WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Role of Some Medicinal Herbs Plants (Anise and Chamomile) in Male Rats Intoxicated with Metacide Pesticide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of some medicinal herbs plants such as anise and chamomile (300 mg/kg b.wl) for five weeks on some biochemical changes induced in rats administrated daily oral dose of organophosphorus pesticide metacide at level of 1.4 mg/kg b.wt for live weeks. The data showed that the metacide pesticides caused disturbance in liver and kidney function revealed as significant increased in serum total lipids, triglycerides, total free amino, biliburine, total cholesterol, creatinine, urea and uric acid. Moreover, a significant decreased in total proteins. Also thyroxine hormone (T4) was increased while triiodothyronine (T 3) was decreased. The results also revealed that both anise and chamomile exhibited an improvement and highly affective in attenuation of metacide pesticide caused oxidative damage, disturbance and injury induced in liver, kidney and thyroid hormone function

2

EFFECT OF USING SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS (ANISE, CHAMOMILE AND GINGER) ON PRODUCTIVE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE OF JAPANESE QUAIL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding medicinal plants to Japanese quail diet on their performance and some metabolic functions. Four hundred, one day old, unsexed Japanese quails were used in this study. Quails were divided equally into four groups of 100 birds each according to medicinal plant additives. Group one was control (without additives, and the other groups contained 0.3% from anise (group 2), chamomile (group 3) and ginger (group 4). The end of the experiment was terminated when birds were 6 weeks old. Body weight, feed intake, some organs weight and some blood parameters were measured.The results indicated that addition of medicinal plants (anise, chamomile and ginger) improved growth rate, carcass and the relative weights of spleen, ovary and testis. Also, significant increases were observed in RBC, WBC, Hb, PCV, total protein and globulin. There was reduction in cholesterol in treated groups as compared to the control.The present results confirmed the beneficial effects of dietary medicinal plants (anise, chamomile and ginger) to improve the health condition as well as the productive and physiological characteristics of quails

3

Effects of fertilizer and plant density on yield and quality of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to understand the effect of organic fertilizer on yield of anise, an experiment was conducted in the form of split-plot in randomized complete block design with three replications in Mashhad, Khorasan Agriculture and Natural Resource Research Center. Four treatments of fertilization: the control, vermicompost - 5 t/ha, cow manure - 25 t/ha, and mineral fertilizer (NPK - 60 kg/ha (the same rate of each nutrient were applied as the main factor. The second factor was plant density, applied at three levels: 17, 25, and 50 plants/m2. The results showed a significant effect of fertilizer on the number of umbels per plant, number of umbellets per umbel and canopy cover. Plant density had a significant effect on grain yield, biological yield, the number of lateral branches, essential oil percentage and yield of essential oil. Seed and essential oil yield were the highest in the case of the application of vermicompost and plant densities of 50 and 25 plants/m2 respectively.

Faravani Mahdi

2013-01-01

4

Fumigant activity of plant essential oils and components from horseradish (Armoracia rusticana), anise (Pimpinella anisum) and garlic (Allium sativum) oils against Lycoriella ingenua (Diptera: Sciaridae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant essential oils from 40 plant species were tested for their insecticidal activities against larvae of Lycoriella ingénue (Dufour) using a fumigation bioassay. Good insecticidal activity against larvae of L. ingenua was achieved with essential oils of Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Eucalyptus globulus Labill, Eucalyptus smithii RT Baker, horseradish, anise and garlic at 10 and 5 microL L(-1) air. Horseradish, anise and garlic oils showed the most potent insecticidal activities among the plant essential oils. At 1.25 microL L(-1), horseradish, anise and garlic oils caused 100, 93.3 and 13.3% mortality, but at 0.625 microL L(-1) air this decreased to 3.3, 0 and 0% respectively. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of one major compound from horseradish, and three each from anise and garlic oils. These seven compounds and m-anisaldehyde and o-anisaldehyde, two positional isomers of p-anisaldehyde, were tested individually for their insecticidal activities against larvae of L. ingenua. Allyl isothiocyanate was the most toxic, followed by trans-anethole, diallyl disulfide and p-anisaldehyde with LC(50) values of 0.15, 0.20, 0.87 and 1.47 microL L(-1) respectively. PMID:16786497

Park, Ii-Kwon; Choi, Kwang-Sik; Kim, Do-Hyung; Choi, In-Ho; Kim, Lee-Sun; Bak, Won-Chull; Choi, Joon-Weon; Shin, Sang-Chul

2006-08-01

5

The influence of fertilization on yield of caraway, anise and coriander in organic agriculture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many plants of Apiaceae family have long been well known because of flavorful aromatic spice and, because of its healing properties, are often used in folk medicine and in cooking. In our study three plants of this family were included: caraway (Carum carvi L., anise (Pimpinella anisum L. and coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.. Regarding good agro-ecological conditions for growing these plants in Serbia, and a new world trend of increasing organic agricultural production, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of application of various types of fertilizers on yield of studied plant species. The field experiment was carried out during the years of 2011 and 2012, in three localities in Vojvodina Province with the local ecotypes and six different treatments (control, ‘Slavol’, ‘Bactofil B-10’, ‘Royal Ofert’, vermicompost and NPK. The highest caraway yield was obtained by the application of biofertilizer ‘Bactofil B-10’. As regards anise and coriander the highest yield was achieved by the application of chemical fertilizer. The most effective organic fertilizers were the following: vermicompost for anise and specific poultry manure ‘Royal Ofert’ granules for coriander.

A?imovi? Milica G.

2013-01-01

6

Medicinal plants: conception / contraception.  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers have conducted considerable experiments on the effectiveness and therapeutic values of Chinese herbs and parts of plants. We should not ignore the significance of natural medicine. The Chinese have been perfecting medicinal therapy based on the raw ingredients of plants/herbs and their derivatives for thousands of years. Chinese practitioners of traditional medicine prescribe medicines based on yin and yang. Traditional medicine is communicated in a verb or written form. Natural resources used in traditional medicine to treat diseases are not limited to just medicinal plants but also include animals, shell fish, and minerals. Parts of plants used in traditional medicine are leaves, stems, flowers, bark, and root. Chinese medicine is the world's oldest continuous surviving tradition. The Chinese experimented with local plants, often resulting in mild to violent reactions. This process allowed them to become familiar with poisonous plants and those that could relieve pain or successfully treat illness. Current allopathic medicines are composed of synthetic compounds copied from natural chemical derivatives, which tend to be more potent than the original compound. Some medicinal plants used to effect conception/contraception include Striga astiatica (contraceptive); Eurycoma longifolia (male virility); and a mixture of lengkuas, mengkudu masak, black pepper seeds, ginger, salt, and 2 eggs (increase libido). Women in Malaysia take jamu to preserve their body shape and to provide nutrition during pregnancy. Praneem causes local cell-mediated immunity in the uterus. Clinical trials of Praneem with or without the hCG vaccine are planned. PMID:12287843

Chaing, H S; Merino-chavez, G; Yang, L L; Wang, F N; Hafez, E S

1994-01-01

7

Phytochemistry of Medicinal Plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Medicinal plants are a rich source of bioactive phytochemicals or bionutrients. Studies carried out during the past 2–3 decades have shown that these phytochemicals have an important role in preventing chronic diseases like cancer, diabetes and coronary heart disease. The major classes of phytochemicals with disease-preventing functions are dietary fibre, antioxidants, anticancer, detoxifying agents, immunity-potentiating agents and neuropharmacological agents. Each class of these functional agents consists of a wide range of chemicals with differing potency. Some of these phytochemicals have more than one function. There is, however, much scope for further systematic research in screening Indian medicinal plants for these phytochemicals and assessing their potential in protecting against different types of diseases

Dharmendra Singh

2013-03-01

8

MEDICINAL PLANTS AGAINST LIVER DISEASES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available India is the largest producer of medicinal plants and is rightly called the “Botanical Garden of the World”. The medicinal plants have very important place in the health and vitality of human beings as well as animals. As per the WHO estimates, about three quarters of the world’s population currently use herbs and other traditional medicines to cure various diseases, including liver disorders. Hence, several phytomedicines (medicinal plants or herbal drugs are now used for the prevention and treatment of various liver disorders. Although experimental studies have been conducted on a number of these plants and their formulations, however, only some plants have clearly shown the hepatogenic / hepatoprotective effects against liver diseases or hepatotoxicity caused by variety of hepatotoxic agents such as chemicals, drugs, pollutants, and infections from parasites, bacteria or viruses (e.g., hepatitis A, B and C, etc. Indeed, to obtain satisfactory herbal drugs for treating severe liver diseases, the medicinal plants must be evaluated systematically for properties like antiviral activity (Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, etc., antihepatotoxicity activity (antioxidants and others, stimulation of liver regeneration and choleretic activity. A combination of different herbal extracts / fractions is likely to provide desired activities to cure severe liver diseases. The medicinal plants contain several phytochemicals which possess strong antioxidant property, leading to antihepatotoxic activity.

Pandey Govind

2011-05-01

9

Resources of medicinal plants in China  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Four aspect dealts with in this paper are as follows: 1. environment of medicinal plants; 2. brief history on studies of medicinal plants; 3. species of medicinal plants; 4. studies on development and utilization of medicinal plant resources. [...

Guan-Fu, He.

10

STANDARDIZATION OF MEDICINAL PLANT MATERIALS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the changing pattern of life style most of the diseases are now becoming lifestyle diseases. The world is witnessing an unprecedented growth in the usage of herbal product at national as well as international levels. These have necessitated development of modern and objective standards for evaluating the safety, quality and efficacy of these medicines. The current standards, parameters and protocols available to test the quality of herbal medicines were originally developed for allopathic drugs and can at best authenticate the identity plant materials (may be purity to some extent not their safety and efficacy. Herbal medicines are natural products and their phytoconstituents depending on time and region, processing and storage. Variations in the collection, processing or storage of an herb could impact its efficacy profile. Since prior knowledge regarding appropriate collection and usage of most medicinal plants exists in tradition, it can be used as a guide to quality standardization. The parameters of testing the quality of materials (dravya in traditional medicines, such as rasa (taste, guna (properties, (potency, vipaka (post digestion effects and karma (action are very different from the western methods. These traditional parameters reflect not only the quality but also efficacy. Having said which, there are no direct written protocols available in traditional medicines either for collection or for testing the action. The methods of testing are lost today need revivification.

Kataria Sahil

2011-04-01

11

Use of Medicinal Plants of District Bannu in Unani Medicines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present research work was carried out during 2012 in district Bannu to study the use of medicinal plants in Unani medicine. A total of 35 Unani medicines were reported and arranged systematically along with name of product, available form, company name, name of the plants/parts used in the drugs, family name and purpose of uses. During the research it was found that most of the members of Lamiaceae, Asteraceae and Rhamnaceae are used in these medicines. Plants which were used commonly in these medicines in one form or the other are Ziziphus jujuba, Foeniculum vulgare, Solanum nigrum, Ocimum cannum and Zingber officinale. It was noted that these products are mostly available in syrup form, rarely in tablets form (Hab –khoom Safa, Mensorine, Scony Tablets and one only one product in dry powder (Supari Pak. It is generally believed that these medicines have no side effect. Interestingly one medicine is suggested for many diseases as per the given instructions in the medicine pack. It was also noted that the manufacturers of these medicines are mostly not registered that’s why incomplete addresses along with the wrongly spellings plant name given on the medicine packs. The main purpose of the research was to identify and enlist the plants systematically used in these medicines.

Shahzeb

2013-06-01

12

Radioactive properties of medicinal plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: A complicated cycle of various compounds' synthesis is provided by plants in the process of their development. The synthesized compounds are necessary to maintain the life of all living organisms both in water and on the land. Together with the organic compounds all known natural radionuclides are accumulated by the plants. Many plants possess the ability to accumulate some elements, whose concentration in the plants may be much higher than that in the soils and water sources. It is well known that the plants are basic or initial raw materials for producing numerous food products, as well as medicinal preparations. The radionuclides, accumulated in the plants, may pass to the human organism through the products and drugs, and may become a source of internal radiation. Accumulation of the radionuclides in various human organs above the maximal acceptable concentration (MAC) may lead to various pathologic changes. That is why it is a necessary and urgent problem to carry out investigations of the radioactive properties of the plants (i.e. to determine their radioecological cleanliness) before using the medicinal plant for pharmacological purposes. In the present work we investigated the radioactive processes of kinds of medicinal plants by the method of semi-conductor gamma-spectrometry. Measurements of the gamma-spectra of the plants' leach were carried out with the help of a gamma-spectrometer with a Ge(Li) detector accompanied by a 4096-channel analyzer. Responsive volume of the detector was 40 cm3, energy resolution with respect to 1333 keV 60Co line was 3 keV. In the measured spectra we observed clearly photo-peaks belonging to uranium-238 family: 186 keV 226Ra; 295, 351 keV 214Pb; 609, 1120, 1764 keV 214Bi; and those belonging to thorium - 232 family: 339, 911, 968 keV 228Ac; 583, 2614 keV 208Te; as well as the photo-peak of the natural radionuclide 40K with the energy 1460 keV. From the proper gamma-lines, observed in the spectra, we calculated the concentration of the radionuclides. While choosing the analytical lines we took into account the degree of disturbance of the radioactive equilibrium between the maternal and filial radionuclides. The determined magnitudes for the natural radionuclides in the leaches of the investigated plants are presented. It is shown that the radioactivity of investigated plants is conditioned by decay of the natural radionuclides 238U, 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K. Maximal accumulation is observed for 40K and 232Th.Thorium minerals are dissolved in natural waters much weaker than those of uranium. However, the concentration of thorium in the investigated samples is (1.8-4.0) tunes higher than the concentration of uranium. This fact reveals that the plants absorb the isotopes of thorium in amounts, which are proportional to their concentration in soils. In the plants growing in the similar soil-climate conditions the concentration uranium is different. This fact testifies that the accumulation of uranium by the plants may depend on the specific features. Concentration of radium in the plants is comparable with its concentration in the soils that may be explained by ability of plants to accumulate radium in amounts, which exceed its concentration in a culture medium. In different kinds of the plants' leach we observe various concentrations of potassium - (24-7-51)·10-6 g/g - that reveals different needs of the plants with respect to potassium. The observed concentrations of the natural radionuclides are in the MAC limits. That testifies a relative radioecological well-being of the investigated plants

13

Phytodentistry: use of medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Finding healing powers in plants is an ancient idea. Herbs have been used as a traditional form of medicine since time immemorial. The natural products derived from medicinal plants have proven to be an abundant source of biologically active compounds, many of which have been the basis for the development of new chemicals for pharmaceuticals. Phytodentistry implies the use of plants and their products in the process of treating disease directly or indirectly. A crucial role is played by phytotherapy in the treatment of stomatological problems. It started with the use of miswak (chewing stick), and it is still relevant today as herbal toothpaste in many parts of the country. India is the largest producer of medicinal herbs and is appropriately called the botanical garden of the world. The use of this readily available, natural and safe resource as a part of dental practice has great potential for a more "Natural and Green Dental Practice". Plant products have long been used in dentistry as part of various dental materials right from impression materials to eugenol, which forms an integral part of the dental clinic. The use of herbs in dental practice is not limited to only material sciences. A single herb shows a variety of effects like anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal activity and many more. Hence the incorporation of these herbs in dental practice will prove to be a valuable adjunct in dental treatment. This review is aimed at exploring the perspectives of this holistic treatment approach in dentistry and its benefits as an adjunctive therapy. PMID:25153610

Hotwani, Kavita; Baliga, Sudhindra; Sharma, Krishna

2014-12-01

14

The Effect of Anise and Rosemary on Broiler Performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was conducted to explore the usage of different level of Anise and Rosemary in broiler nutrition as a natural growth promotion. Different levels were added to a standard diet, to determine its effect on the daily feed intake, daily live weight and feed conversion ratio compared to a control group. Two hundred fifty day-old broilers(Arbor Acrewere divided into five equal groups as follows, Control group (no addition of Anise and Rosemary, Anise 0.5%, Anise 1%, Rosemary 0.5% and rosemary 1%. The experiment carried out in 42 days. The feed intake was significantly (P<0.05 different between the groups. The highest was at Anise 1% group and the highest daily live weight gain observed in the same group Anise 1% (63.34g followed by Anise 0.5% group (59.49g, Rosemary 1% group (59.30g, Rosemary 0.5% group (56.08g and control group (50.99g. The results show that Anise 1% and Rosemary 1% could be considered as a potential growth promoter for poultry.

Ghalib Alwan Mohammed Al - Kassie

2008-01-01

15

Medicinal plants as immunosuppressive agents in traditional Iranian medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Immunomodulation using medicinal plants provides an alternative to conventional chemotherapy for several diseases, especially when suppression of inflammation is desired. The "Canon of Medicine", the epochal work of Avicenna, the great Persian scientist of the middle ages, provides comprehensive information about medicinal plants which used to cure inflammatory illnesses in traditional Iranian medicine. Taking into consideration that the mechanisms of damage in these illnesses are mediated by immune responses, it is reasonable to assume that the plants used for such diseases may suppress the immune responses and the resultant inflammation. In Iran, because of great diversity of climate and geographical conditions, numerous varieties of plants grow and at least 1000 species are recorded as medicinal plants. Many of these plants such as Punica granatum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Foeniculum vulgare and Polygonum species prescribed by ancient Iranian physicians have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. In recent literature, different species of native medicinal plants such as Stachys obtusicrena, Salvia mirzayanii, Echium amoenum, Dracocephalum kotschyi and Linum persicum have been shown to have appreciable anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects including inhibitory effects on lymphocyte activation, suppression of cellular and humoral immunity and induction of apoptosis. This review focuses on plants that are used in Iranian traditional medicine and have been reported to act as immunoinhibitory agents. PMID:20574119

Amirghofran, Zahra

2010-06-01

16

Radiation protection by medicinal plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of effective non-toxic radioprotective agents is of considerable interest in the improvement of radiotherapy of cancer and protection against unplanned exposures. The synthetic drugs developed in post-world war II have had serious constrains in clinical applicable due to their toxicity at the optimal protective dose. Search for non-toxic protectors from natural sources have indicated that some of the commonly used medicinal plants and the poly herbal formulation could prove to be valuable sources of clinically useful radioprotectors as their ratio of effective dose to toxic dose is very high

17

AN UPDATED REVIEW ON ANTHELMINTIC MEDICINAL PLANTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Medicinal plants are part and parcel of human society to combat diseases, from the dawn of civilization. There exists a plethora of knowledge, information and benefits of herbal drugs in our ancient literature of Ayurvedic (Traditional Indian Medicine, Siddha, Unani and Chinese medicine. According to the World Health Organization, 2003 about 80 % of the population of developing countries being unable to afford pharmaceutical drugs rely on traditional medicines, mainly plant based, to sustain their primary health care needs. Herbal medicines are in great demand in the developed as well as developing countries for primary healthcare because of their wide biological and medicinal activities, higher safety margins and lesser costs. In this review we have enlisted the updated anthelmintic medicinal plants which are used as good alternatives for the traditional allopathic anthelmintic agents.

Raj Kumar

2012-02-01

18

IRANIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS AS ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Resistance of human and food spoilage pathogens to antimicrobial agents and the side effects of chemical agents or preservative for human is caused for finding natural new antimicrobial agents, especially among the medicinal plants. This review introduces the methods that are used for antimicrobial evaluations and synergistic activities and the antimicrobial potential of some Iranian medicinal plants.

Mohaddese Mahboubi

2013-02-01

19

Determination of trace elements in Syrian medicinal plants and their infusions by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) techniques suited well for a multi-element determination of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, and Sr in some Syrian medicinal plant species. The accuracy and the precision of both techniques were verified by analyzing the Standard Reference Materials (SRM) peach-1547 and apple leaves-1515. A good agreement between the measured concentrations of the previously mentioned elements and the certified values were obtained with errors less than 10.7% for TXRF and 15.8% for XRF. The determination of Br was acceptable only by XRF with an error less than 24%. Furthermore, the XRF method showed a very good applicability for the determination of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, and Br in infusions of different Syrian medicinal plant species, namely anise (Anisum vulgare), licorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra), and white wormwood (Artemisia herba-alba)

Khuder, A. [Department of Chemistry, Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)], E-mail: scientific2@aec.org.sy; Sawan, M.Kh.; Karjou, J. [Department of Chemistry, Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Razouk, A.K. [Department of Agriculture, Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

2009-07-15

20

Medicinal plants: production and biochemical characterization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent advances in the area of biotechnology offer some possibility for the development of new technologies for the conservation, characterization and mass production of medicinal plant species, (i.e. in vitro cell culture techniques for the mass production of sterile, consistent, standardized medicinal plant materials). This paper discussed the following subjects - plant tissue culture, de novo shoot organogenesis, de novo root organogenesis, somatic embryogenesis, large scale propagation in bioreactors and discovery of unique biomolecules

 
 
 
 
21

Effect of NP and foliar spray on growth and chemical compositions of some medicinal Apiaceae plants grow in arid regions in Egypt  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Arid regions in Egypt are characterized by poor nutrients such as macro and microelements and unfavorable environmental conditions which negatively affect growth and productivity of medicinal and aromatic plants including anise (Pimpinella anisum L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) and sweet fenn [...] el (Foeniculum vulgare var. Dolce) plants. Thus, the main objective of the present investigation was to study the effect of different levels of NP fertilizers, trace elements and their interactions on the morphological and biochemical contents of these three plants under arid regions conditions. The effects of NP and trace elements on the growth (height, leaf number, branch number, umbel number, fresh weight, dry weight and fruit yield per plant) was measured and quantitative analysis of essential oils, fixed oil, total carbohydrates, soluble sugars and nutrient content of anise, coriander and sweet fennel were performed. The most effective rate was N3P3 x trace elements interaction, resulting in a positive increase in vegetative growth characters. The highest values of vegetative growth characters were 53.4, 45.9, 10.3, 33.5, 36.8, 11.8 and 7.9, respectively for anise; 83.0, 69.3, 9.8, 29.0, 34.0, 17.5 and 14.4, respectively for coriander; 89.8, 32.6, 7.8, 22.9, 257.8, 99.1 and 27.8, respectively for sweet fennel. As well as N3P3 x trace elements led to higher biochemical contents than the control. The increases were 0.9, 0.3 and 0.9% in essential oil; 5.4, 4.4 and 3.7% in fixed oil, 9, 7.9 and 8.2% in total carbohydrates; 2.4, 2.8 and 1.6% in soluble sugars; 5.0, 7.5 and 14.4% in crude protein; 0.8, 2.0 and 2.3% in nitrogen; 1.5, 0.6 and 0.4% in phosphorous; 1.3, 1.2 and 1.7% in potassium for anise, coriander and sweet fennel, respectively.

Khalid A, Khalid.

2012-09-01

22

Effect of NP and foliar spray on growth and chemical compositions of some medicinal Apiaceae plants grow in arid regions in Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Arid regions in Egypt are characterized by poor nutrients such as macro and microelements and unfavorable environmental conditions which negatively affect growth and productivity of medicinal and aromatic plants including anise (Pimpinella anisum L., coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. and sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare var. Dolce plants. Thus, the main objective of the present investigation was to study the effect of different levels of NP fertilizers, trace elements and their interactions on the morphological and biochemical contents of these three plants under arid regions conditions. The effects of NP and trace elements on the growth (height, leaf number, branch number, umbel number, fresh weight, dry weight and fruit yield per plant was measured and quantitative analysis of essential oils, fixed oil, total carbohydrates, soluble sugars and nutrient content of anise, coriander and sweet fennel were performed. The most effective rate was N3P3 x trace elements interaction, resulting in a positive increase in vegetative growth characters. The highest values of vegetative growth characters were 53.4, 45.9, 10.3, 33.5, 36.8, 11.8 and 7.9, respectively for anise; 83.0, 69.3, 9.8, 29.0, 34.0, 17.5 and 14.4, respectively for coriander; 89.8, 32.6, 7.8, 22.9, 257.8, 99.1 and 27.8, respectively for sweet fennel. As well as N3P3 x trace elements led to higher biochemical contents than the control. The increases were 0.9, 0.3 and 0.9% in essential oil; 5.4, 4.4 and 3.7% in fixed oil, 9, 7.9 and 8.2% in total carbohydrates; 2.4, 2.8 and 1.6% in soluble sugars; 5.0, 7.5 and 14.4% in crude protein; 0.8, 2.0 and 2.3% in nitrogen; 1.5, 0.6 and 0.4% in phosphorous; 1.3, 1.2 and 1.7% in potassium for anise, coriander and sweet fennel, respectively.

Khalid A Khalid

2012-01-01

23

Effect of NP and foliar spray on growth and chemical compositions of some medicinal Apiaceae plants grow in arid regions in Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Arid regions in Egypt are characterized by poor nutrients such as macro and microelements and unfavorable environmental conditions which negatively affect growth and productivity of medicinal and aromatic plants including anise (Pimpinella anisum L., coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. and sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare var. Dolce plants. Thus, the main objective of the present investigation was to study the effect of different levels of NP fertilizers, trace elements and their interactions on the morphological and biochemical contents of these three plants under arid regions conditions. The effects of NP and trace elements on the growth (height, leaf number, branch number, umbel number, fresh weight, dry weight and fruit yield per plant was measured and quantitative analysis of essential oils, fixed oil, total carbohydrates, soluble sugars and nutrient content of anise, coriander and sweet fennel were performed. The most effective rate was N3P3 x trace elements interaction, resulting in a positive increase in vegetative growth characters. The highest values of vegetative growth characters were 53.4, 45.9, 10.3, 33.5, 36.8, 11.8 and 7.9, respectively for anise; 83.0, 69.3, 9.8, 29.0, 34.0, 17.5 and 14.4, respectively for coriander; 89.8, 32.6, 7.8, 22.9, 257.8, 99.1 and 27.8, respectively for sweet fennel. As well as N3P3 x trace elements led to higher biochemical contents than the control. The increases were 0.9, 0.3 and 0.9% in essential oil; 5.4, 4.4 and 3.7% in fixed oil, 9, 7.9 and 8.2% in total carbohydrates; 2.4, 2.8 and 1.6% in soluble sugars; 5.0, 7.5 and 14.4% in crude protein; 0.8, 2.0 and 2.3% in nitrogen; 1.5, 0.6 and 0.4% in phosphorous; 1.3, 1.2 and 1.7% in potassium for anise, coriander and sweet fennel, respectively.

Khalid A Khalid

2012-09-01

24

Effect of NP and foliar spray on growth and chemical compositions of some medicinal Apiaceae plants grow in arid regions in Egypt  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Arid regions in Egypt are characterized by poor nutrients such as macro and microelements and unfavorable environmental conditions which negatively affect growth and productivity of medicinal and aromatic plants including anise (Pimpinella anisum L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) and sweet fenn [...] el (Foeniculum vulgare var. Dolce) plants. Thus, the main objective of the present investigation was to study the effect of different levels of NP fertilizers, trace elements and their interactions on the morphological and biochemical contents of these three plants under arid regions conditions. The effects of NP and trace elements on the growth (height, leaf number, branch number, umbel number, fresh weight, dry weight and fruit yield per plant) was measured and quantitative analysis of essential oils, fixed oil, total carbohydrates, soluble sugars and nutrient content of anise, coriander and sweet fennel were performed. The most effective rate was N3P3 x trace elements interaction, resulting in a positive increase in vegetative growth characters. The highest values of vegetative growth characters were 53.4, 45.9, 10.3, 33.5, 36.8, 11.8 and 7.9, respectively for anise; 83.0, 69.3, 9.8, 29.0, 34.0, 17.5 and 14.4, respectively for coriander; 89.8, 32.6, 7.8, 22.9, 257.8, 99.1 and 27.8, respectively for sweet fennel. As well as N3P3 x trace elements led to higher biochemical contents than the control. The increases were 0.9, 0.3 and 0.9% in essential oil; 5.4, 4.4 and 3.7% in fixed oil, 9, 7.9 and 8.2% in total carbohydrates; 2.4, 2.8 and 1.6% in soluble sugars; 5.0, 7.5 and 14.4% in crude protein; 0.8, 2.0 and 2.3% in nitrogen; 1.5, 0.6 and 0.4% in phosphorous; 1.3, 1.2 and 1.7% in potassium for anise, coriander and sweet fennel, respectively.

Khalid A, Khalid.

25

Traditional Medicinal Plants of K. Maras (Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a list of some medicinal and aromatic plants in the K.Maras province of Turkey. During the ethnobotanical survey of 88 plants belonging to 47 families were obtained in the period of 1999. It has been found that these plants are mostly used for antiseptic, diuretic, stomach and wound.

Sengul Karaman

2001-01-01

26

Traditional Medicinal Plants of K. Maras (Turkey)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a list of some medicinal and aromatic plants in the K.Maras province of Turkey. During the ethnobotanical survey of 88 plants belonging to 47 families were obtained in the period of 1999. It has been found that these plants are mostly used for antiseptic, diuretic, stomach and wound.

Sengul Karaman; Yusuf Ziya Kocabas

2001-01-01

27

International congress on aromatic and medicinal plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full Text : In Morocco, medicinal and aromatic plants occupy an important place in the traditional care system of a large number of local people. They are also economically strong potential, but unfortunately they are not valued enough. Indeed, Morocco by its privileged geographical position in the Mediterranean basin and its floristic diversity (with a total of over 4,200 species and subspecies of which over 500 are recognized as medicinal and aromatic plants), is a leading provider of traditional global market. In this context and given the back label of the natural global, group research and studies on Aromatic and Medicinal Plants (GREPAM), the Faculty of Semlalia and University Cadi Ayyad, organize: the International Congress on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants CIPAM 2009. The organization of this conference is part of scientific research developed by the GREPAM.

28

Medicinal plants used in Kirklareli Province (Turkey).  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, 126 traditional medicinal plants from Kirklareli Province in Turkey have been reported. One hundred and twenty six plant species belonging to 54 families and among them 100 species were wild and 26 species were cultivated plants. Most used families were Rosaceae, Labiatae, Compositae and the most used plants were Cotinus coggyria, Sambucus ebulus, Achillea millefolium subsp. pannonica, Hypericum perforatum, Matricaria chamomilla var. recutita, Melissa officinalis subsp. officinalis, Juglans regia, Thymus longicaulis subsp. longicaulis var. subisophyllus, Malva sylvestris, Urtica dioica, Plantago lanceolata, Rosa canina, Ecballium elaterium, Artemisia absinthium, Viscum album subsp. album, Papaver rhoeas, Helleborus orientalis, Cydonia oblonga, Prunus spinosa subsp. dasyphylla, Rubus discolor, Sorbus domestica. A total of 143 medicinal uses were obtained. The traditional medicinal plants have been mostly used for the treatment of wounds (25.3%), cold and influenza (24.6%), stomach (20%), cough (19%), kidney ailments (18.2%), diabetes (13.4%). PMID:17257791

Kültür, Sükran

2007-05-01

29

Medicinal plant markets and trade in Maputo, Mozambique  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Medicinal plants and traditional medicine are important to urban and rural livelihoods in Mozambique. This study presents a preliminary investigation of the structure and conduct of medicinal plant markets in Maputo.

Krog, Mogens Pedersen; Falcâo, Mario P.

2006-01-01

30

Biological screening of Brazilian medicinal plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, we screened sixty medicinal plant species from the Brazilian savanna ("cerrado") that could contain useful compounds for the control of tropical diseases. The plant selection was based on existing ethnobotanic information and interviews with local healers. Plant extracts were screened for: (a) molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, (b) toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina L.), (c) antifungal activity in the bioautographic assay with Cladosporium sphaerospermu...

Tânia Maria de Almeida Alves; Andréia Fonseca Silva; Mitzi Brandão; Telma Sueli Mesquita Grandi; Sma?nia, Elza Fa?tima A.; Artur Smânia Júnior; Carlos Leomar Zani

2000-01-01

31

ANTIVIRAL POTENTIAL OF MEDICINAL PLANTS: AN OVERVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The term ‘Antiviral agents’ has been defined in very broad terms as substances other than a virus or virus containing vaccine or specific antibody which can produce either a protective or therapeutic effect to the clear detectable advantage of the virus infected host. The herbal medicine has a long traditional use and the major advantage over other medicines is their wide therapeutic window with rare side effects. There are some disadvantages of synthetic drugs like narrow therapeutic window and more importantly the various adverse side effects which occur quite frequently. Due to these disadvantages and other limitations, there is an increasing trend in the field of research for discovering new and noble drugs based on various herbal formulations. This review attempts to address the importance of developing therapeutic herbal formulations from various medicinal plants using the knowledge based on traditional system of medicines, the Ayurveda. Although natural products have been used by civilization since ancient times, only in recent decades has there been growing research into alternative therapies and the therapeutics use of natural products, especially those derived from plants. Plants synthesize and preserve a variety of biochemical products, many of which are extractable and used for various scientific investigations. Therefore, medicinal plants proved to be a major resort for the treatment of diseases and sicknesses by traditional healers in many societies.

Ruwali Pushpa

2013-06-01

32

Cinnamon: a multifaceted medicinal plant.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and Cinnamon cassia), the eternal tree of tropical medicine, belongs to the Lauraceae family. Cinnamon is one of the most important spices used daily by people all over the world. Cinnamon primarily contains vital oils and other derivatives, such as cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, and cinnamate. In addition to being an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancer, lipid-lowering, and cardiovascular-disease-lowering compound, cinnamon has also been reported to have activities against neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. This review illustrates the pharmacological prospective of cinnamon and its use in daily life. PMID:24817901

Rao, Pasupuleti Visweswara; Gan, Siew Hua

2014-01-01

33

Analgesic activity of some Indian medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study of some of the Indian medicinal plants Sida acuta whole plant (Malvaeae), Stylosanthes fruticosa (whole plant) (Papilionaceae), Toona ciliata (heart wood) (Meliaceao), Bougainvilla spectabilis (leaves) (Nyctaginaceae), Ficus glomerata (bark, leaves) (Moraceae) and Polyalthia longifolia (leaves) (Annonaceae). The different plants were used in folklore medicine in the treatment of toothache and strengthening of gums, anthelmintic, kidney diseases, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antihyperglycaemic, antihyperglycaemic and anticancer. The extract was prepared using powdered material with ethanol, concentrated under vacuo and were evaluated for analgesic activity by analgesiometer at three dose level (100, 300 and 500mg/kg). Analgesic activity was significant with Toona ciliata (heart wood) ethanolic extract when compared with other extracts and its activity was confirmed by tail immersion method. PMID:16647234

Malairajan, P; Geetha Gopalakrishnan; Narasimhan, S; Jessi Kala Veni, K

2006-07-19

34

TRADITIONAL MEDICINAL PLANTS: ANCIENT AND MODERN APPROACH  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

History of medicine and plants dates back to remote past when herbal treatment was the only answer to all kind of ailments. Nowadays, greater emphasis is again being laid to phytotherapy all over the world. Besides, cultivation-cum-setting up herbal gardens are also mooted on hills and plain areas as management of all kinds of diseases is possible through plant drugs sans toxicity.

Sharma, S. C.; Ahmad, S. Aziz

1992-01-01

35

[Tissue culture of medicinal plant and abscisic acid].  

Science.gov (United States)

Abscisic acid (ABA) plays a key role in many physiological processes of plants, and it was also applied to fields of medicinal plant biotechnology. The article presents a review of some recent application of ABA in enhancing the production of secondary metabolites of medicinal plants, improving the in vitro conservation in medicinal plant tissue culture system. PMID:23596868

Fang, Hui-Yong; Zhu, Hong; Yao, Jian-Xun; Jia, Cai-Feng; Shan, Gao-Wei; Li, Min-Hui

2013-01-01

36

Molluscicidal activity of some Moroccan medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Among 14 plants of Moroccan folk medicine tested for molluscicidal activity, ethyl acetate extract from Origanum compactum and hexane extracts from both Chenopodium ambrosioides and Ruta chalepensis were the most active (LC(90)=2.00, 2.23 and 2.23 mg l(-1), respectively) against the schistosomiasis-transmitting snail Bulinus truncatus. PMID:10844169

Hmamouchi, M; Lahlou, M; Agoumi, A

2000-06-01

37

Flora medicinal de Chihuahua / Medicinal plants of Chihuahua State  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En México 10% de su vegetación está catalogada como medicinal. Al respecto, Chihuahua posee 20.2% de las plantas medicinales reconocidas en el país; sin embargo, no se ha publicado un listado a nivel estatal y se tienen pocos estudios etnobotánicos. Los objetivos del presente trabajo fueron revisar, [...] organizar y actualizar en una base de datos la información de las plantas medicinales de dicha entidad; las fuentes de información fueron literatura especializada y bases de datos botánicos con registros para el estado. Se documentaron 105 familias, 375 géneros, 605 especies y 44 infrataxa, de las cuales 14 se encuentran en riesgo de extinción según la NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2010. Las familias mejor representadas fueron: Asteraceae, Fabaceae y Euphorbiaceae, con 99, 51 y 27 especies, respectivamente. Las nativas correspondieron a 86% y las introducidas 14% (7.9% cultivadas). Las formas de crecimiento más abundantes resultaron ser las herbáceas latifoliadas, con 45.4%; los arbustos, con 18%; y los árboles, con 12.5%. Únicamente se presentan en un tipo de vegetación 32.1% de los taxa. En orden decreciente, la mayor riqueza correspondió al bosque de encino, con 56.5%, 51.2% al bosque de pino y 39.7% a los pastizales. En lo relativo al total de plantas medicinales se identificaron 1 090 usos, cuyos mayores porcentajes correspondieron a las utilizadas en los aparatos digestivo (37.8%) y genito-urinario (21.7%), así como en la piel y el tejido subcutáneo (32.3%). A fin de incrementar el conocimiento científico de las plantas medicinales, es necesario desarrollar más estudios etnobotánicos y análisis fitoquímicos. Abstract in english In Mexico, 10% of all the plants are classified as medicinal. Chihuahua possesses 20.2% of the species recognized as medicinal in the country; however, no state’s list of plants has been published, and ethnobotanical studies are scarce. The objectives of this paper were to review, organize and updat [...] e in a database the available information on the medicinal plants of the state. The sources of information were specialized literature and botanical data bases with registers for the entity. 105 families, 375 genera, 605 species, and 44 infrataxa were registered; 14 of the latter are endangered, according to NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2011. The most broadly represented families were Asteraceae, Fabaceae and Euphorbiaceae, with 99, 51 and 27 species, respectively. 86% of these are native, and 14% are introduced (7.9% are cultivated). The most abundant growths were broadleaf herbs (45.4%), shrubs (18%), and trees (12.5%). 32.1% of all the species belong to a single type of vegetation. The highest proportion (56.5%) corresponds to red oak forests, followed by 51.2% for pine forests, and 39.7% for grasslands. A total of 1 090 uses were found for the medicinal plants; the highest percentage, 37.8%, was for plants used for ailments of the digestive tract; 21.7% were used for the genitourinary tract, and 32.3%, for conditions of the skin and the subcutaneous tissue. In order to increase the scientific knowledge of the medicinal plants, further ethnobotanical studies and phytochemical analyses are required.

Mario Humberto, Royo-Márquez; Alicia, Melgoza-Castillo; J. Santos, Sierra-Tristán.

38

Flora medicinal de Chihuahua / Medicinal plants of Chihuahua State  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En México 10% de su vegetación está catalogada como medicinal. Al respecto, Chihuahua posee 20.2% de las plantas medicinales reconocidas en el país; sin embargo, no se ha publicado un listado a nivel estatal y se tienen pocos estudios etnobotánicos. Los objetivos del presente trabajo fueron revisar, [...] organizar y actualizar en una base de datos la información de las plantas medicinales de dicha entidad; las fuentes de información fueron literatura especializada y bases de datos botánicos con registros para el estado. Se documentaron 105 familias, 375 géneros, 605 especies y 44 infrataxa, de las cuales 14 se encuentran en riesgo de extinción según la NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2010. Las familias mejor representadas fueron: Asteraceae, Fabaceae y Euphorbiaceae, con 99, 51 y 27 especies, respectivamente. Las nativas correspondieron a 86% y las introducidas 14% (7.9% cultivadas). Las formas de crecimiento más abundantes resultaron ser las herbáceas latifoliadas, con 45.4%; los arbustos, con 18%; y los árboles, con 12.5%. Únicamente se presentan en un tipo de vegetación 32.1% de los taxa. En orden decreciente, la mayor riqueza correspondió al bosque de encino, con 56.5%, 51.2% al bosque de pino y 39.7% a los pastizales. En lo relativo al total de plantas medicinales se identificaron 1 090 usos, cuyos mayores porcentajes correspondieron a las utilizadas en los aparatos digestivo (37.8%) y genito-urinario (21.7%), así como en la piel y el tejido subcutáneo (32.3%). A fin de incrementar el conocimiento científico de las plantas medicinales, es necesario desarrollar más estudios etnobotánicos y análisis fitoquímicos. Abstract in english In Mexico, 10% of all the plants are classified as medicinal. Chihuahua possesses 20.2% of the species recognized as medicinal in the country; however, no state’s list of plants has been published, and ethnobotanical studies are scarce. The objectives of this paper were to review, organize and updat [...] e in a database the available information on the medicinal plants of the state. The sources of information were specialized literature and botanical data bases with registers for the entity. 105 families, 375 genera, 605 species, and 44 infrataxa were registered; 14 of the latter are endangered, according to NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2011. The most broadly represented families were Asteraceae, Fabaceae and Euphorbiaceae, with 99, 51 and 27 species, respectively. 86% of these are native, and 14% are introduced (7.9% are cultivated). The most abundant growths were broadleaf herbs (45.4%), shrubs (18%), and trees (12.5%). 32.1% of all the species belong to a single type of vegetation. The highest proportion (56.5%) corresponds to red oak forests, followed by 51.2% for pine forests, and 39.7% for grasslands. A total of 1 090 uses were found for the medicinal plants; the highest percentage, 37.8%, was for plants used for ailments of the digestive tract; 21.7% were used for the genitourinary tract, and 32.3%, for conditions of the skin and the subcutaneous tissue. In order to increase the scientific knowledge of the medicinal plants, further ethnobotanical studies and phytochemical analyses are required.

Mario Humberto, Royo-Márquez; Alicia, Melgoza-Castillo; J. Santos, Sierra-Tristán.

2013-08-01

39

Biological screening of Brazilian medicinal plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we screened sixty medicinal plant species from the Brazilian savanna ("cerrado" that could contain useful compounds for the control of tropical diseases. The plant selection was based on existing ethnobotanic information and interviews with local healers. Plant extracts were screened for: (a molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, (b toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina L., (c antifungal activity in the bioautographic assay with Cladosporium sphaerospermum and (d antibacterial activity in the agar diffusion assay against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Forty-two species afforded extracts that showed some degree of activity in one or more of these bioassays.

Alves Tânia Maria de Almeida

2000-01-01

40

Accumulation of heavy metals in selected medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this review, we evaluate the reports published between 1993 and 2011 that address the heavy metal accumulation in 88 medicinal plant species. We compare the safe limits for heavy metals set by governmental agencies vs. the levels at which such metals actually exist in selected medicinal plants. We also evaluate the uses and effectiveness of medicinal plants in health care, and assess the hazards of medicinal plant uses, in view of the growing worldwide use of medicinal plants. From our extensive review of the literature, we discovered that a maximum permissible level (MPL) of Pb is exceeded in 21 plant medicine species, Cd in 44 species, and Hg in 10 species. Vetiveria zizanioides a potential candidate species for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases absorb a wide range of heavy metals from metal-contaminated soils. We believe that this species is the single most impressive example of a potentially hazardous medicinal plant. Based on our review, we endorse the hypothesis that heavy metal accumulation by medicinal plants is mainly caused by extraction of soluble metals from contaminated soil, sediments and air. One continuing problem in protecting consumers of plant-based medicines is that permissible levels of all heavy metals in herbal medicine have not yet been standardized by regulating governmental entities. Moreover, there are few limit tests that exist for heavy metal content of medicinal plants, or permissible limits for essential dietary minerals, in most medicinal plants. The dearth of such limits hamstrings development of medicinal plant research and delays the release of either new or improved versions of medicinal plants or their components. In the present review, we emphasize that medicinal plants are often subjected to heavy metal contamination and that the levels at which these heavy metals sometimes occur exceeds permissible levels for some species. Therefore, collecting medicinal plants from areas that are, or may be, contaminated should be discouraged and banned if possible. PMID:21913125

Sarma, Hemen; Deka, Suresh; Deka, Hemen; Saikia, Rashmi Rekha

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

MEDICINAL PLANTS ACTIVE AGAINST SNAKE ENVENOMATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Snakebite is an important cause of morbidity and mortality and is one of the major health problems in India. About 30000 to 40,000 persons die each year from venomous snake bite. Russell’s viper or daboia (Viper russelli appears to be the commonest cause of fatal snakebite in Southern India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Burma and Thailand. Intravenous administration of anti-snake venom neutralizes the systemic actions, however, antiserum does not provide enough protection against venom induced hemorrhage, necrosis, nephrotoxicity and often develops hypersensitivity reactions. India has a rich tradition of the usage of medicinal plants. Many Indian medicinal plants are mentioned in Ayurvedic literature to treat snakebite victims and are used by many ayurvedic practioners as well as in rural areas by traditioners. So much research work has been conducted for anti-snake venom activity of herbal medicine as alternative for Anti Snake Venom. This article presents a review of such herbal drugs which are effectively neutralize the snake venom like vitex nigundo, Emblica officinalis, Hemidesmus indicus etc which were assayed in research laboratories. It is considered as a valuable source of natural products for development of medicines against venomous snake bite.

Kanojia Anita

2012-06-01

42

Antimicrobial activity of some Iranian medicinal plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The major aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts of eight plant species which are endemic in Iran. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts of eight Iranian traditional plants, including Hypericum scabrum, Myrtus communis, Pistachia atlantica, Arnebia euchroma, Salvia hydrangea, Satureja bachtiarica, Thymus daenensis and Kelussia odoratissima, were investigated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Candida albicans by agar disc diffusion and serial dilution assays. Most of the extracts showed a relatively high antimicrobial activity against all the tested bacteria and fungi. Of the plants studied, the most active extracts were those obtained from the essential oils of M. communis and T. daenensis. The MIC values for active extract and essential oil ranged between 0.039 and 10 mg/ml. It can be said that the extract and essential oil of some medicinal plants could be used as natural antimicrobial agents in food preservation. .

Ghasemi Pirbalouti Abdollah

2010-01-01

43

Medicinal plants--old and new.  

Science.gov (United States)

The historic role of plants in healing declined early in the twentieth century with the ascendency of synthetic drugs, even though a number of basic medical tools, such as opium, strychnine, and cocaine, are of botanical origin. In recent years, interest in natural products has been restored dramatically by the discovery of penicillin, plant-derived tranquilizers, and plant precursors of cortisone. Contrary to previous beliefs, botanical drugs are proving more economical than synthetics and hold forth encouraging prospects of inhibiting or destroying tumors without undue damage to healthy tissue. Extensive plant screening programs are being conducted by governmental agencies and pharmaceutical houses. Folk remedies, still common in many tropical areas, are being evaluated. As a result of such research by Canadian and American scientists, alkaloids extracted from the Madagascar periwinkle (Vinca rosea) are being effectively employed to achieve regression in childhood leukemia. Potentially more rewarding are investigations of compounds obtained from the Australian tree, Acronychia baueri and a Chinese species, Camptotheca acuminata. Universities are reestablishing medicinal plant gardens and placing more emphasis on pharmacognosy. Experimental work with narcotic plants in psychiatric treatment has given rise to popular fascination with and abuse of certain natural hallucinogens. Among scientists engaged in chemical studies, there is an active demand for information about plants, their properties and therapeutic uses. Even the general public is being made aware that plant drugs are not obsolete but offer new hope for conquering disease. PMID:5644801

Morton, J F

1968-04-01

44

Biological screening of Brazilian medicinal plants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In this study, we screened sixty medicinal plant species from the Brazilian savanna ("cerrado") that could contain useful compounds for the control of tropical diseases. The plant selection was based on existing ethnobotanic information and interviews with local healers. Plant extracts were screened [...] for: (a) molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, (b) toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina L.), (c) antifungal activity in the bioautographic assay with Cladosporium sphaerospermum and (d) antibacterial activity in the agar diffusion assay against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Forty-two species afforded extracts that showed some degree of activity in one or more of these bioassays.

Tânia Maria de Almeida, Alves; Andréia Fonseca, Silva; Mitzi, Brandão; Telma Sueli Mesquita, Grandi; Elza de Fátima A, Smânia; Artur, Smânia Júnior; Carlos Leomar, Zani.

