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1

EFFECT OF USING SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS (ANISE, CHAMOMILE AND GINGER) ON PRODUCTIVE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE OF JAPANESE QUAIL  

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This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding medicinal plants to Japanese quail diet on their performance and some metabolic functions. Four hundred, one day old, unsexed Japanese quails were used in this study. Quails were divided equally into four groups of 100 birds each according to medicinal plant additives. Group one was control (without additives, and the other groups contained 0.3% from anise (group 2), chamomile (group 3) and ginger (group 4). The end of the experiment was terminated when birds were 6 weeks old. Body weight, feed intake, some organs weight and some blood parameters were measured.The results indicated that addition of medicinal plants (anise, chamomile and ginger) improved growth rate, carcass and the relative weights of spleen, ovary and testis. Also, significant increases were observed in RBC, WBC, Hb, PCV, total protein and globulin. There was reduction in cholesterol in treated groups as compared to the control.The present results confirmed the beneficial effects of dietary medicinal plants (anise, chamomile and ginger) to improve the health condition as well as the productive and physiological characteristics of quails

2008-01-01

2

Identification of Puccinia pimpinellae on Anise Plant in Egypt and Its Control  

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An emerging problem for the wider adoption of anise plantation in Egypt is the damage caused by the rust fungus. The detailed description and taxonomic studies (using light and scanning electron microscopy) show that such an obligate parasite fungus (Puccinia pimpinellae) is autoecious microcyclic (uredinial-telial stage only). Among tested Apiaceae plants, the host range test proved the specificity of the rust fungus to anise. To the researcher’s knowledge, this is the first investi...

Saber, Wesam I. A.; Ghoneem, Khalid M.; El-metwally, Mohammed M.; Elwakil, Mohamed A.

2009-01-01

3

Identification of Puccinia pimpinellae on Anise Plant in Egypt and Its Control  

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Full Text Available An emerging problem for the wider adoption of anise plantation in Egypt is the damage caused by the rust fungus. The detailed description and taxonomic studies (using light and scanning electron microscopy show that such an obligate parasite fungus (Puccinia pimpinellae is autoecious microcyclic (uredinial-telial stage only. Among tested Apiaceae plants, the host range test proved the specificity of the rust fungus to anise. To the researcher’s knowledge, this is the first investigated record of a rust fungus on Pimpinella anisum plants in Egypt. The effectiveness of some plant resistance elicitors and two active chitinase producers; Bacillus subtilis Bio4 and isolated Trichoderma harizianum CH4 (both of them recorded the highest clear zone/colony size ratio on chitin agar plates in controlling anise rust disease and on growth and yield of anise were evaluated in two successive growing seasons. Spraying chitosan at 1000 ppm was the most potent in reducing Disease Severity (DS and Incidence (DI as well as improving plant height, chlorophyll content, inflorescence No. plant-1 (74.2 and 76, 1000-fruit weight (2.94 and 2.83 g and anise yield (646.8 and 670.0 kg fed-1, during both seasons. B. subtilis Bio4 and T. harizianum CH4 showed moderate effect on the tested parameters.

Wesam I.A. Saber

2009-01-01

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Effects of fertilizer and plant density on yield and quality of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.  

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Full Text Available In order to understand the effect of organic fertilizer on yield of anise, an experiment was conducted in the form of split-plot in randomized complete block design with three replications in Mashhad, Khorasan Agriculture and Natural Resource Research Center. Four treatments of fertilization: the control, vermicompost - 5 t/ha, cow manure - 25 t/ha, and mineral fertilizer (NPK - 60 kg/ha (the same rate of each nutrient were applied as the main factor. The second factor was plant density, applied at three levels: 17, 25, and 50 plants/m2. The results showed a significant effect of fertilizer on the number of umbels per plant, number of umbellets per umbel and canopy cover. Plant density had a significant effect on grain yield, biological yield, the number of lateral branches, essential oil percentage and yield of essential oil. Seed and essential oil yield were the highest in the case of the application of vermicompost and plant densities of 50 and 25 plants/m2 respectively.

Faravani Mahdi

2013-01-01

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Hyperspectral imaging in the quality control of herbal medicines - the case of neurotoxic Japanese star anise.  

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Illicium verum (Chinese star anise) dried fruit is popularly used as a remedy to treat infant colic. However, instances of life-threatening adverse events in infants have been recorded after use, in some cases due to substitution and/or adulteration of I. verum with Illicium anisatum (Japanese star anise), which is toxic. It is evident that rapid and efficient quality control methods are of utmost importance to prevent re-occurrence of such dire consequences. The potential of short wave infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral imaging and image analysis as a rapid quality control method to distinguish between I. anisatum and I. verum whole dried fruit was investigated. Images were acquired using a sisuChema SWIR hyperspectral pushbroom imaging system with a spectral range of 920-2514 nm. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the images to reduce the high dimensionality of the data, remove unwanted background and to visualise the data. A classification model with 4 principal components and an R²X_cum of 0.84 and R²Y_cum of 0.81 was developed for the 2 species using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The model was subsequently used to accurately predict the identity of I. anisatum (98.42%) and I. verum (97.85%) introduced into the model as an external dataset. The results show that SWIR hyperspectral imaging is an objective and non-destructive quality control method that can be successfully used to identify whole dried fruit of I. anisatum and I. verum. In addition, this method has the potential to detect I. anisatum whole dried fruits within large batches of I. verum through upscaling to a conveyor belt system. PMID:23277152

Vermaak, Ilze; Viljoen, Alvaro; Lindström, Susanne Wiklund

2013-03-01

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The influence of fertilization on yield of caraway, anise and coriander in organic agriculture  

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Many plants of Apiaceae family have long been well known because of flavorful aromatic spice and, because of its healing properties, are often used in folk medicine and in cooking. In our study three plants of this family were included: caraway (Carum carvi L.), anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) and coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.). Regarding good agro-ecological conditions for growing these plants in Serbia, and a new world trend of increasing organic agricultural production, the aim of th...

A?imovi? Milica G.

2013-01-01

7

Plants and Medicinal Chemistry  

Science.gov (United States)

This is the first of two articles showing how plants that have been used in folk medicine for many centuries are guiding scientists in the design and preparation of new and potent drugs. Opium and its chemical derivatives are examined at length in this article. (Author/MA)

Bailey, D.

1977-01-01

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A case of infantile star anise toxicity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chinese star anise (Illicium verum) is a popular herbal remedy for infantile colic. Contamination with a related species of Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum) has been related to cases of toxicity in infants. We report the case of a 3-month-old infant girl who presented to the emergency department with signs and symptoms of toxicity after recent star anise ingestion. Her presentation is consistent with other reports of toxicity that include particular gastrointestinal and neurological findings. A discussion of the clinical aspects of star anise toxicity, differential diagnosis, and management follows. PMID:22391927

Madden, Gregory Russell; Schmitz, Kristine Held; Fullerton, Katherine

2012-03-01

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MEDICINAL PLANTS OF RAJASTHAN IN INDIAN SYSTEM OF MEDICINE  

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Medicinal plants used in Indian system of medicine from Rajasthan state have been surveyed and catagorised systematically. The paper deals with 205 medicinal plants, thoroughly indexed along with their important traditional application for the cure of various ailments.

Tripathi, Y. C.; Prabhu, V. V.; Pal, R. S.; Mishra, R. N.

1996-01-01

10

MEDICINAL PLANTS AGAINST LIVER DISEASES  

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Full Text Available India is the largest producer of medicinal plants and is rightly called the “Botanical Garden of the World”. The medicinal plants have very important place in the health and vitality of human beings as well as animals. As per the WHO estimates, about three quarters of the world’s population currently use herbs and other traditional medicines to cure various diseases, including liver disorders. Hence, several phytomedicines (medicinal plants or herbal drugs are now used for the prevention and treatment of various liver disorders. Although experimental studies have been conducted on a number of these plants and their formulations, however, only some plants have clearly shown the hepatogenic / hepatoprotective effects against liver diseases or hepatotoxicity caused by variety of hepatotoxic agents such as chemicals, drugs, pollutants, and infections from parasites, bacteria or viruses (e.g., hepatitis A, B and C, etc. Indeed, to obtain satisfactory herbal drugs for treating severe liver diseases, the medicinal plants must be evaluated systematically for properties like antiviral activity (Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, etc., antihepatotoxicity activity (antioxidants and others, stimulation of liver regeneration and choleretic activity. A combination of different herbal extracts / fractions is likely to provide desired activities to cure severe liver diseases. The medicinal plants contain several phytochemicals which possess strong antioxidant property, leading to antihepatotoxic activity.

Pandey Govind

2011-05-01

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Plants and Medicinal Chemistry--2  

Science.gov (United States)

Second of a two part article on the influence of plants on medicinal chemistry. This part considers how drugs work, the attempts to develop anaesthetics safer than cocaine, and useful poisons. (Author/SL)

Bailey, D.

1977-01-01

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Drug discovery from medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Current research in drug discovery from medicinal plants involves a multifaceted approach combining botanical, phytochemical, biological, and molecular techniques. Medicinal plant drug discovery continues to provide new and important leads against various pharmacological targets including cancer, HIV/AIDS, Alzheimer's, malaria, and pain. Several natural product drugs of plant origin have either recently been introduced to the United States market, including arteether, galantamine, nitisinone, and tiotropium, or are currently involved in late-phase clinical trials. As part of our National Cooperative Drug Discovery Group (NCDDG) research project, numerous compounds from tropical rainforest plant species with potential anticancer activity have been identified. Our group has also isolated several compounds, mainly from edible plant species or plants used as dietary supplements, that may act as chemopreventive agents. Although drug discovery from medicinal plants continues to provide an important source of new drug leads, numerous challenges are encountered including the procurement of plant materials, the selection and implementation of appropriate high-throughput screening bioassays, and the scale-up of active compounds. PMID:16198377

Balunas, Marcy J; Kinghorn, A Douglas

2005-12-22

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STANDARDIZATION OF MEDICINAL PLANT MATERIALS  

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Full Text Available With the changing pattern of life style most of the diseases are now becoming lifestyle diseases. The world is witnessing an unprecedented growth in the usage of herbal product at national as well as international levels. These have necessitated development of modern and objective standards for evaluating the safety, quality and efficacy of these medicines. The current standards, parameters and protocols available to test the quality of herbal medicines were originally developed for allopathic drugs and can at best authenticate the identity plant materials (may be purity to some extent not their safety and efficacy. Herbal medicines are natural products and their phytoconstituents depending on time and region, processing and storage. Variations in the collection, processing or storage of an herb could impact its efficacy profile. Since prior knowledge regarding appropriate collection and usage of most medicinal plants exists in tradition, it can be used as a guide to quality standardization. The parameters of testing the quality of materials (dravya in traditional medicines, such as rasa (taste, guna (properties, (potency, vipaka (post digestion effects and karma (action are very different from the western methods. These traditional parameters reflect not only the quality but also efficacy. Having said which, there are no direct written protocols available in traditional medicines either for collection or for testing the action. The methods of testing are lost today need revivification.

Kataria Sahil

2011-04-01

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Radioactive properties of medicinal plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: A complicated cycle of various compounds' synthesis is provided by plants in the process of their development. The synthesized compounds are necessary to maintain the life of all living organisms both in water and on the land. Together with the organic compounds all known natural radionuclides are accumulated by the plants. Many plants possess the ability to accumulate some elements, whose concentration in the plants may be much higher than that in the soils and water sources. It is well known that the plants are basic or initial raw materials for producing numerous food products, as well as medicinal preparations. The radionuclides, accumulated in the plants, may pass to the human organism through the products and drugs, and may become a source of internal radiation. Accumulation of the radionuclides in various human organs above the maximal acceptable concentration (MAC) may lead to various pathologic changes. That is why it is a necessary and urgent problem to carry out investigations of the radioactive properties of the plants (i.e. to determine their radioecological cleanliness) before using the medicinal plant for pharmacological purposes. In the present work we investigated the radioactive processes of kinds of medicinal plants by the method of semi-conductor gamma-spectrometry. Measurements of the gamma-spectra of the plants' leach were carried out with the help of a gamma-spectrometer with a Ge(Li) detector accompanied by a 4096-channel analyzer. Responsive volume of the detector was 40 cm3, energy resolution with respect to 1333 keV 60Co line was 3 keV. In the measured spectra we observed clearly photo-peaks belonging to uranium-238 family: 186 keV 226Ra; 295, 351 keV 214Pb; 609, 1120, 1764 keV 214Bi; and those belonging to thorium - 232 family: 339, 911, 968 keV 228Ac; 583, 2614 keV 208Te; as well as the photo-peak of the natural radionuclide 40K with the energy 1460 keV. From the proper gamma-lines, observed in the spectra, we calculated the concentration of the radionuclides. While choosing the analytical lines we took into account the degree of disturbance of the radioactive equilibrium between the maternal and filial radionuclides. The determined magnitudes for the natural radionuclides in the leaches of the investigated plants are presented. It is shown that the radioactivity of investigated plants is conditioned by decay of the natural radionuclides 238U, 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K. Maximal accumulation is observed for 40K and 232Th.Thorium minerals are dissolved in natural waters much weaker than those of uranium. However, the concentration of thorium in the investigated samples is (1.8-4.0) tunes higher than the concentration of uranium. This fact reveals that the plants absorb the isotopes of thorium in amounts, which are proportional to their concentration in soils. In the plants growing in the similar soil-climate conditions the concentration uranium is different. This fact testifies that the accumulation of uranium by the plants may depend on the specific features. Concentration of radium in the plants is comparable with its concentration in the soils that may be explained by ability of plants to accumulate radium in amounts, which exceed its concentration in a culture medium. In different kinds of the plants' leach we observe various concentrations of potassium - (24-7-51)·10-6 g/g - that reveals different needs of the plants with respect to potassium. The observed concentrations of the natural radionuclides are in the MAC limits. That testifies a relative radioecological well-being of the investigated plants

2003-09-15

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AN UPDATED REVIEW ON ANTHELMINTIC MEDICINAL PLANTS  

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Full Text Available Medicinal plants are part and parcel of human society to combat diseases, from the dawn of civilization. There exists a plethora of knowledge, information and benefits of herbal drugs in our ancient literature of Ayurvedic (Traditional Indian Medicine, Siddha, Unani and Chinese medicine. According to the World Health Organization, 2003 about 80 % of the population of developing countries being unable to afford pharmaceutical drugs rely on traditional medicines, mainly plant based, to sustain their primary health care needs. Herbal medicines are in great demand in the developed as well as developing countries for primary healthcare because of their wide biological and medicinal activities, higher safety margins and lesser costs. In this review we have enlisted the updated anthelmintic medicinal plants which are used as good alternatives for the traditional allopathic anthelmintic agents.

Raj Kumar

2012-02-01

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IRANIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS AS ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS  

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Resistance of human and food spoilage pathogens to antimicrobial agents and the side effects of chemical agents or preservative for human is caused for finding natural new antimicrobial agents, especially among the medicinal plants. This review introduces the methods that are used for antimicrobial evaluations and synergistic activities and the antimicrobial potential of some Iranian medicinal plants.

Mohaddese Mahboubi

2013-01-01

17

Determination of trace elements in Syrian medicinal plants and their infusions by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) techniques suited well for a multi-element determination of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, and Sr in some Syrian medicinal plant species. The accuracy and the precision of both techniques were verified by analyzing the Standard Reference Materials (SRM) peach-1547 and apple leaves-1515. A good agreement between the measured concentrations of the previously mentioned elements and the certified values were obtained with errors less than 10.7% for TXRF and 15.8% for XRF. The determination of Br was acceptable only by XRF with an error less than 24%. Furthermore, the XRF method showed a very good applicability for the determination of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, and Br in infusions of different Syrian medicinal plant species, namely anise (Anisum vulgare), licorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra), and white wormwood (Artemisia herba-alba). (author)

2011-01-01

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Determination of trace elements in Syrian medicinal plants and their infusions by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) techniques suited well for a multi-element determination of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, and Sr in some Syrian medicinal plant species. The accuracy and the precision of both techniques were verified by analyzing the Standard Reference Materials (SRM) peach-1547 and apple leaves-1515. A good agreement between the measured concentrations of the previously mentioned elements and the certified values were obtained with errors less than 10.7% for TXRF and 15.8% for XRF. The determination of Br was acceptable only by XRF with an error less than 24%. Furthermore, the XRF method showed a very good applicability for the determination of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, and Br in infusions of different Syrian medicinal plant species, namely anise (Anisum vulgare), licorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra), and white wormwood (Artemisia herba-alba)

Khuder, A. [Department of Chemistry, Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)], E-mail: scientific2@aec.org.sy; Sawan, M.Kh.; Karjou, J. [Department of Chemistry, Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Razouk, A.K. [Department of Agriculture, Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

2009-07-15

19

Medicinal plants for treatment of diabetes mellitus  

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Many plants have been used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in Indian system of medicine and in other ancient systems of the world. Out of these only a few have been evaluated as per modern system of medicine. From many such plants only extracts have been prepared and their usefulness evaluated in experimental diabetes in animals. In some plants likeAllium cepa, Allium sativum, Ficus bengalensis, Gymnema sylvestre, Pterocarpus marsupium etc. active hypoglycemic principles have been isol...

Shukia, R.; Sharma, S. B.; Puri, D.; Prabhu, K. M.; Murthy, P. S.

2000-01-01

20

Medicinal plants: production and biochemical characterization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent advances in the area of biotechnology offer some possibility for the development of new technologies for the conservation, characterization and mass production of medicinal plant species, (i.e. in vitro cell culture techniques for the mass production of sterile, consistent, standardized medicinal plant materials). This paper discussed the following subjects - plant tissue culture, de novo shoot organogenesis, de novo root organogenesis, somatic embryogenesis, large scale propagation in bioreactors and discovery of unique biomolecules

2002-10-15

 
 
 
 
21

Traditional Medicinal Plants of K. Maras (Turkey)  

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This paper presents a list of some medicinal and aromatic plants in the K.Maras province of Turkey. During the ethnobotanical survey of 88 plants belonging to 47 families were obtained in the period of 1999. It has been found that these plants are mostly used for antiseptic, diuretic, stomach and wound.

Sengul Karaman; Yusuf Ziya Kocabas

2001-01-01

22

Folk medicinal plants of Silivri ( ? stanbul, Turkey  

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Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In this study, the folk medicinal plants of Silivri (?stanbul were researched. During the field works, the information were obtained from experienced adults and patients by personal interviews and the specimens of the plants were collected. The plant specimens are kept in the Herbarium of the Faculty of Pharmacy, Marmara University. As a result of identification of the plant specimens, 35 species used as a traditional folk medicine in Silivri, have been determined. Among them 25 species are wild and 10 species are cultivated plants. These plants and their local usage in treatment are presented in a table in the text. The plants are mostly used for stomach ailments, cough, hemorrhoid, rheumatism, cold, eczema and diabetes.

Gizem Bulut

2011-01-01

23

Antimalarial effects of eight African medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Crude hot water extracts from eight medicinal plants collected in Togo, West Africa, were examined for antimalarial properties against Plasmodium falciparum using an in vitro test. The activity differed with the plant species with extracts of Cassia siamea, Jatropha gossypiifolia and Pavetta crassipes capable of 100% inhibition. PMID:2654489

Gbeassor, M; Kossou, Y; Amegbo, K; de Souza, C; Koumaglo, K; Denke, A

1989-02-01

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9 Microbiological quality of medicinal plants  

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Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the microbiologic contamination of samples of medicinal plants collected and commercialized in Montes Claros – MG, Brazil. The plants were acquired in various places and in a public market in Montes Claros. They were estimated for infection by fecal coliforms, mold and yeast, through the method described in APHA (1992. The results showed that 72.3% of plants commercializad in popular markets in Montes Claros were infected by fungus and that 100% of these were creepers. The results also showed that 57% of plants acquired in organic cultivation systems and having fungal infections were pilous plants. However, it was noted in the determination of fecal coliforms that all the samples had infections lower than the maximum established limit. Since medicinal plants are often used in natura, there is no need to maintain a higher microbiological quality.

Camila Karen Reis Barbosa

2010-03-01

25

Cytotoxicity and pharmacogenomics of medicinal plants from traditional korean medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim. The present study was designed to investigate the cytotoxicity of a panel of 280 Korean medicinal plants belonging to 73 families and 198 species against human CCRF-CEM leukemia cells. Selected phytochemicals were investigated in more detail for their mode of action. Methods. The resazurin assay was used to determine cytotoxicity of the plant extracts. Microarray-based mRNA expression profiling, COMPARE, and hierarchical cluster analyses were applied to identify which genes correlate with sensitivity or resistance to selected phytochemicals of the Korean plants. Results. The results of the resazurin assay showed that cytotoxicity extracts tested at 10? ? g/mL from 13 samples inhibited proliferation more than 50% (IC50 plants are Sedum middendorffianum (15.33%) and Lycoris radiata (17.61%). Out of 13 selected phytochemicals from these plants, hopeaphenol and deoxynarciclasine were the most cytotoxic ones. Genes from various functional groups (transcriptional or translational regulation, signal transduction, cellular proliferation, intracellular trafficking, RNA metabolism, endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum function, etc.) were significantly correlated with response of tumor cell lines to these two compounds. Conclusion. The results provide evidence on the possible use of selected Korean medicinal plants and chemical constituents derived from them for the treatment of tumors. PMID:23935662

Kuete, Victor; Seo, Ean-Jeong; Krusche, Benjamin; Oswald, Mira; Wiench, Benjamin; Schröder, Sven; Greten, Henry Johannes; Lee, Ik-Soo; Efferth, Thomas

2013-01-01

26

Biological screening of Brazilian medicinal plants  

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In this study, we screened sixty medicinal plant species from the Brazilian savanna ("cerrado") that could contain useful compounds for the control of tropical diseases. The plant selection was based on existing ethnobotanic information and interviews with local healers. Plant extracts were screened for: (a) molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, (b) toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina L.), (c) antifungal activity in the bioautographic assay with Cladosporium sphae...

2000-01-01

27

9) Microbiological quality of medicinal plants  

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The objective of this work was to investigate the microbiologic contamination of samples of medicinal plants collected and commercialized in Montes Claros – MG, Brazil. The plants were acquired in various places and in a public market in Montes Claros. They were estimated for infection by fecal coliforms, mold and yeast, through the method described in APHA (1992). The results showed that 72.3% of plants commercializad in popular markets in Montes Claros were infected by fungus and that 100...

2010-01-01

28

Aromatic Plants as a Source of Bioactive Compounds  

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Aromatic plants, also known as herbs and spices, have been used since antiquity as folk medicine and as preservatives in foods. The best known aromatic plants, such as oregano, rosemary, sage, anise, basil, etc., originate from the Mediterranean area. They contain many biologically active compounds, mainly polyphenolics, which have been found to possess antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiparasitic, antiprotozoal, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory properties. Currently, the demand for these plant...

Efterpi Christaki; Eleftherios Bonos; Ilias Giannenas; Panagiota Florou-Paneri

2012-01-01

29

Antibacterial activity of plants used in Indian herbal medicine  

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Delonix elata , Enicostemma axillare, Merremia tridentata, Mollugo cerviana and Solanum incanum are medicinal plants used in traditional Indian medicine for the treatment of various ailments. These plants were selected to evaluate their potential antibacterial activity. To determine antibacterial activity and phytochemicals in the crude extracts of five medicinal plants used in traditional Indian medicine for the treatment of various ailments like rheumatism, piles...

Pavithra P; Janani V; Charumathi K; Indumathy R; Potala Sirisha; Verma Rama

2010-01-01

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Neurotoxicities in infants seen with the consumption of star anise tea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chinese star anise (Illicium verum Hook f.) is a well-known spice used in many cultures. Many populations use it as a treatment for infant colic. Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum L), however, has been documented to have both neurologic and gastrointestinal toxicities. Recently, concern has been raised regarding the adulteration of Chinese star anise with Japanese star anise. We report 7 cases of adverse neurologic reactions in infants seen with the home administration of star anise tea. In addition, we have found evidence that Chinese star anise has been contaminated with Japanese star anise. More strict federal regulation of the import of star anise into the United States is warranted. Star anise tea should no longer be administered to infants because of its potential danger in this population. PMID:15492355

Ize-Ludlow, Diego; Ragone, Sean; Bruck, Isaac S; Bernstein, Jeffrey N; Duchowny, Michael; Peña, Barbara M Garcia

2004-11-01

31

ANTIVIRAL POTENTIAL OF MEDICINAL PLANTS: AN OVERVIEW  

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Full Text Available The term ‘Antiviral agents’ has been defined in very broad terms as substances other than a virus or virus containing vaccine or specific antibody which can produce either a protective or therapeutic effect to the clear detectable advantage of the virus infected host. The herbal medicine has a long traditional use and the major advantage over other medicines is their wide therapeutic window with rare side effects. There are some disadvantages of synthetic drugs like narrow therapeutic window and more importantly the various adverse side effects which occur quite frequently. Due to these disadvantages and other limitations, there is an increasing trend in the field of research for discovering new and noble drugs based on various herbal formulations. This review attempts to address the importance of developing therapeutic herbal formulations from various medicinal plants using the knowledge based on traditional system of medicines, the Ayurveda. Although natural products have been used by civilization since ancient times, only in recent decades has there been growing research into alternative therapies and the therapeutics use of natural products, especially those derived from plants. Plants synthesize and preserve a variety of biochemical products, many of which are extractable and used for various scientific investigations. Therefore, medicinal plants proved to be a major resort for the treatment of diseases and sicknesses by traditional healers in many societies.

Ruwali Pushpa

2013-06-01

32

Cinnamon: A Multifaceted Medicinal Plant  

Science.gov (United States)

Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and Cinnamon cassia), the eternal tree of tropical medicine, belongs to the Lauraceae family. Cinnamon is one of the most important spices used daily by people all over the world. Cinnamon primarily contains vital oils and other derivatives, such as cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, and cinnamate. In addition to being an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancer, lipid-lowering, and cardiovascular-disease-lowering compound, cinnamon has also been reported to have activities against neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. This review illustrates the pharmacological prospective of cinnamon and its use in daily life.

Rao, Pasupuleti Visweswara; Gan, Siew Hua

2014-01-01

33

Cinnamon: a multifaceted medicinal plant.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and Cinnamon cassia), the eternal tree of tropical medicine, belongs to the Lauraceae family. Cinnamon is one of the most important spices used daily by people all over the world. Cinnamon primarily contains vital oils and other derivatives, such as cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, and cinnamate. In addition to being an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancer, lipid-lowering, and cardiovascular-disease-lowering compound, cinnamon has also been reported to have activities against neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. This review illustrates the pharmacological prospective of cinnamon and its use in daily life. PMID:24817901

Rao, Pasupuleti Visweswara; Gan, Siew Hua

2014-01-01

34

[Requirements for quality of approved plant medicines].  

Science.gov (United States)

Herbal medicinal products differ substantially from drugs with synthetic active ingredients. Whereas the active ingredients of synthetic drugs are chemically well defined and pure substances, those of phytopharmaceuticals are plants, parts of plants or extracts. Therefore starting material of high quality and a standardised manufacturing procedure are particularly important for phytopharmaceuticals. Thus the documentation of the quality of a herbal medicinal product is crucial. The quality criteria aim to guarantee a phytopharmaceutical of high and constant quality and as well as a successful and reproducible therapy. The new Swiss Federal Law on Medicinal Products and Medical Devices (Law on Therapeutic Products--LTP) came into effect on 1 January 2002. The Intercantonal Office for the Control of Medicines IOCM which previously was in charge of herbal medicinal products was closed down and together with the Therapeutic Products Section of the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health SFOPH merged to create Swissmedic, the Swiss Agency for Therapeutic Products. Swissmedic is now responsible for affairs related to herbal medicinal products. The following article gives an overview of the current quality requirements of phytopharmaceuticals. These are now based on the LTP, but the essence remains largely unchanged. PMID:12125175

Allemann, C; Herren, D; Badertscher, K Mathys

2002-06-01

35

Antimalarial activity of Tanzanian medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tanzanian medicinal plants were extracted and tested for in vitro antimalarial activity, using the multidrug resistant K1 strain of Plasmodium falciparum. Of 49 plants investigated, extracts of three plants were found to have an IC50 between 5-10 micrograms/ml, extracts of 18 other plants showed an IC50 between 10 and 50 micrograms/ml, all others were less active. The three most active extracts were obtained from the tubers of Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae), the rootbark of Hoslundia opposita Vahl. (Labiatae), and the rootbark of Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae). PMID:2236289

Weenen, H; Nkunya, M H; Bray, D H; Mwasumbi, L B; Kinabo, L S; Kilimali, V A

1990-08-01

36

Analgesic activity of some Indian medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study of some of the Indian medicinal plants Sida acuta whole plant (Malvaeae), Stylosanthes fruticosa (whole plant) (Papilionaceae), Toona ciliata (heart wood) (Meliaceao), Bougainvilla spectabilis (leaves) (Nyctaginaceae), Ficus glomerata (bark, leaves) (Moraceae) and Polyalthia longifolia (leaves) (Annonaceae). The different plants were used in folklore medicine in the treatment of toothache and strengthening of gums, anthelmintic, kidney diseases, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antihyperglycaemic, antihyperglycaemic and anticancer. The extract was prepared using powdered material with ethanol, concentrated under vacuo and were evaluated for analgesic activity by analgesiometer at three dose level (100, 300 and 500mg/kg). Analgesic activity was significant with Toona ciliata (heart wood) ethanolic extract when compared with other extracts and its activity was confirmed by tail immersion method. PMID:16647234

Malairajan, P; Geetha Gopalakrishnan; Narasimhan, S; Jessi Kala Veni, K

2006-07-19

37

[Tissue culture of medicinal plant and abscisic acid].  

Science.gov (United States)

Abscisic acid (ABA) plays a key role in many physiological processes of plants, and it was also applied to fields of medicinal plant biotechnology. The article presents a review of some recent application of ABA in enhancing the production of secondary metabolites of medicinal plants, improving the in vitro conservation in medicinal plant tissue culture system. PMID:23596868

Fang, Hui-Yong; Zhu, Hong; Yao, Jian-Xun; Jia, Cai-Feng; Shan, Gao-Wei; Li, Min-Hui

2013-01-01

38

Anti epileptic activity of some medicinal plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Epilepsy is a neuropsychological disorder, caused due to discharge of neurotransmitter. From time immemorial, plants have been used for their healing and therapeutic abilities, thus healing action. The aim of the present study was to highlight the anti epileptic activity of some medicinally important plants like Withania somnifera (amhar), Ocimum sanctum, Brahmi grihta (bacopa), Catharanthus roseus, Caesalpinia crista, Citrus sinensis, Datura stramonium, Ricinus communis, Terminalia glaucesce...

2012-01-01

39

[States of nervousness. Useful medicinal plants].  

Science.gov (United States)

The author analyzes the effects of diverse medicinal plants such as poppy (papaver somniferum), Hawthorn, hypericum, and hops on those moderate nervous states which provoke insomnia, anxiety, or excitement as a complementary method to aid a patient overcome those states. PMID:15125337

Alonso Osorio, M José

2004-03-01

40

Anticancer agents from medicinal plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cancer is a major public health burden in both developed and developing countries. Plant derived agents are being used for the treatment of cancer. Several anticancer agents including taxol, vinblas-tine, vincristine, the camptothecin derivatives, topotecan and irinotecan, and etoposide derived from epipodophyllotoxin are in clinical use all over the world. A number of promising agents such as flavopiridol, roscovitine, combretastatin A-4, betulinic acid and silvestrol are in clinical or prec...

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Biological screening of Brazilian medicinal plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we screened sixty medicinal plant species from the Brazilian savanna ("cerrado" that could contain useful compounds for the control of tropical diseases. The plant selection was based on existing ethnobotanic information and interviews with local healers. Plant extracts were screened for: (a molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, (b toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina L., (c antifungal activity in the bioautographic assay with Cladosporium sphaerospermum and (d antibacterial activity in the agar diffusion assay against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Forty-two species afforded extracts that showed some degree of activity in one or more of these bioassays.

Tânia Maria de Almeida Alves

2000-06-01

42

Screening antifungal activities of selected medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants synthesise a vast array of secondary metabolites that are gaining importance for their biotechnological applications. The antifungal activity of the ethanolic extracts of ten Argentinean plants used in native medicine is reported. Antifungal assays included radial growth inhibition, disk and well diffusion assays and growth inhibition by broth dilution tests. The chosen test fungi were yeasts, microfungi and wood-rot causing Basidiomycetes. Extracts of Larrea divaricata, Zuccagnia punctata and Larrea cuneifolia displayed remarkable activity in the assays against the majority of the test fungi. In addition to the former plants, Prosopanche americana also inhibited yeast growth. PMID:11137353

Quiroga, E N; Sampietro, A R; Vattuone, M A

2001-01-01

43

Antimicrobial properties of Honduran medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ninety-two plants used in the traditional pharmacopoeia of the Pech and neighboring Mestizo peoples of central Honduras are reported. The results of in vitro antimicrobial screens showed that 19 of the extracts from medicinal plants revealed signs of antifungal activity while 22 demonstrated a measurable inhibitory effect on one or more bacterial cultures. Bioassay-guided fractionation of extracts from Mikania micrantha, Neurolaena lobata and Piper aduncum produced weak to moderately active isolates. The broad spectrum of activity of the extracts helps to explain the widespread use of these plants for wound healing and other applications. PMID:10030730

Lentz, D L; Clark, A M; Hufford, C D; Meurer-Grimes, B; Passreiter, C M; Cordero, J; Ibrahimi, O; Okunade, A L

1998-12-01

44

Medicinal Plants Diversity and its Indigenous use in Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pakistan has a lot of diversity in the medicinal plants. More than 50% of the medicines used today in daily life are taken from plants source. According to WHO 80% of the population of the world use the traditional medicinal plants for their health care needs. People living in the different provinces namely Punjab, Sind, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Baluchistan an Kashmir are dependent o these natural resource (Plants for their daily life use of food, medicine, vegetable, fodder, feulwood, timber and religious purposes. About 75% of the total population villages and rural areas of the country depends on the traditional indigenous medicine. The indigenous knowledge of the medicinal plants is the rich source of the important medicinal plants knowledge and the elderly people are mostly more aware of the indigenous use of these medicinal plants.

Syed Aneel Gilani

2013-07-01

45

MEDICINAL PLANTS ACTIVE AGAINST SNAKE ENVENOMATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Snakebite is an important cause of morbidity and mortality and is one of the major health problems in India. About 30000 to 40,000 persons die each year from venomous snake bite. Russell’s viper or daboia (Viper russelli appears to be the commonest cause of fatal snakebite in Southern India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Burma and Thailand. Intravenous administration of anti-snake venom neutralizes the systemic actions, however, antiserum does not provide enough protection against venom induced hemorrhage, necrosis, nephrotoxicity and often develops hypersensitivity reactions. India has a rich tradition of the usage of medicinal plants. Many Indian medicinal plants are mentioned in Ayurvedic literature to treat snakebite victims and are used by many ayurvedic practioners as well as in rural areas by traditioners. So much research work has been conducted for anti-snake venom activity of herbal medicine as alternative for Anti Snake Venom. This article presents a review of such herbal drugs which are effectively neutralize the snake venom like vitex nigundo, Emblica officinalis, Hemidesmus indicus etc which were assayed in research laboratories. It is considered as a valuable source of natural products for development of medicines against venomous snake bite.

Kanojia Anita

2012-06-01

46

Review: SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS WITH ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bacterial infections are one of the prominent causes of health problems, physical disabilities and mortalities around the world. Symptoms and complications associated with bacterial infections such as fever, chills, headache, nausea, vomiting and organ failures affect patient’s life severely. Medicinal plants are a rich source of antimicrobial agents and provide a safer and cost effective way of treating bacterial infections. This article describes the antibacterial properties of Cassia fis...

2010-01-01

47

AN UPDATED REVIEW ON HEPATOPROTECTIVE MEDICINAL PLANTS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Medicinal plants may serve as a vital source of potentially useful new compounds for the development of effective therapy to combat a variety of liver problems. Many herbs have been proven to be effectual as hepatoprotective agents while many more are claimed to be hepatoprotective but lack any such scientific evidence to support such claims. Developing a satisfactory herbal therapy to treat severe liver diseases requires systematic investigation of properties like anti-hepatotoxicity (ant...

2012-01-01

48

AN UPDATED REVIEW ON HEPATOPROTECTIVE MEDICINAL PLANTS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Medicinal plants may serve as a vital source of potentially useful new compounds for the development of effective therapy to combat a variety of liver problems. Many herbs have been proven to be effectual as hepatoprotective agents while many more are claimed to be hepatoprotective but lack any such scientific evidence to support such claims. Developing a satisfactory herbal therapy to treat severe liver diseases requires systematic investigation of properties like anti-hepatotoxicity (antiox...

2012-01-01

49

Antioxidant Capacity of Macaronesian Traditional Medicinal Plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The use of many traditional medicinal plants is often hampered by the absence of a proper biochemical characterization, essential to identify the bioactive compounds present. The leaves from five species endemic to the Macaronesian islands with recognized ethnobotanical applications were analysed: Apollonias barbujana (Cav.) Bornm., Ocotea foetens (Ainton) Baill, Prunus azorica (Mouill.) Rivas-Mart., Lousã, Fern. Prieto, E. Días, J.C. Costa & C. Aguiar, Rumex maderensis Lowe and Plantago ar...

2010-01-01

50

Neutron activation analysis of medicinal plant extracts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the determination of the elements Br, Ca, Cl, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb and Zn in medicinal extracts obtained from Centella asiatica, Citrus aurantium L., Achyrolcline satureoides DC, Casearia sylvestris, Solano lycocarpum, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Solidago microglossa and Stryphnondedron barbatiman plants. The elements Hg and Se were determined using radiochemical separation by means of retention of Se in HMD inorganic exchanger and solvent extraction of Hg by bismuth diethyldithiocarbamate solution. Precision and accuracy of the results were evaluated by analyzing biological reference materials. The therapeutic action of some elements found in plant extracts analyzed is briefly discussed. (author). 15 refs., 5 tabs

1995-08-01

51

Antimicrobial activity of selected Peruvian medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antimicrobial activity of 36 ethanol extracts from 24 plants, all of them currently used in the Peruvian traditional medicine for the treatment of several infectious and inflammatory disorders, was tested by means of the agar-well diffusion assay against four bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and four fungi (Candida albicans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum and Sporothrix schenckii). Twenty-five (69%) extracts showed some degree of antimicrobial activity against at least one microorganism. The plants with the greatest antimicrobial activity were Cestrum auriculatum L. Heritier (Solanaceae), Iryanthera lancifolia Ducke Suesseng (Myristicaceae), Lepechinia meyenii (Walp.) Epling (Lamiaceae) and Ophryosporus peruvianus (Gmelin) King & H. Rob. (Asteraceae). PMID:12963143

Rojas, Rosario; Bustamante, Beatriz; Bauer, José; Fernández, Irma; Albán, Joaquina; Lock, Olga

2003-10-01

52

Antimicrobial activity of some Iranian medicinal plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The major aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts of eight plant species which are endemic in Iran. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts of eight Iranian traditional plants, including Hypericum scabrum, Myrtus communis, Pistachia atlantica, Arnebia euchroma, Salvia hydrangea, Satureja bachtiarica, Thymus daenensis and Kelussia odoratissima, were investigated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Candida albicans by agar disc diffusion and serial dilution assays. Most of the extracts showed a relatively high antimicrobial activity against all the tested bacteria and fungi. Of the plants studied, the most active extracts were those obtained from the essential oils of M. communis and T. daenensis. The MIC values for active extract and essential oil ranged between 0.039 and 10 mg/ml. It can be said that the extract and essential oil of some medicinal plants could be used as natural antimicrobial agents in food preservation. .

Ghasemi Pirbalouti Abdollah

2010-01-01

53

Puccinia pimpinellae, a New Pathogen on Anise Seed in Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Routine seed health inspection of anise seeds showed Puccinia pimpinellae to be a commonally observed fungus on seed samples collected from different locations and the commercial markets of Egypt. Symptoms were shown as black discolorations on seeds. Masses of uredio- and teliospores of the fungus were visually seen. In some samples, a seed washing technique was essential to inspect for the presence of the fungal spores. This is the first report of Puccinia pimpinellae as a seed-borne pathogen of anise in Egypt.

K.M. Ghoneem

2009-01-01

54

A REVIEW ON ANTIULCER MEDICINAL PLANTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Peptic ulcer is the most common gastrointestinal disorder in clinical practice. Peptic ulcer is a conglomerate of heterogeneous disorders, which manifests itself as a break in the lining of the gastrointestinal mucosa bathed by acid and/or pepsin. A number of drugs including proton pump inhibitors and H2 receptor antagonists are available for the treatment of peptic ulcer, but these drugs has shown incidence of relapses, side effects, and drug interactions. Thus the development of new antiulcer drugs and the search for novel molecules has been extended to herbal drugs that offer better protection and decreased relapse. Medicinal plants provide an effective and safer way in disease management. Many medicinal plants exhibit antiulcer activity and found useful in the treatment of peptic ulcer. In this review attempts have been made to know about some plants which may be used in treatment or prevention of peptic ulcer. Various plants like Nerium indicum, Ocimum sanctum, Argyreia speciosa, Bauhinia purpurea, Benincasa hispida and Croton zambesicus proved active in antiulcer therapy.

Kamble Rahul Devidas

2013-01-01

55

Biological screening of Brazilian medicinal plants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In this study, we screened sixty medicinal plant species from the Brazilian savanna ("cerrado") that could contain useful compounds for the control of tropical diseases. The plant selection was based on existing ethnobotanic information and interviews with local healers. Plant extracts were screened [...] for: (a) molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, (b) toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina L.), (c) antifungal activity in the bioautographic assay with Cladosporium sphaerospermum and (d) antibacterial activity in the agar diffusion assay against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Forty-two species afforded extracts that showed some degree of activity in one or more of these bioassays.

Tânia Maria de Almeida, Alves; Andréia Fonseca, Silva; Mitzi, Brandão; Telma Sueli Mesquita, Grandi; Elza de Fátima A, Smânia; Artur, Smânia Júnior; Carlos Leomar, Zani.

56

SOME RARE HOMOEOPATHIC MEDICINAL PLANTS OF SOUTH INDIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This present study describes 11 species under 11 generate and 10 families of rare Homoeopathic Medicinal Plants introduced and cultivated in the Nilgiri district, Tamil Nadu, South India. The original citation, description, distribution and their medicinal uses are given.

Rajan, S.

1993-01-01

57

Antimicrobial properties of star anise (Illicium verum Hook f).  

Science.gov (United States)

Star anise (Illicium verum Hook f) has been shown to possess potent antimicrobial properties. Chemical studies indicate that a major portion of this antimicrobial property is due to anethole present in the dried fruit. Studies with isolated anethole (compared with standard anethole) indicated that it is effective against bacteria, yeast and fungal strains. PMID:11807977

De, Minakshi; De, Amit Krishna; Sen, Parimal; Banerjee, Arun Baran

2002-02-01

58

Plant-antivenom: Database of anti-venom medicinal plants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Plant-antivenom is a computational Websystem about medicinal plants with anti-venom properties. The system consists of a database of these plants, including scientific publications on this subject and amino acid sequences of active principles from venomous animals. The system relates these data allo [...] wing their integration through different search applications. For the development of the system, the first surveys were conducted in scientific literature, allowing the creation of a publication database in a library for reading and user interaction. Then, classes of categories were created, allowing the use of tags and the organization of content. This database on medicinal plants has information such as family, species, isolated compounds, activity, inhibited animal venoms, among others. Provision is made for submission of new information by registered users, by the use of wiki tools. Content submitted is released in accordance to permission rules defined by the system. The database on biological venom protein amino acid sequences was structured from the essential information from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Plant-antivenom's interface is simple, contributing to a fast and functional access to the system and the integration of different data registered on it. Plant-antivenom system is available on the Internet at http://gbi.fmrp.usp.br/plantantivenom.

Saulo França, Amui; Renato David, Puga; Andreimar Martins, Soares; Silvana, Giuliatti.

2011-01-15

59

MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF MANGROVE PLANTS – AN OVERVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Perhaps the most important role of mangroves is that they protect vulnerable coastlines from wave action because they hold the soil together and prevent coastal erosion. Mangroves shield inland areas during storms and minimize damage. For example, learning from the 2005 tsunami in Asia, there were no deaths in the areas which had mangrove forests, compared to those areas without, which suffered massive causalities. Many species in the mangrove forest have medicinal value and it has been proved that these plants are antiviral and antibacterial in nature. Community participation is must to enhance mangrove habitats. Plant species in this ecosystem like Avicennia Marina, Sesuvium Portulacastrum and Suaeda Monoica have chemical properties that can kill vectors namely Anopheles, Culex and Aedes, which cause diseases such as malaria, filariasis and dengue fever.

