WorldWideScience

Sample records for medium sized industries

  1. Investigating power factor compensation capacity calculation in medium sized industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are a variety of techniques developed in order to improve the efficiency of electrical systems and reduce cost of providing electricity to the consumer. This paper presents a new technique for power-factor capacity calculation in medium-sized industrial/ commercial setups. Various loads of similar nominal power-factor are categorized and demand-factor of loads is so selected that it has engineering justifications. The developed system works on the principle of low-voltage power-factor correction, which substantially reduces electricity bill and increases loading-capacity of the electrical system. It allows commercial and industrial consumers to save on their power cost appreciably. This work utilizes software, which takes few inputs and produces numerous useful results. Adoption of this system can help the user in computing compensation-capacity, system KVA (size of transformer) and cost of compensation. A feature of this system is prediction of low PF penalty. Moreover, it also suggests the tentative payback period. (author)

  2. Schwarz Shipyards : How a Medium Sized Enterprise Struggles to Survive Disruptive Industry Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohrbeck, René; BØe-Lillegraven, Siri

    2013-01-01

    This case is designed to discuss strategy formation and strategic renewal in small and medium-sized enterprises that are challenged by external disruptive change. The case can be used to teach: external analysis, BCG-matrix, internal analysis (resources and capabilities), Porter’s-5-Forces, industry life-cycle, Porter’s generic strategies, SWOT analysis, strategy formation and business model analysis. The case builds on an in-depth case study conducted in 2011/2012. The case has been anonymized. More specifically the case describes the triumphs and challenges of a medium-sized European shipyard during the past decades. After the industry crisis in the late 80s the yard management steered through an extremely adventurous period. However, due to external and internal difficulties they ultimately faced bankruptcy. Students are asked to put themselves in the shoes of the shipyard management in 2006, a point in time where they still had the possibility to affect its destiny. The case includes an extensive set of questions that covers the most important elements of a master of science degree course in strategy. The questions are also suitable for exam or term papers.

  3. Accidents in the Food-Manufacturing Small and Medium Sized Malaysian Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaliha Hj Hussin

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This research tried to find out the types and causes of accidents that happen in food-manufacturing factories in small and medium-sized industries (SMIs in Kedah and the actions taken by the employers following the occurrence of the accidents. Results showed that majority of the respondents had encountered slight injuries. The majority of the accidents were caused by human factors, and employers seldom took serious actions against those involved in workplace accidents. Small cut was identified as the commonest type of accident that occurred in the SMIs for the past two years. Findings also indicated that many of the employers were less interested in giving out incentives when their employees complied with all the safety rules and regulations while punishments were less serious for those who do not complied with safety rules and regulations.

  4. Financial and Tax Management in Small and Medium Sized Industrial Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestvinová, Viera; Homokyová, Mária; Horváthová, Martina

    2012-12-01

    Target of this paper was to evaluate the importance of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in Slovakia and to determine the application of financial and tax management in this type of enterprises. The results of our findings confirm that SMEs have an important role in Slovakia, and also that especially small businesses have little or no experience with the application of financial and tax management. Therefore the paper contains recommendations for financial and tax management of SMEs.

  5. Eco-modernizing small en medium-sized agro-industries in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Pham Hong Nhat

    2007-01-01

    Following ‘Doi Moi’ (Renovation), which started in 1986, the former centrally planned economy in Vietnam is shifting to an economy where production is linked to market demand and consumption. As a result, the nation has been enjoying an unprecedentedly fast economic growth, especially in recent years: 8.4% in 2005 and 8.17% in 2006. The economic renovation also brought an expansion of the private sector, which consists mainly of small- and medium-sized enterprises, SMEs. The reform proces...

  6. Development strategy of green energy industry for Taipei—A modern medium-sized city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taipei, a subtropical modern medium city, is essentially featured with high population density, scarce land, and large traffic flow. Moreover, there are abundant green energy resources reserved in Taipei. If they were fully developed, there would be 13,040 GWh electricity generated per year, resulting in a total of 9.37 million tons of carbon dioxide emissions abatement. The development of the green energy industry in this city not only can bring significant energy-saving and carbon-reducing benefits, but also may create huge derivative business opportunities. For example, the total output values of the solar PV and electric vehicles industries would be as high as 700 billion yuan. In this study, through Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis, we concluded that the top priorities for Taipei for the development of green energy industries are building energy conservation and electrified transportation, specifically, the following four items: electric vehicles, Light-Emitting Diode (LED) lighting, inverter air conditioning, and Energy Service Company (ESCO). Meanwhile, Taipei is a domestic and international key of politics, transportation, technology, commerce, and finance. Taipei is very likely to become an internationalized green energy industrial hub, achieving the “3E” goals of economic prosperousness, environmental protection, and energy security. -- Highlights: •Building energy conservation and electrified transportation are top priorities. •SWOT analysis applied to systematically conclude four green energy industrial items for Taipei. •Specifically, electric vehicles, LED lighting, inverter air conditioning, and ESCO. •13,040 GWh electricity would be generated per year from Taipei's rich renewables. •The derivative business opportunities would exceed 700 billion yuan

  7. Report on the 2nd European conference on computer-aided design (CAD) in small- and medium-size industries (MICAD 82)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnuson, W.G. Jr.

    1982-10-01

    A summary is presented of the 2nd European conference on computer aided design (CAD) in small- and medium-size industries (MICAD82) held in Paris, France, September 21-23, 1982. The conference emphasized applications of CAD in industries with limited investment resources and which are forced to innovate in order to sustain competition.

  8. Explaining Internationalisation of Small to Medium Sized Enterprises within the Queensland Food and Beverage Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Spowart

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of International New Ventures (INVs has increased during the past twenty years. Nevertheless,to date there has been no general consensus within the literature on an explanation as to the rapid internationalisation of some firms. Do they follow a similar process to other firms that internationalise based ona more ‘measured’ incremental sequential process of internationalisation. This paper proposes and tests an innovation diffusion model of the internationalisation of small firm INVs and others by drawing on keyinnovation diffusion models from the literature. The results of this analysis indicate that the synthesised model ofexport adoption is effective in explaining the internationalisation process of INVs and other firms within theQueensland Food and Beverage Industry. Significantly, the features of the original innovation diffusion modelsdeveloped in the consumer behaviour literature, which had limited examination within the internationalisationliterature, were confirmed. This includes the ability of firms, or specifically decision-makers, to skip stagesbased on previous experience.

  9. Purchasing practice in SMEs : Practical Impressions about the Purchasing Activities of Small and Medium sized Enterprises in the Manufacturing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kulik, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Small and medium sized companies are important to the European economy and considered as the true backbone of the European economy, being primarily responsi-ble for wealth and economic growth. Further, the purchasing function of small and medium sized companies had become more and more important to firms within the creating of competitive advantages. Additional, former research emphasizes the need of companies to engage in closer relationships in order to survive in nowadays business environm...

  10. Development of a Low NOx Medium sized Industrial Gas Turbine Operating on Hydrogen-Rich Renewable and Opportunity Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, Ram

    2013-07-31

    This report presents the accomplishments at the completion of the DOE sponsored project (Contract # DE-FC26-09NT05873) undertaken by Solar Turbines Incorporated. The objective of this 54-month project was to develop a low NOx combustion system for a medium sized industrial gas turbine engine operating on Hydrogen-rich renewable and opportunity Fuels. The work in this project was focused on development of a combustion system sized for 15MW Titan 130 gas turbine engine based on design analysis and rig test results. Although detailed engine evaluation of the complete system is required prior to commercial application, those tasks were beyond the scope of this DOE sponsored project. The project tasks were organized in three stages, Stages 2 through 4. In Stage 2 of this project, Solar Turbines Incorporated characterized the low emission capability of current Titan 130 SoLoNOx fuel injector while operating on a matrix of fuel blends with varying Hydrogen concentration. The mapping in this phase was performed on a fuel injector designed for natural gas operation. Favorable test results were obtained in this phase on emissions and operability. However, the resulting fuel supply pressure needed to operate the engine with the lower Wobbe Index opportunity fuels would require additional gas compression, resulting in parasitic load and reduced thermal efficiency. In Stage 3, Solar characterized the pressure loss in the fuel injector and developed modifications to the fuel injection system through detailed network analysis. In this modification, only the fuel delivery flowpath was modified and the air-side of the injector and the premixing passages were not altered. The modified injector was fabricated and tested and verified to produce similar operability and emissions as the Stage 2 results. In parallel, Solar also fabricated a dual fuel capable injector with the same air-side flowpath to improve commercialization potential. This injector was also test verified to produce 15-ppm NOx capability on high Hydrogen fuels. In Stage 4, Solar fabricated a complete set of injectors and a combustor liner to test the system capability in a full-scale atmospheric rig. Extensive high-pressure single injector rig test results show that 15-ppm NOx guarantee is achievable from 50% to 100% Load with fuel blends containing up to 65% Hydrogen. Because of safety limitations in Solar Test Facility, the atmospheric rig tests were limited to methane-based fuel blends. Further work to validate the durability and installed engine capability would require long-term engine field test.

  11. THE ALGORITHM IMPLEMENTATION OF THE DIVERSIFICATION STRATEGY IN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES (FOR EXAMPLE, THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ??????? ?????????? ?????

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Diversification in small businesses in the general sense is an extension of business activities to new areas of business (expanding the range of products, types of services provided, etc.. Application of the strategy of diversification in the small and medium business is justified in cases where the industry does not give us opportunities for further growth or when growth opportunities outside the industry more attractive. To determine whether diversification overdue and justified, the entrepreneur must clearly define the algorithm for their actions.Purpose: To determine the algorithm implementation of the strategy of diversification.Methodology: Desk research.Results: The developed algorithm.Practical implications: Management.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-19

  12. What affects the innovation performance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the biotechnology industry? An empirical study on Korean biotech SMEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung-Nam; Lee, Yoon-Sik

    2008-10-01

    Research-intensive small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play a crucial role in the advancement of the biotechnology industry. This paper explored the impacts of internal and contextual variables on innovative activity in Korea and compared the results of this analysis with previous studies of other countries. Our analysis of 149 Korean biotech SMEs showed that the ratio of R&D expenditure to sales, the ratio of R&D employees to total employees, CEO characteristics, governmental support and international networking are positively correlated with a firm's innovation performance. The results may help decision makers to better foster SMEs in the Korean biotechnology industry. PMID:18506395

  13. A model of integration between knowledge management and business processes of industrial small and medium-sized enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Mahmoud Talaat mustafa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research is to provide an integrated study on the subject of integration between knowledge management and business processes, to identify the needs for different aspects of necessary knowledge for the development of small and medium-sized enterprises, where young investors seek to develop their knowledge by trying to increase the sources of access to information so that they can comply with the requirements of constant change in the organizations they have, and thus the development of their institutions, where those institutions need knowledge to identify the changes occurring in each sector of production and service, whether local or foreign, which enables them to provide products or services on the level of high quality.They also must service work to develop and employ methods of conducting research targeting product, and management development of systems for promoting good products or services. Capturing knowledge can be through knowledge management by browsing of pages published by various organizations on the Internet and, recognizing everything new in the field of manufacturing or production used by various institutions, and therefore constantly developing products according to the needs of different categories of consumers.

  14. Compact medium size combined cycle plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1997-12-31

    An article in the ABB Review says that today`s combined cycle power plants achieve efficiency figures of between 50 and 58 per cent, with cogeneration facilities posting fuel utilisations of almost 90 per cent. These characteristics, plus low first-time costs and short construction times, make medium-size combined cycle plants an interesting option for decentralised power and heat production. ABB says that, at the heart of such plants is the GT10 industrial gas turbine, a unit rated at 25 MW that has become a market leader in recent years in the medium power class. (author)

  15. THE INFLUENCE IN ROMANIAN HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY OF SMALL MEDIUM-SIZED FIRMS AND THEIR SPECIFIC MEANS TO IMPROVE PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltescu Codruta Adina

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available SMEs play an important role in fostering variety, self-fulfillment, and independence in society as well as essentially contributing to social and local integration. Because the tourism sector, especially the hospitality industry, in Europe is dominated by

  16. Techno-economic evaluation of commercial cogeneration plants for small and medium size companies in the Italian industrial and service sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The liberalization of the electricity market and the concern for energy efficiency have resulted in a surge of interest in cogeneration and distributed power generation. In this regard, companies are encouraged to evaluate the opportunity to build their own cogeneration plant. In Italy, the majority of such companies belong to the industrial or service sector; it is small or medium in size and the electric power ranges between 1 ÷ 10 MW. Commercially available gas turbines are the less expensive option for cogeneration. Particular attention has been given to the possibility of combining an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) with gas turbine, to improve the conversion efficiency. Companies have to account for both technical and economical aspects to assess viability of cogeneration. A techno-economic analysis was performed to identify, in the Italian energy market, which users can take advantage of a cogeneration plant aimed to cover at least part of their energy demand. Since electricity and thermal needs change considerably in the same sector, single product categories have been considered in the analysis. Our work shows that in the industrial sector, independent of the product category, cogeneration is a viable option form a techno-economic perspective. - Highlights: ? The best technologies for 1 ÷ 10 MW distributed generation plant are gas turbine and ORC. ? A variety of commercial cogeneration plants is available to meet user needs. ? Cogeneration is a technical ds. ? Cogeneration is a technical and economical advantage for industrial sector companies.

  17. Italian medium-sized enterprises and the fourth capitalism

    OpenAIRE

    Schiliro?, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    The work addresses the issue of Italian medium-sized enterprises of the fourth capitalism. The question is whether this business model is going to last and actually represent a new model for global competition. This contribution examines the features of the model of the medium industrial enterprise. It also investigates the performance of the Italian medium-sized enterprises, comparing with large companies. The analysis of the data, albeit at a descriptive level using data published by Mediob...

  18. Identifying Factors Influencing Entry Mode Selection in Food Industry of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Haghighi Kaffash

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available As internationalization increases in today’s business society, it becomes ever more important for individual business to keep us with the development. The way a company ventures from its domestic market to new geographical markets and selecting the right entry modes are important decision that demands a lot of resources and planning. In the process of selecting entry modes a wide range of factors must be taken into consideration before making the final decision. To provide a better understanding of the impact of some internal and external factors on Iranian SMEs in food industry we chose a conceptual framework from Root and studied its variables in our sample. This model states that a target country market factors, b target country environmental factors c target country production factors and d home country factors as external factors and e country production and f company resource/commitment factors as internal factors have impact on the process of choosing entry modes. In order to collect data we use questionnaire. Our findings illustrated that all of the factors were mentioned in Root’s model had impact on selecting entry modes to a foreign country.

  19. Products, practices and processes: exploring the innovation potential for low-carbon housing refurbishment among small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the UK construction industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scenario-based studies agree that the technical potential for CO2 emissions reduction from the housing stock is large. This paper explores how a market might be developed for the refurbishment activities assumed in these scenarios, taking the existing market for repair, maintenance and improvement (RMI) as its starting point. Interviews with 16 small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the construction industry reveal the interdependence of products, practices and processes in housing renovation activities. Conservative practice as well as innovation can be understood as the outcome of multi-lateral influences on firms from other firms, clients, the material buildings and products in their working lives, and from regulations and regulators. Contractors' openness to innovation is contingent on an informal approach to risk assessment, taking account of cost, time efficiency, client demands, and installer confidence in the reliability of the resulting work. The implications of the research are discussed in relation to the need for new practices and processes on refurbishment projects, raising questions for future research on key questions of quality assurance, performance over time, the application of standards, and vocational training. -- Highlights: •Repair, maintenance and improvement works are triggers for low-carbon refurbishment. •Millions of property owners and small firms make for fragmented decision-making. •Actor-Network Theory is used to frame decision-making processes for refurbishment. •Small builders can be innovative if clients allow time and money for experimentation. •Energy policy for existing homes needs to engage with the construction sector

  20. The Study of Collaborative IP Models and Successful Factors-Taking the Small-and-Medium Sized LCD Industry as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Min Wu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available More and more enterprises conduct business strategically through strategic alliances, mergers & acquisitions, joint ventures, outsourcing, and collaborations to keep their competitive advantages in view of influences such as reduction of product lifecycles, fast changing markets, and global economics. Besides, enterprises gradually recognize that intellectual property management and plans are important. In the generation of R&D management based on innovative capabilities, it can commercialize the developed technologies and yield economic benefits through the effective management and deployment of patents. This research aims to identify how the collaborative Intellectual Property (IP model could shorten product life cycle and further make enterprises successful in the global market. This research firstly figures out the features of the small-and-medium Liquid Crystal Display (LCD industrial and challenges what this industry confronts after the competitive analysis of industry and market. Then the technological trend and patent positions were studied through patent information analysis and tools from Patent Guilder Software. This research also uses the case study methodology and selected the first company that adopted a collaborative IP model. Furthermore, this paper identifies the key performance indicators for the model and finds out the innovative business model for the company.

  1. AN INVESTIGATION INTO MEDIUM-SIZED MULTINATIONAL ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Schilirò

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an investigation of medium-sized Italian industrial enterprises that have become multinational companies. It concetrates on the set of medium and medium-large enterprises who seem to grow more in foreign markets, either through exports or through foreign direct investment. The work also offers a descriptive empirical picture of the performance of medium-sized Italian multinationals, which is compared with the performance of large corporations. From this analysis, which is based on several data sources, it is possible to outline a profile regarding the medium-size italian multinational enterprises; the aim is to understand the complex strategy towards internationalization of these companies, where the dimension of production is important and, therefore, innovation has a key role. Also the commercial dimension is crucial, because it leads to point to the direct supervision of foreign markets and to look very carefully at the customers, offering them a wide range of services. Finally, the paper highlights some critical issues that the medium sized multinational enterprises have to face for competing: namely, the stagnant productivity, the high taxation, the insufficient institutional support for internationalization, the bureaucracy and its high costs, the lack of skilled human capital available in the labor market due to inadequate policy training.

  2. Insights about Integrated Marketing Communication in Small-and-Medium-sized Italian Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Annamaria Esposito

    2013-01-01

    The paper investigates if and how integrated marketing communication (IMC) has been implemented by Italian small-and-medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Three case studies about small and-medium Italian enterprises analysis are carried out: three small and-medium enterprises in different industries through interviews and document analysis. The article highlights the fact that small-and-medium-sized Italian enterprises implement marketing communication using a flexible approach. The most widespre...

  3. Consórcio de exportação como alternativa de pequenas e médias empresas: um estudo de caso na cadeia têxtil The export consortium as a best initial alternative for small and medium sized industries: a case study in clothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Barbieri Lima

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo central deste estudo é evidenciar a grande importância e utilidade da formação de consórcios de exportação - que é a união de indústrias do mesmo segmento ou complementares para a exportação de seus produtos em conjunto - para empresas brasileiras de pequeno e médio porte, em detrimento da adoção da exportação indireta ou direta como modo de entrada no mercado internacional. Realizou-se, para isso, a revisão bibliográfica sobre Estratégias ou Modos de Entrada em Mercados Internacionais e Consórcios de Exportação (MALHOTRA, 2001. Utilizou-se o método de estudo de caso (YIN, 2001 para analisar a Associação Brasileira do Vestuário (ABRAVEST, entidade que vem se destacando na formação e consolidação de consórcios de exportação na indústria do setor vestuário, com ênfase nos seguintes tópicos: desenvolvimento do programa, compromissos setoriais e metas de exportação, aplicação dos recursos e consórcios em atividade. Como resultado, foi possível verificar que, entre as três opções analisadas no artigo (exportação direta, exportação indireta e consórcios de exportação, a terceira opção foi aceita como a melhor ou mais viável para a internacionalização de empresas de pequeno porte.The importance and value of an export consortium was investigated as a means for small and medium sized Brazilian industries to orchestrate export efforts instead of adopting indirect or direct export to enter foreign markets. An export consortium is an association of industries in the same or complementary segments for the purpose of export. Bibliography was reviewed for initial export strategies including a case study of the Brazilian Clothing Association. The consortia of this exemplary Association have emphasized program development, sector agreements, export objectives and resource application integrated with local activities. An export consortium was found to be the best and most viable alternative for initial export by small and medium sized Brazilian clothing industries in this case, when compared to indirect or direct export.

  4. Medium-size power plants. Economic options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the authors describe a method for economic evaluation of a nuclear power plant project such as advocated by the IAEA but modified through the introduction of various parameters that may affect the evaluation, i.e. the weighted evaluation rate, the annual increase in the cost of fuel, and the discount rate. The method is applied to barge-based medium-size reactors (125 MW(e)). The authors calculate the investment cost, together with the costs of administration, operation and maintenance; use is made of current assumptions regarding the price of fuel for the case of a reference nuclear plant and an oil-fired plant of the same power and in the same programme. In this way the authors derive the discounted cost of the nuclear programme and concurrent conventional programme on the basis of the following assumptions: a weighted inflation rate varying between 0 and 6% per year; an annual increase in real fuel prices ranging from 0 to 3%; and a real discount rate, equal to the real interest rate, varying between 4 and 7% per year and corresponding to nominal discount rates of up to 13.4%. The conclusion reached is that, given the real interest rates actually prevailing on the financial market, a weighted inflation rate foreseen by the majority of experts, and a rise in real fuel prices of the order of 1% per year, the medium-size nuclear power plant is more economical than a conventional plant of the same output. (author)

  5. Holonic Business Process Modeling in Small to Medium Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Budi Mulyono

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Holonic modeling analysis which is the application of system thinking in design, manage, and improvement, is used in a novel context for business process modeling. An approach and techniques of holon and holarchies is presented specifically for small and medium sized enterprise process modeling development. The fitness of the approach is compared with well known reductionist or task breakdown approach. The strength and weaknesses of the holonic modeling is discussed with illustrating case example in term of its suitability for an Indonesia’s small and medium sized industry. The novel ideas in this paper have great impact on the way analyst should perceive business process. Future research is applying the approach in supply chain context.

  6. CAS medium-size nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CEA has developed a range of pressurized water reactors of the type CAS Compact, which are adapted to civil ship propulsion, or to electric power production, combined possibly with heat production, up to outputs equivalent to 125MW(e). Nuclear plants equipped with these reactors are suitable for medium-size electric networks, especially in developing countries, because they are easily adaptable, owing to their flexibility; they can be installed and used in a variety of ways (on land, floating installation, combination of electric power and other production, etc.); they can be used as training reactors by countries wishing to limit their investment plans before undertaking a wider nuclear development. Examples of two possible realizations are presented: as a floating plant, and as a combined electric and desalting plant. (author)

  7. Oh&S in Small and Medium-Size Enterprises and the Issue of Cultural Diversity: Ongoing Research in the Construction Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Christophe; Pelleterat Borde, Melchior; Guarnieri, Franck; Lamm, Felicity

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings from stage one of a collaborative New Zealand and French research project on the construction industry and in particular the link between occupational health and safety (OHS), subcontracting and cultural diversity. The construction sector in France, New Zealand and elsewhere has not only one of the highest injury, illness and fatality rates but the sector also has a prevalence of small subcontracting firms and a substantial migrant labour force (CNAM, 2008; ...

  8. Status and prospects for small and medium sized reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Member States have evinced interest in the continued development of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) as an energy source for the future. Support for this programme was recently reaffirmed at the IAEA 1997 General Conference. Although the generation of electricity is the predominant focus of existing SMRs, there is increasing interest in using these plants for desalination, district heating and high temperature industrial process heat applications. Here is a review of SMR development within selected Member States, an overview of the IAEA's SMR programme and a discussion of selected SMR designs with emphasis on safety attributes. (author)

  9. Significance assessment of small-medium sized reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, Minoru [Japan Atomic Power Co., Research and Development Dept., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    Preliminary assessment for deployment of small-medium sized reactor (S and M reactor) as a future option has been conducted at the JAPCO (Japan Atomic Power Company) under the cooperation with the CRIERI (Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry). Significance of the S and M reactor introduction is listed as follows; lower investment cost, possible siting near demand side, enlarged freedom of siting, shorter transmission line, good compatibility with slow increase of demand and plain explanation of safety using simpler system such as integral type vessel without piping, natural convection core cooling and passive safety system. The deployment of simpler plant system, modular shop fabrication, ship-shell structured building and longer operation period can assure economics comparable with that of a large sized reactor, coping with scale-demerit. Also the S and M reactor is preferable in size for the nuclear heat utilization such as hydrogen production. (T. Tanaka)

  10. Significance assessment of small-medium sized reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary assessment for deployment of small-medium sized reactor (S and M reactor) as a future option has been conducted at the JAPCO (Japan Atomic Power Company) under the cooperation with the CRIERI (Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry). Significance of the S and M reactor introduction is listed as follows; lower investment cost, possible siting near demand side, enlarged freedom of siting, shorter transmission line, good compatibility with slow increase of demand and plain explanation of safety using simpler system such as integral type vessel without piping, natural convection core cooling and passive safety system. The deployment of simpler plant system, modular shop fabrication, ship-shell structured building and longer operation period can assure economics comparable with that of a large sized reactor, coping with scale-demerit. Also the S and M reactor is preferable in size for the nuclear heat utilization such as hydrogen production. (T. Tanaka)

  11. Small and medium size nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this appendix is to provide up-to-date technical information relevant to the deployment of small and medium reactors (SMRs). It summarizes the status of SMRs and discusses areas of relevance to their utilization, including seawater desalination; and in particular their simplicity, their flexibility for a variety of applications and the use of passive safety features as fundamental to most of these designs. In response to important commercial developments, the energy range of small and medium reactors is now taken as being up to around 700 MW(e). Detailed information on SMR designs can be found in the IAEA report on The Design and Development Status of Small and Medium Reactor Systems 1995. 5 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  12. Market Potential Estimation of a Small and Medium Size Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technically, nuclear reactors which produce energy in the form of heat can supply energy products other than electricity, including district heat, process heat, potable water etc. Currently non-civil uses of nuclear energy are very limited civil applications except for a military nuclear powered ship and an energy usage in isolated areas. However, the future global environment and an energy resources scarcity could promote a significant usage of non-electrical applications on an industrial scale. Considering these situations, this report analyzed the following: (1) Worldwide non-electrical application of a small and medium sized nuclear reactor - survey the situation of the current technical applications, - survey the global market potential estimation for various applications (2) Technical cooperation potential in several countries - identify necessary conditions for nuclear cooperation, - select candidate countries: Morocco, UAE, Indonesia, Chile and Vietnam, - survey the energy and water situation, - survey the legal and international regime infrastructure

  13. Diseño de un sistema de acumulación de costos para la micro, pequeña y mediana industria panadera / Design of a System for the Accumulation of Costs for Micro, Small And Medium Sized Bakery Industries

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marysela C, Morillo Moreno; Dianosky Yoleida, Pulido.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las micro, pequeñas y medianas industrias (MPyMI) son fundamentos en una economía sólida, ellas deben diseñar estrategias gerenciales y de apoyo acorde a sus características que les permitan mejorar su competitividad y buscar su consolidación; de allí la necesidad de contar con sistemas de acumulaci [...] ón de costos que generen información apropiada, oportuna y detallada. Luego de un diagnóstico realizado en las industrias panaderas del municipio Barinas, estado Barinas, se constató que éstas son en su mayoría MPyMI, y que no poseen un sistema de acumulación de costos adecuado que permita calcular costos de producción precisos para la planificación, control y toma de decisiones. Por ello, se presentan los resultados de una investigación proyectiva ubicada en el nivel comprensivo, en la cual se diseña un sistema de costos adaptado a las necesidades de estas industrias, compatible con la naturaleza de sus actividades fabriles, a objeto de facilitar y difundir su uso. Se propone un Sistema de Acumulación de Costos Híbrido, a partir de la combinación del sistema de costos por proceso y del sistema de costos por operaciones, para obtener información sistemática, oportuna y confiable, de los costos de producción para la toma de decisiones, dotados a la vez de procedimientos y mecanismos de control. Abstract in english Micro, small and medium sized industries are fundamental in a solid economy, and management and support strategies according to their characteristics should be designed and that allow them to better their competitiveness and consolidation, and for this reason there is a need to account for systems o [...] f cost accumulation that generate appropriate, timely and detailed information. After the realization of a study in the bakery industries in the Barinas Municipality, Barinas State, it was found that the majority of these businesses did not have a system for the adequate accumulation of costs which allowed them to calculate precise production costs for planning, control and decision-making. For this reason we present herein the results of a projected research project on a comprehensive level in which a system of costs is designed, adapted to the needs of these industries, compatible with the nature of their productive activity, in order to facilitate and expand its use. A system of accumulation of hybrid costs is proposed based on a combination of process cost systems and operational cost systems in order to obtain systematic, timely and reliable information on production costs for decision making, and which includes control mechanisms and procedures.

  14. A MODEL FOR SUPPORTING CONSISTENT COST MANAGEMENT IN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES: APPLICATION IN A CHEMICAL INDUSTRY COMPANY MODELO PARA APOIO A GESTÃO CONSISTENTE DE CUSTOS EM PEQUENAS E MÉDIAS EMPRESAS: APLICAÇÃO NUMA EMPRESA DO SETOR QUÍMICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Juan Bacic

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a structured model for improving production processes in small to medium-size industrial companies. Application of the model enables acting upon a set of cost generating causes, leading in a consistent manner to cost reductions. The model is based on the principles of management through total quality and considers the fundamental aspects that make it possible to eliminate waste, reduce defect costs and improve processes, thus enabling increased efficiency and reduction of variability. The model proposed is based on the set of variable principles pointed to by authors who deal with quality as key elements in management. The fulcrum of the system consists of control of the “6m” in Ishikawa’a causeeffect diagram (raw material, machinery, labor, methods, environment and mediations, supported by the action of a set of auxiliary tools and concepts. With the objective of testing the results of the model in practice, an application of it was made in a company from the chemical sector. The work describes the main aspects of the application and shows results obtained along the years from 1996 to 2005. Analysis of results shows significant obtainment of gains in productivity, diminished variability and maintenance of positive results over time. Keywords: Cost reduction. Model for improvement. Process management. Chemical industry. O artigo apresenta um modelo estruturado para melhoria dos processos produtivos de empresas industriais de portes pequeno e médio. A aplicação do modelo possibilita atuar sobre um conjunto de causas geradoras de custos, conduzindo, de forma consistente, a reduções de custo. O modelo é baseado nos princípios da gestão pela qualidade total e considera os aspectos fundamentais que possibilitam eliminar desperdícios, reduzir custos de falhas e melhorar os processos, possibilitando, assim, aumento de eficiência e diminuição da variabilidade. O modelo proposto baseia-se no conjunto das principais variáveis apontadas pelos autores de qualidade, como elementos-chave na gestão. O fulcro do sistema consiste no controle dos “6M” do diagrama causa-efeito de Ishikawa (matéria-prima, maquinário, mão-de-obra, métodos, meio-ambiente e medições, apoiado pela ação de um conjunto de ferramentas e conceitos auxiliares. Com o objetivo de testar na prática os resultados do modelo, foi realizada a aplicação numa empresa do setor químico. O trabalho descreve os aspectos principais dessa aplicação e mostra os resultados obtidos ao longo dos anos 1996-2005. A análise dos resultados mostra significativa obtenção de ganhos de produtividade, diminuição de variabilidade e manutenção dos resultados positivos ao longo do tempo. Palavras-chave: Redução de custos. Modelo de melhoria. Gestão de processos. Indústria química.

  15. Development of medium sized ABWR (ABWR-600, ABWR-900)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitachi has been developing the Medium sized ABWR as a power source that features flexibility to various market needs, such as minimized capital risks, timely return on a capital investment, etc. Basic design policy of the Medium sized ABWR is 1) to be based on ABWR design with superior experiences in construction and operation, 2) to utilize standard BWR fuel adopting proven technology, 3) to achieve rationalized design by suitably utilizing the key components developed for large sized reactor. Development of the Medium sized ABWR has been working to proceed step by step. The first step was to design an output scale of the 600 MWe class (ABWR-600), which is appropriate for a distributed power-supply. The next step we start developing of the up-rated to an output scale of the 900 MWe class (ABWR-900) based on ABWR-600 rationalized technology for further cost saving. (author)

  16. Development of medium sized ABWRs (ABWR-600, ABWR-900)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitachi has been developing medium sized ABWRs as a power source that features flexibility to meet various market needs, such as minimizing capital risks, providing a timely return on capital investments, etc. Basic design concepts of the medium sized ABWRs are 1) using the current ABWR design which has accumulated favorable construction and operation histories as a starting point; 2) utilizing standard BWR fuels which have been fabricated by proven technology; 3) achieving a rationalized design by suitably utilizing key components developed for large sized reactors. Development of the medium sized ABWRs has proceeded in a systematic, stepwise manner. The first step was to design an output scale for the 600 MWe class reactor (ABWR-600) which is appropriate for a distributed power supply. The next step was to develop an uprating concept to extend this output scale to the 900 MWe class reactor (ABWR-900) based on the rationalized technology of the ABWR-600 for further cost savings. (author)

  17. Small and Medium Sized Enterprises In Thailand and Development of Cleaner Production

    OpenAIRE

    Nørgaard, Jens Kristian

    2003-01-01

    In the perspective of the rapid industrial development experienced over the last decades in Thailand, this report intend to contribute to the discussion about development of cleaner production (CP) among small and medium sized enterprises, as a tool to prevent degradation of the country’s natural resources. The objective is to examine the present barriers and possibilities to the low adoption of CP among the industry in Samut Prakarn and to study, which competences small firms have develope...

  18. Status of the CTA medium size telescope prototype

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2012-01-01

    We present here the status of the medium size prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array. The main reasons to build the prototype are the test of the steel structure, the training of various mounting operations, the test of the drive system and the test of the safety system. The essential difference between the medium size telescope prototype and a fully instrumented are that the camera is not instrumented and only a part of the mounted mirrors are optical mirrors. Insofar no high energy gamma rays can be detected by the prototype telescope. The prototype will be setup in autumn 2012 in Berlin.

  19. The economics of medium-sized reactors in deregulated markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prospects for the deployment of small and medium reactors in deregulated markets is crucially dependent on demonstrating that such reactors are economically competitive with alternative power sources. Other factors, such as safety, reliability, waste arisings, environmental impact etc are also important to get right, but unless the economics are competitive, private investment is unlikely to be available for any reactor system. This paper examines the economics of the Westinghouse AP-600, which is the only medium-sized evolutionary PWR in the world today which has achieved regulatory approval. The paper presents an economic analysis of an AP-600 which shows that medium-sized systems can be economic in a competitive market and identifies the economic barriers that need to be overcome for their deployment to become a reality. The paper shows how sensitive the overall generating cost can be to the perceived financial risk, which helps to highlight where attention most needs to be focused. (author)

  20. JOHN GLENN CENTER FOR SCIENCE EDUCATION JACKET (Size: Medium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1900-01-01

    100% nylon, water repellent Taslan Jacket. Taffeta mesh lined jacket and sleeves, with 2 front zip pockets. Embroidered with the JOHN GLENN CENTER FOR SCIENCE EDUCATION logo. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large. All proceeds from the sale of this item go to fund the JOHN GLENN CENTER FOR SCIENCE EDUCATION .

  1. Strategic Financial Management in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Zongsheng Liu

    2010-01-01

    Along with the development of social economy and the progress of science and technology, Chinese enterprises are being in a stage filled with opportunities and dangers. This paper introduces the connotation and significance of strategic financial management, elaborates the problems in the financial strategies conducted by small and medium-sized enterprises together with the causes and proposes some countermeasures finally.

  2. Problems Facing Small and Medium Size Contractors in Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Didibhuku Thwala

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the problems facing Small and Medium Size Contractors in Swaziland. The construction sector in Swaziland is not only a significant source of direct employment but also a sector which contributes, through its wide range of projects and operations. The paper will also look at the current government initiatives that had been put in place to address the challenges and problems in order to ensure that contractors are successful. There is a high failure rate among small and medium size contractors in Swaziland. These contractors fail for a variety of reasons ranging from lack of adequate capacity to handle the uniqueness, complexity and risks in contracting, lack of effective management, lack of business management, poor record keeping and inadequate technical, financial and contract managerial skills. Drawing on research on small and medium size contractors, the paper used both secondary and primary litera-ture. 100 questionnaires were distributed to different role players in the construction sector in Swaziland. The response rate was eighty seven (87 percent. The paper reveals that the most problems facing small and medium size contractors in Swaziland is lack of access to finance and late payment by government. The paper closes with recommendations and key lessons for the future.

  3. Library Webmasters in Medium-Sized Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneip, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Library webmasters in medium-sized academic libraries were surveyed about their educational backgrounds, job responsibilities, and training and experience levels in Web development. The article summarizes the findings of the survey with recommendations for libraries and library and information science programs. (Contains 7 tables, 5 figures,and 5…

  4. Reference sources for small and medium-sized libraries

    CERN Document Server

    O'Gorman, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on new reference sources published since 2008 and reference titles that have retained their relevance, this new edition brings O'Gorman's complete and authoritative guide to the best reference sources for small and medium-sized academic and public libraries fully up to date.

  5. Interdisciplinary utilization of a medium-sized cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyclotrons are very versatile machines and are used both for fundamental studies and practical applications. The fundamental investigations deal mostly with nuclear interactions and materials properties. The practical applications are generally related to radio analytics, radioactivation and nuclear data development. In this review all those areas will be briefly discussed. Fundamental nuclear investigations are carried out with charged particles, directly extracted from the cyclotron, or with neutrons, obtained using a suitable neutron production target. Both on-line spectral measurements and off-line radiochemical studies are performed. In this review the emphasis is placed on the latter studies since they can be performed in a small laboratory. In particular, some recent results dealing with nucleon emission, complex particle emission and isomer distribution in low and intermediate energy nuclear reactions will be described. As far as the materials properties are concerned, some typical investigations on displacement damage and simulation studies on He-gas-induced property changes will be discussed. The practical applications of cyclotrons in the field of radio analytics involve techniques like backscattering (BS), PIXE, charged particle induced activation analysis (CPAA) and thin layer activation analysis (TLA). Whereas low energy cyclotrons are more suitable for BS and PIXE, a medium-sized cyclotron is advantageous for TLA. The latter technique has been very succA. The latter technique has been very successful in investigating wear and tear of industrial and automobile components. Cyclotrons have been extensively used for radioactivation, i.e. for production of radioisotopes. In general, cyclotron products have proved to be very useful in diagnostic studies using Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET). A brief review of the technology involved in radionuclide production will be given. As far as nuclear data development is concerned, using a cyclotron very useful information can be obtained on material activation, radiation shielding , neutron scattering and neutron leakage spectra

  6. Medium-sized telescopes for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenstedt, Stefan

    2014-07-01

    CTA, the Cherenkov Telescope Array, is the next generation ground-based observatory for gamma-ray astronomy in the energy range from 20 GeV to 300 TeV. The sensitivity in the core energy range will be dominated by up to 40 Medium- Sized Telescopes. These telescopes, of Davies-Cotton type with a reflector with a diameter of 12 m, are currently in the prototype phase. A full-size mechanical prototype with drive system has been constructed in Berlin. Different prototype mirrors have been developed, tested and are mounted on the prototype. Two camera types are designed and prototyped. Demonstrator cameras were built and are tested; the integration of these cameras on the prototype is prepared. A report on all aspects of the design, commissioning and performance of the Medium-Sized Telescopes and their main components will be given.

  7. Development of ESCO as a tool for realising energy efficiency in small and medium sized industry; ESCO = Energy Service Company; Udvikling af ESCO som vaerktoej til realisering af energieffektivisering i smaa og mellemstore erhvervsvirksomheder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Ove Folmer (DS Haandvaerk og Industri, Odense (Denmark))

    2011-07-01

    The project carried out an advisory process in 10 different SME (small and medium-sized enterprises). The process was based on energy management and employee involvement in energy conservation activities, which has led to a wide variety of projects in companies that have focused on the initiation and solution of diverse energy-saving activities. Results of the project consist of a series of case studies that describe the processes that have been implemented in the company. The selected cases demonstrate the diversity of businesses, their energy saving potential and need for funding. It also describes and assesses the various financing possibilities, a model for qualitative advising in SMEs and a module for the training of the people involved - including installers, craftsmen and advisor. (LN)

  8. The causal effect of board size in the performance of small and medium-sized firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Morten; Kongsted, Hans Christian

    2008-01-01

    Empirical studies of large publicly traded firms have shown a robust negative relationship between board size and firm performance. The evidence on small and medium-sized firms is less clear; we show that existing work has been incomplete in analyzing the causal relationship due to weak identification strategies. Using a rich data set of almost 7000 closely held corporations we provide a causal analysis of board size effects on firm performance: We use a novel instrument given by the number of children of the chief executive officer (CEO) of the firms. First, we find a strong positive correlation between family size and board size and show this correlation to be driven by firms where the CEO's relatives serve on the board. Second, we find empirical evidence of a small adverse board size effect driven by the minority of small and medium-sized firms that are characterized by having comparatively large boards of six or more members.

  9. The status of development of small and medium sized reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several IAEA Member States have shown their interest in reactor design, having a smaller power rating (100-500 MW(e) range) than those generally available on the international market. These small and medium sized power reactors are of interest either for domestic applications or for export into countries with less developed infrastructure. There are different developments undertaken for these power reactors to be ready for offering in the nineties and beyond. The paper gives an overview about the status and different trends in IAEA Member States in the development of small and medium sized reactors for the 90's and provides an outlook for very new reactor designs as a long term option for nuclear power. (author)

  10. Imperfect information and labor market bias against small and medium-sized enterprises: a Korean case

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Soonae; Kim, Byung-yeon; Jang, Wonchang; Nam, Kyung-min

    2014-01-01

    We examine the labor market’s bias against small and medium-sized enterprises focusing on the Seoul Digital Industrial Complex case. We adopt Heckman’s approach to control selection bias, and use primary data from questionnaire surveys conducted at both firm and employee levels. We find that conventional firm-specific factors, such as wages, fringe benefits, and weekly work hours, primarily explain the labor market bias, but imperfect information is also positively associated with the bia...

  11. Foreign Markets Entry Mode Decision for Italian Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Musso; Barbara Francioni

    2011-01-01

    Using a resource-based view model, this paper examines the main factors influencing Small and Medium-SizedEnterprise (SME) international entry mode selection. In addition, a possible relationship between firmsbelonging to industrial districts and the entry mode choice has been verified. Data for the analysis of this studywere collected interviewing 221 owners/managers of SMEs in Italy. Results showed that entry mode decisionsare mainly influenced by firm specific factors. Furthermore, the stu...

  12. The Scalability of H. Igor Ansoff's Strategic Management Principles for Small and Medium Sized Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Kipley, Dan H.; Lewis, Alfred O.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the praxis of the multi-dimensional components of H. Igor Ansoff¹s Strategic Management Systems and the efficacy of use of each of its components relative to the formulation and implementation of corporate level strategy in for-profit, not-for-profit, small and medium sized enterprises. Based on empirically validated research and industry supported journals, substantial evidence endorse both an implicit and explicit acknowledgement of its applicab...

  13. Female Leadership Motivation in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Lillbacka, Marjo

    2010-01-01

    Leaders need to know what motivates their employees and how they can get their employees work their best. Women leaders are said to encourage and support their employees, which is essential for leadership motivation. Motivated employees improve enterprises’ overall business performance and results. The research is based on leadership, motivation and self-motivation in small and medium-sized enterprises in Ostrobothnia. The research problem is to find out how female leaders motivate their em...

  14. Powertrain System Design of Medium-sized Hybrid Electric Tractor

    OpenAIRE

    Xie Bin; Li Hao; Song Zheng-He; Mao En-Rong

    2013-01-01

    The environment issue has been more and more serious than ever before along with the increasing numbers of tractors. Different from pure electric tractors, medium-sized tractor more widely adopt hybrid power driver according to the machine structure and operation characteristics. The Hybrid Electric Tractor (HET) is capable of enabling the diesel works in an optimal area by controlling the output torque of engine and electronic motor to achieve fuel economy and emission reduction. Designing t...

  15. ERP adoption in small and medium sized enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Juell-skielse, Gustaf

    2006-01-01

    Enterprise resource planning (ERP) is established among a majority of small and medium sized companies in Kista Science City and seems to have a positive effect on organizational effectiveness. Kista Science City is Sweden’s largest corporate centre, with more companies and employees in a limited area than anywhere else in Europe. This study looks at the level of adoption of ERP functions, perceived organizational effectiveness and critical success factors. The most common use of ERP is for...

  16. Holonic Business Process Modeling in Small to Medium Sized Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Budi Mulyono; Tezar Yuliansyah Saputra; Nur Arief Rahmatsyah

    2009-01-01

    Holonic modeling analysis which is the application of system thinking in design, manage, and improvement, is used in a novel context for business process modeling. An approach and techniques of holon and holarchies is presented specifically for small and medium sized enterprise process modeling development. The fitness of the approach is compared with well known reductionist or task breakdown approach. The strength and weaknesses of the holonic modeling is discussed with illustrating case exa...

  17. Language strategies in Finnish small and medium-sized enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Talja, Katriina

    2011-01-01

    Objectives of the Study Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) have scarcely been researched from the point of view of language strategy. The objective of the study is to identify language strategies of Finnish SMEs doing business abroad and to analyze these strategies. The objectives were met through a survey directed at Finnish SMEs and face-to-face interviews with five case companies. Summary Languages are increasing important in the globalizing world, yet few companies ha...

  18. Internal Control in Swedish Small and Medium Size Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Gebramicheal, Zelalem Berhanu; Habtegiorgis, Tsegahiwot Teketel

    2009-01-01

    Small and medium size enterprises are currently the major part of economic activities through out the world. Nowadays, they represent about 99% of all types of enterprises in Sweden, with providing high job opportunities to its labour force as these enterprises need focus in their development; the internal control mechanism is a means and a way of directing, monitoring and measuring the SMEs resources. It plays an important role in preventing and detecting fraud and protecting the physical an...

  19. Utilizing Content Marketing in Small and Medium-Sized Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Parviainen, Ville

    2014-01-01

    The major objective of this study is to find out how and to what extent online content is currently utilized for marketing purposes among small and medium-sized organizations in Finland. Additionally, positive and negative future prospects concerning this type of content marketing were explored. The study is mainly qualitative by nature. The empirical part of this thesis was carried out between July 2013 and March 2014 and it consists of five semi-structured interviews with five professio...

  20. Sales strategy in small and medium-sized food companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Renate; Stacey, Julia

    2002-01-01

    All managing teams know that they have to deal with the company's strategy in handling the market. But how do they do it and on the basis of which beleifs and interpretations? A nearly completed PhD project has examined the way in which three small and medium-sized food companies define their market, their competitors and customers, and how they create the world they perceive and act in through their own actions.

  1. The Danish fabricated metal industry: : A competitive medium-low-tech industry in a highwage country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Teis

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to the knowledge on innovation processes in low- and medium-low-tech industries. Today, industries characterised as high-tech are perceived to be central to economic development, as the research intensity shields them from competition from low-wage countries. This is less the case for low-tech industries, but their economic importance continues to be large, however. It is thus interesting to analyse how they manage to remain competitive. The analysis focuses on a case study of the fabricated metal industry by identifying the innovation strategies followed by firms located in a part of Jutland, where this industry has experienced growth. It is found that the ability to create tailor-made solutions is central to the competitiveness of these medium-low-tech firms. Knowledge is thus highly important, yet in different ways than for high-tech industries. This illustrates the importance of industrial policies that take these differences into account.

  2. Medium-sized water reactors for undeveloped regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the new century the growth of population and an increasing of energy demands together with the difficulties of fossil fuel supply are expected. It is important to find optimal ways in solving such problems without the climate warming. The nuclear power having many advantages in comparison with fossil fuel technologies could play the great role in near future. The Medium-Sized Nuclear Reactors for production of electricity, heat and fresh water are considered as a main direction of nuclear power applications in the developing world It is important to discuss the requirements to such nuclear plants for using in the Countries with Small and Medium Electricity Grids. Particularly, cost-benefit analysis of construction NPP has to include assessment of all type risks and effectiveness of plant. In the paper an attention is paid on Water Reactors designed on the basis of navy technology. Such compact PWR built on special mills and placed on special floating vessel could be used in undeveloped regions. Total plant can be transported to any point of World Ocean and return back to mill for repair or decommissioning after exhaustion of lifetime. It is expected that such reactors with innovative design approach, provision of high safety and proper economic efficiency, based on leasing procedures, could be very attractive for medium-sized and developing countries.(author)

  3. Panorama 2007: Medium-Term Prospects for the Gas Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the nineties, natural gas was the fastest growing energy source in the world energy mix. However, recent developments on the energy scene, particularly in terms of prices, have strongly impacted the growth of the various energies to the detriment of natural gas. Beyond this inter-energy competition, which could intensify, medium-term prospects for the gas industry evolve in an environment beset with uncertainties. (author)

  4. Industrial computed tomography image size measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As one of the most useful modern detection technologies, Industrial Computed Tomography (ICT) image size measurement can correctly non-destructively measure the size of workpieces' inner construction, and it is considered as the standard for quality assurance and reverse engineering. In view of the advantages and disadvantages compared to conventional methods, this paper improves the precision of image size measurement with a new algorithm that uses an approximate function to describe edge degradation. First, this algorithm constructs the approximate function and determines the optimal point of edge detection, based on image intensity and inflexions. Then, in order to accurately extract the image edge, this algorithm is used to revise the primary image, completing construction of the CT image. Excellent results are obtained from simulations and experiments. The experimental results indicate that the relative error is 2% for the CT image when the step evolution of the image edge is pooled. The relative error of this method is decreased by as much as 1.5% compared to wavelet transformation and ridgelet transformation. Therefore, this new algorithm demonstrates increased effectiveness in extracting an accurate measurement of the CT image edge.

  5. Status and Prospects for Small and Medium Sized Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is considerable interest by Member States in the continued development of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) as a significant energy sources for the future. The support for this programme within the IAEA was recently reaffirmed at the 1997 General Conference. Although the generation of electricity has been predominant focus of existing SMRs, there is increasing interest in using these plants for other applications such as desalination, district heating and hydrogen production from the reforming of methane. Addressed herein is a review of ongoing SMR development activities within selected Member States, an overview of the Agency's SMR programme and a discussion of selected SMR designs with emphasis on their safety attributes. (author)

  6. Dipole polarizabilities of medium-sized gold clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dipole polarizabilities of two families of low-lying structures, cage, and space filling, of the medium-sized AuN (N=32,38,44,50,56) clusters are studied using gradient-corrected density functional theory and finite field method. Both dipole moments and polarizabilities exhibit clear shape-dependent features and the cage structures have systematically smaller dipole moments and larger polarizabilities than the space-filling isomers. The mean polarizability per atom increases with cluster size for the cage structures, but it decreases slowly and tends to approach a constant for the space-filling structures. A linearly correlation between polarizability and cluster volume is noted, complying with the jellium model prediction for spherical metal clusters. The electronic effects including HOMO-LUMO gap and ionization energy on polarizabilities are also explored. The geometric effects play a dominant role on the determination of the polarizability of the cluster over the electronic effects

  7. Industrial nutrient medium use for yeast selenium preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GINA MARINESCU

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the preparation of selenium yeast from spent brewer’s yeast by using industrial nutrient medium (malt wort and sparge water. The chemical treatment of the yeast biomass was done with sodium-selenite solution. The preparation of selenium – enriched Saccharomyces uvarum in different conditions of temperature, time, yeast biomass proportion and sodium-selenite concentration of the medium was analysed. Using a culture mediumsupplemented with 30–180 ?g/ ml sodium-selenite results in total selenium accumulation in the range of 0.6–2.2 mg/g for malt wort and 0.4–1.6 mg/g for sparge water and in organic selenium accumulation in the range of 0.6–1.5 mg/g for malt wort and 0.3–0.9 mg/g for sparge water measured by ICP- MS method.

  8. A comparison of workplace safety perceptions among financial decision-makers of medium- vs. large-size companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Leamon, Tom B; Courtney, Theodore K; Chen, Peter Y; DeArmond, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    This study, through a random national survey in the U.S., explored how corporate financial decision-makers perceive important workplace safety issues as a function of the size of the company for which they worked (medium- vs. large-size companies). Telephone surveys were conducted with 404 U.S. corporate financial decision-makers: 203 from medium-size companies and 201 from large companies. Results showed that the patterns of responding for participants from medium- and large-size companies were somewhat similar. The top-rated safety priorities in resource allocation reported by participants from both groups were overexertion, repetitive motion, and bodily reaction. They believed that there were direct and indirect costs associated with workplace injuries and for every dollar spent improving workplace safety, more than four dollars would be returned. They perceived the top benefits of an effective safety program to be predominately financial in nature - increased productivity and reduced costs - and the safety modification participants mentioned most often was to have more/better safety-focused training. However, more participants from large- than medium-size companies reported that "falling on the same level" was the major cause of workers' compensation loss, which is in line with industry loss data. Participants from large companies were more likely to see their safety programs as better than those of other companies in their industries, and those of medium-size companies were more likely to mention that there were no improvements needed for their companies. PMID:21094291

  9. Ionic Structure and Photoabsorption in Medium Sized Sodium Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Kümmel, S; Reinhard, P G

    1998-01-01

    We present ground-state configurations and photoabsorption spectra of Na-7+, Na-27+ and Na-41+. For the first time, both the ionic structure and the photoabsorption spectra of medium-size sodium clusters beyond Na-20 have been calculated self-consistently with a non-spherical treatment of the valence electrons in density functional theory. We use a local pseudopotential that has been adjusted to experimental bulk properties and the atomic 3s level of sodium. Our studies have shown that both the ionic structure of the ground state and the positions of the plasmon resonances depend sensitively on the pseudopotential used in the calculation, which stresses the importance of its consistent use in both steps.

  10. Spherical fuel elements for small and medium sized HTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The German high-temperature reactors (HTR) are distinguished by spherical graphitic fuel elements with 60 mm diameter, which are loosely packed to form the reactor core. To cover a large number of possible HTR applications the fuel element in Germany is designed so as to be uniform and acceptable for conditions set by different approaches of small and medium sized HTR subsequent to the THTR. Since 1980, the fuel cycle is based on the use of low-enriched UO2. Fabrication processes using precise classification of kernels coated and overcoated particles by tabeling techniques ensure satisfaction of specified limits on fabrication-induced coating defects. A comprehensive irradiation test programme was performed for the low-enriched uranium fuel elements used in the current fuel cycle. The results demonstrate excellent performance of the reference fuel element design. (author)

  11. Can small and medium sized reactors be competitive?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cost is an important attribute for the future development of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). This paper addresses the target costs necessary for SMRs to be competitive in the markets of the 21st century and ways and means that designers are considering to meet these targets. It briefly reviews the impacts on nuclear energy competitiveness of economic globalisation, market deregulation, privatisation of the power sector and policy measures aiming at sustainable development and highlights new challenges and opportunities that are created for nuclear power plants as a result of the changing policy making framework in the electricity sector. Recognising the importance of capital cost (60% or more of nuclear electricity generation cost) the paper elaborates on technical (e.g. simplified design and factory building) and managerial (e.g. series order) measures aiming at capital cost reduction. The impacts of deregulation of the electricity market and privatisation of the sector on the competitiveness of SMRs are addressed. The paper stresses the importance of internalisation of social and environmental costs and sustainable development objectives for the competitiveness of nuclear energy and in particular of SMRs that are adapted to decentralised electricity supply and co-generation. Finally, it presents some findings and conclusions, drawn from the NEA analyses, on the prospects for enhancing the economics of small and medium reactors and their potential contributiom reactors and their potential contribution to sustainable energy mixes. (author)

  12. Insights about Integrated Marketing Communication in Small-and-Medium-sized Italian Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Esposito

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates if and how integrated marketing communication (IMC has been implemented by Italian small-and-medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. Three case studies about small and-medium Italian enterprises analysis are carried out: three small and-medium enterprises in different industries through interviews and document analysis. The article highlights the fact that small-and-medium-sized Italian enterprises implement marketing communication using a flexible approach. The most widespread communication purpose is to activate dialogues and new connections with their stakeholders and the most used communication tools are participation in fairs, sponsorships and events, but the very emerging tool is online communication: digital and social media. Despite the small number of cases included, the paper is to be considered as a starting point for a further quantitative investigation on this topic. The research shows that SMEs managers tend to adapt IMC in order to grasp opportunities on the market, rather than planning and communicating the values related to the product in an integrated way. This point ought to be taken into account to start an exchange of practices between managers and professionals in the marketing communication field..

  13. The design of a compact integral medium size PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? We model the IRIS reactor in RELAP5 and VIPRE codes. ? We use Printed Circuit Heat Exchangers and internally and externally cooled fuel pins in IRIS. ? We increase the IRIS power by 50% and demonstrate adequate safety performance. ? We show significant potential gain in economics for any integral PWR reactor design. - Abstract: Integral reactors have been proposed in recent years as a means to eliminate loss of coolant events, and reduce the number of large vessels of a nuclear power plant. In this paper the focus on how to further increase the power that can be derived from a given vessel volume. The example is applied to the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS), a medium size, light water reactor rated at 1000 MWt. The IRIS is an integral design containing all pumps and steam generators along with a traditional PWR core inside the reactor vessel. IRIS was designed with 8 Once-Through Helically Coiled Steam Generators (OTHSG), located above the core, in an annular region between the riser and the pressure vessel wall. This work examines ideas to increase its power output in the same vessel size while maintaining or improving the safety margins. The combination of Printed Circuit Heat Exchangers (PCHE) and Internally and EXternally cooled Annular Fuel (IXAF) is proposed to implement such improvement in otherwise the reference IRIS design. Safety implications of such steam generator and fuel design changes for the same reactor size ahanges for the same reactor size are examined, under both steady state and transients, using the RELAP5 and VIPRE codes. It is found that the IRIS reactor power can be increased by 50% by using the PCHE and IXAF. The proposed design is found to be less expensive per unit electric power produced, these improvements and analyses can be applied to any integral reactor design.

