latter is strongly dependent on the occurrence of a subsurface ocean which provides greater flexibility to a satellite's rigid outer ice shell.

Hussmann, Hauke; Sohl, Frank; Spohn, Tilman

2006-11-01

397

Influence of particle size distribution on inhalation doses to workers in the Florida phosphate industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have indicated that inhalation exposures to TENORM aerosols are potentially a major contributor to the annual total effective dose to workers in the Florida phosphate industry. Further research was deemed necessary to characterize the particle size distribution of these aerosols containing various radionuclides of the U decay series. In the present study, individualized assessments of worker committed effective doses are reported in which detailed information is used on the particle size distribution, particle density, particle shape, and radioactivity concentrations from sampled aerosols at 6 different phosphate facilities and at various worker areas within these facilities. Inhalation dose assessments are calculated using the ICRP 66 human respiratory tract model as implemented within the LUDEP and IMBA computer codes. Under the least conservative assumptions of radionuclide-specific lung solubility, the annual total effective doses are shown to be 0.31+/-0.12, 0.27+/-0.07, and 0.22+/-0.02 mSv at granulator, storage, and shipping areas, respectively, and thus all annual doses are below the annual limits to the members of the general public (1 mSv y). In contrast, the most conservative assumptions of lung solubility by radionuclide yield annual total effective doses of 2.24+/-2.53 mSv at granulator areas, 1.26+/-1.19 mSv at storage areas, and 0.56+/-0.36 mSv at shipping areas. In this later case, some 44%, 31%, and 15% of individual dose assessments yield worker doses above the annual dose limit. The study thus demonstrates the importance of facility- and area-specific particle solubility data in dose assessments for regulatory compliance and for making decisions regarding worker respiratory protection. PMID:16775481

Kim, Kwang Pyo; Wu, Chang-Yu; Birky, Brian K; Bolch, Wesley E

2006-07-01

398

Striatal medium-sized spiny neurons: identification by nuclear staining and study of neuronal subpopulations in BAC transgenic mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Precise identification of neuronal populations is a major challenge in neuroscience. In the striatum, more than 95% of neurons are GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs), which form two intermingled populations distinguished by their projections and protein content. Those expressing dopamine D(1)-receptors (D1Rs) project preferentially to the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), whereas those expressing dopamine D(2)- receptors (D2Rs) project preferentially to the lateral part of the globus pallidus (LGP). The degree of segregation of these populations has been a continuous subject of debate, and the recent introduction of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic mice expressing fluorescent proteins driven by specific promoters was a major progress to facilitate striatal neuron identification. However, the fraction of MSNs labeled in these mice has been recently called into question, casting doubt on the generality of results obtained with such approaches. Here, we performed an in-depth quantitative analysis of striatal neurons in drd1a-EGFP and drd2-EGFP mice. We first quantified neuronal and non-neuronal populations in the striatum, based on nuclear staining with TO-PRO-3, and immunolabeling for NeuN, DARPP-32 (dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein Mr approximately 32,000), and various markers for interneurons. TO-PRO-3 staining was sufficient to identify MSNs by their typical nuclear morphology and, with a good probability, interneuron populations. In drd1a-EGFP/drd2-EGFP double transgenic mice all MSNs expressed EGFP, which was driven in about half of them by drd1a promoter. Retrograde labeling showed that all MSNs projecting to the SNr expressed D1R and very few D2R (<1%). In contrast, our results were compatible with the existence of some D1R-EGFP-expressing fibers giving off terminals in the LGP. Thus, our study shows that nuclear staining is a simple method for identifying MSNs and other striatal neurons. It also unambiguously confirms the degree of segregation of MSNs in the mouse striatum and allows the full exploitation of results obtained with BAC-transgenic mice. PMID:19274089

Matamales, Miriam; Bertran-Gonzalez, Jesus; Salomon, Lucas; Degos, Bertrand; Deniau, Jean-Michel; Valjent, Emmanuel; Hervé, Denis; Girault, Jean-Antoine