Revathi P*, T Jeyaseelan Senthinath, P Thirumalaikolundusubramanian and N Prabhu

2013-12-01

60

Some Plants used in Ayurvedic and Homoeopathic Medicine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditional medicines are used by about 60% of the world’s population. These are used for primary health care, not only in rural areas of developing nations but they are also used in the developed countries where modern medicine are pre dominantly used. In the western world the use of medicinal herbs is continuously growing, approximately 40% of the population is using herbs for medical illness due to increased incidences of adverse effects of allopathic medicine. There are about 45000 plant species in India, Eastern Himalayas, Western Ghats and Andman and Nicobar Islands are the hot spot for medicinal plants. Officially documented plants with medicinal potential are 3000 but traditional practitioner use more than 6000. Seventy percent of the population in the rural India is dependent on the ayurvedic system of medicine. Most of the drugs used in modern medicine and ancient Indian medicinal system are of plant origin. Beside plants many minerals, salts and animal products are used in Ayurvedic medicines. Homoeopathy originated in west, German physician Samuel Hanemann was the father of homoeopathy (1796, the homeopathic remedies are prepared by successive dilution followed by shaking forcefully. Homoeopathy uses animal, plant, mineral, and synthetic substances in its remedies. Arsenicum album (arsenic oxide, Natrum muriaticum (sodium chloride, opium (plant, and thyroidinum (thyroid hormone are some of the homoeopathic medicines extracted from different sources.

R.P.Joshi

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
61

Antioxidant capacity of Macaronesian traditional medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of many traditional medicinal plants is often hampered by the absence of a proper biochemical characterization, essential to identify the bioactive compounds present. The leaves from five species endemic to the Macaronesian islands with recognized ethnobotanical applications were analysed: Apollonias barbujana (Cav.) Bornm., Ocotea foetens (Ainton) Baill, Prunus azorica (Mouill.) Rivas-Mart., Lousã, Fern. Prieto, E. Días, J.C. Costa & C. Aguiar, Rumex maderensis Lowe and Plantago arborescens Poir. subsp. maderensis (Dcne.) A. Hans. et Kunk.. Since oxidative stress is a common feature of most diseases traditionally treated by these plants, it is important to assess their antioxidant capacity and determine the molecules responsible for this capacity. In this study, the antioxidant capacity of these plants against two of the most important reactive species in human body (hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals) was determined. To trace the antioxidant origin total phenol and flavonoid contents as well as the polyphenolic profile and the amount of trace elements were determined. There was a wide variation among the species analysed in what concerns their total leaf phenol and flavonoid contents. From the High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) electrochemically detected peaks it was possible to attribute to flavonoids the antioxidant capacity detected in A. barbujana, O. foetens, R. maderensis and P. azorica extracts. These potential reactive flavonoids were identified for A. barbujana, R. maderensis and P. azorica. For R. maderensis a high content (7 mg g-1 dry weight) of L-ascorbic acid, an already described antioxidant phytomolecule, was found. A high content in selenomethionine (414.35 microg g-1 dry weight) was obtained for P. arborescens subsp. maderensis extract. This selenocompound is already described as a hydroxyl radical scavenger is reported in this work as also possessing peroxyl radical scavenging capacity. This work is a good illustration of different phytomolecules (flavonoids, organic acids and selenocompounds), presents in leaves of the five traditional medicinal plants endemic to Macaronesia, all exhibiting antioxidant properties. PMID:20428065

Tavares, Lucélia; Carrilho, Dina; Tyagi, Meenu; Barata, David; Serra, Ana Teresa; Duarte, Catarina Maria Martins; Duarte, Rui Oliveira; Feliciano, Rodrigo Pedro; Bronze, Maria Rosário; Chicau, Paula; Espírito-Santo, Maria Dalila; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida; dos Santos, Cláudia Nunes

2010-04-01

62

Antioxidant Capacity of Macaronesian Traditional Medicinal Plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of many traditional medicinal plants is often hampered by the absence of a proper biochemical characterization, essential to identify the bioactive compounds present. The leaves from five species endemic to the Macaronesian islands with recognized ethnobotanical applications were analysed: Apollonias barbujana (Cav. Bornm., Ocotea foetens (Ainton Baill, Prunus azorica (Mouill. Rivas-Mart., Lousã, Fern. Prieto, E. Días, J.C. Costa & C. Aguiar, Rumex maderensis Lowe and Plantago arborescens Poir. subsp. maderensis (Dcne. A. Hans. et Kunk.. Since oxidative stress is a common feature of most diseases traditionally treated by these plants, it is important to assess their antioxidant capacity and determine the molecules responsible for this capacity. In this study, the antioxidant capacity of these plants against two of the most important reactive species in human body (hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals was determined. To trace the antioxidant origin total phenol and flavonoid contents as well as the polyphenolic profile and the amount of trace elements were determined. There was a wide variation among the species analysed in what concerns their total leaf phenol and flavonoid contents. From the High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC electrochemically detected peaks it was possible to attribute to flavonoids the antioxidant capacity detected in A. barbujana, O. foetens, R. maderensis and P. azorica extracts. These potential reactive flavonoids were identified for A. barbujana, R. maderensis and P. azorica. For R. maderensis a high content (7 mg g-1 dry weight of L-ascorbic acid, an already described antioxidant phytomolecule, was found. A high content in selenomethionine (414.35 ?g g-1 dry weight was obtained for P. arborescens subsp. maderensis extract. This selenocompound is already described as a hydroxyl radical scavenger is reported in this work as also possessing peroxyl radical scavenging capacity. This work is a good illustration of different phytomolecules (flavonoids, organic acids and selenocompounds, presents in leaves of the five traditional medicinal plants endemic to Macaronesia, all exhibiting antioxidant properties.

Lucélia Tavares

2010-04-01

63

Preliminary phytochemical screening of some Indian Medicinal Plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and cardie glycoside distribution in five medicinal plants belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The medicinal plants investigated were Asteracantha longifolia (L.) Nees, Psassiflora edulis Sims, Berberis tinctoria Lesch, Sphaeranthus indicus Linn, and Solanum trilobatum Linn. All the plants were found to contain Phenols, Cardiac glycosides, Steroids, Saponins and Tannin except for the absen...

2009-01-01

64

Medicinal plants against hepatitis C virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global health concern which is responsible for most of the liver diseases. Currently, there is no vaccine available for prevention of HCV infection due to the high degree of strain variation. The current standard of care is a combination of pegylated interferon ? with ribavirin and boceprevir/telaprevir. This treatment was partially effective and had significant side effects. Hence, there is a need to develop new antiviral agents that interfere with different stages of the HCV life cycle. Recent advances in the understanding of both the cellular and molecular mechanisms of HCV replication have provided the basis for novel therapeutic strategies. Several hundred plant species and their phyto-constituents have been isolated for screening against HCV, and some have been shown to have great medicinal value in preventing and/or ameliorating viral diseases in pre-clinical and clinical trials. This review summarizes medicinal plants and their phytochemicals which inhibit different stages of HCV life cycle and discuss their potential use in HCV therapy. PMID:24659884

Ashfaq, Usman A; Idrees, Sobia

2014-03-21

65

Radio protective effects of some medicinal plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many plants are known to have beneficial therapeutic effects as noted in the traditional Indian system of medicine, Ayurveda and used since time immemorial for curing diseases. Even today, nearly 70% of the world's population is dependent on plants for handling their health related problems and plants have been utilized successfully for the treatment of free radical-mediated diseases in human such as Rheumatoid arthritis, Atherosclerosis, Cancer, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, aging and several other conditions including inflammatory diseases. Plant extracts eliciting radio protective efficacy contain a plethora of compounds including antioxidants, immunostimulants, cell proliferation stimulators, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial agent, some of which may act in isolation as well as in combination with other constituents from the same plants. Glycyrrhiza glabra, Allium sepa, Allium sativum, Aloe arborescens, Amaranthus paniculatus, Curcuma longa, Moringa olefera and Syzygium cumini are some important radio protective plants. Alium sativum has been reported to possess antioxidant antimicrobial, antitumor, antimutagenic and anti-inflammatory properties. Aloe arborescens acts as a cell proliferate, healer and allergy reducer. Amaranthus paniculatus is used for purifying blood and treating scrofulous sores. Curcuma longa is widely used in antitumor and antibacterial activities. Leaf extract of Moringa oleifera is significantly used in nervous debility and healing of wound. Chlorella is well known nutrient dense superfood that contains 60% protein, 18 amino acids (including all the essential amino acids), more than 20 vitamins and minerals. Chlorell has been used to treat cancer and also protect the body from the effects of cancer radiation treatment due to its chlorophyll in abundance level. However they have little attention for their radio protective as well as antioxidant. There is an urgent need to develop newer, more efficient and reliable bioassays for large scale rapid evaluation of radio protective efficacy of plant extracts. (author)

2012-01-01

66

Traditional home gardens: A preserve of medicinal plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Traditional home gardens have been described as man-managed ecosystems with high energy subsidy, complex structure, and multiple functions. These have been reported as treasure trove of a rich biodiversity of plant species including medicinal plants used for traditional home remedies of various ailments. A review of research work on the status of medicinal plants in traditional rural home gardens is presented with the objective to explore them as potential preservation site for medicinal plan...

2013-01-01

67

Studies on concentration of radionuclides in medicinal plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concentration of radionuclides in medicinal plants exhibiting important medicinal properties collected from coastal Karnataka region were analysed and estimated. It is found that these plants have significant activity concentration of radionuclides. Measurement of concentration of radionuclides has been carried out using HPGe gamma spectrometer. The study has revealed that the activity of 40K is maximum as compared to 226Ra, 210Pb, 232Th, and 137Cs concentrations present in the medicinal plants. (author)

2014-01-20

68

Probability sampling design in ethnobotanical surveys of medicinal plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Non-probability sampling design can be used in ethnobotanical surveys of medicinal plants. However, this method does not allow statistical inferences to be made from the data generated. The aim of this paper is to present a probability sampling design that is applicable in ethnobotanical studies of medicinal plants. The sampling design employed in the research titled "Ethnobotanical knowledge of medicinal plants used by traditional communities of Nossa Senhora Aparecida do Chumbo district (NS...

Mariano Martinez Espinosa; Bieski, Isanete G. C.; Domingos Tabajara de Oliveira Martins

2012-01-01

69

Molecular identification of commercialized medicinal plants in southern Morocco  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Medicinal plant trade is important for local livelihoods. However, many medicinal plants are difficult to identify when they are sold as roots, powders or bark. DNA barcoding involves using a short, agreed-upon region of a genome as a unique identifier for species-ideally, as a global standard. Research Question: What is the functionality, efficacy and accuracy of the use of barcoding for identifying root material, using medicinal plant roots sold by herbalists in Marrakech, Moroc...

Kool, Anneleen; Boer, Hugo J.; Kru?ger, A?sa; Rydberg, Anders; Abbad, Abdelaziz; Bjo?rk, Lars; Martin, Gary

2012-01-01

70

Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants from Ghana.  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of a preliminary antimicrobial screening of the methanol extracts of Aframomum melegueta, Piper guineense, Xylopia aethiopica, Zingiber officinale, medicinal plants of Ghana, are reported. PMID:14693222

Konning, G H; Agyare, C; Ennison, B

2004-01-01

71

PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS OF SOME FOLK MEDICINAL PLANTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several species of plants are being used as folk medicine by various tribal and local communities in India as well as all over the world since ancient days. Five medicinal plant species were analysed for their basic chemical composition that makes them medicinal. All the selected plants are found to contain phytochemicals like alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, tannins and saponin. It was observed that phenolic compounds are the most active drug content in modern herbal medicine. Therefore, this study is focused on phenolic content in the plants under study.

Koche D. K.

2012-04-01

72

Popular medicinal plants from São Luis, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditional medicinal knowledge is essential to mitigate pains and solve health problems in Latin American countries. For over a decade, the Portuguese Tropical Research Institute has been researching the vegetable species used both by low-income urbanites as by plant-therapy believers. A sample has been obtained in São Luis, State of Maranhão, Brazil, during the year 2010. The main aim of the fieldwork was to establish comparisons between the popular genus used by the Brazilian respondents, and by Latin American informants, under the hypothesis that their location and their colonization history explain similar therapies. Results have confirmed that Native American species dominate the ranking of preferences for a wide range of chronic diseases and health afflictions.

Isabel Maria Madaleno

2011-08-01

73

COASTAL MEDICINAL PLANTS ALONG PALK STRAIT : A SURVEY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available India has one of the richest plant medical cultures in the world. Millions of rural house holds use medicinal plants in a self-help mode. In the present study the survey is made on the coastal medicinal plants from S.P. Pattinam to Karangadu along Palk Strait. A total number of around thirty four plants such as Acacia arabica, Acorus calamus, Adhatoda vasica, Aloe vera, Alpinia galangal, Anisomeles malabarica, Cardiospermam halicacabam, Cassia juvanica, Cassia obtuse, Citrus limon, Coleus aromaticus, Cynodon dactylon, Daemia extensa, Datura metel, Eclipta alba, Enicostemma littorale, Evolvulus alsinoides etc from 24 families were recorded as a home based medicinal plants.

Uma pandi .M

2010-11-01

74

Multimedia-based Medicinal Plants Sustainability Management System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Medicinal plants are increasingly recognized worldwide as an alternative source of efficacious and inexpensive medications to synthetic chemo-therapeutic compound. Rapid declining wild stocks of medicinal plants accompanied by adulteration and species substitutions reduce their efficacy, quality and safety. Consequently, the low accessibility to and non-affordability of orthodox medicine costs by rural dwellers to be healthy and economically productive further threaten their life expectancy. ...

Zacchaeus Omogbadegun; Charles Uwadia; Charles Ayo; Victor Mbarika; Nicholas Omoregbe; Efe Otofia; Frank Chieze

2011-01-01

75

Use of medicinal plants for diabetes in Trinidad and Tobago  

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Full Text Available Use of herbal remedies from medicinal plants (bush medicines was studied in 622 people with diabetes mellitus attending 17 government health centers on the island of Trinidad, Trinidad and Tobago. Bush medicines were used by 42% of patients surveyed and were used for diabetes by 24%. Bush medicine use was more frequent in Afro-Trinidadians and in those of mixed ethnicity than in Indo-Trinidadians, and was also more prevalent in those with lower educational attainment. Most patients using bush medicines (214/264, or 81% reported gathering the plants themselves, and 107/264 (41% took them more frequently than once a week. Patients taking bush medicines mentioned 103 different plants used in remedies. Among the 12 most frequently mentioned, caraili, aloes, olive-bush, and seed-under-leaf were preferentially used for diabetes. Vervine, chandilay, soursop, fever grass, and orange peel were preferentially used for other indications. Patients who reported burning or numbness in the feet or feelings of tiredness, weakness, giddiness, or dizziness used bush medicines for diabetes more frequently than did patients who reported a range of other diabetes-related symptoms. Insulin-treated patients were less frequent users of bush medicines. It is concluded that bush medicines are taken regularly by many patients with diabetes in Trinidad. Plants most frequently used as remedies for diabetes have recognized hypoglycemic activity. Patients' culture, educational background, type of symptoms, and formal medical treatment may also influence the selection and use of bush medicines.

Mahabir D.

1997-01-01

76

Systematic organization of medicinal plant information: a monograph template proposal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The use of medicinal plants in Brazil is widespread and is supported by public policies; it has the objective of providing the population with safe and effective herbal medicines of adequate quality. An action in these policies is to develop medicinal plant monographs to gather published information [...] and decide which medicinal plants should be financed by the Brazilian government and distributed by the public health system. Currently, the monographs published worldwide do not present unified information regarding medicinal plants, and generally, they do not cover enough requirements for herbal medicine registration. The aim of this study is to develop a monograph model with standardized information not only about botany, agronomy, quality control, safety, and efficacy but also about relating regulatory aspects that support herbal medicine regulation. The development of standardized monographs favors the fast authorization and distribution of herbal medicines in the public system. The model also points out the lacking studies that should be carried out to supplement the necessary regulatory information of medicinal plants.

Ana C.B., Carvalho; Ligia A., Santos; Dâmaris, Silveira.

77

A Review of Medicinal Plants with Hypotensive or Antihypertensive Effects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This review examines medicinal plants, which have been reported to have hypotensive or antihypertensive effects. It pays particular attention but not totally restricted to plants whose antihypertensive effects have been scientifically validated. The main aim of the review is to piece together information on this subject, so as to raise more awareness, prevent duplication of efforts and possibly bring more attention to medicinal plants as a veritable source of antihypertensive drug. As the rev...

Etuk, E. U.

2006-01-01

78

Effects of gamma irradiation on antioxidants of medicinal plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The antioxidant effect of water extracts from irradiated medicinal plants on inhibition of lipid peroxidation in human plasma was examined. The results presented herein indicate that crude extracts from 29 kinds, 31 extracts, of medicinal plants, irradiated at 10 and 25 kilo gray. showed no significant change in inhibition of lipid peroxidation in plasma induced by gamma irradiation (p<0.05). It also found that extraction yields in some irradiated plants were increased

2003-06-19

79

MEDICINAL PLANTS OF RAJASTHAN (INDIA) WITH ANTIDIABETIC POTENTIAL  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rajasthan has a rich heritage of traditional system of medicine and many medicinally useful plants are found growing wildly because of vast area and variety of agro-climatic conditions. These plants are being used for the treatment of many human ailments including diabetes. Plants that are specifically employed for the treatment of diabetes are Acacia nilotica, Acacia senegal, Aegle marmelos, Calotropis procera, Capparis deciduas, Cassia auriculata, Cassia sophera, Cayratia trifolia, Cyamopsi...

2011-01-01

80

MEDICINAL PLANTS OF ASIAN ORIGIN HAVING ANTICANCER POTENTIAL: SHORT REVIEW  

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Cancer is a major public health burden in both developed and developing countries. It is the second largest common disease spread world-wide. Traditional medicines or herbal formulations can serve as the source of potential new drugs, so that initial research focuses on the active constituent of the plants. The development of novel plant derived natural products and their analogs for anticancer activity are going day by day. A number of promising agents of medicinal plants are used in clinica...

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Are Medicinal Plants Polluted with Phthalates?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phthalic acid esters (PAEs have been employed in polymer materials as a plasticizer to form them more flexible, adhesive, and soluble. These compounds are mainly used in paints, varnishes, personal cares, cosmetics, paper coatings, and adhesives even in bottled waters, shampoo, body deodorant, hairspray, and gels. Phthalates are able to possess remarkable toxic variations depending on their structures. So far, Di-(2-EthylHexyl Phthalate DEHP and Di-n- Butyl Phthalate DBP have been found to cause reproductive and developmental toxicities. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA classified DEHP as probable human carcinogen. To the best of our knowledge, phthalates showed diverse toxicity profiles according to their structures in the liver, kidneys, thyroid, and testes, which are involved in general toxicity. Furthermore, they are introduced as hormonally-active agents, because they can interfere with the endocrine system in human. Incidence of developmental abnormalities (like skeletal malformations and cleft palate, and undescended testes, lowering testes weight and anogenital distance seems increasing via high exposure to phthalate metabolites. Although, increasing the capacity for phthalate free plasticizer productions is the first step to restrict the distribution of these toxic manmade compounds, finding the new ways for phthalate absorption from the soil in agricultural fields may have benefits. Also, evaluation and examination of diverse sources of medicinal and food plants to determine the level of phthalate accumulation in their organs are extremely recommended to avoid creating toxicity particularly in reproductive systems.

Soodabeh Saeidnia

2013-05-01

82

Ethnopharmacological survey of wild medicinal plants in Showbak, Jordan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two main research questions are framing this investigation: (1) the main taxa of the medicinal importance value altered the Showbak forest stand and species composition? (2) The most safe species and what are the toxic ones (unsafe). These two research questions are the vital ones to draw a clear image about the wild medicinal plants of this investigated area of Showbak region in Jordan. 79 wild medicinal plant species were investigated in this study which are used in traditional medication for the treatment of various diseases. Most of the locals interviewed dealt with well-known safe medicinal plants such as Aaronsohnia factorovskyi Warb. et Eig., Achillea santolina L., Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Artemisia herba-alba L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Clematis recta L., Herniaria hirsuta L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta chalepensis L., Salvia triloba L., Sarcopoterium spinosa (L.) Spach., Thymbra capitata (L.) Hof, and Urginea maritima Barker. Many of the wild medicinal plants investigated were toxic and needed to be practiced by practitioners and herbalists rather than the local healers. These plants include Calotropis procera Willd R.Br., Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Sch., Datura stramonium L., Digitalis purpurea L., Ecballium elaterium (L.) A.Rich., Euphorbia helioscopia L., Euphorbia tinctoria Boiss., Glaucium corniculatum (L.) Curt., Hyoscyamus aureus L., Mandragora officinarum L., Nerium oleander L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum nigrum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunel. The conservation of medicinal plants and natural resources is becoming increasingly important, so this research is trying to collect information from local population concerning the use of medicinal plants in Showbak; identify the most important specie; determine the relative importance value of the species and calculate the informant consensus factor (ICF) for the medicinal plants. Obtaining results is relied on the interviewee's personal information and the medicinal use of specific plants. PMID:19429338

Al-Qura'n, S

2009-05-01

83

[Review on application of plant growth retardants in medicinal plants cultivation].  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant growth retardants are widely used in cultivation of medicinal plant, but there is still lack of scientific guidance. In order to guide the use of plant growth retardants in medicinal plant cultivation efficiently and reasonably, this paper reviewed the mechanism, function characteristic, plant and soil residue of plant growth retardants, such as chlorocholine chloride, mepiquat chloride, paclobutrazol, unicnazle and succinic acid, and summarized the application of plant growth retardants in medicinal plants cultivation in recent years, with focus on the effect of growth and yield of the officinal organs and secondary metabolites. PMID:24380290

Zhai, Yu-Yao; Guo, Bao-Lin; Cheng, Ming

2013-09-01

84

The microbiome of medicinal plants: diversity and importance for plant growth, quality and health  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Past medicinal plant research primarily focused on bioactive phytochemicals, however the focus is currently shifting due to the recognition that a significant number of phytotherapeutic compounds are actually produced by associated microbes or through interaction with their host. Medicinal plants provide an enormous bioresource of potential use in modern medicine and agriculture, yet their microbiome is largely unknown. The objective of this review is i to introduce novel insights into the plant microbiome with a focus on medicinal plants, ii to provide details about plant- and microbe-derived ingredients of medicinal plants, and iii to discuss possibilities for plant growth promotion and plant protection for commercial cultivation of medicinal plants. In addition, we also present a case study performed both to analyse the microbiome of three medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L. and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn. cultivated on organically managed Egyptian desert farm and to develop biological control strategies. The soil microbiome of the desert ecosystem was comprised of a high abundance of Gram-positive bacteria of prime importance for pathogen suppression under arid soil conditions. For all three plants, we observed a clearly plant-specific selection of the microbes as well as highly specific diazotrophic communities that overall identify plant species as important drivers in structural and functional diversity. Lastly, native Bacillus spec. div. strains were able to promote plant growth and elevate the plants’ flavonoid production. These results underline the numerous links between the plant-associated microbiome and the plant metabolome.

MartinaKöberl

2013-12-01

85

The microbiome of medicinal plants: diversity and importance for plant growth, quality and health.  

Science.gov (United States)

Past medicinal plant research primarily focused on bioactive phytochemicals, however, the focus is currently shifting due to the recognition that a significant number of phytotherapeutic compounds are actually produced by associated microbes or through interaction with their host. Medicinal plants provide an enormous bioresource of potential use in modern medicine and agriculture, yet their microbiome is largely unknown. The objective of this review is (i) to introduce novel insights into the plant microbiome with a focus on medicinal plants, (ii) to provide details about plant- and microbe-derived ingredients of medicinal plants, and (iii) to discuss possibilities for plant growth promotion and plant protection for commercial cultivation of medicinal plants. In addition, we also present a case study performed both to analyse the microbiome of three medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L., and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn.) cultivated on organically managed Egyptian desert farm and to develop biological control strategies. The soil microbiome of the desert ecosystem was comprised of a high abundance of Gram-positive bacteria of prime importance for pathogen suppression under arid soil conditions. For all three plants, we observed a clearly plant-specific selection of the microbes as well as highly specific diazotrophic communities that overall identify plant species as important drivers in structural and functional diversity. Lastly, native Bacillus spec. div. strains were able to promote plant growth and elevate the plants' flavonoid production. These results underline the numerous links between the plant-associated microbiome and the plant metabolome. PMID:24391634

Köberl, Martina; Schmidt, Ruth; Ramadan, Elshahat M; Bauer, Rudolf; Berg, Gabriele

2013-01-01

86

Turkish folk medicinal plants, VIII: Lalapa?a (Edirne  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the folk medicinal plants of Lalapa?a (Edirne were researched. During the field works, the information were obtained from local healers, experienced adults and patients by personal interviews and the specimens of the plants were collected. According to the results of the identifications of the specimens, 55 plant taxa are used in therapy in Lalapa?a. These are presented in a table in the text. Among them 44 taxa are wild and 11 taxa are cultivated plants. The folk medicinal plants are mostly used for stomach ailments, hemorrhoids, diabetes, cold and warts.

Ertan Tuzlac?

2010-01-01

87

An overview on antidiabetic medicinal plants having insulin mimetic property  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Diabetes mellitus is one of the common metabolic disorders acquiring around 2.8% of the world's population and is anticipated to cross 5.4% by the year 2025. Since long back herbal medicines have been the highly esteemed source of medicine therefore, they have become a growing part of modern, high-tech medicine. In view of the above aspects the present review provides profiles of plants (65 species) with hypoglycaemic properties, available through literature source from various database with ...

Patel, Dk; Prasad, Sk; Kumar, R.; Hemalatha, S.

2012-01-01

88

A REVIEW ON THE MEDICINAL PLANT PSIDIUM GUAJAVA LINN. (MYRTACEAE)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Psidium guajava is an important food crop and medicinal plant available in tropical and subtropical countries, widely used in food and folk medicines around the world. It contains important phytoconstituents such as tannins, triterpenes, flavonoid: quercetin, pentacyclic triterpenoid: guajanoic acid, saponins, carotenoids, lectins, leucocyanidin, ellagic acid, amritoside, beta-sitosterol, uvaol, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid. In view of the immense medicinal importance of the pl...

Shruthi Shirur Dakappa; Roshan Adhikari; Sanjay Sharma Timilsina; Sunita Sajjekhan

2013-01-01

89

Traditional medicines in Africa: an appraisal of ten potent african medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of medicinal plants as a fundamental component of the African traditional healthcare system is perhaps the oldest and the most assorted of all therapeutic systems. In many parts of rural Africa, traditional healers prescribing medicinal plants are the most easily accessible and affordable health resource available to the local community and at times the only therapy that subsists. Nonetheless, there is still a paucity of updated comprehensive compilation of promising medicinal plants from the African continent. The major focus of the present review is to provide an updated overview of 10 promising medicinal plants from the African biodiversity which have short- as well as long-term potential to be developed as future phytopharmaceuticals to treat and/or manage panoply of infectious and chronic conditions. In this endeavour, key scientific databases have been probed to investigate trends in the rapidly increasing number of scientific publications on African traditional medicinal plants. Within the framework of enhancing the significance of traditional African medicinal plants, aspects such as traditional use, phytochemical profile, in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies and also future challenges pertaining to the use of these plants have been explored. PMID:24367388

Mahomoodally, M Fawzi

2013-01-01

90

Screening and antibacterial activity analysis of some important medicinal plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The screening and study of five different plant specimens belonging to different families for phytochemical constituents was performed using generally accepted laboratory technique for qualitative determinations. The constituents screened were saponins, combined anthraquinones, terpenoids, flavonoids, carotenoids, steroids, xantho proteins, couramins, alkaloids, quinones, vitamin C. The distribution of these constituents in the plant specimens were assessed and compared. The medicinal plant s...

Senthilmurugan Viji, G.; Vasanthe, B.; Kuru Suresh

2013-01-01

91

Traditional home gardens: A preserve of medicinal plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditional home gardens have been described as man-managed ecosystems with high energy subsidy, complex structure, and multiple functions. These have been reported as treasure trove of a rich biodiversity of plant species including medicinal plants used for traditional home remedies of various ailments. A review of research work on the status of medicinal plants in traditional rural home gardens is presented with the objective to explore them as potential preservation site for medicinal plants. From the available literature it can be ascertained that these traditional rural home gardens can be a suitable site for conservation, propagation, and expansion of medicinal plants that form the backbone of the traditional medicine system and are fast dwindling due to over exploitation and development pattern. Widely reported presence in rural home gardens of medicinal plant species, such as, Adhatoda vasica, Nees., Aloe vera, Mill., Asparagus racemosus, Willd., Chlorophytum tuberosum, Baker., Curcuma angustifolia, Roxb., Dioscorea bulbifera, L., Dioscorea hispida, Dennst., Emblica officinalis, Gaertn., Gymnema sylvestre, Br., Rauwolfia serpentina, Benth., Terminalia arjuna, (Roxb. Wight. and Arn., Tinospora cordifolia, Miers., that are considered endangered is a further confirmation of this belief that traditional rural home gardens can be a good conservation site for domestication and conservation of these plant species.

Sangeeta Bajpai

2013-06-01

92

Effects of medicinal plant extracts on gluconeogenesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Adolfo Andrade-CettoLaboratorio de Etnofarmacología, Departamento de Biología Celular, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Coyoacán, MéxicoAbstract: On a global level, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is the most common endocrine disorder. T2DM is defined as an elevated blood glucose level associated with the absence of or inadequacy in pancreatic insulin secretion. The liver plays a key role in maintaining blood glucose levels during fasting by synthesizing glucose, mainly from lactate and amino acids through a process called gluconeogenesis. Because hepatic glucose production is increased at least twofold in patients with T2DM, targeting this pathway may lead to a blood glucose reduction in these patients. Botanical agents show promise for the development of new compounds to treat T2DM. Important mechanisms of action function via the inhibition of gluconeogenesis can occur in one of five ways: direct enzyme inhibition; through the downregulation of mRNA levels of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-P; through the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase, which leads to decreased levels of cAMP response element-binding protein, a key transcription factor for gluconeogenic enzyme phosphorylation; through the expression of the glucokinase gene, which stimulates glucokinase activity and inhibits G-6-P; and through the inhibition of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, which decreases gluconeogenesis and enzymatically inhibits G-6-P and fructose-1,6-diphosphatase.Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus, medicinal plants, gluconeogenesis, glucose 6-phosphatase, hepatic glucose production, endocrine disorder, fructose 1,6-diphosphatase

Andrade-Cetto A

2012-06-01

93

Medicinal plants for helminth parasite control: facts and fiction.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of medicinal plants for the prevention and treatment of gastro-intestinal parasitism has its origin in ethnoveterinary medicine. Although until recently the majority of the evidence on the antiparasitic activity of medicinal plants was anecdotal and lacked scientific validity, there is currently an increasing number of controlled experimental studies that aim to verify and quantify such plant activity. There are indeed a large number of plants whose anthelmintic activity has been demonstrated under controlled experimentation, either through feeding the whole plant or administering plant extracts to parasitised hosts. However, contrary to traditional expectation, there are also a great number of plants with purported antiparasitic properties, which have not been reproduced under experimental conditions. In this paper, we discuss the source of such inconsistencies between ethnoveterinary wisdom and scientific experimentation. We focus on the strengths and weaknesses of the existing methodologies used in the controlled studies to determine the activity of antiparasitic plants. We discuss issues like the seasonal and environmental variability of the plant composition, and how this can affect their antiparasitic properties and highlight the importance of identifying the mechanisms of action of such plants and the target parasite species. In addition to their antiparasitic properties, medicinal plants may also have anti-nutritional properties, which can affect animal performance and behaviour. For this reason, we emphasise the need for considering additional dimensions when evaluating medicinal plants. We also question whether using similar criteria as those used for the evaluation of anthelmintics is the way forward. We propose that a holistic approach is required to evaluate the potential of medicinal plants in parasite control and maximise their benefits on parasitised hosts. PMID:22444894

Athanasiadou, S; Githiori, J; Kyriazakis, I

2007-10-01

94

IDENTIFICATION AND CULTIVATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS MENTIONED IN AYURVEDIC CLASSICS*  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The author deals with some of the general aspects of the identifcation and cultivation of medicinal plants as well as the collection and preservation of their raw products mentioned in ancient classical Ayurvedic texts

1982-01-01

95

Search for Antimicrobial Efficacy of Certain Indian Medicinal Plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pet ether, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and distilled water extracts of two Indian medicinal plants Alpinia galanga and Embelia ribes were examined for their antimicrobial potential against selected bacteria and fungi. The purpose of screening is to justify and authenticate the use of Indian medicinal plants in ethnomedicinal or folklore as traditional treasure to cure various ailments. In present investigations attempts were made to screen the Indian medicinal plants as antimicrobial agent. The extracts were tested against selected test bacteria and fungi through disc diffusion assay where Tetracycline and Mycostatin were used as standard. Indian medicinal plants have a traditional background that they have potentials to use as antimicrobial agents. The results showed that all the extracts possess good antimicrobial activity against selected test bacteria and fungi. The present results therefore offer a scientific basis for traditional use of the various extracts of Alpinia galanga and Embelia ribes.

Ekta Menghani

2012-03-01

96

Multimedia-based Medicinal Plants Sustainability Management System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Medicinal plants are increasingly recognized worldwide as an alternative source of efficacious and inexpensive medications to synthetic chemo-therapeutic compound. Rapid declining wild stocks of medicinal plants accompanied by adulteration and species substitutions reduce their efficacy, quality and safety. Consequently, the low accessibility to and non-affordability of orthodox medicine costs by rural dwellers to be healthy and economically productive further threaten their life expectancy. Finding comprehensive information on medicinal plants of conservation concern at a global level has been difficult. This has created a gap between computing technologies' promises and expectations in the healing process under complementary and alternative medicine. This paper presents the design and implementation of a Multimedia-based Medicinal Plants Sustainability Management System addressing these concerns. Medicinal plants' details for designing the system were collected through semi-structured interviews and databases. Unified Modelling Language, Microsoft-Visual-Studio.Net, C#3.0, Microsoft-Jet-Engine4.0, MySQL, Loquendo Multilingual Text-to-Speech Software, YouTube, and VLC Media Player were used.

Zacchaeus Omogbadegun

2011-09-01

97

NEW DIMENSION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS AS ANIMAL FEED  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The medicinal plants and herbs have been used for many years in the treatment of various diseases in animals and human beings. Now-a-days, utilization of these medicinal plants is increasing. These are used in animal feed as the growth promoters. Due to prohibition of most of the antimicrobial growth promoters in animal feed because of their residual effects, plant extracts are becoming more popular. They act as antibacterial, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antifungal, analgesic, insecticidal, anticoccidial and growth promoters. These plant extracts compete with the synthetic drugs. Majority of medicinal plants do not have the residual effects. Azadiracht indica, Zizyphus vulgaris, Ocimum gratissimum and Atlanta monophylla have the strong antibacterial activity, whereas ocimum plant has strong antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antifungal, analgesic and antipyretic properties. Leaves of Azadirachta indica are used for feeding and reducing the parasitic load of animals. The fruit of Azadirachta indica also has the anticoccidial activity for poultry.

M. A. TIPU, M. S. AKHTAR, M. I. ANJUM1 AND M. L. RAJA

2006-07-01

98

Database on pharmacophore analysis of active principles, from medicinal plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Plants continue to be a major source of medicines, as they have been throughout human history. In the present days, drug discovery from plants involves a multidisciplinary approach combining ethnobotanical, phytochemical and biological techniques to provide us new chemical compounds (lead molecules) for the development of drugs against various pharmacological targets, including cancer, diabetes and its secondary complications. In view of this need in current drug discovery from medicinal plan...

2010-01-01

99

Medicinal Plants Traditionally Used in Mali for Dysmenorrhea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dysmenorrhea is painful menstrual cramps, which negatively impacts the quality of life of a large percentage of the world's female population in reproductive age. The paper reviews the plants used in the Malian traditional medicine for the treatment of dysmenorrhea. Some medicinal plants were effective for treatments of dysmenorrhea with minimal side effects. Conventional therapy for dysmenorrhea, which usually includes non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), provides symptomatic reli...

Sanogo, Rokia

2011-01-01

100

Potent ?-amylase inhibitory activity of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Indian medicinal plants used in the Ayurvedic traditional system to treat diabetes are a valuable source of novel anti-diabetic agents. Pancreatic ?-amylase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the levels of post-prandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. In this study, seventeen Indian medicinal plants with known hypoglycemic properties were subjected to sequential solvent extraction and tested for ?-amylase inhibition, in order ...

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Medicinal plants used to treat malaria in Southern Benin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

People in Benin who cannot resort to allopathic medicines provided by the pharmaceutical industry use many species of plants to alleviate malaria symptoms. Complicated mixtures of different parts of several plant species are employed orally or as a bathing substance. The inventory of 85 species and 30 mixtures bought by us in southern Benin is by no means exhaustive, but the lists serve as examples of the widespread uses in medicine in a restricted area.

Maesen, L. J. G.

2004-01-01

102

An empirical investigation on factors influencing on exporting medicinal plants  

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During the past few years, there have been growing interests on developing medicinal plant industry. This paper presents an empirical study on important factors influencing medicinal plant for developing exports in Iran. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 310 regular customers who are involved in this industry in city of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.802. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Samplng =KMO test was als...

2013-01-01

103

Neurotropic components from star anise (Illicium verum Hook. fil.)  

Science.gov (United States)

Three new neurotropic sesquiterpenoids, veranisatins A, B and C, were isolated from star anise (Illicium verum Hook. fil., Illiciaceae). Veranisatins showed convulsion and lethal toxicity in mice at a dose of 3 mg/kg (p.o.), and at lower doses they caused hypothermia. Veranisatin A and the related compound, anisatin, were tested for the other pharmacological activities such as locomotor activity and analgesic effect. Both compounds decreased the locomotion enhanced by methamphetamine at oral doses of 0.1 and 0.03 mg/kg, respectively, and demonstrated the analgesia on acetic acid-induced writhing and tail pressure pain at almost similar doses. PMID:8904818

Nakamura, T; Okuyama, E; Yamazaki, M

1996-10-01

104

Monepenepe (Cassia abbriviata: A Medicinal Plant in Botswana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cassia abbrivata commonly known, as Monepenepe in Botswana is a widespread shrub or medium sized tree or shrub belonging to the Caesalpinaceae family. In Africa it grows from Somalia to South Africa. It is important medicine plant utilized by people living in rural and urban areas where it grows. The bark and roots of the plant have medicinal properties that treat different ailment in Botswana and other countries where it grows. Too much cutting of the bark and root digging for medicinal uses has left many trees dead in Botswana. It is therefore recommended that removal of the bark for medicine should be in small pieces and not around the trunk (ring barking if the tree is to be preserved. This study reviews the characteristics and medicinal uses of Cassia abbriviata.

W. Mojeremane

2005-01-01

105

Antiplasmodial Activity of Some Medicinal Plants Used in Sudanese Folk-medicine  

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Ten plants indigenous to Sudan and of common use in Sudanese folk-medicine, were examined in vitro for antimalarial activity against schizonts maturation of Plasmodium falciparum, the major human malaria parasite. All plant samples displayed various antiplasmodial activity. Three plant extracts caused 100% inhibition of the parasite growth at concentrations of plant material ? 500 ug/ml. The two most active extracts that produced 100% inhibition of the parasite growth at concentration of pl...

2010-01-01

106

A Review of Medicinal Plants with Hypotensive or Antihypertensive Effects  

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Full Text Available This review examines medicinal plants, which have been reported to have hypotensive or antihypertensive effects. It pays particular attention but not totally restricted to plants whose antihypertensive effects have been scientifically validated. The main aim of the review is to piece together information on this subject, so as to raise more awareness, prevent duplication of efforts and possibly bring more attention to medicinal plants as a veritable source of antihypertensive drug. As the review ended, it was possible to conclude that, a lot of efforts are still needed not only in the validation of the plants but also in the areas of identifying the active principles in these medicinal plants and the conduct of clinical trials in humans.

E.U. Etuk

2006-01-01

107

Antibacterial activity of some medicinal plants grown in Jordan.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of 16 Jordanian medicinal plant extracts against four reference bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter faecalis, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhi. For that purpose, whole plants were extracted and antimicrobial susceptibility testing and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined. Ethanolic extracts of most medicinal plants exerted a dose-dependent cytotoxiciy against different reference bacteria. Origanum syriaca, Varthemia iphionoides, Psidium guajava, Sarcopoterium spinosa plant extracts were most active against S. aureus (MIC; 70 ?g/mL), E. faecalis (MIC; 130 ?g/mL), E. coli (MIC; 153 ?g/mL), and S. typhi (MIC; 110 ?g/mL), respectively. Results indicate that medicinal plants grown in Jordan might be a valuable source of starting materials for the extraction and/or isolation of new antibacterial agents. PMID:23455195

Masadeh, Majed Mohammad; Alkofahi, Ahmad Suleiman; Tumah, Haitham Najeeb; Mhaidat, Nizar Mahmoud; Alzoubi, Karem Hasan

2013-03-01

108

A short history of medicinal plants in Romania  

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Full Text Available The traditions of the exploration and use of medicinal plants is reviewed, starting with the time of Thracians and Geto-Dacians who founded first a deep knowledge and a high level of folk-medicines in the area. The first printed manual, the Herbarium of P. Melius was publicated in Cluj (1578 and on the territory of out Agrobotanical garden, organized between 1880-1890, the first Research Institute of Medicinal Plants in Europe was founded (1904. The author examines the main achievements and trends of development in the research of medicinal plants in Romania which contributed to the fact that this country is the fifth in rank of world expert.

Leon Sorin MUNTEAN

1984-08-01

109

Antioxidant Properties of Medicinal Plants from Peru  

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There is a wide diversity of plants and seasonal crops in Peru, due to the presence of many climatic zones. Numerous plants are used to cure or prevent diseases. These plants are promising candidates for functional foods products. The most frequent form in which they are used is an aqueous infusion or decoction. In this study, we compared the antioxidant properties of ten Peruvian plants infusions and investigated their relation to the phenolic content. The studied plants were: Uncaria to...

2013-01-01

110

Antioxidant activity and protecting health effects of common medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Medicinal plants are traditionally used in folk medicine as natural healing remedies with therapeutic effects such as prevention of cardiovascular diseases, inflammation disorders, or reducing the risk of cancer. In addition, pharmacological industry utilizes medicinal plants due to the presence of active chemical substances as agents for drug synthesis. They are valuable also for food and cosmetic industry as additives, due to their preservative effects because of the presence of antioxidants and antimicrobial constituents. To commonly used medicinal plants with antioxidant activity known worldwide belong plants from several families, especially Lamiaceae (rosemary, sage, oregano, marjoram, basil, thyme, mints, balm), Apiaceae (cumin, fennel, caraway), and Zingiberaceae (turmeric, ginger). The antioxidant properties of medicinal plants depend on the plant, its variety, environmental conditions, climatic and seasonal variations, geographical regions of growth, degree of ripeness, growing practices, and many other factors such as postharvest treatment and processing. In addition, composition and concentration of present antioxidants, such as phenolic compounds, are related to antioxidant effect. For appropriate determination of antioxidant capacity, the extraction technique, its conditions, solvent used, and particular assay methodology are important. PMID:23034115

Škrovánková, So?a; Mišurcová, Ladislava; Mach?, Ludmila

2012-01-01

111

Medicinal and veterinary plants of El Caurel (Galicia, northwest Spain)  

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[EN]A study of the medicinal and veterinary plants popularly used in El Caurel region (Lugo province, northwest Spain) and their relationships is reported. We obtained data for 85 species belonging to 31 families of vascular plants. Their vernacular names, properties, preparations, mode and popular uses are presented. © 1999 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Blanco, E.; Maci?a, M. J.; Morales Valverde, R.

1998-01-01

112

Antibacterial activity of some selected medicinal plants of Pakistan  

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Abstract Background Screening of the ethnobotenical plants is a pre-requisite to evaluate their therapeutic potential and it can lead to the isolation of new bioactive compounds. Methods The crude extracts and fractions of six medicinal important plants (Arisaema flavum, Debregeasia salicifolia, Carissa opaca, Pistacia integerrima, Aesculus indica, and Toona ciliata) were tested against three Gram positive an...

Bibi Yamin; Nisa Sobia; Chaudhary Fayyaz M; Zia Muhammad

2011-01-01

113

Rapid control of Chinese star anise fruits and teas for neurotoxic anisatin by Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) high resolution mass spectrometry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

After ingestion, products containing Chinese star anise (Illicium verum) contaminated or adulterated with Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum) or other Illicium species, can cause epilepsy, hallucinations, and nausea due to the rare neurotoxic sesquiterpene dilactone anisatin that is present in Japanese star anise. Thus a rapid, simple and unambiguous method for distinguishing between the morphologically similar Chinese star anise and toxic Japanese star anise is important for food safety ...

Shen, Y.; Beek, T. A.; Claassen, F. W.; Zuilhof, H.; Chen, B.; Nielen, M. W. F.