  14. Understanding the production and consumption of design expertise by small medium-sized firms :some evidence from Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Rusten, Grete; Bryson, John R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the ways in which industrial design services are organised, produced, and consumed by Norwegian small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). This includes exploring the geographies of this performance in terms of how consumers and producers of design expertise organize their activities. The paper also identifies different ways in which client firms utilize industrial design to develop or retain competitive advantage. The paper combines empirical data with the development of ...

  15. BTX measurements in a medium-sized European city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilidis, Georgios A.; Karakitsios, Spyros P.; Kassomenos, Pavlos A.

    The BTX levels are significantly high compared to the EU directive for benzene in European cities with population around or higher one million. Since there are hundreds of towns in Europe with smaller population, it is important to know the levels of aromatics in these areas. This work presents the results of a benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) measurement campaign that took place in Ioannina, a medium-sized Greek city. As a result of traffic situation and the local meteorological conditions, pollution levels in Ioannina are unusually high, at least for a city of that size. BTX levels were measured using passive samplers placed at several points around the city, as well as across a selected street canyon using both passive and active samplers, combined with simultaneous measurements of traffic flow and wind speed. The measurement procedure was repeated in an exact manner for all four seasons and the results suggest that benzene levels, at all sampling points, exceed the limit set by EU Directive 2000/69. Benzene levels appear correlated to traffic density, while benzene/toluene/xylene ratios present a seasonal variation linked to meteorological conditions.

  16. Rotational variability in medium and large sized TNOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzi, Vania; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Licandro, J.; Emery, J. P.; Dalle Ore, C. M.

    2013-10-01

    Trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) are considered some of the most pristine objects in the Solar System. Their surfaces display a wide range of compositions, going from surfaces covered by dark irradiation mantels, to surfaces totally covered by ices. According to models of the retention of volatiles, only TNOs with a diameter d > 1000 km are expected to retain any of their original complement of volatile ices on their surface. However, surface refreshing processes on smaller bodies (e.g., collisions, transient atmospheres and cometary activity) could bring to the surface some amount of ices that are stable at depth. When these processes affect only part of the surface they cause surface heterogeneity. The study of rotational variability of medium and large sized TNOs is important to better understand the physical processes affecting their surfaces, and if these processes are local in scale or, on the contrary, extend across the whole surface. We present rotationally resolved spectroscopy of two TNOs, (20000) Varuna and (136472) Makemake. Varuna is a medium sized TNO ( 621 km). We observed Varuna with NICS@TNG telescope, in the NIR, covering two entire rotations of the object. The analysis of the data shows a homogeneous surface composed of a mixture of complex organics, silicates and water ice. Our data also indicate an upper limit of 10% of methane ice on the surface. The Dwarf Planet Makemake is also studied in this work. The surface of this large TNO shows that, similar to Pluto and Eris, it clearly retains large amounts of volatile ices. Moreover, thermal observations indicate that Makemake has a heterogeneous surface that could be the result of volatile migration. We present new visible spectra of Makemake, obtained with ISIS@WHT telescope, covering 80% of the surface. We present a detailed study of the differences in the absorption bands across the surface that are indicative of changes in the relative abundances of ices, temperature, and/or particle size. Moreover, we collect all data available from literature, after 8 year from the discovery of Makemake, and compare with our data to investigate possible rotational and secular variations.

  17. Theory of flotation of small and medium-size particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derjaguin, B. V.; Dukhin, S. S.

    1993-08-01

    The paper describes a theory of flotation of small and medium-size particles less than 50? in radius) when their precipitation on a bubble surface depends more on surface forces than on inertia forces, and deformation of the bubble due to collisions with the particles may be neglected. The approach of the mineral particle to the bubble surface is regarded as taking place in three stages corresponding to movement of the particles through zones 1, 2 and 3. Zone 3 is a liquid wetting layer of such thickness that a positive or negative disjoining pressure arises in this intervening layer between the particle and the bubble. By zone 2 is meant the diffusional boundary layer of the bubble. In zone 1, which comprises the entire liquid outside zone 2, there are no surface forces. Precipitation of the particles is calculated by considering the forces acting in zones 1, 2 and 3. The particles move through zone 1 under the action of gravity and inertia. Analysis of the movement of the particles under the action of these forces gives the critical particle size, below which contact with the bubble surface is impossible, if the surface forces acting in zones 2 and 3 be neglected. The forces acting in zone 2 are ‘diffusio-phoretic’ forces due to the concentration gradient in the diffusional boundary layer. The concentration and electric field intensity distribution in zone 2 is calculated, taking into account ion diffusion to the deformed bubble surface. An examination is made of the ‘equilibrium’ surface forces acting in zone 3 independent of whether the bubble is at rest or in motion. These forces, which determine the behaviour of the thin wetting intervening layer between the bubble and the mineral particle and the height of the force barrier against its rupture, may be represented as results of the disjoining pressure forces acting on various parts of the film. The main components of the disjoining pressure are van der Waals forces, forces of an iono-electrostatic nature and forces related to structural changes in the boundary layers. A quantitative examination of the first two kinds of forces makes it possible (by neglecting the forces of the third kind) to obtain the condition of disappearance of the force barrier, i.e. of unhindered rupture of the wetting film and formation of a wetting perimeter. When this condition is fulfilled the kinetics of flotation recovery depends only on stages 1 and 2. Calculation of the forces acting in zone 2 and of their influence on the velocity of precipitation of the particles is given separately for small particles, the size of which does not exceed the thickness of the diffusional boundary layer, and for relatively large (‘medium’) particles, whose size is greater than the thickness of the diffusional boundary layer. The possibility and rate of precipitation of small particles are determined by diffusio-phoretic relationships in the concentration and electric fields of the diffusional boundary layer. A formula is derived for the resultant velocity of precipitation of small particles on a bubble surface under the action of gravity and diffusio-phoretic forces (in the absence of a force barrier in zone 3), and this serves as a basis for calculating the effectiveness of precipitation and the critical particle size below which contact is impossible at certain values of the cationic and anionic components of the ?-potential (even for hydrophobic particles). The paper then deals with the specific forces of a diffusio-electric nature, which arise when the particle acquires or surpasses the ‘average’ size of zone 2, in the process of desorption of the flotation reagent from its surface, its diffusion to the bubble surface and adsorption on it. It is shown that these forces favour thinning of the liquid layer between the bubble and particle surfaces, the viscous resistance of which in their absence cannot be overcome in a number of cases during the ‘contact’ time. ‘Medium’-sized particles, and under certain conditions small particles as well, pass through stage 2 ‘unhindered

  18. Medium Modification of ? Cluster Size in 6Li

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, T.; Akimune, H.; Nakayama, S.; Shima, T.; Miyamoto, S.

    2015-10-01

    The giant dipole resonance (GDR) in 6Li was investigated via the 6LI(?, xn) reaction, where x = 1, 2 or 3 at an incident energy range of E? =5-55. The(?, n) cross section was the most dominant cross section among them. The GDR in 6Li was found to consist of two components at Ex = 11 MeV and 33 MeV. The component at Ex = 11 MeV seems to be the intrinsic GDR in 6Li. The other at Ex = 33 MeV is inferred to be the GDR due to the ? cluster excitation in 6Li, based on the comparison with the results in light ion reactions. The GDR in free 4He is known to locate at Ex= 26 MeV. However, the GDR excitation energy due tothe ? cluster excitation in 6Li is found to be higher than that of the 4He. This fact suggests that the size of the ? cluster in 6Li is smaller than that of 4He due to the nuclear medium effect.

  19. Powertrain System Design of Medium-sized Hybrid Electric Tractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Bin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The environment issue has been more and more serious than ever before along with the increasing numbers of tractors. Different from pure electric tractors, medium-sized tractor more widely adopt hybrid power driver according to the machine structure and operation characteristics. The Hybrid Electric Tractor (HET is capable of enabling the diesel works in an optimal area by controlling the output torque of engine and electronic motor to achieve fuel economy and emission reduction. Designing the parallel hybrid tractor transmission system and control method are put forward in a 66kW off-road tractor based on the plowing operation cycle condition. The overall power should meet the maximum power of the plowing operation with the power balance equation. The control strategies are established by road transport modes and field operating modes, respectively. A logic fuzzy control system to Degree of Hybridization (DOH on account of the output torque and State of Charge (SOC is introduced. Aiming at the fuel economy parameter, the optimization design shows that the hybrid tractor can improve 19.2% of fuel economy between SOC 0.4~0.7 compared with the traditional tractor.

  20. Salary Management System for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhang; Guangli, Xu; Yuhuan, Zhang; Yilong, Lei

    Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in the process of wage entry, calculation, the total number are needed to be done manually in the past, the data volume is quite large, processing speed is low, and it is easy to make error, which is resulting in low efficiency. The main purpose of writing this paper is to present the basis of salary management system, establish a scientific database, the computer payroll system, using the computer instead of a lot of past manual work in order to reduce duplication of staff labor, it will improve working efficiency.This system combines the actual needs of SMEs, through in-depth study and practice of the C/S mode, PowerBuilder10.0 development tools, databases and SQL language, Completed a payroll system needs analysis, database design, application design and development work. Wages, departments, units and personnel database file are included in this system, and have data management, department management, personnel management and other functions, through the control and management of the database query, add, delete, modify, and other functions can be realized. This system is reasonable design, a more complete function, stable operation has been tested to meet the basic needs of the work.

  1. US market potential for small and medium-sized nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of on-site interviews with representatives of 23 investor-owned utilities and 3 publicly-owned utilities. The purpose of the interviews was to obtain information on utilities' attitudes toward small and medium-sized power plants and towards building new nuclear plants in general. Most of the utilities interviewed preferred power plants smaller than the ones currently being offered, as long as the smaller plants did not incur a major economic penalty. However, according to the utilities interviewed, without changes in the current environment it is unlikely that there will be a significant market for new nuclear plants of any size. A trend in the utility industry towards generating companies appears to be a positive step. (author)

  2. Small and Medium Sized Reactors: Driving Forces and Technology Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There will be growing demands for energy in the coming decades. One aspect of particular importance is that prospects for nuclear energy will to a considerable extent be influenced by developing countries. Since population growth will occur primarily in developing countries nuclear energy cannot play a significant global role without being a viable option in these countries. Since new power plants to be built will have to be compatible with regional electricity grids, this may result in a greater focus on plants in the small and medium range, defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to produce up to 700 Megawatt of electrical power. This paper first examines the driving forces that could influence the development of nuclear energy in general and of Small and Medium Sized Reactors (SMRs) in particular in the next decades and identifies key factors in that process. Concerns over climate change may to a certain extent influence the discussion on future energy options. Other factors of equal importance for the future of nuclear are a continued emphasis on maintaining high safety standards, the implementation of acceptable solutions for spent fuel and radioactive waste disposal and a globally accepted non-proliferation regime, factors that may in turn have an impact on public acceptance. Economic competitiveness of nuclear energy is an additional important factor, and without being commercially viable, no energy source can in the long run represent a major rce can in the long run represent a major and stable component in a competitive energy sector. The introduction of SMRs in developing countries poses additional challenges, such as investment limitations. Technology development plays an important role in keeping the nuclear option open for countries wishing to use nuclear reactors to meet their energy needs, and advances in reactor design will be important to enable a significant nuclear component in developing countries. This paper considers the contribution that nuclear science and technology can make towards meeting those needs and discusses the role of the IAEA in the nuclear technology area. The activities of the IAEA encompass the broad areas of nuclear technology, safety and safeguards, together with outreach activities which seek to provide information to decision makers, civil society and the public. (authors)

  3. The Creation of Small and Medium-Sized Sport Enterprises and the Environmental Factors Affecting It

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Morteza Azimzadeh; Brenda Pitts; Arash Sarvari MirAzizi

    2013-01-01

    Small and medium-sized enterprises are very basic solutions for the development of a country; therefore, it is important to understand the factors involved in their creation. Hence, this study sought to examine the relationship between environmental factors and creation of Small and medium-sized sport enterprises. The research population was small and medium-sized sport enterprises (1500 companies); their owners / managers were selected as the research sample (n = 258) by simple random sampli...

  4. Small and medium sized reactors with special emphasis on non-power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper examines the possible role of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) for world energy supply based on recent studies by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), the IAEA, the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD and papers presented at a seminar on SMRs held in New Delhi, in August 191. It notes that nuclear power appears to be receiving more favourable consideration as the environmental effects of fossil fuels and renewable energy sources become more evident, and that SMRs are generating particular interest, especially in the USA, because of their passive safety features and reduced financial risk. Although larger reactors will be preferred for electricity generation in most developed countries, unless SMRs are cheaper or offer other benefits, they could be used where electricity demand is too small for large reactors. Small and medium sized reactors could have a more general role in supplying district heating or process heat as they provide a better match to the energy required. However, there are many obstacles to their use at present, including public opposition, cheap gas, small system size, low load factors, lack of finance and competition from independent boilers. Current prospects for SMRs in district heating systems are poor, but the obstacles appear less serious for process heat applications, including desalination, and these could therefore offer early opportunities for SMRs to demonstrate their safety and reliability. Industrial sites also ty and reliability. Industrial sites also have more consistent demands for heat and electricity which would allow the reactors to operate more efficiently in a co-generation mode. It is concluded that the prospects for SMRs are reasonably good in the longer term. However, it is essential that one or two prototype reactors be built as soon as possible to provide experience and confirm their claimed benefits. This likely to need international co-operation and finance, which will require the selection of the most suitable national designs for further development. (author). 23 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs

  5. Theoretical Investigation of Trust in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentinas Navickas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The hectic pace of competition pushes the sector of small and medium enterprise to adopt sophisticated marketing ideas. In this context, customers are becoming more and more selective. However, expansion possibilities are burdened by the great variety of limitations. The current study paper aims to investigate the academic perception of trust which is treated as competitive advantage for small and medium enterprises. The object of the article is trust in small and medium enterprises. It has three objectives: to analyse small and medium enterprise characteristics through the academic perspective; to consider trust from the theoretical point of view; and to present the models that centre their attention on the trust as a construct that enhances customer satisfaction. Regarding the novelty of the current study, it brings a novel approach on a great variety of collected understandings of trust and puts an important foundation for future theory and practice investigations.

  6. Approaches to assess competitiveness of small and medium sized reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is continuing interest in Member States concerning the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs), i.e., reactors with the equivalent electric power of less than 700 MW. Currently, developed SMRs are in most cases intended for markets different than those in which large nuclear power plants operate. Such markets have essentially different investment requirements, siting flexibility, grid connections and infrastructure restrictions. Therefore, economic factors affecting the competitiveness or competition of SMRs in such markets would also be different from those observed in established markets for electricity production. For example, investment capability may be limited, which would favour capacity addition in smaller increments; grids may be small or weak, which would favour capacities exactly matching the demand; infrastructure and human resource may be insufficient, which would favour less complex operation and maintenance requirements; and non-electrical energy products, such as potable water, may be in demand, which would favour reasonably close plant location to the customer. In practice it is futile to compare a single SMR needs to a single larger capacity plant on an economy of scale basis because SMRs are suitable for those locations that might not be appropriate for larger plants. However, a series of SMRs could be considered comparable to fewer larger plants to achieve the same overall power station capacity. In this case, SMl power station capacity. In this case, SMRs have a potential to be competitive by employing alternative design strategies, taking advantage of smaller reactor size, offering a less complex design and operation and maintenance, relying on deployment-in-series approaches, taking an advantage of the accelerated learning, multiple unit factors and shorter construction duration. Reflecting on developments in member states, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is finalizing the preparation of a report highlighting the economics and investment related factors affecting SMR competitiveness, as well as the tools available to assess these factors. Adequate comparative assessment of SMR competitiveness is a complex task that may require considering time dependent expenditure and generation profiles and interest rates to determine adequate values of levelized unit energy cost (LUEC) for deployment scenarios with several consequently built plants of different types and capacities. As private capital may play an important role in financing of the new plants, investment and revenue models need to be employed to determine time-dependent characteristics, such as investments and revenues. Uncertainty analysis needs to be incorporated to add a degree of fidelity to the overall assessment. A variety of methods and tools required to conduct comparative economic assessments would been described in this paper. Many of these tools already exist in member states or are available from international organizations. In addition to this, the IAEA coordinated the development of an open model for the analysis of SMR economic and investment opportunities, which targets bringing together all currently available state-of-the-art models for generation costs, revenues, financial costs, and external factors and risks, while 'keeping the door open' for any new approach or development once it becomes available. The open model is being developed for a specific task of comparing the deployments of SMRs versus larger reactors in liberalized energy markets. LUEC will be an important figure of merit in this model; however, provisions would be made to ensure that LEUC is calculated taking into account time-dependent expenditure and production profiles and changing interest rates. In addition models to calculate investment profiles and revenues will be included. Finally, an approach to take into account other factors potentially affecting the competitiveness of SMRs, such as energy supply security, proliferation-resistance, political posture, etc. will be developed. In parallel with the develop

  7. Future Perspectives for Small and Medium Sized Reactors in India. Annex V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innovative small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) have several features that are expected to affect their future development and deployment in India. These include the: - Potential for simpler designs and reduced demands for human intervention, resulting in fewer potentially unsafe actions; - Potential for construction close to population centres, due to enhanced safety; - Potential of using the capability and capacity of local industries to enable their participation in the design and construction of such reactors, and high adaptability to the standardization and modular construction approach; - Potential to achieve low upfront capital costs. Future SMR concepts, employing increased use of passive safety features and capable of producing both electricity and high temperature process heat, may find application in specific regions of the country to supply both electricity and process heat, through distributed deployment. The following sections describe future SMR design concepts meeting the above mentioned objectives, and highlight their projected economic competitiveness

  8. Enablers and Difficulties for Innovation in Chile: Perceptions from Medium Size Plastic Firm Managers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José O, Maldifassi; Patricio, Crovetto.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english The research objective was to understand the reasons that would impel firms to innovate. The firms analyzed in this study were medium-size firms of the plastic manufacturing sector in Chile. After the analysis of the theory related to technological innovation, a model of the drivers for technologica [...] l innovation was developed. From the model a questionnaire was prepared to test which factors could influence the tendency of firms to engage in technological innovation activities. According to the data, the most influential factors that would encourage innovation in the set of firms studied are a high degree of competition in the industry, the availability of qualified workers, and a strategic relationship with customers.

  9. Examples from P2 and energy assessments at small to medium size manufacturers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using engineering student-faculty teams, the U.S. Department of energy sponsored industrial assessment center (IAC) at the university of louisville does free pollution prevention and energy assessments at small to medium size manufacturers (SIC 20-39) in kentucky and indiana. Each client plant must meet three of the following four criteria: Annual energy bills less than $1, 750, 000 and more than $50, 00. Gross annual sales of less than $75 million. Less than 500 employees. Lack a dedicated energy/waste engineer. Lack of in-house staff to perform these analyses. The program criteria and assessment procedures are briefly described and summaries of assessment at a sheet fed offset (lithographic) printing plant and 2 denim jeans pre washing plants are presented. 4 figs., 8 tabs

  10. The study of venture capital finance and investment behaviour in small and medium-sized enterprises

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Thokozani Patmond, Mbhele.

    Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are often credited with innovative entrepreneurial practices and conceiving new market opportunities. Government has reinforced these positive economic externalities through policy programmes and designated support structures. Venture capital organisations o [...] ften galvanise innovative knowledge by entrenching and sustaining nascent businesses through value-creating funding behaviours. In this way, the venture capital industry financially supports entrepreneurial activity for economic growth and governs and nurtures the growth of the SMEs. These show that the venture capital industry embraces value-creating opportunities on the basis of rational partnerships with enterprises that have limited track records and less formal control mechanisms. The tentative factor analysis findings suggest an integrated framework for the venture capital industry from the significant intercorrelations among the variables. The most important focus of this article, however, is its attempt to examine the behavioural traits of SMEs and venture capitalists regarding systematic finance and investment for inclusivity and due diligence.

  11. SECURITY CONCERNS IN MEDIUM SIZE ENTERPRISE CLOUD COMPUTING

    OpenAIRE

    Shaik Saidhbimca, Ibrahim Gashaw

    2013-01-01

    Cloud computing in an small size enterprise infrastructure bring significant security concerns. Successful implementation of cloud computing in a small size enterprise requires proper planning and understanding of emerging risks, threats, vulnerabilities, and possible countermeasures. We believe small size enterprise should analyze the company/organization security risks, threats, and available countermeasures before adopting this technology. In this paper, we have discussed security risks an...

  12. SECURITY CONCERNS IN MEDIUM SIZE ENTERPRISE CLOUD COMPUTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAIK.SAIDHBIMCA , IBRAHIM GASHAW

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing in an small size enterprise infrastructure bring significant security concerns. Successful implementation of cloud computing in a small size enterprise requires proper planning and understanding of emerging risks, threats, vulnerabilities, and possible countermeasures. We believe small size enterprise should analyze the company/organization security risks, threats, and available countermeasures before adopting this technology. In this paper, we have discussed security risks and concerns in cloud computing and enlightened steps that a small size enterprise can take to reduce security risks and protect their resources. We have also explained cloud computing strengths/benefits, weaknesses, and applicable areas in information risk management

  13. Defining an Industry: What is the Size and Scope of the Australian Building and Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard de Valence

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This is a reprint from Vol 1, no 1, which has not previously been available in electronic format.The analysis and understanding of the conduct and performance of an industry begins with a study of its structure. However, before analysing an industry's structure it is necessary to define the industry and identify its size, scope and scale to establish its true economic contribution. This paper discusses the size and scope of the Australian building and construction industry, firstly froma traditional industry economics approach by firm size and business characteristics using data fron three construction industry surveys done over 15 years by the ABS. Secondly, data from an industry 'cluster' perspective is shown. The objective of the paper is to compare the differences found in industry size and scope in the structure-conduct-performance approach and the alternative industry cluster approach. Each model reveals different characteristics of the industry. The conclusion finds that the building and construction industry is a case where the traditional structure-conduct-performance model cannot be easily applied. 

  14. The Management And Exchange of Knowledge AndInnovation in Environments of Collaborating Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OSANNA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs is today far beyond any discussion in countries all over the world - in European countries as well as in Asia and in USA, in Africa as well as in Latin America. To meet market demands in present and future global industrial world, manufacturing enterprises of any kind and any size must be flexible and agile enough to respond quickly to product demand changes. With support of artificial intelligence and modern information technology it is possible to realise modern cost-effective customer-driven design and manufacturing taking into account the importance and basic role of quality management and metrology. This will be especially possible on the basis of the innovative concept and model for modern enterprises the so-called "Multi-Functions Integrated Factory - MFIF" that makes possible an agile and optimal industrial production in any kind of industry and especially in up-to-date SMEs.

  15. Incident Response Plan for a Small to Medium Sized Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Charles DeVoe; Rahman, Syed M.

    2013-01-01

    Most small to medium health care organizations do not have the capability to address cyber incidents within the organization.Those that do are poorly trained and ill equipped .These health care organizations are subject to various laws that address privacy concerns , proper handling of financial information, and Person ally Identifiable Information. Currently an IT staff handles responses to these incidents in an Ad Hoc manner.A properly trained, staffed,and equipped Cyber Incident Response T...

  16. 77 FR 49991 - Small Business Size Standards; Adoption of 2012 North American Industry Classification System for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ...Industry Classification System for Size Standards...U.S. Small Business Administration...industry classification system on SBA's small business size standards...Industry Classification System codes? * * * * * Small Business Size Standards...

  17. Strategy for a small/medium sized Nordic shipping line

    OpenAIRE

    Ágúst Þór Ragnarsson 1979

    2013-01-01

    The aim is to explore new market opportunities for small Nordic shipping operations. The dissertation begins by introducing how the shipping industry has developed from the start to latest trends on the market. The main characteristics of the market are outlined. It is a strategic advantage to recognize some of the market elements that differ, both for better and worse. The shipping network is discussed and how it reflects the carrier’s strategic position. An explanation is offered in strat...

  18. Safety Analysis for Medium/Small Size Integral Reactor: Evaluation of Safety Characteristics for Small and Medium Integral Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hho jung; Seul, K.W.; Ahn, S.K.; Bang, Y.S.; Park, D.G.; Kim, B.K.; Kim, W.S.; Lee, J.H.; Kim, W.K.; Shim, T.M.; Choi, H.S.; Ahn, H.J.; Jung, D.W.; Kim, G.I.; Park, Y.M.; Lee, Y.J. [Korea Inst. of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The Small and medium integral reactor is developed to be utilized for non-electric areas such as district heating and steam production for desalination and other industrial purposes, and then these applications may typically imply a closeness between the reactor and the user. It requires the reactor to be designed with the adoption of special functional and inherent safety features to ensure and promote a high level of safety and reliability, in comparison with the existing nuclear power plants. The objective of the present study is to establish the bases for the development of regulatory requirements and technical guides to address the special safety characteristics of the small and medium integral reactor. In addition, the study aims to identify and to propose resolutions to the possible safety concerns in the design of the small and medium integral reactor. 34 refs., 20 tabs. (author)

  19. Behaviour on the Length Test for Medium Sample Sizes

    OpenAIRE

    Dittrich, Regina; Reschenhofer, Erhard; Bomze, Immanuel

    1993-01-01

    In this note it is shown that even for relatively large sample sizes the asymptotic distribution of the smoothed length as derived in Reschenhofer and Bomre (1991) should not be used for the determination of critical values. Therefore extended tables of critical values for both the 1% and 5% levels of significance generated by simulation are presented. (author's abstract)

  20. Business Benefits from Enterprise Systems Implementation in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Mathrani

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The market for enterprise systems (ESs continues to grow as business becomes increasingly global and competitive. Increasingly, the market focus for ES vendors is on small businesses. The purpose of this study is to provide a unique ES vendor/consultant perspective on (a the business benefits small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs expect from their ES investment and (b to examine current practices of ES implementation in SMEs through a conceptual framework that considers the organisational, process and strategic context of the implementation. This study does so with interview data collected from ES vendors, ES consultants and IT research firms, who are the key players in the New Zealand ES industry. A distinctive contribution of this research is the vendor/consultant perspective as the unit of analysis, rather than the SME perspective commonly used in similar research. The vendor/consultant perspective offers a comprehensive viewpoint that extends across numerous SMEs in a variety of industries. Findings from interviews with these professionals indicate that although many ES implementations are several years old now, SMEs have only recently started tracking benefits through analytical processes in expectation to realise business value from their ES investment. The results also identify how ES implementation practices are adapting to be more suitable to the SME sector, an important market for ES vendors given the saturation of the large enterprise market for ES implementation.

  1. Energy conserved and costs saved by small and medium-size manufacturers, 1988--1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirsch, F.W.

    1991-05-01

    Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Centers (EADCs) provided energy-conserving and cost saving assistance in 339 small and medium-size manufacturing plants nationwide during 1988-89. This report presents the results of what was recommended to those manufacturers, the record of what was implemented by them, and an analysis of the financial rewards gained by them. It also includes an accounting of the financial returns to the federal government, derived from taxes upon the cost savings, or incremental income, of the manufacturers who implement the EADCs` recommendations. EADCs collect implementation data within a year of the energy audit, and for these results that time period extended through 1990. The EADCs are located at accredited engineering departments of universities and staffed by faculty and students. At present there are 18 EADCs serving manufacturers in 37 states; of these, two were established as a result of the 1989 competition, and five more were chosen competitively in 1990. Most of the results in this report were generated by 11 EADCs (named in the Appendix); two others withdrew voluntarily after completing only 10 energy audits during 1988-89. Primary responsibility for selecting, training, evaluating, and managing the EADCs belongs to the Industrial Technology and Energy Management (ITEM) division of University City Science Center (UCSC). The Department of Energy`s Office of Industrial Technologies sponsors the EADC program through an agreement with UCSC.

  2. Objectives and constraints of entrepreneurs: evidence from small and medium size enterprises in Russia and Bulgaria.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pissarides, F.; Singer, M.; Švejnar, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Ro?. 31, ?. 3 (2003), s. 503-531. ISSN 0147-5967 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : entrepreneurs * small and medium size enterprises Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.746, year: 2003

  3. THE KEY DETERMINANTS OF AND BARRIERS TO INTERNET ADOPTION IN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED HOTELS

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Kim Lian Chan

    2012-01-01

    The present paper presents qualitative empirical evidence that addresses why internet usage/adoption is low and how it can be improved in small and medium-sized hotels in Malaysia. It explores the key barriers to and influencing factors of internet adoption in a sample of 25 Malaysian small and medium-sized hotels based on a theoretical framework of the organisational innovation and resource-based view theories. Key barriers to internet usage include owner/operator characteristics, cost and i...

  4. What Types of Small and Medium-sized Businesses Are Utilizing New Financial Products?

    OpenAIRE

    Yamori, Nobuyoshi

    2009-01-01

    The increased diversification of fund rising methods among small and medium-sized businesses has been a major policy challenge in recent years, and private financial institutions are proactively striving to disseminate new financial technologies. However, this does not necessarily mean that every small and medium-sized business benefits from such technologies. It is difficult to analyze this aspect based on ready-made data. Fortunately, this paper can analyze the current status and challenges...

  5. The role of promotional strategies for small and medium- sized entreprises in sustainable marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Ioana Cecilia Popescu; Diana Maria Vrânceanu; Mihai Ioan Ro?ca

    2012-01-01

    In Romania, small and medium-sized enterprises manifest a certain interest in marketing activities, resulted in the existence of a specific marketing structure in half of them, as attests a survey done on a sample of 140 organizations. This research, focused on understanding the promotional strategies and tactics used by Romanian small and medium-sized enterprises, concluded that communication is oriented predominantly to quantitative objectives, not designed according to sustainable marketin...

  6. Customer Relationship Management system for small and medium-sized enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Liang

    2008-01-01

    This bachelor work provides a case study of small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) to analyze the general proposal criteria for customer relationship management (CRM) software selection. The selected software can help small and medium-sized enterprise to solve the marketing issues which are connected with customers to enhance customer satisfaction and loyalty to realize customer retention, customer acquisition and market share expanding.

  7. THE EVOLUTION OF FINANCIAL STANDARDS FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM- SIZED ENTITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Ivankovic?, Gordana; Jerman, Mateja

    2011-01-01

    According to the growing need for more comparable accounting standards, the beginnings of International Financial Reporting Standards for small and medium sized entities (IFRS for SMEs) can be found in the year 2004. IFRS for SMEs represents for the first time an accounting standard for small and medium-sized companies that can be used globally. The paper aims to examine the historical development of IFRS, the principal institutions linked to their adoption and th...

  8. Study on information strategic planning for large and medium-sized enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Tan, Shaosheng

    2011-10-01

    Enterprise Information is an inevitable trend in management change for large and medium-sized enterprises and also the basic conditions for company's future business, which has become an indispensable part of the overall strategy. Based on analyzing current situation in enterprise information especially that in China, its information strategy-based factors and its existing outstanding issues in China, the paper tries to explore information strategic planning for large and medium-sized enterprises.

  9. The Vital Factors for Small and Medium Sized Sport Enterprises Start-ups

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Morteza Azimzadeh; Brenda Pitts; Mohammad Ehsani; Asadollah Kordnaeij

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, the new enterprises are recognized as the main source of job creation, innovation and development. In today’s business world, new enterprises are recognized as an important source of job creation, innovation and development. Therefore, identifying influencing factors that play key roles in the start-up of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) is critical. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify critical factors for starting-up Small and Medium sized Sport Enterprises (...

  10. The interstellar medium and star formation on kpc size scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, Clare L.

    2015-03-01

    By resimulating a region of a global disc simulation at higher resolution, we resolve and study the properties of molecular clouds with a range of masses from a few hundreds of M? to 106 M?. The purpose of our paper is twofold, (i) to compare the interstellar medium (ISM) and Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs) at much higher resolution compared to previous global simulations, and (ii) to investigate smaller clouds and characteristics such as the internal properties of GMCs which cannot be resolved in galactic simulations. We confirm the robustness of cloud properties seen in previous galactic simulations, and that these properties extend to lower mass clouds, though we caution that velocity dispersions may not be measured correctly in poorly resolved clouds. We find that the properties of the clouds and ISM are only weakly dependent on the details of local stellar feedback, although stellar feedback is important to produce realistic star formation rates and agreement with the Schmidt-Kennicutt relation. We study internal properties of GMCs resolved by 104-105 particles. The clouds are highly structured, but we find clouds have a velocity dispersion radius relationship which overall agrees with the Larson relation. The GMCs show evidence of multiple episodes of star formation, with holes corresponding to previous feedback events and dense regions likely to imminently form stars. Our simulations show clearly long filaments, which are seen predominantly in the interarm regions, and shells.

  11. IS IT NECESSARY TO REGULATE FINANCIAL REPORTING OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTITIES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICHAL JEŠŠ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the analysis of the position of small and medium-sized entities in the Slovak Republic and with the international regulation of small and medium-sized entities’ financial reporting. It provides the business demography of economic subjects by size class category by number of employees and follows by an average number of employed persons by size classes of enterprises in persons. Due to the fact that the number of these entities represents a significant role, the regulation of their financial reporting becomes a material fact. The International Accounting Standards Board issued the International Financial Reporting Standard for Small and Medium-sized Entities (IFRS® for SMEs to achieve the international comparability of accounting and reporting information. The paper covers as well as the perspectives of the IFRS® for SMEs implementation within the European Union.

  12. The role of small and medium size reactors in the future US nuclear market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses the various aspects of siting and sizing new generating facilities in the USA. Environmental and licensing issues are discussed. The economic considerations and assumptions for new plants are presented. Also, the electric transmission and distribution system characteristics and constraints are described with the potential role for several small and medium size designs summarized. (authors)

  13. Dinamismo de mercado en la pequeña y mediana industria de Colombia: el caso SuperBrix / Dynamisme de Marché dans la Petite et Moyenne Industrie de Colombie: Le cas de SuperBrix / Market Dynamism in Small and Medium-Sized Colombian Industry: The Case of SuperBrix / Dinamismo de mercado na pequena e mediana indústria da Colômbia: o caso SuperBrix

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Camilo, Mejía Reátiga; David, Juliao Esparragoza.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Em março de 2010 o engenheiro Mariano Ghisays, presidente executivo da Superbrix, não somente questionava-se se abranger o mercado asiático era uma opção viável, também se a mesma emergia numa cojuntura apropriada da economia e a capacidade tecnológica da sua empresa, que até aquele momento tinha si [...] do impossível de copiar. A oportunidade de entrar em países como a China, a Coreia, a Índia, a Malásia e a Cingapura já tinha sido levado em conta pela diretoria alguns anos atrás; contudo a decisão foi adiada a fim de consolidar o mercado americano, o que fora atingido depois de várias tentativas de entrada, logo depois de apurar a sua estratégia de mergulho no mesmo. Mariano se perguntava, então: de que maneira uma mediana empresa do Caribe colombiano, capitalizando a sua experiência de entrada em vários mercados internacionais, poderia com êxito atingir esses países asiáticos, onde os preços, concorrência e probabilidade de cópia dos seus produtos representavam um risco enorme para a companhia? Abstract in spanish En marzo de 2010 el ingeniero Mariano Ghisays, presidente ejecutivo de SuperBrix, no sólo se preguntaba si llegar al mercado asiático era una opción viable, sino también si ésta emergía en una coyuntura apropiada de la economía y capacidad tecnológica de su empresa, la cual, hasta el momento, no hab [...] ía podido ser copiada. La oportunidad de ingresar a países como China, Corea, India, Malasia y Singapur había sido tenida en cuenta por las directivas algunos años atrás, pero fue pospuesta con el fin de consolidar el mercado americano, lo cual se consiguió después de varios intentos de entrada, luego de afinar su estrategia de inmersión al mismo. Mariano se preguntaba, entonces, ¿de qué manera una mediana empresa del Caribe colombiano, capitalizando su experiencia de entrada en varios mercados internacionales, podría lograr con éxito llegar a estos países asiáticos, en donde los precios, competencia y probabilidad de copia de sus productos representaban un enorme riesgo para la compañía? Abstract in english In March of 2010, engineer Mariano Ghisays, executive president of Superbrix, thought not only about whether entering the Asian market was a viable option but also if it were to happen under a favorable economic situation and with his company's technological capacity, which at that time, no one had [...] been able to copy. The opportunity to enter countries such as China, Korea, India, Malaysia and Singapore had been in the sights of the company's directors for years, but was postponed while they consolidated the American market. This was achieved after various attempts at entry, while also fine-tuning their immersion strategy. Marciano then thought about how a medium-sized company from the Colombian Caribbean region, capitalizing on its experience after already having entered various international markets, successfully reach these Asian countries, where prices, competition and the probability of their products being copied posed an enormous risk for the company?

  14. 77 FR 56755 - Small Business Size Standards; Adoption of 2012 North American Industry Classification System for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ...3245-AG47 Small Business Size Standards...Industry Classification System for Size Standards...AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration...Industry Classification System (NAICS) into its table of small business size...

  15. Financing Mode of American Small and Medium-sized Enterprises and the Enlightenment to Our Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidan YOU

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of the characteristic of small and medium-sized enterprises such as small scale of assets, low transparency message and heavy uncertainty of management, the financing mode of small and medium-sized enterprises of various countries is the same basically. This paper reflect the characteristic of the financing mode of small and medium-sized enterprises of our country indirectly through studying the financing mode and characteristics of American small and medium-sized enterprises, expecting to enlighten alleviating the difficulty of financing of small and medium-sized enterprises of our country . Key words: Financing mode, Characteristic, Enlightenment Résumé : La modèle de fusion des petites et moyennes entreprises dans tous les pays existe des points communs , en raison de ses quelques caractéristiques suivantes : les capitaux de petite envergure , la transparence insuffisante des informations et l’instabilité de gestion . A travers la recherche sur la modèle de fusion des petites et moyennes entreprises aux états-unis , ce texte reflète de façon indirecte les traits de modèle de fusion des petites et moyennes entreprises en Chine dans l’espoir de donner l’inspiration à l’atténuation des difficultés de la fusion des petites et moyennes entreprises de notre pays . Mots-clés: modèle de diffusion, traits , inspiration ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????

  16. What Types of Small and Medium-Sized Businesses are Utilizing New Financial Products?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyoshi YAMORI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The increased diversification of fund rising methods among small and medium-sized businesses has been a major policy challenge in recent years, and private financial institutions are proactively striving to disseminate new financial technologies. However, this does not necessarily mean that every small and medium-sized business benefits from such technologies. It is difficult to analyze this aspect based on ready-made data. Fortunately, this paper can analyze the current status and challenges of the utilization of new financial products among small and medium-sized businesses by using unique survey questionnaires (Kansai RIETI Questionnaires. The results of responses from more than 2,000 companies showed that most companies began utilizing new financial products due to introductions by main banks, and it was seen that the diversification of fund rising methods among small and medium-sized businesses has developed as a result of efforts made by policy-making authorities and financial institutions. However, the rate of utilization of each financial method is as low as a few percentage points, and extremely small businesses or cash-strapped companies has not improved in terms of fund risings. Improved diversification was mainly found in excellent small and medium-sized businesses.

  17. Fostering Linkages between Transnational Corporations and Small to Medium-Sized Enterprises in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delane Botelho

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available When large Transnational Corporations (TNCs enter a host country, consequent development of local Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs is expected. The public sector may play an important role by fostering Business Linkages (BL, by which TNCs establish purchasing relationships with local SMEs. This article was motivated by growing attention in literature to the interaction between economic development and the ability of companies to absorb and disseminate competences. Its purpose is to understand the role of public policy programs that promote BLs for development by: (a analyzing actions and programs developed by public and private institutions to foster BL in Brazil; (b discovering the participants? benefits from such actions and programs; and (c identifying opportunities for public sector promotion of BL. The research design was a multiple case study which analyzed Supplier Development Projects in five Brazilian states. Results indicate that public policies may complement overall development as well as industrial policy, which is related to capacity building, stimulating technology transfer, and, more broadly, promoting a business friendly environment able to attract investment for development, calling for a regional and sub-regional approach for a country the size of Brazil.

  18. Fostering linkages between transnational corporations and small to medium-sized enterprises in Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Delane, Botelho; Milber Fernandes Morais, Bourguignon.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english When large Transnational Corporations (TNCs) enter a host country, consequent development of local Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) is expected. The public sector may play an important role by fostering Business Linkages (BL), by which TNCs establish purchasing relationships with local SMEs. This [...] article was motivated by growing attention in literature to the interaction between economic development and the ability of companies to absorb and disseminate competences. Its purpose is to understand the role of public policy programs that promote BLs for development by: (a) analyzing actions and programs developed by public and private institutions to foster BL in Brazil; (b) discovering the participants' benefits from such actions and programs; and (c) identifying opportunities for public sector promotion of BL. The research design was a multiple case study which analyzed Supplier Development Projects in five Brazilian states. Results indicate that public policies may complement overall development as well as industrial policy, which is related to capacity building, stimulating technology transfer, and, more broadly, promoting a business friendly environment able to attract investment for development, calling for a regional and sub-regional approach for a country the size of Brazil.

  19. Simplification of Process Integration Studies in Intermediate Size Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgård, Henrik; Petersen, P. M.

    2002-01-01

    It can be argued that the largest potential for energy savings based on process integration is in the intermediate size industry. But this is also the industrial scale in which it is most difficult to make the introduction of energy saving measures economically interesting. The reasons are that the required engineering effort is too great and therefore too expensive, and that the resulting systems designs often become inordinately complex and therefore not attractive in operation. The present study describes steps that aim at reducing the magnitude of the theoretical work and engineering effort associated with a given process integration study in an intermediate size industry. This is based on the observation that the systems that eventually result from a process integration project and that are economically and operationally most interesting are also quite simple. Four steps that may be used separately or in series ahead of or simultaneously with the conventional process integration procedures (for example, the pinch point method) are described and are applied to an industrial case study. It might be feared that the use of preselections and groupings would limit the "freedom of movement' and therefore lead to non-optimal economic solutions, which may be right. But the objective of the optimisation is not to reach the best economic solution, but to relatively quickly develop the design of a simple and operationally friendly network without losing too much energy saving potential. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Career Planning of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Based on Knowledge Life Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Liu; Xinbo Sun

    2009-01-01

    The article use the theory of knowledge life cycle, the small and medium-sized enterprises’ concept and the career planning, seek the joint between the career planning of enterprises and the theory of knowledge life cycle, has effectively studied the transmission mechanism in forming of the career planning of enterprises and the theory of knowledge life cycle, moreover bring forward corresponding human resource management measure, provide the cut-in point of theory for the small and medium-...

  1. Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Target System's Design of Key Performance Assess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihui Sun

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article from the situation that the present small and medium-sized enterprises' performance assess is unable to obtain the anticipated effect to embark, through analyzing the questions which consist in the small and medium-sized enterprises' performance assess targets design, and combining with the small and medium-sized enterprises' actual situation to design a set of target system of key performance assess. In this system which carries on the omni-directional analysis to the target system's design flow, bringing forward concrete operation means in each stage. The endeavour through this kind of target's design project, providing effective instruction in distilling the performance target for enterprises in reality.

  2. Medium-sized deletion in the BRCA1 gene: limitations of Sanger sequencing and MLPA analyses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandra, Herman; Dominic, Varga; Heidrun L., Deissler; Rolf, Kreienberg; Helmut, Deissler.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We describe a family with a history of breast and ovarian cancer in which MLPA analysis of the BRCA1 gene pointed to a deletion including a part of exon 11. Further characterization confirmed a loss of 374 bp in a region completely covered by conventional sequencing which had not revealed the deleti [...] on. Because this alteration was only detected serendipitously with an MLPA probe, we calculated the probabilities of detecting medium-sized deletions in large exons by methods including initial PCR amplification. This showed that a considerable fraction of medium-sized deletions are undetectable by currently used standard methods of mutation analyses. We conclude that long, widely overlapping amplicons should be used to minimize the risk of missing medium-sized deletions. Alternatively, large exons could be completely covered by narrow-spaced MLPA probes.

  3. Evaluation of innovation activities of small and medium-sized businesses in Slovak Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Kostiviarova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the presented paper is to contribute to the discussion on innovation activities of small and medium-sized businesses of the Slovak Republic and the European Union. It is based on the results of research carried out by the National Agency for the Development of Small and Medium Enterprises (NADSME, where the focus was on the innovation capacity of small and medium firms in Slovakia. And it was complemented by the results of an analysis of firms’ innovation activities in the Banská Bystrica region carried out within the project “Regional Innovation Strategy of the Banska Bystrica Region”.

  4. Modified genetic algorithms to model cluster structures in medium-size silicon clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results obtained using a genetic algorithm (GA) to search for stable structures of medium size silicon clusters. In this work the GA uses a semiempirical energy function to find the best cluster structures, which are further optimized using density-functional theory. For small clusters our results agree well with previously reported structures, but for larger ones different structures appear. This is the case of Si36 where we report a different structure, with significant lower energy than those previously found using limited search approaches on common structural motifs. This demonstrates the need for global optimization schemes when searching for stable structures of medium-size silicon clusters

  5. Design features to achieve defence-in-depth in small and medium sized reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broader incorporation of inherent and passive safety design features has become a 'trademark' of many advanced reactor concepts, including several evolutionary designs and nearly all innovative small and medium sized design concepts. Ensuring adequate defence-in-depth is important for reactors of smaller output because many of them are being designed to allow more proximity to the user, specifically, when non-electrical energy products are targeted. Based on the activities recently performed by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the paper provides a summary description of the design features used to achieve defence in depth in the innovative concepts of small and medium sized reactors with fast neutron spectrum. (author)

  6. The Career Planning of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Based on Knowledge Life Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article use the theory of knowledge life cycle, the small and medium-sized enterprises’ concept and the career planning, seek the joint between the career planning of enterprises and the theory of knowledge life cycle, has effectively studied the transmission mechanism in forming of the career planning of enterprises and the theory of knowledge life cycle, moreover bring forward corresponding human resource management measure, provide the cut-in point of theory for the small and medium-sized enterprises in our country to make the career planning through the theory of knowledge life cycle.

  7. The strategic relevance of technology-related variables to the competitiveness of small- to medium-sized furniture manufacturers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.S., Lourens; J.A., Jonker.

    Full Text Available SMMEs can make a critical and positive economic contribution to South Africa, and small- to medium-sized furniture manufacturers (SM/FMs) have the potential to contribute to economic growth, job creation, and GDP. However, the furniture industry has not stayed abreast of technological advances. To s [...] urvive in an environment of increasing competition and imports, competitive strategies must be devised. One such strategy is for technology adoption and implementation that can provide solutions for the furniture industry to improve speed, quality, variety, flexibility, and productivity, resulting in improved competitiveness. However, the adoption of technology means that its acquisition and application must be managed strategically, as the use of technology involves far more than simply taking it into account during the business-planning process. This paper investigates the impact of business strategy and selected technology-related variables on the competitiveness of SM/FM.

  8. Dyeing Industry Effluent System as Lipid Production Medium of Neochloris sp. for Biodiesel Feedstock Preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Vidyadharani Gopalakrishnan; Dhandapani Ramamurthy

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae lipid feedstock preparation cost was an important factor in increasing biodiesel fuel hikes. This study was conducted with the concept of implementing an effluent wastewater as lipid production medium for microalgae cultivation. In our study textile dyeing industry effluent was taken as a lipid production medium for Neochloris sp. cultivation. The changes in physicochemical analysis of effluent before and after Neochloris sp. treatment were recorded using standard procedures and AA...

  9. Pressures on Green Supply Chain Management: A Study on Manufacturing Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangmeng HUANG

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to empirically investigate the pressures for adopting green supply chain management (GSCM among Chinese small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. Data is collected through the use of mail distributed questionnaires administered to participants at a national trade fair held in Suzhou and two rounds of data collection were carried out to make a more reliable result for the research. ANOVA and Factor analysis are used to analyze the data. Some key findings are found from this study. Firstly, there is indifference among the four industrial sectors in terms of facing pressures in adopting GSCM practices. Secondly, all of the pressures from environmental laws and regulations, the pressures in the process of selling the products and the pressures in the supply chain in the relation with the suppliers and customers have impacted on the decisions of SMEs to employ GSCM practices. The main limitation to this paper is the relatively small manufacturing sample of SMEs. The paper explores the GSCM pressures faced by Chinese SMEs which may be different from the findings through the studies on large enterprises in China.
    Key words: Supply chain management; Pressures on green supply chain management small and medium-sized enterprises; Chinese manufacturing industry

  10. THE RESPONSIVENESS OF ITALIAN SMALL-TO-MEDIUM SIZED PLANTS: DIMENSIONS AND DETERMINANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Belvedere, Valeria; Grando, Alberto; Papadimitriou, Thanos

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents a quantitative study carried out on more than 200 manufacturing plants located in Italy. The study aimed to explore whether small-to-medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in Italy are more responsive than large enterprises and determine what are the levers that these enterprises would employ to achieve their responsiveness. Logistic responsiveness has been considered a key driver of competitiveness. Several studies have suggested that company’s size is a ma...

  11. The Impact of Firm Characteristics in Access of Financing by Small and Medium-sized Enterprises in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Reuben Kira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of Small and Medium-sized Enterprise (SME sector in economic development, job creationand income generation has been recognized worldwide. However, these contributions are not effectivelyharnessed in Tanzania. The main challenge limiting the sector to contribute fully is a shortage of finance. Thisstudy examines the impact of firm characteristics in access to debt financing by Tanzanian SMEs. The equationspecified access to finance as dependent variable while firm characteristics as independent variable. Datacollection was conducted through self-administered questionnaire in a survey of 163 Tanzanian firms. Thestatistical analysis of data involved Pearson correlation and logistic regression to establish the associationbetween dependent and independent variables. The results indicate that firm’s location, industry, size, businessinformation, age, incorporation and collateral influence access to debt finance. The study recommends thatTanzanian SME operators should maintain attractive firm attributes to stimulate lenders to extend debt financingto their investments.

  12. Key Influencing Factors behind Moodle Adoption in Irish Small to Medium Sized Higher Education Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, David; Livadas, Lelia; Miles, Gail

    2011-01-01

    This research investigated Irish Small to Medium Sized Educational Institutions (SMSEs) involved in Higher Education (HE) that adopted Moodle, the OSS (Open Source Software) course management system (CMS). As Moodle has only been adopted in the Irish HE sector in the last 5-7 years, this research crucially studied the attitudes of the SMSEs that…

  13. Continuing Education for Managers from Small and Medium Sized German Companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fub, Jorg

    1995-01-01

    An international trade school in southern Germany, which is a highly export-oriented environment, has established a vocational and professional continuing education program for personnel of small- and medium-size companies. Offerings include a graduate course in international marketing, seminars for export companies, distance education in…

  14. Radio-frequency heating of a medium sized tokamak at lower hybrid resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the transport properties of the LHR heated plasma is conducted in a medium sized tokamak. Duchs' code is used to calculate the relevant transport quantities with and without the lower hybrid resonant heating. Through the power deposition profiles with different RF frequencies the best frequency is arrived for the bulk heating of the tokamak. (L.C.)

  15. Analysis of Trip Attraction Characteristics of Commercial Land Use in Medium Sized Towns in Kerala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Gymmy Joseph Kattor,

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Travel demand forecasting is vital for the design of transportation facilities and services, and also for the future development of a town. The study aims to provide a trip attraction model using multiple regression, that is able to predict the trip attracted to any commercial nodes in the medium sized towns in Kerala. This paper also presents an analysis of trip attraction characteristics of the commercial nodes in medium sized towns of Kerala. Using questionnaire survey, the characteristics of the eight selected commercial nodes from the three medium sized towns Tirur, Perinthalmanna, and Ponnani in Kerala are found out. Socioeconomic surveys are conducted for the selected towns for obtaining the origin-destination data. Based on these surveyed data, the characteristics of the selected nodes are studied and correlation and regression analysis are performed. The study showed that the multiple regression model with the independent variables namely the number of employees and percentage of office in the commercial node with the R2 and Adjusted R2 value of 0.999 and 0.9997 respectively gives the better estimate of trip attraction. This model would be very useful for estimating the trips attracted to a new or existing commercial center in any medium sized towns in Kerala, and thus aid to assess the traffic impact of the commercial center on the geometric design of roadways in the surrounding area.

  16. Design of hydrothermal control system in medium-sized multifunctional radon chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces a hydrothermal control system designed for an airtight medium-sized multifunctional radon chamber. Fuzzy divisional control and intelligent self-adapting are adopted in this system. We use 485 bus collecting and control hydrothermal parameters and PCII/O card driving the electrical parts in radon chamber. (authors)

  17. The Tool Coverage of Software Process Improvement Frameworks for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye?ildoruk, Filiz Çelik; Bozlu, Banu; Demirörs, Onur

    Software Process Improvement (SPI) awareness is increasing among Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs). Conventional SPI frameworks are not appealing for SMEs since they are complex and costly. There are a number of frameworks, which address the problems of SMEs for SPI. This paper presents a comparative study of the most frequently referenced SPI frameworks established for SMEs from a SPI Tool coverage perspective.

  18. The effect of unfair dismissal laws on small and medium sized businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Harding, Don

    2002-01-01

    Evidence from a survey of 1800 small and medium sized businesses is assembled to provide estimates of the effect on employment of unfair dismissal laws. The report also provides a discussion of the evidence on the welfare effects of unfair dismissal laws.

  19. Current information technology needs of small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wipple, C.; Vosti, E.

    1997-11-01

    This report documents recent efforts of the American Textile Partnership (AMTEX) Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Project to address needs that are characterized of small to medium sized apparel manufactures and contractors. Background on the AMTEX/DAMA project and objectives for this specific efforts are discussed.

  20. An Agile Methodology for Implementing Service-Oriented Architecture in Small and Medium Sized Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of Lean/Agile principles, using action research to develop and deploy new technology for Small and Medium sized enterprises. The research case was conducted at the Lapeer County Sheriff's Department and involves the initial deployment of a Service Oriented Architecture to alleviate the data…

  1. Learning in Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Time for a Reappraisal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Keith; Payne, John; Ross, Cilla

    2004-01-01

    This article follows Engestrom (2001) in suggesting a new approach to learning in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) based on the social and cultural realities of the workplace. The article briefly reviews the theoretical status and practical standing of work on lifelong learning in SMEs, and suggests that Engestrom's work may help us to…

  2. Toward a Singleton Undergraduate Computer Graphics Course in Small and Medium-Sized Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shesh, Amit

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the evolution of a single undergraduate computer graphics course over five semesters, driven by a primary question: if one could offer only one undergraduate course in graphics, what would it include? This constraint is relevant to many small and medium-sized colleges that lack resources, adequate expertise, and enrollment…

  3. Theoretical formalism of radiative jet energy loss in a finite size dynamical QCD medium

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    The computation of radiative energy loss in a finite size QCD medium with dynamical constituents is a key ingredient for obtaining reliable predictions for jet quenching in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. In this paper, we present a theoretical formalism for the calculation of the first order in opacity radiative energy loss of a quark jet traveling through a finite size dynamical QCD medium. We show that, while each individual contribution is infrared divergent, the divergence is naturally regulated once all diagrams are taken into account. Our results suggest a remarkably simple general mapping between energy loss expressions for static and dynamical QCD media. Finite size effects are shown to induce a non-linear path length dependence of the energy loss, recovering both the incoherent Gunion-Bertsch limit, as well as destructive Landau-Pomeanchuk-Migdal limit.

  4. Theoretical formalism of radiative jet energy loss in a finite size dynamical QCD medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computation of radiative energy loss in a finite-size QCD medium with dynamical constituents is a key ingredient for obtaining reliable predictions for jet quenching in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. We here present a theoretical formalism for the calculation of the first order in opacity radiative energy loss of a quark jet traveling through a finite-size dynamical QCD medium. We show that, while each individual contribution to the energy loss is infrared divergent, the divergence is naturally regulated once all diagrams are taken into account. Finite-size effects are shown to induce a nonlinear path-length dependence of the energy loss, recovering both the incoherent Gunion-Bertsch limit, as well as destructive Landau-Pomeanchuk-Migdal limit. Finally, our results suggest a remarkably simple general mapping between energy-loss expressions for static and dynamical QCD media.

  5. Teaming up for mutual learning : A case study of merging innovation aproaches of a medium-sized company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, SØren Bolvig; Pedersen, Tanja Aabo

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this paper is two-folded within the theme of collaboration between education and industry. Firstly it unfolds how learning for design-engineer students can be established and facilitated in a dynamic setting with industrial partners and secondly how industrial partners can benefit from student collaboration. The paper is based on research activities carried out in the context of a 3rd semester project at the Industrial Design Msc. program at The School of Architecture, Design & Planning at Aalborg University. Here, the teaching style is Problem Based Learning (PBL). In PBL, student’s focuses on a complex problem that does not have a single correct answer – in this case the addressed problem was concerned with the innovation approach of a medium-sized company. Traditionally innovation projects and strategic planning has emerged from top managers offices and has been based on i.a. technological an economic factors. An alternative approach has emerged, which suggests that innovation is most successfully initiated by the research and design resources with-in a company. The two approaches are denoted as respectively Top-down and Bottom-up [5]. Practicing the Top-down approach was familiar and integrated within the company, while the student introduced the Bottom-up approach during the project - the initiatives, experiences and observations are reported in this paper.

  6. Small- and Medium-Sized Commercial Building Monitoring and Controls Needs: A Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Underhill, Ronald M.; Goddard, James K.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Piette, M. A.; Granderson, J.; Brown, Rich E.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; Kuruganti, T.

