This present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of some medicinal herbs plants such as anise and chamomile (300 mg/kg b.wl) for five weeks on some biochemical changes induced in rats administrated daily oral dose of organophosphorus pesticide metacide at level of 1.4 mg/kg b.wt for live weeks. The data showed that the metacide pesticides caused disturbance in liver and kidney function revealed as significant increased in serum total lipids, triglycerides, total free amino, biliburine, total cholesterol, creatinine, urea and uric acid. Moreover, a significant decreased in total proteins. Also thyroxine hormone (T4) was increased while triiodothyronine (T 3) was decreased. The results also revealed that both anise and chamomile exhibited an improvement and highly affective in attenuation of metacide pesticide caused oxidative damage, disturbance and injury induced in liver, kidney and thyroid hormone function
Full Text Available In order to understand the effect of organic fertilizer on yield of anise, an experiment was conducted in the form of split-plot in randomized complete block design with three replications in Mashhad, Khorasan Agriculture and Natural Resource Research Center. Four treatments of fertilization: the control, vermicompost - 5 t/ha, cow manure - 25 t/ha, and mineral fertilizer (NPK - 60 kg/ha (the same rate of each nutrient were applied as the main factor. The second factor was plant density, applied at three levels: 17, 25, and 50 plants/m2. The results showed a significant effect of fertilizer on the number of umbels per plant, number of umbellets per umbel and canopy cover. Plant density had a significant effect on grain yield, biological yield, the number of lateral branches, essential oil percentage and yield of essential oil. Seed and essential oil yield were the highest in the case of the application of vermicompost and plant densities of 50 and 25 plants/m2 respectively.
Ingestion of products containing Chinese star anise (Illicium verum) fruits contaminated or adulterated with Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum) fruits can cause poisoning due to the neurotoxin anisatin that is present in Japanese star anise. Thus a rapid, simple and unambiguous distinction between the morphologically similar Chinese star anise and toxic Japanese star anise fruits is important for guaranteeing food safety. After adding ~200 ?L of methanol to one star anise carpel placed at 7-10mm from the inlet of a mass spectrometer and applying a potential of ~5 kV to the carpel, an electrospray is created. The formation of the electrospray is immediate, robust and stable and lasts for at least a minute. The presence or absence of anisatin could be monitored by orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) in negative mode by observing the [M-H](-) ion at m/z 327.1074 (C15H19O8) or in positive mode the [M+K](+) ion at m/z 367.079 (C15H20KO8). Several parameters like wetting solvent, voltage, distance and set-up were optimised. The anisatin signal was ~250 times higher in Japanese than in Chinese star anise. An existing Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) HRMS for anisatin was used for benchmarking. Alternatively a linear ion trap mass spectrometer could be used in negative selective reaction monitoring (SRM) mode albeit with lower selectivity than the HRMS method. The transition of the [M-H](-) ion at m/z 327 to the fragment at m/z 265 was monitored. Direct plant spray and DART ionisation are both robust and provided the same yes/no answer in seconds without any prior sample preparation. Compared with the DART-HRMS procedure, the direct plant spray method is simpler in terms of equipment, yields a more stable signal, does not require heating of the sample but is slightly less selective and requires working with high voltages. PMID:23932223
Schrage, Marijn; Shen, Yao; Claassen, Frank W; Zuilhof, Han; Nielen, Michel W F; Chen, Bo; van Beek, Teris A
Illicium verum (Chinese star anise) dried fruit is popularly used as a remedy to treat infant colic. However, instances of life-threatening adverse events in infants have been recorded after use, in some cases due to substitution and/or adulteration of I. verum with Illicium anisatum (Japanese star anise), which is toxic. It is evident that rapid and efficient quality control methods are of utmost importance to prevent re-occurrence of such dire consequences. The potential of short wave infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral imaging and image analysis as a rapid quality control method to distinguish between I. anisatum and I. verum whole dried fruit was investigated. Images were acquired using a sisuChema SWIR hyperspectral pushbroom imaging system with a spectral range of 920-2514 nm. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the images to reduce the high dimensionality of the data, remove unwanted background and to visualise the data. A classification model with 4 principal components and an R²X_cum of 0.84 and R²Y_cum of 0.81 was developed for the 2 species using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The model was subsequently used to accurately predict the identity of I. anisatum (98.42%) and I. verum (97.85%) introduced into the model as an external dataset. The results show that SWIR hyperspectral imaging is an objective and non-destructive quality control method that can be successfully used to identify whole dried fruit of I. anisatum and I. verum. In addition, this method has the potential to detect I. anisatum whole dried fruits within large batches of I. verum through upscaling to a conveyor belt system. PMID:23277152
Vermaak, Ilze; Viljoen, Alvaro; Lindström, Susanne Wiklund
Fumigant activity of plant essential oils and components from horseradish (Armoracia rusticana), anise (Pimpinella anisum) and garlic (Allium sativum) oils against Lycoriella ingenua (Diptera: Sciaridae).
Plant essential oils from 40 plant species were tested for their insecticidal activities against larvae of Lycoriella ingénue (Dufour) using a fumigation bioassay. Good insecticidal activity against larvae of L. ingenua was achieved with essential oils of Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Eucalyptus globulus Labill, Eucalyptus smithii RT Baker, horseradish, anise and garlic at 10 and 5 microL L(-1) air. Horseradish, anise and garlic oils showed the most potent insecticidal activities among the plant essential oils. At 1.25 microL L(-1), horseradish, anise and garlic oils caused 100, 93.3 and 13.3% mortality, but at 0.625 microL L(-1) air this decreased to 3.3, 0 and 0% respectively. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of one major compound from horseradish, and three each from anise and garlic oils. These seven compounds and m-anisaldehyde and o-anisaldehyde, two positional isomers of p-anisaldehyde, were tested individually for their insecticidal activities against larvae of L. ingenua. Allyl isothiocyanate was the most toxic, followed by trans-anethole, diallyl disulfide and p-anisaldehyde with LC(50) values of 0.15, 0.20, 0.87 and 1.47 microL L(-1) respectively. PMID:16786497
Park, Ii-Kwon; Choi, Kwang-Sik; Kim, Do-Hyung; Choi, In-Ho; Kim, Lee-Sun; Bak, Won-Chull; Choi, Joon-Weon; Shin, Sang-Chul
Essential oils of 12 medicinal plants were tested for inhibitory activity against Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus, A. ochraceus and Fusarium moniliforme. The oils of thyme and cinnamon (anise atessential oils, and particularly sensitive to thyme and cinnamon. The results also showed that the essential oils of thyme, cinnamon, anise and spearmint have more effect on fungal development and subsequent mycotoxin production in wheat grains. The extent of inhibition of fungal growth and mycotoxin production was dependent on the concentration of essential oils used. PMID:12176092
Soliman, K M; Badeaa, R I
Fennel, Foeniculum vulgare, and anise, Pimpinella anisum, are plants which have been used as estrogenic agents for millennia. Specifically, they have been reputed to increase milk secretion, promote menstruation, facilitate birth, alleviate the symptoms of the male climacteric, and increase libido. In the 1930s, some interest was shown in these plants in the development of synthetic estrogens. The main constituent of the essential oils of fennel and anise, anethole, has been considered to be the active estrogenic agent. However, further research suggests that the actual pharmacologically active agents are polymers of anethole, such as dianethole and photoanethole. PMID:6999244
Full Text Available Many plants of Apiaceae family have long been well known because of flavorful aromatic spice and, because of its healing properties, are often used in folk medicine and in cooking. In our study three plants of this family were included: caraway (Carum carvi L., anise (Pimpinella anisum L. and coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.. Regarding good agro-ecological conditions for growing these plants in Serbia, and a new world trend of increasing organic agricultural production, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of application of various types of fertilizers on yield of studied plant species. The field experiment was carried out during the years of 2011 and 2012, in three localities in Vojvodina Province with the local ecotypes and six different treatments (control, ‘Slavol’, ‘Bactofil B-10’, ‘Royal Ofert’, vermicompost and NPK. The highest caraway yield was obtained by the application of biofertilizer ‘Bactofil B-10’. As regards anise and coriander the highest yield was achieved by the application of chemical fertilizer. The most effective organic fertilizers were the following: vermicompost for anise and specific poultry manure ‘Royal Ofert’ granules for coriander.
A?imovi? Milica G.
Arid regions in Egypt are characterized by poor nutrients such as macro and microelements and unfavorable environmental conditions which negatively affect growth and productivity of medicinal and aromatic plants including anise (Pimpinella anisum L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) and sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare var. Dolce) plants. Thus, the main objective of the present investigation was to study the effect of different levels of NP fertilizers, trace elements and their interactions...
Khalid, Khalid A.
During the XVIII century, two Spanish scientific expeditions arrived here led, respectively, by the naturalist Martín Sessé and by the Italian mariner Alessandro Malaspina di Mulazzo, dependent from the Spanish Government. The members collected a rich scientific material, which was carried to Madrid in 1820. At the end of XVIII century, the Franciscan friar Juan Navarro depicted and described several Mexican medicinal plants in the fifth volume of his "American Garden". In the last years of the Colonial period, fundamental works of Humboldt and Bonpland, on the geographic distribution of the American plants, were published. At the end of the XIX century, the first researches on the Mexican medicinal botany were performed at the laboratory of the "Instituto Médico Nacional" under the leadership of doctor Fernando Altamirano, starting pharmacological studies in our country. During the first half of the XX century, trials of cardiovascular pharmacology were performed in the small laboratories of the cardiological unit at the General Hospital of Mexico, due to doctor Ignacio Chávez, initiative. Mexican botanical-pharmacological tradition remains alive and vigorous in the modern scientific institutes of the country. PMID:20361491
de Micheli, Alfredo; Izaguirre-Avila, Raúl
Medicinal plants used in Indian system of medicine from Rajasthan state have been surveyed and catagorised systematically. The paper deals with 205 medicinal plants, thoroughly indexed along with their important traditional application for the cure of various ailments.
Tripathi, Y. C.; Prabhu, V. V.; Pal, R. S.; Mishra, R. N.
Medicinal plants have been widely used to treat a variety of infectious and non-infectious ailments. According to one estimate, 25% of the commonly used medicines contain compounds isolated from plants. Several plants could offer a rich reserve for drug discovery of infectious diseases, particularly in an era when the latest separation techniques are available on one hand, and the human population is challenged by a number of emerging infectious diseases on the other hand. Among several other ailments, viral infections, particularly infections associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and 2 (HIV-2), and newly emerging infectious viruses have challenged mankind survival. Of importance, a variety of medicinal plants have shown promise to treat a number of viral infections, and some of them possess broad-spectrum antiviral activity. In the past, exploration into the antiviral activity of various promising medicinal plants was limited due to: (a) highly infectious nature of viruses and (b) lack of appropriate separation techniques for the identification of antiviral components from plants. Development of vector-based strategies, in which non-infectious molecular clone of a virus could be used for antiviral screening purposes, and advancement in separation technologies offers promise for medicinal plants usage in modern drug discovery. This article describes potential antiviral properties of medicinal plants against a diverse group of viruses, and suggests screening the potential of plants possessing broad-spectrum antiviral effects against emerging viral infections. PMID:17981353
Mukhtar, Muhammad; Arshad, Mohammad; Ahmad, Mahmood; Pomerantz, Roger J; Wigdahl, Brian; Parveen, Zahida
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Four aspect dealts with in this paper are as follows: 1. environment of medicinal plants; 2. brief history on studies of medicinal plants; 3. species of medicinal plants; 4. studies on development and utilization of medicinal plant resources. [...
Natural preparations have been used for thousands of ages for a variety of purposes including as medicines, poisons, and psychotropic drugs. The largest grouped of preparations from living organisms are medicines, and historically these have come from plants. Quinine and aspirin are two examples of medicines which were extracted originally from plants. Mind-altering, or psychotropic, drugs come mostly from plants or fungi. In many traditional cultures, sickness and death are attributed to maligned spirits so that medicine and religion become inseparable. Uses of cohohba, snakeplant, coca, and peyote are discussed. The process by which new pharmaceuticals are discovered from natural products is described. The implications of an agreement between a major pharmaceutical company and a country in the tropics are discussed.
Agosta, William C.
Full Text Available The present research work was carried out during 2012 in district Bannu to study the use of medicinal plants in Unani medicine. A total of 35 Unani medicines were reported and arranged systematically along with name of product, available form, company name, name of the plants/parts used in the drugs, family name and purpose of uses. During the research it was found that most of the members of Lamiaceae, Asteraceae and Rhamnaceae are used in these medicines. Plants which were used commonly in these medicines in one form or the other are Ziziphus jujuba, Foeniculum vulgare, Solanum nigrum, Ocimum cannum and Zingber officinale. It was noted that these products are mostly available in syrup form, rarely in tablets form (Hab –khoom Safa, Mensorine, Scony Tablets and one only one product in dry powder (Supari Pak. It is generally believed that these medicines have no side effect. Interestingly one medicine is suggested for many diseases as per the given instructions in the medicine pack. It was also noted that the manufacturers of these medicines are mostly not registered that’s why incomplete addresses along with the wrongly spellings plant name given on the medicine packs. The main purpose of the research was to identify and enlist the plants systematically used in these medicines.
The present research work was carried out during 2012 in district Bannu to study the use of medicinal plants in Unani medicine. A total of 35 Unani medicines were reported and arranged systematically along with name of product, available form, company name, name of the plants/parts used in the drugs, family name and purpose of uses. During the research it was found that most of the members of Lamiaceae, Asteraceae and Rhamnaceae are used in these medicines. Plants which were used commonly in ...
Shahzeb; Sultan Mehmood; Rehman ullah khan; Saad Ullah Khan
Finding healing powers in plants is an ancient idea. Herbs have been used as a traditional form of medicine since time immemorial. The natural products derived from medicinal plants have proven to be an abundant source of biologically active compounds, many of which have been the basis for the development of new chemicals for pharmaceuticals. Phytodentistry implies the use of plants and their products in the process of treating disease directly or indirectly. A crucial role is played by phytotherapy in the treatment of stomatological problems. It started with the use of miswak (chewing stick), and it is still relevant today as herbal toothpaste in many parts of the country. India is the largest producer of medicinal herbs and is appropriately called the botanical garden of the world. The use of this readily available, natural and safe resource as a part of dental practice has great potential for a more "Natural and Green Dental Practice". Plant products have long been used in dentistry as part of various dental materials right from impression materials to eugenol, which forms an integral part of the dental clinic. The use of herbs in dental practice is not limited to only material sciences. A single herb shows a variety of effects like anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal activity and many more. Hence the incorporation of these herbs in dental practice will prove to be a valuable adjunct in dental treatment. This review is aimed at exploring the perspectives of this holistic treatment approach in dentistry and its benefits as an adjunctive therapy. PMID:25153610
Hotwani, Kavita; Baliga, Sudhindra; Sharma, Krishna
Immunomodulation using medicinal plants provides an alternative to conventional chemotherapy for several diseases, especially when suppression of inflammation is desired. The "Canon of Medicine", the epochal work of Avicenna, the great Persian scientist of the middle ages, provides comprehensive information about medicinal plants which used to cure inflammatory illnesses in traditional Iranian medicine. Taking into consideration that the mechanisms of damage in these illnesses are mediated by immune responses, it is reasonable to assume that the plants used for such diseases may suppress the immune responses and the resultant inflammation. In Iran, because of great diversity of climate and geographical conditions, numerous varieties of plants grow and at least 1000 species are recorded as medicinal plants. Many of these plants such as Punica granatum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Foeniculum vulgare and Polygonum species prescribed by ancient Iranian physicians have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. In recent literature, different species of native medicinal plants such as Stachys obtusicrena, Salvia mirzayanii, Echium amoenum, Dracocephalum kotschyi and Linum persicum have been shown to have appreciable anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects including inhibitory effects on lymphocyte activation, suppression of cellular and humoral immunity and induction of apoptosis. This review focuses on plants that are used in Iranian traditional medicine and have been reported to act as immunoinhibitory agents. PMID:20574119
A series of scientific expeditions in Indonesia for collecting informations and materials concerning locally used medicinal plants and Javanese traditional medicine "jamu" have been carried out by us since 1985. This article reviews pharmacochemical investigations of nine Indonesian medicinal plants: i.e. Pongamia pinnata (Papilionaceae), Fagara rhetza (Rutaceae), Calotropis gigantea (Asclepiadaceae), Beilschmiedia madang (Lauraceae), Caesalpinia major (Fabaceae), Peronema canescens (Verbenaceae), Taxus sumatrana (Taxaceae), Alyxia reinwardtii (Apocynaceae), and Merremia mammosa (Convolvulaceae), which were selected among plant materials collected in those surveys. PMID:8993230
Shibuya, H; Kitagawa, I
In this paper, we propose a methodology for color and edge histogram based medicinal plants image retrieval. The medicinal plants are divided into herbs, shrubs and trees. The medicinal plants are used in ayurvedic medicines. Manual identification of medicinal plants requires a priori knowledge. Automatic recognition of medicinal plants is useful. We have considered medicinal plant species, such as Papaya, Neem, Tulasi and Aloevera are considered for identification and retrieval. The color hi...
Anami, Basavaraj S.; Nandyal, Suvarna S.; Govardhan A
Full Text Available Medicinal plants are part and parcel of human society to combat diseases, from the dawn of civilization. There exists a plethora of knowledge, information and benefits of herbal drugs in our ancient literature of Ayurvedic (Traditional Indian Medicine, Siddha, Unani and Chinese medicine. According to the World Health Organization, 2003 about 80 % of the population of developing countries being unable to afford pharmaceutical drugs rely on traditional medicines, mainly plant based, to sustain their primary health care needs. Herbal medicines are in great demand in the developed as well as developing countries for primary healthcare because of their wide biological and medicinal activities, higher safety margins and lesser costs. In this review we have enlisted the updated anthelmintic medicinal plants which are used as good alternatives for the traditional allopathic anthelmintic agents.
All the world over, plants and plant products have been used for the treatment of human sufferings and diseases. Problems involved at the level of collection, storage, over-exploitation, cultivation of medicinal plants by conventional methods and through in vitro cultures are discussed. The significance of the voucher specimens and above all the reliability of the identification of medicinal plants is pointed out. (author)
The Medicinal Plants of the Southwest summer workshop is an inquiry-based learning approach to increase interest and skills in biomedical research. Working in teams, Hispanic and Native American students discover the chemical and biological basis for the medicinal activity of regional plants used by healers.
Medicinal woody plants, especially medicinal tall trees, play a same important role in forest structure, ecological balance and timber production as other tree species in forest, and due to their additional medicinal values overuse of these trees is more intensive than others. Many medicinal materials are destructively obtained from plants such as roots or bark used as medicinal materials. The contradiction between the utilization and protection of medicinal woody plants becomes more and more incisive. In the present paper, based on the analysis of the utilized situation and specialty of medicinal woody plants, the trouble between the plants protection and utilization was observed, the method to solve it and the fundamental research work needs to be developed were discussed. The following aspects of researches were suggested to be conducted: (a) study on the distribution in organs, seasonal and age variations, and correlation with environmental factors of principal medicinal compositions in mature trees to clear the optimum of harvest and cultivation conditions; (b) study on the distribution in organs, seasonal and age variations, and correlation with environmental factors of principal medicinal compositions in saplings, especially the time course of the variation in medicinal compositions and biomass to achieve the optimal tree ages for the balance between biomass and production of medicinal products during saplings development; (c) study on the influence and regulation of environmental factors on medicinal compounds production in woody plants to look for the optimal cultivated conditions for optimizing the accumulation of biomass and medicinal chemicals; (d) further study on the regulatory mechanism of the induced production of main medicinal compositions by ecological factors at protein (key enzyme) and gene level to accumulate fundamental data for the enhancement of quality and quantity, and approach of new accesses to medicinal products using biological technology (cell culture and gene technology). Aimed at medicinal woody plants in Chinese forest resources, to develop the fundamental researches on resources protection and rational utilization will create many profound scientific significances. Firstly, medicinal woody plants are the important components of Chinese natural forest resources, so the problem for their protection and utilization, especially for that of tall trees, is quite remarkable and special. To reveal the internal contradictory between plant resources protection and its reasonable exploitation and exploit a practicable access to solve it will promote and accelerate the fulfillment of "natural forest protection project" in China. Secondly, traditional Chinese medicine is a main part of Chinese excellent ancestral culture, and the traditional utilizing models have been carried on for thousands of years. Accompanying with the development of human society, many unavoidable troubles such as the shortage of natural resources and the pollution of natural environment are more and more severely, which make the old models of the traditional Chinese medicine become more and more harmful and inaccessible to mankind. New substitutive approach to the utilization of traditional Chinese medicine, especially to that of Chinese medicinal woody plants will be one of the key methods to improve the present situation. Thirdly, traditional Chinese medicine, the cherish treasure of Chinese ancestral culture, need not only be preserved but also be developed. One of the main problems to restrict the extensive spread of the traditional Chinese medicine is its unstable quality, so to reach the stable quality and good quality is tightly linked to the improvement of traditional Chinese medicine. Hence the environmental regulation to the cultivation of medicinal plants, which can prove and guarantee the stable and high quality, will fit the demand on the production of medicinal plant material, and correspond to the goal of great efficacy and superior quality during the course of modernization of traditional Chinese me
Full Text Available There has not been a systematic research of medicinal plants mycoflora in Croatia. This paper aims to present the results of preliminary research of mycopopulation of 14 species of medicinal plants. Total of 393 plant parts has been examined and 10 genera of fungi were isolated: Penicillium, Aspergillus, Sordaria, Phoma, Cladosporium, Rhizopus, Stemphillium, Fusarium, Phomopsis and one unidentified genus. Penicillium sp. (from 11 of 14 plant species was isolated from the majority of samples. The plants fungi were isolated from did not show any macroscopically visible symptoms of infection, except plant parts of Lavandula x intermedia and Foeniculum vulgare, from which Phomopsis sp. and Fusarium sp. were isolated.
Recent advances in the area of biotechnology offer some possibility for the development of new technologies for the conservation, characterization and mass production of medicinal plant species, (i.e. in vitro cell culture techniques for the mass production of sterile, consistent, standardized medicinal plant materials). This paper discussed the following subjects - plant tissue culture, de novo shoot organogenesis, de novo root organogenesis, somatic embryogenesis, large scale propagation in bioreactors and discovery of unique biomolecules
Mexico has a rich tradition in medicinal plant use within its diverse traditional healing practices. Many people have used medicinal herbs to treat a variety of diseases and ailments for many generations. Located in the northeast, Monterrey is Mexico’s third largest city and one of the most industrialized cities in Latin America. In spite of widespread use of modern pharmaceuticals, and the availability of "scientific" or mainstream medicine in this city, many people still rely on tradition...
Gonza?lez-stuart, Armando Enrique
X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) techniques suited well for a multi-element determination of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, and Sr in some Syrian medicinal plant species. The accuracy and the precision of both techniques were verified by analyzing the Standard Reference Materials (SRM) peach-1547 and apple leaves-1515. A good agreement between the measured concentrations of the previously mentioned elements and the certified values were obtained with errors less than 10.7% for TXRF and 15.8% for XRF. The determination of Br was acceptable only by XRF with an error less than 24%. Furthermore, the XRF method showed a very good applicability for the determination of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, and Br in infusions of different Syrian medicinal plant species, namely anise (Anisum vulgare), licorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra), and white wormwood (Artemisia herba-alba). (author)
Aim. The present study was designed to investigate the cytotoxicity of a panel of 280 Korean medicinal plants belonging to 73 families and 198 species against human CCRF-CEM leukemia cells. Selected phytochemicals were investigated in more detail for their mode of action. Methods. The resazurin assay was used to determine cytotoxicity of the plant extracts. Microarray-based mRNA expression profiling, COMPARE, and hierarchical cluster analyses were applied to identify which genes correlate wit...
Thomas Efferth; Ik-Soo Lee; Henry Johannes Greten; Sven Schröder; Mira Oswald; Benjamin Wiench; Ean-Jeong Seo; Benjamin Krusche; Victor Kuete
In this paper, 126 traditional medicinal plants from Kirklareli Province in Turkey have been reported. One hundred and twenty six plant species belonging to 54 families and among them 100 species were wild and 26 species were cultivated plants. Most used families were Rosaceae, Labiatae, Compositae and the most used plants were Cotinus coggyria, Sambucus ebulus, Achillea millefolium subsp. pannonica, Hypericum perforatum, Matricaria chamomilla var. recutita, Melissa officinalis subsp. officinalis, Juglans regia, Thymus longicaulis subsp. longicaulis var. subisophyllus, Malva sylvestris, Urtica dioica, Plantago lanceolata, Rosa canina, Ecballium elaterium, Artemisia absinthium, Viscum album subsp. album, Papaver rhoeas, Helleborus orientalis, Cydonia oblonga, Prunus spinosa subsp. dasyphylla, Rubus discolor, Sorbus domestica. A total of 143 medicinal uses were obtained. The traditional medicinal plants have been mostly used for the treatment of wounds (25.3%), cold and influenza (24.6%), stomach (20%), cough (19%), kidney ailments (18.2%), diabetes (13.4%). PMID:17257791
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In this study, the folk medicinal plants of Silivri (?stanbul were researched. During the field works, the information were obtained from experienced adults and patients by personal interviews and the specimens of the plants were collected. The plant specimens are kept in the Herbarium of the Faculty of Pharmacy, Marmara University. As a result of identification of the plant specimens, 35 species used as a traditional folk medicine in Silivri, have been determined. Among them 25 species are wild and 10 species are cultivated plants. These plants and their local usage in treatment are presented in a table in the text. The plants are mostly used for stomach ailments, cough, hemorrhoid, rheumatism, cold, eczema and diabetes.
Full Text Available Arid regions in Egypt are characterized by poor nutrients such as macro and microelements and unfavorable environmental conditions which negatively affect growth and productivity of medicinal and aromatic plants including anise (Pimpinella anisum L., coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. and sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare var. Dolce plants. Thus, the main objective of the present investigation was to study the effect of different levels of NP fertilizers, trace elements and their interactions on the morphological and biochemical contents of these three plants under arid regions conditions. The effects of NP and trace elements on the growth (height, leaf number, branch number, umbel number, fresh weight, dry weight and fruit yield per plant was measured and quantitative analysis of essential oils, fixed oil, total carbohydrates, soluble sugars and nutrient content of anise, coriander and sweet fennel were performed. The most effective rate was N3P3 x trace elements interaction, resulting in a positive increase in vegetative growth characters. The highest values of vegetative growth characters were 53.4, 45.9, 10.3, 33.5, 36.8, 11.8 and 7.9, respectively for anise; 83.0, 69.3, 9.8, 29.0, 34.0, 17.5 and 14.4, respectively for coriander; 89.8, 32.6, 7.8, 22.9, 257.8, 99.1 and 27.8, respectively for sweet fennel. As well as N3P3 x trace elements led to higher biochemical contents than the control. The increases were 0.9, 0.3 and 0.9% in essential oil; 5.4, 4.4 and 3.7% in fixed oil, 9, 7.9 and 8.2% in total carbohydrates; 2.4, 2.8 and 1.6% in soluble sugars; 5.0, 7.5 and 14.4% in crude protein; 0.8, 2.0 and 2.3% in nitrogen; 1.5, 0.6 and 0.4% in phosphorous; 1.3, 1.2 and 1.7% in potassium for anise, coriander and sweet fennel, respectively.
Khalid A Khalid
Full Text Available Arid regions in Egypt are characterized by poor nutrients such as macro and microelements and unfavorable environmental conditions which negatively affect growth and productivity of medicinal and aromatic plants including anise (Pimpinella anisum L., coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. and sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare var. Dolce plants. Thus, the main objective of the present investigation was to study the effect of different levels of NP fertilizers, trace elements and their interactions on the morphological and biochemical contents of these three plants under arid regions conditions. The effects of NP and trace elements on the growth (height, leaf number, branch number, umbel number, fresh weight, dry weight and fruit yield per plant was measured and quantitative analysis of essential oils, fixed oil, total carbohydrates, soluble sugars and nutrient content of anise, coriander and sweet fennel were performed. The most effective rate was N3P3 x trace elements interaction, resulting in a positive increase in vegetative growth characters. The highest values of vegetative growth characters were 53.4, 45.9, 10.3, 33.5, 36.8, 11.8 and 7.9, respectively for anise; 83.0, 69.3, 9.8, 29.0, 34.0, 17.5 and 14.4, respectively for coriander; 89.8, 32.6, 7.8, 22.9, 257.8, 99.1 and 27.8, respectively for sweet fennel. As well as N3P3 x trace elements led to higher biochemical contents than the control. The increases were 0.9, 0.3 and 0.9% in essential oil; 5.4, 4.4 and 3.7% in fixed oil, 9, 7.9 and 8.2% in total carbohydrates; 2.4, 2.8 and 1.6% in soluble sugars; 5.0, 7.5 and 14.4% in crude protein; 0.8, 2.0 and 2.3% in nitrogen; 1.5, 0.6 and 0.4% in phosphorous; 1.3, 1.2 and 1.7% in potassium for anise, coriander and sweet fennel, respectively.
Khalid A Khalid
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Arid regions in Egypt are characterized by poor nutrients such as macro and microelements and unfavorable environmental conditions which negatively affect growth and productivity of medicinal and aromatic plants including anise (Pimpinella anisum L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) and sweet fenn [...] el (Foeniculum vulgare var. Dolce) plants. Thus, the main objective of the present investigation was to study the effect of different levels of NP fertilizers, trace elements and their interactions on the morphological and biochemical contents of these three plants under arid regions conditions. The effects of NP and trace elements on the growth (height, leaf number, branch number, umbel number, fresh weight, dry weight and fruit yield per plant) was measured and quantitative analysis of essential oils, fixed oil, total carbohydrates, soluble sugars and nutrient content of anise, coriander and sweet fennel were performed. The most effective rate was N3P3 x trace elements interaction, resulting in a positive increase in vegetative growth characters. The highest values of vegetative growth characters were 53.4, 45.9, 10.3, 33.5, 36.8, 11.8 and 7.9, respectively for anise; 83.0, 69.3, 9.8, 29.0, 34.0, 17.5 and 14.4, respectively for coriander; 89.8, 32.6, 7.8, 22.9, 257.8, 99.1 and 27.8, respectively for sweet fennel. As well as N3P3 x trace elements led to higher biochemical contents than the control. The increases were 0.9, 0.3 and 0.9% in essential oil; 5.4, 4.4 and 3.7% in fixed oil, 9, 7.9 and 8.2% in total carbohydrates; 2.4, 2.8 and 1.6% in soluble sugars; 5.0, 7.5 and 14.4% in crude protein; 0.8, 2.0 and 2.3% in nitrogen; 1.5, 0.6 and 0.4% in phosphorous; 1.3, 1.2 and 1.7% in potassium for anise, coriander and sweet fennel, respectively.
Khalid A, Khalid.
The variable extracts of six medicinal plants prepared in 80% methanol and distilled water and were tested for their antimycotic activity against five different phytopathogenic fungi such as Alternaria carthami, Alternaria humicola, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium roseum, Pullularia pullulans. Among all the plant extracts, methanol extract of Lawsonia inermis and Hyptis sauvolens leaves were showed significant antifungal activity against targeted phytopathogens. Methanol extracts displayed maxim...
VISHAL NARAYAN SHINDE
In this study, we screened sixty medicinal plant species from the Brazilian savanna ("cerrado") that could contain useful compounds for the control of tropical diseases. The plant selection was based on existing ethnobotanic information and interviews with local healers. Plant extracts were screened for: (a) molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, (b) toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina L.), (c) antifungal activity in the bioautographic assay with Cladosporium sphaerospermu...
Tânia Maria de Almeida Alves; Andréia Fonseca Silva; Mitzi Brandão; Telma Sueli Mesquita Grandi; Sma?nia, Elza Fa?tima A.; Artur Smânia Júnior; Carlos Leomar Zani
Full Text Available Introduction: Anethole is the main constituent of Pimpinella anisum L. (anise, a herbaceous annual plant which has several therapeutic effects. In the folk medicine, anise is employed as an antiepileptic drug. Specifically, this study was focused on the cellular effect of anethole, an aromatic compound in essential oils from anise and camphor. Anethole has various physiological effects on the cardiovascular system and smooth and skeletal muscles. However, despite these persistent effects, there is little information available about the actions of anethole on nerve cells. Therefore, a major goal of the present research was to investigate the possible cellular mechanisms underlying the effect of anethole on the neural excitability and action potential characteristics in snail neurons. Methods: Intracellular recordings were made under the current clamp condition on F1 cells of Helix aspersa. Following extracellular application of anethole (0.5% or 2%, changes in the firing pattern and action potential parameters were assessed and compared to control condition. Results: Application of anethole (0.5% and 2% led to a significant increase in the action potential amplitude and a reduction in the peak area and time to peak. In the presence of 0.5% anethole, the after hyperpolarization (AHP amplitude was significantly decreased, while the firing frequency of neurons was increased. However, 2% anethole did not affect the AHP amplitude, but significantly reduced the firing frequency of action potentials. Conclusion: Based on the effect of anethole on the action potential parameters, it can be concluded that it probably affects the voltage gated ion channels function, including Ca2+ channels and/or Ca2+ dependent K+ channels activity.
Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Although great advancements have been made in the treatment and control of cancer progression, significant deficiencies and room for improvement remain. A number of undesired side effects sometimes occur during chemotherapy. Natural therapies, such as the use of plant-derived products in cancer treatment, may reduce adverse side effects. Currently, a few plant products are being used to treat cancer. However, a myriad of many plant produc...
Desai, Avni G.; Qazi, Ghulam N.; Ganju, Ramesh K.; El-tamer, Mahmoud; Singh, Jaswant; Saxena, Ajit K.; Bedi, Yashbir S.; Taneja, Subhash C.; Bhat, Hari K.
Full Text Available Nephrotoxicity is one of the most common kidney problems and occurs when body is exposed to a drug or toxin. A number of therapeutic agents can adversely affect the kidney resulting in acute renal failure, chronic interstitial nephritis and nephritic syndrome because increasing number of potent therapeutic drugs like aminoglycoside antibiotics, chemotherapeutic agents and NSAIDS. Nephroprotective agents are the substances which possess protective activity against nephrotoxicity. Medicinal plants have curative properties due to the presence of various complex chemical substances. The present review is about the some of the medicinal plants possessing nephroprotective activity on Cisplatin and Gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity.
K. Gaikwad et al
Full Text Available Cancer is a major public health burden in both developed and developing countries. Plant derived agents are being used for the treatment of cancer. Several anticancer agents including taxol, vinblas-tine, vincristine, the camptothecin derivatives, topotecan and irinotecan, and etoposide derived from epipodophyllotoxin are in clinical use all over the world. A number of promising agents such as flavopiridol, roscovitine, combretastatin A-4, betulinic acid and silvestrol are in clinical or preclinical development.
Full Text Available In this study, we screened sixty medicinal plant species from the Brazilian savanna ("cerrado" that could contain useful compounds for the control of tropical diseases. The plant selection was based on existing ethnobotanic information and interviews with local healers. Plant extracts were screened for: (a molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, (b toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina L., (c antifungal activity in the bioautographic assay with Cladosporium sphaerospermum and (d antibacterial activity in the agar diffusion assay against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Forty-two species afforded extracts that showed some degree of activity in one or more of these bioassays.
Alves Tânia Maria de Almeida
Pakistan has a lot of diversity in the medicinal plants. More than 50% of the medicines used today in daily life are taken from plants source. According to WHO 80% of the population of the world use the traditional medicinal plants for their health care needs. People living in the different provinces namely Punjab, Sind, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Baluchistan an Kashmir are dependent o these natural resource (Plants) for their daily life use of food, medicine, vegetable, fodder, feulwood, timber and...
Syed Aneel Gilani; Sikander Khan Sherwani; Rizwana Aleem Qureshi; Amir Muhammad Khan; Sumaira Sahreen
Full Text Available Pakistan has a lot of diversity in the medicinal plants. More than 50% of the medicines used today in daily life are taken from plants source. According to WHO 80% of the population of the world use the traditional medicinal plants for their health care needs. People living in the different provinces namely Punjab, Sind, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Baluchistan an Kashmir are dependent o these natural resource (Plants for their daily life use of food, medicine, vegetable, fodder, feulwood, timber and religious purposes. About 75% of the total population villages and rural areas of the country depends on the traditional indigenous medicine. The indigenous knowledge of the medicinal plants is the rich source of the important medicinal plants knowledge and the elderly people are mostly more aware of the indigenous use of these medicinal plants.
Syed Aneel Gilani
Full Text Available Snakebite is an important cause of morbidity and mortality and is one of the major health problems in India. About 30000 to 40,000 persons die each year from venomous snake bite. Russell’s viper or daboia (Viper russelli appears to be the commonest cause of fatal snakebite in Southern India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Burma and Thailand. Intravenous administration of anti-snake venom neutralizes the systemic actions, however, antiserum does not provide enough protection against venom induced hemorrhage, necrosis, nephrotoxicity and often develops hypersensitivity reactions. India has a rich tradition of the usage of medicinal plants. Many Indian medicinal plants are mentioned in Ayurvedic literature to treat snakebite victims and are used by many ayurvedic practioners as well as in rural areas by traditioners. So much research work has been conducted for anti-snake venom activity of herbal medicine as alternative for Anti Snake Venom. This article presents a review of such herbal drugs which are effectively neutralize the snake venom like vitex nigundo, Emblica officinalis, Hemidesmus indicus etc which were assayed in research laboratories. It is considered as a valuable source of natural products for development of medicines against venomous snake bite.
Full Text Available Besides preserving mines of salts, minerals, fossils, archeological and cultural heritage; the mountainous terrain of the Salt Range also has immense potential for its biodiversity in the broadly overlapping ? the subtropical dry evergreen and the thorny subtropical semi deciduous? types of forest ecologies. Olea ferruginea, Acacia modesta, Reptonia buxifolia and Salvadora oleoides represent the apparent arboreal landscape of the terrain. More than 92 medicinal plants are not only used for curing ailments ranging from mild infections to the chronic ulcers but are also contributing a lot to the rural economy of the area. Floral diversity in general, the species of Litsea, Neolitsea and Colchicum in particular, are exposed to severe collection and the habitat loss pressures. Commonly known medicinal plants of the Salt Range, Punjab and their therapeutic uses are presented in this paper.
Full Text Available It has been estimated that about 20% of men and 25% of women between the ages of 65 and 74 have some degrees of chronic kidney. This complication is attributed to oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is an important factor contributing to kidney damage by increasing production of oxidants, particularly insufficiency of endogenous antioxidant defense system. Medicinal plants antioxidants are able to ameliorate oxidative induced kidney damage by reduction of lipid peroxidation and enhancement of scavenging ability of antioxidant defense system. Supplementation of medicinal plants antioxidants might be considered important remedies to abrogate pathology of oxidative stress induced kidney damage, however, single antioxidants do not act the same and might not be beneficial.
The methanol extracts of eight species of medicinal plants were tested for insecticidal activity in third instar larvae of Egyptian cottonworm (Spodoptera littoralis). All extracts showed a certain degree of larval toxicity. The extracts of Ocimum basilicum, Origanum majorana and Salvia officinalis appeared to be highly toxic. The extracts significantly affected the growth indexes [relative growth rate (RGR), efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD)]. PMID:15567255
Full Text Available Burns are known as one of the most common forms of injury with devastating consequences. Despite the discovery of several antiseptics, burn wound healing has still remained a challenge to modern medicine. Herbal products seem to possess moderate efficacy with no or less toxicity and are less expensive compared to synthetic drugs. Burn is a well-known disorder in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM. Iranian physicians have divided burns into various types based on the cause and recommended treatment for each type. According to ITM references, herbal therapy was the major treatment prescribed by Iranian physicians for burns. In the present study, seven ancient Iranian medical texts were screened for the herbs with burn healing effects along with their applied dosage forms. The medicinal herbs were listed and scored based on the frequency of their repetition. Moreover, the best scientific name that was suitable for each plant as well as surveying modern studies about their biological effects has been carried out. In our investigation eighteen plants with seven topical application categories have been obtained as the most frequent herbs for burn healing in ITM. Modern studies have revealed that these plants have shown some biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant effects which might establish the relationship between the mentioned activities and burn wound healing property. This list can provide a suitable resource for future researches in the field of burn treatment.
Full Text Available The major aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts of eight plant species which are endemic in Iran. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts of eight Iranian traditional plants, including Hypericum scabrum, Myrtus communis, Pistachia atlantica, Arnebia euchroma, Salvia hydrangea, Satureja bachtiarica, Thymus daenensis and Kelussia odoratissima, were investigated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Candida albicans by agar disc diffusion and serial dilution assays. Most of the extracts showed a relatively high antimicrobial activity against all the tested bacteria and fungi. Of the plants studied, the most active extracts were those obtained from the essential oils of M. communis and T. daenensis. The MIC values for active extract and essential oil ranged between 0.039 and 10 mg/ml. It can be said that the extract and essential oil of some medicinal plants could be used as natural antimicrobial agents in food preservation. .
Ghasemi Pirbalouti Abdollah
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In this study, we screened sixty medicinal plant species from the Brazilian savanna ("cerrado") that could contain useful compounds for the control of tropical diseases. The plant selection was based on existing ethnobotanic information and interviews with local healers. Plant extracts were screened [...] for: (a) molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, (b) toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina L.), (c) antifungal activity in the bioautographic assay with Cladosporium sphaerospermum and (d) antibacterial activity in the agar diffusion assay against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Forty-two species afforded extracts that showed some degree of activity in one or more of these bioassays.
Tânia Maria de Almeida, Alves; Andréia Fonseca, Silva; Mitzi, Brandão; Telma Sueli Mesquita, Grandi; Elza de Fátima A, Smânia; Artur, Smânia Júnior; Carlos Leomar, Zani.
From the water-soluble portion of the methanolic extract of the fruit of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.), which has been used as a spice and medicine since antiquity, twelve new and five known glucosides of phenylpropanoids, including four stereoisomers of anethole glycol 2'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and four stereoisomers of 1'-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane-1',2'-diol 2'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside were isolated together with anethole glycols and guaiacyl glycerol. The structures of the new compounds were clarified by spectral investigation. PMID:12419910
Ishikawa, Toru; Fujimatu, Eiko; Kitajima, Junichi
Medicinal plants are increasingly recognized worldwide as an alternative source of efficacious and inexpensive medications to synthetic chemo-therapeutic compound. Rapid declining wild stocks of medicinal plants accompanied by adulteration and species substitutions reduce their efficacy, quality and safety. Consequently, the low accessibility to and non-affordability of orthodox medicine costs by rural dwellers to be healthy and economically productive further threaten their life expectancy. Finding comprehensive information on medicinal plants of conservation concern at a global level has been difficult. This has created a gap between computing technologies' promises and expectations in the healing process under complementary and alternative medicine. This paper presents the design and implementation of a Multimedia-based Medicinal Plants Sustainability Management System addressing these concerns. Medicinal plants' details for designing the system were collected through semi-structured interviews and databas...
Omogbadegun, Zacchaeus; Ayo, Charles; Mbarika, Victor; Omoregbe, Nicholas; Otofia, Efe; Chieze, Frank
Full Text Available Traditional medicines are used by about 60% of the world’s population. These are used for primary health care, not only in rural areas of developing nations but they are also used in the developed countries where modern medicine are pre dominantly used. In the western world the use of medicinal herbs is continuously growing, approximately 40% of the population is using herbs for medical illness due to increased incidences of adverse effects of allopathic medicine. There are about 45000 plant species in India, Eastern Himalayas, Western Ghats and Andman and Nicobar Islands are the hot spot for medicinal plants. Officially documented plants with medicinal potential are 3000 but traditional practitioner use more than 6000. Seventy percent of the population in the rural India is dependent on the ayurvedic system of medicine. Most of the drugs used in modern medicine and ancient Indian medicinal system are of plant origin. Beside plants many minerals, salts and animal products are used in Ayurvedic medicines. Homoeopathy originated in west, German physician Samuel Hanemann was the father of homoeopathy (1796, the homeopathic remedies are prepared by successive dilution followed by shaking forcefully. Homoeopathy uses animal, plant, mineral, and synthetic substances in its remedies. Arsenicum album (arsenic oxide, Natrum muriaticum (sodium chloride, opium (plant, and thyroidinum (thyroid hormone are some of the homoeopathic medicines extracted from different sources.