2012-01-01

114

MEDICINAL PLANTS USED AS ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS: A REVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or fungi. Diseases can spread, directly or indirectly, from one person to another. Infectious diseases are the second leading cause of death worldwide. About one-fourth of all the medicines we use, come from rainforest plants. However, scientific studies have been conducted only to a limited extent with few medicinal plants. The development of bacterial resistance to presently available antibiotics has necessitated the search of new antibacterial agents. In rural and backward area of India, several plants are commonly used as herbal medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases. Four such plants commonly used by the people of the area were screened for potential antibacterial activity.

Parmar Namita

2012-01-01

115

ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF ROOTS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS  

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Antibacterial properties of hexane, chloroform and aqueous extracts of roots of Acorus calamus, Aristolochia indica, Cyperus rotundus, Desmodium gangeticum, Holostemma ada– kodien and Kaempferia galanga, used in the traditional medicine were studied on Bacillus pumilis and Eschericia coli by disc diffusion method.

2005-01-01

116

Antimicrobial properties of roots of medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antibacterial properties of hexane, chloroform and aqueous extracts of roots of Acorus calamus, Aristolochia indica, Cyperus rotundus, Desmodium gangeticum, Holostemma ada- kodien and Kaempferia galanga, used in the traditional medicine were studied on Bacillus pumilis and Eschericia coli by disc diffusion method. PMID:22557193

Sini, S; Malathy, N S

2005-10-01

117

Taxonomical Description and Ethnobotanical Survey for Indigenous Use of Some Medicinal Plants of Rawalpindi District  

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The survey of medicinal plants was conducted in different areas of Rawalpindi district. A total of fifteen plant species from thirteen different families were studied for their therapeutic potential. There were eight trees, two shrubs and five herbs in the selected medicinal plants. All the plants were dicotyledons. All were angiosperms. The selected plant species were described taxonomically, with parts of plants used and general medicinal property of each plant. Different medicinal flora we...

Muhammad Zafar; Syed Yassir Abbas Bokharie; Muhammad Akram Tariq; Kamran Shaukat; Abida Akram

2003-01-01

118

Distinguishing chinese star anise from Japanese star anise using thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The volatile compounds from the pericarps of Illicium anisatum L., Illicium brevistylum A.C.Sm., Illicium griffithii Hook.f. & Thomson, Illicium henryi Diels, Illicium lanceolatum A.C.Sm., Illicium majus Hook.f. & Thomson, Illicium micranthum Dunn, and Illicium verum Hook.f. were examined by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). The volatiles desorbed from the pericarps of I. verum (Chinese star anise), the species traded for culinary purposes, were generally characterized by a high proportion of (E)-anethole (57.6-77.1%) and the presence of foeniculin; the latter was otherwise only detected in the pericarps of I. lanceolatum. In the pericarps of all other species analyzed, the percentage composition of (E)-anethole was comparatively lower (anise) were characterized by the presence of asaricin, methoxyeugenol, and two other eugenol derivatives, none of which were detected in any of the other species examined. TD-GC-MS enables the direct analysis of the volatile components from the pericarps of Illicium and can assist with differentiating the fruits of I. verum from other species of Illicium, particularly the more toxic I. anisatum. PMID:19507874

Howes, Melanie-Jayne R; Kite, Geoffrey C; Simmonds, Monique S J

2009-07-01

119

Plant Secondary Metabolites in some Medicinal Plants of Mongolia Used for Enhancing Animal Health and Production  

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The levels and activities of a number of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) are known to increase in response to increase in stress. The Mongolian plants considered to possess medicinal properties may contain novel compounds since they are exposed to severe conditions; such plants could become good candidates for modern drug discovery programmes. Information on distribution, palatability to livestock and opinion of local people on their nutritive and medicinal values was compiled for 15 plant...

Makkar, Hps; Norvsambuu, T.; Lkhagvatseren, S.; Becker, K.

2009-01-01

120

The genetic manipulation of medicinal and aromatic plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Medicinal and aromatic plants have always been intimately linked with human health and culture. Plant-derived medicines constitute a substantial component of present day human healthcare systems in industrialized as well as developing countries. They are products of plant secondary metabolism and are involved in many other aspects of a plant's interaction with its immediate environment. The genetic manipulation of plants together with the establishment of in vitro plant regeneration systems facilitates efforts to engineer secondary product metabolic pathways. Advances in the cloning of genes involved in relevant pathways, the development of high throughput screening systems for chemical and biological activity, genomics tools and resources, and the recognition of a higher order of regulation of secondary plant metabolism operating at the whole plant level facilitate strategies for the effective manipulation of secondary products in plants. Here, we discuss advances in engineering metabolic pathways for specific classes of compounds in medicinal and aromatic plants and we identify remaining constraints and future prospects in the field. In particular we focus on indole, tropane, nicotine, isoquinoline alcaloids, monoterpenoids such as menthol and related compounds, diterpenoids such as taxol, sequiterpenoids such as artemisinin and aromatic amino acids. PMID:17609957

Gómez-Galera, Sonia; Pelacho, Ana M; Gené, Anna; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul

2007-10-01

 
 
 
 
121

Berberis lycium a Medicinal Plant with Immense Value  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Berberis lycium belong to family Berberidaceae is an evergreen shrub growing in Himalayan region. The various parts of the plant like root, bark, stem, leaves and fruits are used by the people as a medicine or food. This plant has also gained wide acceptance for its medicinal value in ayurvedic drugs. The plant is known to prevent liver disorders, abdominal disorders, skin diseases, cough, ophthalmic etc. Moreover the pharmacological studies have shown that plant is hypoglycemic, hyperlipidemic, hepatoprotective, anticarcinogenic and antipyretic properties. The fruits of the plant are also very nutritious and are rich source of vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, anthocyanin etc. These fruits are consumed in raw form or are utilized in the preparation of juices, jams, preserve etc. by the local inhabitants. In the present article an attempt has been made to summarize the various properties of Berberis lycium plant.

Monika Sood2

2013-03-01

122

Use of medicinal plants by ambulatory patients in Puerto Rico.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of medicinal plants by the patients at the outpatient clinics of five health-care centers in Puerto Rico was evaluated. Medication histories were obtained for 802 patients ranging in age from two months to 91 years. The most frequent medical diagnosis was cardiovascular disease (54% of the patients). Respiratory and digestive disorders were the least frequent conditions, identified in only 9% and 6% of the cases, respectively. Medicinal plants were used by 57% of the population. Patients 65 years or older tended to use herbal remedies more often. Seven of the 11 most commonly used plants were used to treat gastrointestinal disorders. Other medicinal uses given were for sedation, sleep disorders, elevated blood pressure, kidney disorders, and respiratory ailments. The most frequently used plant was Citrus aurantium L. (sour orange), which was used as a sedative by 39% of the patients and for gastrointestinal disorders by 17%. Two potentially toxic plants, Solanum americanum and Annona muricata, were among the most commonly used plants. Medicinal plants were used widely by the outpatient population studied. Most herbs were used to treat self-limiting conditions but some were used to treat potentially serious medical problems, such as hypertension. PMID:6496496

Hernández, L; Muñoz, R A; Miró, G; Martínez, M; Silva-Parra, J; Chávez, P I

1984-10-01

123

Cultivation start of aromatic and medicinal plants in Romania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The necessity of cultivating aromatic and medicinal plants in Romania stems from the fact that spontaneous flora cannot face the ever-rising demand for raw material. Then, some species take up at random vast areas within spontaneous flora, sometimes difficult get at; thus spotting picking and transport become cumbersome, the rhythmus hindered and production costs high. Certain medicinal plants do not grow spontaneously, others, though extant, are rarities; still others are highly poisonous, ousted from pastures and meadows. Thus, plant raw material from these species can be obtained only through cultivation. Grown aromatic and medicinal plants offer the possibility of being harvested at the time when they are highest in active substances. Drying can be performed right on harvesting or, processing after, without drying and no need for implements. Some medicinal plants possess phytoameliorating importance - thus terrains less fit for the growth of such plants and Romania cultivates nowadays over fifty species of such plants - let alone that trend is climbing as demands are, mostly from the part of chemical and pharmaceutical industries and others too, both inner and outer customers.

Leon Sorin MUNTEAN

1998-08-01

124

Screening of some Siberian medicinal plants for antimicrobial activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antimicrobial activity of crude ethanolic extracts of 16 Siberian medicinal plants was tested against five species of microorganisms: Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. Of the 16 plants tested, 12 showed antimicrobial activity against one or more species of microorganisms. The most active antimicrobial plants were Bergenia crassifolia, Chelidonium majus, Rhaponticum carthamoides, Sanguisorba officinalis, and Tussilago farfara. PMID:12169406

Kokoska, L; Polesny, Z; Rada, V; Nepovim, A; Vanek, T

2002-09-01

125

Integrating Carbon-Halogen Bond Formation into Medicinal Plant Metabolism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Halogenation, once considered a rare occurrence in nature, has now been observed in many natural product biosynthetic pathways1. However, only a small fraction of halogenated compounds have been isolated from terrestrial plants2. Given the impact that halogenation can have on the biological activity of natural products1, we rationalized that introduction of halides into medicinal plant metabolism would provide the opportunity to rationally bioengineer a broad variety of novel plant products w...

Runguphan, Weerawat; Qu, Xudong; O’connor, Sarah E.

2010-01-01

126

A review of medicinal plants that modulate nitric oxide activity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Modulation of nitric oxide (NO) may offer novel approaches in the treatment of a variety of diseases, such as Alzheimer’s, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. A strategy in the modulation of NO expression may be through the use of herbal medicines. We surveyed medicinal plant research that utilized multicomponent extracts similar to what is used in clinical phytotherapy or in commerce, for demonstrated effects on NO activity. SciFinder Scholar, Pubmed, Web of Science, and BIOSIS were sear...

2012-01-01

127

A pharmacological appraisal of medicinal plants with antidiabetic potential  

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Diabetes mellitus is a complicated metabolic disorder that has gravely troubled the human health and quality of life. Conventional agents are being used to control diabetes along with lifestyle management. However, they are not entirely effective and no one has ever been reported to have fully recovered from diabetes. Numerous medicinal plants have been used for the management of diabetes mellitus in various traditional systems of medicine worldwide as they are a great source of biological co...

Khan, Vasim; Najmi, Abul Kalam; Akhtar, Mohd; Aqil, Mohd; Mujeeb, Mohd; Pillai, K. K.

2012-01-01

128

In vitro Bioautography of different Indian Medicinal plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In vitro screening of ethanolic crude extracts of Indian medicinal plants Terminalia chebula, Centella asatica, Solanum xanthocarpum were studied that have been popularly used as folk medicines. The main characteristic of an antioxidant is its ability to trap free radicals and also reduce the risk of chronic diseases including cancer, central nervous system injury, arthritis and heart diseases. Scientific information on antioxidant properties of various natural sources is still rather scarce....

2010-01-01

129

An Ethnopharmacological Study of Medicinal Plants in New South Wales  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Australian Aboriginal people have used plants as medicine and food for thousands of years, however, this traditional knowledge is documented only to a limited extent, and is in danger of being lost. The Indigenous Bioresources Research Group (IBRG) aims to help Australian Aboriginal communities to preserve their customary medicinal knowledge, and to provide information that can be used for their cultural or educational purposes, as well as for scientific advancement. This work is undertak...

Brouwer, N.; Liu, Q.; Harrington, D.; Kohen, J.; Vemulpad, S.; Jamie, J.; Randall, M.; Randall, D.

2005-01-01

130

PHARMACOGNOSTIC AND PHARMACOLOGICAL PROFILE OF TRADITIONAL MEDICINAL PLANT: MYRICA NAGI  

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Myrica nagi belongs to myricaceae family. It is commonly known as Bay berry (English) and Kathphal (Hindi). Myrica nagi has a long history of usage in traditional medicine against various ailments. In Ayurvedic and other traditional medicinal practices the plant has been used against diseases like, fever, Cardiac debility, typhoid, diarrhoea, dysentery. Phytochemicals like glycosides, saponins tannins, flavonoids, triterpenes and sterols have been isolated. Important pharmacological activitie...

2012-01-01

131

Identification of Ornamental Plant Functioned as Medicinal Plant Based on Redundant Discrete Wavelet Transformation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Human has a duty to preserve the nature. One of the examples is preserving the ornamental plant. Huge economic value of plant trading, escalating esthetical value of one space and medicine efficacy that contained in a plant are some positive values from this plant. However, only few people know about its medicine efficacy. Considering the easiness to obtain and the medicine efficacy, this plant should be an initial treatment of a simple disease or option towards chemical based medicines. In order to let people get acquaint, we need a system that can proper identify this plant. Therefore, we propose to build a system based on Redundant Discrete Wavelet Transformation (RDWT through its leaf. Since its character is translation invariant that able to produce some robust features to identify ornamental plant. This system was successfully resulting 95.83% of correct classification rate.

Kohei Arai

2013-03-01

132

Medicinal plants traditionally used in Mali for dysmenorrhea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dysmenorrhea is painful menstrual cramps, which negatively impacts the quality of life of a large percentage of the world's female population in reproductive age. The paper reviews the plants used in the Malian traditional medicine for the treatment of dysmenorrhea. Some medicinal plants were effective for treatments of dysmenorrhea with minimal side effects. Conventional therapy for dysmenorrhea, which usually includes non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), provides symptomatic relief, but presents increasing adverse effects with long-term use. This article is in the framework of a study supported by International Foundation for Science (IFS) on three medicinal plants used in the treatment of dysmenorrhea in Mali: Maytenus senegalensis Stereospermum kunthianum and Trichilia emetica. PMID:22754061

Sanogo, Rokia

2011-01-01

133

Cameroonian medicinal plants: Pharmacology and derived natural products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many developing countries including Cameroon have mortality patterns that reflect high levels of infectious diseases and the risk of death during pregnancy and childbirth, in addition to cancers, cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory diseases that account for most deaths in the developed world. Several medicinal plants are used traditionally for their treatment. In this review, plants used in Cameroonian traditional medicine with evidence for the activities of their crude extracts and/or derived products have been discussed. A considerable number of plant extracts and isolated compounds possess significant antimicrobial, antiparasitic including anti-malarial, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetes, and antioxidant effects. Most of the biologically active compounds belong to terpenoids, phenolics and alkaloids. Terpenoids from Cameroonian plants showed best activities as anti-parasitic, but rather poor antimicrobial effects. The best antimicrobial, anti-proliferative and antioxidant compounds were phenolics. In conclusion, many medicinal plants traditionally used in Cameroon to treat various ailments displayed good activities in vitro. This explains the endeavor of Cameroonian research institutes in drug discovery from indigenous medicinal plants. However, much work is still to be done to standardize methodologies and to study the mechanisms of action of isolated natural products.

ThomasEfferth

2010-10-01

134

Antidiarrhoeal evaluation of some nigerian medicinal plants used bini traditional folk medicine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four medicinal plants namely; Vernonia amygdalina, Psidium guajava, Chromolaena odorata and Anarcadium occidentale, commonly used for the treatment of diarrhoea in Bini traditional folk medicine in Nigeria were tested against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella aerogenes. The leaf extracts of P guajava and A occidentale completely inhibited the growth of all the organisms tested, while V amygdalina inhibited the growth of K. aerogenes only. Metronidazole was used as the standard antidiarrhoeal drug. Glycosides were found in all the plant extracts. This study, Favours the use of the leaf extracts of A occidentale, P guajava and V amygdalina for the treatment of diarrhoea in Nigeria. (author)

2008-01-01

135

Antibacterial activity of plants used in Indian herbal medicine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Delonix elata , Enicostemma axillare, Merremia tridentata, Mollugo cerviana and Solanum incanum are medicinal plants used in traditional Indian medicine for the treatment of various ailments. These plants were selected to evaluate their potential antibacterial activity. To determine antibacterial activity and phytochemicals in the crude extracts of five medicinal plants used in traditional Indian medicine for the treatment of various ailments like rheumatism, piles fever, skin diseases and snake bite. The antibacterial activity of organic solvent extracts of these plants were determined by disc diffusion and broth dilution techniques against gram-positive bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results revealed that the chloroform and methanol extracts of D. elata and methanol extracts of M. cerviana exhibited significant antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative strains with minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC ranging from 1.5 to 100 mg/ml. Methanol extracts of M. tridentata exhibited activity only against gram-positive bacterial strains with MBC ranging from 12.5 to 100 mg/ml. Extracts of E. axillare and S. incanum showed activity only against B. subtilis and were not bactericidal at 100 mg/ml. The most susceptible organism to the organic extracts from all the studied plants was B. subtilis and the most resistant organism was P. aeruginosa. The presence of phytochemicals such as alkaloids, tannins, triterpenoids, steroids and glycosides in the extracts of these plants supports their traditional uses as medicinal plants for the treatment of various ailments. The present study reveals potential use of these plants for developing new antibacterial compounds against pathogenic microorganisms.

Pavithra P

2010-01-01

136

STUDY OF DRUG LIKENESS ACTIVITY OF PHYTOCHEMICALS IN MEDICINAL PLANTS  

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Full Text Available Phytochemicals in medicinal plants can deliver potential therapeutic drugs such as anticancer, antiviral, antioxidant etc. The plant kingdom is a treasure house of potential drugs and each phytochemical cannot be tested in the wetlab preparations. Hence the main aim of the study is the drug likeness activity of phytochemicals in medicinal plants such as Anethum graveolens, Apium graveolens against hepatocellular carcinoma. These plants have anticancer, antilivercancer, hepatoprotective, antiviral activities. Focusing on these activities, the phytochemicals from these plants were collected from Dr.Duke Phytochemical and ethnobotanical database. The drug likeness is evaluated by satisfying Lipinski’s rule of five, ADMET properties, Partition coefficient analyzed through Accelerys Discovery studio. The results screen the phytochemicals and these interpretations can be further preceded for the drug designing.

V.Sathya

2012-11-01

137

Antiplasmodial Activity of Some Medicinal Plants Used in Sudanese Folk-medicine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ten plants indigenous to Sudan and of common use in Sudanese folk-medicine, were examined in vitro for antimalarial activity against schizonts maturation of Plasmodium falciparum, the major human malaria parasite. All plant samples displayed various antiplasmodial activity. Three plant extracts caused 100% inhibition of the parasite growth at concentrations of plant material ? 500 ug/ml. The two most active extracts that produced 100% inhibition of the parasite growth at concentration of plant material ? 50 µg/ml were obtained from the seeds of Nigella sativa and the whole plant of Aristolochia bracteolata. The ten plants were phytochemically screened for their active constituents. The two most active plants showed the presence of sterols, alkaloids and tannins.

El-Hadi M. Ahmed

2010-02-01

138

Antimicrobial activity of some Iranian medicinal plants  

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The major aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts of eight plant species which are endemic in Iran. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts of eight Iranian traditional plants, including Hypericum scabrum, Myrtus communis, Pistachia atlantica, Arnebia euchroma, Salvia hydrangea, Satureja bachtiarica, Thymus daenensis and Kelussia odoratissima, were investigated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Candida albi...

Ghasemi Pirbalouti Abdollah; Jahanbazi Parvin; Enteshari Shekoofeh; Malekpoor Fatemeh; Hamedi Behzad

2010-01-01

139

The Effect of Anise Oil (Pimpinella anisum L.) On Broiler Performance  

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This study was conducted to determine the use of anise oil in broiler nutrition as a natural growth promoting substance instead of antibiotics. Different levels of anise oil were added to a standard diet, to determine its effect on feed intake, daily live weight gain and feed conversion ratio compared to control and antibiotic groups. Two hundred day-old broilers (Ross-308) were divided into groups of 40 birds each and randomly assigned to the five treatment diets. Each treatment has f...

Mehmet Ciftci; Talat Guler; Bestami Dalkilic; Nihat Ertas, O.

2005-01-01

140

Medicinal plants of India with anti-diabetic potential.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in treatment of various human ailments. India has about 45000 plant species and among them, several thousands have been claimed to possess medicinal properties. Research conducted in last few decades on plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for diabetes have shown anti-diabetic property. The present paper reviews 45 such plants and their products (active, natural principles and crude extracts) that have been mentioned/used in the Indian traditional system of medicine and have shown experimental or clinical anti-diabetic activity. Indian plants which are most effective and the most commonly studied in relation to diabetes and their complications are: Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Aloe vera, Cajanus cajan, Coccinia indica, Caesalpinia bonducella, Ficus bengalenesis, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Pterocarpus marsupium, Swertia chirayita, Syzigium cumini, Tinospora cordifolia and Trigonella foenum graecum. Among these we have evaluated M. charantia, Eugenia jambolana, Mucuna pruriens, T. cordifolia, T. foenum graecum, O. sanctum, P. marsupium, Murraya koeingii and Brassica juncea. All plants have shown varying degree of hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity. PMID:12020931

Grover, J K; Yadav, S; Vats, V

2002-06-01

 
 
 
 
141

Integrating Carbon-Halogen Bond Formation into Medicinal Plant Metabolism  

Science.gov (United States)

Halogenation, once considered a rare occurrence in nature, has now been observed in many natural product biosynthetic pathways1. However, only a small fraction of halogenated compounds have been isolated from terrestrial plants2. Given the impact that halogenation can have on the biological activity of natural products1, we rationalized that introduction of halides into medicinal plant metabolism would provide the opportunity to rationally bioengineer a broad variety of novel plant products with altered, and perhaps improved, pharmacological properties. Here we report that chlorination biosynthetic machinery from soil bacteria can be successfully introduced into the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle). These prokaryotic halogenases function within the context of the plant cell to generate chlorinated tryptophan, which is then shuttled into monoterpene indole alkaloid metabolism to yield chlorinated alkaloids. A new functional group– a halide– is thereby introduced into the complex metabolism of C. roseus, and is incorporated in a predictable and regioselective manner onto the plant alkaloid products. Medicinal plants, despite their genetic and developmental complexity, therefore appear to be a viable platform for synthetic biology efforts.

Runguphan, Weerawat; Qu, Xudong; O'Connor, Sarah E.

2010-01-01

142

Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content of Some Nepalese Medicinal Plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Antioxidant capacities and phenolic contents of medicinal plants namely Usnea longifolia, Cetraria nepalensis, Parmelia minarum, Everniastrum nepalense, Rhododendron anthopogon and Fritillaria delavayi were analyzed via Folin-Ciocaltau assay, Ferric reducing activity power assay and 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. All the tested plants depicted the antioxidant activity with variation in extent of activity among the plants. The FRAP (F-value: 387.4, DPPH (F-value: 89.684 and TPC (F-value: 559.163 values between the extracts showed the highly significant differences (P R. anthopogon among the plants tested.

Bijaya Laxmi Maharjan

2013-07-01

143

[Phenylethanoid glycosides distribution in medicinal plants of Gesneriaceae].  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the role of distribution and phylogeny of phenylethanoid glycoside in medicinal plants of Gesneriaceae, five phenylpropanoid glycosides, acteoside, paraboside B, isonuomioside A, paraboside II, and paraboside III were quantitatively determined in 12 species of Gesneriaceae by HPLC. The existence and content of these compounds were analyzed. The results showed that phenylethanoid glycosides were found in the most of those plants, but the kind of phenylethanoid glycosides varied in different species. Acteoside distribute in most of this plant group, paraboside B, isonuomioside A, paraboside II, and paraboside III were rare in those plants. The results of this study support morphological viewpoint that Trib. Trichosporeae is more developmental than Trib. Didymocarpeae. PMID:24791528

Bai, Zhen-Fang; Wang, Xiao-Qin; Xiao, Pei-Gen; Liu, Yong

2013-12-01

144

Taxonomical Description and Ethnobotanical Survey for Indigenous Use of Some Medicinal Plants of Rawalpindi District  

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Full Text Available The survey of medicinal plants was conducted in different areas of Rawalpindi district. A total of fifteen plant species from thirteen different families were studied for their therapeutic potential. There were eight trees, two shrubs and five herbs in the selected medicinal plants. All the plants were dicotyledons. All were angiosperms. The selected plant species were described taxonomically, with parts of plants used and general medicinal property of each plant. Different medicinal flora were transferred for a live herbarium and a dry herbarium was also maintained. It is desired that the indigenous plant material should be collected, identified, processed and utilized for medicinal purposes.

Muhammad Zafar

2003-01-01

145

Varieties of aromatic and medicinal plants developed in Romania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objectives of aromatic and medicinal plant breeding are complex: of these, the establishment of numerous traits: yield level, raw-material quality (content in active substances, uniformness of the material and reaching of technological maturity of harvesting, ability to adaptation and hardiness to diseases, pests, laying, frost, drought etc., behavior of plant raw-material during processing etc. In Romania, 20 species have been developed and authenticated, all productive and rich in active substances, weather-and pest resistant; of these, seven were authenticated between 1990 and 1997: Unirea (Cynara scolymus L., Record (Mentha crispa L., Silvia (Datura innoxia Mill., Smarald (Thymus vulgaris L., Safir (Papaver somniferum L., Tages (Tagetes patula L., Azur (Vinca minor L.. Seed and planting material with important numbers of species of aromatic and medicinal plants have been developed with years.

Leon Sorin MUNTEAN

1998-08-01

146

Iranian Medicinal Plants for Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review  

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Full Text Available In the Iranian traditional medicine a significant usage of herbs is promoted for their anti-diabetic activity. The aim of this review to assess the efficacy of glucose lowering effects of medicinal plants cultivated in Iran. An electronic literature search of MEDLINE, Science Direct, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library Database, Ebsco and Google Scholar from database inception conducted up to May 2012. A total of 85 studies (18 humans and 67 animals examining 62 plants were reviewed. The quality of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs assessed by using the Jadad scale. Among the RCTs studies, the best results in glycemic control was found in Aloe vera, Citrullus colocynthus, Plantago ovata, Silybum marianum, Rheum ribes and Urtica dioica. The majority of plants that have been studied for antidiabetic activity showed promising results. However, efficacy and safety of the most plants used in the treatment of diabetes are not sufficient.

Mohsen Taghizadeh

2013-01-01

147

Iranian medicinal plants for diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Iranian traditional medicine a significant usage of herbs is promoted for their anti-diabetic activity. The aim of this review to assess the efficacy of glucose lowering effects of medicinal plants cultivated in Iran. An electronic literature search of MEDLINE, Science Direct, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library Database, Ebsco and Google Scholar from database inception conducted up to May 2012. A total of 85 studies (18 humans and 67 animals) examining 62 plants were reviewed. The quality of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) assessed by using the Jadad scale. Among the RCTs studies, the best results in glycemic control was found in Aloe vera, Citrullus colocynthus, Plantago ovata, Silybum marianum, Rheum ribes and Urtica dioica. The majority of plants that have been studied for antidiabetic activity showed promising results. However, efficacy and safety of the most plants used in the treatment of diabetes are not sufficient. PMID:24498803

Rashidi, Ali Akbar; Mirhashemi, Seyyed Mehdi; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Sarkhail, Parisa

2013-05-01

148

Antibacterial activity of selected Myanmar medicinal plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thirteen plants which are traditionally used for the treatment of dysentery and diarrhoea in Myanmar were selected and tested for antibacterial activity by using agar disc diffusion technique. Polar and nonpolar solvents were employed for extraction of plants. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extracts with the most significant predominant activity were evaluated by plate dilution method. The plants Eugenia jambolana, Quisqualis indica, Leucaena glauca and Euphorbia splendens var. 1 were found to show significant antibacterial activity. It was also observed that extracts using nonpolar solvents did not show any antibacterial activity and extracts using polar solvents showed antibacterial activity on tested bacteria, indicating that the active chemical compound responsible for the antibacterial action must be a polar soluble compound. (author)

2001-01-01

149

Cultivation and breeding of Chinese medicinal plants in Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is increasingly used in Germany and Europe. Due to the need for herbal drugs of consistent quality and reliable supply, methods for commercial field cultivation and post-harvest processing under south German conditions have been developed for selected plant species used in CHM since 1999. The project used an interdisciplinary approach covering all aspects from seed sourcing to medicinal application. This paper describes the outcome of the agricultural seed and field experiments, breeding program, botanical and chemical characterization of the experimental material, comparison of experimental and imported herbal material with respect to their pharmaceutical quality, transfer of production methods and plant material to specialized farmers, medicinal application and, finally, information for users along the chain of distribution about the benefits of the locally produced herbal material. PMID:21077027

Heuberger, Heidi; Bauer, Rudolf; Friedl, Fritz; Heubl, Günther; Hummelsberger, Josef; Nögel, Rainer; Seidenberger, Rebecca; Torres-Londoño, Paula

2010-12-01

150

Direct Detection of Triterpenoid Saponins in Medicinal Plants  

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Direct detection of saponins in medicinal plants using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is reported in this paper. Crude dry plant powders were mixed with potassium bromide (KBr) powder and compressed to a thin pellet for infrared examination. FTIR spectra of the test samples showed -OH, -C=O, C-H, and C=C absorptions characteristic of oleanane triterpenoid saponins. The C-O-C absorptions indicated glycoside linkages to the sapogenins. Phytochemical analysis confirmed the presen...

Kareru, P. G.; Keriko, J. M.; Gachanja, A. N.; Kenji, G. M.

2007-01-01

151

Antimalarial Activity in Crude Extracts of Some Cameroonian Medicinal Plants  

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Fifteen crude extracts from the stem bark and seeds of four medicinal plants, viz: Entandrophragma angolense, Picralima nitida, Schumanniophyton magnificum and Thomandersia hensii were tested in vitro for their antimalarial activity against the chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum W2 strain. The results showed that the extracts of these plants possessed some antimalarial activity, the methanol extract of Picralima nitida demonstrating the highest activity in vitro. Further isolation an...

Bickii, Jean; Tchouya, Guy Raymond Feuya; Tchouankeu, Jean Claude; Tsamo, Etienne

2006-01-01

152

Antifungal Activity of Medicinal Plants from Jordan Environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Medicinal plants collected from different locations in Jordan were tested for their antifungal activities against 5 plant pathogenic fungi: Phytophthora infestans, Fuusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, Stemphylium solani and Mucor sp. Data of this study showed that the highest growth inhibition of all fungi was observed with Salvia indica, which gave (66.3%, of inhibitions for Stemphylium, followed by Mucor (60.5%, R. solani (51.7%, F. oxysporum (48% and P. infestans (28.8%.

Amjad B. Khalil

2005-01-01

153

Anxiolytic Activity Evaluation of Four Medicinal Plants from Cameroon  

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Afrormosia laxiflora (A. laxiflora), Chenopodium ambrosioides (C. ambrosioides), Microglossa pyrifolia (M. pyrifolia) and Mimosa pudica (M. pudica) are plants used in traditional medicine in Cameroon to treat insomnia, epilepsy, anxiety, and agitation. They were evaluated for their anxiolytic like activity in mice. Animal models (elevated plus maze and stress-induced hyperthermia tests) were used. The four plants showed anxiolytic activity. In stress-induced hyperthermia test, A. laxiflora, C...

2011-01-01

154

Database on pharmacophore analysis of active principles, from medicinal plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Plants continue to be a major source of medicines, as they have been throughout human history. In the present days, drug discovery from plants involves a multidisciplinary approach combining ethnobotanical, phytochemical and biological techniques to provide us new chemical compounds (lead molecules) for the development of drugs against various pharmacological targets, including cancer, diabetes and its secondary complications. In view of this need in current drug discovery from medic...

Pitchai, Daisy; Manikkam, Rajalakshmi; Rajendran, Sasikala R.; Pitchai, Gnanamani

2010-01-01

155

Review on antifungal activities of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants  

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Infectious diseases represent a critical problem to health and they are one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The resistance to antibiotics and with the toxicity during prolonged treatment with several drugs due to this medicinal plants are widely used by the traditional medical practitioners for curing various diseases in their day to day practice. Since ancient times, plants...

A K Meena, Ramanjeet Kaur

2010-01-01

156

Medicinal Plants: A Public Resource for Metabolomics and Hypothesis Development  

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Specialized compounds from photosynthetic organisms serve as rich resources for drug development. From aspirin to atropine, plant-derived natural products have had a profound impact on human health. Technological advances provide new opportunities to access these natural products in a metabolic context. Here, we describe a database and platform for storing, visualizing and statistically analyzing metabolomics data from fourteen medicinal plant species. The metabolomes and associated transcrip...

2012-01-01

157

In vitro mutation breeding in medicinal plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate radiosensitivity of in vitro cell, callus of Carthamus tincrorius L. was irradiated with gamma rays. Radiosensitivity of callus was intermediate between that of dormant seed and growing seedling. The effect of irradiation dose rate was observed. Irradiation effect varied due to preculture period in each culture. Depression of growth by irradiation was recoverd in the second subculture after irradiation. Berberine content was investigated in culture of Coptis japonica Makino. Embryoids derived from leaf blade shows higher concentration than those derived from leaf petiole and basal end of flower bud. Irradiation to enbryoid caused decrease of its content on the average, but some irradiated embryoids showed high content of berberine. In Datura alba Nees and C. Japonica Makino, regenerated plants were obtained. The number of regenerated plants depended on tissues from which callus was derived and on line of material plants. It is suggested from this experiment that choice of genotype which shows a high frequency of plant regeneration and of condition of mutagenic treatment which induce mutants at highest efficiency as possible were important for breeding efficacy. (author)

1986-01-01

158

Antimicrobial Activity of Some Turkish Medicinal Plants  

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In this study, antimicrobial activity of Rhododendron ponticum L., Prunus laurocerasus L., Agrimonia eupatoria L., Cornus mas L., Vitis vinifera L., Punica granatum L., Anthemis cotula L., Cichorium intybus L., Viscum album L., Papaver hybridum L., Malva rotundifolia L. and Rhus coriaria L. were investigated. The ethanolic extracts of these plants were tested against Escherichia coli ATCC 11230, Stap...

Dulger, B.; Gonuz, A.

2004-01-01

159

HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT OF A FEW MEDICINAL PLANTS  

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Indigenous plants such as Ocimum Sancium, Aegle marmelos, Azadiracta indica, and Murraya koenigii decreased the blood sugar of streptozotocin diabetic rabbits. The most effective drug Aegle marmelos in different solvents showed different rate of hypoglycemic action. On feeding streptozotocin to diabetic rabbits for a period of 3 months aegle marmelos showed remarkable hypoglycemic action.

Santoshkumari, K. S.; Devi, K. S.

1990-01-01

160

A pharmacological appraisal of medicinal plants with antidiabetic potential.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diabetes mellitus is a complicated metabolic disorder that has gravely troubled the human health and quality of life. Conventional agents are being used to control diabetes along with lifestyle management. However, they are not entirely effective and no one has ever been reported to have fully recovered from diabetes. Numerous medicinal plants have been used for the management of diabetes mellitus in various traditional systems of medicine worldwide as they are a great source of biological constituents and many of them are known to be effective against diabetes. Medicinal plants with antihyperglycemic activities are being more desired, owing to lesser side-effects and low cost. This review focuses on the various plants that have been reported to be effective in diabetes. A record of various medicinal plants with their established antidiabetic and other health benefits has been reported. These include Allium sativa, Eugenia jambolana, Panax ginseng, Gymnema sylvestre, Momrodica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Trigonella foenum graecum and Tinospora cordifolia. All of them have shown a certain degree of antidiabetic activity by different mechanisms of action. PMID:22368396

Khan, Vasim; Najmi, Abul Kalam; Akhtar, Mohd; Aqil, Mohd; Mujeeb, Mohd; Pillai, K K

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

PIXE-PIGE analysis of some Indian medicinal plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The quantitative estimation of various trace element concentrations in medicinal plants is necessary for determining their effectiveness in treating various diseases and for understanding their pharmacological action. Elemental concentrations of some selected medicinal plants of north east India was measured by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and proton induced {gamma}-ray emission (PIGE) techniques. PIXE measurements were carried out using 2.4 MeV collimated protons from the 3 MV tandetron accelerator of NCCCM, Hyderabad (India) while the PIGE measurements were carried out using 3 MeV protons from the same accelerator in the same laboratory. Accuracy and precision of the techniques were assured by analyzing certified reference materials in the same experimental conditions. Various elements of biological importance in man's metabolism were found to be present in varying concentrations in the studied medicinal plants and no toxic heavy metals were detected. The concentration of the various elements in the medicinal plants and their role in treating various diseases are discussed.

Nomita Devi, K., E-mail: nomita_k@rediffmail.co [Department of Physics, Manipur University, Canchipur, Imphal 795003 (India); Nandakumar Sarma, H. [Department of Physics, Manipur University, Canchipur, Imphal 795003 (India)

2010-06-15

162

Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants of the Cerrado, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to determine the potential of Cerrado plants as sources of antimicrobial activity, the phytochemical screening of ethanol extracts from Virola surinamensis, Qualea grandiflora, Alchornea castaneifolia, Hancornia speciosa and Curatella americana traditionally used in folk medicine are reported. PMID:18350520

Costa, E S; Hiruma-Lima, C A; Lima, E O; Sucupira, G C; Bertolin, A O; Lolis, S F; Andrade, F D P; Vilegas, W; Souza-Brito, A R M

2008-05-01

163

Genotoxicity detection of five medicinal plants in Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was performed to investigate the safety of Alchornea cordifolia, Cnestis ferruginea, Lonchocarpus sericeus, Trema orientalis, and Senna alata in respect to genotoxicity. These five medicinal plants are widely distributed in Africa. They are used as a traditional medicine in many African counties for the treatment of microbial, inflammatory, and stress-related diseases. To evaluate the bacterial reverse mutation of these five medicinal plants, the in vitro Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, and TA1537, and Escherichia coli WP2uvrA, with or without the addition of S9 mixture was performed. Concentrations used for this test were 625, 2,500, and 5,000 µg per plate. A. cordifolia, C. ferruginea, L. sericeus, and T. orientalis showed negative results in the bacterial reverse mutation test, suggesting that it is potentially safe for these plants to be used in medicinal plants supplements at high doses. However, our experiments suggest that S. alata is a potent mutagen. Therefore, further studies are needed to evaluate the carcinogenicity of S. alata in order to adequately assess the risks for human health. PMID:21297345

Hong, Chang-Eui; Lyu, Su-Yun

2011-01-01

164

Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Some Nigerian Medicinal Plant Extracts  

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The present research evaluates the DPPH radical scavenging, total antioxidant activities, reducing power and total contents of phenolic compounds in methanolic leaf extracts of five Nigerian medicinal plants (Dalbergia saxatilis Hook.f. (Papilionacae), Ekebergia senegalensis A.Juss.(Meliaceae), Hymenocardia acida Tul. (Hymenocardiaceae), Icacina tricantha Oliv. (Icacinaceae) and Salacia pallescens Oliv.(Celastraceae). Total phenols were analysed according to...

Sofidiya, M. O.; Odukoya, O. A.; Familoni, O. B.; Inya-agha, S. I.

2006-01-01

165

New strategy may save the medicinal plant, Goldenseal  

Science.gov (United States)

Three research posters have recently been placed online at the Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre (ECORC) Website. This one, by A. Sinclair and P.M. Catling, proposes a recovery method for the native medicinal plant Goldenseal, threatened in Canada. All three posters are available in .pdf format.

Catling, P. M.; Sinclair, A.

166

Identification, Characterization, and Palynology of High-Valued Medicinal Plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

High-valued medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina, and Vetiveria zizanioides were identified with the help of taxonomical markers and investigated for characterization and palynological studies. These parameters are used to analyze their quality, safety, and standardization for their safe use. Botanical description and crude drug des...

Fazal, Hina; Ahmad, Nisar; Haider Abbasi, Bilal

2013-01-01

167

PIXE-PIGE analysis of some Indian medicinal plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The quantitative estimation of various trace element concentrations in medicinal plants is necessary for determining their effectiveness in treating various diseases and for understanding their pharmacological action. Elemental concentrations of some selected medicinal plants of north east India was measured by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and proton induced ?-ray emission (PIGE) techniques. PIXE measurements were carried out using 2.4 MeV collimated protons from the 3 MV tandetron accelerator of NCCCM, Hyderabad (India) while the PIGE measurements were carried out using 3 MeV protons from the same accelerator in the same laboratory. Accuracy and precision of the techniques were assured by analyzing certified reference materials in the same experimental conditions. Various elements of biological importance in man's metabolism were found to be present in varying concentrations in the studied medicinal plants and no toxic heavy metals were detected. The concentration of the various elements in the medicinal plants and their role in treating various diseases are discussed.

2010-06-01

168

Antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of Kenyan medicinal plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Seven medicinal plant extracts traditionally used in Kenya, mainly for management of infectious conditions, were chosen and screened for their antibacterial activity against Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. Antibacterial activity was tested using the broth dilution method. Harrisonia abyssinica and Terminalia kilimandscharica extracts showed significant activity against Gram+ and Gram- bacteria....

Cyrus, Wagate G.; Daniel, Gakuya W.; Nanyingi, Mark O.; Njonge, Francis K.; Mbaria, James M.

2008-01-01

169

Quantification and identification of flavonoids of some Indian medicinal plants  

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Ethanol extract of leaves root, stem, bark, of some Indian medicinal plants afforded quercetin and kaempferol as major flavonoids. The maximum total flavonoids content (0.35 mg/gdw) was found in stem of Balanites aegyptica and minimum (0.15mg/gdw) in stem of Eclipta alba.

2010-01-01

170

Antimicrobial Activity of Certain Plants used in Turkish Traditional Medicine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ethanolic extracts of 16 Turkish plant species used in folk medicine were investigated for their antimicrobial activities against nine bacterial species (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus cereus, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Listeria monocytogenes and Micrococcus luteus) and three yeasts (Candida albicans, Kluyveromyces fragilis and Rhodo...

Basaran Dulger; Ahmet Gonuz

2004-01-01

171

Traditional medicinal plant use in Loja province, Southern Ecuador  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Loja province, Southern Ecuador. Two hundred fifteen plant species were collected, identified and their vernacular names and traditional uses recorded. This number of species indicates that the healers, market vendors and members of the public interviewed still have a very high knowledge of plants in their surroundings, which can be seen as a reflection of the knowledge of the population in general. However, the area represents only an outlier of the larger Northern Peruvian cultural area, where more than 500 species of plants are used medicinally, indicating that in Ecuador much of the original plant knowledge has already been lost. Most plant species registered are only used medicinally, and only a few species have any other use (construction, fodder, food. The highest number of species is used for the treatment of "magical" (psychosomatic ailments (39 species, followed by respiratory disorders (34, problems of the urinary tract (28, Fever/Malaria (25, Rheumatism (23 and nervous system problems (20.

Sharon Douglas

2006-10-01

172

Antimicrobial Activity of Some Indian Medicinal Plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The antimicrobial potential of seventy-seven extracts from twenty-four plants was screened against eight bacteria and four pathogenic fungi, using microbroth dilution assay. Lowest concentration of the extract, which inhibits any visual microbial growth after treatment with p-iodonitrotetrazolium violet, was considered to be minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Water extracts of Acacia nilotica, Justicia zelanica, Lantana camara and Saraca asoca exhibited good activity against all the bact...

Dabur, Rajesh; Gupta, Amita; Mandal, T. K.; Singh, Desh Deepak; Bajpai, Vivek; Gurav, A. M.; Lavekar, G. S.

2007-01-01

173

Antimicrobial Activity of Some Turkish Medicinal Plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, antimicrobial activity of Rhododendron ponticum L., Prunus laurocerasus L., Agrimonia eupatoria L., Cornus mas L., Vitis vinifera L., Punica granatum L., Anthemis cotula L., Cichorium intybus L., Viscum album L., Papaver hybridum L., Malva rotundifolia L. and Rhus coriaria L. were investigated. The ethanolic extracts of these plants were tested against Escherichia coli ATCC 11230, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538P, Klebsiella pneumoniae UC57, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Proteus vulgaris ATCC 8427, Bacillus cereus ATCC 7064, Mycobacterium smegmatis CCM 2067, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 15313, Micrococcus luteus CCM 169, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Rhodotorula rubra DSM 70403 and Kluyveromyces fragilis ATCC 8608 by disc diffusion method. Of the 12 plants tested, nine showed antimicrobial activity. Each plant species has unique against different microorganisms. The fruit extract of Rhus coriaria had the highest antimicrobial effect with an inhibition zone of 12-52 mm against all the bacteria, but not shown antiyeast effect. Except for the extracts of Rhus coriaria, Agrimonia eupatoria and Anthemis cotula, all additional extracts of generated inhibition zones smaller than those generated by several reference antibiotics.

B. Dulger

2004-01-01

174

African medicinal plants with antidiabetic potentials: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diabetes mellitus is one of the major health problems in Africa. The conventional oral synthetic antidiabetic drugs available to manage the disease are costly and not readily affordable to the majority of the affected population. Interestingly, the continent is endowed with a tremendous number of medicinal plants that have been explored for their folkloric treatment of diabetes mellitus. Scientific investigations have validated the antidiabetic potentials of a number of these medicinal plants but there is no repository with information on these scientifically investigated plants as a guide for future research. In this review article, all of the in vivo antidiabetic studies conducted between January 2000 and July 2013 on African plants are systematically compiled with a closer look at some relevant plants from the continent's subregions. Plants of the Asteraceae and Lamiaceae families are the most investigated, and West Africa has the highest number of investigated plants. Although promising results were reported in many cases, unfortunately, only a few studies reported the partial characterization of bioactive principles and/or mechanisms of action. It is hoped that government agencies, pharmaceutical industries, and the scientific community will have a look at some of these plants for future research and, if possible, subsequent commercialization. PMID:24535720

Mohammed, Aminu; Ibrahim, Mohammed Auwal; Islam, Md Shahidul

2014-03-01

175

LEAF COLOR, AREA AND EDGE FEATURES BASED APPROACH FOR IDENTIFICATION OF INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a method for identification of medicinal plants based on some important features extracted from its leaf images. Medicinal plants are the essential aspects of ayurvedic system of medicine. The leaf extracts of many medicinal plants can cure various diseases and have become alternate for allopathic medicinal system now a days. Hence this paper presents an approach where the plant isidentified based on its leaf features such as area, color histogram and edge histogram. Experimental analysis was conducted with few medicinal plant species such as Hibiscus, Betle, Ocimum, Leucas, Vinca, Murraya, Centella, Ruta and Mentha. The result proves this method to be a simple and an efficient attempt.