    2012-10-31

    Buildings consume over 40% of the total energy consumption in the U.S. A significant portion of the energy consumed in buildings is wasted because of the lack of controls or the inability to use existing building automation systems (BASs) properly. Much of the waste occurs because of our inability to manage and controls buildings efficiently. Over 90% of the buildings are either small-size (<5,000 sf) or medium-size (between 5,000 sf and 50,000 sf); these buildings currently do not use BASs to monitor and control their building systems from a central location. According to Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), about 10% of the buildings in the U.S. use BASs or central controls to manage their building system operations. Buildings that use BASs are typically large (>100,000 sf). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) were asked by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP) to identify monitoring and control needs for small- and medium-sized commercial buildings and recommend possible solutions. This study documents the needs and solutions for small- and medium-sized buildings.

  7. Approaches for Assessing the Economic Competitiveness of Small and Medium Sized Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world'. One way this objective is achieved is through the publication of a range of technical series. Two of these are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III.A.6 of the IAEA Statute, the safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property.' The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are written primarily in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own programmes. The principal users are the regulatory bodies in Member States and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series comprises reports designed to encourage and assist R and D on, and application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia, and government officials, among others. This information is presented in guides, reports on technology status and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series complements the IAEA Safety Standards Series. To be competitive in anticipated markets, small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) rely on design and deployment approaches that are able to offset the adverse impacts of economy of scale. Such approaches include design simplification resulting from the application of safety design features that are the most appropriate for reactors of smaller capacity; the economy of mass production of multiple prefabricated modules; the option of incremental capacity increase, with possible benefits resulting from accelerated learning; sharing of common equipment and facilities; shorter construction periods, unit timing (spread of investments over time); and, possibly, greater involvement of local industry and local labour. The effectiveness of all of these approaches to SMR design and deployment depends on the application and on market variables, such as interest rates, and needs to be assessed and demonstrated for specific cases. Upon the advice and with the support of IAEA Member States, the IAEA provides a forum for the exchange of information by experts and policy makers from industrialized and developing countries on the technical, economic, environmental and social aspects of SMR development and implementation in the twenty-first century, and makes this information available to all interested Member States by producing status reports and other publications dedicated to advances in SMR design and technology development. This report was prepared to assist existing and potential stakeholders in Member States in understanding the economic competitiveness of SMR technologies compared to other energy sources and large reactors (LRs); to provide information on available approaches and frameworks to assess the economic competitiveness of advanced SMRs and LRs under specific conditions of their application; and to share knowledge on positive experiences of several Member States that are introducing SMRs into their energy mix. The report is intended for a variety of stakeholders including: design organizations involved in SMR development programmes; investors and potential users of innovative SMRs; and officers in the ministries or atomic energy commissions in Member States responsible for implementing nuclear technology development programmes or evaluating nuclear power deployment options in the near, medium and longer term. The main sections of this report highlight the experience with and future plans for SMRs in several Member States, and present the available methodological options to assist design organizations and guide potential users on the economic performance and investment attractiveness of SMRs. The report also provides recommendations on how to

  8. Innovation, adaptability, and collaboration: Keys to success for small and medium sized reactors. Cairo, 27 May 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small and medium sized reactors, within a power output of less than 700 MW(e), are receiving increased consideration in the effort to meet changing market requirements. Smaller plants allow a more incremental investment, which can be used to hedge against demand uncertainty. They are more suitable for standardization and prefabrication, which in turn encourages enhanced quality control and stimulates rapid development of expertise and shorter construction schedules. They provide a better match to grid capacity in developing countries. And they are more easily adapted to a broad range of industrial settings and applications, such as district heating, heavy oil recovery, or the production of hydrogen and other chemical fuels. Sea water desalination is an application for which smaller reactors hold a particular advantage. Nuclear powered desalination is a proven technology. Clearly, we live in an era in which our society faces many difficult economic, environmental and social issues associated with sustainable development and energy demand. Against that backdrop, nuclear power is a mature technology that deserves careful consideration as a contributor to solving some of these issues. The development of innovative small and medium sized reactors will play a key role in helping to match state-of-the-art technology to user needs. An exchange of information and ideas is a step towards further progress

  9. The role of independent intermediaries. The case of small and medium-sized exporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tage Koed; Moen, Øystein

    2012-01-01

    The article examines how small and medium-sized exporters collaborate with intermediaries in foreign markets by studying the level of control, i.e. the delegation of decisions rights and task solution. It goes one step further than previous research, since it examines degrees of control and participation rather than just discrete types of intermediary modes (agents, importers, dealers, etc.). Associations with performance as well as the role of product and distributor characteristics are analyzed. Empirical data based on a sample of product-market ventures in 227 small and medium-sized Norwegian export firms are analysed by a structural equation modelling approach. The article provides empirical evidence that managers keep control of decision making to an extent that may have a negative impact on export performance. The empirical study indicates that firms should participate more in task solution but less in decision making in their collaboration with foreign intermediaries

  10. Research on the Symbiotic Relationship between Small & Medium-sized Enterprises and Banks in Jilin Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Lixia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As the market economy deepens continually, the small & medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in Jilin Province play more and more important role for the economic development of Jilin. Although the SMEs in Jilin have developed greatly in recent years, their difficulties in financing seriously hamper their development. The paper analyzes the status of the relation between the SMEs and banks in Jilin and suggests that it is necessary for the SMEs to establish symbiotic relationship with banks, we also put forward the paths for them to establish continuous reciprocal symbiotic relation with banks in order to help SMEs solve their financing problems and guide the banks to get more profit to realize win-win for both of them.
    Key words: Small & Medium-sized enterprises in Jilin Province; banks; Symbiotic relationship

  11. Obstacles and Drivers for Sustainable Innovation Development and Implementation in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Vasilenko; Valdas Arba?iauskas

    2012-01-01

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play a vital role in the economic development and provide most of new jobs. At the same time, SMEs are contributing factors in environmental degradation due to their high numbers and their cumulative effect. In this context, broad application of sustainable innovations to SMEs becomes a priority task. The article presents results of a study conducted in Lithuania seeking to analyse obstacles and drivers for implementation of sustainable innovations in...

  12. Study Regarding the Influencing Factors of the Romanian Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises’ Internationalisation Process

    OpenAIRE

    Feder, Emo?ke-szido?nia; Antonie Nit?u, Renata

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of the globalised and more and more integrated markets, there are accentuating new rules in the competition game. Hence, in general, internationalisation is becoming an inevitable stage in the strategic evolution of the small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), and implicitly for those from the Romanian economy. The internationalisation process is analysed from the perspective of the factors which initiate and/or potentiate it. The empirical study takes in consideration, on ...

  13. Advantages of Chain Business and Countermeasures of Small- and Medium-Sized Manufacturers

    OpenAIRE

    Guoliang Luo; Ximei Liu

    2009-01-01

    Along with the development of market economy in China, chain business has been turned into a guiding ring from the last ring in the supply chain. Chain business’ economy of scale, economy of scope, and advantages of information and integration becomes more prominent. Under this condition, small- and medium-sized manufacturers can adopt more flexible production and diversified marketing strategy by means of combining with retailers directly.

  14. A primer on governance and performance in small and medium-sized enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Yacuzzi, Enrique

    2005-01-01

    This paper is a primer on corporate performance, corporate governance, and their interrelationships and measurement systems, with particular focus on Small and Medium- Sized Enterprises (SMEs). This is the first report of a larger on going research project. In the domain of performance measurement the paper describes the trend from financial to non-financial measures, as well as a taxonomy of measures and the impact of the TQM movement on measurement practices. In the domain of governance, go...

  15. Fashionable Strategies : Internationalization process of small and medium sized Nordicfashion companies

    OpenAIRE

    Barwinski, Arne; Burvall, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    In our master thesis “Fashionable strategies” we analyze the internationalization processof small and medium sized Nordic Fashion companies. In our study we conducted aquantitative survey and qualitative in-depths interviews to shed light on the topic. We usehereby an iterative research strategy through the triangulation analysis method as researchapproach. The combination of methodologies and perspectives allowed us to analyze ourtheoretical framework and the research questions in a favo...

  16. On Key Points of Financial Cost Management in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Xingwu Yu; Weixing Wang

    2010-01-01

    Chinese small and medium-sized enterprises (SME), accounting for 99.3% of all Chinese corporations, createenormous economic fortune and employment opportunity. However, most of SMEs are lack of capital, withsimple equipments and improper management, so they are incapable to withstand risks and easy to be involvedin difficulty. Therefore, we should properly guide SMEs to enhance financing, investment management and themanagement of other value chain activities, which will contribute to their s...

  17. Use of small and medium-sized water reservoirs by otters in a Mediterranean ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Basto, Mafalda; Pedroso, Nuno; Mira, Anto?nio; Santos-reis, Margarida

    2011-01-01

    Water is a limiting factor in Mediterranean regions, being specially important to aquatic species such as the Eurasian otter. The seasonal ?uctuation of this resource is often addressed by constructing small and medium-sized water reservoirs. However, their role in the ecology and conservation of Eurasian otters is largely unknown. Our main goals were to assess the level of use of these reservoirs by otters and determine the main factors that may explain the observed levels of use. Intensit...

  18. Adaptability of the internal business environment of small and medium-sized enterprises in Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Misunova Hudakova, Ivana; Misun, Juraj

    2014-01-01

    Companies that are exposed to an uncertain changing business environment must be able to adapt and change in order to achieve some compliance with the subject of business carried out and the objectives with the ambient conditions. Also these conditions can be a source of threats for small and medium-sized enterprises. In this context, we emphasize the adaptability of the enterprise. It is the active joining of resolving the conflict between the business entity and its environment. Signs of th...

  19. Audit from Audit Exempted Small and Medium-sized Entities (SMEs) in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Lakhe Shrestha, Biswas Kaji; Wai, Honey Htun

    2011-01-01

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are seen as backbone for economic growth because they are regarded as catalyst for entrepreneurial skills, innovation and employment. Since in Sweden approximately 99.89% of enterprises are SMEs, they take an important role in country’s economic development.        Most of the countries especially EU nations have abolished the statutory audit provision for (SMEs). The new Swedish legislation of statutory audit exemption came into effect on 1st...

  20. Rational approach for the management of a medium size bridge stock

    OpenAIRE

    Bru?hwiler, E.

    2008-01-01

    Infrastructure managers of medium size bridge stocks are being faced with the task of approximating short, mid to long term financial needs for their infrastructure. This task is particularly demanding due to the lack of relevant information, in particular in forecasting bridge condition and intervention costs. It can, therefore, be beneficial to make cost estimations based on structure types and present condition evaluation. In this article a rational approach for the management of the mediu...

  1. Optimal monetary policy in an operational medium-sized DSGE model

    OpenAIRE

    Adolfson, Malin; Lase?en, Stefan; Linde?, Jesper; Svensson, Lars E. O.

    2008-01-01

    We show how to construct optimal policy projections in Ramses, the Riksbank's openeconomy medium-sized DSGE model for forecasting and policy analysis. Bayesian estimation of the parameters of the model indicates that they are relatively invariant to alternative policy assumptions and supports that the model may be regarded as structural in a stable low inflation environment. Past policy of the Riksbank until 2007:3 (the end of the sample used) is better explained as following a simple instrum...

  2. Analysis of quality management requirements for product design in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Wen-hsin

    1997-01-01

    The use of a quality management approach in the product design/development process is to control and monitor the design activities to improve the consistency of design, and further help to produce quality products that meet the customer needs. This is of particular importance to the small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) due to their natural constraints. The aim of this study has been firstly to examine relationship between the ISO ...

  3. Concerns of European Commission for small and medium size enterprises development

    OpenAIRE

    Mircea Muntean

    2009-01-01

    European Commission initiated development programs for small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) comprised in SBA initiative. The respective programs establish measures in order tofacilitate: setting up in a short time span of SMEs, access to finance, as well as the possibility of introducing it both European Single Market and global market processed products andperformed services. A concern of European Commission consisted in recommendation made to Member States that,by means of national prog...

  4. Small and Medium Sized Enterprises Development under Trade Liberalisation: A Survey of Nigerian Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Obokoh, Lawrence Ogechukwu

    2009-01-01

    This study reviews the policies implemented by the Nigerian government over the years to assist the development of manufacturing small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in Nigeria following the implementation of Trade liberalisation policy in 1986. The aim of the liberalise trade policy was to encourage competition and improve efficiency in the use of local resources; yet most Nigerian SMEs still find it difficult to compete and merely struggle to survive the liberalised economic environmen...

  5. The Construction of Human Resource Management System in Small and Medium-sized Private Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Jieyun Zhang; Juhong Gong

    2009-01-01

    The small and medium-sized private enterprises (SMEs) play an increasingly important role in creating output value and providing new employment opportunities, but there are a lot of problems with human resources in SMEs, such as poor quality of business owners, lack of strategic planning on human resources, etc. It’s necessary, therefore, for SMEs to strengthen the setup of human resource management system. This paper puts forward some implementation details according to "human resource eva...

  6. Greening Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Evaluating Environmental Policy in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Le Van Khoa

    2006-01-01

    Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) contribute considerably to the economic and social development of bothViet Namand Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC). But at the same time this sector causes severe environmental problems. Up till now, no systematic review and assessment has been carried out on the City's environmental pollution control programmes towards SMEs. Given that, the research applied the concepts of Political Modernization and developed a suitable environmental policy evaluation method...

  7. Medium-sized deletion in the BRCA1 gene: Limitations of Sanger sequencing and MLPA analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Herman; Dominic Varga; Deissler, Heidrun L.; Rolf Kreienberg; Helmut Deissler

    2012-01-01

    We describe a family with a history of breast and ovarian cancer in which MLPA analysis of the BRCA1 gene pointed to a deletion including a part of exon 11. Further characterization confirmed a loss of 374 bp in a region completely covered by conventional sequencing which had not revealed the deletion. Because this alteration was only detected serendipitously with an MLPA probe, we calculated the probabilities of detecting medium-sized deletions in large exons by methods including initial PCR...

  8. Assessing Incorrect Household Waste Sorting in a Medium-Sized Swedish City

    OpenAIRE

    Kamran Rousta; Ekstro?m, Karin M.

    2013-01-01

    Source separation is a common method for dealing with the increasing problem of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in society. The citizens are then responsible for separating waste fractions produced in their home. If the consumers fail to sort the waste according to the source separation scheme, it will lead to an ineffective system. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the environmental, economic and social aspects of incorrect waste sorting in a medium sized Swedish city that has established ...

  9. Empirical analysis of alternative employment forms in Hungarian small and medium sized enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrietta Finna

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available While reacting to globalization and ongoing crisis organizations face numerous decisions about handling workforce. They should realize the gathering ground of flexibility in employment with regards to costs, and have to deal with alternative forms in order to be able more adaptive to the changing customer needs as well. The scope of this present research work is to explore the status of flexible employment forms in Hungarian Small and Medium Sized Enterprises and to investigate the factors influencing its applicability.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES IN AGRICULTURAL SECTOR OF RURAL AREA USING ORGANIZATIONAL INNOVATION

    OpenAIRE

    Kristina Jana Drienovski

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to highlight the importance of organizational innovation in the development of small and medium sized enterprises in the rural area. In this paper, I review the existing literature on organizational  innovation and will present itsimportance in the process of sustainable development of enterprises in the SME sector. Throughout this study I intend to present the issues that the SMEs are facing  in the agricultural sector of the rural area and to present to the entrepreneur hi...

  11. The challenge of forecasting high streamflows in medium sized catchments 1–3 months in advance

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, J. C.; Wang, Q. J.; Pokhrel, P.; Robertson, D. E.

    2013-01-01

    Skilful forecasts of high streamflows a month or more in advance are likely to be of considerable benefit to emergency services and the broader community. This is particularly true for small-medium sized catchments (< 2000km2), where real-time warning systems are only able to give short notice of impending floods. In this study, we generate forecasts of high streamflows for the coming 1 month and coming 3 month periods using large-scale ocean/atmosphere clim...

  12. Unions in small and medium-sized enterprises : A family factor perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten, Ann-Louise; Crouch, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Trade unions are commonly weak in small- and medium-sized enterprises, which constitute a majority of European firms and are often family-owned. We investigate the influence of family ownership on employee membership, perceptions and experience with unions in Danish and Italian firms in the textile and clothing sector. Family ownership reduces union membership; and within family firms, the number of family members employed is negatively associated with unionization rates and employee perceptions of unions.

  13. EU investment support for small and medium-sized enterprises in southern Europe: To be recommended?

    OpenAIRE

    Forstner, Bernhard; Koester, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    The president of the European Parliament, Martin Schulz, has repeatedly pointed out that small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in some southern European countries face major constraints to access to credit and that removing these constraints for SMEs could contribute to reducing unemployment. He promised to support special loans programs. According to press reports the European Central Bank is also considering low-cost loans for national banks if they provide credit for SMEs. In this arti...

  14. The Adoption of Management Accounting Practices in Malaysian Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Kamilah Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence on the adoption of a broad range of management accounting practices in Malaysian small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the manufacturing sector. Data collected from a postal survey of 160 accountant managers are used to facilitate the study. The results indicate that the traditional MAPs such as conventional budgeting, traditional costing and financial performance measures are widely used by the respondents. The results also show that a significan...

  15. Selling French Films on Foreign Markets: The international strategy of a medium-sized company

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, Gerben

    2004-01-01

    Foreign markets largely shaped the business strategy of Les Films Albatros, a medium-sized, internationally networked specialty producer of films in interwar France. Depending more on foreign revenues than did the Hollywood studios, Albatros also realized higher gross returns. Because films were capital goods providing aperishable product (seats at a specific time), their price depended on both expected performance and the threshold ticket-selling capacity necessary to recoup cinema fixed cos...

  16. Based on the AHP Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise Supply Chain Supplier Evaluation Research

    OpenAIRE

    Xianwu Hu

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we have a research of the small and medium-sized enterprise supply chain supplier based on the AHP. For supply chain management issues in the supplier evaluation establishes the evaluation index system and then uses AHP decide the weight of each evaluation index. Moreover, it uses Linear Weighting Method to study supplier performance from perspective of quantitative research and gives the measurement process. In our empirical research, the applied method is scientific and feasi...

  17. A Social Media Marketing Plan for a Medium-sized Consumer Goods Company

    OpenAIRE

    Okolie, Emeka

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a social media marketing plan for the case com-pany to integrate it into its existing marketing communications. The case company of this study is a medium-sized consumer goods producing company that advertises its brand and products using traditional methods of advertising (radio, television, flyers and event promotion). At the moment, these methods seem to be lacking in efficiency and effective-ness caused by the saturation of marketing information w...

  18. Implementing Lean Procurement : Opportunities, methods and hinders for medium sized enterprises - a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Hagstro?m, Mikael; Wollner, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes how lean procurement can be implemented in a medium sized enterprise, focusing on opportunities in the process, methods to achieve the opportunities, and hinders that need to be handled. A literature study has been conducted to identify these aspects, organized by six implied implementation stages of lean procurement. To challenge the findings, an empirical study was conducted at Isaberg Rapid, in order to confirm or discard identified important concepts. In order to con...

  19. Structural design of a tender lift for medium- and large-sized yachts

    OpenAIRE

    Baragetti, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    In the boating accessories field for medium and large-sized yachts, the possibility of installing mobile platforms is becoming of increasing interest. These components could allow the ship owner to have a wide free area for different uses. The application as a helideck for helicopter landing and parking is certainly the most interesting and critical one from a mechanical viewpoint. No references about the design criteria of mobile platforms are available in either the technical literature or ...

  20. Based on the AHP Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise Supply Chain Supplier Evaluation Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianwu Hu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have a research of the small and medium-sized enterprise supply chain supplier based on the AHP. For supply chain management issues in the supplier evaluation establishes the evaluation index system and then uses AHP decide the weight of each evaluation index. Moreover, it uses Linear Weighting Method to study supplier performance from perspective of quantitative research and gives the measurement process. In our empirical research, the applied method is scientific and feasible.

  1. Adept – a software process appraisal method for small to medium-sized Irish software development organisations.

    OpenAIRE

    Mc Caffery, Fergal; Richardson, Ita; Coleman, Gerry

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we describe the appraisal method that was developed by Lero (the Irish Software Engineering Research Centre) and Dundalk Institute of Technology (DkIT) to assess software processes within small to medium-sized Irish software organisations that have little or no experience of software process improvement (SPI) programmes. We developed a method, called Adept, through investigating the key factors that contribute to an effective software assessment method, reflecting the desi...

  2. ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING ON CLOUD FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED BUSINESS, s?

    OpenAIRE

    Fakeeh, Dr Khalid A.; Junaid Qayyum; Albarakati?, Aiman J.

    2014-01-01

    Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) execution letdowns are one of the most important concerns for every organization/institution bearing in mind ERP but particularly small and medium size businesses that be deficient in the proficiency to put into practice inside devoid of appointing faint/outside conferring with, or those who have slighter resources. Do the benefits of Enterprise Resource Planning prevail over the drawbacks and in which manner that influence SMB, s? We do consider the advanta...

  3. Measurement of Credit Risk of Small and Medium-sized S&T Enterprises in China

    OpenAIRE

    Jia-wen Zhang; Long-hui Chen; Xiang-yun Liu; Fen Ding

    2014-01-01

    This paper mainly studies the measurement of credit risk of Chinese small and medium-sized enterprises in Science and Technology (SMEs in S&T). Starting from the characteristics of the development of S&T enterprises, this paper selects the chinext 12 Chinese small enterprises annual data as sample, and builds a first-passage-time jump-diffusion structural model to measure small and mid-sized enterprise credit risk on the basis of the traditional KMV model.At last,it concludes that the...

  4. Paths to Knowledge Management in Small and Medium-Sized Hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mik Kim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate what path options can facilitate small and medium-sized hotels’ knowledge management? And how the options are realised by them? In order to answer these questions, this study undertook an empirical investigation into the current status and practice of knowledge management in small and medium-sized hotels. The empirical investigation was performed through thirteen face-to-face in-depth interviews with owners and managers in small and medium-sized hotels. While the interview method is selected so as to answer the questions, secondary data are utilised to support this study such as in defining the research questions and informing the study findings. This study observed that there were four broad approaches to the way in which hotels put their paths to knowledge management. Each type of the paths is named as: Match, Combination, Divergence, and Specialisation. As arguably, knowledge management is both part of the cost of doing business and the most likely source of competitive advantage, it is as important to the sole operator as to the large corporation. By understanding the different options, hotels will be able to make better decisions in the choice of their suitable paths to knowledge management.

  5. The Creation of Small and Medium-Sized Sport Enterprises and the Environmental Factors Affecting It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Morteza Azimzadeh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium-sized enterprises are very basic solutions for the development of a country; therefore, it is important to understand the factors involved in their creation. Hence, this study sought to examine the relationship between environmental factors and creation of Small and medium-sized sport enterprises. The research population was small and medium-sized sport enterprises (1500 companies; their owners / managers were selected as the research sample (n = 258 by simple random sampling. Data were gathered using environmental factors (?=0.77 and enterprises creation qualification (?=0.81 questionnaires. Descriptive and inferential statistics (Pearson correlation coefficient, Kolmogrof - Smirnov test, and multivariate regression analysis with SPSS16 software was used for data analysis. The results showed that in addition to positive and significant relationship with business, environmental factors could predict 6% of the creation variance; Also, except for the political dimension, all environmental aspects established a significant relationship with enterprise creation( p<0.01. Regression analysis showed that of environmental dimensions, economics and technology dimensions could explain 7 percent of Sports enterprise creation variance. According to path analysis method, this prediction ability is presented in a model. The findings suggested a diminished role of environment and its dimensions in explaining the process of SMEs creation.

  6. Voluntary disclosing cash flow statement in non-listed medium sized companies.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SchØler, Finn

    In Denmark, like some other EU Member States, medium-sized companies are requested to present a cash flow statement, but there are exemption rules similar to those for subgroups’ exemption to their presentation of consolidated financial statements. In a sample consisting of the paper versions of annual reports from 385 Danish non-listed medium-sized companies who were disclosing a cash flow statement as part of their annual report, we found that in a few cases, the companies were exempted to presentation of consolidated financial statements, but disclosing the cash flow statement voluntarily! Since there has been some debate between IASB and the EU Commission whether the cash flow statement should be a mandatory part of the annual reporting for non-listed medium-sized companies, we found it interesting to directly ask these voluntary disclosing companies as to their motivation. For this reason we conducted a multiple-case study, where we formulated a structured questionnaire and made partly open-ended interview with each one of the case-companies’ accountably responsible persons, i.e. one of the guys who signed the annual report. Among the majority of the answers we found a common understanding on presenting the cash flow statement because of some tradition, and not because of some clear intention of fulfilling user needs. However, do we really get a better annual report if a cash flow statement is included?

  7. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting medium-sized wild mammals in southwestern Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollars, T M

    1993-09-01

    Seven species of ixodid ticks (n = 2,661) were found on medium-sized wild mammals (n = 295) during a 13-mo study in Shelby County, Tennessee. The seven tick species collected were Dermacentor variabilis (Say), Amblyomma americanum (L.), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille), Ixodes texanus (Banks), I. cookei (Packard), I. scapularis (Say), and Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (Packard). The raccoon had the greatest tick species diversity in all of the aforementioned ticks except H. leporispalustris and R. sanguineus. The raccoon and opossum accounted for 96.9% of the ticks collected and were the most commonly captured medium-sized mammals. The only tick collected in high enough numbers for statistical analysis was D. variabilis. Mammal species and habitat type were the most important factors affecting the mean number of adult D. variabilis per mammal. The mean number of D. variabilis adults carried by raccoons was significantly higher than opossums. Whether a habitat occurred within Memphis city limits or outside city limits also affected the number of adult D. variabilis on mammals. The interaction between habitat, mammal, and whether inside or outside the city limits was near statistical significance. It is suggested that there is biological significance; within city limits, medium-sized wild mammals are forced into wooded areas where there is a subsequent increase in tick populations in these habitat patches. PMID:8254637

  8. Exploring drivers for energy efficiency within small- and medium-sized enterprises: First evidences from Italian manufacturing enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Allowances, public financing and external pressures as major external drivers. ? Ambitious decision-makers with great entrepreneurial mind as major internal drivers. ? Effect of firm’s size (even within SMEs) on drivers to industrial energy efficiency. ? Preliminary evidences of the effect of firm’s internal and external complexity. ? Preliminary evidences of the effect of firm’s innovation characteristics. - Abstract: Several studies have investigated the barriers to industrial energy efficiency, but few have focused on the most effective means (drivers) to promote the adoption of energy-efficient technologies and practices. In this respect, Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) have been completely overlooked despite interesting consequences for their overall energy consumption and their concurrent low levels of adoption of energy-efficiency measures. Starting from insights garnered from the extant literature on the drivers of industrial energy efficiency, this paper presents an empirical investigation of 71 Italian manufacturing SMEs through a multiple case-study approach. The research highlights the importance of allowances or public financing for energy efficiency interventions, as well as the importance of external pressures such as increases in energy prices and the introduction or increasing of fees on both resources consumed and on emissions of pollutants. Moreover, enterprises look favourably upon energy-efficient technologies which are able to provide long-term benefits, evidence of their willingness to adopt seemingly radical solutions when these are able to improve their long-term competitiveness. Other drivers considered as strategic for increasing energy efficiency are the presence within the company of people with great ambition and entrepreneurial mind and the management sensitivity to the issue. This paper also provides a preliminary analysis of how factors such as firm size, sector, supply chain complexity, and innovation characteristics are or might be able to significantly affect drivers toward the adoption of energy-efficient technologies

  9. [Cultivation strategy and path analysis on big brand Chinese medicine for small and medium-sized enterprises].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Yan; Yang, Hong-Jun

    2014-03-01

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are important components in Chinese medicine industry. However, the lack of big brand is becoming an urgent problem which is critical to the survival of SMEs. This article discusses the concept and traits of Chinese medicine of big brand, from clinical, scientific and market value three aspects. Guided by market value, highlighting clinical value, aiming at the scientific value improvement of big brand cultivation, we put forward the key points in cultivation, aiming at obtaining branded Chinese medicine with widely recognized efficacy, good quality control system and mechanism well explained and meanwhile which can bring innovation improvement to theory of Chinese medicine. According to the characters of SMEs, we hold a view that to build multidisciplinary research union could be considered as basic path, and then, from top-level design, skill upgrading and application three stages to probe the implementation strategy. PMID:25204160

  10. Flexible Business Process Integration for Clusters of Small-Medium Sized Enterprises in Heterogenous Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Jiang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Industry clusters-groups of geographically proximate enterprises in the same industry are a striking feature of the geography of economic activity and greatly impact the overall economic development. However, most of them are low-cost-based clusters that are composed of small-medium enterprises which needs social electronic services and flexible business process integration. In this paper, we present an on-demand information service platform for small-medium enterprise clusters and propose loosely-coupled service-oriented business process integration scheme for this platform. Several key techniques such as business application definition language and graphical representation for integration in heterogenous environment, packaging and executive strategy for integrating services, dependency set and context of integration service, and mapping translation based on synonymous semantic definition are proposed. Professional services can be provided via this platform to promote the enterprises’ innovative ability and help business to gain competitive advantages. The platform and the related techniques have been applied in realistic textile industrial clusters.

  11. Radioactive wastes: origin, classification and medium and long dated industrial management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virtually all the radioactive waste is produced by the fuel cycle, the remainder comes from radioelements used in industry, in medicine, teaching and research. They are classified into low, medium and high activity. The aim of the control is to ensure the protection of individuals and the public against radiological hazards and to safeguard the environment. The production, control, treatment and storage of mining wastes and those produced by the fuel cycle are examined

  12. Industrial Fabrication of Medium-Beta SCRF Cavities for a High-Intensity Proton Linac

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzminski, J.; Chan, K. C. D.; Gentzlinger, R.; Maccioni, P.

    2000-01-01

    During 1999, four 700-MHz, medium-beta (b = 0.64), superconducting radio frequency (SCRF) cavities for a high-intensity proton linac project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) were manufactured by industry. The SCRF cavities were designed by a LANL team in Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA, and manufactured at a CERCA plant in Romans, France. The cavities were made of 4-mm-thick, solid niobium sheets with a residual resistivity ratio (RRR) greater than 250. These niobium she...

  13. The Perspective of Small and Medium Size Nuclear Power Reactors in the Brazilian Isolated Electricity Grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a consequence of the international crisis that has shaken the nuclear industry almost all over the world during the late 1980s, new academic contributions, which could settle a new basis for the nuclear energy in Brazil, have been scarce. This paper aims to partially fulfill this gap. We discuss some perspectives for the nuclear option to regain some prominence in the Brazilian energy matrix. Recent developments in the nuclear industry, including advances in plant design, have been opening interesting markets for small and medium nuclear power reactors (SMNPRs). We access the suitability and feasibility of such new technology in the Brazilian isolated electricity grids. We conclude by saying that, although the difficulties are still huge, SMNPRs may be a good strategy for Brazil to revitalize its nuclear policy. (author)

  14. ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING ON CLOUD FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED BUSINESS, s?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Khalid A. Fakeeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP execution letdowns are one of the most important concerns for every organization/institution bearing in mind ERP but particularly small and medium size businesses that be deficient in the proficiency to put into practice inside devoid of appointing faint/outside conferring with, or those who have slighter resources. Do the benefits of Enterprise Resource Planning prevail over the drawbacks and in which manner that influence SMB, s? We do consider the advantages/benefits of Enterprise Resource Planning for (SMB, s small or medium businesses immensely prevail over the shortcoming/drawbacks as a corporation (for the first time possibly will at present have the aptitude to eloquent business process and workflow; set up an arrangement for monetary/financial administration and enhanced operational Practice; and plan key discriminators to targets, particularly will have the utmost brunt on business effectiveness. Enterprise Resource Planning Cloud is the way out for the ventures/enterprises who wish for to have pre-prepared elucidations for achieving the enterprise goals and the diminishing the concern problems of the Enterprise. The aim of this paper is to contemplate the importance of Cloud ERP for Small to Medium Size Business’s.

  15. The ABC-paradox: is Time Driven ABC relevant for small and Medium sized enterprises (SME)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fladkjær, Henrik Find; Jensen, Erling

    2011-01-01

    Several articles suggest that Activity Based Costing (ABC) has failed to succeed in practical use. It is even argued that we have an ABC-paradox. Activity Based Costing has won theoretically in nu-merous articles in journals, through books, being included in all major Business Accounting text-books and in curriculum at most business schools. But ABC is not used very much by the compa-nies. Especially in small and medium enterprises ABC is rarely implemented. This is primarily due to two things: First, the ABC model is too difficult to implement. Second, the data foundation for the model is not available in the required quality in the ERP systems used by the businesses. In this article we will explore ways of overcoming these two related problems. We will explore these issues particularly in relation to small and medium enterprises. Through a theoretical analysis and practical implementation in a medium sized manufacturing company we will analyse whether it is possible to create a satisfactory decision making foundation using a TDABC as a less complex cost model in the company. We have analysed our way to the conclusion that compared to ABC, the TDABC model provides the management with a number of pragmatic solutions that can be used in small and medium enter-prises.

  16. Current information technology needs of small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimple, C., LLNL

    1998-04-01

    This report documents recent efforts of the American Textile Partnership (AMTEX{sup TM}) Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Project to identify opportunities for cost effective enhanced information technology use by small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors. Background on the AMTEX/DAMA project and objectives for the specific DAMA Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) effort are discussed in this section. The approach used to gather information about current opportunities or needs is outlined in Section 2 Approach, and relevant findings are identified and a brief analysis of the information gathered is presented in Section 3 Findings. Recommendations based on the analysis, are offered in Section 4 Recommendations, and plans are suggested for DAMA follow-on in Section 5 Future Plans. Trip reports for each of the companies visited are contained in Appendix E - Company Trip Reports. These individual reports contain the data upon which the analysis presented in Section 3 Findings is based.

  17. Tube vibration in industrial size test heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tube vibration data from tests of a specially built and instrumented, industrial-type, shell-and-tube heat exchanger are reported. The heat exchanger is nominally 0.6 m (2 ft) in dia and 3.7 m (12 ft) long. Both full tube and no-tubes-in-window bundles were tested for inlet/outlet nozzles of different sizes and with the tubes supported by seven, equally-spaced, single-segmental baffles. Prior to water flow testing, natural frequencies and damping of representative tubes were measured in air and water. Flow testing was accomplished by increasing the flow rates in stepwise fashion and also by sweeping through a selected range of flow rates. The primary variables measured and reported are tube accelerations and/or displacements and pressure drop through the bundle. Tests of the full tube bundle configuration revealed tube rattling to occur at intermediate flow rates, and fluidelastic instability, with resultant tube impacting, to occur when the flow rate exceeded a threshold level; principally, the four-span tubes were involved in the regions immediately adjacent to the baffle cut. For the range of flow rates tested, fluidelastic instability was not achieved in the no-tubes-in-window bundle; in this configuration the tubes are supported by all seven baffles and are, therefore, stiffer

  18. Competitiveness of Indonesian Small and Medium Food Processing Industry: Does the Location Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhamad Najib

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we compare the competitiveness between clustered and dispersed Small Medium Enterprises(SMEs in Indonesian food processing industry. This study was driven by the important role of SMEs inIndonesian food processing industry for helping low income people access the low price foods. Furthermore, asIndonesian Government implements policy that support clustered SMEs, it could be expected that SMEs in thecluster area could pursue and emphasize different performance than their non clustered counterparts. Primarydata was collected in West Java, Indonesia. The sample includes only companies with fewer than 100 employeesand those operate in the food processing industry. We put market orientation, innovation, and businessperformance as proxy of competitiveness. Mean comparison statistics was used to compare market orientation,innovation and business performance of clustered and dispersed SMEs. The main findings were found throughdata analysis notably there was significant difference between clustered and non clustered SMEs in marketorientation, innovation and business performance.

  19. Monte Carlo comparison of medium-size telescope designs for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Jogler, T; Dumm, J

    2013-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a future very high energy gamma-ray observatory. CTA will be comprised of small-,medium- and large-size telescopes covering an energy range from tens of GeV to hundreds of TeV and will surpass existing telescopes in sensitivity by an order of magnitude. The aim of our study is to find the optimal design for the medium-size telescopes (MSTs), which will determine the sensitivity in the key energy range between a few hundred GeV to about ten TeV. To study the effect of the telescope design parameters on the array performance, we simulated arrays of 61 MSTs with 120 m spacing and a variety of telescope configurations. We investigated the influence of the primary telescope characteristics including optical resolution, pixel size, and light collection area on the total array performance with a particular emphasis on telescope configurations with imaging performance similar to the proposed Davies-Cotton (DC) and Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) MST designs. We compare the performance...

  20. Compact, medium-size combined cycle plants for cogeneration; Kompakte Kombikraftwerke mittlerer Baugroesse fuer Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, B. [ABB STAL AB, Finspaang (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    Combined cycle power plants today achieve efficiency figures of between 50 and 58 percent, with cogeneration facilities posting fuel utilizations of almost 90 percent. These characteristics, plus low first-time costs and short construction times, make medium-size combined cycle plants an interesting option for decentralized power and heat production. The heart of such plants is the GT10 industrial gas turbine, a rugged, lightweight unit rated at 25 MW that has become a market leader in recent years in the medium power class. (orig.) [Deutsch] Kombikraftwerke erreichen heute Wirkungsgrade zwischen 50 und 58% und bei Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung eine Brennstoffausnutzung von fast 90%. Zudem zeichnen sie sich durch niedrige Investitionskosten und kurze Bauzeiten aus. Diese hervorragenden Merkmale machen Kombianlagen mittlerer Baugroesse fuer die dezentrale Strom- und Waermeversorgung sehr interessant. Kernstueck solcher Anlagen ist die Gasturbine GT10, eine robuste, leichte Industriegasturbine mit einer Leistung von 25 MW, die sich in den letzten Jahren im mittleren Leistungsbereich zum Marktfuehrer entwickelt hat. (orig.)

  1. Determinants of Profitability of Food Industry in India: A Size-Wise Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Azhagaiah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Profitability is the profit earning capacity, which is a crucial factorin contributing to the survival of firms. This paper is a maidenattempt at estimating the impact of size on profitability, consideringthe ‘size’ as the control variable. For this purpose, the selectedfirms are classified into three size categories as ‘small,’ ‘medium,’and ‘large’ based on the sales turnover. The results show that volatilityand growth are the major predictors in determining profitabilityin case of small size firms while growth is important in determiningthe profitability of medium size firms. Capital intensityhas a significant positive coefficient with the profitability of largesize firms. The overall result shows that the larger the size of thefirm, the more the investment in long lived assets has helped toincrease the profitability of the firm unlike the trend in cases ofsmall size and medium size firms.

  2. Detection of Medium-Sized Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons via Fluorescence Energy Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serio, Nicole; Prignano, Lindsey; Peters, Sean; Levine, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    Reported herein is the use of proximity-induced non-covalent energy transfer for the detection of medium-sized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This energy transfer occurs within the cavity of ?-cyclodextrin in various aqueous environments, including human plasma and coconut water. Highly efficient energy transfer was observed, and the efficiency of the energy transfer is independent of the concentration of ?-cyclodextrin used, demonstrating the importance of hydrophobic binding in facilitating such energy transfer. Low limits of detection were also observed for many of the PAHs investigated, which is promising for the development of fluorescence-based detection schemes. PMID:25821390

  3. Using OD Estimation Techniques to Determine Freight Factors in a Medium Sized Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Anderson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing an understanding of the socio-economic factors that can be used to generate truck trip productions and attractions in small and medium sized communities can be used to improve travel models and provide better information upon which infrastructure decisions are made. Unfortunately, it is difficult to collect this data in a timely, cost-effective manner. This paper presents a methodology that uses matrix estimation techniques from existing traffic counts to develop origin/destination pairs that can be used to statistically develop truck trip generation models. A case study is presented and a model is presented for one smaller urban community.

  4. Effectively Using the QRFM to Model Truck Trips in Medium-Sized Urban Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Anderson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the effectiveness of applying the Quick Response Freight Manual (QRFM to model freight transportation. Typically, freight transportation is indirectly modeled or as an after-thought. Increasing freight volumes, coupled with cost saving strategies such as just-in-time delivery systems, require that transportation policymakers analyze infrastructure needs and make investment decisions that explicitly include freight volumes as a component. This paper contains a case study using a medium sized urban area travel model and the QRFM trip generation and a distribution methodology to provide a framework for freight planning that can be used to improve resource allocation decisions.

  5. Money and mental wellbeing: a longitudinal study of medium-sized lottery wins

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Jonathan; Oswald, Andrew J.

    2006-01-01

    One of the famous questions in social science is whether money makes people happy. We offer new evidence by using longitudinal data on a random sample of Britons who receive medium-sized lottery wins of between £1000 and £120,000 (that is, up to approximately U.S. $200,000). When compared to two control groups — one with no wins and the other with small wins — these individuals go on eventually to exhibit significantly better psychological health. Two years after a lottery win, ...

  6. Consequences of core meltdown accidents in a medium-sized liquid metal reactor design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suk, Soo Dong; Lee, Yong Bum; Hahn, Do Hee [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Work energy generated by the thermal interaction of molten fuel with the sodium in the pool above the reactor core was estimated for a typical initial condition of core disruptive accidents in a medium-sized KALIMER design. Work potentials arising from sodium expansion were calculated using the SWEEP computer code, in which scoping calculations with a modified Bethe-Tait method are first carried out to provide the initial thermodynamic conditions for the subsequent thermodynamic analyses of fuel/sodium interaction. It was shown that resulting values of the work potential for the reference case of power excursion were less than the structural design criteria for the reactor system of KALIMER.

  7. Occupational safety and health in small and medium-sized enterprises during social and economic transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koradecka, D

    2001-01-01

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Central and Eastern Europe at the turn of the 1980s and 1990s were characterised by many people exposed to hazardous working conditions. Statistics recorded a considerable increase in the number of occupational diseases. They also showed that it was more dangerous to work for a small company. The transition from planned to market economy has brought about an increase in the number of SMEs in Poland. Data on them are provided. The role of the Central Institute for Labour Protection in studying SMEs is presented. A pilot study of employers and employees is discussed. PMID:11276261

  8. Managing services connected to new educative technologies in a medium size university

    OpenAIRE

    Boyer, Anne; Nomine?, Brigitte

    2001-01-01

    We aim at showing how the generalisation of the access to the Internet in a medium-size university (about 20,000 students, a faculty of 800 and some 300 technical and administrative staff) has influenced the everyday life of students and personnel. The different facilities of the University are spread out in several different sites in Nancy and its suburbs with some offshoots in other towns of the Lorraine region. The user base varies in its academic levels and computer literacy, as one may e...

  9. Integrated Foreign Exchange Risk Management : The Role of Import in Medium-Sized, Manufacturing Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; HØg, Esben

    Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for the exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as the instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role of import in medium-sized, manufacturing firms in Denmark (a small, open economy). We find a strong, negative relation between import and foreign exchange derivatives usage on the aggregate level. Our findings are consistent with the notion that firms use import to match the foreign exchange exposure created by foreign sales activities.

  10. Integrated foreign exchange risk management : the role of import in medium-sized, manufacturing firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; HØg, Esben

    2010-01-01

    Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as an instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role of import in medium-sized manufacturing firms in Denmark (a small, open economy). We find a strong, negative relation between import and the use of foreign exchange derivatives on the aggregate level. Our findings are consistent with the notion that firms use import to match the foreign exchange exposure created by foreign sales activities.

  11. Integrated Foreign Exchange Risk Management: The Role of Import in Medium-Sized, Manufacturing Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; HØg, Esben

    2010-01-01

    Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as an instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role of import in medium-sized manufacturing firms in Denmark (a small, open economy). We find a strong, negative relation between import and the use of foreign exchange derivatives on the aggregate level. Our findings are consistent with the notion that firms use import to match the foreign exchange exposure created by foreign sales activities.

  12. The Construction of Human Resource Management System in Small and Medium-sized Private Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieyun Zhang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The small and medium-sized private enterprises (SMEs play an increasingly important role in creating output value and providing new employment opportunities, but there are a lot of problems with human resources in SMEs, such as poor quality of business owners, lack of strategic planning on human resources, etc. It’s necessary, therefore, for SMEs to strengthen the setup of human resource management system. This paper puts forward some implementation details according to "human resource evaluation, assessment, & examination methods" and "job evaluation table", and draws up the diagram on implementation of these steps, both vertically and horizontally evaluating human resource management system in SMEs.

  13. Binachinabadam-4: A High Yielding Mutant Variety of Groundnut with Medium Pod Size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With a view to develop a high yielding variety of groundnut with medium sized pod and kernel, 1000 seeds of the local popular cultivar Dacca-1 with smaller pod size were irradiated with 200 Gy gamma rays in 1997. At maturity, all M1 plants were harvested and pods were kept separately. During M2-M4 generations, selection was conducted following high mean and high/low variances compared to the check Dacca-1. Fourteen true breeding lines were selected in a preliminary yield trial at M5 generation, based on pod size and yield performance. Based on the same criteria, in an advance yield trial, only 8 mutant families were further selected. From zonal yield trials, 3 top yielding mutant lines were selected. Of these three mutant lines, D1/20/3M-30 produced the highest average yield with pod size significantly bigger than the parent variety but smaller than Binachinabadam-2, a variety with bold pod size, found in both, farmer's field and on-station trials. D1/20/3M-30 has been registered as Binachinabadam-4 for commercial cultivation in 2008. (author)

  14. Quantum-sized ZnO nanoparticles synthesized in aqueous medium for toxic gases detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Dianqing [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Hu Jingwei [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Beijing Institute of Aerospace Testing Technology, Beijing 100074 (China); Fan Faying [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Bai Shouli, E-mail: slbai@mail.buct.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Luo Ruixian; Chen Aifan [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Liu Chungchiun [Department of Chemical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

    2012-10-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantum-sized ZnO nanoparticles are synthesized in aqueous medium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnO is used to detect toxic gases in the atmosphere. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnO sensing material has high sensitivity to NO{sub 2} at operating temperature of 290 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnO based sensor exhibits high selectivity to CO and CH{sub 4}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The intrinsic sensing of ZnO arises from stoichiometric defects. - Abstract: Quantum-sized ZnO nanoparticles have been prepared by the sol-gel method in aqueous medium using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as surface modifier to control the growth of ZnO particles and Ostwald ripening, because the majority of bioanalyses require water-stable materials. The crystal structure, grain size and optical property of the ZnO nanoparticles have been characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS). The obtained quantum-sized ZnO nanoparticles as a novel sensing material have been used to detect NO{sub 2} in environment. The sensing tests indicate that the ZnO sensing material not only has high response to NO{sub 2} but also exhibits high selectivity to CO and CH{sub 4} at optimum operating temperature of 290 Degree-Sign C. The sensing response depends on the calcination temperature of the ZnO precursor and operating temperature of the sensor. The intrinsic sensing property has also been exploited by photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectra.

  15. 75 FR 65483 - Proposed Reissuance of General NPDES Permits (GP) for Alaskan Medium-Size Suction Dredging...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ...Reissuance of General NPDES Permits (GP) for Alaskan Medium-Size Suction Dredging (Permit Number AKG-37-1000) AGENCY: Environmental...7, 2010, the general permit regulating the activities of suction dredge gold placer mining operations in the State of...

  16. Cash flow vs. collateral-based credit: performance of micro, small and medium-sized firms in transition economies.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cassano, F.; Joeveer, K.; Švejnar, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 21, ?. 2 (2013), s. 269-300. ISSN 0967-0750 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : micro , small and medium-sized enterprises * bank credit * firm performance Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.755, year: 2013

  17. 40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. 141.81 Section 141.81...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper...

  18. Development of Safety Related Issues and Essential Technologies for the Small and Medium Size PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, S.; Kang, H. O.; Koo, I. S.

    2009-12-15

    The objective of the study is to complement the safety related issues and their regulatory guides, deduced as a result of the review of the nuclear code and standards to being applied widely, then also is to find out and take concrete shape to the essential technologies for the small and medium size PWRs. The main activities performed in the study are listed below: - The review of the nuclear code and standards to being applied widely - The review of the safety related issues and their regulatory guides to be complemented {center_dot} The review of the current developed state for advanced PWRs {center_dot} The investigation of the disagreements or complements between the nuclear code and standards and the inherent characteristics for advanced PWRs - The essential technologies for the small and medium size PWRs {center_dot} The essential technologies * The in-service inspection of reactor vessel assembly and steam generators * The development of comprehensive vibration assesment program * The feasibility of the test, monitoring, inspection and maintenance of components according to the extended cycle core {center_dot} The publication of the ISI concept for an advanced PWR {center_dot} The publication of the CVAP development for an advanced PWR {center_dot} The preparation for an analysis input deck for the audit code - The evaluation for advanced PWRs to be corresponded to the nuclear code and standards

  19. The Vital Factors for Small and Medium Sized Sport Enterprises Start-ups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Morteza Azimzadeh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the new enterprises are recognized as the main source of job creation, innovation and development. In today’s business world, new enterprises are recognized as an important source of job creation, innovation and development. Therefore, identifying influencing factors that play key roles in the start-up of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs is critical. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify critical factors for starting-up Small and Medium sized Sport Enterprises (SMSEs companies whose business is sport and developing a conceptual model that might be used by entrepreneurs in sport business. The methodology was qualitative. Interviews were conducted with 18 individuals, selected through purposive sampling, involved in sport-related SMEs. After a careful investigation of enterprise start-up models in the literature, and based on the results of experts interviews, an integrated approach was indicated as popular models were used by SMEs scholars. Then, a model was proposed in line with integration approach.The conceptual model is based on the integrative approach and shows that three important categories of factors were indicated: Individual; 2.individual factors; Environmental; and 3.environmental factors; and Financial factors.financial factors. It should be mentioned that these factors were constitude of subdimentiones.

  20. The growth and size of the Brazilian mutual fund industry

    OpenAIRE

    Varga, Gyorgy; Wengert, Maxim

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the evolution of the Brazilian mutual fund industry, its regulatory framework, organization, types of investors and managers, economic environment and its relative growth. It shows the evolution of this industry in Brazil and its idiosyncrasies providing a deeper look into one of the largest emerging market mutual fund industries. It emphasizes the growth of independent managers with more complex assets and sophisticated strategies that resemble international hedge fund...

  1. Evolution of dust grain size distribution by shattering in the interstellar medium: robustness and uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Hirashita, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Shattering of dust grains in the interstellar medium is a viable mechanism of small grain production in galaxies. We examine the robustness or uncertainty in the theoretical predictions of shattering. We identify $P_1$ (the critical pressure above which the deformation destroys the original lattice structures) as the most important quantity in determining the timescale of small grain production, and confirm that the same $P_1/t$ ($t$ is the duration of shattering) gives the same grain size distribution [$n(a)$, where $a$ is the grain radius] after shattering within a factor of 3. The uncertainty in the fraction of shocked material that is eventually ejected as fragments causes uncertainties in $n(a)$ by a factor of 1.3 and 1.6 for silicate and carbonaceous dust, respectively. The size distribution of shattered fragments have minor effects as long as the power index of the fragment size distribution is less than ~ 3.5, since the slope of grain size distribution $n(a)$ continuously change by shattering and beco...

  2. Analysis of industrial markets for low and medium Btu coal gasification. [Forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-30

    Low- and medium-Btu gases (LBG and MBG) can be produced from coal with a variety of 13 existing and 25 emerging processes. Historical experience and previous studies indicate a large potential market for LBG and MBG coal gasification in the manufacturing industries for fuel and feedstocks. However, present use in the US is limited, and industry has not been making substantial moves to invest in the technology. Near-term (1979-1985) market activity for LBG and MBG is highly uncertain and is complicated by a myriad of pressures on industry for energy-related investments. To assist in planning its program to accelerate the commercialization of LBG and MBG, the Department of Energy (DOE) contracted with Booz, Allen and Hamilton to characterize and forecast the 1985 industrial market for LBG and MBG coal gasification. The study draws five major conclusions: (1) There is a large technically feasible market potential in industry for commercially available equipment - exceeding 3 quadrillion Btu per year. (2) Early adopters will be principally steel, chemical, and brick companies in described areas. (3) With no additional Federal initiatives, industry commitments to LBG and MBG will increase only moderately. (4) The major barriers to further market penetration are lack of economic advantage, absence of significant operating experience in the US, uncertainty on government environmental policy, and limited credible engineering data for retrofitting industrial plants. (5) Within the context of generally accepted energy supply and price forecasts, selected government action can be a principal factor in accelerating market penetration. Each major conclusion is discussed briefly and key implications for DOE planning are identified.

  3. Study on Technological Innovation Outsourcing in Scientific and Technological Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Based on Motives

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaolin Li

    2011-01-01

    For the time being, technological innovation outsourcing has become an important channel for enterprises, especially in scientific and technological small and medium-sized enterprises. Based on characteristics of scientific and technological small and medium-sized enterprises, this article made an analysis in the motives and the existing problems. First of all, the author analyzed the motives in four aspects. Then, the author pointed out problems existing in evaluation and selection of outsou...

  4. Harmonization process in defining small and medium-sized enterprises. Arguments for a quantitative definition versus a qualitative one

    OpenAIRE

    Buculescu, Maria-ma?da?lina

    2013-01-01

    Harmonization process of the definition and financial reporting of small and medium-sized enterprises is still a challenge for European and international organizations and institutions. Analysing the definitions of SMEs issued by European Commission, World Bank, OECD, the definitions used within a couple of countries and other studies regarding this aspect, it concluded that is not yet a consensus regarding the definition of the small and medium-sized enterprises. The various criteria used to...

  5. The Role of Knowledge Management in Enhancing the Competitiveness of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs)

    OpenAIRE

    Alawneh, Ali A.; Amer Abuali; Almarabeh, Tamara Y.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge is one of the enterprise’s most important assets that influence its competitiveness. One way to capture an enterprise’s knowledge and make it available to all its members is through the use of knowledge management practices. This paper discusses the importance of knowledge management (KM) in Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and presents a framework to deal with knowledge management in order to enhance their competitiveness. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are ...

  6. Critical Factors of E-SCM Adoption on Small and Medium Sized Enterprises Performance: An Empirical Study

    OpenAIRE

    She-I Chang; Yi-Feng Tsia

    2006-01-01

    Due to the gradual importance of e-Supply Chain Management (e-SCM) to the Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Taiwan, this research intended to explore the critical factors which allowed the Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Taiwan to employ e-SCM. The research further studied that under these critical factors, how the adoption of e-SCM affected their organizational achievements. In this research, the researcher organized the related literature according to Grounded Theory and ...

  7. Handling of Environmental Related Requirements : Awareness and Ability to Act at Small and Medium Sized Electric and Electronic Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Han-hsuan

    2008-01-01

    Environmental related product requirements are increasing worldwide from government authorities, customers and other stakeholders. For small and medium sized companies manufacturing electric and electronic products it is more difficult compared to bigger companies to meet new product related requirements due to smaller budget, resources and knowledge. This research studies the awareness and ability to act upon changes when small and medium sized companies in Sweden face environmental related ...

  8. Rapid preparation of ceramic moulds for medium-sized superalloy castings with magnesia-phosphate-bonded bauxite-mullite investments

    OpenAIRE

    Li Tingzhong; Luo Jirong; Wu Shusen

    2010-01-01

    Phosphate-bonded investments have already been widely utilized in dental restoration and micro-casting of artistic products for its outstanding rapid setting and high strength. However, the rapid setting rate of investment slurry has up to now been a barrier to extend the use of such slurry in preparation of medium-sized ceramic moulds. This paper proposes a new process of rapid fabrication of magnesia-phosphate-bonded investment ceramic moulds for medium-sized superalloy castings utilizing b...

  9. 78 FR 9938 - U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement: Effects on U.S. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises; Institution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ...Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises. DATES: February 27, 2013...gearhart@usitc.gov). The media should contact Margaret O'Laughlin...Agreement on U.S. small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) since entry into force...

  10. Procedure for calculating added value: application in the medium-voltage fuse industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Vinajera Zamora

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a procedure to calculate the added value of a process, through a pull manufacturing approach. The procedure allows calculating the selling price, the added value for each operation and the capital required to purchase the raw material. Additionally, the procedure sets the added value of the product for each operation, analyzing its increase or decrease based on the difference between the raw material cost and the purchasing budget. Finally, the results of its application in a medium-voltage fuse industry in the Cuban Republic are shown.

  11. Almanya’da Ortaboy ??letmeler ?çin Derecelendirme Sorunu = The Rating Problems in Medium-Size Companies in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktay TA?

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the rating problems in medium-size companies in Germany. The rating models employed by international rating agencies are in general not applicable for medium-size companies. Therefore, ratings made by international agencies using their conventional criteria would hardly give good results for small and medium size firms.The capital needs of medium-size companies encourage the development of services of new rating agencies in Germany which consider medium size companies as the targets of their services. The need for external capital is greater and there are stronger ties between management and capital ownership in medium size companies. On the other hand, rating becomes so crucial when they plan to go public.. Rating is useful not only for investors, creditors and customers but for management as well. Rating has not yet become a popular concept in Turkey. Those firms - mostly commercial banks- that want to be rated apply to international rating agencies for their services.