This study was conducted to determine the in vitro anti-malarial activity of three medicinal plants, Picrorhiza kurroa, Caesalpinia bonducella and Artemisia absinthium of Pakistan. Different extracts of various parts of these plants were prepared by maceration and percolation, and were evaluated for their antimalarial activity. Aqueous, cold alcoholic and hot alcoholic extracts of Picrorhiza kurroa showed 34%, 100% and 90% inhibition in growth of Plasmodium falciparum, respectively, at 2.00 mg/ml. While aqueous, cold alcoholic and hot alcoholic extracts of Caesalpinia bonducella showed 65%, 56% and 76% inhibition in growth of Plasmodium falciparum, respectively at same concentrations. In the case of Artemisia absinthium, aqueous, cold alcoholic and hot alcoholic extract of Artemisia absinthium showed 35%, 55% and 21% inhibition in growth of Plasmodium falciparum, respectively at 2.00 mg/ml. In our study, extracts of Picrorhiza kurroa were found good for traditional therapy with highly significant results. PMID:21959826
Irshad, Saba; Mannan, Abdul; Mirza, Bushra
Full Text Available The use of many traditional medicinal plants is often hampered by the absence of a proper biochemical characterization, essential to identify the bioactive compounds present. The leaves from five species endemic to the Macaronesian islands with recognized ethnobotanical applications were analysed: Apollonias barbujana (Cav. Bornm., Ocotea foetens (Ainton Baill, Prunus azorica (Mouill. Rivas-Mart., Lousã, Fern. Prieto, E. Días, J.C. Costa & C. Aguiar, Rumex maderensis Lowe and Plantago arborescens Poir. subsp. maderensis (Dcne. A. Hans. et Kunk.. Since oxidative stress is a common feature of most diseases traditionally treated by these plants, it is important to assess their antioxidant capacity and determine the molecules responsible for this capacity. In this study, the antioxidant capacity of these plants against two of the most important reactive species in human body (hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals was determined. To trace the antioxidant origin total phenol and flavonoid contents as well as the polyphenolic profile and the amount of trace elements were determined. There was a wide variation among the species analysed in what concerns their total leaf phenol and flavonoid contents. From the High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC electrochemically detected peaks it was possible to attribute to flavonoids the antioxidant capacity detected in A. barbujana, O. foetens, R. maderensis and P. azorica extracts. These potential reactive flavonoids were identified for A. barbujana, R. maderensis and P. azorica. For R. maderensis a high content (7 mg g-1 dry weight of L-ascorbic acid, an already described antioxidant phytomolecule, was found. A high content in selenomethionine (414.35 ?g g-1 dry weight was obtained for P. arborescens subsp. maderensis extract. This selenocompound is already described as a hydroxyl radical scavenger is reported in this work as also possessing peroxyl radical scavenging capacity. This work is a good illustration of different phytomolecules (flavonoids, organic acids and selenocompounds, presents in leaves of the five traditional medicinal plants endemic to Macaronesia, all exhibiting antioxidant properties.
Background: Medicinal plant trade is important for local livelihoods. However, many medicinal plants are difficult to identify when they are sold as roots, powders or bark. DNA barcoding involves using a short, agreed-upon region of a genome as a unique identifier for species-ideally, as a global standard. Research Question: What is the functionality, efficacy and accuracy of the use of barcoding for identifying root material, using medicinal plant roots sold by herbalists in Marrakech, Moroc...
Kool, Anneleen; Boer, Hugo J.; Kru?ger, A?sa; Rydberg, Anders; Abbad, Abdelaziz; Bjo?rk, Lars; Martin, Gary
Medicinal plants are used in various herbal products as food supplements and food additive. The requirement of medicinal plants is tremendously increasing in the global market. The presence of variousl heavy metals such as Arsenic, Mercury, Lead, Cadmium, Chromium, Nickle,silver, Atimony,Copper etc in herbal formulations result in several adverse effects. The present study was done to determine the presence of Mercury in some of the selected medicinal plants namely Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R....
Meenakshi N; Sarath Babu B; Pavan Kumar S
Full Text Available Fishes not only play an important role in the demand of food for humans but they have also emerged as major model organisms for different biomedical researches. A number of experiments with the use of several drugs have been conducted in fish. Diseases in fish caused by bacteria are most widespread. Antibiotics are frequently used to control fish diseases caused by bacteria, but there is an increasing risk of developing antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria. The medicinal plants can act as immunostimulants, conferring early activation to the non-specific defense mechanisms of fish and elevating the specific immune response. The herbs contain many immunologically active components such as polysaccharides, organic acids, alkaloids, glycosides and volatile oils, which can enhance immune functions. Recently, there has been increased interest in the immune stimulating function of some herbs in aquaculture. The non-specific immune functions such as bacteriolytic activity and leukocyte function of fish have been improved by some herbs. Henceforth, this article elucidates certain herbs (medicinal plants which have been shown experimentally as well as clinically to possess immunostimulant effects in fish, thereby treating different fish diseases.
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a methodology for color and edge histogram based medicinal plants image retrieval. The medicinal plants are divided into herbs, shrubs and trees. The medicinal plants are used in ayurvedic medicines. Manual identification of medicinal plants requires a priori knowledge. Automatic recognition of medicinal plants is useful. We have considered medicinal plant species, such as Papaya, Neem, Tulasi and Aloevera are considered for identification and retrieval. The color histograms are obtained in RGB, HSV and YCbCr color spaces. The number of valleys and peaks in the color histograms are used as features. But, these features alone are not helpful in discriminating plant images, since majority plant images are green in color. We have used edge and edge direction histograms in the work to get edges in the stem and leafy parts. Finally, these features are used in retrieval of medicinal plant images. Absolute distance, Euclidean distance and mean square error, similarity distance measures are deployed in the work. The results show an average retrieval efficiency of 94% and 98% for edge and edge direction features respectively.
Basavaraj S. Anami
Full Text Available India has one of the richest plant medical cultures in the world. Millions of rural house holds use medicinal plants in a self-help mode. In the present study the survey is made on the coastal medicinal plants from S.P. Pattinam to Karangadu along Palk Strait. A total number of around thirty four plants such as Acacia arabica, Acorus calamus, Adhatoda vasica, Aloe vera, Alpinia galangal, Anisomeles malabarica, Cardiospermam halicacabam, Cassia juvanica, Cassia obtuse, Citrus limon, Coleus aromaticus, Cynodon dactylon, Daemia extensa, Datura metel, Eclipta alba, Enicostemma littorale, Evolvulus alsinoides etc from 24 families were recorded as a home based medicinal plants.
Uma pandi .M
India has one of the richest plant medical cultures in the world. Millions of rural house holds use medicinal plants in a self-help mode. In the present study the survey is made on the coastal medicinal plants from S.P. Pattinam to Karangadu along Palk Strait. A total number of around thirty four plants such as Acacia arabica, Acorus calamus, Adhatoda vasica, Aloe vera, Alpinia galangal, Anisomeles malabarica, Cardiospermam halicacabam, Cassia juvanica, Cassia obtuse, Citrus limon, Coleus a...
Uma pandi .M
Use of herbal remedies from medicinal plants (bush medicines) was studied in 622 people with diabetes mellitus attending 17 government health centers on the island of Trinidad, Trinidad and Tobago. Bush medicines were used by 42% of patients surveyed and were used for diabetes by 24%. Bush medicine use was more frequent in Afro-Trinidadians and in those of mixed ethnicity than in Indo-Trinidadians, and was also more prevalent in those with lower educational attainment. Most patients using bus...
Mahabir D.; Gulliford M. C.
The anti-inflamatory activity of some of the medicinal plants were assayed at a dose of 1000 mg/kg b.wt. in male albino rats using Carrageenin induced rat raw edema. Among the fifteen medicinal plants were found to be highly effective which are discussed in this paper.
Thenmozhi, V.; Elango, V.; Sadique, J.
Full Text Available Histopathological changes by the effect of some indigenous diuretic medicinal plants in the liver and kidney of rats is carried out. No morphometrical or histological changes were observed in these vital organs of test and control rats by these medicinal plants. So they are safe for common use.
Star anise oil in 2 and 1% concentrations produced active sensitization in 5% of test subjects, and positive patch tests in 36 and 34%, respectively, of consecutive patients with dermatitis. A comparison of the results of tests with balsams and other essential oils showed that star anise oil does not give cross-reactions and pseudo cross-sensitivity. Patients positive to this oil are frequently positive to anethole and to other constituents of this oil: alpha-pinene, limonene and safrole. In tests with star anise oil it is noteworthy that a 1% concentration is strongly irritant, and 0.5% reveals sensitivity in only one fifth of the actively sensitized subjects. It is possible that the cause of false negative patch tests might be similar in the case of some other allergens. PMID:1032123
Rudzki, E; Grzywa, Z
In an ethnopharmacological survey, extracts of the six East African medicinal plants Entada abyssinica (stem bark), Terminalia spinosa (young branches), Harrisonia abyssinica (roots), Ximenia caffra (roots), Azadirachta indica (stem bark and leaves), and Spilanthes mauritiana (roots and flowers) were tested against 105 strains of bacteria from seven genera (Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Salmonella, Mycobacterium). The minimum inhibitory concentration reached by 50% (MIC50%) and 90% (MIC90) of the strains for the extracts of E. abyssinica, T. spinosa, X. caffra, and A. indica (stem bark) ranged from 0.13-8 mg/ml and from 0.5 to > 8 mg/ml, respectively. Their minimum bactericidal concentration by 50% (MBC50%) and MBC90% were all between 0.5 and > 8 mg/ml. H. abyssinica, A. indica (leaves), and S. mauritiana (roots and flowers) had MIC and MBC values > or = 8 mg/ml. Mycobacteria were not inhibited at extract concentrations of 0.5-2 mg/ml. It is concluded that plant extracts with low MIC and MBC values may serve as sources for compounds with therapeutic potency. PMID:9533435
Fabry, W; Okemo, P O; Ansorg, R
Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of plants for healing by any cultural group is integrally related to local concepts of the nature of disease, the nature of plants, and the world view of the culture. The physical and chemical properties of the plants themselves also bear on their selection by people for medicines, as does the array of plants available for people to choose from. I examine use of medicinal plants from a "biobehavioral" perspective to illuminate cultural selection of plants used for medicine by the Gitksan of northwestern British Columbia, Canada. Methods Consultant consensus, "intercultural consensus", independent use of the same plants by other cultural groups, and phytochemistry and bioassay results from the literature, were employed in analysis of probable empirical efficacy of plant uses. Results 70% of 37 Gitksan medicinal plants were used similarly by other cultures where direct diffusion is not known to have occurred; eleven plants, including the eight most frequently mentioned medicinal plants, also show active phytochemicals or bioassays indicating probable physiologically based therapeutic effects. Conclusion Analysis of intercultural consensus revealed that the majority of cultures in the British Columbia region within the plant ranges use the same plants, or closely related species, in similar ways. The rigor of this analysis is effected by the lack of consistent data on all taxa of interest for all cultures within the region.
Full Text Available Use of herbal remedies from medicinal plants (bush medicines was studied in 622 people with diabetes mellitus attending 17 government health centers on the island of Trinidad, Trinidad and Tobago. Bush medicines were used by 42% of patients surveyed and were used for diabetes by 24%. Bush medicine use was more frequent in Afro-Trinidadians and in those of mixed ethnicity than in Indo-Trinidadians, and was also more prevalent in those with lower educational attainment. Most patients using bush medicines (214/264, or 81% reported gathering the plants themselves, and 107/264 (41% took them more frequently than once a week. Patients taking bush medicines mentioned 103 different plants used in remedies. Among the 12 most frequently mentioned, caraili, aloes, olive-bush, and seed-under-leaf were preferentially used for diabetes. Vervine, chandilay, soursop, fever grass, and orange peel were preferentially used for other indications. Patients who reported burning or numbness in the feet or feelings of tiredness, weakness, giddiness, or dizziness used bush medicines for diabetes more frequently than did patients who reported a range of other diabetes-related symptoms. Insulin-treated patients were less frequent users of bush medicines. It is concluded that bush medicines are taken regularly by many patients with diabetes in Trinidad. Plants most frequently used as remedies for diabetes have recognized hypoglycemic activity. Patients' culture, educational background, type of symptoms, and formal medical treatment may also influence the selection and use of bush medicines.
Rajasthan has a rich heritage of traditional system of medicine and many medicinally useful plants are found growing wildly because of vast area and variety of agro-climatic conditions. These plants are being used for the treatment of many human ailments including diabetes. Plants that are specifically employed for the treatment of diabetes are Acacia nilotica, Acacia senegal, Aegle marmelos, Calotropis procera, Capparis deciduas, Cassia auriculata, Cassia sophera, Cayratia trifolia, Cyamopsi...
Batra Shikha; Nagori Badri Prakash; Batra Nikhil
The medicinal plants and herbs have been used for many years in the treatment of various diseases in animals and human beings. Now-a-days, utilization of these medicinal plants is increasing. These are used in animal feed as the growth promoters. Due to prohibition of most of the antimicrobial growth promoters in animal feed because of their residual effects, plant extracts are becoming more popular. They act as antibacterial, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antifungal, analgesic, insecticidal...
M A Tipu, M. S. Akhtar
Plant growth retardants are widely used in cultivation of medicinal plant, but there is still lack of scientific guidance. In order to guide the use of plant growth retardants in medicinal plant cultivation efficiently and reasonably, this paper reviewed the mechanism, function characteristic, plant and soil residue of plant growth retardants, such as chlorocholine chloride, mepiquat chloride, paclobutrazol, unicnazle and succinic acid, and summarized the application of plant growth retardants in medicinal plants cultivation in recent years, with focus on the effect of growth and yield of the officinal organs and secondary metabolites. PMID:24380290
Zhai, Yu-Yao; Guo, Bao-Lin; Cheng, Ming
Past medicinal plant research primarily focused on bioactive phytochemicals, however, the focus is currently shifting due to the recognition that a significant number of phytotherapeutic compounds are actually produced by associated microbes or through interaction with their host. Medicinal plants provide an enormous bioresource of potential use in modern medicine and agriculture, yet their microbiome is largely unknown. The objective of this review is (i) to introduce novel insights into the plant microbiome with a focus on medicinal plants, (ii) to provide details about plant- and microbe-derived ingredients of medicinal plants, and (iii) to discuss possibilities for plant growth promotion and plant protection for commercial cultivation of medicinal plants. In addition, we also present a case study performed both to analyse the microbiome of three medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L., and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn.) cultivated on organically managed Egyptian desert farm and to develop biological control strategies. The soil microbiome of the desert ecosystem was comprised of a high abundance of Gram-positive bacteria of prime importance for pathogen suppression under arid soil conditions. For all three plants, we observed a clearly plant-specific selection of the microbes as well as highly specific diazotrophic communities that overall identify plant species as important drivers in structural and functional diversity. Lastly, native Bacillus spec. div. strains were able to promote plant growth and elevate the plants' flavonoid production. These results underline the numerous links between the plant-associated microbiome and the plant metabolome. PMID:24391634
Köberl, Martina; Schmidt, Ruth; Ramadan, Elshahat M; Bauer, Rudolf; Berg, Gabriele
Full Text Available Past medicinal plant research primarily focused on bioactive phytochemicals, however the focus is currently shifting due to the recognition that a significant number of phytotherapeutic compounds are actually produced by associated microbes or through interaction with their host. Medicinal plants provide an enormous bioresource of potential use in modern medicine and agriculture, yet their microbiome is largely unknown. The objective of this review is i to introduce novel insights into the plant microbiome with a focus on medicinal plants, ii to provide details about plant- and microbe-derived ingredients of medicinal plants, and iii to discuss possibilities for plant growth promotion and plant protection for commercial cultivation of medicinal plants. In addition, we also present a case study performed both to analyse the microbiome of three medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L. and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn. cultivated on organically managed Egyptian desert farm and to develop biological control strategies. The soil microbiome of the desert ecosystem was comprised of a high abundance of Gram-positive bacteria of prime importance for pathogen suppression under arid soil conditions. For all three plants, we observed a clearly plant-specific selection of the microbes as well as highly specific diazotrophic communities that overall identify plant species as important drivers in structural and functional diversity. Lastly, native Bacillus spec. div. strains were able to promote plant growth and elevate the plants’ flavonoid production. These results underline the numerous links between the plant-associated microbiome and the plant metabolome.
Elemental content of twenty medicinal plants used as tonic and for treatment of diabetes and sinusitis were determined by INAA and XRF. Elemental determination was carried out in the raw samples, residues after boiling and the water soluble fractions. Samples were irradiated in TRIGA MkII reactor and counted using HPGe detector coupled to Personal Computer Analyzer (PCA) system. Bowen's Kale, NBS Pine Needles, NBS citrus Leaves SRM were analysed to check the accuracy of the techniques used. Twenty elements were determined by both NAA and XRF. Arsenic was only detected in Labisia pothoina and Dracontomelon dao with a concentrations of 0.40 mg/kg and 0.60 mg/kg respectively. Antimony was found in eleven samples with a concentration of <0.20 mg/kg. Al, Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mn, Na and Rb were detected in all samples whereas Mg and Zn were present in all samples except Cinnamomum sp. Highest concentration of Br(190 mg/kg), Cl (11805 mg/kg), Co(0.50 mg/kg), Fe(1642 mg/kg), K(36788 mg/kg), Mn (325 mg/kg), Na(126 mg/kg), Rb(197 mg/kg), Sc(0.18 mg/kg) and Zn(3551 mg/kg) were observed in the tuber of Lasia aculeata. Less than 70% and 50% of the elements contained in Callicarpa longifolia and Eurycoma longifolia were obtained respectively from water by boiling. (author). 10 refs., 4 tabs
Full Text Available Phthalic acid esters (PAEs have been employed in polymer materials as a plasticizer to form them more flexible, adhesive, and soluble. These compounds are mainly used in paints, varnishes, personal cares, cosmetics, paper coatings, and adhesives even in bottled waters, shampoo, body deodorant, hairspray, and gels. Phthalates are able to possess remarkable toxic variations depending on their structures. So far, Di-(2-EthylHexyl Phthalate DEHP and Di-n- Butyl Phthalate DBP have been found to cause reproductive and developmental toxicities. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA classified DEHP as probable human carcinogen. To the best of our knowledge, phthalates showed diverse toxicity profiles according to their structures in the liver, kidneys, thyroid, and testes, which are involved in general toxicity. Furthermore, they are introduced as hormonally-active agents, because they can interfere with the endocrine system in human. Incidence of developmental abnormalities (like skeletal malformations and cleft palate, and undescended testes, lowering testes weight and anogenital distance seems increasing via high exposure to phthalate metabolites. Although, increasing the capacity for phthalate free plasticizer productions is the first step to restrict the distribution of these toxic manmade compounds, finding the new ways for phthalate absorption from the soil in agricultural fields may have benefits. Also, evaluation and examination of diverse sources of medicinal and food plants to determine the level of phthalate accumulation in their organs are extremely recommended to avoid creating toxicity particularly in reproductive systems.
Methanol, methanol-water (1:1) and water extracts were prepared from seventy-seven Vietnamese medicinal plants and tested for their antiproliferative activities against human HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cells. Among them, fifteen extracts including seven methanol extracts of Caesalpinia sappan, Catharanthus roseus, Coscinium fenestratum, Eurycoma longifolia, Hydnophytum formicarum and Streptocaulon juventas (collected at two areas), six methanol-water (1:1) extracts of Cae. sappan, Cat. roseus, Co. fenestratum, H. formicarum and S. juventas (at two areas), and two water extracts of Cae. sappan and S. juventas exhibited antiproliferative activities in a concentration-dependent manner. Their antiproliferative activities against human cervix HeLa adenocarcinoma, human lung A549 adenocarcinoma, murine colon 26-L5 carcinoma, murine Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) and murine B16-BL6 melanoma cells were then examined. Co. fenestratum showed selective activity against lung carcinoma and/or lung metastatic cell lines, A549, LLC and B16-BL6, while H. formicarum and S. juventas showed selective activity against human tumor cell lines, HeLa and A549. Characteristic morphological change and DNA fragmentation indicated the antiproliferative activity to be due to the induction of apoptosis. PMID:12081142
Ueda, Jun-ya; Tezuka, Yasuhiro; Banskota, Arjun Hari; Le Tran, Quan; Tran, Qui Kim; Harimaya, Yuko; Saiki, Ikuo; Kadota, Shigetoshi
In order to have standardized formulations, the chemical constituents from plants and their parts are required to be uniform both qualitatively and quantitatively. Furthermore, an ever increasing demand of uniform medicinal plants based medicines warrants their mass cloning through plant tissue culture strategy. A good number of medicinal plants have been reported to regenerate in vitro from their various parts, but a critical evaluation of such reports reveals that only a few complete medicinal plants have been regenerated and still fewer have actually been grown in soil, while their micropropagation on a mass scale has rarely been achieved, particularly in those medicinal plants where conventional propagation is inadequate, like, the mass clonal propagation of Dioscorea floribunda leading to its successful field trials. Such facts make it imperative to document the factual position of micropropagation of medicinal plants bringing out the advancements made along with the short falls, in this important area. The present review deals with the futuristic view on the said subject restricted to higher plants. PMID:18072537
Chaturvedi, H C; Jain, Madhu; Kidwai, N R
Star anise (Illicium verum Hook f) has been shown to possess potent antimicrobial properties. Chemical studies indicate that a major portion of this antimicrobial property is due to anethole present in the dried fruit. Studies with isolated anethole (compared with standard anethole) indicated that it is effective against bacteria, yeast and fungal strains. PMID:11807977
De, Minakshi; De, Amit Krishna; Sen, Parimal; Banerjee, Arun Baran
Full Text Available The present study conducted in district Bahawalpur of Southern Punjab province, Pakistan to enlist the medicinal plants and their uses among local people. Previous studies focus primarily on the exploration of medicinal plants of Cholistan desert while rest of the area remained un-explored. The ethno-medicinal survey was conducted regularly for a period of 10 years and tries to eradicate the errors in the utilizations of the plants and to finally to document ethno-medicinal uses of plant species through questionnaire and personal interviews during field trips. Plants with their correct nomenclature were arranged by family name, vernacular name, parts used and ethno-medicinal uses. For the identification of plants we used field guides and flora of Pakistan and as a result 123 plant species currently under utilization by local people were identified. Previously we collected all the plant specimens, after careful identification we preserved and mounted on herbarium sheets, were placed in the department of Botany, Govt. Sadiq Egerton College, Bahawalpur, Pakistan. The study will provide a baseline for future studies relating to pharmacological, chemical isolations, taxonomic and well as biochemical studies by giving a quick approach to the specific plant species.
Muhammad Farrukh Nisar
Full Text Available Traditional home gardens have been described as man-managed ecosystems with high energy subsidy, complex structure, and multiple functions. These have been reported as treasure trove of a rich biodiversity of plant species including medicinal plants used for traditional home remedies of various ailments. A review of research work on the status of medicinal plants in traditional rural home gardens is presented with the objective to explore them as potential preservation site for medicinal plants. From the available literature it can be ascertained that these traditional rural home gardens can be a suitable site for conservation, propagation, and expansion of medicinal plants that form the backbone of the traditional medicine system and are fast dwindling due to over exploitation and development pattern. Widely reported presence in rural home gardens of medicinal plant species, such as, Adhatoda vasica, Nees., Aloe vera, Mill., Asparagus racemosus, Willd., Chlorophytum tuberosum, Baker., Curcuma angustifolia, Roxb., Dioscorea bulbifera, L., Dioscorea hispida, Dennst., Emblica officinalis, Gaertn., Gymnema sylvestre, Br., Rauwolfia serpentina, Benth., Terminalia arjuna, (Roxb. Wight. and Arn., Tinospora cordifolia, Miers., that are considered endangered is a further confirmation of this belief that traditional rural home gardens can be a good conservation site for domestication and conservation of these plant species.
Full Text Available The medicinal plants and herbs have been used for many years in the treatment of various diseases in animals and human beings. Now-a-days, utilization of these medicinal plants is increasing. These are used in animal feed as the growth promoters. Due to prohibition of most of the antimicrobial growth promoters in animal feed because of their residual effects, plant extracts are becoming more popular. They act as antibacterial, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antifungal, analgesic, insecticidal, anticoccidial and growth promoters. These plant extracts compete with the synthetic drugs. Majority of medicinal plants do not have the residual effects. Azadiracht indica, Zizyphus vulgaris, Ocimum gratissimum and Atlanta monophylla have the strong antibacterial activity, whereas ocimum plant has strong antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antifungal, analgesic and antipyretic properties. Leaves of Azadirachta indica are used for feeding and reducing the parasitic load of animals. The fruit of Azadirachta indica also has the anticoccidial activity for poultry.
M. A. TIPU, M. S. AKHTAR, M. I. ANJUM1 AND M. L. RAJA
Full Text Available Plants have been the beacon of therapeutic sources for curing diseases from times immemorial. Medicinal plants with their isolated lead molecules are also used as an alternative medicine for treating neoplastic cells. Neoplastic cells are the anomalous proliferation of cells in the body which cause cancer. Diverse efficient compounds derived from natural products have been isolated as anticancer agents. These chemical compounds are formulated with a view to create effective drugs against cancer. Some of the lead molecules isolated from different medicinal plants are already in use to treat cancer and chemotherapeutic side effects. These potential and successful anticancer molecules include Vincristine, Vinblastin, Taxol, Camptothecin and Podophyllotoxin. This paper deals with the selective medicinal plants having anticancer properties which could be further designed to produce cancer curing drugs.
Full Text Available Medicinal plants are increasingly recognized worldwide as an alternative source of efficacious and inexpensive medications to synthetic chemo-therapeutic compound. Rapid declining wild stocks of medicinal plants accompanied by adulteration and species substitutions reduce their efficacy, quality and safety. Consequently, the low accessibility to and non-affordability of orthodox medicine costs by rural dwellers to be healthy and economically productive further threaten their life expectancy. Finding comprehensive information on medicinal plants of conservation concern at a global level has been difficult. This has created a gap between computing technologies' promises and expectations in the healing process under complementary and alternative medicine. This paper presents the design and implementation of a Multimedia-based Medicinal Plants Sustainability Management System addressing these concerns. Medicinal plants' details for designing the system were collected through semi-structured interviews and databases. Unified Modelling Language, Microsoft-Visual-Studio.Net, C#3.0, Microsoft-Jet-Engine4.0, MySQL, Loquendo Multilingual Text-to-Speech Software, YouTube, and VLC Media Player were used.
The antimicrobial activity of some drugs utilized in traditional African medicine and selected on the basis of medicinal folklore reports, have been studied, within a screening program. The distribution of the antimicrobial activity among gram-positive, gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and mycoplasma is reported. PMID:3247348
Forestieri, A M; Pizzimenti, F C; Monforte, M T; Bisignano, G
Many developing countries including Cameroon have mortality patterns that reflect high levels of infectious diseases and the risk of death during pregnancy and childbirth, in addition to cancers, cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory diseases that account for most deaths in the developed world. Several medicinal plants are used traditionally for their treatment. In this review, plants used in Cameroonian traditional medicine with evidence for the activities of their crude extracts a...
Rai M, Gade A, Rathod D, Dar M, Varma A. 2012. Review: Mycoendophytes in medicinal plants: Diversity and bioactivities. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 86-96. Endophytes are microorganisms that reside in internal tissues of living plants without causing any negative effect. These offer tremendous potential for the exploitation of novel and eco-friendly secondary metabolites used in medicine, the pharmaceutical industry and agriculture. The present review is focused on diversity of endophytes, current...
MUDASIR DAR; AJIT VARMA; DNYANESHWAR RATHOD; ANIKET GADE; MAHENDRA RAI
Full Text Available Rajasthan has a rich heritage of traditional system of medicine and many medicinally useful plants are found growing wildly because of vast area and variety of agro-climatic conditions. These plants are being used for the treatment of many human ailments including diabetes. Plants that are specifically employed for the treatment of diabetes are Acacia nilotica, Acacia senegal, Aegle marmelos, Calotropis procera, Capparis deciduas, Cassia auriculata, Cassia sophera, Cayratia trifolia, Cyamopsis tetragonoloba, Dalbergia sisso, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Syzygium cumini, Withania somnifera. This article aims to provide a comprehensive review on the some plants of Rajasthan having antidiabetic potential.
Among 42 extracts, prepared from 14 medicinal plants used in Vietnamese traditional medicine to treat malaria, 24 were found to have antiplasmodial activity by inhibiting the growth of the chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum strain FCR-3 with EC(50) values less than 10 microg/ml. Each medicinal plant possessed at least one active extract. The methanol extract of Coscinium fenestratum had the strongest antiplasmodial activity with EC(50) value of 0.5 microg/ml. Activity-guided fractionation led to identification of berberine as the major active constituent. PMID:12738095
Tran, Quan Le; Tezuka, Yasuhiro; Ueda, Jun-ya; Nguyen, Nhan Trung; Maruyama, Yukiko; Begum, Khurshida; Kim, Hye-Sook; Wataya, Yusuke; Tran, Qui Kim; Kadota, Shigetoshi
Herbal medicine is the first response to illness in rural Dominica. Every adult knows several "bush" medicines, and knowledge varies from person to person. Anthropological convention suggests that modernization generally weakens traditional knowledge. We examine the effects of commercial occupation, consumerism, education, parenthood, age, and gender on the number of medicinal plants freelisted by individuals. All six predictors are associated with bush medical knowledge in bivariate analyses. Contrary to predictions, commercial occupation and consumerism are positively associated with herbal knowledge. Gender, age, occupation, and education are significant predictors in multivariate analysis. Women tend to recall more plants than do men. Education is negatively associated with plants listed; age positively associates with number of species listed. There are significant interactions among commercial occupation, education, age, and parenthood, suggesting that modernization has complex effects on knowledge of traditional medicine in Dominica. PMID:17601083
Quinlan, Marsha B; Quinlan, Robert J
From the polar portion of the methanolic extract of the fruit of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.), which has been used as a spice and medicine since antiquity, four aromatic compound glucosides, an alkyl glucoside and a glucide were isolated together with 24 known compounds. The structures of the new compounds were clarified as (E)-3-hydroxyanethole beta-D-glucopyranoside, (E)-1'-(2-hydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)propane beta-D-glucopyranoside, 3-hydroxyestragole beta-D-glucopyranoside, methyl syringate 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, hexane-1,5-diol 1-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and 1-deoxy-L-erythritol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside by spectral investigation. PMID:12809723
Fujimatu, Eiko; Ishikawa, Toru; Kitajima, Junichi
Full Text Available Problem statement: World Wide Web (WWW consisting large volume of information related with medicinal plants. However health care recommendation with Indian Medicinal Plants becomes complicated because valuable Information about medicinal resources as plants is scattered, in text form and unstructured. Search engines are not quite efficient and require excessive manual processing. Therefore search becomes difficult for the ordinary users to find the medicinal uses of herbal plants from the web. And another problem is that the domain experts could not able to map the medicinal uses of herbal plants with the existing standardized medical terms. Mapping the existing ontology introduces the problem of finding the similarity between the terms and relationships. Finding the solution to perform automatic mapping is another major challenge to be solved. Approach: To address these issues we developed a Knowledge framework for the Indian Medicinal Plants (KIMP. Knowledge framework includes the ontology creation, user interface for querying the system. Jena is used to build semantic web applications with the ontology representation of Resource Description Framework (RDF and Web Ontology Language (OWL. SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language (SPARQL is used to retrieve various query patterns. Automated mapping is achieved by considering lexical and edge based relatedness. Results: The user interface is demonstrated for five thousand concepts, which gives the related information from Wikipedia web page in three languages. Mapping recommendation by the lexical similarity Jaccard algorithm gives 27% and Jaro Winkler algorithm gives 60%. Edge based relationship using WuPalmer algorithm gives 93% mapping recommendation. These are analyzed and compared with our algorithm based on WuPalmer gives more specific mapping results than WuPalmer with 71%. Conclusion: Thus it possible to find the specific resultant web page based on the user requirement in three different languages. The mapping with standardized ontology gives more improvement in analyzing the performance of the medicinal plants and their uses.
S. Waheeta Hopper
In the present work, twelve Indian medicinal plants (Averrhoa carambola L., Buchanania lanzan Spr., Calophylluminophyllum L., Celastrus paniculatus Willd., Clerodendron multiflorum L., Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb., Morindacitrifolia L., Ocimum gratissimum L., Peltophorum ferrugineum (Decne.), Phyllanthus fraternus Webster Syn.,Triumfetta rotundifolia Lam. and Ziziphus nummularia (Burm. F.) were evaluated for their total phenol andflavonoid content. The plant material was extracted individually...
Dishant Desai; Dilip Bhayani; Sumitra Chandra
Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english This paper reviews the recent literature on synergism, adulteration and risks of using medicinal plants. The use of copaiba and sacaca plants as well as their adulteration and side effects, are also described. In addition, the new regulations on phytotherapeutic registration in Brazil and Europe are [...] discussed.
Valdir F., Veiga Junior; Angelo C., Pinto; Maria Aparecida M., Maciel.
The levels and activities of a number of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) are known to increase in response to increase in stress. The Mongolian plants considered to possess medicinal properties may contain novel compounds since they are exposed to severe conditions; such plants could become good candidates for modern drug discovery programmes. Information on distribution, palatability to livestock and opinion of local people on their nutritive and medicinal values was compiled for 15 plant...
Makkar, Hps; Norvsambuu, T.; Lkhagvatseren, S.; Becker, K.
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Interest in medicinal plants as a re-emerging health aid has been fuelled by the rising costs of prescription drugs in the maintenance of personal health and well being, and the bioprospecting of new plant-derived drugs. Several issues as well as a range of interests and activities in a number of co [...] untries are dealt with. Based on current research and financial investments, medicinal plants will, seemingly, continue to play an important role as a health aid.
Lucy, Hoareau; Edgar J., DaSilva.
Full Text Available Abstract Varanasi is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities of the world, and one of the most important Hindu pilgrimage sites. Despite this importance, very little information exits on the cities flora in general, and medicinal species found within its limit in particular. Traditional medicine plays a large role in Indian society. The presented study attempted to investigate if traditional plant use and availability of important common medicinal plants are maintained in urban environments. The paper presents information on the traditional uses of seventy-two plant species collected form the campus of Banares Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, and highlights the uses of these plants by the local inhabitants.
Bussmann Rainer W
Past medicinal plant research primarily focused on bioactive phytochemicals, however, the focus is currently shifting due to the recognition that a significant number of phytotherapeutic compounds are actually produced by associated microbes or through interaction with their host. Medicinal plants provide an enormous bioresource of potential use in modern medicine and agriculture, yet their microbiome is largely unknown. The objective of this review is (i) to introduce novel insights into the...
MartinaKöberl; ElshahatM.Ramadan; RudolfBauer
Full Text Available Human has a duty to preserve the nature. One of the examples is preserving the ornamental plant. Huge economic value of plant trading, escalating esthetical value of one space and medicine efficacy that contained in a plant are some positive values from this plant. However, only few people know about its medicine efficacy. Considering the easiness to obtain and the medicine efficacy, this plant should be an initial treatment of a simple disease or option towards chemical based medicines. In order to let people get acquaint, we need a system that can proper identify this plant. Therefore, we propose to build a system based on Redundant Discrete Wavelet Transformation (RDWT through its leaf. Since its character is translation invariant that able to produce some robust features to identify ornamental plant. This system was successfully resulting 95.83% of correct classification rate.
Aim. In the present study, we investigated the antiangiogenic properties of 59 plants used in traditional Korean medicine. Selected phytochemicals were investigated in more detail for their modes of action. Methods. A modified chicken-chorioallantoic-membrane (CAM) assay using quail eggs was applied to test for antiangiogenic effects of plant extracts. A molecular docking in silico approached the binding of plant constituents to the vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1 and 2 (VEGFR1...
Joachim Arend; Ik-Soo Lee; Henry Johannes Greten; Benjamin Krusche; Sven Schröder; Onat Kadioglu; Victor Kuete; Ean-Jeong Seo; Thomas Efferth
Antioxidant capacities and phenolic contents of medicinal plants namely Usnea longifolia, Cetraria nepalensis, Parmelia minarum, Everniastrum nepalense, Rhododendron anthopogon and Fritillaria delavayi were analyzed via Folin-Ciocaltau assay, Ferric reducing activity power assay and 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. All the tested plants depicted the antioxidant activity with variation in extent of activity among the plants. The FRAP (F-value: 387.4), DPPH (F-value: 89.684) and TPC (F-val...
Bijaya Laxmi Maharjan; Bikash Baral
Abstract This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Loja province, Southern Ecuador. Two hundred fifteen plant species were collected, identified and their vernacular names and traditional uses recorded. This number of species indicates that the healers, market vendors and members of the public interviewed still have a very high knowledge of plants in their surroundings, which can be seen as a reflection of the knowledge of the population in general. However, the area repr...
Sharon Douglas; Bussmann Rainer W
The work reported in this article was carried out to explore hidden antioxidant potential of some medicinal plants of District Gujrat, Pakistan. Crude methanolic extracts of Cichorium intybus L, Malva sylvestris L, and Euphorbia milii L were initially screened by DPPH on TLC assay for their antioxidant activity. Diphenylpicrylhydrayl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity was also determined for all plants. To assess the role of plants in lipid oxidation, PV of refined bleached and deodorize...
Mohammad Rafiq Khan; Syed Ali Raza; Mohammad Arshad; Ayoub Rashid Ch; Abdul Razzaq
There are many herbs that have a role in the prevention and treatment of skin diseases, and are used in either traditional medicine or the preparation of cosmetics. The effects of a number of them have been scientifically proved and this information for the production of cosmetic and pharmaceutical products can be used.
Zohreh Bakhtiyari, MSc
Triphala is a traditional herbal formulation consisting of dried fruits originating from three medicinal plants, namely Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica and Phyllanthus emblica. It is used in folk medicine for the treatment of headaches, dyspepsia and leucorrhoea. There are some reports regarding Triphala’s pharmacological effects including its anti-cancer, radioprotective, hypocholesterolaemic, hepatoprotective and anti-oxidant activities. The most important components of these pla...
Vazirian, Mahdi; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Amanzadeh, Yaghoub; Hajimehdipoor, Homa
Methanolic, chloroform and aqueous extracts of 11 medicinal plants used in folklore medicine in Saudi Arabia, were investigated for in vitro activity against four pathogenic fungi. The extracts at concentration of 0.5 mL plate-1 showed varying degrees of total inhibition of fungal growth. Extracts from Salvadora persica and Vigna fragrans showed the highest activity, followed by Peganum harmala and Withania somnifera, while Polycarpaea corymbosa demonstrated the least activity, when compared ...
Saadabi, Abdulmoniem M. A.
Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Researchers have discovered some important compounds from plants. The present work constitutes a review of the medicinal plants whose immunomodulant activity has been proven. We performed PUBMED, EMBASE, Google scholar searches for research papers of medicinal plants having immunomodulant activity. Medicinal plants used by traditional physicians or reported as having immunomodulant activity include Acacia concocinna, Camellia sinensis, Lawsonia inermis Linn, Piper longum Linn, Gelidium amansii, Petroselinum crispum, Plantago major and Allium sativum. Immunomodulant activities of some of these medicinal plants have been investigated. The medicinal plants documented have immunomodulant activity and should be further investigated via clinical trial. PMID:25280022
Akram, M; Hamid, A; Khalil, A; Ghaffar, A; Tayyaba, N; Saeed, A; Ali, M; Naveed, A
Full Text Available Medicinal plants are used in various herbal products as food supplements and food additive. The requirement of medicinal plants is tremendously increasing in the global market. The presence of variousl heavy metals such as Arsenic, Mercury, Lead, Cadmium, Chromium, Nickle,silver, Atimony,Copper etc in herbal formulations result in several adverse effects. The present study was done to determine the presence of Mercury in some of the selected medicinal plants namely Hemidesmus indicus (L. R.Br. (Sariba, Cyperus rotundus L. (Musta, Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Yashtimadhu, Rubia cordifolia L. (Manjishta, Eclipta alba Hassk (Bhringaraj, Hedychium spicatum Ham.ex Smith (Karchura, Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (Amalaki and Acacia concinna (Willd. DC. (Shikakai, which were procured from local market of Chennai, Tirupati and Hyderabad. The samples were digested by Wet digestion method and analysed by UV-Vis Spectrophotometer. The results were compared with permissible limits recommended by WHO. Mean levels were evaluated with respect to their procurement. It was found that the analyzed plant species contained safe levels of the heavy metals concentration excepting Sariba Tirupati sample, Yastimadhu Chennai sample and Manjishta Hyderabad sample. There was a considerable variation of heavy metal concentration for the examined medicinal plant species. This may be due to the difference in physiological properties of plant uptake.
Full Text Available The present research focused on the inventory and the use of plants in traditional medicine for the treatment of diseases in this area. The method was based on ethnobotanical surveys with semi-directing interview, conducted from November 2006 to December 2007 among a sample of 50 people aged between 40 and 80 years and very experienced in traditional medicine in the municipalities of Bissiga, Lalgaye and Tenkodogo. We identify 73 phytogenetic species and 175 therapeutic indications used to treat 52 diseases and the principal ones are the gastrointestinal diseases, the malaria, the various fevers, the jaundice, the skin diseases, the respiratory affections, the reproduction diseases, the hemorrhoids and the infantile diseases. In traditional veterinary pharmacopoeia, 18 phytogenetic species are used with 33 therapeutic indications to treat diseases including trypanosomiasis, tuberculosis, diarrheas and wounds. The interest of people of this area for medicinal plants, command a special attention to organize the actors and preserve the plant genetic resources.
Africa is home to two major floral kingdoms: the Paleotropical kingdom of central Africa and the Capensis kingdom of the Western Cape province of South Africa, the latter of which consists of approximately 10,000 species, representing about 20% of Africa's floral 'gold mine', better known as the Cape herbal medicine. Needless to say, such rich flora comes with numerous plants with a potential to cause poisoning to humans. This review document reports important toxic medicinal plants and their toxic ingredients for plant species resident in the southern African region. These include important medicinal uses and pharmacological properties ranging from antimicrobial, antiviral, anticancer, anti-inflammatory as well as those that are used as aphrodisiacs and for maternal health care. PMID:24075916
Ndhlala, Ashwell R; Ncube, Bhekumthetho; Okem, Ambrose; Mulaudzi, Rofhiwa B; Van Staden, Johannes
Full Text Available Delonix elata , Enicostemma axillare, Merremia tridentata, Mollugo cerviana and Solanum incanum are medicinal plants used in traditional Indian medicine for the treatment of various ailments. These plants were selected to evaluate their potential antibacterial activity. To determine antibacterial activity and phytochemicals in the crude extracts of five medicinal plants used in traditional Indian medicine for the treatment of various ailments like rheumatism, piles fever, skin diseases and snake bite. The antibacterial activity of organic solvent extracts of these plants were determined by disc diffusion and broth dilution techniques against gram-positive bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results revealed that the chloroform and methanol extracts of D. elata and methanol extracts of M. cerviana exhibited significant antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative strains with minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC ranging from 1.5 to 100 mg/ml. Methanol extracts of M. tridentata exhibited activity only against gram-positive bacterial strains with MBC ranging from 12.5 to 100 mg/ml. Extracts of E. axillare and S. incanum showed activity only against B. subtilis and were not bactericidal at 100 mg/ml. The most susceptible organism to the organic extracts from all the studied plants was B. subtilis and the most resistant organism was P. aeruginosa. The presence of phytochemicals such as alkaloids, tannins, triterpenoids, steroids and glycosides in the extracts of these plants supports their traditional uses as medicinal plants for the treatment of various ailments. The present study reveals potential use of these plants for developing new antibacterial compounds against pathogenic microorganisms.
Nephrotoxicity is one of the most common kidney problems and occurs when body is exposed to a drug or toxin. A number of therapeutic agents can adversely affect the kidney resulting in acute renal failure, chronic interstitial nephritis and nephritic syndrome because increasing number of potent therapeutic drugs like aminoglycoside antibiotics, chemotherapeutic agents and NSAIDS. Nephroprotective agents are the substances which possess protective activity against nephrotoxicity. Medicinal pla...