Sandeep Kumar.E

2012-07-01

176

A new medicinal plant from Amazonian Ecuador.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dalbergaria tessmanii, a shrub of the Gesneriaceae locally abundant in the tropical forests of Ecuador, is variously ethnomedicinally employed. For example, none of several Shuar (Jívaro) herbal healers know or use it, but the one Shuar Shaman consulted extols its importance in reducing vaginal bleeding. Although Mestizo native consultants from the provincial capital of Morona-Santiago report its use in alleviating heart problems, those from Pastaza Province employ it to reduce menstrual flow. The Lowland Quechua apparently use it for this purpose as well. This plant has apparently not yet been chemically examined. Its reported use in several different cultural context suggest that it should be phytochemically investigated. PMID:6677821

van Asdall, W

1983-12-01

177

Screening of Korean Medicinal Plant Extracts for ?-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities.  

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Glycosidases are the enzymes involved in various biochemical processes related to metabolic disorders and diseases. Therefore, much effort has been focused on searching novel pharmacotherapy for the treatment of these ailments from medicinal plants due to higher safety margins. To pursue these efforts, the present study was performed to evaluate the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities of thirty Korean medicinal plant extracts. Among the plants studied, Euonymus sachalinensis, Rhododendron schlippenbachii, Astilbe chinensis and Juglans regia showed the strongest ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 10, 20, 30 and 80 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, Meliosma oldhamii and Symplocos chinensis showed moderate ?-glucosidase inhibition with IC50 values of 150 and 220 µg/mL, respectively. Therefore, they might prove to be a potential natural source for the treatment of metabolic ailments such as, diabetes, and need further investigations. PMID:24250352

Sancheti, Shruti; Sancheti, Sandesh; Lee, Seung-Hun; Lee, Jae-Eun; Seo, Sung-Yum

2011-01-01

178

POLYPHENOLS AND FLAVONOIDS OF TWELVE INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS  

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Full Text Available In the present work, twelve Indian medicinal plants (Averrhoa carambola L., Buchanania lanzan Spr., Calophylluminophyllum L., Celastrus paniculatus Willd., Clerodendron multiflorum L., Luffa acutangula (L. Roxb., Morindacitrifolia L., Ocimum gratissimum L., Peltophorum ferrugineum (Decne., Phyllanthus fraternus Webster Syn.,Triumfetta rotundifolia Lam. and Ziziphus nummularia (Burm. F. were evaluated for their total phenol andflavonoid content. The plant material was extracted individually in different solvents by cold percolation method.Total phenol and flavonoid content was measured by using Folin-Ciocalteu’s reagent method and aluminumchloride colorimeter method respectively. Amongst the twelve plants screened, methanolic extract of P. ferrugineumhad highest total phenol and flavonoid content. These results suggest that the methanolic extract of P. ferrugineumcan be considered as a medicinal source for the treatment and prevention of many free radical related diseases

Dishant Desai

2013-01-01

179

Kenyan medicinal plants used as antivenin: a comparison of plant usage  

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Full Text Available Abstract The success of snake bite healers is vaguely understood in Kenya, partly due to their unknown materia medica and occult-mystical nature of their practice. A comparison is made of plants used in snake bite treatments by two culturally distinct African groups (the Kamba and Luo. Thirty two plants used for snakebite treatment are documented. The majority of the antidotes are prepared from freshly collected plant material – frequently leaves. Though knowledge of snake bite conditions etiological perceptions of the ethnic groups is similar, field ethnobotanical data suggests that plant species used by the two ethnic groups are independently derived. Antivenin medicinal plants effectively illustrate the cultural context of medicine. Randomness or the use of a variety of species in different families appears to be a feature of traditional snake bite treatments. A high degree of informant consensus for the species was observed. The study indicates rural Kenya inhabitants rely on medicinal plants for healthcare.

Kisangau Daniel P

2006-02-01

180

Ethnoveterinary medicinal plants at Bale Mountains National Park, Ethiopia.  

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An ethnobotanical study on veterinary medicinal plants of Bale Mountains National Park and adjacent areas was conducted from July 2003 to June 2004. Semi-structured interviews and observations were used to generate ethnoveterinary data from traditional healers residing in the park and buffer zones. A total of 25 animal ailments were reported, of which blackleg, Darissaa and hepatitis were the most frequently reported ailments. Seventy four veterinary medicinal plant species that were distributed among 64 genera and 37 families were recorded. The most utilized growth forms were herbs (35 species, 47.3%) followed by shrubs (28 species, 37.84%). Roots (54 species, 41.54%) followed by leaves (47 species, 36.15%) were the most frequently used plant parts for ethnoveterinary medicine. Usually, fresh materials (53 species, 43.44%) were preferred for medicine preparations. The most frequently used route of drug administration was oral (65 species, 42.76%) followed by dermal (55 species, 36.18%). Indigenous knowledge was mostly transferred to an elect of a family member in word of mouth indicating that it was prone to fragmentation or loss. PMID:17368989

Yineger, Haile; Kelbessa, Ensermu; Bekele, Tamrat; Lulekal, Ermias

2007-05-30

 
 
 
 
181

Antiamoebic and phytochemical screening of some Congolese medicinal plants.  

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Results from the in vitro antiamoebic activity of some Congolese plant extracts used as antidiarrhoeic in traditional medicine indicated that of 45 plant extracts tested, 35 (77.78%) exhibited an antiamoebic activity and 10 (22.22%) were inactive. The highest activity (MIC extracts from root bark of Paropsia brazzeana, Cryptolepis sanguinolenta, Alchornea cordifolia, Hensia pulchella, Maprounea africana, Rauwolfia obscura and Voacanga africana, leaves and stem bark of Psidium guajava, stem bark of Dialum englerianum, Harungana madagascariensis and Mangifera indica, mature seeds of Carica papaya, and leaves of Morinda morindoides and Tithonia diversifolia. Metronidazole used as reference product showed a more pronounced activity than that of all plant extracts tested. PMID:9687082

Tona, L; Kambu, K; Ngimbi, N; Cimanga, K; Vlietinck, A J

1998-05-01

182

Artemisia herba alba: A Popular Plant with Potential Medicinal Properties  

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Full Text Available Artemisia herba alba (Asteraceae, commonly known as desert or white wormwood, is used in folk medicine for treatment of various diseases. Phytochemical studies of this plant revealed the existence of many beneficial compounds such as herbalbin, cis-chryanthenyl acetate, flavonoids (hispidulin and cirsilineol, monoterpenes, sesquiterpene. The aerial parts are characterized by a very low degree of toxicity. This study reviews the main reports of the pharmacological and toxicological properties of Artemisia herba alba in addition to the main constituents. It would appear that this plant exhibits many beneficial properties. Further studies are warranted to more integrate this popular plant in human health care system.

Abderrahmane Moufid

2012-01-01

183

PLANTS USED IN FOLK MEDICINE BY THE KOTAS OF NILGIRI DISTRICT, TAMIL NADU  

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The present report deals with 34 plants of ethno botanical significance used s food and medicine by the Kotas of Nilgiri District, Tamil Nadu. Dietary and medicinal applications of plants re briefly summarized and presented.

Rajan, S.; Sethuraman, M.

1991-01-01

184

Search for antiinflammatory activity in Argentine Medicinal Plants.  

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Extracts of different polarity from four Argentine medicinal plants used in folk medicine as antiinflammatory remedies were tested for bioactivity using carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats and TPA-induced ear edema in mice. A dichloromethane extract from Pluchea sagittalis showed good antiinflammatory activity in both tests. Flavonoids present in this extract may be responsible for the activity. Ipomoea fistulosa dichloromethane extract showed significant activity in the ear edema test while a dichloromethane extract from Eupatorium inulaefolium and aqueous extract of Polygonum punctatum exhibited antiinflammatory activity in the carrageenan-induced edema test. PMID:23194967

Gorzalczany, S; Acevedo, C; Muschietti, L; Martino, V; Ferraro, G

1996-09-01

185

PHARMACOGNOSTIC AND PHARMACOLOGICAL PROFILE OF TRADITIONAL MEDICINAL PLANT: MYRICA NAGI  

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Full Text Available Myrica nagi belongs to myricaceae family. It is commonly known as Bay berry (English and Kathphal (Hindi. Myrica nagi has a long history of usage in traditional medicine against various ailments. In Ayurvedic and other traditional medicinal practices the plant has been used against diseases like, fever, Cardiac debility, typhoid, diarrhoea, dysentery. Phytochemicals like glycosides, saponins tannins, flavonoids, triterpenes and sterols have been isolated. Important pharmacological activities such as hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, antihelmintic, antiinflammatory and antiasthmatic properties were shown by researchers. This review presents a detailed survey of the literature on various traditional uses, phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Myrica nagi.

Ashok Kumar

2012-12-01

186

The importance of medicinal plants for the Algodoal fishing community  

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Full Text Available Over the past three decades the fishermen of the Salgado, region on the Pará coast, have experienced a process of cultural, social and economic change, although the use of plants for various purposes has persisted. The aims of this study were to identify the species of restinga which are most widely used for medicinal purposes by the residents of Algodoal, a fishing community located in the region in question, and to test ethnobotanical techiniques designed for this objective. During the study, 24 species with medicinal properties were identified, of which eight were outstanding in terms of cultural importance.

André Luís Cote Roman

2006-04-01

187

ANTIOXIDANT AND PHYTOCHEMICAL POTENTIAL OF MEDICINAL PLANT KALANCHOE PINNATA  

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Full Text Available The phytochemical analysis of the medicinal plant Kalonchoe pinnata was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential. Alcoholic extracts of the leaves was subjected to in vitro antioxidant activity screening models such as inhibition of lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide ,superoxide radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. Ascorbic acid was used as the standard for superoxide anion radical scavenging activities. Butylated Hydroxy Toluene (BHT is used as standard for anti-lipid peroxidation activity and for nitric oxide scavenging activity Gallic acid is used as a standard. In all the models studied, the extracts showed potent antioxidant activity, thereby augmenting it into the present day system of medicine.

S. Chandra Mohan et al.

2012-03-01

188

An overview on antidiabetic medicinal plants having insulin mimetic property.  

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Diabetes mellitus is one of the common metabolic disorders acquiring around 2.8% of the world's population and is anticipated to cross 5.4% by the year 2025. Since long back herbal medicines have been the highly esteemed source of medicine therefore, they have become a growing part of modern, high-tech medicine. In view of the above aspects the present review provides profiles of plants (65 species) with hypoglycaemic properties, available through literature source from various database with proper categorization according to the parts used, mode of reduction in blood glucose (insulinomimetic or insulin secretagogues activity) and active phytoconstituents having insulin mimetics activity. From the review it was suggested that, plant showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belongs to the family Leguminoseae, Lamiaceae, Liliaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Moraceae, Rosaceae and Araliaceae. The most active plants are Allium sativum, Gymnema sylvestre, Citrullus colocynthis, Trigonella foenum greacum, Momordica charantia and Ficus bengalensis. The review describes some new bioactive drugs and isolated compounds from plants such as roseoside, epigallocatechin gallate, beta-pyrazol-1-ylalanine, cinchonain Ib, leucocyandin 3-O-beta-d-galactosyl cellobioside, leucopelargonidin-3- O-alpha-L rhamnoside, glycyrrhetinic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, strictinin, isostrictinin, pedunculagin, epicatechin and christinin-A showing significant insulinomimetic and antidiabetic activity with more efficacy than conventional hypoglycaemic agents. Thus, from the review majorly, the antidiabetic activity of medicinal plants is attributed to the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, coumarins and other constituents which show reduction in blood glucose levels. The review also discusses the management aspect of diabetes mellitus using these plants and their active principles. PMID:23569923

Patel, Dk; Prasad, Sk; Kumar, R; Hemalatha, S

2012-04-01

189

Application of plant cell and tissue culture for the production of phytochemicals in medicinal plants.  

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Approximately 80% of the world inhabitants depend on the medicinal plants in the form of traditional formulations for their primary health care system well as in the treatment of a number of diseases since the ancient time. Many commercially used drugs have come from the information of indigenous knowledge of plants and their folk uses. Linking of the indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants to modern research activities provides a new reliable approach, for the discovery of novel drugs much more effectively than with random collection. Increase in population and increasing demand of plant products along with illegal trade are causing depletion of medicinal plants and many are threatened in natural habitat. Plant tissue culture technique has proved potential alternative for the production of desirable bioactive components from plants, to produce the enough amounts of plant material that is needed and for the conservation of threatened species. Different plant tissue culture systems have been extensively studied to improve and enhance the production of plant chemicals in various medicinal plants. PMID:24595608

Pant, Bijaya

2014-01-01

190

Antimicrobial activity of selected South African medicinal plants  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly 3,000 plant species are used as medicines in South Africa, with approximately 350 species forming the most commonly traded and used medicinal plants. In the present study, twelve South African medicinal plants were selected and tested for their antimicrobial activities against eight microbial species belonging to fungi, Mycobacteria, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Methods The radiometric respiratory technique using the BACTEC 460 system was used for susceptibility testing against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and the liquid micro-broth dilution was used for other antimicrobial assays. Results The results of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC determinations indicated that the methanol extracts from Acacia karoo, Erythrophleum lasianthum and Salvia africana were able to prevent the growth of all the tested microorganisms. All other samples showed selective activities. MIC values below 100??g/ml were recorded with A. karoo, C. dentate, E. lasianthum, P. obligun and S. africana on at least one of the nine tested microorganisms. The best activity (MIC value of 39.06??g/ml was noted with S. africana against E. coli, S. aureus and M. audouinii, and Knowltonia vesitoria against M. tuberculosis. Conclusion The overall results of the present work provide baseline information for the possible use of the studied South African plant extracts in the treatment of microbial infections.

Nielsen Trine R H

2012-06-01

191

Potential anti-dengue medicinal plants: a review.  

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Dengue fever causes mortality and morbidity around the world, specifically in the Tropics and subtropic regions, which has been of major concern to governments and the World Health Organization (WHO). As a consequence, the search for new anti-dengue agents from medicinal plants has assumed more urgency than in the past. Medicinal plants have been used widely to treat a variety of vector ailments such as malaria. The demand for plant-based medicines is growing as they are generally considered to be safer, non-toxic and less harmful than synthetic drugs. This article reviews potential anti-dengue activities from plants distributed around the world. Sixty-nine studies from 1997 to 2012 describe 31 different species from 24 families that are known for their anti-dengue activities. About ten phytochemicals have been isolated from 11 species, among which are compounds with the potential for development of dengue treatment. Crude extracts and essential oils obtained from 31 species showed a broad activity against Flavivirus. Current studies show that natural products represent a rich potential source of new anti-dengue compounds. Further ethnobotanical surveys and laboratory investigations are needed established the potential of identified species in contributing to dengue control. PMID:23591999

Abd Kadir, Siti Latifah; Yaakob, Harisun; Mohamed Zulkifli, Razauden

2013-10-01

192

Homoisoflavonoids from the medicinal plant Portulaca oleracea.  

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Four homoisoflavonoids named portulacanones A-D, identified as 2'-hydroxy- 5,7-dimethoxy-3-benzyl-chroman-4-one, 2'-hydroxy-5,6,7-trimethoxy-3-benzyl-chroman-4-one, 5,2'-dihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxy-3-benzyl-chroman-4-one, and 5,2'-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-3-benzylidene-chroman-4-one, were isolated from aerial parts of the plant Portulaca oleracea along with nine other known metabolites. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. Portulacanones A-D is the first group of homoisoflavonoids so far reported from the family Portulacaceae. They represent a rare subclass of homoisoflavonoids in nature with a structural feature of a single hydroxyl group substituted at C-2' rather than at C-4' in ring B of the skeleton. Three homoisoflavonoids and the known compound 2,2'-dihydroxy-4',6'-dimethoxychalcone selectively showed in vitro cytotoxic activities towards four human cancer cell lines. Especially 2,2'-dihydroxy-4',6'-dimethoxychalcone showed cytotoxic activity against cell line SGC-7901 with an IC?? value of 1.6 ?g/ml, which was more potent than the reference compound mitomycin C (IC?? 13.0 ?g/ml). PMID:22683318

Yan, Jian; Sun, Li-Rong; Zhou, Zhong-Yu; Chen, Yu-Chan; Zhang, Wei-Min; Dai, Hao-Fu; Tan, Jian-Wen

2012-08-01

193

Cytotoxic activity of four Mexican medicinal plants.  

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Ibervillea sonorae Greene, Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché, Tagetes lucida Cav and Justicia spicigera Scheltdd are Mexican native plants used in the treatment of different illnesses. The ethanolic extract of J. spicigera and T. lucida as well as aqueous extracts from I. sonorae, C. ficifolia, T. lucida and J. spicigera were investigated using sulforhodamine B assay. These extracts were assessed using two cell line: T47D (Human Breast cancer) and HeLa (Human cervix cancer). Colchicine was used as the positive control. Data are presented as the dose that inhibited 50% control growth (ED50). All of the assessed extracts were cytotoxic (ED50 < 20 microg/ml) against T47D cell line, meanwhile only the aqueous extract from T. lucida and the ethanolic extract from J. spicigera were cytotoxic to HeLa cell line. Ethanolic extract from J. spicigera presented the best cytotoxic effect. The cytotoxic activity of J. spicigera correlated with one of the popular uses, the treatment of cancer. PMID:22128430

Vega-Avila, Elisa; Espejo-Serna, Adolfo; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco; Velasco-Lezama, Rodolfo

2009-01-01

194

Antiangiogenic Activity and Pharmacogenomics of Medicinal Plants from Traditional Korean Medicine  

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Aim. In the present study, we investigated the antiangiogenic properties of 59 plants used in traditional Korean medicine. Selected phytochemicals were investigated in more detail for their modes of action. Methods. A modified chicken-chorioallantoic-membrane (CAM) assay using quail eggs was applied to test for antiangiogenic effects of plant extracts. A molecular docking in silico approached the binding of plant constituents to the vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1 and 2 (VEGFR1, VEGFR2). Microarray-based mRNA expression profiling was employed to correlate the 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50) of a panel of 60 NCI cell lines to these phytochemicals. Results. Extracts from Acer mono leaves, Reynoutria sachalniensis fruits, Cinnamomum japonicum stems, Eurya japonica leaves, Adenophora racemosa whole plant, Caryopteris incana leaves-stems, and Schisandra chinensis stems inhibited angiogenesis more than 50% in quail eggs. Selected phytochemicals from Korean plants were analyzed in more detail using microarray-based mRNA expression profiles and molecular docking to VEGFR1 and VEGFR2. These results indicate multifactorial modes of action of these natural products. Conclusion. The antiangiogenic activity of plants used in traditional Korean medicine implicates their possible application for diseases where inhibition of blood vessel formation is desired, for example, cancer, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and others.

Seo, Ean-Jeong; Kuete, Victor; Krusche, Benjamin; Schroder, Sven; Greten, Henry Johannes; Arend, Joachim; Lee, Ik-Soo; Efferth, Thomas

2013-01-01

195

Antiangiogenic activity and pharmacogenomics of medicinal plants from traditional korean medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim. In the present study, we investigated the antiangiogenic properties of 59 plants used in traditional Korean medicine. Selected phytochemicals were investigated in more detail for their modes of action. Methods. A modified chicken-chorioallantoic-membrane (CAM) assay using quail eggs was applied to test for antiangiogenic effects of plant extracts. A molecular docking in silico approached the binding of plant constituents to the vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1 and 2 (VEGFR1, VEGFR2). Microarray-based mRNA expression profiling was employed to correlate the 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50) of a panel of 60 NCI cell lines to these phytochemicals. Results. Extracts from Acer mono leaves, Reynoutria sachalniensis fruits, Cinnamomum japonicum stems, Eurya japonica leaves, Adenophora racemosa whole plant, Caryopteris incana leaves-stems, and Schisandra chinensis stems inhibited angiogenesis more than 50% in quail eggs. Selected phytochemicals from Korean plants were analyzed in more detail using microarray-based mRNA expression profiles and molecular docking to VEGFR1 and VEGFR2. These results indicate multifactorial modes of action of these natural products. Conclusion. The antiangiogenic activity of plants used in traditional Korean medicine implicates their possible application for diseases where inhibition of blood vessel formation is desired, for example, cancer, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and others. PMID:23970927

Seo, Ean-Jeong; Kuete, Victor; Kadioglu, Onat; Krusche, Benjamin; Schröder, Sven; Greten, Henry Johannes; Arend, Joachim; Lee, Ik-Soo; Efferth, Thomas

2013-01-01

196

Medicinal plants and food medicines in the folk traditions of the upper Lucca Province, Italy.  

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An ethnopharmacobotanical survey of the medicinal plants and food medicines of the northern part of Lucca Province, north-west Tuscany, central Italy, was carried out. The geographical isolation of this area has permitted the survival of a rich folk phytotherapy involving medicinal herbs and also vegetable resources used by locals as food medicine. Among these are the uncommon use of Ballota nigra leaves as a trophic protective; the use of Lilium candidum bulbs as an antiviral to treat shingles (Herpes zoster); Parmelia sp. as a cholagogue; Crocus napolitanus flowers as antiseptic; Prunus laurocerasus drupes as a hypotensive; and the consumption of chestnut flour polenta cooked with new wine as bechic. Many wild gathered greens are eaten raw in salads, or in boiled mixtures, as 'blood cleansing' and 'intestine cleansing' agents. Of particular interest is the persistence of the archaic use of Bryonia dioica root against sciatica, and the use of ritual plant therapeuticals as good omens, or against the 'evil eye.' Over 120 species represent the heritage of the local folk pharmacopoeia in upper Garfagnana. Anthropological and ethnopharmacological considerations of the collected data are also discussed. PMID:10837988

Pieroni, A

2000-06-01

197

ANTI-MICROBIAL SCREENING OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANT EXTRACTS  

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Full Text Available Medicinal plants are the best source to obtain a variety of herbal drugs. The use of plant extracts and photochemical both with known anti-microbial properties can be of great importance in therapeutic treatments. The plants have provided a good source of anti-infective agents and many of them remain highly effective in the fight against microbial infections. Therefore in the present study seven medicinal plants that are Emblica officinalis, Ficus bengalensis, Myristica fragrans, Acacia arabica, Aloe barbadensis, Ricinus communis and Zizyphus jujuba were screened for potential anti-bacterial activity against medically important bacterial strains, such as Pseudomonas aurogenosa, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus cereviceae. The anti-microbial activity was determined in methanolic extracts using agar well diffusion method. Streptococcus cereviceae showed resistance against the plant extracts. Emblica officinalis and Aloe barbadensis showed strong anti-bacterial activity against all the tested bacterial strains. Hence, this plant extract can be used to evaluate any bioactive natural products that may serve as leads in the development of new pharmaceuticals that can address the unmet therapeutic needs.

Mansoor Shazia

2011-04-01

198

Screening and antibacterial activity analysis of some important medicinal plants  

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Full Text Available The screening and study of five different plant specimens belonging to different families for phytochemical constituents was performed using generally accepted laboratory technique for qualitative determinations. The constituents screened were saponins, combined anthraquinones, terpenoids, flavonoids, carotenoids, steroids, xantho proteins, couramins, alkaloids, quinones, vitamin C. The distribution of these constituents in the plant specimens were assessed and compared. The medicinal plant studied were Acalypha indica, Camellia sinensis, Plectranthus amboinicus, Curcuma longa, Rauvolfia tetraphylla. All the plant speciemens were found to contain terpenoids, xantho proteins, couramins and vitamin C. They also contain Saponins (except Curcuma longa, Combined anthroquinones (except Acalypha indica, Camellia sinensis, Curcuma longa flavonoids (except Acalypha indica, Camellia sinensis, Carotenoids (except Acalypha indica, Curcuma longa, and steroids (except Plectranthus amboinicus, Rauvolfia tetraphylla Quinones were found in one out of the five specimens. Some of the medicinal plant seemed to have potential as source of useful drugs. Though the one percent extracts of all the plants showed some degree of antimicrobial activity, it was significant in Acalypha indica, Camellia sinensis, Plectranthus amboinicus, Curcuma longa, and Rauvolfia tetraphylla. The extract of Camellia sinensis and Acalypha indica was most effective against Enterobacter faecalis (ZI = 3 cm and ZI = 1.7cm and Camellia sinensis and Acalypha indica was most effective against Staphylococcus aureus (ZI = 2.1 cm.

G. Senthilmurugan Viji

2013-02-01

199

Medicinal plants with teratogenic potential: current considerations  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to present the implications of the use of herbs during pregnancy, pointing out those that should be avoided during this condition because of their abortifacient and/or teratogenic potential. We carried out searches in the databases ScienceDirect, Scielo and Google Scholar, adopting as criteria for inclusion: book chapters and/or complete articles (with abstract, available in English, Portuguese or Spanish, published from 1996 to in 2011. After a pre-selection of 83 articles, 49 bibliographies were used in the manufacturing end of the article, where 25 were from the Scielo database, 18 from ScienceDirect and 6 from Google Scholar. From the articles studied, we identified the four most commonly used plants as emmenagogue/abortifacient agents by patients of the Department of Prenatal SUS: senne, arruda, boldo and buchinha-do-norte or cabacinha. Thus, we conclude that people often adhere to the maxim "if it's natural, it does no harm" in their rational use of natural products, without the right guidance, believing that these products are safe to use. This usage is even more worrisome among the elderly, pregnant women and children. Regarding the safety of these products, some information and reliable data are scarce or contradictory.Este trabalho busca as implicações atuais sobre o uso de plantas medicinais durante a gravidez, alertando sobre aquelas que devem ser evitadas nesse período por serem potencialmente abortivas e/ou teratogênicas. Para tanto, foram realizadas buscas nas bases de dados Sciencedirect, Scielo e Google scholar, adotando-se como critérios de inclusão capítulos de livros e/ou artigos completos (com abstract e disponíveis, em português, inglês ou espanhol, publicados de 1996 a 2011. Após uma pré-seleção de 83 artigos, 49 bibliografias foram utilizadas na confecção final do artigo, sendo 25 provenientes da base de dados Scielo, 18 do Sciencedirect e 06 do Google scholar. A partir dos artigos estudados, identificaram-se as quatro plantas mais utilizadas como emenagogas/abortivas por pacientes do Serviço de Pré-Natal do SUS: senne, arruda, boldo e buchinha-do-norte ou cabacinha. Assim, é possível concluir que, muitas vezes, a população se utiliza da máxima "se é natural, não faz mal" para fazer uso irracional de produtos naturais, sem a correta orientação, acreditando que esses produtos sejam incapazes de provocar qualquer dano. Esse uso é ainda mais preocupante quando realizado por idosos, gestantes e crianças. Em relação à segurança do uso desses produtos, algumas informações e dados confiáveis ainda são escassos ou contraditórios.

Kassiane Cristine da Silva Costa

2012-09-01

200

Medicinal plants with teratogenic potential: current considerations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho busca as implicações atuais sobre o uso de plantas medicinais durante a gravidez, alertando sobre aquelas que devem ser evitadas nesse período por serem potencialmente abortivas e/ou teratogênicas. Para tanto, foram realizadas buscas nas bases de dados Sciencedirect, Scielo e Google sc [...] holar, adotando-se como critérios de inclusão capítulos de livros e/ou artigos completos (com abstract) e disponíveis, em português, inglês ou espanhol, publicados de 1996 a 2011. Após uma pré-seleção de 83 artigos, 49 bibliografias foram utilizadas na confecção final do artigo, sendo 25 provenientes da base de dados Scielo, 18 do Sciencedirect e 06 do Google scholar. A partir dos artigos estudados, identificaram-se as quatro plantas mais utilizadas como emenagogas/abortivas por pacientes do Serviço de Pré-Natal do SUS: senne, arruda, boldo e buchinha-do-norte ou cabacinha. Assim, é possível concluir que, muitas vezes, a população se utiliza da máxima "se é natural, não faz mal" para fazer uso irracional de produtos naturais, sem a correta orientação, acreditando que esses produtos sejam incapazes de provocar qualquer dano. Esse uso é ainda mais preocupante quando realizado por idosos, gestantes e crianças. Em relação à segurança do uso desses produtos, algumas informações e dados confiáveis ainda são escassos ou contraditórios. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to present the implications of the use of herbs during pregnancy, pointing out those that should be avoided during this condition because of their abortifacient and/or teratogenic potential. We carried out searches in the databases ScienceDirect, Scielo and Google Scholar, [...] adopting as criteria for inclusion: book chapters and/or complete articles (with abstract), available in English, Portuguese or Spanish, published from 1996 to in 2011. After a pre-selection of 83 articles, 49 bibliographies were used in the manufacturing end of the article, where 25 were from the Scielo database, 18 from ScienceDirect and 6 from Google Scholar. From the articles studied, we identified the four most commonly used plants as emmenagogue/abortifacient agents by patients of the Department of Prenatal SUS: senne, arruda, boldo and buchinha-do-norte or cabacinha. Thus, we conclude that people often adhere to the maxim "if it's natural, it does no harm" in their rational use of natural products, without the right guidance, believing that these products are safe to use. This usage is even more worrisome among the elderly, pregnant women and children. Regarding the safety of these products, some information and reliable data are scarce or contradictory.

Kassiane Cristine da Silva, Costa; Suzana Barbosa, Bezerra; Clevanice Moreira, Norte; Luciana Macatrão Nogueira, Nunes; Tiago Moreira de, Olinda.

 
 
 
 
201

SYNERGISTIC EFFET OF INDIGENOUS MEDICINAL PLANT EXTRACTS ON PSORIASIS  

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AbstractThe present paper deals with evaluation of synergistic effect of two medicinal plants, Ponamia pinnata Linn and Psoralea corylifolia Linn. Extraction was carried out with soxhlet apparatus using the solvent ethanol. The anti-psoriatic activity was done by Induction of psoriasiform changes in guinea pig by propranolol method and Rat UV B rays Photo dermatitis model for psoriasis. Antimicrobial activity by plate hole diffusion method. Ethanol...

anusha swarna

2013-01-01

202

On the High value Medicinal plant, Coleus forskohlii Briq.  

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Plan: To review literature on the medicinal value of ColeusforskohliiPrologue: Coleus forskohlii is an aromatic plant belonging to thefamily Lamiaceae. The roots are fasciculate, thick, succulent and contain theunique chemical forskolin. Out of the 300 species of Coleus, only Coleusforskohlii contains the diterpene forskolin.Outcome: Coleus forskohlii contains abietane diterpenoids,8,13-epoxy-labd-14-en-11-one-diterpenoids,8,13-epoxy-labd-14-en-11-one-diterpene glycosides and an essential oil...

2013-01-01

203

Sterol contents from some fabaceous medicinal plants of Rajasthan desert  

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Full Text Available Evaluation of sterol contents from three selected medicinal plant species of Fabaceae family growing in Rajasthan Desert was carried out. The roots, shoots and fruits of Clitoria ternatea, Sesbania bispinosa and Tephrosia purpurea were analysed for sterol contents. ?- Sitosterol and Stigmasterol were isolated and identified. Maximum sterol contents were observed in shoots of Sesbania bispinosa (0.29 mg/g.d.w., whereas minimum in roots of Tephrosia purpurea(0.15mg/g.d.w.

B.B.S.Kapoor

2013-12-01

204

Evaluation of three medicinal plants for anti-microbial activity  

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Herbal remedies have a long history of use for gum and tooth problems such as dental caries. The present microbiological study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of three medicinal plants (Terminalia chebula Retz., Clitoria ternatea Linn., and Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck.) Merr.) on three pathogenic microorganisms in the oral cavity (Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, and Staphylococcus aureus). Aqueous extract concentrations (5%, 10%, 25%, and 50%) were prepared fro...

Pratap, Gowd M. J. S.; Manoj, Kumar M. G.; Sai, Shankar A. J.; Sujatha, B.; Sreedevi, E.

2012-01-01

205

Antiviral Activity of Some Plants Used in Nepalese Traditional Medicine  

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Methanolic extracts of 41 plant species belonging to 27 families used in the traditional medicine in Nepal have been investigated for in vitro antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and influenza virus A by dye uptake assay in the systems HSV-1/Vero cells and influenza virus A/MDCK cells. The extracts of Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata, Cassiope fastigiata and Thymus linearis showed potent anti-herpes viral activity. The extracts of Allium oreoprasum, Androsace str...

Rajbhandari, M.; Mentel, R.; Jha, P. K.; Chaudhary, R. P.; Bhattarai, S.; Gewali, M. B.; Karmacharya, N.; Hipper, M.; Lindequist, U.

2009-01-01

206

Screening of selected medicinal plants for urease inhibitory activity  

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In this study, we have investigated antiurease activity of eleven Et-OH and five Me-OH extracts of medicinal plantscollected from the State of Kashmir. Selection of the plants was made on the basis of their uses by local people andherbalists for the treatment of different ailments including stomach problems. In the study Et-OH extracts of Sussurialappa, Malva parviflora, Solanum nigrum, and Melia azadirachta were found inactive or showed low activity at final ofconcentration 200?g/ 5ml. Whil...

2010-01-01

207

Toxic plants in traditional Indian systems of medicine  

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Siddha system is one of the oldest systems of medicine in India. The Pharmacology (Materia Medica) of Siddha system is divided into three major parts namely Herbal kingdom, Metals & Minerals and Animal kingdom. The initial treatment consists of Herbal treatment followed by metal and mineral preparations. It is important to have an awareness regarding the poisonous plants which when used in the proper, prescribed dose, acts as potent therapeutic agents.

2005-01-01

208

Chemical constituents from the Colombian medicinal plant Maytenus laevis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The methanol extract of the bark of the Colombian medicinal plant Maytenus laevis gave six new compounds and 28 known compounds. The structures of the new and known compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. Several of these compounds were screened for cytokine-inducing activity on human PBMCs to investigate antitumor effects, and canophyllol (12) demonstrated the most effective induction of the cytokines. PMID:15568791

Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Takaishi, Yoshihisa; Fujimoto, Yoshinori; Duque, Carmenza; Garzon, Cristina; Sato, Mitsunobu; Okamoto, Masato; Oshikawa, Tetsuya; Ahmed, Sharif Uddin

2004-11-01

209

Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of five medicinal Libyan plants extracts  

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Five Libyan medicinal plants Thapsia garganica, Hammada scoparia, Euphorbia serrata, Hyoscyamus albus and Retama rateam were selected to evaluate their biological activities. Their total phenolic and flavanoid contents were assessed. The antioxidant activity was estimated using 2, 2-di- phenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) as free radical scavenger. Their crude extracts showed reducing potential proportional to their concentration. The correlation coefficient (R2) between ant...

Rabia Alghazeer; Hussein El-Saltani; Nabeel Saleh; Asma Al-Najjar; Fatma Hebail

2012-01-01

210

Quantification and identification of flavonoids of some Indian medicinal plants  

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Ethanol extract of leaves root, stem, bark, of some Indian medicinal plants afforded quercetin and kaempferol as major flavonoids. The maximum total flavonoids content (0.35 mg/gdw) was found in stem of Balanites aegyptica and minimum (0.15mg/gdw) in stem of Eclipta alba.

Priyanka Vijay and Rekha Vijayvergia*

2010-01-01

211

HISTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF TWO MEDICINAL PLANTS IN MAHARASHTRA  

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The histochemical studies of leaves and wood of Butea monosperma ­Lam and Madhuca indica Gmel. are medicinal important plants in Maharashtra. For histochemical studies the free hand sections of leaves and wood were taken and treated with the respective reagent in localize components, viz. starch, protein, tannin, saponin, fat, glucosides and alkaloids in the tissues. Key words: Histochemistry, starch, protein, tannin, saponin, fat, glucosides and ...

2013-01-01

212

SNAKE BITES: ROLE OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN MANAGEMENT  

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Snake bites possess significant amount of mortality as well as morbidity all over the world including India. Despite various species of snakes, only few of these can be potentially lethal to humans. Snake antivenom being only therapeutic option available in snake bite management, but has many drawbacks in actual clinical practice like species specificity, difficulty in availability, affordability and ideal storage conditions. The medicinal plants, available locally and used widely by tradi...

2013-01-01

213

Arbuscular mycorrhizal and dark septate endophyte associations of medicinal plants  

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Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and dark septate endophyte (DSE) associations were studied in 36 medicinal plant species from 33 genera and 17 families, collected from the Botanical Garden of the Jagiellonian University in Kraków. Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) was found in 34 species (94%); 26 were of the Arum-type, 4 – Paris and 4 taxa revealed intermediate morpho­logy. The abundance of AMF hyphae in roots varied with particular species, ranging ...

Szymon Zubek; Janusz B?aszkowski; Piotr Mleczko

2011-01-01

214

[Prevention of soil deterioration during cultivation of medicinal plants].  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper summarized the aspects of the soil deterioration due to continuous growth of medicinal plants, such as nutrition insufficient, pH variation, harmful salt accumulating, harmful microbe and allelopathic substance increasing, soil physics and chemistry properties variation. And the ways to prevent and rehabilitate the deteriorated soil was indicated, which included anti-adversity species selecting, scientific management such as whorl cropping, nutrient elements supplement, usage of physical methods, nutrient liquid cultivating and VAM inoculating etc. PMID:17048673

Guo, Lan-ping; Huang, Lu-qi; Jiang, You-xu; Lv, Dong-mei

2006-05-01

215

A REVIEW ON THE MEDICINAL PLANT PSIDIUM GUAJAVA LINN. (MYRTACEAE  

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Full Text Available Psidium guajava is an important food crop and medicinal plant available in tropical and subtropical countries, widely used in food and folk medicines around the world. It contains important phytoconstituents such as tannins, triterpenes, flavonoid: quercetin, pentacyclic triterpenoid: guajanoic acid, saponins, carotenoids, lectins, leucocyanidin, ellagic acid, amritoside, beta-sitosterol, uvaol, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid. In view of the immense medicinal importance of the plant, this review is an effort to compile all the information reported on its ethanobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological activities. The present work attempts to generate interest among the masses regarding its potential in preventing and treating several common diseases. Many pharmacological studies have demonstrated the ability of this plant to exhibit antioxidant, hepatoprotective, anti-allergy, antimicrobial, antigenotoxic, antiplasmodial, cytotoxic, antispasmodic, cardioactive, anticough, antidiabetic, antiinflamatory and antinociceptive activities, supporting its traditional uses. Suggesting a wide range of clinical applications for the treatment of infantile rotaviral enteritis, diarrhoea and diabetes. Key words: ethanobotany, myrtaceae, pharmacology, physicochemical, phytochemical, Psidium guajava

Shruthi Shirur Dakappa

2013-03-01

216

Anti-inflammatory activity of some Saudi Arabian medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five plants which have been used for the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis and gout in the traditional medicine of Saudi Arabia, were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory properties. Of these the ethanolic extract of Capparis decidua and the aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa were found to possess significant anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced oedema in rats. These two plants were also tested for their antipyretic and analgesic activity. C. decidua was found to possess significant antipyretic effect. Both of them are devoid of analgesic activity. PMID:3485894

Ageel, A M; Parmar, N S; Mossa, J S; Al-Yahya, M A; Al-Said, M S; Tariq, M

1986-01-01

217

Diuretic effects of selected Thai indigenous medicinal plants in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extracts of five indigenous Thai medicinal having ethnomedical application in the treatment of dysuria were investigated for their diuretic activity. Root extracts of Ananas comosus and Carica papaya, given orally to rats at a dose of 10 mg/kg, demonstrated significantly increased urine output (P Averrhoa carambola failed to demonstrate any diuretic activities. These results indicate that two of the plants investigated exert their action by causing diuresis. The other three plants need further investigation to determine their effectiveness in the treatment of dysuria. PMID:11297849

Sripanidkulchai, B; Wongpanich, V; Laupattarakasem, P; Suwansaksri, J; Jirakulsomchok, D

2001-05-01

218

Screening of 34 Indian medicinal plants for antibacterial properties.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 34 plant species belonging to 18 different families, selected on the basis of folklore medicinal reports practised by the tribal people of Western Ghats, India, were assayed for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, and Pseudomonas aerogenes (gram-negative bacteria) at 1000-5000 ppm using the disc diffusion method. Of these 16 plants showed activity; among them Cassia fistula, Terminalia arjuna and Vitex negundo showed significant antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria. Our findings confirm the traditional therapeutic claims for these herbs. PMID:9741889

Perumal Samy, R; Ignacimuthu, S; Sen, A

1998-09-01

219

Antimicrobial Activity of Some Medicinal Plants Against Candida albicans  

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Full Text Available Four extract amounts (200, 150, 100 and 50 mg mL-1 from twelve medicinal plant species that belong to six genera (Achillea, Salvia, Convolvulus, Plantago, Anthemis and Artemisia were tested against Candida albicans. The antimicrobial activity was carried out by using the hole-plate diffusion method. The effect of plant species, extract amounts and their interaction were highly significant. Achillea santolina, Salvia dominica and Salvia officinalis inhibited the growth of Candida albicans at all tested extract amounts. The extracts of (Salvia spinosa, Convolvulus althaeoides and Plantago lanceolata showed no activity against Candida albicans.

Dhia Hassawi

2006-01-01

220

DNA barcoding of medicinal plant material for identification.  

Science.gov (United States)

Because of the increasing demand for herbal remedies and for authentication of the source material, it is vital to provide a single database containing information about authentic plant materials and their potential adulterants. The database should provide DNA barcodes for data retrieval and similarity search. In order to obtain such barcodes, several molecular methods have been applied to develop markers that aid with the authentication and identification of medicinal plant materials. In this review, we discuss the genomic regions and molecular methods selected to provide barcodes, available databases and the potential future of barcoding using next generation sequencing. PMID:24484887

Techen, Natascha; Parveen, Iffat; Pan, Zhiqiang; Khan, Ikhlas A

2014-02-01

 
 
 
 
221

Acanthus ilicifolius linn.-lesser known medicinal plants with significant pharmacological activities  

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Full Text Available

Acanthus ilicifolius Linn. (Acanthaceae is relatively lesser-known, yet important medicinal plant of Herbal Materia Medica. The plant is used in traditional systems of medicine, including Traditional Indian Medicine (TIM or Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM. The plant is reported to contain phytochemicals including alkaloid and wide range of glucosides (lignan and phenylethanoid. In traditional medicine, the plant is used in the treatment of diseases ranging from snake bite to skin diseases. Laboratory investigations on extracts of the plant have demonstrated significant pharmacological activities like antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, anti-osteporotic and hepatoprotective. The review analyses traditional medicinal usage, and phyto-pharmacological investigations done on the medicinal plant.

Keywords: Acanthus ilicifolius, traditional medicine, phytochemistry, pharmacology, glucosides

Amritpal Singh

2011-04-01

222

Elemental investigation of Syrian medicinal plants using PIXE analysis  

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Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique has been employed to perform elemental analysis of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Sr for Syrian medicinal plants used traditionally to enhance the body immunity. Plant samples were prepared in a simple dried base. The results were verified by comparing with those obtained from both IAEA-359 and IAEA-V10 reference materials. Relative standard deviations are mostly within {+-}5-10% suggest good precision. A correlation between the elemental content in each medicinal plant with its traditional remedial usage has been proposed. Both K and Ca are found to be the major elements in the samples. Fe, Mn and Zn have been detected in good levels in most of these plants clarifying their possible contribution to keep the body immune system in good condition. The contribution of the elements in these plants to the dietary recommended intakes (DRI) has been evaluated. Advantages and limitations of PIXE analytical technique in this investigation have been reviewed.

Rihawy, M.S., E-mail: cscientific@aec.org.s [Department of Chemistry, Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Bakraji, E.H.; Aref, S.; Shaban, R. [Department of Chemistry, Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

2010-09-15

223

Elemental investigation of Syrian medicinal plants using PIXE analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique has been employed to perform elemental analysis of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Sr for Syrian medicinal plants used traditionally to enhance the body immunity. Plant samples were prepared in a simple dried base. The results were verified by comparing with those obtained from both IAEA-359 and IAEA-V10 reference materials. Relative standard deviations are mostly within ±5-10% suggest good precision. A correlation between the elemental content in each medicinal plant with its traditional remedial usage has been proposed. Both K and Ca are found to be the major elements in the samples. Fe, Mn and Zn have been detected in good levels in most of these plants clarifying their possible contribution to keep the body immune system in good condition. The contribution of the elements in these plants to the dietary recommended intakes (DRI) has been evaluated. Advantages and limitations of PIXE analytical technique in this investigation have been reviewed.