  12. Estratégias tecnológicas e desempenhos inovadores das PMEs de equipamentos médico-hospitalares de São Carlos e Ribeirão Preto / Technology strategies and innovation performances of the small and medium-sized firms in the medical equipment industry of São Carlos and Ribeirão Preto

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Denise Luciana, Rieg; Alceu Gomes, Alves Filho.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho tem como objetivo identificar e analisar as estratégias tecnológicas (ETs) adotadas por pequenas e médias empresas (PMEs) produtoras de equipamentos médico-hospitalares localizadas em São Carlos e em Ribeirão Preto. Procura-se verificar se há diferenças entre o grupo de empresas que al [...] cançou desempenhos inovadores (DIs) mais altos e o grupo daquelas que tiveram DIs mais baixos nos últimos anos. Para isso, foi realizado um survey, aplicando-se um questionário estruturado em trinta e nove empresas que concordaram em participar da pesquisa. Os resultados (resultados referentes a vinte e sete empresas que puderam ser classificadas como sendo de maior ou menor DI, dentre as trinta e nove empresas investigadas) mostram que as ETs adotadas pelas empresas com DIs mais altos são diferentes em muitos aspectos daquelas adotadas pelo grupo com DIs mais baixos. Foram obtidos indícios de que maiores investimentos em atividades internas de P&D&E e em fontes externas de tecnologia, maior dedicação à previsão tecnológica preliminar voltada para monitoramento do perfil de produtos e processos e o desenvolvimento de um amplo portfolio de tecnologias de produto e de processo permitem às empresas alcançarem DIs mais significativos. Abstract in english The goal of this article is to identify and to analyze the technology strategies (TSs) adopted by small and medium-sized firms of the medical equipment sector located in São Carlos and Ribeirão Preto. It seeks to verify whether there are differences between the group of firms that reached higher inn [...] ovation performances (IPs) and the one with lower (IPs) in recent years. In order to analyze that, data about TSs and IPs were collected from twenty seven medical equipment producers. The statistical analysis of the data shows that the TSs adopted by the medical equipment firms that reached higher IPs are different in many aspects from the ones adopted by those that reached lower IPs. Some indications were obtained that larger investments in internal activities of R&D&E development and in external sources of technology, larger dedication to technology forecasting, and development of a wide portfolio of product and process technologies have allowed the firms to reach higher IPs.

  13. Estratégias tecnológicas e desempenhos inovadores das PMEs de equipamentos médico-hospitalares de São Carlos e Ribeirão Preto Technology strategies and innovation performances of the small and medium-sized firms in the medical equipment industry of São Carlos and Ribeirão Preto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Luciana Rieg

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo identificar e analisar as estratégias tecnológicas (ETs adotadas por pequenas e médias empresas (PMEs produtoras de equipamentos médico-hospitalares localizadas em São Carlos e em Ribeirão Preto. Procura-se verificar se há diferenças entre o grupo de empresas que alcançou desempenhos inovadores (DIs mais altos e o grupo daquelas que tiveram DIs mais baixos nos últimos anos. Para isso, foi realizado um survey, aplicando-se um questionário estruturado em trinta e nove empresas que concordaram em participar da pesquisa. Os resultados (resultados referentes a vinte e sete empresas que puderam ser classificadas como sendo de maior ou menor DI, dentre as trinta e nove empresas investigadas mostram que as ETs adotadas pelas empresas com DIs mais altos são diferentes em muitos aspectos daquelas adotadas pelo grupo com DIs mais baixos. Foram obtidos indícios de que maiores investimentos em atividades internas de P&D&E e em fontes externas de tecnologia, maior dedicação à previsão tecnológica preliminar voltada para monitoramento do perfil de produtos e processos e o desenvolvimento de um amplo portfolio de tecnologias de produto e de processo permitem às empresas alcançarem DIs mais significativos.The goal of this article is to identify and to analyze the technology strategies (TSs adopted by small and medium-sized firms of the medical equipment sector located in São Carlos and Ribeirão Preto. It seeks to verify whether there are differences between the group of firms that reached higher innovation performances (IPs and the one with lower (IPs in recent years. In order to analyze that, data about TSs and IPs were collected from twenty seven medical equipment producers. The statistical analysis of the data shows that the TSs adopted by the medical equipment firms that reached higher IPs are different in many aspects from the ones adopted by those that reached lower IPs. Some indications were obtained that larger investments in internal activities of R&D&E development and in external sources of technology, larger dedication to technology forecasting, and development of a wide portfolio of product and process technologies have allowed the firms to reach higher IPs.

  14. Small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). Sustainable expansion of the potential for peaceful uses of nuclear energy; Small and Medium Sized Reactors (SMRs). Eine nachhaltige Erweiterung des friedlichen Nutzungspotenzials der Kernenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuczera, Bernhard

    2012-12-15

    Within the peaceful uses of nuclear power for low-cost electricity generation, nuclear power plant technology in the 1970/80s was tailored to high-power units (> 1,000 MWe). The International Energy Agency (IEA) of the OECD in its World Energy Outlook 2012 estimates a worldwide increase in electricity consumption from approx. 21,408 TWh in 2010 to approx. 32,000 or 37,000 TWh in 2035. In this connection, there is growing interest in the nuclear community in nuclear power plant concepts of < 1,000 MWe power for variable uses. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna recognized the trend towards small and medium sized reactors as early as a few years ago and is now supporting development work along theses lines by specific initiatives to foster cooperative ventures among the member countries currently showing interest. More than fifty SMR concepts are currently under development worldwide. Most of them are modeled along the lines of operating experience gained with established reactor lines. IAEA proposes classification in small sized reactors for the range of power of < 300 MWe and medium sized reactors for the power range of 300 to approx. 700 MWe. Most of the SMR variants are designed as modular units prefabricated in factories and shipped by truck or rail for final assembly at the reactor site. In the near future, SMR plants could be used in regions with limited infrastructure and without any electricity distribution grids for powerful large power plants. In industrialized regions, SMRs offer greater flexibility in adaptation of the electricity generating capacity to local consumption rises and in replacing fossil-fired old plants. For the more remote future, plans also include SMR uses for other purposes than electricity generation, such as hydrogen production and coal liquefaction. An overview of the whole SMR spectrum is presented on the basis of some selected projects. Besides projects already completed, most SMR concepts are in the detailed design stage of development with start of construction in the near future, and in the conceptual design stage for commissioning between 2025 and 2030. (orig.)

  15. Tax-saving, Innovative Incentives for Small and Medium - Sized Enterprises in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Ambrus

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The small-and medium-sized enterprises in the Hungarian economy have been playing a decisive role. Among the difficulties they face during their activities one of the most serious is to raise funds for their labour costs. They try to reduce their tax wedge burden, which is regarded one of the highest in Europe, in various ways. In order to keep the adequate workforce they can provide fringe benefits supplementing to wages and salaries. The cautious application of the referring acts enables companies to motivate workforce and reduce the tax and contribution burdens at the same time. Our research aimed to find an answer how SMEs take these advantages and what factors support or hinder the use of the system.

  16. Options to Enhance Proliferation Resistance of Innovative Small and Medium Sized Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication addresses specific considerations for proliferation resistance and safeguards for small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). It describes the framework analysis through comparing and harmonizing the Generation IV International Forum and the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles methodologies, defines the proliferation resistance assessment and safeguards by design approach and presents the current implementation of proliferation resistance measures in innovative SMRs. The appendices include information on the example of a procedure to support a facility’s analysis of the safeguarding situation in support of safeguards by design, and a template listing required proliferation resistance related design information. An overview of SMR design and development activities and countries’ national perspectives is given in the annexes

  17. Key Drivers to Developing Guanxi in China for Taiwanese Small to Medium Sized Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-Ying Huang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available As Chinese economy has become one of the world’s economic powerhouse, research on guanxi, social or business ties in China, has been gaining ground in business research. The study is couched in the theoretical framework of social embeddedness in which the flows of information, resources, and opportunities occur across recognized members of a social network to create mutual benefits. This study empirically tests the major impetus for Taiwanese small to medium sized firms (SMEs to utilize guanxi networks with business community, local governments, and the central government in China.  The study results indicate the extent to which Tawanese firms utilize different types of guanxi differ by firm characteristics (i.e., resources, capabilities, and entry mode and market factors (i.e., market stability and competition.

  18. Requirements and Specifications for a Simplified, Low Pressure Medium Sized PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarises part of our on-going investigations on the possible introduction of nuclear energy in developing countries or countries with low capacity electrical grids. These investigations are principally concerned with future PWR developments and basically try to search for plausible and economic answers to the three difficult questions that each nuclear technology exporting country faces today: 1)- how to compensate the apparent loss of economic competitiveness, related to the scaling effect, of a small or medium sized reactor? 2)- how to reconcile the introduction of nuclear energy on the large scale with the two major preoccupations of nuclear safety and nuclear proliferation? 3)- how to demonstrate that the proposed concept(s) can effectively meet the safety objectives of the requirements for future reactors in Europe and in other countries?

  19. Knowledge management in small and medium-sized companies; Wissensmanagement bei kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, M. [Netzwirtschaft, EWR Netz GmbH, Worms (Germany); Neises, C. [Regulierungsmanagement, regionetz GmbH, Dueren (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    Knowledge management has now also reached the energy economy, as first branch-specific seminars show. This awakening interest is very much to be welcomed, although until now it has been more the representatives of large energy companies who have made themselves heard. Public utilities, which as a rule are subsumed under the category ''small and medium sized company'', have other possibilities as well as limitations than large corporations when it comes to knowledge management. The present article explains what knowledge management is and how public utilities and regional supply companies can identify and make practical use of opportunities available to them through knowledge management while giving due consideration to their structural characteristics.

  20. Networked Virtual Organizations: A Chance for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises on Global Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellary, Wojciech

    Networked Virtual Organizations (NVOs) are a right answer to challenges of globalized, diversified, and dynamic contemporary economy. NVOs need more than e-trade and outsourcing, namely, they need out-tasking and e-collaboration. To out-task, but retain control on the way a task is performed by an external partner, two integrations are required: (1) integration of computer management systems of enterprises cooperating within an NVO; and (2) integration of cooperating representatives of NVO member enterprises into a virtual team. NVOs provide a particular chance to Small and Medium size Enterprises (SMEs) to find their place on global markets and to play a significant role on them. Requirements for SMEs to be able to successfully join an NVO are analyzed in the paper.

  1. IT Governance Practices in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Recommendations from an Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rui; Zmud, Robert W.; Price, R. Leon

    Much has been learned through IT governance research about the nature of IT-related decisions, the location of decision rights for these decisions, and governance mechanisms applied to facilitate associated decision processes in large organisations. Our knowledge about IT governance structures in small and medium-sized enterprises (SME), on the other hand, is quite limited. Adopting a qualitative and inductive approach, this study examines the nature and influence of IT governance in SMEs through interviews with executives from three SMEs. Our results demonstrate that IT decision authority was centralized in all three SMEs but that senior management involvement in governance procedures and communication practices about governance policies were observed to explain differences in these organisations’ IT use. We propose recommendations based on the findings of this study.

  2. Provision and perception of occupational health in small and medium-sized enterprises in Sheffield, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, L M; Curran, A D; Eskin, F; Fishwick, D

    2001-02-01

    A random sample of managers of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) was selected from a database of businesses in Sheffield, UK. They were invited to take part in a study to evaluate the provision and perception of occupational health in SMEs in Sheffield. The study used an interviewer-led questionnaire, which collected quantitative and qualitative data; each interview took approximately 40 min to complete. Several approaches to recruitment were adopted during the study. Twenty-eight managers were interviewed over the 6 month study period. All of the SMEs employed SMEs. This study has clearly shown that access is possible, but different strategies of approach were required before a workable strategy could be found. Undoubtedly, this access can be improved by better understanding of the interaction between researchers, occupational health providers and local managers of SMEs. PMID:11235826

  3. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) from medium-sized to large mammals in Ehime Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Takeo; Yano, Shinji; Yamamoto, Takahito; Yamamoto, Eiji; Miyamoto, Taisuke

    2013-06-01

    Ixodid ticks were collected from medium-sized to large mammals in Ehime Prefecture, Shikoku, Japan. Ten species of ticks (Amblyomma testudinarium, Dermacentor taiwanensis, Haemaphysalis flava, H. formosensis, H. hystricis, H. longicornis, H. megaspinosa, Ixodes nipponensis, I. ovatus, and I. tanuki) were collected from a total of 29 mammals comprising 11 species. Haemaphysalis hystricis, a possible vector of Japanese spotted fever in Ehime prefecture, was collected from Canis lupus familiaris (domestic dog), Martes melampus melampus, and Sus scrofa leucomystax. This is a first report of H. hystricis from the domesticated dog in the endemic area of Japanese spotted fever. This suggests that it is necessary to pay attention to dogs as a host of the vector ticks for Japanese spotted fever control. Nyctereutes procyonoides and Ma. melampus are new hosts for A. testudinarium. Nyctereutes procyonoides, Mustela itatsi, and Lepus brachyurus are new hosts for H. formosensis. Martes melampus is a new host for H. hystricis. PMID:23242932

  4. Size-dependent patterns in depolarization maps from turbid medium and tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Mahesh Kumar; Patel, Harishankar; Somyaji, Madhura R; Kushwaha, Pankaj Kumar; Gupta, Pradeep Kumar

    2014-09-20

    Mueller matrix measurements on turbid media can be used to quantify its polarization properties in terms of retardance, diattenuation, and depolarization. In particular, the depolarizing ability of such media, which is represented by the depolarization index, has been shown to be a useful diagnostic parameter. However, being a single valued metric, its dependence on a host of tissue optical parameters makes it difficult to interpret. In this paper, we show that a map of depolarization as a function of input polarization state parameters can be used to infer information about the size of scatterer and order of birefringent and depolarizing layers in turbid medium. The experiments carried out on different mice organ tissues indicate that the depolarization characteristics of tissue are closely represented by depolarization properties of intralipid. We also observed that these maps do not vary in the presence of absorption. PMID:25322088

  5. Modeling, simulation, and concept design for hybrid-electric medium-size military trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzoni, Giorgio; Josephson, John R.; Soliman, Ahmed; Hubert, Christopher; Cantemir, Codrin-Gruie; Dembski, Nicholas; Pisu, Pierluigi; Mikesell, David; Serrao, Lorenzo; Russell, James; Carroll, Mark

    2005-05-01

    A large scale design space exploration can provide valuable insight into vehicle design tradeoffs being considered for the U.S. Army"s FMTV (Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles). Through a grant from TACOM (Tank-automotive and Armaments Command), researchers have generated detailed road, surface, and grade conditions representative of the performance criteria of this medium-sized truck and constructed a virtual powertrain simulator for both conventional and hybrid variants. The simulator incorporates the latest technology among vehicle design options, including scalable ultracapacitor and NiMH battery packs as well as a variety of generator and traction motor configurations. An energy management control strategy has also been developed to provide efficiency and performance. A design space exploration for the family of vehicles involves running a large number of simulations with systematically varied vehicle design parameters, where each variant is paced through several different mission profiles and multiple attributes of performance are measured. The resulting designs are filtered to remove dominated designs, exposing the multi-criterial surface of optimality (Pareto optimal designs), and revealing the design tradeoffs as they impact vehicle performance and economy. The results are not yet definitive because ride and drivability measures were not included, and work is not finished on fine-tuning the modeled dynamics of some powertrain components. However, the work so far completed demonstrates the effectiveness of the approach to design space exploration, and the results to date suggest the powertrain configuration best suited to the FMTV mission.

  6. Role of Relationship Marketing in Small and Medium-Sized Entreprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ružica Butigan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Along with marketing, small and medium enterprises (SMEs are commonly associated in literature with relationship marketing which results in marketing networks. This paper examines the specific characteristics that differentiate large companies from small and medium-sized enterprises, and the reasons that prevent SMEs from engaging in traditional marketing within the scope of marketing mix. The paper also shows that the key characteristic which distinguishes small from large companies is a prominent role of owner/managers. The owner/manager affects marketing of SMEs by creating his or her own personal networks with stakeholders in the environment, and considers it an important strategic focus and a factor that increases the performance of marketing decision-making. After a thorough review of secondary data sources this paper examines relationship marketing as a marketing framework for SMEs and, finally, proves that relationship marketing is more appropriate for SMEs than are traditional marketing concepts, that relationship marketing and network marketing create an important framework for SMEs and that there is a link between relationship marketing, personal networks and SMEs.

  7. The Impact of Firm Size on Dividend Behaviour: A Study With Reference to Corporate Firms across Industries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhagaiah Ramachandran

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to examine the association between the Corporate Leverage (CL and the Dividend Policy (DP of firms across industries in India in respect of Size of Corporate Firms. The investigation is conducted on a panel sample of 73 firms across industries [Cement, Chemical and Fertilizer, IT, Oil and Gas, Pharmaceutical, Shipping, and Textiles], which listed their shares in National Stock Exchange (NSE in India for the period 1996–2007. The impacts of Capital Structure (CS variables (leverage on DP measures – dividend payout (Net dividend paid/net income in the presence of some basic fundamental variables are considered to be the determinants of DP, using the Multiple Regression Technique (OLS method. The results of the cross-sectional ols Model for the selected sample firms under various sectors show that there is a significant effect of selected independent variables. Therefore, this study proves that the DP of Small Size, Medium Size, Large Size, and Overall Corporate Firms across industries in India is dependent on the level of debt in CS.

  8. Larval assemblages of large and medium-sized pelagic species in the Straits of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, David E.; Llopiz, Joel K.; Guigand, Cedric M.; Cowen, Robert K.

    2010-07-01

    Critical gaps in our understanding of the distributions, interactions, life histories and preferred habitats of large and medium-size pelagic fishes severely constrain the implementation of ecosystem-based, spatially structured fisheries management approaches. In particular, spawning distributions and the environmental characteristics associated with the early life stages are poorly documented. In this study, we consider the diversity, assemblages, and associated habitat of the larvae of large and medium-sized pelagic species collected during 2 years of monthly surveys across the Straits of Florida. In total, 36 taxa and 14,295 individuals were collected, with the highest diversity occurring during the summer and in the western, frontal region of the Florida Current. Only a few species (e.g. Thunnus obesus, T. alalunga, Tetrapturus pfluegeri) considered for this study were absent. Small scombrids (e.g. T. atlanticus, Katsuwonus pelamis, Auxis spp.) and gempylids dominated the catch and were orders of magnitude more abundant than many of the rare species (e.g. Thunnus thynnus,Kajikia albida). Both constrained (CCA) and unconstrained (NMDS) multivariate analyses revealed a number of species groupings including: (1) a summer Florida edge assemblage (e.g. Auxis spp., Euthynnus alleterattus, Istiophorus platypterus); (2) a summer offshore assemblage (e.g. Makaira nigricans, T. atlanticus, Ruvettus pretiosus, Lampris guttatus); (3) an ubiquitous assemblage (e.g. K. pelamis, Coryphaena hippurus, Xiphias gladius); and (4) a spring/winter assemblage that was widely dispersed in space (e.g. trachipterids). The primary environmental factors associated with these assemblages were sea-surface temperature (highest in summer-early fall), day length (highest in early summer), thermocline depth (shallowest on the Florida side) and fluorescence (highest on the Florida side). Overall, the results of this study provide insights into how a remarkable diversity of pelagic species spatially and temporally partition spawning within a region that is characterized by dynamic oceanography and strong habitat gradients.

  9. On the Spatial Diffusion of Knowledge by Universities Located in Small and Medium Sized Towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceicao Rego

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Many studies, provided by diverse authors and institutions, demonstrate that, at a territorial level, development is directly related to the level of education and R & D. Territories with higher development levels are, generally, those that have a higher level of education and R & D. The relationship between the acquisition of knowledge and institutional education is therefore decisive. In this area, the role of universities is fundamental. The retention of university graduates is one of the main ways that the cities and the regions can adopt to retain those endowed with higher propensity to innovation, enterprise spirit and management capacity. Given that higher education institutions, in general, and universities, in particular, are obviously crucial in the process of knowledge increase, it becomes important to analyse how can these institutions act as ways of spatial diffusion of knowledge given that their graduates may migrate to other regions of the country (or for another country. The alleged increased probability of this migration to occur when the university is located in a small or medium sized town makes that analysis also interesting from the viewpoint of the development role that this kind of cities can perform, not only in the adjacent rural areas, but also across all the urban areas of the territory. The focus of our work consists in this analysis, which complements a theoretical approach with an empirical part based upon the results that can be observed for the influence of one university located in a small/medium sized town (the University of Évora in the spatial diffusion of knowledge through its graduates.

  10. Testing urbanization economies in manufacturing industries: urban diversity or urban size?

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Shihe; Hong, Junjie

    2008-01-01

    Whether urbanization economies are caused by urban diversity or urban scale is not clear in regional and urban economics literature. Many empirical studies have used either city population size or urban industrial diversity to measure urbanization economies and have reached different conclusions. This paper argues that city size mainly captures the pure scale economies of urban public goods, and may generate net diseconomies when a city size is too large. Urban industrial diversity can also e...

  11. Small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). Sustainable expansion of the potential for peaceful uses of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the peaceful uses of nuclear power for low-cost electricity generation, nuclear power plant technology in the 1970/80s was tailored to high-power units (> 1,000 MWe). The International Energy Agency (IEA) of the OECD in its World Energy Outlook 2012 estimates a worldwide increase in electricity consumption from approx. 21,408 TWh in 2010 to approx. 32,000 or 37,000 TWh in 2035. In this connection, there is growing interest in the nuclear community in nuclear power plant concepts of < 1,000 MWe power for variable uses. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna recognized the trend towards small and medium sized reactors as early as a few years ago and is now supporting development work along theses lines by specific initiatives to foster cooperative ventures among the member countries currently showing interest. More than fifty SMR concepts are currently under development worldwide. Most of them are modeled along the lines of operating experience gained with established reactor lines. IAEA proposes classification in small sized reactors for the range of power of < 300 MWe and medium sized reactors for the power range of 300 to approx. 700 MWe. Most of the SMR variants are designed as modular units prefabricated in factories and shipped by truck or rail for final assembly at the reactor site. In the near future, SMR plants could be used in regions with limited infrastructure and without any electricity distribution grids for powerful large power plaibution grids for powerful large power plants. In industrialized regions, SMRs offer greater flexibility in adaptation of the electricity generating capacity to local consumption rises and in replacing fossil-fired old plants. For the more remote future, plans also include SMR uses for other purposes than electricity generation, such as hydrogen production and coal liquefaction. An overview of the whole SMR spectrum is presented on the basis of some selected projects. Besides projects already completed, most SMR concepts are in the detailed design stage of development with start of construction in the near future, and in the conceptual design stage for commissioning between 2025 and 2030. (orig.)

  12. Size and profitability in the international oil- and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many industrial sectors have gone through a series of mergers and acquisitions. In the international oil- and gas industry this has produced new companies such as ExxonMobil and TotalFinaElf. BP and Amoco merged and then subjugated Atlantic Richfield (ARCO). ChevronTexaco has been established and ConocoPhillips are currently working on the same thing. Saga was previously acquired by Norsk Hydro and Statoil, and Shell recently bought Enterprise and Pennzoil-Quaker. Taking the stock market's principles for corporate analysis and valuation as a starting point, this article discusses the forces behind this consolidation process

  13. Volatile organic compounds in small- and medium-sized commercial buildings in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiangmei May; Apte, Michael G; Maddalena, Randy; Bennett, Deborah H

    2011-10-15

    While small- and medium-sized commercial buildings (SMCBs) make up 96% of the commercial buildings in the U.S., serving a large variety of uses, little information is available on indoor air quality (IAQ) in SMCBs. This study investigated 37 SMCBs distributed across different sizes, ages, uses, and regions of California. We report indoor concentrations and whole building emission rates of a suite of 30 VOCs and aldehydes in these buildings. There was a considerable range in the concentrations for each of the contaminants, especially for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, decamethylcyclopentasiloxane, d-limonene, 2-butoxyethanol, toluene, 2,2,4-trimethylpentanediol diisobutyrate, and diethylphthalate. The cause of higher concentrations in some building categories generally corresponded to expected sources, for example, chloroform was higher in restaurants and grocery stores, and formaldehyde was higher in retail stores and offices. Factor analysis suggests sources in SMCBs include automobile/traffic, cleaning products, occupant sources, wood products/coating, and plasticizers. The comparison to health guidelines showed that formaldehyde concentrations were above the chronic RELs required by the OEHHA (9 ?g/m³) in 86% of the buildings. Data collected in this study begins to fill the knowledge gap for IAQ in SMCBs and helps us understand the indoor sources of VOCs to further improve indoor air quality in SMCBs. PMID:21888354

  14. Size distribution of supernova remnants and the interstellar medium: the case of M33

    CERN Document Server

    Asvarov, Abdul I

    2013-01-01

    The size distribution of supernova remnants (SNRs) can help to clarify the various aspects of their evolution and interaction with the interstellar medium (ISM). Since the observed samples of SNRs are a collection of objects with very different ages and origin that evolve in different conditions of the ISM, statistical Monte Carlo methods can be used to model their statistical distributions. Based on very general assumptions on the evolution, we have modeled samples of SNRs at various initial and environmental conditions, which were then compared with observed collections of SNRs. In the evolution of SNRs the pressure of the ISM is taken into account, which determines their maximum sizes and lifetimes. When comparing the modeled and observed distributions, it is very important to have homogeneous observational data free from selection effects. We found that a recently published collection of SNRs in M33 (Long et al. 2010, ApJS,187,495) satisfies this requirement if we select the X-ray SNRs with hardness ratio...

  15. The Adoption of Management Accounting Practices in Malaysian Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamilah Ahmad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides empirical evidence on the adoption of a broad range of management accounting practices in Malaysian small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in the manufacturing sector. Data collected from a postal survey of 160 accountant managers are used to facilitate the study. The results indicate that the traditional MAPs such as conventional budgeting, traditional costing and financial performance measures are widely used by the respondents. The results also show that a significant number of respondents have adopted one or more measures both financial and non-financial but the reliance on financial measures is greater than for non-financial measures. The main non-financial measures frequently used by respondents are on-time delivery, number of customer complaints, defect rate and manufacturing lead time. These findings suggest that respondents, who use non-financial performance measures, are more internal-process and customer focused rather than employee focused. Further the recently developed management accounting techniques such as ABC, non-financial performance measures particularly on employees-oriented measures, decision support analysis and strategic management accounting are only adopted by the minority of the respondents. The respondents also indicated a low extent of use of all investment appraisal techniques in their decision making process. The finding suggests that given the relatively small size of the responding firms and due to some constraints, it is unlikely for the SMEs to adopt a comprehensive MAP in their firms.

  16. Effect of inoculum size and medium on activity of seven antimicrobial agents against Bacteroides fragilis strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexler, H M; Reeves, D; Finegold, S M

    1989-01-01

    Antimicrobial activity of cefoxitin, cefotetan, cefotaxime, ceftizoxime, ceftazidime, imipenem, and clindamycin against four inocula of Bacteroides fragilis strains was determined on three different media. The inoculum sizes were 10(4), 10(5), 10(6), and 10(7) colony forming units (CFU) per spot. On all three media, substantial effects of inoculum size on minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of cefotaxime and ceftizoxime were found: the doubled dilution differences in MICs between inocula of 10(7) and 10(4) CFU/spot were 2.2, 2.3, and 2.1 micrograms/ml of cefotaxime and 1.8, 4.4, and 4.0 micrograms/ml of ceftizoxime on Brucella base-laked blood agar, Wilkins-Chalgren agar, and a brain-heart infusion medium, respectively. An inoculum difference found on all three media with ceftazidime may also be of practical significance. There was evidence of larger differences between inocula on the Wilkins-Chalgren agar and brain-heart infusion than on the Brucella agar. PMID:2611824

  17. Intent to be a Socially Responsible Small or Medium-sized Enterprise: Theory of Planned Behavior and Leaders’ Actualizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Jane Bennington

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A review of the academic research in corporate social responsibility shows little work on small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs in the U.S. whereas considerable work in this domain has been conducted in the European context. This study seeks to make a contribution to the research void by addressing one particular area of social responsibility in the U.S. context. Specifically, we employ Ajzen’s reasoned action approach to begin to build an understanding of what promotes leaders of SMEs to reduce waste. This study addresses several questions: What are the attitudes of owners and managers of SMEs toward waste reduction practices for their organizations? How are stakeholder interests toward waste reduction perceived? And, are leaders of SMEs influenced by their industrial environment? The authors utilized an email survey directed to owners and managers of SMEs with greater than 5, but less than 500 employees in the telephony, construction, pulp and paper products, textiles, and agriculture industries. 377 emails were opened and 104 completed surveys were obtained. The survey instrument was developed from the theoretical perspective of Isaac Ajzen’s (1991 Theory of Planned Behavior in Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, p. 179-211. Results from a partial least squares analysis of the data suggest that there is a strong and significant relationship between the normative, attitudinal, and control constructs with an individual’s intention to be a socially responsible SME. This finding suggests that efforts to influence SME owners and managers to implement waste reduction activities need focus on changing individual attitudes.

  18. Impact of carbon tax on internal combustion engine size selection in a medium scale CHP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? We study sizing of internal combustion engines as the prime movers of a CHP system. ? We study carbon tax impact on the economics of the system. ? Diesel engine based systems is not economical regardless of the operational mode. ? HDF is the only mode in which gas engine based systems is uneconomical. ? Carbon price considerably affects the system payback period. -- Abstract: Combined heat and power (CHP) systems due to their high efficiency compared to the conventional power generation systems have received considerable attention as they have less harmful impact on the environment. Recently, the serious concern with reducing the greenhouse gas emissions has focussed the attention on the possibility of a carbon tax in some countries. Here, we address the impact of such tax on the sizing and economics of a CHP system. Optimum sizing of CHP systems is of great importance to maximize the benefits of these systems. To select the optimum prime mover of a CHP system, performance characteristics of engine as well as economic parameters should be taken into consideration. A general thermo-economic approach to optimum sizing of internal combustion engines as the prime movers (any type and size) of a medium scale CHP system (500-5000 kW) and planning their operational strategy is developed. Net Annual Cost (NAC) as the criterion for making decision is introduced and appropriate equations for estimating thermodynamic and economic parameters as well as greenhouse gas emissions are presented. We consider three modes of operation: one-way connection (OWC) mode, two-way connection (TWC) mode, and heat demand following (HDF) mode. The proposed method has been used for a case study where data is available in the literature and the optimum nominal powers using gas engines are 3.3 MW, 3.2 MW, and 1.2 MW and in the case of using diesel engines are 3.4 MW, 3.4 MW, and 1.4 MW for TWC, OWC, and HDF modes, respectively. To determine the sensitivity of results to input parameters (e.g. electricity price) a comprehensive parametric study was conducted.

  19. Modified genetic algorithms to model cluster structures in medium-sized silicon clusters: Si18-Si60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results obtained using a genetic algorithm (GA) to search for stable structures of medium-size silicon clusters. This is the third report in which a GA coupled with the MSINDO semiempirical molecular orbital program is used to find stable atomic cluster structures. The structures selected by the GA-MSINDO method were further optimized using the density functional theory (DFT). This combination of GA-MSINDO global optimization followed by DFT local optimization proves to be very effective for searching the structures of medium-size Si clusters. For most of the clusters studied here we report different structures with significant lower energy than those previously found using limited search approaches on common structural motifs. This demonstrates the need for global optimization schemes when searching for stable structures of medium-size silicon clusters

  20. Harmonization process in defining small and medium-sized enterprises. Arguments for a quantitative definition versus a qualitative one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-M?d?lina BUCULESCU (COSTIC?

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Harmonization process of the definition and financial reporting of small and medium-sized enterprises is still a challenge for European and international organizations and institutions. Analysing the definitions of SMEs issued by European Commission, World Bank, OECD, the definitions used within a couple of countries and other studies regarding this aspect, it concluded that is not yet a consensus regarding the definition of the small and medium-sized enterprises. The various criteria used to classify the enterprises in the category of SMEs, different thresholds, the economic activity and economic context of each country are the main factors which interfere with the existence of one international available quantitative definition for small and medium-sized enterprises.

  1. The electricity supply industry in England and Wales. Medium term development plan 1986-93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the Electricity Supply Industry in England and Wales is to develop and maintain electricity supplies to meet customers' needs as cheaply as possible. Over the medium term, 1986 - 1993, the goal is to reduce the real average price per kWh sold, whilst maintaining high standards of service and meeting financial obligations. The strategy set out comprises reducing controllable costs per kWh sold to 1992/3, pursuing a vigorous and selective marketing strategy so that an expected sales increase of 10% is achieved, securing a long term supply of coal at minimum cost by developing the commercial relationship with British Coal, increasing the proportion of electrical energy supplied by nuclear energy to 25% by 1992/3 and being environmentally concerned. The introduction outlines the medium term business, energy and economic environment, financial targets and price prospects. Plans to support the strategy outlined are presented. Each section sets out the objectives and the plans to achieve these. The strategy for new power stations is to develop fossil-fueled and nuclear as well as to develop alternative technologies. (UK)

  2. Can the business model of Handelsbanken be an archetype for small and medium sized banks? : A comparative case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmaltz, Christian; Lueg, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    The Danish Banking sector faces increasing requirements regarding regulation and profitability, which especially threatens small- and medium sized banks. This study analyzes whether the successful business model of Handelsbanken (‘The Handelsbanken Way’) to banking in regard to the needed strengthening of the financial and non-financial position can serve as a blueprint for small- and medium sized banks. We conduct a comparative case study by interviewing Handelsbanken and the disguised ‘Danish Local Bank’ (DLB), where the DLB is a representative example of a small- and medium sized Danish bank. This study is structured according to the frameworks from Business Model implementations and from implied organizational structures. Using the notion of Osterwalder and Pigneur (2010), this study reveals only minor differences in the Business Models of Handelsbanken and DLB. Despite the supposedly obvious advantages of ‘The Handelsbanken Way’, this study suggests that the financially troubled small- and medium sizedbanks in Denmark will not necessarily benefit from the tactical choice of decentralization unless they incorporate specific adjustments. This study contribute to the existing theory concerning Handelsbanken’s approach to banking in regard to the appropriateness as a part of the solution to financial troubled small- and medium sized banks in Denmark.

  3. Studies of various single phase natural circulation systems for small and medium sized reactor design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wibisono, Andhika Feri, E-mail: feri.wibisono@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Yoonhan, E-mail: yh.ahn@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Williams, Wesley C., E-mail: wcw@phd-engineering.com [PHD Engineering, LLC, 11828 Villa Avenue, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Addad, Yacine, E-mail: yacine.addad@kustar.ac.ae [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research (KUSTAR), P.O. Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Lee, Jeong Ik, E-mail: jeongiklee@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • SMRs and passive safety systems in single phase systems are reviewed. • Simple loop analysis has been done for gas, single phase water, and liquid metals. • Gas systems have a greater tendency to fall into DTHT regime. • SMR and large LWR reactors can differ in operating heat transfer regime. -- Abstract: Passive safety is a primary motive behind the development of small and medium sized reactors of various coolants. After the Fukushima accident, there is an increased interest in a nuclear reactor's reliance on passive safety systems. Most of the existing passive systems, regardless of the reactor type, utilize buoyancy force to drive the cooling flow. Hence, it is essential to evaluate if the naturally developed cooling flow is sufficient to maintain the heated surface temperature of the fuel elements below the design limit. Evaluating passively driven flows can be quite a challenging task in both two phase natural circulation systems and also in single phase natural circulation systems. Previous research works have found that single phase heat transfer can be deteriorated and becomes uncertain when the driving force of a system is shifted from external force (forced convection) to self generated buoyancy force or a combination of both (natural or mixed convection). In this paper, single phase gas, water, and liquid metal reactors with passive systems are reviewed briefly. A simple theoretical analysis of each reactor type is performed to find the tendency of the shift in the operating heat transfer regime into the deteriorated region. The analysis results show that single phase water system can maintain operation within the forced convection regime but the operating regime gets closer to the deteriorating heat transfer regime as the system's physical size reduces from a large nuclear power plant to the small and medium reactor scale. The gas cooled system has a high tendency to operate in the deteriorated heat transfer regime when the driving force changes from forced to natural. Meanwhile the liquid metal system demonstrates more margins to operate outside from the deteriorated heat transfer region compared to the two other fluid systems. However further studies are needed to clearly identify the boundaries of the deteriorated heat transfer regime for each coolant since the deterioration greatly depends on the thermophysical properties variation of the coolant and the near-wall flow behavior of the coolant with respect to temperature change.

  4. Studies of various single phase natural circulation systems for small and medium sized reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • SMRs and passive safety systems in single phase systems are reviewed. • Simple loop analysis has been done for gas, single phase water, and liquid metals. • Gas systems have a greater tendency to fall into DTHT regime. • SMR and large LWR reactors can differ in operating heat transfer regime. -- Abstract: Passive safety is a primary motive behind the development of small and medium sized reactors of various coolants. After the Fukushima accident, there is an increased interest in a nuclear reactor's reliance on passive safety systems. Most of the existing passive systems, regardless of the reactor type, utilize buoyancy force to drive the cooling flow. Hence, it is essential to evaluate if the naturally developed cooling flow is sufficient to maintain the heated surface temperature of the fuel elements below the design limit. Evaluating passively driven flows can be quite a challenging task in both two phase natural circulation systems and also in single phase natural circulation systems. Previous research works have found that single phase heat transfer can be deteriorated and becomes uncertain when the driving force of a system is shifted from external force (forced convection) to self generated buoyancy force or a combination of both (natural or mixed convection). In this paper, single phase gas, water, and liquid metal reactors with passive systems are reviewed briefly. A simple theoretical analysis of each reactor type is performed to find the tendency of the shift in the operating heat transfer regime into the deteriorated region. The analysis results show that single phase water system can maintain operation within the forced convection regime but the operating regime gets closer to the deteriorating heat transfer regime as the system's physical size reduces from a large nuclear power plant to the small and medium reactor scale. The gas cooled system has a high tendency to operate in the deteriorated heat transfer regime when the driving force changes from forced to natural. Meanwhile the liquid metal system demonstrates more margins to operate outside from the deteriorated heat transfer region compared to the two other fluid systems. However further studies are needed to clearly identify the boundaries of the deteriorated heat transfer regime for each coolant since the deterioration greatly depends on the thermophysical properties variation of the coolant and the near-wall flow behavior of the coolant with respect to temperature change

  5. Think locally, act locally: Detection of small, medium-sized, and large communities in large networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeub, Lucas G. S.; Balachandran, Prakash; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.; Mahoney, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    It is common in the study of networks to investigate intermediate-sized (or "meso-scale") features to try to gain an understanding of network structure and function. For example, numerous algorithms have been developed to try to identify "communities," which are typically construed as sets of nodes with denser connections internally than with the remainder of a network. In this paper, we adopt a complementary perspective that communities are associated with bottlenecks of locally biased dynamical processes that begin at seed sets of nodes, and we employ several different community-identification procedures (using diffusion-based and geodesic-based dynamics) to investigate community quality as a function of community size. Using several empirical and synthetic networks, we identify several distinct scenarios for "size-resolved community structure" that can arise in real (and realistic) networks: (1) the best small groups of nodes can be better than the best large groups (for a given formulation of the idea of a good community); (2) the best small groups can have a quality that is comparable to the best medium-sized and large groups; and (3) the best small groups of nodes can be worse than the best large groups. As we discuss in detail, which of these three cases holds for a given network can make an enormous difference when investigating and making claims about network community structure, and it is important to take this into account to obtain reliable downstream conclusions. Depending on which scenario holds, one may or may not be able to successfully identify "good" communities in a given network (and good communities might not even exist for a given community quality measure), the manner in which different small communities fit together to form meso-scale network structures can be very different, and processes such as viral propagation and information diffusion can exhibit very different dynamics. In addition, our results suggest that, for many large realistic networks, the output of locally biased methods that focus on communities that are centered around a given seed node (or set of seed nodes) might have better conceptual grounding and greater practical utility than the output of global community-detection methods. They also illustrate structural properties that are important to consider in the development of better benchmark networks to test methods for community detection.

  6. Analytical Hierarchy Process Applied to Vendor Selection Problem: Small Scale, Medium Scale and Large Scale Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Abid Haleem

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Vendor selection is an important process for an effective inventory management. This paper deals with a brief review of the literature regarding AHP technique and its relevancy to its application in vendor selection process. Vendor selection is a complicated process. This process needs evaluation of multiple criteria and various constraints associated with them. This paper has been developed based upon the views of various experts. A well researched methodology has been adopted for the synthesis of priorities and the measurement of consistencies. A consistency ratio has also been calculated. Industries has been classifies into small scale, medium scale and large scale. Various criteria for vendor selection process as received from the expert have been identified. These criteria have been compared using average matrix, priority matrix and overall priority matrix. After analysis of the results we found that for large scale industries, vendor reliability, product quality and vendor experience are the top three vendor selection problems that needs to be taken up on priority for effective vendor selection.

  7. Obscuration size dependence of hot image in laser beam through a Kerr medium slab with gain and loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youwen; Wen, Shuangchun; Zhang, Lifu; Hu, Yonghua; Fan, Dianyuan

    2008-03-10

    We present a study of the formation of a hot image in an intense laser beam through a slab of Kerr medium with gain and loss, beyond the thin-medium approximation, to especially disclose the dependence of the hot image on the size of obscuration. Based on the angular spectrum description of light propagation and the mean-field approximation we obtain the expression for intensity of the hot image, which clearly shows the dependence of intensity of the hot image on the size of obscuration. It is shown that, as the size of obscuration increases, the intensity of the corresponding hot image first increases gradually, after reaching a maximum value, it decreases rapidly to a minimum value, meaning that there exists an optimum size of obscuration, which leads to the most intense hot image. Further analysis demonstrates that the optimum size of obscuration is approximately determined by the effective fastest growing spatial frequency for a given case. For the output light beam of a given intensity, with the gain coefficient of the Kerr medium slab increasing, or the loss coefficient decreasing, the optimum size of obscuration becomes bigger, while the hot image from the obscuration of a given size becomes weaker, suggesting that high gain and low loss can efficiently suppress the hot image from obscurations. The theoretical predictions are confirmed by numerical simulations. PMID:18327289

  8. Status of innovative small and medium sized reactor designs 2005. Reactors with conventional refuelling schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a renewed interest in Member States in the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). In the near term, most new NPPs are likely to be evolutionary designs building on proven systems while incorporating technological advances and often the economics of scale, resulting from the reactor outputs of up to 1600 MW(e). For the longer term, the focus is on innovative designs aiming to provide increased benefits in the areas of safety and security, non-proliferation, waste management, resource utilization and economy, as well as to offer a variety of energy products and flexibility in design, siting and fuel cycle options. Many innovative designs are reactors within the small-to-medium size range, having an equivalent electric power less than 700 MW(e) or even less than 300 MW(e). The projected timelines of readiness for deployment are generally between 2010 and 2030. The objective of this report is to provide Member States, including those just considering the initiation of nuclear power programmes, and those already having practical experience in nuclear power, with a balanced and objective information on important development trends and objectives of innovative SMRs for a variety of uses, on the achieved state-of-the-art in design and technology development for such reactors and on their design and regulatory status. The report is intended for many categories of stakeholders, including regulators, electricity producers, designers, non-electrical producers and policy makers. The main chapters of this report, addressed to all abovementioned groups of stakeholders, provide a summary of major specifications, applications and user-related special features of innovative SMRs, outline the achieved design and regulatory status and its progress since previous IAEA publications, review targeted deployment dates, fuel cycle options, design approaches used to meet design objectives in specific subject areas, enabling technologies and current research and development (R and D) programmes in Member States, and non-technical factors and arrangements that could facilitate successful development and deployment of innovative reactors within the small-to-medium power range. The annexes, intended mostly for designers and technical managers, provide detailed design descriptions of innovative SMRs under development worldwide and are patterned along a newly developed common format, which makes it possible to identify the design philosophy, objectives and approaches, as well as technical features and non-technical factors and arrangements with a potential to provide solutions in the specific areas of concern associated with future nuclear energy systems. Detailed design descriptions in this report were prepared firsthand by the designers and reviewed, updated and approved for publication by the respective vendors, research and design organizations and academic institutions in Member States. The scope of this report is limited to reactors with conventional, proven in operation refuelling schemes and does not include small reactors that could operate without reloading and shuffling of fuel for a long period, from 10 years and more, with no fresh or spent fuel being stored at the site during reactor operation. Because of a large number of inputs, such reactors would require a separate dedicated publication

  9. Continuous improvement of the quality reporting system of a medium-size company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Anthony; Onuh, Spencer

    2001-10-01

    Many companies are faced with quality improvement issues on a daily basis but their response to this problem varies. This paper discusses the improvement in the defect reporting system at a medium sized manufacturing company following the appointment of an experienced, motivated, design engineer to be dedicated to that task. It sets out the situation that the engineer inherited and details the changes that were incorporated; it assesses which were successful and which failed. Following a survey of current literature, it was seen that there is little written specifically on the subject of audited defect reporting. It is felt that this study goes some way to filling that void. A successful survey of engineering companies in Southern Hampshire reinforces the principle findings, that the emphasising of the Check part of Demming's Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle is a novel approach to the Quality Improvement Process, and that it has reduced the cost of rework by an audited 80% in a period of two years.

  10. Medium-sized grazing incidence high-energy X-ray telescopes employing continuously graded multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, K. D.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    1993-01-01

    The authors present a concept of continuously graded multilayer structures for medium-sized X-ray telescopes which is based on several material combinations. They show that the theoretical reflectivity characteristics of these structures make them very advantageous when applied to high energy X-ray grazing incidence telescopes. They consider the performance of continuously graded Ni/C multilayers in a multi-focus, Kirkpatrick-Baez, geometry and show a significant improvement when compared to standard coatings of gold. For a total length of 3.3 m, a total aperture of 48 cm by 48 cm and 64 foci, an effective area of 250 cm2 at 60 keV and a FWHM field of view of 6' is obtained. It is shown that a modular array of conical telescopes (conical approximation to a Wolter-I geometry), with the same length and aperture provides similar effective areas. Energy-dispersive X-ray reflectivity data (15-70 keV) is presented for the first continuously graded multilayer of this kind

  11. Pointing Calibration for the Cherenkov Telescope Array Medium Size Telescope Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Oakes, Louise; Baehr, Juergen; Gruenewald, Sandra; Raeck, Tobias; Schlenstedt, Stefan; Schubert, Anja; Schwanke, Ullrich

    2013-01-01

    Pointing calibration is an offline correction applied in order to obtain the true pointing direction of a telescope. The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) aims to have the precision to determine the position of point-like as well as slightly extended sources, with the goal of systematic errors less than 7 arc seconds in space angle. This poster describes the pointing calibration concept being developed for the CTA Medium Size Telescope (MST) prototype at Berlin-Adlershof, showing test results and preliminary measurements. The MST pointing calibration method uses two CCD cameras, mounted on the telescope dish, to determine the true pointing of the telescope. The "Lid CCD" is aligned to the optical axis of the telescope, calibrated with LEDs on the dummy gamma-camera lid; the "Sky CCD" is pre-aligned to the Lid CCD and the transformation between the Sky and Lid CCD camera fields of view is precisely modelled with images from special pointing runs which are also used to determine the pointing model. During source ...

  12. Conceptual design of synchrotron light source of medium size and high performance

    CERN Document Server

    Katoh, M; Suzuki, S

    2002-01-01

    Medium size and high performance synchrotron light source is designed to make a center of synchrotron radiation in the area of many users. About 8nm-rad low emittance is realized by 1.8GeV beam energy and 160cm circumference by combined-function type bending electromagnet and non-achromatic electron beam optics. We secured 10 lines of 6m straight sections were able to set 5m undulator and 10 lines of 1.6m straight sections could set short undulator and multipole wiggler. Dynamic aperture is large. Five straight sections are used by operation, for examples, injection, beam control and rf acceleration. Fifteen lines are used by insertion devices. The highest level vacuum ultraviolet and soft X-ray high brilliance light source are produced by 7 lines of 5m class undulators. High flux X-ray light source covered until 30keV is realized by 5 multipole wigglers with 1m length and 2T magnetic field. 1m in-vacuum short period undulator generates high brilliance undulator light in the soft X-ray field. (S.Y.)

  13. Conceptual design of synchrotron light source of medium size and high performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medium size and high performance synchrotron light source is designed to make a center of synchrotron radiation in the area of many users. About 8nm-rad low emittance is realized by 1.8GeV beam energy and 160cm circumference by combined-function type bending electromagnet and non-achromatic electron beam optics. We secured 10 lines of 6m straight sections were able to set 5m undulator and 10 lines of 1.6m straight sections could set short undulator and multipole wiggler. Dynamic aperture is large. Five straight sections are used by operation, for examples, injection, beam control and rf acceleration. Fifteen lines are used by insertion devices. The highest level vacuum ultraviolet and soft X-ray high brilliance light source are produced by 7 lines of 5m class undulators. High flux X-ray light source covered until 30keV is realized by 5 multipole wigglers with 1m length and 2T magnetic field. 1m in-vacuum short period undulator generates high brilliance undulator light in the soft X-ray field. (S.Y.)

  14. ADVANTAGES OF CROWDFUNDING AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE OF FINANCING OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Goli?

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The lack of funding, and limited access to it are the basic problems faced by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. Given the great role and importance of SMEs in every national economy, any progress in solving these problems in terms of creating and finding alternative sources of funding should attract great attention in both professional and scientific and the wider socio-political communities. Crowdfunding is an innovative and relatively new concept that connects entrepreneurs and investors through the Internet. This method allows the entrepreneurs to collect funds through the Internet by "open invitation" to finance their projects/ventures and thus raise the necessary funds by relatively small contributions of a relatively large number of investors. As such, crowdfunding is a fast-growing model increasingly debated of in academic circles and the European institutions. This paper will consider crowdfunding as an alternative means of financing SMEs and try to give different aspects of crowdfunding - and explain how it works, what are the advantages of using it for SMEs and thus expand the knowledge on the topic.

  15. Determinants of the Capital Structure of Small and Medium Sized Brazilian Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Toshiro Nakamura

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the determinants of the capital structure of small and medium enterprises (SMEs using a unique database that includes over 19,000 Brazilian firms and spans 13 years of data. The econometric analysis employs the System Generalized Method of Moments estimator (GMM-Sys and two strong results emerge: (a profitability is negatively related to leverage, and (b asset growth is positively related to leverage. Both results are consistent with the pecking order theory of capital structure and suggest that SMEs tend to finance their expansion with debt only after exhausting their internal resources. Additionally, we find weaker evidence for the following: (a size is positively related to leverage, which can be interpreted as evidence that larger firms have more access to credit markets; (b riskier SMEs tend to be less financially leveraged, consistent with the bankruptcy cost arguments from trade-off theories; and (c the age of the firm is negatively related to financial leverage, suggesting that older SMEs may be slightly more conservative in their financing choices. Finally, the magnitude of the coefficient of lagged leverage shows the high persistence of this variable and is compatible with the hypothesis that SMEs adjust their debt/equity ratio towards a target value, although at a low speed.

  16. Open Model for the Evaluation of Economic Attractiveness of Small and Medium Sized Reactors. Annex VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annex describes the development of an open model for simulation and evaluation of the economic features of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs), being undertaken by the Politecnico di Milano in Italy. The model aims at establishing a comparative assessment of SMRs versus large reactors (LRs) as its final output. The model will allow assessment of the competitiveness of SMRs under different deployment and application conditions. The distinctive attributes of SMRs such as replication, scalability, reversibility and standardization are briefly described below. The features of SMRs impacting the domains of generation costs (co-siting economies, learning economies, technical economies, mass production and factory fabrication economies), deployment conditions (market matching, market suitability, reduced entry barriers) and financial costs (lower financial distress, reduced risk premium) are addressed before explaining the model architecture. Other state of the art models in this regard are also discussed, along with their respective attributes. The special features of the SMR model being developed are discussed. At the current stage of research, selected elements of the generation costs are modelled analytically. Provisions for adapting financial and external costs from other contemporary models and integrating the same into the main framework are being established. The model has been realized as a code, and the updated version of this code is used in the case studies of SMR competitiveness in different applications, carried out within the IAEA project Common Technology and Issues for SMRs

  17. Strategies for Successful Information Technology Adoption in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Ghobakhloo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Information Technology (IT adoption is an important field of study in a number of areas, which include small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. Due to the numerous advantages of IT, SMEs are trying to adopt IT applications to support their businesses. IT adoption by SMEs differs from larger organizations because of their specific characteristics, such as resources constraints. Therefore, this research aims to provide a better and clearer understanding of IT adoption within SMEs by reviewing and analyzing current IT literature. In this research, the review of literature includes theories, perspectives, empirical research and case studies related to IT adoption, in particular within SMEs from various databases such as Business Premier, Science Direct, JStor, Emerald Insight and Springer Link. The proposed model of effective IT adoption is believed to provide managers, vendors, consultants and governments with a practical synopsis of the IT adoption process in SMEs, which will in turn assist them to be successful with IT institutionalization within these businesses.

  18. Design concepts and safety concerns of the small and medium size reactors (SMR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The small and medium size reactors (SMR) and interface facilities such as desalination plant are expected to be located near the population area because of restrictions in transporting the plant products such as fresh water to long distance area. To protect the public around the plant facility from the possible release of radioactive materials, the design development of the SMR is focusing on an enhancement of the safety and reliability as well as the economics. In this study, the major safety concepts of the SMR designs significantly different from the current PWR designs are investigated and the safety concerns applicable to the integrated SMR design of Korea (called SMART), were identified. Those safety issues include the use of proven technology, application of strengthening defense in depth, event categorization and selection, simplification of emergency planning, determination of accident source terms and so on. The efforts to resolve the safety concerns in the design stage will provide an improvement of the safety of the SMART design

  19. Resource efficiency and culture--workplace training for small and medium-sized enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliesner, Anna; Liedtke, Christa; Rohn, Holger

    2014-05-15

    Although there are already some qualification offers available for enterprises to support resource efficiency innovations, the high potentials that can be identified especially for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) have not been activated until now. As successful change lies in the hands of humans, the main aim of vocational education has to be the promotion of organisational and cultural changes in the enterprises. As there is already a small but increasing number of enterprises that perform very well in resource efficiency innovations one question arises: What are typical characteristics of those enterprises? Leaning on a good-practice approach, the project "ResourceCulture" is going to prove or falsify the hypothesis that enterprises being successful with resource efficiency innovations have a specific culture of trust, which substantially contributes to innovation processes, or even initially enables them. Detailed empirical field research will light up which correlations between resource efficiency, innovation and cultures of trust can be found and will offer important aspects for the improvement of management instruments and qualification concepts for workplace training. The project seizes qualification needs that were likewise mentioned by enterprises and consultants, regarding the implementation of resource efficiency. This article - based on first empirical field research results - derives preliminary indications for the design of the qualification module for the target groups resource efficiency consultants and managers. On this basis and in order to implement "ResourceCulture" conceptual and methodological starting points for workplace training are outlined. PMID:24364995

  20. Sustainability indices as a tool for urban managers, evidence from four medium-sized Chinese cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research in four medium-sized Chinese cities aims at measuring urban sustainability in China and focuses on three issues. First, the situation in these four cities with regard to urban sustainability is evaluated. Secondly, a number of relations between different aspects of urban sustainability is explored. Finally, it is indicated how urban managers can improve with sustainability indices as tools currently ineffective urban management practices. Although all four cities are moving towards sustainable development, the current situation shows still weak sustainability in three, and even non-sustainability in one city. The social and, in particular, the economic dimensions of urban sustainability make significant positive contributions to overall urban sustainability. However, the decline of natural resources and environmental degradation are influencing it negatively. It is therefore suggested that more priority should be assigned to urban environmental protection and management in China. The fundamental reason for environmental degradation is believed to be inefficient urban management. To implement effective urban management in China, there is an urgent need to redefine the role of local government, reform local organizational structure, enhance local participatory institutional capacity, properly distribute the urban welfare, and thus integrate economic, social and environmental objectives local strategic and action plansans

  1. Adaptive Traffic Control Systems in a medium-sized Scandinavian city : – effects and experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; Olesen, Anne Vingaard

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive Traffic Control Systems (ATCS) are aimed at reducing congestion. ATCS adapt to approaching traffic to continuously optimise the traffic flows in question. ATCS have been implemented in many locations, including the Scandinavian countries, with various effects. Due to congestion problems, ATCS were installed in the eight signalised intersections of a 1.7 km stretch of the ring road in the medium-sized Danish city of Aalborg. To measure the effect of ATCS a with/without study was carried out. GPS data from a car following the traffic, recorded transportation times for buses in service, and GPS data from a range of cars driving on the ring road formed the basis for the study. The result of ATCS implementation was a significant 17% reduction in transportation time on the ring road in the most congested period, the afternoon peak. Less significant effects were found regarding the morning peak and midday off-peak. The effect on crossing and turning traffic was slight, and while reduced transportation time was found in one part of the ring road in another part transportation time was seen to increase. The benefit to the ring road was partly gained at the cost of slightly increased transportation time for crossing traffic.