2000-06-01

45

Cytotoxic effects of bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S) using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous) and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica) showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC(50) 1.1-1.6?mg?mL(-1)). Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC(50) > 2.5?mg?mL(-1)) against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC(50) 0.2-2.3?mg?mL(-1)) against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC(50) 0.01-0.08?mg?mL(-1)) against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified. PMID:19706693

Uddin, Shaikh J; Grice, I Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

2011-01-01

46

Multimedia-based Medicinal Plants Sustainability Management System  

CERN Document Server

Medicinal plants are increasingly recognized worldwide as an alternative source of efficacious and inexpensive medications to synthetic chemo-therapeutic compound. Rapid declining wild stocks of medicinal plants accompanied by adulteration and species substitutions reduce their efficacy, quality and safety. Consequently, the low accessibility to and non-affordability of orthodox medicine costs by rural dwellers to be healthy and economically productive further threaten their life expectancy. Finding comprehensive information on medicinal plants of conservation concern at a global level has been difficult. This has created a gap between computing technologies' promises and expectations in the healing process under complementary and alternative medicine. This paper presents the design and implementation of a Multimedia-based Medicinal Plants Sustainability Management System addressing these concerns. Medicinal plants' details for designing the system were collected through semi-structured interviews and databas...

Omogbadegun, Zacchaeus; Ayo, Charles; Mbarika, Victor; Omoregbe, Nicholas; Otofia, Efe; Chieze, Frank

2011-01-01

47

Antiradical efficiency of 20 selected medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antioxidant system of a plant comprises a group of chemicals that are highly diverse in their sources, effects and uses. These antioxidants are capable of contracting and damaging free radicals. This investigation deals with a screening and comparison of the antioxidant activities of 20 selected medicinal plants and their parts, individually and in combination with vitamins A, C or E, using the DPPH radical scavenging method. Phyllanthus emblica L., Santalum album L., Syzygium cumini L. and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. presented highly significant antiradical efficiency (AE) singly and in combination with either vitamin A, C or E. Further, Curcuma longa L., Momordica charantia L., S. cumini, T. foenum-graecum, Moringa oleifera Lam and S. album have also shown fairly significant AE in a vitamin combination dose of 0.001 mM concentration. PMID:22010999

Kamal, Raka; Yadav, Sunita; Mathur, Manas; Katariya, Pawan

2012-01-01

48

IMMUNOSTIMULANT EFFECT OF MEDICINAL PLANTS ON FISH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fishes not only play an important role in the demand of food for humans but they have also emerged as major model organisms for different biomedical researches. A number of experiments with the use of several drugs have been conducted in fish. Diseases in fish caused by bacteria are most widespread. Antibiotics are frequently used to control fish diseases caused by bacteria, but there is an increasing risk of developing antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria. The medicinal plants can act as immunostimulants, conferring early activation to the non-specific defense mechanisms of fish and elevating the specific immune response. The herbs contain many immunologically active components such as polysaccharides, organic acids, alkaloids, glycosides and volatile oils, which can enhance immune functions. Recently, there has been increased interest in the immune stimulating function of some herbs in aquaculture. The non-specific immune functions such as bacteriolytic activity and leukocyte function of fish have been improved by some herbs. Henceforth, this article elucidates certain herbs (medicinal plants which have been shown experimentally as well as clinically to possess immunostimulant effects in fish, thereby treating different fish diseases.

Pandey Govind

2012-03-01

49

[Medicinal plant hairy roots generating and their applications].  

Science.gov (United States)

As a kind of the plant tissue cultures, hairy root culture is characterized by rapid growth without exogenous hormones source and high yield of secondary metabolites, which attracted the attention of scholars in resent years. This work systematically summarized the research of medicinal plant hairy roots, including the mechanism, current situation of medicinal plant hairy roots, and their applications. PMID:25272822

Zhang, Meng; Gao, Wei; Wang, Xiu-Juan

2014-06-01

50

Preliminary phytochemical screening of some Indian Medicinal Plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and cardie glycoside distribution in five medicinal plants belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The medicinal plants investigated were Asteracantha longifolia (L.) Nees, Psassiflora edulis Sims, Berberis tinctoria Lesch, Sphaeranthus indicus Linn, and Solanum trilobatum Linn. All the plants were found to contain Phenols, Cardiac glycosides, Steroids, Saponins and Tannin except for the absen...

Doss, A.

2009-01-01

51

Turkish folk medicinal plants, part III: Sile (Istanbul).  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, forty-three folk medicinal plants from Sile (Turkey) have been reported. Among them 35 species were wild and eight species were cultivated plants. The folk medicinal plants have been mostly used for the treatment of eczema, stomach and kidney ailments, asthma, cough, diabetes, and wounds. PMID:11077175

Tuzlaci, E; Tolon, E

2000-12-01

52

Radio protective effects of some medicinal plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many plants are known to have beneficial therapeutic effects as noted in the traditional Indian system of medicine, Ayurveda and used since time immemorial for curing diseases. Even today, nearly 70% of the world's population is dependent on plants for handling their health related problems and plants have been utilized successfully for the treatment of free radical-mediated diseases in human such as Rheumatoid arthritis, Atherosclerosis, Cancer, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, aging and several other conditions including inflammatory diseases. Plant extracts eliciting radio protective efficacy contain a plethora of compounds including antioxidants, immunostimulants, cell proliferation stimulators, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial agent, some of which may act in isolation as well as in combination with other constituents from the same plants. Glycyrrhiza glabra, Allium sepa, Allium sativum, Aloe arborescens, Amaranthus paniculatus, Curcuma longa, Moringa olefera and Syzygium cumini are some important radio protective plants. Alium sativum has been reported to possess antioxidant antimicrobial, antitumor, antimutagenic and anti-inflammatory properties. Aloe arborescens acts as a cell proliferate, healer and allergy reducer. Amaranthus paniculatus is used for purifying blood and treating scrofulous sores. Curcuma longa is widely used in antitumor and antibacterial activities. Leaf extract of Moringa oleifera is significantly used in nervous debility and heaificantly used in nervous debility and healing of wound. Chlorella is well known nutrient dense superfood that contains 60% protein, 18 amino acids (including all the essential amino acids), more than 20 vitamins and minerals. Chlorell has been used to treat cancer and also protect the body from the effects of cancer radiation treatment due to its chlorophyll in abundance level. However they have little attention for their radio protective as well as antioxidant. There is an urgent need to develop newer, more efficient and reliable bioassays for large scale rapid evaluation of radio protective efficacy of plant extracts. (author)

53

Traditional home gardens: A preserve of medicinal plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Traditional home gardens have been described as man-managed ecosystems with high energy subsidy, complex structure, and multiple functions. These have been reported as treasure trove of a rich biodiversity of plant species including medicinal plants used for traditional home remedies of various ailments. A review of research work on the status of medicinal plants in traditional rural home gardens is presented with the objective to explore them as potential preservation site for medicinal plan...

Sangeeta Bajpai; Sharma, A. K.; Kanungo, V. K.

2013-01-01

54

Initial Studies on Alkaloids from Lombok Medicinal Plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Initial investigation of medicinal plants from Lombok has resulted in the collection of 100 plant species predicted to have antimicrobial, including antimalarial, properties according to local medicinal uses. These plants represent 49 families and 80 genera; 23% of the plants tested positively for alkaloids. Among the plants testing positive, five have been selected for further investigation involving structure elucidation and antimicrobial testing on the extracted alkaloids. Initial work on structural elucidation of some of the alkaloids is reported briefly.

John B. Bremner

2001-01-01

55

Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants from Ghana.  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of a preliminary antimicrobial screening of the methanol extracts of Aframomum melegueta, Piper guineense, Xylopia aethiopica, Zingiber officinale, medicinal plants of Ghana, are reported. PMID:14693222

Konning, G H; Agyare, C; Ennison, B

2004-01-01

56

Recent advances on bioactive natural products from Chinese medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

China has accumulated a rich body of empirical knowledge of the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of various diseases throughout its long history. Chemical studies on Chinese medicinal plants provide a valuable material base for the discovery and development of new drugs of natural origin. In this article recent chemical work on various Chinese medicinal plants is reviewed, including Mussaenda pubescens (Rubiaceae), Isatis indigotica (Cruciferae), Euphorbia fischeriana, and E. ebracteolata (Euphorbiaceae), and Stemona species (Stemonaceae). The structural diversity of the medicinal chemical constituents of the above plants is discussed. PMID:9828038

Qin, G W; Xu, R S

1998-11-01

57

The Effect of Anise Oil (Pimpinella anisum L. On Broiler Performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the use of anise oil in broiler nutrition as a natural growth promoting substance instead of antibiotics. Different levels of anise oil were added to a standard diet, to determine its effect on feed intake, daily live weight gain and feed conversion ratio compared to control and antibiotic groups. Two hundred day-old broilers (Ross-308 were divided into groups of 40 birds each and randomly assigned to the five treatment diets. Each treatment has four replicates. Experimental groups were as follow: A Control group with no anise oil or antibiotic added, a 100 mg/kg Anise oil group, a 200 mg/kg Anise oil group, a 400 mg/kg Anise oil group with corresponding inclusion levels, and an antibiotic group with 0.1% added antibiotic (Avilamycin. The feed intake was similar in groups (p>0.05. The highest (p< 0.01 daily live weight gain was observed on the 400 Anise oil group (70.35 g and followed by Antibiotic group (65.84 g, 100 Anise oil group (62.57g, 200 Anise oil group (62.47 g and control group (61.30 g. The addition of 400 mg/kg anise oil to the diets was improved daily live weight gain by approximately 15% compared to the control group. This improve was remained 7 % level in antibiotic group. Additionally, the addition of 400 mg/kg anise oil to the diets was improved daily live weight gain by approximately 6.5% compared to the antibiotic group. The addition of 400 mg/kg anise oil to the diets was improved feed conversion ratio by approximately 12 % compared to the control group. This improve was remained 7 % level in antibiotic group. Additionally, the addition of 400 mg/kg anise oil to the diets was improved feed conversion ratio by approximately 6 % compared to the antibiotic group. 7. In conclusion, anise oil could be considered as a potential natural growth promoter for poultry.

Mehmet Ciftci

2005-01-01

58

Color and Edge Histograms Based Medicinal Plants' Image Retrieval  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a methodology for color and edge histogram based medicinal plants image retrieval. The medicinal plants are divided into herbs, shrubs and trees. The medicinal plants are used in ayurvedic medicines. Manual identification of medicinal plants requires a priori knowledge. Automatic recognition of medicinal plants is useful. We have considered medicinal plant species, such as Papaya, Neem, Tulasi and Aloevera are considered for identification and retrieval. The color histograms are obtained in RGB, HSV and YCbCr color spaces. The number of valleys and peaks in the color histograms are used as features. But, these features alone are not helpful in discriminating plant images, since majority plant images are green in color. We have used edge and edge direction histograms in the work to get edges in the stem and leafy parts. Finally, these features are used in retrieval of medicinal plant images. Absolute distance, Euclidean distance and mean square error, similarity distance measures are deployed in the work. The results show an average retrieval efficiency of 94% and 98% for edge and edge direction features respectively.

Basavaraj S. Anami

2012-08-01

59

Use of medicinal plants for diabetes in Trinidad and Tobago  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Use of herbal remedies from medicinal plants (bush medicines) was studied in 622 people with diabetes mellitus attending 17 government health centers on the island of Trinidad, Trinidad and Tobago. Bush medicines were used by 42% of patients surveyed and were used for diabetes by 24%. Bush medicine use was more frequent in Afro-Trinidadians and in those of mixed ethnicity than in Indo-Trinidadians, and was also more prevalent in those with lower educational attainment. Most patients using bus...

Mahabir D.; Gulliford M. C.

1997-01-01

60

COASTAL MEDICINAL PLANTS ALONG PALK STRAIT : A SURVEY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

India has one of the richest plant medical cultures in the world. Millions of rural house holds use medicinal plants in a self-help mode. In the present study the survey is made on the coastal medicinal plants from S.P. Pattinam to Karangadu along Palk Strait. A total number of around thirty four plants such as Acacia arabica, Acorus calamus, Adhatoda vasica, Aloe vera, Alpinia galangal, Anisomeles malabarica, Cardiospermam halicacabam, Cassia juvanica, Cassia obtuse, Citrus limon, Coleus a...

Uma pandi .M

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Berberis lycium a Medicinal Plant with Immense Value  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Berberis lycium belong to family Berberidaceae is an evergreen shrub growing in Himalayan region. The various parts of the plant like root, bark, stem, leaves and fruits are used by the people as a medicine or food. This plant has also gained wide acceptance for its medicinal value in ayurvedic drugs. The plant is known to prevent liver disorders, abdominal disorders, skin diseases, cough, ophthalmic etc. Moreover the pharmacological studies have shown that plant is hypoglycemic, hyperlipidem...

Monika Sood2; Purvika Sood, Rajni Modgil

2013-01-01

62

Medicinal plants of Usherai valley, Dir, NWFP, Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research is based on the results of an ethno-botanical research conducted in Usherai Valley. The main objective was to enlist the wealth of medicinal plants. In total 50 species, belonging to 32 families of wild herbs, shrubs and trees were found to be used as medicinal plants by the inhabitants in the valley. (author)

63

The use of medicinal plants by primates: A missing link?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is growing evidence that some species of wild nonhuman primate, especially chimpanzees, take herbal and clay medicines to treat and prevent disease. Such a primate pharmacopoeia may be a missing link in our understanding of the relationship between primate foraging and ranging strategies and plant chemistry; not all plant secondary compounds may be deleterious to the consumer. Just as study of traditional herbal medicines has yielded powerful drugs, so primate medicines may hint at drug...

Newton, P.

1991-01-01

64

A database of 389 medicinal plants for diabetes  

Science.gov (United States)

Medicinal plants used to treat hypoglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions are of considerable interest to ethno-botanical community as they are recognized to contain valuable medicinal properties in different parts of the plant. The active principles of many plant species with desired properties are isolated to cure ailments such as diabetes type-1 and type-2, respectively. Here, we describe DiaMedBase, a database containing information of medicinal plants for diabetes. Availability http://www.progenebio.in/DMP/DMP.htm PMID:17597872

Babu, Padavala Ajay; Suneetha, Gadde; Boddepalli, Radha; Lakshmi, Vedurupaka Vasantha; Rani, Talluru Sudha; RamBabu, Yellapu; Srinivas, Kolli

2006-01-01

65

Medicinal plants popularly used in the Brazilian Tropical Atlantic Forest.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey of medicinal plants used by rural and urban inhabitants of the three cities of the Tropical Atlantic Forest, Region of Vale do Ribeira, State of São Paulo, Brazil was performed by means of 200 interviews with medicinal plant users and extractors and, traditional healers. One hundred fourteen herbal remedies were recorded and the following information reported: Latin, vernacular and English names, plant part used, forms of preparation and application of the herbal remedies, medicinal or food uses, areas of plant collection, economic importance (when available) and other data. PMID:11864767

Di Stasi, L C; Oliveira, G P; Carvalhaes, M A; Queiroz, M; Tien, O S; Kakinami, S H; Reis, M S

2002-02-01

66

Systematic organization of medicinal plant information: a monograph template proposal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The use of medicinal plants in Brazil is widespread and is supported by public policies; it has the objective of providing the population with safe and effective herbal medicines of adequate quality. An action in these policies is to develop medicinal plant monographs to gather published information [...] and decide which medicinal plants should be financed by the Brazilian government and distributed by the public health system. Currently, the monographs published worldwide do not present unified information regarding medicinal plants, and generally, they do not cover enough requirements for herbal medicine registration. The aim of this study is to develop a monograph model with standardized information not only about botany, agronomy, quality control, safety, and efficacy but also about relating regulatory aspects that support herbal medicine regulation. The development of standardized monographs favors the fast authorization and distribution of herbal medicines in the public system. The model also points out the lacking studies that should be carried out to supplement the necessary regulatory information of medicinal plants.

Ana C.B., Carvalho; Ligia A., Santos; Dâmaris, Silveira.

67

Effects of gamma irradiation on antioxidants of medicinal plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The antioxidant effect of water extracts from irradiated medicinal plants on inhibition of lipid peroxidation in human plasma was examined. The results presented herein indicate that crude extracts from 29 kinds, 31 extracts, of medicinal plants, irradiated at 10 and 25 kilo gray. showed no significant change in inhibition of lipid peroxidation in plasma induced by gamma irradiation (p<0.05). It also found that extraction yields in some irradiated plants were increased

68

NEW DIMENSION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS AS ANIMAL FEED  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The medicinal plants and herbs have been used for many years in the treatment of various diseases in animals and human beings. Now-a-days, utilization of these medicinal plants is increasing. These are used in animal feed as the growth promoters. Due to prohibition of most of the antimicrobial growth promoters in animal feed because of their residual effects, plant extracts are becoming more popular. They act as antibacterial, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antifungal, analgesic, insecticidal...

M A Tipu, M. S. Akhtar

2006-01-01

69

Antiproliferative activity of Vietnamese medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Methanol, methanol-water (1:1) and water extracts were prepared from seventy-seven Vietnamese medicinal plants and tested for their antiproliferative activities against human HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cells. Among them, fifteen extracts including seven methanol extracts of Caesalpinia sappan, Catharanthus roseus, Coscinium fenestratum, Eurycoma longifolia, Hydnophytum formicarum and Streptocaulon juventas (collected at two areas), six methanol-water (1:1) extracts of Cae. sappan, Cat. roseus, Co. fenestratum, H. formicarum and S. juventas (at two areas), and two water extracts of Cae. sappan and S. juventas exhibited antiproliferative activities in a concentration-dependent manner. Their antiproliferative activities against human cervix HeLa adenocarcinoma, human lung A549 adenocarcinoma, murine colon 26-L5 carcinoma, murine Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) and murine B16-BL6 melanoma cells were then examined. Co. fenestratum showed selective activity against lung carcinoma and/or lung metastatic cell lines, A549, LLC and B16-BL6, while H. formicarum and S. juventas showed selective activity against human tumor cell lines, HeLa and A549. Characteristic morphological change and DNA fragmentation indicated the antiproliferative activity to be due to the induction of apoptosis. PMID:12081142

Ueda, Jun-ya; Tezuka, Yasuhiro; Banskota, Arjun Hari; Le Tran, Quan; Tran, Qui Kim; Harimaya, Yuko; Saiki, Ikuo; Kadota, Shigetoshi

2002-06-01

70

Ethnopharmacological survey of wild medicinal plants in Showbak, Jordan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two main research questions are framing this investigation: (1) the main taxa of the medicinal importance value altered the Showbak forest stand and species composition? (2) The most safe species and what are the toxic ones (unsafe). These two research questions are the vital ones to draw a clear image about the wild medicinal plants of this investigated area of Showbak region in Jordan. 79 wild medicinal plant species were investigated in this study which are used in traditional medication for the treatment of various diseases. Most of the locals interviewed dealt with well-known safe medicinal plants such as Aaronsohnia factorovskyi Warb. et Eig., Achillea santolina L., Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Artemisia herba-alba L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Clematis recta L., Herniaria hirsuta L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta chalepensis L., Salvia triloba L., Sarcopoterium spinosa (L.) Spach., Thymbra capitata (L.) Hof, and Urginea maritima Barker. Many of the wild medicinal plants investigated were toxic and needed to be practiced by practitioners and herbalists rather than the local healers. These plants include Calotropis procera Willd R.Br., Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Sch., Datura stramonium L., Digitalis purpurea L., Ecballium elaterium (L.) A.Rich., Euphorbia helioscopia L., Euphorbia tinctoria Boiss., Glaucium corniculatum (L.) Curt., Hyoscyamus aureus L., Mandragora officinarum L., Nerium oleander L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum nigrum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunel. The conservation of medicinal plants and natural resources is becoming increasingly important, so this research is trying to collect information from local population concerning the use of medicinal plants in Showbak; identify the most important specie; determine the relative importance value of the species and calculate the informant consensus factor (ICF) for the medicinal plants. Obtaining results is relied on the interviewee's personal information and the medicinal use of specific plants. PMID:19429338

Al-Qura'n, S

2009-05-01

71

[Review on application of plant growth retardants in medicinal plants cultivation].  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant growth retardants are widely used in cultivation of medicinal plant, but there is still lack of scientific guidance. In order to guide the use of plant growth retardants in medicinal plant cultivation efficiently and reasonably, this paper reviewed the mechanism, function characteristic, plant and soil residue of plant growth retardants, such as chlorocholine chloride, mepiquat chloride, paclobutrazol, unicnazle and succinic acid, and summarized the application of plant growth retardants in medicinal plants cultivation in recent years, with focus on the effect of growth and yield of the officinal organs and secondary metabolites. PMID:24380290

Zhai, Yu-Yao; Guo, Bao-Lin; Cheng, Ming

2013-09-01

72

The microbiome of medicinal plants: diversity and importance for plant growth, quality and health  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Past medicinal plant research primarily focused on bioactive phytochemicals, however the focus is currently shifting due to the recognition that a significant number of phytotherapeutic compounds are actually produced by associated microbes or through interaction with their host. Medicinal plants provide an enormous bioresource of potential use in modern medicine and agriculture, yet their microbiome is largely unknown. The objective of this review is i to introduce novel insights into the plant microbiome with a focus on medicinal plants, ii to provide details about plant- and microbe-derived ingredients of medicinal plants, and iii to discuss possibilities for plant growth promotion and plant protection for commercial cultivation of medicinal plants. In addition, we also present a case study performed both to analyse the microbiome of three medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L. and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn. cultivated on organically managed Egyptian desert farm and to develop biological control strategies. The soil microbiome of the desert ecosystem was comprised of a high abundance of Gram-positive bacteria of prime importance for pathogen suppression under arid soil conditions. For all three plants, we observed a clearly plant-specific selection of the microbes as well as highly specific diazotrophic communities that overall identify plant species as important drivers in structural and functional diversity. Lastly, native Bacillus spec. div. strains were able to promote plant growth and elevate the plants’ flavonoid production. These results underline the numerous links between the plant-associated microbiome and the plant metabolome.

MartinaKöberl

2013-12-01

73

The microbiome of medicinal plants: diversity and importance for plant growth, quality and health.  

Science.gov (United States)

Past medicinal plant research primarily focused on bioactive phytochemicals, however, the focus is currently shifting due to the recognition that a significant number of phytotherapeutic compounds are actually produced by associated microbes or through interaction with their host. Medicinal plants provide an enormous bioresource of potential use in modern medicine and agriculture, yet their microbiome is largely unknown. The objective of this review is (i) to introduce novel insights into the plant microbiome with a focus on medicinal plants, (ii) to provide details about plant- and microbe-derived ingredients of medicinal plants, and (iii) to discuss possibilities for plant growth promotion and plant protection for commercial cultivation of medicinal plants. In addition, we also present a case study performed both to analyse the microbiome of three medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L., and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn.) cultivated on organically managed Egyptian desert farm and to develop biological control strategies. The soil microbiome of the desert ecosystem was comprised of a high abundance of Gram-positive bacteria of prime importance for pathogen suppression under arid soil conditions. For all three plants, we observed a clearly plant-specific selection of the microbes as well as highly specific diazotrophic communities that overall identify plant species as important drivers in structural and functional diversity. Lastly, native Bacillus spec. div. strains were able to promote plant growth and elevate the plants' flavonoid production. These results underline the numerous links between the plant-associated microbiome and the plant metabolome. PMID:24391634

Köberl, Martina; Schmidt, Ruth; Ramadan, Elshahat M; Bauer, Rudolf; Berg, Gabriele

2013-01-01

74

Antibacterial and antifungal activities of some Mexican medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Mexico about 4,000 plant species have some medicinal use. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of six Mexican medicinal plants against fungi and Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Methanolic extracts were prepared from the Mexican medicinal plants Amphypteringium adstrigens, Castella tortuosa, Coutarea latiflora, Ibervillea sonorae, Jatropha cuneata, and Selaginella lepidophylla. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the plants were determined by the broth microdilution method and the radial growth inhibition assay, respectively. All Mexican plants tested showed antimicrobial activity. Among the six plant extracts analyzed, J. cuneata showed the highest growth-inhibitory activity against fungi, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (J. cuneata > A. adstrigens > C. latiflora > C. tortuosa > I. sonorae approximately S. lepidophylla). Shigella flexneri and Staphylococcus aureus were the most susceptible bacteria to plant extracts. Complete inhibition of S. flexneri growth was observed with J. cuneata methanolic extract at 90 microg/mL. This plant extract also showed the strongest antifungal activity against Fusarium verticillioides and Aspergillus niger. Our data suggest that the medicinal plants tested have important antimicrobial properties. This is the first report describing the antimicrobial activities of several of the Mexican medicinal plants used in this study. PMID:20041800

Ruiz-Bustos, E; Velazquez, C; Garibay-Escobar, A; García, Z; Plascencia-Jatomea, M; Cortez-Rocha, M O; Hernandez-Martínez, J; Robles-Zepeda, R E

2009-12-01

75

Effects of medicinal plant extracts on gluconeogenesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Adolfo Andrade-CettoLaboratorio de Etnofarmacología, Departamento de Biología Celular, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Coyoacán, MéxicoAbstract: On a global level, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is the most common endocrine disorder. T2DM is defined as an elevated blood glucose level associated with the absence of or inadequacy in pancreatic insulin secretion. The liver plays a key role in maintaining blood glucose levels during fasting by synthesizing glucose, mainly from lactate and amino acids through a process called gluconeogenesis. Because hepatic glucose production is increased at least twofold in patients with T2DM, targeting this pathway may lead to a blood glucose reduction in these patients. Botanical agents show promise for the development of new compounds to treat T2DM. Important mechanisms of action function via the inhibition of gluconeogenesis can occur in one of five ways: direct enzyme inhibition; through the downregulation of mRNA levels of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-P; through the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase, which leads to decreased levels of cAMP response element-binding protein, a key transcription factor for gluconeogenic enzyme phosphorylation; through the expression of the glucokinase gene, which stimulates glucokinase activity and inhibits G-6-P; and through the inhibition of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, which decreases gluconeogenesis and enzymatically inhibits G-6-P and fructose-1,6-diphosphatase.Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus, medicinal plants, gluconeogenesis, glucose 6-phosphatase, hepatic glucose production, endocrine disorder, fructose 1,6-diphosphatase

Andrade-Cetto A

2012-06-01

76

Traditional home gardens: A preserve of medicinal plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditional home gardens have been described as man-managed ecosystems with high energy subsidy, complex structure, and multiple functions. These have been reported as treasure trove of a rich biodiversity of plant species including medicinal plants used for traditional home remedies of various ailments. A review of research work on the status of medicinal plants in traditional rural home gardens is presented with the objective to explore them as potential preservation site for medicinal plants. From the available literature it can be ascertained that these traditional rural home gardens can be a suitable site for conservation, propagation, and expansion of medicinal plants that form the backbone of the traditional medicine system and are fast dwindling due to over exploitation and development pattern. Widely reported presence in rural home gardens of medicinal plant species, such as, Adhatoda vasica, Nees., Aloe vera, Mill., Asparagus racemosus, Willd., Chlorophytum tuberosum, Baker., Curcuma angustifolia, Roxb., Dioscorea bulbifera, L., Dioscorea hispida, Dennst., Emblica officinalis, Gaertn., Gymnema sylvestre, Br., Rauwolfia serpentina, Benth., Terminalia arjuna, (Roxb. Wight. and Arn., Tinospora cordifolia, Miers., that are considered endangered is a further confirmation of this belief that traditional rural home gardens can be a good conservation site for domestication and conservation of these plant species.

Sangeeta Bajpai

2013-06-01

77

Search for Antimicrobial Efficacy of Certain Indian Medicinal Plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pet ether, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and distilled water extracts of two Indian medicinal plants Alpinia galanga and Embelia ribes were examined for their antimicrobial potential against selected bacteria and fungi. The purpose of screening is to justify and authenticate the use of Indian medicinal plants in ethnomedicinal or folklore as traditional treasure to cure various ailments. In present investigations attempts were made to screen the Indian medicinal plants as antimicrobial agent. The extracts were tested against selected test bacteria and fungi through disc diffusion assay where Tetracycline and Mycostatin were used as standard. Indian medicinal plants have a traditional background that they have potentials to use as antimicrobial agents. The results showed that all the extracts possess good antimicrobial activity against selected test bacteria and fungi. The present results therefore offer a scientific basis for traditional use of the various extracts of Alpinia galanga and Embelia ribes.

Ekta Menghani

2012-03-01

78

Multimedia-based Medicinal Plants Sustainability Management System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Medicinal plants are increasingly recognized worldwide as an alternative source of efficacious and inexpensive medications to synthetic chemo-therapeutic compound. Rapid declining wild stocks of medicinal plants accompanied by adulteration and species substitutions reduce their efficacy, quality and safety. Consequently, the low accessibility to and non-affordability of orthodox medicine costs by rural dwellers to be healthy and economically productive further threaten their life expectancy. Finding comprehensive information on medicinal plants of conservation concern at a global level has been difficult. This has created a gap between computing technologies' promises and expectations in the healing process under complementary and alternative medicine. This paper presents the design and implementation of a Multimedia-based Medicinal Plants Sustainability Management System addressing these concerns. Medicinal plants' details for designing the system were collected through semi-structured interviews and databases. Unified Modelling Language, Microsoft-Visual-Studio.Net, C#3.0, Microsoft-Jet-Engine4.0, MySQL, Loquendo Multilingual Text-to-Speech Software, YouTube, and VLC Media Player were used.

Zacchaeus Omogbadegun

2011-09-01

79

NEW DIMENSION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS AS ANIMAL FEED  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The medicinal plants and herbs have been used for many years in the treatment of various diseases in animals and human beings. Now-a-days, utilization of these medicinal plants is increasing. These are used in animal feed as the growth promoters. Due to prohibition of most of the antimicrobial growth promoters in animal feed because of their residual effects, plant extracts are becoming more popular. They act as antibacterial, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antifungal, analgesic, insecticidal, anticoccidial and growth promoters. These plant extracts compete with the synthetic drugs. Majority of medicinal plants do not have the residual effects. Azadiracht indica, Zizyphus vulgaris, Ocimum gratissimum and Atlanta monophylla have the strong antibacterial activity, whereas ocimum plant has strong antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antifungal, analgesic and antipyretic properties. Leaves of Azadirachta indica are used for feeding and reducing the parasitic load of animals. The fruit of Azadirachta indica also has the anticoccidial activity for poultry.

M. A. TIPU, M. S. AKHTAR, M. I. ANJUM1 AND M. L. RAJA

2006-07-01

80

Potential use of medicinal plants in the treatment of alcoholism.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present paper briefly reviews the most relevant experimental data on the reducing effect of some medicinal herbs on voluntary alcohol intake in animal models of alcoholism. Pueraria lobata, Tabernanthe iboga, Panax ginseng, Salvia miltiorrhiza and Hypericum perforatum proved to be effective in decreasing alcohol consumption. Reduction of alcohol absorption from the gastrointestinal system appears to be a common feature among most of the above plants. These data suggest that medicinal plants may constitute novel and effective pharmacotherapies for alcoholism. PMID:10930711

Carai, M A; Agabio, R; Bombardelli, E; Bourov, I; Gessa, G L; Lobina, C; Morazzoni, P; Pani, M; Reali, R; Vacca, G; Colombo, G

2000-08-01

 
 
 
 
81

Medicinal plant diversity in the flora of Saudi Arabia 1: a report on seven plant families.  

Science.gov (United States)

A preliminary survey on the medicinal plant diversity in the flora of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has been made with seven families: Amaranthaceae, Apocynaceae, Capparidaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Labiatae, Polygonaceae and Solanaceae, as an initial study. These families are represented in the flora with 254 species (i.e. 12% of the total species), and individually with 21, 7, 29, 66, 76, 22 and 33 species, respectively. Of these, 86 species, so far investigated, are medicinal, distributed in these seven families as follows: 7, 5, 12, 20, 23, 7 and 12, respectively. The Labiatae have the highest number (23) of medicinal plants among them while maximum medicinal plant diversity within the family has been observed with the Apocynaceae. An enumeration of these 86 medicinal species is presented with the current nomenclature, Arabic names and medicinal uses. This communication aims at emphasizing the importance of setting up conservation priorities, and sustained development of various medicinal plants of Saudi Arabia. PMID:15030919

Rahman, M Atiqur; Mossa, Jaber S; Al-Said, Mansour S; Al-Yahya, Mohammed A

2004-03-01

82

Monepenepe (Cassia abbriviata: A Medicinal Plant in Botswana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cassia abbrivata commonly known, as Monepenepe in Botswana is a widespread shrub or medium sized tree or shrub belonging to the Caesalpinaceae family. In Africa it grows from Somalia to South Africa. It is important medicine plant utilized by people living in rural and urban areas where it grows. The bark and roots of the plant have medicinal properties that treat different ailment in Botswana and other countries where it grows. Too much cutting of the bark and root digging for medicinal uses has left many trees dead in Botswana. It is therefore recommended that removal of the bark for medicine should be in small pieces and not around the trunk (ring barking if the tree is to be preserved. This study reviews the characteristics and medicinal uses of Cassia abbriviata.

W. Mojeremane

2005-01-01

83

Collection and conservation of medicinal and aromatic plants resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available (Abstract selected from presentation in National Conference on Biodiversity of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Collection, Characterization and Utilization, held at Anand, India during November 24-25, 2010Plant genetic resources have made substantial contributions to the domestication, utilization and improvement of all kinds of crops including medicinal and aromatic plants. Collection, characterization and  their efficient utilization are keys to efficient management of any kind of genetic resource including those of medicinal and aromatic plants. Modern techniques offer the opportunity for collecting, rapid propagation, medium and long-term storage and distribution of germplasm. Complementary  strategies are significant for conservation, particularly of medicinal and aromatic plants as we come across a wide spectrum of species with orthodox or recalcitrant or intermediate seed storage behaviour or exclusively vegetatively propagated plants. Collections from different and widely placed areas will greatly enhance the existing collections in genebanks by providing back-ups in case of losses through diseases, insects and environmental stresses and weather changes. The major objectives of conservation programmes are to provide safety against loss of genetic resources and to make these resources available for crop improvement at present and in the future. Each strategy for conservation has to offer relatively greater safety and cost effectiveness. Any useful plant can be considered for conservation but medicinal plants with known biological activities and chemical constituents responsible for such activities if influenced by agro-ecological situations needs to be conserved in ideal situations to avoid loss of essential compounds responsible for biological actions. However, prioritisation of species is essential to make full use of any particular strategy with justification. Modification of the environment and particularly associations combined with any treatment exercised for survival or increasing productivity needs to be approached cautiously. This lecture will review the available information on collection, characterization, utilization, conservation and documentation of genetic resources belonging to medicinal and aromatic plants.  

Z. Abraham

2011-01-01

84

Medicinal plants in an urban environment: the medicinal flora of Banares Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Varanasi is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities of the world, and one of the most important Hindu pilgrimage sites. Despite this importance, very little information exits on the cities flora in general, and medicinal species found within its limit in particular. Traditional medicine plays a large role in Indian society. The presented study attempted to investigate if traditional plant use and availability of important common medicinal plants are maintained in urban environments. The paper presents information on the traditional uses of seventy-two plant species collected form the campus of Banares Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, and highlights the uses of these plants by the local inhabitants.

Bussmann Rainer W

2007-11-01

85

Plantas medicinais: cura segura? Medicinal plants: safe cure?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reviews the recent literature on synergism, adulteration and risks of using medicinal plants. The use of copaiba and sacaca plants as well as their adulteration and side effects, are also described. In addition, the new regulations on phytotherapeutic registration in Brazil and Europe are discussed.

Valdir F. Veiga Junior

2005-06-01

86

Plantas medicinais: cura segura? / Medicinal plants: safe cure?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english This paper reviews the recent literature on synergism, adulteration and risks of using medicinal plants. The use of copaiba and sacaca plants as well as their adulteration and side effects, are also described. In addition, the new regulations on phytotherapeutic registration in Brazil and Europe are [...] discussed.

Valdir F., Veiga Junior; Angelo C., Pinto; Maria Aparecida M., Maciel.

87

POLYPHENOLS AND FLAVONOIDS OF TWELVE INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the present work, twelve Indian medicinal plants (Averrhoa carambola L., Buchanania lanzan Spr., Calophylluminophyllum L., Celastrus paniculatus Willd., Clerodendron multiflorum L., Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb., Morindacitrifolia L., Ocimum gratissimum L., Peltophorum ferrugineum (Decne.), Phyllanthus fraternus Webster Syn.,Triumfetta rotundifolia Lam. and Ziziphus nummularia (Burm. F.) were evaluated for their total phenol andflavonoid content. The plant material was extracted individually...

Dishant Desai; Dilip Bhayani; Sumitra Chandra

2013-01-01

88

MEDICINAL PLANTS USED AS ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS: A REVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or fungi. Diseases can spread, directly or indirectly, from one person to another. Infectious diseases are the second leading cause of death worldwide. About one-fourth of all the medicines we use, come from rainforest plants. However, scientific studies have been conducted only to a limited extent with few medicinal plants. The development of bacterial resistance to presently available antibiotics has necessitated the search of new antibacterial agents. In rural and backward area of India, several plants are commonly used as herbal medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases. Four such plants commonly used by the people of the area were screened for potential antibacterial activity.

Parmar Namita

2012-01-01

89

Pharmacological effects of medicinal plants on skin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

There are many herbs that have a role in the prevention and treatment of skin diseases, and are used in either traditional medicine or the preparation of cosmetics. The effects of a number of them have been scientifically proved and this information for the production of cosmetic and pharmaceutical products can be used.

Zohreh Bakhtiyari, MSc

2013-06-01

90

Berberis lycium a Medicinal Plant with Immense Value  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Berberis lycium belong to family Berberidaceae is an evergreen shrub growing in Himalayan region. The various parts of the plant like root, bark, stem, leaves and fruits are used by the people as a medicine or food. This plant has also gained wide acceptance for its medicinal value in ayurvedic drugs. The plant is known to prevent liver disorders, abdominal disorders, skin diseases, cough, ophthalmic etc. Moreover the pharmacological studies have shown that plant is hypoglycemic, hyperlipidemic, hepatoprotective, anticarcinogenic and antipyretic properties. The fruits of the plant are also very nutritious and are rich source of vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, anthocyanin etc. These fruits are consumed in raw form or are utilized in the preparation of juices, jams, preserve etc. by the local inhabitants. In the present article an attempt has been made to summarize the various properties of Berberis lycium plant.

Monika Sood2

2013-03-01

91

Anti-HIV activity of Indian medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients face great socio-economic difficulties in obtaining treatment. There is an urgent need for new, safe, and cheap anti-HIV agents. Traditional medicinal plants are a valuable source of novel anti-HIV agents and may offer alternatives to expensive medicines in future. Various medicinal plants or plant-derived natural products have shown strong anti-HIV activity and are under various stages of clinical development in different parts of the world. The present study was directed towards assessment of anti-HIV activity of various extracts prepared from Indian medicinal plants. The plants were chosen on the basis of similarity of chemical constituents with reported anti-HIV compounds or on the basis of their traditional usage as immunomodulators. Different extracts were prepared by Soxhlet extraction and liquid-liquid partitioning. Ninety-two extracts were prepared from 23 plants. Anti-HIV activity was measured in a human CD4+ T-cell line, CEM-GFP cells infected with HIV-1NL4.3. Nine extracts of 8 different plants significantly reduced viral production in CEM-GFP cells infected with HIV-1NL4.3. Aegle marmelos, Argemone mexicana, Asparagus racemosus, Coleus forskohlii, and Rubia cordifolia demonstrated promising anti-HIV potential and were investigated for their active principles. PMID:21365365

Sabde, Sudeep; Bodiwala, Hardik S; Karmase, Aniket; Deshpande, Preeti J; Kaur, Amandeep; Ahmed, Nafees; Chauthe, Siddheshwar K; Brahmbhatt, Keyur G; Phadke, Rasika U; Mitra, Debashis; Bhutani, Kamlesh Kumar; Singh, Inder Pal

2011-07-01

92

The cultivation of of medicinal and aromatique plants in Romania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Scientific research regarding medicinal plants started first in Cluj, where the Research Station for Medicinal Plants was first organized in Europe (1904. Research in this field was continued after 1930 by the staff of the Agronomy Researh Institute of Romania (ICAR. Beginning with 1975 the national research programme regarding the medicinal plants is coordinated by the Research Station for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants -SCPMA - Fundulea. Studies are performed in the experimental fields and in the laboratories of this institute and different other research stations and universities in Romania. Beginning with 1979, a new specialized periodical - Herba Romanica - published the main results in the field. At present there are cultivated in Romania about 60 different medicinal and aromatic plant species. Recently a tendency emerged toward the concentration of the production to the most suitable regions and the specialization of different farms for the cultivation of a more restricted number of species. In the second part of the paper the species studied and/or cultivated in the experimental fields of the Agronomy Institute Cluj-Napoca are presented with a chronological list of papers published by the stuff in the period 1975-1984.

Leon Sorin MUNTEAN

1985-08-01

93

Screening of some Siberian medicinal plants for antimicrobial activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antimicrobial activity of crude ethanolic extracts of 16 Siberian medicinal plants was tested against five species of microorganisms: Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. Of the 16 plants tested, 12 showed antimicrobial activity against one or more species of microorganisms. The most active antimicrobial plants were Bergenia crassifolia, Chelidonium majus, Rhaponticum carthamoides, Sanguisorba officinalis, and Tussilago farfara. PMID:12169406

Kokoska, L; Polesny, Z; Rada, V; Nepovim, A; Vanek, T

2002-09-01

94

Traditional medicinal plant use in Loja province, Southern Ecuador  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Loja province, Southern Ecuador. Two hundred fifteen plant species were collected, identified and their vernacular names and traditional uses recorded. This number of species indicates that the healers, market vendors and members of the public interviewed still have a very high knowledge of plants in their surroundings, which can be seen as a reflection of the knowledge of the population in general. Howev...

Sharon Douglas; Bussmann Rainer W

2006-01-01

95

Antimicrobial activity of Latin American medicinal plant extracts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Resistance of pathogenic microorganisms to several drugs has increased due to the widespread use of antibiotics to treat infectious diseases. Hence, development of new antimicrobial drugs from plants is an area of active research in the search for medicinal, veterinary or agricultural industry use. For this work 19 plants species was collected, dried in the shade and oven. 20 g powder plant were macerated in cold either with dichloromethane (DCM) or methanol (MeOH) filtered, evaporated to yie...

Haag, Griselda Octavia; Valle, Mari?a Elena Del; Debenedetti, Silvia Laura; Mari?n, Gustavo; Brignoles, Pedro; Magarin?os, Mari?a Del Carmen

2014-01-01

96

People, plants and health: a conceptual framework for assessing changes in medicinal plant consumption  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background A large number of people in both developing and developed countries rely on medicinal plant products to maintain their health or treat illnesses. Available evidence suggests that medicinal plant consumption will remain stable or increase in the short to medium term. Knowledge on what factors determine medicinal plant consumption is, however, scattered across many disciplines, impeding, for example, systematic consideration of plant-based traditional medicine in national health care systems. The aim of the paper is to develop a conceptual framework for understanding medicinal plant consumption dynamics. Consumption is employed in the economic sense: use of medicinal plants by consumers or in the production of other goods. Methods PubMed and Web of Knowledge (formerly Web of Science were searched using a set of medicinal plant key terms (folk/peasant/rural/traditional/ethno/indigenous/CAM/herbal/botanical/phytotherapy; each search terms was combined with terms related to medicinal plant consumption dynamics (medicinal plants/health care/preference/trade/treatment seeking behavior/domestication/sustainability/conservation/urban/migration/climate change/policy/production systems. To eliminate studies not directly focused on medicinal plant consumption, searches were limited by a number of terms (chemistry/clinical/in vitro/antibacterial/dose/molecular/trial/efficacy/antimicrobial/alkaloid/bioactive/inhibit/antibody/purification/antioxidant/DNA/rat/aqueous. A total of 1940 references were identified; manual screening for relevance reduced this to 645 relevant documents. As the conceptual framework emerged inductively, additional targeted literature searches were undertaken on specific factors and link, bringing the final number of references to 737. Results The paper first defines the four main groups of medicinal plant users (1. Hunter-gatherers, 2. Farmers and pastoralists, 3. Urban and peri-urban people, 4. Entrepreneurs and the three main types of benefits (consumer, producer, society-wide derived from medicinal plants usage. Then a single unified conceptual framework for understanding the factors influencing medicinal plant consumption in the economic sense is proposed; the framework distinguishes four spatial levels of analysis (international, national, local, household and identifies and describes 15 factors and their relationships. Conclusions The framework provides a basis for increasing our conceptual understanding of medicinal plant consumption dynamics, allows a positioning of existing studies, and can serve to guide future research in the area. This would inform the formation of future health and natural resource management policies.

Smith-Hall Carsten

2012-11-01

97

Identification of Ornamental Plant Functioned as Medicinal Plant Based on Redundant Discrete Wavelet Transformation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Human has a duty to preserve the nature. One of the examples is preserving the ornamental plant. Huge economic value of plant trading, escalating esthetical value of one space and medicine efficacy that contained in a plant are some positive values from this plant. However, only few people know about its medicine efficacy. Considering the easiness to obtain and the medicine efficacy, this plant should be an initial treatment of a simple disease or option towards chemical based medicines. In order to let people get acquaint, we need a system that can proper identify this plant. Therefore, we propose to build a system based on Redundant Discrete Wavelet Transformation (RDWT through its leaf. Since its character is translation invariant that able to produce some robust features to identify ornamental plant. This system was successfully resulting 95.83% of correct classification rate.

Kohei Arai

2013-03-01

98

Analysis of the Mercury in commonly used Medicinal Plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Medicinal plants are used in various herbal products as food supplements and food additive. The requirement of medicinal plants is tremendously increasing in the global market. The presence of variousl heavy metals such as Arsenic, Mercury, Lead, Cadmium, Chromium, Nickle,silver, Atimony,Copper etc in herbal formulations result in several adverse effects. The present study was done to determine the presence of Mercury in some of the selected medicinal plants namely Hemidesmus indicus (L. R.Br. (Sariba, Cyperus rotundus L. (Musta, Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Yashtimadhu, Rubia cordifolia L. (Manjishta, Eclipta alba Hassk (Bhringaraj, Hedychium spicatum Ham.ex Smith (Karchura, Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (Amalaki and Acacia concinna (Willd. DC. (Shikakai, which were procured from local market of Chennai, Tirupati and Hyderabad. The samples were digested by Wet digestion method and analysed by UV-Vis Spectrophotometer. The results were compared with permissible limits recommended by WHO. Mean levels were evaluated with respect to their procurement. It was found that the analyzed plant species contained safe levels of the heavy metals concentration excepting Sariba Tirupati sample, Yastimadhu Chennai sample and Manjishta Hyderabad sample. There was a considerable variation of heavy metal concentration for the examined medicinal plant species. This may be due to the difference in physiological properties of plant uptake.

Meenakshi N

2014-07-01

99

Antibacterial activity of plants used in Indian herbal medicine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Delonix elata , Enicostemma axillare, Merremia tridentata, Mollugo cerviana and Solanum incanum are medicinal plants used in traditional Indian medicine for the treatment of various ailments. These plants were selected to evaluate their potential antibacterial activity. To determine antibacterial activity and phytochemicals in the crude extracts of five medicinal plants used in traditional Indian medicine for the treatment of various ailments like rheumatism, piles fever, skin diseases and snake bite. The antibacterial activity of organic solvent extracts of these plants were determined by disc diffusion and broth dilution techniques against gram-positive bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results revealed that the chloroform and methanol extracts of D. elata and methanol extracts of M. cerviana exhibited significant antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative strains with minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC ranging from 1.5 to 100 mg/ml. Methanol extracts of M. tridentata exhibited activity only against gram-positive bacterial strains with MBC ranging from 12.5 to 100 mg/ml. Extracts of E. axillare and S. incanum showed activity only against B. subtilis and were not bactericidal at 100 mg/ml. The most susceptible organism to the organic extracts from all the studied plants was B. subtilis and the most resistant organism was P. aeruginosa. The presence of phytochemicals such as alkaloids, tannins, triterpenoids, steroids and glycosides in the extracts of these plants supports their traditional uses as medicinal plants for the treatment of various ailments. The present study reveals potential use of these plants for developing new antibacterial compounds against pathogenic microorganisms.

Pavithra P

2010-01-01

100

STUDY OF DRUG LIKENESS ACTIVITY OF PHYTOCHEMICALS IN MEDICINAL PLANTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phytochemicals in medicinal plants can deliver potential therapeutic drugs such as anticancer, antiviral, antioxidant etc. The plant kingdom is a treasure house of potential drugs and each phytochemical cannot be tested in the wetlab preparations. Hence the main aim of the study is the drug likeness activity of phytochemicals in medicinal plants such as Anethum graveolens, Apium graveolens against hepatocellular carcinoma. These plants have anticancer, antilivercancer, hepatoprotective, antiviral activities. Focusing on these activities, the phytochemicals from these plants were collected from Dr.Duke Phytochemical and ethnobotanical database. The drug likeness is evaluated by satisfying Lipinski’s rule of five, ADMET properties, Partition coefficient analyzed through Accelerys Discovery studio. The results screen the phytochemicals and these interpretations can be further preceded for the drug designing.