2010-09-01

224

A meta-analysis of medicinal plants to assess the evidence for toxicity  

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Toxicity of phytochemicals, plant-based extracts and dietary supplements, and medicinal plants in general, is of medical importance and must be considered in phytotherapy and other plant uses. We show in this report how general database analyses can provide a quantitative assessment of research and evidence related to toxicity of medicinal plants or specific phytochemicals. As examples, several medicinal plants are analyzed for their relation to nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. The results ...

Chen, Sarah; Vieira, Amandio

2010-01-01

225

Plant Secondary Metabolites in some Medicinal Plants of Mongolia Used for Enhancing Animal Health and Production  

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Full Text Available The levels and activities of a number of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs are known to increase in response to increase in stress. The Mongolian plants considered to possess medicinal properties may contain novel compounds since they are exposed to severe conditions; such plants could become good candidates for modern drug discovery programmes. Information on distribution, palatability to livestock and opinion of local people on their nutritive and medicinal values was compiled for 15 plant materials from 14 plant species considered important for medicinal purposes. These plants were evaluated for nutritive value and PSMs: tannins, saponins, lectins, alkaloids and cyanogens. High levels of tannins were found in roots of Bergenia crassifolia and in leaves of B. crassifolia, Vaccinium vitisidaea and Rheum undulatum. High lectin activity (haemagglutination was present in B. crassifolia roots, and leaves of R. undulatum, Iris lacteal and Thymus gobicus contained weak lectin activity. Tanacetum vulgare, Serratula centauroids, Taraxacum officinale and Delphinum elatum leaves contained saponin activity (haemolysis. Alkaloids and cyanogens were not present in any of the samples. The paper discusses the known medicinal uses of these plants in light of the PSMs levels, and identifies plant samples for future applications in human and livestock health, welfare and safety.

Makkar, HPS.

2009-01-01

226

Medicinal plants used for traditional veterinary in the Sierras de Córdoba (Argentina: An ethnobotanical comparison with human medicinal uses  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background This is a first description of the main ethnoveterinary features of the peasants in the Sierras de Córdoba. The aim of this study was to analyze the use of medicinal plants and other traditional therapeutic practices for healing domestic animals and cattle. Our particular goals were to: characterize veterinary ethnobotanical knowledge considering age, gender and role of the specialists; interpret the cultural features of the traditional local veterinary medicine and plant uses associated to it; compare the plants used in traditional veterinary medicine, with those used in human medicine in the same region. Methods Fieldwork was carried out as part of an ethnobotanic regional study where 64 informants were interviewed regarding medicinal plants used in veterinary medicine throughout 2001-2010. Based participant observation and open and semi-structured interviews we obtained information on the traditional practices of diagnosis and healing, focusing on the veterinary uses given to plants (part of the plant used, method of preparation and administration. Plants speciemens were collected with the informants and their vernacular and scientific names were registered in a database. Non-parametric statistic was used to evaluate differences in medicinal plant knowledge, use, and valorization by local people. A comparison between traditional veterinary medicine and previous human medicine studies developed in the region was performed by analyzing the percentages of common species and uses, and by considering Sorensen's Similarity Index. Results A total of 127 medicinal uses were registered, corresponding to 70 species of plants belonging to 39 botanic families. Veterinary ethnobotanical knowledge was specialized, restricted, in general, to cattle breeders (mainly men and to a less degree to healers, and was independent of the age of the interviewees. Native plants were mostly used as skin cicatrizants, disinfectants or for treating digestive disorders. Together with a vast repertoire of plant pharmacopoeia, the therapies also involve religious or ritualistic practices and other popular remedies that evidence the influence of traditional Hispanic-European knowledge. Although the traditional veterinary knowledge seems to be similar or else is inlcuded in the local human ethnomedicine, sharing a common group of plants, it has distinct traits originated by a constant assessment of new applications specifically destined to the treatment of animals. Conclusions Veterinary medicine is a fountain of relevant vernacular knowledge, a permanent source for testing new applications with valuable ethnobotanical interest. Knowledge on medicinal applications of native plants will allow future validations and tests for new homeopathic or phytotherapeutic preparations.

Luján María C

2011-08-01

227

Mutagenic screening of some commonly used medicinal plants in Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The uses of medicinal plants have always been part of human culture. The World Health Organization estimates that up to 80% of the world's population relies on traditional medicinal system for some aspect of primary health care. However, there are few reports on the toxicological properties of most medicinal plants especially, their mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Therefore, this research is to determine the mutagenic potentials of Morinda lucida [Oruwo (Root)], Azadirachta indica [Dongoyaro (Leaf)], Terapluera tetraptera [Aridan (Fruit)], Plumbago zeylanica [Inabiri (Root)], Xylopia aethiopica [Erunje (Fruit)], Newbouldia laevis [Akoko (Leaf)], Alstonia boonei [Ahun (Bark)], Enantia chlorantha [Awopa (Bark)], and Rauvolfia vomitoria [Asofeyeje (Root)] using the Allium cepa Linn. model and the modified Ames assay. Allium cepa model was used to determine the mean root length, mitotic index and chromosomal aberrations effects of these plants on onion bulbs using 0.1, 1, 5 and 10mg/ml concentration of the plant extracts. The modified Ames test which is a modification of the standard Ames test as described by Ames et al. [Ames, B.N., McCann, J., Yamasaki, E., 1975. Methods for detecting carcinogens and mutagens with the Salmonella/mammalian microsome mutagenicity test. Mutation Research 31, 347-364] was done using Escherichia coli (0157:H7) that has the phenotypic characteristics of glucose and lactose fermentation, motile, urease negative, indole positive and citrate negative. The results obtained from Allium cepa assay showed increasing root growth inhibition with increased concentration, decreasing mitotic index with increased concentration and chromosomal aberrations. The modified Ames test showed an alteration in the biochemical characteristics of Escherichia coli (0157:H7) for all plants except Rauvolfia vomitoria and Plumbago zeylanica. Three of the medicinal plants altered at least three of the normal biochemical characteristics thus demonstrating mutagenic potentials. The results of internationally accepted Allium cepa were comparable with the modified Ames test. However, a long term in vivo and dose dependent study should be carried out to validate these results and the findings should be communicated to drug and food regulatory body and also to the general public. PMID:19619631

Akintonwa, Alade; Awodele, Olufunsho; Afolayan, Gbenga; Coker, Herbert A B

2009-09-25

228

Antioxidant activity of alcohol extracts of chamomile flowers, anise seeds and dill seeds in two vegetable oils and two animal fats  

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The antioxidant activity of alcohol extracts of chamomile flowers (CFE), anise seeds (ASE) and dill seeds (DSE) in corn oil, soybean oil, beef tallow and anhydrous butter fat (ABF) was investigated during storage at 65ºC. The extent of oxidation was followed by peroxide value (PV). In addition, reducing power of these extracts was determined. Alcohol extracts of these plants at 3 g kg-1 were more effective as antioxidant than BHA (0.2 g kg-1) in corn and soybe...

Qasem, Ahmed; Al-ismail, Khalid

2004-01-01

229

Evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of some Philippine medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genotoxicity and toxicity of ethnomedicinal Philippine plants, which include Cassia fistula, Derris elliptica, Ficus elastica, Gliciridia sepium, Michelia alba, Morus alba, Pogostemon cablin and Ricinus communis, were tested using the Vitotox assay. The plants are used traditionally to treat several disorders like diabetes, weakness, menorrhagia, headache, toothache and rheumatism. The dried leaves were homogenized for overnight soaking in methanol at room temperature. The resulting alcoholic extracts were filtered and concentrated in vacuo and tested for their genotoxicity and cytotoxicity using Vitotox®. Results showed that the medicinal plants that were tested are not genotoxic nor cytotoxic, except for R. communis and P. cablin, which showed toxicity at high doses (low dilutions) in the absence of S9. PMID:21716927

Chichioco-Hernandez, Christine; Wudarski, Jakub; Gevaert, Lieven; Verschaeve, Luc

2011-04-01

230

Medicinal Plants Used as Antitumor Agents in Brazil: An Ethnobotanical Approach  

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We describe the medicinal plants that have been reported to be antitumor agents and that have been used in ethnobotanic research in Brazil to answer the following questions: what is the abundance of plants reported to be antitumor in Brazil? Have the plant species used for tumor treatment in traditional Brazilian medicine been sufficiently examined scientifically? Our analysis included papers published between 1980 and 2008. A total of 84 medicinal plant species were reported to be used for c...

Melo, Joabe Gomes; Santos, Ariane Gaspar; Amorim, Elba Lu?cia Cavalcanti; Do Nascimento, Silene Carneiro; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

2011-01-01

231

Ethnobotanical survey in Canhane village, district of Massingir, Mozambique: medicinal plants and traditional knowledge  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Medicinal plants are used by 80% of people from developing countries to fulfill their primary health needs, occupying a key position on plant research and medicine. Taking into account that, besides their pharmaceutical importance, these plants contribute greatly to ecosystems' stability, a continuous documentation and preservation of traditional knowledge is a priority. The objective of this study was to organize a database of medicinal plants including t...

Ribeiro Ana; Romeiras Maria M; Tavares João; Faria Maria T

2010-01-01

232

An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the eastern highlands of Papua New Guinea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The Eastern Highlands area of Papua New Guinea (PNG) has a rich tradition of medicinal plant use. However, rapid modernization is resulting in the loss of independent language traditions and consequently a loss of individuals knowledgeable in medicinal plant use. This report represents a program to document and preserve traditional knowledge concerning medicinal plant use in PNG. This report documents and compares traditional plant use in the Eastern Highl...

Jorim Ronald Y; Korape Seva; Legu Wauwa; Koch Michael; Barrows Louis R; Matainaho Teatulohi K; Rai Prem P

2012-01-01

233

Heavy metal levels in commonly used traditional medicinal plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present study a survey of 24 commonly used medicinal plants of Indian subcontinent origin was carried out to evaluate their levels of heavy metals by electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results showed that the highest mean value for Cd (12.06 mu g.g/sup -1/), Cr (24.50 mu g.g/sup -1/), Cu (15.27 mu g.g/sup -1/), Pb (1.30 mu g.g/sup -1/), Fe (885.60 mu g.g/sup -1/), Mn (90.60 mu g.g/sup -1/), Ni (9.99 mu g.g/sup -1/) and Zn (77.15 mu g.g/sup -1/) were found in Lawsonia inermis, Murraya koenigii, Mentha spicata, Beta vulgaris Linn, Mentha spicata, Lagenaria sicerana standl, Lawsonia inermis, Emblica officinalis, respectively. The mean and maximum levels of Cd in plant samples were found higher than the recommended values of the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization and may constitute a health hazard for consumers. All other heavy metals in medicinal plants were found below the recommended tolerable limits. (author)

2010-12-01

234

Screening of Thai medicinal plants for anticandidal activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Medicinal plants are often used in the treatment of various ailments. In this study, 23 of Thai medicinal plants were screened for their anticandidal activity against six pathogenic Candida species: C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. guilliermondii, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis. The methanol extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. fruit, Trigonostemon reidioides (Kurz) Craib root, Usnea siamensis Vain whole plant, Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf. rhizome, and Albizia myriophylla Benth. stem showed anticandidal activity against one or more species of Candida. Among them, A. myriophylla Benth. showed broad anticandidal activity. The susceptibility tests of A. myriophylla Benth. extract, in terms of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC), were performed by the broth microdilution techniques as described by the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute. MICs of A. myriophylla Benth. extract to all Candida species was ranged 100-500 mug ml(-1). The killing activity of A. myriophylla Benth. extract was fast acting against all Candida tested; the reduction in the number of CFU ml(-1) was >3 log(10) units (99.9%) in 2 h. This study indicates that A. myriophylla Benth. extract has considerable anticandidal activity, deserving further investigation for clinical applications for the treatment of candidiasis. PMID:18331446

Rukayadi, Yaya; Shim, Jae-Seok; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

2008-07-01

235

MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN THE TREATMENT OF EPILEPSY  

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Full Text Available Epilepsy may be defined as a neuropsychological disorder, which occurs due to over discharge of neurotransmitter substance. Epilepsy differs from seizure; a seizure is the paroxysmal events due to abnormal excessive hyper synchronous discharge from an aggregate of central nervous system (CNS neurons. There are number of drugs available for treatment of epilepsy in modern therapy. But the major disadvantage being faced is their chronic side effects. One patient out of three is resistant to antiepileptic drug. , thus there is a need of new drugs which have least side effect and minimum interaction and provide more effectiveness. From times immemorial plants have been used by mankind for their relieving and therapeutic abilities and still we rely on their healing properties. Plants with number of active constituent have a direct pharmacological action on our body including various organs. One such major complex organ is brain, so complex that still only few drugs are approved by drug authorities for ailments like epilepsy. The Indian system of medicine “Ayurveda” classified the plants affecting central nervous system. Treatment of epilepsy with herbal drugs as adjuvant seems to be more beneficial and is gaining more popularity due to their fewer side effects. Herbal drugs are acting at target site having same mechanism of action as that of synthetic drugs. There are number of drugs being used in the traditional medicine for treatment of epilepsy and presently many of these drugs are being explored scientifically to ascertain their anticonvulsant activity.

Malvi Reetesh K

2011-02-01

236

MEDICINAL PLANTS USED TO TREAT SKIN DISEASE IN CUDDALORE DISTRICT TAMIL NADU  

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Full Text Available -The importance of plants is known to us well. The plant kingdom is a treasure house of potential drugs and in the recent years there has been an increasing awareness about the importance of medicinal plants.

P. S. Sharavanan

2014-03-01

237

SYNERGISTIC EFFET OF INDIGENOUS MEDICINAL PLANT EXTRACTS ON PSORIASIS  

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Full Text Available AbstractThe present paper deals with evaluation of synergistic effect of two medicinal plants, Ponamia pinnata Linn and Psoralea corylifolia Linn. Extraction was carried out with soxhlet apparatus using the solvent ethanol. The anti-psoriatic activity was done by Induction of psoriasiform changes in guinea pig by propranolol method and Rat UV B rays Photo dermatitis model for psoriasis. Antimicrobial activity by plate hole diffusion method. Ethanolic extract exhibited significant effect of anti-psoriatic and antimicrobial activity. Both the extracts show synergistic effect on both psoriasis and antimicrobial studies when compared with the individual extracts. 

anusha swarna

2013-03-01

238

Screening of Nepalese medicinal plants for antiviral activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

In an ethnopharmacological screening, plants used in Nepalese traditional medicine were evaluated for antiviral activity. Methanolic and methanolic-aqueous extracts derived of 23 species were assayed in two in vitro viral systems, influenza virus/MDCK cells and herpes simplex virus/Vero cells. Two species, Bergenia ligulata and Nerium indicum showed the highest antiinfluenzaviral activity with 50% inhibitory dose of 10 microg/ml. Holoptelia integrifolia and N. indicum exhibited considerable antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus. None of these extracts showed cytotoxic effects. Additionally for B. ligulata and H. integrifolia partial protease inhibitory activity was estimated. PMID:11274826

Rajbhandari, M; Wegner, U; Jülich, M; Schöpke, T; Mentel, R

2001-03-01

239

Hypolipidimic effect of some medicinal plants on diabetic rats  

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Our aim was to evaluate the hypolipidimic effect of aqueous extract of a famous mixture used in Saudi Arabia folk medicine that consists of Nigella sativa, Commiphora myrrha, Boswellia carterii Birdw, Ferule assa-foetida and Aloe vera and also the extract of each plant alone on alloxan induced diabetic rats. Material and Methods :-The present study was carried out on 80 adult male albino rats (120 ± 20 g.b.wt. ), the rats were divided randomly into 8 groups, the first group served as control...

2006-01-01

240

Concentration of some radionuclides in some popular sudanese medicinal plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study was measured concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides 238U, 232Th and 40K in samples of sudanese medicinal plants. The radionuclide activity concentrations in samples analyzed ranged from 4.09 to 41.07 Bq kg-1 for 238Th and from 353.14 to 2270.21 Bq kg-1 for 40k. No trace of artificial radionuclide was determined in all the samples. The effective dose due to the presence of these radionuclides was estimated and found to be 0.524 mSv/year which is well below the permissible levels. (Author)

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON DIVERSITY OF HIMALAYAN MEDICINAL PLANT: A THREAT TO AYURVEDIC SYSTEM OF MEDICINE  

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Full Text Available Climate change and global warming are well acknowledged threats today, which affected the whole world biodiversity. Review of the literature revealed that regions with higher elevations are more vulnerable to the bad effect of climate change. The Indian Himalayan region, one among the mega hot spot of biodiversity is also the repository of valuable medicinal plants described in Ayurveda. Due to climate change the medicinal plant diversity of this region is on high stress or may be extinct in long run. From climate change, it has been observed the changes of alpine ecosystem, habitat fragmentation, shifting range of distribution, change in phenology pattern, change in secondary metabolites and invasion of new species, which have negative impact on the existing resources of medicinal plants.Ayurveda, the ancient system of medicine which solely depends on the plant resources for alleviating the illness will be highly affected in future due to the impact of climate change.

Ratha Kshirod Kumar

2012-06-01

242

A BRIEF PHYTOPHARMACOLOGICAL OVERVIEW OF TYLOPHORA INDICA - AN ENDANGERED MEDICINAL PLANT  

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Full Text Available Tylophora indica is an important medicinal plant from the repository of valuable plant species of Indian subcontinent. The plant has a long reputation in curing various health ailments including asthma, bronchitis, rheumatism and other respiratory problems. Due to its vast medicinal importance, the plant is exploited on a large scale and its uncontrolled and unmonitored harvesting from the wild has categorized the plant among the endangered plant species.

Harmanjit Kaur* and Karanveer Singh

2012-11-01

243

The Estrogenic-Like Activity of Four Chinese Medicinal Plants in Vitex  

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In most developing countries, 70-80% of the populations still resort to traditional medicine for their primary health care. This medicine utilizes medicinal plants which are traditionally taken as concoction and infusion. Ethanolic extracts of selected four Chinese medicinal plants in Vitex were tested for proliferative activity in ERa-positive MCF-7 human cell line using MTT assay. Vitex negundo showed the most estrogenic-like potent activity, which ...

Yuan Hu; Ting-Ting Hou; Hai-Liang Xin; Qiao-Yan Zhang; Han-Chen Zheng; Khalid Rahman; Lu-Ping Qin

2007-01-01

244

SNAKE BITES: ROLE OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN MANAGEMENT  

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Full Text Available Snake bites possess significant amount of mortality as well as morbidity all over the world including India. Despite various species of snakes, only few of these can be potentially lethal to humans. Snake antivenom being only therapeutic option available in snake bite management, but has many drawbacks in actual clinical practice like species specificity, difficulty in availability, affordability and ideal storage conditions. The medicinal plants, available locally and used widely by traditional healers, therefore need attention in this aspects. Large number of plants and their active principles has been evaluated for pharmacological properties useful in the treatment of snake bites. However, numerous unexplored plants are claimed to have definite role in this issue need to be further studied. This review is an attempt to present a comprehensive account of various Indian herbal plants used in the treatment of snake bite in any forms like venom neutralization, topical application for local pain relief, oral formulation for pain relief etc. Keywords: Herbal plants, Snake bite, Anti-snake venom, Venom neutralisation

Satish E Bahekar

2013-05-01

245

Arbuscular mycorrhizal and dark septate endophyte associations of medicinal plants  

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Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and dark septate endophyte (DSE associations were studied in 36 medicinal plant species from 33 genera and 17 families, collected from the Botanical Garden of the Jagiellonian University in Kraków. Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM was found in 34 species (94%; 26 were of the Arum-type, 4 – Paris and 4 taxa revealed intermediate morpho­logy. The abundance of AMF hyphae in roots varied with particular species, ranging from 2.5% (Helianthus tuberosus to 77.9% (Convallaria majalis. The mycelium of DSE was observed in 13 plant species (36%, however, the percentage of root colonization by these fungi was low. Spores of 7 AMF species (Glomeromycota were isolated from trap cultures established from rhizosphere soils of the investigated plants: Archaeospora trappei (Archaeosporaceae, Glomus aureum, Glomus caledonium, Glomus claroideum, Glomus constrictum, Glomus mosseae, Glomus versiforme (Glomeraceae. Our results are the first detailed report of root endophyte associations of the plant species under study. Moreover, the mycorrhizal status of 14 plant species is reported for the first time.

Szymon Zubek

2011-10-01

246

Antimicrobial Activity of Some Medicinal Plants from Malaysia  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: About 32 extracts from eight selected medicinal plants, namely Pereskia bleo, Pereskia grandifolia, Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb., Curcuma zedoria, Curcuma mangga, Curcuma inodora aff. Blatter, Zingiber officinale var. officinale (jahe gajah and Zingiber officinale var. rubrum (jahe emprit used by Malaysia traditional health care systems were screened for their antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria using agar disc diffusion assay. Approach: The efficacy of the extracts was compared to the commercially prepared antibiotic diffusion discs. Results: No inhibition was observed with the water fractions. Conclusion/Recommendations: None of the plants tested showed inhibition against Escherichia coli. Curcuma mangga showed some remarked inhibition against the bacteria used in this study.

Koshy Philip

2009-01-01

247

In vitro screening of medicinal plant extracts for macrofilaricidal activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Methanolic extracts of 20 medicinal plants were screened at 1-10 mg/ml for in vitro macrofilaricidal activity by worm motility assay against adult Setaria digitata, the cattle filarial worm. Four plant extracts showed macrofilaricidal activity by worm motility at concentrations below 4 mg/ml and an incubation period of 100 min. Complete inhibition of worm motility and subsequent mortality was observed at 3, 2, 1 and 1 mg/ml, respectively, for Centratherum anthelminticum, Cedrus deodara, Sphaeranthus indicus and Ricinus communis. 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay was carried out at 1 mg ml(-1) and 4-h incubation period, and the results showed that C. deodara, R. communis, S. indicus and C. anthelminticum exhibited 86.56, 72.39, 61.20 and 43.15% inhibition respectively in formazan formation compared to the control. PMID:17013649

Nisha, Mathew; Kalyanasundaram, M; Paily, K P; Abidha; Vanamail, P; Balaraman, K

2007-02-01

248

Essential and trace element contents of some Nigerian medicinal plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectroscopy has been used for the determination of essential and trace elements' contents of some twenty Nigerian medicinal plants. The accuracy and precision of the technique were assured by analyzing the European Community Bureau Reference Standard BCR 62 (Olive Leaves). Fourteen elements, namely K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Sr were detected with toxic heavy metal such as Cd, As, Pb, Hg were detected in the samples. The ranges of elemental concentrations varied from 7.7 x 104 to 1.6 mg/kg in the herbs. The results show that many of these plants contain elements of vital importance for human metabolism and prevention and healing of diseases. (author)

2002-06-01

249

Effect of medicinal plants on the crystallization of cholesterol  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the least desirable calcifications in the human body is the mineral deposition in atherosclerosis plaques. These plaques principally consist of lipids such as cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, phospholipids and triglycerides. Chemical analysis of advanced plaques have shown the presence of considerable amounts of free cholesterol identified as cholesterol monohydrate crystals. Cholesterol has been crystallized in vitro. The extracts of some of the Indian medicinal plants detailed below were used as additives to study their effect on the crystallization behaviour of cholesterol. It has been found that many of the herbs have inhibitory effect on the crystallization such as nucleation, crystal size and habit modification. The inhibitory effect of the plants are graded as Commiphora mughul > Aegle marmeleos > Cynoden dactylon > Musa paradisiaca > Polygala javana > Alphinia officinarum > Solanum trilobatum > Enicostemma lyssopifolium.

Saraswathi, N. T.; Gnanam, F. D.

1997-08-01

250

Quorum Sensing Inhibitors for Staphylococcus aureus from Italian Medicinal Plants  

Science.gov (United States)

Morbidity and mortality estimates due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections continue to rise. Therapeutic options are limited by antibiotic resistance. Anti-pathogenic compounds, which inhibit quorum sensing (QS) pathways, may be a useful alternative to antibiotics. Staphylococcal QS is encoded by the agr locus and is responsible for the production of ?-hemolysin. Quantification of ?-hemolysin found in culture supernatants permits the analysis of agr activity at the translational, rather than transcriptional, level. We employed RP-HPLC techniques to investigate the anti-QS activity of 168 extracts from 104 Italian plants through quantification of ?-hemolysin. Extracts from three medicinal plants (Ballota nigra, Castanea sativa, and Sambucus ebulus) exhibited a dose-dependent response in the production of ?-hemolysin, indicating strong anti-QS activity in a pathogenic MRSA isolate.

Quave, Cassandra L.; Plano, Lisa R.W.; Bennett, Bradley C.

2010-01-01

251

Quorum sensing inhibitors of Staphylococcus aureus from Italian medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Morbidity and mortality estimates due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections continue to rise. Therapeutic options are limited by antibiotic resistance. Anti-pathogenic compounds, which inhibit quorum sensing (QS) pathways, may be a useful alternative to antibiotics. Staphylococcal QS is encoded by the AGR locus and is responsible for the production of ?-hemolysin. Quantification of ?-hemolysin found in culture supernatants permits the analysis of AGR activity at the translational rather than transcriptional level. We employed reversed phase high performance chromatographic (RP-HPLC) techniques to investigate the anti-QS activity of 168 extracts from 104 Italian plants through quantification of ?-hemolysin. Extracts from three medicinal plants (Ballota nigra, Castanea sativa, and Sambucus ebulus) exhibited a dose-dependent response in the production of ?-hemolysin, indicating anti-QS activity in a pathogenic MRSA isolate. PMID:20645243

Quave, Cassandra L; Plano, Lisa R W; Bennett, Bradley C

2011-01-01

252

[Medicinal plants and symbols in the medieval mystic altarpiece].  

Science.gov (United States)

The medieval mystic altarpiece towers above the altar table. It is linked to the evocation of a religious mystery beyond our faculty of reasoning. Symbolism of an enclosed garden evokes the image of the Heavenly Garden isolated by a wall from the rest of earthly world. In this mystic chiefly Rhenan altarpiece the enclosed garden is that of Virgin Mary who in the Middle Ages was likened to the spouse in the song of songs. The Blessed Virgin is painted with flowers, lily, rose, violet, lily of the valley. Most of these are medicinal plants in order to implore a faith healing for the believers. All in all about fifty plants are showed on Rhenan altarpieces and on 14th century mystic altarpieces almost contemporary of Issenheim's altarpiece, some Italian, some Rhenan. PMID:22073760

Fischer, Louis-Paul; Verilhac, Régine; Ferrandis, Jean-Jacques; Trépardoux, Francis

2011-01-01

253

A SHORT REVIEW ON UN-EXPLORED MEDICINAL PLANT: ECBOLIUM VIRIDIE  

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Full Text Available Medicinal plants are the nature’s gift to human being to make disease free healthy life. It plays a vital role to preserve our health. In our country more than 2000 medicinal plants are recognized. Ecbolium viridie (Acanthaceae is one of the important medicinal plant in India and Malaysia. Some of its medicinal uses have been mentioned in traditional system of medicine such as ayurveda, siddha and unani. This review attempts to encompass the available literature of Ecbolium viridie with respect to its traditional uses and summary of its pharmacological activities.

A. Elumalai

2011-05-01

254

STUDIES ON MEDICINAL PLANTS OF KORADACHERI VILLAGE, KODAVASAL TALUK, THIRUVARUR DISTRICT, TAMILNADU, INDIA  

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Full Text Available The present study deals about the availability of medicinal plants in Koradacheri Village, Kodavasal Taluk, Thiruvarur District, Tamil Nadu, India. Evolution of resistance, strains is a major threatening problem. Identified folk medicines of this area may be used to treat the newly evolved microbes. Ailments are not well known to the people. Very few people only knew remedies for several diseases. The selected medicinal plants are expected to open a new window in a discovery of novel medicine. Keeping the above facts in mind the present investigation is justifiably planned to concentrate on medicinal plants of Koradacheri Village, Tamil Nadu, India.

Durairaj Rekha

2013-10-01

255

Use of anise seed and/or ?-tocopheryl acetate in laying Japanese quail diets  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english An experiment was conducted to investigate the possible use of anise (Pimpinella anisum) and/or ?-tocopheryl acetate as dietary supplements on the performance and some egg quality characteristics of laying Japanese quail. One hundred and eight Coturnix japonica quail (72 females and 36 males), [...] 149 days old, were randomly allocated to four equal groups with three subgroups of nine birds each (six females and three males). A commercial laying diet was fed to the control group (Group A). The remaining three groups received the same diet supplemented with anise seed at 10 g/kg (Group B) or 20 g/kg (Group C), or additional 600 mg ?-tocopheryl acetate/kg (Group D). The birds were given feed and water ad libitum for a period of 29 days, while being kept under commercial conditions. During the experiment, egg production, feed consumption and mortality were recorded daily. Also, at the end of experiment, egg weight, egg yolk, albumen and shell weight percentages, egg yolk colour (using the L*a*b* colour space), blood serum total cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were determined. Neither the supplementation of anise nor that of ?-tocopheryl had any effect on the performance of the birds or the quality of their eggs, except for a significant change of the colour of the egg yolk. Cholesterol concentration in the serum tended to decrease with the addition of anise to the diet.

Christaki, E.V; Bonos, E.M; Florou-Paneri, P.C.

256

Anxiolytic activity evaluation of four medicinal plants from Cameroon.  

Science.gov (United States)

Afrormosia laxiflora (A. laxiflora), Chenopodium ambrosioides (C. ambrosioides), Microglossa pyrifolia (M. pyrifolia) and Mimosa pudica (M. pudica) are plants used in traditional medicine in Cameroon to treat insomnia, epilepsy, anxiety, and agitation. They were evaluated for their anxiolytic like activity in mice. Animal models (elevated plus maze and stress-induced hyperthermia tests) were used. The four plants showed anxiolytic activity. In stress-induced hyperthermia test, A. laxiflora, C. ambrosioides, M. pyrifolia and M. pudica significantly antagonised the increase of temperature. ?T° decreased from 0.75°C in the control group to 0.36°C at the dose of 110 mg/kg for A. laxiflora; from 1°C in the control group to -1.1°C at the dose of 120 mg/kg for C. ambrosioides; from 1.7°C in the control group to 0.2°C at the dose of 128 mg/kg for M. pyrifolia and from 1.3°C in the control group to 0.5°C at the dose of 180 mg/kg for M. pudica. In the elevated plus maze test, the four plants increased the number of entries into, percentage of entries into, and percentage of time in open arms. A. laxiflora, C. ambrosioides and M. pudica also reduced the percentage of entries and time in closed arms. In addition, C. ambrosioides, M. pyrifolia and M. pudica showed antipyretic activity by reducing the body temperature. The results suggested that C. ambrosioides, M. pyrifolia and M. pudica posses anxiolytic-like and antipyretic activities while A. laxiflora possesses only anxiolytic-like properties. These plants could be helpful in the treatment of anxiety and fever in traditional medicine in Cameroon. PMID:22754066

Bum, E Ngo; Soudi, S; Ayissi, E R; Dong, C; Lakoulo, N H; Maidawa, F; Seke, P F E; Nanga, L D; Taiwe, G S; Dimo, T; Njikam, Njifutie; Rakotonirina, A; Rakotonirina, S V; Kamanyi, A

2011-01-01

257

An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in Babungo, Northwest Region, Cameroon  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken to record information on medicinal plants from traditional medical practitioners in Babungo and to identify the medicinal plants used for treating diseases. Methods Traditional Medical Practitioners (TMP's) who were the main informants were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires and open-ended conversations. Field trips were made to the sites where TMP's harvest plants. Results T...

Simbo David J

2010-01-01

258

solation and Identification of Fungi from Spices and Medicinal Plants  

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Full Text Available This investigation was designed to throw light on the microbial status of some crude herbal materials. A total of 16 samples, representing different types of spices and medicinal plants were collected from common market in the Erbil city. Ten different fungal genera and 16 species were isolated and identified as Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus spp., Gliocladium sp., Hyalodendron diddeus, Memmoniella sp., Penicillium spp., Rhizopus spp., Syncephalastrum sp., Cladosporium lignicolum and Ulocladium botrytis. The total number of isolated fungi from the all sixteen selected samples was serially diluted and plated on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA medium was (203×103 cfu/g. samples. Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. were more frequently detected, while Stachybotrys sp., Syncephalastrum racemocum, Uocladium botrytis, Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium lignicolum and Gliocladium catenulatum ere less frequently detected. Detection of mycotoxin on Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphincol agar (DRBC for fungi isolated from spices and medicinal plant samples, A. flavus, A. Niger and A. ochraceous show positive results on the culture for mycotoxin production. Estimation of natural occurrence of Aflatoxin (AT and Ochratoxin (OT in some selected dried samples by using ELISA method, the high result of aflatoxin and ochratoxin show in Red tea (150.5, 387.3 ppb while the low result of aflatoxin and ochratoxin show in Garlic (1.4, 0 ppb respectively.

Farid M. Toma

2013-03-01

259

An Ethnopharmacological Study of Medicinal Plants in New South Wales  

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Full Text Available The Australian Aboriginal people have used plants as medicine and food for thousands of years, however, this traditional knowledge is documented only to a limited extent, and is in danger of being lost. The Indigenous Bioresources Research Group (IBRG aims to help Australian Aboriginal communities to preserve their customary medicinal knowledge, and to provide information that can be used for their cultural or educational purposes, as well as for scientific advancement. This work is undertaken in close collaboration with Australian Aboriginal communities in New South Wales. The project is multidisciplinary, combining an ethnobotanical and an ethnopharmacological approach, which includes biological and chemical investigations, as well as developing best practices for protecting traditional knowledge. This paper describes the general strategy of the project as well as methods used in the ethnopharmacological study. Ethnobotanical databases are set up for each participating community. Plant material is collected, extracted, and active compounds are isolated using a bioassay-guided fractionation approach. All extracts and compounds are tested for biological activity in antimicrobial assays (disc diffusion, resazurin, fluorescein diacetate, neurological assays or anti-inflammatory assays, depending on their traditional use.

D. Randall

2005-10-01

260

Antioxidant Activity of Some Jordanian Medicinal Plants Used Traditionally for Treatment of Diabetes  

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Medicinal plants are being used extensively in Jordanian traditional medicinal system for the treatment of diabetes symptoms. Twenty one plant samples were collected from different Jordanian locations and used for antioxidant evaluation. The level of antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS assays in relation to the total phenolic contents of the medically used parts. The most frequently used plant parts as medicines were fruit, shoot and leaves. The total phenolic contents of ...

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Medicinal Plants Useful for Malaria Therapy in Okeigbo, Ondo State, Southwest Nigeria  

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There is increasing resistance of malaria parasites to chloroquine, the cheapest and commonly used drug for malaria in Nigeria. Artemisin, a product from medicinal plant indigenous to China, based on active principle of Artemisia annua, has been introduced into the Nigerian market. However not much has been done to project antimalaria properties of indigenous medicinal plants. This study thus, has the main objective of presenting medicinal plants used for malaria therapy in Okeigbo, Ondo Stat...

Odugbemi, Tolu O.; Akinsulire, Odunayo R.; Aibinu, Ibukun E.; Fabeku, Peter O.

2006-01-01

262

A Review on Medicinal Plants with Anti-Ulcer Activity  

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Full Text Available A peptic ulcer is erosion in a segment of the gastro intestinal mucosa. It may typically in the stomach (gastric ulcer or first few centimeters of duodenum (duodenal ulcer that penetrates through the muscularis mucosae. Contrary to popular belief, ulcer is not only caused by spicy food but also most commonly due to an infection of Helicobacter Pylori and long term use of medications. Standard treatment is a combination of drugs including antibiotics and a proton pump inhibitors. Literature suggests that number of synthetic drugs are used in the management of peptic ulcers but elicit several adverse effects. Therefore Indian herbal plants stand out as being exceptional for its ethnic, ethobotanical and ethno-pharmaceutical use. In this review attempts have been made to know about some plants which may be used in treatment or prevention of peptic ulcers. Various plants like Excoecaria agallocha, Mentha arvensis, Utleria salicifolia, Emblica officinalis etc. proved active in antiulcer therapy. This combination of traditional and modern knowledge can produced better antiulcer drugs with fewer side effects. The medicinal plants are available in India and other countries, recent technologies advances have renewal interest in natural product in drug discovery.

Shaikh A. M

2013-05-01

263

Boerhaavia diffusa: metabolite profiling of a medicinal plant from Nyctaginaceae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Boerhaavia diffusa is a plant which is extensively used in folk medicine. However, when it comes to its phytochemical characterization, little attention has been given to secondary metabolites other than rotenoids and alkaloids. A metabolite profiling and biological study was undertaken in this species' leaves and roots and substantial differences were found between the two parts of the plant. The volatile composition was analysed for the first time using HS-SPME-GC-MS and several compounds, including terpenes, phenylpropanoids, indol compounds, norisoprenoids, among others, were identified. Organic acid analysis was also performed, allowing their characterization in this species for the first time, and oxalic, ketoglutaric, pyruvic, quinic and fumaric acids were identified. Quantitative differences between the two vegetal materials were found. Additionally, several flavonoids and one phenolic acid were also confirmed. Concerning the biological potential, the aqueous extract of each plant part was tested against DPPH radical, one reactive oxygen species (O(2)(-)) and one reactive nitrogen species (()NO). Moreover, activity against acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme with a well-known role in several physio-pathological processes, was assayed. When possible, the relation between the chemistry and activity displayed was established. Leaves revealed stronger antioxidant activity than roots, and acetylcholinesterase inhibition was not found in neither plant part. PMID:19500634

Pereira, David M; Faria, Joana; Gaspar, Luís; Valentão, Patrícia; de Pinho, Paula Guedes; Andrade, Paula B

2009-08-01

264

Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Some Nigerian Medicinal Plant Extracts  

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Full Text Available The present research evaluates the DPPH radical scavenging, total antioxidant activities, reducing power and total contents of phenolic compounds in methanolic leaf extracts of five Nigerian medicinal plants (Dalbergia saxatilis Hook.f. (Papilionacae, Ekebergia senegalensis A.Juss.(Meliaceae, Hymenocardia acida Tul. (Hymenocardiaceae, Icacina tricantha Oliv. (Icacinaceae and Salacia pallescens Oliv.(Celastraceae. Total phenols were analysed according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Each sample under assay condition, showed a dose-dependent effect both on free radical scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH and also on Fe3+ reducing power. The antioxidant activity of the plant extracts with the DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power method, were in the order Hymenocardia> Ekebergia> Salacia> Icacina> Dalbergia. H. acida and E. senegalensis possess very high radical scavenging activity in both assays. Potency of H. acida extract was of the same magnitude as that of reference ?-tocopherol. Total phenols in all the samples expressed as GAE (Gallic Acid Equivalent varied from 1.83 to 15.47mg g-1 of dry plant material. Total antioxidant activities correlated with total phenols (R2 = 0.6640 an indication that 66% of the antioxidant capacity of these extracts results from contribution of phenolic compounds. A linear positive relationship existed between the reducing power and total phenolics of the tested plant extracts (R2 = 0.9564.

M.O. Sofidiya

2006-01-01

265

Cytotoxicity of Selected Medicinal and Nonmedicinal Plant Extracts to Microbial and Cervical Cancer Cells  

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This study investigated the cytotoxicity of 55 species of plants. Each plant was rated as medicinal, or nonmedicinal based on the existing literature. About 79% of the medicinal plants showed some cytotoxicity, while 75% of the nonmedicinal plants showed bioactivity. It appears that Asteraceae, Labiatae, Pinaceae, and Chenopodiaceae were particularly active against human cervical cancer cells. Based on the literature, only three of the 55 plants have been significantly investigated for cytoto...

2012-01-01

266

OCCURRENCE OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI IN SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS OF KERALA  

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The occurrence of mycorrhiza in 40 selected medicinal plants was studied. The percentage of mycorrhizal colonization in each of the plant was calculated. The colonization was found to be very less in four plants and very high in six plants. All others showed a moderate level of colonization. The present work suggests the use of mycorrhiza as a biofertilizer to enhance the growth and yield of medicinal plants.

Mathew, Abraham; Malathy, M. R.

2006-01-01

267

A meta-analysis of medicinal plants to assess the evidence for toxicity  

Science.gov (United States)

Toxicity of phytochemicals, plant-based extracts and dietary supplements, and medicinal plants in general, is of medical importance and must be considered in phytotherapy and other plant uses. We show in this report how general database analyses can provide a quantitative assessment of research and evidence related to toxicity of medicinal plants or specific phytochemicals. As examples, several medicinal plants are analyzed for their relation to nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. The results of analyses in different databases are similar, and reveal the two best-established toxic effects among the group of plants that were examined: nephrotoxicity of Aristolochia fangchi and hepatotoxicity of Larrea tridentata.

Chen, Sarah; Vieira, Amandio

2010-01-01

268

A meta-analysis of medicinal plants to assess the evidence for toxicity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Toxicity of phytochemicals, plant-based extracts and dietary supplements, and medicinal plants in general, is of medical importance and must be considered in phytotherapy and other plant uses. We show in this report how general database analyses can provide a quantitative assessment of research and evidence related to toxicity of medicinal plants or specific phytochemicals. As examples, several medicinal plants are analyzed for their relation to nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. The results of analyses in different databases are similar, and reveal the two best-established toxic effects among the group of plants that were examined: nephrotoxicity of Aristolochia fangchi and hepatotoxicity of Larrea tridentata. PMID:21217878

Chen, Sarah; Vieira, Amandio

2010-06-01

269

PROFILE OF HEAVY METALS IN MEDICINAL PLANTS COLLECTED FROM KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN  

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Full Text Available Essential and non-essential heavy metals like Fe, Ni, Mn, Zn, Cu, Co,  Cd, Cr and Pb were analyzed in nine selected medicinal plants namely Persea duthiei, Suaeda monoica, Oxalis corniculata, Hibiscus rosa, Erythrina variegates, Curcuma longa, Berberis lyceum, Zanthoxylum alatum and Quercus dilatata by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. These medicinal plants were selected for our investigation having in mind their extensive use in traditional medicine for various ailments by local physicians in the area from where these plants were collected. In general the concentration level of heavy metals in the selected plants was found to decrease in the order of Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu > Ni > Co > Cr > Cd > Pb. In most plants the concentration of Pb was found below the detection level. The results revealed that the medicinal plants accumulate the elements at different concentration. Monitoring such medicinal plants for heavy metals is a supreme importance in protecting the Public from the adverse effects of these heavy metals.

Ali Rehman, Hussain Ullah, Nisar Ahmad, Aziz Ur Rehman, Nimat Ullah, Shan Zeb, Imran and Ijaz Ahmad*

2013-02-01

270

A CHECK LIST OF INDIGENOUS MEDICINAL PLANTS OF DHARWAD AND THEIR TRADITIONAL USES  

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Full Text Available Plants have fed the world and cured ills from time immemorial. A vast knowledge of plants have been accumulated, where a large number of them with medicinal value are found. Screening of medicinal plants has become a potential source of bio-dynamic compounds of therapeutic value in phytochemical researches. Ethnobotanists bring out suggestions as to which raw plant material may be tapped, and for this they get clues from rural or tribal men.In the light of above said facts, sixty indigenous medicinal plants were collected from Dharwad and its surroundings. The traditiona uses of these plants were given after discussion with local healers and experienced adults, aged between 40-60 years. For each medicinal plant the scientific name, its family name, local name, medicinal use and method of preparation or administration have been given.

S.G.HIREMATH

2007-01-01

271

Antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity of selected Egyptian medicinal plants.  