  2. Quantitative evaluation of waste prevention on the level of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut

    2009-02-01

    Waste prevention is a principle means of achieving the goals of waste management and a key element for developing sustainable economies. Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) contribute substantially to environmental degradation, often not even being aware of their environmental effects. Therefore, several initiatives have been launched in Austria aimed at supporting waste prevention measures on the level of SMEs. To promote the most efficient projects, they have to be evaluated with respect to their contribution to the goals of waste management. It is the aim of this paper to develop a methodology for evaluating waste prevention measures in SMEs based on their goal orientation. At first, conceptual problems of defining and delineating waste prevention activities are briefly discussed. Then an approach to evaluate waste prevention activities with respect to their environmental performance is presented and benchmarks which allow for an efficient use of the available funds are developed. Finally the evaluation method is applied to a number of former projects and the calculated results are analysed with respect to shortcomings and limitations of the model. It is found that the developed methodology can provide a tool for a more objective and comprehensible evaluation of waste prevention measures. PMID:18676138

  3. Quantitative evaluation of waste prevention on the level of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste prevention is a principle means of achieving the goals of waste management and a key element for developing sustainable economies. Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) contribute substantially to environmental degradation, often not even being aware of their environmental effects. Therefore, several initiatives have been launched in Austria aimed at supporting waste prevention measures on the level of SMEs. To promote the most efficient projects, they have to be evaluated with respect to their contribution to the goals of waste management. It is the aim of this paper to develop a methodology for evaluating waste prevention measures in SMEs based on their goal orientation. At first, conceptual problems of defining and delineating waste prevention activities are briefly discussed. Then an approach to evaluate waste prevention activities with respect to their environmental performance is presented and benchmarks which allow for an efficient use of the available funds are developed. Finally the evaluation method is applied to a number of former projects and the calculated results are analysed with respect to shortcomings and limitations of the model. It is found that the developed methodology can provide a tool for a more objective and comprehensible evaluation of waste prevention measures

  4. An effective physical fitness program for small and medium-sized enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Han Hui; Peng, Shu Mei; Yeh, Ching Ying; Chen, Chiou Jong; Chen, Ruey Yu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a practicable worksite physical fitness program for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Community-based intervention consisting of a three-month exercise course was conducted, and its benefits evaluated. A self-administrated structured questionnaire and physical fitness examination were designed to compare the difference between pre and post intervention. A total of 133 SME workers completed the lifestyle/exercise course and filled out the questionnaire, but 16 were excluded from the exercise group due to health reasons. After the intervention, health indicators such as weight, blood pressure, resting heart rate, waistline, BMI, front and back trunk flexibility, abdominal muscle durability and back muscle strength were significantly improved, and improvements in musculoskeletal disorders were seen in reduced neck pain (18.8%), wrist pain (17.4%), and upper/lower back pain (8.7% and 21.7%, respectively). Cardiovascular risk factors (BMI and resting heart rate) showed a significant improvement related to frequent participation in the program (p=0.02), and the exercise group reported a significant difference in overall health (p=0.02). This study has demonstrated an effective approach to community-based fitness intervention through SMEs. PMID:21372441

  5. Model of Thai Small and Medium Sized Enterprises’ Organizational Capabilities: Review and Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apicha Boonpattarakan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In today’s competitive environment, small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs must focus on strengthening their organizational capabilities, considered to be a vital ingredient for building firms’ competitiveness. A number of factors may be deemed to be the drivers of organizational capabilities. Thus, this study was aimed at investigating and discussing those dimensions and their elements associated with organizational capabilities. The review of the literature indicates that the fundamental approach to build organizational capabilities rest heavily on organizational resources, organizational architecture, and organizational quality. The initial model was developed and proposed. Then, in-depth interviews with twenty Thai SMEs were carried out to verify the proposed model. Based on the in-depth interview results, key modifications were made to adjust the model and make it more practical. Financial resource, marketing resource, operational resource, and human resource are considered to be key elements of organizational resources whereas planning system, information system, compensation system, empowerment structure, learning culture, and teamwork culture are deemed to be key elements of organizational architecture. Finally, quality of the company and quality of products or services are believed to be key elements of organizational quality. Firms who can effectively and efficiently manage these elements of organizational capabilities will be able to compete and succeed in the market in the long run. 

  6. The CTA medium size telescope prototype, a test bench for the array control software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birsin, Emrah; Oya, Igor; Schwanke, Ullrich [Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin (Germany); Behera, Bagmeet; Koeppel, Hendryk; Melkumyan, David; Schmidt, Torsten; Wegner, Peter; Wiesand, Stephan; Winde, Michael [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Zeuthen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    CTA (Cherenkov Telescope Array) will be the largest ground-based gamma-ray observatory ever built. Two arrays are foreseen to be build, one in the Southern and one in the Northern hemisphere. A prototype for the Medium Size Telescope (MST) type (diameter: 12 m) will be installed in Berlin in early 2012. This MST prototype will be composed of the mechanical structure, drive system and mirror facets with an active mirror control system. The stability of the mechanical structure will be investigated with CCD cameras and a weather station. Furthermore the ALMA Common Software (ACS) distributed control framework will used as readout and control system for the MST, allowing to evaluate the software with the future use for the whole CTA array in mind. The design of the control software is following the concepts and tools under evaluation within the CTA consortium, like the use of a UML based code generation framework for ACS component modeling, and the use of OPC Unified Architecture (OPC UA) for hardware access. In this contribution the progress in the implementation of the control system for this CTA prototype telescope is described.

  7. The CTA medium size telescope prototype, a test bench for the array control software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CTA (Cherenkov Telescope Array) will be the largest ground-based gamma-ray observatory ever built. Two arrays are foreseen to be build, one in the Southern and one in the Northern hemisphere. A prototype for the Medium Size Telescope (MST) type (diameter: 12 m) will be installed in Berlin in early 2012. This MST prototype will be composed of the mechanical structure, drive system and mirror facets with an active mirror control system. The stability of the mechanical structure will be investigated with CCD cameras and a weather station. Furthermore the ALMA Common Software (ACS) distributed control framework will used as readout and control system for the MST, allowing to evaluate the software with the future use for the whole CTA array in mind. The design of the control software is following the concepts and tools under evaluation within the CTA consortium, like the use of a UML based code generation framework for ACS component modeling, and the use of OPC Unified Architecture (OPC UA) for hardware access. In this contribution the progress in the implementation of the control system for this CTA prototype telescope is described.

  8. Manage Projects Smarter: Picking Tools for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Quade

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs are increasingly dealing with international projects and distributed (sometimes even virtual teams. Consequently, they are looking for project management (PM tools which fit their respective needs regarding communication and collaboration. Unfortunately, the majority of the PM software available in the market seems to be oversized for this purpose. Instead most project managers are requesting smart solutions that allow quick implementation without any significant organisational or technical change. Within the research project InterComp SME 2.0 we combine theoretical research and real business to develop hands-on solutions for SMEs. This paper describes an effective approach for a “PM Toolbox” that allows finding the right project tool for a specific project need. The toolbox has been developed in due consideration of user stories gained from business practice, a more detailed SME business survey, a theoretical PM meta model and a market of PM tools. Since the business survey revealed that the readiness to use and test a “toolbox” is highly dependent on the type of user and his or her technical background, we designed the system based on use cases and user typology. As a result, we suggest a framework of open, freely available, easy-to-install, single and multi purpose PM software tools which can be selected solely on a need basis. With this free platform we want to guide practitioners through the tool jungle with the potential to grow into a lively community.

  9. The challenge of forecasting high streamflows in medium sized catchments 1–3 months in advance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Bennett

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Skilful forecasts of high streamflows a month or more in advance are likely to be of considerable benefit to emergency services and the broader community. This is particularly true for small-medium sized catchments (2, where real-time warning systems are only able to give short notice of impending floods. In this study, we generate forecasts of high streamflows for the coming 1 month and coming 3 month periods using large-scale ocean/atmosphere climate indices and catchment wetness as predictors. Forecasts are generated with a combination of Bayesian joint probability modeling and Bayesian model averaging. High streamflows are defined as maximum single-day streamflows and maximum 5 day streamflows that occur during each 1 month or 3 month forecast period. Skill is clearly evident in the 1 month forecasts of high streamflows. Surprisingly, in several catchments positive skill is also evident in forecasts of large threshold events (exceedance probabilities of 25% over the next month. Little skill is evident in forecasts of high streamflows for the 3 month period. We show that including climate indices as predictors adds little skill to the forecasts, and thus catchment wetness is by far the most important predictor. Accordingly, we recommend that forecasts may be improved by using accurate estimates of catchment wetness.

  10. Experimental testing of centrifugal pump: small and medium sized enterprise product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, R.; Paddiyatu, F.; Khafidh, M.; Nugroho, S.; Sugiyanto, S.; Jamari, J.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports the experimental testing for centrifugal pump for fisherman ship, manufactured by small and medium sized enterprises in Central Java Province, Indonesia. The research covers material analysis, component observation, endurance and vibration test. Six centrifugal pumps are tested and three main pump components are discussed: shaft, bearings and seals. The results show that the material of the shaft is predicted to support and transmit the load from the engine to impeller. The problem found in the tolerance and geometry accuracy of the shaft which causes difficulties during assembling process, excessive wear and leakage during testing. From the endurance and vibration test, the ball bearings fail and lock the shaft due to the fatigue on the rolling elements and raceways. The oil seal and water seal also fail in maintaining the oil and water in the chamber and induce the unlubricated system for the ball bearings. Some suggestions are delivered to improve the product quality of the centrifugal pump. A good quality of the centrifugal pump for fishermen ship and long life span is expected to be produced by local SMEs to win the free trade competition in the Indonesian market.

  11. Determinants of the capital structure of small and medium sized Brazilian enterprises

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Denis, Forte; Lucas Ayres, Barros; Wilson Toshiro, Nakamura.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the determinants of the capital structure of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) using a unique database that includes over 19,000 Brazilian firms and spans 13 years of data. The econometric analysis employs the System Generalized Method of Moments estimator (GMM-Sys) and [...] two strong results emerge: (a) profitability is negatively related to leverage, and (b) asset growth is positively related to leverage. Both results are consistent with the pecking order theory of capital structure and suggest that SMEs tend to finance their expansion with debt only after exhausting their internal resources. Additionally, we find weaker evidence for the following: (a) size is positively related to leverage, which can be interpreted as evidence that larger firms have more access to credit markets; (b) riskier SMEs tend to be less financially leveraged, consistent with the bankruptcy cost arguments from trade-off theories; and (c) the age of the firm is negatively related to financial leverage, suggesting that older SMEs may be slightly more conservative in their financing choices. Finally, the magnitude of the coefficient of lagged leverage shows the high persistence of this variable and is compatible with the hypothesis that SMEs adjust their debt/equity ratio towards a target value, although at a low speed.

  12. CRITICAL FACTORS IN OUTSOURCING OF ACCOUNTING FUNCTIONS IN MALAYSIAN SMALL MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES (SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magiswary Dorasamy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenges that business face in sustaining competitive advantage in the corporate world have become a major concern. Businesses are adopting cutting-edge technologies and best practices to cope with rapid, global changes. Various business functions are being reengineered for this purpose. Accounting functions play an important role in helping businesses to maintain competitive advantage. However, some small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs face problems handling fundamental accounting functions. This is predominantly because of their lack of expertise; accounting functions require not only knowledge of generally accepted accounting rules or tax regulations but also the expertise needed to apply the rules in a given business environment (Everaert, Sarens and Rommel, 2006. This paper offers some insight on the outsourcing of accounting functions as there is paucity of data in this area in the context of Malaysia. Essentially, it presents empirical evidence regarding Malaysian SMEs' accounting outsourcing practices. A survey of SMEs was conducted to identify the overall outsourcing landscape as it relates to accounting and third-party organisations. The factors that contribute to the decision to outsource accounting functions are analysed. The study reveals a significant relationship between outsourcing accounting functions and two contributing factors, risks and operation management.

  13. Barriers to energy efficiency improvement. Empirical evidence from small-and-medium-sized enterprises in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostka, Genia; Moslener, Ulf; Andreas, Jan G.

    2012-07-01

    This paper analyzes barriers for energy efficiency investments for small-and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in China. Based on a survey of 480 SMEs in Zhejiang Province, this study assesses financial, informational, and organizational barriers for energy efficiency investments in the SME sector. The conventional view has been that the lack of appropriate financing mechanisms particularly hinders SMEs to adopt cost-effective energy efficiency measures. As such, closing the financing gap for SMEs is seen as a prerequisite in order to promote energy efficiency in the sector. The econometric estimates of this study, however, suggest that access to information is an important determinant of investment outcomes, while this is less clear with respect to financial and organizational factors. More than 40 percent of enterprises in the sample declared that that they are not aware of energy saving equipments or practices in their respective business area, indicating that there are high transaction costs for SMEs to gather, assess, and apply information about energy saving potentials and relevant technologies. One implication is that the Chinese government may assume an active role in fostering the dissemination of energy-efficiency related information in the SME sector. (orig.)

  14. Large- and Medium-Sized Land Mammals of Northeast Marajó Island, Lower Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Siciliano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Marajó, located in the lower Amazon, Brazil, is one of the largest river islands in the world. Most of the island is subject to tidal or seasonal flooding. Despite its historical, cultural and geographical importance, Marajó Island remains relatively less investigated in terms of mammal diversity, ecology and community structure than the rest of the Amazon. This scenario has motivated the presentation of this list of land mammals of eastern Marajó Island. Two field surveys were conducted in the course of 7-11 December 2012 and 17-25 October 2013 in Jaranduba, Dunas and Ribanceira Farms, northeast portions of Marajó Island. A total of 23 large and medium-sized land mammal species were recorded in the study area. These farms host a representative mammal community of northeastern Marajó, an area lacking previous faunal studies. Human pressure over centuries has deeply modified the environment in Marajó. Therefore, striking evidence of a long human-populated past in this island is in accordance to many other sites throughout the Amazon plain. The result of a land mammal survey in northeastern Marajó is a clear evidence of past and present human interference in the island. Even though Marajó Island has exalted mammal diversity, it will be much higher if long-term studies are effectively implemented.

  15. Design features to achieve defence-in-depth in small and medium sized reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the categorization adopted by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), small and medium sized reactors are those with the equivalent electric output less than 700 MW. In most of the cases, deployment potential of SMRs is supported by their ability to fill niches in which they would address market situations different from those of currently operated large-capacity nuclear power plants. Ensuring adequate defence-in-depth (DID) is important for reactors of smaller output because many of them are being designed to allow more proximity to the user, specifically, when non-electrical energy products are targeted. Based on the activities recently performed by IAEA, the paper provides a summary description of the design features used to achieve DID in the eleven representative concepts of SMRs. The SMRs considered included reactors of different types - pressurized water reactors, pressurized boiling light water cooled heavy water moderated reactors, high temperature gas cooled reactors, fast reactors,and non conventional very high temperature designs. The design descriptions were structured to follow the definitions and recommendations of the IAEA safety standardNS-R-1 'Safety of the Nuclear Power Plants: Design Requirements'. The focus of this paper would be on sodium cooled and lead cooled fast reactors -the 4S-LMR (Japan) and the SSTAR and the STAR-LM (USA)

  16. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from small and medium-sized Kansas mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brillhart, D B; Fox, L B; Upton, S J

    1994-05-01

    Seven species of hard-bodied ticks were collected from 20 species of small and medium-sized mammals in Kansas; Amblyomma americanum L., Dermacentor variabilis (Say), Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (Packard), Ixodes cookei Packard, I. kingi Bishopp, I. sculptus Neumann, and I. texanus Banks. Dermacentor variabilis was found statewide, A. americanum only in the eastern one-third of the state, and the Ixodes spp. and H. leporispalustris were widely scattered. The most common tick found was D. variabilis, both by itself and in association with other ticks. Mammals that ticks were collected from included Canis latrans Say, Cynomys ludovicianus ludovicianus (Ord), Didelphis virginianus Kerr, Geomys bursarius (Shaw), Lynx rufus (Schreber), Marmota monax bunkeri Black, Mephitis mephitis (Schreber), Microtus ochrogaster (Wagner), Mus musculus L., Peromyscus leucopus (Rafinesque), P. maniculatus (Wagner), Procyon lotor hirtus Nelson and Goldman, Reithrodontomys megalotis (Baird), Sciurus niger rufiventer Geoffroy, Sigmodon hispidus texianus (Audubon and Bachman), Sylvilagus floridanus (J. A. Allen), Taxidea taxus taxus (Schreber), and Vulpes velox velox (Say). PMID:8057327

  17. East-West co-operation of small and medium sized enterprises : evidence from the Berlin region

    OpenAIRE

    Sander, Birgit

    1996-01-01

    Globalization opens new opportunities also for small and medium sized enterprises (SME). However, empirical information on SMEs' international activities is still fragmented. The paper adds another piece of evidence in analyzing how Berlin SMEs are co-operating with partners in transition economies. To identify the size impact, co-operation activities of SMEs are contrasted to those of large enterprises. It is explored where SMEs identify sources of comparative advantage, which mechanisms, wh...

  18. Analyzing the efficiency of small and medium-sized enterprises of a national technology innovation research and development program

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sungmin

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the efficiency of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) of a national technology innovation research and development (R&D) program. In particular, an empirical analysis is presented that aims to answer the following question: “Is there a difference in the efficiency between R&D collaboration types and between government R&D subsidy sizes?” Methodologically, the efficiency of a government-sponsored R&D project (i.e., GSP) is measured by Data Envelopment Analysis (DE...

  19. Using the Critical Incident Technique to Research Decision Making regarding Access to Training and Development in Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzer, Alan; Redmond, Janice; Sharafizad, Jalleh

    2012-01-01

    Employees in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) form part of a "disadvantaged" group within the workforce that receives less access to training and development (T&D) than employees in large firms. Prior research into reasons for the relatively low levels of employee participation in training and development has typically involved surveys of…

  20. The Anonymity of Catalan and the Authenticity of Estonian: Two Paths for the Development of Medium-Sized Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Catalan and Estonian can be considered "medium-sized" languages with some key common features that allow us to analyze the evolution of the two cases comparatively. Firstly, other formerly hegemonic languages (Spanish and Russian, respectively) have historically minoritized them. Secondly, the political equilibrium has now changed in such a way…

  1. A Model Collective Bargaining Procedure for Use by Educators in Small and Medium Sized Counties in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Silas

    This report describes a practicum project that designed, developed, and implemented a model collective bargaining procedure for use by educators in small and medium-sized districts in florida. Section 1 of the report presents a brief historical perspective on collective bargaining for teachers in the U.S. and public employee bargaining in Florida,…

  2. Managing cooperation in supply network structures and small or medium-sized enterprises main criteria and tools for managers

    CERN Document Server

    Villa, Agostino

    2011-01-01

    Offers a simple methodology to networks managers to enable them to evaluate the organisational efficiency and robustness of their network Displays different approaches to the analysis of the organisation of small- or medium-sized enterprises in Europe Enables managers to understand when and why becoming a partner in a cluster can be profitable for their enterprise

  3. Cash flow vs. collateral-based credit: performance of micro, small and medium-sized firms in transition economies.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cassano, F.; Joeveer, K.; Švejnar, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 21, ?. 2 (2013), s. 269-300. ISSN 0967-0750 R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP402/10/2130 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : micro , small and medium-sized enterprises * bank credit * firm performance Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.755, year: 2013

  4. The Research on Enterprise Management Innovation --- Based on the Study of Small and Medium Sized Family Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Luo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The small and medium sized family enterprises in China have developed rapidly since the reform and opening up.Numerous facts show that the family management is reasonable and proper in the early development of small and medium-sized family enterprise. However, with the further development of family enterprise, the shortcomings of family management are exposed and have become obstacles which restrict the development of enterprise, as a result, the research and analysis in the management problems of small and medium sized family enterprises has become one of the most important research projects to solve the problem of the sustainable development of family enterprises in China. Based on the above considerations, this article puts forward a "person" as the core, takes concept innovation, strategic innovation, cultural innovation, institutional innovation and organizational innovation as the main content of management innovation idea, and brings forward the correspondingly appropriate countermeasures in solving the existing family management problems in small and medium-sized family enterprises.

  5. Using Computer-Based Continuing Professional Education of Training Staff to Develop Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sooraksa, Nanta

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a career development program for staff involved in providing training for small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Thailand. Most of these staff were professional vocational teachers in schools. The program uses information communication technology (ICT), and its main objective is to teach Moodle software as a tool for…

  6. Innovation in Food and Health: Study Into Challenges and Opportunities for Dutch Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joop Vree-van Straten

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the opportunities and challenges Dutch Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SMEs in the food and beverage industry are facing with respect to innovation in food and health. An online questionnaire was developed to give an overview on attitudes and activities of SMEs with respect to innovation; their interest in trends, among which were health and wellbeing; and their view on logos as a possible way of communication. The questionnaire was held May 2011 with a response of n = 110. Results show that innovation is important for SMEs: over 80% of the SMEs are innovating in products and over 60% in processes. The most appealing trends are: Health and wellbeing, ‘Puur en Eerlijk’ (Note 1 and sustainability. Of the SMEs 70-80% indicate to have a current, and 85% a future interest in these trends. Furthermore 43% used the health logo on part of their product portfolio. Logos that communicate health and sustainability are most popular; 23% of the SMEs indicated not to be interested in the use of logos in general. In conclusion, the identified opportunities for innovation in food and health are: a large willingness to innovate and the increasing interest in the already appealing trend of nutrition and health. There is a moderate interest in (health logos. Challenges are time, costs, knowledge on innovation in general and lack of specific knowledge on nutrition and health, and unclarities around use and added value (informative and increasing sales of logos. Also, taste is considered as important as health and cannot be compromised.

  7. THE PREMISES OF STRATEGIC MARKETING PLANNING IMPLEMENTATION WITHIN SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popescu Andrei

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present paper is to identify the framework and the necessary conditions for the small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs to be able to adopt the strategic marketing planning. Also, the paper aims to underline the importance of the strategic marketing planning and the manner in which the SMEs can adopt, implement and operationalize the strategic marketing planning instruments, whose correct understanding and usage ensure the capacity to generate competitive advantage, the key element both from the perspective of the fierce competition and the perspective of the future development of the SMEs. Within SMEs the implementation of marketing becomes an evident requirment, mostly due to the relationship that these have with the market, thus, leading towards market orientation of the activities, a new approach developed by the marketing vision on managing the activities from these types of organizations. Regarded upon, from the marketing perspective, the activities from the SMEs, especially the marketing activities, cannot take place randomly. Resource allocation, a characteristic of these types of organizations, and the objectives with regards to superior customer needs satisfaction and economic efficiency maximization, claim thorough plannification and deployment of the activities in a sequence that represents the implementation of a strategy previously assumed. Within this framework, the strategic marketing planning appears as a complex process employing all scientific instruments that comprise segmentation, positioning and marketing mix. Utilizing the strategic marketing planning within SMEs depends to further extend on marketing integration; process directly related with a series of factors such as the nature of the market, development stage, product type, management quality and the influences of the marketing department of the SME. The implications onto the marketing activities from SMEs are reflected upon each strategic marketing planning instrument, where we can find, under correct understanding and application, objectives and market and penetration strategies as product, price, distribution and promotion strategies.

  8. Deciphering the presence of wastewater in a medium-sized Mediterranean catchment using a multitracer approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of wastewater disposal on the water resource in a medium-sized Mediterranean watershed, the Herault River basin, has been studied using a multitracer approach including NO3-,Cl-,B concentrations and the Gd anomaly. The Herault watershed supplies drinking water to approximately 300,000 inhabitants and receives the effluents of 96 sewage treatment plants. The geological context is heterogeneous with 4 main lithologies: a Palaeozoic basement in the north, a karstified Mesozoic cover in the middle, an evaporite layer in the western part of the basin and alluvial deposits in the southern plain. The concentration of major (Ca2+,Cl-,NO3-) and trace elements (B, Sr and rare earth elements) has been monitored in streams, aquifers and sewage treatment plant effluents. Because of the particularly heterogeneous and rich geological context of the Herault basin, the challenge of using NO3-,Cl-andB as wastewater tracers was to distinguish their natural and anthropogenic origins. Indeed, none of these wastewater borne elements can be considered as a highly reliable tracer by itself because they are ubiquitous in water where they can be supplied by both natural (evaporite dissolution, rainfall) and anthropogenic sources (wastewater or agriculture). However, the respective contributions of different sources of candidate tracers, NO3-,Cl-3-,Cl-andB could be roughly assessed using Sr/Ca, B/Sr and Cl-/B ratios which, combined with the information provided by each tracer, allowed the ascertainment of the presence of wastewater in two tributaries of the Herault River and in a few wells tapped for drinking water in the alluvial plain

  9. Life cycle assessment of a medium sized PV facility in Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier University's School of Engineering has been involved in education and research in renewable energy for the past 35 years. With the aim demonstration of the viability of production of solar electricity at a high latitude location such as Edinburgh (56 degree north)the school undertook to commission a medium-sized PV electricity generation project. The installation of 32 rows of BP solar silicon panels covering a total area of 160 square metres ensures generation of 17.6kW peak (AC) power. Figure 1 presents a photograph of the facility under discussion. The project has been part (60%) financed by UK Government's PV electricity demonstration programme through the office of Energy Saving Trust. The University has plans to generate hydrogen from solar electricity that will be stored for noctumal production of electricity using fuel-cell technology, thus completing the complete cycle of generation, storage and reproduction of sustainable energy. The project that is part of Napier University's Merchiton Campus was completed on 6 April 2005 and since that date AC power has been fed into the University grid with the peak power being enough to operate up to 80 of the 500 computers at the University's Jack Kilby Computing Centre. DC power is produced from the BP solar high efficincy (17%) monocrystalline panels, each of which produces 90W of power at 22 Volts. This DC electricity is then fed into a total of four inverters hence converting to a stable AC supply. Two of thenverting to a stable AC supply. Two of the larger inverters receive current from 12 rows (4 strings x 3 rows) each, while the smaller inverters take power in from 4 rows (2 strings x 2 rows) each. The PV facility is fully instrumented with both input (incident solar energy) and PV electrical energy output recorded at a frequency of 15 minutes. This article will present the energetic, environmental and monetary life cycle assessment (LCA) of the above facility.(Author)

  10. Distribution and compartmental organization of GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons in the mouse Nucleus Accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GiuseppeGangarossa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The nucleus accumbens (NAc is a critical brain region involved in many reward-related behaviors. The NAc comprises major compartments the core and the shell, which encompass several subterritories. GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs constitute the output neurons of the NAc core and shell. While the functional organization of the NAc core outputs resembles the one described for the dorsal striatum, a simple classification of the NAc shell neurons has been difficult to define due to the complexity of the compartmental segregation of cells. We used a variety of BAC transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescence (EGFP or the Cre-recombinase (Cre under the control of the promoter of dopamine D1, D2, and D3 receptors and of adenosine A2a receptor to dissect the microanatomy of the NAc. Moreover, using various immunological markers we characterized in detail the distribution of MSNs in the mouse NAc. In addition, cell-type specific ERK phosphorylation in the NAc subterritories was analyzed following acute administration of SKF81297 (a D1R-like agonist, quinpirole (a D2R-like agonist, apomorphine (a non-selective DA receptor agonist, raclopride (a D2R-like antagonist, and psychostimulant drugs, including cocaine and d-amphetamine. Each drug generated a unique topography and cell-type specific activation of ERK in the NAc. Our results show the existence of marked differences in the receptor expression pattern and functional activation of MSNs within the shell subterritories. This study emphasizes the anatomical and functional heterogeneity of the NAc, which will have to be considered in its further study.

  11. Effective Factors in Green Supply Chain Management and Natural Environment Developed in Iran Tourism Industry:The Case of Small and Medium Tour Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Gilaninia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourism for all citizens of the world and the vital is to provide sustainable employment. In this regard, most attention of governments and their management resources to the tourism and pristine natural environment or green has been focused on other aspects of the industry, although also Country managers see gone away, but to protect and maintain environmental capacity most important challenges the countries in this field covers. Although the structure of the tourism sector crumbled a key challenge in order to reach a consensus on coherent development theory sustainability left is involved. But evidence from theoretical studies indicate that supply chain strategies as a logical time for nature online tourism industry in all its dimensions seem appropriate, limited debate in tourism research related to the acceptance there. Present paper advance knowledge of how sustainable tourism can be more public acceptance in practice of supply chain management in the tourism environment (ESCMT by medium and small brokers in small and medium-sized tour operating in Iran deals. The results show that in the absence of regulatory pressures and cost savings, acceptance (ESCMT in small and medium tourist enterprises will be very effective. Result of research for government executives and managers tourism agencies appropriate guidelines to be drawn.

  12. Potential role of the Romanian research and industry on the small and medium reactors market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need of diversifying the energy sources, independence from foreign supplies and modernization of economy have constituted the major factors in implementation of nuclear energy in Romania. The choice of the heavy water reactor CANDU-600 was made on grounds of advanced safety features, proven efficient economic operation as well as on the technologic feasibility for manufacturing of components, equipment, instrumentation, heavy water and natural uranium fuel in Romania. Unlike turn-key acquisition approaches, the Romanian option provided an active national participation in construction the Cernavoda NPP. As consequence, important support was being given to development of the industries involved in the nuclear fuel cycle, manufacturing of equipment and nuclear materials, construction-montage, engineering, consulting, services, etc. This was done based on technology transfer, implementation of advanced design and execution standards, quality assurance procedures and modern nuclear safety requirements at international level. The efforts materialized in an important national participation in the construction of the Cernavoda NPP and all related programs are successful. Now, Romanian firms are also involved in supplying components, equipment and services to NPP's in other eastern and central Europeans countries. The paper presents the achievements of the Romanian economy in this field and the effort of the Romanian companies on the small and medium power reactors market. Lists with main R and D institutes, nuclear fuel cycle facilities as well as potential equipment suppliers are attached. (author)

  13. Application of Medium Pressure UV Lamp for Wastewater Disinfection of Milk Production Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kamani

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available UV disinfect ion has gained widespread use for municipal wastewater and more recently, interest in using UV for water reuse applications has increased too. Medium pressure lamp has emerged as a viable alternative and is beginning to gain more popularity than the conventional low-pressure lamps. This study has been performed with the objective of utilizing MP lamp for the disinfection stage of wastewater from a milk industry. The lab-scale UV submerged system used in the experiments was a single-lamp reactor with 3 L volume, which was operated at two contact times. Two MP lamps of 300 and 400 W had been used separately. Results indicated that for disinfection of all the samples with different %T, meeting the goal of 1000 MPN /100 mL or less was always possible. Besides, for 95% of these samples, the MPN of irradiated effluents had reached to less than 240/100 mL. Another conclusion is that by use of 400 W lamp, all the samples are well disinfected to 100 total coli forms or less per 100 mL and so are become ready for most applications of water reuse programs.

  14. Optimization as investment decision support in a Swedish medium-sized iron foundry - A move beyond traditional energy auditing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to increased globalisation, industries are facing greater competition that is pressing companies into decreasing their expenses in order to increase their profits. As regards Swedish industry, it has been faced with substantial increases in energy prices in recent years. Barriers to energy efficiency such as imperfect information inhibit investments in energy efficiency measures, energy audits being one means of reducing barriers and overcoming imperfect information. However, an evaluation of such energy audits in Sweden reveals that it is chiefly low-cost measures that are undertaken as a result of an audit. Moreover, these audits often tend to focus on support processes such as ventilation, lighting, air compressors etc., while measures impacting production processes are often not as extensively covered, which underlines the need for further support in addition to energy audits. Decision support is practised in a variety of different disciplines such as optimization and simulation and the aim of this paper is to explore whether investment decision support practices may be used successfully towards small and medium-sized manufacturers in Sweden when complex production-related investment decisions are taken. The optimization results from the different cases, involving a foundry's investment in a new melting unit, indicate that with no electricity price fluctuations over the day, the investment seems sound as it lowers the overall energy costs. However, with fluctuoverall energy costs. However, with fluctuating electricity prices, there are no large differences in energy costs between the option of retaining the existing five melting furnaces at the foundry and investing in a twin furnace and removing the holding furnaces - which was the initial investment plan for the foundry in the study. It would not have been possible to achieve this outcome without the use of investment decision support such as MIND. One of the main conclusions in this paper is that investment decision support, when strategic investment decisions are to be taken, may be a means of emphasising energy efficiency for energy-intensive SMEs beyond the level of traditional energy auditing

  15. Optimization as investment decision support in a Swedish medium-sized iron foundry - A move beyond traditional energy auditing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to increased globalisation, industries are facing greater competition that is pressing companies into decreasing their expenses in order to increase their profits. As regards Swedish industry, it has been faced with substantial increases in energy prices in recent years. Barriers to energy efficiency such as imperfect information inhibit investments in energy efficiency measures, energy audits being one means of reducing barriers and overcoming imperfect information. However, an evaluation of such energy audits in Sweden reveals that it is chiefly low-cost measures that are undertaken as a result of an audit. Moreover, these audits often tend to focus on support processes such as ventilation, lighting, air compressors etc., while measures impacting production processes are often not as extensively covered, which underlines the need for further support in addition to energy audits. Decision support is practised in a variety of different disciplines such as optimization and simulation and the aim of this paper is to explore whether investment decision support practices may be used successfully towards small and medium-sized manufacturers in Sweden when complex production-related investment decisions are taken. The optimization results from the different cases, involving a foundry's investment in a new melting unit, indicate that with no electricity price fluctuations over the day, the investment seems sound as it lowers the overall energy costs. However, with fluctuoverall energy costs. However, with fluctuating electricity prices, there are no large differences in energy costs between the option of retaining the existing five melting furnaces at the foundry and investing in a twin furnace and removing the holding furnaces - which was the initial investment plan for the foundry in the study. It would not have been possible to achieve this outcome without the use of investment decision support such as MIND. One of the main conclusions in this paper is that investment decision support, when strategic investment decisions are to be taken, may be a means of emphasising energy efficiency for energy-intensive SMEs beyond the level of traditional energy auditing. (author)

  16. Effect of liquid medium on size and shape of nanoparticles prepared by pulsed laser ablation of tin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajaj, Geetika; Soni, R.K. [Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Department of Physics, New Delhi (India)

    2009-11-15

    The effect of the surrounding liquid medium on the size, shape and optical absorption of synthesized nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation of pure tin in different liquids is investigated. The liquid not only confines the ablated species at the liquid-solid interface, but also it acts as a mediator for chemical reaction at the liquid-solid interface. The liquid media surrounding the target is thus an important factor affecting the shape, mean size, size distribution and composition of the particles. The ablation of tin target was carried out in deionized water, ethanol and acetone medium, leading to formation of tin and tin oxide nanoparticles of various sizes and shapes. Electron microscopy and optical absorption were employed for characterization of the particle size, shape and optical properties, respectively. The effect of surfactant was also studied by carrying out ablation in aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) solution. It was observed that the average particle size and size distribution are considerably reduced by using surfactant. (orig.)

  17. SWR 1000: An Advanced, Medium-Sized Boiling Water Reactor, Ready for Deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The latest developments in nuclear power generation technology mainly concern large-capacity plants in the 1550 -1600 MW range, or very small plants (100 - 350 MW). The SWR 1000 boiling water reactor (BWR), by contrast, offers all of the advantages of an advanced plant design, with excellent safety performance and competitive power generation costs, in the medium-capacity range (1000 - 1250 MW). The SWR 1000 is particularly suitable for countries whose power systems are not designed for large-capacity generating facilities. The economic efficiency of this medium-sized plant in comparison with large-capacity designs is achieved by deploying very simple passive safety equipment, simplified systems for plant operation, and a very simple plant configuration in which systems engineering is optimized and dependence on electrical and instrumentation and control (I and C) systems is reduced. In addition, systems and components that require protection against natural and external man-made hazards are accommodated in such a way that as few buildings as possible have to be designed to withstand the loads from such events. The fuel assemblies to be deployed in the SWR 1000 core, meanwhile, have been enlarged from a 10 x 10 rod array to a 12 x 12 array. This reduces the total number of fuel assemblies in the core and thus also the number of control rods and control rod drives, as well as in-core neutron flux monitors. The design owes its competitiveness to the fact that investmentompetitiveness to the fact that investment costs, maintenance costs and fuel cycle costs are all lower. In addition, refueling outages are shorter, thanks to the reduced scope of outage activities. The larger fuel assemblies have been extensively and successfully tested, as have all of the other new components and systems incorporated into the plant design. As in existing plants, the forced coolant circulation method is deployed, ensuring problem-free startup, and enabling plant operators to adjust power rapidly in the high power range (70%-100%) without moving the control rods, as well as allowing spectral-shift and stretch-out operation. The considerable gains provided by forced coolant circulation in terms of operational flexibility and fuel utilization mean that the investment and maintenance costs of the pumps are covered after several years of service. The plant safety concept is based on a combination of passive safety systems and a reduced number of active safety systems. All postulated accidents can be controlled using passive systems alone. Control of a postulated core melt accident is assured with considerable safety margins thanks to passive flooding of the containment for in-vessel melt retention. The SWR 1000 is compliant with international nuclear codes and standards, and is also designed to withstand the effects of an aircraft crash involving a military aircraft or a large passenger airliner. (authors)

  18. NEW APPROACHES TO CUSTOMER BASE SEGMENTATION FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meleancă Raluca-Cristina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this paper is to explore current praxis and theory related to customer segmentation and to offer an approach which is best suited for small and medium sized enterprises. The proposed solution is the result of an exploratory research aiming to recognize the main variables which influence the practice of segmenting the customer base and to study the most applied alternatives available for all types of enterprises. The research has been performed by studying a large set of secondary data, scientific literature and case studies regarding smaller companies from the European Union. The result of the research consists in an original approach to customer base segmentation, which combines aspects belonging to different well spread practices and applies them to the specific needs of a small or medium company, which typically has limited marketing resources in general and targeted marketing resources in particular. The significance of the proposed customer base segmentation approach lies in the fact that, even though smaller enterprises are in most economies the greatest in number compared to large companies, most of the literature on targeting practices has focused primarily on big companies dealing with a very large clientele, while the case of the smaller companies has been to some extent unfairly neglected. Targeted marketing is becoming more and more important for all types of companies nowadays, as a result of technology advances which make targeted communication easier and less expensive than in the past and also due to the fact that broad-based media have decreased their impact over the years. For a very large proportion of smaller companies, directing their marketing budgets towards targeted campaigns is a clever initiative, as broad based approaches are in many cases less effective and much more expensive. Targeted marketing stratagems are generally related to high tech domains such as artificial intelligence, data mining and marketing analytics and presuppose the availability of sophisticated computer software and specialized personnel. The methodology proposed in this paper takes into consideration the fact that, due to financial and time-related constrains, smaller companies need a more practical and straightforward solution for segmenting their customer base. The simplicity of the solution, however, should not come at the expense of its efficiency. The original contribution of this paper resides precisely in the fact that it aims to offer the best of two worlds: the simplicity and cost-effectiveness of plain methods which can be used without the aid of specialized software and the high return on investment given by the use of artificial intelligence algorithms such as clustering. The main implications of this paper relate to the fact that it draws attention to how targeted marketing can be performed successfully by companies with restricted budgets by providing an actionable set of guidelines which can be put into practice by smaller enterprises using limited efforts and resources.

  19. The power of Alberta business : the impact of electricity deregulation on Alberta small and medium-sized business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deregulation of the electricity market came into effect on January 1, 2001 in Alberta. This deregulation affects the retail and generation fields of electricity. The intention was to introduce competition and apply downward pressure on electricity prices, but the reverse effect was witnessed: power prices increased. It resulted in a period of anxiety on the part of businesses, caused by the volatility of electricity prices. A survey of Canadian Federation of Independent Business (CFIB) members was conducted in May and June 2001 to better understand the impacts of electricity deregulation on small and medium-sized businesses. A broad range of businesses provided responses (951 responses) covering all sectors of industry and regions in Alberta. A large proportion of respondents were dissatisfied with deregulation, caused in part by the confusion created by the flurry of rebate and credit announcements designed to ease the transition. Small firms were faced with significant increases in electricity prices, and several could not estimate the size of the increase as it was too difficult to measure. Responses varied from a low of 5 per cent increase to a high of 400 per cent in power rates. Most respondents also indicated that the increases had an impact on their business. The impact of power rate increases by sector was examined. Another consequence of deregulation was the fact that billing moved from a single invoice received to the requirement to actively manage energy uhe requirement to actively manage energy usage. It was discovered that a lack of information on electricity cost and consumption management impeded the the ability to make business decisions. The CFIB asked respondents to indicate the measures being considered to address management of electricity costs. Incorporating energy-saving devices and/or methods had been considered by slightly more than 40 per cent of respondents. Negotiating with power retailers represented another option under consideration by some. It was felt that government must still play an important role in the electricity business. The recommendations touched on the stimulation of retail competition, providing transitional/long-term price relief, and provide businesses with adequate information. 15 figs

  20. Knowledge Management Acceptance: Success Factors amongst Small and Medium-Size Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine N.L.  TAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The value and importance of knowledge, as seen by numerous organisations today, does without a doubt play a crucial role in the current ever-challenging and aggressive business environment. As a result, businesses that aspire to be labelled as being successful and competitive need to seek and find better ways to improve their firms? performance. Hence, Knowledge Management (KM, which is viewed as a source of sustainable competitive advantage, has attracted the attention of various companies all over the business world, including Small and Medium-Size Enterprises (SMEs in Malaysia. With the realisation of KM, the systematic management of organisation knowledge - a strategic corporate asset not to be taken lightly; can thus be created, transferred, shared and, utilised, in pushing for greater organisational competitiveness, innovativeness and, productivity. This research examined the success factors that help to increase the business performance of SMEs in Malaysia. Besides, it also highlighted the importance and contribution of KM amongst SMEs. Therefore, the reason behind this study is to understand and recognised the acceptance of KM and therefore further classified the success factors that contributed to the business performance outcome amongst SMEs in Malaysia. With this, the success factors observed in this research; culture; leadership; employee participation; Information and Communications Technology (ICT; organisational structure; are thoroughly investigated to explore on whether these factors have an impact on knowledge creation; knowledge transfer; knowledge sharing and knowledge utilisation; of KM processes among SMEs in Malaysia. Approach: This study aids to determined and examined the success factors; culture; leadership; employee participation; Information and Communications Technology (ICT; organisational structure; of SMEs that further influences KM processes; knowledge creation, transfer, sharing, utilisation. Results: It is hoped that SMEs with the help of this study, are able apply the success factors and KM processes as a guideline in achieving successful KM acceptance. It is anticipated that the factors proposed in this study could help businesses especially SMEs to better organise their KM initiatives, as well as to assists Malaysia in producing a superior and highly acclaimed knowledgeable society. Conclusion: The findings may be used as recommendations to SMEs that are keen in accepting and adopting KM in their daily operations. Furthermore, this study may also serve as a basis for future quantitative research studies among researchers, practitioners and professionals alike, in gaining a profound understanding of KM in sectors other than SMEs.

  1. The Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises Office (SME Office) at the European Medicines Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, M

    2010-01-01

    On 15 December 2005, the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) launched an "SME Office" to provide financial and administrative assistance to micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), with the aim of promoting innovation and the development of new human and veterinary medicinal products by SMEs. According to current EU definition of an SME, companies with fewer than 250 employees, and an annual turnover of not more than 50 million euro or an annual balance sheet total of not more than 43 million euro, are eligible for assistance from the SME Office. Incentives available from the EMEA for SMEs, include: Administrative and procedural assistance from SME Office within the Agency; Fee reductions (90%) for scientific advice and inspections; Fee exemptions for certain administrative services (excluding parallel distribution); Deferral of the fee payable for an application for marketing authorisation or related inspection until after the grant of the marketing authorisation; Conditional fee exemption where scientific advice followed and marketing application is unsuccessful; Assistance with translations of the product information documents. At the end of May 2009, more than 380 companies from 21 countries across the European Economic Area (EEA) had SME status assigned by the EMEA. The large majority of companies are developing medicinal products for human use, 16 are veterinary companies, 15 companies are developing products for both human and veterinary use and 38 are regulatory consultants. Since the SME initiative started the Agency has processed more than 130 requests for scientific advice with fee reductions totalling of 6.9 million euro. Regulatory assistance has been provided to more than 170 companies and 12 companies have benefited from the SME translation service. Stakeholders have acknowledged the significant role the SME Office now plays as a service provider. In the period between January 2006 and June 2009, 34 applications for marketing authorization from SME applicants were filed for medicinal products for human use. Current analysis shows SMEs to have a lower success rate compared to non-SME companies. Major objections for SMEs are particularly high in the area of quality. Although the SME initiative is still at an early stage, it is apparent from the experience gained with applications for marketing authorisation to date that it is important for companies to open up an early dialogue with the EMEA. Scientific advice should be sought early, proactively and comprehensively on key issues in development (quality, non-clinical, clinical) and follow-up advice should be sought as development proceeds. For advanced therapy medicinal products, the assistance available to SMEs will be reinforced in 2009, with the introduction of the certification process. PMID:20101799

  2. An Innovative Farm Scale Biogas/Composting Facility for a Sustainable Medium Size Dairy Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel E. Ghaly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Approach: The amount of energy related costs as a portion of the total farm operating cost can be as high as 29% and the continuing increase of the real cost of energy related farm input has been one of the major factors impacting the cost of agricultural production. However, agricultural has the potential of replacing some of the purchased energy in the form of fossil fuels, commercial fertilizer and field production of animal feed with bioenergy and organic fertilizer from onsite renewable biomass such as animal manure in order to economically and environmentally sustain it. The aim of this study was to develop an innovative energy efficient pilot scale anaerobic digester composting facility. Methodology: A solid/liquid manure separator farm scale anaerobic digester and composting facility for a medium sized dairy farm were designed, constructed and tested. In order to make the anaerobic digestion economically viable under Canadian climatic conditions, the design, installation and operation of the system were based on advantages gained from the digester as a component of the total farm management system. In addition to the biogas production, benefits related to manure handling and storage, environmental quality improvement through odor control and water pollution reduction, fertilizer recovery and water recycling, were considered. Results: The layout of the farm was modified to provide solutions for four environmental problems related to: disposal of milkhouse wastes and overflow from the manure storage facility into the fire pond. The system possesses high energy conversion efficiency at relatively low capital cost and reduced labour requirement and has indirect energy ramifications through the production of organic fertilizer (compost to replace expensive and energy consuming commercial fertilizer as well as the production of bioenergy (biogas which will reduce the demand for energy. The overflow from the system (purified water can be recycled for cleaning the barn, thereby reducing the costs of water use and manure storage facilities on one hand and eliminating pollution problems associated with manure storage and disposal on the other hand. Conclusion: The use of dairy waste as a source of energy and fertilizer resulted in a saving of 6289 kg of fertilizer at a cost of $17 925 annually and additional saving of $20 547 on energy use.

  3. Ventilation in medium-sized and large boiler houses; Ventilation i medelstora och stoerre pannhus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grotherus, Dan [AaF Installation AB, Oerebro (Sweden); Larsson, Tord [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Technology

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to exemplify and clarify the need for ventilation in medium-sized and large boiler houses. We will furthermore present some recommendations, guidelines and advice for the design and construction of a boiler house ventilation system to the plant owners and suppliers of equipment. Boiler house ventilation can be performed in different ways using mechanical or natural ventilation. The solution to be chosen depends on the following factors: Working environment requirements and a necessity to control temperature and pressure in the boiler house; The design of the boiler plant and house; The need for combustion air; The investment expenditure as well as operation and maintenance costs. Mechanical ventilation should be chosen if the aim is a controllable 'climate'. The mechanical ventilation can be either centrally situated or distributed with many aggregates in the boiler house. Centrally situated ventilation equipment will give a higher accessibility and lower maintenance costs than a distributed ventilation system. If the boiler house is designed with natural ventilation the air and flue gas fans will be the only ones installed. In this case temperature and pressure inside the boiler house will be difficult to control. The design factor for the ventilation plant in a boiler house is in most cases the demand to cool the air inside the boiler house to approximately 45 deg C. This is the highest temperature allowed by the Occupational Safety and Health Act in a work environment where the boiler operator is working alone. The air flow which is required for the combustion is normally less than the air flow needed to cool the air in the boiler house. The supply air which is cooling the air inside the boiler house should be supplied on several different levels to attain an efficient cooling. If the combustion air is taken from the heated indoor air the boiler house will work as a heat reclaimer. The difference between outdoor and indoor pressure in the lower part of the boiler house should not exceed approximately 40 Pa. This is to minimize problems with inleaking of odours and particles into the boiler house and to facilitate the evacuation of the staff from the boiler house. Issues concerning boiler house ventilation will appear in different stages at new construction and conversion projects. During the feasibility study the ventilation requirements are investigated and possible solutions are outlined. The planning stage involves the establishing of the ventilation requirements, technical solutions and the investment needs. Investment expenditure for the installation of a mechanized ventilation system varies depending on the size of the boiler, the choice of ventilation solution etc. Experiences from three recently built plants show that capital expenditure for the ventilation systems in these plants amounts to approximately SEK 140,000/MW (about 18,000 USD/MW) for a boiler effect of approximately 50 MW.

  4. Small, medium, large or supersize? The development and evaluation of interventions targeted at portion size

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeer, W. M.; Steenhuis, I. H. M.; Poelman, M. P.

    2014-01-01

    In the past decades, portion sizes of high-caloric foods and drinks have increased and can be considered an important environmental obesogenic factor. This paper describes a research project in which the feasibility and effectiveness of environmental interventions targeted at portion size was evaluated. The studies that we conducted revealed that portion size labeling, offering a larger variety of portion sizes, and proportional pricing (that is, a comparable price per unit regardless of the ...

  5. An empirical study on the effects of industrial clusters on small and medium enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Zeinab Armoun; MohammadAli Astanbous; Ahmad tavangar; Mojtaba Javidnia

    2012-01-01

    Tendency to industrial clustering at the end of the twentieth century was a turning point in industrial development programs in most countries of the world. Industrial clustering is a model of industrial organization, which has entered industrial literature as a new development strategy. Clustering has provided utilization of efficiencies of scale and aggregation as well as efficiencies of collective efforts by creating conditions for competitiveness advantage, economical growth and export de...

  6. Determinants of small and medium sized fast growing enterprises in central and eastern Europe: a panel data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Mateev

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the main determinants of growth in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs in central and eastern Europe. The important role played by SMEs in the economic development of central and eastern European (CEE countries has attracted the recent attention of academics and policymakers but remains relatively unexplored. Empirical research has suggested that firm growth is determined not only by the traditional characteristics of size and age but also by other firm-specific factors such as indebtedness, internal financing, future growth opportunities, process and product innovation, and organisational changes. Although growth in manufacturing and service SMEs in transition economies is well explained by the traditional firm characteristics of size and age, there is no empirical evidence concerning what other specific factors may be associated with SME growth and performance in these countries. Using a panel dataset of 560 fast growing small and medium enterprises from six transition economies we find that firm size when measured by firm total assets can explain to a large extent the growth in SMEs in these countries. When size is proxied by a firm’s number of employees the observed effect is marginal. Firm specific characteristics such as leverage, current liquidity, future growth opportunities, internally generated funds, and factor productivity are found to be important factors in determining a firm’s growth and performance. Age and ownership do not seem to be able to explain firm growth. The results of our empirical study have also some policy implications: we argue that governments in transition economies need to pay an increased attention to small and medium sized enterprises and try to create a business environment that will be beneficial for SME development.

  7. SUCCESS EVALUATION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES IN TERMS OF THEIR PARTICIPATION IN THE INTERNATIONALIZATION PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Lea, Kubi?c?kova?; Lenka, Procha?zkova?

    2012-01-01

    In context of discussionsabout the Czech foreign trade development, questions of the Czech enterprises’ability to participate in the internationalization processare often considered. The main aim of this article is to present various points of view on the globalization and enterprise internationalization processwith a special accent on the analysis of the specifics in the internationalization process of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Those enterprises represent a significant pa...

  8. Different determinants affecting managerial decision-making : The international expansion of medium-sized companies in the Italian food sector

    OpenAIRE

    Ferracin, Giorgia; Vega Mazzeo, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the influence that newspaper news and other determinants exercise on the decision-making of executives and hence on the expansion strategies and the performance of medium-sized companies in the Italian food sector. This sector is characterized by companies that have a turnover between 10 and 50 million Euros and, for the bigger ones in this range, around 100 and 200 employees. The use of interviews (questionnaires) and secondary data, combined with a news gathering pro...

  9. An investigation into the suitability of younger generation successors in small and medium-sized family businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Merwe, Stephanus Petrus

    2011-01-01

    This study highlighted the importance of the suitability of the younger generation family members in small and medium-sized family businesses to successfully manage the business after management succession. Data from 270 questionnaires linked to 77 family businesses were collected and analysed. An Oblimin oblique rotation was performed on the principal components of the exploratory factor analysis. Five factors with eigen-values greater than one, explaining 65,78% of the variance, were extrac...

  10. Inflation in Vietnam and its effects on small and medium sized enterprises : case: An Thinh Investment Private Company

    OpenAIRE

    Trinh Anh, Khoa

    2012-01-01

    This study is concerned with one of the most important issues of any economy, the inflation matter. In recent years, inflation in Vietnam has been under an upward trend. Inflation threatened Vietnamese economy twice within a short four year period. Not only the people but also enterprises are anxious about possible disadvantages caused by inflation. Among businesses, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are believed to suffer most severely from the escalation of prices. The biggest p...

  11. Collaborative e-Business Process Modelling: A Holistic Analysis Framework focused on Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Volker Hoyer; Oliver Christ

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we propose a holistic analysis framework for collaborative e-Business process modelling approaches that takes into account the specific challenges small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) are facing with regard to modelling inter-organizational processes. Based on concepts of the management approach Balanced Scorecard (BSC) four different perspectives are derived from empirical studies, conceptual research results and completed with modelling experiences of an EU-funded proje...

  12. Environmental education for small- and medium-sized enterprises: methodology and e-learning experience in the Valencian region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloquell-Ballester, Vicente-Agustín; Monterde-Díaz, Rafael; Cloquell-Ballester, Víctor-Andrés; Torres-Sibille, Ana Del Carmen

    2008-05-01

    The last decades have shown an increasing social demand for environmental awareness, which firms are inevitably required to adapt to. More and more, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are finding it necessary to train their staff in environmental issues if they wish to survive in a market where it is no longer sufficient to excel in price competitiveness exclusively, but where quality, service and environmental standards also play an important role. PMID:17395365

  13. Occupational Health and Safety(OHS) in Small and Medium Size Enterprises (SMEs): A Primary Review1 SANTE ET SECURITE

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ping-qing; Fang Liu; Chun-jing Gao

    2006-01-01


    Problems of occupational health and safety(OHS) in small and medium size enterprises(SMEs) in that mainly are private enterprises, are severe in China where as, the corresponding theoretical study are lagged behind regretfully. This paper summarizes the representative progress in this discipline simply. The exploratory results will be used to make an initial evaluation of SMEs needs, and will help orient future research.
    Key words: Occupational health and safety, Small...

  14. Management and organization problems of small and medium sized enterprise’s: a research on textile firms in Denizli

    OpenAIRE

    Celalettin Serinkan; Hasan Cabar

    2008-01-01

    Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SME) are important establishments for countries to evolve entrepreneurship, to refresh economy, to create employment, technological development and structural change. SME’s have to know and apply management and organization topics to continue their lifes in today’s circumstances. In today’s business environment that is intensified competition is lived, importance of investigating solution ways and taking necessary steps for management and organization...

  15. Investigation and Assessment of Critical Success Factors of Knowledge Management Implementation in Iranian Small-to-Medium Sized Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Changiz Valmohammadi

    2010-01-01

    Based on an in-depth review and comparative study of existing studies on Critical Success Factors (CSFs) of Knowledge Management (KM) and by considering the characteristics of small to medium sized enterprises (SMEs), twelve CSFs were identified, namely management leadership and support, organizational culture, information systems, KM strategy, performance measurement, organizational infrastructure, processes and activities, rewarding and motivation, training and education, removal of resourc...

  16. Product Related Environmental Work in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Thailand, Developing and Manufacturing Electrical and Electronic Products

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Fredrik

    2007-01-01

    Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Thailand that develop and manufacture electrical and electronic products are among other SMEs in the world meeting increasingly stringent legal and customer requirements related to environmental issues. Obstacles for the SMEs around the world to meet these requirements are almost the same in form of lack of knowledge, budget and resources. The differences between SMEs in Thailand and SMEs in the EU, Japan or even Korea are that these countries have...

  17. The role of small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) in the socio-economic stability of Karachi

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Javed; Herani, Gobind M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify the core constraints in financing of SMEs in Karachi that impede their growth and even undermine their liquidity and financial position. Literature review: The problems and constraints are faced by small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) in Karachi with regard to access to financing. Along with Karachi, the other cities and areas in Pakistan are facing alike problems. Methods: This study is exploratory in nature and includes quantitative and...

  18. Optimisation of fuel pin diameter for oxide and carbide fuels for a medium sized fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of fuel pin diameter on neutronic and economic performance of a medium sized fast reactor is analysed. Optimum fuel pin diameter and the corresponding minimum doubling time and fuel cycle costs are calculated both for oxide and carbide fuels. Consequence of fuel cycle data uncertainties on the above reactor performance parameters is also evaluated. Feasibility of change over from one pin diameter to another to suit the future conditions if required is discussed. (author)

  19. Means and ways to secure raw material supply - exemplified by a medium-sized exploration and mining company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urangesellschaft mbH (UG) is a medium-sized exploration and mining company. Activities to secure uranium supply have been undertaken since 1968. Besides exploration in the strict sense of the word, UG developed and carried out activities in project acquisition and new technologies with a view to securing raw materials supply. - The adjustment of these activities to market conditions as well as results are presented. (orig.)

  20. The Corporate Social Responsibility Model in Romania: A Theoretical and Practical Approach for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Irina-Eugenia Iamandi; Laura-Gabriela Constantin

    2011-01-01

    In the context of Romania’s accession to the European Union, theimplementation of corporate social responsibility (CSR) into day-to-day business decisions has become one of the main pillars of the economic and social development. Although CSR was initially considered an attribute of large companies, especially international and multinational ones, in the last years the importance of the concept application was also demonstrated for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). This particular ...

  1. An Empirical Study of IT Innovation Adoption Among Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Klang Valley, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Wenjie Zhao; Mohd Salleh, Noor A.; Sedigheh Moghavvemi; Fatemeh Hakimian

    2011-01-01

    Purpose—The purpose of this research is to use and validate the Entrepreneurial Event model as a base model to investigate SME owners’ perception toward IT innovation adoption and use. This paper also attempts to investigate the key determinants of the adoption of IT innovation among small and medium sized enterprises in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This study revised and validated the Entrepreneurial Event Model in a new context and tried to examine the effect of perceived desirability, prope...