V.Sathya

2012-11-01

 
 
 
 
101

Review on medicinal uses, pharmacological, phytochemistry and immunomodulatory activity of plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Researchers have discovered some important compounds from plants. The present work constitutes a review of the medicinal plants whose immunomodulant activity has been proven. We performed PUBMED, EMBASE, Google scholar searches for research papers of medicinal plants having immunomodulant activity. Medicinal plants used by traditional physicians or reported as having immunomodulant activity include Acacia concocinna, Camellia sinensis, Lawsonia inermis Linn, Piper longum Linn, Gelidium amansii, Petroselinum crispum, Plantago major and Allium sativum. Immunomodulant activities of some of these medicinal plants have been investigated. The medicinal plants documented have immunomodulant activity and should be further investigated via clinical trial. PMID:25280022

Akram, M; Hamid, A; Khalil, A; Ghaffar, A; Tayyaba, N; Saeed, A; Ali, M; Naveed, A

2014-01-01

102

Anti-osteoporotic constituents from Indian medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to determine the in vitro osteogenic activities of selected medicinal plants used traditionally in India. The compounds isolated from three plants viz. Allophylus serratus, Cissus quadrangularis and Vitex negundo were evaluated for their in vitro osteogenic activities. Primary cultures of osteoblasts were used to determine the effects of these components on osteoblast functions. Five of the fourteen compounds isolated led to increase in osteoblast differentiation and mineralization. These findings lend support to the use of Allophylus serratus, Cissus quadrangularis and Vitex negundo in traditional medicine. PMID:20554183

Kumar, Manmeet; Rawat, Preeti; Dixit, Preeti; Mishra, Devendra; Gautam, Abnish K; Pandey, Rashmi; Singh, Divya; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Maurya, Rakesh

2010-11-01

103

Rice-Traditional Medicinal Plant in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rice is rich in genetic diversity, with thousands of varieties grown throughout the world. Rice cultivation is the principal activity and source of income for about 100 million households in Asia and Africa. Rice has potential in a wide range of food categories. Besides having nutritional and medicinal benefits, the by-products of rice are equally important and beneficial. By-products from growing rice create many valuable and worthwhile products. The unedible parts, that are discarded through the milling process, and the edible part could be transformed into some of the following suggested products. Rice can be used to treat skin conditions. The rice is boiled, drained and allowed to cool and mashed. The rice is made into a paste or moulded into balls and these can be applied to boils, sores, swellings and skin blemishes. Other herbs are sometimes added to the rice balls to increase their medicinal effects. Sticky glutinous rice is often taken to treat stomach upsets, heart-burn and indigestion. Extracts from brown rice have been used to treat breast and stomach cancer and warts. They have also been used to treat indigestion, nausea and diarrhoea.

M. Umadevi

2012-05-01

104

Antiparasitic activities of medicinal plants used in Ivory Coast.  

Science.gov (United States)

During an ethnopharmacological survey of antiparasitic medicinal plants used in Ivory Coast, 17 plants were identified and collected. Polar, non-polar and alkaloidic extracts of various parts of these species were evaluated in vitro in an antiparasitic drug screening. Antimalarial, leishmanicidal, trypanocidal, antihelminthiasis and antiscabies activities were determined. Among the selected plants, Anogeissus leiocarpus and Terminalia glaucescens were strongly active against Plasmodium falciparum. Lawsonia inermis, selectively prescribed against trypanosomiasis shows interesting trypanocidal activities as did other 15 plants. Anthelmintic activities were found for 10 active species and 2 species (Uvaria afzelli and Monodora myristica) were actives against mites. PMID:14698515

Okpekon, T; Yolou, S; Gleye, C; Roblot, F; Loiseau, P; Bories, C; Grellier, P; Frappier, F; Laurens, A; Hocquemiller, R

2004-01-01

105

Antibacterial activity of selected Myanmar medicinal plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thirteen plants which are traditionally used for the treatment of dysentery and diarrhoea in Myanmar were selected and tested for antibacterial activity by using agar disc diffusion technique. Polar and nonpolar solvents were employed for extraction of plants. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extracts with the most significant predominant activity were evaluated by plate dilution method. The plants Eugenia jambolana, Quisqualis indica, Leucaena glauca and Euphorbia splendens var. 1 were found to show significant antibacterial activity. It was also observed that extracts using nonpolar solvents did not show any antibacterial activity and extracts using polar solvents showed antibacterial activity on tested bacteria, indicating that the active chemical compound responsible for the antibacterial action must be a polar soluble compound. (author)

106

Antioxidative activities of medicinal plants from TCM.  

Science.gov (United States)

As a natural antioxidant resource, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been paid much more attentions than before. The studies on its antioxidative activity have also increased dramatically in recent years. Abundant studies on TCM show that some TCM can increase body's activity of antioxidant enzymes, enhance body's ability of scavenging free radicals and decrease the generation of lipid peroxide (LPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the body etc. The action mechanism of TCM is closely related to its active constituents, including polysaccharides, quinines, flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, terpenes, phenolic acids compounds and tannins etc. Through referring to related reports on TCM, in the last 20 years, this paper reviews literatures involved in antioxidation research on TCM. Antioxidative mechanism, functional property and application prospect of some active constituents with antioxidation in TCM are discussed. PMID:22512585

Liu, Qi-Mei; Jiang, Jian-Guo

2012-10-01

107

Varieties of aromatic and medicinal plants developed in Romania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objectives of aromatic and medicinal plant breeding are complex: of these, the establishment of numerous traits: yield level, raw-material quality (content in active substances, uniformness of the material and reaching of technological maturity of harvesting, ability to adaptation and hardiness to diseases, pests, laying, frost, drought etc., behavior of plant raw-material during processing etc. In Romania, 20 species have been developed and authenticated, all productive and rich in active substances, weather-and pest resistant; of these, seven were authenticated between 1990 and 1997: Unirea (Cynara scolymus L., Record (Mentha crispa L., Silvia (Datura innoxia Mill., Smarald (Thymus vulgaris L., Safir (Papaver somniferum L., Tages (Tagetes patula L., Azur (Vinca minor L.. Seed and planting material with important numbers of species of aromatic and medicinal plants have been developed with years.

Leon Sorin MUNTEAN

1998-08-01

108

Antifungal Activity of Some Saudi Plants Used in Traditional Medicine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Methanolic, chloroform and aqueous extracts of 11 medicinal plants used in folklore medicine in Saudi Arabia, were investigated for in vitro activity against four pathogenic fungi. The extracts at concentration of 0.5 mL plate-1 showed varying degrees of total inhibition of fungal growth. Extracts from Salvadora persica and Vigna fragrans showed the highest activity, followed by Peganum harmala and Withania somnifera, while Polycarpaea corymbosa demonstrated the least activity, when compared to 25 ?g mL-1 Clotrimazole control antibiotic. The fungal strains tested differed significantly in their susceptibility to plant extracts, with complete inhibition in Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans. The plants which exhibited a marked antifungal activity were shown to be rich in alkaloids, flavanoids, tannins and glycosides. These results support the traditional use of these plants in the treatment of some fungal infections.

Abdulmoniem M.A. Saadabi

2006-01-01

109

Taxonomical Description and Ethnobotanical Survey for Indigenous Use of Some Medicinal Plants of Rawalpindi District  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The survey of medicinal plants was conducted in different areas of Rawalpindi district. A total of fifteen plant species from thirteen different families were studied for their therapeutic potential. There were eight trees, two shrubs and five herbs in the selected medicinal plants. All the plants were dicotyledons. All were angiosperms. The selected plant species were described taxonomically, with parts of plants used and general medicinal property of each plant. Different medicinal flora were transferred for a live herbarium and a dry herbarium was also maintained. It is desired that the indigenous plant material should be collected, identified, processed and utilized for medicinal purposes.

Muhammad Zafar

2003-01-01

110

Review: Mycoendophytes in medicinal plants: Diversity and bioactivities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rai M, Gade A, Rathod D, Dar M, Varma A. 2012. Review: Mycoendophytes in medicinal plants: Diversity and bioactivities. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 86-96. Endophytes are microorganisms that reside in internal tissues of living plants without causing any negative effect. These offer tremendous potential for the exploitation of novel and eco-friendly secondary metabolites used in medicine, the pharmaceutical industry and agriculture. The present review is focused on diversity of endophytes, current national and international bioactive secondary metabolite scenario and future prospects. Endophytic fungi as novel source of potentially useful medicinal compounds are discussed along with the need to search for new and more effective agents from endophytes to combat disease problems.

MUDASIR DAR

2012-07-01

111

Antifungal Activity of Medicinal Plants from Jordan Environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Medicinal plants collected from different locations in Jordan were tested for their antifungal activities against 5 plant pathogenic fungi: Phytophthora infestans, Fuusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, Stemphylium solani and Mucor sp. Data of this study showed that the highest growth inhibition of all fungi was observed with Salvia indica, which gave (66.3%, of inhibitions for Stemphylium, followed by Mucor (60.5%, R. solani (51.7%, F. oxysporum (48% and P. infestans (28.8%.

Amjad B. Khalil

2005-01-01

112

INHIBITION OF TYPE I 5?-REDUCTASE BY MEDICINAL PLANT EXTRACTS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Type I 5?-reductase has been implicated in skin disorders such as acne, hirsutism and male pattern baldness and its inhibition offers a potential treatment for these disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibition of type I 5?-reductase activity by extracts from Indian medicinal plants. Plant extracts were screened and selected based on their ability to inhibit Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Since type I 5?-reductase metabolises testosterone to ?...

Patil Vijaya; Samuel Grace; Mirapurkar Shubhangi; Krishna Mohan, R.; Dasgupta Debjani

2011-01-01

113

Varieties of aromatic and medicinal plants developed in Romania  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objectives of aromatic and medicinal plant breeding are complex: of these, the establishment of numerous traits: yield level, raw-material quality (content in active substances), uniformness of the material and reaching of technological maturity of harvesting, ability to adaptation and hardiness to diseases, pests, laying, frost, drought etc., behavior of plant raw-material during processing etc. In Romania, 20 species have been developed and authenticated, all productive and rich in acti...

Muntean, Leon Sorin; Muntean, Leon Jr

1998-01-01

114

Anxiolytic Activity Evaluation of Four Medicinal Plants from Cameroon  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Afrormosia laxiflora (A. laxiflora), Chenopodium ambrosioides (C. ambrosioides), Microglossa pyrifolia (M. pyrifolia) and Mimosa pudica (M. pudica) are plants used in traditional medicine in Cameroon to treat insomnia, epilepsy, anxiety, and agitation. They were evaluated for their anxiolytic like activity in mice. Animal models (elevated plus maze and stress-induced hyperthermia tests) were used. The four plants showed anxiolytic activity. In stress-induced hyperthermia test, A. laxiflora, C...

Bum, E. Ngo; Soudi, S.; Ayissi, E. R.; Dong, C.; Lakoulo, N. H.; Maidawa, F.; Seke, P. F. E.; Nanga, L. D.; Taiwe, G. S.; Dimo, T.; Njikam, Njifutie; Rakotonirina, A.; Rakotonirina, S. V.; Kamanyi, A.

2011-01-01

115

FURTHER NOMENCLATURAL CHANGES IN INDIAN HOMOEOPATHIC MEDICINAL PLANTS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nilgiri District, Tamil Nadu is one of the most botanised areas of Southern India. In spite of it a number of wild plants had been missed by earlier collectors. Moreover, many exotics and ornamentals having importance in alternative systems of medicine have not been collected and preserved. The present paper lists 34 species of plants used in homeopathy belonging to 31 genera under 23 families.

Baburaj, D. Suresh; Nain, S. S.

1992-01-01

116

Antibacterial activity of Venda medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Crude methanol and water extracts of 36 plants, employed in the treatment of diseases of probable bacterial etiology by the Venda people, were screened for antibacterial activity. Combretum molle, Peltophorum africanum, Piper capense, Terminalia sericea and Zanthoxylum davyi were the most active and presented MIC values < or =1.00 mg/ml. PMID:17582701

Steenkamp, Vanessa; Fernandes, Anthony C; van Rensburg, Constance E J

2007-12-01

117

In vitro mutation breeding in medicinal plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate radiosensitivity of in vitro cell, callus of Carthamus tincrorius L. was irradiated with gamma rays. Radiosensitivity of callus was intermediate between that of dormant seed and growing seedling. The effect of irradiation dose rate was observed. Irradiation effect varied due to preculture period in each culture. Depression of growth by irradiation was recoverd in the second subculture after irradiation. Berberine content was investigated in culture of Coptis japonica Makino. Embryoids derived from leaf blade shows higher concentration than those derived from leaf petiole and basal end of flower bud. Irradiation to enbryoid caused decrease of its content on the average, but some irradiated embryoids showed high content of berberine. In Datura alba Nees and C. Japonica Makino, regenerated plants were obtained. The number of regenerated plants depended on tissues from which callus was derived and on line of material plants. It is suggested from this experiment that choice of genotype which shows a high frequency of plant regeneration and of condition of mutagenic treatment which induce mutants at highest efficiency as possible were important for breeding efficacy. (author)

118

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF FEW SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of leaves of Ageratum conyzoides Linn (Fam: Asteraceae, Argemone mexicana Linn. (Fam: Papaveraceae, Heliotropium indicum Linn (Fam: Boraginaceae and stem barks of Alstonia scholaris (L. R. Brown (Fam: Apocynaceae were screened for their antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Stapphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger respectively. The results indicated that the chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of all tested plant materials are active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria at the tested concentration. The spectrum of activity observed in the present study may be an indicative of the presence of broad spectrum antimicroial compounds in the extracts. Among the tested extracts, methanol extracts of all selected plant materials were found to be more effective than the other extracts under study. Preliminary phytochmical screening of the methanol extracts of selected plant materials primarily revealed presence of alkaloids, tannins and flavonoids. The present work justifies the use of these plant materials for antimicrobial activity as claimed in the folklore remedies.

Dash G. K

2011-01-01

119

Laser photoacoustic detection of the essential oil vapors of thyme, mint, and anise  

Science.gov (United States)

Photoacoustic studies of the vapors of the essential oils of thyme, mint and anise have been made using a line-tunable waveguide CO2 laser in conjunction with a heat-pipe type of photoacoustic vapor sample cell operated over the temperature range 20 - 180 degree(s)C. Identifying spectral fingerprint features are found in the 9 - 10 micrometers spectral region for each of the three essential oils investigated. The principal features of the photoacoustic spectrum of each essential oil are associated with the dominant chemicals present i.e. thymol in thyme oil, menthol in mint and anethole in anise.

El-Kahlout, A. M.; Al-Jourani, M. M.; Abu-Taha, M. I.; Laine, Derek C.

1998-07-01

120

Probability sampling design in ethnobotanical surveys of medicinal plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Non-probability sampling design can be used in ethnobotanical surveys of medicinal plants. However, this method does not allow statistical inferences to be made from the data generated. The aim of this paper is to present a probability sampling design that is applicable in ethnobotanical studies of medicinal plants. The sampling design employed in the research titled "Ethnobotanical knowledge of medicinal plants used by traditional communities of Nossa Senhora Aparecida do Chumbo district (NSACD, Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil" was used as a case study. Probability sampling methods (simple random and stratified sampling were used in this study. In order to determine the sample size, the following data were considered: population size (N of 1179 families; confidence coefficient, 95%; sample error (d, 0.05; and a proportion (p, 0.5. The application of this sampling method resulted in a sample size (n of at least 290 families in the district. The present study concludes that probability sampling methods necessarily have to be employed in ethnobotanical studies of medicinal plants, particularly where statistical inferences have to be made using data obtained. This can be achieved by applying different existing probability sampling methods, or better still, a combination of such methods.

Mariano Martinez Espinosa

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
121

Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants of the Cerrado, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to determine the potential of Cerrado plants as sources of antimicrobial activity, the phytochemical screening of ethanol extracts from Virola surinamensis, Qualea grandiflora, Alchornea castaneifolia, Hancornia speciosa and Curatella americana traditionally used in folk medicine are reported. PMID:18350520

Costa, E S; Hiruma-Lima, C A; Lima, E O; Sucupira, G C; Bertolin, A O; Lolis, S F; Andrade, F D P; Vilegas, W; Souza-Brito, A R M

2008-05-01

122

Plants used in traditional medicine of China and Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Eventhough the rationale behind the use of medicinal plantes in Brazil and Chine is different, twenty four species are used in both countries. Scientific name, vulgar name and uses in both countries along with their chemical constituents are listed.

F. J. A. Matos

1991-01-01

123

Genotoxicity detection of five medicinal plants in Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was performed to investigate the safety of Alchornea cordifolia, Cnestis ferruginea, Lonchocarpus sericeus, Trema orientalis, and Senna alata in respect to genotoxicity. These five medicinal plants are widely distributed in Africa. They are used as a traditional medicine in many African counties for the treatment of microbial, inflammatory, and stress-related diseases. To evaluate the bacterial reverse mutation of these five medicinal plants, the in vitro Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, and TA1537, and Escherichia coli WP2uvrA, with or without the addition of S9 mixture was performed. Concentrations used for this test were 625, 2,500, and 5,000 µg per plate. A. cordifolia, C. ferruginea, L. sericeus, and T. orientalis showed negative results in the bacterial reverse mutation test, suggesting that it is potentially safe for these plants to be used in medicinal plants supplements at high doses. However, our experiments suggest that S. alata is a potent mutagen. Therefore, further studies are needed to evaluate the carcinogenicity of S. alata in order to adequately assess the risks for human health. PMID:21297345

Hong, Chang-Eui; Lyu, Su-Yun

2011-01-01

124

Probability sampling design in ethnobotanical surveys of medicinal plants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Non-probability sampling design can be used in ethnobotanical surveys of medicinal plants. However, this method does not allow statistical inferences to be made from the data generated. The aim of this paper is to present a probability sampling design that is applicable in ethnobotanical studies of [...] medicinal plants. The sampling design employed in the research titled "Ethnobotanical knowledge of medicinal plants used by traditional communities of Nossa Senhora Aparecida do Chumbo district (NSACD), Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil" was used as a case study. Probability sampling methods (simple random and stratified sampling) were used in this study. In order to determine the sample size, the following data were considered: population size (N) of 1179 families; confidence coefficient, 95%; sample error (d), 0.05; and a proportion (p), 0.5. The application of this sampling method resulted in a sample size (n) of at least 290 families in the district. The present study concludes that probability sampling methods necessarily have to be employed in ethnobotanical studies of medicinal plants, particularly where statistical inferences have to be made using data obtained. This can be achieved by applying different existing probability sampling methods, or better still, a combination of such methods.

Mariano Martinez, Espinosa; Isanete G. C., Bieski; Domingos Tabajara de Oliveira, Martins.

125

Moringa oleifera: a food plant with multiple medicinal uses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) is a highly valued plant, distributed in many countries of the tropics and subtropics. It has an impressive range of medicinal uses with high nutritional value. Different parts of this plant contain a profile of important minerals, and are a good source of protein, vitamins, beta-carotene, amino acids and various phenolics. The Moringa plant provides a rich and rare combination of zeatin, quercetin, beta-sitosterol, caffeoylquinic acid and kaempferol. In addition to its compelling water purifying powers and high nutritional value, M. oleifera is very important for its medicinal value. Various parts of this plant such as the leaves, roots, seed, bark, fruit, flowers and immature pods act as cardiac and circulatory stimulants, possess antitumor, antipyretic, antiepileptic, antiinflammatory, antiulcer, antispasmodic, diuretic, antihypertensive, cholesterol lowering, antioxidant, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, antibacterial and antifungal activities, and are being employed for the treatment of different ailments in the indigenous system of medicine, particularly in South Asia. This review focuses on the detailed phytochemical composition, medicinal uses, along with pharmacological properties of different parts of this multipurpose tree. PMID:17089328

Anwar, Farooq; Latif, Sajid; Ashraf, Muhammad; Gilani, Anwarul Hassan

2007-01-01

126

PIXE-PIGE analysis of some Indian medicinal plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The quantitative estimation of various trace element concentrations in medicinal plants is necessary for determining their effectiveness in treating various diseases and for understanding their pharmacological action. Elemental concentrations of some selected medicinal plants of north east India was measured by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and proton induced {gamma}-ray emission (PIGE) techniques. PIXE measurements were carried out using 2.4 MeV collimated protons from the 3 MV tandetron accelerator of NCCCM, Hyderabad (India) while the PIGE measurements were carried out using 3 MeV protons from the same accelerator in the same laboratory. Accuracy and precision of the techniques were assured by analyzing certified reference materials in the same experimental conditions. Various elements of biological importance in man's metabolism were found to be present in varying concentrations in the studied medicinal plants and no toxic heavy metals were detected. The concentration of the various elements in the medicinal plants and their role in treating various diseases are discussed.

Nomita Devi, K., E-mail: nomita_k@rediffmail.co [Department of Physics, Manipur University, Canchipur, Imphal 795003 (India); Nandakumar Sarma, H. [Department of Physics, Manipur University, Canchipur, Imphal 795003 (India)

2010-06-15

127

Antioxidant and nitric oxide inhibition activities of Thai medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nineteen Thai medicinal plants used in Thai traditional medicine preparation to treat colds, asthma and fever were studied for their antioxidant and NO inhibitory activities. Three extracts were obtained from each plant. First extract obtained by macerating the plant part in 95% ethanol (Et) residue was boiled in water, where water extract (EW) was obtained. The third extract (HW) was obtained by boiling each plant in water similar to that of Thai traditional medicine practice. These extracts were tested for their antioxidant activity using DPPH assay, and anti-inflammatory activity by determination of inhibitory activity on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 cell lines using Griess reagent. Results indicated that Et, EW and HW of Syzygium aromaticum showed the highest antioxidant activity (EC50 = 6.56, 4.73 and 5.30 microg/ml, respectively). Et of Atractylodes lancea exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 cells, with IC50 value of 9.70 microg/ml, followed by Et of Angelica sinensis and Cuminum cyminum (IC50 = 12.52 and 13.56 microg/ml, respectively) but water extract (EW, HW) of all plants were apparently inactive. These results of anti-inflammatory activity of these plants correspond with the traditional use for fever; cold, allergic-related diseases and inflammatory-related diseases. PMID:21294419

Makchuchit, Sunita; Itharat, Arunporn; Tewtrakul, Supinya

2010-12-01

128

Plant part substitution--a way to conserve endangered medicinal plants?  

Science.gov (United States)

Population growth, urbanization and the unrestricted collection of medicinal plants from the wild is resulting in an over-exploitation of natural resources in southern Africa. Therefore, the management of traditional medicinal plant resources has become a matter of urgency. In southern Africa the most frequently used medicinal plants are slow-growing forest trees, bulbous and tuberous plants, with bark and underground parts being the parts mainly utilized. A strategy which would satisfy the requirements of sustainable harvesting, yet simultaneously provide for primary health care needs, would be the substitution of bark or underground parts with leaves of the same plant. This paper outlines the concept of plant substitution, using preliminary results of our recent investigations into four of the most important and most threatened South African medicinal plants - Eucomis autumnalis (bulb), Siphonochilus aethiopicus (rhizome), Ocotea bullata (bark), and Warburgia salutaris (bark) - as a demonstration of the kind of research necessary. Extracts of various plant parts were compared chemically using TLC-analysis, and pharmacologically in terms of antibacterial activity and cyclooxygenase-1 inhibition in vitro. The importance of the concept of plant part substitution as a strategy for the conservation of medicinal plants in southern Africa is discussed in terms of the results obtained. PMID:10904175

Zschocke, S; Rabe, T; Taylor, J L; Jäger, A K; van Staden, J

2000-07-01

129

Ecological approach to the study of medicinal plants: Soil-plant relationship  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A very important parameter for the utilization of medicinal plants is the quality of active substances. The quality of the plant active substances does not depend only on its physiological potential and condition, but also on the environmental factors. The status of microelements in the soil and the basic ecological indices of plants, as the site indicators, at two localities on Mt. Kosmaj are presented. It was concluded that these relationships are very complex, in most cases identical and in direct correlation with the representation of individual plant species. Medicinal plants were analyzed in the first place because of their potential exploitation.

Obratov-Petkovi? Dragica

2004-01-01

130

Antimicrobial Activity of Some Indian Medicinal Plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The antimicrobial potential of seventy-seven extracts from twenty-four plants was screened against eight bacteria and four pathogenic fungi, using microbroth dilution assay. Lowest concentration of the extract, which inhibits any visual microbial growth after treatment with p-iodonitrotetrazolium violet, was considered to be minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Water extracts of Acacia nilotica, Justicia zelanica, Lantana camara and Saraca asoca exhibited good activity against all the bact...

Dabur, Rajesh; Gupta, Amita; Mandal, T. K.; Singh, Desh Deepak; Bajpai, Vivek; Gurav, A. M.; Lavekar, G. S.

2007-01-01

131

Antimicrobial Activity of Some Turkish Medicinal Plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, antimicrobial activity of Rhododendron ponticum L., Prunus laurocerasus L., Agrimonia eupatoria L., Cornus mas L., Vitis vinifera L., Punica granatum L., Anthemis cotula L., Cichorium intybus L., Viscum album L., Papaver hybridum L., Malva rotundifolia L. and Rhus coriaria L. were investigated. The ethanolic extracts of these plants were tested against Escherichia coli ATCC 11230, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538P, Klebsiella pneumoniae UC57, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Proteus vulgaris ATCC 8427, Bacillus cereus ATCC 7064, Mycobacterium smegmatis CCM 2067, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 15313, Micrococcus luteus CCM 169, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Rhodotorula rubra DSM 70403 and Kluyveromyces fragilis ATCC 8608 by disc diffusion method. Of the 12 plants tested, nine showed antimicrobial activity. Each plant species has unique against different microorganisms. The fruit extract of Rhus coriaria had the highest antimicrobial effect with an inhibition zone of 12-52 mm against all the bacteria, but not shown antiyeast effect. Except for the extracts of Rhus coriaria, Agrimonia eupatoria and Anthemis cotula, all additional extracts of generated inhibition zones smaller than those generated by several reference antibiotics.

B. Dulger

2004-01-01

132

Antiprotease activity of selected Slovak medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fifty-six methanol extracts obtained from the barks, flowers, leaves and stems of 30 Slovak trees, bushes and herbs used in the traditional medicine of the Small Carpathians, Slovakia, have been screened for antiprotease (trypsin, thrombin and urokinase) activity using chromogenic bioassay. In this study, 14 extracts showed the strong inhibition activity to protease trypsin with IC50 values below 10 microg/mL. The highest inhibition activities were observed for methanol extracts of Acer platanoides IC50 = 1.8 microg/mL, Rhus typhina IC50 = 1.2 microg/mL and Tamarix gallica IC50 = 1.7 microg/mL. However, the results of extracts tested on thrombin were generally different from those observed for trypsin. The most marked inhibition activity to thrombin were estimated for extracts of Castanea sativa IC50 = 73.2 microg/mL, Larix decidua IC50 = 96.9 microg/mL and Rhus typhina IC50 = 20.5 microg/mL. In addition, Acer platanoides and Rhus typhina were the only extracts which showed inhibition activity to urokinase with IC50 = 171.1 microg/mL and IC50 = 38.3 microg/mL, respectively. In addition, Rhus typhina showed the broadest spectrum of inhibition activity to all tested serine proteases and seems to be a prospective new source of natural products as inhibitors of serine proteases. PMID:20225660

Jedinak, A; Valachova, M; Maliar, T; Sturdik, E

2010-02-01

133

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS AGAINST FISH PATHOGENS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present article elucidates on the antimicrobial (antibacterial and antifungal activity of some medicinal plants (herbs against different microbes (e.g., bacteria and fungi. Aquaculture has been a growing activity for more than 20 years worldwide. The bacterial infections are considered the major cause of mortality in aquaculture. Among the common fish pathogenic bacteria, Streptococcus agalactiae, Lactococcus garvieae, Enterococcus faecalis (all gram-positive, Aeromonas hydrophila and Yersinia ruckeri (both gram-negative cause infectious diseases. A. hydrophila, the most common bacterial pathogen in freshwater fish, has been recognized to be the aetiological agent of many pathological conditions, including tail rot, motile Aeromonas septicemia and epizootic ulcerative syndrome as a primary pathogen. The continuous use of antimicrobial agents in aquaculture has resulted into resistant bacterial strains in the aquatic environment. Treatment of bacterial diseases with different herbs has been safely used in organic agriculture, veterinary and human medicine. Treatment with medicinal plants having antibacterial activity is a potentially beneficial alternative in the aquaculture. These herbs mitigate many of the side effects which are associated with synthetic antimicrobials. Additionally, the plant-derived phytomedicines provide a cheaper source for treatment and greater accuracy than chemotherapeutic agents. Plants have been used as traditional medicine since time immemorial to control bacterial, viral and fungal diseases. In India, 500 medicinal plant species are used against pathogenic bacteria. Recently, research has been initiated to evaluate the feasibility of herbal drugs in fish diseases. Because of the growing bacterial resistance against commercial standard and reserve antibiotics, the search for new active substances with antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria is of increasing importance.

Sharma Madhuri

2012-04-01

134

Ayurvedic medicinal plants for Alzheimer's disease: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alzheimer's disease is an age-associated, irreversible, progressive neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by severe memory loss, unusual behavior, personality changes, and a decline in cognitive function. No cure for Alzheimer's exists, and the drugs currently available to treat the disease have limited effectiveness. It is believed that therapeutic intervention that could postpone the onset or progression of Alzheimer's disease would dramatically reduce the number of cases in the next 50 years. Ayurvedic medicinal plants have been the single most productive source of leads for the development of drugs, and over a hundred new products are already in clinical development. Indeed, several scientific studies have described the use of various Ayurvedic medicinal plants and their constituents for treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Although the exact mechanism of their action is still not clear, phytochemical studies of the different parts of the plants have shown the presence of many valuable compounds, such as lignans, flavonoids, tannins, polyphenols, triterpenes, sterols, and alkaloids, that show a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anti-amyloidogenic, anti-cholinesterase, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant effects. This review gathers research on various medicinal plants that have shown promise in reversing the Alzheimer's disease pathology. The report summarizes information concerning the phytochemistry, biological, and cellular activities and clinical applications of these various plants in order to provide sufficient baseline information that could be used in drug discovery campaigns and development process, thereby providing new functional leads for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:22747839

Rao, Rammohan V; Descamps, Olivier; John, Varghese; Bredesen, Dale E

2012-01-01

135

POLYPHENOLS AND FLAVONOIDS OF TWELVE INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present work, twelve Indian medicinal plants (Averrhoa carambola L., Buchanania lanzan Spr., Calophylluminophyllum L., Celastrus paniculatus Willd., Clerodendron multiflorum L., Luffa acutangula (L. Roxb., Morindacitrifolia L., Ocimum gratissimum L., Peltophorum ferrugineum (Decne., Phyllanthus fraternus Webster Syn.,Triumfetta rotundifolia Lam. and Ziziphus nummularia (Burm. F. were evaluated for their total phenol andflavonoid content. The plant material was extracted individually in different solvents by cold percolation method.Total phenol and flavonoid content was measured by using Folin-Ciocalteu’s reagent method and aluminumchloride colorimeter method respectively. Amongst the twelve plants screened, methanolic extract of P. ferrugineumhad highest total phenol and flavonoid content. These results suggest that the methanolic extract of P. ferrugineumcan be considered as a medicinal source for the treatment and prevention of many free radical related diseases

Dishant Desai

2013-01-01

136

Fungal endophytes in three medicinal plants of Lamiaceae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three medicinal plants Ocimum sanctum, Ocimum bacilicum and Leucas aspera were screened to study endophytic diversity of the plants. Altogether 103 fungal endophytes belonging to fourteen genera were isolated. Leaves of all three medicinal plants were colonized by a great number of endophytic fungi. Leaves of O. sanctum were colonized by the most, that is, eleven endophytes. Highest Shannon-Wiener index (2.256) was exhibited by O. sanctum with the highest Simpson's diversity (0.8654) indicating great species specificity. O. bacilicum and L. aspera showed the highest similarity coefficient. Some fungal genera have been showed to be host specific. In the present study Curvularia sp., Hymenula sp., Tricoderma sp. and Tubercularia sp. exclusively colonized O. sanctum ; whereas Alternaria sp. and Spicaria sp. colonized only L. aspera . PMID:19789139

Banerjee, D; Manna, S; Mahapatra, S; Pati, B R

2009-09-01

137

LEAF COLOR, AREA AND EDGE FEATURES BASED APPROACH FOR IDENTIFICATION OF INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a method for identification of medicinal plants based on some important features extracted from its leaf images. Medicinal plants are the essential aspects of ayurvedic system of medicine. The leaf extracts of many medicinal plants can cure various diseases and have become alternate for allopathic medicinal system now a days. Hence this paper presents an approach where the plant isidentified based on its leaf features such as area, color histogram and edge histogram. Experimental analysis was conducted with few medicinal plant species such as Hibiscus, Betle, Ocimum, Leucas, Vinca, Murraya, Centella, Ruta and Mentha. The result proves this method to be a simple and an efficient attempt.

Sandeep Kumar.E

2012-07-01

138

Antiamoebic and phytochemical screening of some Congolese medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Results from the in vitro antiamoebic activity of some Congolese plant extracts used as antidiarrhoeic in traditional medicine indicated that of 45 plant extracts tested, 35 (77.78%) exhibited an antiamoebic activity and 10 (22.22%) were inactive. The highest activity (MIC Alchornea cordifolia, Hensia pulchella, Maprounea africana, Rauwolfia obscura and Voacanga africana, leaves and stem bark of Psidium guajava, stem bark of Dialum englerianum, Harungana madagascariensis and Mangifera indica, mature seeds of Carica papaya, and leaves of Morinda morindoides and Tithonia diversifolia. Metronidazole used as reference product showed a more pronounced activity than that of all plant extracts tested. PMID:9687082

Tona, L; Kambu, K; Ngimbi, N; Cimanga, K; Vlietinck, A J

1998-05-01

139

Artemisia herba alba: A Popular Plant with Potential Medicinal Properties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Artemisia herba alba (Asteraceae, commonly known as desert or white wormwood, is used in folk medicine for treatment of various diseases. Phytochemical studies of this plant revealed the existence of many beneficial compounds such as herbalbin, cis-chryanthenyl acetate, flavonoids (hispidulin and cirsilineol, monoterpenes, sesquiterpene. The aerial parts are characterized by a very low degree of toxicity. This study reviews the main reports of the pharmacological and toxicological properties of Artemisia herba alba in addition to the main constituents. It would appear that this plant exhibits many beneficial properties. Further studies are warranted to more integrate this popular plant in human health care system.

Abderrahmane Moufid

2012-01-01

140

Artemisia herba alba: a popular plant with potential medicinal properties.  

Science.gov (United States)

Artemisia herba alba (Asteraceae), commonly known as desert or white wormwood, is used in folk medicine for treatment of various diseases. Phytochemical studies of this plant revealed the existence of many beneficial compounds such as herbalbin, cis-chryanthenyl acetate, flavonoids (hispidulin and cirsilineol), monoterpenes, sesquiterpene. The aerial parts are characterized by a very low degree of toxicity. This study reviews the main reports of the pharmacological and toxicological properties of Artemisia herba alba in addition to the main constituents. It would appear that this plant exhibits many beneficial properties. Further studies are warranted to more integrate this popular plant in human health care system. PMID:23755405

Moufid, Abderrahmane; Eddouks, Mohamed

2012-12-15

 
 
 
 
141

Medicinal Plants: A Public Resource for Metabolomics and Hypothesis Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Specialized compounds from photosynthetic organisms serve as rich resources for drug development. From aspirin to atropine, plant-derived natural products have had a profound impact on human health. Technological advances provide new opportunities to access these natural products in a metabolic context. Here, we describe a database and platform for storing, visualizing and statistically analyzing metabolomics data from fourteen medicinal plant species. The metabolomes and associated transcriptomes (RNAseq for each plant species, gathered from up to twenty tissue/organ samples that have experienced varied growth conditions and developmental histories, were analyzed in parallel. Three case studies illustrate different ways that the data can be integrally used to generate testable hypotheses concerning the biochemistry, phylogeny and natural product diversity of medicinal plants. Deep metabolomics analysis of Camptotheca acuminata exemplifies how such data can be used to inform metabolic understanding of natural product chemical diversity and begin to formulate hypotheses about their biogenesis. Metabolomics data from Prunella vulgaris, a species that contains a wide range of antioxidant, antiviral, tumoricidal and anti-inflammatory constituents, provide a case study of obtaining biosystematic and developmental fingerprint information from metabolite accumulation data in a little studied species. Digitalis purpurea, well known as a source of cardiac glycosides, is used to illustrate how integrating metabolomics and transcriptomics data can lead to identification of candidate genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes in the cardiac glycoside pathway. Medicinal Plant Metabolomics Resource (MPM [1] provides a framework for generating experimentally testable hypotheses about the metabolic networks that lead to the generation of specialized compounds, identifying genes that control their biosynthesis and establishing a basis for modeling metabolism in less studied species. The database is publicly available and can be used by researchers in medicine and plant biology.

Eve Syrkin Wurtele

2012-11-01

142

Medicinal Plants: A Public Resource for Metabolomics and Hypothesis Development  

Science.gov (United States)

Specialized compounds from photosynthetic organisms serve as rich resources for drug development. From aspirin to atropine, plant-derived natural products have had a profound impact on human health. Technological advances provide new opportunities to access these natural products in a metabolic context. Here, we describe a database and platform for storing, visualizing and statistically analyzing metabolomics data from fourteen medicinal plant species. The metabolomes and associated transcriptomes (RNAseq) for each plant species, gathered from up to twenty tissue/organ samples that have experienced varied growth conditions and developmental histories, were analyzed in parallel. Three case studies illustrate different ways that the data can be integrally used to generate testable hypotheses concerning the biochemistry, phylogeny and natural product diversity of medicinal plants. Deep metabolomics analysis of Camptotheca acuminata exemplifies how such data can be used to inform metabolic understanding of natural product chemical diversity and begin to formulate hypotheses about their biogenesis. Metabolomics data from Prunella vulgaris, a species that contains a wide range ofantioxidant, antiviral, tumoricidal and anti-inflammatory constituents, provide a case study of obtaining biosystematic and developmental fingerprint information from metabolite accumulation data in a little studied species. Digitalis purpurea, well known as a source of cardiac glycosides, is used to illustrate how integrating metabolomics and transcriptomics data can lead to identification of candidate genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes in the cardiac glycoside pathway. Medicinal Plant Metabolomics Resource (MPM) [1] provides a framework for generating experimentally testable hypotheses about the metabolic networks that lead to the generation of specialized compounds, identifying genes that control their biosynthesis and establishing a basis for modeling metabolism in less studied species. The database is publicly available and can be used by researchers in medicine and plant biology. PMID:24957774

Wurtele, Eve Syrkin; Chappell, Joe; Daniel Jones, A.; Celiz, Mary Dawn; Ransom, Nick; Hur, Manhoi; Rizshsky, Ludmila; Crispin, Matthew; Dixon, Philip; Liu, Jia; Widrlechner, Mark P.; Nikolau, Basil J.

2012-01-01

143

Search for antiinflammatory activity in Argentine Medicinal Plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extracts of different polarity from four Argentine medicinal plants used in folk medicine as antiinflammatory remedies were tested for bioactivity using carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats and TPA-induced ear edema in mice. A dichloromethane extract from Pluchea sagittalis showed good antiinflammatory activity in both tests. Flavonoids present in this extract may be responsible for the activity. Ipomoea fistulosa dichloromethane extract showed significant activity in the ear edema test while a dichloromethane extract from Eupatorium inulaefolium and aqueous extract of Polygonum punctatum exhibited antiinflammatory activity in the carrageenan-induced edema test. PMID:23194967

Gorzalczany, S; Acevedo, C; Muschietti, L; Martino, V; Ferraro, G

1996-09-01

144

PLANTS USED IN FOLK MEDICINE BY THE KOTAS OF NILGIRI DISTRICT, TAMIL NADU  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present report deals with 34 plants of ethno botanical significance used s food and medicine by the Kotas of Nilgiri District, Tamil Nadu. Dietary and medicinal applications of plants re briefly summarized and presented.

Rajan, S.; Sethuraman, M.

1991-01-01

145

MEDICINAL PLANTS WITH POTENT ANTIOXIDANT CONSTITUENTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oxygen free radicals induce damage due to peroxidation to bio-membranes and also to DNA, which leads to tissue damage, thus cause occurrence of a number of diseases and biochemical disorders. Antioxidants neutralize the effect of free radicals through different ways and may prevent the body from various diseases. Antioxidants may play vital role in the metabolic disorders. India stands with highest percentage of people with diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disorders among the world. This may be due to life style, ethnicity, and improper food habits. Hence, the search for effective, non-toxic natural compounds with anti-oxidative potentials has been intensified in recent years. In the present review a brief account of research reports on plants constituents with antioxidant potential were summarised.

G. Murugananthan* and Sathya Chethan Pabbithi

2012-05-01

146

Use of anise seed and/or ?-tocopheryl acetate in laying Japanese quail diets  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english An experiment was conducted to investigate the possible use of anise (Pimpinella anisum) and/or ?-tocopheryl acetate as dietary supplements on the performance and some egg quality characteristics of laying Japanese quail. One hundred and eight Coturnix japonica quail (72 females and 36 males), 149 d [...] ays old, were randomly allocated to four equal groups with three subgroups of nine birds each (six females and three males). A commercial laying diet was fed to the control group (Group A). The remaining three groups received the same diet supplemented with anise seed at 10 g/kg (Group B) or 20 g/kg (Group C), or additional 600 mg ?-tocopheryl acetate/kg (Group D). The birds were given feed and water ad libitum for a period of 29 days, while being kept under commercial conditions. During the experiment, egg production, feed consumption and mortality were recorded daily. Also, at the end of experiment, egg weight, egg yolk, albumen and shell weight percentages, egg yolk colour (using the L*a*b* colour space), blood serum total cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were determined. Neither the supplementation of anise nor that of ?-tocopheryl had any effect on the performance of the birds or the quality of their eggs, except for a significant change of the colour of the egg yolk. Cholesterol concentration in the serum tended to decrease with the addition of anise to the diet.

E.V, Christaki; E.M, Bonos; P.C, Florou-Paneri.

147

Cytotoxic activity of four Mexican medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ibervillea sonorae Greene, Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché, Tagetes lucida Cav and Justicia spicigera Scheltdd are Mexican native plants used in the treatment of different illnesses. The ethanolic extract of J. spicigera and T. lucida as well as aqueous extracts from I. sonorae, C. ficifolia, T. lucida and J. spicigera were investigated using sulforhodamine B assay. These extracts were assessed using two cell line: T47D (Human Breast cancer) and HeLa (Human cervix cancer). Colchicine was used as the positive control. Data are presented as the dose that inhibited 50% control growth (ED50). All of the assessed extracts were cytotoxic (ED50 < 20 microg/ml) against T47D cell line, meanwhile only the aqueous extract from T. lucida and the ethanolic extract from J. spicigera were cytotoxic to HeLa cell line. Ethanolic extract from J. spicigera presented the best cytotoxic effect. The cytotoxic activity of J. spicigera correlated with one of the popular uses, the treatment of cancer. PMID:22128430

Vega-Avila, Elisa; Espejo-Serna, Adolfo; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco; Velasco-Lezama, Rodolfo

2009-01-01

148

Antimicrobial activity of selected South African medicinal plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly 3,000 plant species are used as medicines in South Africa, with approximately 350 species forming the most commonly traded and used medicinal plants. In the present study, twelve South African medicinal plants were selected and tested for their antimicrobial activities against eight microbial species belonging to fungi, Mycobacteria, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Methods The radiometric respiratory technique using the BACTEC 460 system was used for susceptibility testing against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and the liquid micro-broth dilution was used for other antimicrobial assays. Results The results of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC determinations indicated that the methanol extracts from Acacia karoo, Erythrophleum lasianthum and Salvia africana were able to prevent the growth of all the tested microorganisms. All other samples showed selective activities. MIC values below 100??g/ml were recorded with A. karoo, C. dentate, E. lasianthum, P. obligun and S. africana on at least one of the nine tested microorganisms. The best activity (MIC value of 39.06??g/ml was noted with S. africana against E. coli, S. aureus and M. audouinii, and Knowltonia vesitoria against M. tuberculosis. Conclusion The overall results of the present work provide baseline information for the possible use of the studied South African plant extracts in the treatment of microbial infections.

Nielsen Trine R H

2012-06-01

149

An Evidence-based Review on Medicinal Plants used for the Treatment of Peptic Ulcer in Traditional Iranian Medicine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many medicinal plants have been identified in Traditional Iranian Medicine (TIM) for the treatment of Peptic Ulcer (PU) but they are still unknown to scientific community. In the present study anti PU activity of these remedies were systematically reviewed and identified. For this purpose, medicinal plants proposed for the management of PU in TIM were collected from TIM sources and they were searched in modern medical databases like PubMed, Scirus, Sciencedirect and Google Scholar to find stu...

Zahra Abbasabadi; Roja Rahimi; Mohammad Hosein Farzaei; Mohammad Abdollahi,

2013-01-01

150

Screening and antibacterial activity analysis of some important medicinal plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The screening and study of five different plant specimens belonging to different families for phytochemical constituents was performed using generally accepted laboratory technique for qualitative determinations. The constituents screened were saponins, combined anthraquinones, terpenoids, flavonoids, carotenoids, steroids, xantho proteins, couramins, alkaloids, quinones, vitamin C. The distribution of these constituents in the plant specimens were assessed and compared. The medicinal plant studied were Acalypha indica, Camellia sinensis, Plectranthus amboinicus, Curcuma longa, Rauvolfia tetraphylla. All the plant speciemens were found to contain terpenoids, xantho proteins, couramins and vitamin C. They also contain Saponins (except Curcuma longa, Combined anthroquinones (except Acalypha indica, Camellia sinensis, Curcuma longa flavonoids (except Acalypha indica, Camellia sinensis, Carotenoids (except Acalypha indica, Curcuma longa, and steroids (except Plectranthus amboinicus, Rauvolfia tetraphylla Quinones were found in one out of the five specimens. Some of the medicinal plant seemed to have potential as source of useful drugs. Though the one percent extracts of all the plants showed some degree of antimicrobial activity, it was significant in Acalypha indica, Camellia sinensis, Plectranthus amboinicus, Curcuma longa, and Rauvolfia tetraphylla. The extract of Camellia sinensis and Acalypha indica was most effective against Enterobacter faecalis (ZI = 3 cm and ZI = 1.7cm and Camellia sinensis and Acalypha indica was most effective against Staphylococcus aureus (ZI = 2.1 cm.

G. Senthilmurugan Viji

2013-02-01

151

Medicinal plants with teratogenic potential: current considerations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho busca as implicações atuais sobre o uso de plantas medicinais durante a gravidez, alertando sobre aquelas que devem ser evitadas nesse período por serem potencialmente abortivas e/ou teratogênicas. Para tanto, foram realizadas buscas nas bases de dados Sciencedirect, Scielo e Google sc [...] holar, adotando-se como critérios de inclusão capítulos de livros e/ou artigos completos (com abstract) e disponíveis, em português, inglês ou espanhol, publicados de 1996 a 2011. Após uma pré-seleção de 83 artigos, 49 bibliografias foram utilizadas na confecção final do artigo, sendo 25 provenientes da base de dados Scielo, 18 do Sciencedirect e 06 do Google scholar. A partir dos artigos estudados, identificaram-se as quatro plantas mais utilizadas como emenagogas/abortivas por pacientes do Serviço de Pré-Natal do SUS: senne, arruda, boldo e buchinha-do-norte ou cabacinha. Assim, é possível concluir que, muitas vezes, a população se utiliza da máxima "se é natural, não faz mal" para fazer uso irracional de produtos naturais, sem a correta orientação, acreditando que esses produtos sejam incapazes de provocar qualquer dano. Esse uso é ainda mais preocupante quando realizado por idosos, gestantes e crianças. Em relação à segurança do uso desses produtos, algumas informações e dados confiáveis ainda são escassos ou contraditórios. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to present the implications of the use of herbs during pregnancy, pointing out those that should be avoided during this condition because of their abortifacient and/or teratogenic potential. We carried out searches in the databases ScienceDirect, Scielo and Google Scholar, [...] adopting as criteria for inclusion: book chapters and/or complete articles (with abstract), available in English, Portuguese or Spanish, published from 1996 to in 2011. After a pre-selection of 83 articles, 49 bibliographies were used in the manufacturing end of the article, where 25 were from the Scielo database, 18 from ScienceDirect and 6 from Google Scholar. From the articles studied, we identified the four most commonly used plants as emmenagogue/abortifacient agents by patients of the Department of Prenatal SUS: senne, arruda, boldo and buchinha-do-norte or cabacinha. Thus, we conclude that people often adhere to the maxim "if it's natural, it does no harm" in their rational use of natural products, without the right guidance, believing that these products are safe to use. This usage is even more worrisome among the elderly, pregnant women and children. Regarding the safety of these products, some information and reliable data are scarce or contradictory.

Kassiane Cristine da Silva, Costa; Suzana Barbosa, Bezerra; Clevanice Moreira, Norte; Luciana Macatrão Nogueira, Nunes; Tiago Moreira de, Olinda.