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Medicinal plants have been used as a source of remedies since ancient times in Egypt. The present study was designed to investigate the antibacterial activity and the cytotoxicity of the organic extracts from 16 selected medicinal plants of Egypt. The study was also extended to the isolation of the antiproliferative compound jaeschkeanadiol p-hydroxybenzoate (FH-25) from Ferula hermonis. The microbroth dilution was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the samples against twelve bacterial strains belonging to four species, Providencia stuartii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli, while a resazurin assay was used to assess the cytotoxicity of the extracts on the human pancreatic cancer cell line MiaPaCa-2, breast cancer cell line MCF-7, CCRF-CEM leukemia cells, and their multidrug resistant subline, CEM/ADR5000. The results of the MIC determination indicated that all the studied crude extracts were able to inhibit the growth of at least one of the tested bacterial species, the best activity being recorded with the crude extracts from F. hermonis and Vitis vinifera, whichwere active against 91.7% and 83.3% of the studied bacteria, respectively. The lowest MIC value of 128 ?g/mL was recorded against P. stuartii ATCC 29916 and E. coli ATCC 10536 with the extract from V. vinifera and Commiphora molmol, respectively. In the cytotoxicity study, IC50 values below 20 ?g/mL were recorded for the crude extract of F. hermonis on all four studied cancer cell lines. FH-25 also showed good cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells (IC50: 2.47 ?g/mL). Finally, the results of the present investigation provided supportive data for the possible use of the plant extracts investigated herein, mostly F. hermonis and V. vinifera in the treatment of bacterial infections and jaeschkeanadiol p-hydroxybenzoate in the control of cancer diseases. PMID:22057918

Kuete, Victor; Wiench, Benjamin; Hegazy, Mohamed-Elamir F; Mohamed, Tarik A; Fankam, Aimé G; Shahat, Abdelaaty A; Efferth, Thomas

2012-01-01

272

Chemical constituents of selected Sudanese medicinal and aromatic plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sudanese medicinal and aromatic plants (Alternanthra repens, Ambrosia maritima, Citrus paradisi, Croton zambesicus, Lepidium sativum, Morettia phillaena, Nauclea latifolia, Plectranthus barbatus, Pluchea dioscorides, and Sphaeranthus suaveolens) were analyzed for their chemical composition, mineral contents and secondary constituents. The concentration of manganese, copper, iron, nickel, lead, zinc and potassium in plant samples was performed using x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The trace elements found in the smallest amount of the investigated plant species are lead, nickel and copper, while high concentration was detected for potassium, iron and manganese. Mn was accumulated with high level in Alternanthra repens species. Potassium was abundant in S. suaveolens and Ambrosia maritima. The values of concentration obtained for all studied elements were compared with published values of reference material, trace elements in Hay (powder) by International Atomic Energy Agency. Phyto chemical analysis of investigated plants was performed for constituents: Flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, amino acids and sugars. The methanolic extracts of P.barbatus, C.paradisi, A.repens, N.latifolia, L. sativum and C. zambesicus are found to contain alkaloids. Results of TLC analysis were shown as Rf values for saponins, bitter principles, essential oils, flavonoids and alkaloids. Quantification of flavonoids and tannins showed that flavonoid content was highest in case of Alternanthera repens and Sphaeranthus suavertens, whereas the highest tannin content was in case of Nauclea latifolia and Sphaearanthus suavertens. The results suggest that the user of traditional Sudanese crude drugs should be warned of potential danger of heavy metal poisoning because their concentrations seem to be higher than maximum values allowed by health agencies in several countries. This study has provided some biochemical basis for the ethno medical use of extracts from different candidate plant species in the treatment and prevention of diseases. As rich source of phytochemicals and minerals these plants can be a potential source of useful drugs, and also used as bio indicators to follow changes in an environmental pollution.(Author)

2007-01-01

273

Cytotoxic activity screening of Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts.  

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The cytotoxic activity of 23 crude methanol extracts from 19 Bangladeshi medicinal plants was investigated against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3), healthy monkey kidney (VERO) and four human cancer cell lines (gastric, AGS; colon, HT-29; and breast, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) using MTT assay. High cytotoxicity across all cell lines tested was exhibited by Aegiceras corniculatum (fruit) and Hymenodictyon excelsum (bark) extracts (IC50 values ranging from 0.0005 to 0.9980 and 0.08 to 0.44 mg/mL, respectively). Fourteen extracts from 11 plant species, namely Clitoria ternatea (flower and leaf), Dillenia indica (leaf), Diospyros peregrina (leaf), Dipterocarpus turbinatus (bark and leaf), Ecbolium viride (leaf), Glinus oppositifolius (whole plant), Gnaphalium luteoalbum (leaf), Jasminum sambac (leaf), Lannea coromandelica (bark and leaf), Mussaenda glabrata (leaf) and Saraca asoca (leaf), were also significantly cytotoxic (IC50 < 1.0 mg/mL) against at least one of the cancer cell lines tested. More selectively, Avicennia alba (leaf), C. ternatea (flower and leaf), Caesalpinia pulcherrima (leaf), E. viride (leaf) and G. oppositifolius (whole plant) showed cytotoxicity only against both of the breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). In contrast, C. ternatea (flower and leaf) exhibited high cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 (IC50 values of 0.11 and 0.49 mg/mL, respectively), whereas E. viride and G. oppositifolius whole plant extracts exhibited high activity against MCF-7 cells (IC50 values of 0.06 and 0.15 mg/mL, respectively). The cytotoxic activity test results for 9 of the plant species correlate with their traditional use as anticancer agents, thus making them interesting sources for further drug development. PMID:23846168

Akter, Raushanara; Uddin, Shaikh J; Grice, I Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

2014-01-01

274

Correlation between heavy metal contents and antioxidants in medicinal plants grown in mining areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full texts: Medicinal plants are widely used as alternate therapeutic agents for various diseases. Three medicinal plants grown in copper mining regions of Khetri in Rajasthan was analyzed for heavy metal contents by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The copper levels were found to be two to three folds higher in these plant leaves as compared to the reported copper levels in the medicinal plants grown in environmentally friendly regions. In our previous study on heavy metals in soil and medicinal plant of Khetri region we have shown bioaccumulation of Cu in the medicinal plants. In addition, the levels of Cr, Fe and Zn were also higher. Antioxidant properties of medicinal plants are one of their major therapeutic functionalities. The role of elevated levels of heavy metals in the medicinal plants was studied with respect to their antioxidant properties. Standard procedures were used for measuring total phenols, flavanoids and DPPH assay of these medicinal plants which were correlated with the heavy metals contents of these plants

2010-11-15

275

Potent ?-amylase inhibitory activity of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plants  

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Background Indian medicinal plants used in the Ayurvedic traditional system to treat diabetes are a valuable source of novel anti-diabetic agents. Pancreatic ?-amylase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the levels of post-prandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. In this study, seventeen Indian medicinal plants with known hypoglycemic properties were subjected to sequential solvent extraction and tested for ?-amylase inhibition, in order to assess and evaluate their inhibitory potential on PPA (porcine pancreatic ?-amylase). Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the lead extracts was performed in order to determine the probable constituents. Methods Analysis of the 126 extracts, obtained from 17 plants (Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f., Adansonia digitata L., Allium sativum L., Casia fistula L., Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don., Cinnamomum verum Persl., Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt., Linum usitatisumum L., Mangifera indica L., Morus alba L., Nerium oleander L., Ocimum tenuiflorum L., Piper nigrum L., Terminalia chebula Retz., Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers., Trigonella foenum-graceum L., Zingiber officinale Rosc.) for PPA inhibition was initially performed qualitatively by starch-iodine colour assay. The lead extracts were further quantified with respect to PPA inhibition using the chromogenic DNSA (3, 5-dinitrosalicylic acid) method. Phytochemical constituents of the extracts exhibiting? 50% inhibition were analysed qualitatively as well as by GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry). Results Of the 126 extracts obtained from 17 plants, 17 extracts exhibited PPA inhibitory potential to varying degrees (10%-60.5%) while 4 extracts showed low inhibition ( 50%) was obtained with 3 isopropanol extracts. All these 3 extracts exhibited concentration dependent inhibition with IC50 values, viz., seeds of Linum usitatisumum (540 ?gml-1), leaves of Morus alba (1440 ?gml-1) and Ocimum tenuiflorum (8.9 ?gml-1). Acarbose as the standard inhibitor exhibited an IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration)value of 10.2 ?gml-1. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and steroids with the major phytoconstituents being identified by GC-MS. Conclusions This study endorses the use of these plants for further studies to determine their potential for type 2 diabetes management. Results suggests that extracts of Linum usitatisumum, Morus alba and Ocimum tenuiflorum act effectively as PPA inhibitors leading to a reduction in starch hydrolysis and hence eventually to lowered glucose levels.

2011-01-01

276

Potent ?-amylase inhibitory activity of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plants  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Indian medicinal plants used in the Ayurvedic traditional system to treat diabetes are a valuable source of novel anti-diabetic agents. Pancreatic ?-amylase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the levels of post-prandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. In this study, seventeen Indian medicinal plants with known hypoglycemic properties were subjected to sequential solvent extraction and tested for ?-amylase inhibition, in order to assess and evaluate their inhibitory potential on PPA (porcine pancreatic ?-amylase. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the lead extracts was performed in order to determine the probable constituents. Methods Analysis of the 126 extracts, obtained from 17 plants (Aloe vera (L. Burm.f., Adansonia digitata L., Allium sativum L., Casia fistula L., Catharanthus roseus (L. G. Don., Cinnamomum verum Persl., Coccinia grandis (L. Voigt., Linum usitatisumum L., Mangifera indica L., Morus alba L., Nerium oleander L., Ocimum tenuiflorum L., Piper nigrum L., Terminalia chebula Retz., Tinospora cordifolia (Willd. Miers., Trigonella foenum-graceum L., Zingiber officinale Rosc. for PPA inhibition was initially performed qualitatively by starch-iodine colour assay. The lead extracts were further quantified with respect to PPA inhibition using the chromogenic DNSA (3, 5-dinitrosalicylic acid method. Phytochemical constituents of the extracts exhibiting? 50% inhibition were analysed qualitatively as well as by GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry. Results Of the 126 extracts obtained from 17 plants, 17 extracts exhibited PPA inhibitory potential to varying degrees (10%-60.5% while 4 extracts showed low inhibition ( 50% was obtained with 3 isopropanol extracts. All these 3 extracts exhibited concentration dependent inhibition with IC50 values, viz., seeds of Linum usitatisumum (540 ?gml-1, leaves of Morus alba (1440 ?gml-1 and Ocimum tenuiflorum (8.9 ?gml-1. Acarbose as the standard inhibitor exhibited an IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentrationvalue of 10.2 ?gml-1. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and steroids with the major phytoconstituents being identified by GC-MS. Conclusions This study endorses the use of these plants for further studies to determine their potential for type 2 diabetes management. Results suggests that extracts of Linum usitatisumum, Morus alba and Ocimum tenuiflorum act effectively as PPA inhibitors leading to a reduction in starch hydrolysis and hence eventually to lowered glucose levels.

Bhargava Shobha Y

2011-01-01

277

Antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Mexican medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antimicrobial effects of the Mexican medicinal plants Guazuma ulmifolia, Justicia spicigera, Opuntia joconostle, O. leucotricha, Parkinsonia aculeata, Phoradendron longifolium, P. serotinum, Psittacanthus calyculatus, Tecoma stans and Teucrium cubense were tested against several human multi-drug resistant pathogens, including three Gram (+) and five Gram (-) bacterial species and three fungal species using the disk-diffusion assay. The cytotoxicity of plant extracts on human cancer cell lines and human normal non-cancerous cells was also evaluated using the MTT assay. Phoradendron longifolium, Teucrium cubense, Opuntia joconostle, Tecoma stans and Guazuma ulmifolia showed potent antimicrobial effects against at least one multidrug-resistant microorganism (inhibition zone > 15 mm). Only Justicia spicigera and Phoradendron serotinum extracts exerted active cytotoxic effects on human breast cancer cells (IC50 Justicia spicigera and Phoradendron serotinum exerted the highest toxic effects on MCF-7 and HeLa, respectively, which are human cancer cell lines. These three plant species may be important sources of antimicrobial and cytotoxic agents. PMID:22312741

Jacobo-Salcedo, Maria del Rosario; Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Salazar-Olivo, Luis A; Carranza-Alvarez, Candy; González-Espíndola, Luis Angel; Domínguez, Fabiola; Maciel-Torres, Sandra Patricia; García-Lujan, Concepción; González-Martínez, Marisela del Rocio; Gómez-Sánchez, Maricela; Estrada-Castillón, Eduardo; Zapata-Bustos, Rocio; Medellin-Milán, Pedro; García-Carrancá, Alejandro

2011-12-01

278

Antifungal activities and chemical composition of some medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of and search for drugs and dietary supplements derived from plants have accelerated in recent years. Ethnopharmacologists, botanists, microbiologists and natural-products scientists are combing the earth for phytochemicals and leads, which could be developed for treatment of infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the antifungal activities of the essential oils of some medicinal plants such as Stachys pubescens, Thymus kotschyanus, Thymus daenensis and Bupleurum falcatum against Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus flavus and Alternaria alternata. The essential oils were used to evaluate their MICs and MFCs compared to the amphotricin B as a standard drug. The essential oils were also analyzed by GC/MS. Essential oils isolated from the S. pubescens, T. kotschyanus and B. falcatum showed strong antifungal activities. The essential oil of T. daenensis exhibited a moderate activity against the selected fungi in comparison with the other plants' essential oils. In addition, the results showed that 26, 23, 22 and 15 components were identified from the essential oils of T. kotschyanus, S. pubescens, T. daenensis and B. falcatum, respectively. These oils exhibited a noticeable antifungal activity against the selected fungi. Regarding obtained results and that natural antimicrobial substances are inexpensive and have fewer side effects, they convey potential for implementation in fungal pathogenic systems. PMID:24768063

Mohammadi, A; Nazari, H; Imani, S; Amrollahi, H

2014-06-01

279

An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Wonago Woreda, SNNPR, Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicinal plants are the integral part of the variety of cultures in Ethiopia and have been used over many centuries. Hence, the aim of this study is to document the medicinal plants in the natural vegetation and home gardens in Wonago Woreda, Gedeo Zone, Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State (SNNPR. Materials and methods Thirty healers were selected to collect data on management of medicinal plants using semi-structured interview, group discussion, and field observation. The distribution of plant species in the study areas was surveyed, and preference ranking, direct matrix ranking, priority ranking of factors and Informant consensus factor (ICF were calculated. Results The informants categorized the vegetation into five community types based on plant density and associated landform: 'Raqqa', 'Hakka cadanaba', 'Mancchha', 'Bullukko', and 'Wodae gido'. 155 plant species were collected from the natural vegetation and 65 plant species from the home gardens ('Gattae Oduma'. Seventy-two plant species were documented as having medicinal value: Sixty-five (71% from natural vegetation and 27 (29% from home gardens. Forty-five (62% were used for humans, 15(21% for livestock and 13(18% for treating both human and livestock ailments: 35 (43.2% were Shrubs, 28(34.5% herbs, 17 (20.9% trees and 1(1.2% climbers. The root (35.8% was the most commonly used plant part. The category: malaria, fever and headache had the highest 0.82 ICF. Agricultural expansion (24.4% in the area was found to be the main threat for medicinal plants followed by fire wood collection (18.8%. Peoples' culture and spiritual beliefs somehow helped in the conservation of medicinal plants. Conclusion Traditional healers still depend largely on naturally growing plant species and the important medicinal plants are under threat. The documented medicinal plants can serve as a basis for further studies on the regions medicinal plants knowledge and for future phytochemical and pharmacological studies.

Teklehaymanot Tilahun

2009-10-01

280

Review: Biotechnological strategies for conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants  

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Full Text Available Rai MK (2010 Review: Biotechnological strategies for conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants. Biodiversitas 11: 157-166. The use of medicinal plants is as old as human civilization. The biotechnological tools play a crucial role in conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants. The rapid depletion of plant genetic diversity has made essential to develop new in situ and ex situ conservation methods. Advances in biotechnology offer new methods for conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants. The present review is focused on biotechnological tools like in vitro culture, micropropagation, mycorrhization, genetic transformation and development of DNA banks. These are imperative and important alternatives for the conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants.

MAHENDRA KUMAR RAI

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
281

Chemical constituents of marine medicinal mangrove plant Sonneratia caseolaris  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-four compounds including eight steroids ( 1-8), nine triterpenoids ( 9-16, 24), three flavonoids ( 20-22), and four benzenecarboxylic derivatives ( 17-19, 23) were isolated and identified from stems and twigs of medicinal mangrove plant Sonneratia caseolaris. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by extensive analysis of their spectroscopic data. Among these metabolites, compounds 1, 4-20 and 22-24 were isolated and identified for the first time from S. caseolaris. In the in vitro cytotoxic assay against SMMC-7721 human hepatoma cells, compound 21 (3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone) exhibited significant activity with IC50 2.8 ?g/mL, while oleanolic acid ( 14), 3,3'-di- O-methyl ether ellagic acid ( 18), and 3,3',4- O-tri- O-methyl ether ellagic acid ( 19) showed weak activity. None of these compounds displayed significant antibacterial activites.

Tian, Minqing; Dai, Haofu; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Bingui

2009-05-01

282

Anti-HIV-1 efficacy of extracts from medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The anti-HIV-1 activities of butanol, hexane, chloroform and water extracts from four widely used folk medicinal plants (Sophora flavescens, Tulipa edulis, Herba ephedra, and Pachyma hoelen Rumph) were evaluated in this study. The hexane extract of Pachyma hoelen Rumph, PH-4, showed effective inhibition against HIV-1. The 50% effective concentration (EC(50)) of PH-4 was 37.3 microg/ml in the p24 antigen assay and 36.8% in the HIV-1 recombinant RT activity test (at 200 microg/ml). In addition, the PH-4 showed the protective effect on the infected MT-4 cells, with a 58.2% rate of protection. The 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC(50)) of PH-4 was 100.6 microg/ml. These results suggest that PH-4 from Pachyma hoelen Rumph might be the candidate for the chemotherapy agent against HIV-1 infection with further study. PMID:20437159

Lee, Su-A; Hong, Seong-Karp; Suh, Chang-Il; Oh, Mi-Hwa; Park, Jeong-Ho; Choi, Byoung-Wook; Park, Seung-Won; Paik, Soon-Young

2010-04-01

283

Antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of Kenyan medicinal plants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Seven medicinal plant extracts traditionally used in Kenya, mainly for management of infectious conditions, were chosen and screened for their antibacterial activity against Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) bact [...] eria. Antibacterial activity was tested using the broth dilution method. Harrisonia abyssinica and Terminalia kilimandscharica extracts showed significant activity against Gram+ and Gram- bacteria. The methanolic extracts of T. kilimandscharica bark and H. abyssinica bark and leaves showed minimum inhibitory activity against all tested bacteria, with minimal inhibitory concentrations ranging from 25-150 mg/mL. Ajuga remota and Amaranthus hybridus, which are lethal to brine shrimp nauplii, showed significantly lower antibacterial activity than those that were relatively non-toxic.

Wagate G, Cyrus; Gakuya W, Daniel; Mark O, Nanyingi; Francis K, Njonge; James M, Mbaria.

284

Natural and artificial radioactivity determination of some medicinal plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several medicinal plants used in Italy were analysed to determine natural and artificial radioactivity in those parts (leaves, fruits, seeds, roots, peduncles, flowers, barks, berries, thallus) used generally as remedies. The radionuclides were determined by alpha (238U, 210Po) and gamma (214Pb-Bi, 210Pb, 40K and 137Cs) spectrometry. 238U ranged between dry-1; 210Po between dry-1; 214Pb-214Bi between dry-1; 210Pb between dry-1; 40K between 66.2 and 3582.0 Bq kgdry-1; 137Cs between dry-1. The percentage of 210Po extraction in infusion and decoction was also determined; the arithmetical mean value of percentage of 210Po extraction resulted 20.7 ± 7.5.

2010-09-01

285

Identification, characterization, and palynology of high-valued medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

High-valued medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina, and Vetiveria zizanioides were identified with the help of taxonomical markers and investigated for characterization and palynological studies. These parameters are used to analyze their quality, safety, and standardization for their safe use. Botanical description and crude drug description is intended for their quality assurance at the time of collection, commerce stages, manufacturing, and production. For this purpose the detailed morphology was studied and compared with the Flora of Pakistan and other available literatures. Here we reported the pollen grain morphology of Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Psoralea corylifolia, and Rauwolfia serpentina for the first time. Similarly the crude drug study of Gymnema sylvestre (leaf), Origanum vulgare (aerial parts), Paeonia emodi (tubers), and Peganum harmala (seeds) was also carried out for the first time. PMID:23844389

Fazal, Hina; Ahmad, Nisar; Haider Abbasi, Bilal

2013-01-01

286

[Instrumental analysis of medicinal plants and their drug products].  

Science.gov (United States)

The experiences obtained during the development of gas chromatographic and other (GC, TLC and infrared spectrophotometric) methods for the 7th edition of the Hungarian Pharmacopoeia for essential oils and drugs containing essential oils are summarized with emphasis on the selection of suitable internal standard for the gas chromatographic assays. The qualitative and quantitative estimation of bitter compounds and polyphenoles e.g. flavonoids and procyanidines by means of ultraviolet and infrared spectrophotometry and HPLC is also described. Some HPLC methods for the determination of anthocyan and carotinoid derivatives are also presented. These are not yet included in the pharmacopoeia but are successfully used for the analytical investigation of commercially available medicinal plants and drug products made thereof. PMID:7942042

Petri, G; Lemberkovics, E

1994-05-01

287

Antiviral phenylpropanoid glycosides from the medicinal plant Markhamia lutea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three new phenylpropanoid glycosides, named luteoside A (3), luteoside B (4), and luteoside C (5), were isolated together with the known compounds verbascoside (1) and isoverbascoside (2) from the roots of the medicinal plant Markhamia lutea. The structures of the new compounds were determined to be 1-O-(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl beta-D-apiofuranosyl(1-->2)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->3)-4-O- caffeo yl-6-acetyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside, 1-O-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl beta-d-apiofuranosyl(1-->2)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->3)-6-O- caffeo yl-beta-d-glucopyranoside, and 1-O-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl beta-D-apiofuranosyl(1-->2)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->3)-6-O- ferulo yl-beta-d-glucopyranoside, respectively, on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic data. All five phenylpropanoid glycosides exhibited potent in vitro activity against respiratory syncytial virus. PMID:9599250

Kernan, M R; Amarquaye, A; Chen, J L; Chan, J; Sesin, D F; Parkinson, N; Ye, Z; Barrett, M; Bales, C; Stoddart, C A; Sloan, B; Blanc, P; Limbach, C; Mrisho, S; Rozhon, E J

1998-05-01

288

Platelet aggregation inhibitors in a Bhutanese medicinal plant, shug chher.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 90% methanol-soluble fraction of a Bhutanese medicinal plant, Shug Chher, exhibited inhibition of platelet aggregation induced by platelet activating factor. Bioassay-directed fractionation led to the isolation of four new labdane diterpenoids, 3 alpha, 15-dihydroxy-labda-8(17), 13E-diene (5), 3 alpha-hydroxy-labda-8(17), 13E-dien-15-oic acid (6), 3 alpha-hydroxy-labda-8(17), 12E, 14-trien-19-oic acid (7), and 3 alpha-acetoxyisocupressic acid (8) and four known diterpenoids, manool (1), 3 alpha-hydroxymanool (2), 3 alpha-hydroxy-12, 13E-biformene (3), and isocupressic acid (4). The structures of the new compounds were determined spectroscopically. Compounds 2, 3, and 5 inhibited platelet aggregation. PMID:8221975

Kagawa, K; Tokura, K; Uchida, K; Kakushi, H; Shike, T; Kikuchi, J; Nakai, H; Dorji, P; Subedi, L

1993-09-01

289

Medicinal plants from Peru: a review of plants as potential agents against cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural products have played a significant role in drug discovery and development especially for agents against cancer and infectious disease. An analysis of new and approved drugs for cancer by the United States Food and Drug Administration over the period of 1981-2002 showed that 62% of these cancer drugs were of natural origin. Natural compounds possess highly diverse and complex molecular structures compared to small molecule synthetic drugs and often provide highly specific biological activities likely derived from the rigidity and high number of chiral centers. Ethnotraditional use of plant-derived natural products has been a major source for discovery of potential medicinal agents. A number of native Andean and Amazonian medicines of plant origin are used as traditional medicine in Peru to treat different diseases. Of particular interest in this mini-review are three plant materials endemic to Peru with the common names of Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa), Maca (Lepidium meyenii), and Dragon's blood (Croton lechleri) each having been scientifically investigated for a wide range of therapeutic uses including as specific anti-cancer agents as originally discovered from the long history of traditional usage and anecdotal information by local population groups in South America. Against this background, we present an evidence-based analysis of the chemistry, biological properties, and anti-tumor activities for these three plant materials. In addition, this review will discuss areas requiring future study and the inherent limitations in their experimental use as anti-cancer agents. PMID:17017852

Gonzales, Gustavo F; Valerio, Luis G

2006-09-01

290

Effect of Dietary Anise Seeds Supplementation on Growth Performance, Immune Response, Carcass Traits and Some Blood Parameters of Broiler Chickens  

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Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary anise seeds supplementation on growth performance, immune response, some blood parameters and carcass traits of broiler chickens. Two hundred and seventeen Arbor Acre one day old broiler chicks were randomly allotted into 7 groups (31 per each of mixed sex. Anise seed was supplemented to the basal diet at 0.0 (control, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25 and 1.5 g/kg diet (groups 2-7, respectively and the trail was lasted for 6 weeks. The analysis of variance of the data indicated that anise supplementation at 0.5 and 0.75 g/kg of diet (groups 3 and 4 significantly (p < 0.05 improved body weight gain, performance index and relative growth rate of broiler chicken, while had no significant effect on feed intake and feed conversion ratio when compared with the control. Moreover the highest inclusion level of anise (1.5 g/kg diet of broiler chicken diet (group 7 reduced growth performance. On the other hand anise supplementation at 0.5 g/kg (group 3 of broiler diet improve blood picture (RBCs counts, WBCs count, HB and PCV% clearly than other anise supplementation levels and significantly (p < 0.05 increased lymphocytes when compared with the control, while anise supplementation in broiler chickens diets increased serum albumin, decreased globulin concentration, increased albumin/globulin ratio, non significantly reduced serum GOT and the lower levels of anise (groups 2 and 3 reduced serum concentration of GPT, glucose, cholesterol while had no effect of serum phospholipids and uric acids concentrations when compared with the control. Anise supplementation had non significant effect on HI antibody titer to Newcastle disease vaccine, dressing percent and the anise level at 0.5 g/kg (group 3 non significantly increased thymus gland weight relative to the body weight and had no effect on both bursa and spleen index while the higher level (group, 7 had negative effect on spleen, bursa and thymus gland weight percent, that indicate anise at 0.5 g/kg supplementation had stimulatory immune effect, my provide hepatoprotective effect and improve the economical efficiency of production while, the higher level may be had negative effect.

M.A. Soltan

2008-01-01

291

Traditional drug therapies from various medicinal plants of central Karakoram National Park, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Traditional medicines derived from indigenous plants play an important role in treating infectious diseases. This study examined traditional medicinal uses of indigenous plants and documented different traditional recipes used by local communities to treat different diseases in Baltistan Region. Forty-seven medicinal plants belonging to 22 families were collected. Twenty-one families were angiosperms, one was a pteridophyte (Equisetaceae), and one a gymnosperm (Ephedraceae). Crude extracts of these medicinal plants were used by the local people for treating diseases in a traditional system of medicine. Ranunculaceae, Asteraceae, Polygonaceae and Rosaceae were the most important families, each having five species with medicinal value. The species were found across a wide range of altitudes, from 2000 m to over 4000 m. (author)

2011-12-01

292

Diversity and use of ethno-medicinal plants in the region of Swat, North Pakistan  

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Abstract Background Due to its diverse geographical and habitat conditions, northern Pakistan harbors a wealth of medicinal plants. The plants and their traditional use are part of the natural and cultural heritage of the region. This study was carried out to document which medicinal plant species and which plant parts are used in the region of Swat, which syndrome categories are particularly concerned, and which habitat spectrum is frequented by collectors. Finally, we assessed to which exte...

2013-01-01

293

ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF FEW PLANTS USED IN TRADITIONAL SYSTEM OF MEDICINE  

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Medicinal plants contribute a sizeable portion in human health care system both at commercial and production levels. The plants Azadirichta indica (neem), Mangifera indica (mango), Eucalyptus, Curcuma longa (turmeric), Cinnamomum verum, Musa, Capsicum annum (red chilly) were studied as these plants are popularly used in many folk medicines for last many centuries. Plant parts taken in the study were leaves, peels, rhizomes and fruit. The extracts were found to be very active against the tes...

2012-01-01

294

Aromatic Plants as a Source of Bioactive Compounds  

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Full Text Available Aromatic plants, also known as herbs and spices, have been used since antiquity as folk medicine and as preservatives in foods. The best known aromatic plants, such as oregano, rosemary, sage, anise, basil, etc., originate from the Mediterranean area. They contain many biologically active compounds, mainly polyphenolics, which have been found to possess antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiparasitic, antiprotozoal, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory properties. Currently, the demand for these plants and their derivatives has increased because they are natural, eco-friendly and generally recognized as safe products. Therefore, aromatic plants and their extracts have the potential to become new generation substances for human and animal nutrition and health. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the literature surrounding the in vivo and in vitro use of aromatic plants.

Panagiota Florou-Paneri

2012-09-01

295

PROFILE OF HEAVY METALS IN MEDICINAL PLANTS COLLECTED FROM KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN  

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Essential and non-essential heavy metals like Fe, Ni, Mn, Zn, Cu, Co,  Cd, Cr and Pb were analyzed in nine selected medicinal plants namely Persea duthiei, Suaeda monoica, Oxalis corniculata, Hibiscus rosa, Erythrina variegates, Curcuma longa, Berberis lyceum, Zanthoxylum alatum and Quercus dilatata by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. These medicinal plants were selected for our investigation having in mind ...

Ali Rehman, Hussain Ullah

2013-01-01

296

Medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Kancheepuram District of Tamil Nadu, India  

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An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken to collect information from traditional healers on the use of medicinal plants in Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu during October 2003 to April 2004. The indigenous knowledge of local traditional healers and the native plants used for medicinal purposes were collected through questionnaire and personal interviews during field trips.

Muthu, Chellaiah; Ayyanar, Muniappan; Raja, Nagappan; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

2006-01-01

297

Infusions of Portuguese medicinal plants: dependence of final antioxidant capacity and phenol content on extraction features  

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BACKGROUND: Aqueous extracts of most medicinal plants traditionally employed in Portugal (at the ratio of 1 g plant: 110mL water) have been assayed for total antioxidant capacity and phenol content, in order to elucidate their claimed medicinal features. RESULTS: The antioxidant activity was assessed by theABTS•+ method; the ascorbic acid equivalent values ranged

Gia?o, Maria S.; Gonza?lez-sanjose?, Maria L.; Rivero-pe?re, Maria D.; Pereira, Cla?udia I.; Pintado, Manuela E.; Malcata, F. Xavier

2007-01-01

298

Use of medicinal plants and pharmaceuticals by indigenous communities in the Bolivian Andes and Amazon  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate, by means of household surveys, the use of medicinal plants and pharmaceuticals in Apillapampa, a large Andean community of Quechua peasants, and in six small communities of Yuracaré-Trinitario "slash-and-burn" cultivators of the National Park Isiboro-Sécure (the NPIS in the Bolivian Amazon. METHODS: A total of 12% of households in Apillapampa and nearly all households in the NPIS were interviewed about their use of medicinal plants and pharmaceuticals for treating illnesses. Informants were also asked to name any medicinal plants they knew. FINDINGS: In spite of the presence of a primary health care service (PHC with medical doctor in Apillapampa, an equal number of informants used medicinal plants and pharmaceuticals. In the NPIS, the prevalent use of medicinal plants or pharmaceuticals in any community depended on the distance of the community from the nearest village and from a PHC with medical doctor (r = 0.85 and r = -0.96; both P = 0.05. The NPIS communities' knowledge of plants expressed as the average number of medicinal plants mentioned correlated positively and negatively with distance from the nearest village and use of pharmaceuticals, respectively (r = 0.95, P<0.005 and r = -0.90, P<0.05, respectively. CONCLUSION: The cultural importance of traditional medicine and the physical isolation of communities, both in general and from PHCs, are factors that influence the use of and knowledge about medicinal plants.

Vandebroek Ina

2004-01-01

299

Antineoplastic Screening of Some Medicinal Plants Against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma in Mice  

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Swiss Albino mice inoculated with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells were treated with the extract of some medicinal plants include Citrullus colocynthis, Withania somnifera, Bambusa arundinacea, Mesua ferrea, Acorus calamus, Myrica nagi, Calotropis procera, Catharanthus roseus, Ficus racemosa and also with clinically highly effective drug bleomycin. Among the medicinal plants Bambusa arundinacea showed highest cell grow...

Masud Rana, A. Y. K. M.; Khanam, J. A.; Asad-ud-daula, M.

2004-01-01

300

Evidence-based Review of Medicinal Plants Used for the Treatment of Hemorrhoids  

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Hemorrhoidal disease is a common problem which is usually not managed properly with pharmacologic interventions and will eventually require surgery. However, there are many medicinal plants that were successfully used for the treatment of hemorrhoids in the traditional and folk medicine of different countries. In this study, these medicinal plants have been reviewed and their mechanism of action and their major chemical constituents responsible for their activities have been assessed individu...

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Antimicrobial Activity and Ethnomedicinal Uses of Some Medicinal Plants from Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Orissa  

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In this study, antimicrobial activity and ethnomedicinal uses of 40 medicinal plants along with medicinal properties has been reported from Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Orissa, India. Aqueous extracts of different parts of the plant (leaf, stem, bark, bulb, fruit and root) reported to have medicinal properties were tested for their antimicrobial activity against gram positive and gram negative human pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 1144, Bacillus lichenif...

Thatoi, H. N.; Panda, S. K.; Rath, S. K.; Dutta, S. K.

2008-01-01

302

The Anthelmintic Activity of Selected Indigenous Medicinal Plants Used by The anyankole of Western Uganda  

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Recently, there has been growing interest in the traditional cures of livestock diseases. This is because industrially produced drugs are too expensive for some sectors of the farming community especially in the developing world. Medicinal plants are often cheaper and more easily available than the commercially produced drugs. The self-help study in form of traditional medicines (especially from medicinal plants), offer a way out by making use of resources available within the communities the...

Tuwangye Innocent; Olila Deogracious

2006-01-01

303

Monepenepe (Cassia abbriviata): A Medicinal Plant in Botswana  

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Cassia abbrivata commonly known, as Monepenepe in Botswana is a widespread shrub or medium sized tree or shrub belonging to the Caesalpinaceae family. In Africa it grows from Somalia to South Africa. It is important medicine plant utilized by people living in rural and urban areas where it grows. The bark and roots of the plant have medicinal properties that treat different ailment in Botswana and other countries where it grows. Too much cutting of the bark and root digging for medicin...

Mojeremane, W.; Legwaila, G. M.; Mogotsi, K. K.; Tshwenyane, S. O.

2005-01-01

304

Traditional medicinal plants as anticancer agents from Chhattishgarh, India: An overview  

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Full Text Available

An attempt has been made to review some medicinal plants used for the prevention and treatment of cancer in Chhattisgarh. Information on the name of plants, family, parts used and method of preparation has been collected from Ethanobotanical literatures. Information collected has revealed 53 plants species that are used for treatment of cancer in Chhattisgarh. All these plants were further reviewed for scientific evidence, 33 plants out of 53 plants were found for possess anticancer, cytotoxic or antioxidant activity in various preclinical or clinical studies.

Keywords: Anticancer, Medicinal plants, Ethanobotanical, Chhattishgarh

Ritesh Jain

2011-04-01

305

Antitussive activity of polysaccharides isolated from the Malian medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

From the leaves of popular Malian medicinal plants Trichilia emetica (TE) and Opilia celtidifolia (OC), and fruits of Crossopteryx febrifuga (CF) water and water-ethanol soluble polysaccharide materials were isolated. The results of chemical analysis of the crude polysaccharides showed the dominance of the arabinogalactan ( approximately 54%) and the rhamnogalacturonan ( approximately 30%) in T. emetica leaves, the arabinogalactan ( approximately 60%), the rhamnogalacturonan ( approximately 14%) and the glucuronoxylan ( approximately 14%) in O. celtidifolia leaves, and pectic type of polysaccharides ( approximately 75%) with a lower content of the arabinogalactan ( approximately 17%) in C. febrifuga fruits. The plant polysaccharides showed various biological effects on the citric acid-induced cough reflex and reactivity of airways smooth muscle in vivo conditions. T. emetica and O. celtidifolia polysaccharides possessed significant cough-suppressive effect on chemically induced cough. Furthermore, values of specific airways resistance pointed on bronchodilatory property of polysaccharides isolated from O. celtidifolia. However, the crude extract from C. febrifuga in the same dose as T. emetica and O. celtidifolia did not influence the experimentally induced cough as well as reactivity of airways smooth muscle despite of the fact that the water-ethanol extract is recommended for cough therapy in Mali in the form of syrup. PMID:19150368

Sutovská, M; Franová, S; Priseznaková, L; Nosálová, G; Togola, A; Diallo, D; Paulsen, B S; Capek, P

2009-04-01

306

The molluscicidal activity of plants used in Brazilian folk medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a continuing search for new compounds for the control of the vectors of schistosomiasis, we have tested the activity of some Brazilian medicinal plants as sources of molluscicidal natural compounds, using two molluscicidal bioassays. Twenty-seven crude extracts, from twenty-six species belonging to nineteen families, were tested. Seven extracts showed significant molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata adults with DL50 values of less than 50 ppm, and five of them were very active in the test using egg masses. The species most active against B. glabrata adults (LD50 value = 3.65 ppm) and their egg masses (LD50 value = 0.13 ppm) was Derris sp. Annona muricata [LD50 value (adult) = 11.86 ppm and LD50 value (egg) = 49.62 ppm], Jatropha elliptica (from Goiás state) [LD50 value (adult) = 24.80 ppm and LD50 value (egg) = 3.03 ppm] and Renealmia exaltata [LD50 value (adult) = 28.03 ppm and LD50 value (egg) = 21.67 ppm], were also considered promising molluscicidal plants. PMID:10715846

Dos Santos, A F; Sant'Ana, A E

2000-01-01

307

Antityrosinase and antimicrobial activities from Thai medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Various dermatological disorders and microbial skin infection can cause hyperpigmentation. Therefore, screenings for whitening and antimicrobial agents from Thai medicinal plants have been of research interest. Seventy-seven ethanol plant extracts were investigated for antityrosinase activity, eleven samples showed the tyrosinase inhibition more than 50 % were further preliminary screening for antimicrobial activity by agar disc diffusion and broth micro-dilution methods. Artocarpus integer (Thunb.) Merr. (Moraceae) root extract, which showed the potential of tyrosinase inhibition with 90.57 ± 2.93 % and antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Propionibacterium acnes and Trichophyton mentagophytes with inhibition zone as 9.10 ± 0.00, 10.67 ± 0.09, 15.25 ± 0.05 and 6.60 ± 0.17 mm, respectively was selected for phytochemical investigation. Three pure compounds were isolated as artocarpin, cudraflavone C and artocarpanone. And artocarpanone exhibited anti-tyrosinase effect; artocarpin and cudraflavone C also showed the potential of antibacterial activity against S. aureus, S. epidermidis and P. acnes with MIC at 2, 4 and 2 ?g/ml, respectively and MBC at 32 ?g/ml for these bacteria. So, these pure compounds are interesting for further study in order to provide possibilities of new whitening and antibacterial development. This will be the first report of phytochemical investigation of A. integer root. PMID:23835832

Dej-Adisai, Sukanya; Meechai, Imron; Puripattanavong, Jindaporn; Kummee, Sopa

2014-04-01

308

Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of five medicinal Libyan plants extracts  

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Full Text Available Five Libyan medicinal plants Thapsia garganica, Hammada scoparia, Euphorbia serrata, Hyoscyamus albus and Retama rateam were selected to evaluate their biological activities. Their total phenolic and flavanoid contents were assessed. The antioxidant activity was estimated using 2, 2-di- phenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH as free radical scavenger. Their crude extracts showed reducing potential proportional to their concentration. The correlation coefficient (R2 between antioxidant activity and their total phenolics and flavanoids content is 0.77 and 0.98 respectively. Crude aqueous, methanolic as well as alkaloids extracts of the five plants were tested against a number of G+ve and G-ve sensitive resistant (e.g MRSA bacteria beside some fungal species. The aqueous extracts displayed weak antibacterial activity whereas methanolic extracts were profoundly effective against both G+ve and G-ve bacteria. The extracts of E. serrata and H. scoparia were highly effective against E. coli in particular. The alkaloid-rich extracts of H. albus and H. scoparia induced remarkable bacteriostatic and fungistatic effects. The bioactive ingredients of H. scoparia, E. serrata and R. rateam extracts are shown to be potential sources of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial ingredients favoring their possible use in industrial pharmacology on large scale.

Asma Al-Najjar

2012-05-01

309

Total phenolics and antioxidant activity of five medicinal plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes total phenolics content and antioxidant activity in the ethanolic extract of leaves, bark and roots of five medicinal plants: Terminalia brasiliensis Camb., Terminalia fagifolia Mart. and Zucc., Copernicia cerifera (Miller) H.E. Moore, Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul. var. acuminata Teles Freire and Qualea grandiflora Mart. The total phenolics content of the plant extracts, determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, varied from 250.0 ±8,2 to 763,63 ±13.03 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g dry EtOH extract. The antioxidant activity of extracts was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay system. Extract of bark from T. brasiliensis, the most active, with an EC50 value of 27.59 ± 0.82 ?g/mL, was comparable to rutin (EC50 = 27.80 ± 1.38) and gallic acid (EC50 = 24.27 ± 0.31), used as positive controls. The relationship between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity was positive and significant for T. brasiliensis, C. macrophyllum and C. cerifera. (author)

2007-01-01

310

Acetylcholinesterase inhibition by somes promising Brazilian medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

A microplate assay and a thin-layer chromatography (TLC) "in situ" assay based on the Ellman assay was used to screen for acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Brazilian medicinal plants of families that, according to the literature, have traditional uses that might be connected with acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Eighteen species belonging to Convolvulaceae, Crassulaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Leguminosae, Malvaceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae and Rutaceae families were tested. The most active plants were Ipomoea asarifolia (IC50 = 0.12 mg/mL), Jatropha curcas (IC50 = 0.25 mg/mL), Jatropha gossypiifolia (IC50 = 0.05 mg/mL), Kalanchoe brasiliensis (IC50 = 0.16 mg/mL) and Senna alata (IC50 = 0.08 mg/mL). The most promising extracts were the Jatropha gossypiifolia and Senna alata species assuming there were compounds with a similar activity to galanthamine, which should contain about 1% of an active compound, or if present at lower levels even more active compounds than galanthamine (IC50 = 0.37 x 10-3 mg/mL) should be present. PMID:21881804

Feitosa, C M; Freitas, R M; Luz, N N N; Bezerra, M Z B; Trevisan, M T S

2011-08-01

311

Trace element content of medicinal plants from Algeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been applied to multielemental determination of eleven medicinal plants used to cure the urinary tract diseases observed in Algeria. These plants include Androgena Citratus, Ceratonia Siliquata, Punica Granatum, Glyryrrhiza Glabra, Lausaunia Alba, Fragaria Vesca, Arbutus Unedol, Hordeum Vulgaris, Papieteria Officinalis, Zea Mays L, and Davallia Seae. Concentrations of twenty elements Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, I, Mn, Na, Mg, Rb, Sb, Se, Sc, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn have been determined by short, and long irradiation times with a thermal and epithermal flux of 1.4 x 1012 n x cm-2 x s-1 and 1.4 x 1011 n x cm-2 x s-1, respectively. These analyses were performed in conjunction with Compton suppression. In almost herbs studied the Co, Cr, Cu, Rb, Sb , Sc, Se and V are found to be present at trace levels, Br, Mn, and Zn at the minor level, and Ca, Cl, Fe, Mg and Na are generally at the major level. The accuracy of the measurements has been evaluated by analyzing NISTbotanical references materials. (author)

2008-04-01

312

[Use of medicinal plants against scorpionic and ophidian venoms].  

Science.gov (United States)

The scorpionic and ophidian envenomations are a serious public health problem in Tunisia especially in Southeastern regions. In these regions Artemisia campestris L is a plant well known which has a very important place in traditional medicine for its effectiveness against alleged venom of scorpions and snakes. In this work, we tested for the first time, the anti-venomous activity of Artemisia campestris L against the scorpion Androctonus australis garzonii and the viper Macrovipera lebetina venoms. Assays were conducted by fixing the dose of extract to3 mg/mouse while doses of venom are variable. The leaves of Artemisia campestris L were extracted by various organic solvents (Ether of oil, ethyl acetate, methanol and ethanol) and each extract was tested for its venom neutralizing capacity. For the ethanolic extract, a significant activity with respect to the venoms of scorpion Androctonus australis garzonii (Aag), was detected. Similarly, a significant neutralizing activity against the venom of a viper Macrovipera lebetina (Ml), was obtained with the dichloromethane extract. These results suggest the presence of two different type of chemical components in this plant: those neutralizing the venom of scorpion are soluble in ethanol whereas those neutralizing the venom of viper are soluble in dichloromethane. PMID:19388583

Memmi, A; Sansa, G; Rjeibi, I; El Ayeb, M; Srairi-Abid, N; Bellasfer, Z; Fekhih, A

2007-01-01

313

Hypolipidimic effect of some medicinal plants on diabetic rats  

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Full Text Available Our aim was to evaluate the hypolipidimic effect of aqueous extract of a famous mixture used in Saudi Arabia folk medicine that consists of Nigella sativa, Commiphora myrrha, Boswellia carterii Birdw, Ferule assa-foetida and Aloe vera and also the extract of each plant alone on alloxan induced diabetic rats. Material and Methods :-The present study was carried out on 80 adult male albino rats (120 ± 20 g.b.wt. , the rats were divided randomly into 8 groups, the first group served as control group, the second group as alloxan induced diabetic rats, the third group was diabetic rats treated with mixture of folk medicinal plant ( 0.01g /100 g b. wt. ,the fourth group: diabetic rats treated with Nigella sativa ( 0.01g /100 g b. wt. , the fifth group: diabetic rats treated with Aloe vera ( 0.005g /100 g b. wt. , the sixth group: diabetic rats treated with Ferule assa-foetida ( 0.01 g /100 g b. wt., the seventh: diabetic rats treated with Boswellia carterii Birdw ( 1ml/100 g b. wt. and the eighth group: diabetic rats treated with Commiphora myrrha ( 0.01 g ml/100 g b. wt. Results :- Serum total lipid, serum total cholesterol, LDL­cholesterol, and triglyceride recorded significant increases in diabetic, Nigella sativa, Commiphora myrrha, Boswellia carterii birdw and Aloe vera treated group. While the mixture and Ferule assa-foetida treated group, showed insignificant changes in serum total lipid, triglyceride, serum total cholesterol and LDL­cholesterol. On other hand, the mixture treated group and Ferule assa-foetida treated group showed significant decreased in the previous parameters. The serum HDL­cholesterol was significantly reduced in diabetic group throughout the experimental periods, otherwise, all treated group revealed insignificant changes till the end of experiment when compare with undiabetic rats. Conclusion: The aqueous extract of a mixture consists of Nigella sativa, Commiphora myrrha, Boswellia carterii Birdw, Ferule assa-foetida and Aloe vera are useful for improvement of the lipid profile of alloxan induced diabetic rats fram each plant alone.