Gaikwad Et Al, K.
Perhaps the most important role of mangroves is that they protect vulnerable coastlines from wave action because they hold the soil together and prevent coastal erosion. Mangroves shield inland areas during storms and minimize damage. For example, learning from the 2005 tsunami in Asia, there were no deaths in the areas which had mangrove forests, compared to those areas without, which suffered massive causalities. Many species in the mangrove forest have medicinal value and it has been prove...
Revathi P, T. Jeyaseelan Senthinath
Background. Traditional plant use was studied in Lao PDR. Research focused on medicinal plant use by the Brou, Saek and Kry ethnic groups, traditional plant repellents against parasitic arthropods and leeches, and the phylogeny and biogeography of the medicinally-important snake gourd genus (Trichosanthes, Cucurbitaceae). Methods. The ethnobiology research used a combination of structured interviews, village surveys, botanical collecting, hydro-distillation, GC-MS analysis, literature studi...
Boer, Hugo J.
Four medicinal plants namely; Vernonia amygdalina, Psidium guajava, Chromolaena odorata and Anarcadium occidentale, commonly used for the treatment of diarrhoea in Bini traditional folk medicine in Nigeria were tested against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella aerogenes. The leaf extracts of P guajava and A occidentale completely inhibited the growth of all the organisms tested, while V amygdalina inhibited the growth of K. aerogenes only. Metronidazole was used as the standard antidiarrhoeal drug. Glycosides were found in all the plant extracts. This study, Favours the use of the leaf extracts of A occidentale, P guajava and V amygdalina for the treatment of diarrhoea in Nigeria. (author)
The objective of this study was to determine the in vitro osteogenic activities of selected medicinal plants used traditionally in India. The compounds isolated from three plants viz. Allophylus serratus, Cissus quadrangularis and Vitex negundo were evaluated for their in vitro osteogenic activities. Primary cultures of osteoblasts were used to determine the effects of these components on osteoblast functions. Five of the fourteen compounds isolated led to increase in osteoblast differentiation and mineralization. These findings lend support to the use of Allophylus serratus, Cissus quadrangularis and Vitex negundo in traditional medicine. PMID:20554183
Kumar, Manmeet; Rawat, Preeti; Dixit, Preeti; Mishra, Devendra; Gautam, Abnish K; Pandey, Rashmi; Singh, Divya; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Maurya, Rakesh
In response to increased popularity and greater demand for medicinal plants, a number of conservation groups are recommending that wild medicinal plants be brought into cultivation systems. We collected four medicinal herbs Cichorium pumilum, Eryngium creticum, Pistacia palaestina and Teucrium polium used in traditional Arab medicine for greenhouse cultivation to assess the effects of different fertilization regimes on their growth and antioxidant activity. Wild seedlings were collected and f...
Uri Cogan; Omar Said; Irina Portnaya; Predrag Ljubuncic; Hassan Azaizeh; Arieh Bomzon
To investigate the role of distribution and phylogeny of phenylethanoid glycoside in medicinal plants of Gesneriaceae, five phenylpropanoid glycosides, acteoside, paraboside B, isonuomioside A, paraboside II, and paraboside III were quantitatively determined in 12 species of Gesneriaceae by HPLC. The existence and content of these compounds were analyzed. The results showed that phenylethanoid glycosides were found in the most of those plants, but the kind of phenylethanoid glycosides varied in different species. Acteoside distribute in most of this plant group, paraboside B, isonuomioside A, paraboside II, and paraboside III were rare in those plants. The results of this study support morphological viewpoint that Trib. Trichosporeae is more developmental than Trib. Didymocarpeae. PMID:24791528
Bai, Zhen-Fang; Wang, Xiao-Qin; Xiao, Pei-Gen; Liu, Yong
Full Text Available Antioxidant capacities and phenolic contents of medicinal plants namely Usnea longifolia, Cetraria nepalensis, Parmelia minarum, Everniastrum nepalense, Rhododendron anthopogon and Fritillaria delavayi were analyzed via Folin-Ciocaltau assay, Ferric reducing activity power assay and 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. All the tested plants depicted the antioxidant activity with variation in extent of activity among the plants. The FRAP (F-value: 387.4, DPPH (F-value: 89.684 and TPC (F-value: 559.163 values between the extracts showed the highly significant differences (P R. anthopogon among the plants tested.
Bijaya Laxmi Maharjan
Full Text Available There is a wide diversity of plants and seasonal crops in Peru, due to the presence of many climatic zones. Numerous plants are used to cure or prevent diseases. These plants are promising candidates for functional foods products. The most frequent form in which they are used is an aqueous infusion or decoction. In this study, we compared the antioxidant properties of ten Peruvian plants infusions and investigated their relation to the phenolic content. The studied plants were: Uncaria tomentosa (cat’s claw, Lepidium meyenii (maca, Berberis vulgaris L. (barberry, agracejo, Phyllantus niruri (chanca piedra, Annona muricata L. (graviola, soursop, Gentianella alborosea (hercampure, Geranium dielsianum (pasuchaca, Tabebuia ochracea (tahuari, Notholaena nivea (“cuti cuti” and Tiquilia paronychioides (“flor de arena”. Infusions of all studied plants have shown antioxidant activity, though there was a large diversity between the results. The antioxidant properties, determined with DPPH and ABTS scavenging assays as well as FRAP test, were strongly correlated with total phenolic content, while there was no correlation with the carotenoid content.
Full Text Available In the Iranian traditional medicine a significant usage of herbs is promoted for their anti-diabetic activity. The aim of this review to assess the efficacy of glucose lowering effects of medicinal plants cultivated in Iran. An electronic literature search of MEDLINE, Science Direct, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library Database, Ebsco and Google Scholar from database inception conducted up to May 2012. A total of 85 studies (18 humans and 67 animals examining 62 plants were reviewed. The quality of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs assessed by using the Jadad scale. Among the RCTs studies, the best results in glycemic control was found in Aloe vera, Citrullus colocynthus, Plantago ovata, Silybum marianum, Rheum ribes and Urtica dioica. The majority of plants that have been studied for antidiabetic activity showed promising results. However, efficacy and safety of the most plants used in the treatment of diabetes are not sufficient.
In the Iranian traditional medicine a significant usage of herbs is promoted for their anti-diabetic activity. The aim of this review to assess the efficacy of glucose lowering effects of medicinal plants cultivated in Iran. An electronic literature search of MEDLINE, Science Direct, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library Database, Ebsco and Google Scholar from database inception conducted up to May 2012. A total of 85 studies (18 humans and 67 animals) examining 62 plants were reviewed. The quality of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) assessed by using the Jadad scale. Among the RCTs studies, the best results in glycemic control was found in Aloe vera, Citrullus colocynthus, Plantago ovata, Silybum marianum, Rheum ribes and Urtica dioica. The majority of plants that have been studied for antidiabetic activity showed promising results. However, efficacy and safety of the most plants used in the treatment of diabetes are not sufficient. PMID:24498803
Rashidi, Ali Akbar; Mirhashemi, Seyyed Mehdi; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Sarkhail, Parisa
Six medicinal plant extracts from Venezuela, used in traditional medicine, were investigated for their anti-inflammatory potential against adjuvant-carrageenan-induced inflammation (ACII). All doses expressed here are equivalents of dried starting plant materials (1.50 g dry plant/kg body wt.). The most interesting plant extracts were Synedrella nodiflora, and the hexane leaf extract of Bursera simaruba. In ACII, orally administered extracts (at doses 40 and 80 mg/kg, respectively), inhibited both the acute and chronic phases of this experimental model of inflammation, mainly the chronic phase. These extracts exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity daily throughout the experiment, and were as effective as reference drugs, phenylbutazone (80 mg/kg) and indomethacin (3 mg/kg). PMID:9121169
Abad, M J; Bermejo, P; Carretero, E; Martínez-Acitores, C; Noguera, B; Villar, A
Eight glycosides of 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol (1) were isolated from the fruit of anise, and their structures were clarified as 1-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 1-O-beta-D-fructofuranoside, 3-O-beta-D-fructofuranoside, 4-O-beta-D-fructofuranoside, 1-O-beta-D-(6-O-4-hydroxybenzoyl)-glucopyranoside and 1-O-beta-D-(6-O-4-methoxybenzoyl)-glucopyranoside of 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol (2-9), respectively. Furthermore, 2 and 4 were isolated from the fruit of coriander, and 2, 3 and 4 were isolated from the fruit of cumin. Though the phosphate of 1 was known to be one of the first precursors of isoprenoids in the non-mevalonate pathway, and 1 is considered to be a common constituent in Umbelliferous plants, the glycosides of 1 are found for the first time. PMID:12475627
Kitajima, Junichi; Ishikawa, Toru; Fujimatu, Eiko; Kondho, Kyoko; Takayanagi, Tomomi
Background Ethiopia is one of the six centres of biodiversity in the world with several topographies, climatic conditions and various ethnic cultures. Ethnobotanical study is a real and encourageable in rich biological resource areas for medicinal plant identification, documentation, ranking, conservation and sustainable usages. The purpose of this study was to identify the most effective medicinal plants for specific treatment through priority ranking and to assess the status of the transfer of Traditional Botanical Knowledge (TBK) based on age groups and educational levels. Methodology Ethnobotanical data were collected using field observation and semi-structured interview, A total of 30 key informants and 165 community members were interviewed and data on medicinal plant species and associated knowledge were recorded, quantified and verified using several preference ranking methods. Results The study revealed a total of 49 medicinal plant species (belonging to 31 families and 46 genera) used to treat various human ailments, the majority of which 40 (81.6%) species were collected from wild while the rests from home garden. Herbs constituted the largest growth habit (18 species, 37%) followed by trees (16 species, 32%) and shrubs (15 species, 31%). Leaf `17 (35%) is the plant part widely used followed by root 13 (27%), leafy-stem 5 (10%), and seed 6 (12%). Oral administration was the dominant route (63%), followed by dermal route (22%) and nasal (11%). The highest number of plant species being used for infectious (48%) followed by two or more diseases and non-infectious disease. Of five and seven medicinal plants of preference ranking the highest ranks were given first for Croton macrostaychus used for malaria treatment and for Prunus africana as ‘’rare” for immediate collection and use in the traditional treatment. Significantly higher average number of medicinal plants (p?0.05) were reported by informants of higher institution (14.3?±?34) and adult age groups (11.6?±?43). Conclusion The Ghimbi people possess rich ethno-medicinal knowledge. This study can be used as a basis for developing management plans for conservation, sustainable use and drug development. PMID:24885586
It was estimated that about 428 species of genus Corydalis are distributed all worldwide, with about 298, especially 10 groups and 219 species being uniquely spread in China. The genus Corydalis have been widely employed as folk medicines in China, especially as traditional Tibetan medicines, for treatment of fever, hepatitis, edema, gastritis, cholecystitis, hypertension and other diseases. The phytochemical studies revealed that isoquinoline alkaloids are its major bioactive ingredients. The extensive biological researches suggested its pharmacological activities and clinic applications against cardiovascular diseases and central nervous system, antibacterial activities, analgesic effects, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidation and anti-injury for hepatocyte, and so on. As an effort in promoting the research of pharmacodynamic ingredients, this article presents an overview focusing on the distribution, phytochemical and pharmacological results of Corydalis species that have been applied in traditional Tibetan medicinal, hopefully to provide a reference for the new Tibetan medicine development from Corydalis plant resource. PMID:25011252
Shang, Wei-Qing; Chen, Yue-Mei; Gao, Xiao-Li; Pu, Chi; Tu, Peng-Fei; Chai, Xing-Yun
This review summarizes human infections caused by endoparasites, including protozoa, nematodes, trematodes, and cestodes, which affect more than 30% of the human population, and medicinal plants of potential use in their treatment. Because vaccinations do not work in most instances and the parasites have sometimes become resistant to the available synthetic therapeutics, it is important to search for alternative sources of anti-parasitic drugs. Plants produce a high diversity of secondary met...
Full Text Available Medicinal plants collected from different locations in Jordan were tested for their antifungal activities against 5 plant pathogenic fungi: Phytophthora infestans, Fuusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, Stemphylium solani and Mucor sp. Data of this study showed that the highest growth inhibition of all fungi was observed with Salvia indica, which gave (66.3%, of inhibitions for Stemphylium, followed by Mucor (60.5%, R. solani (51.7%, F. oxysporum (48% and P. infestans (28.8%.
Amjad B. Khalil
Medicinal plants collected from different locations in Jordan were tested for their antifungal activities against 5 plant pathogenic fungi: Phytophthora infestans, Fuusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, Stemphylium solani and Mucor sp. Data of this study showed that the highest growth inhibition of all fungi was observed with Salvia indica, which gave (66.3%), of inhibitions for Stemphylium, followed by Mucor (60.5%), R. solani (51.7%), F. oxysporum (48%) and P. infestans (28.8%).
Khalil, Amjad B.; Dabaneh, Basem F.; Anfoka, Ghandi H.
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a serious health problem in many regions of the world, and the development of resistance to antibiotics by this microbe created the need for new drugs to replace those which have lost effectiveness. This study assesses the medicinal anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis properties of natural products obtained from plants collected from Eastern Libya. In this study aqueous extracts of nine different plants were assayed for their Mycobacterium tuberculosis inhibitory activit...
Muna Mohammed Buzayan; Fauzia Rajab El-Garbulli
Full Text Available Rai M, Gade A, Rathod D, Dar M, Varma A. 2012. Review: Mycoendophytes in medicinal plants: Diversity and bioactivities. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 86-96. Endophytes are microorganisms that reside in internal tissues of living plants without causing any negative effect. These offer tremendous potential for the exploitation of novel and eco-friendly secondary metabolites used in medicine, the pharmaceutical industry and agriculture. The present review is focused on diversity of endophytes, current national and international bioactive secondary metabolite scenario and future prospects. Endophytic fungi as novel source of potentially useful medicinal compounds are discussed along with the need to search for new and more effective agents from endophytes to combat disease problems.
Background A majority of Ethiopians rely on traditional medicine as their primary form of health care, yet they are in danger of losing both their knowledge and the plants they have used as medicines for millennia. This study, conducted in the rural town of Fiche in Ethiopia, was undertaken with the support of Southern Cross University (SCU) Australia, Addis Ababa University (AAU) Ethiopia, and the Ethiopian Institute of Biodiversity (EIB), Ethiopia. The aim of this study, which included an ethnobotanical survey, was to explore the maintenance of tradition in the passing on of knowledge, the current level of knowledge about medicinal herbs and whether there is awareness and concern about the potential loss of both herbal knowledge and access to traditional medicinal plants. Methods This study was conducted using an oral history framework with focus groups, unstructured and semi-structured interviews, field-walk/discussion sessions, and a market survey. Fifteen people were selected via purposeful and snowball sampling. Analysis was undertaken using a grounded theory methodology. Results Fourteen lay community members and one professional herbalist provided information about 73 medicinal plants used locally. An ethnobotanical survey was performed and voucher specimens of 53 of the plants, representing 33 families, were collected and deposited at the EIB Herbarium. The community members are knowledgeable about recognition of medicinal plants and their usage to treat common ailments, and they continue to use herbs to treat sickness as they have in the past. A willingness to share knowledge was demonstrated by both the professional herbalist and lay informants. Participants are aware of the threat to the continued existence of the plants and the knowledge about their use, and showed willingness to take steps to address the situation. Conclusion There is urgent need to document the valuable knowledge of medicinal herbs in Ethiopia. Ethnobotanical studies are imperative, and concomitant sustainable programmes that support the sustainability of herbal medicine traditions may be considered as a way to collect and disseminate information thereby supporting communities in their efforts to maintain their heritage. This study contributes to the documentation of the status of current traditional herbal knowledge in Ethiopia. PMID:24885355
Thirteen plants which are traditionally used for the treatment of dysentery and diarrhoea in Myanmar were selected and tested for antibacterial activity by using agar disc diffusion technique. Polar and nonpolar solvents were employed for extraction of plants. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extracts with the most significant predominant activity were evaluated by plate dilution method. The plants Eugenia jambolana, Quisqualis indica, Leucaena glauca and Euphorbia splendens var. 1 were found to show significant antibacterial activity. It was also observed that extracts using nonpolar solvents did not show any antibacterial activity and extracts using polar solvents showed antibacterial activity on tested bacteria, indicating that the active chemical compound responsible for the antibacterial action must be a polar soluble compound. (author)
Full Text Available Phenolics, which are widely distributed in plant kingdom, appear to have desirable medicinal properties and play a major role in both plant and animal health. Some have been reported to be antitumor agents and to exhibit antiviral and antimicrobial activities, hypotensive effects and antioxidant properties. These compounds, either as isolates or in conjunction with other compounds, may be used for various health benefits. In this study, forty types of Malaysian medicinal plants were examined to develop an understanding of the distribution of phenolics and to give an assessment of the diversity present in the selected plants. The selection of plants was based on their frequent usages by local folks for their medicinal benefits. Total phenolic content was analyzed by Folin and Ciocalteau’s phenol reagent and their concentration was expressed as Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE. All plant samples gave positive result with varying concentrations. Highest amount was obtained from Piper betle L. which had phenolic content of 8986.67 mg L-1 GAE, while the lowest concentration of 133.33 mg L-1 GAE was obtained from Canna indica Linn. This information can be used to assess taxonomic classifications, evaluate potential sources of phenolic compounds for agricultural and pharmaceutical uses and evaluate breeding program results.
Ro?. 158, Part A (2014), s. 221-229. ISSN 0378-8741 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : medicinal plants * principal component analysis * randomization test * ethnomedicine * drug development Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.939, year: 2013
Rokaya, Maan Bahadur; Uprety, Y.; Poudel, R. C.; Timsina, Binu; Munzbergová, Z.; Asselin, H.; Tiwari, A.; Shrestha, S. S.; Sidgel, S. R.
Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) is a highly valued plant, distributed in many countries of the tropics and subtropics. It has an impressive range of medicinal uses with high nutritional value. Different parts of this plant contain a profile of important minerals, and are a good source of protein, vitamins, beta-carotene, amino acids and various phenolics. The Moringa plant provides a rich and rare combination of zeatin, quercetin, beta-sitosterol, caffeoylquinic acid and kaempferol. In addition to its compelling water purifying powers and high nutritional value, M. oleifera is very important for its medicinal value. Various parts of this plant such as the leaves, roots, seed, bark, fruit, flowers and immature pods act as cardiac and circulatory stimulants, possess antitumor, antipyretic, antiepileptic, antiinflammatory, antiulcer, antispasmodic, diuretic, antihypertensive, cholesterol lowering, antioxidant, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, antibacterial and antifungal activities, and are being employed for the treatment of different ailments in the indigenous system of medicine, particularly in South Asia. This review focuses on the detailed phytochemical composition, medicinal uses, along with pharmacological properties of different parts of this multipurpose tree. PMID:17089328
Anwar, Farooq; Latif, Sajid; Ashraf, Muhammad; Gilani, Anwarul Hassan
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Non-probability sampling design can be used in ethnobotanical surveys of medicinal plants. However, this method does not allow statistical inferences to be made from the data generated. The aim of this paper is to present a probability sampling design that is applicable in ethnobotanical studies of [...] medicinal plants. The sampling design employed in the research titled "Ethnobotanical knowledge of medicinal plants used by traditional communities of Nossa Senhora Aparecida do Chumbo district (NSACD), Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil" was used as a case study. Probability sampling methods (simple random and stratified sampling) were used in this study. In order to determine the sample size, the following data were considered: population size (N) of 1179 families; confidence coefficient, 95%; sample error (d), 0.05; and a proportion (p), 0.5. The application of this sampling method resulted in a sample size (n) of at least 290 families in the district. The present study concludes that probability sampling methods necessarily have to be employed in ethnobotanical studies of medicinal plants, particularly where statistical inferences have to be made using data obtained. This can be achieved by applying different existing probability sampling methods, or better still, a combination of such methods.
Mariano Martinez, Espinosa; Isanete G. C., Bieski; Domingos Tabajara de Oliveira, Martins.
Ro?. 158, Part A (2014), s. 221-229. ISSN 0378-8741 R&D Projects: GA ?R GP13-10850P Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : principal component analysis * medicinal plants * randomization test * ethnomedicine * drug development Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.939, year: 2013
Rokaya, Maan Bahadur; Uprety, Y.; Poudel, R. C.; Timsina, B.; Münzbergová, Zuzana; Asselin, H.; Tiwari, A.; Shrestha, S. S.; Sidgel, S. R.
Seven medicinal plant extracts traditionally used in Kenya, mainly for management of infectious conditions, were chosen and screened for their antibacterial activity against Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. Antibacterial activity was tested using the broth dilution method. Harrisonia abyssinica and Terminalia kilimandscharica extracts showed significant activity against Gram+ and Gram- bacteria....
Cyrus, Wagate G.; Daniel, Gakuya W.; Nanyingi, Mark O.; Njonge, Francis K.; Mbaria, James M.
This study was performed to investigate the safety of Alchornea cordifolia, Cnestis ferruginea, Lonchocarpus sericeus, Trema orientalis, and Senna alata in respect to genotoxicity. These five medicinal plants are widely distributed in Africa. They are used as a traditional medicine in many African counties for the treatment of microbial, inflammatory, and stress-related diseases. To evaluate the bacterial reverse mutation of these five medicinal plants, the in vitro Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, and TA1537, and Escherichia coli WP2uvrA, with or without the addition of S9 mixture was performed. Concentrations used for this test were 625, 2,500, and 5,000 µg per plate. A. cordifolia, C. ferruginea, L. sericeus, and T. orientalis showed negative results in the bacterial reverse mutation test, suggesting that it is potentially safe for these plants to be used in medicinal plants supplements at high doses. However, our experiments suggest that S. alata is a potent mutagen. Therefore, further studies are needed to evaluate the carcinogenicity of S. alata in order to adequately assess the risks for human health. PMID:21297345
Hong, Chang-Eui; Lyu, Su-Yun
To investigate radiosensitivity of in vitro cell, callus of Carthamus tincrorius L. was irradiated with gamma rays. Radiosensitivity of callus was intermediate between that of dormant seed and growing seedling. The effect of irradiation dose rate was observed. Irradiation effect varied due to preculture period in each culture. Depression of growth by irradiation was recoverd in the second subculture after irradiation. Berberine content was investigated in culture of Coptis japonica Makino. Embryoids derived from leaf blade shows higher concentration than those derived from leaf petiole and basal end of flower bud. Irradiation to enbryoid caused decrease of its content on the average, but some irradiated embryoids showed high content of berberine. In Datura alba Nees and C. Japonica Makino, regenerated plants were obtained. The number of regenerated plants depended on tissues from which callus was derived and on line of material plants. It is suggested from this experiment that choice of genotype which shows a high frequency of plant regeneration and of condition of mutagenic treatment which induce mutants at highest efficiency as possible were important for breeding efficacy. (author)
Full Text Available The present article elucidates on the antimicrobial (antibacterial and antifungal activity of some medicinal plants (herbs against different microbes (e.g., bacteria and fungi. Aquaculture has been a growing activity for more than 20 years worldwide. The bacterial infections are considered the major cause of mortality in aquaculture. Among the common fish pathogenic bacteria, Streptococcus agalactiae, Lactococcus garvieae, Enterococcus faecalis (all gram-positive, Aeromonas hydrophila and Yersinia ruckeri (both gram-negative cause infectious diseases. A. hydrophila, the most common bacterial pathogen in freshwater fish, has been recognized to be the aetiological agent of many pathological conditions, including tail rot, motile Aeromonas septicemia and epizootic ulcerative syndrome as a primary pathogen. The continuous use of antimicrobial agents in aquaculture has resulted into resistant bacterial strains in the aquatic environment. Treatment of bacterial diseases with different herbs has been safely used in organic agriculture, veterinary and human medicine. Treatment with medicinal plants having antibacterial activity is a potentially beneficial alternative in the aquaculture. These herbs mitigate many of the side effects which are associated with synthetic antimicrobials. Additionally, the plant-derived phytomedicines provide a cheaper source for treatment and greater accuracy than chemotherapeutic agents. Plants have been used as traditional medicine since time immemorial to control bacterial, viral and fungal diseases. In India, 500 medicinal plant species are used against pathogenic bacteria. Recently, research has been initiated to evaluate the feasibility of herbal drugs in fish diseases. Because of the growing bacterial resistance against commercial standard and reserve antibiotics, the search for new active substances with antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria is of increasing importance.
Full Text Available Abstract The success of snake bite healers is vaguely understood in Kenya, partly due to their unknown materia medica and occult-mystical nature of their practice. A comparison is made of plants used in snake bite treatments by two culturally distinct African groups (the Kamba and Luo. Thirty two plants used for snakebite treatment are documented. The majority of the antidotes are prepared from freshly collected plant material – frequently leaves. Though knowledge of snake bite conditions etiological perceptions of the ethnic groups is similar, field ethnobotanical data suggests that plant species used by the two ethnic groups are independently derived. Antivenin medicinal plants effectively illustrate the cultural context of medicine. Randomness or the use of a variety of species in different families appears to be a feature of traditional snake bite treatments. A high degree of informant consensus for the species was observed. The study indicates rural Kenya inhabitants rely on medicinal plants for healthcare.
Kisangau Daniel P
The antimicrobial potential of seventy-seven extracts from twenty-four plants was screened against eight bacteria and four pathogenic fungi, using microbroth dilution assay. Lowest concentration of the extract, which inhibits any visual microbial growth after treatment with p-iodonitrotetrazolium violet, was considered to be minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Water extracts of Acacia nilotica, Justicia zelanica, Lantana camara and Saraca asoca exhibited good activity against all the bact...
Dabur, Rajesh; Gupta, Amita; Mandal, T. K.; Singh, Desh Deepak; Bajpai, Vivek; Gurav, A. M.; Lavekar, G. S.
Coscinium fenestratum is a common medicinal plant widely used in the Indochina region, but scientific data on its safety is very limited. This study aimed to observe the effect of this plant on neurotoxicity and neurobehavior. Oral administration of plant alcoholic extract at dosages of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kgBW for 14 days increased the rats body weight and decreased the neuron density in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum. The plant extract significantly increased stereotyped behavior in licking but did not cause anxiolytic activity, anti-depression, sensory motor co-ordination impairment and ataxia. It is concluded that the plant possesses neurotoxicity and is able to induce neurobehavioral changes in rats. Therefore, the application of this plant as either drug or supplementary food should be reconsidered. PMID:16644087
Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Uabundit, Nongnut; Itarat, Wanchai; Mucimapura, Supaporn; Laopatarakasem, Pisamai; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn
Full Text Available In this study, antimicrobial activity of Rhododendron ponticum L., Prunus laurocerasus L., Agrimonia eupatoria L., Cornus mas L., Vitis vinifera L., Punica granatum L., Anthemis cotula L., Cichorium intybus L., Viscum album L., Papaver hybridum L., Malva rotundifolia L. and Rhus coriaria L. were investigated. The ethanolic extracts of these plants were tested against Escherichia coli ATCC 11230, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538P, Klebsiella pneumoniae UC57, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Proteus vulgaris ATCC 8427, Bacillus cereus ATCC 7064, Mycobacterium smegmatis CCM 2067, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 15313, Micrococcus luteus CCM 169, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Rhodotorula rubra DSM 70403 and Kluyveromyces fragilis ATCC 8608 by disc diffusion method. Of the 12 plants tested, nine showed antimicrobial activity. Each plant species has unique against different microorganisms. The fruit extract of Rhus coriaria had the highest antimicrobial effect with an inhibition zone of 12-52 mm against all the bacteria, but not shown antiyeast effect. Except for the extracts of Rhus coriaria, Agrimonia eupatoria and Anthemis cotula, all additional extracts of generated inhibition zones smaller than those generated by several reference antibiotics.
Full Text Available Halitosis is an oral health condition characterized by unpleasant odors emanating constantly from oral cavity. Almost 22-50% of the population experiences such a condition during lifespan and about half of them suffer from personal discomfort and social embarrassment. Based on the literature survey, it seems that the oral cavity is the most important origin of halitosis; therefore, this area could be considered as the best target for the treatment. Halitosis is a well-known disorder in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM; Avicenna and some other famous Iranian traditional physicians have described this condition in their manuscripts precisely. Herbal therapy was the major treatment suggested by Iranian scholars in which mixtures of medicinal plants were used in the form of mouthwashes and other oral formulations. In the present study, six Iranian ancient medical texts were screened for the herbs with anti-halitosis effects. Subsequent to this study, the medicinal herbs were listed and scored based on the frequency of their repetition. Moreover, the effort has been taken to provide the best scientific name for each plant as well as searching modern studies about their biological effects. In our investigation fourteen plants were obtained as the most frequent herbs for treatment of halitosis in ITM. Previous studies revealed that some of these plants have shown biological activities relating to anti-halitosis effect. The present study introduces some more plants for future studies about anti-halitosis property.
This dissertation has presented the results from analysis of medicinal plant extracts using neutron activation method. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the determination of the elements Al, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc and Zn in medicinal extracts obtained from Achyrolcline satureoides DC, Casearia sylvestris, Centella asiatica, Citrus aurantium L., Solano lycocarpum, Solidago microglossa, Stryphnondedron barbatiman and Zingiber officinale R. plants. The elements Hg and Se were determined using radiochemical separation by means of retention of Se in HMD inorganic exchanger and solvent extraction of Hg by bismuth diethyl-dithiocarbamate solution. Precision and accuracy of the results have been evaluated by analysing reference materials. The therapeutic action of some elements found in plant extracts analyzed was briefly discussed
Full Text Available The term “nervios” is referred as a folk illness recognized by Mexican Traditional Medicine, and also widely reported across many countries in Latin America. “Nervios” are characterized by a “state of bodily and mental unrest”, which decreases the ability to achieve daily goals. The causes are varie [...] d; in fact, any situation that alters the emotional state or mood is interpreted as a possible triggering agent. Depression and anxiety are psychiatric disorders, which share symptoms, or can be included in the same group of disorders with “nervios”. The therapies are designed to reassure health, i.e. “calm the nerves”. For this propose, the oral administration of plants infusions is common. In this review we compile information regarding the plants used for the treatment of “nervios” in México, along with those for which reports of anxiolytic or/and antidepressive activity exist. We found 92 plant species used in folk medicine for the treatment of “nervios”, among these, sixteen have been studied experimentally. The most studied plant is Galphimia glauca Cav., Malpighiaceae, which current clinical studies have validated its efficacy in patients, and their active components, the triterpenes galphimine A, B, and C, identified. Interestingly only nine plants were found to be reported in folk medicine for the treatment of sadness or/and depression, but their antidepressant activity has not been investigated. However, among the plants used in folk medicine for treatment of “nervios”, several, as Litsea glaucescens Kunth, Lauraceae, have been proven to show antidepressant activity in experimental models, and some of their active compounds have been determined. These species could be a potential source of compounds with activity in the central nervous system.
S. Laura, Guzmán Gutiérrez; Ricardo, Reyes Chilpa; Herlinda, Bonilla Jaime.
The use of complementary medicines, such as plant extracts, in dementia therapy varies according to the different cultural traditions. In orthodox Western medicine, contrasting with that in China and the Far East for example, pharmacological properties of traditional cognitive- or memory-enhancing plants have not been widely investigated in the context of current models of Alzheimer's disease. An exception is Gingko biloba in which the gingkolides have antioxidant, neuroprotective and cholinergic activities relevant to Alzheimer's disease mechanisms. The therapeutic efficacy of Ginkgo extracts in Alzheimer's disease in placebo controlled clinical trials is reportedly similar to currently prescribed drugs such as tacrine or donepezil and, importantly, undesirable side effects of Gingko are minimal. Old European reference books, such as those on medicinal herbs, document a variety of other plants such as Salvia officinalis (sage) and Melissa officinalis (balm) with memory-improving properties, and cholinergic activities have recently been identified in extracts of these plants. Precedents for modern discovery of clinically relevant pharmacological activity in plants with long-established medicinal use include, for example, the interaction of alkaloid opioids in Papaver somniferum (opium poppy) with endogenous opiate receptors in the brain. With recent major advances in understanding the neurobiology of Alzheimer's disease, and as yet limited efficacy of so-called rationally designed therapies, it may be timely to re-explore historical archives for new directions in drug development. This article considers not only the value of an integrative traditional and modern scientific approach to developing new treatments for dementia, but also in the understanding of disease mechanisms. Long before the current biologically-based hypothesis of cholinergic derangement in Alzheimer' s disease emerged, plants now known to contain cholinergic antagonists were recorded for their amnesia- and dementia-inducing properties. PMID:10411211
Perry, E K; Pickering, A T; Wang, W W; Houghton, P J; Perry, N S
Full Text Available Specialized compounds from photosynthetic organisms serve as rich resources for drug development. From aspirin to atropine, plant-derived natural products have had a profound impact on human health. Technological advances provide new opportunities to access these natural products in a metabolic context. Here, we describe a database and platform for storing, visualizing and statistically analyzing metabolomics data from fourteen medicinal plant species. The metabolomes and associated transcriptomes (RNAseq for each plant species, gathered from up to twenty tissue/organ samples that have experienced varied growth conditions and developmental histories, were analyzed in parallel. Three case studies illustrate different ways that the data can be integrally used to generate testable hypotheses concerning the biochemistry, phylogeny and natural product diversity of medicinal plants. Deep metabolomics analysis of Camptotheca acuminata exemplifies how such data can be used to inform metabolic understanding of natural product chemical diversity and begin to formulate hypotheses about their biogenesis. Metabolomics data from Prunella vulgaris, a species that contains a wide range of antioxidant, antiviral, tumoricidal and anti-inflammatory constituents, provide a case study of obtaining biosystematic and developmental fingerprint information from metabolite accumulation data in a little studied species. Digitalis purpurea, well known as a source of cardiac glycosides, is used to illustrate how integrating metabolomics and transcriptomics data can lead to identification of candidate genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes in the cardiac glycoside pathway. Medicinal Plant Metabolomics Resource (MPM  provides a framework for generating experimentally testable hypotheses about the metabolic networks that lead to the generation of specialized compounds, identifying genes that control their biosynthesis and establishing a basis for modeling metabolism in less studied species. The database is publicly available and can be used by researchers in medicine and plant biology.
Eve Syrkin Wurtele
Medicinal plants have been used in healthcare since time immemorial. Studies have been carried out globally to verify their efficacy and some of the findings have led to the production of plant-based medicines. The global market value of medicinal plant products exceeds $100 billion per annum. This paper discusses the role, contributions and usefulness of medicinal plants in tackling the diseases of public health importance, with particular emphasis on the current strategic approaches to dise...
Sofowora, Abayomi; Ogunbodede, Eyitope; Onayade, Adedeji
Full Text Available Myrica nagi belongs to myricaceae family. It is commonly known as Bay berry (English and Kathphal (Hindi. Myrica nagi has a long history of usage in traditional medicine against various ailments. In Ayurvedic and other traditional medicinal practices the plant has been used against diseases like, fever, Cardiac debility, typhoid, diarrhoea, dysentery. Phytochemicals like glycosides, saponins tannins, flavonoids, triterpenes and sterols have been isolated. Important pharmacological activities such as hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, antihelmintic, antiinflammatory and antiasthmatic properties were shown by researchers. This review presents a detailed survey of the literature on various traditional uses, phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Myrica nagi.
Full Text Available Over the past three decades the fishermen of the Salgado, region on the Pará coast, have experienced a process of cultural, social and economic change, although the use of plants for various purposes has persisted. The aims of this study were to identify the species of restinga which are most widely used for medicinal purposes by the residents of Algodoal, a fishing community located in the region in question, and to test ethnobotanical techiniques designed for this objective. During the study, 24 species with medicinal properties were identified, of which eight were outstanding in terms of cultural importance.
André Luís Cote Roman
The present study was designed to document detailed ethnogynaecological knowledge of selected remote regions of Pashtun's tribe in northwest Pakistan. Semistructured questionnaires were designed to collect ethnogynaecological and ethnographic data. Total of 51 medicinal plants belonging to 36 families were documented that were used by the women of studied regions for the treatment of 9 types of gynaecological complaints. Majority of the plants (19) were found used against menses followed by 11 plants each for gonorrhea and pregnancy. Bannu region has high number of gynaecological plants (22) followed by Karak (15). Women of the regions mostly used whole plants (33%) and leaves (31%) for various ethnomedicinal preparation of gynae. Fic results showed that all ailments in different areas scored high consensus ranges between 0.6 and 1.00. Majority of the female respondents (44%) were aged between 61 and 70 years, of which most were illiterate. Women in the remote regions of Pakistan have tremendous traditional knowledge in utilizing medicinal plants for their reproductive health. Plants with high Fic values should be cross-checked for their in vitro and in vivo validation. Young girls should be educated on the importance of ethnogynaecological practices to conserve this valuable knowledge. PMID:25756042
Tariq, Akash; AbdEIsalam, Naser M.
The antimicrobial potential of seventy-seven extracts from twenty-four plants was screened against eight bacteria and four pathogenic fungi, using microbroth dilution assay. Lowest concentration of the extract, which inhibits any visual microbial growth after treatment with p-iodonitrotetrazolium violet, was considered to be minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Water extracts of Acacia nilotica, Justicia zelanica, Lantana camara and Saraca asoca exhibited good activity against all the bacteria tested and the MIC was recorded in range of 9.375-37.5 microg/ml and 75.0-300.0 microg/ml against the bacterial and fungal pathogens, respectively. The other extracts of Phyllanthus urinaria, Thevetia nerifolia, Jatropha gossypifolia Saraca asoca, Tamarindus indica, Aegle marmelos, Acacia nilotica, Chlorophytum borivilianum, Mangifera indica, Woodfordia fruticosa and Phyllanthus emblica showed antimicrobial activity in a range of 75-1200 microg/ml. PMID:20161895
Dabur, Rajesh; Gupta, Amita; Mandal, T K; Singh, Desh Deepak; Bajpai, Vivek; Gurav, A M; Lavekar, G S
Full Text Available The heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn contents of selected plant species, grown in Southeast region of Serbia, that are traditionally used in alternative medicine were determined. Among the considered metals, iron content was the highest one and varied from 137.53 up to 423.32 mg/kg, while the contents of Cu, Zn and Mn were remarkably lower, and ranged from 8.91 to 62.20 mg/kg. In addition, an analysis of plants extracts showed a significant transfer of heavy metals during extraction procedure; therefore, the corresponding extraction coefficients reached values up to 88.8%. Those were especially high in the ethanol based extracts. Moreover, it is established that such coefficients mostly depend on the solvent nature and also on the treated plant species. The obtained results impose that medicinal plants from Southeast region of Serbia due to rather low content of heavy metals are appropriate for preparation of teas and medicinal extracts.
Biodiversity contributes significantly towards human livelihood and development and thus plays a predominant role in the well being of the global population. According to WHO reports, around 80 % of the global population still relies on botanical drugs; today several medicines owe their origin to medicinal plants. Natural substances have long served as sources of therapeutic drugs, where drugs including digitalis (from foxglove), ergotamine (from contaminated rye), quinine (from cinchona), and salicylates (willow bark) can be cited as some classical examples.Drug discovery from natural sources involve a multifaceted approach combining botanical, phytochemical, biological, and molecular techniques. Accordingly, medicinal-plant-based drug discovery still remains an important area, hitherto unexplored, where a systematic search may definitely provide important leads against various pharmacological targets.Ironically, the potential benefits of plant-based medicines have led to unscientific exploitation of the natural resources, a phenomenon that is being observed globally. This decline in biodiversity is largely the result of the rise in the global population, rapid and sometimes unplanned industrialization, indiscriminate deforestation, overexploitation of natural resources, pollution, and finally global climate change.Therefore, it is of utmost importance that plant biodiversity be preserved, to provide future structural diversity and lead compounds for the sustainable development of human civilization at large. This becomes even more important for developing nations, where well-planned bioprospecting coupled with nondestructive commercialization could help in the conservation of biodiversity, ultimately benefiting mankind in the long run.Based on these findings, the present review is an attempt to update our knowledge about the diverse therapeutic application of different plant products against various pharmacological targets including cancer, human brain, cardiovascular function, microbial infection, inflammation, pain, and many more. PMID:25001990
Sen, Tuhinadri; Samanta, Samir Kumar
Triphala is a traditional herbal formulation consisting of dried fruits originating from three medicinal plants, namely Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica and Phyllanthus emblica. It is used in folk medicine for the treatment of headaches, dyspepsia and leucorrhoea. There are some reports regarding Triphala's pharmacological effects including its anti-cancer, radioprotective, hypocholesterolaemic, hepatoprotective and anti-oxidant activities. The most important components of these plants are the tannins and gallic acid which they contain. Gallic acid being a compound with tannin structure existing in the Triphala fruit. In this research, the gallic acid content contained in the three plants constituting Triphala was determined. Plant fruits were purchased from available Iranian markets. Milled and powdered fruits from each plant were extracted with 70% acetone and subjected to a reaction with rhodanine reagent in the process forming a colored complex. The complex's absorbance was measured at 520 nm and the amount of gallic acid was determined using its calibration curve. According to the results, the highest amount of gallic acid was observed in Phyllanthus embelica (1.79-2.18%) and the lowest amount was found in Terminalia chebula (0.28-0.80%). Moreover, differences between plant samples from different markets places were found to be statistically significant (p Triphala storage. In general, the rhodanine assay is a simple, rapid and reproducible method for the standardization of Triphala as gallic acid. PMID:24250348
Vazirian, Mahdi; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Amanzadeh, Yaghoub; Hajimehdipoor, Homa
Full Text Available Medicinal plants are the best source to obtain a variety of herbal drugs. The use of plant extracts and photochemical both with known anti-microbial properties can be of great importance in therapeutic treatments. The plants have provided a good source of anti-infective agents and many of them remain highly effective in the fight against microbial infections. Therefore in the present study seven medicinal plants that are Emblica officinalis, Ficus bengalensis, Myristica fragrans, Acacia arabica, Aloe barbadensis, Ricinus communis and Zizyphus jujuba were screened for potential anti-bacterial activity against medically important bacterial strains, such as Pseudomonas aurogenosa, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus cereviceae. The anti-microbial activity was determined in methanolic extracts using agar well diffusion method. Streptococcus cereviceae showed resistance against the plant extracts. Emblica officinalis and Aloe barbadensis showed strong anti-bacterial activity against all the tested bacterial strains. Hence, this plant extract can be used to evaluate any bioactive natural products that may serve as leads in the development of new pharmaceuticals that can address the unmet therapeutic needs.
Tylophora indica (Burm.f) Merr. (ASCLEPIDACEAE) is an important Indian medicinal plant. It is called “ASTHMA KODI” OR “NANJARUPPAN” IN Tamil in the Siddha system of medicine. Tamil medical literature reveal that it is an ideal plant medicine for respiratory problems and is also a cardiac tonic. For medicinal purposes it is collected only from the wild. It has not yet been brought under cultivation. Its taxonomy, morphology, ecology and medicinal uses were studied. Since, tissue-cultur...
Dhandapani, R.; Balu, S.
Full Text Available The microelements content of 33 medicinal plants was analyzed. The analysed microelements were: Iron, copper, zinc, manganese, cobalt, chromium, nickel, cadmium and lead. Mineral contents were determinate by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (F-AAS with high resolution continuum source ContrAA 300 spectrometer. The contents in microelements for analysed samples were in range: 18.1 ppm (Symphytum officinale - 1.4 ppm (Rhamnus frangula, for Copper; 26,2 ppm (Valeriana officinalis – 4,3 ppm (Rhamnus frangula, for Zinc; 214 ppm. (Violae tricoloris herba - 18 ppm (Equisetum arvense, for Manganese; 826 ppm (Calendula officinalis - 23 ppm (Rhamnus frangula, for Iron. The microelements contents (Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe, Co, Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb have grouped the analyzed medicinal plants in two main clusters. First main cluster was formed by other two groups.