2012-09-01

152

Medicinal plants with teratogenic potential: current considerations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho busca as implicações atuais sobre o uso de plantas medicinais durante a gravidez, alertando sobre aquelas que devem ser evitadas nesse período por serem potencialmente abortivas e/ou teratogênicas. Para tanto, foram realizadas buscas nas bases de dados Sciencedirect, Scielo e Google sc [...] holar, adotando-se como critérios de inclusão capítulos de livros e/ou artigos completos (com abstract) e disponíveis, em português, inglês ou espanhol, publicados de 1996 a 2011. Após uma pré-seleção de 83 artigos, 49 bibliografias foram utilizadas na confecção final do artigo, sendo 25 provenientes da base de dados Scielo, 18 do Sciencedirect e 06 do Google scholar. A partir dos artigos estudados, identificaram-se as quatro plantas mais utilizadas como emenagogas/abortivas por pacientes do Serviço de Pré-Natal do SUS: senne, arruda, boldo e buchinha-do-norte ou cabacinha. Assim, é possível concluir que, muitas vezes, a população se utiliza da máxima "se é natural, não faz mal" para fazer uso irracional de produtos naturais, sem a correta orientação, acreditando que esses produtos sejam incapazes de provocar qualquer dano. Esse uso é ainda mais preocupante quando realizado por idosos, gestantes e crianças. Em relação à segurança do uso desses produtos, algumas informações e dados confiáveis ainda são escassos ou contraditórios. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to present the implications of the use of herbs during pregnancy, pointing out those that should be avoided during this condition because of their abortifacient and/or teratogenic potential. We carried out searches in the databases ScienceDirect, Scielo and Google Scholar, [...] adopting as criteria for inclusion: book chapters and/or complete articles (with abstract), available in English, Portuguese or Spanish, published from 1996 to in 2011. After a pre-selection of 83 articles, 49 bibliographies were used in the manufacturing end of the article, where 25 were from the Scielo database, 18 from ScienceDirect and 6 from Google Scholar. From the articles studied, we identified the four most commonly used plants as emmenagogue/abortifacient agents by patients of the Department of Prenatal SUS: senne, arruda, boldo and buchinha-do-norte or cabacinha. Thus, we conclude that people often adhere to the maxim "if it's natural, it does no harm" in their rational use of natural products, without the right guidance, believing that these products are safe to use. This usage is even more worrisome among the elderly, pregnant women and children. Regarding the safety of these products, some information and reliable data are scarce or contradictory.

Kassiane Cristine da Silva, Costa; Suzana Barbosa, Bezerra; Clevanice Moreira, Norte; Luciana Macatrão Nogueira, Nunes; Tiago Moreira de, Olinda.

153

A review on antiulcer activity of few Indian medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ulcer is a common gastrointestinal disorder which is seen among many people. It is basically an inflamed break in the skin or the mucus membrane lining the alimentary tract. Ulceration occurs when there is a disturbance of the normal equilibrium caused by either enhanced aggression or diminished mucosal resistance. It may be due to the regular usage of drugs, irregular food habits, stress, and so forth. Peptic ulcers are a broad term that includes ulcers of digestive tract in the stomach or the duodenum. The formation of peptic ulcers depends on the presence of acid and peptic activity in gastric juice plus a breakdown in mucosal defenses. A number of synthetic drugs are available to treat ulcers. But these drugs are expensive and are likely to produce more side effects when compared to herbal medicines. The literature revealed that many medicinal plants and polyherbal formulations are used for the treatment of ulcer by various ayurvedic doctors and traditional medicinal practitioners. The ideal aims of treatment of peptic ulcer disease are to relieve pain, heal the ulcer, and delay ulcer recurrence. In this review attempts have been made to know about some medicinal plants which may be used in ayurvedic as well as modern science for the treatment or prevention of peptic ulcer. PMID:24971094

Vimala, G; Gricilda Shoba, F

2014-01-01

154

An empirical investigation on factors influencing on exporting medicinal plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been growing interests on developing medicinal plant industry. This paper presents an empirical study on important factors influencing medicinal plant for developing exports in Iran. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 310 regular customers who are involved in this industry in city of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.802. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Samplng =KMO test was also computed and it was about 0.66, which is above the minimum acceptable limit of 0.5. The study uses Scree plot to determine important factors and there are eight factors including environmental issues, export supportive issues, potentials for export, business plan, export plan, structural barriers, competition capability and strategy.

Hoda Nosouzi

2013-06-01

155

A REVIEW ON ACACIA ARABICA - AN INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of herbal drugs for the prevention and treatment of various health ailments has been in practice from time immemorial. Acacia arabica has been reported to be effective against a variety of disease including diabetes, skin disease and most concerning with cancer. The fresh plants parts of Acacia arabica is considered as astringent, demulcent, aphrodisiac, anthelmintic, antimicrobial, antidiarrhoeal, with good nutritional value in Indian traditional medicine system. This article briefly reviews the ethanobotanical as well as medicinal uses of Acacia arabica with plant description. This is an attempt to compile and document information on different aspect of Acacia arabica and its potential use. More studies are needed before the pharmacological properties of Acacia arabica can be utilized in therapy.

Saurabh Rajvaidhya*, B.P. Nagori, G.K. Singh, B.K. Dubey, Prashant Desai and Sanjay Jain

2012-07-01

156

Antioxidant Potential Some Medicinal Plants of Central India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cellular damage or oxidative injury arising from free radicals or reactive oxygen species (ROS now appears the fun-damental mechanism underlying a number of human neurodegenerative disorder, diabetes, inflammation, viral infec-tions, autoimmune pathologies and digestive system disorders. Free radicals are generated through normal metabolism of drugs, environmental chemicals and other xenobiotics as well as endogenous chemicals, especially stress hormones (adrenalin and noradrenalin. Accumulated evidence suggests that ROS can be scavenged through chemoprevention utilizing natural antioxidant compounds present in foods and medicinal plants. In this review, research on the antioxi-dant potential of some medicinal plants of origin of Central India is considered.4CdBw3

Savita Dixit

2010-06-01

157

Screening of 33 Medicinal Plants for the Microelements Content  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The microelements content of 33 medicinal plants was analyzed. The analysed microelements were: Iron, copper, zinc, manganese, cobalt, chromium, nickel, cadmium and lead. Mineral contents were determinate by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (F-AAS with high resolution continuum source ContrAA 300 spectrometer. The contents in microelements for analysed samples were in range: 18.1 ppm (Symphytum officinale - 1.4 ppm (Rhamnus frangula, for Copper; 26,2 ppm (Valeriana officinalis – 4,3 ppm (Rhamnus frangula, for Zinc; 214 ppm. (Violae tricoloris herba - 18 ppm (Equisetum arvense, for Manganese; 826 ppm (Calendula officinalis - 23 ppm (Rhamnus frangula, for Iron. The microelements contents (Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe, Co, Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb have grouped the analyzed medicinal plants in two main clusters. First main cluster was formed by other two groups.

Ducu Sandu ?tef

2010-05-01

158

Sterol contents from some fabaceous medicinal plants of Rajasthan desert  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Evaluation of sterol contents from three selected medicinal plant species of Fabaceae family growing in Rajasthan Desert was carried out. The roots, shoots and fruits of Clitoria ternatea, Sesbania bispinosa and Tephrosia purpurea were analysed for sterol contents. ?- Sitosterol and Stigmasterol were isolated and identified. Maximum sterol contents were observed in shoots of Sesbania bispinosa (0.29 mg/g.d.w., whereas minimum in roots of Tephrosia purpurea(0.15mg/g.d.w.

B.B.S.Kapoor

2013-12-01

159

HISTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF TWO MEDICINAL PLANTS IN MAHARASHTRA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The histochemical studies of leaves and wood of Butea monosperma ­Lam and Madhuca indica Gmel. are medicinal important plants in Maharashtra. For histochemical studies the free hand sections of leaves and wood were taken and treated with the respective reagent in localize components, viz. starch, protein, tannin, saponin, fat, glucosides and alkaloids in the tissues. Key words: Histochemistry, starch, protein, tannin, saponin, fat, glucosides and alkaloids

V B Kadam

2013-09-01

160

Evaluation of three medicinal plants for anti-microbial activity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Herbal remedies have a long history of use for gum and tooth problems such as dental caries. The present microbiological study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of three medicinal plants (Terminalia chebula Retz., Clitoria ternatea Linn., and Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck.) Merr.) on three pathogenic microorganisms in the oral cavity (Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, and Staphylococcus aureus). Aqueous extract concentrations (5%, 10%, 25%, and 50%) were prepared fro...

Pratap, Gowd M. J. S.; Manoj, Kumar M. G.; Sai, Shankar A. J.; Sujatha, B.; Sreedevi, E.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

solation and Identification of Fungi from Spices and Medicinal Plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This investigation was designed to throw light on the microbial status of some crude herbal materials. A total of 16 samples, representing different types of spices and medicinal plants were collected from common market in the Erbil city. Ten different fungal genera and 16 species were isolated and identified as Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus spp., Gliocladium sp., Hyalodendron diddeus, Memmoniella sp., Penicillium spp., Rhizopus spp., Syncephalastrum sp., Cladosporium lignicolum and Ulocl...

Toma, Farid M.; Faqi Abdulla, Nareen Q.

2013-01-01

162

Cytogenetic toxicity of Aloe vera (a medicinal plant).  

Science.gov (United States)

The cytogenetic toxicity of the crude leaf extract of Aloe vera, a medicinal plant, was evaluated in two test systems, onion and Swiss albino mice, using their root tip meristematic and bone marrow cells, respectively. No significant increase in structural abnormalities in chromosomes was observed, but a marked increase in cells with chromosome-number anomalies was found. The extract, however, significantly increased the mitotic index of both cell types. PMID:21830935

Verma, Anjana; Gupta, Ashok K; Kumar, Amod; Khan, Parimal K

2012-01-01

163

MASS MULTIPLICATION OF THE INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANT Tylophora Indica (Burm.f.) Merr  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tylophora indica (Burm.f) Merr. (ASCLEPIDACEAE) is an important Indian medicinal plant. It is called “ASTHMA KODI” OR “NANJARUPPAN” IN Tamil in the Siddha system of medicine. Tamil medical literature reveal that it is an ideal plant medicine for respiratory problems and is also a cardiac tonic. For medicinal purposes it is collected only from the wild. It has not yet been brought under cultivation. Its taxonomy, morphology, ecology and medicinal uses were studied. Since, tissue-cultur...

Dhandapani, R.; Balu, S.

2002-01-01

164

Medicinal and Aromatic Plants for Enhancing Farm Income: The Case of Bihar  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) provide opportunities for developing a variety of safe and cost effective, prophylactic, and curative medicines for a number of maladies. It is estimated that the primary health care of over 80 per cent of the world’s population still depends on plant based traditional medicines (WHO, 2002). Growing consciousness about health and side effects of modern medicines has again set the stage for innovation and use of herbal medicines. Evidence shows that the t...

Singh, K. M.; Kumar, Abhay; Singh, R. K. P.; Kumar, Ujjwal

2013-01-01

165

Screening of Zulu medicinal plants for prostaglandin-synthesis inhibitors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of 39 plants used in traditional Zulu medicine to treat headache or inflammatory diseases were screened for prostaglandin-synthesis inhibitors. Extracts were tested in an in vitro assay for cyclooxygenase inhibitors. In general, ethanolic extracts caused higher inhibition than aqueous extracts. Two-thirds of the plants screened had high inhibitory activity. The highest inhibition was obtained with ethanolic extracts of Bidens pilosa, Eucomis autumnalis, Harpephyllum caffrum, Helichrysum nudifolium, Leonotis intermedia, L. leonorus, Ocotea bullata, Rumex saggitatus, Solanum mauritianum, Synadenium cupulare and Trichilia dregeana. PMID:8735453

Jäger, A K; Hutchings, A; van Staden, J

1996-06-01

166

DNA barcoding of medicinal plant material for identification.  

Science.gov (United States)

Because of the increasing demand for herbal remedies and for authentication of the source material, it is vital to provide a single database containing information about authentic plant materials and their potential adulterants. The database should provide DNA barcodes for data retrieval and similarity search. In order to obtain such barcodes, several molecular methods have been applied to develop markers that aid with the authentication and identification of medicinal plant materials. In this review, we discuss the genomic regions and molecular methods selected to provide barcodes, available databases and the potential future of barcoding using next generation sequencing. PMID:24484887

Techen, Natascha; Parveen, Iffat; Pan, Zhiqiang; Khan, Ikhlas A

2014-02-01

167

MACROPROPAGATION OF THE INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANT Premna tomentosa Willd  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Premna tomentosa Willd is a moderate sized deciduous tree of apparently more economic and medicinal values. It is not commonly seen to be used by the medicinemen of Tamil Nadu now-a–days. The plant has been located in the plains and hills of Tamil Nadu, with the help of its varied vernacular names. It is in excessive biotic disturbance. It has been found to be in reproductive isolation, Hence, macropropagation of this plant has been contemplated and tried successfully for the first time. Th...

Anbazhakan, S.; Balu, S.

2004-01-01

168

Medicinal Plants, Containing Cardiac Glycosides and Their Distribution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper the authors consider bioecological peculiarities of some species of medicinal plants, containing cardiac glycosides and their distribution. The paper presents the tables, which contain data of the quantitative content of the amount of cardiac glycosides in the aerial and underground parts of some species of the Cruciferous, Buttercups, etc. in different ecological conditions. The article also introduces the specie of foxglove from the family of figwort, which defines the quantitative content of cardiac glycosides, as the leaves of these plants are a source of raw materials, producing cardiac glycosides.

A.I. Ahmetzhanova

2012-08-01

169

Studies on bioactive components from Chinese medicinal plants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Several novel bioactive components isolated from Chinese medicinal plants will be presented. These include novel maytansinoid tumor, inhibitors, some new ent-kaurane and rosane diterpenoids from Mallotus anomalus Meer et Chun (Euphorbiaceae), as well asnovel insecticide, stemona alkaloids from Stemo [...] na parviflora C. H. Wright (Stemonaceae). Both are native plants of Hainan island, Chine. 2D NMR techniques such as mono and hetero-COSY, NOESY, COLOC as well as H-NMR line broadening effect were utilized for structure elucidation. The separation techniques, struture elucidations and bioassay results will be reported.

Ren-Sheng, Xu; Zong-Jian, Tang; Sheng-Chu, Feng; Yi-Ping, Yang; Wen-Han, Lin; Qiong-Xing, Zhong; Yi, Zhong.

170

Elemental investigation of Syrian medicinal plants using PIXE analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique has been employed to perform elemental analysis of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Sr for Syrian medicinal plants used traditionally to enhance the body immunity. Plant samples were prepared in a simple dried base. The results were verified by comparing with those obtained from both IAEA-359 and IAEA-V10 reference materials. Relative standard deviations are mostly within {+-}5-10% suggest good precision. A correlation between the elemental content in each medicinal plant with its traditional remedial usage has been proposed. Both K and Ca are found to be the major elements in the samples. Fe, Mn and Zn have been detected in good levels in most of these plants clarifying their possible contribution to keep the body immune system in good condition. The contribution of the elements in these plants to the dietary recommended intakes (DRI) has been evaluated. Advantages and limitations of PIXE analytical technique in this investigation have been reviewed.

Rihawy, M.S., E-mail: cscientific@aec.org.s [Department of Chemistry, Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Bakraji, E.H.; Aref, S.; Shaban, R. [Department of Chemistry, Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

2010-09-15

171

Plant Secondary Metabolites in some Medicinal Plants of Mongolia Used for Enhancing Animal Health and Production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The levels and activities of a number of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs are known to increase in response to increase in stress. The Mongolian plants considered to possess medicinal properties may contain novel compounds since they are exposed to severe conditions; such plants could become good candidates for modern drug discovery programmes. Information on distribution, palatability to livestock and opinion of local people on their nutritive and medicinal values was compiled for 15 plant materials from 14 plant species considered important for medicinal purposes. These plants were evaluated for nutritive value and PSMs: tannins, saponins, lectins, alkaloids and cyanogens. High levels of tannins were found in roots of Bergenia crassifolia and in leaves of B. crassifolia, Vaccinium vitisidaea and Rheum undulatum. High lectin activity (haemagglutination was present in B. crassifolia roots, and leaves of R. undulatum, Iris lacteal and Thymus gobicus contained weak lectin activity. Tanacetum vulgare, Serratula centauroids, Taraxacum officinale and Delphinum elatum leaves contained saponin activity (haemolysis. Alkaloids and cyanogens were not present in any of the samples. The paper discusses the known medicinal uses of these plants in light of the PSMs levels, and identifies plant samples for future applications in human and livestock health, welfare and safety.

Makkar, HPS.

2009-01-01

172

Acanthus ilicifolius linn.-lesser known medicinal plants with significant pharmacological activities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Acanthus ilicifolius Linn. (Acanthaceae is relatively lesser-known, yet important medicinal plant of Herbal Materia Medica. The plant is used in traditional systems of medicine, including Traditional Indian Medicine (TIM or Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM. The plant is reported to contain phytochemicals including alkaloid and wide range of glucosides (lignan and phenylethanoid. In traditional medicine, the plant is used in the treatment of diseases ranging from snake bite to skin diseases. Laboratory investigations on extracts of the plant have demonstrated significant pharmacological activities like antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, anti-osteporotic and hepatoprotective. The review analyses traditional medicinal usage, and phyto-pharmacological investigations done on the medicinal plant.

Keywords: Acanthus ilicifolius, traditional medicine, phytochemistry, pharmacology, glucosides

Amritpal Singh

2011-04-01

173

Evaluation of three medicinal plants for anti-microbial activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Herbal remedies have a long history of use for gum and tooth problems such as dental caries. The present microbiological study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of three medicinal plants (Terminalia chebula Retz., Clitoria ternatea Linn., and Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck.) Merr.) on three pathogenic microorganisms in the oral cavity (Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, and Staphylococcus aureus). Aqueous extract concentrations (5%, 10%, 25%, and 50%) were prepared from the fruits of Terminalia chebula, flowers of Clitoria ternatea, and leaves of Wedelia chinensis. The antimicrobial efficacy of the aqueous extract concentrations of each plant was tested using agar well diffusion method and the size of the inhibition zone was measured in millimeters. The results obtained showed that the diameter of zone of inhibition increased with increase in concentration of extract and the antimicrobial efficacy of the aqueous extracts of the three plants was observed in the increasing order - Wedelia chinensis plants were effective against dental caries causing bacteria. PMID:23723653

Pratap, Gowd M J S; Manoj, Kumar M G; Sai, Shankar A J; Sujatha, B; Sreedevi, E

2012-07-01

174

Medicinal Plant Use and Health Sovereignty: Findings from the Tajik and Afghan Pamirs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Medicinal plants are indicators of indigenous knowledge in the context of political volatility and sociocultural and ecological change in the Pamir Mountains of Afghanistan and Tajikistan. Medicinal plants are the primary health care option in this region of Central Asia. The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate that medicinal plants contribute to health security and sovereignty in a time of instability. We illustrate the nutritional as well as medicinal sign...

Kassam, Karim-aly; Karamkhudoeva, Munira; Ruelle, Morgan; Baumflek, Michelle

2010-01-01

175

Medicinal plants used for traditional veterinary in the Sierras de Córdoba (Argentina: An ethnobotanical comparison with human medicinal uses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background This is a first description of the main ethnoveterinary features of the peasants in the Sierras de Córdoba. The aim of this study was to analyze the use of medicinal plants and other traditional therapeutic practices for healing domestic animals and cattle. Our particular goals were to: characterize veterinary ethnobotanical knowledge considering age, gender and role of the specialists; interpret the cultural features of the traditional local veterinary medicine and plant uses associated to it; compare the plants used in traditional veterinary medicine, with those used in human medicine in the same region. Methods Fieldwork was carried out as part of an ethnobotanic regional study where 64 informants were interviewed regarding medicinal plants used in veterinary medicine throughout 2001-2010. Based participant observation and open and semi-structured interviews we obtained information on the traditional practices of diagnosis and healing, focusing on the veterinary uses given to plants (part of the plant used, method of preparation and administration. Plants speciemens were collected with the informants and their vernacular and scientific names were registered in a database. Non-parametric statistic was used to evaluate differences in medicinal plant knowledge, use, and valorization by local people. A comparison between traditional veterinary medicine and previous human medicine studies developed in the region was performed by analyzing the percentages of common species and uses, and by considering Sorensen's Similarity Index. Results A total of 127 medicinal uses were registered, corresponding to 70 species of plants belonging to 39 botanic families. Veterinary ethnobotanical knowledge was specialized, restricted, in general, to cattle breeders (mainly men and to a less degree to healers, and was independent of the age of the interviewees. Native plants were mostly used as skin cicatrizants, disinfectants or for treating digestive disorders. Together with a vast repertoire of plant pharmacopoeia, the therapies also involve religious or ritualistic practices and other popular remedies that evidence the influence of traditional Hispanic-European knowledge. Although the traditional veterinary knowledge seems to be similar or else is inlcuded in the local human ethnomedicine, sharing a common group of plants, it has distinct traits originated by a constant assessment of new applications specifically destined to the treatment of animals. Conclusions Veterinary medicine is a fountain of relevant vernacular knowledge, a permanent source for testing new applications with valuable ethnobotanical interest. Knowledge on medicinal applications of native plants will allow future validations and tests for new homeopathic or phytotherapeutic preparations.

Luján María C

2011-08-01

176

Mutagenic screening of some commonly used medicinal plants in Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The uses of medicinal plants have always been part of human culture. The World Health Organization estimates that up to 80% of the world's population relies on traditional medicinal system for some aspect of primary health care. However, there are few reports on the toxicological properties of most medicinal plants especially, their mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Therefore, this research is to determine the mutagenic potentials of Morinda lucida [Oruwo (Root)], Azadirachta indica [Dongoyaro (Leaf)], Terapluera tetraptera [Aridan (Fruit)], Plumbago zeylanica [Inabiri (Root)], Xylopia aethiopica [Erunje (Fruit)], Newbouldia laevis [Akoko (Leaf)], Alstonia boonei [Ahun (Bark)], Enantia chlorantha [Awopa (Bark)], and Rauvolfia vomitoria [Asofeyeje (Root)] using the Allium cepa Linn. model and the modified Ames assay. Allium cepa model was used to determine the mean root length, mitotic index and chromosomal aberrations effects of these plants on onion bulbs using 0.1, 1, 5 and 10mg/ml concentration of the plant extracts. The modified Ames test which is a modification of the standard Ames test as described by Ames et al. [Ames, B.N., McCann, J., Yamasaki, E., 1975. Methods for detecting carcinogens and mutagens with the Salmonella/mammalian microsome mutagenicity test. Mutation Research 31, 347-364] was done using Escherichia coli (0157:H7) that has the phenotypic characteristics of glucose and lactose fermentation, motile, urease negative, indole positive and citrate negative. The results obtained from Allium cepa assay showed increasing root growth inhibition with increased concentration, decreasing mitotic index with increased concentration and chromosomal aberrations. The modified Ames test showed an alteration in the biochemical characteristics of Escherichia coli (0157:H7) for all plants except Rauvolfia vomitoria and Plumbago zeylanica. Three of the medicinal plants altered at least three of the normal biochemical characteristics thus demonstrating mutagenic potentials. The results of internationally accepted Allium cepa were comparable with the modified Ames test. However, a long term in vivo and dose dependent study should be carried out to validate these results and the findings should be communicated to drug and food regulatory body and also to the general public. PMID:19619631

Akintonwa, Alade; Awodele, Olufunsho; Afolayan, Gbenga; Coker, Herbert A B

2009-09-25

177

Chemometric evaluation of trace elements in Brazilian medicinal plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The growing interest in herbal medicines has required standardization in order to ensure their safe use, therapeutic efficacy and quality of the products. Despite the vast flora and the extensive use of medicinal plants by the Brazilian population, scientific studies on the subject are still insufficiency In this study, 59 medicinal plans were analyzed for the determination of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Cs, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and Zr by neutron activation analysis and Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd and Hg by atomic absorption. The results were analyzed by chemometric methods: correlation analysis, principal component analysis and cluster analysis, in order to verify whether or not there is similarity with respect to their mineral and trace metal contents. Results obtained permitted to classify distinct groups among the analyzed plants and extracts so that these data can be useful in future studies, concerning the therapeutic action the elements here determined may exert. (author)

178

Phytochemical analysis of medicinal plants with kidney protective activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

In view of the increasing number of patients undergoing kidney dialysis or transplant every year, a survey of the literature on renal protective medicinal plants was undertaken. Most of them are from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Although many of the medicinal herbs reported have not been investigated in terms of active chemical ingredients, some do have compounds well characterized. They fall into a wide range of structures. Several groups of compounds with well established activities are discussed. These include: antioxidant phenolic compounds like tannins, flavonoids, isoflavonoids, unsaturated organic acids and lignans; circulation enhancing compounds like saponins, and basic alkaloids with multiple targets (G-protein coupled receptors). Also presented are proinflammatory and antiinflammatory fatty acids like linoleic (n-6) and ?-linolenic (n-3) acids, respectively. Attention is also drawn to the plants containing nephrotoxic aristolochic acid. Different directions of future research are also presented. We hope that this review may provide some leads for new drug discovery and development, and more rational application of TCM. PMID:21526364

Lien, Eric Jung-Chi; Lien, Linda Lin-Min; Wang, Rubin; Wang, Jeffrey

2012-10-01

179

Screening of selected Indian medicinal plants for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seventy-six plant extracts including methanolic and successive water extracts from 37 Indian medicinal plants were investigated for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity (in vitro). Results indicated that methanolic extracts to be more active than water extracts. The potent AChE inhibiting methanolic plant extracts included Withania somnifera (root), Semecarpus anacardium (stem bark), Embelia ribes (Root), Tinospora cordifolia (stem), Ficus religiosa (stem bark) and Nardostachys jatamansi (rhizome). The IC(50) values obtained for these extracts were 33.38, 16.74, 23.04, 38.36, 73.69 and 47.21mug/ml, respectively. These results partly substantiate the traditional use of these herbs for improvement of cognition. PMID:16950584

Vinutha, B; Prashanth, D; Salma, K; Sreeja, S L; Pratiti, D; Padmaja, R; Radhika, S; Amit, A; Venkateshwarlu, K; Deepak, M

2007-01-19

180

Antioxidant Potential of Indigenous Medicinal Plants of District Gujrat Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The work reported in this article was carried out to explore hidden antioxidant potential of some medicinal plants of District Gujrat, Pakistan. Crude methanolic extracts of Cichorium intybus L, Malva sylvestris L, and Euphorbia milii L were initially screened by DPPH on TLC assay for their antioxidant activity. Diphenylpicrylhydrayl (DPPH free radical scavenging activity was also determined for all plants. To assess the role of plants in lipid oxidation, PV of refined bleached and deodorized (RBD sunflower oil (SFO at 80°C was monitored. BHT was used as standard antioxidant for comparison. Total phenolic contents (TPC were also calculated. Cichorium intybus L was identified as the richest source of safe natural antioxidants.

Mohammad Rafiq Khan

2014-08-01

 
 
 
 
181

Evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of some Philippine medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genotoxicity and toxicity of ethnomedicinal Philippine plants, which include Cassia fistula, Derris elliptica, Ficus elastica, Gliciridia sepium, Michelia alba, Morus alba, Pogostemon cablin and Ricinus communis, were tested using the Vitotox assay. The plants are used traditionally to treat several disorders like diabetes, weakness, menorrhagia, headache, toothache and rheumatism. The dried leaves were homogenized for overnight soaking in methanol at room temperature. The resulting alcoholic extracts were filtered and concentrated in vacuo and tested for their genotoxicity and cytotoxicity using Vitotox®. Results showed that the medicinal plants that were tested are not genotoxic nor cytotoxic, except for R. communis and P. cablin, which showed toxicity at high doses (low dilutions) in the absence of S9. PMID:21716927

Chichioco-Hernandez, Christine; Wudarski, Jakub; Gevaert, Lieven; Verschaeve, Luc

2011-04-01

182

Antipyretic studies on some indigenous Pakistani medicinal plants: II.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eight Pakistani medicinal plants were investigated for antipyretic activity in rabbits receiving subcutaneous yeast injections. Hexane- and chloroform-soluble extracts of Aconitum napellus stems, Corchorus depressus whole plant and Gmelina asiatica roots exhibited prominent oral antipyretic activity while insignificant antipyretic effects were found in the hexane- and chloroform-soluble portions of Melia azadirachta seeds, Tinospora cordifolia stems and Vitex trifolia seeds. No antipyretic actions whatsoever were produced by extracts of A. heterophyllum roots and Hedysarum alhagi aerial parts. Toxicity studies revealed no noteworthy toxic or adverse effects for any of the above plant extracts up to the highest oral doses of 1.6 g/kg except in the case of A. napellus. PMID:3497307

Ikram, M; Khattak, S G; Gilani, S N

1987-01-01

183

Appraisal of medicinal plants used in alternative systems of medicines for microbial contamination, physiochemical parameters and heavy metals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The safety of herbal products has become a foremost apprehension in public health with their recognition and worldwide market growth and due in part to the widespread assumption that natural implies harmless. The global market of medicinal plants has been growing at a rate of 7-10% annually; capitalizing on the growing awareness of herbal and aromatic plants globally. The present study was conducted to assess the physiochemical parameters, microbial contamination and presence of heavy metals. The 24 medicinal plants were collected from open market places of various cities of Pakistan and tested by employing WHO and AOAC guidelines. Medicinal plants were found polluted with wide variety of potentially pathogenic bacterias. Microbial count and levels of arsenic and mercury in some plants were found elevated. The percentage (%) of physiochemical parameters i.e., foreign organic matter, total ash, acid insoluble ash, alcohol soluble extract, water soluble extract and moisture count of these medicinal plants were found statistically noteworthy. The nonexistence of quality control values for medicinal plants has been one of the key lacunas. Quality assurance system and WHO's guidelines on good agricultural and collection practices be methodically enforced in the medicinal plants supply chain i.e., cultivation, collection and distribution, although it is tricky task. (author)

184

DIVERSITY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN GAUTALA SANCTUARY OF KANNAD, DISTRICT AURANGABAD (MS India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are 32 plant belonging to 22 different families were undertaken for study. The studies on assessment and conservation of medicinal plants have gained momentum after revival of interest throughout the Maharashtra in use of Ayurvedic system of medicine. Efforts are being made to prepare a database on medicinal plants in floristically rich regions.Gautala, though very small sanctuary with sparse vegetation covers and has more than 150 species of flowering plants of medicinal importance. Out of these some are established as valuable medicinal plants and may prove to be a potential revenue earner source for the kannad. The conservation is need of such medicinal plant. The importance of medicinal species is discussed in this communications.

Anil A. Kshirsagar

2012-11-01

185

A SURVEY OF IMPORTANT INDIGENOUS MEDICINAL PLANTS OF DISTRICT BHIMBER AZAD JAMMU & KASHMIR, PAKISTAN  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A survey of medicinal plants was carried out about the traditional knowledge of rural people of District Bhimber and its allied areas. It was established that 96 plant species belonging to 49 families are currently used by common people and traditional plant medicines practitioner. Most medicinal plants grow in the wild (75%), while others are cultivated (25%) with predominant share of herbs (55%), trees (27%) and shrubs (17%). The frequently used species were Justicia adhatoda, Azadirachta i...

Nazar Hussain; Majid, S. A.; Altaf Hussain, M.; Saleem Abbasi, M.

2013-01-01

186

Antiparasitic properties of medicinal plants and other naturally occurring products.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parasitic diseases remain a major public health problem affecting hundreds of millions of people, particularly in tropical developing countries. The limited availability and affordability of pharmaceutical medicines means that the majority of the world's population depends on traditional medical remedies, and it is estimated that some 20,000 species of higher plant are used medicinally throughout the world. Many well-known drugs listed in the modern pharmacopoeia have their origins in nature, including, for example, quinine from the bark of the Cinchona tree for the treatment of malaria, which has been followed by the subsequent development of the synthetic derivatives chloroquine, amodiaquine, primaquine and mefloquine. More recently, the wider recognition of the antimalarial activity of artemisinin from the herb Artemisia annua has led current research to focus on the development of a large number of synthetic and semisynthetic compounds, which are more active than artemisinin. There is an increasing awareness of the potential of natural products, which may lead to the development of much-needed new antiparasitic drugs. In this chapter, we have drawn together a comprehensive list of medicinal plants and other natural products that have been shown to have activity against human and, to a lesser extent, animal parasites. In addition, some of the opportunities and difficulties in working with natural products have been reviewed and discussed, including the problems involved with evaluating complex mixtures of compounds which may occur in extracts, problems associated with differentiating between general cytotoxicity and genuine antiparasitic activity, and the hope that new technologies will rapidly accelerate new drug discovery and development in this field. Nevertheless, the way forward for natural product medicines, including the conservation of recognized natural products and protection of general biodiversity, the discovery and development process, and the promotion and usage of existing remedies, presents some difficult challenges. Following an initiative by the World Health Organization in August 2000, there is now the opportunity to evaluate scientifically many more traditional medicines and other natural products in validated antiparasite and toxicity screens, which will help establish which substances have potential for new pharmaceutical products. The use of 'untested' traditional medicines will no doubt continue, and there is an urgent need to distinguish between the efficacious and safe products and the ineffective and/or unsafe products, particularly since many remedies are being more widely promoted in developing countries. PMID:11757332

Tagboto, S; Townson, S

2001-01-01

187

Studies on bioactive saponins from Chinese medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

In our recent studies on bioactive saponins, two Chinese medicinal plants: Mussaenda pubescens Ait.f (Rubiaceae) and Clematis chinensis Osbeck (Ranunculaceae), were investigated. Of the two medicinal plants, M. pubescens is a Chinese folk medicine which has been used as a diuretic, antiphlogistic, diaphoretic and antipyretic agent, and has also been used to detoxify mushroom poisons and to terminate early pregnancy. Clematis chinensis is a Chinese traditional medicine which has been used as an analgesic, diuretic, antitumor, antiinflammatory and insecticidal agent for ages. As a result of our studies, eighteen saponins were identified from M. pubescens, among which seventeen were new compounds, while eleven saponins were isolated from C. chinensis, three of which were new compounds. In the course of our structural studies, mass fragment analysis in FAB-mass spectra and 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra were used to determine the structures of the sapogenin and oligosaccharide moieties. In those more complicated and minor saponins, various 2D-NMR experiments were carried out on 400-, 500- or 600-MHz NMR instruments, which permitted the identification of new sapogenins in glycoside form. In addition, it was also possible to assign all the proton and carbon signals of the sugar units on the basis of 1H-1H DQF COSY, TOCSY and HMQC spectra, which further permitted the establishment of linkage sites and sequences among the sugar units and aglycones by means of NOESY, ROESY and HMBC spectra. When the proton signals of sugar units are overlapped seriously in 1H-NMR spectra, peracetylation is a very helpful technique which can spread proton signals in wider range, thus simplifying their assignment by means of 2D-NMR spectra. When some of the sugar proton signals of a peracetylate are also overlapped coincidentally, alternation of deuterated solvents for measuring NMR spectra can circumvent the difficulties. Pharmacological tests indicated that mussaendoside O, the most abundant saponin from M. pubescens, can inhibit significantly the secretions of the lachrymal and salivary glands induced by galanthamine, and can also inhibit the contraction of the isolated longitudinal muscle strip from guinea pig ileum evoked by an M-Ach receptor agonist (carbachol, 10(-6) M) at concentrations of 10(-4) and 10(-5) M. From these results, the saponin should be an antagonist of the M-Ach receptor, and was presumed to be responsible for its antitoxicity activity toward some mushroom poisons of medicinal plant origin. In addition, mussaendoside O also showed immunopromotive and hemolytic activities. PMID:8957308

Xu, R; Zhao, W; Xu, J; Shao, B; Qin, G

1996-01-01

188

MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN THE TREATMENT OF EPILEPSY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Epilepsy may be defined as a neuropsychological disorder, which occurs due to over discharge of neurotransmitter substance. Epilepsy differs from seizure; a seizure is the paroxysmal events due to abnormal excessive hyper synchronous discharge from an aggregate of central nervous system (CNS neurons. There are number of drugs available for treatment of epilepsy in modern therapy. But the major disadvantage being faced is their chronic side effects. One patient out of three is resistant to antiepileptic drug. , thus there is a need of new drugs which have least side effect and minimum interaction and provide more effectiveness. From times immemorial plants have been used by mankind for their relieving and therapeutic abilities and still we rely on their healing properties. Plants with number of active constituent have a direct pharmacological action on our body including various organs. One such major complex organ is brain, so complex that still only few drugs are approved by drug authorities for ailments like epilepsy. The Indian system of medicine “Ayurveda” classified the plants affecting central nervous system. Treatment of epilepsy with herbal drugs as adjuvant seems to be more beneficial and is gaining more popularity due to their fewer side effects. Herbal drugs are acting at target site having same mechanism of action as that of synthetic drugs. There are number of drugs being used in the traditional medicine for treatment of epilepsy and presently many of these drugs are being explored scientifically to ascertain their anticonvulsant activity.

Malvi Reetesh K

2011-02-01

189

Molecular modeling of potential anticancer agents from African medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Naturally occurring anticancer compounds represent about half of the chemotherapeutic drugs which have been put in the market against cancer until date. Computer-based or in silico virtual screening methods are often used in lead/hit discovery protocols. In this study, the "drug-likeness" of ~400 compounds from African medicinal plants that have shown in vitro and/or in vivo anticancer, cytotoxic, and antiproliferative activities has been explored. To verify potential binding to anticancer drug targets, the interactions between the compounds and 14 selected targets have been analyzed by in silico modeling. Docking and binding affinity calculations were carried out, in comparison with known anticancer agents comprising ~1,500 published naturally occurring plant-based compounds from around the world. The results reveal that African medicinal plants could represent a good starting point for the discovery of anticancer drugs. The small data set generated (named AfroCancer) has been made available for research groups working on virtual screening. PMID:25116740

Ntie-Kang, Fidele; Nwodo, Justina Ngozi; Ibezim, Akachukwu; Simoben, Conrad Veranso; Karaman, Berin; Ngwa, Valery Fuh; Sippl, Wolfgang; Adikwu, Michael Umale; Mbaze, Luc Meva'a

2014-09-22

190

Heavy metal levels in commonly used traditional medicinal plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present study a survey of 24 commonly used medicinal plants of Indian subcontinent origin was carried out to evaluate their levels of heavy metals by electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results showed that the highest mean value for Cd (12.06 mu g.g/sup -1/), Cr (24.50 mu g.g/sup -1/), Cu (15.27 mu g.g/sup -1/), Pb (1.30 mu g.g/sup -1/), Fe (885.60 mu g.g/sup -1/), Mn (90.60 mu g.g/sup -1/), Ni (9.99 mu g.g/sup -1/) and Zn (77.15 mu g.g/sup -1/) were found in Lawsonia inermis, Murraya koenigii, Mentha spicata, Beta vulgaris Linn, Mentha spicata, Lagenaria sicerana standl, Lawsonia inermis, Emblica officinalis, respectively. The mean and maximum levels of Cd in plant samples were found higher than the recommended values of the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization and may constitute a health hazard for consumers. All other heavy metals in medicinal plants were found below the recommended tolerable limits. (author)

191

Antibacterial Activity of Medicinal Aqueous Plant Extracts against Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains a serious health problem in many regions of the world, and the development of resistance to antibiotics by this microbe created the need for new drugs to replace those which have lost effectiveness. This study assesses the medicinal anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis properties of natural products obtained from plants collected from Eastern Libya. In this study aqueous extracts of nine different plants were assayed for their Mycobacterium tuberculosis inhibitory activity using the BACTEC MGIT960 susceptibility test method. The aqueous extracts of Ceratonia siliqua L, Helichrysum stoechas (L. Moench and Thymus algeriensis did not show any activity against M. tuberculosis in different concentrations. The aqueous extract of Marrubium vulgare L. from Syria showed high activity against M. tuberculosis. Marrubium alysson L., Marrubium vulgare L., Pistacia lentiscus L, Quercus coccifera L, Thymus capitatus (L. Hoffm. & Link, showed varying degrees of activity against M. tuberculosis. The results of this study show that aqueous extracts from six different medicinal plants have different effects against M. tuberculosis in vitro.

Muna Mohammed Buzayan

2012-09-01

192

MEDICINAL PLANTS USED TO TREAT SKIN DISEASE IN CUDDALORE DISTRICT TAMIL NADU  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

-The importance of plants is known to us well. The plant kingdom is a treasure house of potential drugs and in the recent years there has been an increasing awareness about the importance of medicinal plants.

Sharavanan, P. S.; Jayaprasad, B.

2014-01-01

193

MEDICINAL PLANTS USED TO TREAT SKIN DISEASE IN CUDDALORE DISTRICT TAMIL NADU  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available -The importance of plants is known to us well. The plant kingdom is a treasure house of potential drugs and in the recent years there has been an increasing awareness about the importance of medicinal plants.

P. S. Sharavanan

2014-03-01

194

The Effect of Anise and Rosemary on the Microbial Balance in Gastro Intestinal Tract for Broiler Chicks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of the addition of different percent levels of anise and rosemary, added to a standard diet, on the gastro intestinal tract. Total bacteria count, Coliform bacteria, lactobacilli bacteria and fungal count were determined in different parts of crop, jujinum and large intestine. Two hundred fifty day-old broilers (Arbor-Acre were divided into groups of 50 birds each and randomly assigned to the five treatment groups. Each treatment has two replicates. Experiment were as follow: A control group with no anise and rosemary, and other four groups with the following additives, 0.5% anise, 1% anise, 0.5% rosemary and 1% rosemary. The data showed that the two additives (0.5% anise and 1% rosemary had statistical effect (P< 0.05 regarding the decrease in the total bacteria count and Coliform count in crop, jujinum and large intestine compared with the control. In conclusion 0.5% anise and 1% rosemary used as antimicrobial balance in gastro intestinal tract for broiler chicks.

Ghalib Alwan Mohammed Al-Kassie

2008-01-01

195

The role and place of medicinal plants in the strategies for disease prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Medicinal plants have been used in healthcare since time immemorial. Studies have been carried out globally to verify their efficacy and some of the findings have led to the production of plant-based medicines. The global market value of medicinal plant products exceeds $100 billion per annum. This paper discusses the role, contributions and usefulness of medicinal plants in tackling the diseases of public health importance, with particular emphasis on the current strategic approaches to disease prevention. A comparison is drawn between the 'whole population' and 'high-risk' strategies. The usefulness of the common-factor approach as a method of engaging other health promoters in propagating the ideals of medicinal plants is highlighted. The place of medicinal plants in preventing common diseases is further examined under the five core principles of the Primary Health Care (PHC) approach. Medicinal plants play vital roles in disease prevention and their promotion and use fit into all existing prevention strategies. However, conscious efforts need to be made to properly identify, recognise and position medicinal plants in the design and implementation of these strategies. These approaches present interesting and emerging perspectives in the field of medicinal plants. Recommendations are proposed for strategising the future role and place for medicinal plants in disease prevention. PMID:24311829

Sofowora, Abayomi; Ogunbodede, Eyitope; Onayade, Adedeji

2013-01-01

196

Trypanocidal and cytotoxic effects of 30 Ethiopian medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trypanocidal and cytotoxic effects of traditionally used medicinal plants of Ethiopia were evaluated. A total of 60 crude plant extracts were prepared from 30 plant species using CH2Cl2 and MeOH. Effect upon cell proliferation by the extracts, for both bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei brucei and human leukaemia HL-60 cells, was assessed using resazurin as vital stain. Of all CH2Cl2 and MeOH extracts evaluated against the trypanosomes, the CH2Cl2 extracts from five plants showed trypanocidal activity with an IC50 value below 20 microg/mL: Dovyalis abyssinica (Flacourtiaceae), IC50 = 1.4 microg/mL; Albizia schimperiana (Fabaceae), IC50 = 7.2 microg/mL; Ocimum urticifolium (Lamiaceae), IC50 = 14.0 microg/mL; Acokanthera schimperi (Apocynaceae), IC50 = 16.6 microg/mL; and Chenopodium ambrosioides (Chenopodiaceae), IC50 = 17.1 microg/mL. A pronounced and selective killing of trypanosomes with minimal toxic effect on human cells was exhibited by Dovyalis abyssinica (CH2Cl2 extract, SI = 125.0; MeOH extract, SI = 57.7) followed by Albizia schimperiana (CH2Cl2 extract, SI = 31.3) and Ocimum urticifolium (MeOH extract, SI = 16.0). In conclusion, the screening of 30 Ethiopian medicinal plants identified three species with good antitrypanosomal activities and low toxicity towards human cells. Dovyalis abyssinica might be a promising candidate for phytotherapy of trypanosomiasis. PMID:22351978

Nibret, Endalkachew; Wink, Michael

2011-01-01

197

Screening of Nepalese medicinal plants for antiviral activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

In an ethnopharmacological screening, plants used in Nepalese traditional medicine were evaluated for antiviral activity. Methanolic and methanolic-aqueous extracts derived of 23 species were assayed in two in vitro viral systems, influenza virus/MDCK cells and herpes simplex virus/Vero cells. Two species, Bergenia ligulata and Nerium indicum showed the highest antiinfluenzaviral activity with 50% inhibitory dose of 10 microg/ml. Holoptelia integrifolia and N. indicum exhibited considerable antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus. None of these extracts showed cytotoxic effects. Additionally for B. ligulata and H. integrifolia partial protease inhibitory activity was estimated. PMID:11274826

Rajbhandari, M; Wegner, U; Jülich, M; Schöpke, T; Mentel, R

2001-03-01

198

Concentration of some radionuclides in some popular sudanese medicinal plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study was measured concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides 238U, 232Th and 40K in samples of sudanese medicinal plants. The radionuclide activity concentrations in samples analyzed ranged from 4.09 to 41.07 Bq kg-1 for 238Th and from 353.14 to 2270.21 Bq kg-1 for 40k. No trace of artificial radionuclide was determined in all the samples. The effective dose due to the presence of these radionuclides was estimated and found to be 0.524 mSv/year which is well below the permissible levels. (Author)

199

A BRIEF PHYTOPHARMACOLOGICAL OVERVIEW OF TYLOPHORA INDICA - AN ENDANGERED MEDICINAL PLANT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tylophora indica is an important medicinal plant from the repository of valuable plant species of Indian subcontinent. The plant has a long reputation in curing various health ailments including asthma, bronchitis, rheumatism and other respiratory problems. Due to its vast medicinal importance, the plant is exploited on a large scale and its uncontrolled and unmonitored harvesting from the wild has categorized the plant among the endangered plant species.

Harmanjit Kaur* and Karanveer Singh

2012-01-01

200

A BRIEF PHYTOPHARMACOLOGICAL OVERVIEW OF TYLOPHORA INDICA - AN ENDANGERED MEDICINAL PLANT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tylophora indica is an important medicinal plant from the repository of valuable plant species of Indian subcontinent. The plant has a long reputation in curing various health ailments including asthma, bronchitis, rheumatism and other respiratory problems. Due to its vast medicinal importance, the plant is exploited on a large scale and its uncontrolled and unmonitored harvesting from the wild has categorized the plant among the endangered plant species.

Harmanjit Kaur* and Karanveer Singh

2012-11-01

 
 
 
 
201

IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON DIVERSITY OF HIMALAYAN MEDICINAL PLANT: A THREAT TO AYURVEDIC SYSTEM OF MEDICINE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Climate change and global warming are well acknowledged threats today, which affected the whole world biodiversity. Review of the literature revealed that regions with higher elevations are more vulnerable to the bad effect of climate change. The Indian Himalayan region, one among the mega hot spot of biodiversity is also the repository of valuable medicinal plants described in Ayurveda. Due to climate change the medicinal plant diversity of this region is on high stress or may be extinct in long run. From climate change, it has been observed the changes of alpine ecosystem, habitat fragmentation, shifting range of distribution, change in phenology pattern, change in secondary metabolites and invasion of new species, which have negative impact on the existing resources of medicinal plants.Ayurveda, the ancient system of medicine which solely depends on the plant resources for alleviating the illness will be highly affected in future due to the impact of climate change.

Ratha Kshirod Kumar

2012-06-01

202

In vitro propagation of two tuberous medicinal plants: Holostemma ada-kodien and Ipomoea mauritiana.  

Science.gov (United States)

Medicinal plants are sources of important therapeutic aid for healing human diseases. The depletion of the wild resources has prompted conservation, propagation, and enhancement of resources for medicinal plants. Micropropagation offers an alternate method to propagate and improve medicinal plants through selection of high-yield lines and their efficient cloning. This chapter describes cost effective and efficient protocols that have been successfully applied for the micropropagation and large-scale production of quality planting material in two important tuberous medicinal plants viz., Holostemma ada-kodien Schult. and Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq. PMID:19521837

Geetha, S Pillai; Raghu, A V; Martin, Gerald; George, Satheesh; Balachandran, Indira

2009-01-01

203

STUDIES ON MEDICINAL PLANTS OF KORADACHERI VILLAGE, KODAVASAL TALUK, THIRUVARUR DISTRICT, TAMILNADU, INDIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study deals about the availability of medicinal plants in Koradacheri Village, Kodavasal Taluk, Thiruvarur District, Tamil Nadu, India. Evolution of resistance, strains is a major threatening problem. Identified folk medicines of this area may be used to treat the newly evolved microbes. Ailments are not well known to the people. Very few people only knew remedies for several diseases. The selected medicinal plants are expected to open a new window in a discovery of novel medicine...