Eman G.E.Helal * and Mohamed M. A. Shahat

2006-06-01

314

Health for sale: the medicinal plant markets in Trujillo and Chiclayo, Northern Peru  

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Full Text Available Abstract Traditional methods of healing have been beneficial in many countries with or without access to conventional allopathic medicine. In the United States, these traditional practices are increasingly being sought after for illnesses that cannot be easily treated by allopathic medicine. More and more people are becoming interested in the knowledge maintained by traditional healers and in the diversity of medicinal plants that flourish in areas like Northern Peru. While scientific studies of medicinal plants are underway, concern has arisen over the preservation of both the large diversity of medicinal plants and the traditional knowledge of healing methods that accompanies them. To promote further conservation work, this study attempted to document the sources of the most popular and rarest medicinal plants sold in the markets of Trujillo (Mayorista and Hermelinda and Chiclayo (Modelo and Moshoqueque, as well as to create an inventory of the plants sold in these markets, which will serve as a basis for comparison with future inventories. Individual markets and market stalls were subjected to cluster analysis based on the diversity of the medicinal plants they carry. The results show that markets were grouped based on the presence of: (1 common exotic medicinal plants; (2 plants used by laypeople for self-medication related to common ailments ("everyday remedies"; (3 specialized medicinal plants used by curanderos or traditional healers; and (4 highly "specialized" plants used for magical purposes. The plant trade in the study areas seems to correspond well with the specific health care demands from clientele in those areas. The specific market patterns of plant diversity observed in the present study represent a foundation for comparative market research in Peru and elsewhere.

Vandebroek Ina

2007-12-01

315

ETHNO MEDICINAL SURVEY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS USED TO CURE WOUNDS IN DARIKAL GAON OF TEZPUR IN ASSAM, NORTH EAST INDIA  

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Full Text Available The people residing in Darikal gaon village in Tezpur of Assam mostly depend on the vegetation around them for the prevention as well as the treatment of diseases and ailments. The present ethnomedicinal survey was carried out in Darikal gaon village for the documentation of important medicinal plants used for wound healing. Ethnomedicinal information was gathered through questionnaire from the people of Darikal gaon (Tezpur in Assam of North east India. We have reported 19 species of medicinally important plants belonging to 16 families.

Das Amar Jyoti

2012-02-01

316

HORTICULTURAL, MEDICINAL AND CEREMONIAL PLANTS IN PETIGA VILLAGE, TABANAN BALI PROVINCE  

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Full Text Available Sustainable development is a must for Bali. It is due to the fact that one of the negative impacst of development is the change of the land use from agriculture into other functions. As a result, most of medicinal plants will be extinct. In another hand there is a trend of people to plant horticultures in their house yards. The main issue: is there any relationship between horticulture and sustainable development? In answering it, a field study was conducted in Petiga Village, Tabanan, Bali Province. Observation and interview were carried out to respondents consisted of five Balinese farmers who nurse cultivate the horticultural plants for their daily activities. Results show that: 1 there are about 159 kinds of plant totally used as horticultural plants; 2 amongst those plants, about 67 plants belong to the medicinal plants and 80 plants belong to ceremonial plants; 3 number of horticultural plants in every house sampled ranged from 63-94 kinds; 4 the popularity of any horticultural plant is affected by the market’s demand. The conclusion which could be drawn was that the medicinal plants as well as the ceremonial plants were used for horticultural plants. It was due to their wonderful colors, nice stems, flowers or leaves, special odors, economical values and magical values as well. Horticulture could be used as a strategy for preservation and conservation program of the medicinal plants in Bali. It was recommended that for the sustainability, all medicinal plants which exist in Bali should be invented and planted in a form of medicinal plant park.

Nyoman Adiputra

2009-02-01

317

Rapid control of Chinese star anise fruits and teas for neurotoxic anisatin by Direct Analysis in Real Time high resolution mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

After ingestion, products containing Chinese star anise (Illicium verum) contaminated or adulterated with Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum) or other Illicium species, can cause epilepsy, hallucinations, and nausea due to the rare neurotoxic sesquiterpene dilactone anisatin that is present in Japanese star anise. Thus a rapid, simple and unambiguous method for distinguishing between the morphologically similar Chinese star anise and toxic Japanese star anise is important for food safety issues. Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) ambient ionisation coupled with orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry allowed the recording of mass spectra of anisatin in solid star anise fruits in seconds without any prior sample pretreatment. Spectra could be obtained in both positive ([M+NH(4)](+) at m/z 346.1496, C(15)H(24)NO(8)) and negative mode ([M-H](-) at m/z 327.1074, C(15)H(19)O(8)) and gave the same outcome provided a mass resolution of at least 27,000 is available. The anisatin signal was typically >1000 times larger in Japanese star anise than in Chinese star anise thus allowing an unequivocal qualitative determination. Herbal teas containing star anise fragments too small to be visually recognised, could be analysed by preparing a tea in 6 min and subsequently sampling ?2 ?L of tea on a glass rod. None of the 8 investigated retail teas contained significant quantities of anisatin. Spiking a complex herbal tea containing Chinese star anise with an equally concentrated tea prepared from Japanese star anise provided a linear calibration curve (R(2) ? 0.995) after normalising on a native constituent of Chinese star anise (standard addition method). This showed that adulteration down to 1% (w/w) is still measurable. Compared with existing PCR, TLC, GC-MS and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS procedures, the proposed DART-HRMS procedure is faster and simpler and moreover measures the actual biotoxin. PMID:22484123

Shen, Yao; van Beek, Teris A; Claassen, Frank W; Zuilhof, Han; Chen, Bo; Nielen, Michel W F

2012-10-12

318

STUDY OF PLANT BIODIVERSITY OF HAZARIBAG DISTRICT JHARKHAND INDIA AND ITS MEDICINAL USES  

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Full Text Available Jharkhand is rich in biodiversity of medicinal plants. The forest area is about 40% of the total area of Jharkhand. 32 tribal communities found in Jharkhand. They are used medicinal plants by traditional knowledge. Traditional medicinal practioners known as vaidays or kavirajas from the primary health care provider in rural Jharkhand.The objective of this present study was to conduct a value addition survey amongst tribal of Hazaribag and around the district of Jharkhand. Knowledge about to conserve these natural resources is very important. If all the people know about our natural resources & its important in our life by training or another sources than save it for value addition. If one sps save per people by conserve it for value addition than disease free nature obtained. Information on 95 plants sps was obtained which were used by tribal vaidyas to treat various ailments given the table 1. These medicinal plants belong to 95 genera and 51 families. All plants were grown or cultivated in home steads or fields as ornamental plant, shade giving plants ,timber yielding plants, home construction plants ,medicinal plants ,vegetable ,fruits etc.The various plant part used included whole plants, leaves ,stems,roots,tuber,barks,flower,fruits,&seeds. Traditional and ethnic knowledge generated from such leads has played most significant role in the discovery of novel product as well as newer ideas about conservation of natural resources. This paper deals the biodiversity of plant which is used by tribals in Hazaribag Jharkhand.

Hari Shankar Lal

2012-01-01

319

Cytotoxic activity of Thai medicinal plants for cancer treatment  

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Full Text Available Twelve Thai medicinal plants as the ingredients of a Southern Thai traditional formula for cancer treatment were selected to test cytotoxicity activity against two types of human cancer cell lines ; large cell lung carcinoma (CORL-23 and prostate cancer cell lines (PC3 and one type of normal human cell line, fibroblast cells (10FS. SRB assay was used to test cytotoxic activity against all the cell types. Two of the extracts (water and ethanolic extracts procedures used were similar to those practised by Thai traditional doctors. One concentration (50 ?g/ml of two different extracts was tested first against cell lines and the active plant extracts were diluted and tested for calculating IC50. The ethanolic extracts of six plants (Bridelia ovata, Curcuma zedoaria, Derris scandens, Dioscorea membranacea, Nardostachys jatamansi and Rhinacanthus nasutus showed cytotoxic activity (IC50< 30 ?g/ml against lung and prostate cancer cell lines. Dioscorea membranacea roots showed the highest cytotoxic activity against lung cancer cell lines ( IC50= 4.6 ?g/ml but it exhibited low cytotoxic activity against prostate cancer cell lines (IC50= 17.55 ?g/ml and less cytotoxic activity against normal cell lines (IC50= 66.05 ?g/ml. Curcuma zedoaria showed cytotoxic activity against COR L-23 and PC3 but less cytotoxic activity against 10FS (IC50 = 6.05, 17.84 and 55.50 ?g/ml respectively Rhinacanthus nasutus root extract showed the highest cytotoxic activity against PC3 ( IC50 = 2.01 ?g/ml and this extract also showed high activity against COR L-23 and 10FS (IC50=5.05 and 10.95 ?g/ml respectively. The water extract of all plants exhibited no activity against all types of human cells. Two ethanolic plant extracts (Dioscorea membranacea and Curcuma zedoaria which showed specific activity against lung cancer cell lines and less cytotoxic activity against normal cells should be further investigated for active compounds against lung cancer cell.

Chawaboon Dechsukum

2005-08-01

320

Puccinia pimpinellae, a New Pathogen on Anise Seed in Egypt  

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Routine seed health inspection of anise seeds showed Puccinia pimpinellae to be a commonally observed fungus on seed samples collected from different locations and the commercial markets of Egypt. Symptoms were shown as black discolorations on seeds. Masses of uredio- and teliospores of the fungus were visually seen. In some samples, a seed washing technique was essential to inspect for the presence of the fungal spores. This is the first report of Puccinia pimpinellae as a seed...

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Indigenous use and bio-efficacy of medicinal plants in the Rasuwa District, Central Nepal  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background By revealing historical and present plant use, ethnobotany contributes to drug discovery and socioeconomic development. Nepal is a natural storehouse of medicinal plants. Although several ethnobotanical studies were conducted in the country, many areas remain unexplored. Furthermore, few studies have compared indigenous plant use with reported phytochemical and pharmacological properties. Methods Ethnopharmacological data was collected in the Rasuwa district of Central Nepal by conducting interviews and focus group discussions with local people. The informant consensus factor (FIC was calculated in order to estimate use variability of medicinal plants. Bio-efficacy was assessed by comparing indigenous plant use with phytochemical and pharmacological properties determined from a review of the available literature. Criteria were used to identify high priority medicinal plant species. Results A total of 60 medicinal formulations from 56 plant species were documented. Medicinal plants were used to treat various diseases and disorders, with the highest number of species being used for gastro-intestinal problems, followed by fever and headache. Herbs were the primary source of medicinal plants (57% of the species, followed by trees (23%. The average FIC value for all ailment categories was 0.82, indicating a high level of informant agreement compared to similar studies conducted elsewhere. High FIC values were obtained for ophthalmological problems, tooth ache, kidney problems, and menstrual disorders, indicating that the species traditionally used to treat these ailments are worth searching for bioactive compounds: Astilbe rivularis, Berberis asiatica, Hippophae salicifolia, Juniperus recurva, and Swertia multicaulis. A 90% correspondence was found between local plant use and reported plant chemical composition and pharmacological properties for the 30 species for which information was available. Sixteen medicinal plants were ranked as priority species, 13 of which having also been prioritized in a country-wide governmental classification. Conclusions The Tamang people possess rich ethnopharmacological knowledge. This study allowed to identify many high value and high priority medicinal plant species, indicating high potential for economic development through sustainable collection and trade.

Boon Emmanuel K

2010-01-01

322

VARIEGATED WILD MEDICINAL PLANT OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA NESS (ACANTHACEAE) RECORDED IN KONDAPALLI, KRISHNA DISTRICT OF ANDHRA PRADESH  

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A preliminary survey of medicinal plants conducted surrounding forest region of Krishna District of Andhra Pradesh, among these abnormality of wild variegated Andrographis paniculata medicinal plant and its details are reported in this paper.

Alagesaboopathi, C.; Dwarakan, P.; Ramachandran, V. S.

2001-01-01

323

Medicinal plants - a potent antibacterial source against bacterial leaf blight (BLB) of rice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The antibacterial potential of indigenous medicinal plants as alternative chemical pesticides for controlling bacterial leaf blight (BLB) of rice was investigated. Twenty-five different species of medicinal plants were collected from various sites in Pakistan. Decoctions of all medicinal plant species were screened by the disc plate diffusion method for testing the susceptibility of an aggressive isolate of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo 105). Out of twenty five medicinal plants, Thuja orientalis (cone + leaves), Azadirachta indica (seeds + fruits), Amomum subulatum (fruits), Terminalia chebula (fruits), Terminalia bellirica (fruits), Anethum graveolens (fruits) and Ferula assa-foetida (fruits) decoctions showed significant activity. The efficacy of decoctions from six promising plants were further tested through detached leaf, glasshouse and field assays. A decoction of Terminalia chebula demonstrated the highest effectiveness in terms of regulating BLB in the plants both under laboratory and field conditions. Bioactive fractions of Terminalia chebula were purified, characterized and tentatively identified as allegic acid. (author)

2011-12-01

324

Analysis of the neurotoxin anisatin in star anise by LC-MS/MS.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this work was to develop an analytical method capable of determining the presence of anisatin in star anise. This neurotoxin may induce severe side effects such as epileptic convulsions. It is therefore of prime importance to have rapid and accurate analytical methods able to detect and quantify anisatin in samples that are purportedly edible star anise. The sample preparation combined an automated accelerated solvent extraction with a solid-supported liquid-liquid purification step on EXtrelut®. Samples were analysed on a porous graphitic carbon HPLC column and quantified by tandem mass spectrometry operating in the negative ionisation mode. The quantification range of anisatin was between 0.2 and 8 mg kg?¹. The applicability of this validated method was demonstrated by the analysis of several Illicium species and star anise samples purchased on the Swiss market. High levels of anisatin were measured in Illicium lanceolatum, I. majus and I. anisatum, which may cause health concerns if they are misidentified or mixed with edible Illicium verum. PMID:23802692

Mathon, Caroline; Bongard, Benjamin; Duret, Monique; Ortelli, Didier; Christen, Philippe; Bieri, Stefan

2013-01-01

325

Evidence-based Review of Medicinal Plants Used for the Treatment of Hemorrhoids  

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Full Text Available Hemorrhoidal disease is a common problem which is usually not managed properly with pharmacologic interventions and will eventually require surgery. However, there are many medicinal plants that were successfully used for the treatment of hemorrhoids in the traditional and folk medicine of different countries. In this study, these medicinal plants have been reviewed and their mechanism of action and their major chemical constituents responsible for their activities have been assessed individually. Among various herbal medicines, Aesculus hippocastanum, Boswellia species, Cissus quadrangularis, Euphorbia prostrata, Juniperus species, Melastoma malabathricum, Myrtus communis and Verbascum species have got higher support from scientific evidence. These medicinal plants may exert their beneficial effects in hemorrhoids by their anti-inflammatory, analgesic and venotonic activities. Several chemical constituents were identified in these plants which may be responsible for their pharmacological activities, of which, flavonoids, terpenoids, triterpenes and tannins are the majors.

Mohammad Abdollahi

2013-01-01

326

Traditional Knowledge and ex situ Conservation of Some Threatened Medicinal Plants of Swat Kohistan, Pakistan  

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Full Text Available Medicinal plants still provide primary health care to human race in different regions across the globe, especially in the developing world. The role of medicinal herbs as source of traditional medicine have decreased due to the introduction of allopathic drugs but still their importance as a prime source of rural health care can not be paralleled. Medicinal plants and their pertinent knowledge need to be conserved for the future generations. During present study, traditional knowledge of 16 threatened medicinal plants of Swat Kohistan was documented and a nursery was raised in lower Swat in an effort to conserve them. Only 8 plant species viz. Bergenia ciliata, Dioscorea deltoidea, Bistorta amplexicaulis, Valeriana jatamansi, Valeriana pyrolifolia, Viola biflora, Viola canescens and Berberis lycium survived and acclimatized to new habitat, while the rest failed to germinate.

Muhammad Hamayun

2006-01-01

327

Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f. - how a traditional Taiwanese medicinal plant found its way to the West.  

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Tripterygium wilfordii is regarded as a promising traditional medicinal plant showing several, mainly antiinflammatory and cytotoxic activities. It contains unusal natural products currently under investigation as lead compounds. The species has been well known in Traditional Chinese Medicine but was recognized in Western science as an insecticide not before the 1930's and as a promising medicinal plant in the 1960's. The name refers to Charles Wilford, employed as a botanical collector at Kew Botanical Gardens, London from 1857-1860. He collected the plant on the island of Taiwan, formerly called Formosa, in June 1858, unfortunately without reporting its medicinal use in the country of origin. The plant was named according to the Linnaean system before 1862 what initially concealed its medicinal properties which had to be re-discovered in the second half of the 20th century. PMID:23923652

Helmstädter, A

2013-07-01

328

The Estrogenic-Like Activity of Four Chinese Medicinal Plants in Vitex  

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Full Text Available In most developing countries, 70-80% of the populations still resort to traditional medicine for their primary health care. This medicine utilizes medicinal plants which are traditionally taken as concoction and infusion. Ethanolic extracts of selected four Chinese medicinal plants in Vitex were tested for proliferative activity in ERa-positive MCF-7 human cell line using MTT assay. Vitex negundo showed the most estrogenic-like potent activity, which could be useful as a Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRP. In further investigation, the compounds with activities in Vitex negundo will be elucidated.

2007-01-01

329

Population Status of Commercially Important Medicinal Plants in Dehradun Forest Division, Uttarakhand (India)  

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The objective of forest management in the tropics, in recent decades, has shifted from timber production to biodiversity conservation and maintenance of life support system. However, past forestry practices have greatly influenced the structure of plant communities, preponderance of foreign invasive species, populations of high value medicinal plants as well as other non-wood forest products. We assessed the abundance and distribution of medicinal plants in managed and undisturbed forests of ...

Raut, Ninad B.; Tiwari, Umeshkumar L.; Adhikari, Bhupendra S.; Rawat, Gopal S.; Chandola, Srikant

2013-01-01

330

An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Mana Angetu District, southeastern Ethiopia  

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Abstract This study documents indigenous medicinal plant utilization, management and the threats affecting them. The study was carried out in Mana Angetu district between January 2003 and December 2004. Ethnobotanical data were collected using semi structured interviews, field observations, preference and direct matrix ranking with traditional medicine practitioners. The ethnomedicinal use of 230 plant species was documented in the study area. Most of the plants (78.7%) were reporte...

Lulekal Ermias; Kelbessa Ensermu; Bekele Tamrat; Yineger Haile

2008-01-01

331

Medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Kancheepuram District of Tamil Nadu, India  

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Abstract An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken to collect information from traditional healers on the use of medicinal plants in Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu during October 2003 to April 2004. The indigenous knowledge of local traditional healers and the native plants used for medicinal purposes were collected through questionnaire and personal interviews during field trips. The investigation revealed that, the traditional healers used 85 species of plants distribute...

Muthu Chellaiah; Ayyanar Muniappan; Raja Nagappan; Ignacimuthu Savarimuthu

2006-01-01

332

ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF THE PLANTS USED IN TRADITIONAL MEDICINES  

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Herbal medicines have great importance in maintaining the health of the individual. Demand for medicinal plant is increasing in both developed and developing countries due to growing recognition of natural plant being non narcotic, having no side effect, easy availability in surrounding area at desired price. Different parts of the plant have different active substances and these active substances may vary in their extent of activity and concentration. Most of active principles are present in...

Talha Jawaid; Deepa Shukla; Jaiendra Verma

2011-01-01

333

Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants Used by Sabaots of Mt. Elgon Kenya  

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Though the majority of people in Kenya and at Kopsiro Division in particular, rely on ethnomedicinal plant species to manage human ailments, the indigenous knowledge largely remains undocumented. Therefore, an ethnobotanical study was conducted on medicinal plant species used to manage human ailments at Kopsiro Division Mt. Elgon District Kenya. The objectives were to identify and document plants traditionally used for medicinal therapy by the Sabaots, to find out the method used for preparin...

Okello, S. V.; Nyunja, R. O.; Netondo, G. W.; Onyango, J. C.

2010-01-01

334

Extracts of Edible and Medicinal Plants Damage Membranes of Vibrio cholerae?  

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The use of natural compounds from plants can provide an alternative approach against food-borne pathogens. The mechanisms of action of most plant extracts with antimicrobial activity have been poorly studied. In this work, changes in membrane integrity, membrane potential, internal pH (pHin), and ATP synthesis were measured in Vibrio cholerae cells after exposure to extracts of edible and medicinal plants. A preliminary screen of methanolic, ethanolic, and aqueous extracts of medicinal and ed...

Sa?nchez, Eduardo; Garci?a, Santos; Heredia, Norma

2010-01-01

335

An Overview of Indian Novel Traditional Medicinal Plants with Anti-Diabetic Potentials  

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Diabetes mellitus is a global metabolic epidemic affecting essential biochemical activities in almost every age group. Indian literatures like Ayurveda have already mentioned herbal remediation for a number of human ailments. Among Indian traditional medicinal plants several potential anti-diabetic plants and herbs are being used as part of our diet since prehistoric time. India has a long list of native medicinal plants with confirmed blood sugar lowering property. Some of these have proved ...

Gupta, Rahul; Bajpai, Kumar Gaurav; Johri, Samta; Saxena, Am

2007-01-01

336

Influence of Edaphic Factors on Distribution of Mycorrhiza Associated with Medicinal Plants in Indian Central Himalayas  

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This study analyzed the effect of various Edaphic factors on the Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (VAM) associated with medicinal plants. Based on the richness of medicinal plants in Himalayan region, this study considered three plants i.e., Catharanthus roseus Linn., Ocimum spp. and Asparagus racemosus Willd. The study was conducted at five districts of Uttarakhand state in India viz. Pauri Garhwal, Haridwar, Dehradun, Udham Singh Nagar and Almora. This study has evaluate...

Supriya Gaur; Purshotam Kaushik

2011-01-01

337

Traditional medicinal plants as anticancer agents from Chhattishgarh, India: An overview  

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An attempt has been made to review some medicinal plants used for the prevention and treatment of cancer in Chhattisgarh. Information on the name of plants, family, parts used and method of preparation has been collected from Ethanobotanical literatures. Information collected has revealed 53 plants species that are used for treatment of cancer in Chhattisgarh. All these plants were further reviewed for scientific evidence, 33 plants out of 53 plants were found for possess anticancer,...

Ritesh Jain,; Jain, Sanmati K.

2011-01-01

338

Vibriocidal activity of certain medicinal plants used in Indian folklore medicine by tribals of Mahakoshal region of central India  

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Objectives: Screening of the medicinal plants and determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Materials and Methods: A simple in vitro screening assay was employed for the standard strain of Vibrio cholerae, 12 isolates of Vibrio cholerae non-O1, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Aqueous and organic solvent extracts of different parts of the plants were investigated by using the disk diffusion method. Extracts from 1...

Sharma Anjana; Patel Virendra; Chaturvedi Animesh

2009-01-01

339

Determination of metals in medicinal plants highly consumed in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho, amostras de Boldo (Peumus boldus), Castanha da Índia (Aesculus hippocastanum), Chá Verde (Camelia sinensis), Erva Cidreira (Melissa officinalis), Espinheira Santa (Maytenus ilicifolia), Guaraná (Paullinia cupana), Maracujá (Passiflora sp.), Mulungu (Erythrina velutina), Sene (Cassia [...] angustifolia) e Valeriana (Valeriana officinalis) foram investigadas utilizando a técnica Análise por Ativação Neutrônica (AAN-k0), a fim de se determinar os teores de metais e outros elementos químicos contaminantes. Os resultados revelaram a presença de elementos não essenciais ao organismo humano. A diversidade de impurezas químicas encontradas, mesmo em níveis de baixa concentração, considerando o potencial de toxicidade crônica desses elementos, reforça a necessidade de melhorias na aplicação de boas práticas pelos produtores e comerciantes e a hipótese de falta de controle de qualidade nos produtos vegetais. Abstract in english In this work, samples of the medicinal plants: Boldo (Peumus boldus), Castanha da Índia (Aesculus hippocastanum), Chá Verde (Camelia sinensis), Erva Cidreira (Melissa officinalis), Espinheira Santa (Maytenus ilicifolia), Guaraná (Paullinia cupana), Maracujá (Passiflora sp.), Mulungu (Erythrina velut [...] ina), Sene (Cassia angustifolia) and Valeriana (Valeriana officinalis) were evaluated BY using the Neutron Activation Analysis technique (NAA- k0) in order to determine the levels of metals and other chemical contaminants. The results showed the presence of non essential elements to the human body. The diversity of chemical impurities found even at low concentration levels, considering the potential for chronic toxicity of these elements, reinforces the need to improve the implementation of good practices by growers and traders, and the hypothesis of lack of quality control in plant products.

Alexandre Soares, Leal; Guilherme, Prado; Tatiana Cristina Bomfim, Gomes; Fernanda Peixoto, Sepe; Ilza, Dalmázio.

340

Screening of Algerian Medicinal Plants for Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitory activity and phytochemical profile of some Algerian medicinal plants. The bioautography on Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC reveals 10 active aqueous extracts from a total of 77 extracts. Among them, aqueous extract of Pistacia lentiscus presents seven active spots. The Ellman’s colorimetric method shows that aqueous extract of Pistacia atlantica and P. lentiscus present a strong AChE inhibition. The chloroformic fraction obtained after liquid-liquid partition of Atriplex halimus roots aqueous extract, presents a strong AChE inhibition among all fractions tested with IC50 of 9.55 ?g mL-1. The quantitative dosage of total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids by colorimetric method shows that Osyris quadripartita and Pistacia atlantica are the richest in total phenolic compounds (438.99 and 407.68 mg g-1, respectively, a highest content on total flavonoids was detected in extract from Rosmarinus officinalis and Acacia raddiana (125.70 and 115.37 mg g-1, respectively.

H. Benamar

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Investigations on antimycobacterial activity of some Ethiopian medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fifteen crude extracts prepared from seven Ethiopian medicinal plants used to treat various infectious diseases were assessed for their ability to inhibit the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A preliminary screening of the crude extracts against M. tuberculosis typus humanus (ATCC 27294) was done by dilution assay using Löwenstein-Jensen medium. None of the tested extracts except the acetone fraction obtained from the stem bark of Combretum molle (R. Br. ex G. Don.) Engl & Diels (Combretaceae) showed significant inhibitory action against this strain. The acetone fraction of the stem bark of C. molle caused complete inhibition at concentrations higher than 1 mg/mL. Phytochemical analysis of the bioactive fraction led to the isolation of a major tannin and two oleanane-type pentacyclic triterpene glycosides. The tannin was identified as the ellagitannin, punicalagin, whilst the saponins were characterized as arjunglucoside (also called 4-epi-sericoside) and sericoside. All the pure compounds were further tested against the ATCC strain. Punicalagin was found to inhibit totally growth of the ATCC and also of a patient strain, which was fully sensitive to the standard antituberculosis drugs, at concentrations higher than 600 microg/mL and 1.2 mg/mL, respectively. On the other hand, the saponins failed to show any action on the ATCC strain. It appears that our findings are the first report of tannins exhibiting antimycobacterial activity. PMID:11406856

Asres, K; Bucar, F; Edelsbrunner, S; Kartnig, T; Höger, G; Thiel, W

2001-06-01

342

Antitrypanosomal screening and cytotoxic effects of selected medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trypanosoma evansi, the causative agent of "surra", infects many species of wild and domestic animals worldwide. In the current study, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of six medicinal plants, namely, Aquilaria malaccensis, Derris elliptica, Garcinia hombroniana, Goniothalamus umbrosus, Nigella sativa, and Strobilanthes crispus were screened in vitro for activity against T. evansi. The cytotoxic activity of the extracts was evaluated on green monkey kidney (Vero) cells using MTT-cell proliferation assay. The median inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of the extracts ranged between 2.30 and 800.97 ?g/ml and the median cytotoxic concentrations (CC50) ranged between 29.10 ?g/ml and 14.53 mg/ml. The aqueous extract of G. hombroniana exhibited the highest selectivity index (SI) value of 616.36, followed by A. malaccensis aqueous extract (47.38). Phytochemical screening of the G. hombroniana aqueous extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, phenols, tannins, and saponins. It is demonstrated here that the aqueous extract of G. hombroniana has potential antitrypanosomal activity with a high SI, and may be considered as a potential source for the development of new antitrypanosomal compounds. PMID:24862048

Dyary, H O; Arifah, A K; Sharma, R S; Rasedee, A; Mohd-Aspollah, M S; Zakaria, Z A; Zuraini, A; Somchit, M N

2014-03-01

343

Ocimum gratissimum L.: A Medicinal Plant with Promising Antiurolithiatic Activity  

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Full Text Available Ocimum gratissimum L. has been used to treat various diseases including urinary stone diseases, since ancient time in India. The inhibition of in-vitro calcium-oxalate crystal formation by Ocimum gratissimum L. extract was investigated by different methods i.e nucleation assay and synthetic urine assay. In nucleation assay, the aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of different concentrations of the extract (100-1000 mg/ml on calcium oxalate crystallization in-vitro while in synthetic urine method the percentage inhibition and growth of the calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals from synthetic urine at different % concentrations of extract (25-100% was investigated. In both the assay % inhibition for calcium oxalate crystal formation was found directly proportional to the increase in concentration of the plant extract with maximum inhibition of 66.08% at 1000 mg/ml, while in synthetic urine assay maximum inhibition was 62.07 % at 100% concentration of extract. Thus Ocimum gratissimum L. was found to be a potent and promising antiurolithiatic agent, which is in accordance with its use in traditional medicine.

Kumkum Agarwal

2014-01-01

344

Molecular genetic studies on some irradiated medicinal plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

this thesis aimed to study the molecular characterization , the phylogenetic relationships among the four mentha and the three ocimum species and to get some species-specific markers. twenty-one RAPD and 10 ISSR primers were used which showed high polymorphism among the species and detected 150 molecular markers for these genotypes (100 using RAPD and 50 by ISSR-analyses). detection of the phylogenetic relationships based on the three studied systems (RAPD,ISSR and their combined analyses ) indicated that these techniques succeeded in separating the seven species into two main clusters of the two mentha and ocimum genera. SDS-protein patterns characterized the seven genotypes based on presence/ absence and staining intensities of 14 polypeptide bands into two main groups.the effect of four doses of gamma irradiation on eight active components of volatile oils and SDS-protein pattern of stems of mentha viridis indicated that low levels of gamma irradiation could improve the value of some active components of medicinal plants such as menthol in mentha viridis

2007-01-01

345

Natural and artificial radioactivity determination of some medicinal plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several medicinal plants used in Italy were analysed to determine natural and artificial radioactivity in those parts (leaves, fruits, seeds, roots, peduncles, flowers, barks, berries, thallus) used generally as remedies. The radionuclides were determined by alpha ({sup 238}U, {sup 210}Po) and gamma ({sup 214}Pb-Bi, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs) spectrometry. {sup 238}U ranged between <0.1 and 7.32 Bq kg{sub dry}{sup -1}; {sup 210}Po between <0.1 and 30.3 Bq kg{sub dry}{sup -1}; {sup 214}Pb-{sup 214}Bi between <0.3 and 16.6 Bq kg{sub dry}{sup -1}; {sup 210}Pb between <3 and 58.3 Bq kg{sub dry}{sup -1}; {sup 40}K between 66.2 and 3582.0 Bq kg{sub dry}{sup -1}; {sup 137}Cs between <0.3 and 10.7 Bq kg{sub dry}{sup -1}. The percentage of {sup 210}Po extraction in infusion and decoction was also determined; the arithmetical mean value of percentage of {sup 210}Po extraction resulted 20.7 {+-} 7.5.

Desideri, Donatella, E-mail: donatella.desideri@uniurb.i [Institute of General Chemistry, Urbino University ' Carlo Bo' , Piazza Rinascimento 6, 61029 Urbino (Italy); Meli, Maria Assunta; Roselli, Carla [Institute of General Chemistry, Urbino University ' Carlo Bo' , Piazza Rinascimento 6, 61029 Urbino (Italy)

2010-09-15

346

A study of trace elements in some medicinal plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty one medicinal plants (herbal) have been investigated for major, minor and trace elements using the proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method. The samples were collected from the local market in Dhaka city and they were analysed by the thick-target external beam technique of the PIXE method. The samples were exposed to the proton beam as 1-mm thick pellet 0 f 7 mm dia. and irradiated with 2.0 MeV proton having 10 nA beam intensity. for 10-20 ?C irradiation, the concentration of 15 elements,K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr and Pb were measured by comparison with calibration factors obtained from a curve constructed on the basis of the NBS orchard leaf standard (SRM-1571) irradiated under identical experimental condition. The concentration of K and Ca observed in the samples were in the range of 0.34-5.96% and .11-3.98% respectively. For Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, As and Pb the concentration ranges were 4.1-1100, 60-7600, 1.1-276, 7-164, 1.2-48, 1.1-31, and 3.1-128 mg/kg respectively. Ti, Br, Rb, Sr and Zr were also determined with variable accuracy. The validity of the procedure was established by analysing a NIST standard (tomato leaf). The results obtained were in good agreement with the certified values. 17 refs.,3 tables, 3 figs

1995-01-01

347

An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in Kilte Awulaelo District, Tigray Region of Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The Ethiopian people have been dependent on traditional medicine, mainly medicinal plants, from time immemorial for control of human and animal health problems, and they still remain to be largely dependent on the practice. The purpose of the current study was to conduct ethnobotanical study to document medicinal plants used to treat diseases of human and domestic animals in Kilte Awulaelo District in the Tigray Region of Ethiopia. Methods Ethnobotanical data were collected between July and September 2011 through semi-structured interviews, ranking exercises and field observations. For the interviews, 72 knowledgeable informants were sampled using purposive sampling method. For the different ranking exercises, key informants were identified with the help of elders and local administrators from informants that were already involved in the interviews. Results The study revealed 114 medicinal plant species belonging to 100 genera and 53 families. The plants were used to treat 47 human and 19 livestock diseases. Of the species, the majority (74%) were obtained from the wild. Herbs were the most utilized plants, accounting for 44% of the species, followed by shrubs (29%). Leaf was the most commonly used plant part accounting for 42.98% of the plants, followed by roots (25.73%). Preference ranking exercise on selected plants used against abdominal pain indicated the highest preference of people for Solanum marginatum. Direct matrix ranking showed Cordia africana as the most preferred multipurpose plant in the community. Preference ranking of selected scarce medicinal plants indicated Myrica salicifolia as the most scarce species, followed by Boscia salicifolia and Acokanthera schimperi. According to priority ranking, drought was identified as the most destructive factor of medicinal plants, followed by overgrazing and firewood collection. Conclusion Medicinal plants are still playing significant role in the management of various human and livestock diseases in the study area with herbs taking the lead in the number of plants used in the preparation of remedies, which may be an indication of their relatively better abundance as compared to other life forms. Recurrent drought was reported to have seriously threatened medicinal plant resources in the District. Awareness is thus needed be raised among local people on sustainable utilization and management of plant resources. Ex situ and in situ conservation measures should be taken to protect the medicinal plants of the District from further destruction and special attention should be given to the medicinal plants that were indicated by preference ranking exercise as the most threatened ones.

2013-01-01

348

Propagação vegetativa de liamba, planta medicinal / Vegetative propagation of liamba, a medicinal plant  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A liamba (Vitex agnus castus L.) é utilizada no Brasil como medicinal e apresenta compostos com estrutura química semelhante à progesterona. Visando avaliar a propagação vegetativa de liamba foram conduzidos dois experimentos. O primeiro, com estacas da parte aérea com 20 cm de comprimento, sem folh [...] as e classificadas em dois grupos: apical e basal. As estacas tiveram a espessura padronizada em 3 a 5 mm de diâmetro e 40 unidades de cada tipo foram colocadas em sacolas de polietileno (10 x 30 cm) preenchidas com o substrato solo + esterco na proporção volumétrica de 2:1. O segundo, com miniestacas da parte aérea da planta com 3 a 5 cm de comprimento, sem folhas e no delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições de 20 miniestacas, no esquema fatorial 2 x 3. Os tratamentos foram tipo da miniestaca (com talão e sem talão) e substrato (solo; solo + esterco bovino curtido e solo + composto). A propagação vegetativa de liamba pode ser feita por estacas basais ou mini-estacas com talão em substrato solo + composto. Abstract in english The liamba (Vitex agnus castus L.) is used as a medicinal species in Brazil and presents compounds with similar chemical structure to progesterone. To evaluate the propagation of liamba two experiments were carried out. The first, using shoot cuttings with 20 cm long, leafless and classified into tw [...] o groups, apical and basal. The cuttings were standardized in their thickness of 3 to 5 mm in diameter and 40 units of each type were placed in polyethylene bags (10 x 30 cm) filled with soil + manure in the volumetric ratio of 2:1. The second, with shoot minicuttings of the plant canopy with 3 to 5 cm long, without leaves and in a randomized block experimental design with four replications of 20 minicuttings, in a factorial 2 x 3. The treatments were kind of mini-cuttings (with and without hell) and substrate (soil, soil + cattle manure and soil + compost). The vegetative propagation of liamba can be made by basal cuttings or minicuttings with heel in soil + compost.

Coelho, Maria de Fátima B; Maia, Sandra Sely S; Oliveira, Andreya K; Diógenes, Francisco Ésio P; Soares, Silvio Roberto F.

349

Medicines  

Science.gov (United States)

... the-counter medicines. Even safe drugs can cause unwanted side effects or interactions with food or other medicines you may be taking. They may not be safe during pregnancy. To reduce the risk of reactions and make ...

350

Levels of trace elements in medicinal plants with anti-diabetic potential  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Medicinal plants with anti-diabetic potential have been characterized by Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. Trace elements such as Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr and Pb are found to be present in these studied medicinal plant samples. The concentrations of elements like K and Ca are quantified in percentage level whereas other elements are found to be in parts per million levels. Elemental analysis of ten different medicinal plant samples commonly used for management and cure of diabetes, shows variation in concentrations. These elements either directly or indirectly may play some role to control diabetes. (author)

2014-01-20

351

An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the eastern highlands of Papua New Guinea  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The Eastern Highlands area of Papua New Guinea (PNG has a rich tradition of medicinal plant use. However, rapid modernization is resulting in the loss of independent language traditions and consequently a loss of individuals knowledgeable in medicinal plant use. This report represents a program to document and preserve traditional knowledge concerning medicinal plant use in PNG. This report documents and compares traditional plant use in the Eastern Highlands districts of Unggai-Bena, Okapa, and Obura-Wonenara, and puts these new records in context of previously documented PNG medicinal plant use. Methods This manuscript is an annotated combination of Traditional Medicines survey reports generated by UPNG trainees using a survey questionnaire titled “Information sheet on traditional herbal reparations and medicinal plants of PNG”. The Traditional Medicines survey project is supported by WHO, US NIH and PNG governmental health care initiatives and funding. Results Overall, after “poisoning” (synonymous with “magic” the most commonly recorded ailments addressed by medicinal plant use were pain, gynecological disease, gastrointestinal maladies, anemia or malnutrition and malaria. However, the recorded indications for plant use varied widely amongst the different survey locations. Unlike many areas of PNG, mixing of ingredients was the most common mode of preparation recorded, except for two areas where the consumption of fresh plant material was more common. Throughout the Eastern Highlands oral administration was most common, with topical application second. Overall, leaves were most commonly used in the preparations of the healers interviewed, followed by bark and stems. Several new medicinal uses of plants were also documented. Conclusions Collaboration between the WHO, UPNG and the PNG Department of Health initiated Traditional Medicine survey program in order to preserve traditional knowledge concerning medicinal plant use in PNG. This effort promotes integration of effective and accessible traditional practices with Western protocols. The Traditional Medicine surveys are particularly important because, in the absence of the clinical validation, the documentation of the consistent use of a given plant for specific indication by a large number of herbalists, across a wide range of ethnic traditions, maybe considered as a positive criterion for the promulgation of said use amongst PNG’s recently formed traditional healer associations.

Jorim Ronald Y

2012-12-01

352

Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in Wedelia calendulacea Less. an endangered medicinal plant  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In this work, plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis was achieved from leaf and internode derived callus of Wedelia calendulacea, an endangered medicinal plant. Primary callus was induced by culturing leaf disc and internode explant on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L-1 of [...] 2,4-D under light condition. Transfer of embryogenic callus on a reduced concentration of 2,4-D facilitated somatic embryo development while calluses remained unorganized at the same 2,4-D level. A histological analysis confirmed somatic embryo by revealing the presence of a closed vascular system in the developing embryos and lack of a vascularconnection with surrounding callus tissues. Somatic embryos germinated into plantlets upon transfer on MS medium containing 1.0 mg L-1 BAP plus 0.5 mg L-1 GA3. Plantlets were acclimatized successfully and survived under soil condition. This is the first on somatic embryogenesis of W.calendulacea. This result could facilitate genetic transformation of this important medicinal plant.

Shamima Akhtar, Sharmin; Md. Jahangir, Alam; Md. Mominul Islam, Sheikh; Kanak Kanti, Sarker; Muhammad, Khalekuzzaman; Md. Anwarul, Haque; Mohammad Firoz, Alam; Iftekhar, Alam.

353

The use of medicinal plants in the trans-himalayan arid zone of Mustang district, Nepal  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background This study documents the use of medicinal plants from the Mustang district of the north-central part of Nepal. Traditional botanical medicine is the primary mode of healthcare for most of the population of this district and traditional Tibetan doctors (Amchi serve as the local medical experts. Methods Field research was conducted in 27 communities of the Mustang district in Nepal from 2005-2007. We sampled 202 interviewees, using random and snowball sampling techniques. After obtaining prior informed consent, we collected data through semi-structured interviews and participant-observation techniques. Voucher specimens of all cited botanic species were deposited at TUCH in Nepal. Results We recorded the traditional uses of 121 medicinal plant species, belonging to 49 vascular plant and 2 fungal families encompassing 92 genera. These 121 species are employed to treat a total of 116 ailments. We present data on 58 plant species previously unknown for their medicinal uses in the Mustang district. Of the medicinal plants reported, the most common growth form was herbs (73% followed by shrubs, trees, and climbers. We document that several parts of individual plant species are used as medicine. Plant parts were generally prepared using hot or cold water as the 'solvent', but occasionally remedies were prepared with milk, honey, jaggery, ghee and oil. Amchis recommended different types of medicine including paste, powder, decoction, tablet, pills, infusion, and others through oral, topical, nasal and others routes of administration. Conclusions The traditional pharmacopoeia of the Mustang district incorporates a myriad of diverse botanical flora. Traditional knowledge of the remedies is passed down through oral traditions and dedicated apprenticeships under the tutelage of senior Amchi. Although medicinal plants still play a pivotal role in the primary healthcare of the local people of Mustang, efforts to ensure the conservation and sustainable use of medicinal species are necessary.

Chaudhary Ram P

2010-04-01

354

Medicinal plants: A general review and a phytochemical and ethnopharmacological screening of the native Argentine Flora  

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Barboza, G. E., J. J. Cantero, C. Núñez, A. Pacciaroni & L. Ariza Espinar. 2009. Medicinal Plants: A general review and a phytochemical and ethnopharmacological screening of the native Argentine Flora. Kurtziana 34 (1-2): 7-365. A review and a checklist based on empirical evidence of the therapeutic properties of the native medicinal flora from Argentina are presented. The chemical constituents and biological activity of each species, when known, are also provided. Medicinal flora comprises...

Barboza, Gloria E.; Cantero, Juan J.; César Núñez; Adriana Pacciaroni; Luis Ariza Espinar

2009-01-01

355

In Vitro Antimicrobial Assay of Plants Used in Traditional Medicine in Bukoba Rural District, Tanzania  

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Plants used in traditional medicine in Bukoba Rural district in Tanzania were evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activities. Plant materials from eight plant species (Harungana madagascariensis (Lam) Poir., Jatropha curcas L., Lantana trifolia L., Plectranthus barbatus Andr., Pseudospondias microcarpa Engl., Psorospermum febrifugum Spach, Teclea nobilis Del. and Vernonia adoensis [Warp.] SL) were collected based on ethnomedical information provided by traditional herbal practitioners....