2009-01-01

399

Inclusion of potential vorticity uncertainties into a hydrometeorological forecasting chain: application to a medium size basin of Mediterranean Spain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The improvement of the short- and mid-range numerical runoff forecasts over the flood-prone Spanish Mediterranean area is a challenging issue. This work analyses four intense precipitation events which produced floods of different magnitude over the Llobregat river basin, a medium size catchment located in Catalonia, north-eastern Spain. One of them was a devasting flash flood – known as the "Montserrat" event – which produced 5 fatalities and material losses estimated at about 65 million euros. The characterization of the Llobregat basin's hydrological response to these floods is first assessed by using rain-gauge data and the Hydrologic Engineering Center's Hydrological Modeling System (HEC-HMS runoff model. In second place, the non-hydrostatic fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University/NCAR mesoscale model (MM5 is nested within the ECMWF large-scale forecast fields in a set of 54 h period simulations to provide quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs for each hydrometeorological episode. The hydrological model is forced with these QPFs to evaluate the reliability of the resulting discharge forecasts, while an ensemble prediction system (EPS based on perturbed atmospheric initial and boundary conditions has been designed to test the value of a probabilistic strategy versus the previous deterministic approach. Specifically, a Potential Vorticity (PV Inversion technique has been used to perturb the MM5 model initial and boundary states (i.e. ECMWF forecast fields. For that purpose, a PV error climatology has been previously derived in order to introduce realistic PV perturbations in the EPS. Results show the benefits of using a probabilistic approach in those cases where the deterministic QPF presents significant deficiencies over the Llobregat river basin in terms of the rainfall amounts, timing and localization. These deficiences in precipitation fields have a major impact on flood forecasts. Our ensemble strategy has been found useful to reduce the biases at different hydrometric sections along the watershed. Therefore, in an operational context, the devised methodology could be useful to expand the lead times associated with the prediction of similar future floods, helping to alleviate their possible hazardous consequences.

A. Amengual

2009-01-01

400

Inclusion of potential vorticity uncertainties into a hydrometeorological forecasting chain: application to a medium size basin of Mediterranean Spain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The improvement of the short- and mid-range numerical runoff forecasts over the flood-prone Spanish Mediterranean area is a challenging issue. This work analyses four intense precipitation events which produced floods of different magnitude over the Llobregat river basin, a medium size catchment located in Catalonia, north-eastern Spain. One of them was a devasting flash flood – known as the "Montserrat" event – which produced 5 fatalities and material losses estimated at about 65 million euros. The characterization of the Llobregat basin's hydrological response to these floods is first assessed by using rain-gauge data and the Hydrologic Engineering Center's Hydrological Modeling System (HEC-HMS runoff model. In second place, the non-hydrostatic fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University/NCAR mesoscale model (MM5 is nested within the ECMWF large-scale forecast fields in a set of 54 h period simulations to provide quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs for each hydrometeorological episode. The hydrological model is forced with these QPFs to evaluate the reliability of the resulting discharge forecasts, while an ensemble prediction system (EPS based on perturbed atmospheric initial and boundary conditions has been designed to test the value of a probabilistic strategy versus the previous deterministic approach. Specifically, a Potential Vorticity (PV Inversion technique has been used to perturb the MM5 model initial and boundary states (i.e. ECMWF forecast fields. For that purpose, a PV error climatology has been previously derived in order to introduce realistic PV perturbations in the EPS. Results show the benefits of using a probabilistic approach in those cases where the deterministic QPF presents significant deficiencies over the Llobregat river basin in terms of the rainfall amounts, timing and localization. These deficiences in precipitation fields have a major impact on flood forecasts. Our ensemble strategy has been found useful to reduce the biases at different hydrometric sections along the watershed. Therefore, in an operational context, the devised methodology could be useful to expand the lead times associated with the prediction of similar future floods, helping to alleviate their possible hazardous consequences.