Durairaj Rekha; Annamalai Panneerselvam

2013-01-01

204

In vitro antioxidant properties and characterization in nutrients and phytochemicals of six medicinal plants from the Portuguese folk medicine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Traditional ethnomedical use of plants is recognized as an important potential source of compounds used in mainstream medicine. Herein, the in vitro antioxidant properties, nutrients and phytochemical composition of six medicinal plants widely used in the north-eastern Portuguese region were evaluated. The antioxidant activity was screened through: radical scavenging effects, reducing power, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in brain homogenates. Nutrients and phytochemical characterizatio...

Barros, Lillian; Oliveira, So?nia; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

2010-01-01

205

Arbuscular mycorrhizal and dark septate endophyte associations of medicinal plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and dark septate endophyte (DSE associations were studied in 36 medicinal plant species from 33 genera and 17 families, collected from the Botanical Garden of the Jagiellonian University in Kraków. Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM was found in 34 species (94%; 26 were of the Arum-type, 4 – Paris and 4 taxa revealed intermediate morpho­logy. The abundance of AMF hyphae in roots varied with particular species, ranging from 2.5% (Helianthus tuberosus to 77.9% (Convallaria majalis. The mycelium of DSE was observed in 13 plant species (36%, however, the percentage of root colonization by these fungi was low. Spores of 7 AMF species (Glomeromycota were isolated from trap cultures established from rhizosphere soils of the investigated plants: Archaeospora trappei (Archaeosporaceae, Glomus aureum, Glomus caledonium, Glomus claroideum, Glomus constrictum, Glomus mosseae, Glomus versiforme (Glomeraceae. Our results are the first detailed report of root endophyte associations of the plant species under study. Moreover, the mycorrhizal status of 14 plant species is reported for the first time.

Szymon Zubek

2011-10-01

206

Screening of some Kenyan medicinal plants for antibacterial activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eleven medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Machakos and Kitui District were screened, namely: Ajuga remota Benth, Aloe secundiflora Engl, Amaranthus hybridus L, Cassia didymobotrya Fes, Croton macrostachyus Del, Entada leptostachya Harms, Erythrina abyssinica DC, Harrisonia abyssinica Oliv, Schkuhria pinnata O. Ktze, Terminalia kilimandscharica Engl and Ziziphus abyssinica Hochst for potential antibacterial activity against four medically important bacterial strains, namely: Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Micrococcus lutea ATCC 9341 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. The antibacterial activity of methanol extracts was determined as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The plant extracts were more active against Gram-positive (G+) than Gram-negative (G-) bacteria. The positive controls were streptomycin and benzylpenicillin for G- and G+ bacteria, respectively, both had a significant MIC at evaluation. PMID:19548257

Wagate, Cyrus G; Mbaria, James M; Gakuya, Daniel W; Nanyingi, Mark O; Kareru, P G; Njuguna, Anne; Gitahi, Nduhiu; Macharia, James K; Njonge, Francis K

2010-01-01

207

Quorum sensing inhibitors of Staphylococcus aureus from Italian medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Morbidity and mortality estimates due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections continue to rise. Therapeutic options are limited by antibiotic resistance. Anti-pathogenic compounds, which inhibit quorum sensing (QS) pathways, may be a useful alternative to antibiotics. Staphylococcal QS is encoded by the AGR locus and is responsible for the production of ?-hemolysin. Quantification of ?-hemolysin found in culture supernatants permits the analysis of AGR activity at the translational rather than transcriptional level. We employed reversed phase high performance chromatographic (RP-HPLC) techniques to investigate the anti-QS activity of 168 extracts from 104 Italian plants through quantification of ?-hemolysin. Extracts from three medicinal plants (Ballota nigra, Castanea sativa, and Sambucus ebulus) exhibited a dose-dependent response in the production of ?-hemolysin, indicating anti-QS activity in a pathogenic MRSA isolate. PMID:20645243

Quave, Cassandra L; Plano, Lisa R W; Bennett, Bradley C

2011-01-01

208

Antimicrobial Activity of Some Medicinal Plants from Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: About 32 extracts from eight selected medicinal plants, namely Pereskia bleo, Pereskia grandifolia, Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb., Curcuma zedoria, Curcuma mangga, Curcuma inodora aff. Blatter, Zingiber officinale var. officinale (jahe gajah and Zingiber officinale var. rubrum (jahe emprit used by Malaysia traditional health care systems were screened for their antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria using agar disc diffusion assay. Approach: The efficacy of the extracts was compared to the commercially prepared antibiotic diffusion discs. Results: No inhibition was observed with the water fractions. Conclusion/Recommendations: None of the plants tested showed inhibition against Escherichia coli. Curcuma mangga showed some remarked inhibition against the bacteria used in this study.

Koshy Philip

2009-01-01

209

In vitro screening of medicinal plant extracts for macrofilaricidal activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Methanolic extracts of 20 medicinal plants were screened at 1-10 mg/ml for in vitro macrofilaricidal activity by worm motility assay against adult Setaria digitata, the cattle filarial worm. Four plant extracts showed macrofilaricidal activity by worm motility at concentrations below 4 mg/ml and an incubation period of 100 min. Complete inhibition of worm motility and subsequent mortality was observed at 3, 2, 1 and 1 mg/ml, respectively, for Centratherum anthelminticum, Cedrus deodara, Sphaeranthus indicus and Ricinus communis. 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay was carried out at 1 mg ml(-1) and 4-h incubation period, and the results showed that C. deodara, R. communis, S. indicus and C. anthelminticum exhibited 86.56, 72.39, 61.20 and 43.15% inhibition respectively in formazan formation compared to the control. PMID:17013649

Nisha, Mathew; Kalyanasundaram, M; Paily, K P; Abidha; Vanamail, P; Balaraman, K

2007-02-01

210

In vitro evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against Pestalotiopsis mangiferae.  

Science.gov (United States)

A serious leaf-spot disease of Mangifera indica was noted during the last 10 years in Satpura plateau of India. On the basis of characteristic symptoms and cultural characters, the pathogen was identified as Pestalotiopsis mangiferae which is hitherto not reported from Satpura plateau of India. Screening of 17-medicinal plants against the test pathogen revealed 14 antimycotic whereas 3-plants, viz., Argemone mexicana, Caesalpinia bonducella, and Casia fistula acclerated the growth of the pathogen. The maximum activity was shown by Eucalyptus globulus (88%) and Catharanthus roseus (88%) followed by Ocimum sanctum (85.50%), Azadirachta indica (84.66%), Ricinus communis (75%) and Lawsonia inermis (74.33%) while the minimum activity was exhibited by Jatropha curcas (10%). PMID:9676046

Rai, M K

1996-01-01

211

[Medicinal plants and symbols in the medieval mystic altarpiece].  

Science.gov (United States)

The medieval mystic altarpiece towers above the altar table. It is linked to the evocation of a religious mystery beyond our faculty of reasoning. Symbolism of an enclosed garden evokes the image of the Heavenly Garden isolated by a wall from the rest of earthly world. In this mystic chiefly Rhenan altarpiece the enclosed garden is that of Virgin Mary who in the Middle Ages was likened to the spouse in the song of songs. The Blessed Virgin is painted with flowers, lily, rose, violet, lily of the valley. Most of these are medicinal plants in order to implore a faith healing for the believers. All in all about fifty plants are showed on Rhenan altarpieces and on 14th century mystic altarpieces almost contemporary of Issenheim's altarpiece, some Italian, some Rhenan. PMID:22073760

Fischer, Louis-Paul; Verilhac, Régine; Ferrandis, Jean-Jacques; Trépardoux, Francis

2011-01-01

212

A SHORT REVIEW ON UN-EXPLORED MEDICINAL PLANT: ECBOLIUM VIRIDIE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Medicinal plants are the nature’s gift to human being to make disease free healthy life. It plays a vital role to preserve our health. In our country more than 2000 medicinal plants are recognized. Ecbolium viridie (Acanthaceae is one of the important medicinal plant in India and Malaysia. Some of its medicinal uses have been mentioned in traditional system of medicine such as ayurveda, siddha and unani. This review attempts to encompass the available literature of Ecbolium viridie with respect to its traditional uses and summary of its pharmacological activities.

A. Elumalai

2011-05-01

213

STUDIES ON MEDICINAL PLANTS OF KORADACHERI VILLAGE, KODAVASAL TALUK, THIRUVARUR DISTRICT, TAMILNADU, INDIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study deals about the availability of medicinal plants in Koradacheri Village, Kodavasal Taluk, Thiruvarur District, Tamil Nadu, India. Evolution of resistance, strains is a major threatening problem. Identified folk medicines of this area may be used to treat the newly evolved microbes. Ailments are not well known to the people. Very few people only knew remedies for several diseases. The selected medicinal plants are expected to open a new window in a discovery of novel medicine. Keeping the above facts in mind the present investigation is justifiably planned to concentrate on medicinal plants of Koradacheri Village, Tamil Nadu, India.

Durairaj Rekha

2013-10-01

214

In vitro immunomodulating properties of selected Sudanese medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethanolic extracts of 23 medicinal plants, commonly used in Sudanese folk medicines against infectious diseases, were investigated for their immunomodulating activity using luminol/lucigenin-based chemiluminescence assay. Preliminary screenings on whole blood oxidative burst activity showed inhibitory activities of 14 plant extracts, while only one plant, Balanites aegyptiaca fruits exhibited a proinflammatory activity. Further investigation was conducted by monitoring their effects on oxidative burst of isolated polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) and mononuclear cells (MNCs) by using two different phagocytosis activators (serum opsonizing zymosan-A and PMA). Results obtained showed that the fruits and barks of Acacia nilotica, and leaves and barks of Khaya senegalensis, possess average inhibitory effects in the range of 70.7, 67.1, 69.5 and 67.4% on both types of phagocytes (PMNs and MNCs), respectively, at a 6.25 microg/mL concentration. Moderate inhibitory activity (52.2%) was exerted by the aerial parts of Xanthium brasilicum, while the rest of the plants showed only a weak inhibitory activity. The inhibition of oxidative burst activity was found to be irreversible in most of the extracts, except for Peganum harmala, Tephrosia apollinea, Tinospora bakis, and Vernonia amygdalina. Interestingly, the fruits of Balanites aegyptiaca exhibited a moderate proinflammatory effect (37-40.4% increases in ROS level compared to the control) at 25-100 microg/mL concentration in the case of whole blood along with PMNs phagocyte activity. The Tinospora bakis extract showed proinflammatory response at a low concentration (6.25 microg/mL) during activation with PMA. None of these extracts affected PMNs viability (90-98%) upon 2 h incubation, except of the ethanolic extracts of Acacia nilotica fruits and Balanites aegyptiaca barks. PMID:18440170

Koko, W S; Mesaik, M Ahmed; Yousaf, S; Galal, M; Choudhary, M Iqbal

2008-06-19

215

Medicinal plant activity on Helicobacter pylori related diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

More than 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The bacterium highly links to peptic ulcer diseases and duodenal ulcer, which was classified as a group?I?carcinogen in 1994 by the WHO. The pathogenesis of H. pylori is contributed by its virulence factors including urease, flagella, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), cytotoxin-associated gene antigen (Cag A), and others. Of those virulence factors, VacA and CagA play the key roles. Infection with H. pylori vacA-positive strains can lead to vacuolation and apoptosis, whereas infection with cagA-positive strains might result in severe gastric inflammation and gastric cancer. Numerous medicinal plants have been reported for their anti-H. pylori activity, and the relevant active compounds including polyphenols, flavonoids, quinones, coumarins, terpenoids, and alkaloids have been studied. The anti-H. pylori action mechanisms, including inhibition of enzymatic (urease, DNA gyrase, dihydrofolate reductase, N-acetyltransferase, and myeloperoxidase) and adhesive activities, high redox potential, and hydrophilic/hydrophobic natures of compounds, have also been discussed in detail. H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation may progress to superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and finally gastric cancer. Many natural products have anti-H. pylori-induced inflammation activity and the relevant mechanisms include suppression of nuclear factor-?B and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation and inhibition of oxidative stress. Anti-H. pylori induced gastric inflammatory effects of plant products, including quercetin, apigenin, carotenoids-rich algae, tea product, garlic extract, apple peel polyphenol, and finger-root extract, have been documented. In conclusion, many medicinal plant products possess anti-H. pylori activity as well as an anti-H. pylori-induced gastric inflammatory effect. Those plant products have showed great potential as pharmaceutical candidates for H. pylori eradication and H. pylori induced related gastric disease prevention. PMID:25132753

Wang, Yuan-Chuen

2014-08-14

216

Anxiolytic activity evaluation of four medicinal plants from Cameroon.  

Science.gov (United States)

Afrormosia laxiflora (A. laxiflora), Chenopodium ambrosioides (C. ambrosioides), Microglossa pyrifolia (M. pyrifolia) and Mimosa pudica (M. pudica) are plants used in traditional medicine in Cameroon to treat insomnia, epilepsy, anxiety, and agitation. They were evaluated for their anxiolytic like activity in mice. Animal models (elevated plus maze and stress-induced hyperthermia tests) were used. The four plants showed anxiolytic activity. In stress-induced hyperthermia test, A. laxiflora, C. ambrosioides, M. pyrifolia and M. pudica significantly antagonised the increase of temperature. ?T° decreased from 0.75°C in the control group to 0.36°C at the dose of 110 mg/kg for A. laxiflora; from 1°C in the control group to -1.1°C at the dose of 120 mg/kg for C. ambrosioides; from 1.7°C in the control group to 0.2°C at the dose of 128 mg/kg for M. pyrifolia and from 1.3°C in the control group to 0.5°C at the dose of 180 mg/kg for M. pudica. In the elevated plus maze test, the four plants increased the number of entries into, percentage of entries into, and percentage of time in open arms. A. laxiflora, C. ambrosioides and M. pudica also reduced the percentage of entries and time in closed arms. In addition, C. ambrosioides, M. pyrifolia and M. pudica showed antipyretic activity by reducing the body temperature. The results suggested that C. ambrosioides, M. pyrifolia and M. pudica posses anxiolytic-like and antipyretic activities while A. laxiflora possesses only anxiolytic-like properties. These plants could be helpful in the treatment of anxiety and fever in traditional medicine in Cameroon. PMID:22754066

Bum, E Ngo; Soudi, S; Ayissi, E R; Dong, C; Lakoulo, N H; Maidawa, F; Seke, P F E; Nanga, L D; Taiwe, G S; Dimo, T; Njikam, Njifutie; Rakotonirina, A; Rakotonirina, S V; Kamanyi, A

2011-01-01

217

Leishmanicidal active withanolides from a pakistani medicinal plant, Withania coagulans.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the course of screening for leishmanicidal constituents from Asian and South American medicinal plants, a Pakistani medicinal plant, Withania coagulans, showed activity. We therefore studied the active components of the methanol extract of aerial parts of W. coagulans. From the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the extract, four new withanolides (1-4) were isolated along with seven known withanolides (5-11). The new compounds were elucidated to be (14R,15R,17S,20S,22R)-14,15,17,20-tetrahydroxy-1-oxowitha-2,5,24-trienolide (1), (14R,15R,17S,20S,22R)-14,15,17,20-tetrahydroxy-1-oxowitha-3,5,24-trienolide (2), (14S,17R,20S,22R)-14,17,20-trihydroxy-1-oxowitha-2,5,24-trienolide (3), and (14S,17R,20S,22R)-14,17,20-trihydroxy-1-oxowitha-3,5,24-trienolide (4), from 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 2D-NMR and high resolution (HR)-MS data. Some of these compounds having the partial structure 1-oxo-2,5-diene showed strong leishmanicidal activity against Leishmania major. PMID:22790824

Kuroyanagi, Masanori; Murata, Miki; Nakane, Takahisa; Shirota, Osamu; Sekita, Setsuko; Fuchino, Hiroyuki; Shinwari, Zabta K

2012-01-01

218

solation and Identification of Fungi from Spices and Medicinal Plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This investigation was designed to throw light on the microbial status of some crude herbal materials. A total of 16 samples, representing different types of spices and medicinal plants were collected from common market in the Erbil city. Ten different fungal genera and 16 species were isolated and identified as Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus spp., Gliocladium sp., Hyalodendron diddeus, Memmoniella sp., Penicillium spp., Rhizopus spp., Syncephalastrum sp., Cladosporium lignicolum and Ulocladium botrytis. The total number of isolated fungi from the all sixteen selected samples was serially diluted and plated on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA medium was (203×103 cfu/g. samples. Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. were more frequently detected, while Stachybotrys sp., Syncephalastrum racemocum, Uocladium botrytis, Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium lignicolum and Gliocladium catenulatum ere less frequently detected. Detection of mycotoxin on Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphincol agar (DRBC for fungi isolated from spices and medicinal plant samples, A. flavus, A. Niger and A. ochraceous show positive results on the culture for mycotoxin production. Estimation of natural occurrence of Aflatoxin (AT and Ochratoxin (OT in some selected dried samples by using ELISA method, the high result of aflatoxin and ochratoxin show in Red tea (150.5, 387.3 ppb while the low result of aflatoxin and ochratoxin show in Garlic (1.4, 0 ppb respectively.

Farid M. Toma

2013-03-01

219

Screening of estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities from medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The medicinal plant extracts commercially used in Asia were screened for their estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities in a recombinant yeast system featuring both a human estrogen receptor (ER) expression plasmid and a reporter plasmid. Pueraria lobata (flower) had the highest estrogenic relative potency (RP, 7.75×10(-3); RP of 17?-estradiol=1), followed by Amomum xanthioides (1.25×10(-3)). Next potent were a group consisting of Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Zingiber officinale, Rheum undulatum, Curcuma aromatica, Eriobotrya japonica, Sophora flavescens, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Polygonum multiflorum, and Pueraria lobata (root) (ranging from 9.5×10(-4) to 1.0×10(-4)). Least potent were Prunus persica, Lycoppus lucidus, and Adenophora stricta (ranging from 9.0×10(-5) to 8.0×10(-5)). The extracts exerting antiestrogenic effects, Cinnamomum cassia and Prunus persica, had relative potencies of 1.14×10(-3) and 7.4×10(-4), respectively (RP of tamoxifen=1). The solvent fractions from selected estrogenic or antiestrogenic herbs had higher estrogenic relative potencies, with their RP ranging from 9.3×10(-1) to 2.7×10(-4) and from 8.2×10(-1) to 9.1×10(-3), respectively. These results support previous reports on the efficacy of Oriental medicinal plants used or not used as phytoestrogens for hormone replacement therapy. PMID:21783839

Kim, In Gyu; Kang, Se Chan; Kim, Kug Chan; Choung, Eui Su; Zee, Ok Pyo

2008-01-01

220

A potential of some medicinal plants as an antiulcer agents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Peptic ulcers are a broad term that includes ulcers of digestive tract in the stomach or the duodenum. The formation of peptic ulcers depends on the presence of acid and peptic activity in gastric juice plus a breakdown in mucosal defenses. There are two major factors that can disrupt the mucosal resistance to injury: non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) example, aspirin and Helicobacter pylori infection. Numerous natural products have been evaluated as therapeutics for the treatment of a variety of diseases, including peptic ulcer. There has been considerable pharmacological investigation into the antiulcer activity of some compounds. In this work, we shall review the literature on different medicinal plant and alkaloids with antiulcer activity. This article reviews the antiacid/anti-peptic, gastroprotective and/or antiulcer properties of the most commonly employed herbal medicines and their identified active constituents. The experimental parameters used for antiulcer activity were cold restraint stress-induced ulcer model, Diclofenac-induced ulcer model in rats, (HCl-ethanol)-induced ulcer in mice and water immersion stress-induced ulcer in rats. The ideal aims of treatment of peptic ulcer disease are to relieve pain, heal the ulcer and delay ulcer recurrence. About 70% of patients with peptic ulcer disease are infected by Helicobacter pylori and eradication of this microorganism seems to be curative for this disease. This article reviews drugs derived from medicinal plant more commonly used in the world for peptic ulcer and, if reported, the antiulcer activity. This article will be concerned only with the antiulcer and gastro-protective effects. PMID:22228953

Gadekar, R; Singour, P K; Chaurasiya, P K; Pawar, R S; Patil, U K

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
221

Interacción entre fármacos y plantas medicinales Interaction between medicines and medicinal plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En los últimos años, el consumo de plantas medicinales ha experimentado un notable incremento en la sociedad española. Esto ha podido ser debido a que en algunos casos, se ha demostrado su eficacia en el tratamiento de determinadas patologías y a la percepción, errónea, de la inocuidad de estos productos. Las plantas medicinales se comportan como verdaderos fármacos ya que las sustancias químicas que las componen pueden tener una actividad biológica en humanos. Por esta razón, la administración conjunta con "fármacos convencionales" puede producir variaciones en la magnitud de su efecto. Este tipo de interacciones, al igual que las producidas entre dos o más fármacos pueden producirse por mecanismos farmacocinéticos, si afectan a procesos de absorción, distribución, metabolismo y excreción o farmacodinámicos, si afectan al resultado de su acción farmacológica. En la literatura médica son escasos los artículos y notificaciones de casos sobre los efectos adversos e interacciones que afectan a las plantas medicinales, lo que probablemente refleja una infranotificación de estos fenómenos. Si a esto añadimos la falta de datos experimentales y de estudios controlados, la percepción de su prevalencia es difícil o casi imposible. Este trabajo expone, ordenados según se explica más adelante, los hallazgos de una exhaustiva revisión de la literatura médica con el fin de que el lector conozca su existencia, sin entrar en otras consideraciones, como por ejemplo el grado de evidencia, que serán sujeto de próximos trabajos.In recent years there has been a notable increase in the consumption of medicinal plants in Spanish society. This might be due to the fact that in some cases they have shown themselves to be efficient in treating certain pathologies and to the erroneous perception that these products are innocuous. Medicinal plants behave as authentic medicines since the chemical substances of which they are formed can have a biological activity in humans. For this reason, their joint administration with "conventional medicines" can produce variations in the magnitude of the effect. This type of interaction, just like those produced between two or more medicines, can produce pharmacokinetic mechanisms if they affect the processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, or pharmacodynamic mechanisms if they affect the result of the pharmacological action. In the medical literature there are few articles and notifications of cases concerning the adverse effects and interactions that affect medicinal plants, which probably reflects an under-notification of these phenomena. If we add to this the lack of experimental data and controlled studies, perception of their prevalence is difficult or nearly impossible. This article sets out, in an order that will be explained later, the findings of an exhaustive review of the medical literature with the aim of making its existence known to the reader, without going into other considerations, such as the degree of evidence for example, which will be the subject of forthcoming articles.

J.C. Tres

2006-08-01

222

Interacción entre fármacos y plantas medicinales / Interaction between medicines and medicinal plants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En los últimos años, el consumo de plantas medicinales ha experimentado un notable incremento en la sociedad española. Esto ha podido ser debido a que en algunos casos, se ha demostrado su eficacia en el tratamiento de determinadas patologías y a la percepción, errónea, de la inocuidad de estos prod [...] uctos. Las plantas medicinales se comportan como verdaderos fármacos ya que las sustancias químicas que las componen pueden tener una actividad biológica en humanos. Por esta razón, la administración conjunta con "fármacos convencionales" puede producir variaciones en la magnitud de su efecto. Este tipo de interacciones, al igual que las producidas entre dos o más fármacos pueden producirse por mecanismos farmacocinéticos, si afectan a procesos de absorción, distribución, metabolismo y excreción o farmacodinámicos, si afectan al resultado de su acción farmacológica. En la literatura médica son escasos los artículos y notificaciones de casos sobre los efectos adversos e interacciones que afectan a las plantas medicinales, lo que probablemente refleja una infranotificación de estos fenómenos. Si a esto añadimos la falta de datos experimentales y de estudios controlados, la percepción de su prevalencia es difícil o casi imposible. Este trabajo expone, ordenados según se explica más adelante, los hallazgos de una exhaustiva revisión de la literatura médica con el fin de que el lector conozca su existencia, sin entrar en otras consideraciones, como por ejemplo el grado de evidencia, que serán sujeto de próximos trabajos. Abstract in english In recent years there has been a notable increase in the consumption of medicinal plants in Spanish society. This might be due to the fact that in some cases they have shown themselves to be efficient in treating certain pathologies and to the erroneous perception that these products are innocuous. [...] Medicinal plants behave as authentic medicines since the chemical substances of which they are formed can have a biological activity in humans. For this reason, their joint administration with "conventional medicines" can produce variations in the magnitude of the effect. This type of interaction, just like those produced between two or more medicines, can produce pharmacokinetic mechanisms if they affect the processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, or pharmacodynamic mechanisms if they affect the result of the pharmacological action. In the medical literature there are few articles and notifications of cases concerning the adverse effects and interactions that affect medicinal plants, which probably reflects an under-notification of these phenomena. If we add to this the lack of experimental data and controlled studies, perception of their prevalence is difficult or nearly impossible. This article sets out, in an order that will be explained later, the findings of an exhaustive review of the medical literature with the aim of making its existence known to the reader, without going into other considerations, such as the degree of evidence for example, which will be the subject of forthcoming articles.

J.C., Tres.

2006-08-01

223

Medicinal Plants Useful for Malaria Therapy in Okeigbo, Ondo State, Southwest Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is increasing resistance of malaria parasites to chloroquine, the cheapest and commonly used drug for malaria in Nigeria. Artemisin, a product from medicinal plant indigenous to China, based on active principle of Artemisia annua, has been introduced into the Nigerian market. However not much has been done to project antimalaria properties of indigenous medicinal plants. This study thus, has the main objective of presenting medicinal plants used for malaria therapy in Okeigbo, Ondo Stat...

Odugbemi, Tolu O.; Akinsulire, Odunayo R.; Aibinu, Ibukun E.; Fabeku, Peter O.

2006-01-01

224

ETHNO-MEDICINAL USES OF SOME PLANTS OF KANAG HILL IN SHIMLA, HIMACHAL PRADESH, INDIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study an ethno-medicinal survey of plant diversity was carried out at Kanag Hill, Tehsil Theog, District Shimla in Himachal Pradesh. The study was mainly focused on the medicinal plants used for treatment of various ailments by the nearby village inhabitants. The information was collected by questionnaire and consulting local old people. The study was entirely focused on revealing the medicinal potential possessed by the plants growing wild in this area and their sustainability for th...

Verma Rachna; Parkash Vipin; Kumar Dinesh

2012-01-01

225

Ethnopharmacological survey: a selection strategy to identify medicinal plants for a local phytotherapy program  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ethnopharmacological studies are important for documenting and protecting cultural and traditional knowledge associated with the medical use of biodiversity. In this paper, we present a survey on medicinal plants used by locals in a community of Nova Viçosa, Viçosa, MG, Brazil, as a strategy to select medicinal plants for a phytotherapy-based local healthcare program. Eleven knowledgeable local informants were chosen by snowball sampling and interviewed about the use of medicinal plants. Pl...

Flávia Liparini Pereira; José Martins Fernandes; João Paulo Viana Leite

2012-01-01

226

Modulation of programmed cell death by medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Programmed cell death (apoptosis), a form of cell death, described by Kerr and Wyllie some 20 years ago, has generated considerable interest in recent years. The mechanisms by which this mode of cell death (seen both in animal and plant cells), takes place have been examined in detail. Extracellular signals and intracellular events have been elaborated. Of interest to the clinician, is the concentrated effort to study pharmacological modulation of programmed cell death. The attempt to influence the natural phenomenon of programmed cell death stems from the fact that it is reduced (like in cancer) or increased (like in neurodegenerative diseases) in several clinical situations. Thus, chemicals that can modify programmed cell death are likely to be potentially useful drugs. From foxglove, which gave digitalis to the Pacific Yew from which came taxol, plants have been a source of research material for useful drugs. Recently, a variety of plant extracts have been investigated for their ability to influence the apoptotic process. This article discusses some of the interesting data. The ability of plants to influence programmed cell death in cancerous cells in an attempt to arrest their proliferation has been the topic of much research. Various cell-lines like HL60, human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (KIM-1), a cholangiocarcinoma cell-line (KMC-1), B-cell hybridomas, U937 a monocytic cell-line, HeLa cells, human lymphoid leukemia (MOLT-4B) cells and K562 cells have been studied. The agents found to induce programmed cell death (measured either morphologically or flow cytometrically) included extracts of plants like mistletoe and Semicarpus anacardium. Isolated compounds like bryonolic acid (from Trichosanthes kirilowii var. Japonica, crocin (from saffron) and allicin (from Allium sativum) have also been found to induce programmed cell death and therefore arrest proliferation. Even Chinese herbal medicine "Sho-saiko-to" induces programmed cell death in selected cancerous cell lines. Of considerable interest is the finding that Panax ginseng prevents irradiation-induced programmed cell death in hair follicles, suggesting important therapeutic implications. Nutraceuticals (dietary plants) like soya bean, garlic, ginger, green tea, etc. which have been suggested, in epidemiological studies, to reduce the incidence of cancer may do so by inducing programmed cell death. Soy bean extracts have been shown to prevent development of diseases like polycystic kidneys, while Artemisia asiatica attenuates cerulein-induced pancreatitis in rats. Interestingly enough, a number of food items as well as herbal medicines have been reported to produce toxic effects by inducing programmed cell death. For example, programmed cell death in isolated rat hepatocytes has been implicated in the hepatitis induced by a herbal medicine containing diterpinoids from germander. Other studies suggest that rapid progression of the betel- and tobacco-related oral squamous cell carcinomas may be associated with a simultaneous involvement of p53 and c-myc leading to inhibition of programmed cell death. Several mechanisms have been identified to underlie the modulation of programmed cell death by plants including endonuclease activation, induction of p53, activation of caspase 3 protease via a Bcl-2-insensitive pathway, potentiate free-radical formation and accumulation of sphinganine. Programmed cell death is a highly conserved mechanism of self-defense, also found to occur in plants. Hence, it is natural to assume that chemicals must exist in them to regulate programmed cell death in them. Thus, plants are likely to prove to be important sources of agents that will modulate programmed cell death. PMID:10726985

Thatte, U; Bagadey, S; Dahanukar, S

2000-02-01

227

Medicinal Plants: A Source of Anti-Parasitic Secondary Metabolites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This review summarizes human infections caused by endoparasites, including protozoa, nematodes, trematodes, and cestodes, which affect more than 30% of the human population, and medicinal plants of potential use in their treatment. Because vaccinations do not work in most instances and the parasites have sometimes become resistant to the available synthetic therapeutics, it is important to search for alternative sources of anti-parasitic drugs. Plants produce a high diversity of secondary metabolites with interesting biological activities, such as cytotoxic, anti-parasitic and anti-microbial properties. These drugs often interfere with central targets in parasites, such as DNA (intercalation, alkylation, membrane integrity, microtubules and neuronal signal transduction. Plant extracts and isolated secondary metabolites which can inhibit protozoan parasites, such as Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Trichomonas and intestinal worms are discussed. The identified plants and compounds offer a chance to develop new drugs against parasitic diseases. Most of them need to be tested in more detail, especially in animal models and if successful, in clinical trials.

Michael Wink

2012-10-01

228

Platelet anti-aggregant property of some Moroccan medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is known that blood platelets may present some dysfunction linked to cardiovascular pathologies such as arterial hypertension. The aim of this work is to examine the in vitro anti-aggregant effect of five medicinal plants among which three were reported as antihypertensive in oriental Morocco: Arbutus unedo (Ericaceae), Urtica dioïca (Urticaceae), and Petroselinum crispum (Apiaceae). The two other plants were Cistus ladaniferus (Cistaceae) and Equisetum arvense (Equisetaceae). The results obtained showed that all extracts produced a dose-dependent inhibition of thrombin and ADP-induced aggregation. The calculated IC50 (half-maximal inhibition of thrombin and ADP-induced aggregation) was found to be identical in all plant extracts while Urtica dioïca had a higher IC50 value. The effect of plants could be related in part to the polyphenolic compounds present in their extracts suggesting their involvement in the treatment or prevention of platelet aggregation complications linked to cardiovascular diseases. Phytochemical separation must be carried out to identify the active principles responsible for the anti-aggregant effect and elucidate their mechanisms of action. PMID:15325737

Mekhfi, Hassane; El Haouari, Mohammed; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Bnouham, Mohammed; Aziz, Mohammed; Atmani, Fouad; Remmal, Adnane; Ziyyat, Abderrahim

2004-10-01

229

Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Some Nigerian Medicinal Plant Extracts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present research evaluates the DPPH radical scavenging, total antioxidant activities, reducing power and total contents of phenolic compounds in methanolic leaf extracts of five Nigerian medicinal plants (Dalbergia saxatilis Hook.f. (Papilionacae, Ekebergia senegalensis A.Juss.(Meliaceae, Hymenocardia acida Tul. (Hymenocardiaceae, Icacina tricantha Oliv. (Icacinaceae and Salacia pallescens Oliv.(Celastraceae. Total phenols were analysed according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Each sample under assay condition, showed a dose-dependent effect both on free radical scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH and also on Fe3+ reducing power. The antioxidant activity of the plant extracts with the DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power method, were in the order Hymenocardia> Ekebergia> Salacia> Icacina> Dalbergia. H. acida and E. senegalensis possess very high radical scavenging activity in both assays. Potency of H. acida extract was of the same magnitude as that of reference ?-tocopherol. Total phenols in all the samples expressed as GAE (Gallic Acid Equivalent varied from 1.83 to 15.47mg g-1 of dry plant material. Total antioxidant activities correlated with total phenols (R2 = 0.6640 an indication that 66% of the antioxidant capacity of these extracts results from contribution of phenolic compounds. A linear positive relationship existed between the reducing power and total phenolics of the tested plant extracts (R2 = 0.9564.

M.O. Sofidiya

2006-01-01

230

A Review on Medicinal Plants with Anti-Ulcer Activity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A peptic ulcer is erosion in a segment of the gastro intestinal mucosa. It may typically in the stomach (gastric ulcer or first few centimeters of duodenum (duodenal ulcer that penetrates through the muscularis mucosae. Contrary to popular belief, ulcer is not only caused by spicy food but also most commonly due to an infection of Helicobacter Pylori and long term use of medications. Standard treatment is a combination of drugs including antibiotics and a proton pump inhibitors. Literature suggests that number of synthetic drugs are used in the management of peptic ulcers but elicit several adverse effects. Therefore Indian herbal plants stand out as being exceptional for its ethnic, ethobotanical and ethno-pharmaceutical use. In this review attempts have been made to know about some plants which may be used in treatment or prevention of peptic ulcers. Various plants like Excoecaria agallocha, Mentha arvensis, Utleria salicifolia, Emblica officinalis etc. proved active in antiulcer therapy. This combination of traditional and modern knowledge can produced better antiulcer drugs with fewer side effects. The medicinal plants are available in India and other countries, recent technologies advances have renewal interest in natural product in drug discovery.

Shaikh A. M

2013-05-01

231

A meta-analysis of medicinal plants to assess the evidence for toxicity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Toxicity of phytochemicals, plant-based extracts and dietary supplements, and medicinal plants in general, is of medical importance and must be considered in phytotherapy and other plant uses. We show in this report how general database analyses can provide a quantitative assessment of research and evidence related to toxicity of medicinal plants or specific phytochemicals. As examples, several medicinal plants are analyzed for their relation to nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. The results of analyses in different databases are similar, and reveal the two best-established toxic effects among the group of plants that were examined: nephrotoxicity of Aristolochia fangchi and hepatotoxicity of Larrea tridentata. PMID:21217878

Chen, Sarah; Vieira, Amandio

2010-06-01

232

Chemical constituents of selected Sudanese medicinal and aromatic plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sudanese medicinal and aromatic plants (Alternanthra repens, Ambrosia maritima, Citrus paradisi, Croton zambesicus, Lepidium sativum, Morettia phillaena, Nauclea latifolia, Plectranthus barbatus, Pluchea dioscorides, and Sphaeranthus suaveolens) were analyzed for their chemical composition, mineral contents and secondary constituents. The concentration of manganese, copper, iron, nickel, lead, zinc and potassium in plant samples was performed using x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The trace elements found in the smallest amount of the investigated plant species are lead, nickel and copper, while high concentration was detected for potassium, iron and manganese. Mn was accumulated with high level in Alternanthra repens species. Potassium was abundant in S. suaveolens and Ambrosia maritima. The values of concentration obtained for all studied elements were compared with published values of reference material, trace elements in Hay (powder) by International Atomic Energy Agency. Phyto chemical analysis of investigated plants was performed for constituents: Flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, amino acids and sugars. The methanolic extracts of P.barbatus, C.paradisi, A.repens, N.latifolia, L. sativum and C. zambesicus are found to contain alkaloids. Results of TLC analysis were shown as Rf values for saponins, bitter principles, essential oils, flavonoids and alkaloids. Quantification of flavonoids and tannins showed that flavonoid content was highest in case of Alternanthera repens and Sphaeranthus suavertens, whereas the highest tannin content was in case of Nauclea latifolia and Sphaearanthus suavertens. The results suggest that the user of traditional Sudanese crude drugs should be warned of potential danger of heavy metal poisoning because their concentrations seem to be higher than maximum values allowed by health agencies in several countries. This study has provided some biochemical basis for the ethno medical use of extracts from different candidate plant species in the treatment and prevention of diseases. As rich source of phytochemicals and minerals these plants can be a potential source of useful drugs, and also used as bio indicators to follow changes in an environmental pollution.(Author)

233

Cytotoxic activity screening of Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cytotoxic activity of 23 crude methanol extracts from 19 Bangladeshi medicinal plants was investigated against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3), healthy monkey kidney (VERO) and four human cancer cell lines (gastric, AGS; colon, HT-29; and breast, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) using MTT assay. High cytotoxicity across all cell lines tested was exhibited by Aegiceras corniculatum (fruit) and Hymenodictyon excelsum (bark) extracts (IC50 values ranging from 0.0005 to 0.9980 and 0.08 to 0.44 mg/mL, respectively). Fourteen extracts from 11 plant species, namely Clitoria ternatea (flower and leaf), Dillenia indica (leaf), Diospyros peregrina (leaf), Dipterocarpus turbinatus (bark and leaf), Ecbolium viride (leaf), Glinus oppositifolius (whole plant), Gnaphalium luteoalbum (leaf), Jasminum sambac (leaf), Lannea coromandelica (bark and leaf), Mussaenda glabrata (leaf) and Saraca asoca (leaf), were also significantly cytotoxic (IC50 < 1.0 mg/mL) against at least one of the cancer cell lines tested. More selectively, Avicennia alba (leaf), C. ternatea (flower and leaf), Caesalpinia pulcherrima (leaf), E. viride (leaf) and G. oppositifolius (whole plant) showed cytotoxicity only against both of the breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). In contrast, C. ternatea (flower and leaf) exhibited high cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 (IC50 values of 0.11 and 0.49 mg/mL, respectively), whereas E. viride and G. oppositifolius whole plant extracts exhibited high activity against MCF-7 cells (IC50 values of 0.06 and 0.15 mg/mL, respectively). The cytotoxic activity test results for 9 of the plant species correlate with their traditional use as anticancer agents, thus making them interesting sources for further drug development. PMID:23846168

Akter, Raushanara; Uddin, Shaikh J; Grice, I Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

2014-01-01

234

Antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity of selected Egyptian medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Medicinal plants have been used as a source of remedies since ancient times in Egypt. The present study was designed to investigate the antibacterial activity and the cytotoxicity of the organic extracts from 16 selected medicinal plants of Egypt. The study was also extended to the isolation of the antiproliferative compound jaeschkeanadiol p-hydroxybenzoate (FH-25) from Ferula hermonis. The microbroth dilution was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the samples against twelve bacterial strains belonging to four species, Providencia stuartii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli, while a resazurin assay was used to assess the cytotoxicity of the extracts on the human pancreatic cancer cell line MiaPaCa-2, breast cancer cell line MCF-7, CCRF-CEM leukemia cells, and their multidrug resistant subline, CEM/ADR5000. The results of the MIC determination indicated that all the studied crude extracts were able to inhibit the growth of at least one of the tested bacterial species, the best activity being recorded with the crude extracts from F. hermonis and Vitis vinifera, whichwere active against 91.7% and 83.3% of the studied bacteria, respectively. The lowest MIC value of 128 ?g/mL was recorded against P. stuartii ATCC 29916 and E. coli ATCC 10536 with the extract from V. vinifera and Commiphora molmol, respectively. In the cytotoxicity study, IC50 values below 20 ?g/mL were recorded for the crude extract of F. hermonis on all four studied cancer cell lines. FH-25 also showed good cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells (IC50: 2.47 ?g/mL). Finally, the results of the present investigation provided supportive data for the possible use of the plant extracts investigated herein, mostly F. hermonis and V. vinifera in the treatment of bacterial infections and jaeschkeanadiol p-hydroxybenzoate in the control of cancer diseases. PMID:22057918

Kuete, Victor; Wiench, Benjamin; Hegazy, Mohamed-Elamir F; Mohamed, Tarik A; Fankam, Aimé G; Shahat, Abdelaaty A; Efferth, Thomas

2012-01-01

235

Medicinal plants used for dogs in Trinidad and Tobago.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper documents ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat dogs in Trinidad and Tobago. In 1995, a 4-stage process was used to conduct the research and document the ethnoveterinary practices. Twenty-eight ethnoveterinary respondents were identified using the school-essay method, which is a modified rapid rural appraisal (RRA) technique. Semi-structured interviews were held with these respondents as well as with 30 veterinarians, 27 extension officers and 19 animal-health assistants and/or agricultural officers, and the seven key respondents that they identified. The final step involved hosting four participatory workshops with 55 of the respondents interviewed to discuss the ethnoveterinary data generated from the interviews and to determine dosages for some of the plants mentioned. Supplementary interviews were conducted in 1997 and 1998. Seeds of Carica papaya, and leaves of Cassia alata, Azadirachta indica, Gossypium spp., Cajanus cajan and Chenopodium ambrosiodes are used as anthelmintics. The anthelmintics Gossypium spp. and Chenopodium ambrosiodes are the most frequently used species. Crescentia cujete pulp, Musa spp. stem exudate, the inside of the pods of Bixa orellana, leaves of Cordia curassavica and Eclipta alba plant tops are used for skin diseases. Musa spp. stem exudate, seeds of Manilkara zapota, Pouteria sapota and Mammea americana and leaves of Cordia curassavica, Scoparia dulcis and Nicotiana tabacum are used to control ectoparasites. Dogs are groomed with the leaves of Cordia curassavica, Bambusa vulgaris and Scoparia dulcis. Psidium guajava buds and leaves and the bark of Anacardium occidentale are used for diarrhoea. Owners attempt to achieve milk let-down with a decoction of the leaves of Stachytarpheta jamaicensis. The plant uses parallel those practised in human folk medicine in other Caribbean countries and in other tropical countries. PMID:10821961

Lans, C; Harper, T; Georges, K; Bridgewater, E

2000-06-12

236

Indigenous plant medicines for health care: treatment of Diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Medicinal plants have played an important role in treating and preventing a variety of diseases throughout the world. Metabolic syndrome had become a global epidemic, defined as a cluster of three of five criteria: insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, abdominal obesity, hypertension, low high-density cholesterol, and hypertriglyceridemia. The current review focuses on Indian medicinal plant drugs and plants used in the treatment of diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Though there are various approaches to reduce the ill-effects of diabetes and hyperlipidemia and its secondary complications, plant-based drugs are preferred due to lesser side effects and low cost. The current review focuses on twenty-three medicinal plants used in the treatment of Diabetes mellitus and nine medicinal plants used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. The wealth of knowledge on medicinal plants points to a great potential for research and the discovery of new drugs to fight diseases, including diabetes and hyperlipidemia. PMID:24856756

Parikh, Nisha H; Parikh, Palak K; Kothari, Charmy

2014-05-01

237

PROFILE OF HEAVY METALS IN MEDICINAL PLANTS COLLECTED FROM KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Essential and non-essential heavy metals like Fe, Ni, Mn, Zn, Cu, Co,  Cd, Cr and Pb were analyzed in nine selected medicinal plants namely Persea duthiei, Suaeda monoica, Oxalis corniculata, Hibiscus rosa, Erythrina variegates, Curcuma longa, Berberis lyceum, Zanthoxylum alatum and Quercus dilatata by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. These medicinal plants were selected for our investigation having in mind their extensive use in traditional medicine for various ailments by local physicians in the area from where these plants were collected. In general the concentration level of heavy metals in the selected plants was found to decrease in the order of Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu > Ni > Co > Cr > Cd > Pb. In most plants the concentration of Pb was found below the detection level. The results revealed that the medicinal plants accumulate the elements at different concentration. Monitoring such medicinal plants for heavy metals is a supreme importance in protecting the Public from the adverse effects of these heavy metals.

Ali Rehman, Hussain Ullah, Nisar Ahmad, Aziz Ur Rehman, Nimat Ullah, Shan Zeb, Imran and Ijaz Ahmad*

2013-02-01

238

A CHECK LIST OF INDIGENOUS MEDICINAL PLANTS OF DHARWAD AND THEIR TRADITIONAL USES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plants have fed the world and cured ills from time immemorial. A vast knowledge of plants have been accumulated, where a large number of them with medicinal value are found. Screening of medicinal plants has become a potential source of bio-dynamic compounds of therapeutic value in phytochemical researches. Ethnobotanists bring out suggestions as to which raw plant material may be tapped, and for this they get clues from rural or tribal men.In the light of above said facts, sixty indigenous medicinal plants were collected from Dharwad and its surroundings. The traditiona uses of these plants were given after discussion with local healers and experienced adults, aged between 40-60 years. For each medicinal plant the scientific name, its family name, local name, medicinal use and method of preparation or administration have been given.

S.G.HIREMATH

2007-01-01

239

Medicinal Plant Use and Health Sovereignty: Findings from the Tajik and Afghan Pamirs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Medicinal plants are indicators of indigenous knowledge in the context of political volatility and sociocultural and ecological change in the Pamir Mountains of Afghanistan and Tajikistan. Medicinal plants are the primary health care option in this region of Central Asia. The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate that medicinal plants contribute to health security and sovereignty in a time of instability. We illustrate the nutritional as well as medicinal significance of plants in the daily lives of villagers. Based on over a decade and half of research related to resilience and livelihood security, we present plant uses in the context of mountain communities. Villagers identified over 58 cultivated and noncultivated plants and described 310 distinct uses within 63 categories of treatment and prevention. Presence of knowledge about medicinal plants is directly connected to their use. PMID:21258436

Kassam, Karim-Aly; Karamkhudoeva, Munira; Ruelle, Morgan; Baumflek, Michelle

2010-12-01

240

Correlation between heavy metal contents and antioxidants in medicinal plants grown in mining areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full texts: Medicinal plants are widely used as alternate therapeutic agents for various diseases. Three medicinal plants grown in copper mining regions of Khetri in Rajasthan was analyzed for heavy metal contents by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The copper levels were found to be two to three folds higher in these plant leaves as compared to the reported copper levels in the medicinal plants grown in environmentally friendly regions. In our previous study on heavy metals in soil and medicinal plant of Khetri region we have shown bioaccumulation of Cu in the medicinal plants. In addition, the levels of Cr, Fe and Zn were also higher. Antioxidant properties of medicinal plants are one of their major therapeutic functionalities. The role of elevated levels of heavy metals in the medicinal plants was studied with respect to their antioxidant properties. Standard procedures were used for measuring total phenols, flavanoids and DPPH assay of these medicinal plants which were correlated with the heavy metals contents of these plants

 
 
 
 
241

AN ANALYSIS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS CULTIVATION IN SIVAGANGAI DISTRICT OF TAMIL NADU, SOUTHERN INDIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Farming of medicinal plants particularly elevated worth medicinal plants is creating innovative aspect in the field of Agriculture. It is estimated that 70% to 80% of the people worldwide rely chiefly on traditional health care system and largely on herbal medicines. India has an officially recorded list of 45,000 plant species and various estimations have put the list of 7500 species of medicinal importance. In such a way, the present study was carried out to explore the medicinal plant cultivators in Sivagangai District of Tamilnadu. The proportionate random sampling technique has been adopted to select 50 medicinal plant farmers from 5 villages of Sivagangai district. Secondary data and information are collected from the annual reports of the department of agriculture, Tamilnadu, books, journals and websites. Percentage analysis, averages, ranking method, standard deviation and chi- square tests were used for the analysis. The study reveals that the association between adoption of medicinal plants cultivation and socio-economic variables namely experience, marital status, type of family and family income per month is significant at 5 per cent level as the Pvalue is less than 0.05. The rest of the socio economic variables namely, age, sex, family size and educational qualification, are not significantly associated at 5 per cent level with adoption of medicinal plants cultivation. The study shows that the cultivation of medicinal plants can play an important role in the income strategies of the villagers in high attitude of Sivagangai District of Tamilnadu

K. Jayanthi

2014-10-01

242

Potent ?-amylase inhibitory activity of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Indian medicinal plants used in the Ayurvedic traditional system to treat diabetes are a valuable source of novel anti-diabetic agents. Pancreatic ?-amylase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the levels of post-prandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. In this study, seventeen Indian medicinal plants with known hypoglycemic properties were subjected to sequential solvent extraction and tested for ?-amylase inhibition, in order to assess and evaluate their inhibitory potential on PPA (porcine pancreatic ?-amylase. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the lead extracts was performed in order to determine the probable constituents. Methods Analysis of the 126 extracts, obtained from 17 plants (Aloe vera (L. Burm.f., Adansonia digitata L., Allium sativum L., Casia fistula L., Catharanthus roseus (L. G. Don., Cinnamomum verum Persl., Coccinia grandis (L. Voigt., Linum usitatisumum L., Mangifera indica L., Morus alba L., Nerium oleander L., Ocimum tenuiflorum L., Piper nigrum L., Terminalia chebula Retz., Tinospora cordifolia (Willd. Miers., Trigonella foenum-graceum L., Zingiber officinale Rosc. for PPA inhibition was initially performed qualitatively by starch-iodine colour assay. The lead extracts were further quantified with respect to PPA inhibition using the chromogenic DNSA (3, 5-dinitrosalicylic acid method. Phytochemical constituents of the extracts exhibiting? 50% inhibition were analysed qualitatively as well as by GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry. Results Of the 126 extracts obtained from 17 plants, 17 extracts exhibited PPA inhibitory potential to varying degrees (10%-60.5% while 4 extracts showed low inhibition ( 50% was obtained with 3 isopropanol extracts. All these 3 extracts exhibited concentration dependent inhibition with IC50 values, viz., seeds of Linum usitatisumum (540 ?gml-1, leaves of Morus alba (1440 ?gml-1 and Ocimum tenuiflorum (8.9 ?gml-1. Acarbose as the standard inhibitor exhibited an IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentrationvalue of 10.2 ?gml-1. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and steroids with the major phytoconstituents being identified by GC-MS. Conclusions This study endorses the use of these plants for further studies to determine their potential for type 2 diabetes management. Results suggests that extracts of Linum usitatisumum, Morus alba and Ocimum tenuiflorum act effectively as PPA inhibitors leading to a reduction in starch hydrolysis and hence eventually to lowered glucose levels.