  2. Electronic spectroscopy of medium-sized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Implications for the carriers of the 2175 {\\AA} UV bump

    CERN Document Server

    Steglich, M; Rouillé, G; Huisken, F; Mutschke, H; Henning, Th

    2010-01-01

    Mixtures of polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been produced by means of laser pyrolysis. The main fraction of the extracted PAHs were primarily medium-sized, up to a maximum size of 38 carbon atoms per molecule. The use of different extraction solvents and subsequent chromatographic fractionation provided mixtures of different size distributions. UV-VIS absorption spectra have been measured at low temperature by matrix isolation spectroscopy and at room temperature with PAHs as film-like deposits on transparent substrates. In accordance with semi-empirical calculations, our findings suggest that large PAHs with sizes around 50 to 60 carbon atoms per molecule could be responsible for the interstellar UV bump at 217.5 nm.

  3. Report: Maximizing recycling participation to reduce waste to landfill: a study of small to medium-sized enterprises in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Sam; Kriwoken, Lorne K

    2010-05-01

    Small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia face many barriers to recycling participation. This study first investigated the volumes and types of waste produced by SMEs. Significant barriers were then identified and key motivators to recycle examined. Using the Australia New Zealand Standard of Industrial Classification, stratified sampling of SMEs (n = 436) was undertaken. Inadequate storage space, paucity of readily available information on recycling services and the lack of staff allocated to sort and recycle were identified as major barriers. Cardboard, paper and plastic waste were produced in large volumes with only a small percentage being recycled and these were identified as target areas for local government. Recommendations include the appointment of a dedicated recycling officer to maximize recycling participation for the reduction of waste to landfill and to undertake further research on minimizing recycling costs. PMID:19423601

  4. Image Analysis of Pellet Size for a Control System in Industrial Feed Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungqvist, Martin Georg; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    2011-01-01

    When producing aquaculture fish feed pellets, the size of the output product is of immense importance. As the production method cannot produce pellets of constant and uniform size using constant machine settings, there is a demand for size control. Fish fed with feed pellets of improper size are prone to not grow as expected, which is undesirable to the aquaculture industry. In this paper an image analysis method is proposed for automatic size-monitoring of pellets. This is called granulometry and the method used here is based on the mathematical morphological opening operation. In the proposed method, no image object segmentation is needed. The results show that it is possible to extract a general size distribution from an image of piled disordered pellets representing both length and diameter of the pellets in combination as an area.

  5. Methodologies and Decision Criteria for Demonstrating Competitiveness of Small and Medium Sized Reactors - Present Value Capital Cost Model. Annex VIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smaller size reactors are required to fulfil the growing energy needs of developing countries and emerging markets, as well as niche markets in developed countries. Grid appropriate reactors have been identified within the United States Department of Energy Global Nuclear Energy Partnership initiative as one of the key elements required to enable worldwide expansion of the peaceful use of nuclear power. In a speech at a conference in Algiers on 9 January 2007, the former IAEA Director General, Mohamed El Baradei, discussed the interest in new small and medium-size reactor designs which allow a more incremental investment than is required for a big reactor, and provide a better match to grid capacity in many developing countries'. Smaller size reactors (IAEA defines as 'small' those reactors with a power <300 MW(e) and 'medium' with a power <700 MW(e)) are the logical choice for smaller countries or those with a limited electrical grid. In fact, smaller reactors are now in different stages of development throughout the world, and interest in their deployment has also been expressed. With regards to decisions on the addition of power plant capacity, small reactors have many attractive characteristics, namely size, simplicity, enhanced safety, cost savings and lower financial resource requirements. On the downside, the specific costs of some components and systems of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) may be higher as a result of economy of scale effects. This annex explores some of the factors affecting decisions on power plant capacity addition in world markets, focusing particularly on many of the characteristics of SMRs

  6. Strategy Analysis of Real Estate Company Property Development in Medium Size City in China

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Yiping

    2011-01-01

    Real estate industry is a new economic growth point and main industry in Chinese gross domestic product nowadays. This paper analyzes the trend of Chinese real estate market development to help investors to understand the current situation of Chinese real estate markets and policies better, so as to make better real estate investment decisions in China in the future. Because of oversaturated with investment and higher cost of investment there are more and more limitations in investing in big ...

  7. A qualitative study of pandemic influenza preparedness among small and medium-sized businesses in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Deron C; Confield, Evan; Gasner, Mary Rose; Weisfuse, Isaac

    2011-10-01

    Small businesses need to engage in continuity planning to assure delivery of goods and services and to sustain the economy during an influenza pandemic. This is especially true in New York City, where 98 per cent of businesses have fewer than 100 employees. It was an objective therefore, to determine pandemic influenza business continuity practices and strategies suitable for small and medium-sized NYC businesses. The study design used focus groups, and the participants were owners and managers of businesses with fewer than 500 employees in New York City. The main outcome measures looked for were the degree of pandemic preparedness, and the feasibility of currently proposed business continuity strategies. Most participants reported that their businesses had no pandemic influenza plan. Agreement with feasibility of specific business continuity strategies was influenced by the type of business represented, cost of the strategy, and business size. It was concluded that recommendations for pandemic-related business continuity plans for small and medium-sized businesses should be tailored to the type and size of business and should highlight the broad utility of the proposed strategies to address a range of business stressors. PMID:22308579

  8. Explaining Internationalisation of Small to Medium Sized Enterprises within the Queensland Food and Beverage Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell Spowart; Rumintha Wickramasekera

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of International New Ventures (INVs) has increased during the past twenty years. Nevertheless,to date there has been no general consensus within the literature on an explanation as to the rapid internationalisation of some firms. Do they follow a similar process to other firms that internationalise based ona more ‘measured’ incremental sequential process of internationalisation. This paper proposes and tests an innovation diffusion model of the internationalisation of small...

  9. Rapid preparation of ceramic moulds for medium-sized superalloy castings with magnesia-phosphate-bonded bauxite-mullite investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tingzhong

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate-bonded investments have already been widely utilized in dental restoration and micro-casting of artistic products for its outstanding rapid setting and high strength. However, the rapid setting rate of investment slurry has up to now been a barrier to extend the use of such slurry in preparation of medium-sized ceramic moulds. This paper proposes a new process of rapid fabrication of magnesia-phosphate-bonded investment ceramic moulds for medium-sized superalloy castings utilizing bauxite and mullite as refractory aggregates. In order to determine the properties of magnesia-phosphate-bonded bauxite-mullite investments (MPBBMI, a series of experiments were conducted, including modification of the workable time of slurry by liquid(mL/powder(g(L/P ratio and addition of boric acid as retard agent and sodium tri-polyphosphate (STP as strengthening agent, and adjustment of bauxite (g/mullite(g(B/M ratio for mechanical strength. Mechanical vibration was applied to improve initial setting time and fluidity when pouring investment slurry; then an intermediate size ceramic mould for superalloy castings was manufactured by means of this rapid preparing process with MPBBMI material. The results showed that the MPBBMI slurry exhibits proper initial setting time and excellent fluidity when the L/P ratio is 0.64 and the boric acid content is 0.88wt.%. The fired specimens made from the MPBBMI material demonstrated adequate compression strength to withstand impact force of molten metal when the B/M ratio is 0.89 and the STP content is 0.92wt.%. The experimental results confirmed the feasibility of the proposed rapid fabricating process for medium-sized ceramic moulds with MPBBMI material by appropriate measures.

  10. The internalization of small and medium-sized enterprises in the viticulture

    OpenAIRE

    Kubi?c?kova?, Lea; Peprny?, Ales?

    2011-01-01

    Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are an important part of the Czech economy, they significantly contribute to job and GDP creation, they are a source of innovation and technological progress. The paper is focused on the internationalization of SMEs, specifically in the wine, which is a specific sector, which is closely linked to specific area and is a significant subject of natural and climatic conditions. The authors focused on the specification of the most important aspects of the intern...

  11. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Financing: A Review of Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulsaleh, Abdulaziz M.; Worthington, Andrew C.

    2013-01-01

    There is no doubt that access to finance is of crucial importance for the ongoing and sustainable growth andprofitability of small and medium enterprises sector (SMEs) through its role in facilitating the creation of newbusinesses and nurturing the innovation process as well as promoting the growth and development of existingbusinesses, which in turn, boost national economic growth. The main motive of this paper is that SMEssignificantly differ from large firms in terms of their financial dec...

  12. Increasing Returns to Scale, Dynamics of Industrial Structure and Size Distribution of Firms

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Y; Di, Z; Fan, Ying; Li, Menghui; Di, Zengru

    2004-01-01

    A model is presented of the market dynamics to emphasis the effects of increasing returns to scale, including the description of the born and death of the adaptive producers. The evolution of market structure and its behavior with the technological shocks are discussed. Its dynamics is in good agreement with some empirical stylized facts of industrial evolution. Together with the diversities of demand and adaptive growth strategies of firms, the generalized model has reproduced the power-law distribution of firm size. Three factors mainly determine the competitive dynamics and the skewed size distributions of firms: 1. Self-reinforcing mechanism; 2. Adaptive firm grows strategies; 3. Demand diversities or widespread heterogeneity in the technological capabilities of different firms. Key words: Econophysics, Increasing returns, Industry dynamics, Size distribution of firms

  13. Examination of Theoretical and Empirical Studies on Firm’s Performance in Relation to its’ Board Size: A Study of Small and Medium Size Public Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibran Sheikh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This research presented a review of key theoretical and empirical studies on firm’s performance and its board size.  The review included on small & medium sized and public owned firms from manufacturing to financial sectors.  The research concludes that the evidence on positive or negative correlation between board size and a firm’s performance is mixed (inconclusive and need for further empirical investigation on this subject is warranted.  It was found that the choice of optimal board size can vary in one firm to other, depending on nature of business operations, i.e. for high debt-financed firms with high advisory requirements may require large board to advise CEO on complex matters, as does the banking and saving & loans holding companies where more of expert advice, diversified opinions, professional skills are needed.  Also, the firms with poor operating performance may increase their board size as one of their strategy to improve profitability given that new board members will contribute in the form of increased networking, skills, opinion and expert advice. 

  14. Analyzing the efficiency of small and medium-sized enterprises of a national technology innovation research and development program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungmin

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the efficiency of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) of a national technology innovation research and development (R&D) program. In particular, an empirical analysis is presented that aims to answer the following question: "Is there a difference in the efficiency between R&D collaboration types and between government R&D subsidy sizes?" Methodologically, the efficiency of a government-sponsored R&D project (i.e., GSP) is measured by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), and a nonparametric analysis of variance method, the Kruskal-Wallis (KW) test is adopted to see if the efficiency differences between R&D collaboration types and between government R&D subsidy sizes are statistically significant. This study's major findings are as follows. First, contrary to our hypothesis, when we controlled the influence of government R&D subsidy size, there was no statistically significant difference in the efficiency between R&D collaboration types. However, the R&D collaboration type, "SME-University-Laboratory" Joint-Venture was superior to the others, achieving the largest median and the smallest interquartile range of DEA efficiency scores. Second, the differences in the efficiency were statistically significant between government R&D subsidy sizes, and the phenomenon of diseconomies of scale was identified on the whole. As the government R&D subsidy size increases, the central measures of DEA efficiency scores were reduced, but the dispersion measures rather tended to get larger. PMID:25120949

  15. Effect of Basal Medium, Explants Size and Density on the In Vitro Proliferation and Growth of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Cultivar ‘16-bis’

    OpenAIRE

    Mazri, Mouaad Amine

    2013-01-01

    The effect of basal medium, explant size and density on shoot multiplication, growth, rooting and acclimatization of date palm cv. ‘16-bis’ was evaluated. Bud clusters of different sizes (2, 3, 4 and 5 buds per cluster) were cultured at density of 1, 2, 3 and 4 clusters on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS), woody plant medium (WPM) and Nitsch medium (NM) supplemented with 0.5 mg/L 2-naphthoxyacetic acid and 0.5 mg/L kinetin for three months (multiplication phase). Separated shoots of differ...

  16. Simulation of Supply-Chain Networks: A Source of Innovation and Competitive Advantage for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Liotta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available On a daily basis, enterprises of all sizes cope with the turbulence and volatility of market demands, cost variability, and severe pressure from globally distributed competitors. Managing uncertainty about future demand requirements and volumes in supply-chain networks has become a priority. One of the ways to deal with uncertainty is the utilization of simulation techniques and tools, which provide greater predictability of decision-making outcomes. For example, simulation has been widely applied in decision-making processes related to global logistics and production networks at the strategic, tactical, and operational levels, where it is used to predict the impact of decisions before their implementation in complex and uncertain environments. Large enterprises are inclined to use simulation tools whereas small and medium-sized enterprises seem to underestimate its advantages. The objective of this article is to emphasize the relevance of simulation for the design and management of supply-chain networks from the perspective of small and medium-sized firms.

  17. Small and medium-sized hydropower projects in competitive markets: the case of Rio Piedras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article describes the case of the Rio Piedras Hydropower Project, a first private hydropower generation initiative in Colombia, within the new regulatory framework for the provision of public services and electric generation under laws 142 and 143, passed in 1994. Reference is made in this article to the background and characteristics of the Project, and some obstacles, challenges and risks encountered are described, as well as the way in which they are being controlled. The investment and commercialization modules developed in analyzing the project are also presented. Finally, some reflections are given as to the medium and long term prospects for electric generation projects in Colombia. (The author)

  18. Top management and the adoption of energy efficiency practices: Evidence from small and medium-sized manufacturing firms in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriers to energy efficiency have been extensively discussed in the energy literature, but little is known about positive drivers. This paper investigates the role of top managers and more specifically of top operations managers on the adoption of energy-efficiency practices, based on 5779 energy efficiency recommendations made to 752 small and medium-sized manufacturing firms under the US Department of Energy's IACs (Industrial Assessment Centers) Program, through which teams of students and faculty from engineering schools provide free energy assessments. Top operations managers possess knowledge of production processes, for maximizing the effective manufacture and distribution of goods. We find that their involvement significantly increases the adoption of energy-efficiency initiatives, while involvement of general top managers without an operational role has little or no effect. Involvement of top operations managers increases the percentage of recommended energy savings that are implemented by 13.4% on average and increases the probability of adoption of more disruptive individual recommendations related to process and equipment change from 31% to 44%. Our findings imply that, in order to advance energy efficiency in SMEs (Small and Medium Enterprises), it may be advisable to target managers who are sufficiently senior but still in a clearly operationally-focused position. - Highlights: • We examine how top managers influence the adoption of energy-efficiency practices. • Top operations managers implement 13.4% more of recommended savings. • Involvement of top managers without an operational role has little or no effect. • Top operations managers enhance adoption of recommendations that are disruptive

  19. Critical Factors of E-SCM Adoption on Small and Medium Sized Enterprises Performance: An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    She-I Chang

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the gradual importance of e-Supply Chain Management (e-SCM to the Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs in Taiwan, this research intended to explore the critical factors which allowed the Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Taiwan to employ e-SCM. The research further studied that under these critical factors, how the adoption of e-SCM affected their organizational achievements. In this research, the researcher organized the related literature according to Grounded Theory and by distributing the questionnaires to the experts; the researcher initially confirmed the aspects and variables which affected Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises’ adoption of e-SCM. Subsequently, the researcher distributed the enterprise questionnaire to the companies of automobile parts, explored the critical factors and the influence of the variables under each aspect upon the organizational effect through regression analysis. Via Discriminant analysis, the research found that “supporting capacity of system supplier”, “relative advantage of e-SCM”, “organizational scale”, “fundamental construction of interior informational technology” were the critical factors which affected SMEs’ application of e-SCM. Upon the regression analysis, the research found that employing e-SCM when the system suppliers’ supporting capacity was better and when e-SCM brought better benefits to the enterprise would prominently upgrade organizational effect. The research finding can be the reference for the SMEs when they apply new information technology in the future, offer the related units government the suggestion for establishing guiding and regulation and allow the system suppliers to propose more appropriate products and service.

  20. An empirical study on the effects of industrial clusters on small and medium enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Armoun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tendency to industrial clustering at the end of the twentieth century was a turning point in industrial development programs in most countries of the world. Industrial clustering is a model of industrial organization, which has entered industrial literature as a new development strategy. Clustering has provided utilization of efficiencies of scale and aggregation as well as efficiencies of collective efforts by creating conditions for competitiveness advantage, economical growth and export development in the international environment. Today, industrial clustering has been considered as a fundamental strategy for economic development and growth in almost all countries of the world including Iran. This paper aims to assess and to explain important factors affecting the competitiveness of industrial clusters. It also shows the relationship among these factors together. The proposed study uses fuzzy DEMATEL technique; hence, the affecting factors of competitiveness of industrial clusters in the automotive cluster in one of the provinces of Iran is investigated and the importance of each of these factors and their relationships are identified.

  1. Analysis of passive shutdown capability for a loss of flow accident in a medium sized liquid metal fast breeder reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, O.P.; Harish, R.; Ponpandi, S.; Bhaskar Rao, P.; Shankar Singh, R. (Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India))

    1994-03-01

    The passive shutdown capability of a medium sized (500 MWe) liquid-metal fast breeder reactor with oxide, carbide and metal fuels has been analysed for a loss of flow accident using static and dynamic analysis methods. The carbide fuel is assumed to be He-bonded as well as Na-bonded. The dependence of the passive safety on the flow halving time constant of the loss of flow incident and the feedback components, like radial core expansion due to subassembly spacer pad heating and differential control rod expansion due to heating of the control rod suspension mechanism, is highlighted. (author).

  2. Cosecretion of Chaperones and Low-Molecular-Size Medium Additives Increases the Yield of Recombinant Disulfide-Bridged Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Scha?ffner, Jo?rg; Winter, Jeannette; Rudolph, Rainer; Schwarz, Elisabeth

    2001-01-01

    Attempts were made to engineer the periplasm of Escherichia coli to an expression compartment of heterologous proteins in their native conformation. As a first approach the low-molecular-size additive l-arginine and the redox compound glutathione (GSH) were added to the culture medium. Addition of 0.4 M l-arginine and 5 mM reduced GSH increased the yield of a native tissue-type plasminogen activator variant (rPA), consisting of the kringle-2 and the protease domain, and a single-chain antibod...

  3. THE LIMITS OF THE EXTENDED HÜCKEL THEORY TO CALCULATE THE TOTAL DENSITY OF STATES OF MEDIUM-SIZED MOLECULES

    OpenAIRE

    JUAN SEBASTIÁN GÓMEZ-JERIA

    2006-01-01

    Two medium-sized molecular systems X60 (X=C,N) were analyzed using Extended Hückel, Density Functional and ab initio Hartree-Fock methods. The aim of the work was to test the reliability of the EHT methodology to calculate the total Density of States distribution curve. The Extended Hückel method is only reliable in the cases of the first valence and conduction bands of these systems. For the rest of the Density of States distribution curve EHT performs badly. The sources of error of EHT, c...

  4. Small- and medium-sized enterprises in cross-border networks: Empirical evidence from the Pearl River Delta

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Klaus-dieter

    1997-01-01

    The Pearl River Delta is one of the most successful cases of economic re-integration after a long period of separation. Hong Kong's traditional policy of non-interventionism and China's open-door policy have induced a rapid increase in cross-border trade, outward processing and outward investment. The paper focuses on the different modes of integration as well as on the driving forces behind. It argues that small- and medium- sized enterprises have played the pivotal role in the Delta's econo...

  5. Cooling rate and size effects on the medium-range structure of multicomponent oxide glasses simulated by molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the effect of cooling rate and system size on the medium-range structure of melt-derived multicomponent silicate glasses, represented by the quaternary 45S5 Bioglass composition. Given the significant impact of the glass degradation on applications of these materials in biomedicine and nuclear waste disposal, bulk structural features which directly affect the glass dissolution process are of particular interest. Connectivity of the silicate matrix, ion clustering and nanosegregation, distribution of ring and chain structural patterns represent critical features in this context, which can be directly extracted from the models. A key issue is represented by the effect of the computational approach on the corresponding glass models, especially in light of recent indications questioning the suitability of conventional MD approaches (that is, involving melt-and-quench of systems containing ?103 atoms at cooling rates of 5-10 K/ps) when applied to model these glasses. The analysis presented here compares MD models obtained with conventional and nonconventional cooling rates and system sizes, highlighting the trend and range of convergence of specific structural features in the medium range. The present results show that time-consuming computational approaches involving much lower cooling rates and/or significantly larger system sizes are in most cases not necessary in order to obtain a reliable description of the medium-range structure of multicomponent glasses. We identify the convergence range for specific properties and use them to discuss models of several glass compositions for which a possible influence of cooling-rate or size effects had been previously hypothesized. The trends highlighted here represent an important reference to obtain reliable models of multicomponent glasses and extract converged medium-range structural features which affect the glass degradation and thus their application in different fields. In addition, as a first application of the present findings, the fully converged structure of the 45S5 glass was further analyzed to shed new light on several dissolution-related features whose interpretation has been rather controversial in the past

  6. Synthesis, antimicrobial activity and molecular docking of novel tetracyclic scaffolds incorporating a flavonoid framework with medium sized oxygen heterocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongamanti, Ashok; Aamate, Vikas Kumar; Devulapally, Mohan Gandhi; Gundu, Srinivas; Kotni, Meena Kumari; Manga, Vijjulatha; Balasubramanian, Sridhar; Ernala, Prasad

    2015-02-15

    A convenient approach for the synthesis of novel tetracyclic scaffolds incorporating a flavonoid framework with medium sized heterocyclic rings (eight-, nine-, ten- and eleven-membered rings) containing two oxygen atoms from flavonols through alkylation using different dibromoalkanes was described. The synthesized compounds were established based on the spectral data and X-ray crystal structure for 6c. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activity. Docking studies were carried out for most active two compounds 6f and 6i. PMID:25592711

  7. Corporate Social Responsibility in Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in Nigeria: An Example from the Hotel Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eme Joel Efiong

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility (CSR is the promise by business organizations to behave in a way that is ethicallyacceptable and at the same time contributing to the economic development and improvement of the livingconditions of the employees, the catchment community and the larger society. Small and medium scale enterprises(SMEs can serve as the engine room for corporate social responsibility in developing countries, like Nigeria, sincea high proportion of economic activity is generated through them. Hotel industry, belonging to this group hasexpanded rapidly since the return to democratic rule in 1999 primarily due to government s interest in tourismdevelopment. Such expansion of the hotel industry calls for an enquiry into how socially responsible its activitiesare. Hence, this study explored the corporate social responsibility of the hotel industry in Nigeria. Primarily, thestudy made use of quantitative data obtained though questionnaire administered on the management officers inthese hotels. It was found out that corporate social responsibility practices are minimal and at an informal level. Itis recommended that corporate social responsibility should be embraced by the small and medium scale enterprisesin order to fast track the country’s overall development.

  8. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Financing: A Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz M. Abdulsaleh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that access to finance is of crucial importance for the ongoing and sustainable growth andprofitability of small and medium enterprises sector (SMEs through its role in facilitating the creation of newbusinesses and nurturing the innovation process as well as promoting the growth and development of existingbusinesses, which in turn, boost national economic growth. The main motive of this paper is that SMEssignificantly differ from large firms in terms of their financial decisions and behaviour. Hence, the purpose ofthis paper is to review the literature on the various financing sources of SMEs taking into account the effects ofboth SME characteristics and those of the owner–managers on SME financial behaviour.

  9. Design propositions for top reflectors in high temperature gas cooled reactors of medium size, based on the HTR-500

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several concepts for top reflectors in medium size high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGCR's) are investigated. The HTR-500 serves as an example for reactors of this size. The main concern of the investigation is structural strength at high temperatures. The conventional design contains metallic structural parts which are not stable at very high temperatures and might fail during hypothetical accidents. The failing of the support structure would cause the top reflector to fall down on top of the pebble bed core. Closer to the core, it would be more effective, thus it would lead to an increase in reactivity. The thesis contains the results of calculations for two different concepts, one of them being an arch construction, the other one a beam construction. The feasibility of both concepts is evaluated regarding their respective mechanical properties. The arch-based construction shows advantages in its safety and it is easier to build under the given conditions. (orig.)

  10. Radioactive waste industrial management in France for medium- and long-term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The context within which the industrial scale management of radioactive wastes takes place is briefly outlined. The regulations already in force or envisaged in France in this field are exposed. Emphasis is given to the activities of the National Agency for the management of radioactive wastes (ANDRA). The reasons why this organization was created are discussed together with the type of work conferred to it, its present workload, the industrial management concepts it applies, its present and future potential, the costs envisaged for waste disposal and the financial solutions adopted. The industrial technical assistance policy of ANDRA is presented

  11. Sizing and dynamic analyses of a micro-grid supplying a harbor industrial area

    OpenAIRE

    Kreckelbergh, Stephane; Vechiu, Ionel

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the first results of the OptimaGRID project which focuses on the design of a microgrid used for industrial area, namely the Tarnos area of the Bayonne harbor. The objective is to size the electrical sources of the micro-grid according with the harbor needs and test its dynamic operation. For these analyses, HOMER® and EUROSTAG® software have been used.

  12. Phospholipid Metabolism in an Industry Microalga Chlorella sorokiniana: The Impact of Inoculum Sizes

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Shuhuan; Wang, Jiangxin; Ma, Qian; Yang, Jie; Li, Xia; Yuan, Ying-jin

    2013-01-01

    Chlorella sorokiniana is an important industry microalga potential for biofuel production. Inoculum size is one of the important factors in algal large-scale culture, and has great effects on the growth, lipid accumulation and metabolism of microalgae. As the first barrier of cell contents, membrane plays a vital role in algal inoculum-related metabolism. The knowledge of phospholipids, the main membrane component and high accumulation of phospholipids as the major content of total lipids mas...

  13. Oestrogenicity and chemical target analysis of water from small-sized industries in Pretoria, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mahomed, Shenaaz Ismail; Voyi, Kuku V. V.; Aneck-hahn, Natalie H.; Jager, Christiaan

    2008-01-01

    Increasing concern about endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and their effects on humans, animals and the environment resulted in this study being conducted. Water from 7 sites in the Pretoria West area (South Africa), with significant numbers of small-sized industries, was screened for oestrogenicity, using the Recombinant Yeast Cell Bioassay (RCBA). Target chemical analyses were carried out to establish the presence of EDCs, including p-nonylphenol (p-NP), bisphenol A (BPA), phthalate est...

  14. Influence of grain size on chalcopyrite ore leaching in acidic medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. ANTONIJEVIC

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an investigation of column leaching of a chalcopyrite ore using sulphuric acid where dissolved oxygen and iron(III ions play the role of oxidants. The investigations were carried out in PVC columns, diameter 110 mm and height 1000 mm, by percolation of the leaching solution through the ore layer. The influence of ore grain size on the degree of leaching and acid consumption was examined. The formation of gypsum on limestone results in the comminution of the initial raw material during leaching. The grain size of chalcopyrite was found to have no important influence on the leaching rate of copper. A higher consumption of sulphuric acid was found for the fractions (–3+1 mm, (?5+0 mm and (?5+3 mm than for the fractions (?10+5 mm, (?20+10 mm and (?20+0 mm.

  15. Culture medium optimization of ?-amylase producing organism Mocur spp. using the variable size-simplex algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Vahidi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of different culture conditions on growth and production of amylase by Mucor sp, using the variable size - simplex design, was investigated. The results showed that the optimum condition are pH of 5.5 -7, temperature of 23.8- 25 oC, shaking rate of 126 -155 rpm, starch at the concentration of 5.6 - 8 g/L and arginin at the concentration of 4.3 - 5.7 g/L.

  16. Rapid spontaneous closure and remodelling of a medium-sized symptomatic congenital coronary artery fistula in an infant before the age of 3 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen-Hsien; Huang, Ta-Cheng; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng

    2015-04-01

    It is controversial to observe or close symptomatic congenital coronary artery fistula in infants. We herein describe a medium-sized symptomatic congenital coronary artery fistula that underwent rapid spontaneous closure in an infant aged <3 months. PMID:24955570

  17. Effect of Basal Medium, Explants Size and Density on the In Vitro Proliferation and Growth of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. Cultivar ‘16-bis’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouaad Amine MAZRI

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of basal medium, explant size and density on shoot multiplication, growth, rooting and acclimatization of date palm cv. ‘16-bis’ was evaluated. Bud clusters of different sizes (2, 3, 4 and 5 buds per cluster were cultured at density of 1, 2, 3 and 4 clusters on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS, woody plant medium (WPM and Nitsch medium (NM supplemented with 0.5 mg/L 2-naphthoxyacetic acid and 0.5 mg/L kinetin for three months (multiplication phase. Separated shoots of different sizes (<3 cm; 3 to 4.5 cm and 4.5 to 6 cm were cultured at density of 1, 2, 3 and 4 shoots on hormone free MS medium, WPM or NM for three months (Elongation-rooting phase. The proliferation and development of shoots were affected by the basal medium, explant size and density. The optimal shoot proliferation (18.1 was observed when 4 buds clusters were cultured at the density of 2 clusters per jar in MS medium. Separated shoots of 4.5 to 6 cm length exhibited the optimal in vitro development in terms of leaf length and greening, and root number and length when cultured on MS medium. In addition, these shoots reached the highest acclimation frequency with 80%. Our results would be utilized for an efficient propagation of plantlets of cv. ‘16-bis’, a selected date palm cultivar resistant to the bayoud disease.

  18. The Role of Knowledge Management in Enhancing the Competitiveness of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A. Alawneh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge is one of the enterprise’s most important assets that influence its competitiveness. One way to capture an enterprise’s knowledge and make it available to all its members is through the use of knowledge management practices. This paper discusses the importance of knowledge management (KM in Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs and presents a framework to deal with knowledge management in order to enhance their competitiveness. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs are known for too much implicit knowledge, limited resources, insufficiently shared between managers and other employees. So, in the context of SMEs, KM can be used to capture knowledge and experience generated during their operations, activities, and processes. This research paper addresses a new way of thinking about the role of KM in SMEs through developing a framework that combines five phases of the KM lifecycle (capture, creation, codification, communication, and capitalization. This framework is called “A Five C’s Knowledge Management Framework”. The application of this framework will improve the success rate and competitiveness of SMEs.

  19. How to Improve Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Profitability by Practicing an Efficient Human Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio GARCÍA SÁNCHEZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In The European Union’s country members, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs play an essential role in economic life, having special features that make adaptation process to the contemporary economy easier. Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs are the most dynamic and vital factor of progress in the contemporary society, main generator of economic performance and substance in any country, employment opportunity provider for most of population, major contributor to the national budget, and engine to improve the living standard of the population. SMEs represent 99% from all enterprises, drawing up the main human resources aglomeration. In the contemporary economic context, SMEs should act as learning entities, by developing the most important resources they own: the human resources. Human resource development (HRD has gained a permanent role within SMEs, agencies and nations, increasingly not only as an academic discipline, but as a central theme in development area. Being a combination of training and education, in a broad context of adequate human resource policies, HRD ensures the continual improvement and growth of both individual and organization.

  20. Effect of sodium nitrite-borax blend on the corrosion rate of low carbon steel in industrial water medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of sodium nitrite-borax blend on low carbon steel corrosion in industrial water medium at various temperatures, various inhibitors concentration of sodium nitrite and borax and at various rotational speeds of the specimens have been studied by gravimetric and polarization measurements. Optimization of the three variables was made and correlating the results obtained by using Box-Wilson statistical method. The process was considered as adsorption of inhibitor ions in oxide layer which form a passive film on the metal surface. The Langmuir isotherm was found to be the best description for the adsorption process. Thermodynamic parameters were evaluated and discussed

  1. An Empirical Study of IT Innovation Adoption Among Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Klang Valley, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Zhao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—The purpose of this research is to use and validate the Entrepreneurial Event model as a base model to investigate SME owners’ perception toward IT innovation adoption and use. This paper also attempts to investigate the key determinants of the adoption of IT innovation among small and medium sized enterprises in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This study revised and validated the Entrepreneurial Event Model in a new context and tried to examine the effect of perceived desirability, propensity to act and performance expectancy on behavior intention to adopt and use IT innovation in SMEs companies.Design/ methodology/ approach—Based on the research model the questionnaire was developed using previous work in the areas of entrepreneurship (Entrepreneurial Event Model and technology acceptance (UTAUT. The data used to test the hypothesis is collectedfrom various spectrums of Malaysian industries in Kuala Lumpur. A total of 1,000 businesses were identified and 412 completed questionnaires were available in this study. The research model was applied using the structural equation modelling technique.Finding—The results of this study indicated that perceived desirability, propensity to act and performance expectancy have a significant positive influence on behavioral intention, and explained a significant amount of the variance in predicting a SMEs owners intention to adopt IT innovation. Propensity to act is the strongest determinant of intention to use IT innovations among Malaysian SME owners follow by perceived desirability and performance expectancy. The results suggest that attractiveness of IT innovation is an important determinant towards the intention to adopt IT innovation. The result revealed that SME owners are more willing to use IT innovation, which is more attractive. Perceived usefulness (performance expectancy of IT innovation is the third most important factor that SME owners consider when they want to adopt and use new technology in their jobs. The results also revealed that experience moderated the relationship between determinants and behavior intention.Research Limitations/implications—The number of male and female SMEsowners is not equal and our respondents were mostly men compared to women. This study measure intention to use IT innovation, and did not measure use behavior.Practical implications—This study extends to knowledge on IS adoption behavior research by using entrepreneurial event models in the context of technology acceptance.Furthermore, from the SME owners’ points of view, this study has shed some light on the adoption and use behavior and clarified the situation for SME owners when they want to adopt and use IT innovation to be successful in their job and market.Originality/value—This study is one of the first to utilize the Entrepreneurial Event Model (EPM to the technology acceptance domain. It also provides a broader view of the IT innovation adoption decision and sheds some additional light on individual technology usage behavior.

  2. Evaluation of the Decree on Emission Regulations for Medium-sized Combustion Installations; Evaluatie Besluit emissie-eisen middelgrote stookinstallaties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroon, P.; Plomp, A.J. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Van Berkel, L.; Burgers, W.; Hermans, L.; Groot, M.; Simonse, W. [Kenniscentrum InfoMil, Rijkswaterstaat Water, Verkeer en Leefomgeving, Den Haag (Netherlands); Kruithof, P.; Taal, M.; Van Bergen, J.; Walthaus, H. [Ministerie van Infrastructuur en Milieu IenM, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    In April 2010 the Dutch decree on emission limit values (ELVs) on medium-sized combustion installations entered into force. Bems sets ELVs for NOx, SO2, PM and CxHy. In 2013 the Bems legislation was transferred to the Activities Decree (In Dutch: Ab - Activiteitenbesluit). At the same time the Industrial Emissions Directive (IED) was implemented in the Ab. At the time Bems entered into force, it was decided to evaluate this legislation in 2014. Due to incorporation of Bems and the implementation of the IED in the Ab, it was decided to perform this evaluation a year earlier, thereby enabling the consideration of several stakeholders' comments on these implementations. This report presents the main conclusions of this evaluation. In Bems, combustion installations smaller than 50 MWth have to comply with ELVs based on Best Available Technology (BAT). Five possible ELVs have been discussed but not implemented in Bems, due to a lack of knowledge. These ELVs have been included in this evaluation. For gas engines < 2.5 MWth the NOx ELV could be more stringent, namely 140 mg/Nm{sup 3} instead of 340 mg/Nm{sup 3}; all ELVs are set at dry conditions in the flue gas and 3% O2. For biogas engines, introduction of the same ELV might be postponed until a comparable ELV enters into force in 2016 in a Californian region. Both the Californian ELV and this ELV need a gas cleaning technology. For (bio)diesel engines the dust ELV could be more stringent, namely 15 mg PM/Nm{sup 3} instead of 50 mg PM/Nm{sup 3}, while for NOx the ELV can be tightened from 450 mg/Nm{sup 3} to 250 mg/Nm{sup 3}. Both ELVs may be postponed until Tier 4 limits in the USA enter into force in the period 2014-2017. The Netherlands is one of the very few countries with CxHy ELVs for gas engines. The current CxHy ELV of 1500 mg C/Nm{sup 3} may be tightened to 1200 mg C/Nm{sup 3}. Other issues and changes, directly related to the Dutch legislation, have been discussed as well. These include exemption rules for installations running less than 500 full-load hours per year and the reintroduction of an inspection prior to commissioning. Moreover, maximum ELVs for furnaces <50 MWth of 80 mg NOx/Nm{sup 3} for gas firing and 120 mg NOx/Nm{sup 3} for oil firing have been discussed. As a result of this evaluation, the Ab has been changed; for example, ELVs for combustion of non-standard fuels are now set by the licensing authority. Finally, several chapters in this report are devoted to biomass firing and potential restrictions of ELVs for new installations [Dutch] Dit rapport betreft een evaluatie van het Besluit emissie-eisen middelgrote stookinstallaties milieubeheer (Bems). Het besluit geeft milieuregels voor bedrijven die energie (warmte, elektriciteit, mechanische energie) opwekken door het verbranden van brandstoffen in stookinstallaties, zoals verwarmingsketels, motoren en gasturbines.

  3. An Empirical Study of IT Innovation Adoption Among Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Klang Valley, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Moghavvemi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—The purpose of this research is to use and validate the Entrepreneurial Event model as a base model to investigate SME owners’ perception toward IT innovation adoption and use. This paper also attempts to investigate the key determinants of the adoption of IT innovation among small and medium sized enterprises in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This study revised and validated the Entrepreneurial Event Model in a new context and tried to examine the effect of perceived desirability, propensity to act and performance expectancy on behavior intention to adopt and use IT innovation in SMEs companies. Design/ methodology/ approach—Based on the research model the questionnaire was developed using previous work in the areas of entrepreneurship (Entrepreneurial Event Model and technology acceptance (UTAUT. The data used to test the hypothesis is collected from various spectrums of Malaysian industries in Kuala Lumpur. A total of 1,000 businesses were identified and 412 completed questionnaires were available in this study. The research model was applied using the structural equation modelling technique. Finding—The results of this study indicated that perceived desirability, propensity to act and performance expectancy have a significant positive influence on behavioral intention, and explained a significant amount of the variance in predicting a SMEs owners intention to adopt IT innovation. Propensity to act is the strongest determinant of intention to use IT innovations among Malaysian SME owners follow by perceived desirability and performance expectancy. The results suggest that attractiveness of IT innovation is an important determinant towards the intention to adopt IT innovation. The result revealed that SME owners are more willing to use IT innovation, which is more attractive. Perceived usefulness (performance expectancy of IT innovation is the third most important factor that SME owners consider when they want to adopt and use new technology in their jobs. The results also revealed that experience moderated the relationship between determinants and behavior intention. Research Limitations/implications—The number of male and female SMEs owners is not equal and our respondents were mostly men compared to women. This study measure intention to use IT innovation, and did not measure use behavior. Practical implications—This study extends to knowledge on IS adoption behavior research by using entrepreneurial event models in the context of technology acceptance. Furthermore, from the SME owners’ points of view, this study has shed some light on the adoption and use behavior and clarified the situation for SME owners when they want to adopt and use IT innovation to be successful in their job and market. Originality/value—This study is one of the first to utilize the Entrepreneurial Event Model (EPM to the technology acceptance domain. It also provides a broader view of the IT innovation adoption decision and sheds some additional light on individual technology usage behavior.

  4. How Banks Deal with the Financial Information of Medium Sized Firms in the Credit Assessment Process : A study of banks in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Chohan, Kashif Ali; Rahaman, K. M. Abdur

    2011-01-01

    Financial information of a firm helps the users of the financial information to understand the financial standing of the firm. Banks as lenders to Medium Sized firms use the financial information in the credit assessment process. The availability and quality of the financial information depends on the information environment of the country. We have conducted a quantitative study where we examined 80 loan applications of the Medium Sized firms to the Big4 private banks inPakistan. We collected...

  5. Analysis of the Emerging China Green Era and Its Influence on Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Development: Review and Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Randriamalala Jean Luc Stevens; Mijitaba Maman Moustapha; Pertiwi Evelyn; Randriamalala Jean Stevenson

    2013-01-01

    Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) play a vital role in China’s economy as generators of employment, revenue and innovation. With the unprecedented economic development of China, the increase of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) number has resulted in a massive resources and energy consumption that produces significant generation of waste by-products. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that China is facing an emerging green era. The raise of Chinese environmentalism ...

  6. Research on Multi-Classification of Credit Rating of Small and Medium-Sized Logistics Companies Based on Ordinal Regression Support Vector Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Chen; Hong Chen

    2012-01-01

    Small and medium-sized logistics companies are playing an increasingly important part in social life. Weselected the data of small and medium-sized logistical companies in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou,reformulated ordinal regression support vector machine method so that different input points could makedifferent contributions to decide hyper plane, to analyze multi-classification of credit rating problem, and dividedthem into four different categories to demonstrate the good performance. T...

  7. Influence of grain size on chalcopyrite ore leaching in acidic medium

    OpenAIRE

    Antonijevic, M. M.; Bogdanovic, G. D.; Serbula, S. M.; Milic, S. M.

    2007-01-01

    This work presents an investigation of column leaching of a chalcopyrite ore using sulphuric acid where dissolved oxygen and iron(III) ions play the role of oxidants. The investigations were carried out in PVC columns, diameter 110 mm and height 1000 mm, by percolation of the leaching solution through the ore layer. The influence of ore grain size on the degree of leaching and acid consumption was examined. The formation of gypsum on limestone results in the comminution of the initial raw mat...

  8. The medium-sized charged YbSin± (n = 7-13) clusters: A relativistic computational investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: The geometries and electronic properties of the medium-sized YbSin± (n = 7-13) clusters are investigated systematically by using relativistic density functional method. The medium-sized YbSin± clusters with n = 8, 9, 10, and 13 significantly deform their neutral geometries, which are confirmed by the calculated AIP and VIP values. The relative stabilities in terms of the calculated fragmentation energies exhibit that the YbSin+ (n = 8, 10, 13) and YbSin- (n = 8, 10, 12) clusters have stronger abundances than their corresponding neighbors; the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gaps of the charged clusters are increased generally as the cluster size going from n = 7 to 13; the large HOMO-LUMO gaps of charged clusters indicate that their chemical activities are weaker than those of their neutral counterparts, especially for n = 7, 10, and 13 clusters. Generally, the obtained or removed charge influences electronic and geometrical structures of the charged clusters. Research highlights: ? Most of the charged YbSin (n = 7-13) clusters keep frameworks as the neutrals, and the geometries of 8a+, 9a+, 10a+, and 13a+ are significant deformed, which are reflected from the calculated VIPs and AIPs values. The charged YbSi8 cluster is actually the mosub>8 cluster is actually the most stable isomer. ? According to the calculated HOMO-LUMO gaps of the clusters, one finds that the HOMO-LUMO gaps for the charged YbSin (n = 7-13) clusters are smaller than those of the neutrals, reflecting that the removed or obtained charge influences the HOMO-LUMO gaps of neutral clusters. ? The calculated results show that the YbSin (n = 7-13) clusters are the nonmagnetic structures because the f orbitals are filled completely, which are not involved in the chemical bonding. - Abstract: The geometries and electronic properties of the medium-sized YbSin± (n = 7-13) clusters are investigated systematically by using relativistic density functional method. The medium-sized YbSin± clusters with n = 8, 9, 10, and 13 significantly deform their neutral geometries, which are confirmed by the calculated AIP and VIP values. The relative stabilities in terms of the calculated fragmentation energies exhibit that the YbSin+ (n = 8, 10, 13) and YbSin- (n = 8, 10, 12) clusters have stronger abundances than their corresponding neighbors; the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gaps of the charged clusters are increased generally as the cluster size going from n = 7 to 13; the large HOMO-LUMO gaps of charged clusters indicate that their chemical activities are weaker than those of their neutral counterparts, especially for n = 7, 10, and 13 clusters. Generally, the obtained or removed charge influences electronic and geometrical structures of the charged clusters.

  9. [Impulse circulation in an excitable medium. Critical size of the closed circuit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khramov, R N

    1978-01-01

    Periodical regimes of impulse circulation are studied for the system of two differential equations Exixi-vE-F(E)-g=0, vg=epsilon(phi(E)-g),(epsilon less than 1), which describes stationary propagation of the impulse with the velocity upsilon. Analytical expressions are obtained for the minimal size of the closed circuit (lambdamin) and minimal circulation velocity (upsilonmin). It has been found that when the circuit size was close to lambdamin, the impulse became relaxed; it means that the plateau lenght was close to the front length. It was shown that lambdamin was practically independent of the small parameter epsilon. In case of the approximation of f(E) by the piecewise N-shaped function with an incident region --Kf(E--alpha), and phi(E) by the linear function KgE, the increase of lambdamin takes place with an increase of alpha and Kg parameters, and a decrease of Kf (fig. 4). Such a change in the parameters brings about a decrease (instead of an intuitively expected increase!) of the stationary velocity of normal impulse propagation. PMID:698258

  10. Public relations agencies in the UK travel industry: Does size matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Mart

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between an agency and its client has a limited time scale. Thus far,research has primarily focused on the relationship between advertising agencies and their clients. Based on a study of the existing literature, most of which is advertising based,this article explores the agency-client relationship for public relations agencies in the UK travel industry. Our model concentrates on the four phases of client-agency relationships:agency selection; successful relationships;failing relationships; and agency switching.Several factors influence these four phases, but this article focuses specifically on an under-examined factor: whether the size of a client's public relations agency might influence the nature of the relationship between a client and agency. UK travel companies with different sized public relations agencies were interviewed to test the model and assess the impact of agency size. We found evidence to suggest that agencies should be aware of how their size may influence client perception during the selection process. Agencies similarly should be conscious that their size might act as an indication of how clients perceive their ability, and indeed may influence their client-agency relationship on an ongoing basis. Attention to size-related perceptions may help prevent clients switching agencies.

  11. Hepatic contrast medium enhancement at computed tomography and its correlation with various body size measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. When the same dose of iodine is given to all patients when performing abdominal computed tomography (CT) there may be a wide inter-individual variation in contrast medium (CM) enhancement of the liver. Purpose. To evaluate if any of the measures body height (BH), body mass index (BMI), lean body mass (LBM), ideal body weight (IBW), and body surface area (BSA) correlated better than body weight (BW) with hepatic enhancement, and to compare the enhancement when using iodixanol and iomeprol. Material and Methods. One hundred patients referred for standard three-phase CT examination of abdomen were enrolled. Body weight and height were measured at the time of the CT examination. Forty grams of iodine (iodixanol 320 mg I/mL or iomeprol 400 mg I/mL) was injected at a rate of 1.6 g-I/s, followed by a 50 mL saline flush. The late arterial phase was determined by using a semi-automatic smart prep technique with a scan delay of 20 s. The hepatic parenchymal phase started automatically 25 s after the late arterial phase. CM concentration was estimated by placement of regions of interest in aorta (native and late arterial phase) and in liver (native and parenchymal phase). Results. BW (r -0.51 and -0.64), LBM (r = -0.54 and -0.59), and BSA (r -0.54 and -0.65) showed the best correlation coefficients with aortic and hepatic parenchymal enhancement, respectively, without any significant differences between the measures. Comparing iodixanol and iomeprol there was no signg iodixanol and iomeprol there was no significant difference in aortic enhancement. The liver enhancement was significantly higher (P < 0.05) using iodixanol than iomeprol. Conclusion. To achieve a consistent hepatic enhancement, CM dose may simply be adjusted to body weight instead of using more complicated calculated parameters based on both weight and height

  12. Hepatic contrast medium enhancement at computed tomography and its correlation with various body size measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Anders; Nouhad, Jallo; Cederlund, Kerstin; Aspelin, Peter; Torkel, Brismar B., E-mail: anders.svensson@karolinska.se [Dept. of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology at Karolinska Inst., Div. of Medical Imaging and Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); (Dept. of Radiology, Karolinska Univ. Hospital, Huddinge, Stockholm (Sweden)); Nyman, Ulf (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Lasarettet Trelleborg, Univ. of Lund, Trelleborg (Sweden)); Bjoerk, Jonas (Competence Centre for Clinical Research, Skaane Univ. Hospital, Lund (Sweden)

    2012-07-15

    Background. When the same dose of iodine is given to all patients when performing abdominal computed tomography (CT) there may be a wide inter-individual variation in contrast medium (CM) enhancement of the liver. Purpose. To evaluate if any of the measures body height (BH), body mass index (BMI), lean body mass (LBM), ideal body weight (IBW), and body surface area (BSA) correlated better than body weight (BW) with hepatic enhancement, and to compare the enhancement when using iodixanol and iomeprol. Material and Methods. One hundred patients referred for standard three-phase CT examination of abdomen were enrolled. Body weight and height were measured at the time of the CT examination. Forty grams of iodine (iodixanol 320 mg I/mL or iomeprol 400 mg I/mL) was injected at a rate of 1.6 g-I/s, followed by a 50 mL saline flush. The late arterial phase was determined by using a semi-automatic smart prep technique with a scan delay of 20 s. The hepatic parenchymal phase started automatically 25 s after the late arterial phase. CM concentration was estimated by placement of regions of interest in aorta (native and late arterial phase) and in liver (native and parenchymal phase). Results. BW (r -0.51 and -0.64), LBM (r = -0.54 and -0.59), and BSA (r -0.54 and -0.65) showed the best correlation coefficients with aortic and hepatic parenchymal enhancement, respectively, without any significant differences between the measures. Comparing iodixanol and iomeprol there was no significant difference in aortic enhancement. The liver enhancement was significantly higher (P < 0.05) using iodixanol than iomeprol. Conclusion. To achieve a consistent hepatic enhancement, CM dose may simply be adjusted to body weight instead of using more complicated calculated parameters based on both weight and height.

  13. Sustainable Product Service Systems in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs): Opportunities in the Leather Manufacturing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Herna?ndez Pardo, Ricardo J.; Tracy Bhamra; Ran Bhamra

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to identify opportunities to develop sustainable Product Service Systems (PSS) involving Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). The purpose of the research is to build understanding of how the integration of product and service design and the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) can contribute to identify opportunities to develop sustainable PSS involving SMEs. In order to develop the approach, research with 16 Colombian Manufacturing SMEs was ...

  14. Use of radiation vulcanized natural rubber latex in small and medium scale industries in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The latex based industry is fast growing with the setting up of several units to produce household and examination gloves. Production of rubberized coir using concentrated latex is also growing rapidly while more and more small scale industries have been set up. There is also a growth in the large scale sector in the dipped goods manufacture. Use of irradiated latex in the manufacture of dipped products has good potential as the efficiency of production is enhanced in the case of latex containing less additives. (author)

  15. Recent advances in gyrokinetic full-f particle simulation of medium sized Tokamaks with ELMFIRE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janhunen, S.J.; Kiviniemi, T.P.; Korpio, T.; Leerink, S.; Nora, M. [Helsinki University of Technology, Euratom-Tekes Association, Espoo (Finland); Heikkinen, J.A. [VTT, Euratom-Tekes Association, Espoo (Finland); Ogando, F. [Helsinki University of Technology, Euratom-Tekes Association, Espoo (Finland); Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    Large-scale kinetic simulations of toroidal plasmas based on first principles are called for in studies of transition from low to high confinement mode and internal transport barrier formation in the core plasma. Such processes are best observed and diagnosed in detached plasma conditions in mid-sized tokamaks, so gyrokinetic simulations for these conditions are warranted. A first principles test-particle based kinetic model ELMFIRE[1] has been developed and used in interpretation[1,2] of FT-2 and DIII-D experiments. In this work we summarize progress in Cyclone (DIII-D core) and ASDEX Upgrade pedestal region simulations, and show that in simulations the choice of adiabatic electrons results in quenching of turbulence (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Computed tomography of a medium size Roman bronze statue of Cupid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettuzzi, M.; Casali, F.; Morigi, M. P.; Brancaccio, R.; Carson, D.; Chiari, G.; Maish, J.

    2015-03-01

    Diagnostics based on X-ray computed tomography (CT) are becoming increasingly important, not only in the medical field but in industry and cultural heritage. CT devices typical for medical applications, however, can seldom be used on art objects because both they are not easily transportable and they often present high X-ray absorption. It is therefore necessary to make use of portable instrumentation and/or to develop tomographic systems optimized to the characteristics of the objects under examination. This work describes the computed tomography of a first century A.D. Roman bronze statue of Cupid (96.AB.53) in the collection of the J. Paul Getty Museum, within the collaborative framework between the Getty Conservation Institute and the Department of Physics and Astronomy (DIFA) of the University of Bologna (Italy). The tomography performed at the Getty facilities employed a 450 kV X-ray tube and a detection system developed at DIFA. The study highlighted the casting and construction techniques used by Roman foundry workers and provided information on the status of conservation of the statue. A 3D virtual reconstruction allowed the user to define different cross-sections enabling the study of the internal features.

  17. An assessment of acoustic emission techniques on medium-sized pressure vessels tested to failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Location analysis has been used to examine acoustic emission from a partial thickness slit in a test vessel during pressurization. Preliminary invesigations showed that sharp emission pulses at a source would propagate as sharp pulses to a sensor several metres distant and that intrinsic material attenuation was negligible at the 165 kHz operating frequency. Pulse arrival times at three sensors were used to locate emission sources and the requirement for near-coincidence in arrival time at all sensors reduced background noise to very low levels. The slit was clearly delineated by its emission. Emission activity moved from the centre to the ends of the slit as the stress on the slit increased, suggesting that emissions were generated during the initial yielding of the steel. This indication was strengthened by the fact that the emission count appeared to be directly proportional to the volume of plastically yielded material associated with the defect, based on a simple model for the increase in plastic zone size with pressure. Application of acoustic emission techniques to structural validation is discussed in terms of the measured amplitude spectrum of the detected acoustic emissions. A relationship is derived between the detected emission count, the threshold amplitude for detection, the sensor spacing and the created plastic volume for the steel studied. (Auth.)

  18. Lumbar vertebral body bone microstructural scaling in small to medium-sized strepsirhines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Roberto J; Desilva, Jeremy M; Manoharan, Rajaram K; Schmitz, James E; Maclatchy, Laura M; Bouxsein, Mary L

    2013-02-01

    Bone mass, architecture, and tissue mineral density contribute to bone strength. As body mass (BM) increases any one or combination of these properties could change to maintain structural integrity. To better understand the structural origins of vertebral fragility and gain insight into the mechanisms that govern bone adaptation, we conducted an integrative analysis of bone mass and microarchitecture in the last lumbar vertebral body from nine strepsirhine species, ranging in size from 42 g (Microcebus rufus) to 2,440 g (Eulemur macaco). Bone mass and architecture were assessed via µCT for the whole body and spherical volumes of interest (VOI). Allometric equations were estimated and compared with predictions for geometric scaling, assuming axial compression as the dominant loading regime. Bone mass, microarchitectural, and vertebral body geometric variables predominantly scaled isometrically. Among structural variables, the degree of anisotropy (Tb.DA) was the only parameter independent of BM and other trabecular architectural variables. Tb.DA was related to positional behavior. Orthograde primates had higher average Tb.DA (1.60) and more craniocaudally oriented trabeculae while lorisines had the lowest Tb.DA (1.25), as well as variably oriented trabeculae. Finally, lorisines had the highest ratio of trabecular bone volume to cortical shell volume (?3x) and while there appears to be flexibility in this ratio, the total bone volume (trabecular + cortical) scales isometrically (BM(1.23) , r(2) = 0.93) and appears tightly constrained. The common pattern of isometry in our measurements leaves open the question of how vertebral bodies in strepsirhine species compensate for increased BM. PMID:23355518

  19. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of industrial mitigation for sustainable development is discussed in Section 7.7. Section 7.8 discusses the sector's vulnerability to climate change and options for adaptation. A number of policies have been designed either to encourage voluntary GHG emission reductions from the industrial sector or to mandate such reductions. Section 7.9 describes these policies and the experience gained to date. Co-benefits of reducing GHG emissions from the industrial sector are discussed in Section 7.10. Development of new technology is key to the cost-effective control of industrial GHG emissions. Section 7.11 discusses research, development, deployment and diffusion in the industrial sector and Section 7.12, the long-term (post-2030) technologies for GHG emissions reduction from the industrial sector. Section 7.13 summarizes gaps in knowledge.

  20. Environmental Management in Small and Medium-Sized Companies: An Analysis from the Perspective of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Medina, Agustín J.; Romero-Quintero, Leonardo; Sosa-Cabrera, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    In the business context, concern for the environment began to develop when pressure from the public administration and environmental awareness groups raised the specific requirements for companies. The Theory of Planned Behavior considers that people's conduct is determined by the intention of carrying out a certain behavior. Thus, the individual's intent is determined by three factors related to the desired outcome of the behavior: the Personal Attitude toward the Results, the Perceived Social Norms, and the Perceived Behavioral Control over the action. Therefore, the objectives of this paper are to clarify the attitudes of the managers of Canarian small and medium-sized companies about taking environmental measures, and try to demonstrate whether there is a relationship between the proposed factors and the intention to take these measures. PMID:24533094

  1. A quantitative investigation of the transannular amine-ketone (N...C=O) interaction in medium-sized heterocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, R; Yates, B F; Bremner, J B; Titmuss, S J

    1997-04-01

    The transannular N...C=O interaction in several medium-sized heterocycles has been investigated by force-field methods. Conformational searching has been performed at the molecular mechanics level using different methods and the conformers so generated have been reoptimized at RHF/6-31G(d). For selected conformers, N...C distances are reported, together with transannular bond orders and atomic charges. Good agreement with available X-ray crystallographic data is obtained for the transannular bond distance in cryptopine. Changes in the partial atomic charges derived from the electrostatic potential provide good support for the donor-acceptor model of transannular interactions. Partial charges derived with other methods do not give satisfactory results. Some force fields do not reproduce the transannular interaction very well. This is demonstrated and rationalized, and modifications are suggested and tested for these force fields with good results when comparing diagnostic geometric features with X-ray data. PMID:9385557

  2. THE LIMITS OF THE EXTENDED HÜCKEL THEORY TO CALCULATE THE TOTAL DENSITY OF STATES OF MEDIUM-SIZED MOLECULES

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JUAN SEBASTIÁN, GÓMEZ-JERIA.