A. Amengual

2009-06-01

401

Experimental and computational studies on the natural circulation characteristics of a small- and medium-sized reactor, REX-10  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rapid economic development in many countries has led to a growing need for energy. To meet the demand, the nuclear power generation is emerging as a viable alternative because it emits much smaller amount of carbon dioxide as compared to conventional fossil fuel plant produces high power density energy. Because of the latter attractiveness, many large-sized nuclear reactors (?1000 MWe/unit) for electricity generation have been constructed around the world. Recently, small- and medium-sized nuclear reactors (SMRs) receive attention because of its effective adaptability to diversified energy demands. Several attractiveness of the SMR is worth to report here. First, the SMR is a viable alternative for the developing countries that have inferior electricity grids. Second, the SMR may effectively prevent the Large-Break Loss of Coolant Accident (LBLOCA) as it adopts the integral-type reactor. Finally, the SMR is used for various applications - desalination, district heating, small-scale power generation, ship propulsion, to mention a few. These attractiveness provides reasonable justification to construct the SMRs such as SMART, IRIS, CAREM, and KLT-40S. As such, the Regional Energy Research Institute for Next Generation (RERI) has been developing a SMR for regional energy supply, REX-10 since 2005. The REX-10 is the integral-type reactor and relies on natural circulation to improve passive safety. In this study, the natural circulation behavior and capability of therculation behavior and capability of the REX-10 is investigated experimentally as well as numerically. To evaluate the thermal-hydraulics of the REX-10, two experimental facilities . RTF and NACTER . were designed and fabricated using the scaling laws proposed by Ishii et al. Both experimental facilities consist of main components of the core, heat exchanger, hot legs, pressurizer, and chillers; however, both experimental facilities have different heat exchanger systems because two types of the heat exchanger are being considered. To obtain key experimental data, thermocouples, turbine flowmeters, and pressure transducer were installed in the proper location of the experimental facilities. The experiments were performed in two categories steady-state and transient experiment. From the steady-state experiment, it was confirmed that the natural circulation flow can be established successfully in both experimental facilities. With regards to the test on the effect of heater power, the heater power is very likely to influence the natural circulation behavior and thereby the mass flow rate tends to follow the natural circulation model proposed by Zvirin et al well. However, it is observed that the feedwater flow rate affects the temperature distribution of the primary system slightly. On the basis of the steady-state experiments, various transient experiments were conducted. The transient experiments showed that two experimental facilities reached new steady-state conditions due to the changes in the heater power and feedwater flow rate. In the case of RTF, the chiller trip experiment was conducted by stopping the feedwater flow. This chiller trip experiment showed that the RTF has the ability to remove the decay heat if the RHRS is normally operated. In NACTER experiment, loss of the feedwater flow rate was tested. This test showed that the NACTER is capable of removing the primary heat of 10kWt despite breakdown of the two pumps. Various transient tests demonstrated that two experimental facilities have the ability to deal with any emergency. To validate MARS, the MARS simulation was conducted. MARS was in good agreement with both steady-state and transient experiments except for two cases . chiller trip in the RTF and loss of the feedwater flow rate in the NACTER. In case of the chiller trip, MARS reached the trip point faster than the experiment and generated the earlier fluctuation of the primary mass flow rate. The reason may be attributed to two facts. First, MARS ignores heat loss to ambient and therefore more heat is likely to be deposited in the working