Bhargava Shobha Y

2011-01-01

243

Screening of medicinal plants used in South African traditional medicine for genotoxic effects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dichloromethane and 90% methanol extracts from 51 South African medicinal plants were evaluated for potential genotoxic effects using the bacterial Ames and VITOTOX tests with and without metabolic activation. Dichloromethane extracts from bulbs of Crinum macowanii showed mutagenicity in strain TA98 with and without metabolic activation, whereas extracts from leaves of Chaetacme aristata and foliage of Plumbago auriculata showed mutagenicity and/or toxicity. Extracts from the leaves of Catharanthus roseus and twigs of Combretum mkhzense were mutagenic with metabolic activation only. The only 90% methanol extracts that were mutagenic in strain TA98 were from the leaves of C. roseus and Ziziphus mucronata in the presence of metabolic activation. No genotoxic effects were found in strain TA100 or in the VITOTOX test. PMID:12749823

Elgorashi, Esameldin E; Taylor, Joslyn L S; Maes, Annemarie; van Staden, Johannes; De Kimpe, Norbert; Verschaeve, Luc

2003-07-20

244

Bioactivity evaluation against Artemia salina Leach of medicinal plants used in Brazilian Northeastern folk medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The brine shrimp (Artemia salina Leach) lethality bioassay offers an advantage in standardization and quality control of botanical products. This test is well correlated with antitumor activity (cytotoxicity) and can be used to monitor the activity of bioactive natural products. This paper reports the bioactivity of ethanol extracts from seven medicinal plants from the Northeast of Brazil (Acmella uliginosa, Ageratum conyzoides, Eugenia uniflora, Plectranthus neochilus, Moringa oleifera, Justicia pectoralis and Equisetum sp.) against Artemia salina. Biological activity was evaluated for extracts at 1, 10, 100, and 1000 µg/mL in triplicate, and the mean lethal concentration values (LC50) were obtained by probit analysis. The species Acmella uliginosa showed the highest bioactivity, and its flower extract was more active than its leaf extract. PMID:22990821

Arcanjo, D D R; Albuquerque, A C M; Melo-Neto, B; Santana, L C L R; Medeiros, M G F; Citó, Amgl

2012-08-01

245

INHIBITION OF TYPE I 5?-REDUCTASE BY MEDICINAL PLANT EXTRACTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Type I 5?-reductase has been implicated in skin disorders such as acne, hirsutism and male pattern baldness and its inhibition offers a potential treatment for these disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibition of type I 5?-reductase activity by extracts from Indian medicinal plants. Plant extracts were screened and selected based on their ability to inhibit Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Since type I 5?-reductase metabolises testosterone to ?4-androstene-3, 17-dione, the activity of enzyme was determined using RIA for testosterone and ?4-androstene-3, 17-dione. It was found that methanolic extract of Embelia ribes was a potent inhibitor of type I 5?-reductase (IC50:100?g/mL. Extracts of Vitex negundo, Terminalia chebula, and Terminalia bellerica which also inhibited type I 5?-reductase (IC50: 200-390 ?g /mL. Therefore herbal formulation of these plant extracts may be used in the treatment of skin disorders involving type I 5?-reductase.

Patil Vijaya

2011-03-01

246

Antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Mexican medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antimicrobial effects of the Mexican medicinal plants Guazuma ulmifolia, Justicia spicigera, Opuntia joconostle, O. leucotricha, Parkinsonia aculeata, Phoradendron longifolium, P. serotinum, Psittacanthus calyculatus, Tecoma stans and Teucrium cubense were tested against several human multi-drug resistant pathogens, including three Gram (+) and five Gram (-) bacterial species and three fungal species using the disk-diffusion assay. The cytotoxicity of plant extracts on human cancer cell lines and human normal non-cancerous cells was also evaluated using the MTT assay. Phoradendron longifolium, Teucrium cubense, Opuntia joconostle, Tecoma stans and Guazuma ulmifolia showed potent antimicrobial effects against at least one multidrug-resistant microorganism (inhibition zone > 15 mm). Only Justicia spicigera and Phoradendron serotinum extracts exerted active cytotoxic effects on human breast cancer cells (IC50 Justicia spicigera and Phoradendron serotinum exerted the highest toxic effects on MCF-7 and HeLa, respectively, which are human cancer cell lines. These three plant species may be important sources of antimicrobial and cytotoxic agents. PMID:22312741

Jacobo-Salcedo, Maria del Rosario; Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Salazar-Olivo, Luis A; Carranza-Alvarez, Candy; González-Espíndola, Luis Angel; Domínguez, Fabiola; Maciel-Torres, Sandra Patricia; García-Lujan, Concepción; González-Martínez, Marisela del Rocio; Gómez-Sánchez, Maricela; Estrada-Castillón, Eduardo; Zapata-Bustos, Rocio; Medellin-Milán, Pedro; García-Carrancá, Alejandro

2011-12-01

247

[Uterotonic action of extracts from a group of medicinal plants].  

Science.gov (United States)

Water extracts (infusions) from a group of medicinal plants were studied in terms of their activity enhancing the uterine tonus in a series of experiments with a preparation of an isolated rabbit and guinea pig uterine horn. In a final extract concentration of 1 to 2 mg crude drug per 1 cm3 the plants ranked in the following descending order with regard to their tonus-raising effect on the uterus: camomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), potmarigold calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) cockscomb (Celosia cristata L.), plantain (Plantago lanceolata L. et Plantago major L.), symphytum (Symphytum officinale L.), shepherdspurse (Capsella bursa pastoris L.), St.-John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.). No effect showed the infusions of flax seeds (Linum usitatissimum L.) and bearberry leaves (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L.). The combined preparation 'Antiinflamin', consisting of a pooled freeze-dried extract from three plants and chemotherapeutic agents produced a good enhancing effect, in the form of 'comprets' for intrauterine application at the rate of one compret per 2500 cm3. PMID:7314446

Shipochliev, T

1981-01-01

248

Antibacterial activity of some selected medicinal plants of Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening of the ethnobotenical plants is a pre-requisite to evaluate their therapeutic potential and it can lead to the isolation of new bioactive compounds. Methods The crude extracts and fractions of six medicinal important plants (Arisaema flavum, Debregeasia salicifolia, Carissa opaca, Pistacia integerrima, Aesculus indica, and Toona ciliata were tested against three Gram positive and two Gram negative ATCC bacterial species using the agar well diffusion method. Results The crude extract of P. integerrima and A. indica were active against all tested bacterial strains (12-23 mm zone of inhibition. Other four plant's crude extracts (Arisaema flavum, Debregeasia salicifolia, Carissa opaca, and Toona ciliata were active against different bacterial strains. The crude extracts showed varying level of bactericidal activity. The aqueous fractions of A. indica and P. integerrima crude extract showed maximum activity (19.66 and 16 mm, respectively against B. subtilis, while the chloroform fractions of T. ciliata and D. salicifolia presented good antibacterial activities (13-17 mm zone of inhibition against all the bacterial cultures tested. Conclusion The methanol fraction of Pistacia integerrima, chloroform fractions of Debregeasia salicifolia &Toona ciliata and aqueous fraction of Aesculus indica are suitable candidates for the development of novel antibacterial compounds.

Chaudhary Fayyaz M

2011-06-01

249

Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of Vietnamese medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Among 288 extracts, prepared from 96 medicinal plants used in Vietnamese traditional medicine to treat gout and related symptoms, 188 demonstrated xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity at 100 microg/ml, with 46 having greater than 50% inhibition. At 50 microg/ml, 168 of the extracts were active, with 21 possessing more than 50% inhibition. At 25 microg/ml, 146 extracts exhibited inhibitory activity, with 8 showing over 50% inhibition, while 126 extracts presented activity at 10 microg/ml, with 2 having greater than 50% inhibition. The MeOH extracts of Artemisia vulgaris, Caesalpinia sappan (collected at the Seven-Mountain area), Blumea balsamifera (collected in Lam Dong province), Chrysanthemum sinense and MeOH-H(2)O extract of Tetracera scandens (Khanh Hoa province) exhibited strong XO inhibitory activity with IC(50) values less than 20 microg/ml. The most active extract was the MeOH extract of the flower of C. sinense with an IC(50) value of 5.1 microg/ml. Activity-guided fractionation of the MeOH extract led to the isolation of caffeic acid (1), luteolin (2), eriodictyol (3), and 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4). All these compounds showed significant XO inhibitory activity in a concentration-dependent manner, and the activity of 2 was more potent (IC(50) 1.3 microM) than the clinically used drug, allopurinol (IC(50) 2.5 microM). PMID:15340229

Nguyen, Mai Thanh Thi; Awale, Suresh; Tezuka, Yasuhiro; Tran, Quan Le; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Kadota, Shigetoshi

2004-09-01

250

An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Wonago Woreda, SNNPR, Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicinal plants are the integral part of the variety of cultures in Ethiopia and have been used over many centuries. Hence, the aim of this study is to document the medicinal plants in the natural vegetation and home gardens in Wonago Woreda, Gedeo Zone, Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State (SNNPR. Materials and methods Thirty healers were selected to collect data on management of medicinal plants using semi-structured interview, group discussion, and field observation. The distribution of plant species in the study areas was surveyed, and preference ranking, direct matrix ranking, priority ranking of factors and Informant consensus factor (ICF were calculated. Results The informants categorized the vegetation into five community types based on plant density and associated landform: 'Raqqa', 'Hakka cadanaba', 'Mancchha', 'Bullukko', and 'Wodae gido'. 155 plant species were collected from the natural vegetation and 65 plant species from the home gardens ('Gattae Oduma'. Seventy-two plant species were documented as having medicinal value: Sixty-five (71% from natural vegetation and 27 (29% from home gardens. Forty-five (62% were used for humans, 15(21% for livestock and 13(18% for treating both human and livestock ailments: 35 (43.2% were Shrubs, 28(34.5% herbs, 17 (20.9% trees and 1(1.2% climbers. The root (35.8% was the most commonly used plant part. The category: malaria, fever and headache had the highest 0.82 ICF. Agricultural expansion (24.4% in the area was found to be the main threat for medicinal plants followed by fire wood collection (18.8%. Peoples' culture and spiritual beliefs somehow helped in the conservation of medicinal plants. Conclusion Traditional healers still depend largely on naturally growing plant species and the important medicinal plants are under threat. The documented medicinal plants can serve as a basis for further studies on the regions medicinal plants knowledge and for future phytochemical and pharmacological studies.

Teklehaymanot Tilahun

2009-10-01

251

Antiviral activity of some plants used in Nepalese traditional medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Methanolic extracts of 41 plant species belonging to 27 families used in the traditional medicine in Nepal have been investigated for in vitro antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and influenza virus A by dye uptake assay in the systems HSV-1/Vero cells and influenza virus A/MDCK cells. The extracts of Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata, Cassiope fastigiata and Thymus linearis showed potent anti-herpes viral activity. The extracts of Allium oreoprasum, Androsace strigilosa, Asparagus filicinus, Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata and Verbascum thapsus exhibited strong anti-influenza viral activity. Only the extracts of A. rivularis and B. ciliata demonstrated remarkable activity against both viruses. PMID:18955262

Rajbhandari, M; Mentel, R; Jha, P K; Chaudhary, R P; Bhattarai, S; Gewali, M B; Karmacharya, N; Hipper, M; Lindequist, U

2009-12-01

252

Study on Mineral content of Some Ayurvedic Indian Medicinal Plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Essential and non-essential heavy metals like Mn, Zn,Fe, Ni, Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd,As and Hg were quantified in selected medicinal plants including Acalypha indica Linn., Enicostemma littorale Blume. Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn, Sphaeranthus indicus Linn., and Withania somnifera., by using atomic absorption spectrometry. The main purpose of this study was to document evidence of essential and non-essential heavy metals in these herbs,which are extensively used in the preparation of herbal products and standardized extracts. High iron contents were observed in W. somnifera 191.37 ppm, Acalypha indica Linn 156.59 ppm,Enicostemma littorale Blume, 95.37 ppm, Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn 171.38 ppm, Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. 169.41 ppm. The concentration of other heavy metals particularly Cr, Pb, Cd, As, Hg was found on the lower side in the selected herbs

K.Jothivenkatachalam

2012-02-01

253

Biological activity of common mullein, a medicinal plant.  

Science.gov (United States)

Common Mullein (Verbascum thapsus L., Scrophulariaceae) is a medicinal plant that has been used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, asthma, spasmodic coughs, diarrhea and other pulmonary problems. The objective of this study was to assess the biological activity of Common Mullein extracts and commercial Mullein products using selected bench top bioassays, including antibacterial, antitumor, and two toxicity assays--brine shrimp and radish seed. Extracts were prepared in water, ethanol and methanol. Antibacterial activity (especially the water extract) was observed with Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-induced tumors in potato disc tissue were inhibited by all extracts. Toxicity to Brine Shrimp and to radish seed germination and growth was observed at higher concentrations of the extracts. PMID:12241986

Turker, Arzu Ucar; Camper, N D

2002-10-01

254

Antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of Kenyan medicinal plants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Seven medicinal plant extracts traditionally used in Kenya, mainly for management of infectious conditions, were chosen and screened for their antibacterial activity against Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) bact [...] eria. Antibacterial activity was tested using the broth dilution method. Harrisonia abyssinica and Terminalia kilimandscharica extracts showed significant activity against Gram+ and Gram- bacteria. The methanolic extracts of T. kilimandscharica bark and H. abyssinica bark and leaves showed minimum inhibitory activity against all tested bacteria, with minimal inhibitory concentrations ranging from 25-150 mg/mL. Ajuga remota and Amaranthus hybridus, which are lethal to brine shrimp nauplii, showed significantly lower antibacterial activity than those that were relatively non-toxic.

Wagate G, Cyrus; Gakuya W, Daniel; Mark O, Nanyingi; Francis K, Njonge; James M, Mbaria.

2008-11-01

255

Antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of Kenyan medicinal plants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Seven medicinal plant extracts traditionally used in Kenya, mainly for management of infectious conditions, were chosen and screened for their antibacterial activity against Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) bact [...] eria. Antibacterial activity was tested using the broth dilution method. Harrisonia abyssinica and Terminalia kilimandscharica extracts showed significant activity against Gram+ and Gram- bacteria. The methanolic extracts of T. kilimandscharica bark and H. abyssinica bark and leaves showed minimum inhibitory activity against all tested bacteria, with minimal inhibitory concentrations ranging from 25-150 mg/mL. Ajuga remota and Amaranthus hybridus, which are lethal to brine shrimp nauplii, showed significantly lower antibacterial activity than those that were relatively non-toxic.

Wagate G, Cyrus; Gakuya W, Daniel; Mark O, Nanyingi; Francis K, Njonge; James M, Mbaria.

256

Identification, characterization, and palynology of high-valued medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

High-valued medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina, and Vetiveria zizanioides were identified with the help of taxonomical markers and investigated for characterization and palynological studies. These parameters are used to analyze their quality, safety, and standardization for their safe use. Botanical description and crude drug description is intended for their quality assurance at the time of collection, commerce stages, manufacturing, and production. For this purpose the detailed morphology was studied and compared with the Flora of Pakistan and other available literatures. Here we reported the pollen grain morphology of Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Psoralea corylifolia, and Rauwolfia serpentina for the first time. Similarly the crude drug study of Gymnema sylvestre (leaf), Origanum vulgare (aerial parts), Paeonia emodi (tubers), and Peganum harmala (seeds) was also carried out for the first time. PMID:23844389

Fazal, Hina; Ahmad, Nisar; Haider Abbasi, Bilal

2013-01-01

257

Platelet aggregation inhibitors in a Bhutanese medicinal plant, shug chher.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 90% methanol-soluble fraction of a Bhutanese medicinal plant, Shug Chher, exhibited inhibition of platelet aggregation induced by platelet activating factor. Bioassay-directed fractionation led to the isolation of four new labdane diterpenoids, 3 alpha, 15-dihydroxy-labda-8(17), 13E-diene (5), 3 alpha-hydroxy-labda-8(17), 13E-dien-15-oic acid (6), 3 alpha-hydroxy-labda-8(17), 12E, 14-trien-19-oic acid (7), and 3 alpha-acetoxyisocupressic acid (8) and four known diterpenoids, manool (1), 3 alpha-hydroxymanool (2), 3 alpha-hydroxy-12, 13E-biformene (3), and isocupressic acid (4). The structures of the new compounds were determined spectroscopically. Compounds 2, 3, and 5 inhibited platelet aggregation. PMID:8221975

Kagawa, K; Tokura, K; Uchida, K; Kakushi, H; Shike, T; Kikuchi, J; Nakai, H; Dorji, P; Subedi, L

1993-09-01

258

Review: Biotechnological strategies for conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rai MK (2010 Review: Biotechnological strategies for conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants. Biodiversitas 11: 157-166. The use of medicinal plants is as old as human civilization. The biotechnological tools play a crucial role in conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants. The rapid depletion of plant genetic diversity has made essential to develop new in situ and ex situ conservation methods. Advances in biotechnology offer new methods for conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants. The present review is focused on biotechnological tools like in vitro culture, micropropagation, mycorrhization, genetic transformation and development of DNA banks. These are imperative and important alternatives for the conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants.

MAHENDRA KUMAR RAI

2010-07-01

259

Medicinal plants from Peru: a review of plants as potential agents against cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural products have played a significant role in drug discovery and development especially for agents against cancer and infectious disease. An analysis of new and approved drugs for cancer by the United States Food and Drug Administration over the period of 1981-2002 showed that 62% of these cancer drugs were of natural origin. Natural compounds possess highly diverse and complex molecular structures compared to small molecule synthetic drugs and often provide highly specific biological activities likely derived from the rigidity and high number of chiral centers. Ethnotraditional use of plant-derived natural products has been a major source for discovery of potential medicinal agents. A number of native Andean and Amazonian medicines of plant origin are used as traditional medicine in Peru to treat different diseases. Of particular interest in this mini-review are three plant materials endemic to Peru with the common names of Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa), Maca (Lepidium meyenii), and Dragon's blood (Croton lechleri) each having been scientifically investigated for a wide range of therapeutic uses including as specific anti-cancer agents as originally discovered from the long history of traditional usage and anecdotal information by local population groups in South America. Against this background, we present an evidence-based analysis of the chemistry, biological properties, and anti-tumor activities for these three plant materials. In addition, this review will discuss areas requiring future study and the inherent limitations in their experimental use as anti-cancer agents. PMID:17017852

Gonzales, Gustavo F; Valerio, Luis G

2006-09-01

260

Evaluation of medicinal plants from Central Kalimantan for antimelanogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the course of searching for new materials to use as whitening agents, we screened 19 methanol extracts prepared from 14 medicinal plants from Central Kalimantan province, Indonesia. The screening methods used were the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay, a tyrosinase inhibition assay, and a melanin formation inhibition assay using B16 melanoma cells. The extracts of Willughbeia coriacea (bark part of aerial root), Phyllanthus urinaria (root), Eleutherine palmifolia (bulb), Eusideroxylon zwageri (seed), Dendrophthoe petandra (aerial root), Passiflora foetida (stem), and Vitex pinnata (root) showed DPPH radical-scavenging activity of more than 70% at 100 microg/ml. The extracts of W. coriacea (bark part of aerial root), P. urinaria (root), and D. petandra (aerial root) showed tyrosinase inhibitory activity of more than 40% using L-tyrosine as a substrate at 500 microg/ml. The extracts of W. coriacea (bark part of aerial root) and D. petandra (aerial root) showed tyrosinase inhibitory activity of more than 40% using L-DOPA as a substrate at 500 microg/ml. The extracts of W. coriacea (bark part of aerial root, 200 microg/ml), Glochidion philippcum (aerial root, 200 and 300 microg/ml), E. palmifolia (bulb, 50 microg/ml), E. zwageri (seed, 100 microg/ml), D. petandra (aerial root, 200 microg/ml), Lansium domesticum (bark, 25 microg/ml), P. foetida (stem, fruit, 300 microg/ml), and Solanum torvum (root, 300 microg/ml) strongly inhibited the melanin production of B16 melanoma cells without significant cytotoxicity. These findings indicate that some medicinal plants from Central Kalimantan are potential ingredients for skin-whitening cosmetics if their safety can be confirmed. PMID:19618251

Arung, Enos Tangke; Kusuma, Irawan Wijaya; Christy, Eva Oktoberiani; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Kondo, Ryuichiro

2009-10-01

 
 
 
 
261

A comparative study on medicinal plants used in Akha's traditional medicine in China and Thailand, cultural coherence or ecological divergence?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Aim of the study : The survey aims to study the effect of geographic separation of ethnic groups on local knowledge of medicinal plants used by Akha people in Thailand and China, who were separated 100-120 years ago, to see how different the two geographically distinct but culturally similar groups were in this respect. Materials and methods : Interviewing 10 villagers in each of five Akha villages, three in Thailand and two in China, about which plants they used and how they used them. Results : A total of 95 medicinal plants registered in the five villages only 16 were shared between China and Thailand. Otherwise the use patterns were quite similar with respect to which plant families and plant growth forms were used and also in terms of in which habitats the Akha found their medicinal plants. Conclusions : The moving to a different site has forced the Akha to find a new set of species, but that when using these new species they have maintained other traditions relating to medicinal plants.

Inta, A.; Shengji, P.

2008-01-01

262

Globalisation and sustainable exports of Indian medicinal and aromatic plants: A protection study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

India has a rich heritage of traditional systems of medicine viz. Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Tibetan which are mostly based on botanical formulations. Although biologically, the region is extremely rich in medicinal plants, due to years of unwise use, the availability of raw materials in desired quality and quantity has become difficult to obtain raising serious doubt about the safety and efficacy of the medicines currently in use. There is unprecedented demand for natural medicines, green hea...

Bera, Soumitra Kumar

2010-01-01

263

Equivalents in Medicinal Plants around Oil and Gas Facilities in Ughelli and Environs, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The natural radionuclide contents in some medicinal plants commonly found around oil and gas facilities in Ughelli and nearby communities have been investigated. A class of such medicinal plants are those that are regarded as grasses and are usually taken for healing purposes. The plants investigated are lemon grass (Cymbopogan citrates), Spear grass (Imperata cylindrical) and Carpet grass (Eleusin indicageartin). The plants were assayed for their radionuclide contents by means of gamma spect...

Funmi Grace Onome Oni; Gbadebo Adebisi Isola; Olatunde Michael Oni; Olusegun Sowole

2011-01-01

264

ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF FEW PLANTS USED IN TRADITIONAL SYSTEM OF MEDICINE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Medicinal plants contribute a sizeable portion in human health care system both at commercial and production levels. The plants Azadirichta indica (neem), Mangifera indica (mango), Eucalyptus, Curcuma longa (turmeric), Cinnamomum verum, Musa, Capsicum annum (red chilly) were studied as these plants are popularly used in many folk medicines for last many centuries. Plant parts taken in the study were leaves, peels, rhizomes and fruit. The extracts were found to be very active against the tes...

Bisht Satpal Singh; Ramani Priya, K.; Mishra Rojita; Panda Amrita; Praveen, B.

2012-01-01

265

Polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of Bulgarian medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extracts of 21 plants used in Bulgarian phytotherapy for the treatment of respiratory, gastrointestinal and other inflammatory disorders were screened in vitro for antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds content. Plant extracts were prepared as herbal teas following the ethnic use. The water-phase TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) of the teas were compared to that of the famous tea-like beverages mate, rooibos and honeybush, and to that of green and black tea, well known for their high antioxidant potential. The content of total phenolics in the teas was determined spectrometrically according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and calculated as quercetin equivalents (QE). Seven Bulgarian medicinal plants were with high phenolics content and antioxidant properties: Pulmonaria officinalis L. (Boraginaceae) (TEAC 2.02+/-0.14 mM/QE 673.39+/-9.92 microM), Hypericum perforatum L. (Hypericaceae) (TEAC 3.75+/-0.14 mM/QE 881.93+/-6.68 microM), Agrimonia eupatoria L. (Rosaceae) (TEAC 3.76+/-0.5mM/QE 702.29+/-6.82 microM), Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) (TEAC 5.87+/-0.2mM/QE 1653.61+/-11.52 microM), Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (TEAC 4.06+/-0.31 mM/QE 1370.09+/-41.38 microM), Rubus sp. diversa (Rosaceae) (TEAC 4.23+/-0,12 mM/QE 608.95+/-5.95 microM), Cotinus coggygria Scop. (Anacardiaceae) (TEAC 7.05+/-0.19 mM/QE 923.33+/-14.19 microM). Therefore, Bulgarian herbs can be considered to be a rich source of water-soluble antioxidants and/or phenolic compounds as compared to studied foreign plants. PMID:15588663

Ivanova, D; Gerova, D; Chervenkov, T; Yankova, T

2005-01-01

266

Asháninka medicinal plants: a case study from the native community of Bajo Quimiriki, Junín, Peru  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The Asháninka Native Community Bajo Quimiriki, District Pichanaki, Junín, Peru, is located only 4 km from a larger urban area and is dissected by a major road. Therefore the loss of traditional knowledge is a main concern of the local headman and inhabitants. The present study assesses the state of traditional medicinal plant knowledge in the community and compares the local pharmacopoeia with the one from a related ethnic group. Methods Fieldwork was conducted between July and September 2007. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, collection of medicinal plants in the homegardens, forest walks, a walk along the river banks, participant observation, informal conversation, cross check through voucher specimens and a focus group interview with children. Results Four-hundred and two medicinal plants, mainly herbs, were indicated by the informants. The most important families in terms of taxa were Asteraceae, Araceae, Rubiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Solanaceae and Piperaceae. Eighty-four percent of the medicinal plants were wild and 63% were collected from the forest. Exotics accounted to only 2% of the medicinal plants. Problems related to the dermal system, digestive system, and cultural belief system represented 57% of all the medicinal applications. Some traditional healers received non-indigenous customers, using their knowledge as a source of income. Age and gender were significantly correlated to medicinal plant knowledge. Children knew the medicinal plants almost exclusively by their Spanish names. Sixteen percent of the medicinal plants found in this community were also reported among the Yanesha of the Pasco Region. Conclusions Despite the vicinity to a city, knowledge on medicinal plants and cultural beliefs are still abundant in this Asháninka Native Community and the medicinal plants are still available in the surroundings. Nevertheless, the use of Spanish names for the medicinal plants and the shift of healing practices towards a source of income with mainly non-indigenous customers, are signs of acculturation. Future studies on quantification of the use of medicinal plants, dynamics of transmission of ethno-medicinal knowledge to the young generations and comparison with available pharmacological data on the most promising medicinal plants are suggested.

Luziatelli Gaia

2010-08-01

267

Use of medicinal plants and pharmaceuticals by indigenous communities in the Bolivian Andes and Amazon  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate, by means of household surveys, the use of medicinal plants and pharmaceuticals in Apillapampa, a large Andean community of Quechua peasants, and in six small communities of Yuracaré-Trinitario "slash-and-burn" cultivators of the National Park Isiboro-Sécure (the NPIS in the Bolivian Amazon. METHODS: A total of 12% of households in Apillapampa and nearly all households in the NPIS were interviewed about their use of medicinal plants and pharmaceuticals for treating illnesses. Informants were also asked to name any medicinal plants they knew. FINDINGS: In spite of the presence of a primary health care service (PHC with medical doctor in Apillapampa, an equal number of informants used medicinal plants and pharmaceuticals. In the NPIS, the prevalent use of medicinal plants or pharmaceuticals in any community depended on the distance of the community from the nearest village and from a PHC with medical doctor (r = 0.85 and r = -0.96; both P = 0.05. The NPIS communities' knowledge of plants expressed as the average number of medicinal plants mentioned correlated positively and negatively with distance from the nearest village and use of pharmaceuticals, respectively (r = 0.95, P<0.005 and r = -0.90, P<0.05, respectively. CONCLUSION: The cultural importance of traditional medicine and the physical isolation of communities, both in general and from PHCs, are factors that influence the use of and knowledge about medicinal plants.

Vandebroek Ina

2004-01-01

268

MEDICINAL PLANTS OF CARDIOVASCULAR ACTION IN NATURAL COMMUNITIES AND COLLECTIONS OF YAKUT BOTANICAL GARDEN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work was carried out on the natural territories in the collection and of the Yakut botanical garden (JBG. The object of study was medicinal plants used in the treatment of cardio-vascular system. On the natural territories JBG we have noted 39 species of medicinal plants. 26 species were studied in a culture

Semenova V. V.

2014-04-01

269

A Survey of Medicinal Plants Used by Kavirajes of Chalna Area, Khulna District, Bangladesh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Kavirajes or traditional medicinal practitioners form the primary healthcare providers of the predominantly rural population of Bangladesh. Kavirajes use a variety of medicinal plants for treatment of different ailments. The formulations prepared from medicinal plants vary considerably between Kavirajes of different regions of the country. The objective of this study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey amongst the Kavirajes of Chalna area, Khulna district, Bangladesh. That area is known t...

Rahmatullah, Mohammed; Ferdausi, Dilara; Mollik, Ariful Haque; Jahan, Rownak; Chowdhury, Majeedul H.; Haque, Wahid Mozammel

2010-01-01

270

Local knowledge in community-based approaches to medicinal plant conservation: lessons from India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Community-based approaches to conservation of natural resources, in particular medicinal plants, have attracted attention of governments, non governmental organizations and international funding agencies. This paper highlights the community-based approaches used by an Indian NGO, the Rural Communes Medicinal Plant Conservation Centre (RCMPCC). The RCMPCC recognized and legitimized the role of local medicinal knowledge along with other knowledge systems to ...

2006-01-01

271

The ethnobotanical study of local Mediterranean food plants as medicinal resources in Southern Spain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We studied medicinal and food plant species, recording an extraordinary number of species and uses in Castilla-La Mancha, Murcia and Valencia in Spain. Focusing on two demographically distinct regions - Castilla-La Mancha and Lower Segura Valley. A high proportion of the flora (20 to 30 %) is known for its medicinal properties, and, interestingly, a high number of medicinal-food plants (5 to 7 %) is recorded. The concept of "Local Food" involves the whole repertory of species that characteris...

Rivera, D.; Inocencio, C.; Verde, A.; Fajardo, J.; Llorach, R.; Obon, C.; Heinrich, M.

2005-01-01

272

The ethnobotanical study of local mediterranean food plants as medicinal resources in southern Spain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We studied medicinal and food plant species, recording an extraordinary number of species and uses in Castilla-La Mancha, Murcia and Valencia in Spain. Focusing on two demographically distinct regions - Castilla-La Mancha and Lower Segura Valley. A high proportion of the flora (20 to 30 %) is known for its medicinal properties, and, interestingly, a high number of medicinal-food plants (5 to 7 %) is recorded. The concept of "Local Food" involves the whole repertory of species that characteris...

2005-01-01

273

GERMPLASM EVALUATION OF MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS IN HIGHLAND BALOCHISTAN, PAKISTAN  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Research studies are carried out for cultivation potential of medicinal and aromatic plants [Thyme, Oregano, Rosemary, Sage (belonging to the family Lamiaceae)] in Balochistan. The species studied showed good adaptability in cold and dry area and production potential in highland Balochistan. A medicinal herb garden was also established at Arid Zone Research Centre, Quetta with more than 60 potential medicinal and aromatic plants. This germplasm category includes culinary and herbal teas (Thym...

ASLAM GILL; AMINULLAH; SOHAIL ASLAM; KHALIL AHMAD; MUHAMMAD ISLAM; SHAISTA KOUKAB; SARFRAZ AHMAD

2008-01-01

274

The quality of some soils on Kosmaj from the aspect of medicinal plants and aromatic plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the paper the results of study of soil ecological quality in the area of Kosmaj, from the aspect of chemical degradation process, are presented. The aim of this investigation is to define the possible, limiting and endangered factors for development of medicinal and aromatical plants. The estimate of soil quality was done on the bases of calculation of indicator values of availability of nitrogen (N, phosphorous (P, base cations and heavy metals and sensitivity to acidification.

Kadovi? Ratko

2003-01-01

275

Antimicrobial Activities Of Certain South Indian Medicinal Plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts of six medicinal plants viz. Gynodropsis Pentaphyllum (Capparidaceae family, Solanum nigrum (Solanaceae family, Merremia gangitica (Convolvulaceae family, Cicca acida (Euphorbiaceae family, Erythrina variegata ( Leguminaceae family and Asparagus fysoxii (Asparagaceae family were carried out against five pathogenic Bacteria. Out of which three Bacteria are Gram positive – ( Staphylococcus aureus NCIM 2079, Streptococcus mutans NCIM 2611, Bacillus cerus NCIM 2106 and two Gram negative bacteria – ( Escherichia coli NCIM 2005, Solmonella abony NCIM 2257 using disc diffusion method. The respective bacteria were inoculated in a nutrient broth for overnight incubation. In the comparative study of plant extracts with standard drugs, Sterile disc’s (HIMEDIA obtained and respective volume of each extract was dispensed over the disc to attain 10 mcg concentrations each of the disc’s were dried and impregnated over the pre-inoculated plates. Finally the zone of inhibition was observed and the inhibitory zone was measured using zone inhibitory scale (HIMEDIA and the values are noted in mm

K. Subramani, R. Karnan

2014-06-01

276

The molluscicidal activity of plants used in Brazilian folk medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a continuing search for new compounds for the control of the vectors of schistosomiasis, we have tested the activity of some Brazilian medicinal plants as sources of molluscicidal natural compounds, using two molluscicidal bioassays. Twenty-seven crude extracts, from twenty-six species belonging to nineteen families, were tested. Seven extracts showed significant molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata adults with DL50 values of less than 50 ppm, and five of them were very active in the test using egg masses. The species most active against B. glabrata adults (LD50 value = 3.65 ppm) and their egg masses (LD50 value = 0.13 ppm) was Derris sp. Annona muricata [LD50 value (adult) = 11.86 ppm and LD50 value (egg) = 49.62 ppm], Jatropha elliptica (from Goiás state) [LD50 value (adult) = 24.80 ppm and LD50 value (egg) = 3.03 ppm] and Renealmia exaltata [LD50 value (adult) = 28.03 ppm and LD50 value (egg) = 21.67 ppm], were also considered promising molluscicidal plants. PMID:10715846

Dos Santos, A F; Sant'Ana, A E

2000-01-01

277

Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of five medicinal Libyan plants extracts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Five Libyan medicinal plants Thapsia garganica, Hammada scoparia, Euphorbia serrata, Hyoscyamus albus and Retama rateam were selected to evaluate their biological activities. Their total phenolic and flavanoid contents were assessed. The antioxidant activity was estimated using 2, 2-di- phenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH as free radical scavenger. Their crude extracts showed reducing potential proportional to their concentration. The correlation coefficient (R2 between antioxidant activity and their total phenolics and flavanoids content is 0.77 and 0.98 respectively. Crude aqueous, methanolic as well as alkaloids extracts of the five plants were tested against a number of G+ve and G-ve sensitive resistant (e.g MRSA bacteria beside some fungal species. The aqueous extracts displayed weak antibacterial activity whereas methanolic extracts were profoundly effective against both G+ve and G-ve bacteria. The extracts of E. serrata and H. scoparia were highly effective against E. coli in particular. The alkaloid-rich extracts of H. albus and H. scoparia induced remarkable bacteriostatic and fungistatic effects. The bioactive ingredients of H. scoparia, E. serrata and R. rateam extracts are shown to be potential sources of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial ingredients favoring their possible use in industrial pharmacology on large scale.

Asma Al-Najjar

2012-05-01

278

Total phenolics and antioxidant activity of five medicinal plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes total phenolics content and antioxidant activity in the ethanolic extract of leaves, bark and roots of five medicinal plants: Terminalia brasiliensis Camb., Terminalia fagifolia Mart. and Zucc., Copernicia cerifera (Miller) H.E. Moore, Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul. var. acuminata Teles Freire and Qualea grandiflora Mart. The total phenolics content of the plant extracts, determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, varied from 250.0 ±8,2 to 763,63 ±13.03 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g dry EtOH extract. The antioxidant activity of extracts was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay system. Extract of bark from T. brasiliensis, the most active, with an EC50 value of 27.59 ± 0.82 ?g/mL, was comparable to rutin (EC50 = 27.80 ± 1.38) and gallic acid (EC50 = 24.27 ± 0.31), used as positive controls. The relationship between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity was positive and significant for T. brasiliensis, C. macrophyllum and C. cerifera. (author)

279

Acetylcholinesterase inhibition by somes promising Brazilian medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

A microplate assay and a thin-layer chromatography (TLC) "in situ" assay based on the Ellman assay was used to screen for acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Brazilian medicinal plants of families that, according to the literature, have traditional uses that might be connected with acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Eighteen species belonging to Convolvulaceae, Crassulaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Leguminosae, Malvaceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae and Rutaceae families were tested. The most active plants were Ipomoea asarifolia (IC50 = 0.12 mg/mL), Jatropha curcas (IC50 = 0.25 mg/mL), Jatropha gossypiifolia (IC50 = 0.05 mg/mL), Kalanchoe brasiliensis (IC50 = 0.16 mg/mL) and Senna alata (IC50 = 0.08 mg/mL). The most promising extracts were the Jatropha gossypiifolia and Senna alata species assuming there were compounds with a similar activity to galanthamine, which should contain about 1% of an active compound, or if present at lower levels even more active compounds than galanthamine (IC50 = 0.37 x 10-3 mg/mL) should be present. PMID:21881804

Feitosa, C M; Freitas, R M; Luz, N N N; Bezerra, M Z B; Trevisan, M T S

2011-08-01

280

Antimicrobial Activity of five medicinal plants of Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of five medicinal plants was evaluated by disc diffusion method. Among those, some fraction of plant extracts (400 ?g /disc exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against five gram positive and seven gram negative bacteria and three fungi. Among the test samples of O. mungos, the carbon tetrachloride soluble fraction exhibited 12.0 mm and 13.0 mm zone of inhibition against B. megaterium and Aspergillus niger respectively. The crude methanol extract of S. nodiflora exhibited 14.0 mm zone of inhibition against Bacillus cereus whereas the carbon tetrachloride soluble fraction revealed 16.0 mm against Shigella boydii. The chloroform soluble fraction of P. sagitatta exhibited 16.0 mm zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus and Shigella boydii. Among the test samples of M. macrophylla, the carbon tetrachloride soluble fraction showed 15.0 mm zone of inhibition against Salmonella paratyphi and 13.0 mm zone of inhibition against Aspergillus niger. The crude methanol extract of G. philippensis exhibited 18.0 mm zone of inhibition against Bacillus cereus.

Farhana Islam

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
281

Hypolipidimic effect of some medicinal plants on diabetic rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our aim was to evaluate the hypolipidimic effect of aqueous extract of a famous mixture used in Saudi Arabia folk medicine that consists of Nigella sativa, Commiphora myrrha, Boswellia carterii Birdw, Ferule assa-foetida and Aloe vera and also the extract of each plant alone on alloxan induced diabetic rats. Material and Methods :-The present study was carried out on 80 adult male albino rats (120 ± 20 g.b.wt. , the rats were divided randomly into 8 groups, the first group served as control group, the second group as alloxan induced diabetic rats, the third group was diabetic rats treated with mixture of folk medicinal plant ( 0.01g /100 g b. wt. ,the fourth group: diabetic rats treated with Nigella sativa ( 0.01g /100 g b. wt. , the fifth group: diabetic rats treated with Aloe vera ( 0.005g /100 g b. wt. , the sixth group: diabetic rats treated with Ferule assa-foetida ( 0.01 g /100 g b. wt., the seventh: diabetic rats treated with Boswellia carterii Birdw ( 1ml/100 g b. wt. and the eighth group: diabetic rats treated with Commiphora myrrha ( 0.01 g ml/100 g b. wt. Results :- Serum total lipid, serum total cholesterol, LDL­cholesterol, and triglyceride recorded significant increases in diabetic, Nigella sativa, Commiphora myrrha, Boswellia carterii birdw and Aloe vera treated group. While the mixture and Ferule assa-foetida treated group, showed insignificant changes in serum total lipid, triglyceride, serum total cholesterol and LDL­cholesterol. On other hand, the mixture treated group and Ferule assa-foetida treated group showed significant decreased in the previous parameters. The serum HDL­cholesterol was significantly reduced in diabetic group throughout the experimental periods, otherwise, all treated group revealed insignificant changes till the end of experiment when compare with undiabetic rats. Conclusion: The aqueous extract of a mixture consists of Nigella sativa, Commiphora myrrha, Boswellia carterii Birdw, Ferule assa-foetida and Aloe vera are useful for improvement of the lipid profile of alloxan induced diabetic rats fram each plant alone.

Eman G.E.Helal * and Mohamed M. A. Shahat

2006-06-01

282

Animal self-medication and ethno-medicine: exploration and exploitation of the medicinal properties of plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Early in the co-evolution of plant-animal relationships, some arthropod species began to utilize the chemical defences of plants to protect themselves from their own predators and parasites. It is likely, therefore, that the origins of herbal medicine have their roots deep within the animal kingdom. From prehistoric times man has looked to wild and domestic animals for sources of herbal remedies. Both folklore and living examples provide accounts of how medicinal plants were obtained by observing the behaviour of animals. Animals too learn about the details of self-medication by watching each other. To date, perhaps the most striking scientific studies of animal self-medication have been made on the African great apes. The great ape diet is often rich in plants containing secondary compounds of non-nutritional, sometimes toxic, value that suggest medicinal benefit from their ingestion. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), bonobos (Pan paniscus) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) are known to swallow whole and defecate intact leaves. The habit has been shown to be a physical means of purging intestinal parasites. Chimpanzees and man co-existing in sub-Saharan Africa are also known to ingest the bitter pith of Vernonia amygdalina for the control of intestinal nematode infections. Phytochemical studies have demonstrated a wide array of biologically-active properties in this medicinal plant species. In light of the growing resistance of parasites and pathogens to synthetic drugs, the study of animal self-medication and ethno-medicine offers a novel line of investigation to provide ecologically-sound methods for the treatment of parasites using plant-based medicines in populations and their livestock living in the tropics. PMID:14506884

Huffman, Michael A

2003-05-01

283

Potential pharmacokinetic interactions between antiretrovirals and medicinal plants used as complementary and African traditional medicines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of traditional/complementary/alternate medicines (TCAMs) in HIV/AIDS patients who reside in Southern Africa is quite common. Those who use TCAMs in addition to antiretroviral (ARV) treatment may be at risk of experiencing clinically significant pharmacokinetic (PK) interactions, particularly between the TCAMs and the protease inhibitors (PIs) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). Mechanisms of PK interactions include alterations to the normal functioning of drug efflux transporters, such as P-gp and/or CYP isoenzymes, such a CYP3A4 that mediate the absorption and elimination of drugs in the small intestine and liver. Specific mechanisms include inhibition and activation of these proteins and induction via the pregnane X receptor (PXR). Several clinical studies and case reports involving ARV-herb PK interactions have been reported. St John's Wort, Garlic and Cat's Claw exhibited potentially significant interactions, each with a PI or NNRTI. The potential for these herbs to induce PK interactions with drugs was first identified in reports of in vitro studies. Other in vitro studies have shown that several African traditional medicinal (ATM) plants and extracts may also demonstrate PK interactions with ARVs, through effects on CYP3A4, P-gp and PXR. The most complex effects were exhibited by Hypoxis hemerocallidea, Sutherlandia frutescens, Cyphostemma hildebrandtii, Acacia nilotica, Agauria salicifolia and Elaeodendron buchananii. Despite a high incidence of HIV/AIDs in the African region, only one clinical study, between efavirenz and Hypoxis hemerocallidea has been conducted. However, several issues/concerns still remain to be addressed and thus more studies on ATMs are warranted in order for more meaningful data to be generated and the true potential for such interactions to be determined. PMID:22024968

Müller, Adrienne C; Kanfer, Isadore

2011-11-01

284

PlantID – DNA-based identification of multiple medicinal plants in complex mixtures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background An efficient method for the identification of medicinal plant products is now a priority as the global demand increases. This study aims to develop a DNA-based method for the identification and authentication of plant species that can be implemented in the industry to aid compliance with regulations, based upon the economically important Hypericum perforatum L. (St John’s Wort or Guan ye Lian Qiao. Methods The ITS regions of several Hypericum species were analysed to identify the most divergent regions and PCR primers were designed to anneal specifically to these regions in the different Hypericum species. Candidate primers were selected such that the amplicon produced by each species-specific reaction differed in size. The use of fluorescently labelled primers enabled these products to be resolved by capillary electrophoresis. Results Four closely related Hypericum species were detected simultaneously and independently in one reaction. Each species could be identified individually and in any combination. The introduction of three more closely related species to the test had no effect on the results. Highly processed commercial plant material was identified, despite the potential complications of DNA degradation in such samples. Conclusion This technique can detect the presence of an expected plant material and adulterant materials in one reaction. The method could be simply applied to other medicinal plants and their problem adulterants.

Howard Caroline

2012-07-01

285

Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants in and Around Alamata, Southern Tigray, Northern Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An ethnobotanical study was conducted to investigate the use of medicinal plants in and around Alamata district, southern Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Information was gathered from 15 traditional healers: 11 females and 4 males, using semistructured questionnaire. The healers were selected randomly and no appointment was made prior to the visits. Twenty-five medicinal plants used as a cure for 18 aliments were documented. Most (64% of the traditional medicinal plants were found in cultivation. Most of the traditional medicinal plants were used in fresh form (64% while 36% in dried from. The inhabitants rely on medicinal plants for various purposes such as forage, medicine, firewood, spice, construction and food. The most commonly used plant parts for herbal preparations were leaves (52% and seeds (24%. The administration routes were oral (20%, dermal (48%, nasal (16%, oral or dermal (8%, chewing (4% and through the ear (4%. Some (44% of the remedies are mixed with water, butter, honey, Citrus limonum and Allium sativum while the remaining do not have any ingredients added. The findings revealed that indigenous practices contributed to the sustained use, management and conservation of medicinal and multiple-use indigenous trees. Our result suggested to carry out similar studies in areas not previously covered in order to get a full picture of the country’s medicinal plants potential in the future.