Ducu Sandu ?tef
Full Text Available Cellular damage or oxidative injury arising from free radicals or reactive oxygen species (ROS now appears the fun-damental mechanism underlying a number of human neurodegenerative disorder, diabetes, inflammation, viral infec-tions, autoimmune pathologies and digestive system disorders. Free radicals are generated through normal metabolism of drugs, environmental chemicals and other xenobiotics as well as endogenous chemicals, especially stress hormones (adrenalin and noradrenalin. Accumulated evidence suggests that ROS can be scavenged through chemoprevention utilizing natural antioxidant compounds present in foods and medicinal plants. In this review, research on the antioxi-dant potential of some medicinal plants of origin of Central India is considered.4CdBw3
Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been growing interests on developing medicinal plant industry. This paper presents an empirical study on important factors influencing medicinal plant for developing exports in Iran. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 310 regular customers who are involved in this industry in city of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.802. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Samplng =KMO test was also computed and it was about 0.66, which is above the minimum acceptable limit of 0.5. The study uses Scree plot to determine important factors and there are eight factors including environmental issues, export supportive issues, potentials for export, business plan, export plan, structural barriers, competition capability and strategy.
Full Text Available The levels and activities of a number of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs are known to increase in response to increase in stress. The Mongolian plants considered to possess medicinal properties may contain novel compounds since they are exposed to severe conditions; such plants could become good candidates for modern drug discovery programmes. Information on distribution, palatability to livestock and opinion of local people on their nutritive and medicinal values was compiled for 15 plant materials from 14 plant species considered important for medicinal purposes. These plants were evaluated for nutritive value and PSMs: tannins, saponins, lectins, alkaloids and cyanogens. High levels of tannins were found in roots of Bergenia crassifolia and in leaves of B. crassifolia, Vaccinium vitisidaea and Rheum undulatum. High lectin activity (haemagglutination was present in B. crassifolia roots, and leaves of R. undulatum, Iris lacteal and Thymus gobicus contained weak lectin activity. Tanacetum vulgare, Serratula centauroids, Taraxacum officinale and Delphinum elatum leaves contained saponin activity (haemolysis. Alkaloids and cyanogens were not present in any of the samples. The paper discusses the known medicinal uses of these plants in light of the PSMs levels, and identifies plant samples for future applications in human and livestock health, welfare and safety.
The volatile compounds from the pericarps of Illicium anisatum L., Illicium brevistylum A.C.Sm., Illicium griffithii Hook.f. & Thomson, Illicium henryi Diels, Illicium lanceolatum A.C.Sm., Illicium majus Hook.f. & Thomson, Illicium micranthum Dunn, and Illicium verum Hook.f. were examined by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). The volatiles desorbed from the pericarps of I. verum (Chinese star anise), the species traded for culinary purposes, were generally characterized by a high proportion of (E)-anethole (57.6-77.1%) and the presence of foeniculin; the latter was otherwise only detected in the pericarps of I. lanceolatum. In the pericarps of all other species analyzed, the percentage composition of (E)-anethole was comparatively lower (anise) were characterized by the presence of asaricin, methoxyeugenol, and two other eugenol derivatives, none of which were detected in any of the other species examined. TD-GC-MS enables the direct analysis of the volatile components from the pericarps of Illicium and can assist with differentiating the fruits of I. verum from other species of Illicium, particularly the more toxic I. anisatum. PMID:19507874
Howes, Melanie-Jayne R; Kite, Geoffrey C; Simmonds, Monique S J
Full Text Available
Acanthus ilicifolius Linn. (Acanthaceae is relatively lesser-known, yet important medicinal plant of Herbal Materia Medica. The plant is used in traditional systems of medicine, including Traditional Indian Medicine (TIM or Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM. The plant is reported to contain phytochemicals including alkaloid and wide range of glucosides (lignan and phenylethanoid. In traditional medicine, the plant is used in the treatment of diseases ranging from snake bite to skin diseases. Laboratory investigations on extracts of the plant have demonstrated significant pharmacological activities like antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, anti-osteporotic and hepatoprotective. The review analyses traditional medicinal usage, and phyto-pharmacological investigations done on the medicinal plant.
Keywords: Acanthus ilicifolius, traditional medicine, phytochemistry, pharmacology, glucosides
GAP production of medicinal plants needs diseases' green control during their cultivation processes. In this article, The authors summarized the achievements in cultural control and biological control to crops' diseases, taking the characteristics of medicinal plants into account, we put out the notion of the green control to medicinal plants' diseases, and indicated that the green control for medicinal plants' diseases should combine with cultural control, modem phytopathology methods, biological control and essential pesticides, besides, we introduced some suggestions and the prospect, to provide a reference for green control of medicinal plants' diseases in their GAP production. PMID:23189727
Yao, Ruyu; Chen, Xingfu; Meng, Jie; Li, Zhifei; Yang, Xingwang
Abstract Background Infectious diseases caused by multiresistant microbial strains are on the increase. Fighting these diseases with natural products may be more efficacious. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of methanolic, ethylacetate (EtOAc) and hexanic fractions of five Cameroonian medicinal plants (Piptadeniastum africana, Cissus aralioides, Hileria latifolia, Phyllanthus muellerianus and Gladiolus gregasius) against 10 pathogenic microorganisms...
Njouendou Abdel J; Asongalem Emmanuel A; Nde Peter F; Njunda Anna L; Nsagha Dickson S; Lf, Kamga Henri; Cn, Assob Jules; Sandjon Bertrand; Penlap Veronique B
In the present work the microbial decontamination of some medicinal plants by plasma treatment using oxygen gas or a mixture of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide was investigated. The efficiency of the decontamination process was analyzed by the count of heterotropic microorganisms and pathogenic research. The results showed a reduction in the microorganism number such as 3 and 4 logarithmic cycles for ginkgo and artichoke, while it was not efficient for samples containing hard and thi...
Kalkaslief Souza, Siliane B.; Kikuchi, Irene S.; Mansano, Ronaldo D.; Moreira, Adir J.; Nemtanu, Monica R.; Pinto, Terezinha J. A.
AbstractThe present paper deals with evaluation of synergistic effect of two medicinal plants, Ponamia pinnata Linn and Psoralea corylifolia Linn. Extraction was carried out with soxhlet apparatus using the solvent ethanol. The anti-psoriatic activity was done by Induction of psoriasiform changes in guinea pig by propranolol method and Rat UV B rays Photo dermatitis model for psoriasis. Antimicrobial activity by plate hole diffusion method. Ethanolic extract exhibited significant effect of an...
Evaluation of sterol contents from three selected medicinal plant species of Fabaceae family growing in Rajasthan Desert was carried out. The roots, shoots and fruits of Clitoria ternatea, Sesbania bispinosa and Tephrosia purpurea were analysed for sterol contents. ?- Sitosterol and Stigmasterol were isolated and identified. Maximum sterol contents were observed in shoots of Sesbania bispinosa (0.29 mg/g.d.w.), whereas minimum in roots of Tephrosia purpurea(0.15mg/g.d.w.
Kapoor, B. B. S.; Veena Purohit *
The present article elucidates on the antimicrobial (antibacterial and antifungal) activity of some medicinal plants (herbs) against different microbes (e.g., bacteria and fungi). Aquaculture has been a growing activity for more than 20 years worldwide. The bacterial infections are considered the major cause of mortality in aquaculture. Among the common fish pathogenic bacteria, Streptococcus agalactiae, Lactococcus garvieae, Enterococcus faecalis (all gram-positive), Aeromonas hydrophila and...
Sharma Madhuri; Mandloi A.K.; Pandey Govind; Sahni Y.P.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and dark septate endophyte (DSE) associations were studied in 36 medicinal plant species from 33 genera and 17 families, collected from the Botanical Garden of the Jagiellonian University in Kraków. Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) was found in 34 species (94%); 26 were of the Arum-type, 4 – Paris and 4 taxa revealed intermediate morphology. The abundance of AMF hyphae in roots varied with particular species, ranging from 2.5% (Helianthus tuberosus) to 77.9% ...
Szymon Zubek; Janusz B?aszkowski; Piotr Mleczko
Methanolic extracts of 41 plant species belonging to 27 families used in the traditional medicine in Nepal have been investigated for in vitro antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and influenza virus A by dye uptake assay in the systems HSV-1/Vero cells and influenza virus A/MDCK cells. The extracts of Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata, Cassiope fastigiata and Thymus linearis showed potent anti-herpes viral activity. The extracts of Allium oreoprasum, Androsace str...
Hipper, M.; Karmacharya, N.; Gewali, M. B.; Bhattarai, S.; Chaudhary, R. P.; Jha, P. K.; Rajbhandari, M.; Mentel, R.; Lindequist, U.
This investigation was designed to throw light on the microbial status of some crude herbal materials. A total of 16 samples, representing different types of spices and medicinal plants were collected from common market in the Erbil city. Ten different fungal genera and 16 species were isolated and identified as Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus spp., Gliocladium sp., Hyalodendron diddeus, Memmoniella sp., Penicillium spp., Rhizopus spp., Syncephalastrum sp., Cladosporium lignicolum and Ulocl...
Toma, Farid M.; Faqi Abdulla, Nareen Q.
The methanol extract of the bark of the Colombian medicinal plant Maytenus laevis gave six new compounds and 28 known compounds. The structures of the new and known compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. Several of these compounds were screened for cytokine-inducing activity on human PBMCs to investigate antitumor effects, and canophyllol (12) demonstrated the most effective induction of the cytokines. PMID:15568791
Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Takaishi, Yoshihisa; Fujimoto, Yoshinori; Duque, Carmenza; Garzon, Cristina; Sato, Mitsunobu; Okamoto, Masato; Oshikawa, Tetsuya; Ahmed, Sharif Uddin
Antifungal activities of fluid extract and essential oil obtained from anise fruits Pimpinella anisum L. (Apiaceae) were tested in vitro on clinical isolates of seven species of yeasts and four species of dermatophytes. Diffusion method with cylinders and the broth dilution method were used for antifungal activity testing. Anise fluid extract showed antimycotic activity against Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. pseudotropicalis and C. krusei with MIC values between 17 and 20% (v/v). No activity was noticed against C. glabrata, and anis fruits extracts showed growth promotion activity on Geotrichum spp. Anise fruits extract inhibited the growth of dermatophyte species (Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis and M. gypseum) with MIC values between 1.5 and 9.0% (V/V). Anise essential oil showed strong antifungal activity against yeasts with MIC lower than 1.56% (V/V) and dermatophytes with MIC lower than 0.78% (V/V). Significant differences in antifungal activities were found between anise fluid extract and anise essential oil (pAnise essential oil exhibited stronger antifungal activities against yeasts and dermatophytes with MIC values between 0.10 and 1.56% (V/V), respectively. PMID:16375827
Kosalec, Ivan; Pepeljnjak, Stjepan; Kustrak, Danica
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to present the implications of the use of herbs during pregnancy, pointing out those that should be avoided during this condition because of their abortifacient and/or teratogenic potential. We carried out searches in the databases ScienceDirect, Scielo and Google Scholar, adopting as criteria for inclusion: book chapters and/or complete articles (with abstract, available in English, Portuguese or Spanish, published from 1996 to in 2011. After a pre-selection of 83 articles, 49 bibliographies were used in the manufacturing end of the article, where 25 were from the Scielo database, 18 from ScienceDirect and 6 from Google Scholar. From the articles studied, we identified the four most commonly used plants as emmenagogue/abortifacient agents by patients of the Department of Prenatal SUS: senne, arruda, boldo and buchinha-do-norte or cabacinha. Thus, we conclude that people often adhere to the maxim "if it's natural, it does no harm" in their rational use of natural products, without the right guidance, believing that these products are safe to use. This usage is even more worrisome among the elderly, pregnant women and children. Regarding the safety of these products, some information and reliable data are scarce or contradictory.Este trabalho busca as implicações atuais sobre o uso de plantas medicinais durante a gravidez, alertando sobre aquelas que devem ser evitadas nesse período por serem potencialmente abortivas e/ou teratogênicas. Para tanto, foram realizadas buscas nas bases de dados Sciencedirect, Scielo e Google scholar, adotando-se como critérios de inclusão capítulos de livros e/ou artigos completos (com abstract e disponíveis, em português, inglês ou espanhol, publicados de 1996 a 2011. Após uma pré-seleção de 83 artigos, 49 bibliografias foram utilizadas na confecção final do artigo, sendo 25 provenientes da base de dados Scielo, 18 do Sciencedirect e 06 do Google scholar. A partir dos artigos estudados, identificaram-se as quatro plantas mais utilizadas como emenagogas/abortivas por pacientes do Serviço de Pré-Natal do SUS: senne, arruda, boldo e buchinha-do-norte ou cabacinha. Assim, é possível concluir que, muitas vezes, a população se utiliza da máxima "se é natural, não faz mal" para fazer uso irracional de produtos naturais, sem a correta orientação, acreditando que esses produtos sejam incapazes de provocar qualquer dano. Esse uso é ainda mais preocupante quando realizado por idosos, gestantes e crianças. Em relação à segurança do uso desses produtos, algumas informações e dados confiáveis ainda são escassos ou contraditórios.
Kassiane Cristine da Silva Costa
Malaria is one of the world's leading killer infectious diseases with high incidence and morbidity. The problem of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum has been aggravating particularly in Southeast Asia. Therefore, development of new potential antimalarial drugs is urgently required. The present study aimed to investigate antimalarial activities of a total of 27 medicinal plants and 5 herbal formulations used in Thai traditional medicine against chloroquine-resistant (K1) and chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) P. falciparum clones. Antimalarial activity of the ethanolic extracts of all plants/herbal formulations against K1 and 3D7 P. falciparum clones was assessed using SYBR Green I-based assay. All plants were initially screened at the concentration of 50 ?g/ml to select the candidate plants that inhibited malaria growth by ?50%. Each candidate plant was further assessed for the IC50 value (concentration that inhibits malaria growth by 50%) to select the potential plants. Selectivity index (SI) of each extract was determined from the IC50 ratio obtained from human renal epithelial cell and K1 or 3D7 P. falciparum clone. The ethanolic extracts from 19 medicinal plants/herbal formulation exhibited promising activity against both K1 and 3D7 clones of P. falciparum with survival of less than 50% at the concentration of 50 ?g/ml. Among these, the extracts from the eight medicinal plants (Plumbago indica Linn., Garcinia mangostana Linn., Dracaena loureiri Gagnep., Dioscorea membranacea Pierre., Artemisia annua Linn., Piper chaba Hunt., Myristica fragrans Houtt., Kaempferia galanga Linn.) and two herbal formulations (Benjakul Formulation 1 and Pra-Sa-Prao-Yhai Formulation) showed potent antimalarial activity with median range IC50 values of less than 10 ?g/ml against K1 or 3D7 P. falciparum clone or both. All except G. mangostana Linn. and A. annua Linn. showed high selective antimalarial activity against both clones with SI>10. Further studies on antimalarial activities in an animal model including molecular mechanisms of action of the isolated active moieties are required. PMID:23340720
Thiengsusuk, Artitaya; Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Na-Bangchang, Kesara
Full Text Available Four extract amounts (200, 150, 100 and 50 mg mL-1 from twelve medicinal plant species that belong to six genera (Achillea, Salvia, Convolvulus, Plantago, Anthemis and Artemisia were tested against Candida albicans. The antimicrobial activity was carried out by using the hole-plate diffusion method. The effect of plant species, extract amounts and their interaction were highly significant. Achillea santolina, Salvia dominica and Salvia officinalis inhibited the growth of Candida albicans at all tested extract amounts. The extracts of (Salvia spinosa, Convolvulus althaeoides and Plantago lanceolata showed no activity against Candida albicans.
Full Text Available Several novel bioactive components isolated from Chinese medicinal plants will be presented. These include novel maytansinoid tumor, inhibitors, some new ent-kaurane and rosane diterpenoids from Mallotus anomalus Meer et Chun (Euphorbiaceae, as well asnovel insecticide, stemona alkaloids from Stemona parviflora C. H. Wright (Stemonaceae. Both are native plants of Hainan island, Chine. 2D NMR techniques such as mono and hetero-COSY, NOESY, COLOC as well as H-NMR line broadening effect were utilized for structure elucidation. The separation techniques, struture elucidations and bioassay results will be reported.
Full Text Available Several novel bioactive components isolated from Chinese medicinal plants will be presented. These include novel maytansinoid tumor, inhibitors, some new ent-kaurane and rosane diterpenoids from Mallotus anomalus Meer et Chun (Euphorbiaceae), as well asnovel insecticide, stemona alkaloids from Stemo [...] na parviflora C. H. Wright (Stemonaceae). Both are native plants of Hainan island, Chine. 2D NMR techniques such as mono and hetero-COSY, NOESY, COLOC as well as H-NMR line broadening effect were utilized for structure elucidation. The separation techniques, struture elucidations and bioassay results will be reported.
Ren-Sheng, Xu; Zong-Jian, Tang; Sheng-Chu, Feng; Yi-Ping, Yang; Wen-Han, Lin; Qiong-Xing, Zhong; Yi, Zhong.
Full Text Available In this paper the authors consider bioecological peculiarities of some species of medicinal plants, containing cardiac glycosides and their distribution. The paper presents the tables, which contain data of the quantitative content of the amount of cardiac glycosides in the aerial and underground parts of some species of the Cruciferous, Buttercups, etc. in different ecological conditions. The article also introduces the specie of foxglove from the family of figwort, which defines the quantitative content of cardiac glycosides, as the leaves of these plants are a source of raw materials, producing cardiac glycosides.
Full Text Available Helminthiasis is infestation with one or more intestinal parasitic worms roundworms, whipworms , or hookworms in humans and animals. Presently, many synthetic drugs are available to treat Helminthiasis infection effectively, but suffer from number of side effects like abdominal pain, dizziness, headache, fever, nausea, vomiting, or temporary hair loss. Moreover, drug resistance is also another factor concerned with the use of these drugs. Thus, Herbal drugs need to be introduced as large number of medicinal plants are known for their antihelmintic activity with fewer or no side effects and are used by the ethnic groups across different parts of the world. But these medicinal plants need to be screened first for their in vitro and in vivo activity before putting them in use. Thus, many of these herbs have been scrutinized for their pharmacological and pre clinical studies. The present article describes review of promising in vitro efficacy of some medicinal plants having antihelmintic activity, which can be helpful in investigation and discovery of novel herbal drugs.
Manish H. Bachani
Eleven plants used in the Cameroonian traditional medicine for the treatment of some parasitic infections were tested for their activity on the promastigote form of Leishmania donovani. After incubation with different plant extracts at doses of 1600, 800, 400 and 200 microgram/mL, the evaluation of the cell viability was done by the trypan blue exclusion technique and by flow cytometry. This study shows that 48 h after incubation of promastigotes with plant extract, Solanocia mannii and Solanum torvum significantly inhibited the proliferation of promastigotes in culture with IC50 of 60.78±5.05 and 96.08±4.39 using the trypan blue exclusion technique. In addition, IC50 of 43.91±6.49 and 86.13±4.30 were obtained using the flow cytometry technique. Furthermore, 24 h after incubation of promastigotes with the Solanocia mannii and Solanum torvum, there was significant disruption of their long spindle shaped bodies. The results of this study support the popular uses of these plants for the treatment of some parasitic infections in Cameroonian folk medicine. PMID:23562881
Hubert, Donfack J; Céline, Nkenfou; Michel, Noubom; Gogulamudi, V Reddy; Florence, Ngueguim T; Johnson, Boampong N; Bonaventure, Ngadjui T; Singh, Inder P; Sehgal, Rakesh
The medicinal plants play an important role in rural health care system throughout the world in remedying and preventing various kinds of diseases. This study documented the use of plants as traditional herbal medicine in the Kangkar Pulai region Johor, Malaysia. It also identified the homogeneity of informant knowledge on medicinal plants suitable for different ailments and types of plants most favored for the treatment of each ailment in the study. The information was gathered through semi-...
Aburjai, T.; Kadir, M. R. A.; Sultana, N.; Alsarhan, A.
We describe the medicinal plants that have been reported to be antitumor agents and that have been used in ethnobotanic research in Brazil to answer the following questions: what is the abundance of plants reported to be antitumor in Brazil? Have the plant species used for tumor treatment in traditional Brazilian medicine been sufficiently examined scientifically? Our analysis included papers published between 1980 and 2008. A total of 84 medicinal plant species were reported to be used for c...
Silene Carneiro do Nascimento; Ulysses Paulino Albuquerque; Amp Cia Cavalcanti Amorim, Elba L.; Ariane Gaspar Santos; Joabe Gomes Melo
Tobacco and its use was discovered by Christopher Columbus in parallel with the discovery of America. Soon after, tobacco became a known medicinal plant in Europe. Its harmful effects were gradually discovered, especially those of tobacco smoke, and now it is considered a toxic plant. Tobacco leaf has a monograph in German "Hagers Enzyklopädie derArzneistoffe und Drogen", which describes its old, already not valid, medicinal use and clearly shows the toxic effects. Epidemiological studies indicate about 50% lower incidence of Parkinson's disease in smokers than in non-smokers. In turn, studies of the brains of smokers using positron emission tomography showed significantly decreased level of monoamine oxidase B--an enzyme which degrades dopamine--the neurotransmitter which the significant insufficiency of about 80-85%, is responsible for the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. From the tobacco leaves there were isolated MAO-B inhibitors--naphthoquinone--2,3,6-trimethyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and diterpenoid -trans,trans-farnesol, which occur also in tobacco smoke. In the last decade many papers have appeared on the neuroprotective activity of nicotine, the best known component of tobacco. through the effect of this compound on specific nicotinic cholinergic receptors (nAChRs), which interacts with nigrostriatal dopaminergic system as well as the possibility of using nicotine for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, tobacco was also found to contain inhibitors of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Tobacco cannot be considered a medicinal plant, but some compounds occurring in that plant may find therapeutic use. PMID:24501813
Full Text Available The work reported in this article was carried out to explore hidden antioxidant potential of some medicinal plants of District Gujrat, Pakistan. Crude methanolic extracts of Cichorium intybus L, Malva sylvestris L, and Euphorbia milii L were initially screened by DPPH on TLC assay for their antioxidant activity. Diphenylpicrylhydrayl (DPPH free radical scavenging activity was also determined for all plants. To assess the role of plants in lipid oxidation, PV of refined bleached and deodorized (RBD sunflower oil (SFO at 80°C was monitored. BHT was used as standard antioxidant for comparison. Total phenolic contents (TPC were also calculated. Cichorium intybus L was identified as the richest source of safe natural antioxidants.
Mohammad Rafiq Khan
The genotoxicity and toxicity of ethnomedicinal Philippine plants, which include Cassia fistula, Derris elliptica, Ficus elastica, Gliciridia sepium, Michelia alba, Morus alba, Pogostemon cablin and Ricinus communis, were tested using the Vitotox assay. The plants are used traditionally to treat several disorders like diabetes, weakness, menorrhagia, headache, toothache and rheumatism. The dried leaves were homogenized for overnight soaking in methanol at room temperature. The resulting alcoholic extracts were filtered and concentrated in vacuo and tested for their genotoxicity and cytotoxicity using Vitotox®. Results showed that the medicinal plants that were tested are not genotoxic nor cytotoxic, except for R. communis and P. cablin, which showed toxicity at high doses (low dilutions) in the absence of S9. PMID:21716927
Chichioco-Hernandez, Christine; Wudarski, Jakub; Gevaert, Lieven; Verschaeve, Luc
Seventy-six plant extracts including methanolic and successive water extracts from 37 Indian medicinal plants were investigated for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity (in vitro). Results indicated that methanolic extracts to be more active than water extracts. The potent AChE inhibiting methanolic plant extracts included Withania somnifera (root), Semecarpus anacardium (stem bark), Embelia ribes (Root), Tinospora cordifolia (stem), Ficus religiosa (stem bark) and Nardostachys jatamansi (rhizome). The IC(50) values obtained for these extracts were 33.38, 16.74, 23.04, 38.36, 73.69 and 47.21mug/ml, respectively. These results partly substantiate the traditional use of these herbs for improvement of cognition. PMID:16950584
Vinutha, B; Prashanth, D; Salma, K; Sreeja, S L; Pratiti, D; Padmaja, R; Radhika, S; Amit, A; Venkateshwarlu, K; Deepak, M
The safety of herbal products has become a foremost apprehension in public health with their recognition and worldwide market growth and due in part to the widespread assumption that natural implies harmless. The global market of medicinal plants has been growing at a rate of 7-10% annually; capitalizing on the growing awareness of herbal and aromatic plants globally. The present study was conducted to assess the physiochemical parameters, microbial contamination and presence of heavy metals. The 24 medicinal plants were collected from open market places of various cities of Pakistan and tested by employing WHO and AOAC guidelines. Medicinal plants were found polluted with wide variety of potentially pathogenic bacterias. Microbial count and levels of arsenic and mercury in some plants were found elevated. The percentage (%) of physiochemical parameters i.e., foreign organic matter, total ash, acid insoluble ash, alcohol soluble extract, water soluble extract and moisture count of these medicinal plants were found statistically noteworthy. The nonexistence of quality control values for medicinal plants has been one of the key lacunas. Quality assurance system and WHO's guidelines on good agricultural and collection practices be methodically enforced in the medicinal plants supply chain i.e., cultivation, collection and distribution, although it is tricky task. (author)
Full Text Available Abstract Background An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken to record information on medicinal plants from traditional medical practitioners in Babungo and to identify the medicinal plants used for treating diseases. Methods Traditional Medical Practitioners (TMP's who were the main informants were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires and open-ended conversations. Field trips were made to the sites where TMP's harvest plants. Results The survey identified and recorded 107 plants species from 54 plant families, 98 genera used for treating diseases in Babungo. The Asteraceae was the most represented plant family while herbs made up 57% of the total medicinal plants used. The leaf was the most commonly used plant part while concoction and decoction were the most common method of traditional drug preparation. Most medicinal plants (72% are harvested from the wild and 45% of these have other non medicinal uses. Knowledge of the use of plants as medicines remains mostly with the older generation with few youth showing an interest. Conclusions A divers number of plants species are used for treating different diseases in Babungo. In addition to their use as medicines, a large number of plants have other non medicinal uses. The youth should be encouraged to learn the traditional medicinal knowledge to preserve it from being lost with the older generation.
Simbo David J
Full Text Available Tylophora indica is an important medicinal plant from the repository of valuable plant species of Indian subcontinent. The plant has a long reputation in curing various health ailments including asthma, bronchitis, rheumatism and other respiratory problems. Due to its vast medicinal importance, the plant is exploited on a large scale and its uncontrolled and unmonitored harvesting from the wild has categorized the plant among the endangered plant species.
Harmanjit Kaur* and Karanveer Singh
Tylophora indica is an important medicinal plant from the repository of valuable plant species of Indian subcontinent. The plant has a long reputation in curing various health ailments including asthma, bronchitis, rheumatism and other respiratory problems. Due to its vast medicinal importance, the plant is exploited on a large scale and its uncontrolled and unmonitored harvesting from the wild has categorized the plant among the endangered plant species.
Harmanjit Kaur* and Karanveer Singh
Full Text Available There are the data on the chemical study for plants of the genus Limonium gmelinii and of the creation on their basis the effective medicines of wide action range which introduced into practical medicine.
The well-known alcoholic beverage Pastis becomes turbid when mixed with water due to the poor solubility of trans-anethol, the anise-flavored component of Pastis in the water solution formed. This destabilization appears as the formation of micrometer-sized droplets that only very slowly grow in size, thus expanding the life of the anise-flavored beverage. The slow growth has been attributed to an extremely low interfacial tension of the droplets. Fitting experimental droplet growth rates to ...
Scholten, E.; Linden, E.; This, H.
Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains a serious health problem in many regions of the world, and the development of resistance to antibiotics by this microbe created the need for new drugs to replace those which have lost effectiveness. This study assesses the medicinal anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis properties of natural products obtained from plants collected from Eastern Libya. In this study aqueous extracts of nine different plants were assayed for their Mycobacterium tuberculosis inhibitory activity using the BACTEC MGIT960 susceptibility test method. The aqueous extracts of Ceratonia siliqua L, Helichrysum stoechas (L. Moench and Thymus algeriensis did not show any activity against M. tuberculosis in different concentrations. The aqueous extract of Marrubium vulgare L. from Syria showed high activity against M. tuberculosis. Marrubium alysson L., Marrubium vulgare L., Pistacia lentiscus L, Quercus coccifera L, Thymus capitatus (L. Hoffm. & Link, showed varying degrees of activity against M. tuberculosis. The results of this study show that aqueous extracts from six different medicinal plants have different effects against M. tuberculosis in vitro.
Muna Mohammed Buzayan
Full Text Available Epilepsy may be defined as a neuropsychological disorder, which occurs due to over discharge of neurotransmitter substance. Epilepsy differs from seizure; a seizure is the paroxysmal events due to abnormal excessive hyper synchronous discharge from an aggregate of central nervous system (CNS neurons. There are number of drugs available for treatment of epilepsy in modern therapy. But the major disadvantage being faced is their chronic side effects. One patient out of three is resistant to antiepileptic drug. , thus there is a need of new drugs which have least side effect and minimum interaction and provide more effectiveness. From times immemorial plants have been used by mankind for their relieving and therapeutic abilities and still we rely on their healing properties. Plants with number of active constituent have a direct pharmacological action on our body including various organs. One such major complex organ is brain, so complex that still only few drugs are approved by drug authorities for ailments like epilepsy. The Indian system of medicine “Ayurveda” classified the plants affecting central nervous system. Treatment of epilepsy with herbal drugs as adjuvant seems to be more beneficial and is gaining more popularity due to their fewer side effects. Herbal drugs are acting at target site having same mechanism of action as that of synthetic drugs. There are number of drugs being used in the traditional medicine for treatment of epilepsy and presently many of these drugs are being explored scientifically to ascertain their anticonvulsant activity.
Malvi Reetesh K
Jabal Al-Akhdar (Oman) is one of diverse floral region of Arabian Peninsula. Ochradenus arabicus, is an important medicinal plant to local people of the area. However, little is known about its potential role in biological activities against various emerging ailments. The collected plant samples were extracted with methanol and fractionated into n-hexane (JOAH), ethyl acetate (JOAE), chloroform (JOAC), n-butanol (JOAB) and water (JOAAQ). Various concentrations of these fractions were tested for their antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant, antidiabetic, phenolics, flavonoids, allopathic and nutrition quality properties. The results showed that fruits and leaves of O. arabicus have higher levels of carbohydrate, crude fats, fibres, proteins, moisture, ash and energy values. In phytotoxic activities, JOAAQ inhibited the lettuce seed germination and growth. The anticancer activities of fractions showed that JOAE, JOAB and JOAAQ are potent to reduce the cancer cell viability of HT29, HCT116, HepG2 and MCF-7 lines with a concentration of 1000 micro g/ml. JOAB showed a meagre activity of 12% in Glucosidase inhibition assay. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were significantly higher in JOAE, which also resulted in higher DPPH radical scavenging activity as compared to other fractions and control. JOAE also exhibited higher antibacterial and antifungal activities. The results of current findings suggest that O. arabicus is a potential medicinal plants, which could be subjected to advance column chromatography for lead compounds using a bioassay guided approach. (author)
Trypanocidal and cytotoxic effects of traditionally used medicinal plants of Ethiopia were evaluated. A total of 60 crude plant extracts were prepared from 30 plant species using CH2Cl2 and MeOH. Effect upon cell proliferation by the extracts, for both bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei brucei and human leukaemia HL-60 cells, was assessed using resazurin as vital stain. Of all CH2Cl2 and MeOH extracts evaluated against the trypanosomes, the CH2Cl2 extracts from five plants showed trypanocidal activity with an IC50 value below 20 microg/mL: Dovyalis abyssinica (Flacourtiaceae), IC50 = 1.4 microg/mL; Albizia schimperiana (Fabaceae), IC50 = 7.2 microg/mL; Ocimum urticifolium (Lamiaceae), IC50 = 14.0 microg/mL; Acokanthera schimperi (Apocynaceae), IC50 = 16.6 microg/mL; and Chenopodium ambrosioides (Chenopodiaceae), IC50 = 17.1 microg/mL. A pronounced and selective killing of trypanosomes with minimal toxic effect on human cells was exhibited by Dovyalis abyssinica (CH2Cl2 extract, SI = 125.0; MeOH extract, SI = 57.7) followed by Albizia schimperiana (CH2Cl2 extract, SI = 31.3) and Ocimum urticifolium (MeOH extract, SI = 16.0). In conclusion, the screening of 30 Ethiopian medicinal plants identified three species with good antitrypanosomal activities and low toxicity towards human cells. Dovyalis abyssinica might be a promising candidate for phytotherapy of trypanosomiasis. PMID:22351978
Nibret, Endalkachew; Wink, Michael
In this study was measured concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides 238U, 232Th and 40K in samples of sudanese medicinal plants. The radionuclide activity concentrations in samples analyzed ranged from 4.09 to 41.07 Bq kg-1 for 238Th and from 353.14 to 2270.21 Bq kg-1 for 40k. No trace of artificial radionuclide was determined in all the samples. The effective dose due to the presence of these radionuclides was estimated and found to be 0.524 mSv/year which is well below the permissible levels. (Author)
Our aim was to evaluate the hypolipidimic effect of aqueous extract of a famous mixture used in Saudi Arabia folk medicine that consists of Nigella sativa, Commiphora myrrha, Boswellia carterii Birdw, Ferule assa-foetida and Aloe vera and also the extract of each plant alone on alloxan induced diabetic rats. Material and Methods :-The present study was carried out on 80 adult male albino rats (120 ± 20 g.b.wt. ), the rats were divided randomly into 8 groups, the first group served as control...
Shahat, Eman G. E. Helal And Mohamed M. A.
Full Text Available AbstractThe present paper deals with evaluation of synergistic effect of two medicinal plants, Ponamia pinnata Linn and Psoralea corylifolia Linn. Extraction was carried out with soxhlet apparatus using the solvent ethanol. The anti-psoriatic activity was done by Induction of psoriasiform changes in guinea pig by propranolol method and Rat UV B rays Photo dermatitis model for psoriasis. Antimicrobial activity by plate hole diffusion method. Ethanolic extract exhibited significant effect of anti-psoriatic and antimicrobial activity. Both the extracts show synergistic effect on both psoriasis and antimicrobial studies when compared with the individual extracts.
Climate change and global warming are well acknowledged threats today, which affected the whole world biodiversity. Review of the literature revealed that regions with higher elevations are more vulnerable to the bad effect of climate change. The Indian Himalayan region, one among the mega hot spot of biodiversity is also the repository of valuable medicinal plants described in Ayurveda. Due to climate change the medicinal plant diversity of this region is on high stress or may be extinct in ...
Ratha Kshirod Kumar; Mishra Sthiti Sruajani; Arya J.C.; Joshi G.C.
Abstract Background This is a first description of the main ethnoveterinary features of the peasants in the Sierras de Córdoba. The aim of this study was to analyze the use of medicinal plants and other traditional therapeutic practices for healing domestic animals and cattle. Our particular goals were to: characterize veterinary ethnobotanical knowledge considering age, gender and role of the specialists; interpret the cultural features of the traditional local veterinary medicine and plant...
Luján María C; Martínez Gustavo J
Traditional ethnomedical use of plants is recognized as an important potential source of compounds used in mainstream medicine. Herein, the in vitro antioxidant properties, nutrients and phytochemical composition of six medicinal plants widely used in the north-eastern Portuguese region were evaluated. The antioxidant activity was screened through: radical scavenging effects, reducing power, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in brain homogenates. Nutrients and phytochemical characterizatio...
Barros, Lillian; Oliveira, So?nia; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.
Full Text Available Snake bites possess significant amount of mortality as well as morbidity all over the world including India. Despite various species of snakes, only few of these can be potentially lethal to humans. Snake antivenom being only therapeutic option available in snake bite management, but has many drawbacks in actual clinical practice like species specificity, difficulty in availability, affordability and ideal storage conditions. The medicinal plants, available locally and used widely by traditional healers, therefore need attention in this aspects. Large number of plants and their active principles has been evaluated for pharmacological properties useful in the treatment of snake bites. However, numerous unexplored plants are claimed to have definite role in this issue need to be further studied. This review is an attempt to present a comprehensive account of various Indian herbal plants used in the treatment of snake bite in any forms like venom neutralization, topical application for local pain relief, oral formulation for pain relief etc. Keywords: Herbal plants, Snake bite, Anti-snake venom, Venom neutralisation
Satish E Bahekar
Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and dark septate endophyte (DSE associations were studied in 36 medicinal plant species from 33 genera and 17 families, collected from the Botanical Garden of the Jagiellonian University in Kraków. Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM was found in 34 species (94%; 26 were of the Arum-type, 4 – Paris and 4 taxa revealed intermediate morphology. The abundance of AMF hyphae in roots varied with particular species, ranging from 2.5% (Helianthus tuberosus to 77.9% (Convallaria majalis. The mycelium of DSE was observed in 13 plant species (36%, however, the percentage of root colonization by these fungi was low. Spores of 7 AMF species (Glomeromycota were isolated from trap cultures established from rhizosphere soils of the investigated plants: Archaeospora trappei (Archaeosporaceae, Glomus aureum, Glomus caledonium, Glomus claroideum, Glomus constrictum, Glomus mosseae, Glomus versiforme (Glomeraceae. Our results are the first detailed report of root endophyte associations of the plant species under study. Moreover, the mycorrhizal status of 14 plant species is reported for the first time.
Twenty-nine extracts of 18 medicinal plants used in New Caledonia by traditional healers to treat inflammation, fever and in cicatrizing remedies were evaluated in vitro against several parasites (Leishmania donovani, Trypanosoma brucei brucei, Trichomonas vaginalis and Caenorhabditis elegans). Among the selected plants, Scaevola balansae and Premna serratifolia L. were the most active against Leishmania donovani with IC(50) values between 5 and 10microg/ml. The almond and aril extracts from Myristica fatua had an IC(50) value of 0.5-5microg/ml against Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Only Scaevola balansae extract presented a weak activity against Trichomonas vaginalis. The almond extract from Myristica fatua presented significant activity against Caenorhabditis elegans (IC(50) value of 6.6+/-1.2microg/ml). PMID:17329051
Desrivot, Julie; Waikedre, Jean; Cabalion, Pierre; Herrenknecht, Christine; Bories, Christian; Hocquemiller, Reynald; Fournet, Alain
Morbidity and mortality estimates due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections continue to rise. Therapeutic options are limited by antibiotic resistance. Anti-pathogenic compounds, which inhibit quorum sensing (QS) pathways, may be a useful alternative to antibiotics. Staphylococcal QS is encoded by the AGR locus and is responsible for the production of ?-hemolysin. Quantification of ?-hemolysin found in culture supernatants permits the analysis of AGR activity at the translational rather than transcriptional level. We employed reversed phase high performance chromatographic (RP-HPLC) techniques to investigate the anti-QS activity of 168 extracts from 104 Italian plants through quantification of ?-hemolysin. Extracts from three medicinal plants (Ballota nigra, Castanea sativa, and Sambucus ebulus) exhibited a dose-dependent response in the production of ?-hemolysin, indicating anti-QS activity in a pathogenic MRSA isolate. PMID:20645243
Quave, Cassandra L; Plano, Lisa R W; Bennett, Bradley C
The activity of extracts from the East African medicinal plants Entada abyssinica (stem bark), Terminalia spinosa (young branches), Harrisonia abyssinica (roots), Ximenia caffra (roots), Azadirachta indica (leaves and stem bark) and Spilanthes mauritiana (roots and flowers) were evaluated against 12 strains of Helicobacter pylori. The most active extracts were those derived from T. spinosa with an MIC50 of 125 micrograms/ml, an MIC90 of 250 micrograms/ml and an MIC range of 62.5-500 micrograms/ml. An MIC50 of 250 micrograms/ml and an MIC90 of > 4,000 micrograms/ml was reached by H. abyssinica with a range of 125-->4,000 micrograms/ml and by X. caffra with a range of 62.5-->4,000 micrograms/ml, respectively. It is concluded that these plants contain compounds with antimicrobial activity against H. pylori. PMID:8874968
Fabry, W; Okemo, P; Ansorg, R
Full Text Available Problem statement: About 32 extracts from eight selected medicinal plants, namely Pereskia bleo, Pereskia grandifolia, Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb., Curcuma zedoria, Curcuma mangga, Curcuma inodora aff. Blatter, Zingiber officinale var. officinale (jahe gajah and Zingiber officinale var. rubrum (jahe emprit used by Malaysia traditional health care systems were screened for their antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria using agar disc diffusion assay. Approach: The efficacy of the extracts was compared to the commercially prepared antibiotic diffusion discs. Results: No inhibition was observed with the water fractions. Conclusion/Recommendations: None of the plants tested showed inhibition against Escherichia coli. Curcuma mangga showed some remarked inhibition against the bacteria used in this study.
Plant phenolics and flavonoids have a powerful biological activity, which outlines the necessity of their determination. The phenolics and flavonoids content of 20 medicinal plants were determined in the present investigation. The phenolic content was determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The total flavonoids were measured spectrophotometrically by using the aluminium chloride colorimetric assay. The results showed that the family Mimosaceae is the richest source of phenolics, (Acacia nilotica: 80.63 mg gallic acid equivalents, Acacia catechu 78.12 mg gallic acid equivalents, Albizia lebbeck 66.23 mg gallic acid equivalents). The highest total flavonoid content was revealed in Senna tora which belongs to the family Caesalpiniaceae. The present study also shows the ratio of flavonoids to the phenolics in each sample for their specificity. PMID:23439764
Sulaiman, C T; Balachandran, Indira
The medieval mystic altarpiece towers above the altar table. It is linked to the evocation of a religious mystery beyond our faculty of reasoning. Symbolism of an enclosed garden evokes the image of the Heavenly Garden isolated by a wall from the rest of earthly world. In this mystic chiefly Rhenan altarpiece the enclosed garden is that of Virgin Mary who in the Middle Ages was likened to the spouse in the song of songs. The Blessed Virgin is painted with flowers, lily, rose, violet, lily of the valley. Most of these are medicinal plants in order to implore a faith healing for the believers. All in all about fifty plants are showed on Rhenan altarpieces and on 14th century mystic altarpieces almost contemporary of Issenheim's altarpiece, some Italian, some Rhenan. PMID:22073760
Fischer, Louis-Paul; Verilhac, Régine; Ferrandis, Jean-Jacques; Trépardoux, Francis
Essential oils and ethanolic extracts from the leaves and/or roots of 35 medicinal plants commonly used in Brazil were screened for anti-Candida albicans activity. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system. Essential oils from 13 plants showed anti-Candida activity, including Aloysia triphylla, Anthemis nobilis, Cymbopogon martini, Cymbopogon winterianus, Cyperus articulatus, Cyperus rotundus, Lippia alba, Mentha arvensis, Mikania glomerata, Mentha piperita, Mentha sp., Stachys byzantina, and Solidago chilensis. The ethanol extract was not effective at any of the concentrations tested. Chemical analyses showed the presence of compounds with known antimicrobial activity, including 1,8-cineole, geranial, germacrene-D, limonene, linalool, and menthol. PMID:15707770
Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Sartoratto, Adilson; Rehder, Vera Lúcia Garcia; Delarmelina, Camila
Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious diseases caused by multiresistant microbial strains are on the increase. Fighting these diseases with natural products may be more efficacious. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of methanolic, ethylacetate (EtOAc and hexanic fractions of five Cameroonian medicinal plants (Piptadeniastum africana, Cissus aralioides, Hileria latifolia, Phyllanthus muellerianus and Gladiolus gregasius against 10 pathogenic microorganisms of the urogenital and gastrointestinal tracts. Methods The fractions were screened for their chemical composition and in vivo acute toxicity was carried out on the most active extracts in order to assess their inhibitory selectivity. The agar well-diffusion and the micro dilution methods were used for the determination of the inhibition diameters (ID and Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC respectively on 8 bacterial species including two Gram positive species (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and six Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhi and two fungal isolates (Candida albicans, Candida krusei. The chemical composition was done according to Harbone (1976, the acute toxicity evaluation according to WHO protocol and the hepatic as well as serum parameters measured to assess liver and kidney functions. Results The chemical components of each plant's extract varied according to the solvent used, and they were found to contain alkaloids, flavonoids, polyphenols, triterpens, sterols, tannins, coumarins, glycosides, cardiac glycosides and reducing sugars. The methanolic and ethylacetate extracts of Phyllanthus muellerianus and Piptadeniastum africana presented the highest antimicrobial activities against all tested microorganisms with ID varying from 8 to 26 mm and MIC from 2.5 to 0.31 mg/ml. The in vivo acute toxicity study carried out on the methanolic extracts of Phyllanthus muellerianus and Piptadeniastrum africana indicated that these two plants were not toxic. At the dose of 4 g/kg body weight, kidney and liver function tests indicated that these two medicinal plants induced no adverse effect on these organs. Conclusion These results showed that, all these plant's extracts can be used as antimicrobial phytomedicines which can be therapeutically used against infections caused by multiresistant agents. Phyllanthus muellerianus, Piptadeniastum africana, antimicrobial, acute toxicity, kidney and liver function tests, Cameroon Traditional Medicine
Njouendou Abdel J
More than 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The bacterium highly links to peptic ulcer diseases and duodenal ulcer, which was classified as a group?I?carcinogen in 1994 by the WHO. The pathogenesis of H. pylori is contributed by its virulence factors including urease, flagella, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), cytotoxin-associated gene antigen (Cag A), and others. Of those virulence factors, VacA and CagA play the key roles. Infection with H. pylori vacA-positive strains can lead to vacuolation and apoptosis, whereas infection with cagA-positive strains might result in severe gastric inflammation and gastric cancer. Numerous medicinal plants have been reported for their anti-H. pylori activity, and the relevant active compounds including polyphenols, flavonoids, quinones, coumarins, terpenoids, and alkaloids have been studied. The anti-H. pylori action mechanisms, including inhibition of enzymatic (urease, DNA gyrase, dihydrofolate reductase, N-acetyltransferase, and myeloperoxidase) and adhesive activities, high redox potential, and hydrophilic/hydrophobic natures of compounds, have also been discussed in detail. H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation may progress to superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and finally gastric cancer. Many natural products have anti-H. pylori-induced inflammation activity and the relevant mechanisms include suppression of nuclear factor-?B and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation and inhibition of oxidative stress. Anti-H. pylori induced gastric inflammatory effects of plant products, including quercetin, apigenin, carotenoids-rich algae, tea product, garlic extract, apple peel polyphenol, and finger-root extract, have been documented. In conclusion, many medicinal plant products possess anti-H. pylori activity as well as an anti-H. pylori-induced gastric inflammatory effect. Those plant products have showed great potential as pharmaceutical candidates for H. pylori eradication and H. pylori induced related gastric disease prevention. PMID:25132753
There is increasing resistance of malaria parasites to chloroquine, the cheapest and commonly used drug for malaria in Nigeria. Artemisin, a product from medicinal plant indigenous to China, based on active principle of Artemisia annua, has been introduced into the Nigerian market. However not much has been done to project antimalaria properties of indigenous medicinal plants. This study thus, has the main objective of presenting medicinal plants used for malaria therapy in Okeigbo, Ondo Stat...