402

Experimental and computational studies on the natural circulation characteristics of a small- and medium-sized reactor, REX-10  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The rapid economic development in many countries has led to a growing need for energy. To meet the demand, the nuclear power generation is emerging as a viable alternative because it emits much smaller amount of carbon dioxide as compared to conventional fossil fuel plant produces high power density energy. Because of the latter attractiveness, many large-sized nuclear reactors ({approx}1000 MWe/unit) for electricity generation have been constructed around the world. Recently, small- and medium-sized nuclear reactors (SMRs) receive attention because of its effective adaptability to diversified energy demands. Several attractiveness of the SMR is worth to report here. First, the SMR is a viable alternative for the developing countries that have inferior electricity grids. Second, the SMR may effectively prevent the Large-Break Loss of Coolant Accident (LBLOCA) as it adopts the integral-type reactor. Finally, the SMR is used for various applications - desalination, district heating, small-scale power generation, ship propulsion, to mention a few. These attractiveness provides reasonable justification to construct the SMRs such as SMART, IRIS, CAREM, and KLT-40S. As such, the Regional Energy Research Institute for Next Generation (RERI) has been developing a SMR for regional energy supply, REX-10 since 2005. The REX-10 is the integral-type reactor and relies on natural circulation to improve passive safety. In this study, the natural circulation behavior and capability of the REX-10 is investigated experimentally as well as numerically. To evaluate the thermal-hydraulics of the REX-10, two experimental facilities . RTF and NACTER . were designed and fabricated using the scaling laws proposed by Ishii et al. Both experimental facilities consist of main components of the core, heat exchanger, hot legs, pressurizer, and chillers; however, both experimental facilities have different heat exchanger systems because two types of the heat exchanger are being considered. To obtain key experimental data, thermocouples, turbine flowmeters, and pressure transducer were installed in the proper location of the experimental facilities. The experiments were performed in two categories steady-state and transient experiment. From the steady-state experiment, it was confirmed that the natural circulation flow can be established successfully in both experimental facilities. With regards to the test on the effect of heater power, the heater power is very likely to influence the natural circulation behavior and thereby the mass flow rate tends to follow the natural circulation model proposed by Zvirin et al well. However, it is observed that the feedwater flow rate affects the temperature distribution of the primary system slightly. On the basis of the steady-state experiments, various transient experiments were conducted. The transient experiments showed that two experimental facilities reached new steady-state conditions due to the changes in the heater power and feedwater flow rate. In the case of RTF, the chiller trip experiment was conducted by stopping the feedwater flow. This chiller trip experiment showed that the RTF has the ability to remove the decay heat if the RHRS is normally operated. In NACTER experiment, loss of the feedwater flow rate was tested. This test showed that the NACTER is capable of removing the primary heat of 10kWt despite breakdown of the two pumps. Various transient tests demonstrated that two experimental facilities have the ability to deal with any emergency. To validate MARS, the MARS simulation was conducted. MARS was in good agreement with both steady-state and transient experiments except for two cases . chiller trip in the RTF and loss of the feedwater flow rate in the NACTER. In case of the chiller trip, MARS reached the trip point faster than the experiment and generated the earlier fluctuation of the primary mass flow rate. The reason may be attributed to two facts. First, MARS ignores heat loss to ambient and therefore more heat is likely to be deposited in the working fluid. Second, the helical coil is

Jang, Byeong Il

2012-02-15

403

Steady film-wise condensation with suction on a finite-size horizontal flat plate embedded in a porous medium based on Brinkman and Darcy models  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The steady film-wise condensation outside a finite-size horizontal plate covered with a thick porous medium layer is investigated numerically by boundary layer approximations and Brinkman model. The fourth-order Runge-Kutta scheme and shooting method are employed to solve numerically the nonlinear ordinary differential equation. The results are presented in terms of the dimensionless average Nusselt number Nu-bar and the dimensionless condensate thickness {delta}{sub L}{sup *}-bar. It is shown from the results presented that the Nusselt number increases with increasing suction parameter and it is also the function of various parameters, such as Darcy number, Da, Jacob number, Ja, Prandtl number, Pr, modified Rayleigh number for a porous medium, Ra, and permeability parameter, {lambda}{sub 0}. It is also shown that the boundary effect plays an important role for the condensation heat transfer rate in a porous medium. (authors)

Wang, Shih-Chieh [Department of Computer Application Engineering, Far East College, Tainan 744, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Cha' o-Kuang; Yang, Yue-Tzu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China)