Gidey Yirga

2010-09-01

286

Anti-angiogenic and cytotoxicity studies of some medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Angiogenesis plays an important role in tumor formation and proliferation. The development of anti-angiogenic agents to block new blood vessel growth will inhibit metastasis and induce apoptosis of the cancer cells. Nine medicinal plants, Strobilanthes crispus, Phyllanthus niruri, Phyllanthus pulcher, Phyllanthus urinaria, Ailanthus malabarica, Irvingia malayana, Smilax myosotiflora, Tinospora crispa and blumea balsamifera were screened for anti-angiogenic properties using the rat aortic ring assay. Of these, the methanol extracts of Phyllanthus species and Irvingia malayana exhibited the highest activity. At 100 microg/mL, P. pulcher, P. niruri, P. urinaria and I. malayana recorded an inhibition of 78.8 %, 59.5 %, 56.7 % and 46.4 %, respectively, against rat aortic vascular growth. Their activities were further investigated by the tube formation assay involving human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) on Matrigel. I. malayana, P. niruri and P. urinaria showed a significant decrease of 45.5, 37.9 and 35.6 %, respectively, whilst P. pulcher showed a much lower decrease of 15.5 % when compared with that of the rat aortic ring assay. All the plant extracts were evaluated for cytotoxicity on a panel of human cancer cell lines using the MTT assay. None of them displayed acute cytotoxicity. The HPLC of P. niruri, P. urinaria and P. pulcher indicated the extracts contained some identical chromatographic peaks of lignans. Further fractionation of I. malayana yielded betulinic acid reported in this plant for the first time and at 100 microg/mL it exhibited a 67.3 % inhibition of vessel outgrowth and 46.5 % inhibition of tube formation. PMID:20112179

Ng, Kwok-Wen; Salhimi, Salizawati Muhamad; Majid, Amin Malik; Chan, Kit-Lam

2010-06-01

287

HORTICULTURAL, MEDICINAL AND CEREMONIAL PLANTS IN PETIGA VILLAGE, TABANAN BALI PROVINCE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sustainable development is a must for Bali. It is due to the fact that one of the negative impacst of development is the change of the land use from agriculture into other functions. As a result, most of medicinal plants will be extinct. In another hand there is a trend of people to plant horticultures in their house yards. The main issue: is there any relationship between horticulture and sustainable development? In answering it, a field study was conducted in Petiga Village, Tabanan, Bali Province. Observation and interview were carried out to respondents consisted of five Balinese farmers who nurse cultivate the horticultural plants for their daily activities. Results show that: 1 there are about 159 kinds of plant totally used as horticultural plants; 2 amongst those plants, about 67 plants belong to the medicinal plants and 80 plants belong to ceremonial plants; 3 number of horticultural plants in every house sampled ranged from 63-94 kinds; 4 the popularity of any horticultural plant is affected by the market’s demand. The conclusion which could be drawn was that the medicinal plants as well as the ceremonial plants were used for horticultural plants. It was due to their wonderful colors, nice stems, flowers or leaves, special odors, economical values and magical values as well. Horticulture could be used as a strategy for preservation and conservation program of the medicinal plants in Bali. It was recommended that for the sustainability, all medicinal plants which exist in Bali should be invented and planted in a form of medicinal plant park.

Nyoman Adiputra

2009-02-01

288

Ethnopharmacological Survey of Some Medicinally Important Plants of Galliyat Areas of NWFP, Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ethnopharmacological survey was conducted in Galliyat areas of Tehsil Abbotabad (NWFP Pakistan. Being apart from city the local people preferably use medicinal plants for their common ailments by traditional methods. Galliyat is dressed up with a wide range of medicinal flora. Indigenous plants are interactly associated to the culture and traditions of local peoples. So ethnopharmacological survey yielded interesting results. The survey comprised plant-collection trips, interviews and meetings with local people and rural herbalists. In a total of 41 wild plant species, belonging to 40 genera of 33 families were used by local inhabitants, for medicinal purposes.

Ejaz Ahmed

2004-01-01

289

Medicine  

... Medicine institute,physics,iop,careers,medicine Medicine This site uses cookies. By continuing to use this site you agree to our use of ...Policy Resources You are here Careers Your future with physics: Career directions Medicine Your future with physics: Career directions Armed forces and defence ...solutions Astronomy Education Engineering Medicine Meteorology and climate change Nanotechnology Oil and gas Renewable energy Scientific research Space exploration industries Telecommunications Reference material Careers ...outside science Further study Medicine Physics plays an integral role in the development of new medical technologies, medicines and procedures. In the ...

290

South African traditional medicinal plant trade-Challenges in regulating quality, safety and efficacy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the long history of medicinal plant use, users of traditional medicines accept that they are safe for human consumption. However, the absence of regulation of the medicinal plant trade in aspects such as collection, processing and storage provides no such guarantee. Environmental pollution, misidentification and adulteration provides further grounds for concern. The potential adverse effects of South African traditional medicines are not well documented. There are only a few investigations of mutagenic properties and heavy metal contamination. In the absence of regulatory controls, the safety and quality of medicinal plants vary considerably. The current comprehension and future challenges regarding quality, safety and efficacy of South African traditional medicine are discussed. PMID:18638533

Street, R A; Stirk, W A; Van Staden, J

2008-10-28

291

Indigenous use and bio-efficacy of medicinal plants in the Rasuwa District, Central Nepal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background By revealing historical and present plant use, ethnobotany contributes to drug discovery and socioeconomic development. Nepal is a natural storehouse of medicinal plants. Although several ethnobotanical studies were conducted in the country, many areas remain unexplored. Furthermore, few studies have compared indigenous plant use with reported phytochemical and pharmacological properties. Methods Ethnopharmacological data was collected in the Rasuwa district of Central Nepal by conducting interviews and focus group discussions with local people. The informant consensus factor (FIC was calculated in order to estimate use variability of medicinal plants. Bio-efficacy was assessed by comparing indigenous plant use with phytochemical and pharmacological properties determined from a review of the available literature. Criteria were used to identify high priority medicinal plant species. Results A total of 60 medicinal formulations from 56 plant species were documented. Medicinal plants were used to treat various diseases and disorders, with the highest number of species being used for gastro-intestinal problems, followed by fever and headache. Herbs were the primary source of medicinal plants (57% of the species, followed by trees (23%. The average FIC value for all ailment categories was 0.82, indicating a high level of informant agreement compared to similar studies conducted elsewhere. High FIC values were obtained for ophthalmological problems, tooth ache, kidney problems, and menstrual disorders, indicating that the species traditionally used to treat these ailments are worth searching for bioactive compounds: Astilbe rivularis, Berberis asiatica, Hippophae salicifolia, Juniperus recurva, and Swertia multicaulis. A 90% correspondence was found between local plant use and reported plant chemical composition and pharmacological properties for the 30 species for which information was available. Sixteen medicinal plants were ranked as priority species, 13 of which having also been prioritized in a country-wide governmental classification. Conclusions The Tamang people possess rich ethnopharmacological knowledge. This study allowed to identify many high value and high priority medicinal plant species, indicating high potential for economic development through sustainable collection and trade.

Boon Emmanuel K

2010-01-01

292

Loss of competence for glyoxysome formation during somatic embryogenesis in anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) suspension cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Somatic embryogenesis in anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) suspension cultures induced by transfer to hormone-free growth medium may be synchronized by previous selection of cell aggregates with diameters between 100-240 ?m. Around 80-90% of the embryoids are globular after 2-3 d, heart-shaped after 5-7 d and torpedo-shaped after 9 d. In embryogenic medium without source of carbon or with 20 mmol/l acetate differentiation and growth cease. But like in dedifferentiated cell aggregates the key enzyme activities for glyoxysomes such as isocitrate lyase and malate synthase are induced in globular (3 d old) and heart-shaped (5 d old) embryoids, but not in embryoids at day 7 or later. Similarly, in explants from anise hypocotyl glyoxysomes cannot be derepressed by such treatment. It is concluded that during differentiation of heart-shaped embryoids to torpedo forms the competence of the cells for the yet unknown inducing principle for glyoxysomes is lost. PMID:24258124

Kudielka, R A; Theimer, R R

1983-10-01

293

Unsustainable colletion and unfair trade? : uncovering and assessing assumptions regarding Central Himalayan medicinal plant conservation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract The trade in medicinal plants for herbal remedies is large and probably increasing. The trade has attracted the attention of scientists and development planners interested in the impact on plant populations and the potential to improve rural livelihoods through community based management and conservation. This has resulted in a large number of publications and development activities, ranging from small NGO projects to new government policies. Through a review of 119 references from Nepal, 4 common assumptions regarding the medicinal plant collection and trade have been identified: I. The commercial medicinal plant resource base is becoming ever more degraded as a consequence of collection; II. The medicinal plants are an open-access resource; III. Cultivation can contribute to conservation of commercially collected medicinal plant species; and IV. Medicinal plant harvesters are cheated by middlemen. The frequency of the assumptions is documented, their empirical support is evaluated, and the consequences of their presence for conservation and rural livelihoods are discussed. It is concluded that the empirical backing for the assumptions is weak, and that some reviewed references use logically flawed argumentation. It is argued that the assumptions are leading to misguided conservation efforts, and an inclusive approach to conservation of commercial central Himalayan medicinal plant species is briefly outlined. Electronic Supplementary Material Supplementary material is available in the online version of this article at http://www.dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10531-006-9039-4 and is accessible for authorized users.

Larsen, Helle Overgaard; Olsen, Carsten Smith

2007-01-01

294

VARIEGATED WILD MEDICINAL PLANT OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA NESS (ACANTHACEAE) RECORDED IN KONDAPALLI, KRISHNA DISTRICT OF ANDHRA PRADESH  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A preliminary survey of medicinal plants conducted surrounding forest region of Krishna District of Andhra Pradesh, among these abnormality of wild variegated Andrographis paniculata medicinal plant and its details are reported in this paper.

Alagesaboopathi, C.; Dwarakan, P.; Ramachandran, V. S.

2001-01-01

295

Medicinal plants - a potent antibacterial source against bacterial leaf blight (BLB) of rice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The antibacterial potential of indigenous medicinal plants as alternative chemical pesticides for controlling bacterial leaf blight (BLB) of rice was investigated. Twenty-five different species of medicinal plants were collected from various sites in Pakistan. Decoctions of all medicinal plant species were screened by the disc plate diffusion method for testing the susceptibility of an aggressive isolate of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo 105). Out of twenty five medicinal plants, Thuja orientalis (cone + leaves), Azadirachta indica (seeds + fruits), Amomum subulatum (fruits), Terminalia chebula (fruits), Terminalia bellirica (fruits), Anethum graveolens (fruits) and Ferula assa-foetida (fruits) decoctions showed significant activity. The efficacy of decoctions from six promising plants were further tested through detached leaf, glasshouse and field assays. A decoction of Terminalia chebula demonstrated the highest effectiveness in terms of regulating BLB in the plants both under laboratory and field conditions. Bioactive fractions of Terminalia chebula were purified, characterized and tentatively identified as allegic acid. (author)

296

Ethnomedicinal and phytochemical review of Pakistani medicinal plants used as antibacterial agents against Escherichia coli.  

Science.gov (United States)

Medicinal plants have always been part of human culture and have the potential to cure different diseases caused by microorganisms. In Pakistan, biologists are mainly focusing on plants' antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli due to its increasing resistance to antibiotics. In total, extracts from 34 ethnomedicinally valuable Pakistani plants were reported for in-vitro anti-E. coli activities. Mostly methanolic extracts of medicinal plants were used in different studies, which have shown comparatively higher inhibitory activities against E. coli than n-hexane and aqueous extracts. It has been found that increasing concentration (mg/ml) of methanolic extract can significantly increase (p<0.01) anti-E. coli activities. Not all medicinal plants are extracted in solvents others than above, which should also be tested against E. coli. Moreover, medicinal plant species must be fully explored phytochemically, which may lead to the development of new drugs. PMID:25135359

Adnan, Muhammad; Bibi, Roqaia; Mussarat, Sakina; Tariq, Akash; Shinwari, Zabta Khan

2014-01-01

297

Traditional Knowledge and ex situ Conservation of Some Threatened Medicinal Plants of Swat Kohistan, Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Medicinal plants still provide primary health care to human race in different regions across the globe, especially in the developing world. The role of medicinal herbs as source of traditional medicine have decreased due to the introduction of allopathic drugs but still their importance as a prime source of rural health care can not be paralleled. Medicinal plants and their pertinent knowledge need to be conserved for the future generations. During present study, traditional knowledge of 16 threatened medicinal plants of Swat Kohistan was documented and a nursery was raised in lower Swat in an effort to conserve them. Only 8 plant species viz. Bergenia ciliata, Dioscorea deltoidea, Bistorta amplexicaulis, Valeriana jatamansi, Valeriana pyrolifolia, Viola biflora, Viola canescens and Berberis lycium survived and acclimatized to new habitat, while the rest failed to germinate.

Muhammad Hamayun

2006-01-01

298

Anti-pseudomona and Anti-bacilli Activity of Some Medicinal Plants of Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The use of plants in treatment of burns, dermatophytes, and infectious diseases is common in traditional medicine of Iran. Based on ethno pharmacological and taxonomic information, antibacterial activities of methanol extracts of some medicinal plants of Iran were determined by In Vitro bioassays using agar diffusion-method against standard strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. fluorescens, Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus and B. pumilis at 20 mg/ml. From 180 plant species of 72 families, 78 spec...

Gholam Hosein Shahidi Bonjar; Ashraf Karimi Nik; Mohammad Reza Heydari; Mohammad Hassan Ghasemzadeh; Parvin Rashid Farrokhi; Mahmood Reza Moein; Shahla Mansouri; Alireza Foroumadi

2003-01-01

299

Ethnopharmacological survey of six medicinal plants from Mali, West-Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract An ethnopharmacological survey was carried out to collect information about the use of six medicinal plants in the regions around Siby and Dioila, Mali. The plants investigated were Biopyhtum petersianum, Cola cordifolia, Combretum molle, Opilia celtidifolia, Parkia biglobosa and Ximenia americana. More than 60 medical indications were reported for the use of these plants in traditional medicine. The most frequently reported ailments were malaria (2...

Bah Sekou; Ballo Ngolo; Skogsrud Mona; Glæserud Silje; Grønhaug Tom; Diallo Drissa; Paulsen Berit

2008-01-01

300

Medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Kancheepuram District of Tamil Nadu, India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken to collect information from traditional healers on the use of medicinal plants in Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu during October 2003 to April 2004. The indigenous knowledge of local traditional healers and the native plants used for medicinal purposes were collected through questionnaire and personal interviews during field trips. The investigation revealed that, the traditional healers used 85 species of plants distribute...

Raja Nagappan; Ayyanar Muniappan; Muthu Chellaiah; Ignacimuthu Savarimuthu

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

The Estrogenic-Like Activity of Four Chinese Medicinal Plants in Vitex  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In most developing countries, 70-80% of the populations still resort to traditional medicine for their primary health care. This medicine utilizes medicinal plants which are traditionally taken as concoction and infusion. Ethanolic extracts of selected four Chinese medicinal plants in Vitex were tested for proliferative activity in ERa-positive MCF-7 human cell line using MTT assay. Vitex negundo showed the most estrogenic-like potent activity, which could be useful as a Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRP. In further investigation, the compounds with activities in Vitex negundo will be elucidated.

2007-01-01

302

Determination of metals in medicinal plants highly consumed in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho, amostras de Boldo (Peumus boldus), Castanha da Índia (Aesculus hippocastanum), Chá Verde (Camelia sinensis), Erva Cidreira (Melissa officinalis), Espinheira Santa (Maytenus ilicifolia), Guaraná (Paullinia cupana), Maracujá (Passiflora sp.), Mulungu (Erythrina velutina), Sene (Cassia [...] angustifolia) e Valeriana (Valeriana officinalis) foram investigadas utilizando a técnica Análise por Ativação Neutrônica (AAN-k0), a fim de se determinar os teores de metais e outros elementos químicos contaminantes. Os resultados revelaram a presença de elementos não essenciais ao organismo humano. A diversidade de impurezas químicas encontradas, mesmo em níveis de baixa concentração, considerando o potencial de toxicidade crônica desses elementos, reforça a necessidade de melhorias na aplicação de boas práticas pelos produtores e comerciantes e a hipótese de falta de controle de qualidade nos produtos vegetais. Abstract in english In this work, samples of the medicinal plants: Boldo (Peumus boldus), Castanha da Índia (Aesculus hippocastanum), Chá Verde (Camelia sinensis), Erva Cidreira (Melissa officinalis), Espinheira Santa (Maytenus ilicifolia), Guaraná (Paullinia cupana), Maracujá (Passiflora sp.), Mulungu (Erythrina velut [...] ina), Sene (Cassia angustifolia) and Valeriana (Valeriana officinalis) were evaluated BY using the Neutron Activation Analysis technique (NAA- k0) in order to determine the levels of metals and other chemical contaminants. The results showed the presence of non essential elements to the human body. The diversity of chemical impurities found even at low concentration levels, considering the potential for chronic toxicity of these elements, reinforces the need to improve the implementation of good practices by growers and traders, and the hypothesis of lack of quality control in plant products.

Alexandre Soares, Leal; Guilherme, Prado; Tatiana Cristina Bomfim, Gomes; Fernanda Peixoto, Sepe; Ilza, Dalmázio.

303

Determination of metals in medicinal plants highly consumed in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho, amostras de Boldo (Peumus boldus), Castanha da Índia (Aesculus hippocastanum), Chá Verde (Camelia sinensis), Erva Cidreira (Melissa officinalis), Espinheira Santa (Maytenus ilicifolia), Guaraná (Paullinia cupana), Maracujá (Passiflora sp.), Mulungu (Erythrina velutina), Sene (Cassia [...] angustifolia) e Valeriana (Valeriana officinalis) foram investigadas utilizando a técnica Análise por Ativação Neutrônica (AAN-k0), a fim de se determinar os teores de metais e outros elementos químicos contaminantes. Os resultados revelaram a presença de elementos não essenciais ao organismo humano. A diversidade de impurezas químicas encontradas, mesmo em níveis de baixa concentração, considerando o potencial de toxicidade crônica desses elementos, reforça a necessidade de melhorias na aplicação de boas práticas pelos produtores e comerciantes e a hipótese de falta de controle de qualidade nos produtos vegetais. Abstract in english In this work, samples of the medicinal plants: Boldo (Peumus boldus), Castanha da Índia (Aesculus hippocastanum), Chá Verde (Camelia sinensis), Erva Cidreira (Melissa officinalis), Espinheira Santa (Maytenus ilicifolia), Guaraná (Paullinia cupana), Maracujá (Passiflora sp.), Mulungu (Erythrina velut [...] ina), Sene (Cassia angustifolia) and Valeriana (Valeriana officinalis) were evaluated BY using the Neutron Activation Analysis technique (NAA- k0) in order to determine the levels of metals and other chemical contaminants. The results showed the presence of non essential elements to the human body. The diversity of chemical impurities found even at low concentration levels, considering the potential for chronic toxicity of these elements, reinforces the need to improve the implementation of good practices by growers and traders, and the hypothesis of lack of quality control in plant products.

Alexandre Soares, Leal; Guilherme, Prado; Tatiana Cristina Bomfim, Gomes; Fernanda Peixoto, Sepe; Ilza, Dalmázio.

2013-09-01

304

A study of trace elements in some medicinal plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty one medicinal plants (herbal) have been investigated for major, minor and trace elements using the proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method. The samples were collected from the local market in Dhaka city and they were analysed by the thick-target external beam technique of the PIXE method. The samples were exposed to the proton beam as 1-mm thick pellet 0 f 7 mm dia. and irradiated with 2.0 MeV proton having 10 nA beam intensity. for 10-20 ?C irradiation, the concentration of 15 elements,K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr and Pb were measured by comparison with calibration factors obtained from a curve constructed on the basis of the NBS orchard leaf standard (SRM-1571) irradiated under identical experimental condition. The concentration of K and Ca observed in the samples were in the range of 0.34-5.96% and .11-3.98% respectively. For Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, As and Pb the concentration ranges were 4.1-1100, 60-7600, 1.1-276, 7-164, 1.2-48, 1.1-31, and 3.1-128 mg/kg respectively. Ti, Br, Rb, Sr and Zr were also determined with variable accuracy. The validity of the procedure was established by analysing a NIST standard (tomato leaf). The results obtained were in good agreement with the certified values. 17 refs.,3 tables, 3 figs

305

Natural and artificial radioactivity determination of some medicinal plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several medicinal plants used in Italy were analysed to determine natural and artificial radioactivity in those parts (leaves, fruits, seeds, roots, peduncles, flowers, barks, berries, thallus) used generally as remedies. The radionuclides were determined by alpha ({sup 238}U, {sup 210}Po) and gamma ({sup 214}Pb-Bi, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs) spectrometry. {sup 238}U ranged between <0.1 and 7.32 Bq kg{sub dry}{sup -1}; {sup 210}Po between <0.1 and 30.3 Bq kg{sub dry}{sup -1}; {sup 214}Pb-{sup 214}Bi between <0.3 and 16.6 Bq kg{sub dry}{sup -1}; {sup 210}Pb between <3 and 58.3 Bq kg{sub dry}{sup -1}; {sup 40}K between 66.2 and 3582.0 Bq kg{sub dry}{sup -1}; {sup 137}Cs between <0.3 and 10.7 Bq kg{sub dry}{sup -1}. The percentage of {sup 210}Po extraction in infusion and decoction was also determined; the arithmetical mean value of percentage of {sup 210}Po extraction resulted 20.7 {+-} 7.5.

Desideri, Donatella, E-mail: donatella.desideri@uniurb.i [Institute of General Chemistry, Urbino University ' Carlo Bo' , Piazza Rinascimento 6, 61029 Urbino (Italy); Meli, Maria Assunta; Roselli, Carla [Institute of General Chemistry, Urbino University ' Carlo Bo' , Piazza Rinascimento 6, 61029 Urbino (Italy)

2010-09-15

306

Kineococcus gynurae sp. nov., isolated from a Thai medicinal plant.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel, Gram-positive, motile, coccus-shaped, orange-pigmented organism, designated strain KKD096(T), was isolated from the roots of a Thai medicinal plant, Gynura pseudochina DC. var. hispida Thwaites. Growth of strain KKD096(T) occurred at temperatures of 14-34 degrees C, at pH 5.0-9.0 and at NaCl concentrations up to 7 % (w/v). Whole-cell hydrolysates contained arabinose and galactose as the characteristic sugars. The diagnostic diamino acid of the peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The glycan moiety of the murein contained acetyl residues. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H2); mycolic acids were not detected. The genomic DNA G+C content was 73.3 mol%. The major cellular fatty acid was anteiso-C(15 : 0) (81.42 % of the total). Strain KKD096(T) was assigned to the genus Kineococcus on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis; it was most closely related to Kineococcus radiotolerans DSM 14245(T) (97.1 % similarity). DNA-DNA hybridization revealed 39.4 % relatedness between these two taxa. On the basis of the genotypic and phenotypic data presented, strain KKD096(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Kineococcus, for which the name Kineococcus gynurae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KKD096(T) (=TISTR 1856(T)=NRRL B-24568(T)=BCC 26245(T)=NBRC 103943(T)). PMID:18842871

Duangmal, Kannika; Thamchaipenet, Arinthip; Ara, Ismet; Matsumoto, Atsuko; Takahashi, Yoko

2008-10-01

307

Antitrypanosomal screening and cytotoxic effects of selected medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trypanosoma evansi, the causative agent of "surra", infects many species of wild and domestic animals worldwide. In the current study, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of six medicinal plants, namely, Aquilaria malaccensis, Derris elliptica, Garcinia hombroniana, Goniothalamus umbrosus, Nigella sativa, and Strobilanthes crispus were screened in vitro for activity against T. evansi. The cytotoxic activity of the extracts was evaluated on green monkey kidney (Vero) cells using MTT-cell proliferation assay. The median inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of the extracts ranged between 2.30 and 800.97 ?g/ml and the median cytotoxic concentrations (CC50) ranged between 29.10 ?g/ml and 14.53 mg/ml. The aqueous extract of G. hombroniana exhibited the highest selectivity index (SI) value of 616.36, followed by A. malaccensis aqueous extract (47.38). Phytochemical screening of the G. hombroniana aqueous extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, phenols, tannins, and saponins. It is demonstrated here that the aqueous extract of G. hombroniana has potential antitrypanosomal activity with a high SI, and may be considered as a potential source for the development of new antitrypanosomal compounds. PMID:24862048

Dyary, H O; Arifah, A K; Sharma, R S; Rasedee, A; Mohd-Aspollah, M S; Zakaria, Z A; Zuraini, A; Somchit, M N

2014-03-01

308

Ocimum gratissimum L.: A Medicinal Plant with Promising Antiurolithiatic Activity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ocimum gratissimum L. has been used to treat various diseases including urinary stone diseases, since ancient time in India. The inhibition of in-vitro calcium-oxalate crystal formation by Ocimum gratissimum L. extract was investigated by different methods i.e nucleation assay and synthetic urine assay. In nucleation assay, the aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of different concentrations of the extract (100-1000 mg/ml on calcium oxalate crystallization in-vitro while in synthetic urine method the percentage inhibition and growth of the calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals from synthetic urine at different % concentrations of extract (25-100% was investigated. In both the assay % inhibition for calcium oxalate crystal formation was found directly proportional to the increase in concentration of the plant extract with maximum inhibition of 66.08% at 1000 mg/ml, while in synthetic urine assay maximum inhibition was 62.07 % at 100% concentration of extract. Thus Ocimum gratissimum L. was found to be a potent and promising antiurolithiatic agent, which is in accordance with its use in traditional medicine.

Kumkum Agarwal

2014-01-01

309

Propagação vegetativa de liamba, planta medicinal / Vegetative propagation of liamba, a medicinal plant  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A liamba (Vitex agnus castus L.) é utilizada no Brasil como medicinal e apresenta compostos com estrutura química semelhante à progesterona. Visando avaliar a propagação vegetativa de liamba foram conduzidos dois experimentos. O primeiro, com estacas da parte aérea com 20 cm de comprimento, sem folh [...] as e classificadas em dois grupos: apical e basal. As estacas tiveram a espessura padronizada em 3 a 5 mm de diâmetro e 40 unidades de cada tipo foram colocadas em sacolas de polietileno (10 x 30 cm) preenchidas com o substrato solo + esterco na proporção volumétrica de 2:1. O segundo, com miniestacas da parte aérea da planta com 3 a 5 cm de comprimento, sem folhas e no delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições de 20 miniestacas, no esquema fatorial 2 x 3. Os tratamentos foram tipo da miniestaca (com talão e sem talão) e substrato (solo; solo + esterco bovino curtido e solo + composto). A propagação vegetativa de liamba pode ser feita por estacas basais ou mini-estacas com talão em substrato solo + composto. Abstract in english The liamba (Vitex agnus castus L.) is used as a medicinal species in Brazil and presents compounds with similar chemical structure to progesterone. To evaluate the propagation of liamba two experiments were carried out. The first, using shoot cuttings with 20 cm long, leafless and classified into tw [...] o groups, apical and basal. The cuttings were standardized in their thickness of 3 to 5 mm in diameter and 40 units of each type were placed in polyethylene bags (10 x 30 cm) filled with soil + manure in the volumetric ratio of 2:1. The second, with shoot minicuttings of the plant canopy with 3 to 5 cm long, without leaves and in a randomized block experimental design with four replications of 20 minicuttings, in a factorial 2 x 3. The treatments were kind of mini-cuttings (with and without hell) and substrate (soil, soil + cattle manure and soil + compost). The vegetative propagation of liamba can be made by basal cuttings or minicuttings with heel in soil + compost.

Maria de Fátima B, Coelho; Sandra Sely S, Maia; Andreya K, Oliveira; Francisco Ésio P, Diógenes; Silvio Roberto F, Soares.

2011-09-01

310

An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the eastern highlands of Papua New Guinea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The Eastern Highlands area of Papua New Guinea (PNG has a rich tradition of medicinal plant use. However, rapid modernization is resulting in the loss of independent language traditions and consequently a loss of individuals knowledgeable in medicinal plant use. This report represents a program to document and preserve traditional knowledge concerning medicinal plant use in PNG. This report documents and compares traditional plant use in the Eastern Highlands districts of Unggai-Bena, Okapa, and Obura-Wonenara, and puts these new records in context of previously documented PNG medicinal plant use. Methods This manuscript is an annotated combination of Traditional Medicines survey reports generated by UPNG trainees using a survey questionnaire titled “Information sheet on traditional herbal reparations and medicinal plants of PNG”. The Traditional Medicines survey project is supported by WHO, US NIH and PNG governmental health care initiatives and funding. Results Overall, after “poisoning” (synonymous with “magic” the most commonly recorded ailments addressed by medicinal plant use were pain, gynecological disease, gastrointestinal maladies, anemia or malnutrition and malaria. However, the recorded indications for plant use varied widely amongst the different survey locations. Unlike many areas of PNG, mixing of ingredients was the most common mode of preparation recorded, except for two areas where the consumption of fresh plant material was more common. Throughout the Eastern Highlands oral administration was most common, with topical application second. Overall, leaves were most commonly used in the preparations of the healers interviewed, followed by bark and stems. Several new medicinal uses of plants were also documented. Conclusions Collaboration between the WHO, UPNG and the PNG Department of Health initiated Traditional Medicine survey program in order to preserve traditional knowledge concerning medicinal plant use in PNG. This effort promotes integration of effective and accessible traditional practices with Western protocols. The Traditional Medicine surveys are particularly important because, in the absence of the clinical validation, the documentation of the consistent use of a given plant for specific indication by a large number of herbalists, across a wide range of ethnic traditions, maybe considered as a positive criterion for the promulgation of said use amongst PNG’s recently formed traditional healer associations.

Jorim Ronald Y

2012-12-01

311

ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS USED BY MALAYALI TRIBALS IN KOLLIHILLS OF TAMILNADU, INDIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An ethnobotanical survey was carried out among the Malayali tribals in various villages of Kollihills, Nammakkal District, Tamilnadu, India during January 2007 to April 2009. A total of 108 species of ethnomedicinal plants belonging to 102 genera and 59 families were reported with the help of standardized questionnaires among 50 tribal informants between the ages of 20-85. The study shows a high degree of ethnobotanical novelty and the use of plants among the Malayali reflects the revival of interest in traditional folk medicine. The medicinal plants used by Malayali are arranged alphabetically followed by botanical name, family name, local name, parts used, mode of preparation and medicinal uses.

Kuru Suresh

2011-02-01

312

Levels of trace elements in medicinal plants with anti-diabetic potential  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Medicinal plants with anti-diabetic potential have been characterized by Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. Trace elements such as Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr and Pb are found to be present in these studied medicinal plant samples. The concentrations of elements like K and Ca are quantified in percentage level whereas other elements are found to be in parts per million levels. Elemental analysis of ten different medicinal plant samples commonly used for management and cure of diabetes, shows variation in concentrations. These elements either directly or indirectly may play some role to control diabetes. (author)

313

Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in Wedelia calendulacea Less. an endangered medicinal plant  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In this work, plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis was achieved from leaf and internode derived callus of Wedelia calendulacea, an endangered medicinal plant. Primary callus was induced by culturing leaf disc and internode explant on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L-1 of [...] 2,4-D under light condition. Transfer of embryogenic callus on a reduced concentration of 2,4-D facilitated somatic embryo development while calluses remained unorganized at the same 2,4-D level. A histological analysis confirmed somatic embryo by revealing the presence of a closed vascular system in the developing embryos and lack of a vascularconnection with surrounding callus tissues. Somatic embryos germinated into plantlets upon transfer on MS medium containing 1.0 mg L-1 BAP plus 0.5 mg L-1 GA3. Plantlets were acclimatized successfully and survived under soil condition. This is the first on somatic embryogenesis of W.calendulacea. This result could facilitate genetic transformation of this important medicinal plant.

Shamima Akhtar, Sharmin; Md. Jahangir, Alam; Md. Mominul Islam, Sheikh; Kanak Kanti, Sarker; Muhammad, Khalekuzzaman; Md. Anwarul, Haque; Mohammad Firoz, Alam; Iftekhar, Alam.

2014-06-01

314

Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in Wedelia calendulacea Less. an endangered medicinal plant  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In this work, plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis was achieved from leaf and internode derived callus of Wedelia calendulacea, an endangered medicinal plant. Primary callus was induced by culturing leaf disc and internode explant on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L-1 of [...] 2,4-D under light condition. Transfer of embryogenic callus on a reduced concentration of 2,4-D facilitated somatic embryo development while calluses remained unorganized at the same 2,4-D level. A histological analysis confirmed somatic embryo by revealing the presence of a closed vascular system in the developing embryos and lack of a vascularconnection with surrounding callus tissues. Somatic embryos germinated into plantlets upon transfer on MS medium containing 1.0 mg L-1 BAP plus 0.5 mg L-1 GA3. Plantlets were acclimatized successfully and survived under soil condition. This is the first on somatic embryogenesis of W.calendulacea. This result could facilitate genetic transformation of this important medicinal plant.

Shamima Akhtar, Sharmin; Md. Jahangir, Alam; Md. Mominul Islam, Sheikh; Kanak Kanti, Sarker; Muhammad, Khalekuzzaman; Md. Anwarul, Haque; Mohammad Firoz, Alam; Iftekhar, Alam.

315

Medicinal plants and the treatment of diabetes in Senegal: survey with patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diabetes is the most common metabolic disorder worldwide and is a major public health problem. Its frequency increases every day in all countries. However, in developing African countries, few people have access to drugs. In addition, in Africa, traditional beliefs induce people to use medicinal plants whenever they have health problems. Thus, many people in these developing countries use plants for the treatment of diabetes. Yet, few studies are focused on the knowledge and attitudes of the users on medicinal plants in Africa in general and in Senegal in particular. Hence we undertook this survey on the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of diabetes in Senegal in order to make recommendations which could contribute to the increase of the value of herbal medicines in developing countries. We did a cross-sectional survey by direct interview at a university teaching hospital, in Dakar with a representative sample of 220 patients. Forty-one plants were used by the patients and the two most frequently cited were Moringa oleifera Lam (65.90%) and Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich) Hochst (43.20%). Patients gave several reasons for using medicinal plants (traditional treatment: 40%, efficacy: 32%, low cost: 20%). The principal suppliers of plants were tradesmen in the market (66.8%) and traditional therapists (5%). Sixty-five per cent of patients think that medicinal plants are efficient for the treatment of diabetes and 20% have reported adverse effects which could be caused by medicinal plants. In conclusion, many people in our study think that medicinal plants are efficient for the treatment of diabetes, which requires research work by scientists in developing countries in this field in order to prove their efficacy and innocuousness. PMID:18205810

Dièye, Amadou Moctar; Sarr, Anna; Diop, Saïd Norou; Ndiaye, Mamadou; Sy, Guata Yoro; Diarra, Mounibé; Rajraji Gaffary, Ilham; Ndiaye Sy, Awa; Faye, Babacar

2008-04-01

316

Indigenous use and bio-efficacy of medicinal plants in the Rasuwa District, Central Nepal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background By revealing historical and present plant use, ethnobotany contributes to drug discovery and socioeconomic development. Nepal is a natural storehouse of medicinal plants. Although several ethnobotanical studies were conducted in the country, many areas remain unexplored. Furthermore, few studies have compared indigenous plant use with reported phytochemical and pharmacological properties. Methods Ethnopharmacological data was collected in the...

Boon Emmanuel K; Asselin Hugo; Uprety Yadav; Yadav Saroj; Shrestha Krishna K

2010-01-01

317

Antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase-inhibitory properties of long-term stored medicinal plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicinal plants are possible sources for future novel antioxidant compounds in food and pharmaceutical formulations. Recent attention on medicinal plants emanates from their long historical utilisation in folk medicine as well as their prophylactic properties. However, there is a dearth of scientific data on the efficacy and stability of the bioactive chemical constituents in medicinal plants after prolonged storage. This is a frequent problem in African Traditional Medicine. Methods The phytochemical, antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase-inhibitory properties of 21 medicinal plants were evaluated after long-term storage of 12 or 16 years using standard in vitro methods in comparison to freshly harvested materials. Results The total phenolic content of Artemisia afra, Clausena anisata, Cussonia spicata, Leonotis intermedia and Spirostachys africana were significantly higher in stored compared to fresh materials. The flavonoid content were also significantly higher in stored A. afra, C. anisata, C. spicata, L. intermedia, Olea europea and Tetradenia riparia materials. With the exception of Ekebergia capensis and L. intermedia, there were no significant differences between the antioxidant activities of stored and fresh plant materials as measured in the ?-carotene-linoleic acid model system. Similarly, the EC50 values based on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay were generally lower for stored than fresh material. Percentage inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was generally similar for both stored and fresh plant material. Stored plant material of Tetradenia riparia and Trichilia dregeana exhibited significantly higher AChE inhibition than the fresh material. Conclusions The current study presents evidence that medicinal plants can retain their biological activity after prolonged storage under dark conditions at room temperature. The high antioxidant activities of stable bioactive compounds in these medicinal plants offer interesting prospects for the identification of novel principles for application in food and pharmaceutical formulations.

Amoo Stephen O

2012-07-01

318

Physiochemical Composition of Wild Medicinal Plant Berberis lycium  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present research work was carried out to study the chemical and mineral constituents of possible pharmacological interest of the wild medicinal plant Berberis lycium. Mean values of the data revealed that leaves have maximum moisture content (59.84?0.19% followed by shoot and root (44.75?0.25%, 31.55?0.05%, respectively. The result of this study indicate that the content of moisture, ash and protein (31.55?0.05, 1.30?0.01, 2.40+0.04%, respectively increased in different parts in descending order i.e. root < shoot < leaves whereas fat and fiber contents (0.46?0.01, 43.85?0.46%, respectively decreased in ascending order i.e. root > shoot > leaves. Analysis of the data suggested that NFE for shoot (11.29?0.25% lies between those for roots and leaves. When different elemental composition in the separate parts of the Berberis lycium was taken into an account, it was revealed that Zn, Cu and Na were maximum (56.15?0.01,95.67?0.12, 115.00?0.03 µg g?1, respectively in root and while Mn, P, Ca (136.12?0.01, 1315.00?0.01, 2389.00?0.04 µg g?1, respectively in leaves whereas K (5824.00?0.58 µg g?1, respectively in shoot. The mean weight percentage distribution of Berberis lycium revealed that shoot had maximum weight percentage in the range of 41.89 to 45.09% having mean value of 43.49% with standard deviation of 0.79.

Hamidullah Shah

2003-01-01

319

TRADITIONAL USES OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN TREATING SKIN DISEASES IN NAGAPATTINAM DISTRICT OF TAMILNADU, INDIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present documented the traditional knowledge of Medicinal Plants species used in various type of skin diseases in Nagapattinam district. We have documented the use of 50 species belonging to 26 families. The information on plants used as traditional medicine against skin diseases was gathered and ethnomedicinal survey based on interviews with local people involved in traditional herbal medicine practices. The particulars plants are used to cure variety of skin diseases, like swelling, wound healing, psoriasis, scabies, eczema, dandruff, tinea versicularis, tinea cruris, impetigo, skin parasities, leucoderma, leucoderma, leprosy, rash, etc. the studies carried out for the time in this area, the medicinal plants used by traditional users of N agapattinam district were arranged by botanical name, family, local name, habit, mode of preparation and uses.

R.Sivaranjani

2012-05-01

320

Luffa echinata: A Valuable Medicinal Plant for Victims of Dog Bite  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use ofherbal medicine for the treatment of various diseases is increasing day by day due to no side effect. During survey it was observed that more than 80 medicinal plants are being used in curing the various diseases by the Tribal community (Tharus of Khatima. Luffa echinata is one such medicinal plant which has not grabbed considerable attention, however it is used to treat the victims of dog bite and more than 500 people have been treated successfully in this area. This research article illustrates how the victim of dog bite is treated with this plant and it also provides a novel idea for further research on the phytochemical aspects of this plants which might lead us towards the development of new medicines for the welfare of human being.

Usha Yadav and Manoj Kumar

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
321

Powerful hepatoprotective and hepatotoxic plant oligostilbenes, isolated from the Oriental medicinal plant Vitis coignetiae (Vitaceae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The methanol extract of the Oriental medicinal plant Vitis coignetiae (Vitaceae) showed hepatoprotective activity in the in vitro assay method using primary cultured rat hepatocytes. Activity-guided fractionation of the extract afforded epsilon-viniferin as an active principle. The protective effect of epsilon-viniferin against mice carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury in mice was shown by serum enzyme assay as well as by pathological examination. In addition to epsilon-viniferin, plant oligostilbenes, ampelopsins A, C, F and the mixture of vitisin A and cis-vitisin A were also present in the extract. Among them, ampelopsin C and the mixture of vitisin A and cis-vitisin A were found to be powerful hepatotoxins. PMID:7843333

Oshima, Y; Namao, K; Kamijou, A; Matsuoka, S; Nakano, M; Terao, K; Ohizumi, Y

1995-01-15

322

A SURVEY OF IMPORTANT INDIGENOUS MEDICINAL PLANTS OF DISTRICT BHIMBER AZAD JAMMU & KASHMIR, PAKISTAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A survey of medicinal plants was carried out about the traditional knowledge of rural people of District Bhimber and its allied areas. It was established that 96 plant species belonging to 49 families are currently used by common people and traditional plant medicines practitioner. Most medicinal plants grow in the wild (75%, while others are cultivated (25% with predominant share of herbs (55%, trees (27% and shrubs (17%. The frequently used species were Justicia adhatoda, Azadirachta indica, Melia azedarach, Solanum nigrum, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Tribulus terrestris and Solanum xanthocarpum while the most frequently cited families were Meliaceae and Euphorbiaceae. It was noted that plant species like Acacia modesta, Ficus carica, Melia azedarach and Butea monosperma recorded throughout the region uniformly however some plants like Azadirachta indica,Carica papaya, Ficus bengalensis and Glycyrrhiza glabra are less common.

Nazar Hussain

2013-09-01

323

Comparative evaluation of dietary oregano, anise and olive leaves in laying Japanese quails  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Aim of the present study was the comparative evaluation of the effect of ground oregano, anise and olive leaves as feed additives on performance and some egg quality characteristics of laying Japanese quails. A total of 189 Coturnix japonica quails (126 females and 63 males), 149 days old, were rand [...] omly allocated into seven equal groups with three subgroups of 9 birds each (6 females and 3 males). A commercial laying diet was fed to the control group. The remaining six groups were fed the same diet supplemented with oregano at 10 g/kg or 20 g/kg, anise at 10 g/kg or 20 g/kg and olive leaves at 10 g/kg or at 20 g/kg. The birds were offered feed and water ad libitum for a period of 29 days, while being kept under commercial conditions. During the experiment, egg production, feed intake and mortality were recorded daily. At the end of the feeding period egg weight, egg yolk, albumen and eggshell weight percentages, egg yolk color (using the L*a*b* color space) and blood serum triglycerides were determined. The diets supplemented with olive leaves (10 g/kg or 20 g/kg) resulted in a tendency (p = 0.054) for higher egg production percentage. Also, the color parameter a* was significantly (p = 0.001) higher in the eggs of quails that consumed oregano (10g/kg or 20 g/kg) or olive leaves (10g/kg or 20 g/kg).

EV, Christaki; EM, Bonos; PC, Florou-Paneri.

2011-06-01

324

The life of an anise-flavored alcoholic beverage: does its stability cloud or confirm theory?  

Science.gov (United States)

The well-known alcoholic beverage Pastis becomes turbid when mixed with water due to the poor solubility of trans-anethol, the anise-flavored component of Pastis in the water solution formed. This destabilization appears as the formation of micrometer-sized droplets that only very slowly grow in size, thus expanding the life of the anise-flavored beverage. The slow growth has been attributed to an extremely low interfacial tension of the droplets. Fitting experimental droplet growth rates to an Ostwald ripening model, interfacial tensions were deduced in the past. Direct determination of the interfacial tensions was not yet reported on these systems. We have measured the interfacial tensions and used these data to predict droplet growth rates using an Ostwald ripening model and a model for creaming of the droplets. The interfacial tension was measured to be about 11 mN/m for a 30/70 w/w % ethanol/water mixture, and it decreases slightly to a value of 1.4 mN/m in the case of a 70/30 w/w % ethanol/water mixture. These values are not as low as those deduced in the past. The theoretical predictions for both the Ostwald ripening rates and the creaming rates, using the directly measured interfacial tensions, are found to contradict with the experimental results on Ostwald ripening and creaming. While the experiments on Ostwald ripening show an increase in stability with increasing ethanol concentration, the results based on our interfacial tension measurements in combination with the same Ostwald ripening model show a decrease in stability with an increase in ethanol concentration. Further research is needed to understand fully which parameters play a role in both droplet growth and the stability of these three-component emulsions to elucidate the current discrepancy between model and experiment. This could be useful for a better control of "spontaneous emulsification" processes. PMID:18215078

Scholten, Elke; Linden, Erik van der; This, Herve

2008-03-01

325

Medicinal plants extracts affect virulence factors expression and biofilm formation by the uropathogenic Escherichia coli  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Medicinal plants are an important source for the therapeutic remedies of various diseases including urinary tract infections. This prompted us to perform research in this area. We decided to focus on medicinal plants species used in urinary tract infections prevention. The aim of our study was to determine the influence of Betulapendula, Equisetum arvense, Herniaria glabra, Galium odoratum, Urtica dioica, and Vaccinium vitis-idaea extracts on bacterial survival and virulence factors involved ...

Wojnicz, Dorota; Kucharska, Alicja Z.; Soko??-?e?towska, Anna; Kicia, Marta; Tichaczek-goska, Dorota

2012-01-01

326

Medicinal Uses of Plants with Particular Reference to the People of Dhirkot. Azad Jammu and Kashmir  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An ethnomedicinal exploration was carried out in Dhirkot and its allied areas district Bagh. The check list consists of 43 species of angiosperms belonging to 14 families. These medicinal plants are singly used or used with the mixture by the local inhabitants. The present report assists in coordinating and co-operation among various agencies such as forest, Pharmaceutical firms interested in the utilization of these medicinal plants and to initiate regeneration work in affected area.

M. S. Gorsi

2002-01-01

327

Aloe Vera: The Miracle Plant Its Medicinal and Traditional Uses in India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aloe vera is the oldest medicinal plant ever known and the most applied medicinal plant worldwide. Extracts of Aloe Vera is a proven skin healer. Aloe Vera help to soothe skin injuries affected by burning, skin irritations, cuts and insect bites, and its bactericidal properties relieve itching and skin swellings. It is known to help slow down the appearance of wrinkles and actively repair the damaged skin cells that cause the visible signs of aging. Aloe is a powerfuldetoxifier, antiseptic an...

Rajeswari, R.; Umadevi, M.; Sharmila Rahale, C.; Pushpa, R.; Selvavenkadesh, S.; Sampath Kumar, K. P.; Debjit Bhowmik

2012-01-01

328

AM Fungal Diversity in Selected Medicinal Plants of Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The association of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) with three medicinally important plants viz., Eclipta prostrata, Indigofera aspalathoides, I. tinctoria collected from three different localities of Kanyakumari District, South India was examined. The study reports the colonization percentage, diversity and species richness of different AM fungi in the rhizosphere of the three medicinal plants and discusses the impact of soil physicochemical characteristics such as soil texture, pH and ava...

Sundar, S. K.; Palavesam, A.; Parthipan, B.

2011-01-01

329

ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS METAL IONS IN SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS USING ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROPHOTOMETER  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Metal ions such as iron , lead, copper, nickel, cadmium , chromium and zinc were investigated in medicinally important plants Alstonia scholaris, Tabernaemontana coronariae, Asparagus racemosus, Mimosa pudica, Leucas aspera and Adhatoda vasica applying atomic absorption spectrophotometer techniques. The purpose of this study was to standardize various metal ion Contamination in indigenous medicinal plants. Maximum concentration of lead was present in Leucas aspera and Adhatoda vasica follo...

Y L Ramachandra, C. Ashajyothi And Padmalatha S. Rai

2012-01-01

330

Ethnobotany of Medicinal Plants in Loma and Gena Bosa Districts (Woredas of Dawro Zone, Southern Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The traditional management, conservation and use of plant diversity with focus on medicinal plants found in and around home gardens in Loma and Gena Bosa Districts of Dawro Zone, Southern Ethiopia was studied. Data was collected between September 2006 and March 2007 to get relevant information and plant specimen of different seasons. The information was gathered through semi-structured interview conducted on 112 traditional healers whose ages ranged between 15 to 121 years. A total of 178 medicinal plants distributed in 64 families were documented in this study. The most frequently used plant part was leaf while the growth form with the highest number (43.82% of representatives among the plants encountered in this study were herbs. About 57.9% medicinal plants were collected from wild while 24.1% were cultivated and 18.5% were both cultivated and collected from wild. A total of 62 human and 27 veterinary diseases were documented in the study. However, only 58% of the traditional healers exercised their indigenous knowledge on treating both human and livestock diseases, while 41.96% practiced treatment of only human diseases. The medicinal plant resources and the associated knowledge of herbal medicine need to be used in a sustainable way and developed for more effective use in the future.

Mathewos Agize

2013-09-01

331

Evaluation of mycotoxins, mycobiota, and toxigenic fungi in selected medicinal plants of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Medicinal plants are used worldwide to treat a variety of ailments. Due to the provenance of medicinal plants, they are subjected to contamination by moulds, which may be responsible for spoilage and production of mycotoxins. The investigation was designed to throw light on mycological and mycotoxicological status of some medicinal plants from Pakistan and the result showed 30 % and 26.7 % samples were contaminated with aflatoxins and ochratoxin A, respectively. Mould contamination was present in 90 % samples, of which 70 % exceeded the permissible limits. Opium poppy, licorice root, and Indian rennet were most contaminated samples. The predominant moulds found were Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, and Penicillium spp. and 31 % of the 47 isolates tested were found to be toxigenic. The findings indicate that the contamination in the medicinal plants may contribute to adverse human health problems. This information would prove helpful for regulatory agencies to establish limits for these contaminants in medicinal plants and will explore ways for export of herbal products to countries where more stringent permissible limits of mycotoxins exist. The study is first of its kind in the country reporting natural occurrence of mycotoxins in medicinal plants in Pakistan. PMID:25209636

Ahmad, Bashir; Ashiq, Samina; Hussain, Arshad; Bashir, Shumaila; Hussain, Mubbashir

2014-01-01

332

Assessment of the importance of medicinal plants among communities around Khiat Ngong of southern Laos.  