Odugbemi, Tolu O.; Akinsulire, Odunayo R.; Aibinu, Ibukun E.; Fabeku, Peter O.
The present documented the traditional knowledge of Medicinal Plants species used in various type of skin diseases in Nagapattinam district. We have documented the use of 50 species belonging to 26 families. The information on plants used as traditional medicine against skin diseases was gathered and ethnomedicinal survey based on interviews with local people involved in traditional herbal medicine practices. The particulars plants are used to cure variety of skin diseases, like swelling, wou...
Sivaranjani, R.; Ramakrishnan, K.
Abstract Background Medicinal plants are the integral part of the variety of cultures in Ethiopia and have been used over many centuries. Hence, the aim of this study is to document the medicinal plants in the natural vegetation and home gardens in Wonago Woreda, Gedeo Zone, Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State (SNNPR). Materials and methods Thirty healers were selected to collect data on management of medicinal plants using semi-structured interview, group discussion, a...
Teklehaymanot Tilahun; Demissew Sebsebe; Mesfin Fisseha
Abstract Background This study was conducted to identify medicinal plants and spices used for medicine by the community of Beni-Sueif, Upper Egypt. Methods Ethnobotanical data from local people was collected using direct interviews and a semi-structured questionnaire. Results Forty-eight plant species belonging to twenty-seven families and forty-seven genera were encountered during the study. Their botanical and vernacular names, plant parts used and medicinal uses are given. Results of the s...
Mohamed Abdelhalim A; AbouZid Sameh F
Ethnopharmacological studies are important for documenting and protecting cultural and traditional knowledge associated with the medical use of biodiversity. In this paper, we present a survey on medicinal plants used by locals in a community of Nova Viçosa, Viçosa, MG, Brazil, as a strategy to select medicinal plants for a phytotherapy-based local healthcare program. Eleven knowledgeable local informants were chosen by snowball sampling and interviewed about the use of medicinal plants. Pl...
Flávia Liparini Pereira; José Martins Fernandes; João Paulo Viana Leite
The medicinal plant extracts commercially used in Asia were screened for their estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities in a recombinant yeast system featuring both a human estrogen receptor (ER) expression plasmid and a reporter plasmid. Pueraria lobata (flower) had the highest estrogenic relative potency (RP, 7.75×10(-3); RP of 17?-estradiol=1), followed by Amomum xanthioides (1.25×10(-3)). Next potent were a group consisting of Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Zingiber officinale, Rheum undulatum, Curcuma aromatica, Eriobotrya japonica, Sophora flavescens, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Polygonum multiflorum, and Pueraria lobata (root) (ranging from 9.5×10(-4) to 1.0×10(-4)). Least potent were Prunus persica, Lycoppus lucidus, and Adenophora stricta (ranging from 9.0×10(-5) to 8.0×10(-5)). The extracts exerting antiestrogenic effects, Cinnamomum cassia and Prunus persica, had relative potencies of 1.14×10(-3) and 7.4×10(-4), respectively (RP of tamoxifen=1). The solvent fractions from selected estrogenic or antiestrogenic herbs had higher estrogenic relative potencies, with their RP ranging from 9.3×10(-1) to 2.7×10(-4) and from 8.2×10(-1) to 9.1×10(-3), respectively. These results support previous reports on the efficacy of Oriental medicinal plants used or not used as phytoestrogens for hormone replacement therapy. PMID:21783839
Kim, In Gyu; Kang, Se Chan; Kim, Kug Chan; Choung, Eui Su; Zee, Ok Pyo
Full Text Available This investigation was designed to throw light on the microbial status of some crude herbal materials. A total of 16 samples, representing different types of spices and medicinal plants were collected from common market in the Erbil city. Ten different fungal genera and 16 species were isolated and identified as Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus spp., Gliocladium sp., Hyalodendron diddeus, Memmoniella sp., Penicillium spp., Rhizopus spp., Syncephalastrum sp., Cladosporium lignicolum and Ulocladium botrytis. The total number of isolated fungi from the all sixteen selected samples was serially diluted and plated on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA medium was (203×103 cfu/g. samples. Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. were more frequently detected, while Stachybotrys sp., Syncephalastrum racemocum, Uocladium botrytis, Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium lignicolum and Gliocladium catenulatum ere less frequently detected. Detection of mycotoxin on Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphincol agar (DRBC for fungi isolated from spices and medicinal plant samples, A. flavus, A. Niger and A. ochraceous show positive results on the culture for mycotoxin production. Estimation of natural occurrence of Aflatoxin (AT and Ochratoxin (OT in some selected dried samples by using ELISA method, the high result of aflatoxin and ochratoxin show in Red tea (150.5, 387.3 ppb while the low result of aflatoxin and ochratoxin show in Garlic (1.4, 0 ppb respectively.
Farid M. Toma
This study investigated the cytotoxicity of 55 species of plants. Each plant was rated as medicinal, or nonmedicinal based on the existing literature. About 79% of the medicinal plants showed some cytotoxicity, while 75% of the nonmedicinal plants showed bioactivity. It appears that Asteraceae, Labiatae, Pinaceae, and Chenopodiaceae were particularly active against human cervical cancer cells. Based on the literature, only three of the 55 plants have been significantly investigated for cytoto...
Booth, Gary M.; Malmstrom, Robert D.; Erica Kipp; Alexandra Paul
The occurrence of mycorrhiza in 40 selected medicinal plants was studied. The percentage of mycorrhizal colonization in each of the plant was calculated. The colonization was found to be very less in four plants and very high in six plants. All others showed a moderate level of colonization. The present work suggests the use of mycorrhiza as a biofertilizer to enhance the growth and yield of medicinal plants.
Mathew, Abraham; Malathy, M. R.
Several parts of plants are used in herbal and Ayurvedic medicines of India. The different elemental constituents at trace levels of these plant parts play an effective role in the medicines prepared. Elemental composition of different parts (root, bark, leaf, seed) of some medicinal plants of North Eastern India has been determined by using proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE). A total of 14 elements, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Pb have been measured. Their concentrations were found to vary in different samples. Medicinal properties of these plant samples and their elemental distribution have been correlated. (author)
Medicinal plants are indicators of indigenous knowledge in the context of political volatility and sociocultural and ecological change in the Pamir Mountains of Afghanistan and Tajikistan. Medicinal plants are the primary health care option in this region of Central Asia. The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate that medicinal plants contribute to health security and sovereignty in a time of instability. We illustrate the nutritional as well as medicinal significance of plants in the daily lives of villagers. Based on over a decade and half of research related to resilience and livelihood security, we present plant uses in the context of mountain communities. Villagers identified over 58 cultivated and noncultivated plants and described 310 distinct uses within 63 categories of treatment and prevention. Presence of knowledge about medicinal plants is directly connected to their use. PMID:21258436
Kassam, Karim-Aly; Karamkhudoeva, Munira; Ruelle, Morgan; Baumflek, Michelle
It is known that blood platelets may present some dysfunction linked to cardiovascular pathologies such as arterial hypertension. The aim of this work is to examine the in vitro anti-aggregant effect of five medicinal plants among which three were reported as antihypertensive in oriental Morocco: Arbutus unedo (Ericaceae), Urtica dioïca (Urticaceae), and Petroselinum crispum (Apiaceae). The two other plants were Cistus ladaniferus (Cistaceae) and Equisetum arvense (Equisetaceae). The results obtained showed that all extracts produced a dose-dependent inhibition of thrombin and ADP-induced aggregation. The calculated IC50 (half-maximal inhibition of thrombin and ADP-induced aggregation) was found to be identical in all plant extracts while Urtica dioïca had a higher IC50 value. The effect of plants could be related in part to the polyphenolic compounds present in their extracts suggesting their involvement in the treatment or prevention of platelet aggregation complications linked to cardiovascular diseases. Phytochemical separation must be carried out to identify the active principles responsible for the anti-aggregant effect and elucidate their mechanisms of action. PMID:15325737
Mekhfi, Hassane; El Haouari, Mohammed; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Bnouham, Mohammed; Aziz, Mohammed; Atmani, Fouad; Remmal, Adnane; Ziyyat, Abderrahim
Eleven medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Machakos and Kitui District were screened, namely: Ajuga remota Benth, Aloe secundiflora Engl, Amaranthus hybridus L, Cassia didymobotrya Fes, Croton macrostachyus Del, Entada leptostachya Harms, Erythrina abyssinica DC, Harrisonia abyssinica Oliv, Schkuhria pinnata O. Ktze, Terminalia kilimandscharica Engl and Ziziphus abyssinica Hochst for potential antibacterial activity against four medically important bacterial strains, namely: Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Micrococcus lutea ATCC 9341 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. The antibacterial activity of methanol extracts was determined as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The plant extracts were more active against Gram-positive (G+) than Gram-negative (G-) bacteria. The positive controls were streptomycin and benzylpenicillin for G- and G+ bacteria, respectively, both had a significant MIC at <1 mg/mL. The most susceptible bacteria were B. cereus, followed by M. lutea, while the most resistant bacteria were Ps. aeruginosa, followed by E. coli. The present study supports the use of these plants by the herbalists in the management of bacterial ailments. H. abyssinica and T. kilimandscharica showed the best antibacterial activity; hence these plants can be further subjected to phytochemical and pharmacological evaluation. PMID:19548257
Wagate, Cyrus G; Mbaria, James M; Gakuya, Daniel W; Nanyingi, Mark O; Kareru, P G; Njuguna, Anne; Gitahi, Nduhiu; Macharia, James K; Njonge, Francis K
Sudanese medicinal and aromatic plants (Alternanthra repens, Ambrosia maritima, Citrus paradisi, Croton zambesicus, Lepidium sativum, Morettia phillaena, Nauclea latifolia, Plectranthus barbatus, Pluchea dioscorides, and Sphaeranthus suaveolens) were analyzed for their chemical composition, mineral contents and secondary constituents. The concentration of manganese, copper, iron, nickel, lead, zinc and potassium in plant samples was performed using x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The trace elements found in the smallest amount of the investigated plant species are lead, nickel and copper, while high concentration was detected for potassium, iron and manganese. Mn was accumulated with high level in Alternanthra repens species. Potassium was abundant in S. suaveolens and Ambrosia maritima. The values of concentration obtained for all studied elements were compared with published values of reference material, trace elements in Hay (powder) by International Atomic Energy Agency. Phyto chemical analysis of investigated plants was performed for constituents: Flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, amino acids and sugars. The methanolic extracts of P.barbatus, C.paradisi, A.repens, N.latifolia, L. sativum and C. zambesicus are found to contain alkaloids. Results of TLC analysis were shown as Rf values for saponins, bitter principles, essential oils, flavonoids and alkaloids. Quantification of flavonoids and tannins showed that flavonoid content was highest in case of Alternanthera repens and Sphaeranthus suavertens, whereas the highest tannin content was in case of Nauclea latifolia and Sphaearanthus suavertens. The results suggest that the user of traditional Sudanese crude drugs should be warned of potential danger of heavy metal poisoning because their concentrations seem to be higher than maximum values allowed by health agencies in several countries. This study has provided some biochemical basis for the ethno medical use of extracts from different candidate plant species in the treatment and prevention of diseases. As rich source of phytochemicals and minerals these plants can be a potential source of useful drugs, and also used as bio indicators to follow changes in an environmental pollution.(Author)
The cytotoxic activity of 23 crude methanol extracts from 19 Bangladeshi medicinal plants was investigated against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3), healthy monkey kidney (VERO) and four human cancer cell lines (gastric, AGS; colon, HT-29; and breast, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) using MTT assay. High cytotoxicity across all cell lines tested was exhibited by Aegiceras corniculatum (fruit) and Hymenodictyon excelsum (bark) extracts (IC50 values ranging from 0.0005 to 0.9980 and 0.08 to 0.44 mg/mL, respectively). Fourteen extracts from 11 plant species, namely Clitoria ternatea (flower and leaf), Dillenia indica (leaf), Diospyros peregrina (leaf), Dipterocarpus turbinatus (bark and leaf), Ecbolium viride (leaf), Glinus oppositifolius (whole plant), Gnaphalium luteoalbum (leaf), Jasminum sambac (leaf), Lannea coromandelica (bark and leaf), Mussaenda glabrata (leaf) and Saraca asoca (leaf), were also significantly cytotoxic (IC50 < 1.0 mg/mL) against at least one of the cancer cell lines tested. More selectively, Avicennia alba (leaf), C. ternatea (flower and leaf), Caesalpinia pulcherrima (leaf), E. viride (leaf) and G. oppositifolius (whole plant) showed cytotoxicity only against both of the breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). In contrast, C. ternatea (flower and leaf) exhibited high cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 (IC50 values of 0.11 and 0.49 mg/mL, respectively), whereas E. viride and G. oppositifolius whole plant extracts exhibited high activity against MCF-7 cells (IC50 values of 0.06 and 0.15 mg/mL, respectively). The cytotoxic activity test results for 9 of the plant species correlate with their traditional use as anticancer agents, thus making them interesting sources for further drug development. PMID:23846168
Akter, Raushanara; Uddin, Shaikh J; Grice, I Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin
Natural products have played a significant role in drug discovery and development especially for agents against cancer and infectious disease. An analysis of new and approved drugs for cancer by the United States Food and Drug Administration over the period of 1981-2002 showed that 62% of these cancer drugs were of natural origin. Natural compounds possess highly diverse and complex molecular structures compared to small molecule synthetic drugs and often provide highly specific biological activities likely derived from the rigidity and high number of chiral centers. Ethnotraditional use of plant-derived natural products has been a major source for discovery of potential medicinal agents. A number of native Andean and Amazonian medicines of plant origin are used as traditional medicine in Peru to treat different diseases. Of particular interest in this mini-review are three plant materials endemic to Peru with the common names of Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa), Maca (Lepidium meyenii), and Dragon's blood (Croton lechleri) each having been scientifically investigated for a wide range of therapeutic uses including as specific anti-cancer agents as originally discovered from the long history of traditional usage and anecdotal information by local population groups in South America. Against this background, we present an evidence-based analysis of the chemistry, biological properties, and anti-tumor activities for these three plant materials. In addition, this review will discuss areas requiring future study and the inherent limitations in their experimental use as anti-cancer agents. PMID:17017852
Gonzales, Gustavo F; Valerio, Luis G
Malaria remains one of the leading public health problems in Cameroon as in other parts of Sub-Saharan Africa. In the past decades, this situation has been aggravated by the increasing spread of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum strains. New antimalarial drug leads are therefore urgently needed. Traditional healers have long used plants to prevent or cure infections. This article reviews the current status of botanical screening efforts in Cameroon as well as experimental studies done on antimalarial plants. Data collected from 54 references from various research groups in the literature up to June 2007 shows that 217 different species have been cited for their use as antimalarials in folk medicine in Cameroon. About a hundred phytochemicals have been isolated from 26 species some among which are potential leads for development of new antiamalarials. Crude extracts and or essential oils prepared from 54 other species showed a wide range of activity on Plasmodium spp. Moreover, some 137 plants from 48 families that are employed by traditional healers remain uninvestigated for their presumed antimalarial properties. The present study shows that Cameroonian flora represents a high potential for new antimalarial compounds. Further ethnobotanical surveys and laboratory investigations are needed to fully exploit the potential of the identified species in the control of malaria. PMID:20161952
Titanji, Vincent P K; Zofou, Denis; Ngemenya, Moses N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening of the ethnobotenical plants is a pre-requisite to evaluate their therapeutic potential and it can lead to the isolation of new bioactive compounds. Methods The crude extracts and fractions of six medicinal important plants (Arisaema flavum, Debregeasia salicifolia, Carissa opaca, Pistacia integerrima, Aesculus indica, and Toona ciliata were tested against three Gram positive and two Gram negative ATCC bacterial species using the agar well diffusion method. Results The crude extract of P. integerrima and A. indica were active against all tested bacterial strains (12-23 mm zone of inhibition. Other four plant's crude extracts (Arisaema flavum, Debregeasia salicifolia, Carissa opaca, and Toona ciliata were active against different bacterial strains. The crude extracts showed varying level of bactericidal activity. The aqueous fractions of A. indica and P. integerrima crude extract showed maximum activity (19.66 and 16 mm, respectively against B. subtilis, while the chloroform fractions of T. ciliata and D. salicifolia presented good antibacterial activities (13-17 mm zone of inhibition against all the bacterial cultures tested. Conclusion The methanol fraction of Pistacia integerrima, chloroform fractions of Debregeasia salicifolia &Toona ciliata and aqueous fraction of Aesculus indica are suitable candidates for the development of novel antibacterial compounds.
Chaudhary Fayyaz M
Full Text Available Type I 5?-reductase has been implicated in skin disorders such as acne, hirsutism and male pattern baldness and its inhibition offers a potential treatment for these disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibition of type I 5?-reductase activity by extracts from Indian medicinal plants. Plant extracts were screened and selected based on their ability to inhibit Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Since type I 5?-reductase metabolises testosterone to ?4-androstene-3, 17-dione, the activity of enzyme was determined using RIA for testosterone and ?4-androstene-3, 17-dione. It was found that methanolic extract of Embelia ribes was a potent inhibitor of type I 5?-reductase (IC50:100?g/mL. Extracts of Vitex negundo, Terminalia chebula, and Terminalia bellerica which also inhibited type I 5?-reductase (IC50: 200-390 ?g /mL. Therefore herbal formulation of these plant extracts may be used in the treatment of skin disorders involving type I 5?-reductase.
India is one of the 12 mega diversity countries in the world so it has a vital stake in conservation and sustainable utilization of its biodiversity resources. Plant secondary metabolites have been of interest to man for a long time due to their pharmacological relevance. With this in view, the bark powder of Acacia auriculiformis, A. nilotica, Juglans regia, and the fruit powder of Terminalia bellerica, T. chebula, Emblica officinalis, and a combination drug "Triphala," which are known to be rich in polyphenols, were tested for their antimutagenic activities. Antimutagenic activities of the extracts were estimated by employing the plate incorporation Ames Salmonella histidine reversion assay by using the frame shift mutagen tester strain TA98 and base pair substitution strain TA100 against direct acting mutagens (NPD, sodium azide), and the S9-dependent mutagen 2-aminofluorene(2AF). Acetone extracts of all the plants exhibited significant antimutagenic activities among the other extracts tested, but an acetone extract of Acacia nilotica showed a marked anti-mutagent effect. Furthermore, it was more effective against indirect acting mutagen, 2AF, in both TA98 and TA100 tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium than against the direct acting mutagens. The results indicate that an acetone extract of bark and fruit of the medicinal plants under study harbors constituents with promising antimutagenic/anticarcinogenic potential that could be investigated further. PMID:12616620
Arora, Saroj; Kaur, Kamaljit; Kaur, Swayamjot
The use of and search for drugs and dietary supplements derived from plants have accelerated in recent years. Ethnopharmacologists, botanists, microbiologists and natural-products scientists are combing the earth for phytochemicals and leads, which could be developed for treatment of infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the antifungal activities of the essential oils of some medicinal plants such as Stachys pubescens, Thymus kotschyanus, Thymus daenensis and Bupleurum falcatum against Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus flavus and Alternaria alternata. The essential oils were used to evaluate their MICs and MFCs compared to the amphotricin B as a standard drug. The essential oils were also analyzed by GC/MS. Essential oils isolated from the S. pubescens, T. kotschyanus and B. falcatum showed strong antifungal activities. The essential oil of T. daenensis exhibited a moderate activity against the selected fungi in comparison with the other plants' essential oils. In addition, the results showed that 26, 23, 22 and 15 components were identified from the essential oils of T. kotschyanus, S. pubescens, T. daenensis and B. falcatum, respectively. These oils exhibited a noticeable antifungal activity against the selected fungi. Regarding obtained results and that natural antimicrobial substances are inexpensive and have fewer side effects, they convey potential for implementation in fungal pathogenic systems. PMID:24768063
Mohammadi, A; Nazari, H; Imani, S; Amrollahi, H
Water extracts (infusions) from a group of medicinal plants were studied in terms of their activity enhancing the uterine tonus in a series of experiments with a preparation of an isolated rabbit and guinea pig uterine horn. In a final extract concentration of 1 to 2 mg crude drug per 1 cm3 the plants ranked in the following descending order with regard to their tonus-raising effect on the uterus: camomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), potmarigold calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) cockscomb (Celosia cristata L.), plantain (Plantago lanceolata L. et Plantago major L.), symphytum (Symphytum officinale L.), shepherdspurse (Capsella bursa pastoris L.), St.-John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.). No effect showed the infusions of flax seeds (Linum usitatissimum L.) and bearberry leaves (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L.). The combined preparation 'Antiinflamin', consisting of a pooled freeze-dried extract from three plants and chemotherapeutic agents produced a good enhancing effect, in the form of 'comprets' for intrauterine application at the rate of one compret per 2500 cm3. PMID:7314446
In search of broad-spectrum antibacterial activity from traditionally used Indian medicinal plants, 66 ethanolic plant extracts were screened against nine different bacteria. Of these, 39 extracts demonstrated activity against six or more test bacteria. Twelve extracts showing broad-spectrum activity were tested against specific multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESbetaL)-producing enteric bacteria. In vitro efficacy was expressed in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of plant extracts. MIC values ranged from 0.32-7.5 mg/ml against MRSA and 0.31-6.25 mg/ml against ESbetaL-producing enteric bacteria. The overall activity against all groups of bacteria was found in order of Plumbago zeylanica > Hemidesmus indicus > Acorus calamus > Camellia sinensis > Terminalia chebula > Terminalia bellerica > Holarrhena antidysenterica > Lawsonia inermis > Mangifera indica > Punica granatum > Cichorium intybus and Delonix regia. In addition, these extracts showed synergistic interaction with tetracycline, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin against S. aureus and/or Escherichia coli. The ethanolic extracts of more than 12 plants were found nontoxic to sheep erythrocytes and nonmutagenic, determined by Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium test strains (TA 97a, TA 100, TA 102 and TA 104). Based on above properties, six plants-Plumbago zeylanica, Hemidesmus indicus, Acorus calamus, Punica granatum, Holarrhena antidysenterica and Delonix regia-were further subjected to fractionation-based study. Ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol fractions of more than six plants indicated that the active phytocompounds were distributed mainly into acetone and ethyl acetate fractions, whereas they were least prevalent in methanol fractions as evident from their antibacterial activity against MDR bacteria. Gram-positive and Gram-negative MDR bacteria are almost equally sensitive to these extracts/fractions, indicating their broad-spectrum nature. However, strain- and plant extract-dependent variations in the antibacterial activity were also evident. Time-kill assay with the most promising plant fraction Plumbago zeylanica (ethyl acetate fraction) demonstrated killing of test bacteria at the level lower than its MIC. Further, identification of active constituents in each fraction and their additive and synergistic interactions are needed to exploit them in evaluating efficacy and safety in vivo against MDR bacteria. PMID:17440624
Aqil, F; Ahmad, I
Ypsilandra thibetica belongs to the family Liliaceae. Its whole plant has the medicinal functions of heat-clearing and detoxifying, relieving congestion and other effects, and is used as the folk medicine to cure scrofula, dysuria embolism and other symptoms. Previous chemical studies revealed that its major and active ingredient is steroidal saponin. Up to now, more than fifty steroidal saponins, mainly composed of spirostan and furostanol types, have been described. Pharmacological and clinical studies have demonstrated that Y. thibetica has anti-tumor, uterine contractions, hemostatic and antibacterial activities, in particular for the treatment of a variety of gynecological hemorrhagic diseases. In an effort to provide references for the advanced research and development of this species, this paper summarized the research progress on its pharmacognosy, including botany and authentication, its isolated secondary metabolites, biological activities and pharmacological applications. In addition, some advantages of this species which could be potentially used as a substitute for Paridis Rhizoma, one of ingredients of the well-known drug "Yunnan Baiyao", together with the future prospect are also briefly included. PMID:24490545
Xia, Li; Guo, Qiang; Zhang, Shui-Ying; Liang, Yong-Shu; Yao, Wan-Long; Zhang, Xian-Tao
The hypoglycemic effect of five Brazilian medicinal plants (Epidendrum monsenii, Marrubium vulgare, Rheedia gardneriana, Rubus imperialis and Wedelia paludosa) was studied on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The extract of these plants was intragastrically administered to diabetic rats. The results showed that all plants studied (except R. gardneriana) significantly lowered the blood glucose. These results suggest that these four medicinal plants could be an adjuvant agent in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. PMID:11677867
Novaes, A P; Rossi, C; Poffo, C; Pretti Júnior, E; Oliveira, A E; Schlemper, V; Niero, R; Cechinel-Filho, V; Bürger, C
Abstract Background Due to its diverse geographical and habitat conditions, northern Pakistan harbors a wealth of medicinal plants. The plants and their traditional use are part of the natural and cultural heritage of the region. This study was carried out to document which medicinal plant species and which plant parts are used in the region of Swat, which syndrome categories are particularly concerned, and which habitat spectrum is frequented by collectors. Finally, we assessed to which exte...
Akhtar, Naveed; Rashid, Abdur; Murad, Waheed; Bergmeier, Erwin
Abstract Background An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken to record information on medicinal plants from traditional medical practitioners in Babungo and to identify the medicinal plants used for treating diseases. Methods Traditional Medical Practitioners (TMP's) who were the main informants were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires and open-ended conversations. Field trips were made to the sites where TMP's harvest plants. Results The survey identified and recorded 107 plants ...
Simbo David J
Medicinal plants have always been part of human culture and have the potential to cure different diseases caused by microorganisms. In Pakistan, biologists are mainly focusing on plants’ antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli due to its increasing resistance to antibiotics. In total, extracts from 34 ethnomedicinally valuable Pakistani plants were reported for in-vitro anti-E. coli activities. Mostly methanolic extracts of medicinal plants were used in different studies, which ha...
Adnan, Muhammad; Bibi, Roqaia; Mussarat, Sakina; Tariq, Akash; Shinwari, Zabta Khan
(Abstract selected from presentation in National Conference on Biodiversity of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Collection, Characterization and Utilization, held at Anand, India during November 24-25, 2010) International exchange of planting material of medicinal plants germplasm has a significant role in crop improvement programmes as it provides a wide genetic diversity available world wide. However, exchange of the planting material carries an inherent risk of introducing new exotic pat...
Usha Dev; Agarwal, P. C.; Baleshwar Singh; Dinesh Chand; Jyoti Bhardwaj
Dichloromethane and 90% methanol extracts from 51 South African medicinal plants were evaluated for potential genotoxic effects using the bacterial Ames and VITOTOX tests with and without metabolic activation. Dichloromethane extracts from bulbs of Crinum macowanii showed mutagenicity in strain TA98 with and without metabolic activation, whereas extracts from leaves of Chaetacme aristata and foliage of Plumbago auriculata showed mutagenicity and/or toxicity. Extracts from the leaves of Catharanthus roseus and twigs of Combretum mkhzense were mutagenic with metabolic activation only. The only 90% methanol extracts that were mutagenic in strain TA98 were from the leaves of C. roseus and Ziziphus mucronata in the presence of metabolic activation. No genotoxic effects were found in strain TA100 or in the VITOTOX test. PMID:12749823
Elgorashi, Esameldin E; Taylor, Joslyn L S; Maes, Annemarie; van Staden, Johannes; De Kimpe, Norbert; Verschaeve, Luc
Extracts of 40 different plant species used in the traditional medicine of the Australian Aboriginal people have been investigated for antiviral activity. The extracts have been tested for activity against one DNA virus, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and two RNA viruses, Ross River virus (RRV) and poliovirus type 1, at non-cytotoxic concentrations. The most active extracts were the aerial parts of Pterocaulon sphacelatum (Asteraceae) and roots of Dianella longifolia var. grandis (Liliaceae), which inhibited poliovirus at concentrations of 52 and 250 microg/ml, respectively. The extracts of Euphorbia australis (Euphorbiaceae) and Scaevola spinescens (Goodeniaceae) were the most active against HCMV. Extracts of Eremophila latrobei subsp. glabra (Myoporaceae) and Pittosporum phylliraeoides var. microcarpa (Pittosporaceae) exhibited antiviral activity against RRV. PMID:9582007
Semple, S J; Reynolds, G D; O'Leary, M C; Flower, R L
Twenty-four compounds including eight steroids ( 1-8), nine triterpenoids ( 9-16, 24), three flavonoids ( 20-22), and four benzenecarboxylic derivatives ( 17-19, 23) were isolated and identified from stems and twigs of medicinal mangrove plant Sonneratia caseolaris. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by extensive analysis of their spectroscopic data. Among these metabolites, compounds 1, 4-20 and 22-24 were isolated and identified for the first time from S. caseolaris. In the in vitro cytotoxic assay against SMMC-7721 human hepatoma cells, compound 21 (3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone) exhibited significant activity with IC50 2.8 ?g/mL, while oleanolic acid ( 14), 3,3'-di- O-methyl ether ellagic acid ( 18), and 3,3',4- O-tri- O-methyl ether ellagic acid ( 19) showed weak activity. None of these compounds displayed significant antibacterial activites.
Tian, Minqing; Dai, Haofu; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Bingui
Extracts of the traditionally used medicinal plants Entada abyssinica (stem bark), Terminalia spinosa (young branches), Harrisonia abyssinica (roots), Ximenia caffra (roots), Azadirachta indica (stem bark), Zanha africana (stem bark) and Spilanthes mauritiana (roots and flowers) were investigated for fungistatic and fungicidal activity against Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. by a microtitre serial dilution technique. Entada abyssinica, T. spinosa, X. caffra, A. indica, and Z. africana showed activity against various Candida species. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranged from 0.006 to > 8 mg ml-1 and the minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) from 0.06 to > 8 mg ml-1. Extracts from S. mauritiana (both roots and flowers) exhibited no activity against Candida spp., but against Aspergillus spp., the MIC and MFC values ranged from 0.13 to 0.25 mg ml-1 and from 0.13 to 1 mg ml-1 respectively. It is concluded that the extracts contain compounds with high antifungal potency. PMID:8786762
Fabry, W; Okemo, P; Ansorg, R
The anti-HIV-1 activities of butanol, hexane, chloroform and water extracts from four widely used folk medicinal plants (Sophora flavescens, Tulipa edulis, Herba ephedra, and Pachyma hoelen Rumph) were evaluated in this study. The hexane extract of Pachyma hoelen Rumph, PH-4, showed effective inhibition against HIV-1. The 50% effective concentration (EC(50)) of PH-4 was 37.3 microg/ml in the p24 antigen assay and 36.8% in the HIV-1 recombinant RT activity test (at 200 microg/ml). In addition, the PH-4 showed the protective effect on the infected MT-4 cells, with a 58.2% rate of protection. The 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC(50)) of PH-4 was 100.6 microg/ml. These results suggest that PH-4 from Pachyma hoelen Rumph might be the candidate for the chemotherapy agent against HIV-1 infection with further study. PMID:20437159
Lee, Su-A; Hong, Seong-Karp; Suh, Chang-Il; Oh, Mi-Hwa; Park, Jeong-Ho; Choi, Byoung-Wook; Park, Seung-Won; Paik, Soon-Young
Several medicinal plants used in Italy were analysed to determine natural and artificial radioactivity in those parts (leaves, fruits, seeds, roots, peduncles, flowers, barks, berries, thallus) used generally as remedies. The radionuclides were determined by alpha (238U, 210Po) and gamma (214Pb-Bi, 210Pb, 40K and 137Cs) spectrometry. 238U ranged between dry-1; 210Po between dry-1; 214Pb-214Bi between dry-1; 210Pb between dry-1; 40K between 66.2 and 3582.0 Bq kgdry-1; 137Cs between dry-1. The percentage of 210Po extraction in infusion and decoction was also determined; the arithmetical mean value of percentage of 210Po extraction resulted 20.7 ± 7.5.
Full Text Available Essential and non-essential heavy metals like Mn, Zn,Fe, Ni, Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd,As and Hg were quantified in selected medicinal plants including Acalypha indica Linn., Enicostemma littorale Blume. Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn, Sphaeranthus indicus Linn., and Withania somnifera., by using atomic absorption spectrometry. The main purpose of this study was to document evidence of essential and non-essential heavy metals in these herbs,which are extensively used in the preparation of herbal products and standardized extracts. High iron contents were observed in W. somnifera 191.37 ppm, Acalypha indica Linn 156.59 ppm,Enicostemma littorale Blume, 95.37 ppm, Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn 171.38 ppm, Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. 169.41 ppm. The concentration of other heavy metals particularly Cr, Pb, Cd, As, Hg was found on the lower side in the selected herbs
Full Text Available Seven medicinal plant extracts traditionally used in Kenya, mainly for management of infectious conditions, were chosen and screened for their antibacterial activity against Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli and Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Antibacterial activity was tested using the broth dilution method. Harrisonia abyssinica and Terminalia kilimandscharica extracts showed significant activity against Gram+ and Gram- bacteria. The methanolic extracts of T. kilimandscharica bark and H. abyssinica bark and leaves showed minimum inhibitory activity against all tested bacteria, with minimal inhibitory concentrations ranging from 25-150 mg/mL. Ajuga remota and Amaranthus hybridus, which are lethal to brine shrimp nauplii, showed significantly lower antibacterial activity than those that were relatively non-toxic.
Wagate G Cyrus
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Seven medicinal plant extracts traditionally used in Kenya, mainly for management of infectious conditions, were chosen and screened for their antibacterial activity against Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) bact [...] eria. Antibacterial activity was tested using the broth dilution method. Harrisonia abyssinica and Terminalia kilimandscharica extracts showed significant activity against Gram+ and Gram- bacteria. The methanolic extracts of T. kilimandscharica bark and H. abyssinica bark and leaves showed minimum inhibitory activity against all tested bacteria, with minimal inhibitory concentrations ranging from 25-150 mg/mL. Ajuga remota and Amaranthus hybridus, which are lethal to brine shrimp nauplii, showed significantly lower antibacterial activity than those that were relatively non-toxic.
Wagate G, Cyrus; Gakuya W, Daniel; Mark O, Nanyingi; Francis K, Njonge; James M, Mbaria.
Seven medicinal plant extracts traditionally used in Kenya, mainly for management of infectious conditions, were chosen and screened for their antibacterial activity against Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. Antibacterial activity was tested using the broth dilution method. Harrisonia abyssinica and Terminalia kilimandscharica extracts showed significant activity against Gram+ and Gram- bacteria. The methanolic extracts of T. kilimandscharica bark and H. abyssinica bark and leaves showed minimum inhibitory activity against all tested bacteria, with minimal inhibitory concentrations ranging from 25-150 mg/mL. Ajuga remota and Amaranthus hybridus, which are lethal to brine shrimp nauplii, showed significantly lower antibacterial activity than those that were relatively non-toxic. PMID:19057813
Cyrus, Wagate G; Daniel, Gakuya W; Nanyingi, Mark O; Njonge, Francis K; Mbaria, James M
HPLC-MS analysis of extracts of the Cameroonian medicinal plant Erigeron floribundus (Kunth) Sch. Bip. (Asteraceae) led to the identification of 40 different phenolic constituents. Four triterpene derivatives were isolated using semi-preparative HPLC and structures were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR measurements. Compound 1, olean-3-oleil-12,18 diene, was a new natural product. Quali-quantitative measurements on the infusion obtained from dried aerial parts were also performed by HPLC-MSn and HPLC-DAD analysis showing that a cup of E. floribundus tea contains about 2.7 mg/mL of phenolics, with the caffeoyl quinic derivatives being the most abundant constituents. PMID:25632460
Berto, Chiara; Maggi, Filippo; Nya, Prosper C Biapa; Pettena, Anna; Boschiero, Irene; Dall'Acqua, Stefano
India has a rich heritage of traditional systems of medicine viz. Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Tibetan which are mostly based on botanical formulations. Although biologically, the region is extremely rich in medicinal plants, due to years of unwise use, the availability of raw materials in desired quality and quantity has become difficult to obtain raising serious doubt about the safety and efficacy of the medicines currently in use. There is unprecedented demand for natural medicines, green hea...
Bera, Soumitra Kumar
In the course of searching for new materials to use as whitening agents, we screened 19 methanol extracts prepared from 14 medicinal plants from Central Kalimantan province, Indonesia. The screening methods used were the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay, a tyrosinase inhibition assay, and a melanin formation inhibition assay using B16 melanoma cells. The extracts of Willughbeia coriacea (bark part of aerial root), Phyllanthus urinaria (root), Eleutherine palmifolia (bulb), Eusideroxylon zwageri (seed), Dendrophthoe petandra (aerial root), Passiflora foetida (stem), and Vitex pinnata (root) showed DPPH radical-scavenging activity of more than 70% at 100 microg/ml. The extracts of W. coriacea (bark part of aerial root), P. urinaria (root), and D. petandra (aerial root) showed tyrosinase inhibitory activity of more than 40% using L-tyrosine as a substrate at 500 microg/ml. The extracts of W. coriacea (bark part of aerial root) and D. petandra (aerial root) showed tyrosinase inhibitory activity of more than 40% using L-DOPA as a substrate at 500 microg/ml. The extracts of W. coriacea (bark part of aerial root, 200 microg/ml), Glochidion philippcum (aerial root, 200 and 300 microg/ml), E. palmifolia (bulb, 50 microg/ml), E. zwageri (seed, 100 microg/ml), D. petandra (aerial root, 200 microg/ml), Lansium domesticum (bark, 25 microg/ml), P. foetida (stem, fruit, 300 microg/ml), and Solanum torvum (root, 300 microg/ml) strongly inhibited the melanin production of B16 melanoma cells without significant cytotoxicity. These findings indicate that some medicinal plants from Central Kalimantan are potential ingredients for skin-whitening cosmetics if their safety can be confirmed. PMID:19618251
Arung, Enos Tangke; Kusuma, Irawan Wijaya; Christy, Eva Oktoberiani; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Kondo, Ryuichiro
Full Text Available Echinops kebericho, endemic to Ethiopia, is a critically endangered medicinal plant. It is among the most important medicinal plants of the country, valued primarily for its root parts. The commercial harvesting and sale of roots of E. kebericho have threatened local populations. This study aimed to develop micropropagation protocol for E. kebericho using shoot tip explants. The study started with seed germination test using seeds stored for different months. Shoot tips from in vitro germinated seedlings were cultured on shoot initiation MS media supplemented with 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg/l BAP or KN alone. Explants were cultured on shoot proliferation media fortified with Kinetin, BAP, and TDZ each at 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 5.0 mg/l either alone or in combination with 0.0, 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 mg/l NAA. For rooting, full, half and 1/3 strength MS media supplemented with IBA and NAA alone each at 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.5 mg/l were used. Growth regulator free MS medium was used as control. Study results showed that 100% germination was recorded in fresh seeds and dropped as low as 65.18% and 22.3% for 3 and 5 months seeds respectively. 1.0 mg/l KN and 0.5 mg/l KN + 0.1 mg/l NAA showed maximum shoot proliferation on shoot induction media and shoot multiplication media respectively. Best rooting was obtained on 1/3 MS containing 1.5 mg/l NAA with 8.23 roots and 4.82 cm root length and established under greenhouse with 83% survival.
Full Text Available Lense O. 2012. The wild plants used as traditional medicines by indigenous people of Manokwari, West Papua. Biodiversitas 13: 98-106. The aims of the research were to identify the main plant species which are used as traditional medicines by native people in Manokwari District, West Papua Province and also to describe the method of preparation and uses of some of the medicinal plants. This research was conducted in seven sub-regencies, ie. Manokwari, Ransiki, Kebar, Wasior, Mimyambouw, Merdey and Anggi-Sururey sub-District. Information recorded including methods of diagnosis and treatment of diseases, tribal name of a plant they used for treating disease (s, part of the plant used, preparation and mode of application, and whether the plant is used alone or in combination with other plants. Results indicate that the indigenous people in Manokwari District have been using at least 99 plant species (93 genera and 59 families as sources of medicines. Most of these traditional medicinal plants are commonly gathered from the local tropical rainforest communities. At least 40 kind of sickness and injuries such as malaria, fever, and wounds can be treated by using traditional medicinal plants from Manokwari District. Reserach also found that all parts of plants used, but leaf extracts are the most common part of the plant used for treating medical condition.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Asháninka Native Community Bajo Quimiriki, District Pichanaki, Junín, Peru, is located only 4 km from a larger urban area and is dissected by a major road. Therefore the loss of traditional knowledge is a main concern of the local headman and inhabitants. The present study assesses the state of traditional medicinal plant knowledge in the community and compares the local pharmacopoeia with the one from a related ethnic group. Methods Fieldwork was conducted between July and September 2007. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, collection of medicinal plants in the homegardens, forest walks, a walk along the river banks, participant observation, informal conversation, cross check through voucher specimens and a focus group interview with children. Results Four-hundred and two medicinal plants, mainly herbs, were indicated by the informants. The most important families in terms of taxa were Asteraceae, Araceae, Rubiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Solanaceae and Piperaceae. Eighty-four percent of the medicinal plants were wild and 63% were collected from the forest. Exotics accounted to only 2% of the medicinal plants. Problems related to the dermal system, digestive system, and cultural belief system represented 57% of all the medicinal applications. Some traditional healers received non-indigenous customers, using their knowledge as a source of income. Age and gender were significantly correlated to medicinal plant knowledge. Children knew the medicinal plants almost exclusively by their Spanish names. Sixteen percent of the medicinal plants found in this community were also reported among the Yanesha of the Pasco Region. Conclusions Despite the vicinity to a city, knowledge on medicinal plants and cultural beliefs are still abundant in this Asháninka Native Community and the medicinal plants are still available in the surroundings. Nevertheless, the use of Spanish names for the medicinal plants and the shift of healing practices towards a source of income with mainly non-indigenous customers, are signs of acculturation. Future studies on quantification of the use of medicinal plants, dynamics of transmission of ethno-medicinal knowledge to the young generations and comparison with available pharmacological data on the most promising medicinal plants are suggested.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate, by means of household surveys, the use of medicinal plants and pharmaceuticals in Apillapampa, a large Andean community of Quechua peasants, and in six small communities of Yuracaré-Trinitario "slash-and-burn" cultivators of the National Park Isiboro-Sécure (the NPIS in the Bolivian Amazon. METHODS: A total of 12% of households in Apillapampa and nearly all households in the NPIS were interviewed about their use of medicinal plants and pharmaceuticals for treating illnesses. Informants were also asked to name any medicinal plants they knew. FINDINGS: In spite of the presence of a primary health care service (PHC with medical doctor in Apillapampa, an equal number of informants used medicinal plants and pharmaceuticals. In the NPIS, the prevalent use of medicinal plants or pharmaceuticals in any community depended on the distance of the community from the nearest village and from a PHC with medical doctor (r = 0.85 and r = -0.96; both P = 0.05. The NPIS communities' knowledge of plants expressed as the average number of medicinal plants mentioned correlated positively and negatively with distance from the nearest village and use of pharmaceuticals, respectively (r = 0.95, P<0.005 and r = -0.90, P<0.05, respectively. CONCLUSION: The cultural importance of traditional medicine and the physical isolation of communities, both in general and from PHCs, are factors that influence the use of and knowledge about medicinal plants.