2006-04-15

404

Problems and Opportunities of an International Financial Reporting Standard for Small and Medium-sized Entities. The EAA FRSC's Comment on the IASB's Discussion Paper  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In June 2004 the IASB issued the Discussion Paper "Preliminary Views on Accounting Standards for Small and Medium-Sized Entities". This invited comments on the central question of whether the IASB should develop separate standards for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), and on further issues and questions arising from this. This paper briefly introduces the background to the publication of the Discussion Paper. This is followed by a review of prior litterature on SME financial reporting implications, prepared by the European Accountin Association's Financial Reporting Standards Committee as the basis of its response to the Discussion Paper. The paper concludes with a brief summary of events and issues arising since the end of the consultation period.

Thinggaard, Frank; Evans, Lisa

2005-01-01

405

Composition and relative abundance of terrestrial medium- and large-sized mammals of Parque Estadual da Serra do Brigadeiro, Minas Gerais, Brazil  

OpenAIRE

Three northern areas of Parque Estadual da Serra do Brigadeiro (PESB) were sampled for terrestrial medium- and large-sized mammals, using camera traps, for twelve months. Nine wild species and one domestic species were registered, through 49 records. The community’s composition was based on an exponential series with dominance of few species. In contrast, there was a relatively high proportion of species that might be “rare” in the community observed, with dominance of puma (Puma concol...

André Valle Nunes; Gisele Lessa; Leandro Moraes Scoss

2012-01-01

406

Development of a large-scale isolation chamber system for the safe and humane care of medium-sized laboratory animals harboring infectious diseases*  

OpenAIRE

The close phylogenetic relationship between humans and non-human primates makes non-human primates an irreplaceable model for the study of human infectious diseases. In this study, we describe the development of a large-scale automatic multi-functional isolation chamber for use with medium-sized laboratory animals carrying infectious diseases. The isolation chamber, including the transfer chain, disinfection chain, negative air pressure isolation system, animal welfare system, and the automat...

Pan, Xin; Qi, Jian-cheng; Long, Ming; Liang, Hao; Chen, Xiao; Li, Han; Li, Guang-bo; Zheng, Hao

2010-01-01

407

Species diversity and morphometrics of tardigrades from a medium-size city in the Neotropical Region: Santa Rosa (La Pampa, Argentina)  

OpenAIRE

Tardigrade diversity was studied in a medium-sized city in the Neotropical Region: Santa Rosa (La Pampa, Argentina). Samples were collected between February 1999 and January 2000 from lichens and mosses growing on sidewalk trees of the urban and periurban area. Five species of tardigrades were found, i.e., Echiniscus rufoviridis du Bois-Reymond Marcus, 1944, Macrobiotus areolatus Murray, 1907, Ramazzottius oberhaeuseri (Doyère, 1840), Milnesium cf. tardigradum and a non¿described species of...

Moly Peluffo, M. C.; Rocha, A. R.; Peluffo, J. R.

2007-01-01

408

Focus of B-to-B e-commerce initiatives and related benefits in manufacturing small- and medium-sized enterprises  

OpenAIRE

Empirical research into business-to-business e-commerce issues involving manufacturing small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) is still embryonic. In an attempt to partially fill this gap, this paper presents empirical data from an electronic survey conducted among 96 manufacturing SMEs to investigate e-commerce initiatives and their related benefits. E-commerce initiatives are assessed using a set of 36 business processes that can be conducted electronically. These processes were classifi...

Elie, E.; Lefebvre, L. A.; Lefebvre, E.

2007-01-01

409

Empirical Analysis on Factors of Enterprise Competitiveness: A Case Study for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Northern Rural Areas of Vietnam  

OpenAIRE

This paper attempted to analyze the competitiveness of small and medium-sized enterprises in northern rural areas of Vietnam under the globalization. By using “Resource Cost Ratio” (RCR coefficient), analysis was conducted at enterprise level to identify evidence of competitive advantages. In order to question which has the most influence on the enterprise’s competitiveness, the relationship between RCR and each contributed factor  were quantified.
The results of t...