Science.gov (United States)

A field survey was launched to identify medicinal plants growing in the Khiat Ngong wetlands and surrounding forested areas of Pathoumphone District, Champasak Province in southern Laos. In this area, 418 plants representing approximately 250 species, belonging to at least 200 genera in 93 families of vascular plants, are used by traditional healers to treat more than 95 symptoms. A large number of species are used for treating fever. At least 14 plant species have not been previously reported for having medicinal properties. At least 10 have previously been investigated and have shown interesting biological activity by other researchers, signaling promising candidates for income-generating activities. PMID:25004742

Elkington, Bethany G; Phiapalath, Phaivanh; Sydara, Kongmany; Somsamouth, Vongtakoune; Goodsmith, Nichole I; Soejarto, D Doel

2014-07-01

333

DNA barcoding as a means for identifying medicinal plants of Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

DNA barcoding involves the generation of DNA sequencing data from particular genetic regions in an organism and the use of these sequence data to identify or 'barcode' that organism and distinguish it from other species. Here, DNA barcoding is being used to identify several medicinal plants found in Pakistan and distinguished them from other similar species. Several challenges to the successful implementation of plant DNA barcoding are presented and discussed. Despite these challenges, DNA barcoding has the potential to uniquely identify medicinal plants and provide quality control and standardization of the plant material supplied to the pharmaceutical industry. (author)

334

IMPORTANT MEDICINAL PLANTS OF JAMMU AND KASHMIR I. KESAR (SAFFRON)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Kesar has been an important ingredient of the recipes of our ancient physicians in the field of Indian systems of medicine and its cultivation is a monopoly of Jammu and Kashmir. This paper presents in detail the historical review, botanical description, vernacular names, distribution in India and world, cultivation, collection, preservation and storage, adulterants, purity tests, chemical composition, action and uses, folk – lore claims and markets with special reference to its medicinal u...

Srivastava, T. N.; Rajasekharan, S.; Badola, D. P.; Shah, D. C.

1985-01-01

335

Antibacterial activity of traditional medicinal plants used by Haudenosaunee peoples of New York State  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance, as well as the evolution of new strains of disease causing agents, is of great concern to the global health community. Our ability to effectively treat disease is dependent on the development of new pharmaceuticals, and one potential source of novel drugs is traditional medicine. This study explores the antibacterial properties of plants used in Haudenosaunee traditional medicine. We tested the hypothesis that extracts from Haudenosaunee medicinal plants used to treat symptoms often caused by bacterial infection would show antibacterial properties in laboratory assays, and that these extracts would be more effective against moderately virulent bacteria than less virulent bacteria. Methods After identification and harvesting, a total of 57 different aqueous extractions were made from 15 plant species. Nine plant species were used in Haudenosaunee medicines and six plant species, of which three are native to the region and three are introduced, were not used in traditional medicine. Antibacterial activity against mostly avirulent (Escherichia coli, Streptococcus lactis and moderately virulent (Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus microbes was inferred through replicate disc diffusion assays; and observed and statistically predicted MIC values were determined through replicate serial dilution assays. Results Although there was not complete concordance between the traditional use of Haudenosaunee medicinal plants and antibacterial activity, our data support the hypothesis that the selection and use of these plants to treat disease was not random. In particular, four plant species exhibited antimicrobial properties as expected (Achillea millefolium, Ipomoea pandurata, Hieracium pilosella, and Solidago canadensis, with particularly strong effectiveness against S. typhimurium. In addition, extractions from two of the introduced species (Hesperis matronalis and Rosa multiflora were effective against this pathogen. Conclusions Our data suggest that further screening of plants used in traditional Haudenosaunee medicine is warranted, and we put forward several species for further investigation of activity against S. typhimurium (A. millefolium, H. matronalis, I. pandurata, H. pilosella, R. multiflora, S. canadensis.

Meyers Ryan

2010-11-01

336

Medicinal plants useful for malaria therapy in Okeigbo, Ondo State, Southwest Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is increasing resistance of malaria parasites to chloroquine, the cheapest and commonly used drug for malaria in Nigeria. Artemisin, a product from medicinal plant indigenous to China, based on active principle of Artemisia annua, has been introduced into the Nigerian market. However not much has been done to project antimalaria properties of indigenous medicinal plants. This study thus, has the main objective of presenting medicinal plants used for malaria therapy in Okeigbo, Ondo State, South west Nigeria. Focus group discussions and interview were held about plants often found useful for malaria therapy in the community. Fifty species (local names) including for example: Morinda lucida (Oruwo), Enantia chlorantha (Awopa), Alstonia boonei (Ahun), Azadirachta indica (Dongoyaro) and Khaya grandifoliola (Oganwo) plants were found to be in use for malaria therapy at Okeigbo, Southwest, Nigeria . The parts of plants used could either be the barks, roots, leaves or whole plants. The recipes also, could be a combination of various species of plants or plant parts. This study highlights potential sources for the development of new antimalarial drugs from indigenous medicinal plants found in Okeigbo, Nigeria. PMID:20162091

Odugbemi, Tolu O; Akinsulire, Odunayo R; Aibinu, Ibukun E; Fabeku, Peter O

2006-01-01

337

MASS MULTIPLICATION OF THE INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANT Tylophora Indica (Burm.f.) Merr.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tylophora indica (Burm.f) Merr. (ASCLEPIDACEAE) is an important Indian medicinal plant. It is called "ASTHMA KODI" OR "NANJARUPPAN" IN Tamil in the Siddha system of medicine. Tamil medical literature reveal that it is an ideal plant medicine for respiratory problems and is also a cardiac tonic. For medicinal purposes it is collected only from the wild. It has not yet been brought under cultivation. Its taxonomy, morphology, ecology and medicinal uses were studied. Since, tissue-culture is a costly technology and requiring a high-tech laboratory a low-cost mass- multiplication technique has been invented through water-culture experiments, in order to make its saplings available to the interested herbal farmers in a larger scale. The results are reported in this paper, which will be of immense help and use to the herbal farmers. PMID:22557081

Dhandapani, R; Balu, S

2002-10-01

338

Isolation of the plant hormone (+)-abscisic acid as an antimycobacterial constituent of the medicinal plant endophyte Nigrospora sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

An extract of the endophytic fungus Nigropsora sp. (isolate TC2-054) from the Canadian medicinal plant Fragaria virginiana exhibited significant antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra. Bioassay guided fractionation revealed that linoleic acid derivatives and the plant hormone (+)-abscisic acid (ABA) were responsible for the observed antimycobacterial activity. This activity of ABA has not been previously reported. PMID:24555269

Clark, Trevor N; Ellsworth, Katelyn; Li, Haoxin; Johnson, John A; Gray, Christopher A

2013-12-01

339

Micropropagation: a tool for the production of high quality plant-based medicines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Medicinal plants are the most important source of life saving drugs for the majority of the world's population. The biotechnological tools are important to select, multiply and conserve the critical genotypes of medicinal plants. Plant tissue culture techniques offer an integrated approach for the production of standardized quality phytopharmaceutical through mass-production of consistent plant material for physiological characterization and analysis of active ingredients. Micropropagation protocols for cloning of some medicinal plants such as Catharanthus roseus (Apocynaceae), Chlorophytum borivilianum (Liliaceae), Datura metel (Solanaceae), and Bacopa monnieri (Scrophulariaceae) have been developed. Regeneration occurred via organogenesis and embryogenesis in response to auxins and cytokinins. The integrated approaches of our culture systems will provide the basis for the future development of novel, safe, effective, and high-quality products for consumers. PMID:16472132

Debnath, Mousumi; Malik, C P; Bisen, P S

2006-02-01

340

An environmental analysis of the activity of bioflavonoid accumulation in medicinal plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article presents experimental data on the rutin, catechin, and leucoanthocyanin content in medicinal plants (66 species from 31 families. A significant correlation between the catechine and leucoanthocyanin content in plant tissues (r = 0.89 is observed. The study identified promising plant species with a high content of bioflavonoids. These plants can be used as a basis for developing innovative functional foods that exhibit high antioxidant activity.

Maslennokov P.

2014-08-01

 
 
 
 
341

Cultivation, Phytochemical Studies, Biological Activities and Medicinal Uses of Aloe ferox, Grandfather of Aloes an Important Amazing Medicinal Plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aloe ferox is an ethnomedicinal and economic plant in India and worldwide. It is a common ingredient in Ayurvedic medicine. To date, many scientific studies have been carried out but a comprehensive review on this plant is lacking. This review aims to cover the cultivation practices and biological activities, the active compounds derived from Aloe ferox. Literature survey revealed that the pharmacological effects of Aloe ferox range from anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-diabetic, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegeneration to anti-cancer property. Over 130 biological active compounds consisting of fatty acid, sterols, sesquiterpene lactones, flavonoids and carbohydrates have been identified from different parts of the plant. Aloe ferox is similar to Aloe vera but it has 20 times more nutritional activities. Many of these active compounds were derived from the leaf gel and have been evaluated for a number of biological activities. Despite the encouraging results demonstrated by these studies and the traditional use as nutraceutical agent, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, immune modulator, anti-tumor, anti-bacterial, antifungal, antiviral and toxicity of Aloe ferox leaf extracts or its derivatives are absent. Thus, a systematic documenting review would provide more insights and spur further research that would lead to production of safer and economical alternative medicine from Aloe ferox. In this review we briefly introduced its phytochemical, biological activities, medicinal uses and cultivation practices which can be useful as a potential drug in pharmaceutical industry. The propagation of medicinal plant Aloe ferox is vital for sustainable uses in modern world.

Chandra Sekhar Singh Bhaludra

2013-01-01

342

In vitro Antiplasmodial Activity of Some Medicinal Plants Used in Folk Medicine in Burkina Faso Against Malaria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antiplasmodial activities of four plants used in traditional medicine. Hydroethanolic extract, hydroacetonic extract and aqueous extract of Mitragyna inermis (Willd.) O. Kuntze (Rubiaceae), Combretum sericeum G. Don (Combretaceae), Alternanthera pungens H.B. and K (Amaranthaceae) and Ampelocissus grantii (Baker) Planch (Vitaceae) have been tested in vitro against chloroquine-resistant strain (K1) and chloroquine-sensitve strain (3D7) of Plasm...

Cheikna Zongo; Lamoussa Paul Ouattara, Aly Savadogo

2011-01-01

343

Human health sciences—From cultivation to utilization of medicinal plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this review is to recognize the ability of plants used as food and medicine for our health care. From this point of view, we have studied economical production techniques of medicinal plants and vegetables that have physiological functions such as disease prevention, health maintenance and improvement of physical function. We revealed the suitable cultivation techniques such as the long-term freezing seed storage, and systematic and efficient seedling production of Swertia japonica in the future domestication in Japan. We have also studied the development of a new and friendly product for preparing decoction of Kampo medicine (Japanese traditional medicine to utilize medicinal plants effectively. It was possible that the decoction of some Kampo medicines in a micro-wavable container could be carried out in substitution for a common method. This study revealed that the improvement of decoction method of Kampo medicine might contribute to conserve the energic or natural resources, especially medicinal plants of crude drugs in comparison with the conventional way. Moreover, the reevaluation of some vegetables such as Japanese radish and carrot in terms of the suitability as materials for “Yakuzen”, and creating and producing of newly low potassium tomatoes for improving the quality of life (QOL of dialysis patients and potassium restricted patients were also studied by focusing traditional and local vegetables. Some local cultivars containing stronger flavor and taste with higher amount of functional constituents are suitable for our health care than F1 (first filial generation cultivars. Our research will give feedback each other by cross cutting way, and human health science from the cultivation to utilization of medicinal plants and vegetables will be important and needed for our healthy and comfortable life in the future.

Satoru Tsukagoshi

2012-05-01

344

Medicinal plant knowledge of the Bench ethnic group of Ethiopia: an ethnobotanical investigation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants have traditionally been used as a source of medicine in Ethiopia since early times for the control of various ailments afflicting humans and their domestic animals. However, little work has been made in the past to properly document and promote the knowledge. Today medicinal plants and the associated knowledge in the country are threatened due to deforestation, environmental degradation and acculturation. Urgent ethnobotanical studies and subsequent conservation measures are, therefore, required to salvage these resources from further loss. The purpose of the present study was to record and analyse traditional medicinal plant knowledge of the Bench ethnic group in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with Bench informants selected during transect walks made to houses as well as those identified as knowledgeable by local administrators and elders to gather data regarding local names of medicinal plants used, parts harvested, ailments treated, remedy preparation methods, administration routes, dosage and side effects. The same method was also employed to gather information on marketability, habitat and abundance of the reported medicinal plants. Purposive sampling method was used in the selection of study sites within the study district. Fidelity Level (FL value was calculated for each claimed medicinal plant to estimate its healing potential. Results The study revealed 35 Bench medicinal plants: 32 used against human ailments and three to treat both human and livestock ailments. The majority of Bench medicinal plants were herbs and leaf was the most frequently used part in the preparation of remedies. Significantly higher average number of medicinal plants was claimed by men, older people and illiterate ones as compared to women, younger people and literate ones, respectively. The majority of the medicinal plants used in the study area were uncultivated ones. Conclusion The study revealed acculturation as the major threat to the continuation of the traditional medical practice in the study area. Awareness should, therefore, be created among the Bench community, especially the young ones, by concerned organizations and individuals regarding the usefulness of the practice.

Woldu Zerihun

2009-11-01

345

Inhibitory effects of essential oils of medicinal plants from growth of plant pathogenic fungi.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant cells produce a vast amount of secondary metabolites. Production of some compounds is restricted to a single species. Some compounds are nearly always found only in certain specific plant organs and during a specific developmental period of the plant. Some secondary metabolites of plants serve as defensive compounds against invading microorganisms. Nowadays, it is attempted to substitute the biological and natural agents with chemically synthesized fungicides. In the present research, the antifungal activities of essential oils of seven medicinal plants on mycelial growth of three soilborne plant pathogenic fungi were investigated. The plants consisted of Zataria multiflora, Thymus carmanicus, Mentha pieperata, Satureja hortensis, Lavandual officinolis, Cuminum cyminum and Azadirachta indica. The first five plants are from the family Labiatae. Examined fungi, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani are the causal agents of tomato root rot. Essential oils of Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus, M. pieperata, S. hortensis and C. cyminum were extracted by hydro-distillation method. Essential oils of L. officinalis and A. indica were extracted by vapor-distillation method. A completely randomized design with five replicates was used to examine the inhibitory impact of each concentration (300, 600 and 900 ppm) of each essential oil. Poisoned food assay using potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium was employed. Results showed that essential oils of A. indica, Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus and S. hortensis in 900 ppm at 12 days post-inoculation, when the control fungi completely covered the plates, prevented about 90% from mycelial growth of each of the fungi. While, the essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis in the same concentration and time prevented 54.86, 52.77 and 48.84%, respectively, from F. solani growth. These substances did not prevent from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and R. solani growth. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of essential oils of T. carmanicus, Z. multiflora and A. indica from R. solani and F. solani growth was 900 and 600 ppm, respectively. In addition, the MIC of essential oils of these plants and essential oil of S. hortensis from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici growth was 900 ppm. The MIC of essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis from F. solani growth was 900 ppm. PMID:22702190

Panjehkeh, N; Jahani Hossein-Abadi, Z

2011-01-01

346

Pharmacognostical and phytochemical screening of an Ayurvedic Medicinal Plant ‘Karunthakali’ (Solanum rubrum Mill  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The presence of phytochemicals and the medicinal value of the Ayurvedic medicinal plant Karunthakali or Karimthakali (Solanum rubrum Mill is investigated in detail for the first time, both quantitatively and qualitatively. Phytochemical compounds are identified from the samples extracted from the leaf, root and seed of the plant, using standard methods. The ash values of the plant leaf are obtained. Alkaloids, flavanoids, anthronol glycosides, terpenes, carbohydrates, saponins and proteins are found present in this plant parts. Tanins, Free amino acids, Free Anthroquinone and Cartenoids are absent in this plant. Presence of high mineral content is the unique identification observed in this plant. The preliminary investigation of phytochemical study of this plant confirms qualitatively its antimicrobial, antiviral, antidiarrhoel, anthelmintic and anticancer activity.

Santhosh Kumar S

2013-12-01

347

Traditional use of medicinal plants in the boreal forest of Canada: review and perspectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The boreal forest of Canada is home to several hundred thousands Aboriginal people who have been using medicinal plants in traditional health care systems for thousands of years. This knowledge, transmitted by oral tradition from generation to generation, has been eroding in recent decades due to rapid cultural change. Until now, published reviews about traditional uses of medicinal plants in boreal Canada have focused either on particular Aboriginal groups or on restricted regions. Here, we present a review of traditional uses of medicinal plants by the Aboriginal people of the entire Canadian boreal forest in order to provide comprehensive documentation, identify research gaps, and suggest perspectives for future research. Methods A review of the literature published in scientific journals, books, theses and reports. Results A total of 546 medicinal plant taxa used by the Aboriginal people of the Canadian boreal forest were reported in the reviewed literature. These plants were used to treat 28 disease and disorder categories, with the highest number of species being used for gastro-intestinal disorders, followed by musculoskeletal disorders. Herbs were the primary source of medicinal plants, followed by shrubs. The medicinal knowledge of Aboriginal peoples of the western Canadian boreal forest has been given considerably less attention by researchers. Canada is lacking comprehensive policy on harvesting, conservation and use of medicinal plants. This could be explained by the illusion of an infinite boreal forest, or by the fact that many boreal medicinal plant species are widely distributed. Conclusion To our knowledge, this review is the most comprehensive to date to reveal the rich traditional medicinal knowledge of Aboriginal peoples of the Canadian boreal forest. Future ethnobotanical research endeavours should focus on documenting the knowledge held by Aboriginal groups that have so far received less attention, particularly those of the western boreal forest. In addition, several critical issues need to be addressed regarding the legal, ethical and cultural aspects of the conservation of medicinal plant species and the protection of the associated traditional knowledge.

Uprety Yadav

2012-01-01

348

Antimicrobial Activity and Ethnomedicinal Uses of Some Medicinal Plants from Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Orissa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, antimicrobial activity and ethnomedicinal uses of 40 medicinal plants along with medicinal properties has been reported from Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Orissa, India. Aqueous extracts of different parts of the plant (leaf, stem, bark, bulb, fruit and root reported to have medicinal properties were tested for their antimicrobial activity against gram positive and gram negative human pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 1144, Bacillus licheniformis MTCC 7425, Bacillus brevis MTCC 7404, Bacillus subtilis MTCC 7164, Staphylococcus epidermidis MTCC 3615, Streptococcus aureus (Lab. isolate, Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 1034, Escherichia coli MTCC 1089, Vibrio cholerae (Lab. isolate, Shigella flexneri (Lab. isolate and one fungal species Candida krusei (Lab. isolate. Results showed that 23 out of 40 medicinal plants have antimicrobial activity of which, 14 medicinal plants have outstanding antimicrobial activity. Prominent species with antimicrobial activity are Urginea indica (bulb, Croton roxburghii (bark, Melastoma malabathricum (leaf, Diospyros melanoxylon (bark, Pterospermum acerifolium (leaf, Nyctanthes arbortristis (bark, Oroxylum indicum (bark, Agava sisalana (leaf, Clausena excavate (root Vitex negundo (leaf, Glycyrrhiza glabra (fruit, Enhydra fluctuans (leaf, Hemidesmus indicus (leaf and Flemingia nana (root with inhibition zones more than 20 mm where as 9 other plants were found to have moderate antimicrobial activity with inhibition zones of less than 20 mm. Rest 17 plants did not show any antimicrobial activity.

H.N. Thatoi

2008-01-01

349

Bioactivity of indigenous medicinal plants against the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.  

Science.gov (United States)

Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae),Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species. PMID:25373231

Hammad, E Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A; Saliba, N; Talhouk, S

2014-01-01

350

Investigation of the effects of selected medicinal plants on experimental thrombosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Six medicinal plants indigenous to Africa were evaluated for their activity on experimental thrombosis in mice. Of the plants screened, the extract of Commiphora molmol exhibited the strongest antithrombotic activity, while the extract of Ageratum conyzoides showed no marked activity. This study established the antithrombotic effect of the extracts of Azadiractha indica, Bridelia ferruginea, Commiphora molmol, Garcinia kola and Curcuma longa. PMID:10353165

Olajide, O A

1999-05-01

351

INFLUENCE OF MAGNETIC FIELDS OF VARIABLE INTENSITY ON BEHAVIOUR OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper contains a study on the influence of some magnetic fields of variable intensity on two species of medicinal plants: Mentha sp. and Calendula officinalis. We had in view the effect of the magnetic field on the growth dynamic and the percentage in which the plants regenerated from callus.

HORIA RADU CRIVEANU

2007-07-01

352

Bioactivity of Indigenous Medicinal Plants against the Cotton Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae), Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species. PMID:25204756

Hammad, E Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A; Saliba, N; Talhouk, S

2014-08-01

353

Preliminary assessment of medicinal plants used as antimalarials in the southeastern Venezuelan Amazon  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Eighteen species of medicinal plants used in the treatment of malaria in Bolívar State, Venezuela were recorded and they belonged to Compositae, Meliaceae, Anacardiaceae, Bixaceae, Boraginaceae, Caricaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Leguminosae, Myrtaceae, Phytolaccaceae, Plantaginaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Solanaceae and Verbenaceae families. Antimalarial plant activities have been linked to a range of compounds including anthroquinones, berberine, flavonoids, limonoids, naphthquinones, sesquiterpenes, quassinoids, indol and quinoline alkaloids.

Caraballo Alejandro

2004-01-01

354

SCREENING OF MEDICINAL PLANTS FOR EFFECTIVE BIOGENESIS OF SILVER NANO PARTICLES AND EFFICIENT ANTI-MICROBIAL ACTIVITY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Metal nanoparticles have been using as an ingredients in the preparation of complementary medicines to cure different diseases is an age old medicinal practices. The plant based Ayurvedic preparations are preferred by 80% of the world population and WHO is encouraging the green medicine due to its less side effects. Hence an attempt has been made to screen this important medicinal plant for secondary metabolites biogenesis of silver nanoparticles (SNPs) and their antimicrobial efficacy. The s...

Ankanna Et Al, S.

2012-01-01

355

Studies on Mycorrhizal Association in Some Medicinal Plants of Azad Jammu and Kashmir  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seventy six medicinal plants were investigated for vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM association in a survey of the Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza was found to be of universal occurrence in all plants located at different habitats. Great variations were found in the VAM infection percentage and the extent of hyphal infection. Plants at vegetative stage exhibited more VAM infection percentage compared to those at flowering and fruiting stages. Herbaceous plants showed more infections in comparison with the shrubby and woody plants. The extent of root colonization by VA endohphytes varied with the soil type and plant species. Endophytes other than VA were also recorded.

M. Sadiq Gorsi

2002-01-01

356

ETHNOBOTANICALY IMPORTANT MEDICINAL PLANTS OF KAMRUP DISTRICT, ASSAM, INDIA, USED IN FERTILITY TREATMENT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Assam including all the districts is one of the richest sites of plant biodiversity, boosting in thousands of medicinal plants. The present study in due course of time would be helpful to find out potential medicinal plants or chemicals extracted from them that can be of tremendous use in fertility enhancing and in anti fertility. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in different areas of Kamrup district for a period of 6 months from August 2010 to January 2011. During the field study 50 pl...

Deka J; Kalita J. C.

2013-01-01

357

Ethnobotany of Medicinal Plants from Tian Mu Shan Biosphere Reserve, Zhejiang-Province, China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study comprises of results of an ethnobotanical survey of Tian Mu Shan Biosphere Reserve ethnic region of Zhejiang Province, China, conducted in year 2005.Various folklore recipes of sixty seven medicinal plants of thirty six families of the area were recorded and their ethnopharmacological aspects were discussed. The most common families were Ranunculaceae 13.43%, Rosaceae 7.46% and Poaceae 5.97% and most frequent plant parts used are; roots 34%, leaf 26% and whole plant 18%. This survey reveals that these traditional medicines, being major source of treatment of different diseases still hold great importance in lives of various ethnic groups of the area. It will be appropriate to document these herbal medicinal folklore informations as this survey can prove to be an invaluable guide in present day screening of new drugs and incentive clue for phytochemical and pharmacological analysis and it can enhance the conservation of plant biodiversity of the area as well.

Muhammad Ishtiaq Chaudhary

2006-01-01

358

Plant regeneration from callus cultures of Vitex trifolia (Lamiales: Lamiaceae): a potential medicinal plant.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vitex trifolia is a shrub species with popular use as a medicinal plant, for which leaves, roots and flowers have been reported to heal different distresses. The increasing exploitation of these plants has endangered its conservation, and has importantly justified the use of biotechnological tools for their propagation. Our aim was to present an efficient protocol for plant regeneration through organogenesis; and simultaneously, to analyze the genetic homogeneity of the established clonal lines by Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) markers. Plantlet regeneration was achieved in callus cultures derived from stem, leaf and petiole explants of V. trifolia on a differently supplemented Murashige & Skoog medium, and incubated at 25 +/-2 degrees C under a light intensity of 61 micromol/m2s from cool white fluorescent lamps and a 16 h photoperiod. The rate of shoot bud regeneration was positively correlated with the concentration of hormones in the nutrient media. Shoot buds regenerated more rapidly from stem and petiole explants as compared to leaf explants on medium containing 11.10 microM BAP in combination with 0.54 microMNAA. Addition of 135.74-271.50 microM adenine sulphate (Ads) and 0.72-1.44 microM gibberellic acid (GA3) to the culture medium increased the growth of shoot buds. The highest rate of shoot bud regeneration responses was obtained in stem explants using 11.10 microM BAP in combination with 0.54 microM NAA, 271.50 microM Ads and 1.44 microM GA3. In vitro rooting of the differentiated shoots was achieved in media containing 1.23 microM indole butyric acid (IBA) with 2% (w/v) sucrose. Regenerated plantlets were successfully established in soil with 86% survival under field condition. Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA and Inter Simple Sequence Repeat markers analyses have confirmed the genetic uniformity of the regenerated plantlets derived from the second up to fifth subcultures. This protocol may help in mass propagation and conservation of this important medicinal plant of great therapeutic potential. PMID:24027909

Samantaray, Sanghamitra; Bishoyi, Ashok Kumar; Maiti, Satyabrata

2013-09-01

359

Indigenous plants and schistosomiasis control in south africa:molluscicidal activity of some zulu medicinal plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work reviews plant molluscicides and presents preliminary findings of a molluscicidal screening programme carried out on some South African candidate molluscicidal plants. The overall objective of studies on plant molluscicides is to complement methods for controlling snails acting as intermediate hosts of schistosomes. In the last two decades, plant molluscicides have received considerable attention in the search for cheaper, effective, environmentally-friendly alternatives to expensive, imported chemotherapeutic agents and synthetic molluscicides used in schistosomiasis control. Although molluscicidal screening programmes have been conducted in many African countries, only relatively little efforts have been made to identify South African plants which could be suitable for use locally as plant molluascicides. The attraction of a locally grown molluscicidal plant is based on the development of a philosophy of selfreliance and community participation. This approach is dependent on community recognition of the infection as a public health menace, and their acceptance of the proposed control measures. Schistosomiasis has been recognized as a primary health problem in KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa, especially among the people in the rural communities that depend on river-water for all their water requirements. Concerns for schistosomiasis in the Province have indeed been matched by a 75% prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium infection among children aged 6 to 16 years. Forty-one medicinal plants commonly used by traditional healers for the treatment of schistosomiasis in KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa were evaluated for molluscicidal activity according to WHO?s method, using niclosamide (BayluscideÒ as reference molluscicide for comparison. Adult Bulinus africanus and Biomphalaria pfeifferi were exposed to sublethal and lethal doses of crude, aqueous extracts of the Zulu antischistosomal plants for a period of 24 hours. Results obtained indicate that 14 (34% of the 41 plants examined possess moderate to strong molluscicidal properties. Sublethal, toxic effects of the active plant extracts on the snails included retraction of the foot-sole and mobility, swelling of the cephalopedal mass, and haemorrhagic blistering in the subepithelium of the foot-sole, while administration of lethal doses resulted in cessation of mobility, severe swelling of the cephalopedal mass, increased mucous secretion, and haemorrhage. It is speculated that part of the molluscicidal actions of the active plant extracts could involve distruption of the snails? foot-sole epithelium osmoregulatory physiology and enzyme-mediated pathways. However, osmolality and electrolyte studies, as well as enzymatic, histochemical and biochemical studies are required to substantiate these possible modes of molluscicidal action of the South African candidate plant molluscicides. Treatment of schistosomiasis is based on chemotherapy with praziquantel, which is the currently-available drug of choice for all forms of the disease. However, since resistance to praziquantel has been demonstrated in many schistosomiasis endemic areas of the world; of necessity is a holistic approach which should include not only reducing the disease burden in schistosomiasis-infected persons, but also measures interfering with the life-cycle of the parasite by eliminating the intermediate host snail vectors. Inexpensive, non-toxic, effective and readily-available alternative drugs from natural sources are certainly warranted

John A. O. Ojewole

2004-01-01

360

Vibriocidal activity of certain medicinal plants used in Indian folklore medicine by tribals of Mahakoshal region of central India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: Screening of the medicinal plants and determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC against Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Materials and Methods: A simple in vitro screening assay was employed for the standard strain of Vibrio cholerae, 12 isolates of Vibrio cholerae non-O1, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Aqueous and organic solvent extracts of different parts of the plants were investigated by using the disk diffusion method. Extracts from 16 medicinal plants were selected on account of the reported traditional uses for the treatment of cholera and gastrointestinal diseases, and they were assayed for vibriocidal activities. Results: The different extracts differed significantly in their vibriocidal properties with respect to different solvents. The MIC values of the plant extracts against test bacteria were found to be in the range of 2.5-20 mg/ml. Conclusions: The results indicated that Lawsonia inermis, Saraca indica, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia belerica, Allium sativum, and Datura stramonium served as broad-spectrum vibriocidal agents.

Sharma Anjana

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in Terai forest of western Nepal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Nepal Himalayas have been known as a rich source for valuable medicinal plants since Vedic periods. Present work is the documentation of indigenous knowledge on plant utilization as natural remedy by the inhabitants of terai forest in Western Nepal. Methods Study was conducted during 2010–2011 following standard ethnobotanical methods. Data about medicinal uses of plants were collected by questionnaire, personal interview and group discussion with pre identified informants. Voucher specimens were collected with the help of informants, processed into herbarium following standard methods, identified with the help of pertinent floras and taxonomic experts, and submitted in Department of Botany, Butwal Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Nepal for future references. Results During the present study 66 medicinal plant species belonging to 37 families and 60 genera has been documented. These plants were used to treat various diseases and ailments grouped under 11 disease categories, with the highest number of species (41 being used for gastro-intestinal disorders, followed by dermatological disorders (34. In the study area the informants’ consensus about usages of medicinal plants ranges from 0.93 to 0.97 with an average value of 0.94. Herbs (53% were the primary source of medicine, followed by trees (23%. Curcuma longa (84% and Azadirachta indica (76% are the most frequently and popularly used medicinal plant species in the study area. Acacia catechu, Bacopa monnieri, Bombax ceiba, Drymaria diandra, Rauvolfia serpentina, and Tribulus terrestris are threatened species which needs to be conserved for future use. Conclusions The high degree of consensus among the informants suggests that current use and knowledge are still strong, and thus the preservation of today's knowledge shows good foresight in acting before much has been lost. The connections between plant use and conservation are also important ones, especially as the authors note that neither the local inhabitants nor the government is addressing the potential loss of valuable species in this region.

Singh Anant

2012-05-01

362

Sacred groves of north Malabar: treasure trove of endemic and rare medicinal plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available (Abstract selected from presentation in National Conference on Biodiversity of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Collection, Characterization and Utilization, held at Anand, India during November 24-25, 2010  Sacred groves are one of the finest examples of traditional in situ conservation practices and act as treasure house of endemic, endangered and rare plants. Endemic species of any geographical region, throw light on the biogeography of the area, areas of extinction and evolution of the flora. Twelve famous sacred groves of north Malabar region of Kerala were selected for study. Studies were aimed at the documentation of floristic diversity with special reference to endemic as well as RET medicinal plants and to know threats to them. Present inventory accounted for a total of 99 endemic angiosperms, of which 28 qualified for RET categories. Their role in germplasm conservation is evident from the fact that not a single plant is common to the groves studied and restriction of 47 endemic plants to any one of the grove. There are 59 endemic plants, of which 18 belong to RET category are in high demand due to their medicinal properties. Medicinal plant diversity varies from a minimum of 65% to a maximum of 91% while that of endemic plants ranges from 11% in Andallur to 18% in Edayilakkad. Present study revealed the endemic plant diversity of these groves and also their role in the conserving germplasms of wild yam, figs, pepper, mango and a variety of endemic medicinal plants. Like other groves of Kerala, these are also facing the threat of extinction from increasing anthropogenic activities and there is an urgent need of complete protection and public awareness for the existence of these near-climax communities.

K. Subrahmanya Prasad

2011-01-01

363

Ethnobotanical survey in Canhane village, district of Massingir, Mozambique: medicinal plants and traditional knowledge  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicinal plants are used by 80% of people from developing countries to fulfill their primary health needs, occupying a key position on plant research and medicine. Taking into account that, besides their pharmaceutical importance, these plants contribute greatly to ecosystems' stability, a continuous documentation and preservation of traditional knowledge is a priority. The objective of this study was to organize a database of medicinal plants including their applications and associated procedures in Canhane village, district of Massingir, province of Gaza, Mozambique. Methods In order to gather information about indigenous medicinal plants and to maximize the collection of local knowledge, eleven informants were selected taking into account the dimension of the site and the fact that the vegetation presents a great homogeneity. The data were collected through intensive structured and semi-structured interviews performed during field research. Taxonomical identification of plant species was based on field observations and herbarium collections. Results A total of 53 plant species have been reported, which were used to treat 50 different human health problems. More than half of the species were used for stomach and intestine related disturbances (including major diseases such as diarrhea and dysentery. Additionally, four species with therapeutic applications were reported for the first time, whose potential can further be exploited. The great majority of the identified species was also associated with beliefs and myths and/or used as food. In general, the community was conscientious and motivated about conservational issues and has adopted measures for the rational use of medicinal plants. Conclusions The ethnomedicinal use of plant species was documented in the Canhane village. The local community had a rich ethnobotanical knowledge and adopted sound management conservation practices. The data compiled in this study show the social importance of the surveyed plants being a contribution to the documentation of PGR at the national and regional level.

Tavares João

2010-12-01

364

Traditional medicinal plant knowledge and use by local healers in Sekoru District, Jimma Zone, Southwestern Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The knowledge and use of medicinal plant species by traditional healers was investigated in Sekoru District, Jimma Zone, Southwestern Ethiopia from December 2005 to November 2006. Traditional healers of the study area were selected randomly and interviewed with the help of translators to gather information on the knowledge and use of medicinal plants used as a remedy for human ailments in the study area. In the current study, it was reported that 27 plant species belonging to 27 genera and 18 families were commonly used to treat various human ailments. Most of these species (85.71%) were wild and harvested mainly for their leaves (64.52%). The most cited ethnomedicinal plant species was Alysicarpus quartinianus A. Rich., whose roots and leaves were reported by traditional healers to be crushed in fresh and applied as a lotion on the lesions of patients of Abiato (Shererit). No significant correlation was observed between the age of traditional healers and the number of species reported and the indigenous knowledge transfer was found to be similar. More than one medicinal plant species were used more frequently than the use of a single species for remedy preparations. Plant parts used for remedy preparations showed significant difference with medicinal plant species abundance in the study area. PMID:17547765

Yineger, Haile; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw

2007-01-01

365

Evaluation of fungal burden and aflatoxin presence in packed medicinal plants treated by gamma radiation.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was developed to evaluate the fungal burden, toxigenic molds, and mycotoxin contamination and to verify the effects of gamma radiation in four kinds of medicinal plants stored before and after 30 days of irradiation treatment. Eighty samples of medicinal plants (Peumus boldus, Camellia sinensis, Maytenus ilicifolia, and Cassia angustifolia) purchased from drugstores, wholesale, and open-air markets in São Paulo city, Brazil, were analyzed. The samples were treated using a (60)Co gamma ray source (Gammacell) with doses of 5 and 10 kGy. Nonirradiated samples were used as controls of fungal isolates. For enumeration of fungi on medicinal plants, serial dilutions of the samples were plated in duplicate onto dichloran 18% glycerol agar. The control samples revealed a high burden of molds, including toxigenic fungi. The process of gamma radiation was effective in reducing the number of CFU per gram in all irradiated samples of medicinal plants after 30 days of storage, using a dose of 10 kGy and maintaining samples in a protective package. No aflatoxins were detected. Gamma radiation treatment can be used as an effective method for preventing fungal deterioration of medicinal plants subject to long-term storage. PMID:20501045

Aquino, Simone; Gonçalez, Edlayne; Rossi, Maria Helena; Nogueira, Juliana Hellmeister de Campos; Reis, Tatiana Alves Dos; Corrêa, Benedito

2010-05-01

366

A study of the medicinal plants used by the Marakwet Community in Kenya  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The medicinal plants used by herbalists in Kenya have not been well documented, despite their widespread use. The threat of complete disappearance of the knowledge on herbal medicine from factors such as deforestation, lack of proper regulation, overexploitation and sociocultural issues warrants an urgent need to document the information. The purpose of the study was to document information on medicinal plants used by herbalists in Marakwet District towards the utilization of indigenous ethnobotanical knowledge for the advancement of biomedical research and development. Methods Semi- structured oral interviews were conducted with 112 practicing herbalists. The types of plants used were identified and the conditions treated recorded. Results Herbal practice is still common in the district, and 111 plants were identified to have medicinal or related uses. Different herbal preparations including fruits and healing vegetables are employed in the treatment of various medical conditions. Veterinary uses and pesticides were also recorded. Conclusion The study provides comprehensive ethnobotanical information about herbal medicine and healing methods among the Marakwet community. The identification of the active ingredients of the plants used by the herbalists may provide some useful leads for the development of new drugs. PMID:24555424

2014-01-01

367

GERMPLASM EVALUATION OF MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS IN HIGHLAND BALOCHISTAN, PAKISTAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research studies are carried out for cultivation potential of medicinal and aromatic plants [Thyme, Oregano, Rosemary, Sage (belonging to the family Lamiaceae] in Balochistan. The species studied showed good adaptability in cold and dry area and production potential in highland Balochistan. A medicinal herb garden was also established at Arid Zone Research Centre, Quetta with more than 60 potential medicinal and aromatic plants. This germplasm category includes culinary and herbal teas (Thymus vulgaris, Matricaria recutita, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha piperita, Rosmarinus officinalis, Cymbopogon citrates, Artemisia drancunculus, Origanum majorana, Origanum vulgare. Aromatic plants (Lavandula angustifolia, Lavandula stoechas, Rosmarinus officinalis and medicinal plants (Tanacetum parthenium, Hyssopus officinalis, Pimpinella anisum, Achillea celifolium, Achillea millefolium, Borago officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Oenothera biennis, Crocus sativus. Available germplasm of annually sown crops like (Foeniculum vulgare, Carum copticum, Linum usitatissimum, Anethunm sowa and Nigella sativa, Cuminum cyminum were also evaluated and characterized for morphological description and registration with the Federal Seed Registration and Certification Department. These crops have also been introduced among the farming communities in different agro-ecological zones of Balochistan. The results indicate that medicinal and aromatic plants have great potential for commercial scale cultivation in Balochistan subject to provision of better and sustainable marketing avenues.

ASLAM GILL

2008-08-01

368

BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF MULBERRY ASSOCIATED WITH INTERCROPPING OF MEDICINAL PLANTS UNDER TEMPERATE CLIMATIC CONDITIONSBIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF MULBERRY ASSOCIATED WITH INTERCROPPING OF MEDICINAL PLANTS UNDER TEMPERATE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Kashmir valley represents temperate climatic conditions and is known for its bivoltine sericulture. The sericulture in the region however, sustains on tree type of plants. Majority of sericulturists in this traditional area have taken up mulberry cultivation on small land holdings as a life sustaining occupation. Other farmers with more land have taken up it as subsidiary occupation. Mulberry is facing stiff competition from other economic crops. In order to make the mulberry cultivation more profitable and sustainable, intercrops can be practiced with them. Medicinal plants like Lavendula officinalis, Atropa belladonna and Echinacea purpurea are important source of alkaloids and essential oils, which have huge demand in pharmaceutical industry. The wider spacing available in the tree type of plantation of mulberry facilitates the cultivation of these medicinal plants as an intercrop. The present paper focuses on utilization of medicinal plants as an intercrop with mulberry to generate an additional income to the progressive farmers as the biochemical studies shows that there is no significant impact on mulberry leaf quality and soil health.

M.S. Rathore

2012-08-01

369

OA02.17. Medicinal plant tissue culture and its ayurvedic perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: Introduction of Plant tissue culture (PTC) concept to the Ayurveda realm. Method: 1. Analysis of principles the plant tissue culture based on the literature review and real wet lab images of tissue culture 2. Analysis of ayurvedic principles which are relevant in the context 3. Logical concept development. Result: Plant tissue culture is based on the natural ability of plant cells to grow in to fullfledged organism, called as totipotency. Plant cell can exhibit totipotency only when it is placed in a suitable micro condition where it is supplied with all essential nutrients such as minerals, water, light source, carbon source and air. Two branches of tissue culture a. micropropagation b. in vitro adventitious root development (Sivakumar 2006), are relevant for ayurvedic industry in purview of increasing demand for good quality raw materials and decreasing wild sources of medicinal plants. Ayurvedic concept of Anukta dravya grahana (Reddy 2008; Kusuma and Joshi 2010) describes the need for understanding the properties of an undocumented drug or medicinal plant experimentally before considering it as an ayurvedic drug. Ayurvedic system dravya guna vijnana is for understanding and classification of medicinal plants based on their seven fold properties (Valiathan 2003). The concept of ‘Abhava prathinidhi dravya’ (Padma et al. 2010) explains the situations where original drugs are substituted with substances of similar qualities, which were prescribed in case of several unavailable or rare drugs. The efficacy of medicinal plants or plant part produced through tissue culture has to be determined even though those are botanically and genetically the same. Rasanirdharana method (Dhyani 2008) can be combined efficiently with phytochemical screening for this purpose. Conclusion: Plant materials produced through PTC can be ideologically acceptable for ayurvedic industry when principles of plant tissue culture is analysed in detail in the light of certain ayurvedic principles.

Kilankaje, Ashakiran

2013-01-01

370

Effects of the medicinal plants Curcuma zedoaria and Camellia sinensis on halitosis control  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Volatile sulphur compounds (VSC) are the gases mainly responsible for halitosis (bad breath). The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of medicinal plants on halitosis control. Two commonly used plants were tested: Curcuma zedoaria and Camellia sinensis (green tea). These plants were prepared as an aqueous solution and used as mouthwashes, compared with a standard mouthwash of 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate and a placebo (water). The experiment was conducted with 30 volunteers from...

Vitor Hugo Farina; Ana Paula Lima; Ivan Balducci; Adriana Aigotti Haberbeck Brandão

2012-01-01

371

A SURVEY OF MEDICINALLY IMPORTANT PLANTS IN AROUND SRIVILLIPUTTUR TALUK, VIRUDHUNAGAR DISTRICT, TAMILNADU  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Survey was carried out in the remote villages in and around in the Western Ghats of Srivilliputtur Taluk, Virudhunagar District, Tamil Nadu. Most of the Plants are traditionally used by the people for their day to day life. There are 44 plant species belonging to from 22 families of medicinally important plants were identified and their uses are described. Among the species, Ennichostemma littorale, Achyranthus aspera,, Ficus bengalensis, Leucus aspera, Ocimum sanctum, Phyllantus amarus,...

Pandiarajan G

2011-01-01

372

Study of antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of certain Iranian medicinal plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aim: Four medicinal plants of Trigonella foenum-graecum, Zhumeria majdae, Achillea wilhelsii and Viola tricolor are traditionally used in Iran as analgesic and for treatment of inflammatory disorders. At the present atudy, the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of these plants have been studied. Methods: The antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extracts of tested plants were evaluated using hot-plate and carrageenan-induced edema methods respectively. The plan...

Fariba Sharififar; Payam Khazaeli; Narguess Alli; Elham Talebian; Raheleh Zarehshahi; Shivasadat Amiri

2012-01-01

373

Assessment of Anti-Quorum Sensing Activity for Some Ornamental and Medicinal Plants Native to Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study investigated the effects of some plant extracts on the bacterial communication system, expressed as quorum sensing (QS) activity. Quorum sensing has a directly proportional effect on the amount of certain compounds, such as pigments, produced by the bacteria. Alcohol extracts of 23 ornamental and medicinal plants were tested for anti-QS activity by the Chromobacterium violaceum assay using the agar cup diffusion method. The screening revealed the anti-QS activity of six plants; nam...

Zaki, Ahmed A.; Shaaban, Mona I.; Hashish, Nadia E.; Amer, Mohamed A.; Lahloub, Mohamed-farid

2013-01-01

374

Gamma Radiation Impact on the Survival Microflora and Biochemical Constituents of Stored Anise Seeds (Pimpenella anisum L.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anise seeds (Pimpenella anisum L.) were exposed to gamma irradiation doses (0, 4, 8, 16 and 32 KGy). Irradiated and un-irradiated anise seeds were stored for 3, 6 and 12 months and tested for their microbial population . In addition, the chemical constituents (volatile oils, fatty acids, lipids and sugars) were evaluated. The predominant microorganisms contaminated anise seeds include different fungal species identified as Aspergillus niger, A. ochraceus, A. parasiticus, A. flavus, A. fumigatus , Penicillium funiculosum , P. italicum , Rhizopus sp. and Trichoderma viride. Different bacterial species as Bacillus circulans, B. subtilis, B. megaterium, B. brevis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, P. oleourans and Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius were recorded. The imposed irradiation doses showed a promising effect to decontaminate the microbial load , which in turn showed prolong the storage periods. Volatile oil content was relatively declined during storage. In addition, some alternations were happened regarding the essential oils constituents. However, the applied irradiation doses maintained the volatile oil content and retained its constituents near to the normal control. Total lipids content were not influenced by either the applied storage periods or the used gamma irradiation doses. However, the fatty acids methyl ester showed some changes due to the imposed treatments. Sugars content were increased in the stored and un-irradiated seeds, however, the exposure to gamma radiation reduced this increase and retained sugars content near to the normal level of the control seeds.

375

Characterization of phenolic compounds in flowers of wild medicinal plants from Northeastern Portugal.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Crataegus monogyna, Cytisus multiflorus, Malva sylvestris and Sambucus nigra have been used as important medicinal plants in the Iberian Peninsula since a long time ago, and are claimed to have various health benefits. This study aimed to determine the phenolic profile and composition of wild medicinal flowers of those species. The analysis was performed by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS. Flavonoids, and particularly flavonols and flavones, were the main groups in almost all the studied samples. C. multiflo...

Barros, Lillian; Duen?as, Montserrat; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.; Santos-buelga, Celestino

2012-01-01

376

MEDICINAL PLANT LEAVES USED BY LOCAL PRACTITIONERS OF COIMBATORE DISTRICT, TAMIL NADU, INDIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This present investigation was an attempt to an ethno botanical survey which was carried out by the local practitioners of Coimbatore district in Tamil Nadu. During the survey 48 medicinal plant leaves are identified which were used as medicine for several diseases either in single or in combination with some other ingredients. In the first phase the Botanical Name, Family, Local Name and uses of leaves have been discussed and noted.

R. Karthiyayini

2012-06-01

377

MEDICINAL PLANT LEAVES USED BY LOCAL PRACTITIONERS OF COIMBATORE DISTRICT, TAMIL NADU, INDIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This present investigation was an attempt to an ethno botanical survey which was carried out by the local practitioners of Coimbatore district in Tamil Nadu. During the survey 48 medicinal plant leaves are identified which were used as medicine for several diseases either in single or in combination with some other ingredients. In the first phase the Botanical Name, Family, Local Name and uses of leaves have been discussed and noted.

Karthiyayini, R.

2012-01-01

378

Anti-Helicobacter pylori and Urease Inhibition Activities of Some Traditional Medicinal Plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Different parts of Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile, Calotropis procera (Aiton) W.T. Aiton, Adhatoda vasica Nees, Fagoniaar abica L. and Casuarina equisetifolia L. are traditionally used in folk medicine for the treatment of a variety of common ailments like nausea, cold, cough, asthma, fevers, diarrhea, sore throat, swelling, etc. The present study was aimed to evaluate the anti-Helicobacter pylori and urease inhibition activities of extracts produced from the above selected medicinal plants nati...

Tahir Mehmood; Nazamid Saari; Fauqia Naz; Farooq Anwar; Muhammad Amin

2013-01-01

379

Diversity and Taxonomy of Endophytic Xylariaceous Fungi from Medicinal Plants of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dendrobium spp. are traditional Chinese medicinal plants, and the main effective ingredients (polysaccharides and alkaloids) have pharmacologic effects on gastritis infection, cancer, and anti-aging. Previously, we confirmed endophytic xylariaceous fungi as the dominant fungi in several Dendrobium species of tropical regions from China. In the present study, the diversity, taxonomy, and distri