Mankind still depend on traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of various diseases and ailments. Elemental composition and concentration of medicinal plants have been investigated by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. The elements present in medicinal plants are P, Cl, K, Ca, S, Al, Ti, V, Rb, Sr, Zr, Nb, Mo, In, Sn, I and Ce. The physical basis of the used analytical method, the experimental set up and the procedure of sample preparation are presented. (author)
Aromatic and medicinal plants, widely used as folk medicine are, beyond fruits, vegetables grains and spices, the principal source of antioxidant compounds. Several studies demonstrated that antioxidants have also antifungal activity (Jayashree & Subramanyam, 2000; Rasooli & Abyaneh, 2004). More and more, humanity try to replace synthetic metabolites by natural metabolites. Therefore, studies in aromatic and medicinal plants with the capacity to produce a different range of sec...
Leal, Fernanda; Matos, Manuela; Coelho, Ana Cla?udia; Carnide, Olinda
Essential and non-essential heavy metals like Fe, Ni, Mn, Zn, Cu, Co, Cd, Cr and Pb were analyzed in nine selected medicinal plants namely Persea duthiei, Suaeda monoica, Oxalis corniculata, Hibiscus rosa, Erythrina variegates, Curcuma longa, Berberis lyceum, Zanthoxylum alatum and Quercus dilatata by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. These medicinal plants were selected for our investigation having in mind their extensive use in traditional medicine for various ailments by local physici...
Ali Rehman, Hussain Ullah
Research studies are carried out for cultivation potential of medicinal and aromatic plants [Thyme, Oregano, Rosemary, Sage (belonging to the family Lamiaceae)] in Balochistan. The species studied showed good adaptability in cold and dry area and production potential in highland Balochistan. A medicinal herb garden was also established at Arid Zone Research Centre, Quetta with more than 60 potential medicinal and aromatic plants. This germplasm category includes culinary and herbal teas (Thym...
ASLAM GILL; AMINULLAH; SOHAIL ASLAM; KHALIL AHMAD; MUHAMMAD ISLAM; SHAISTA KOUKAB; SARFRAZ AHMAD
Extracts of 21 plants used in Bulgarian phytotherapy for the treatment of respiratory, gastrointestinal and other inflammatory disorders were screened in vitro for antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds content. Plant extracts were prepared as herbal teas following the ethnic use. The water-phase TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) of the teas were compared to that of the famous tea-like beverages mate, rooibos and honeybush, and to that of green and black tea, well known for their high antioxidant potential. The content of total phenolics in the teas was determined spectrometrically according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and calculated as quercetin equivalents (QE). Seven Bulgarian medicinal plants were with high phenolics content and antioxidant properties: Pulmonaria officinalis L. (Boraginaceae) (TEAC 2.02+/-0.14 mM/QE 673.39+/-9.92 microM), Hypericum perforatum L. (Hypericaceae) (TEAC 3.75+/-0.14 mM/QE 881.93+/-6.68 microM), Agrimonia eupatoria L. (Rosaceae) (TEAC 3.76+/-0.5mM/QE 702.29+/-6.82 microM), Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) (TEAC 5.87+/-0.2mM/QE 1653.61+/-11.52 microM), Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (TEAC 4.06+/-0.31 mM/QE 1370.09+/-41.38 microM), Rubus sp. diversa (Rosaceae) (TEAC 4.23+/-0,12 mM/QE 608.95+/-5.95 microM), Cotinus coggygria Scop. (Anacardiaceae) (TEAC 7.05+/-0.19 mM/QE 923.33+/-14.19 microM). Therefore, Bulgarian herbs can be considered to be a rich source of water-soluble antioxidants and/or phenolic compounds as compared to studied foreign plants. PMID:15588663
Ivanova, D; Gerova, D; Chervenkov, T; Yankova, T
Full Text Available Abstract Background An efficient method for the identification of medicinal plant products is now a priority as the global demand increases. This study aims to develop a DNA-based method for the identification and authentication of plant species that can be implemented in the industry to aid compliance with regulations, based upon the economically important Hypericum perforatum L. (St John’s Wort or Guan ye Lian Qiao. Methods The ITS regions of several Hypericum species were analysed to identify the most divergent regions and PCR primers were designed to anneal specifically to these regions in the different Hypericum species. Candidate primers were selected such that the amplicon produced by each species-specific reaction differed in size. The use of fluorescently labelled primers enabled these products to be resolved by capillary electrophoresis. Results Four closely related Hypericum species were detected simultaneously and independently in one reaction. Each species could be identified individually and in any combination. The introduction of three more closely related species to the test had no effect on the results. Highly processed commercial plant material was identified, despite the potential complications of DNA degradation in such samples. Conclusion This technique can detect the presence of an expected plant material and adulterant materials in one reaction. The method could be simply applied to other medicinal plants and their problem adulterants.
Background An efficient method for the identification of medicinal plant products is now a priority as the global demand increases. This study aims to develop a DNA-based method for the identification and authentication of plant species that can be implemented in the industry to aid compliance with regulations, based upon the economically important Hypericum perforatum L. (St John’s Wort or Guan ye Lian Qiao). Methods The ITS regions of several Hypericum species were analysed to identify the most divergent regions and PCR primers were designed to anneal specifically to these regions in the different Hypericum species. Candidate primers were selected such that the amplicon produced by each species-specific reaction differed in size. The use of fluorescently labelled primers enabled these products to be resolved by capillary electrophoresis. Results Four closely related Hypericum species were detected simultaneously and independently in one reaction. Each species could be identified individually and in any combination. The introduction of three more closely related species to the test had no effect on the results. Highly processed commercial plant material was identified, despite the potential complications of DNA degradation in such samples. Conclusion This technique can detect the presence of an expected plant material and adulterant materials in one reaction. The method could be simply applied to other medicinal plants and their problem adulterants. PMID:22838839
Full Text Available Sustainable development is a must for Bali. It is due to the fact that one of the negative impacst of development is the change of the land use from agriculture into other functions. As a result, most of medicinal plants will be extinct. In another hand there is a trend of people to plant horticultures in their house yards. The main issue: is there any relationship between horticulture and sustainable development? In answering it, a field study was conducted in Petiga Village, Tabanan, Bali Province. Observation and interview were carried out to respondents consisted of five Balinese farmers who nurse cultivate the horticultural plants for their daily activities. Results show that: 1 there are about 159 kinds of plant totally used as horticultural plants; 2 amongst those plants, about 67 plants belong to the medicinal plants and 80 plants belong to ceremonial plants; 3 number of horticultural plants in every house sampled ranged from 63-94 kinds; 4 the popularity of any horticultural plant is affected by the market’s demand. The conclusion which could be drawn was that the medicinal plants as well as the ceremonial plants were used for horticultural plants. It was due to their wonderful colors, nice stems, flowers or leaves, special odors, economical values and magical values as well. Horticulture could be used as a strategy for preservation and conservation program of the medicinal plants in Bali. It was recommended that for the sustainability, all medicinal plants which exist in Bali should be invented and planted in a form of medicinal plant park.
Full Text Available An ethnobotanical study was conducted to investigate the use of medicinal plants in and around Alamata district, southern Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Information was gathered from 15 traditional healers: 11 females and 4 males, using semistructured questionnaire. The healers were selected randomly and no appointment was made prior to the visits. Twenty-five medicinal plants used as a cure for 18 aliments were documented. Most (64% of the traditional medicinal plants were found in cultivation. Most of the traditional medicinal plants were used in fresh form (64% while 36% in dried from. The inhabitants rely on medicinal plants for various purposes such as forage, medicine, firewood, spice, construction and food. The most commonly used plant parts for herbal preparations were leaves (52% and seeds (24%. The administration routes were oral (20%, dermal (48%, nasal (16%, oral or dermal (8%, chewing (4% and through the ear (4%. Some (44% of the remedies are mixed with water, butter, honey, Citrus limonum and Allium sativum while the remaining do not have any ingredients added. The findings revealed that indigenous practices contributed to the sustained use, management and conservation of medicinal and multiple-use indigenous trees. Our result suggested to carry out similar studies in areas not previously covered in order to get a full picture of the country’s medicinal plants potential in the future.
Full Text Available Five Libyan medicinal plants Thapsia garganica, Hammada scoparia, Euphorbia serrata, Hyoscyamus albus and Retama rateam were selected to evaluate their biological activities. Their total phenolic and flavanoid contents were assessed. The antioxidant activity was estimated using 2, 2-di- phenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH as free radical scavenger. Their crude extracts showed reducing potential proportional to their concentration. The correlation coefficient (R2 between antioxidant activity and their total phenolics and flavanoids content is 0.77 and 0.98 respectively. Crude aqueous, methanolic as well as alkaloids extracts of the five plants were tested against a number of G+ve and G-ve sensitive resistant (e.g MRSA bacteria beside some fungal species. The aqueous extracts displayed weak antibacterial activity whereas methanolic extracts were profoundly effective against both G+ve and G-ve bacteria. The extracts of E. serrata and H. scoparia were highly effective against E. coli in particular. The alkaloid-rich extracts of H. albus and H. scoparia induced remarkable bacteriostatic and fungistatic effects. The bioactive ingredients of H. scoparia, E. serrata and R. rateam extracts are shown to be potential sources of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial ingredients favoring their possible use in industrial pharmacology on large scale.
Neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been applied to multielemental determination of eleven medicinal plants used to cure the urinary tract diseases observed in Algeria. These plants include Androgena Citratus, Ceratonia Siliquata, Punica Granatum, Glyryrrhiza Glabra, Lausaunia Alba, Fragaria Vesca, Arbutus Unedol, Hordeum Vulgaris, Papieteria Officinalis, Zea Mays L, and Davallia Seae. Concentrations of twenty elements Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, I, Mn, Na, Mg, Rb, Sb, Se, Sc, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn have been determined by short, and long irradiation times with a thermal and epithermal flux of 1.4 x 1012 n x cm-2 x s-1 and 1.4 x 1011 n x cm-2 x s-1, respectively. These analyses were performed in conjunction with Compton suppression. In almost herbs studied the Co, Cr, Cu, Rb, Sb , Sc, Se and V are found to be present at trace levels, Br, Mn, and Zn at the minor level, and Ca, Cl, Fe, Mg and Na are generally at the major level. The accuracy of the measurements has been evaluated by analyzing NISTbotanical references materials. (author)
In a continuing search for new compounds for the control of the vectors of schistosomiasis, we have tested the activity of some Brazilian medicinal plants as sources of molluscicidal natural compounds, using two molluscicidal bioassays. Twenty-seven crude extracts, from twenty-six species belonging to nineteen families, were tested. Seven extracts showed significant molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata adults with DL50 values of less than 50 ppm, and five of them were very active in the test using egg masses. The species most active against B. glabrata adults (LD50 value = 3.65 ppm) and their egg masses (LD50 value = 0.13 ppm) was Derris sp. Annona muricata [LD50 value (adult) = 11.86 ppm and LD50 value (egg) = 49.62 ppm], Jatropha elliptica (from Goiás state) [LD50 value (adult) = 24.80 ppm and LD50 value (egg) = 3.03 ppm] and Renealmia exaltata [LD50 value (adult) = 28.03 ppm and LD50 value (egg) = 21.67 ppm], were also considered promising molluscicidal plants. PMID:10715846
Dos Santos, A F; Sant'Ana, A E
Full Text Available In the present study antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts of six medicinal plants viz. Gynodropsis Pentaphyllum (Capparidaceae family, Solanum nigrum (Solanaceae family, Merremia gangitica (Convolvulaceae family, Cicca acida (Euphorbiaceae family, Erythrina variegata ( Leguminaceae family and Asparagus fysoxii (Asparagaceae family were carried out against five pathogenic Bacteria. Out of which three Bacteria are Gram positive – ( Staphylococcus aureus NCIM 2079, Streptococcus mutans NCIM 2611, Bacillus cerus NCIM 2106 and two Gram negative bacteria – ( Escherichia coli NCIM 2005, Solmonella abony NCIM 2257 using disc diffusion method. The respective bacteria were inoculated in a nutrient broth for overnight incubation. In the comparative study of plant extracts with standard drugs, Sterile disc’s (HIMEDIA obtained and respective volume of each extract was dispensed over the disc to attain 10 mcg concentrations each of the disc’s were dried and impregnated over the pre-inoculated plates. Finally the zone of inhibition was observed and the inhibitory zone was measured using zone inhibitory scale (HIMEDIA and the values are noted in mm
K. Subramani, R. Karnan
This paper describes total phenolics content and antioxidant activity in the ethanolic extract of leaves, bark and roots of five medicinal plants: Terminalia brasiliensis Camb., Terminalia fagifolia Mart. and Zucc., Copernicia cerifera (Miller) H.E. Moore, Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul. var. acuminata Teles Freire and Qualea grandiflora Mart. The total phenolics content of the plant extracts, determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, varied from 250.0 ±8,2 to 763,63 ±13.03 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g dry EtOH extract. The antioxidant activity of extracts was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay system. Extract of bark from T. brasiliensis, the most active, with an EC50 value of 27.59 ± 0.82 ?g/mL, was comparable to rutin (EC50 = 27.80 ± 1.38) and gallic acid (EC50 = 24.27 ± 0.31), used as positive controls. The relationship between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity was positive and significant for T. brasiliensis, C. macrophyllum and C. cerifera. (author)
Full Text Available Our aim was to evaluate the hypolipidimic effect of aqueous extract of a famous mixture used in Saudi Arabia folk medicine that consists of Nigella sativa, Commiphora myrrha, Boswellia carterii Birdw, Ferule assa-foetida and Aloe vera and also the extract of each plant alone on alloxan induced diabetic rats. Material and Methods :-The present study was carried out on 80 adult male albino rats (120 ± 20 g.b.wt. , the rats were divided randomly into 8 groups, the first group served as control group, the second group as alloxan induced diabetic rats, the third group was diabetic rats treated with mixture of folk medicinal plant ( 0.01g /100 g b. wt. ,the fourth group: diabetic rats treated with Nigella sativa ( 0.01g /100 g b. wt. , the fifth group: diabetic rats treated with Aloe vera ( 0.005g /100 g b. wt. , the sixth group: diabetic rats treated with Ferule assa-foetida ( 0.01 g /100 g b. wt., the seventh: diabetic rats treated with Boswellia carterii Birdw ( 1ml/100 g b. wt. and the eighth group: diabetic rats treated with Commiphora myrrha ( 0.01 g ml/100 g b. wt. Results :- Serum total lipid, serum total cholesterol, LDLcholesterol, and triglyceride recorded significant increases in diabetic, Nigella sativa, Commiphora myrrha, Boswellia carterii birdw and Aloe vera treated group. While the mixture and Ferule assa-foetida treated group, showed insignificant changes in serum total lipid, triglyceride, serum total cholesterol and LDLcholesterol. On other hand, the mixture treated group and Ferule assa-foetida treated group showed significant decreased in the previous parameters. The serum HDLcholesterol was significantly reduced in diabetic group throughout the experimental periods, otherwise, all treated group revealed insignificant changes till the end of experiment when compare with undiabetic rats. Conclusion: The aqueous extract of a mixture consists of Nigella sativa, Commiphora myrrha, Boswellia carterii Birdw, Ferule assa-foetida and Aloe vera are useful for improvement of the lipid profile of alloxan induced diabetic rats fram each plant alone.
Eman G.E.Helal * and Mohamed M. A. Shahat
Early in the co-evolution of plant-animal relationships, some arthropod species began to utilize the chemical defences of plants to protect themselves from their own predators and parasites. It is likely, therefore, that the origins of herbal medicine have their roots deep within the animal kingdom. From prehistoric times man has looked to wild and domestic animals for sources of herbal remedies. Both folklore and living examples provide accounts of how medicinal plants were obtained by observing the behaviour of animals. Animals too learn about the details of self-medication by watching each other. To date, perhaps the most striking scientific studies of animal self-medication have been made on the African great apes. The great ape diet is often rich in plants containing secondary compounds of non-nutritional, sometimes toxic, value that suggest medicinal benefit from their ingestion. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), bonobos (Pan paniscus) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) are known to swallow whole and defecate intact leaves. The habit has been shown to be a physical means of purging intestinal parasites. Chimpanzees and man co-existing in sub-Saharan Africa are also known to ingest the bitter pith of Vernonia amygdalina for the control of intestinal nematode infections. Phytochemical studies have demonstrated a wide array of biologically-active properties in this medicinal plant species. In light of the growing resistance of parasites and pathogens to synthetic drugs, the study of animal self-medication and ethno-medicine offers a novel line of investigation to provide ecologically-sound methods for the treatment of parasites using plant-based medicines in populations and their livestock living in the tropics. PMID:14506884
Huffman, Michael A
Full Text Available Abstract Background By revealing historical and present plant use, ethnobotany contributes to drug discovery and socioeconomic development. Nepal is a natural storehouse of medicinal plants. Although several ethnobotanical studies were conducted in the country, many areas remain unexplored. Furthermore, few studies have compared indigenous plant use with reported phytochemical and pharmacological properties. Methods Ethnopharmacological data was collected in the Rasuwa district of Central Nepal by conducting interviews and focus group discussions with local people. The informant consensus factor (FIC was calculated in order to estimate use variability of medicinal plants. Bio-efficacy was assessed by comparing indigenous plant use with phytochemical and pharmacological properties determined from a review of the available literature. Criteria were used to identify high priority medicinal plant species. Results A total of 60 medicinal formulations from 56 plant species were documented. Medicinal plants were used to treat various diseases and disorders, with the highest number of species being used for gastro-intestinal problems, followed by fever and headache. Herbs were the primary source of medicinal plants (57% of the species, followed by trees (23%. The average FIC value for all ailment categories was 0.82, indicating a high level of informant agreement compared to similar studies conducted elsewhere. High FIC values were obtained for ophthalmological problems, tooth ache, kidney problems, and menstrual disorders, indicating that the species traditionally used to treat these ailments are worth searching for bioactive compounds: Astilbe rivularis, Berberis asiatica, Hippophae salicifolia, Juniperus recurva, and Swertia multicaulis. A 90% correspondence was found between local plant use and reported plant chemical composition and pharmacological properties for the 30 species for which information was available. Sixteen medicinal plants were ranked as priority species, 13 of which having also been prioritized in a country-wide governmental classification. Conclusions The Tamang people possess rich ethnopharmacological knowledge. This study allowed to identify many high value and high priority medicinal plant species, indicating high potential for economic development through sustainable collection and trade.
Boon Emmanuel K
Angiogenesis plays an important role in tumor formation and proliferation. The development of anti-angiogenic agents to block new blood vessel growth will inhibit metastasis and induce apoptosis of the cancer cells. Nine medicinal plants, Strobilanthes crispus, Phyllanthus niruri, Phyllanthus pulcher, Phyllanthus urinaria, Ailanthus malabarica, Irvingia malayana, Smilax myosotiflora, Tinospora crispa and blumea balsamifera were screened for anti-angiogenic properties using the rat aortic ring assay. Of these, the methanol extracts of Phyllanthus species and Irvingia malayana exhibited the highest activity. At 100 microg/mL, P. pulcher, P. niruri, P. urinaria and I. malayana recorded an inhibition of 78.8 %, 59.5 %, 56.7 % and 46.4 %, respectively, against rat aortic vascular growth. Their activities were further investigated by the tube formation assay involving human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) on Matrigel. I. malayana, P. niruri and P. urinaria showed a significant decrease of 45.5, 37.9 and 35.6 %, respectively, whilst P. pulcher showed a much lower decrease of 15.5 % when compared with that of the rat aortic ring assay. All the plant extracts were evaluated for cytotoxicity on a panel of human cancer cell lines using the MTT assay. None of them displayed acute cytotoxicity. The HPLC of P. niruri, P. urinaria and P. pulcher indicated the extracts contained some identical chromatographic peaks of lignans. Further fractionation of I. malayana yielded betulinic acid reported in this plant for the first time and at 100 microg/mL it exhibited a 67.3 % inhibition of vessel outgrowth and 46.5 % inhibition of tube formation. PMID:20112179
Ng, Kwok-Wen; Salhimi, Salizawati Muhamad; Majid, Amin Malik; Chan, Kit-Lam
Objective : Today, medicinal plants are widely used in remedies for several ailments and improvement of human health because of their pharmaceutical properties. This study aimed to document important useful medicinal plants and their medicinal characteristics for treatment of human ailments in the Arjan (_) Parishan protected area in Fars province of Iran during 2010-2012. Materials and Methods : Data were obtained using direct interviews with 80 informants particularly those who were more familiar with the herbs and their medicinal properties. Collected plants were recognized and families, genera, and species determined using indispensable references. In this paper, scientific name, local name, parts used, and ways of application and ailments treated using traditional medicinal plant species have been provided. Results : We documented 85 plant species belonging to 39 families and 78 genera used for treating ailments. Among which, Asteraceae with 13 species was the most frequently used family and fruits and leaves were the favored parts for local users. Our results indicated that in this area, the highest compliance in the use of plants in treating ailments were related to the intestinal digestive system (40.8%). Conclusion : The present study is the first contribution to the ethnobotany of this region. Our results showed that some plants are used for medicinal purposes in this region, either for the same or for different purposes. Generally, the results of the present investigation can be used as a basis for selecting useful medicinal plants and also help to preserve precious information that may otherwise be lost to future generations. PMID:25386404
Dolatkhahi, Mehdi; Dolatkhahi, Ali; Nejad, Javad Bagher
Abstract The trade in medicinal plants for herbal remedies is large and probably increasing. The trade has attracted the attention of scientists and development planners interested in the impact on plant populations and the potential to improve rural livelihoods through community based management and conservation. This has resulted in a large number of publications and development activities, ranging from small NGO projects to new government policies. Through a review of 119 references from Nepal, 4 common assumptions regarding the medicinal plant collection and trade have been identified: I. The commercial medicinal plant resource base is becoming ever more degraded as a consequence of collection; II. The medicinal plants are an open-access resource; III. Cultivation can contribute to conservation of commercially collected medicinal plant species; and IV. Medicinal plant harvesters are cheated by middlemen. The frequency of the assumptions is documented, their empirical support is evaluated, and the consequences of their presence for conservation and rural livelihoods are discussed. It is concluded that the empirical backing for the assumptions is weak, and that some reviewed references use logically flawed argumentation. It is argued that the assumptions are leading to misguided conservation efforts, and an inclusive approach to conservation of commercial central Himalayan medicinal plant species is briefly outlined. Electronic Supplementary Material Supplementary material is available in the online version of this article at http://www.dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10531-006-9039-4 and is accessible for authorized users.
Larsen, Helle Overgaard; Olsen, Carsten Smith
The antibacterial potential of indigenous medicinal plants as alternative chemical pesticides for controlling bacterial leaf blight (BLB) of rice was investigated. Twenty-five different species of medicinal plants were collected from various sites in Pakistan. Decoctions of all medicinal plant species were screened by the disc plate diffusion method for testing the susceptibility of an aggressive isolate of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo 105). Out of twenty five medicinal plants, Thuja orientalis (cone + leaves), Azadirachta indica (seeds + fruits), Amomum subulatum (fruits), Terminalia chebula (fruits), Terminalia bellirica (fruits), Anethum graveolens (fruits) and Ferula assa-foetida (fruits) decoctions showed significant activity. The efficacy of decoctions from six promising plants were further tested through detached leaf, glasshouse and field assays. A decoction of Terminalia chebula demonstrated the highest effectiveness in terms of regulating BLB in the plants both under laboratory and field conditions. Bioactive fractions of Terminalia chebula were purified, characterized and tentatively identified as allegic acid. (author)
Medicinal plants have always been part of human culture and have the potential to cure different diseases caused by microorganisms. In Pakistan, biologists are mainly focusing on plants' antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli due to its increasing resistance to antibiotics. In total, extracts from 34 ethnomedicinally valuable Pakistani plants were reported for in-vitro anti-E. coli activities. Mostly methanolic extracts of medicinal plants were used in different studies, which have shown comparatively higher inhibitory activities against E. coli than n-hexane and aqueous extracts. It has been found that increasing concentration (mg/ml) of methanolic extract can significantly increase (p<0.01) anti-E. coli activities. Not all medicinal plants are extracted in solvents others than above, which should also be tested against E. coli. Moreover, medicinal plant species must be fully explored phytochemically, which may lead to the development of new drugs. PMID:25135359
Adnan, Muhammad; Bibi, Roqaia; Mussarat, Sakina; Tariq, Akash; Shinwari, Zabta Khan
Full Text Available Twelve Thai medicinal plants as the ingredients of a Southern Thai traditional formula for cancer treatment were selected to test cytotoxicity activity against two types of human cancer cell lines ; large cell lung carcinoma (CORL-23 and prostate cancer cell lines (PC3 and one type of normal human cell line, fibroblast cells (10FS. SRB assay was used to test cytotoxic activity against all the cell types. Two of the extracts (water and ethanolic extracts procedures used were similar to those practised by Thai traditional doctors. One concentration (50 ?g/ml of two different extracts was tested first against cell lines and the active plant extracts were diluted and tested for calculating IC50. The ethanolic extracts of six plants (Bridelia ovata, Curcuma zedoaria, Derris scandens, Dioscorea membranacea, Nardostachys jatamansi and Rhinacanthus nasutus showed cytotoxic activity (IC50< 30 ?g/ml against lung and prostate cancer cell lines. Dioscorea membranacea roots showed the highest cytotoxic activity against lung cancer cell lines ( IC50= 4.6 ?g/ml but it exhibited low cytotoxic activity against prostate cancer cell lines (IC50= 17.55 ?g/ml and less cytotoxic activity against normal cell lines (IC50= 66.05 ?g/ml. Curcuma zedoaria showed cytotoxic activity against COR L-23 and PC3 but less cytotoxic activity against 10FS (IC50 = 6.05, 17.84 and 55.50 ?g/ml respectively Rhinacanthus nasutus root extract showed the highest cytotoxic activity against PC3 ( IC50 = 2.01 ?g/ml and this extract also showed high activity against COR L-23 and 10FS (IC50=5.05 and 10.95 ?g/ml respectively. The water extract of all plants exhibited no activity against all types of human cells. Two ethanolic plant extracts (Dioscorea membranacea and Curcuma zedoaria which showed specific activity against lung cancer cell lines and less cytotoxic activity against normal cells should be further investigated for active compounds against lung cancer cell.
Photoacoustic studies of the vapors of the essential oils of thyme, mint and anise have been made using a line-tunable waveguide CO2 laser in conjunction with a heat-pipe type of photoacoustic vapor sample cell operated over the temperature range 20 - 180 degree(s)C. Identifying spectral fingerprint features are found in the 9 - 10 micrometers spectral region for each of the three essential oils investigated. The principal features of the photoacoustic spectrum of each essential oil are associated with the dominant chemicals present i.e. thymol in thyme oil, menthol in mint and anethole in anise.
El-Kahlout, A. M.; Al-Jourani, M. M.; Abu-Taha, M. I.; Laine, Derek C.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicinal plants used by the local people in Xizang (Tibet have been investigated since the 1960s. The others out of Xizang, however, have been less understood, although they may be easily and strongly influenced by the various local herbal practices, diverse environments, local religious beliefs and different prevalent types of diseases. In 2006, two ethnobotanical surveys were organized in the county of Shangri-la, Yunnan Province, SW China, to document the traditional medicinal plants used by the Tibetan people. Methods After literature surveying, four local townships were selected to carry out the field investigation. Three local healers were interviewed as key informants. The methods of ethnobotany, anthropology and participatory rural appraisal (PRA were used in the field surveys. Plant taxonomic approach was adopted for voucher specimen identification. Results Sixty-eight medicinal plant species in 64 genera of 40 families were recorded and collected. Among them, 23 species were found to have medicinal values that have not been recorded in any existing Tibetan literatures before, and 31 species were recorded to have traditional prescriptions. Moreover, the traditional preparations of each species and some folk medicinal knowledge were recorded and analyzed. These traditional prescriptions, preparations, new medicinal plants and folk medicinal knowledge and principles were discovered and summarized by local traditional Tibetan healers through times of treatment practices, and were passed down from generation to generation. Conclusion As a part of the cultural diversity of Tibetan community, these traditional medicinal knowledge and experiences may provide data and information basis for the sustainable utilization and development of Tibetan medicine, and may contribute to the local economic development. However, for many reasons, they are disappearing gradually as time goes by. Our study showed that there were abundant traditional Tibetan medicinal prescriptions and using methods. It implies that more Tibetan medicinal plants and traditional knowledge can be discovered. Further research should be done to save the wealth of these traditional medicinal knowledge and experiences before they are dying out.
Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se exponen diferentes aspectos relativos a la especie Arnica montana (Asteraceae), importante planta medicinal de uso ancestral; a pesar de ser endémica de Europa central y meridional se ha logrado introducir y cultivar con éxito en Estados Unidos de América y Escocia. Respecto a la conservación de [...] la especie cabe mencionar que está bajo estricta protección y se incluye en diversos libros y listas rojas de algunos países europeos, así como en la Lista Roja de Especies Amenazadas de la IUCN. Se presenta un panorama general de A. montana desde el punto de vista científico (descripción botánica, distribución geográfica y sinonimia científica y nombres comunes en distintos idiomas). Debido a que se utiliza para aliviar muchos padecimientos y a que tiene una diversidad de aplicaciones, se mencionan sus usos medicinales, cosméticos, ornamentales y en perfumería. Su historia, las regiones que se dedican a su comercialización y su importancia económica justifican el interés de realizar estudios que aseguren las condiciones adecuadas para su introducción al cultivo en México; como contribución a este tema se presentan las formas de propagación y los requerimientos para su plantación. También se proporcionan datos sobre su fitoquímica, toxicología, contraindicaciones y efectos secundarios. Es de resaltar que A. montana produce numerosos metabolitos secundarios con actividad biológica, pertenecientes a los grupos de los aceites esenciales, ácidos fenólicos, cumarinas, flavonas, flavonoides, glucósidos, mucílagos, fitosteroles, lactonas sesquiterpénicas, taninos y triterpenos, entre otros. Abstract in english Different aspects of Arnica montana L. (Asteraceae) are presented in this work. It is an important perennial medicinal herb used since ancient times; it is endemic to central and southern Europe and has been successfully introduced and cultivated in several countries, such as the United States of Am [...] erica, Scotland, and others. It is under strict protection and is included in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, in the Red Data Books, and Red Data Lists of many European countries. Method: we applied the technique of direct, active reading of specialized documentary sources such as books, magazines and electronic databases. Results: A descriptive overview of the species: its botanical description, geographic distribution, scientific synonyms and common names in different languages; its history, its phytochemistry, its various uses: medicinal, cosmetic and ornamental; its toxicological aspects and its counter-indications or side effects. We also provide information regarding its economic importance, as well as data about its form of propagation. Furthermore, we include the requirements for its cultivation and the main countries that trade it. The plant produces numerous secondary metabolites with biological activity, including essential oils, phenolic acids, coumarins, flavones, flavonoids, glycosides, mucilages, phytosterols, sesquiterpene lactones, tannins and triterpenoids.
José, Waizel-Bucay; María de Lourdes, Cruz-Juárez.
Medicinal plants have been traditionally used for different kinds of ailments including infectious diseases. As viral resistance to available chemical drugs causes problems in the treatment of herpes simplex virus type 1 infection, there is an evolving need for new antiherpes drugs. Therefore in the present study 5 species of medicinal plants with ethno-medical background were screened for antiherpes effect against HSV-1in Hep-2(Human epithelial type 2) cells. Different parts of the plants we...
Abstract This study documents indigenous medicinal plant utilization, management and the threats affecting them. The study was carried out in Mana Angetu district between January 2003 and December 2004. Ethnobotanical data were collected using semi structured interviews, field observations, preference and direct matrix ranking with traditional medicine practitioners. The ethnomedicinal use of 230 plant species was documented in the study area. Most of the plants (78.7%) were reportedly used t...
Bekele Tamrat; Kelbessa Ensermu; Lulekal Ermias; Yineger Haile
Abstract The knowledge and use of medicinal plant species by traditional healers was investigated in Sekoru District, Jimma Zone, Southwestern Ethiopia from December 2005 to November 2006. Traditional healers of the study area were selected randomly and interviewed with the help of translators to gather information on the knowledge and use of medicinal plants used as a remedy for human ailments in the study area. In the current study, it was reported that 27 plant species belonging to 27 gene...
Yewhalaw Delenasaw; Yineger Haile
The use of natural compounds from plants can provide an alternative approach against food-borne pathogens. The mechanisms of action of most plant extracts with antimicrobial activity have been poorly studied. In this work, changes in membrane integrity, membrane potential, internal pH (pHin), and ATP synthesis were measured in Vibrio cholerae cells after exposure to extracts of edible and medicinal plants. A preliminary screen of methanolic, ethanolic, and aqueous extracts of medicinal and ed...
Sa?nchez, Eduardo; Garci?a, Santos; Heredia, Norma
This study analyzed the effect of various Edaphic factors on the Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (VAM) associated with medicinal plants. Based on the richness of medicinal plants in Himalayan region, this study considered three plants i.e., Catharanthus roseus Linn., Ocimum spp. and Asparagus racemosus Willd. The study was conducted at five districts of Uttarakhand state in India viz. Pauri Garhwal, Haridwar, Dehradun, Udham Singh Nagar and Almora. This study has evaluated and analyzed the ef...
Purshotam Kaushik; Supriya Gaur
The emergence of drug resistant variants of the influenza virus has led to a need to identify novel and effective antiviral agents. As an alternative to synthetic drugs, the consolidation of empirical knowledge with ethnopharmacological evidence of medicinal plants offers a novel platform for the development of antiviral drugs. The aim of this study was to identify plant extracts with proven activity against the influenza virus. Extracts of fifty medicinal plants, originating from the tropica...
Rajasekaran, Dhivya; Palombo, Enzo A.; Chia Yeo, Tiong; Lim Siok Ley, Diana; Lee Tu, Chu; Malherbe, Francois; Grollo, Lara
Ethnopharmacological survey was conducted in Galliyat areas of Tehsil Abbotabad (NWFP) Pakistan. Being apart from city the local people preferably use medicinal plants for their common ailments by traditional methods. Galliyat is dressed up with a wide range of medicinal flora. Indigenous plants are interactly associated to the culture and traditions of local peoples. So ethnopharmacological survey yielded interesting results. The survey comprised plant-collection trips, interviews and meetin...
Ejaz Ahmed; Muhammad Arshad; Mushtaq Ahmad; Majid Saeed; Muhammad Ishaque
This study investigates the leishmanicidal activity of five species of plants used in folk medicine in endemic areas of the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Data were collected in the cities of Colonia Leopoldina, Novo Lino, and União dos Palmares, Alagoas state, from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (Leishmania amazonensis) who use medicinal plants to treat this disease. Plants extracts were tested at a concentration of 1–100??g/mL in all experiments, except in an assay to evaluate activ...
Queiroz, Aline Cavalcanti; Dias, Thays Lima Matos Freire; Da Matta, Carolina Barbosa Brito; Cavalcante Silva, Luiz Henrique Agra; Arau?jo-ju?nior, Joa?o Xavier; Arau?jo, Givanildo Bernardino; Moura, Fla?via Barros Prado; Alexandre-moreira, Magna Suzana
The objective of forest management in the tropics, in recent decades, has shifted from timber production to biodiversity conservation and maintenance of life support system. However, past forestry practices have greatly influenced the structure of plant communities, preponderance of foreign invasive species, populations of high value medicinal plants as well as other non-wood forest products. We assessed the abundance and distribution of medicinal plants in managed and undisturbed forests of ...
Chandola, Srikant; Rawat, Gopal S.; Adhikari, Bhupendra S.; Raut, Ninad B.; Tiwari, Umeshkumar L.
Full Text Available Hemorrhoidal disease is a common problem which is usually not managed properly with pharmacologic interventions and will eventually require surgery. However, there are many medicinal plants that were successfully used for the treatment of hemorrhoids in the traditional and folk medicine of different countries. In this study, these medicinal plants have been reviewed and their mechanism of action and their major chemical constituents responsible for their activities have been assessed individually. Among various herbal medicines, Aesculus hippocastanum, Boswellia species, Cissus quadrangularis, Euphorbia prostrata, Juniperus species, Melastoma malabathricum, Myrtus communis and Verbascum species have got higher support from scientific evidence. These medicinal plants may exert their beneficial effects in hemorrhoids by their anti-inflammatory, analgesic and venotonic activities. Several chemical constituents were identified in these plants which may be responsible for their pharmacological activities, of which, flavonoids, terpenoids, triterpenes and tannins are the majors.
The antidiarrhoeal activity of six Egyptian medicinal plant extracts (200 and 400 mg kg(-1)) and their effect on motility of isolated rabbit's duodenum was investigated. Phytochemical screening of the plant extracts for their active constituents was also carried out by TLC. Oral administration of methanol extract from Conyza dioscoridis (CD) or Alhagi maurorum (AM) in a 200 mg kg(-1) dose exhibits a significant antidiarrhoeal effect against castor oil-induced diarrhoea, while Mentha microphylla (MM), Convolvulus arvensis (CA), Conyza linifolia (CL) produced no significant effect. In a dose of 400 mg kg(-1), Mentha microphylla, Conyza dioscoridis, Alhagi maurorum, Zygophyllum album (ZA), and Conyza linifolia produced a significant (Parvensis produced no antidiarrhoeal effect in rats. Methanol extract of Mentha microphylla, Conyza dioscoridis, Zygophyllum album, and Convolvulus arvensis induced a dose-dependent (0.4-2.8 mg ml(-1)) relaxation of rabbit's duodenal smooth muscle. Alhagi maurorum and Conyza linifolia increased the contractile force in concentrations between 0.4 and 1.6 mg ml(-1). Higher concentrations (>3.2 mg ml(-1)) caused a rapid depressant effect. The depressant effect induced by Alhagi maurorum (in a higher dose) and Zygophyllum album appeared to be due to calcium channel blocking effect, since CaCl(2) could not restore the contractile response of the tissue impregnated in calcium free-medium. However, a ganglionic blocking effect appeared to be a possible mechanism of action of Mentha microphylla and Conyza dioscoridis since a stimulant dose of nicotine could not restore the contractile response of the tissue. The effect of Convolvulus arvensis and Conyza linifolia was not through any of the common mediators. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, unsaturated sterols/triterpenes, carbohydrates, lactones and proteins/amino acids as major constituents. PMID:15138016
Atta, Attia H; Mouneir, Samar M
Extracts form 10 different Malian medicinal plants with a traditional use against schistosomiasis were investigated for their possible content of proteolytic activity. The proteolytic activity was studied by measuring the hydrolysis of two synthetic peptide substrates Z-Ala-Ala-Asn-NHMec and Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec. Legumain- and papain-like activities were found in all tested crude extracts except those from Entada africana, with the papain-like activity being the strongest. Cissus quadrangularis, Securidaca longepedunculata and Stylosanthes erecta extracts showed high proteolytic activities towards both substrates. After gel filtration the proteolytic activity towards the substrate Z-Ala-Ala-Asn-NHMec in root extract of Securidaca longepedunculata appeared to have Mr of 30 and 97kDa, while the activity in extracts from Cissus quadrangularis was at 39kDa. Enzymatic activity cleaving the substrate Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec showed apparent Mr of 97 and 26kDa in extracts from roots and leaves of Securidaca longepedunculata, while in Cissus quadrangularis extracts the activity eluted at 39 and 20kDa, with the highest activity in the latter. All Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec activities were inhibited by E-64 but unaffected by PMSF. The legumain activity was unaffected by E-64 and PMSF. The SDS-PAGE analysis exhibited five distinct gelatinolytic bands for Cissus quadrangularis extracts (115, 59, 31, 22 and 20kDa), while two bands (59 and 30kDa) were detected in Securidaca longepedunculata extracts. The inhibition profile of the gelatinolytic bands and that of the hydrolysis of the synthetic substrates indicate the cysteine protease class of the proteolytic activities. Several cysteine protease activities with different molecular weights along with a strong variability of these activities between species as well as between plant parts from the same species were observed. PMID:16621376
Bah, Sékou; Paulsen, Berit S; Diallo, Drissa; Johansen, Harald T
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitory activity and phytochemical profile of some Algerian medicinal plants. The bioautography on Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC reveals 10 active aqueous extracts from a total of 77 extracts. Among them, aqueous extract of Pistacia lentiscus presents seven active spots. The Ellman’s colorimetric method shows that aqueous extract of Pistacia atlantica and P. lentiscus present a strong AChE inhibition. The chloroformic fraction obtained after liquid-liquid partition of Atriplex halimus roots aqueous extract, presents a strong AChE inhibition among all fractions tested with IC50 of 9.55 ?g mL-1. The quantitative dosage of total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids by colorimetric method shows that Osyris quadripartita and Pistacia atlantica are the richest in total phenolic compounds (438.99 and 407.68 mg g-1, respectively, a highest content on total flavonoids was detected in extract from Rosmarinus officinalis and Acacia raddiana (125.70 and 115.37 mg g-1, respectively.
this thesis aimed to study the molecular characterization , the phylogenetic relationships among the four mentha and the three ocimum species and to get some species-specific markers. twenty-one RAPD and 10 ISSR primers were used which showed high polymorphism among the species and detected 150 molecular markers for these genotypes (100 using RAPD and 50 by ISSR-analyses). detection of the phylogenetic relationships based on the three studied systems (RAPD,ISSR and their combined analyses ) indicated that these techniques succeeded in separating the seven species into two main clusters of the two mentha and ocimum genera. SDS-protein patterns characterized the seven genotypes based on presence/ absence and staining intensities of 14 polypeptide bands into two main groups.the effect of four doses of gamma irradiation on eight active components of volatile oils and SDS-protein pattern of stems of mentha viridis indicated that low levels of gamma irradiation could improve the value of some active components of medicinal plants such as menthol in mentha viridis
Two actinobacterial strains, CPCC 203464(T) and CPCC 203448, isolated from surface-sterilized stems of medicinal plants were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. These two aerobic organisms formed pale yellow colonies on tryptic soy agar (TSA). Cells were Gram-stain-positive, non-acid-fast, non-motile, rod- or coccoid-like elements. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strains CPCC 203464(T) and CPCC 203448 were most closely related to the type strains of the species of the genus Williamsia. Chemotaxonomic properties such as containing meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell wall, arabinose, galactose and ribose being the whole-cell hydrolysate sugars, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidylinositol (PI) as the phospholipids, and C16?:?0, 10-methyl C18?:?0, C18?:?1?9c, C16?:?1?7c and/or iso-C15?:?0 2-OH as major fatty acids supported the affiliation of strains CPCC 203464(T) and CPCC 203448 to the genus Williamsia. The DNA-DNA hybridization values in combination with differentiating chemotaxonomic and physiological characteristics strongly suggested that these two isolates should be classified as representatives of a novel species of the genus Williamsia. The name Williamsia sterculiae sp. nov. is proposed, with strain CPCC 203464(T) (?=?DSM 45741(T)?=?KCTC 29118(T)) as the type strain. PMID:23771621
Fang, Xiao-Mei; Su, Jing; Wang, Hao; Wei, Yu-Zhen; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Li-Li; Liu, Hong-Yu; Ma, Bai-Ping; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Yu, Li-Yan
Full Text Available Aromatic plants, also known as herbs and spices, have been used since antiquity as folk medicine and as preservatives in foods. The best known aromatic plants, such as oregano, rosemary, sage, anise, basil, etc., originate from the Mediterranean area. They contain many biologically active compounds, mainly polyphenolics, which have been found to possess antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiparasitic, antiprotozoal, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory properties. Currently, the demand for these plants and their derivatives has increased because they are natural, eco-friendly and generally recognized as safe products. Therefore, aromatic plants and their extracts have the potential to become new generation substances for human and animal nutrition and health. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the literature surrounding the in vivo and in vitro use of aromatic plants.