Huu Cuong Tran; Hung Anh Nguyen; Kim Loan Thi Chu

2011-01-01

410

Companies on their Paths to Justice: How Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the Netherlands Deal with Potential Legal Problems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article presents the results of a recently completed study into the serious and potential legal problems that Dutch small and medium-sized enterprises face, the opponents they encounter and the legal service providers that they engage to deal with these problems. The study is based on two surveys among the 2,300 members of the SME panel of the EIM Business & Policy Research.

Marnix T. Croes

2012-01-01

411

Aspects Regarding the Development and the Integration of the Corporate Social Responsibility Concept in Firms’ Behaviour. Particularities for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises  

OpenAIRE

Starting from the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), the purpose of this article is to highlight some of the particularities, at Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) level, regarding: socially responsible behaviour and participation in actions related to CSR; type of CSR strategies adopted by SMEs as compared to larger firms; the motivations, benefits and constraints of the social involvement. The ultimate question refers to the existence, nature and implications of a link...

Georgeta Vintila; Maricica Moscalu

2009-01-01

412

77 FR 3779 - Guidance for Industry on Product Name Placement, Size, and Prominence in Advertising and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Placement, Size, and Prominence in Advertising and Promotional Labeling; Availability...Placement, Size, and Prominence in Advertising and Promotional Labeling.'' The guidance...frequency in promotional labeling and advertising for prescription human and animal...

2012-01-25

413

Optimization as investment decision supportin a Swedish medium-sized iron foundry : a move beyond traditional energy auditing  

OpenAIRE

Due to increased globalisation, industries are facing greater competition that is pressing companies into decreasing their expenses in order to increase their profits. As regards Swedish industry, it has been faced with substantial increases in energy prices in recent years. Barriers to energy efficiency such as imperfect information inhibit investments in energy efficiency measures, energy audits being one means of reducing barriers and overcoming imperfect information. However, an evaluatio...

Thollander, Patrik; Nawzad, Mardan; Karlsson, Magnus

2009-01-01

414

Estimation of Machinery Market Size for Industrial and Energy Wood Harvesting in Leningrad Region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The recent and coming development of forestry practices in Northwest Russia includes fast implementation of cut-to-length (CTL harvesting, transfer of technology, introduction of commercial thinnings and energy wood harvesting. The market size for industrial and energy wood harvesting machinery was assessed for the Leningrad region. The logging machines fleet consisted of about 700 machines for traditional tree-length technology and 120 harvesters and forwarders for CTL technology. The domestic machinery fleet is obsolete; manufacture of domestic forest machinery has dropped in both quantity and models, and thus imported CTL machinery is replacing domestic tree-length machinery. The results indicate that the market for CTL machinery could be 21 harvesters, 32 forwarders and 26 short-wood trucks per year and could increase to up to 30 – 40 machines each in the future. The maximum need for the machinery in the Leningrad region could be 50 – 60 harvesters, forwarders and short-wood trucks per year if allowable cut and commercial thinnings were realized in full scale. The market for energy wood harvesting machinery could be 4 biomass forwarders, 11 mobile chippers and 13 wood chip trucks per year and could be 6 and 15 – 20 machines per year in the future, respectively. The maximum need could be 30 – 40 biomass forwarders, mobile chippers and wood chip trucks per year. Only one third of the logging enterprises in the region had enough leased forest resources for applying the highly productive mechanized CTL technology. These 41 forest enterprises would need 270machines, consisting of 90 harvesters, 100 forwarders and 80 short-wood trucks. Thirty-seven enterprises would need about 50 biomass forwarders and chippers and 60 wood chip trucks for energy wood harvesting. Sixty percent of the forest leasers had enough forest resources and could be users of Nordic CTL technology if allowable cut was utilized completely and if commercial thinnings were done in full scale. These 68 enterprises would need about 500 conventional logging machines, consisting of 160 harvesters, 190 forwarders and 150 short-wood trucks, and about 300 energy wood harvesting machines, consisting of 100 biomass forwarders, 100 chippers, and 110 wood chip trucks. In addition, the ten largest enterprises would need half of the total fleet.