Kisangau, Dp; Hosea, Km; Joseph, Cc; Lyaruu, Hvm

2007-01-01

356

Antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase-inhibitory properties of long-term stored medicinal plants  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicinal plants are possible sources for future novel antioxidant compounds in food and pharmaceutical formulations. Recent attention on medicinal plants emanates from their long historical utilisation in folk medicine as well as their prophylactic properties. However, there is a dearth of scientific data on the efficacy and stability of the bioactive chemical constituents in medicinal plants after prolonged storage. This is a frequent problem in African Traditional Medicine. Methods The phytochemical, antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase-inhibitory properties of 21 medicinal plants were evaluated after long-term storage of 12 or 16 years using standard in vitro methods in comparison to freshly harvested materials. Results The total phenolic content of Artemisia afra, Clausena anisata, Cussonia spicata, Leonotis intermedia and Spirostachys africana were significantly higher in stored compared to fresh materials. The flavonoid content were also significantly higher in stored A. afra, C. anisata, C. spicata, L. intermedia, Olea europea and Tetradenia riparia materials. With the exception of Ekebergia capensis and L. intermedia, there were no significant differences between the antioxidant activities of stored and fresh plant materials as measured in the ?-carotene-linoleic acid model system. Similarly, the EC50 values based on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay were generally lower for stored than fresh material. Percentage inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was generally similar for both stored and fresh plant material. Stored plant material of Tetradenia riparia and Trichilia dregeana exhibited significantly higher AChE inhibition than the fresh material. Conclusions The current study presents evidence that medicinal plants can retain their biological activity after prolonged storage under dark conditions at room temperature. The high antioxidant activities of stable bioactive compounds in these medicinal plants offer interesting prospects for the identification of novel principles for application in food and pharmaceutical formulations.

Amoo Stephen O

2012-07-01

357

Pharmacognostical and physicochemical characteristics of roots of lesser known medicinal plant caesalpinia digyna rottl.  

Science.gov (United States)

Caesalpinia digyna Rottl. (Caesalpiniaceae) is shrubby perennial climber found in Eastern Ghats. Roots are astringent and used in Ayurveda and Unani systems of medicines. Bergenin, Caesalpinine A and Caesalpinine C were isolated from the roots. However, this medicinal plant has not been studied pharmacognostically. Hence, the present investigation reports pharmacognostical and physicochemical properties of roots of Caesalpinia digyna. PMID:22557239

Mitra, S K; Kannan, R; Sundaram, R

2007-01-01

358

PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ROOTS OF LESSER KNOWN MEDICINAL PLANT CAESALPINIA DIGYNA ROTTL  

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Caesalpinia digyna Rottl. (Caesalpiniaceae) is shrubby perennial climber found in Eastern Ghats. Roots are astringent and used in Ayurveda and Unani systems of medicines. Bergenin, Caesalpinine A and Caesalpinine C were isolated from the roots. However, this medicinal plant has not been studied pharmacognostically. Hence, the present investigation reports pharmacognostical and physicochemical properties of roots of Caesalpinia digyna.

Mitra, S. K.; Kannan, R.; Sundaram, R.

2007-01-01

359

Conservation of Wild-harvested MedicinalPlant Species in Tanzania : Chain and consequence of commercial trade on medicinal plant species  

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Tanzania is endowed with more than 10,000 plant species, of which 1,100 are endemic. The coastal regions host most endemic species, due to its wide range of productive ecological conditions. Over 25 % of all species are used as wild-harvested medicinal plants. About 60% of the Tanzanian population in both rural and urban areas depends on traditional medicine and herbs as their primary health care, and as a means of generating income. This is due to high costs and unavailability of the univers...

Nahashon, Michael

2013-01-01

360

Physiochemical Composition of Wild Medicinal Plant Berberis lycium  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present research work was carried out to study the chemical and mineral constituents of possible pharmacological interest of the wild medicinal plant Berberis lycium. Mean values of the data revealed that leaves have maximum moisture content (59.84?0.19% followed by shoot and root (44.75?0.25%, 31.55?0.05%, respectively. The result of this study indicate that the content of moisture, ash and protein (31.55?0.05, 1.30?0.01, 2.40+0.04%, respectively increased in different parts in descending order i.e. root < shoot < leaves whereas fat and fiber contents (0.46?0.01, 43.85?0.46%, respectively decreased in ascending order i.e. root > shoot > leaves. Analysis of the data suggested that NFE for shoot (11.29?0.25% lies between those for roots and leaves. When different elemental composition in the separate parts of the Berberis lycium was taken into an account, it was revealed that Zn, Cu and Na were maximum (56.15?0.01,95.67?0.12, 115.00?0.03 µg g?1, respectively in root and while Mn, P, Ca (136.12?0.01, 1315.00?0.01, 2389.00?0.04 µg g?1, respectively in leaves whereas K (5824.00?0.58 µg g?1, respectively in shoot. The mean weight percentage distribution of Berberis lycium revealed that shoot had maximum weight percentage in the range of 41.89 to 45.09% having mean value of 43.49% with standard deviation of 0.79.

Hamidullah Shah

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Efficient plant regeneration of bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara L., a medicinal plant  

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Full Text Available Solanum dulcamara L. (bittersweet is a medicinal plant that has been used to treat skin diseases, warts, tumors, felons, arthritis, rheumatism, bronchial congestion, heart ailments, ulcerative colitis, eye inflammations, jaundice and pneumonia. A reliable in vitro culture protocol for bittersweet was established. Explants (leaf and petiole segments were cultured on Murashige and Skoog minimal organics (MSMO medium with various plant growth regulator combinations. Leaf explants formed more shoots than petiole explants. Plant regeneration was observed through indirect organogenesis with both explants. Best shoot proliferation was obtained from leaf explants with 3 mg/l BA (benzyladenine and 0.5 mg/l IAA (indole-3-acetic acid. Regenerated shoots were transferred to rooting media containing different levels of IAA (indole-3-acetic acid, IBA (indole-3-butyric acid, NAA (naphthalene acetic acid or 2,4-D (2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Most shoots developed roots on medium with 0.5 mg/l IBA. Rooted explants were transferred to vermiculate in Magenta containers for acclimatization and after 2 weeks, they were planted in plastic pots containing potting soil and maintained in the plant growth room.

Arzu Ucar Turker

2008-12-01

362

Luffa echinata: A Valuable Medicinal Plant for Victims of Dog Bite  

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Full Text Available The use ofherbal medicine for the treatment of various diseases is increasing day by day due to no side effect. During survey it was observed that more than 80 medicinal plants are being used in curing the various diseases by the Tribal community (Tharus of Khatima. Luffa echinata is one such medicinal plant which has not grabbed considerable attention, however it is used to treat the victims of dog bite and more than 500 people have been treated successfully in this area. This research article illustrates how the victim of dog bite is treated with this plant and it also provides a novel idea for further research on the phytochemical aspects of this plants which might lead us towards the development of new medicines for the welfare of human being.

Usha Yadav and Manoj Kumar

2013-04-01

363

Powerful hepatoprotective and hepatotoxic plant oligostilbenes, isolated from the Oriental medicinal plant Vitis coignetiae (Vitaceae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The methanol extract of the Oriental medicinal plant Vitis coignetiae (Vitaceae) showed hepatoprotective activity in the in vitro assay method using primary cultured rat hepatocytes. Activity-guided fractionation of the extract afforded epsilon-viniferin as an active principle. The protective effect of epsilon-viniferin against mice carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury in mice was shown by serum enzyme assay as well as by pathological examination. In addition to epsilon-viniferin, plant oligostilbenes, ampelopsins A, C, F and the mixture of vitisin A and cis-vitisin A were also present in the extract. Among them, ampelopsin C and the mixture of vitisin A and cis-vitisin A were found to be powerful hepatotoxins. PMID:7843333

Oshima, Y; Namao, K; Kamijou, A; Matsuoka, S; Nakano, M; Terao, K; Ohizumi, Y

1995-01-15

364

Medicinal plant knowledge of the Bench ethnic group of Ethiopia: an ethnobotanical investigation  

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Abstract Background Plants have traditionally been used as a source of medicine in Ethiopia since early times for the control of various ailments afflicting humans and their domestic animals. However, little work has been made in the past to properly document and promote the knowledge. Today medicinal plants and the associated knowledge in the country are threatened due to deforestation, environmental degradation and acculturation. Urgent ethnobotanical studies and subsequent...

Giday Mirutse; Asfaw Zemede; Woldu Zerihun; Teklehaymanot Tilahun

2009-01-01

365

Ethnopharmacology of Medicinal Plants of the Pantanal Region (Mato Grosso, Brazil)  

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Traditional knowledge is an important source of obtaining new phytotherapeutic agents. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants was conducted in Nossa Senhora Aparecida do Chumbo District (NSACD), located in Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil using semi-structured questionnaires and interviews. 376 species of medicinal plants belonging to 285 genera and 102 families were cited. Fabaceae (10.2%), Asteraceae (7.82%) and Lamaceae (4.89%) families are of greater importance. Species with the greater re...

Bieski, Isanete Geraldini Costa; Rios Santos, Fabri?cio; Oliveira, Rafael Melo; Espinosa, Mariano Martinez; Macedo, Miramy; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; Oliveira Martins, Domingos Tabajara

2012-01-01

366

Phytochemical and Biosynthetic Studies of Lignans, with a Focus on Indonesian Medicinal Plants  

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In this thesis phytochemical and biosynthetic studies of lignans are described. The focus is on the Indonesian medicinal plants Phyllanthus niruri and Piper cubeba and on two Linum species, Linum flavum and L. leonii, native to European countries. Both Indonesian plants are used in jamu. Jamu is the Indonesian traditional herbal medicine, practised for many centuries in the Indonesian community to maintain good health and to treat diseases. The manufacturing of jamu is shifting more and m...

Elfahmi,

2006-01-01

367

Aloe Vera: The Miracle Plant Its Medicinal and Traditional Uses in India  

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Aloe vera is the oldest medicinal plant ever known and the most applied medicinal plant worldwide. Extracts of Aloe Vera is a proven skin healer. Aloe Vera help to soothe skin injuries affected by burning, skin irritations, cuts and insect bites, and its bactericidal properties relieve itching and skin swellings. It is known to help slow down the appearance of wrinkles and actively repair the damaged skin cells that cause the visible signs of aging. Aloe is a powerfuldetoxifier, antiseptic an...

2012-01-01

368

Plants used traditionally to treat malaria in Brazil: the archives of Flora Medicinal  

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The archives of Flora Medicinal, an ancient pharmaceutical laboratory that supported ethnomedical research in Brazil for more than 30 years, were searched for plants with antimalarial use. Forty plant species indicated to treat malaria were described by Dr. J. Monteiro da Silva (Flora Medicinal leader) and his co-workers. Eight species, Bathysa cuspidata, Cosmos sulphureus, Cecropia hololeuca, Erisma calcaratum, Gomphrena arborescens, Musa paradisiaca, Ocotea odorifera, and Pradosia lactescen...

Botsaris, Alexandros S.

2007-01-01

369

Activity of Some Selected Medicinal Plant Extracts Against Bovine Mastitis Pathogens  

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The study was conducted with the objective to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the aqueous and alcoholic extracts of some selected medicinal plants against the microbes responsible for causing diseases in mastitis. The aqueous and alcoholic extracts of aerial parts of selected medicinal plants were obtained by extraction in cold maceration using water and methanol (95%) as solvents, respectively. Both the extracts were assessed for their antibacterial activity against Streptococcus a...

Muhamed Mubarack, H.; Doss, A.; Dhanabalan, R.; Venkataswamy, R.

2011-01-01

370

ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS METAL IONS IN SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS USING ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROPHOTOMETER  

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Metal ions such as iron , lead, copper, nickel, cadmium , chromium and zinc were investigated in medicinally important plants Alstonia scholaris, Tabernaemontana coronariae, Asparagus racemosus, Mimosa pudica, Leucas aspera and Adhatoda vasica applying atomic absorption spectrophotometer techniques. The purpose of this study was to standardize various metal ion Contamination in indigenous medicinal plants. Maximum concentration of lead was present in Leucas aspera and Adhatoda vasica follo...

2012-01-01

371

Antiproliferative effects of some medicinal plants on HeLa cells  

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Medicinal plants maintain the health and vitality of individuals, and also have potential curative effect on various diseases, including cancer. In this study were investigated the antiproliferative effects of water extracts of previously obtained ethanolic dry extracts of three different medicinal plants (Echinacea angustifolia, Salvia officinalis and Melissa officinalis) on cell lines derived from human cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa cells). The best cytotoxic activity (IC50 = 43.52 ?g/...

Ceni?-Miloševi? Desanka; Tambur Z.; Bokonji? D.; Ivan?aji? S.; Stanojkovi? Tatjana; Grozdani? Nadja; Jurani? Zorica

2013-01-01

372

Medicinal Uses of Plants with Particular Reference to the People of Dhirkot. Azad Jammu and Kashmir  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An ethnomedicinal exploration was carried out in Dhirkot and its allied areas district Bagh. The check list consists of 43 species of angiosperms belonging to 14 families. These medicinal plants are singly used or used with the mixture by the local inhabitants. The present report assists in coordinating and co-operation among various agencies such as forest, Pharmaceutical firms interested in the utilization of these medicinal plants and to initiate regeneration work in affected area.

M. S. Gorsi

2002-01-01

373

Ethno Veterinary Medicinal Uses of Plants from Samahni Valley Dist. Bhimber, (Azad Kashmir) Pakistan  

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This study comprises of an ethnoveterinary report of medicinal plants of Samahni valley. It provides folk medicinal uses of plants used for treatment of various diseases of domestic animals. Among these important traditional knowledge is as; Albizzia lebbeck is used to treat chronic diarrhoea, dysentery and snake bite, Abutilon theophrasti in ephemeral fever, Bauhania variegata in severe constipation, Butea monosperma, Linum usitatissimum and Taraxacum of...

2006-01-01

374

The use of Medicinal Plants among Different Communities of Balochistan against Hepatitis  

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Full Text Available The present study was conducted during 2010 to enlist the medicinally important plants which are used against viral infection especially hepatitis in different areas of Baluchistan. The study was also confined to the traditional medicinal uses of weeds. The people of Baluchistan are using the medicinal plants for the treatment of various diseases including hepatitis and have for a long time been dependent on surrounding plant sources for their health care, food, shelter, fodders, and other purposes. The ethno botanical knowledge of local traditional healers and the native plants that are used for medicinal purposes were collected through questionnaire by interviewing local communities, local men, women, local healers (Hakims, herbal dealers (Pansars and personal interviews during field trips. The interviews were held in local community, to investigate local people and knowledgeable persons, who are the main user of medicinal plants. Information regarding their botanical name, local name, parts used, chemical constituents, mode of administration and application are tabulated below. A total of 22 plants species were identified by taxonomic description and locally by folk knowledge of people existing in the region. It was the first time to be aware of the significance of weeds with special reference to their medicinal uses in this area of Balochistan. It is suggested that such type of studies should be carried out in future on consumption and maintenance of indigenous knowledge of weeds.

Shahab-ud-Din

2012-03-01

375

DNA barcoding as a means for identifying medicinal plants of Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

DNA barcoding involves the generation of DNA sequencing data from particular genetic regions in an organism and the use of these sequence data to identify or 'barcode' that organism and distinguish it from other species. Here, DNA barcoding is being used to identify several medicinal plants found in Pakistan and distinguished them from other similar species. Several challenges to the successful implementation of plant DNA barcoding are presented and discussed. Despite these challenges, DNA barcoding has the potential to uniquely identify medicinal plants and provide quality control and standardization of the plant material supplied to the pharmaceutical industry. (author)

2011-12-01

376

IMPORTANT MEDICINAL PLANTS OF JAMMU AND KASHMIR I. KESAR (SAFFRON)  

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Kesar has been an important ingredient of the recipes of our ancient physicians in the field of Indian systems of medicine and its cultivation is a monopoly of Jammu and Kashmir. This paper presents in detail the historical review, botanical description, vernacular names, distribution in India and world, cultivation, collection, preservation and storage, adulterants, purity tests, chemical composition, action and uses, folk – lore claims and markets with special reference to its medicinal u...

1985-01-01

377

Relationship between chemical structure and biological activity of alkali metal o-, m- and p-anisates. FT-IR and microbiological studies  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work we investigated relationship between molecular structure of alkali metal o-, m-, p-anisate molecules and their antimicrobial activity. For this purpose FT-IR spectra for lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium anisates in solid state and solution were recorded, assigned and analysed. Microbial activity of studied compounds was tested against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus vulgaris. In order to evaluate the dependency between chemical structure and biological activity of alkali metal anisates the statistical analysis (multidimensional regression and principal component) was performed for selected wavenumbers from FT-IR spectra and parameters that describe microbial activity of anisates. The obtained statistical equations show the existence of correlation between molecular structure of anisates and their biological properties.

Kalinowska, M.; Piekut, J.; Lewandowski, W.

2011-11-01

378

Teste de envelhecimento acelerado em sementes de erva-doce / Accelerated aging test on anise seeds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho teve por objetivo estudar a metodologia do teste de envelhecimento acelerado para avaliação do potencial fisiológico de sementes de erva-doce, bem como avaliar a eficiência do uso de solução saturada de sal no controle da absorção de água pelas sementes durante a realização do te [...] ste. Para tanto, quatro lotes de sementes de erva-doce foram submetidos aos testes de germinação, emergência das plântulas em casa de vegetação e envelhecimento acelerado (41ºC; 48, 72 e 96h); conduzindo-se o procedimento tradicional e a alternativa com o uso de solução saturada de NaCl. Diante dos resultados obtidos, verificou-se que as sementes de erva-doce expostas a solução saturada de NaCl durante o teste de envelhecimento acelerado captam menor quantidade de água, verificando-se taxa de deterioração menos acentuada, resultados menos drásticos e mais uniformes que os obtidos com o procedimento tradicional. A exposição no teste de envelhecimento acelerado durante 72h, a 41ºC, com o uso de solução saturada de NaCl, constitui opção promissora para avaliação do potencial fisiológico das sementes dessa espécie. Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to investigate different procedures for the accelerated aging test to evaluate the physiological quality of anise (Pimpinella asinum L.) seeds. Fours anise seedlots were tested for germination, seedling emergence, traditional and saturated salt (SSAA) accelerat [...] ed aging at 41ºC, for 48, 72 and 96h. It was concluded that, among the accelerated aging protocols studied, the SSAA for 72h was appropriate to assess the physiological potential of anise seeds. It was also observed that seed water content after SSAA was lower and more uniform, thus presenting advantages in relation to the conventional procedure.

Salvador Barros, Torres.

379

Teste de envelhecimento acelerado em sementes de erva-doce Accelerated aging test on anise seeds  

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Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo estudar a metodologia do teste de envelhecimento acelerado para avaliação do potencial fisiológico de sementes de erva-doce, bem como avaliar a eficiência do uso de solução saturada de sal no controle da absorção de água pelas sementes durante a realização do teste. Para tanto, quatro lotes de sementes de erva-doce foram submetidos aos testes de germinação, emergência das plântulas em casa de vegetação e envelhecimento acelerado (41ºC; 48, 72 e 96h; conduzindo-se o procedimento tradicional e a alternativa com o uso de solução saturada de NaCl. Diante dos resultados obtidos, verificou-se que as sementes de erva-doce expostas a solução saturada de NaCl durante o teste de envelhecimento acelerado captam menor quantidade de água, verificando-se taxa de deterioração menos acentuada, resultados menos drásticos e mais uniformes que os obtidos com o procedimento tradicional. A exposição no teste de envelhecimento acelerado durante 72h, a 41ºC, com o uso de solução saturada de NaCl, constitui opção promissora para avaliação do potencial fisiológico das sementes dessa espécie.The objective of the present study was to investigate different procedures for the accelerated aging test to evaluate the physiological quality of anise (Pimpinella asinum L. seeds. Fours anise seedlots were tested for germination, seedling emergence, traditional and saturated salt (SSAA accelerated aging at 41ºC, for 48, 72 and 96h. It was concluded that, among the accelerated aging protocols studied, the SSAA for 72h was appropriate to assess the physiological potential of anise seeds. It was also observed that seed water content after SSAA was lower and more uniform, thus presenting advantages in relation to the conventional procedure.

Salvador Barros Torres

2004-12-01

380

Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the Jah Hut peoples in Malaysia  

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Full Text Available Context: An ethnobotanical study was carried out among the Jah Hut people who live in the central part of peninsular Malaysia. Materials and Methods: The information on the medicinal plants was obtained from interview with a traditional medicinal man. The traditional uses and remedies were documented. The literature searches were carried out for the evaluation on the current status of investigations on these plants. Results: In this study, we present 16 species of plants, which are commonly used among the Jah Hut people to cure some common diseases. Discussions: This study is important to preserve the knowledge of medicinal plants used by Jah Hut people. The surveys of phytopharmacological literatures of these plants have great pharmacological and ethnobotanical significance.

Lin K

2005-04-01

 
 
 
 
381

Medicinal plants: Past and present uses in several communities from the North-eastern Portugal  

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Medicinal plants, past and present related uses emerged from broader studies conducted during several years inside 36 rural communities in Trás-os-Montes. This region, as other areas in the interior of Portugal, has seen socio-economic transformations since the 1960s that have altered landscape management and plant use. The surveys aimed to report traditional plant knowledge and uses (TK). In addition focused on the system of local knowledge on plant resources and pre...

Carvalho, Ana Maria; Martins, Maria Elisabete; Fraza?o-moreira, Ame?lia

2008-01-01

382

TAHLAB (SPIRULINA) AND FEW OTHER MEDICINAL PLANTS HAVING ANTI-OXIDANT & IMMUNOMODULATORY PROPERTIES DESCRIBED IN UNANI MEDICINE - A REVIEW  

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: Antioxidants are substances that may protect cells from the damage caused by unstable molecules known as free radicals; free radicals damage may lead to cancer and other diseases. Some of the example of antioxidants are like ?-carotene, lycopene, Vit. C, E & A and other substances which are found in variety of fruits, vegetables, algae (spirulina) & other medicinal plants. Spirulina (Blue green algae) is a microscopic single cell alga which grows in fresh water and has a simple structure b...

2013-01-01

383

Medicinal plants used for traditional veterinary in the Sierras de Córdoba (Argentina): An ethnobotanical comparison with human medicinal uses  

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Abstract Background This is a first description of the main ethnoveterinary features of the peasants in the Sierras de Córdoba. The aim of this study was to analyze the use of medicinal plants and other traditional therapeutic practices for healing domestic animals and cattle. Our particular goals were to: characterize veterinary ethnobotanical knowledge considering age, gender and role of the specialists; interpret the cultural features of the traditional local veterinary m...

2011-01-01

384

Comparative evaluation of dietary oregano, anise and olive leaves in laying Japanese quails  

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Aim of the present study was the comparative evaluation of the effect of ground oregano, anise and olive leaves as feed additives on performance and some egg quality characteristics of laying Japanese quails. A total of 189 Coturnix japonica quails (126 females and 63 males), 149 days old, were randomly allocated into seven equal groups with three subgroups of 9 birds each (6 females and 3 males). A commercial laying diet was fed to the control group. The remaining six groups were fed the sam...

Ev, Christaki; Em, Bonos; Pc, Florou-paneri

2011-01-01

385

Introduction of medicinal plants species with the most traditional usage in alamut region.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ethnobotany of the medicinal plants of Alamut region is important in understanding the cultures and traditions of Alamut people. This study documents 16 medicinal plant species, most commonly used by the indigenous people of Alamut region (Ghazvin Province), northwest, Iran. The botanical name, family name, vernacular name, part used, and the application of the plants have been provided in this paper. Alamut region was divided into different villages with the aid of maps. We recorded traditional knowledge and use of medicinal plants from herbal practitioners and village seniors in Alamut. The plants were gathered from different sites. The fully dried specimens were then mounted on herbarium sheets. We found 16 medicinal plants belonging to 11 families which were traditionally used in Alamut. Finally, we describe traditional usages by the native people in the Alamut region. The obtained results were compared with data on the herb's clinical effects. A set of voucher specimens were deposited to the Institute of Medicinal Plants Herbarium (IMPH). PMID:24250441

Ahvazi, Maryam; Khalighi-Sigaroodi, Farahnaz; Charkhchiyan, Mohammad Mahdi; Mojab, Faraz; Mozaffarian, Vali-Allah; Zakeri, Hamideh

2012-01-01

386

Ethnopharmacological Survey of Medicinal Plants in Malaysia, the Kangkar Pulai Region  

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Full Text Available The medicinal plants play an important role in rural health care system throughout the world in remedying and preventing various kinds of diseases. This study documented the use of plants as traditional herbal medicine in the Kangkar Pulai region Johor, Malaysia. It also identified the homogeneity of informant knowledge on medicinal plants suitable for different ailments and types of plants most favored for the treatment of each ailment in the study. The information was gathered through semi-structured interviews, discussions with key informants and informal conversations with local people and herbal practitioners. The data was calculated based on informant consensus factor (Fic and use value (UV. Information on 40 medicinal plants species from 29 taxonomic plant families used for traditional treatment of different diseases/ailments was documented. The informant consensus factor values (Fic showed that the local people tend to agree more with each other in terms of the plants used to treat sexual weakness (0.95, blood pressure (0.94, diabetes (0.93, delivery and female problems (0.90, hair problems and dandruff (0.87, respiratory disorder (0.86 and kidney problems (0.85. By contrast, digestive problems (0.76 and skin problems (0.71 and inflammation pain (0.70 were found to have low Fic values. Calculated values of the UV and Fic indicate that this community is knowledgeable on healing and treatment using traditional herbal medicines.

T. Aburjai

2012-01-01

387

Yang-tonifying traditional Chinese medicinal plants and their potential phytoandrogenic activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The concept of phytoandrogens, plants that contain androgens or those that stimulate androgenic activity in men, is relatively new. In traditional Chinese medicine a number of phytoandrogens are classified in medicinal plant restoratives for reinforcing yang, and they find their application in the treatment of the kidney yang deficiency diseases. In this review, the phytoandrogens used in traditional Chinese medicine are listed, and their proven applications in the treatment of kidney yang deficiency diseases, such as sexual disorders, cancer, and obesity and associated metabolic syndromes are presented. As a background, the mechanism of action of androgens, their synthesis and metabolism, the interrelations of androgens and estrogens, as well as the state of art methods to detect and analyze these hormonal activities in medicinal plants are discussed. PMID:24856755

Edouard, Munyangaju Jose; Miao, Lin; Fan, Guan-Wei; Ojong, Barnabas Bessem Orang; Zhen, Hu; Zhang, Ju; Gao, Xiu-Mei; Zhu, Yan

2014-05-01

388

Medicinal plants and ethnomedicine in peril: a case study from Nepal himalaya.  

Science.gov (United States)

The impacts of climate change were severe on indigenous medicinal plant species and their dependent communities. The harvesting calendar and picking sites of these species were no longer coinciding and the changes were affecting harvesters' and cultivators' abilities to collect and use those species. Secondary sites: road-heads, wastelands, regenerated forests, and so forth, were being prioritized for collection and the nonindigenous medicinal plant species were being increasingly introduced into the medical repertoire as a substitution and to diversify the local medicinal stock. Acceptance and application of nonindigenous species and sites for livelihood and ethnopharmacopoeias with caution were considered as an important adaptation strategy. Findings on species and site specific accounts urged further researches on medicinal plants, ethnomedicine, and their interrelationship with impacts of climate change. PMID:24734114

Kunwar, Ripu M; Lamichhane Pandey, Mina; Mahat Kunwar, Laxmi; Bhandari, Ananta

2014-01-01

389

Medicinal plant knowledge of the Bench ethnic group of Ethiopia: an ethnobotanical investigation  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants have traditionally been used as a source of medicine in Ethiopia since early times for the control of various ailments afflicting humans and their domestic animals. However, little work has been made in the past to properly document and promote the knowledge. Today medicinal plants and the associated knowledge in the country are threatened due to deforestation, environmental degradation and acculturation. Urgent ethnobotanical studies and subsequent conservation measures are, therefore, required to salvage these resources from further loss. The purpose of the present study was to record and analyse traditional medicinal plant knowledge of the Bench ethnic group in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with Bench informants selected during transect walks made to houses as well as those identified as knowledgeable by local administrators and elders to gather data regarding local names of medicinal plants used, parts harvested, ailments treated, remedy preparation methods, administration routes, dosage and side effects. The same method was also employed to gather information on marketability, habitat and abundance of the reported medicinal plants. Purposive sampling method was used in the selection of study sites within the study district. Fidelity Level (FL value was calculated for each claimed medicinal plant to estimate its healing potential. Results The study revealed 35 Bench medicinal plants: 32 used against human ailments and three to treat both human and livestock ailments. The majority of Bench medicinal plants were herbs and leaf was the most frequently used part in the preparation of remedies. Significantly higher average number of medicinal plants was claimed by men, older people and illiterate ones as compared to women, younger people and literate ones, respectively. The majority of the medicinal plants used in the study area were uncultivated ones. Conclusion The study revealed acculturation as the major threat to the continuation of the traditional medical practice in the study area. Awareness should, therefore, be created among the Bench community, especially the young ones, by concerned organizations and individuals regarding the usefulness of the practice.

Woldu Zerihun

2009-11-01

390

Threatened medicinal plants of Menwarsar Pahalgam, Kashmir Himalayas: Distribution pattern and current conservation status  

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Full Text Available It is imperative to understand the distribution and conservation status of medicinal plants in their natural habitats, owing to their increased demand and value. We studied the distribution pattern and current conservation status of six threatened medicinal plants in Pahalgam valley, Kashmir Himalayas, by random quadrate sampling (n=216 in different habitat types. The different uses of medicinal plants were obtained by informal interviews and group discussions with family elders. Recent re-emergence of herbal medicine applicability along with the ever escalating threats to biodiversity and the intensifying Biopyracy controversions have necessitated for an urgent documentation of the traditional use of bioresources. This survey, in addition to the precious ethno medicinal information, recorded the important natural history details. Our results indicate that Podophyllum hexandrum Royle is most common and has the highest density. While Arnebia benthamii (Wall ex Benth I.M. Johnston and Mecanopsis aculeata Royle are least frequent. Moist rocky slopes (MR were the most preferred habitat followed by flat tableland (FL situated above the tree line. While the shady slopes (SSs, flat meadow (FM and moist meadow (MM were least preferred. Our findings can help to formulate a conservation strategy for the unknown grass lands and the threatened vital medicinal plants of Pahalgam valley. While the low and localized distribution of all studied species deserves effective conservation strategies, the scope of such measures should be explored in a way to address the reliance of local communities on these plants.

Bilal Ahmad Baig

2013-03-01

391

Inhibitory effects of essential oils of medicinal plants from growth of plant pathogenic fungi.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant cells produce a vast amount of secondary metabolites. Production of some compounds is restricted to a single species. Some compounds are nearly always found only in certain specific plant organs and during a specific developmental period of the plant. Some secondary metabolites of plants serve as defensive compounds against invading microorganisms. Nowadays, it is attempted to substitute the biological and natural agents with chemically synthesized fungicides. In the present research, the antifungal activities of essential oils of seven medicinal plants on mycelial growth of three soilborne plant pathogenic fungi were investigated. The plants consisted of Zataria multiflora, Thymus carmanicus, Mentha pieperata, Satureja hortensis, Lavandual officinolis, Cuminum cyminum and Azadirachta indica. The first five plants are from the family Labiatae. Examined fungi, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani are the causal agents of tomato root rot. Essential oils of Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus, M. pieperata, S. hortensis and C. cyminum were extracted by hydro-distillation method. Essential oils of L. officinalis and A. indica were extracted by vapor-distillation method. A completely randomized design with five replicates was used to examine the inhibitory impact of each concentration (300, 600 and 900 ppm) of each essential oil. Poisoned food assay using potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium was employed. Results showed that essential oils of A. indica, Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus and S. hortensis in 900 ppm at 12 days post-inoculation, when the control fungi completely covered the plates, prevented about 90% from mycelial growth of each of the fungi. While, the essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis in the same concentration and time prevented 54.86, 52.77 and 48.84%, respectively, from F. solani growth. These substances did not prevent from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and R. solani growth. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of essential oils of T. carmanicus, Z. multiflora and A. indica from R. solani and F. solani growth was 900 and 600 ppm, respectively. In addition, the MIC of essential oils of these plants and essential oil of S. hortensis from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici growth was 900 ppm. The MIC of essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis from F. solani growth was 900 ppm. PMID:22702190

Panjehkeh, N; Jahani Hossein-Abadi, Z

2011-01-01

392

Screening of Allelopathic Activity of Eleven Thai Medicinal Plants on Seedling Growth of Five Test Plant Species  

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Full Text Available Eleven species of Thai medicinal plants, namely Rhinacanthus nasutus (L. Kurz, Clitoria ternatea L., Mammea siamensis Kosterm., Centella asiatica (L. Urban, Thunbergia lauriflolia Linn., Piper sarmentosum Roxb., Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Moringa oleifera Lam., Tinospora tuberculata Beume, Tiliacora triandra (Colebr. Diels. and Amomum krervanh Pierre ex. Gagnep. were evaluated their allelopathic potentials against cress (Lepidium sativum L., lettuce (Lactuca sativa L., alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., timothy (Phleum pratense L. and crabgrass (Digitaria sanguginalis L.. The aqueous methanol extracts of these medicinal plants had inhibitory activity on all test plant species with different inhibition values. The aqueous methanol extracts of H. sabdariffa showed the highest inhibitory effect on cress and alfalfa seedlings. The extract obtained from P. sarmentosum, R. nasutus and T. tuberculata possessed the highest allelopathic potential on lettuce, timothy and crabgrass seedlings, respectively. Inhibitory effects of these medicinal plants were dependent on test plant species. The variation may result, in part, from the different test plant species with different sensitivity to allelochemicals. However, four medicinal plants H. sabdariffa, P. sarmentosum, R. nasutus and T. tuberculata possessed high allelopathic potential and may be good candidates for isolation and identification of allelochemicals. It would also be interesting to evaluate the implication on these evaluation results under field conditions.

H. Kato-Noguchi

2010-01-01

393

Antimicrobial Activity and Ethnomedicinal Uses of Some Medicinal Plants from Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Orissa  

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Full Text Available In this study, antimicrobial activity and ethnomedicinal uses of 40 medicinal plants along with medicinal properties has been reported from Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Orissa, India. Aqueous extracts of different parts of the plant (leaf, stem, bark, bulb, fruit and root reported to have medicinal properties were tested for their antimicrobial activity against gram positive and gram negative human pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 1144, Bacillus licheniformis MTCC 7425, Bacillus brevis MTCC 7404, Bacillus subtilis MTCC 7164, Staphylococcus epidermidis MTCC 3615, Streptococcus aureus (Lab. isolate, Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 1034, Escherichia coli MTCC 1089, Vibrio cholerae (Lab. isolate, Shigella flexneri (Lab. isolate and one fungal species Candida krusei (Lab. isolate. Results showed that 23 out of 40 medicinal plants have antimicrobial activity of which, 14 medicinal plants have outstanding antimicrobial activity. Prominent species with antimicrobial activity are Urginea indica (bulb, Croton roxburghii (bark, Melastoma malabathricum (leaf, Diospyros melanoxylon (bark, Pterospermum acerifolium (leaf, Nyctanthes arbortristis (bark, Oroxylum indicum (bark, Agava sisalana (leaf, Clausena excavate (root Vitex negundo (leaf, Glycyrrhiza glabra (fruit, Enhydra fluctuans (leaf, Hemidesmus indicus (leaf and Flemingia nana (root with inhibition zones more than 20 mm where as 9 other plants were found to have moderate antimicrobial activity with inhibition zones of less than 20 mm. Rest 17 plants did not show any antimicrobial activity.

H.N. Thatoi

2008-01-01

394

Heavy Metals Content of Some Medicinal Plants from Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa  

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Trace metals in eight different plants commonly available in South Africa, Kwazulu-Natal Province namely Gunnera perpensa, Pentanisia prunelloides, Carissa bispinosa, Ledebouria revoluta, Pomaria sandersonii, Eucomis autumnalis, Alepidea amatymbica, Artemisia afra and Berkheya setifera have been quantitatively analyzed using Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer. Medicinal plants were disinfected with 0.1% HgCl2 and...

Mtunzi, F.; Muleya, E.; Modise, J.; Sipamla, A.; Dikio, E.

2012-01-01

395

Medicinal plants of Otwal and Ngai Sub Counties in Oyam District, Northern Uganda  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background An ethnobotanical study was carried out in four parishes in the Ngai and Otwal Sub Counties in Oyam district, Northern Uganda, where insurgency has been prevalent for the past 20 years. Documenting medicinal plant species used in treating various health conditions among the local people. Methods Information was obtained from mainly the local population, the traditional healers and other experienced persons through interviews, formal and informal discussions and field excursions. Results Seventy one plant species were reported for use in the treatment of various diseases in the study area. These plant species belongs to 41 families, with Asteraceae being the most represented. Roots were ranked the commonest plant part used. Oral administration was the most frequently used route of administration. A total of 41 different health conditions were reported to be treated by use of medicinal plant species. Thirty nine percent of the recorded plant species were reported for treating stomach related ailments. Conclusion The use of medicinal plants in primary healthcare is still a common practice in Ngai and Otwal Sub Counties. The trust they have is built on the curative outcome properties claimed, poverty and armed conflict that lead to inadequate healthcare facilities. The generation gap caused by the over 20 years of insurgency in the area has brought about knowledge gap on the usage of medicinal plant species between the young and the older generation.

Acipa Annabel

2011-01-01

396

Preliminary assessment of medicinal plants used as antimalarials in the southeastern Venezuelan Amazon  

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Full Text Available Eighteen species of medicinal plants used in the treatment of malaria in Bolívar State, Venezuela were recorded and they belonged to Compositae, Meliaceae, Anacardiaceae, Bixaceae, Boraginaceae, Caricaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Leguminosae, Myrtaceae, Phytolaccaceae, Plantaginaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Solanaceae and Verbenaceae families. Antimalarial plant activities have been linked to a range of compounds including anthroquinones, berberine, flavonoids, limonoids, naphthquinones, sesquiterpenes, quassinoids, indol and quinoline alkaloids.

Caraballo Alejandro

2004-01-01

397

The in-vitro antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants against beta-lactam-resistant bacteria  

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BACKGROUND: In effort to identify novel bacterial agents, this study was initiated to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of 17 crude extracts from 12 medicinal plants against beta-lactam-resistant bacteria. METHODOLOGY: The antimicrobial activities of plant extracts were evaluated against clinically proved beta-lactam-resistant bacteria (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus sp.)...

Gangoue Pieboji, Joseph; Eze, N.; Ngongang Djintchui, A.; Ngameni, B.; Tsabang, N.; Pegnyemb, D. E.; Biyiti, L.; Ngassam, P.; Koulla-shiro, S.; Galleni, Moreno

2009-01-01

398

Ethnopharmacological survey of six medicinal plants from Mali, West-Africa  

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An ethnopharmacological survey was carried out to collect information about the use of six medicinal plants in the regions around Siby and Dioila, Mali. The plants investigated were Biopyhtum petersianum, Cola cordifolia, Combretum molle, Opilia celtidifolia, Parkia biglobosa and Ximenia americana.

Grønhaug, Tom Erik; Glæserud, Silje; Skogsrud, Mona; Ballo, Ngolo; Bah, Sekou; Diallo, Drissa; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

2008-01-01

399

INFLUENCE OF MAGNETIC FIELDS OF VARIABLE INTENSITY ON BEHAVIOUR OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS  

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Full Text Available The present paper contains a study on the influence of some magnetic fields of variable intensity on two species of medicinal plants: Mentha sp. and Calendula officinalis. We had in view the effect of the magnetic field on the growth dynamic and the percentage in which the plants regenerated from callus.

HORIA RADU CRIVEANU

2007-07-01

400

INFLUENCE OF MAGNETIC FIELDS OF VARIABLE INTENSITY ON BEHAVIOUR OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS  

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The present paper contains a study on the influence of some magnetic fields of variable intensity on two species of medicinal plants: Mentha sp. and Calendula officinalis. We had in view the effect of the magnetic field on the growth dynamic and the percentage in which the plants regenerated from callus.

HORIA RADU CRIVEANU; GEORGETA TARALUNGA

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Antibacterial activity of traditional therapeutic coastal medicinal plants against some pathogens.  

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Antimicrobial activity of 10 traditional coastal medicinal plant species from South west coast of India were tested against 12 human bacterial pathogens and two cattle pathogens. Among the plant species tested, a butanolic extract of Bacopa monnieri showed maximum inhibitory activity against the human pathogen Escherichia coli, whereas the butanolic extract of Aristolochia indica. L showed maximum inhibitory activity against the cattle pathogen Listeria monocytogen. The mean zone of inhibition indicates that the growth of Salmonella enteritidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were highly inhibited by the coastal medicinal plant extract than the other bacterial species and also the antibacterial activity was found higher in the butanolic extract than water extract. PMID:16334271

Ravikumar, S; Nazar, S; Nuralshiefa, A; Abideen, S

2005-06-01

402

Studies on Mycorrhizal Association in Some Medicinal Plants of Azad Jammu and Kashmir  

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Full Text Available Seventy six medicinal plants were investigated for vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM association in a survey of the Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza was found to be of universal occurrence in all plants located at different habitats. Great variations were found in the VAM infection percentage and the extent of hyphal infection. Plants at vegetative stage exhibited more VAM infection percentage compared to those at flowering and fruiting stages. Herbaceous plants showed more infections in comparison with the shrubby and woody plants. The extent of root colonization by VA endohphytes varied with the soil type and plant species. Endophytes other than VA were also recorded.

M. Sadiq Gorsi

2002-01-01

403

Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants used by Saperas community of Khetawas, Jhajjar District, Haryana, India  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants have traditionally been used as a source of medicine in India by indigenous people of different ethnic groups inhabiting various terrains for the control of various ailments afflicting human and their domestic animals. The indigenous community of snake charmers belongs to the 'Nath' community in India have played important role of healers in treating snake bite victims. Snake charmers also sell herbal remedies for common ailments. In the present paper an attempt has been made to document on ethno botanical survey and traditional medicines used by snake charmers of village Khetawas located in district Jhajjar of Haryana, India as the little work has been made in the past to document the knowledge from this community. Methods Ethno botanical data and traditional uses of plants information was obtained by semi structured oral interviews from experienced rural folk, traditional herbal medicine practitioners of the 'Nath' community. A total of 42 selected inhabitants were interviewed, 41 were male and only one woman. The age of the healers was between 25 years and 75 years. The plant specimens were identified according to different references concerning the medicinal plants of Haryana and adjoining areas and further confirmation from Forest Research Institute, Dehradun. Results The present study revealed that the people of the snake charmer community used 57 medicinal plants species that belonged to 51 genera and 35 families for the treatment of various diseases. The study has brought to light that the main diseases treated by this community was snakebite in which 19 different types of medicinal plants belongs to 13 families were used. Significantly higher number of medicinal plants was claimed by men as compared to women. The highest numbers of medicinal plants for traditional uses utilized by this community were belonging to family Fabaceae. Conclusion This community carries a vast knowledge of medicinal plants but as snake charming is banned in India as part of efforts to protect India's steadily depleting wildlife, this knowledge is also rapidly disappearing in this community. Such type of ethno botanical studies will help in systematic documentation of ethno botanical knowledge and availing to the scientific world plant therapies used as antivenin by the Saperas community.

Kumar Sunil

2010-01-01

404

Ethnobotany of Medicinal Plants from Tian Mu Shan Biosphere Reserve, Zhejiang-Province, China  

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Full Text Available This study comprises of results of an ethnobotanical survey of Tian Mu Shan Biosphere Reserve ethnic region of Zhejiang Province, China, conducted in year 2005.Various folklore recipes of sixty seven medicinal plants of thirty six families of the area were recorded and their ethnopharmacological aspects were discussed. The most common families were Ranunculaceae 13.43%, Rosaceae 7.46% and Poaceae 5.97% and most frequent plant parts used are; roots 34%, leaf 26% and whole plant 18%. This survey reveals that these traditional medicines, being major source of treatment of different diseases still hold great importance in lives of various ethnic groups of the area. It will be appropriate to document these herbal medicinal folklore informations as this survey can prove to be an invaluable guide in present day screening of new drugs and incentive clue for phytochemical and pharmacological analysis and it can enhance the conservation of plant biodiversity of the area as well.

Muhammad Ishtiaq Chaudhary

2006-01-01

405

Potential of medicinal plants as antimicrobial and antioxidant agents in food industry: a hypothesis.  

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Many food preservation strategies can be used for the control of microbial spoilage and oxidation; however, these quality problems are not yet controlled adequately. Although synthetic antimicrobial and antioxidant agents are approve