Full Text Available Objective: An ethnobotanical survey on the medicinal plant species marketed in Mashhad city, northeastern Iran, was conducted in order to document traditional medicinal knowledge and application of medicinal plants. Materials and Methods: This study was undertaken between 2011 and 2012. The indigenous knowledge of traditional healers used for medicinal purposes were collected through questionnaire and personal interviews during field trips. Ethnobotanical data was arranged alphabetically by family name followed by botanical name, vernacular name, part used, folk use, and recipe. Correct identification was made with the help of the various Floras and different herbal literature at the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Herbarium (FUMH. Results: The present investigation reported medicinal information for about 269 species, belonging to 87 vascular plant families and one fungus family. The most important family was Lamiaceae with 26 species, followed by Asteraceae with 23, Fabaceae with 20, and Apiaceae with 19. Herbal medicine uses reported by herbalists was classified into 132 different uses which show significant results to treat a wide spectrum of human ailments. Plants sold at the market were mostly used for digestive system disorders, respiratory problems, urological troubles, nervous system disorders, skin problems, and gynecological ailments. Conclusion: This survey showed that although people in study area have access to modern medical facilities, a lot of them still continue to depend on medicinal plants for the treatment of healthcare problems. The present paper represents significant ethnobotanical information on medical plants which provides baseline data for future pharmacological and phytochemical studies.
Mohammad Sadegh Amiri
Unorganized collections and over exploitation of naturally occurring medicinal plant Bacopa monniera is leading to rapid depletion of germplasm and is posing a great threat to its survival in natural habitats. The species has already been listed in the list of highly threatened plants of India. This calls for micropropagation based multiplication of potential accessions and understanding of their mycorrhizal associations for obtaining plants with enhanced secondary metabolite contents. The co-cultivation of B. monniera with axenically cultivated root endophyte Piriformospora indica resulted in growth promotion, increase in bacoside content, antioxidant activity and nuclear hypertrophy of this medicinal plant. PMID:23681554
Prasad, Ram; Kamal, Shwet; Sharma, Pradeep K; Oelmüller, Ralf; Varma, Ajit
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study documents the use of medicinal plants from the Mustang district of the north-central part of Nepal. Traditional botanical medicine is the primary mode of healthcare for most of the population of this district and traditional Tibetan doctors (Amchi serve as the local medical experts. Methods Field research was conducted in 27 communities of the Mustang district in Nepal from 2005-2007. We sampled 202 interviewees, using random and snowball sampling techniques. After obtaining prior informed consent, we collected data through semi-structured interviews and participant-observation techniques. Voucher specimens of all cited botanic species were deposited at TUCH in Nepal. Results We recorded the traditional uses of 121 medicinal plant species, belonging to 49 vascular plant and 2 fungal families encompassing 92 genera. These 121 species are employed to treat a total of 116 ailments. We present data on 58 plant species previously unknown for their medicinal uses in the Mustang district. Of the medicinal plants reported, the most common growth form was herbs (73% followed by shrubs, trees, and climbers. We document that several parts of individual plant species are used as medicine. Plant parts were generally prepared using hot or cold water as the 'solvent', but occasionally remedies were prepared with milk, honey, jaggery, ghee and oil. Amchis recommended different types of medicine including paste, powder, decoction, tablet, pills, infusion, and others through oral, topical, nasal and others routes of administration. Conclusions The traditional pharmacopoeia of the Mustang district incorporates a myriad of diverse botanical flora. Traditional knowledge of the remedies is passed down through oral traditions and dedicated apprenticeships under the tutelage of senior Amchi. Although medicinal plants still play a pivotal role in the primary healthcare of the local people of Mustang, efforts to ensure the conservation and sustainable use of medicinal species are necessary.
Chaudhary Ram P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicinal plants are possible sources for future novel antioxidant compounds in food and pharmaceutical formulations. Recent attention on medicinal plants emanates from their long historical utilisation in folk medicine as well as their prophylactic properties. However, there is a dearth of scientific data on the efficacy and stability of the bioactive chemical constituents in medicinal plants after prolonged storage. This is a frequent problem in African Traditional Medicine. Methods The phytochemical, antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase-inhibitory properties of 21 medicinal plants were evaluated after long-term storage of 12 or 16 years using standard in vitro methods in comparison to freshly harvested materials. Results The total phenolic content of Artemisia afra, Clausena anisata, Cussonia spicata, Leonotis intermedia and Spirostachys africana were significantly higher in stored compared to fresh materials. The flavonoid content were also significantly higher in stored A. afra, C. anisata, C. spicata, L. intermedia, Olea europea and Tetradenia riparia materials. With the exception of Ekebergia capensis and L. intermedia, there were no significant differences between the antioxidant activities of stored and fresh plant materials as measured in the ?-carotene-linoleic acid model system. Similarly, the EC50 values based on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay were generally lower for stored than fresh material. Percentage inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was generally similar for both stored and fresh plant material. Stored plant material of Tetradenia riparia and Trichilia dregeana exhibited significantly higher AChE inhibition than the fresh material. Conclusions The current study presents evidence that medicinal plants can retain their biological activity after prolonged storage under dark conditions at room temperature. The high antioxidant activities of stable bioactive compounds in these medicinal plants offer interesting prospects for the identification of novel principles for application in food and pharmaceutical formulations.
Amoo Stephen O
Medicinal plant use has persisted as a long standing tradition in the Mapuche communities of Southern Argentina and Chile. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in the rural Curruhuinca community located near the mountain city of San Martin de los Andes, Argentina. Semi-structured interviews were carried out on 22 families in order to examine the present use of medicinal plants and their reputed therapeutic effects. Ecological variables, such as distance to the gathering site and biogeographical origin were also analyzed. Our results showed that the Curruhuinca dwellers cited 89 plant species for medicinal purposes, both of native and exotic origin. They know about 47 native plants, of which they use 40, and they know of 42 exotic medicinal plants of which they use 34. A differential pattern was observed given that only native species, relevant for the traditional Mapuche medicine, were collected at more distant gathering sites. The interviewees mentioned 268 plant usages. Those most frequently reported had therapeutic value for treating digestive ailments (33%), as analgesic/anti-inflammatory (25%) and antitusive (13%). Native species were mainly cited as analgesics, and for gynecological, urinary and "cultural syndrome" effects, whereas exotic species were mainly cited for digestive ailments. The total number of medicinal plants known and used by the interviewees was positively correlated with people's age, indicating that this ancient knowledge tends to disappear in the younger generations. PMID:16157460
Estomba, Diego; Ladio, Ana; Lozada, Mariana
Background: Medicinal plant species contribute significantly to folk medicine in Colombia. However, few local studies have investigated whether species used are introduced or native and whether there is a difference in importance of native and introduced medicinal plant species. The aim of the present study was to describe the use of medicinal plants within two municipalities, Campo Hermoso and Zetaquira, both in the department of Boyaca Colombia and to assess the importance of native and int...
Sørensen, Marten; Theilade, Ida
Caesalpinia digyna Rottl. (Caesalpiniaceae) is shrubby perennial climber found in Eastern Ghats. Roots are astringent and used in Ayurveda and Unani systems of medicines. Bergenin, Caesalpinine A and Caesalpinine C were isolated from the roots. However, this medicinal plant has not been studied pharmacognostically. Hence, the present investigation reports pharmacognostical and physicochemical properties of roots of Caesalpinia digyna. PMID:22557239
Mitra, S K; Kannan, R; Sundaram, R
Full Text Available The present documented the traditional knowledge of Medicinal Plants species used in various type of skin diseases in Nagapattinam district. We have documented the use of 50 species belonging to 26 families. The information on plants used as traditional medicine against skin diseases was gathered and ethnomedicinal survey based on interviews with local people involved in traditional herbal medicine practices. The particulars plants are used to cure variety of skin diseases, like swelling, wound healing, psoriasis, scabies, eczema, dandruff, tinea versicularis, tinea cruris, impetigo, skin parasities, leucoderma, leucoderma, leprosy, rash, etc. the studies carried out for the time in this area, the medicinal plants used by traditional users of N agapattinam district were arranged by botanical name, family, local name, habit, mode of preparation and uses.
Background Around 80% of the people of Ethiopia are estimated to be relying on medicinal plants for the treatment of different types of human health problems. The purpose of this study was to describe and analyse the use and management of medicinal plants used for the treatment of human health problems by the Maale and Ari communities in southern Ethiopia. Methods Quantitative and qualitative ethnobotanical field inquiries and analytical methods including individual and focus group discussions (18), observations, individual interviews (n?=?74), preference ranking and paired comparison were used. Data were collected in three study sites and from two markets; the latter surveyed every 15 days from February 2011 to February 2012. Results A total of 128 medicinal plant species, belonging to 111 genera and 49 families, used as herbal medicine by Maale and Ari communities were documented. Predominantly harvested plant parts were leaves, which are known to have relatively low impact on medicinal plant resources. Species with high familiarity indices included Solanum dasyphyllum, Indigofera spicata, Ruta chalepensis, Plumbago zeylanica and Meyna tetraphylla. Low Jaccards similarity indices (? 0.33) indicated little correspondence in medicinal plant use among sites and between ethnic communities. The dominant ways of medicinal plant knowledge acquisition and transfer is vertical: from parents to children through oral means. Gender and site significantly influenced the number of human medicinal plants known currently in the study sites. Age was only a factor of significance in Maale. Marketing of medicinal plants harvested from wild and semi-wild stands is not common. Expansion of agricultural land and lack of cultivation efforts by local communities are mentioned by locals to affect the availability of medicinal plant resources. Conclusion S. dasyphyllum, I. spicata, P. zeylanica, M. tetraphylla, and Oxalis radicosa need to be considered for phytochemical and pharmacological testing to verify their efficacy and determine their dosages. Land use planning and development initiatives in the area and beyond need to sharply focus on strategies that could alleviate the major threats affecting medicinal plant resources in the landscape and encourage their cultivation to enhance their availability and complement ex-and in-situ conservation. PMID:24898079
Arsenic (As) is a widespread environmental and food chain contaminant and class I, non-threshold carcinogen. Plants accumulate As due to ionic mimicry that is of importance as a measure of phytoremediation but of concern due to the use of plants in alternative medicine. The present study investigated As accumulation in native plants including some medicinal plants, from three districts [Chinsurah (Hoogly), Porbosthali (Bardhman), and Birnagar (Nadia)] of West Bengal, India, having a history of As pollution. A site-specific response was observed for Specific Arsenic Uptake (SAU; mg kg(-1) dw) in total number of 13 (8 aquatic and 5 terrestrial) collected plants. SAU was higher in aquatic plants (5-60 mg kg(-1) dw) than in terrestrial species (4-19 mg kg(-1) dw). The level of As was lower in medicinal plants (MPs) than in non-medicinal plants, however it was still beyond the WHO permissible limit (1 mg kg(-1) dw). The concentration of other elements (Cu, Zn, Se, and Pb) was found to be within prescribed limits in medicinal plants (MP). Among the aquatic plants, Marsilea showed the highest SAU (avg. 45 mg kg(-1) dw), however, transfer factor (TF) of As was the maximum in Centella asiatica (MP, avg. 1). Among the terrestrial plants, the maximum SAU and TF were demonstrated by Alternanthera ficoidea (avg. 15) and Phyllanthus amarus (MP, avg. 1.27), respectively. In conclusion, the direct use of MP or their by products for humans should not be practiced without proper regulation. In other way, one fern species (Marsilea) and some aquatic plants (Eichhornia crassipes and Cyperus difformis) might be suitable candidates for As phytoremediation of paddy fields. PMID:21713498
Tripathi, Preeti; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Mishra, Aradhana; Kumar, Amit; Dave, Richa; Srivastava, Sudhakar; Shukla, Mridul Kumar; Srivastava, Pankaj Kumar; Chakrabarty, Debasis; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Tripathi, Rudra Deo
Hydnocarpus alpina WIGHT. is a evergreen forest plant. It is an endemic plant to western ghats of India. Severallocal names are available based on distribution among the state in india that is Torathi (kanada), Maravetti(Malayalam), attuchankalai (tamil), kastel (hindi). This tree has very appreciated value in the aspect of medicine. Ithas anti-larvicidal, anti-feedant, anti-microbial and etc. It has the medicinal properties due to the presence of itssignificant chemical constituents. In this...
M Dhanasekaran, S. Karuppusamy
Medicinal plants are an important source for the therapeutic remedies of various diseases including urinary tract infections. This prompted us to perform research in this area. We decided to focus on medicinal plants species used in urinary tract infections prevention. The aim of our study was to determine the influence of Betulapendula, Equisetum arvense, Herniaria glabra, Galium odoratum, Urtica dioica, and Vaccinium vitis-idaea extracts on bacterial survival and virulence factors involved ...
Wojnicz, Dorota; Kucharska, Alicja Z.; Soko??-?e?towska, Anna; Kicia, Marta; Tichaczek-goska, Dorota
This case study focuses on participatory chain development of medicinal plants in the Himalayan region of Uttaranchal, India. KIT facilitated an interactive consultation process where stakeholders expressed, exchanged and discussed their views on how to develop a medicinal plant chain which is sustainable and equitable. Policy makers, practitioners, private industry, researchers, and farmers shared opinions and experiences, defining areas for collaboration and joint action. This bulletin incl...
BACKGROUND: Multidrug resistance is a worrying cause of treatment failure in bacterial infections. The search of bioactive constituents from medicinal plants against multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria has significantly evolved in the two last decades. In the present study, twenty-two compounds (three terpenoids, eleven phenolics and eight alkaloids) isolated from three Cameroonian medicinal plants, namely Garcinia nobilis, Oricia suaveolens and Balsamocitrus camerunensis, as well ...
Fouotsa, Hugues; Mbaveng, Armelle T.; Mbazoa, Celine D.; Nkengfack, Augustin E.; Farzana, Shaheen; Iqbal, Choudhary M.; Meyer, J. J. M.; Lall, Namrita; Kuete, Victor
Medicinal plants maintain the health and vitality of individuals, and also have potential curative effect on various diseases, including cancer. In this study were investigated the antiproliferative effects of water extracts of previously obtained ethanolic dry extracts of three different medicinal plants (Echinacea angustifolia, Salvia officinalis and Melissa officinalis) on cell lines derived from human cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa cells). The best cytotoxic activity (IC50 = 43.52 ?g/...
Ceni?-Miloševi? Desanka; Tambur Z.; Bokonji? D.; Ivan?aji? S.; Stanojkovi? Tatjana; Grozdani? Nadja; Jurani? Zorica
Abstract Background The boreal forest of Canada is home to several hundred thousands Aboriginal people who have been using medicinal plants in traditional health care systems for thousands of years. This knowledge, transmitted by oral tradition from generation to generation, has been eroding in recent decades due to rapid cultural change. Until now, published reviews about traditional uses of medicinal plants in boreal Canada have focused either on particular Aboriginal groups or on restricte...
Uprety Yadav; Asselin Hugo; Dhakal Archana; Julien Nancy
Swiss Albino mice inoculated with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells were treated with the extract of some medicinal plants include Citrullus colocynthis, Withania somnifera, Bambusa arundinacea, Mesua ferrea, Acorus calamus, Myrica nagi, Calotropis procera, Catharanthus roseus, Ficus racemosa and also with clinically highly effective drug bleomycin. Among the medicinal plants Bambusa arundinacea showed highest cell growth inhibition 81.9%. The tumor cell growth inhibition were found to b...
Masud Rana, A. Y. K. M.; Khanam, J. A.; Asad-ud-daula, M.
In this thesis phytochemical and biosynthetic studies of lignans are described. The focus is on the Indonesian medicinal plants Phyllanthus niruri and Piper cubeba and on two Linum species, Linum flavum and L. leonii, native to European countries. Both Indonesian plants are used in jamu. Jamu is the Indonesian traditional herbal medicine, practised for many centuries in the Indonesian community to maintain good health and to treat diseases. The manufacturing of jamu is shifting more and m...
Aloe vera is the oldest medicinal plant ever known and the most applied medicinal plant worldwide. Extracts of Aloe Vera is a proven skin healer. Aloe Vera help to soothe skin injuries affected by burning, skin irritations, cuts and insect bites, and its bactericidal properties relieve itching and skin swellings. It is known to help slow down the appearance of wrinkles and actively repair the damaged skin cells that cause the visible signs of aging. Aloe is a powerfuldetoxifier, antiseptic an...
Rajeswari, R.; Umadevi, M.; Sharmila Rahale, C.; Pushpa, R.; Selvavenkadesh, S.; Sampath Kumar, K. P.; Debjit Bhowmik
Lysimachia vulgaris L. (yellow loosestrife) is a medicinal plant that has been used in the treatment of fever, ulcer, diarrhea and wounds in traditional medicine. A reliable in vitro culture protocol for yellow loosestrife was established. Explants (leaf lamina, stem internode and root segments) were cultured on Murashige and Skoog minimal organics (MSMO) medium supplemented with various plant growth regulator combinations. Of the tested combinations, those involving benzyladenine (BA) with either indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) were the most effective for all used explants in shoot production. Best shoot proliferation was obtained from leaf lamina explant cultured on media containing 0.5 mg/l BA and 0.1, 0.5 or 1 mg/l IBA, from stem internode explant cultured on media containing 1 mg/l BA and 0.5 mg/l IBA or 0.01 mg/l thidiazuron (TDZ) and 0.5 mg/l IAA, and from root explant cultured on media containing 0.5 mg/l BA and 0.5 mg/l IAA. Regenerated shoots were rooted on MSMO medium containing different concentrations of IAA, IBA, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). IBA was determined as the most effective auxin for rooting. Most shoots developed roots on medium with 0.5 mg/l IBA. PMID:23739890
Turker, Arzu Ucar; Guner, Birgul
Full Text Available The traditional management, conservation and use of plant diversity with focus on medicinal plants found in and around home gardens in Loma and Gena Bosa Districts of Dawro Zone, Southern Ethiopia was studied. Data was collected between September 2006 and March 2007 to get relevant information and plant specimen of different seasons. The information was gathered through semi-structured interview conducted on 112 traditional healers whose ages ranged between 15 to 121 years. A total of 178 medicinal plants distributed in 64 families were documented in this study. The most frequently used plant part was leaf while the growth form with the highest number (43.82% of representatives among the plants encountered in this study were herbs. About 57.9% medicinal plants were collected from wild while 24.1% were cultivated and 18.5% were both cultivated and collected from wild. A total of 62 human and 27 veterinary diseases were documented in the study. However, only 58% of the traditional healers exercised their indigenous knowledge on treating both human and livestock diseases, while 41.96% practiced treatment of only human diseases. The medicinal plant resources and the associated knowledge of herbal medicine need to be used in a sustainable way and developed for more effective use in the future.
DNA barcoding involves the generation of DNA sequencing data from particular genetic regions in an organism and the use of these sequence data to identify or 'barcode' that organism and distinguish it from other species. Here, DNA barcoding is being used to identify several medicinal plants found in Pakistan and distinguished them from other similar species. Several challenges to the successful implementation of plant DNA barcoding are presented and discussed. Despite these challenges, DNA barcoding has the potential to uniquely identify medicinal plants and provide quality control and standardization of the plant material supplied to the pharmaceutical industry. (author)
Medicinal plants are used worldwide to treat a variety of ailments. Due to the provenance of medicinal plants, they are subjected to contamination by moulds, which may be responsible for spoilage and production of mycotoxins. The investigation was designed to throw light on mycological and mycotoxicological status of some medicinal plants from Pakistan and the result showed 30 % and 26.7 % samples were contaminated with aflatoxins and ochratoxin A, respectively. Mould contamination was present in 90 % samples, of which 70 % exceeded the permissible limits. Opium poppy, licorice root, and Indian rennet were most contaminated samples. The predominant moulds found were Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, and Penicillium spp. and 31 % of the 47 isolates tested were found to be toxigenic. The findings indicate that the contamination in the medicinal plants may contribute to adverse human health problems. This information would prove helpful for regulatory agencies to establish limits for these contaminants in medicinal plants and will explore ways for export of herbal products to countries where more stringent permissible limits of mycotoxins exist. The study is first of its kind in the country reporting natural occurrence of mycotoxins in medicinal plants in Pakistan. PMID:25209636
Ahmad, Bashir; Ashiq, Samina; Hussain, Arshad; Bashir, Shumaila; Hussain, Mubbashir
Background: The levels of 5 minerals namely; lead, arsenic, mercury, cadmium, and aluminum were assessed in 10 medicinal plants sampled from 5 different geographical locations to determine the effect of location on the plants’ mineral content. Materials and Methods: Atomic absorption spectrophotometry (wet digestion) was used for the analyzes, and content of the minerals per sample was expressed as ?g/g. The levels of minerals were compared to their limit specification for herbs and daily total intake of these minerals. A two-way analysis of variance, which tends to look at the effect of the location and the medicinal plant itself on the plants mineral content, was used in the statistical analysis. Results: Lead (Pb) was present in all plant species examined, except Ocimum gratissimum. One plant exceeded the maximum safety limit for lead. Cadmium was also detected in some of the medicinal plant species (44%) whilst majority were below the detection limit (0.002) representing 56%. 40% of the plant species exceeded the limit for cadmium. Mercury and arsenic in all the plant species were below the detection limit (0.001). Significant variation existed in mineral content for the various locations (P ? 0.05). Conclusion: The findings generally suggest the variation in mineral levels for the various locations. Thus, our study has shown that same species of medicinal plants, growing in different environments, accumulates different levels of heavy metals. PMID:23798884
Annan, Kofi; Dickson, Rita A.; Amponsah, Isaac K.; Nooni, Isaac K.
Diversity of Medicinal Plants among Different Forest-use Types of the Pakistani Himalaya Medicinal plants collected in Himalayan forests play a vital role in the livelihoods of regional rural societies and are also increasingly recognized at the international level. However, these forests are being heavily transformed by logging. Here we ask how forest transformation influences the diversity and composition of medicinal plants in northwestern Pakistan, where we studied old-growth forests, forests degraded by logging, and regrowth forests. First, an approximate map indicating these forest types was established and then 15 study plots per forest type were randomly selected. We found a total of 59 medicinal plant species consisting of herbs and ferns, most of which occurred in the old-growth forest. Species number was lowest in forest degraded by logging and intermediate in regrowth forest. The most valuable economic species, including six Himalayan endemics, occurred almost exclusively in old-growth forest. Species composition and abundance of forest degraded by logging differed markedly from that of old-growth forest, while regrowth forest was more similar to old-growth forest. The density of medicinal plants positively correlated with tree canopy cover in old-growth forest and negatively in degraded forest, which indicates that species adapted to open conditions dominate in logged forest. Thus, old-growth forests are important as refuge for vulnerable endemics. Forest degraded by logging has the lowest diversity of relatively common medicinal plants. Forest regrowth may foster the reappearance of certain medicinal species valuable to local livelihoods and as such promote acceptance of forest expansion and medicinal plants conservation in the region. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12231-012-9213-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:23293378
Adnan, Muhammad; Hölscher, Dirk
This article outlines the history of the commerce in medicinal plants and plant-based remedies from the Spanish American territories in the eighteenth century. It maps the routes used to transport the plants from Spanish America to Europe and, along the arteries of European commerce, colonialism and proselytism, into societies across the Americas, Asia and Africa. Inquiring into the causes of the global ‘spread’ of American remedies, it argues that medicinal plants like ipecacuanha, guaiacum, sarsaparilla, jalap root and cinchona moved with relative ease into Parisian medicine chests, Moroccan court pharmacies and Manila dispensaries alike, because of their ‘exotic’ charisma, the force of centuries-old medical habits, and the increasingly measurable effectiveness of many of these plants by the late eighteenth century. Ultimately and primarily, however, it was because the disease environments of these widely separated places, their medical systems and materia medica had long become entangled by the eighteenth century. PMID:25498437
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conducted to identify medicinal plants and spices used for medicine by the community of Beni-Sueif, Upper Egypt. Methods Ethnobotanical data from local people was collected using direct interviews and a semi-structured questionnaire. Results Forty-eight plant species belonging to twenty-seven families and forty-seven genera were encountered during the study. Their botanical and vernacular names, plant parts used and medicinal uses are given. Results of the study were analyzed using two quantitative tools. The factor informant consensus indicated the agreement in the use of plants and the fidelity level indicated the ratio between the number of informants who independently suggested the use of a species for the same major purpose and the total number of informants who mentioned the plant for any use. The results of the factor informant consensus showed that the cardiovascular category has the greatest agreement, followed by the immunological, gastrointestinal and respiratory categories. The most important species according to their fidelity are: Hibiscus sabdariffa L. for the cardiovascular category; Trigonella foenum-graecum L. for the immunological category; Mentha piperita L. for the gastrointestinal category and Pimpinella anisum L. for the respiratory category. Conclusions Medicinal plants are still used for treatment in Beni-Sueif community despite the availability of prescribed medications. Documentation of this ethnomedicinal knowledge is important. Evaluation of pharmacological activity for the promising medicinal plants is suggested.
Mohamed Abdelhalim A
Full Text Available The medicinal plants play an important role in rural health care system throughout the world in remedying and preventing various kinds of diseases. This study documented the use of plants as traditional herbal medicine in the Kangkar Pulai region Johor, Malaysia. It also identified the homogeneity of informant knowledge on medicinal plants suitable for different ailments and types of plants most favored for the treatment of each ailment in the study. The information was gathered through semi-structured interviews, discussions with key informants and informal conversations with local people and herbal practitioners. The data was calculated based on informant consensus factor (Fic and use value (UV. Information on 40 medicinal plants species from 29 taxonomic plant families used for traditional treatment of different diseases/ailments was documented. The informant consensus factor values (Fic showed that the local people tend to agree more with each other in terms of the plants used to treat sexual weakness (0.95, blood pressure (0.94, diabetes (0.93, delivery and female problems (0.90, hair problems and dandruff (0.87, respiratory disorder (0.86 and kidney problems (0.85. By contrast, digestive problems (0.76 and skin problems (0.71 and inflammation pain (0.70 were found to have low Fic values. Calculated values of the UV and Fic indicate that this community is knowledgeable on healing and treatment using traditional herbal medicines.
The concept of phytoandrogens, plants that contain androgens or those that stimulate androgenic activity in men, is relatively new. In traditional Chinese medicine a number of phytoandrogens are classified in medicinal plant restoratives for reinforcing yang, and they find their application in the treatment of the kidney yang deficiency diseases. In this review, the phytoandrogens used in traditional Chinese medicine are listed, and their proven applications in the treatment of kidney yang deficiency diseases, such as sexual disorders, cancer, and obesity and associated metabolic syndromes are presented. As a background, the mechanism of action of androgens, their synthesis and metabolism, the interrelations of androgens and estrogens, as well as the state of art methods to detect and analyze these hormonal activities in medicinal plants are discussed. PMID:24856755
Edouard, Munyangaju Jose; Miao, Lin; Fan, Guan-Wei; Ojong, Barnabas Bessem Orang; Zhen, Hu; Zhang, Ju; Gao, Xiu-Mei; Zhu, Yan
Plant cells produce a vast amount of secondary metabolites. Production of some compounds is restricted to a single species. Some compounds are nearly always found only in certain specific plant organs and during a specific developmental period of the plant. Some secondary metabolites of plants serve as defensive compounds against invading microorganisms. Nowadays, it is attempted to substitute the biological and natural agents with chemically synthesized fungicides. In the present research, the antifungal activities of essential oils of seven medicinal plants on mycelial growth of three soilborne plant pathogenic fungi were investigated. The plants consisted of Zataria multiflora, Thymus carmanicus, Mentha pieperata, Satureja hortensis, Lavandual officinolis, Cuminum cyminum and Azadirachta indica. The first five plants are from the family Labiatae. Examined fungi, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani are the causal agents of tomato root rot. Essential oils of Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus, M. pieperata, S. hortensis and C. cyminum were extracted by hydro-distillation method. Essential oils of L. officinalis and A. indica were extracted by vapor-distillation method. A completely randomized design with five replicates was used to examine the inhibitory impact of each concentration (300, 600 and 900 ppm) of each essential oil. Poisoned food assay using potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium was employed. Results showed that essential oils of A. indica, Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus and S. hortensis in 900 ppm at 12 days post-inoculation, when the control fungi completely covered the plates, prevented about 90% from mycelial growth of each of the fungi. While, the essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis in the same concentration and time prevented 54.86, 52.77 and 48.84%, respectively, from F. solani growth. These substances did not prevent from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and R. solani growth. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of essential oils of T. carmanicus, Z. multiflora and A. indica from R. solani and F. solani growth was 900 and 600 ppm, respectively. In addition, the MIC of essential oils of these plants and essential oil of S. hortensis from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici growth was 900 ppm. The MIC of essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis from F. solani growth was 900 ppm. PMID:22702190
Panjehkeh, N; Jahani Hossein-Abadi, Z
The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antiplasmodial activities of four plants used in traditional medicine. Hydroethanolic extract, hydroacetonic extract and aqueous extract of Mitragyna inermis (Willd.) O. Kuntze (Rubiaceae), Combretum sericeum G. Don (Combretaceae), Alternanthera pungens H.B. and K (Amaranthaceae) and Ampelocissus grantii (Baker) Planch (Vitaceae) have been tested in vitro against chloroquine-resistant strain (K1) and chloroquine-sensitve strain (3D7) of Plasm...
Cheikna Zongo; Lamoussa Paul Ouattara, Aly Savadogo
Full Text Available Aloe ferox is an ethnomedicinal and economic plant in India and worldwide. It is a common ingredient in Ayurvedic medicine. To date, many scientific studies have been carried out but a comprehensive review on this plant is lacking. This review aims to cover the cultivation practices and biological activities, the active compounds derived from Aloe ferox. Literature survey revealed that the pharmacological effects of Aloe ferox range from anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-diabetic, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegeneration to anti-cancer property. Over 130 biological active compounds consisting of fatty acid, sterols, sesquiterpene lactones, flavonoids and carbohydrates have been identified from different parts of the plant. Aloe ferox is similar to Aloe vera but it has 20 times more nutritional activities. Many of these active compounds were derived from the leaf gel and have been evaluated for a number of biological activities. Despite the encouraging results demonstrated by these studies and the traditional use as nutraceutical agent, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, immune modulator, anti-tumor, anti-bacterial, antifungal, antiviral and toxicity of Aloe ferox leaf extracts or its derivatives are absent. Thus, a systematic documenting review would provide more insights and spur further research that would lead to production of safer and economical alternative medicine from Aloe ferox. In this review we briefly introduced its phytochemical, biological activities, medicinal uses and cultivation practices which can be useful as a potential drug in pharmaceutical industry. The propagation of medicinal plant Aloe ferox is vital for sustainable uses in modern world.
Chandra Sekhar Singh Bhaludra
The European legislation on medicinal products also addresses the medicinal use of products originating from plants. The objective of the legislation is to ensure the future existence of such products and to consider particular characteristics when assessing quality, efficacy, and safety. Two categories are defined: i) herbal medicinal products can be granted a marketing authorisation; and ii) traditional herbal medicinal products can be granted a registration based on their longstanding use if they are complying with a set of provisions ensuring their safe use. The Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC) was established at the European Medicines Agency (EMA) to provide monographs and list entries on herbal substances and preparations thereof. Meanwhile, approx. 100 monographs have been published, which define a current scientific and regulatory standard for efficacy and safety of herbal substances and herbal preparations used in medicinal products. This harmonised European standard will facilitate the availability and adequate use of traditional herbal medicinal products and herbal medicinal products within the European Union. Consequent labelling shall also enable patients and health care professionals to differentiate medicinal products from other product categories like cosmetics, food supplements, and medical devices. PMID:22618374
Knöss, Werner; Chinou, Ioanna
Clove is a familiar spice widely used in medicinal preparations. The author has unravelled here some of the little known fact of the spice. the origin and spread of this valuable medicinal plants is also discussed here with historical background.
Singh, R. S.; Singh, A. N.
Medicinal plant knowledge of two groups of traditional healers was thoroughly studied during a 2-year ethnobotanical survey in the Bolivian Andes (Quechua farmers from Apillapampa) and Amazon rainforest (Yuracaré-Trinitario slash-and-burn cultivators from Isiboro-Sécure National Park), respectively. Both areas represent ecologically and culturally diverse zones, differing in floristic diversity, physical accessibility to health care and degree of modernization, the latter evidenced by presence or intensity in use of modern services such as electricity, water distribution, and materials for house construction. It is generally believed that indigenous people have an impressive knowledge of useful plant species and that this knowledge reflects the plant wealth of their living environment. However, the present study shows that healers' knowledge of collected medicinal plants (expressed as percentage of plants known by name and use by the majority of healers) is higher in the Andean area characterised by a long history of anthropogenic activity, than in the biodiversity-rich rainforest (protected since 1965). Therefore, medicinal plant knowledge does not seem to depend on the level of plant diversity, degree of modernization or absence of Western health care infrastructure. Indeed, although Andean healers live in a floristically poorer environment, have adopted more modern services and have easier access to primary health care facilities, they are more knowledgeable about medicinal plants than rainforest healers who live isolated in an environment with considerable floristic/ecological variation and lack of Western health care. It is hypothesised that social factors underlying traditional medical practices (background of extensive family in traditional medicine) play an important role in transmission--and hence survival of knowledge on medicinal plants. PMID:15177839
Vandebroek, Ina; Van Damme, Patrick; Van Puyvelde, Luc; Arrazola, Susana; De Kimpe, Norbert
Medicinal plants still provide primary health care to human race in different regions across the globe, especially in the developing world. The role of medicinal herbs as source of traditional medicine have decreased due to the introduction of allopathic drugs but still their importance as a prime source of rural health care can not be paralleled. Medicinal plants and their pertinent knowledge need to be conserved for the future generations. During present study, traditional knowledge of 16 t...
Muhammad Hamayun; Sumera Afzal Khan; Ho-Youn Kim; Chae In Na; In-Jung Lee
In silico approaches have been widely recognised to be useful for drug discovery. Here, we consider the significance of available databases of medicinal plants and chemo- and bioinformatics tools for in silico drug discovery beyond the traditional use of folk medicines. This review contains a practical example of the application of combined chemo- and bioinformatics methods to study pleiotropic therapeutic effects (known and novel) of 50 medicinal plants from Traditional Indian Medicine. PMID:25051191
Lagunin, Alexey A; Goel, Rajesh K; Gawande, Dinesh Y; Pahwa, Priynka; Gloriozova, Tatyana A; Dmitriev, Alexander V; Ivanov, Sergey M; Rudik, Anastassia V; Konova, Varvara I; Pogodin, Pavel V; Druzhilovsky, Dmitry S; Poroikov, Vladimir V
Metal nanoparticles have been using as an ingredients in the preparation of complementary medicines to cure different diseases is an age old medicinal practices. The plant based Ayurvedic preparations are preferred by 80% of the world population and WHO is encouraging the green medicine due to its less side effects. Hence an attempt has been made to screen this important medicinal plant for secondary metabolites biogenesis of silver nanoparticles (SNPs) and their antimicrobial efficacy. The s...
Ankanna Et Al, S.
Full Text Available The present paper contains a study on the influence of some magnetic fields of variable intensity on two species of medicinal plants: Mentha sp. and Calendula officinalis. We had in view the effect of the magnetic field on the growth dynamic and the percentage in which the plants regenerated from callus.
HORIA RADU CRIVEANU
Full Text Available Abstract Background An ethnobotanical study was carried out in four parishes in the Ngai and Otwal Sub Counties in Oyam district, Northern Uganda, where insurgency has been prevalent for the past 20 years. Documenting medicinal plant species used in treating various health conditions among the local people. Methods Information was obtained from mainly the local population, the traditional healers and other experienced persons through interviews, formal and informal discussions and field excursions. Results Seventy one plant species were reported for use in the treatment of various diseases in the study area. These plant species belongs to 41 families, with Asteraceae being the most represented. Roots were ranked the commonest plant part used. Oral administration was the most frequently used route of administration. A total of 41 different health conditions were reported to be treated by use of medicinal plant species. Thirty nine percent of the recorded plant species were reported for treating stomach related ailments. Conclusion The use of medicinal plants in primary healthcare is still a common practice in Ngai and Otwal Sub Counties. The trust they have is built on the curative outcome properties claimed, poverty and armed conflict that lead to inadequate healthcare facilities. The generation gap caused by the over 20 years of insurgency in the area has brought about knowledge gap on the usage of medicinal plant species between the young and the older generation.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Italy and Tunisia (Africa for the Romans, facing each other on the opposite sides of the Mediterranean Sea, have been historically linked since the ancient times. Over the centuries both countries were mutually dominated so the vestiges and traces of a mutual influence are still present. The aim of the present study is to conduct a comparative analysis of the medicinal species present in the respective Floras in order to explore potential analogies and differences in popular phytotherapy that have come out from those reciprocal exchanges having taken place over the centuries Methods The comparative analysis based on the respective floras of both countries takes into consideration the bulk of medicinal species mutually present in Italy and Tunisia, but it focuses on the species growing in areas which are similar in climate. The medicinal uses of these species are considered in accordance with the ethnobotanical literature. Results A list of 153 medicinal species belonging to 60 families, present in both floras and used in traditional medicine, was drawn. A considerable convergence in therapeutic uses of many species emerged from these data. Conclusion This comparative analysis strengthens the firm belief that ethno-botanical findings represent not only an important shared heritage, developed over the centuries, but also a considerable mass of data that should be exploited in order to provide new and useful knowledge.
Full Text Available The study was conducted to investigate the effects that plant extracts from 5 medicinal plants may have on mitosis in Allium cepa. Root of A .cepa were immersed in alcoholic extracts at the concentrations of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/mL, respectively for each of the following plants: Gnetum africanum Welw., Lasianther aafricana P. Beauv, Ocimum gratissimum Linn., Telfairia occidentalis Hook F. and Vernonia amygdalina Del. Leafy vegetable which are commonly used in herbal medicine. Results obtained show that the various concentrations of the extracts from test plants had toxic effects on the cells, which caused significant reduction (p<0.05 in the mitotic index when compared with the control. Other effects were prophase inhibition, the delay of mitosis and nuclear lesion. The cytotoxic effect makes a case for a precaution in the use of the leafy extracts in herbal medicine practice.
Trace elemental analysis was carried out in various parts of some anti-diabetic medicinal plants using PIXE technique. A 3 MeV proton beam was used to excite the samples. The elements Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb and Sr were identified and their concentrations were estimated. The results of the present study provide justification for the usage of these medicinal plants in the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM) since they are found to contain appreciable amounts of the elements K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Cu, and Zn, which are responsible for potentiating insulin action. Our results show that the analyzed medicinal plants can be considered as potential sources for providing a reasonable amount of the required elements other than diet to the patients of DM. Moreover, these results can be used to set new standards for prescribing the dosage of the herbal drugs prepared from these plant materials
Trace elemental analysis was carried out in various parts of some anti-diabetic medicinal plants using PIXE technique. A 3 MeV proton beam was used to excite the samples. The elements Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb and Sr were identified and their concentrations were estimated. The results of the present study provide justification for the usage of these medicinal plants in the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM) since they are found to contain appreciable amounts of the elements K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Cu, and Zn, which are responsible for potentiating insulin action. Our results show that the analyzed medicinal plants can be considered as potential sources for providing a reasonable amount of the required elements other than diet to the patients of DM. Moreover, these results can be used to set new standards for prescribing the dosage of the herbal drugs prepared from these plant materials.
Naga Raju, G.J. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Sarita, P. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Ramana Murty, G.A.V. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Ravi Kumar, M. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Seetharami Reddy, B. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); John Charles, M. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Lakshminarayana, S. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Seshi Reddy, T. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Reddy, S. Bhuloka [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India)]. E-mail: email@example.com; Vijayan, V. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar-751 005, Orissa (India)
Full Text Available This work reviews plant molluscicides and presents preliminary findings of a molluscicidal screening programme carried out on some South African candidate molluscicidal plants. The overall objective of studies on plant molluscicides is to complement methods for controlling snails acting as intermediate hosts of schistosomes. In the last two decades, plant molluscicides have received considerable attention in the search for cheaper, effective, environmentally-friendly alternatives to expensive, imported chemotherapeutic agents and synthetic molluscicides used in schistosomiasis control. Although molluscicidal screening programmes have been conducted in many African countries, only relatively little efforts have been made to identify South African plants which could be suitable for use locally as plant molluascicides. The attraction of a locally grown molluscicidal plant is based on the development of a philosophy of selfreliance and community participation. This approach is dependent on community recognition of the infection as a public health menace, and their acceptance of the proposed control measures. Schistosomiasis has been recognized as a primary health problem in KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa, especially among the people in the rural communities that depend on river-water for all their water requirements. Concerns for schistosomiasis in the Province have indeed been matched by a 75% prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium infection among children aged 6 to 16 years. Forty-one medicinal plants commonly used by traditional healers for the treatment of schistosomiasis in KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa were evaluated for molluscicidal activity according to WHO?s method, using niclosamide (BayluscideÒ as reference molluscicide for comparison. Adult Bulinus africanus and Biomphalaria pfeifferi were exposed to sublethal and lethal doses of crude, aqueous extracts of the Zulu antischistosomal plants for a period of 24 hours. Results obtained indicate that 14 (34% of the 41 plants examined possess moderate to strong molluscicidal properties. Sublethal, toxic effects of the active plant extracts on the snails included retraction of the foot-sole and mobility, swelling of the cephalopedal mass, and haemorrhagic blistering in the subepithelium of the foot-sole, while administration of lethal doses resulted in cessation of mobility, severe swelling of the cephalopedal mass, increased mucous secretion, and haemorrhage. It is speculated that part of the molluscicidal actions of the active plant extracts could involve distruption of the snails? foot-sole epithelium osmoregulatory physiology and enzyme-mediated pathways. However, osmolality and electrolyte studies, as well as enzymatic, histochemical and biochemical studies are required to substantiate these possible modes of molluscicidal action of the South African candidate plant molluscicides. Treatment of schistosomiasis is based on chemotherapy with praziquantel, which is the currently-available drug of choice for all forms of the disease. However, since resistance to praziquantel has been demonstrated in many schistosomiasis endemic areas of the world; of necessity is a holistic approach which should include not only reducing the disease burden in schistosomiasis-infected persons, but also measures interfering with the life-cycle of the parasite by eliminating the intermediate host snail vectors. Inexpensive, non-toxic, effective and readily-available alternative drugs from natural sources are certainly warranted
John A. O. Ojewole
Full Text Available (Abstract selected from presentation in National Conference on Biodiversity of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Collection, Characterization and Utilization, held at Anand, India during November 24-25, 2010 Sacred groves are one of the finest examples of traditional in situ conservation practices and act as treasure house of endemic, endangered and rare plants. Endemic species of any geographical region, throw light on the biogeography of the area, areas of extinction and evolution of the flora. Twelve famous sacred groves of north Malabar region of Kerala were selected for study. Studies were aimed at the documentation of floristic diversity with special reference to endemic as well as RET medicinal plants and to know threats to them. Present inventory accounted for a total of 99 endemic angiosperms, of which 28 qualified for RET categories. Their role in germplasm conservation is evident from the fact that not a single plant is common to the groves studied and restriction of 47 endemic plants to any one of the grove. There are 59 endemic plants, of which 18 belong to RET category are in high demand due to their medicinal properties. Medicinal plant diversity varies from a minimum of 65% to a maximum of 91% while that of endemic plants ranges from 11% in Andallur to 18% in Edayilakkad. Present study revealed the endemic plant diversity of these groves and also their role in the conserving germplasms of wild yam, figs, pepper, mango and a variety of endemic medicinal plants. Like other groves of Kerala, these are also facing the threat of extinction from increasing anthropogenic activities and there is an urgent need of complete protection and public awareness for the existence of these near-climax communities.