Yuri Gerasimov

2012-06-01

415

Produção de leite de vacas da raça Holandesa de pequeno, médio e grande porte Milk production of Holstein cows in small, medium and large size  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito do composto corporal sobre a produção de leite de vacas da raça Holandesa de primeira, segunda e terceira lactação. Para avaliação, foram usadas 133 vacas, selecionadas de um rebanho de 280 animais em lactação, classificadas como pequenas, médias e grandes, com base no composto corporal (estatura x 10 + força x 5 + profundidade x 3 + largura de garupa x 2/20. Os dados foram coletados, entre janeiro de 2007 e outubro de 2009, de um rebanho comercial com sistema intensivo de produção de leite, localizado em Salto do Jacuí, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Todas as vacas foram submetidas às mesmas condições de instalações e ordenhadas três vezes ao dia. Os dados foram obtidos com auxílio do software AFIMILK® - SAE AFIKIM. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos (tamanho corporal. Não foi verificada interação entre a produção de leite e composto corporal. Foi observada baixa correlação entre composto corporal e produção de leite. Vacas de porte médio e grande apresentaram produção de leite similar e superior (PThe objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the body size in milk production in the first, second and third lactations of Holstein cows. A total 133 cows were used, selected from a herd of 280 cows, classified as small, medium and large based on the body size composite (stature x 10 + strength x 5 + depth x 3 + rump width x 2/20. Data were collected from January 2007 to October 2009 in a commercial herd with intensive system of milk production, located in Salto Jacuí, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. All cows were subjected to the same conditions of facilities management being used and milked three times a day. Data were obtained from the software Afimilk® - SAE AFIKIM. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with three treatments (body size. There was no interaction between milk production and body composite. Low correlation among body size composite and milk production was observed. Cows for medium and large size had similar on milk production superior (P<0,05 to small size. Means for 305-days milk production in the lactation were 8,053; 8,810 and 9,218 liters for small, medium and large cows, respectively. Based on the totality of lactations evaluated, cows of medium size were more efficient than the others for the intensive production system in question.

Décio Adair Rebellatto da Silva

2011-03-01

416

Innovative small and medium sized reactors: Design features, safety approaches and R and D trends. Final report of a technical meeting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to beat the economy of scale small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) have to incorporate specific design features that result into simplification of the overall plant design, modularization and mass production. Several approaches are being under development and consideration, including the increased use of passive features for reactivity control and reactor shut down, decay heat removal and core cooling, and reliance on the increased margin to fuel failure achieved through the use of advanced high-temperature fuel forms and structural materials. Some SMRs also offer the possibility of very long core lifetimes with burnable absorbers or high conversion ratio in the core. These reactors incorporate increased proliferation resistance and may offer a very attractive solution for the implementation of adequate safeguards in a scenario of global deployment of nuclear power. About 50 concepts and designs of the innovative SMRs are under development in more than 15 IAEA Member States representing both industrialized and developing countries. SMRs are under development for all principle reactor lines, i.e., water cooled, liquid metal cooled, gas cooled, and molten salt cooled reactors, as well as for some non-conventional combinations thereof. Upon a diversity of the conceptual and design approaches to SMRs, it may be useful to identify the so-called enabling technologies that are common to certain reactor types or lines. An enabling technology is the technology that needs to be developed and demonstrated to make a certain reactor concept viable. When a certain technology is common to several SMR concepts or designs, it could benefit from being developed on a common or shared basis. The identification of common enabling technologies could speed up the development and deployment of many SMRs by merging the efforts of their designers through an increased international cooperation. This publication has been prepared through the collaboration of all participants of this meeting and presents its final report, which summarizes the major features and identifies the technology and infrastructure development needs common to certain groups of the SMR concepts and designs considered at the meeting