    1061-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Two medium-sized molecular systems X60 (X=C,N) were analyzed using Extended Hückel, Density Functional and ab initio Hartree-Fock methods. The aim of the work was to test the reliability of the EHT methodology to calculate the total Density of States distribution curve. The Extended Hückel method is [...] only reliable in the cases of the first valence and conduction bands of these systems. For the rest of the Density of States distribution curve EHT performs badly. The sources of error of EHT, come from the non-inclusion of the electron-electron interaction and from incorrect results regarding the relative ordering of the MO degeneracies. Both sources of error should disappear when the occupied and empty molecular orbitals become very similar in energy over a certain range, forming an almost continuous band, as happens in bigger molecular systems

  3. THE LIMITS OF THE EXTENDED HÜCKEL THEORY TO CALCULATE THE TOTAL DENSITY OF STATES OF MEDIUM-SIZED MOLECULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN SEBASTIÁN GÓMEZ-JERIA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Two medium-sized molecular systems X60 (X=C,N were analyzed using Extended Hückel, Density Functional and ab initio Hartree-Fock methods. The aim of the work was to test the reliability of the EHT methodology to calculate the total Density of States distribution curve. The Extended Hückel method is only reliable in the cases of the first valence and conduction bands of these systems. For the rest of the Density of States distribution curve EHT performs badly. The sources of error of EHT, come from the non-inclusion of the electron-electron interaction and from incorrect results regarding the relative ordering of the MO degeneracies. Both sources of error should disappear when the occupied and empty molecular orbitals become very similar in energy over a certain range, forming an almost continuous band, as happens in bigger molecular systems

  4. Medium-sized heterocycle synthesis by the use of synergistic effects of Ni-NHC and ?-coordination in cycloisomerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chun-Yu; He, Lisi

    2014-12-19

    This paper describes a new approach in transition-metal-catalyzed unsymmetric cycloisomerization for medium-sized heterocycles. The steric and electronic effects of an NHC-NiH catalyst and ?-heteroatom chelation were used together as a basis for 1,n-diene termini differentiation and for n(?)-exo-trig (head-to-tail) product selectivity. Heterocycles bearing an exocyclic methylene such as oxepines, thiepines, siloxepines, and oxocanes were synthesized from the corresponding 1,n-dienes by a fine-tuning of the NHC properties. The implication of the underlying hypothesis was further demonstrated in a competition experiment in which strained oxepines were formed preferentially over other competing oxa-/carbocycles. Under more forcing physical conditions and the use of a suitable NHC ligand, the exocyclic methylene products were isomerized further into endocyclic olefin products regioselectively in one pot. PMID:24802364

  5. Innovation incubators – entities of support of small and medium-sized enterprises’ competitiveness in the Modern economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maier Lidia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Innovation incubators are entities of the infrastructure network of support of small and medium-sized enterprises. At the stage of SMEs’ maximum vulnerability, they improve the survival of innovative businesses through the range of services and facilities provided. They are designed to mitigate the problems faced by SMEs, which develop and implement innovations, ensuring sustainability and competitiveness. Along with promoting the entrepreneurial spirit, innovation incubators play an essential role in promoting knowledge and innovation transfer, introduction of the research results into economic circuit, creating links between businesses, universities, research institutions, etc., links between people, talents and resources.In this article, we will focus on innovation incubators, their role in the development of SMEs in the world and in the Republic of Moldova, making an accent in the creation and development of the country's first Innovation Incubator „Inovatorul”.

  6. [Quality of data on deaths from external causes in a medium-sized city in Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Cristiane Magalhães; Bevilacqua, Paula Dias; Barletto, Marisa; França, Elisabeth Barboza

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to assess the quality of data on deaths from external causes in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from 2000 to 2009, and the completeness of the Mortality Information System (SIM). The data were obtained from the SIM of the Municipal Health Department, municipal police enquiries, and local newspaper articles, resulting in a databank with 495 deaths from external causes. The results showed a high proportion of deaths with indeterminate intent (21%) in the SIM, suggesting problems with quality of information. Comparison of data from the SIM and police department detected problems with coverage in the SIM (21%) and thus in the official statistics on mortality from accidents and violence. The results emphasize the importance of searches in other data sources to upgrade the SIM and expand its coverage, and especially the need for studies to identify and analyze problems faced by small and medium-sized cities in the production of mortality data. PMID:25317528

  7. Solid waste from leather industry as adsorbent of organic dyes in aqueous-medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The industrial tanning of leather usually produces considerable amounts of chromium-containing solid waste and liquid effluents and raises many concerns on its environmental effect as well as on escalating landfill costs. Actually, these shortcomings are becoming increasingly a limiting factor to this industrial activity that claims for alternative methods of residue disposals. In this work, it is proposed a novel alternative destination of the solid waste, based on the removal of organic contaminants from the out coming aqueous-residue. The adsorption isotherm pattern for the wet blue leather from the Aurea tanning industry in Erechim-RS (Brazil) showed that these materials present high activity on adsorbing the reactive red textile dye as well as other compounds. The adsorbent materials were characterized by IR spectroscopy and SEM and tested for the dye adsorption (reactive textile and methylene blue dyes). The concentrations of dyes were measured by UV-vis spectrophotometry and the chromium extraction from leather waste was realized by basic hydrolysis and determined by atomic absorption. As a low cost abundant adsorbent material with high adsorption ability on removing dye methylene blue (80 mg g-1) and textile dye reactive red (163 mg g-1), the leather waste is revealed to be a interesting alternative relatively to more costly adsorbent materials

  8. Impact of land use on urban mobility patterns, emissions and air quality in a Portuguese medium-sized city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeira, Jorge M; Coelho, Margarida C; Sá, Maria Elisa; Tavares, Richard; Borrego, Carlos

    2011-02-15

    The main objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of urban development trends in mobility patterns of a medium sized Portuguese city and air quality consequences, using a sequential modeling process, comprising i) land use and transportation, TRANUS model; ii) road traffic air pollutants emissions, TREM model and; iii) air quality, TAPM model. This integrated methodology was applied to a medium sized Portuguese city. In order to evaluate the implementation of the methodology, a preliminary study was performed, which consisted on the comparison of modeled mobility patterns and CO and PM(10) concentrations with measured data used in the definition of the current scenario. The comparison between modeled and monitored mobility patterns at the morning peak hour for a weekday showed an RMSE of 31%. Regarding CO concentrations, an underestimation of the modeled results was observed. Nevertheless, the modeled PM(10) concentrations were consistent with the monitored data. Overall, the results showed a reasonable consistency of the modeled data, which allowed the use of the integrated modeling system for the study scenarios. The future scenarios consisted on the definition of different mobility patterns and vehicle technology characteristics, according to two main developing trends: (1) "car pooling" scenario, which imposes a mean occupancy rate of 3 passengers by vehicle and (2) the "Euro 6" scenario, which establishes that all vehicles accomplish at least the Euro 6 standard technology. Reductions of 54% and 83% for CO, 44% and 95% for PM(10), 44% and 87% for VOC and 44% and 79% for NO(x) emissions were observed in scenarios 1 and 2, respectively. Concerning air quality, a reduction of about 100 ?g m(-3) of CO annual average concentration was observed in both scenarios. The results of PM(10) annual concentrations showed a reduction of 1.35 ?g m(-3) and 2.7 ?g m(-3) for scenarios 1 and 2 respectively. PMID:21216441

  9. Delta (delta) opioid receptors in small and medium-sized trigeminal neurons supporting the dental pulp of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fristad, I; Berggreen, E; Haug, S R

    2006-04-01

    The control of pain perception is a challenge in clinical dentistry, most prominent during tooth pulp inflammation. The tooth pulp is a well-defined target, and is densely supplied by a sensory trigeminal innervation. Opioids are signaling molecules that are suggested to participate in pain perception. Here we analysed the presence of delta opioid receptor (DOR) in trigeminal neurons innervating the tooth pulp of rat molars. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analysis revealed that DOR was identified in peripheral nerves in the molar dental pulp, both in the root and the coronal pulpal parts, with branching in the highly innervated subodontoblast layer. DOR was localised in about one third of all the trigeminal dental neurons, identified by means of retrograde neuronal transport of fluorogold (FG) from the dental pulp. Of the DOR-labeled neurons, nearly all were small and medium-sized (147.5-1,810.2 microm(2), mean 749.1 +/- 327.3 microm(2)). Confocal microscopy confirmed that DOR-immunoreactivity was distributed as granules in the neuronal cytoplasm. Approximately 70% of the DOR-immunoreactive neurons were also immunopositive for vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1). Ultrastructural analysis demonstrated DOR-immunoreactivity in the unmyelinated and in some of the myelinated nerve fibers in the dental pulp. These results indicate that DOR may influence the function in a subset of small and medium-sized trigeminal sensory neurons supporting the tooth, which are mainly known for their ability to mediate nociceptive stimuli. Agonists, acting on DOR, may thus have an influence on a subpopulation of nociceptive neurons supporting the rat tooth. PMID:16266688

  10. Industrial applications of photon density wave spectroscopy for in-line particle sizing [Invited].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, Roland; Münzberg, Marvin; Bressel, Lena; Reich, Oliver

    2013-03-01

    Optical spectroscopy in highly turbid liquid material is often restricted by simultaneous occurrence of absorption and scattering of light. Photon Density Wave (PDW) spectroscopy is one of the very few, yet widely unknown, technologies for the independent quantification of these two optical processes. Here, a concise overview about modern PDW spectroscopy is given, including all necessary equations concerning the optical description of the investigated material, dependent light scattering, particle sizing, and PDW spectroscopy itself. Additionally, it is shown how the ambiguity in particle sizing, arising from Mie theory, can be correctly solved. Due to its high temporal resolution, its applicability to highest particle concentrations, and its purely fiber-optical probe, PDW spectroscopy possesses all fundamental characteristics for optical in-line process analysis. Several application examples from the chemical industry are presented. PMID:23458794

  11. Development of the ACS+OPC UA based control system for a CTA medium size telescope prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Bagmeet; Oya, Igor; Birsin, Emrah; Köppel, Hendryk; Melkumyan, David; Schlenstedt, Stefan; Schmidt, Torsten; Schwanke, Ullrich; Wegner, Peter; Wiesand, Stephan; Winde, Michael

    2012-09-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the next generation Very High Energy (VHE, defined as > 50GeV to several 100TeV) telescope facility, currently in the design and prototyping phase, and expected to come on-line around 2016. The array would have both a Northern and Southern hemisphere site, together delivering nearly complete sky coverage. The CTA array is planned to have ~100 telescopes of several different sizes to fulfill the sensitivity and energy coverage needs. Each telescope has a number of subsystems with varied hardware and control mechanisms; a drive system that gets commands and inputs via OPC UA (OPC Unified Architecture), mirror alignment systems based on XBee/ZigBee protocol and/or CAN bus, weather monitor accessed via serial/Ethernet ports, CCD cameras for calibration, Cherenkov camera, and the data read out electronics, etc. Integrating the control and data-acquisitions of such a distributed heterogeneous system calls for a framework that can handle such a multi-platform, multi-protocol scenario. The CORBA based ALMA Common software satisfies these needs very well and is currently being evaluated as the base software for developing the control system for CTA. A prototype for a Medium Size Telescope (MST, ~12m) is being developed and will be deployed in Berlin, by end of 2012. We present the development being carried out to integrate and control the various hardware subsystems of this MST prototype using ACS.

  12. On the variational computation of a large number of vibrational energy levels and wave functions for medium-sized molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mátyus, Edit; Šimunek, Ján; Császár, Attila G.

    2009-08-01

    In a recent publication [J. Chem. Phys. 127, 084102 (2007)], the nearly variational DEWE approach (DEWE denotes Discrete variable representation of the Watson Hamiltonian using the Eckart frame and an Exact inclusion of a potential energy surface expressed in arbitrarily chosen coordinates) was developed to compute a large number of (ro)vibrational eigenpairs for medium-sized semirigid molecules having a single well-defined minimum. In this publication, memory, CPU, and hard disk usage requirements of DEWE, and thus of any DEWE-type approach, are carefully considered, analyzed, and optimized. Particular attention is paid to the sparse matrix-vector multiplication, the most expensive part of the computation, and to rate-determining steps in the iterative Lanczos eigensolver, including spectral transformation, reorthogonalization, and restart of the iteration. Algorithmic improvements are discussed in considerable detail. Numerical results are presented for the vibrational band origins of the C12H4 and C12H2D2 isotopologues of the methane molecule. The largest matrix handled on a personal computer during these computations is of the size of (4•108)×(4•108). The best strategy for determining vibrational eigenpairs depends largely on the actual details of the required computation. Nevertheless, for a usual scenario requiring a large number of the lowest eigenpairs of the Hamiltonian matrix the combination of the thick-restart Lanczos method, shift-fold filtering, and periodic reorthogonalization appears to result in the computationally most feasible approach.

  13. Green oriented urban development for urban ecosystem services provision in a medium sized city in southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinico F

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In southern Italy many cities are characterized by a lack of public urban greenspaces. Non-urbanized areas in these cities are suffering from surrounding urbanization pressures. These areas still provide important ecosystem services even if they are limited in size, highly fragmented and often neglected by local planning. New planning strategies are needed in order to protect and enhance the provision of ecosystem services delivered by existing Non-Urbanized areas, but municipalities usually have limited funds for acquiring public green areas via land expropriations. At the same time, requests for new urban development are still considerable. Consequently, it is not realistic to propose strategies for green areas that do not include new developments. The paper illustrates a strategy for a Green Oriented Urban Development (GOUD that has been applied for the Master Plan of Catania, a medium sized city in Sicily (southern Italy. The strategy includes a limited amount of developments as well as new greenspaces in selected areas (Resource Zones, through the transfer of property and development rights between the municipality and developers. The strategy will allow to enhance the provision of ecosystem services, especially cultural services (thanks to a dramatic increase of accessibility to new greenspaces, regulating services (through climate regulation by new green land covers and provisioning services such as urban agricultural products. Results show that it is possible to improve urban ecosystem services creating a more liveable and healthy urban environment at reduced cost for the municipal administrations.

  14. Phospholipid metabolism in an industry microalga Chlorella sorokiniana: the impact of inoculum sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shuhuan; Wang, Jiangxin; Ma, Qian; Yang, Jie; Li, Xia; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Chlorella sorokiniana is an important industry microalga potential for biofuel production. Inoculum size is one of the important factors in algal large-scale culture, and has great effects on the growth, lipid accumulation and metabolism of microalgae. As the first barrier of cell contents, membrane plays a vital role in algal inoculum-related metabolism. The knowledge of phospholipids, the main membrane component and high accumulation of phospholipids as the major content of total lipids mass in some microalgae, is necessary to understand the role of membrane in cell growth and metabolism under different inoculum density. Profiling of C. sorokiniana phospholipids with LC-MS led to the identification of 119 phospholipid species. To discover the phospholipid molecules most related to change of inoculum sizes, Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) was employed and the results revealed that inoculum sizes significantly affected phospholipid profiling. Phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidyl- ethanolamine (PE) and several phosphatidylcholine (PC) species might play an important role under our experimental conditions. Further analysis of these biomarkers indicated that cell membrane status of C. sorokiniana might play an important role in the adaption to the inoculum sizes. And the culture with inoculum size of 1 × 10(6) cells mL(-1) presented the best membrane status with the highest content of PC and PG, and the lowest content of PE. We discovered that the inoculum size of 1 × 10(6) cells mL(-1) might provide the best growth condition for C. sorokiniana. Also we proposed that PG, PE and several PC may play an important role in inoculum-related metabolism in C. sorokiniana, which may work through thylakoid membrane and photosynthetic pathway. Thus this study would provide more potential targets for metabolic engineering to improve biofuel production and productivity in microalgae. PMID:23940649

  15. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE USE OF MODERN MANAGEMENT METHODS IN PLANNING THE MARKETING ACTIVITY WITHIN THE SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olteanu Valerica

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight, from a marketing perspective, the manner and conditions in which small and medium-sized enterprises can use modern management methods in planning the marketing activity. Using modern methods of management are particularly important for managers of these organizations and especially for marketers. Thus, the following methods play a significant role within the marketing activitiesn#8217; development for marketing specialists, namely: management by objectives, management by budgets, management by projects, and management by product. The high degree of understanding and using the above methods is, in the current economic environment, one of the determinants of the market success of small and medium-sized enterprises. In the current context, the adoption of the management by objectives is not a facultative option for the small and medium-sized enterprises, but rather a binding one in the context of adopting and practicing an efficient marketing with significant results on the development of marketing programs comprised within them. Similarly to the management by objectives, the use of the management by budgets within the small and medium-sized enterprises has a series of features required by their smaller size, features that should be considered by marketers. Regarding the use of management by projects, this method has to constitute the foundation for the elaboration of marketing programs developed within the small and medium-sized enterprises, thereby allowing shaping an action that can be accompanied by success in achieving the goals comprised within the marketing programs. Finally, the role of the management by product is extremely important in the marketing activity within the small and medium-sized enterprises, especially in the operationalization of concepts such as strategic marketing and tactical marketing. This paper thus outlines from a marketing point of view the main issues aiming at understanding and using modern management methods in the marketing activity planning process within SMEs.

  16. Potential advantages of coupling supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle to water cooled small and medium size reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? S-CO2 cycle as candidate for SMS. ? MATLAB code used for S-CO2 cycle analysis. ? Pressure ratio and split ratio comparison analyzed. - Abstract: The supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO2) Brayton cycle is being considered as a favorable candidate for the next generation nuclear reactors power conversion systems. Major benefits of the S-CO2 Brayton cycle compared to other Brayton cycles are: (1) high thermal efficiency in relatively low turbine inlet temperature, (2) compactness of the turbomachineries and heat exchangers and (3) simpler cycle layout at an equivalent or superior thermal efficiency. However, these benefits can be still utilized even in the water-cooled reactor technologies under special circumstances. A small and medium size water-cooled nuclear reactor (SMR) has been gaining interest due to its wide range of application such as electricity generation, seawater desalination, district heating and propulsion. Another key advantage of a SMR is that it can be transported from one place to another mostly by maritime transport due to its small size, and sometimes even through a railway system. Therefore, the combination of a S-CO2 Brayton cycle with a SMR can reinforce any advantages coming from its small size if the S-CO2 Brayton cycle has much smaller size components, and simpler cycle layout compared to the currently considered steam Rankine cycle. In this paper, SMART (Sysine cycle. In this paper, SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor), a 330 MWth integral reactor developed by KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Institute) for multipurpose utilization, is considered as a potential candidate for applying the S-CO2 Brayton cycle and advantages and disadvantages of the proposed system will be discussed in detail. In consideration of SMART condition, the turbine inlet pressure and size of heat exchangers are analyzed by using in-house code developed by KAIST–Khalifa University joint research team. According to the cycle evaluation, the maximum cycle efficiency under 310 °C is 30.05% at 22 MPa of the compressor outlet pressure and 36% of flow split ratio (FSR) with 82 m3 of total heat exchanger volume while the upper bound of the total cycle efficiency is 37% with ideal components within 310 °C. The total volume of turbomachinery which can afford 330 MWth of SMR is less than 1.4 m3 without casing. All the obtained results are compared to the existing SMART system along with its implication to other existing or conceptual SMRs in terms of overall performance in detail.

  17. Percutaneous Ethanol Injection of Unresectable Medium-to-Large-Sized Hepatomas Using a Multipronged Needle: Efficacy and Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fine needles with an end hole or multiple side holes have traditionally been used for percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) of hepatomas. This study retrospectively evaluates the safety and efficacy of PEI of unresectable medium-to-large (3.5-9 cm) hepatomas using a multipronged needle and with conscious sedation. Twelve patients, eight men and four women (age 51-77 years; mean: 69) received PEI for hepatomas, mostly subcapsular or exophytic in location with average tumor size of 5.6 cm (range: 3.5-9.0 cm). Patients were consciously sedated and an 18G retractable multipronged needle (Quadrafuse needle; Rex Medical, Philadelphia, PA) was used for injection under real-time ultrasound guidance. By varying the length of the prongs and rotating the needle, the alcohol was widely distributed within the tumor. The progress of ablation was monitored by contrast-enhanced ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after each weekly injection and within a month after the final (third) injection and 3 months thereafter. An average total of 63 mL (range: 20-154 ml) of alcohol was injected per patient in an average of 2.3 sessions. Contrast-enhanced CT, ultrasound, or MRI was used to determine the degree of necrosis. Complete necrosis was noted in eight patients (67%), near-complete necrosis (90-99%) in two (16.7%), and partial success (50-89%) in two (16.7%). Follow-up in the first 9 months showed local recurrence in two patients and new lesions in anonce in two patients and new lesions in another. There was no mortality. One patient developed renal failure, liver failure, and localized perforation of the stomach. He responded to medical treatment and surgery was not required for the perforation. One patient had severe postprocedural abdominal pain and fever, and another had transient hyperbilirubinemia; both recovered with conservative treatment. PEI with a multipronged needle is a new, safe, and efficacious method in treating medium-to-large-sized hepatocellular carcinoma under conscious sedation. Its survival benefits require further investigations

  18. Percutaneous ethanol injection of unresectable medium-to-large-sized hepatomas using a multipronged needle: efficacy and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C S; Kachura, J R; Gallinger, S; Grant, D; Greig, P; McGilvray, I; Knox, J; Sherman, M; Wong, F; Wong, D

    2007-01-01

    Fine needles with an end hole or multiple side holes have traditionally been used for percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) of hepatomas. This study retrospectively evaluates the safety and efficacy of PEI of unresectable medium-to-large (3.5-9 cm) hepatomas using a multipronged needle and with conscious sedation. Twelve patients, eight men and four women (age 51-77 years; mean: 69) received PEI for hepatomas, mostly subcapsular or exophytic in location with average tumor size of 5.6 cm (range: 3.5-9.0 cm). Patients were consciously sedated and an 18G retractable multipronged needle (Quadrafuse needle; Rex Medical, Philadelphia, PA) was used for injection under real-time ultrasound guidance. By varying the length of the prongs and rotating the needle, the alcohol was widely distributed within the tumor. The progress of ablation was monitored by contrast-enhanced ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after each weekly injection and within a month after the final (third) injection and 3 months thereafter. An average total of 63 mL (range: 20-154 ml) of alcohol was injected per patient in an average of 2.3 sessions. Contrast-enhanced CT, ultrasound, or MRI was used to determine the degree of necrosis. Complete necrosis was noted in eight patients (67%), near-complete necrosis (90-99%) in two (16.7%), and partial success (50-89%) in two (16.7%). Follow-up in the first 9 months showed local recurrence in two patients and new lesions in another. There was no mortality. One patient developed renal failure, liver failure, and localized perforation of the stomach. He responded to medical treatment and surgery was not required for the perforation. One patient had severe postprocedural abdominal pain and fever, and another had transient hyperbilirubinemia; both recovered with conservative treatment. PEI with a multipronged needle is a new, safe, and efficacious method in treating medium-to-large-sized hepatocellular carcinoma under conscious sedation. Its survival benefits require further investigations. PMID:17200905

  19. The role of skeletal scintigraphy in nuclear oncology at a medium-sized hospital in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Skeletal scintigraphy (SS) has been a workhorse in nuclear medicine departments, whether the department is in a developed country or in a developing country. It also plays an essential role in nuclear oncology in staging or diagnosing cancers or monitoring management of cancer patients. With the availability of improved imaging modalities like positron emission tomography, the role of skeletal scintigraphy is changing accordingly. This study was performed to evaluate the role of SS in nuclear oncology at a medium-sized (900-bed) university hospital in South Korea, by reviewing hospital cases along with the statistics of recently published papers in the journal of Clinical Nuclear Medicine. The hospital does not have a PET. The study period was three years (from 2000 to 2002). The SS is requested from many specialties for various reasons. Only cancer-related cases were selected. Using PubMed database, relevant articles in the Clinical Nuclear Medicine were assessed. To retrieve the articles, the keywords 'skeletal scintigraphy' and 'bone scan' were combined by using Boolean operation. There were a total of 9707 SS out of 16429 nuclear medicine imaging cases at the hospital during the study period. The hospital had 49% of SS contributed to cancer patients, while 52% percent of the SS in the CNM dealt with cancers. During the same period, articles regarding PET were 273 of which 171 were cancer-related PET studies (62%, more often than SS). 59% of the total nu, more often than SS). 59% of the total nuclear medicine studies performed at the hospital were SS, whereas only 9% of the total articles were SS and 5% dealt with cancer-related cases. The cases of SS and cancer-related SS at the hospital increased during the period, whereas the articles in the CNM decreased. Analytic statistics were not considered necessary. In conclusion, there is an increasing demand of SS in nuclear oncology at a medium-sized hospital with non-availability of PET and the proportions of SS and cancer-related SS to the total nuclear medicine imaging cases are consistently higher than the data from the CNM. A major nuclear medicine journal continues to deal less with SS, and more with PET. (author)

  20. THE SIZE AND ORIGIN OF METAL-ENRICHED REGIONS IN THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM FROM SPECTRA OF BINARY QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present tomography of the circum-galactic metal distribution at redshift 1.7-4.5 derived from echellete spectroscopy of binary quasars. We find C IV systems at similar redshifts in paired sightlines more often than expected for sightline-independent redshifts. As the separation of the sightlines increases from 36 kpc to 907 kpc, the amplitude of this clustering decreases. At the largest separations, the C IV systems cluster similar to the Lyman-break galaxies studied by Adelberger et al. in 2005. The C IV systems are significantly less correlated than these galaxies, however, at separations less than R1 ? 0.42 ± 0.15 h -1 comoving Mpc. Measured in real space, i.e., transverse to the sightlines, this length scale is significantly smaller than the break scale estimated previously from the line-of-sight correlation function in redshift space by Scannapieco et al. in 2006. Using a simple model, we interpret the new real-space measurement as an indication of the typical physical size of enriched regions. We adopt this size for enriched regions and fit the redshift-space distortion in the line-of-sight correlation function. The fitted velocity kick is consistent with the peculiar velocity of galaxies as determined by the underlying mass distribution and places an upper limit on the average outflow (or inflow) speed of metals. The implied timescale for dispersing metals is larger than the typical stellar ages of Lyman-break galaxies, and we argue of Lyman-break galaxies, and we argue that enrichment by galaxies at z ? 4.3 played a greater role in dispersing metals. To further constrain the growth of enriched regions, we discuss empirical constraints on the evolution of the C IV correlation function with cosmic time. This study demonstrates the potential of tomography for measuring the metal enrichment history of the circum-galactic medium.

  1. Series of bursting experiments on medium size pressure vessels in the context of the American HSST Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiments on medium size pressure vessels with defined concentrated faults permit comparison of the experimentally determined bursting behaviour with the results of previously determined analytical calculations. Estimates of extension at fracture based on linear elastic fracture mechanism LEBM calculations were accurate in those cases where (1) faults were arranged in areas of high transverse restraint and (2) the fracture strength valves were so low that crack instability occurred before the whole wall region started to flow. LEBM calculations of the critical load started from fracture strength data, which were determined from small samples. When the whole wall region started to flow, the actual extensions were noticeably greater than the fracture extensions calculated using the LEBM. In these cases the strength of the vessel no longer depends on the strength in the even extension condition (elastic extension), but on the ability of the damaged area to carry the load on it stably up to the plastic flow condition. The ability of the faulty vessel to carry load up to flow of the whole wall region has important qualitative effects on the safety margin of pressure vessels. The whole flow condition occurs in LWR pressure vessels at about double the design pressure. This pressure vessel load condition is generally far above the normal and fault operation and emergency conditions which are usually supported and taken into account. (orig.)unt. (orig.)

  2. Air pollution and cardiovascular hospital admissions in a medium-sized city in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L.F.C., Nascimento.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to estimate the contribution of environmental pollutants to hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease. A time series ecological study was conducted on subjects aged over 60 years and living in São José dos Campos, Brazil, with a population near 700,000 inh [...] abitants. Hospital admission data of public health patients (SUS) were obtained from DATASUS for the period between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2006, according to the ICD-10 diagnoses I20 to I22 and I24. Particulate matter with less than 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter, sulfur dioxide and ozone were the pollutants examined, and the control variables were mean temperature and relative humidity. Data on pollutants were obtained from the São Paulo State Sanitary Agency. The generalized linear model Poisson regression with lags of up to 5 days was used. There were 1303 hospital admissions during the period. Exposure to particulate matter was significantly associated with hospitalization for cardiovascular disease 3 days after exposure (RR = 1.006; 95%CI = 1.000 to 1.010) and an increase of 16 µg/m³ was associated with a 10% increase in risk of hospitalization; other pollutants were not associated with hospitalization. Thus, it was possible to identify the role of exposure to particulate matter as an environmental pollutant in hospitalization for cardiovascular disease in a medium-sized city inSoutheastern Brazil.

  3. Estructura y temporalidad urbana de las ciudades intermedias en México / Urban structure and time in Medium-Sized mexican cities

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Guillermo, Álvarez de la Torre.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este trabajo exploratorio pretende aplicar y estudiar esquemas espaciales monocéntricos de ciudades a partir del análisis espacial sobre el gradiente de densidad, estructura de edad de la población y tenencia de la vivienda en 32 ciudades intermedias mexicanas. Los modelos cuantitativos de estructur [...] a urbana toman como referencia la distancia al centro de negocios de la ciudad como un elemento, determinante en el comportamiento de ciertos fenómenos. En el presente estudio vemos cómo el factor del período histórico al que pertenece el espacio urbano permite encontrar patrones espaciales consistentes en la estructura de las ciudades intermedias mexicanas. Abstract in english The internal structure of cities has been examined through various disciplines such as economic spatial models, ecological structures and land use. This paper seeks to study centrality in urban structure models for medium-sized Mexican cities through the spatial analysis of population density, popul [...] ation age structure and housing in 32 Mexican cities. Quantitative urban structure models use distance to the central business district as a basic aspect for determining the behavior of certain phenomena. This study shows that the historical period to which urban space belongs enables one to identify consistent spatial patterns in the structure of intermediate Mexican cities.

  4. Market potential of small and medium-size nuclear reactors as combined heat and power plants in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candeli, R.; Leuchs, D.; Garribba, S.F.; Hansen, U.; Lefevre, J.C.; Schoen, R.; Vivante, C.

    The preliminary results are presented concerning a study launched by the Commission of the European Communities to assess the potential market of small and medium-size nuclear reactors through EC member countries. The study was aimed at identifying those factors that may have a role in shaping the eventual deployment and diffusion of this class of nuclear reactors. In a first phase, attention focused on modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors that would be installed to produce low-temperature heat and power. Federal Republic of Germany, Italy and France are the countries for which the investigation has been completed. The time span of interest is up to the year 2020. Referring to this horizon, an appraisal has been made of the number of nuclear units which could come on line to cope with energy demand and their timing. Through the study a distinction is made between technical potential, economic potential, and effective market potential. It is understood indeed that both economic competitiveness towards other energy sources and also institutional or organizational factors may restrict the market which could become accessible and would be covered by the new nuclear plants.

  5. Market potential of small and medium-size nuclear reactors as combined heat and power plants in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Study has been launched and supported by the Commission of the European Communities to assess the potential market of small and medium size nuclear reactors through EC Countries and to identify those factors which may play a dominant role in this respect. In its first phase, the Study addresses to modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors that would be installed to produce low-temperature heat and power. Federal Republic of Germany, Italy and France are the countries for which the investigation has been either completed or is under way. The time span of interest is up to the year 2020. Referring to this horizon an appraisal has been made of the number of nuclear units which could come on line to cope with energy demand and their timing. Through the Study a distinction is made between technical potential, economic potential, and effective market potential. It is understood indeed that both economic competitiveness towards other energy sources and institutional or organizational factors may restrict the market which could be covered by this class of nuclear reactors. (author)

  6. Designing and Validating a Model for Measuring Sustainability of Overall Innovation Capability of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Nizam Ab Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The business environment is currently characterized by intensified competition at both the national and firm levels. Many studies have shown that innovation positively affect firms in enhancing their competitiveness. Innovation is a dynamic process that requires a continuous, evolving, and mastered management. Evaluating the sustainability of overall innovation capability of a business is a major means of determining how well this firm effectively and efficiently manages its innovation process. A psychometrically valid scale of evaluating the sustainability of overall innovation capability of a firm is still insufficient in the current innovation literature. Thus, this study developed a reliable and valid scale of measuring the sustainability of overall innovation capability construct. The unidimensionality, reliability, and several validity components of the developed scale were tested using the data collected from 175 small and medium-sized enterprises in Iran. A series of systematic statistical analyses were performed. Results of the reliability measures, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, and several components of validity tests strongly supported an eight-dimensional (8D scale of measuring the sustainability of overall innovation capability construct. The dimensions of the scale were strategic management, supportive culture and structure, resource allocation, communication and networking, knowledge and technology management, idea management, project development, and commercialization capabilities.

  7. Software-as-a-Service and Cloud Computing, a solution for small and medium-sized companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajenaru, A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium-sized companies are an important part of today’s world economy, for their ability to offer new jobs but also for their capacity of innovation. At the same time, they are in a constant struggle with larger companies that take advantage of their negotiating power to impose their way of doing business to the SMEs. In an ICT enabled world, most large companies being intense ICT users, the lag of ICT adoption in SMEs may create a strong barrier between SMEs and large companies, promoting an over growing digital divide, the SMEs being in danger of being left out in some economic sectors. This paper aims at finding a possible solution in the Software-as-a-Service and Cloud Computing model, a rather new solution, yet more and more sought off by SMEs but also larger companies, especially considering the global financial and economic crisis, as well as evaluating the European Union’s main views and policies regarding the SAAS – Cloud model.

  8. Ultrafine particle deposition to vegetation branches: wind tunnel investigation of the effect of canopy medium and particle size and charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlystov, A.; Lin, M.; Katul, G. G.

    2012-12-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFP) have attracted much attention in recent years due to their influence on atmospheric concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and the consequent effect on cloud albedo and global climate. To understand UFP lifetime in the atmosphere, both sources and sinks need to be known. One important sink for UFP is removal by vegetation. The main collection mechanism by vegetation is Brownian diffusion with a possible contribution of electrostatic forces. Here we report measurements of collection efficiency of UFP by pine and juniper branches in a wind tunnel at different wind speeds, branch orientations, and packing densities. The effect of particle charge is also investigated. Two modeling approached have been developed to describe UFP deposition to vegetation branches. One treats vegetation as a fibrous filter with a characteristic fiber size; the other treats it as a random porous medium. The experiments agreed well with predictions from both models within 20%. Upon bridging these two modeling approaches, estimates of the effective fiber diameter can now be derived from conventional canopy attributes, such as the leaf area index. These results can benefit future air quality and climate models incorporating UFP.

  9. The impact of corporate social responsibility factors on the competitiveness of small and medium-sized enterprises

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Peter, Turyakira; Elmarie, Venter; Elroy, Smith.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has become increasingly important to the competitiveness of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). A positive relationship between the CSR activities of SMEs and their enhanced competitiveness exists, at least if a long-term perspective is adopted (European [...] Competitiveness Report, 2008:106; Mandl & Dorr, 2007:2). Despite the widespread practical and academic interest in CSR and its impact on the competitiveness of SMEs, few theoretical and empirical contributions could be found. The primary objective of this study was to identify and empirically test the CSR factors influencing the competitiveness of SMEs in Uganda. The outcomes of this study will assist SMEs to effectively and responsibly manage their activities to increase their competitiveness. A structured, self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 750 potential SME respondents. The respondents were identified by means of a purposive sampling technique, and the data were collected from 383 usable questionnaires. An exploratory factor analysis was carried out, and Cronbach's alpha coefficients calculated to determine the discriminant validity and reliability of the measuring instrument. Correlations were assessed using structural equation modeling. The empirical results of this study indicate that workforce-oriented CSR activities, society-oriented CSR activities, market-oriented CSR activities and regulated CSR activities significantly influence the competitiveness of SMEs.

  10. Novel method for measurement of medium size arterial lumen area with an impedance catheter: in vivo validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassab, Ghassan S; Lontis, Eugen R; Hørlyck, Arne; Gregersen, Hans

    2005-04-01

    There is no doubt that the transformation of a cardiac catheter into a conductance catheter that allows reliable and accurate assessment of lumen cross-sectional area (CSA) will provide a powerful diagnostic and treatment tool for the invasive cardiologist. The objective of this study was to develop a method based on the impedance catheter that allows accurate and reproducible measurements of CSA for medium size vessels (e.g., coronary, femoral, and carotid arteries). Two solutions of NaCl (0.5% and 1.5%) with known conductivities were injected directly into the lumen of the artery in eight swine. We showed that the CSA can be determined analytically from two Ohm's law-type algebraic equations that account for the parallel conductance of the current into the surrounding tissue. Excellent agreement was found between the conductance catheter with the proposed two-injection method and B-mode ultrasound (US). The root mean square error for the impedance measurements was 4.8% of the mean US diameter. The repeatability of the technique was assessed with duplicate measurements. The mean of the difference between the two measurements was nearly zero, and the repeatability coefficient was within 2.4% of the mean of the two measurements. The validated method was used to assess the degree of acute vasodilatation of the vessel in response to flow overload. PMID:15734888

  11. Deriving default dermal exposure values for use in a risk assessment toolkit for small and medium-sized enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, N; Goede, H A; Tijssen, S C H A; Oppl, R; Schipper, H J; van Hemmen, J J

    2003-11-01

    This paper describes the derivation of default task-based dermal exposure values for use in a risk assessment toolkit for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). A set of separately determined dermal exposure modifiers have been applied to published studies of dermal exposure to obtain 'normalized' dermal exposure data sets. These data sets are grouped according to task and then further subdivided by making a distinction between processes involving solid and liquid products. For each of the resulting 12 groups, two default exposure rates are required: potential exposure rate to the hands and potential exposure rate to the body. Default values for risk assessment are then derived by taking a weighted average of the 75th percentiles of these normalized exposure distributions. In addition, a measure of peak surface concentration is required to take into account the risk of local skin effects. The higher of the (modified) hand and body exposure rates after applying the relevant penetration factors for clothing and gloves is used. Usually this will be the hand exposure rate. These default values serve as robust initial exposure estimates in a risk assessment toolkit for SMEs. PMID:14602670

  12. Conducting Creativity Brainstorming Sessions in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Using Computer-Mediated Communication Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Uday S.

    A variety of Web-based low cost computer-mediated communication (CMC) tools are now available for use by small and medium-sized enterprises (SME). These tools invariably incorporate chat systems that facilitate simultaneous input in synchronous electronic meeting environments, allowing what is referred to as “electronic brainstorming.” Although prior research in information systems (IS) has established that electronic brainstorming can be superior to face-to-face brainstorming, there is a lack of detailed guidance regarding how CMC tools should be optimally configured to foster creativity in SMEs. This paper discusses factors to be considered in using CMC tools for creativity brainstorming and proposes recommendations for optimally configuring CMC tools to enhance creativity in SMEs. The recommendations are based on lessons learned from several recent experimental studies on the use of CMC tools for rich brainstorming tasks that require participants to invoke domain-specific knowledge. Based on a consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of the various configuration options, the recommendations provided can form the basis for selecting a CMC tool for creativity brainstorming or for creating an in-house CMC tool for the purpose.

  13. Risk determinants of small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises (SMEs) - an exploratory study in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Ariful; Tedford, Des

    2012-08-01

    The smooth running of small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises (SMEs) presents a significant challenge irrespective of the technological and human resources they may have at their disposal. SMEs continuously encounter daily internal and external undesirable events and unwanted setbacks to their operations that detract from their business performance. These are referred to as `disturbances' in our research study. Among the disturbances, some are likely to create risks to the enterprises in terms of loss of production, manufacturing capability, human resource, market share, and, of course, economic losses. These are finally referred to as `risk determinant' on the basis of their correlation with some risk indicators, which are linked to operational, occupational, and economic risks. To deal with these risk determinants effectively, SMEs need a systematic method of approach to identify and treat their potential effects along with an appropriate set of tools. However, initially, a strategic approach is required to identify typical risk determinants and their linkage with potential business risks. In this connection, we conducted this study to explore the answer to the research question: what are the typical risk determinants encountered by SMEs? We carried out an empirical investigation with a multi-method research approach (a combination of a questionnaire-based mail survey involving 212 SMEs and five in-depth case studies) in New Zealand. This paper presents a set of typical internal and external risk determinants, which need special attention to be dealt with to minimize operational risks of an SME.

  14. [The certification of advanced therapy medicinal products. A quality label for product development in small and medium-sized enterprises].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, A; Schüle, S; Flory, E

    2011-07-01

    Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) are gene therapy, cell therapy, and tissue engineered products. To gain access to the market within the European Union, ATMPs must be authorized by the European Commission (EC). Especially for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), the European centralized procedure of marketing authorization that is conducted by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) constitutes a major challenge, because SMEs often have little experience with regulatory procedures and many have limited financial possibilities. To tackle these challenges, a certification procedure exclusively for SMEs and their ATMP development was introduced by the EC. Independently from a marketing authorization application, development and/or production processes can be certified. An issued certificate demonstrates that the respective process meets the current regulatory and scientific requirements of the EMA, representing a valuable milestone for putative investors and licensees. This article highlights the background, the detailed procedure, the minimum requirements, as well as the costs of certification, while giving further noteworthy guidance for interested parties. PMID:21698534

  15. Drivers for Information and Communication Technology Adoption: A Case Study of Nigerian Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idisemi Apulu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, the current use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT in many organizationscauses some forms of revolution in their business practices. ICT is increasingly becoming related toorganizational values (Rastrict and Corner, 2010. Researchers (e.g. Rastrict and Corner, 2010; Lin and Lin,2006 and Melville et al., 2004 reveal that there is a growing support for the positive relationship between ICTand its advantages. According to Kapurubandara and Lawson (2006, ICT offers promising opportunities toorganizations in order to meet the challenges of an ever-changing environment. ICTs have a remarkable potentialto contribute to sustained competitive advantage for businesses, having been identified as key tools inmanagement processes (Ion and Andreea, 2008. Kutlu and Özturan (2009, argue that in Small and MediumSized Enterprises (SMEs, ICT can be used as a business tool to reduce costs, create stronger links withcustomers, create innovations and facilitate market niche. Ongori (2009 also states that SMEs are compelled toadopt ICT in their business processes in order to cope with the challenges in the business environment. Thus, thispaper intends to identify some drivers for ICT adoption amongst 25 SMEs in Nigeria. The paper is drawn fromon-going PhD research.

  16. Development of 3D Visualization Technology for Medium-and Large-sized Radioactive Metal Wastes from Decommissioning Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most important point of decommissioning nuclear facilities and nuclear power plants is to spend less money and do this process safely. In order to perform a better decommissioning nuclear facilities and nuclear power plants, a data base of radioactive waste from decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities should be constructed. This data base is described herein, from the radioactive nuclide to the shape of component of nuclear facilities, and representative results of the status and analysis are presented. With the increase in number of nuclear facilities at the end of their useful life, the demand of decommissioning technologies will continue to grow for years to come. This analysis of medium-and large-sized radioactive metal wastes and 3D visualization technology of the radioactive metal wastes using the 3D-SCAN are planned to be used for constructing data bases. The data bases are expected to be used on development of the basic technologies for decommissioning nuclear facilities 4 session

  17. The Effect of Founder Family Influence on Hedging and Speculation : Evidence from Danish, Medium-Sized, Manufacturing Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Kuhn, Jochen

    We investigate the effect of founder family influence in the form of managers, board of directors, and/or ownership on hedging and speculation in medium-sized, manufacturing firms in Denmark. On a crude measure of use / non-use of derivatives we find only a weak indication of differences between founder family firms and other firms in relation to their management of foreign exchange rate, interest rate, and commodity price exposures. Digging deeper into a subsample of users of foreign exchange derivatives and debt denominated in foreign currency, we find that founder family firms not only tend to hedge more extensively, they also tend to speculate more often than other firms. While the former result on hedging is in line with founder families' lack of monetary diversification and their non-pecuniary investment in the firm, the latter result on speculation is surprising and can only be explained by Adam Smith's observation that men - in this case members of the founder family - tend to overestimate their own abilities and good fortune. The results of the study are important 1) because the interaction between founder family influence and risk management has received limited attention in the literature (in contrast to the attention given to the interaction between founder family influence and corporate performance) and 2) because the founders or the founders' families or heirs control most of the firms in the world.

  18. Market potential of small and medium-size nuclear reactors as combined heat and power plants in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preliminary results are presented concerning a study launched by the Commission of the European Communities to assess the potential market of small and medium-size nuclear reactors through EC member countries. The study was aimed at identifying those factors that may have a role in shaping the eventual deployment and diffusion of this class of nuclear reactors. In a first phase, attention focused on modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors that would be installed to produce low-temperature heat and power. Federal Republic of Germany, Italy and France are the countries for which the investigation has been completed. The time span of interest is up to the year 2020. Referring to this horizon, an appraisal has been made of the number of nuclear units which could come on line to cope with energy demand and their timing. Through the study a distinction is made between technical potential, economic potential, and effective market potential. It is understood indeed that both economic competitiveness towards other energy sources and also institutional or organizational factors may restrict the market which could become accessible and would be covered by the new nuclear plants. (orig.)

  19. Fundamentos de un sistema de gestión humana por competencias para soportar la estrategia organizacional en una pyme del sector de la industria de las artes gráficas en Cali (Colombia) / Fundamentals of a competency-based human resource management system that supports the organizational strategy of a medium-sized company in the graphic arts industry in Cali (Colombia) / Fundamentos de um sistema de gestão humana por competências para apoiar a estratégia organizacional de uma pequema e média empresa do setor da indústria de artes gráficas em Cali (Colômbia)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    AIDA FLORENCIA, MEDINA LORZA; ANA MARÍA, DELGADO ORTEGA; PAOLA ANDREA, LAVADO ALVARADO.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A competitividade é um fator-chave para melhorar a posição sócio-econômica das organizações, para a qual é necessário alinhar o recurso humano à estratégia da empresa. O objetivo desta investigação é desenvolver os fundamentos de um sistema de gestão humana por competências para apoiar a estratégia [...] organizacional de uma empresa mediana do setor de artes gráficas em Cali, Colômbia, para a qual se levou em conta um estudo descritivo e qualitativo, analisou- -se a estratégia da empresa utilizando o modelo analítico de Beer (2001), estabeleceram-se as competências organizacionais e distintas dos cargos críticos para o sucesso da estratégia e estabeleceram-se diretrizes para criar os subsistemas de gestão humana. Abstract in spanish La competitividad es un factor clave para mejorar la posición socioeconómica de las organizaciones, para lo cual es necesario alinear el recurso humano a la estrategia de la empresa. El objetivo de esta investigación es desarrollar los fundamentos de un sistema de gestión humana por competencias par [...] a soportar la estrategia organizacional en una empresa mediana del sector de las artes gráficas en Cali (Colombia), para lo cual se llevó a cabo un estudio descriptivo y cualitativo, se analizó la estrategia de la empresa utilizando el modelo analítico de Beer (2001), se establecieron las competencias organizacionales y distintivas de los cargos críticos para el logro de la estrategia, y se plantearon los lineamientos para diseñar los subsistemas de gestión humana. Abstract in english Competitiveness is a key factor for improving the socioeconomic status of organizations. Consequently, there is a need to align human resources with company strategies. The objective of this research was to develop the foundations of a competency-based human management system that supports the organ [...] izational strategy of a medium-sized company in the graphic arts industry in Cali, Colombia. To this end, a qualitative and descriptive study was carried out which involved analyzing the company strategies using Beer's (2001) analytical model, establishing and defining organizational competencies of critical positions to accomplish the strategy, and providing the design guidelines for human resource management subsystems.

  20. Tube vibration in industrial-size test heat exchanger (90/sup 0/ square layout)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halle, H.; Wambsganss, M.W.

    1983-02-01

    Tube vibrations in heat exchangers are being systematically investigated in a series of tests performed with an industrial-size test exchanger. Results from waterflow tests of eleven different tube bundles, in six- and eight-crosspass configurations on a 90/sup 0/ square layout with a pitch-to-diameter ratio of 1.25 are reported. The test cases include full tube bundles, no-tubes-in-window bundles, finned tube bundles, and proposed field and design fixes. The testing focused on identification of the lowest critical flowrate to initiate fluidelastic instability (large amplitude tube motion) and the location within the bundle of the tubes which first experience instability. The test results are tabulated to permit comparison with results obtained from previous tests with a 30/sup 0/ triangular layout tube bundle. Instability criteria are evaluated preliminarily. Pressure drop data are also generated and reported.

  1. Tube vibration in industrial size test heat exchanger (30/sup 0/ triangular layout - six crosspass configuration)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wambsganss, M.W.; Halle, H.; Lawrence, W.P.

    1981-10-01

    Tube vibrations in heat exchangers are being systematically studied in a series of tests performed with an industrial-size test exchanger. Results from flow tests of nine different tube bundles, in a basic 5-baffle, 6-crosspass configuration on a 30/sup 0/-triangular layout with a pitch-to-diameter ratio of 1.25, are reported. the test cases include a full tube bundle, no-tubes-in-window bundle, finned tube bundle, and several proposed field fixes. The testing focused on identification of the lowest critical flowrate to initiate fluidelastic instability (large amplitude tube motion) and the location within the bundle of the tubes which first experience instability. The threshold flowrates are determined from a combination of methods based on sensory observations, vibration amplitude data, and frequency response information. Pressure drop data are also generated and reported.

  2. The impact of ICT investments on the relative demand for high-medium-, and low-skilled workers: Industry versus country analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Dorothee

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I analyze the effects of information and communication technology (ICT) on compensation shares of high-, medium-, and low-skilled workers. Com- pared to other studies, I investigate this question using a considerably richer data set with respect to the length of time series, set of countries and industries, and information on ICT. Next to investigating the influence of ICT in 14 countries, I concentrate on the analysis in 23 separate industries. The results I find show that the ...

  3. The comparative analysis of safety and economic competitiveness of the advanced medium sized reactor projects of NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of the fact that medium sized reactors are less economic favourable in comparison to large sized reactors, they have a greater safety, low capital investments, shorter terms of construction, relative constructive simplicity, are well combined with rather small electrical distributive systems. For power of Kazakhstan these circumstances are important. The comparative analysis results of the safety and economic competitiveness of the seven advanced medium sized reactors projects (100-700 MW) are submitted in that report: WWER-640 (V-407), Atomenergoproject/Gidropress Russian Federation; Candu 6, Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd; AC-600, China National Nuclear Corporation, China; AP600, Westinghouse, USA; HSBWR, Hitachi, Japan; MS-600, Mitsubishi, Japan; SBWR, General Electric, USA. According to the economic competitiveness of listed compared power reactors the 14 criteria of safety have been accepted. These criteria: 1. Features of the barrier system of 'defence-in-depth'. 2. The self-security of a reactor under increase of power and reactivity of a reactor, decrease of the expense and phase transformations of the reactor core coolant (presence of negative feedbacks). 3. Presence of the reactor shutdown systems responding principles of a variety, independence and reservation. Presence of the passive means of initiation and operation of the emergency protection. 4. The emergency cooling of the core of reactor. A presence of the passive means of cooling. Presence of the passive means of cooling. Presence of the water reservation for the water supply of the different safety systems. 5. The emergency electrical supply, its reliability and degree of reservation. 6. The prevention measures of the heavy accident with the melt core. The decrease of the heavy accident probability. 7. The account of the heavy accident under development of the levels of protection. 8. The protection levels of NPP, the technological criteria of efficiency of the each safety barriers and the limiting radiation criteria for the each level of protection , in particular for the design-basis and beyond-design-basis accidents. 9. The measures for reduction of the heavy accident consequences. The management by the beyond-design-basis accidents. 10. The NPP protection against the external impacts (earthquake, explosion of shells and rockets, fall of plane). 11. The probability analysis results of safety, their conformity the modern requirements. 12. The test checks of the safety means (principles, elements, technical decisions) in the operating conditions, the former experience or the tests. 13. The measures of the cost reduction of construction, equipment, materials and OM of NPP. The economic parameters. 14. The additional distinctive features of a power reactor. The following conclusions have been accepted from comparative consideration of reactors: 1. All considered reactors correspond the modern requirements of safety. 2. The reactor Candu-6, AP-600, WWER-640 are more preferable under position of safety, adaptability to manufacture and economic competitiveness among the considered reactors

  4. A Cost-Benefit Analysis of a Collections Inventory Project: A Statistical Analysis of Inventory Data from a Medium-Sized Academic Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jan S.; Whisler, John A.; Sung, Nackil

    2009-01-01

    Using an electronic shelf-reading system a cost-benefit analysis was conducted of an inventory/shelf-reading project in a medium-sized academic library. Analyses include time spent, cataloging discrepancies, books found with active statuses, mis-shelving rate and distance, and subsequent use of found books. Correctly re-shelving "missing"…

  5. Analysis and Evaluation of Databases on Business and Management Training Schemes for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allesch, Jurgen; Preiss-Allesch, Dagmar

    This report describes a study that identified major databases in operation in the 12 European Community countries that provide small- and medium-sized enterprises with information on opportunities for obtaining training and continuing education. Thirty-five databases were identified through information obtained from telephone interviews or…

  6. Regioselective synthesis of medium-sized bicyclic butenolides by lewis acid catalyzed cyclization of cyclic 1, 3-Bis(trimethylsilyloxy)-1,3-butadienes with oxalyl chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer; Saleh

    2000-10-19

    A new strategy for the synthesis of medium-sized bicyclic gamma-alkylidenebutenolides is reported which involves Me(3)SiOTf-catalyzed cyclization of cyclic 1, 3-bis(trimethylsilyloxy)-1,3-butadienes with oxalyl chloride. PMID:11029203

  7. Size fractionated speciation of nitrate and sulfate aerosols in a sub-tropical industrial environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Tripathi, B D; Mishra, V K; Prajapati, S K

    2006-03-01

    Size fractionated chemical speciation of acidic aerosols were performed for ammonium sulfate, other sulfates, ammonium nitrate and other nitrates in a sub-tropical industrial area, Bina, India during December 2003 to November 2004. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed highly significant temporal variations (p > .001) in the concentrations of nitrate and sulfate aerosols in all the three size fractions (fine, mid-size and coarse). Winter demonstrated utmost concentrations of ammonium sulfate, which ranged from 3.2 to 26.4 microg m(-3) in fine particles and 0.20-0.34 microg m(-3) in coarse particles. Ammonium sulfate was chiefly in fine mode (43.77% of total particulate sulfate) as compared to coarse particles (28.60% of total particulate sulfate). The major fraction Ammonium sulfate existed in different forms in atmospheric aerosols, for example NH4Fe(SO4)2, (NH4)2SO4, (NH4)3H(SO4)2 in fine particles, and (NH4)4(NO3)SO4+ in coarse particles. Other sulfate concentrations were also higher during winter ranging from 1.89 to 14.3 microg m(-3) in fine particles and 0.12-0.65microg m(-3) in coarse particles. Ammonium nitrate constituted the major fraction of total particulate nitrate all through the year and was principally in fine particles (the highest concentration in January i.e. 14.2 microg m(-3)). Other nitrates were mainly distributed in the fine particles (highest concentration in January i.e. 11.2 microg m(-3)) All the sulfate and nitrate species were mainly distributed in fine mode and have significant impact on human health. PMID:16153681

  8. A sustainable slashing industry using biodegradable sizes from modified soy protein to replace petro-based poly(vinyl alcohol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi; Zhao, Yuzhu; Xu, Helan; Yang, Yiqi

    2015-02-17

    Biodegradable sizing agents from triethanolamine (TEA) modified soy protein could substitute poly(vinyl alcohol)(PVA) sizes for high-speed weaving of polyester and polyester/cotton yarns to substantially decrease environmental pollution and impel sustainability of textile industry. Nonbiodegradable PVA sizes are widely used and mainly contribute to high chemical oxygen demand (COD) in textile effluents. It has not been possible to effectively degrade, reuse or replace PVA sizes so far. Soy protein with good biodegradability showed potential as warp sizes in our previous studies. However, soy protein sizes lacked film flexibility and adhesion for required high-speed weaving. Additives with multiple hydroxyl groups, nonlinear molecule, and electric charge could physically modify secondary structure of soy protein and lead to about 23.6% and 43.3% improvement in size adhesion and ability of hair coverage comparing to unmodified soy protein. Industrial weaving results showed TEA-soy protein had relative weaving efficiency 3% and 10% higher than PVA and chemically modified starch sizes on polyester/cotton fabrics, and had relative weaving efficiency similar to PVA on polyester fabrics, although with 3- 6% lower add-on. In addition, TEA-soy sizes had a BOD5/COD ratio of 0.44, much higher than 0.03 for PVA, indicating that TEA-soy sizes were easily biodegradable in activated sludge. PMID:25687520

  9. Information and knowledge sharing trends of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faeda Mohsam

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs, especially in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, are currently facing various financial and other obstacles, which may threaten their survival. Globalisation, the lowering of trade barriers and the reduction of import tariffs have resulted in increased international competition. Businesses are thus forced to undertake continuous improvements and innovation in order to survive, to keep abreast of change and to excel.