K. Subrahmanya Prasad
Full Text Available The present study was conducted between June 2010 and September 2010, to document medicinal plant species traditionally used by peoples in Libo-kemekem district, South Gondar, Ethiopia. Ethnobotanical data were collected using semi structured interviews, focused group discussion and field observations. A total of 52 medically important plants belonging to 45 families and 47 genera were identified in the district. Majorities (47.37% were collected from wild. Most of the plants (94.23% were reportedly used to treat human diseases. The most frequently used plant parts were leaves (40.38%, followed by fruits (23.08% and roots (17.31%. Local people depend on both dry and fresh remedies. The administration routes were oral (57.69%, dermal (25.00%, nasal (11.54 % and anal (5.77%. The preference ranking showed that Lantana camara was the most important species in treating diarrhea followed by Vernonia amygdalin indicating high utility value of the species in the community. The results revealed existence of diverse medicinal plants and indigenous knowledge in the study area. Therefore, documenting medicinal plants and associated indigenous knowledge can be used as a basis for developing management plans for conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants in the area.
Full Text Available Abstract The knowledge and use of medicinal plant species by traditional healers was investigated in Sekoru District, Jimma Zone, Southwestern Ethiopia from December 2005 to November 2006. Traditional healers of the study area were selected randomly and interviewed with the help of translators to gather information on the knowledge and use of medicinal plants used as a remedy for human ailments in the study area. In the current study, it was reported that 27 plant species belonging to 27 genera and 18 families were commonly used to treat various human ailments. Most of these species (85.71% were wild and harvested mainly for their leaves (64.52%. The most cited ethnomedicinal plant species was Alysicarpus quartinianus A. Rich., whose roots and leaves were reported by traditional healers to be crushed in fresh and applied as a lotion on the lesions of patients of Abiato (Shererit. No significant correlation was observed between the age of traditional healers and the number of species reported and the indigenous knowledge transfer was found to be similar. More than one medicinal plant species were used more frequently than the use of a single species for remedy preparations. Plant parts used for remedy preparations showed significant difference with medicinal plant species abundance in the study area.
The knowledge and use of medicinal plant species by traditional healers was investigated in Sekoru District, Jimma Zone, Southwestern Ethiopia from December 2005 to November 2006. Traditional healers of the study area were selected randomly and interviewed with the help of translators to gather information on the knowledge and use of medicinal plants used as a remedy for human ailments in the study area. In the current study, it was reported that 27 plant species belonging to 27 genera and 18 families were commonly used to treat various human ailments. Most of these species (85.71%) were wild and harvested mainly for their leaves (64.52%). The most cited ethnomedicinal plant species was Alysicarpus quartinianus A. Rich., whose roots and leaves were reported by traditional healers to be crushed in fresh and applied as a lotion on the lesions of patients of Abiato (Shererit). No significant correlation was observed between the age of traditional healers and the number of species reported and the indigenous knowledge transfer was found to be similar. More than one medicinal plant species were used more frequently than the use of a single species for remedy preparations. Plant parts used for remedy preparations showed significant difference with medicinal plant species abundance in the study area. PMID:17547765
Yineger, Haile; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw
Full Text Available Objectives: Screening of the medicinal plants and determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC against Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Materials and Methods: A simple in vitro screening assay was employed for the standard strain of Vibrio cholerae, 12 isolates of Vibrio cholerae non-O1, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Aqueous and organic solvent extracts of different parts of the plants were investigated by using the disk diffusion method. Extracts from 16 medicinal plants were selected on account of the reported traditional uses for the treatment of cholera and gastrointestinal diseases, and they were assayed for vibriocidal activities. Results: The different extracts differed significantly in their vibriocidal properties with respect to different solvents. The MIC values of the plant extracts against test bacteria were found to be in the range of 2.5-20 mg/ml. Conclusions: The results indicated that Lawsonia inermis, Saraca indica, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia belerica, Allium sativum, and Datura stramonium served as broad-spectrum vibriocidal agents.
Background The medicinal plants used by herbalists in Kenya have not been well documented, despite their widespread use. The threat of complete disappearance of the knowledge on herbal medicine from factors such as deforestation, lack of proper regulation, overexploitation and sociocultural issues warrants an urgent need to document the information. The purpose of the study was to document information on medicinal plants used by herbalists in Marakwet District towards the utilization of indigenous ethnobotanical knowledge for the advancement of biomedical research and development. Methods Semi- structured oral interviews were conducted with 112 practicing herbalists. The types of plants used were identified and the conditions treated recorded. Results Herbal practice is still common in the district, and 111 plants were identified to have medicinal or related uses. Different herbal preparations including fruits and healing vegetables are employed in the treatment of various medical conditions. Veterinary uses and pesticides were also recorded. Conclusion The study provides comprehensive ethnobotanical information about herbal medicine and healing methods among the Marakwet community. The identification of the active ingredients of the plants used by the herbalists may provide some useful leads for the development of new drugs. PMID:24555424
Full Text Available Research studies are carried out for cultivation potential of medicinal and aromatic plants [Thyme, Oregano, Rosemary, Sage (belonging to the family Lamiaceae] in Balochistan. The species studied showed good adaptability in cold and dry area and production potential in highland Balochistan. A medicinal herb garden was also established at Arid Zone Research Centre, Quetta with more than 60 potential medicinal and aromatic plants. This germplasm category includes culinary and herbal teas (Thymus vulgaris, Matricaria recutita, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha piperita, Rosmarinus officinalis, Cymbopogon citrates, Artemisia drancunculus, Origanum majorana, Origanum vulgare. Aromatic plants (Lavandula angustifolia, Lavandula stoechas, Rosmarinus officinalis and medicinal plants (Tanacetum parthenium, Hyssopus officinalis, Pimpinella anisum, Achillea celifolium, Achillea millefolium, Borago officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Oenothera biennis, Crocus sativus. Available germplasm of annually sown crops like (Foeniculum vulgare, Carum copticum, Linum usitatissimum, Anethunm sowa and Nigella sativa, Cuminum cyminum were also evaluated and characterized for morphological description and registration with the Federal Seed Registration and Certification Department. These crops have also been introduced among the farming communities in different agro-ecological zones of Balochistan. The results indicate that medicinal and aromatic plants have great potential for commercial scale cultivation in Balochistan subject to provision of better and sustainable marketing avenues.
Natural phenolics, which are ubiquitously distributed in plants, have been reported as functional factors in phytotherapy. We have examined phenolic compounds in the leaves and inflorescences of five significant medicinal plants of different plant families: Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae); Achillea clypeolata (Asteraceae); Nymphaea alba (Nymphaeaceae); Rumex acetosella (Polygonaceae) and Allium ursinum (Alliaceae). The examined species were rich in total phenolics (up to 30.88 mg/g dry w...
?ur?evi? L.; Gaji? Gordana; Jari? Snežana; Kosti? Olga; Mitrovi? Miroslava; Pavlovi? P.
Volatile sulphur compounds (VSC) are the gases mainly responsible for halitosis (bad breath). The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of medicinal plants on halitosis control. Two commonly used plants were tested: Curcuma zedoaria and Camellia sinensis (green tea). These plants were prepared as an aqueous solution and used as mouthwashes, compared with a standard mouthwash of 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate and a placebo (water). The experiment was conducted with 30 volunteers from...
Vitor Hugo Farina; Ana Paula de Lima; Ivan Balducci; Adriana Aigotti Haberbeck Brandão
The present study was conducted between June 2010 and September 2010, to document medicinal plant species traditionally used by peoples in Libo-kemekem district, South Gondar, Ethiopia. Ethnobotanical data were collected using semi structured interviews, focused group discussion and field observations. A total of 52 medically important plants belonging to 45 families and 47 genera were identified in the district. Majorities (47.37%) were collected from wild. Most of the plants (94.23%) were r...
Yalew Addisie; Debebe Yared; Ashok Kumar, P.; Zewdneh Tomas; Assefa Awol
This study investigated the effects of some plant extracts on the bacterial communication system, expressed as quorum sensing (QS) activity. Quorum sensing has a directly proportional effect on the amount of certain compounds, such as pigments, produced by the bacteria. Alcohol extracts of 23 ornamental and medicinal plants were tested for anti-QS activity by the Chromobacterium violaceum assay using the agar cup diffusion method. The screening revealed the anti-QS activity of six plants; nam...
Zaki, Ahmed A.; Shaaban, Mona I.; Hashish, Nadia E.; Amer, Mohamed A.; Lahloub, Mohamed-farid
The inhibitory effect of extracts from five Jordanian medicinal plants were studied against five plant pathogenic fungi: Crupina crupinastrum, Teucrium polium, Achillea santolina, Micromeria nervosa and Ballota philistaea. All plants showed antifungal activity against the fungi used in this study. The inhibitory effect on activity increased by increasing the concentration (from 100-1000 ppm). The highest growth inhibition of all fungi was found with Achillea santolina at 1000 ppm, which gave ...
Dababneh, Basem F.; Amjad Khalil
There is a long and venerable history of the use of plants to improve dental health and promeote oral hygiene. Plant contain phytochemicals such as alkanoids, tannins, essential oils and flavanoids which have pronounced defensive and curative activity. India is a vast country with people from different cultures and communities. There are many species of medicinal plants belonging to various families which are being used, traditionally, to control and cure a variety of dental problems by the I...
Amit Bhardwaj; Shalu Verma Bhardwaj
The present study was aimed to document detailed ethnopharmacological knowledge of medicinal plants against livestock infections of an unexplored remote region of Pakistan. Semistructured questionnaires were used for data collection. Total 43 plants belonging to 26 families were found to be used in ethnoveterinary practices. Seeds (29%) were found to be the most frequent plant part used followed by leaves (22%). Ethnoveterinary recipes were mostly prepared in the form of decoction and powderi...
Mussarat, Sakina; Amber, Rahila; Tariq, Akash; Adnan, Muhammad; Abdelsalam, Naser M.; Ullah, Riaz; Bibi, Roqaia
The tremendous medicinal plant resources of Northeast India are utilized by different agencies as raw materials and/or for direct application. No proper assessment of the resources and no investigation on the extent of exploitation has been performed so far, especially in the high altitudes of Arunachal Pradesh viz., West Kameng and Tawang. That state is the richest in biodiversity, with high value medicinal and aromatic plants, as well as rare and endangered species. The medicinal plant spec...
Kalita, Janmoni; Khan, Mohamed Latif
Full Text Available SciELO Bolivia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El anís estrellado (Illicium verum), es utilizado como remedio casero para tratar problemas gastrointestinales en niños y existe el riesgo de reacciones tóxicas severas y potencialmente fatales con la ingesta de este producto. Se presenta el caso de un lactante de 9 meses que requirió internación en [...] la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva, posterior a la ingesta de cerca de dos litros de infusión de anís estrellado. Presentó rechazo a alimentos, irritabilidad, dificultad respiratoria, respiración acidótica y crisis convulsiva tónico-clónica generalizada, hemorragia digestiva alta y oliguria. Se recomienda evitar el uso de infusiones de anís estrellado en lactantes, por el riesgo de complicaciones como las que presentó este paciente. Abstract in english Star anise (Illicium verum) is utilized as a home remedy for gastrointestinal disorders in children and there is a risk of toxicity and lethality with this product. A 9 month old infant required hospitalization in the pediatric intensive care unit after ingestion of two liters of star anise. He refu [...] sed to feed, was irritable, had respiratory difficulty and respiratory acidosis, tonic clonic convulsions, upper GI bleed and oliguria. It is recommended to avoid the use of star anise infusions in infants, due to the risk of complications such as the ones described in our patient.
Pablo, Mattos Navarro; Augusto, Cordero Lobatón; Andrés, Bartos Miklos.
AbstractMany plants were identified for use to cure inestimable ailments which struck his physical being. They designated these plants as ‘medicinal plants’. In view of the dearth of all above information’s, the current study was undertaken to investigate the phytochemical screening of medicinal plant extracts of Spathodea campanulata, Cassia auriculata, Ashwagandha. This study is to illuminate the antibacterial accomplishment of plant material against various pathogens. With the rising...
Akshay Kumar R; NuthanPrasadh .B.C; Dr.Lingayya Hiremath
Full Text Available Pesticide residues in environment are found in soil, water and plants due to the extensive use of pesticides for agricultural purposes. The residues of pesticides in medicinal plants are of high concern as they are toxic for human life since these plants are used for medicinal purposes. The objective of current study was to estimate the presence of pesticide residues in some organic cultivated and wild-collected medicinal plants in Albania during the years 2010–2013. The determination of pesticides residues in medicinal plants was achieved by using extraction of plant material with organic solvent, clean up procedure and followed by detection with chromatography techniques. Among the detected pesticide residuesin the wild–collected plants as Malva sylvestris, Fragaria vesca, Bellis perennis were DDT, Dimethoat, Pirimiphos-methyl, Chlorpyriphos-ethyl, Carbendazim/Benomyl, Acetamiprid and Diphenylamine. Whereas in the cultivated medicinal plants as Calendula officinalis, Centaurea cyani, Salvia officinalis, Sideritis raeseri, the most common detected pesticide residues were Dimethoat, Chlorpyriphos, Pirimiphos-methyl, DDT and Carbendazim. The presence of pesticides in medicinal plant is related to the past use of pesticides as DDT and actual use of pesticides like Dimethoat, Pirimiphos-methyl, Chlorpyriphos, Acetamiprid, etc. Therefore, the quality of medicinal plants can be evaluated through estimation of pesticides residues in medicinal plants and comparison of the obtained values with acceptable limit values.
After ingestion, products containing Chinese star anise (Illicium verum) contaminated or adulterated with Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum) or other Illicium species, can cause epilepsy, hallucinations, and nausea due to the rare neurotoxic sesquiterpene dilactone anisatin that is present in Japanese star anise. Thus a rapid, simple and unambiguous method for distinguishing between the morphologically similar Chinese star anise and toxic Japanese star anise is important for food safety issues. Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) ambient ionisation coupled with orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry allowed the recording of mass spectra of anisatin in solid star anise fruits in seconds without any prior sample pretreatment. Spectra could be obtained in both positive ([M+NH(4)](+) at m/z 346.1496, C(15)H(24)NO(8)) and negative mode ([M-H](-) at m/z 327.1074, C(15)H(19)O(8)) and gave the same outcome provided a mass resolution of at least 27,000 is available. The anisatin signal was typically >1000 times larger in Japanese star anise than in Chinese star anise thus allowing an unequivocal qualitative determination. Herbal teas containing star anise fragments too small to be visually recognised, could be analysed by preparing a tea in 6 min and subsequently sampling ?2 ?L of tea on a glass rod. None of the 8 investigated retail teas contained significant quantities of anisatin. Spiking a complex herbal tea containing Chinese star anise with an equally concentrated tea prepared from Japanese star anise provided a linear calibration curve (R(2) ? 0.995) after normalising on a native constituent of Chinese star anise (standard addition method). This showed that adulteration down to 1% (w/w) is still measurable. Compared with existing PCR, TLC, GC-MS and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS procedures, the proposed DART-HRMS procedure is faster and simpler and moreover measures the actual biotoxin. PMID:22484123
Shen, Yao; van Beek, Teris A; Claassen, Frank W; Zuilhof, Han; Chen, Bo; Nielen, Michel W F
Different parts of Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile, Calotropis procera (Aiton) W.T. Aiton, Adhatoda vasica Nees, Fagoniaar abica L. and Casuarina equisetifolia L. are traditionally used in folk medicine for the treatment of a variety of common ailments like nausea, cold, cough, asthma, fevers, diarrhea, sore throat, swelling, etc. The present study was aimed to evaluate the anti-Helicobacter pylori and urease inhibition activities of extracts produced from the above selected medicinal plants nati...
Tahir Mehmood; Nazamid Saari; Fauqia Naz; Farooq Anwar; Muhammad Amin
Abstract Background This study documents the use of medicinal plants from the Mustang district of the north-central part of Nepal. Traditional botanical medicine is the primary mode of healthcare for most of the population of this district and traditional Tibetan doctors (Amchi) serve as the local medical experts. Methods Field research was conducted in 27 communities of the Mustang district in Nepal from 2005-2007. We sampled 202 interviewees, using random and snowball sampling techniques. A...
Chaudhary Ram P; Bhattarai Shandesh; Quave Cassandra L; Sl, Taylor Robin
Abstract Background Haitian migrants played an important role shaping Cuban culture and traditional ethnobotanical knowledge. An ethnobotanical investigation was conducted to collect information on medicinal plant use by Haitian immigrants and their descendants in the Province of Camagüey, Cuba. Methods Information was obtained from semi-structured interviews with Haitian immigrants and their descendants, direct observations, and by reviewing reports of traditional Haitian medicine in the li...
Barreto Adelaida; Beyra Angela; Godínez Daimy; Volpato Gabriele
Chlorophytum glaucum Dalz. belongs to family Liliaceae and is being used in the indigenous systems of medicine as a galactogogue and aphrodisiac. It is being sold in the market under the common name “safed musali”. The white tuberous roots of this plant are the medicinally useful parts. The tuberous roots of other species of Chlorophytum, Asparagus, Bombax and Orchids are also sometimes called safed musali leading to confusion. In order to ensure correct botanical standardization, the det...
Patil V. N.; Abyari M.; Deokule S. S.
Essential oils were extracted from the five medicinal plants (Syzygium aromaticum Linn, Cinnamoum tamala. Nees, Piper betle. Linn, Ocimum sanctum, Clausena exacavata Burn) by steam distillation method and percolation method with petroleum ether. These plants do not contain cyanogenic glycosides according to phytochemical tests. Essential oils from these plants were also tested on antimicrobial activity by agar well diffusion method. It was observed that essential oils extracted from these five plants have various effects on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungus. Among them, essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum possess the highest antimicrobial activity aganist all test organisms. B. pumalis and Calbican are the most susceptible to the five plants.
Herbal medicines and traditionally used medicinal plants present an untapped potential for novel molecular target discovery using systems science and OMICS biotechnology driven strategies. Since up to 40% of the world's poor people have no access to government health services, traditional and folk medicines are often the only therapeutics available to them. In this vein, North East (NE) India is recognized for its rich bioresources. As part of the Indo-Burma hotspot, it is regarded as an epicenter of biodiversity for several plants having myriad traditional uses, including medicinal use. However, the improvement of these valuable bioresources through molecular breeding strategies, for example, using genic microsatellites or Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) or Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs)-derived SSRs has not been fully utilized in large scale to date. In this study, we identified a total of 47,700 microsatellites from 109,609 ESTs of 11 medicinal plants (pineapple, papaya, noyontara, bitter orange, bermuda brass, ratalu, barbados nut, mango, mulberry, lotus, and guduchi) having proven antidiabetic properties. A total of 58,159 primer pairs were designed for the non-redundant 8060 SSR-positive ESTs and putative functions were assigned to 4483 unique contigs. Among the identified microsatellites, excluding mononucleotide repeats, di-/trinucleotides are predominant, among which repeat motifs of AG/CT and AAG/CTT were most abundant. Similarity search of SSR containing ESTs and antidiabetic gene sequences revealed 11 microsatellites linked to antidiabetic genes in five plants. GO term enrichment analysis revealed a total of 80 enriched GO terms widely distributed in 53 biological processes, 17 molecular functions, and 10 cellular components associated with the 11 markers. The present study therefore provides concrete insights into the frequency and distribution of SSRs in important medicinal resources. The microsatellite markers reported here markedly add to the genetic stock for cross transferability in these plants and the literature on biomarkers and novel drug discovery for common chronic diseases such as diabetes. PMID:24802971
Sahu, Jagajjit; Sen, Priyabrata; Choudhury, Manabendra Dutta; Dehury, Budheswar; Barooah, Madhumita; Modi, Mahendra Kumar; Talukdar, Anupam Das
Full Text Available Plants growing in the Judea region are widely used in traditional medicine of the Levant region. Nevertheless, they have not so far been sufficiently analyzed and their medicinal potential has not been evaluated. This study is the first attempt to fill the gap in the knowledge of the plants growing in the region. Comprehensive data mining of online botanical databases and peer-reviewed scientific literature including ethno-pharmacological surveys from the Levant region was applied to compile a full list of plants growing in the Judea region, with the focus on their medicinal applications. Around 1300 plants growing in the Judea region were identified. Of them, 25% have medicinal applications which were analyzed in this study. Screening for chemical-protein interactions, together with the network-based analysis of potential targets, will facilitate discovery and therapeutic applications of the Judea region plants. Such an approach could also be applied as an integrative platform for further searching the potential therapeutic targets of plants growing in other regions of the world.
Phyllanthus niruri is a medicinal plant (commonly known as stone breaker) found in the tropics and other parts of the world. It is known for its capacity to block the formation of calcium oxalate crystals and kidney stone formation in urolithiasis. This plant has been used to treat hyperglycemia, hypertension, pain, and mild cases of malaria. We examined the geno-, cyto- and overall toxicity of P. niruri whole plant ethanolic extract. The extract was administered as a single dose of 30 or 300 mg/kg to laboratory rats by gavage, accompanied by negative (0.9% saline) and positive (10 mg/mL N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea) controls that were injected intramuscularly 48 h after extract administration. The ratio of polychromatic (PCE)/normochromatic erythrocytes (NCE) from femur bone marrow was scored for genotoxicity. Cytotoxicity was determined using descending concentrations (0.2-0.0125 g/mL) of the extract incubated with peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Lactate dehydrogenase release from damaged cells was determined and the CC(50) calculated. Subchronic administration of the extract at 30 or 300 mg/kg was done for 90 days to determine general toxicity. PCE:NCE (%) for the extract and negative control was 63, compared to 168 (positive control). The CC(50) was 26.3 mg/mL and hepato-renal toxicity after subchronic extract administration was nil. We conclude that ethanol extract of P. niruri is not cytotoxic or genotoxic, and is generally non-toxic on subchronic administration. PMID:22290470
Asare, G A; Bugyei, K; Sittie, A; Yahaya, E S; Gyan, B; Adjei, S; Addo, P; Wiredu, E K; Adjei, D N; Nyarko, A K
Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the use of natural products as medicines in the greater Dublin area, Ireland. A field study was carried out on eighteen natural health stores; store assistants were interviewed and asked questions from a previously prepared questionnaire. Results were evaluated and a picture could be drawn about the use of natural products in Dublin. Questions asked included best sellers, new products on the market, common prescribers, ailments for which product is requested. Results indicated that as much as 60% of customers requests specific products were advice from staff. Nutritionists accounted for approximately one third of the medical profession that prescribed products for sale in health stores. The survey also examined common medicinal products requested which were not available without prescription. St. John's Wort and Gingko biloba were the most requested. Undoubtly, there is a revival to searching for natural alternatives for the treatment of diseases with no medical advice.
Diabetes mellitus is a global metabolic epidemic affecting essential biochemical activities in almost every age group. Indian literatures like Ayurveda have already mentioned herbal remediation for a number of human ailments. Among Indian traditional medicinal plants several potential anti-diabetic plants and herbs are being used as part of our diet since prehistoric time. India has a long list of native medicinal plants with confirmed blood sugar lowering property. Some of these have proved remarkable for cure of diabetes and its complications. The current paper is aimed at providing a review on clinical and experimental studies carried out on the most effective and commonly used hypoglycemic plants and herbs species from traditional Indian flora. This write-up includes hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activities of plants, active hypoglycemic compounds and constituents along with their available toxicity status. PMID:20162049
Gupta, Rahul; Bajpai, Kumar Gaurav; Johri, Samta; Saxena, A M
Full Text Available This article attempts to review the literature and the emerging policy issues on Antidiabetic plants for pharmaceutical usage. Also provides a brief review of different plants using in the traditional system for the treatment of diabetes since ancient times. Plants such as Allium cepa, Anacardium occidentale, Andrographic paniculata, Momordica charantia, Azadirachtha indica, Brassica oleraccia, Cinnamomum tamala and Withania sominifera are commonly using as remedy for diabetes. There is an increasing demand for the herbal medicines for diabetic ailments and many plant drugs from Ayurvedic system are being explored. The biological activities from various clinical and preclinical studies have been included. Some of the acclaimed valuation works done in the last few years have been considered for this purpose. Conservation of biodiversity based on the benefits of medicinal plants and the traditional knowledge can be considered as good starting point for effective conservation of Antidiabetic plants, which requires accurate and up-to date information on the status of medicinal plant populations, detailed area-specific study, landscape valuation, extent and nature of plant use by local communities.
Shankar Murthy K.
The consumption of herbal medicines is increasing steadily throughout the world, although to our knowledge there are neither studies on their effectiveness nor controls over the quality and safety of these preparations. Considered "food integrators", these preparations are marketed without restriction. It is a common notion that natural therapy has neither side nor toxic effects: allergic reactions, direct toxic effects or those due to contamination, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and heavy metal toxicity have been reported as adverse events caused by herbs. Rather than replacing traditional therapy, most herbal medical treatment is used in conjunction with it. Also, the attending physician is generally not informed that the patient is using herbs. Because Passionflower, hydroalcoholic extracts, Juniper and Verbena officinalis supply variable quantities of vitamin K, they can lessen the effect of oral anticoagulant therapy. Ganoderma Japonicum, Papaw, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Ginseng, Devil's claw, Garlic, Quinine, Ginkgo, Ginger, Red Clover and Horse-Chestnut reinforce warfarin action by heterogeneous mechanisms. They should thus not be used in patients on oral anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet therapy. The scientific community must take into account the adverse events caused by interaction between herbal medicine and conventional therapy, and patients must be informed of the dangers of these preparations. If a bleeding event occurs or the quality of anticoagulant therapy is poor, the clinician should consider the possibility of interaction between conventional therapy and herbal medicine that the patient has neglected to mention he is taking. PMID:10920504
Argento, A; Tiraferri, E; Marzaloni, M
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antiplasmodial activities of four plants used in traditional medicine. Hydroethanolic extract, hydroacetonic extract and aqueous extract of Mitragyna inermis (Willd. O. Kuntze (Rubiaceae, Combretum sericeum G. Don (Combretaceae, Alternanthera pungens H.B. and K (Amaranthaceae and Ampelocissus grantii (Baker Planch (Vitaceae have been tested in vitro against chloroquine-resistant strain (K1 and chloroquine-sensitve strain (3D7 of Plasmodium falciparum using pLDH assay. Aqueous extracts exhibited the best results against K1 with the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 values of 0.54±0.18, 1.72±0.99, 1.54±0.04 ?g/mL for respectively, M. inermis leaves, C. sericeum leaves and whole plant of A. pungens. Hydroethanolic extract from the leaves of M. inermis gave also IC50 value of 0.87±0.10 ?g/mL with 3D7. Extracts showed antiplasmodial activity against both chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum strains. Our study justifies the use of these plants in traditional medicine and leads to further investigations.
A chromogenic bioassay was utilized to determine the antithrombin activity of methylene chloride and methanol extracts prepared from 50 plants of Azores. Extracts of the six plants Hedychium gardneranum, Tropaeolum majus, Gunnera tinctoria, Hedera helix, Festuca jubata and Laurus azorica demonstrated activity of 78% or higher in this bioassay system. PMID:10967467
de Medeiros, J M; Macedo, M; Contancia, J P; Nguyen, C; Cunningham, G; Miles, D H
The heavy metals (Zn, Pb and Zn) concentrations in soil and medicinal plant samples from Aba city, Nigeria using atomic absorption spectrophotometer UNICAM 919 model was evaluated in a randomized complete block design. The results showed that there was a clear accumulation of metals in soil and medicinal plants in relation to vehicular emission in the city. A highest concentration of Zn (133.567.70 mg/kg) in soil was obtained from X2, Pb (29.711.56 mg/kg) and Cd (21.111.28 mg/kg) was in X5. T...
Ogbonna, Princewill C.; Princewill-ogbonna, Ijeoma L.
Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Folk (Tribal) medicines are the major systems of indigenous medicines. Over three-quarters of the world population relies mainly on plants and plant extracts for health care. Unlike many diseases, which can be attributed to the life style of modern man, asthma is an ancient illness. Mast cells play an important role in some type of allergic reaction because the antibody that causes the allergic reaction that is Ig E have the mast cells which contains about a thousa...
Sheela Kumar; Agnihotri, V. K.; Sunita Thakur; Anita Verma; Saxena, R. C.; Soni, Kapil K.
Full Text Available Hydnocarpus alpina WIGHT. is a evergreen forest plant. It is an endemic plant to western ghats of India. Severallocal names are available based on distribution among the state in india that is Torathi (kanada, Maravetti(Malayalam, attuchankalai (tamil, kastel (hindi. This tree has very appreciated value in the aspect of medicine. Ithas anti-larvicidal, anti-feedant, anti-microbial and etc. It has the medicinal properties due to the presence of itssignificant chemical constituents. In this paper revealed that the IR spectrum and chemical constituents which arepresent in different solvents (chloroform, pet.ether, ethanol, water.
M. Dhanasekaran*, S. Karuppusamy, M. Annadurai, K.M.Rajasekaran
Full Text Available This paper presents a program emphasizing ethnopharmacological approaches that could allow great success in the study of medicinal plants. The minimum ethnopharmacological research team should consist of a botanist, a chemist and a pharmacologist with each carrying the responsibility for answering in sequential fashion critical questions. The chemical composition and pharmacological properties of the very efficient medicinal plant Croton cajucara were investigated according to ethnopharmacological approaches. The study with this Croton proved to be both efficient and successful. This happy situation was only possible because a multidisciplinary team was involved getting the research done correctly. The ethnopharmacological study involving one other especies Copaifera will be cited.
Maria Aparecida M. Maciel
Antifungal activity of crude solvent and aqueous extracts of the medicinal plant, Trianthema pentendra Linn., against the dermatophytic fungi, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Paecilomyces varioti, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton rubrum revealed that ethanol and aqueous extracts were the most effective antifungal agents as compared to methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts. Some basic elements, Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, S and Zn were also determined in the medicinal plant, T. pentendra, using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and U.V spectrophotometry. T. pentendra contained considerable amount of elements which have therapeutic effects in skin diseases. (author)
Given the upsurge of new technologies based on nanomaterials, the development of sustainable methods to obtain functional nanostructures has become an imperative task. In this matter, several recent researches have shown that the biodegradable natural antioxidants of several plant extracts can be used simultaneously as reducing and stabilizing agents in the wet chemical synthesis of metallic nanoparticles, opening new opportunities to design greener synthesis. However, the challenge of these new techniques is to produce stable colloidal nanoparticles with controlled particle uniformity, size, shape and aggregation state, in similar manner than the well-established synthetic methods. In the present work, colloidal metallic silver nanoparticles have been synthesized using silver nitrate and extracts of Illicium verum (star anise) seeds at room temperature in a facile one-step procedure. The resulting products were colloidal suspensions of two populations of silver nanoparticles, one of them with particle sizes of few nanometers and the other with particles of tens of nm. Strikingly, the variation of the AgNO3/extract weight ratio in the reaction medium yielded to the variation of the spatial distribution of the nanoparticles: high AgNO3/extract concentration ratios yielded to randomly dispersed particles, whereas for lower AgNO3/extract ratios, the biggest particles appeared coated with the finest nanoparticles. This biosynthesized colloidal system, with controlled particle aggregation states, presents plasmonic and SERS properties with potential applications in molecular sensors and nanophotonic devices. PMID:25659741
Luna, Carlos; Chávez, V H G; Barriga-Castro, Enrique Díaz; Núñez, Nuria O; Mendoza-Reséndez, Raquel
Full Text Available North Wakarumba is one of subdistrict lies in the north of Buton Island, close to North Buton Nature Reserve. More than one etnic live in this sub district such as Muna as the biggest ethnic. Muna people have unique behavior in the plant using and environment management including protecting forest and its surrounding area. Study on the plant usage as traditional medicinal plant has been done by interviewing local people. The result of the research was got 61 species of medicinal plants, where 6 species of them have never been published at the Index of Indonesian Medicinal Plants. Thirty-eight plants species could be found wildly and 16 of them occur in North Buton Nature Reserve areas. Bark of 10 species reported as after giving birth medicine. Grinding of Epipremnum pinnatum leaves could be used as wound medicine. Leaf of Terminalia catappa could be used as anti diarrhea.
FLORENTINA INDAH WINDADRI
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The gastrointestinal tract is one of the most important organs of the human body and is vulnerable to different diseases. Available drugs often have low efficacy or are associated with many adverse effects. Therefore, alternative drugs are necessary to treat gastrointestinal complications. This stud [...] y intended to identify medicinal plants in Urmia, Iran, that can affect common gastrointestinal disorders and diseases. Data was collected from public resources via interviews and questionnaires applied from April to June 2013. Herbarium specimens were collected from the region and authenticated by a botanist. A total of 41 indigenous medicinal plants from the Urmia region, belonging to twenty families, have a traditional medicinal role in the treatment of parasitic and infectious diseases, diarrhea, reflux, gastroenteritis, peptic ulcer, constipation, bloating, among other gastrointestinal tract disorders. Analysis showed that most plants affecting the gastrointestinal tract belonged in the Asteraceae family (24%). The most used part of the plants was the seed at 17%. Decoction at 65% was the most popular form of treatment used. Some of the medicinal plants discussed in this article have new implications presented for the first time. Pharmacological studies on the therapeutic effects of the indigenous plants mentioned in this study are necessary in order to investigate their claimed clinical effects and the use of their effective compounds to produce natural and useful drugs. Currently, there is no data on the herbal plants used to treat gastrointestinal disorders in northwestern Iran. Therefore, these findings are important for the management of gastrointestinal disorders and to conduct future studies on traditional medicine for drug development.
Mahmoud, Bahmani; Arman, Zargaran; Mahmoud, Rafieian-Kopaei.
Full Text Available Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Folk (Tribal medicines are the major systems of indigenous medicines. Over three-quarters of the world population relies mainly on plants and plant extracts for health care. Unlike many diseases, which can be attributed to the life style of modern man, asthma is an ancient illness. Mast cells play an important role in some type of allergic reaction because the antibody that causes the allergic reaction that is Ig E have the mast cells which contains about a thousand tiny granules. These granules are loaded with dozens of potent chemicals or mediators, the most powerful in which are histamine and a newly discovered group called leukotrienes. From the present laboratory, there are number of medicinal plants have been reported for antihistaminic/anti-asthmatic activities. Some of them are Achyranthes aspera, Tephrosia purpurea,Dolichos lablab, Eclipta alba, Jasminum sambac, Balanites aegyptiaca, Viscum album, Tridex procumbens, Glycyrrhiza glabra and Cassia fistula. Recently, Soni (2009-2011 has reported 100% inhibition ofLeukotrienes (which cause asthma from the EtoAC fraction of Bacopa monnieri extract. It is suggested that formulation and patent of the reported medicinal plants is mandatory for further use against asthma and if possible, clinical trials should be done of these plants for their appropriate use.
Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to identify plant species among the diverse flora of the caatinga ecosystem that are used therapeutically. Research was undertaken in the municipalities of Piranhas and Delmiro Gouveia, in the Xingó region (state of Alagoas, NE Brazil. In order to identify the medicinal plants used in this region, semi-structured questionnaires were applied. The species cited were collected and sent to the Xingó Herbarium for taxonomic analysis. The relative importance (RI of each species cited was calculated to verify their cultural importance. The therapeutic indications attributed to the species were classified under 16 body systems. A total of 187 medicinal species were cited, from 64 families and 128 genera. The main indications for medicinal plant use were against common colds, bronchitis, cardiovascular problems, kidney problems, inflammations in general, and as tranquilizers. Approximately 16% (30 plant species were versatile in relation to their use, with an Relative Importance value over 1, having been indicated for up to nine body systems. The body systems that stood out the most were: the respiratory system, the gastrointestinal system, and infectious diseases. Most cited plant parts used for medicinal purposes were flowers, leaves, and inner stem bark.
de Albuquerque Ulysses
Full Text Available Objective: to identify the medicinal plants used as with sedative effects by families of ecological farmers from Southern Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Methods: this is a qualitative study, exploratory and descriptive approach, and the data were collected from January to May 2009. Eight families of farmers were participants which were residents in Pelotas, Morro Redondo, Canguçu and Arroio do Padre cities. This study was approved by the Committee of Ethics in Research of the Medicine Faculty of the Federal University of Pelotas (072/2007. Results: it was found citations of 196 medicinal plants, some native and other exotic, and seven elixirs. From these, twelve plants (Lactuca sativa L., Aloysia gratissima (Gillies & Hook. Tronc., Chamomilla recutita L., Cymbopogon citratus (DC., Aloysia triphylla Royle, Aristolochia cymbifera Mart. & Zucc., Ageratum conyzoides L., Eucalyptus sp., Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, Passiflora caerulea L., Melissa officinalis L., Cunila microcephala Benth., and one elixir were mentioned as having soothing effect. Conclusion: the nurse can work in guidelines the use of medicinal plants aimed at health promotion, prevention and treatment of diseases. It is essential the enlargement of the pharmacological studies on plants used by popular knowledge in health care.
Teila Ceolin, Rita Maria Heck, Rosa Lía Barbieri, Andrieli Daiane Zdanski de Souza, Walter Fagundes Rodrigues, Marisa Vanini
Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants was recorded during summer 2004, in 22 villages of Chagharzai valley, District Buner. The study revealed 141 plant species belonging to 120 genera and 26 families are being used as medicine. The local people know the prospect and nature of the plant utilization, through personal experiences and ancestral prescriptions. The study also revealed that old aged people particularly women posses strong folk love of medicinal plants in comparison to young people. It was concluded that some plants are used singly while many other are used in combination. Similarly few plant species are used for the treatment of a specific disease, while several other have multiple uses. The plants were mainly used as stomachic, anti-allergic, antineuralgia, vermifuge, narcotic, laxative, anti jaundice, emollient, hypnotic, diuretic, digestive, demulcent, carminative, astringent, aphrodisiac, anti-spasmodic, anti-emetic, anti-diabetic, anthelmentic, anodyne and alterative. The present investigation will help in the preservation of indigenous knowledge of the local people, which is depleting day by day. (author)
A total number of 48 plants used in the Zairean pharmacopoeia were tested against molluscan intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis and fascioliasis. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts from five plants: Maesa lanceolata, Chenopodium ugandae, Asparagus racemosus, Phyllanthus nummulariifolius and Crinum zeylanicum, exhibited high mortality rate (100%) against Biomphalaria pfeifferi and Lymnaea natalensis. Their LC50 was respectively 0.1, 5, 5, 10 and 50 mg ml-1 for B. pfeifferi and 0.5, 5, 1, 10 and 10 mg ml-1 for L. natalensis. The activities are attributed to the presence of terpenoids, steroids and saponins in the plant extracts. Except for the extracts from Ch. ugandae however, the plants have shown toxic effect on fishes and aquatic insects. PMID:8140033
Chifundera, K; Baluku, B; Mashimango, B
An ethnobotanical study was conducted in Comores (Ngazidja) about plant species used traditionally for the treatment of various diseases, including malaria. Antimalarial activity of 76 vegetal extracts obtained from 17 species traditionally used to treat malaria symptoms, was evaluated in vitro using Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistant strain (W2). Antiproliferative activity was evaluated on human monocytic THP1 cells and the selectivity index of the plant extracts was calculated. The results showed that 10 plant extracts had a moderate activity (5Leptadenia madagascariensis Decne (Asclepiadaceae) chloromethylenic extracts (IC(50)=6 microg/ml; 7 microg/ml and 9 microg/ml, respectively). All the plants tested displayed a low cytotoxicity on THP1 cells. PMID:18093769
Kaou, Ali Mohamed; Mahiou-Leddet, Valérie; Hutter, Sébastien; Aïnouddine, Sidi; Hassani, Said; Yahaya, Ibrahim; Azas, Nadine; Ollivier, Evelyne
There are many vanishing cultures that possess a wealth of knowledge on the medicinal utility of plants. The Malasars of Dravidian Tamils are an indigenous society occupying the forests of the Western Ghats, South India. They are known to be exceptional healers and keepers of traditional aboriginal knowledge (TAK) of the flora in the Velliangiri holy hills. In fact, their expertise is well known throughout India as evidenced by the thousands of pilgrims that go to the Velliangiri holy hills for healing every year. Our research is the first detailed study of medicinal plants in India that considers variation in TAK among informants using a quantitative consensus analysis. A total of 95 species belonging to 50 families were identified for medicinal and general health purposes. For each species the botanical name, family, local name, parts used, summary of mode of preparation, administration and curing are provided. The consensus analysis revealed a high level of agreement among the informants usage of a particular plant at a local scale. The average consensus index value of an informant was FIC > 0.71, and over 0.80 for some ailments such as respiratory and jaundice. Some of the more common problems faced by the Malasars were gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory illness, dermatological problems and simple illness such as fever, cough, cold, wounds and bites from poisonous animals. We also discovered several new ethnotaxa that have considerable medicinal utility. This study supports claims that the Malasars possess a rich TAK of medicinal plants and that many aboriginals and mainstream people (pilgrims) utilize medicinal plants of the Velliangiri holy hills. Unfortunately, the younger generation of Malasars are not embracing TAK as they tend to migrate towards lucrative jobs in more developed urban areas. Our research sheds some light on a traditional culture that believes that a healthy lifestyle is founded on a healthy environment and we suggest that TAK such as that of the Malasars may serve toward a global lifestyle of health and environmental sustainability. PMID:18371206
Ragupathy, Subramanyam; Steven, Newmaster G; Maruthakkutti, Murugesan; Velusamy, Balasubramaniam; Ul-Huda, Muneer M
Full Text Available In this study, nutrient concentrations (N, P and K in above and below ground parts of Helleborus orientalis Lam. which has several medicinal properties were examined during vegetative and generative growth periods. There were significant differences between two growth periods in different parts of H. orientalis in terms of N and K concentrations. We have only found statistically significant differences between the studied localities, in terms of K concentrations. There were no significant differences with respect to soil factors except K and organic matter concentrations of the studied localities. Our findings are supported the vernal dam hypothesis.
By using disc diffusion assay, the antimicrobial activity of 32 essential oil samples extracted from local plants or plants cultivated in Thailand was evaluated against zoonotic enteropathogens including Salmonella spp., Escherichai coli O157, Campylobacter jejunii and Clostridium perferingens which are important for broiler export. Out of the essential oil tested, only the essential oil of Zingiber cassumuna, Cinnamomum bejolghota, Mentha arvensis var. piperacens, Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum basilicum var. citratum showed promising antibacterial activity against the bacteria tested. PMID:15752638
Wannissorn, Bhusita; Jarikasem, Siripen; Siriwangchai, Thammathad; Thubthimthed, Sirinun
This study was to compare the total phenolic (TP) content in extracts from eleven plant materials collected at different geographical locations in Kenya, Nigeria, and USA. These plants have been selected because the majority of them are highly pigmented, from yellow to purple, and would therefore have economic value in industries for producing antioxidants and surfactants. Two of them were collected from the industrial and domestic waste outlets. Each analysis was achieved using the Folin-Cio...
Johnson, C. E.; Oladeinde, F. O.; Kinyua, A. M.; Michelin, R.; Makinde, J. M.; Jaiyesimi, A. A.; Mbiti, W. N.; Kamau, G. N.; Kofi-tsekpo, W. M.; Pramanik, S.; Williams, A.; Kennedy, A.; Bronner, Y.; Clarke, K.; Fofonoff, P.