    Objectives: Effective knowledge sharing and consequent knowledge management (KM have been identified as definite approaches to enhancing competitive advantage. The research therefore aimed to establish to what extent small enterprises embrace their knowledge sharing activities and whether their knowledge sharing activities are managed at all. Furthermore, it examined how their knowledge sharing can contribute to their competitive advantage.

    Method: A case study approach was followed for this research. Selected SMEs from the engineering sector were the subject of the case study and SME owners, directors and managers of consulting civil engineering firms were interviewed to determine whether there are mechanisms in place to ensure better knowledge sharing within SMEs.

    Results: In general, respondents had stated that they possessed special factors that set them above their competitors:

    • The company strategy and good reputation of completing projects within the required timeframe. In other words, they were well known for their track record in terms of service delivery.
    • Their specialty in terms of different focus areas, namely structural and civil engineering, water supply and storm water design, transportation, sewer design and storm water traffic.
    • The fact that they operated in silos. This means that the specialists in their specific fields operated independently in groups, separately from everyone else in the company.
    • Their good relationship with local authorities and other companies in the field.
    • Their multidisciplinary approach in incorporating all spheres of civil engineering, which gave them a niche in the market.
    • The vast knowledge and experience of the owners and directors.

    Conclusion: Each of the companies interviewed had unique skills that they can apply to their advantage. They were also found to be implementing KM processes such as sharing, creating and leveraging of information and knowledge, albeit in the absence of formal policies. It was therefore deduced that SME successes depend on how well they share their tacit and explicit knowledge; this will determine whether they would excel above their competitors.

    How to cite this article:
    Mohsam, F. & Van Brakel, P.A., 2011, ‘Information and knowledge sharing trends of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Western Cape, South Africa’, SA Journal of Information Management 13(1, Art. #462, 10 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajim.v13i1.462

  10. Risk factors for uterine diseases on small- and medium-sized dairy farms determined by clinical, bacteriological, and cytological examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunner, Isabella; Wagener, Karen; Pothmann, Harald; Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Drillich, Marc

    2014-10-01

    The involution process of the postpartum bovine uterus is usually accompanied by invasion of various bacteria. The objectives of this study were to identify the relationship between the postpartum findings as risk factors for clinical endometritis (CE) and subclinical endometritis (SE). Furthermore, the effects of CE or SE on reproductive performance in small- and medium-sized dairy herds were investigated. A total of 400 cows were examined by vaginoscopy for CE at 20 to 30 days postpartum, and samples were collected for cytological examinations for SE and for bacteriology by cytobrush technique. The vaginoscopic and cytological examinations showed that 27.3% and 21.0% of the cows were found with CE and SE, respectively. The bacterial community analyses revealed a large variety of bacteria. Overall, bacteria from the order Actinomycetales, Lactobacillales, Bacillales, Burkholderiales, Caulobacteriales Enterobacteriales, Pasteurellales, and Pseudomonadales were detected, whereas in 39.5% of the samples no bacterial growth was detectable. The uterine pathogens Escherichia coli and Trueperella pyogenes were found in 16.8% and 13.0% of the samples cultivated under aerobic conditions. Other frequently isolated bacteria were Streptococcus spp. (31.3%), Staphylococcus spp. (20.0%), Corynebacterium spp. (16.5%), and Bacillus spp. (10.5%). The infection with T. pyogenes was the most important bacteriological risk factor for the occurrence of CE (odds ratio (OR) = 5.72; 95% CI = 3.07-10.83) and had a detrimental effect on the hazard of nonpregnancy by 200 days postpartum (hazard ratio = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.12-2.46). Calving assistance (OR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.16-2.98) and farm (OR = 1.11; 95% CI = 1.02-1.20) were indicated as further risk factors for CE and SE. Effects of CE and SE on reproductive performance parameters could not be demonstrated. PMID:25066047

  11. The Role of Remote Sensing for Sustainable Elephant Management in South Africa. Four Medium Sized Game Reserves as Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordaan, M.

    2012-07-01

    Loxodonta africana (African Elephant) are running out of living space so the protection of what space they have is essential. Existing areas of suitable elephant habitat need to be protected not only from human development but from the elephants themselves. As most elephant populations in South Africa are enclosed and multiplying, there is some increasing cause for concern as the damage caused will escalate and could reach unsustainable proportions. This study examined the utilization of satellite images for the detection of elephant induced ecosystem modification. A pilot study was conducted on four medium sized Game Reserves (each ±30 000 ha) in South Africa. The aim was to ascertain the feasibility of using image analysis as instrument by which Game Reserve managers could assess biodiversity richness, habitat loss, and population-habitat viability. NDVI as indicator of primary production in vegetation is one of the instruments used to evaluate whether the carrying capacity for elephants of each Game Reserve has been reached and to compare the current biomass with those of previous years. The study also looked at the use of the woody canopy cover as target for change detection analysis. Spectral characteristics of specific trees species which are known for being preferred by elephants were used to conduct a temporal analysis on satellite images starting from the period when the elephants were re-introduced into each Game Reserve, thus attempting to identify possible impact on the biodiversity of the respective Game Reserves. Images from satellites such as Landsat, SPOT, Quickbird and SumbandilaSAT provided the needed data and maps.

  12. Investigation and Assessment of Critical Success Factors of Knowledge Management Implementation in Iranian Small-to-Medium Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changiz Valmohammadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on an in-depth review and comparative study of existing studies on Critical Success Factors (CSFs of Knowledge Management (KM and by considering the characteristics of small to medium sized enterprises (SMEs, twelve CSFs were identified, namely management leadership and support, organizational culture, information systems, KM strategy, performance measurement, organizational infrastructure, processes and activities, rewarding and motivation, training and education, removal of resources constraints, human resources management and benchmarking which is believed to be suitable for SMEs. The importance of the proposed CSFs was theoretically discussed and justified. An instrument, which consists of all CSFs and their related elements, was developed to evaluate the appropriateness of the proposed CSFs from experts’ point of view. The experts were asked to express their views and perceptions on the extent of appropriateness of the CSFs and their related elements for Iranian SMEs using a six-point Likert scale, ranging from not successful to extremely successful. This scale was then grouped into three levels-poor, satisfactory and good. The overall results from this assessment show that experts endorsed the proposed CSFs and their related elements as being at least eighty percent satisfactory for their intended purpose. The set of CSFs can act as a list of items for organizations, particularly for SMEs to address when implementing KM. This helps to ensure that essential issues and factors are covered when planning and developing KM. Also, it can provide a basis for them to evaluate their KM practices. For academics; it provides a common language for the discussion and study of factors underpinning the success of KM in SMEs.

  13. MDCT abnormalities of small- and medium-sized bronchus in active tuberculosis: a new angle on an old disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jin Kyoung; Ahn, Myeong Im; Jung, Jung Im; Han, Dae Hee (Dept. of Radiology, Seoul St Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)), email: lepolder@gmail.com; Kim, Young Kyoon (Dept. of Internal Medicine, Seoul St Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Oh, Eun-Jee; Park, Yeon-Joon (Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Seoul St Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of))

    2011-02-15

    Background: The incidence and findings of tuberculous invasion of the peripheral bronchus have not been fully investigated with MDCT. Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence and findings of MDCT abnormalities of small- and medium-sized bronchus (SMB) in active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Material and Methods: Using multiplanar reformation, 35 consecutive MDCT scans (follow-up exams available in 14 patients with a mean interval of 8.1 months) were assessed for following abnormalities of SMB: bronchial impaction (BI), wall thickening, dilatation, peribronchial cuff of soft tissue, and bronchocavitary fistula. It was also assessed whether tree-in-buds (TIB) have a tendency to distribute in the territories of diseased SMB, and whether SMB abnormalities are present in patients with relatively mild disease. Results: SMB abnormalities were observed in 23 (65.7%) patients with active TB. The most frequent finding was wall thickening (n=18, 51.4%), followed by BI (n=13, 37.1%; zigzag-shaped in four), dilatation (n =11, 31.4%), amputated appearance of air column (n=11, 31.4%), peribronchial cuff of soft tissue (n=10, 28.6%), and bronchocavitary fistula (n=8, 22.9%). TIB (n=29; absent in two patients with SMB) was mainly within (n=14) or close to (n=4) the territory of diseased SMB. Follow-up CT frequently showed improvement of wall thickening (11/12) and persistence of bronchial dilatation (11/13). SMB abnormality was present in all of six patients with mild disease. Conclusion: MDCT shows that tuberculous invasion of the peripheral bronchus may be more frequent than previously thought, of which findings include wall thickening, BI, dilatation, amputated appearance of air column, peribronchial cuff of soft tissue and bronchocavitary fistula

  14. Impact of local urban design and traffic restrictions on air quality in a medium-sized town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acero, J A; Simon, A; Padro, A; Santa Coloma, O

    2012-01-01

    Traffic is the major air pollution source in most urban areas. Nowadays, most of the strategies carried out to improve urban air quality are focused on reducing traffic emissions. Nevertheless, acting locally on urban design can also reduce levels of air pollutants. In this paper, both strategies are studied in several scenarios for a medium-sized town of the Basque Country (Spain). Two main actions are analysed in order to reduce traffic emissions: (1) minor extension ofa pre-existing low emission zone (LEZ); (2) substitution of 10% of passenger cars that are older than 5 years by hybrid and electric vehicles. Regarding local urban design, three alternatives for the development of one side of a street canyon are considered: (1) a park with trees; (2) an open space without obstacles; (3) a building. Two different urban traffic dispersion models are used to calculate the air quality scenarios: PROKAS (Gaussian&box) to analyse the reduction of traffic emissions in the whole urban area and WinMISKAM (CFD) to evaluate specific urban designs. The results show the effectiveness of the analysed actions. On one hand, the definition of a small LEZ, as well as the introduction in 2015 of vehicles with new technology (hybrid and electric), results in minor impacts on PM10 and NO2 ambient concentrations. On the other hand, local urban design can cause significant variation in spatial distribution ofpollutant concentrations emitted inside street canyons. Consequently, urban planners should consider all these aspects when dealing with urban air pollution control. PMID:23393990

  15. Size and medium conductivity dependence on dielectrophoretic behaviors of gas core poly-l-lysine shell nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chungja; Wu, Chun-Jen; Ostafin, Agnes E; Thibaudeau, Giselle; Minerick, Adrienne R

    2015-04-01

    Dynamic (dis)assembly of biocompatible nanoparticles into 3D, packed structures would benefit drug delivery, films, and diagnostics. Dielectrophoretic (DEP) microdevices can rapidly assemble and manipulate polarizable particles within nonuniform electric fields. DEP has primarily discerned micrometer particles since nanoparticles experience smaller forces. This work examines conductivity and size DEP dependencies of previously unexplored spherical core-shell nanoparticle (CSnp) into 3D particle assemblies. Poly-l-lysine shell material was custom synthesized around a gas core to form CSnps. DEP frequencies from 1 kHz to 80 MHz at fixed 5 volts peak-to-peak and medium conductivities of 10(-5) and 10(-3) S/m were tested. DEP responses of ?220 and ?400 nm poly-l-lysine CSnps were quantified via video intensity densitometry at the microdevice's quadrapole electrode center for negative DEP (nDEP) and adjacent to electrodes for positive DEP. Intensity densitometry was then translated into a relative DEP response curve. An unusual nDEP peak occurred at ?57 MHz with 25-80 times greater apparent nDEP force. All electrical circuit components were then impedance matched, which changed the observed response to weak positive DEP at low frequencies and consistently weak nDEP from ?100 kHz to 80 MHz. This impedance-matched behavior agrees with conventional Clausius-Mossotti DEP signatures taking into account the gas core's contributions to the polarization mechanisms. This work describes a potential pitfall when conducting DEP at higher frequencies in microdevices and concurrently demonstrates nDEP behavior for a chemically and structurally distinct particle system. This work provides insight into organic shell material properties in nanostructures and strategies to facilitate dynamic nanoparticle assemblies. PMID:25640705

  16. Association of sulfur dioxide exposure with circulatory system deaths in a medium-sized city in Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C.T., Amancio; L.F.C., Nascimento.

    1080-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a demonstrable association between exposure to air pollutants and deaths due to cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of exposure to sulfur dioxide on mortality due to circulatory diseases in individuals 50 years of age or older residing in São Jos [...] é dos Campos, SP. This was a time-series ecological study for the years 2003 to 2007 using information on deaths due to circulatory disease obtained from Datasus reports. Data on daily levels of pollutants, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone, temperature, and humidity were obtained from the São Paulo State Environmental Agency. Moving average models for 2 to 7 days were calculated by Poisson regression using the R software. Exposure to SO2 was analyzed using a unipollutant, bipollutant or multipollutant model adjusted for mean temperature and humidity. The relative risks with 95%CI were obtained and the percent decrease in risk was calculated. There were 1928 deaths with a daily mean (± SD) of 1.05 ± 1.03 (range: 0-6). Exposure to SO2 was significantly associated with mortality due to circulatory disease: RR = 1.04 (95%CI = 1.01 to 1.06) in the 7-day moving average, after adjusting for ozone. There was an 8.5% decrease in risk in the multipollutant model, proportional to a decrease of SO2 concentrations. The results of this study suggest that residents of medium-sized Brazilian cities with characteristics similar to those of São José dos Campos probably have health problems due to exposure to air pollutants.

  17. MDCT abnormalities of small- and medium-sized bronchus in active tuberculosis: a new angle on an old disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The incidence and findings of tuberculous invasion of the peripheral bronchus have not been fully investigated with MDCT. Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence and findings of MDCT abnormalities of small- and medium-sized bronchus (SMB) in active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Material and Methods: Using multiplanar reformation, 35 consecutive MDCT scans (follow-up exams available in 14 patients with a mean interval of 8.1 months) were assessed for following abnormalities of SMB: bronchial impaction (BI), wall thickening, dilatation, peribronchial cuff of soft tissue, and bronchocavitary fistula. It was also assessed whether tree-in-buds (TIB) have a tendency to distribute in the territories of diseased SMB, and whether SMB abnormalities are present in patients with relatively mild disease. Results: SMB abnormalities were observed in 23 (65.7%) patients with active TB. The most frequent finding was wall thickening (n=18, 51.4%), followed by BI (n=13, 37.1%; zigzag-shaped in four), dilatation (n =11, 31.4%), amputated appearance of air column (n=11, 31.4%), peribronchial cuff of soft tissue (n=10, 28.6%), and bronchocavitary fistula (n=8, 22.9%). TIB (n=29; absent in two patients with SMB) was mainly within (n=14) or close to (n=4) the territory of diseased SMB. Follow-up CT frequently showed improvement of wall thickening (11/12) and persistence of bronchial dilatation (11/13). SMB abnormality was present in all of six patients with mild disease. Conclusion: M patients with mild disease. Conclusion: MDCT shows that tuberculous invasion of the peripheral bronchus may be more frequent than previously thought, of which findings include wall thickening, BI, dilatation, amputated appearance of air column, peribronchial cuff of soft tissue and bronchocavitary fistula

  18. Association of sulfur dioxide exposure with circulatory system deaths in a medium-sized city in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.T. Amancio

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a demonstrable association between exposure to air pollutants and deaths due to cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of exposure to sulfur dioxide on mortality due to circulatory diseases in individuals 50 years of age or older residing in São José dos Campos, SP. This was a time-series ecological study for the years 2003 to 2007 using information on deaths due to circulatory disease obtained from Datasus reports. Data on daily levels of pollutants, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide (SO2, ozone, temperature, and humidity were obtained from the São Paulo State Environmental Agency. Moving average models for 2 to 7 days were calculated by Poisson regression using the R software. Exposure to SO2 was analyzed using a unipollutant, bipollutant or multipollutant model adjusted for mean temperature and humidity. The relative risks with 95%CI were obtained and the percent decrease in risk was calculated. There were 1928 deaths with a daily mean (± SD of 1.05 ± 1.03 (range: 0-6. Exposure to SO2 was significantly associated with mortality due to circulatory disease: RR = 1.04 (95%CI = 1.01 to 1.06 in the 7-day moving average, after adjusting for ozone. There was an 8.5% decrease in risk in the multipollutant model, proportional to a decrease of SO2 concentrations. The results of this study suggest that residents of medium-sized Brazilian cities with characteristics similar to those of São José dos Campos probably have health problems due to exposure to air pollutants.

  19. Inferred Variable FeO Content in Medium-sized Lunar Pyroclastic Deposits from LRO Diviner Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, K. A.; Horgan, B.; Greenhagen, B.; Allen, C.; Bell, J. F., III

    2014-01-01

    Lunar pyroclastic deposits (LPDs) are low albedo features that mantle underlying terrain (Gaddis et al. 1985). They are high priority targets for science and exploration as they are believed to originate from and therefore reflect the composition of the deep lunar interior (NRC, 2011). They are also the best potential resource of oxygen out of any Apollo samples (Allen et al. 1996). Historically, LPDs have been divided into regional versus local categories (Gaddis et al. 2003). The large (>1000 km2 area) regional deposits are deeply sourced (>400 km deep) and result from fire fountaining. Small (Reconnaissance Orbiter Diviner Lunar Radiometer instrument thermal-infrared observations for four medium-sized deposits. From the CF values, we estimate each deposit's FeO abundance using the method of Allen et al. (2012). The four LPDs that we examined (Oppenheimer South, Beer, Cleomedes, and J. Herschel) all have average CF values from 8.22-8.28 microns, corresponding to FeO abundances of approx. 10-15 wt.%. All of these values are within the range and uncertainties of FeO abundances measured in Apollo samples. As previously identified, the Oppenheimer South deposit exhibits an area of enhanced CF values (8.49 microns) that, if the methods of Allen et al. (2012) can be extrapolated, correspond to a highest observed approx. 30 wt.% FeO. Moon Mineralogy Mapper near-infrared spectra indicate that this area is glass-rich as opposed to olivine-rich. While we are still investigating the nature of the high CF wavelength in Oppenheimer South, spatially-resolved observations there and (to a smaller degree) in our other study sites, shows that FeO wt.% can vary within LPDs. Thus, obtaining only the average FeO abundance over a large area may not be adequate to understand global variation. The magnitude of Oppenheimer South's CF variability, if due to actual surface variations rather than calibration artifacts or spectral mixing, could indicate that it is a unique deposit and not part of a new mid-sized class of deposits. The higher value could be a result of its location within the South Pole Aitken Basin and exsolution of more deeply sourced magma due to the thin crust there.

  20. Contribution to the integration methodology of environment in the small and medium enterprises or industries: evaluation of environmental performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The integration of environmental criteria into industrial plants working is nowadays an obligation for companies. Implementation of an Environmental Management System (EMS) is a mean to integrate these criteria, and the system registration (by ISO 14001 or EMAS standards) enables companies to demonstrate the validity of their environmental behaviour to interested parties. Our experience in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) has allowed us to note the inadequacy between their environmental integration level and EMS requirements. In addition to that, we have observed that environmental assessment methods, which could enable SMEs to make up for lost time, were not adapted to their specificities. However, two recent approaches are innovative: the first one is based on a progressive processes, the second one on an environmental information system, based on indicators construction. On the basis of existing methods study, improved with our SMEs experience, our approach consists of developing an environmental integration method, joining the progressive aspect (construction of a 'multi-phases' method) and the information treatment (exploitation of environmental data by indicators construction). We propose a four phases method, - environmental performance evaluation, internal and external results exploitation, process perpetuation -, setting up an information treatment system, by means of compliance, progress and monitoring indicators. Leading to implementation of an environmental performance continuous improvement cycle, this process enables companies to step forward EMS implementation. (author)

  1. Policy options to promote energy efficient and environmentally sound technologies in small- and medium-scale industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Thiruchelvam; S. Kumar; C. Visvanathan [Asian Institute of Technology, Pathumthani (Thailand). School of Environment, Resources and Development

    2003-08-01

    The paper discusses the role of small and medium scale industries (SMIs) in the economy, its energy consumption and impact on the environment. An overview of the energy and environment policies of China, India, Sri Lanka, the Philippines and Vietnam, and the role of energy efficient and environmentally sound technologies (E{sup 3}ST) as a viable means to meet these modern challenges in SMI is discussed. The energy used in the textile sector, electricity, coal and fuel oil, is quoted as an example. The barriers faced in adopting these technologies have been identified and an analysis has been done of the various strategies and policy options available to governments to promote E{sup 3}ST in SMI. Examples and illustrations of such successful efforts have also been highlighted. One such example is the enforced repositioning by the Pollution Control Board of all SMI with inefficient coal furnaces in Agra, India to outside the town to save the Taj Mahal from marble corrosion. 22 refs., 1 fig., 10 tabs.

  2. The influence pattern of key factors affecting the purpose of organizational excellence consulting on the efficiency of businesses consulting services (A case study of small and medium-size food enterprises in Tehran province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Ezati Jivan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Consulting helps managers or other people find appropriate solutions for challenges they face in their businesses. Most of the losses incurred by the people and the society could be prevented using appropriate consultation. Consultation, also, refers to people's participation in decision making. Despite dramatic development in management consulting industry in the world during the last three decades, consulting industry in Iran has faced numerous challenges. This study aims to examine the factors affecting the efficiency of management consulting services in small and medium-sized businesses and it focuses on food industries in Tehran as a real-world case study. The necessary suggestions regarding the hiring of a consultant and increasing the efficiency of management consulting services in business have been offered in this study. Some recommendations deal with the way that management consultants should respond to the managers' needs, act as a reliable and efficient adviser in public or private businesses and find their position in the Iranian market. The conceptual model of this study shows the influence of key factors affecting the purpose of consulting on the efficiency of management consulting services. To do the research, 90 people are selected as the sample size in a descriptive study with random sampling of the managers of aforementioned companies using a questionnaire. Cronbach’s alpha method was used to assess the reliability of the questionnaire. For assessing the validity of the questionnaire, we use standard questionnaire, which has already been used.

  3. Determinants of Financing Pattern and Access to Formal -Informal Credit: The Case of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Viet Nam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhung Nguyen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate factors from firm side that determine their financing pattern for new investment projects and their decision to choose formal, informal credit, or both. For financing pattern of new investment project, we use Random-effect model while Unordered-Multinomial Logistic is used to estimate probability of choosing any of four choices to access to finance, say, formal credit, informal credit, both of them, or none of them. Our analysis is based on a panel of around 2200 small and medium sized enterprises with 7900 observations extracted from the “Survey of small and medium scale manufacturing enterprises in Viet Nam” in 2005, 2007, and 2009.

  4. Characterization of the origin of fine particulate matter in a medium size urban area in the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikridas, Michael; Tasoglou, Antonios; Florou, Kalliopi; Pandis, Spyros N.

    2013-12-01

    A multi-stage methodology for investigating particulate pollution is developed and implemented for the case study area of Patras, Greece. Initially a low cost particulate matter mass monitor was used to assess aerosol mass concentrations indicating that the city, despite its small size (population around 200,000) and lack of heavy industry, violates both the daily and annual European Union PM standards. Increased PM10 concentrations were observed during the winter but local vehicular traffic was estimated to account for only 12 ± 4% of the PM10 concentration on an annual basis. In the second stage, PM2.5 chemical composition was measured at the urban center and biomass burning was identified as a major PM source during the colder months. In the third stage, PM2.5 concentration and chemical composition was also followed at a mostly upwind rural site around 40 km from the city. The transported pollution was found to account for 50% of the PM2.5 during winter and for more than 70% during the rest of the year. Almost all of the sulfates and 40-90%, depending on the season, of the organic aerosol are transported to the city from other areas. In the last stage, an intensive campaign took place during winter in order to quantify PM sources during the most polluted period. Nighttime sharp increases of the aerosol levels were observed with organic aerosol levels exceeding 80 ?g m-3. Local biomass combustion and fossil fuel emissions for domestic heating were responsible for these levels.

  5. Inclusion of potential vorticity uncertainties into a hydrometeorological forecasting chain: application to a medium size basin of Mediterranean Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Amengual

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of the short- and mid-range numerical runoff forecasts over the flood-prone Spanish Mediterranean area is a challenging issue. This work analyses four intense precipitation events which produced floods of different magnitude over the Llobregat river basin, a medium size catchment located in Catalonia, north-eastern Spain. One of them was a devasting flash flood – known as the "Montserrat" event – which produced 5 fatalities and material losses estimated at about 65 million euros. The characterization of the Llobregat basin's hydrological response to these floods is first assessed by using rain-gauge data and the Hydrologic Engineering Center's Hydrological Modeling System (HEC-HMS runoff model. In second place, the non-hydrostatic fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University/NCAR mesoscale model (MM5 is nested within the ECMWF large-scale forecast fields in a set of 54 h period simulations to provide quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs for each hydrometeorological episode. The hydrological model is forced with these QPFs to evaluate the reliability of the resulting discharge forecasts, while an ensemble prediction system (EPS based on perturbed atmospheric initial and boundary conditions has been designed to test the value of a probabilistic strategy versus the previous deterministic approach. Specifically, a Potential Vorticity (PV Inversion technique has been used to perturb the MM5 model initial and boundary states (i.e. ECMWF forecast fields. For that purpose, a PV error climatology has been previously derived in order to introduce realistic PV perturbations in the EPS. Results show the benefits of using a probabilistic approach in those cases where the deterministic QPF presents significant deficiencies over the Llobregat river basin in terms of the rainfall amounts, timing and localization. These deficiences in precipitation fields have a major impact on flood forecasts. Our ensemble strategy has been found useful to reduce the biases at different hydrometric sections along the watershed. Therefore, in an operational context, the devised methodology could be useful to expand the lead times associated with the prediction of similar future floods, helping to alleviate their possible hazardous consequences.

  6. Consultancy to dairy farmers relating to animal health and herd health management on small- and medium-sized farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothmann, H; Nechanitzky, K; Sturmlechner, F; Drillich, M

    2014-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to obtain information about animal health challenges for dairy farmers of small- and medium-sized herds and about the fields in which consultancy services should be improved. The hyperlink to an internet-based survey was sent to 9,021 farmers in Austria. The survey included questions about the participants and their farms, about who is consulting with the farmers with regard to animal health, feeding, sire selection, construction of barns and animal husbandry, about animal health issues farmers find most challenging, and about their demands for improved consultancy services. The questionnaire was completed anonymously. Analyses were stratified by milk yield (categorized) and whether farmers worked full-time or part-time. The overall response rate was 11.3% (n=1,018). The majority of farms kept less than 20 cows (54.0%) or 20 to 50 cows (40.1%). With regard to animal health, the veterinarian was the most important consultant for the majority of farmers (84.6%). On issues related to feeding, sire selection, and stable construction, the veterinarian was seen as a less important consultant than specialists in these fields (20.4, 11.6, and 7.9% suggested the veterinarian as an important consultant in these areas). The survey indicated that reproductive disorders, udder disease, poor conception rate, lameness, and calf diarrhea represent the most important challenges to farmers. Of these, concerns about calf diarrhea were affected by milk yield of the herds and management. More high- than low-yielding farms (11.7 vs. 6.4%) and more full-time than part-time managed herds (9.6 vs.4.3%) regarded calf diarrhea as an important problem. Farmers would welcome improved consultancy with regard to fertility, feeding, and sire selection. The results indicated which animal health issues farmers find particularly challenging and displayed which areas farmers require improved consultancy services. Veterinarians and organizations offering consultancy should take the results into consideration in improving or adapting their advisory services. PMID:24290826

  7. Inclusion of potential vorticity uncertainties into a hydrometeorological forecasting chain: application to a medium size basin of Mediterranean Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Amengual

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of the short- and mid-range numerical runoff forecasts over the flood-prone Spanish Mediterranean area is a challenging issue. This work analyses four intense precipitation events which produced floods of different magnitude over the Llobregat river basin, a medium size catchment located in Catalonia, north-eastern Spain. One of them was a devasting flash flood – known as the "Montserrat" event – which produced 5 fatalities and material losses estimated at about 65 million euros. The characterization of the Llobregat basin's hydrological response to these floods is first assessed by using rain-gauge data and the Hydrologic Engineering Center's Hydrological Modeling System (HEC-HMS runoff model. In second place, the non-hydrostatic fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University/NCAR mesoscale model (MM5 is nested within the ECMWF large-scale forecast fields in a set of 54 h period simulations to provide quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs for each hydrometeorological episode. The hydrological model is forced with these QPFs to evaluate the reliability of the resulting discharge forecasts, while an ensemble prediction system (EPS based on perturbed atmospheric initial and boundary conditions has been designed to test the value of a probabilistic strategy versus the previous deterministic approach. Specifically, a Potential Vorticity (PV Inversion technique has been used to perturb the MM5 model initial and boundary states (i.e. ECMWF forecast fields. For that purpose, a PV error climatology has been previously derived in order to introduce realistic PV perturbations in the EPS. Results show the benefits of using a probabilistic approach in those cases where the deterministic QPF presents significant deficiencies over the Llobregat river basin in terms of the rainfall amounts, timing and localization. These deficiences in precipitation fields have a major impact on flood forecasts. Our ensemble strategy has been found useful to reduce the biases at different hydrometric sections along the watershed. Therefore, in an operational context, the devised methodology could be useful to expand the lead times associated with the prediction of similar future floods, helping to alleviate their possible hazardous consequences.

  8. Size distribution and concentrations of heavy metals in atmospheric aerosols originating from industrial emissions as predicted by the HYSPLIT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bing; Stein, Ariel F.; Maldonado, Pabla Guerrero; Sanchez de la Campa, Ana M.; Gonzalez-Castanedo, Yolanda; Castell, Nuria; de la Rosa, Jesus D.

    2013-06-01

    This study presents a description of the emission, transport, dispersion, and deposition of heavy metals contained in atmospheric aerosols emitted from a large industrial complex in southern Spain using the HYSPLIT model coupled with high- (MM5) and low-resolution (GDAS) meteorological simulations. The dispersion model was configured to simulate eight size fractions (17 ?m) of metals based on direct measurements taken at the industrial emission stacks. Twelve stacks in four plants were studied and the stacks showed considerable differences for both emission fluxes and size ranges of metals. We model the dispersion of six major metals; Cr, Co, Ni, La, Zn, and Mo, which represent 77% of the total mass of the 43 measured elements. The prediction shows that the modeled industrial emissions produce an enrichment of heavy metals by a factor of 2-5 for local receptor sites when compared to urban and rural background areas in Spain. The HYSPLIT predictions based on the meteorological fields from MM5 show reasonable consistence with the temporal evolution of concentrations of Cr, Co, and Ni observed at three sites downwind of the industrial area. The magnitude of concentrations of metals at two receptors was underestimated for both MM5 (by a factor of 2-3) and GDAS (by a factor of 4-5) meteorological runs. The model prediction shows that heavy metal pollution from industrial emissions in this area is dominated by the ultra-fine (size fractions.

  9. Experimental and computational studies on the natural circulation characteristics of a small- and medium-sized reactor, REX-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Byeong Il

    2012-02-15

    The rapid economic development in many countries has led to a growing need for energy. To meet the demand, the nuclear power generation is emerging as a viable alternative because it emits much smaller amount of carbon dioxide as compared to conventional fossil fuel plant produces high power density energy. Because of the latter attractiveness, many large-sized nuclear reactors ({approx}1000 MWe/unit) for electricity generation have been constructed around the world. Recently, small- and medium-sized nuclear reactors (SMRs) receive attention because of its effective adaptability to diversified energy demands. Several attractiveness of the SMR is worth to report here. First, the SMR is a viable alternative for the developing countries that have inferior electricity grids. Second, the SMR may effectively prevent the Large-Break Loss of Coolant Accident (LBLOCA) as it adopts the integral-type reactor. Finally, the SMR is used for various applications - desalination, district heating, small-scale power generation, ship propulsion, to mention a few. These attractiveness provides reasonable justification to construct the SMRs such as SMART, IRIS, CAREM, and KLT-40S. As such, the Regional Energy Research Institute for Next Generation (RERI) has been developing a SMR for regional energy supply, REX-10 since 2005. The REX-10 is the integral-type reactor and relies on natural circulation to improve passive safety. In this study, the natural circulation behavior and capability of the REX-10 is investigated experimentally as well as numerically. To evaluate the thermal-hydraulics of the REX-10, two experimental facilities . RTF and NACTER . were designed and fabricated using the scaling laws proposed by Ishii et al. Both experimental facilities consist of main components of the core, heat exchanger, hot legs, pressurizer, and chillers; however, both experimental facilities have different heat exchanger systems because two types of the heat exchanger are being considered. To obtain key experimental data, thermocouples, turbine flowmeters, and pressure transducer were installed in the proper location of the experimental facilities. The experiments were performed in two categories steady-state and transient experiment. From the steady-state experiment, it was confirmed that the natural circulation flow can be established successfully in both experimental facilities. With regards to the test on the effect of heater power, the heater power is very likely to influence the natural circulation behavior and thereby the mass flow rate tends to follow the natural circulation model proposed by Zvirin et al well. However, it is observed that the feedwater flow rate affects the temperature distribution of the primary system slightly. On the basis of the steady-state experiments, various transient experiments were conducted. The transient experiments showed that two experimental facilities reached new steady-state conditions due to the changes in the heater power and feedwater flow rate. In the case of RTF, the chiller trip experiment was conducted by stopping the feedwater flow. This chiller trip experiment showed that the RTF has the ability to remove the decay heat if the RHRS is normally operated. In NACTER experiment, loss of the feedwater flow rate was tested. This test showed that the NACTER is capable of removing the primary heat of 10kWt despite breakdown of the two pumps. Various transient tests demonstrated that two experimental facilities have the ability to deal with any emergency. To validate MARS, the MARS simulation was conducted. MARS was in good agreement with both steady-state and transient experiments except for two cases . chiller trip in the RTF and loss of the feedwater flow rate in the NACTER. In case of the chiller trip, MARS reached the trip point faster than the experiment and generated the earlier fluctuation of the primary mass flow rate. The reason may be attributed to two facts. First, MARS ignores heat loss to ambient and therefore more heat is likely to be deposited in the working fluid. Second, the helical coil is

  10. Experience of using small-size betatron MIB-5 in the structure of industrial computed tomograph BT-500XA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes characteristics of an industrial tomograph with the maximal tomogram diameter 500 mm when used together with a small-size betatron of the maximal radiation energy 5 MeV. It is shown that such a source yields a high spatial resolution with less output, compared to X-ray devices and linear accelerators. (author)

  11. Engaging with economic evaluation methods: insights from small and medium enterprises in the UK medical devices industry after training workshops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craven Michael P

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With increased governmental interest in value assessment of technologies and where medical device manufacturers are finding it increasingly necessary to become more familiar with economic evaluation methods, the study sought to explore the levels of health economics knowledge within small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs and to scope strategies they employ to demonstrate the value of their products to purchasers. Methods A short questionnaire was completed by participants attending one of five workshops on product development in the medical device sector that took place in England between 2007 and 2011. From all responses obtained, a large proportion of participants were based in SMEs (N?=?43, and these responses were used for the analysis. Statistical analysis using non-parametric tests was performed on questions with approximately interval scales. Qualitative data from participant responses were analysed to reveal emerging themes. Results The questionnaire results revealed that 60% of SME participants (mostly company directors or managers, including product or project managers rated themselves as having low or no knowledge of health economics prior to the workshops but the rest professed at least medium knowledge. Clinical trials and cost analyses or cost-effectiveness studies were the most highly cited means by which SMEs aim to demonstrate value of products to purchasers. Purchasers were perceived to place most importance on factors of safety, expert opinion, cost-effectiveness and price. However many companies did not utilise formal decision-making tools to prioritise these factors. There was no significant dependence of the use of decision-making tools in general with respect to professed knowledge of health economics methods. SMEs did not state a preference for any particular aspect of potential value when deciding whether to develop a product. A majority of SMEs stated they would use a health economics tool. Research and development teams or marketing and sales departments would most likely use one. Conclusion This study points to the need for further research into the education requirements of SMEs in the area of Health Technology Assessment (HTA and also for investigation into how SMEs engage with existing HTA processes as required by assessors such as NICE.

  12. Influence of the grain size on the effective absorption cross-section of thermal neutrons in a medium containing highly absorbing centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal neutron absorption is considered in a medium which contains highly absorbing grains. The theoretical approach is based on a definition of the effective macroscopic absorption cross-section for such a medium. The parameter of the grain effect is defined as the ratio of the effective cross-section to the cross-section of a corresponding homogeneous material. It is generally obtained as a function of the ratio of the absorption cross-sections of components, of the grain size, and of the contributions of the components. A further analysis is performed for the grain size effect when the two other parameters are fixed. The presented approach is applied to an interpretation of experiments on Plexiglas models containing silver grains. A good agreement of the experimental and theoretical results is obtained when relevant effective energy-dependent cross-sections are weighted by the thermal neutron energy distribution

  13. A predictive model of the export behaviour of small and medium sized firms: an application to the case of Castilla-La Mancha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Ruiz-Fuensanta

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on an extensive theoretical review, the aim of this paper is to carry out a closer examination of the differences between exporters according to their commitment to the international market. Once the main disparities are identified by means of a non-parametric test, a logistic analysis based upon data collected from small and medium sized manufacturing firms is conducted in order to construct a classificatory model.

  14. Companies on their Paths to Justice: How Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the Netherlands Deal with Potential Legal Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Croes, Marnix T.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of a recently completed study into the serious and potential legal problems that Dutch small and medium-sized enterprises face, the opponents they encounter and the legal service providers that they engage to deal with these problems. The study is based on two surveys among the 2,300 members of the SME panel of the EIM Business & Policy Research.

  15. Companies on their Paths to Justice: How Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the Netherlands Deal with Potential Legal Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnix T. Croes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a recently completed study into the serious and potential legal problems that Dutch small and medium-sized enterprises face, the opponents they encounter and the legal service providers that they engage to deal with these problems. The study is based on two surveys among the 2,300 members of the SME panel of the EIM Business & Policy Research.

  16. For the Good of All : Integrating corporate social responsibility into the business strategy of small and medium sized enterprises in Finland: CASE: Oy Vallila Interior Ab

    OpenAIRE

    Anttila, Hannele

    2010-01-01

    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) can be defined as a concept that includes simultaneous fulfilment of a company’s economic, legal, ethical and philanthropic responsibilities, as well as companies integrating social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis. The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate CSR from the perspective of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs), more specifically from...

  17. Making the international connection: How Canada`s approach to international science and technology can help small and medium-sized enterprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    In assessing the federal government`s international science and technology activities and programs, the NABST Committee on Canada`s role in international science and technology chooses to focus on the actual and potential benefits which these activities bring to small and medium-sized businesses. This document examines this topic and presents the final report of the NABST Committee on Canada`s role in international science and technology.

  18. Subtype-specific reduction of Voltage-gated Calcium Current in Medium-Sized Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons after Painful Peripheral Nerve Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Mccallum, J. Bruce; Wu, Hsiang-en; Tang, Qingbo; Kwok, Wai-meng; Hogan, Quinn H.

    2011-01-01

    Sensory neurons express a variety of voltage-gated Ca2+ channel subtypes, but reports differ on their proportionate representation, and the effects of painful nerve injury on each subtype are not established. We compared levels of high-voltage activated currents in medium-sized (30-40?m) dorsal root ganglion neurons dissociated from control animals and those subjected to spinal nerve ligation, using sequential application of semiselective channel blockers (nisoldipine for L-type, SNX-111 or ...

  19. Talent management: Myth or Reality in Today's SMEs : A study into the importance and use of talent management within small and medium-sized enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Baublyte, Daiva

    2010-01-01

    This individual research paper is exploring the use of talent management in small and medium size enterprises (SMEs), the goal being to identify whether it is widely practiced and how important it is for the business. SMEs constitute the largest part of markets and thus are very important for countries’ economic performance. Unfortunately, there is not a lot of research done into the use of talent management or human resource management in SMEs. In the current knowledge-based economy it is ...

  20. Focus of B-to-B e-commerce initiatives and related benefits in manufacturing small- and medium-sized enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Elie, E.; Lefebvre, L. A.; Lefebvre, E.

    2007-01-01

    Empirical research into business-to-business e-commerce issues involving manufacturing small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) is still embryonic. In an attempt to partially fill this gap, this paper presents empirical data from an electronic survey conducted among 96 manufacturing SMEs to investigate e-commerce initiatives and their related benefits. E-commerce initiatives are assessed using a set of 36 business processes that can be conducted electronically. These processes were classifi...

  1. Private forest reserves can aid in preserving the community of medium and large-sized vertebrates in the Amazon arc of deforestation

    OpenAIRE

    Negroes, Nuno; Revilla, Eloy; Fonseca, Carlos; Soares, Amadeo M. V. M.; Ja?como, Anah T. A.; Silveira, Leandro

    2011-01-01

    Due to the advancing agricultural frontier in the Brazilian Amazon, the present rate of deforestation engenders a pessimistic scenario for vertebrate diversity in the area. Protected areas are an essential conservation tool to limit biodiversity loss, but their efficiency have yet to be proven. Here, we used camera-trap data on the presence of medium and large-size vertebrates in a protected area (Canta˜o State Park) and a neigh- bouring private forest reserve (Santa Fe´ Ranch) to evaluate ...

  2. Development of a large-scale isolation chamber system for the safe and humane care of medium-sized laboratory animals harboring infectious diseases*

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Xin; Qi, Jian-cheng; Long, Ming; Liang, Hao; Chen, Xiao; Li, Han; Li, Guang-bo; Zheng, Hao

    2010-01-01

    The close phylogenetic relationship between humans and non-human primates makes non-human primates an irreplaceable model for the study of human infectious diseases. In this study, we describe the development of a large-scale automatic multi-functional isolation chamber for use with medium-sized laboratory animals carrying infectious diseases. The isolation chamber, including the transfer chain, disinfection chain, negative air pressure isolation system, animal welfare system, and the automat...

  3. A framework for assessing hydrological regime sensitivity to climate change in a convective rainfall environment: a case study of two medium-sized eastern Mediterranean catchments, Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Peleg, N.; Shamir, E.; Georgakakos, K. P.; Morin, E.

    2014-01-01

    A modeling framework is formulated and applied to assess the sensitivity of the hydrological regime of two catchments in a convective rainfall environment with respect to projected climate change. The study uses likely rainfall scenarios with high spatiotemporal resolution that are dependent on projected changes in the driving regional meteorological synoptic systems. The framework was applied to a case study in two medium-sized Mediterranean catchments in I...

  4. Effects of precursor on the morphology and size of ZrO2 nanoparticles, synthesized by sol-gel method in non-aqueous medium

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Rafiq Hussain Siddiqui; Abdulaziz Ibrahim Al-Wassil; Abdullah Mohmmed Al-Otaibi; Refaat Mohamad Mahfouz

    2012-01-01

    Pure zirconium oxide (ZrO2) nanoparticles with diameters 10-25 nm were synthesized from ZrOCl2.8H2O and Zr(SO4)2.H2O with benzyl alcohol as non-aqueous solvent medium using sol-gel method. Sodium lauryl sulfate was added as surfactants to control the particle size. The synthesized ZrO2 nanoparticles have a mixture of tetragonal and monoclinic structure. The XRD showed the purity of obtained ZrO2 nanoparticles with tetragonal and monoclinic phase and the crystallite size for ZrOCl2.8H2O precur...

  5. Variation of Front Amplitude, Front Speed, Front Spread In Porous Media for Different Solid Medium of Same Particle Size during Oscillating Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Simranjeet Singh; Beant Singh

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the effect of oscillatory flow on front amplitude, front speed, front spread in porous media for different solid medium of same particle size at different Reynolds number. The solid material of 6.5mm is used as spherical balls of steel and glass material. Normal water is used as a fluid. The size of porous bed is less than the 1/10 of diameter of the tube. The steel spherical balls of diameter 6.5 mm constitute a porous bed which will act as Steel Water Be...

  6. THE MOTIVATION BEHIND SUBCONTRACTING RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN LARGE FIRMS AND SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN THE MOTOR VEHICLE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY IN KENYA

    OpenAIRE

    Beatrice Auko Okatch; Elegwa Mukulu; Luke Oyugi

    2011-01-01

    The motivation behind subcontracting relationships in the motor vehicle manufacturing The purpose of this study was to determine internal and external constraints to subcontracting arrangements between large firms and small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the motor vehicle manufacturing industry in Kenya in order to establish the reasons for the gap in those arrangements. The sector was chosen for the study because of the government’s selection of the sector to promote subcontracting arran...

  7. Empirical study of the indebtedness, cost of the debt and profitabilities of the footwear industry of La Rioja: Comparison by size and sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ EDUARDO RODRÍGUEZ OSÉS

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This work studies the indebtedness level, cost of indebtedness and return of the shoe industry in the region of La Rioja by sectors and size. According to Industrial Economy, which claims that the industry is the main factor determining the results of organizations, we analyze whether the studied variables differ due to their application to the shoe industry compared to the food and agriculture industry, the main industry in the region. On the other hand, according to the Theory of Resources and Capacities, which considers that some internal factors account for the differences in the return obtained, we focus on an internal resource, i.e. size, considering its impact on the abovementioned variables. Finally, the results of the joint study of several industries by homogeneous sizes allows to claim that the cost of indebtedness in small enterprises differs significantly according to the particular industry they belong to.

  8. Objectives and constraints of entrepreneurs: evidence from small and medium-size enterprises in Russia and Bulgaria.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pissarides, F.; Singer, M.; Švejnar, Jan

    -, ?. 4142 (2003), s. 1-63. ISSN 0265-8003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : small and medium enterprises * entrepreneurs * Russia and Bulgaria Subject RIV: AH - Economics www.cepr.org/pubs/dps/DP4142.asp

  9. Innovative small and medium sized reactors: Design features, safety approaches and R and D trends. Final report of a technical meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to beat the economy of scale small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) have to incorporate specific design features that result into simplification of the overall plant design, modularization and mass production. Several approaches are being under development and consideration, including the increased use of passive features for reactivity control and reactor shut down, decay heat removal and core cooling, and reliance on the increased margin to fuel failure achieved through the use of advanced high-temperature fuel forms and structural materials. Some SMRs also offer the possibility of very long core lifetimes with burnable absorbers or high conversion ratio in the core. These reactors incorporate increased proliferation resistance and may offer a very attractive solution for the implementation of adequate safeguards in a scenario of global deployment of nuclear power. About 50 concepts and designs of the innovative SMRs are under development in more than 15 IAEA Member States representing both industrialized and developing countries. SMRs are under development for all principle reactor lines, i.e., water cooled, liquid metal cooled, gas cooled, and molten salt cooled reactors, as well as for some non-conventional combinations thereof. Upon a diversity of the conceptual and design approaches to SMRs, it may be useful to identify the so-called enabling technologies that are common to certain reactor types or lines. An enabling technology is the technology that needs to be developed and demonstrated to make a certain reactor concept viable. When a certain technology is common to several SMR concepts or designs, it could benefit from being developed on a common or shared basis. The identification of common enabling technologies could speed up the development and deployment of many SMRs by merging the efforts of their designers through an increased international cooperation. This publication has been prepared through the collaboration of all participants of this meeting and presents its final report, which summarizes the major features and identifies the technology and infrastructure development needs common to certain groups of the SMR concepts and designs considered at the meeting

  10. 75 FR 61604 - Small Business Size Standards; Accommodation and Food Services Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ...increasing small business size standards...Classification System (NAICS) Sector...Federal small business programs. Other...exists to the systems of numerical...Classification System codes? * * * * * Small Business Size...

  11. Estimation of Machinery Market Size for Industrial and Energy Wood Harvesting in Leningrad Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Gerasimov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent and coming development of forestry practices in Northwest Russia includes fast implementation of cut-to-length (CTL harvesting, transfer of technology, introduction of commercial thinnings and energy wood harvesting. The market size for industrial and energy wood harvesting machinery was assessed for the Leningrad region. The logging machines fleet consisted of about 700 machines for traditional tree-length technology and 120 harvesters and forwarders for CTL technology. The domestic machinery fleet is obsolete; manufacture of domestic forest machinery has dropped in both quantity and models, and thus imported CTL machinery is replacing domestic tree-length machinery. The results indicate that the market for CTL machinery could be 21 harvesters, 32 forwarders and 26 short-wood trucks per year and could increase to up to 30 – 40 machines each in the future. The maximum need for the machinery in the Leningrad region could be 50 – 60 harvesters, forwarders and short-wood trucks per year if allowable cut and commercial thinnings were realized in full scale. The market for energy wood harvesting machinery could be 4 biomass forwarders, 11 mobile chippers and 13 wood chip trucks per year and could be 6 and 15 – 20 machines per year in the future, respectively. The maximum need could be 30 – 40 biomass forwarders, mobile chippers and wood chip trucks per year. Only one third of the logging enterprises in the region had enough leased forest resources for applying the highly productive mechanized CTL technology. These 41 forest enterprises would need 270machines, consisting of 90 harvesters, 100 forwarders and 80 short-wood trucks. Thirty-seven enterprises would need about 50 biomass forwarders and chippers and 60 wood chip trucks for energy wood harvesting. Sixty percent of the forest leasers had enough forest resources and could be users of Nordic CTL technology if allowable cut was utilized completely and if commercial thinnings were done in full scale. These 68 enterprises would need about 500 conventional logging machines, consisting of 160 harvesters, 190 forwarders and 150 short-wood trucks, and about 300 energy wood harvesting machines, consisting of 100 biomass forwarders, 100 chippers, and 110 wood chip trucks. In addition, the ten largest enterprises would need half of the total fleet.

  12. An analysis of mass balance and fractional particle size distributions of coal and magnetite in a dense-medium cyclone circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celik, H. [Usak University, Usak (Turkey)

    2009-07-01

    In this study, a complete mass balance of magnetite and coal in the various parts of a dense-medium cyclone (DMC) circuit was determined and fractional size distributions of magnetite and coal were analyzed for the circuit. The DMC overflow product contained 71.34% of the feed coal, whereas 88.35% of the feed magnetite reported to the DMC underflow. The majority of the magnetite (about 86%) was removed by the sieve bends in both the DMC underflow and overflow streams. Sixty-one percent of the raw coal within a size range of 0.50-20.00mm was recovered as clean coal with an average ash content of 15.30%. About 77% of the feed magnetite having a size range of 75-600m was obtained from the underflow of the drain-and-rinse screen belonging to DMC underflow.

  13. INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARD FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTITIES- A NEW CHALLENGE FOR THE EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Ana-Maria Pascu; Andreea Vasiliu

    2011-01-01

    In the context of the global economic crisis, small and medium enterprises are most affected. That is why the problem that arises more frequently is the harmonization of national legislation with the European legislation. The necessity to implement specific standards for SMEs appeared in order to provide them a beneficial framework for better economic and financial market positioning. In this respect, the International Accounting Standards Board issued in 2009 IFRS for SMEs, a referential aim...

  14. INTERMOUNTAIN INDUSTRIAL ASSESSMENT CENTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MELINDA KRAHENBUHL

    2010-05-28

    The U. S. Department of Energy’s Intermountain Industrial Assessment Center (IIAC) at the University of Utah has been providing eligible small- and medium-sized manufacturers with no-cost plant assessments since 2001, offering cost-effective recommendations for improvements in the areas of energy efficiency, pollution prevention, and productivity improvement.

  15. 75 FR 9431 - Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: U.S. and EU Export Activities, and Barriers and Opportunities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ...letter and which should be on company or other appropriate stationery, should identify the hearing at which the person wishes to...any), address, telephone number, e-mail address, and industry or main line of business of the company if any they are...

  16. Development of laboratory and process sensors to monitor particle size distribution of industrial slurries (including shape characterization). Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendse, H.P.; Goetz, P.J.; Sharma, A.; Han, W; Bliss, T.C.

    1996-10-01

    The overall goal of the Particle Size Distribution (PSD) sensor projects was to develop and commercialize a sensor system capable of particle analysis, in terms of size distributions, using concentrated suspensions at high solids concentrations. The early research was focused on application of ultrasonic spectroscopy of inorganic pigment slurries (e.g. titanium dioxide) commonly encountered on paper industry. During the project prototypes were tested in both academic and industrial laboratories. Work also involved successful field tests of the on-line prototype at a pigment manufacturing facility. Pen Kem continued the work at its cost beyond the initial funded period from March `92 to September `94. The first project (DE- FC05-88CE40684), which began in September 1988, culminated in a commercial laboratory instrument, Pen Kem AcoustoPhor {trademark} 8000, put on the market in June 1993. The follow-on project was aimed at investigation of shape and orientation effects on ultrasonic spectroscopy. A new cooperative agreement was awarded in September 1994 (DE-FC05-94CE40005) to develop shape characterization capabilities deemed critical by the clay industry. This follow-on project achieved following successes: A theoretical model was developed to account for the effects of size-dependent aspect ratios of spheroid particles under different orientations on ultrasound attenuation spectra of concentrated slurries. The theoretical model was confirmed by laboratory tests on kaolin slurries. An algorithm was developed to simulate evolution of particle orientation fields in simple squeezing flows.

  17. THE PARTICIPATION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES IN THE PROCESSING OF GDP - POLAND ON THE BACKGROUND OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta ?apacz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs around the world play a key role in the growth and innovation in all sectors. The sustainable development of the SME sector is crucial for the development of the economy of each country. It is small and medium businesses create most of the jobs on the market, showing ingenuity and commitment, which often results in the development of new, advanced technology. In conclusion, companies of this segment of the economy also contribute to the development of the global market. SMES, however, are highly susceptible to the negative influence of the economic and political environment. The purpose of this article is to highlight the importance of the SME sector for the national economy as well as for the other Member States of the European Union.

  18. Identifying Factors Influencing Entry Mode Selection in Food Industry of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Haghighi Kaffash; Maryam Haghighikhah; Hamidreza Kordlouie

    2012-01-01

    As internationalization increases in today’s business society, it becomes ever more important for individual business to keep us with the development. The way a company ventures from its domestic market to new geographical markets and selecting the right entry modes are important decision that demands a lot of resources and planning. In the process of selecting entry modes a wide range of factors must be taken into consideration before making the final decision. To provide a better understa...

  19. The present role and the future of small and medium sized reactors in the Bulgarian electricity generation industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the moment, six PWR units WWER type are in operation in the Bulgarian electric grid, located in Kozloduy NPP. All of these units operate in the basic load diagram. There are four reactors of 440 MWel and 2 reactors of 1000 MWel. During the last ten years the total demand of power in the national grid varies between 3500 MW during the summer and 7500 MW in the winter. For certain periods the capacity even of a single reactor WWER-440 has exceeded more than 10% the total system demand. This fact has imposed some restrictions on reactor operation, but the reactors nevertheless operate in the load diagram basis. More often these restrictions are in form of operation at reduced power. For WWER-440 reactors this means operation at 50-55% (with one turbine). This fact leads to some negative consequences as for example unbalanced fuel burning and increased core peaking factors. Another sensitive problem for the plant is the case when due to technical specification operational limits and conditions violation one unit has to be shutdown and put in a cooldown condition for a period of time for different reasons (forced outage, maintenance,etc.). In some cases, this is not desirable for the grid dispatchers due to lack of redundant generating capacities. As far as Kozloduy NPP is concerned, since April 2000 it has been separated from the National Electric Company (NEC) as a stand-alone electricity generating company, it suffers some penalties applied by NEC, based on the contrnalties applied by NEC, based on the contract for purchase of the electricity between NEC and the plant. The scheduled modernizations of the units will lead to some extensions of the outages, which will force NEC to put into operation less profitable power plants in the country. In order to cope with the problems of the grid frequency regulations and the backup of the power generation capacity of the biggest unit in the national grid, which is WWER-1000 MW, a pumping accumulation hydrostation with capacity 840 MW in turbine mode was constructed and put in operation in Bulgaria in 1998. In spite of above-mentioned, Kozloduy NPP staff operate the plant units with definitive priority of safety. This year 2001, the State Agency for Energy and Energy Resources of Bulgaria together with National Electric Company elaborated an update of the National plan for development of electricity generation capacities in the grid. According to this Plan, a new nuclear generation capacity with 2 units has to be constructed and put in operation on the site of Belene between 2008-2015. The preliminary feasibility study of this project, performed by the national architect-engineering company Energoproekt shows that the optimal unit capacity for this project is between 600-900 MWel. The preliminary engineering activity of the project is expected to start effectively by the end of 2001. (author)

  20. Development of a large-scale isolation chamber system for the safe and humane care of medium-sized laboratory animals harboring infectious diseases*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xin; Qi, Jian-cheng; Long, Ming; Liang, Hao; Chen, Xiao; Li, Han; Li, Guang-bo; Zheng, Hao

    2010-01-01

    The close phylogenetic relationship between humans and non-human primates makes non-human primates an irreplaceable model for the study of human infectious diseases. In this study, we describe the development of a large-scale automatic multi-functional isolation chamber for use with medium-sized laboratory animals carrying infectious diseases. The isolation chamber, including the transfer chain, disinfection chain, negative air pressure isolation system, animal welfare system, and the automated system, is designed to meet all biological safety standards. To create an internal chamber environment that is completely isolated from the exterior, variable frequency drive blowers are used in the air-intake and air-exhaust system, precisely controlling the filtered air flow and providing an air-barrier protection. A double door transfer port is used to transfer material between the interior of the isolation chamber and the outside. A peracetic acid sterilizer and its associated pipeline allow for complete disinfection of the isolation chamber. All of the isolation chamber parameters can be automatically controlled by a programmable computerized menu, allowing for work with different animals in different-sized cages depending on the research project. The large-scale multi-functional isolation chamber provides a useful and safe system for working with infectious medium-sized laboratory animals in high-level bio-safety laboratories. PMID:20872984